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Sample records for small punch assessment

  1. Assessment of strength characteristics of Al2024 ECAP metal using small punch testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ma, Young Wha; Choi, Jeong Woo; Yoon, Kee Bong; Kim, Seon Hwa

    2006-01-01

    When subjected to severe shear deformation by ECAP, microstructure of Al2024 becomes extremely refined. To measure the strength of that, Small Punch(SP) testing method was adopted as a substitute for the conventional uniaxial tensile testing because the size of material processed by ECAP were limited to ψ12 mm in transverse direction. SP tests were performed with specimens in longitudinal and transverse directions of Al2024 ECAP metal. For comparing the strength values with those assessed by SP tests, uniaxial tensile tests were also conducted with specimens in longitudinal direction. Failure surfaces of the tested SP specimens showed that failure mode was shear deformation and Al2024 ECAP metal has an anisotropy in strength. Thus, conventional equations proposed for assessing the strength characteristics were improper to assess those of Al2024 ECAP metal. In this paper a way of assessing the strength of Al2024 ECAP metal was proposed and was proven to be effective

  2. A creep life assessment method for boiler pipes using small punch creep test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Izaki, Toru; Kobayashi, Toshimi; Kusumoto, Junichi; Kanaya, Akihiro

    2009-01-01

    The small punch creep (SPC) test is considered as a highly useful method for creep life assessment for high temperature plant components. SPC uses miniature-sized specimens and does not cause any serious sampling damages, and its assessment accuracy is at a high level. However, in applying the SPC test to the residual creep life assessment of the boiler in service, there are some issues to be studied. In order to apply SPC test to the residual creep life assessment of the 2.25Cr-1Mo steel boiler pipe, the relationship between uniaxial creep stress and the SPC test load has been studied. The virgin material, pre-crept, weldment and service aged samples of 2.25Cr-1Mo steel were tested. It was confirmed that the relationship between uniaxial creep stress and the SPC test load at the same rupture time can be described as a single straight line independent of test conditions and materials. Therefore a life assessment is possible by using SPC test in place of uniaxial creep tests. The creep life assessment using SPC was applied to actual thermal power plant components which are in service.

  3. Damage modeling in Small Punch Test specimens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martínez Pañeda, Emilio; Cuesta, I.I.; Peñuelas, I.

    2016-01-01

    . Furthermore,Gurson-Tvergaard-Needleman model predictions from a top-down approach are employed to gain insightinto the mechanisms governing crack initiation and subsequent propagation in small punch experiments.An accurate assessment of micromechanical toughness parameters from the SPT...

  4. Small Punch Test Techniques for Irradiated Materials in Hot Cell

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Do Sik; Ahn, S. B.; Oh, W. H.; Yoo, B. O.; Choo, Y. S.

    2006-06-01

    Detailed procedures of the small punch test including the apparatus, the definition of small punch-related parameters, and the interpretation of results were presented. The testing machine should have a capability of the compressive loading and unloading at a given deflection level. The small punch specimen holder consists of an upper and lower die and clamping screws. The clamped specimen is deformed by using ball or spherical head punch. Two type of specimens with a circular and a square shape were used. The irradiated small punch specimen is made from the undamaged portion of the broken CVN bars or prepared by the irradiation of the specimen fabricated from the fresh materials. The heating and cooling devices should have the capability of the temperature control within ±2 .deg. C for the target value during the test. Based on the load-deflection data obtained from the small punch test. the empirical correlation between the small punch related parameters and a tensile properties such as 0.2% yield strength and ultimate tensile strength, fracture toughness, ductile-brittle transition temperature and creep properties determined from the standard test method is established and used to evaluate the mechanical properties of an irradiated materials. In addition, from the quantitative fractographic assessment of small punch test specimens, the relationship between the small punch energy and the quantity of ductile crack growth is obtained. Analytical formulations demonstrated good agreement with experimental load-deflection curves

  5. The small punch assessment of toughness losses in low alloy steels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bulloch, J.H. [ESB, Power Generation, Dublin (Ireland)

    1998-12-31

    The presentation deals at length with the relationship between the Small Punch, SP, test transition temperature Tsp, behaviour and those displayed by the conventional Charpy Fracture Appearance Transition Temperature, FATT, obtained from large test specimens. Essentially it was demonstrated that the total test temperature range trends could reasonably be described by a non-linear expression such as FATT varied inversely with the square of the Tsp. Finally when the Tsp against FATT trends were separated into different steel classes an encouraging picture emerged inasmuch that a reasonable amount of data exhibited good agreement with the predicted effects of grain size. Fractographic details were also discussed and strong effects of strain or loading rates were identified. (orig.) 19 refs.

  6. The small punch assessment of toughness losses in low alloy steels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bulloch, J H [ESB, Power Generation, Dublin (Ireland)

    1999-12-31

    The presentation deals at length with the relationship between the Small Punch, SP, test transition temperature Tsp, behaviour and those displayed by the conventional Charpy Fracture Appearance Transition Temperature, FATT, obtained from large test specimens. Essentially it was demonstrated that the total test temperature range trends could reasonably be described by a non-linear expression such as FATT varied inversely with the square of the Tsp. Finally when the Tsp against FATT trends were separated into different steel classes an encouraging picture emerged inasmuch that a reasonable amount of data exhibited good agreement with the predicted effects of grain size. Fractographic details were also discussed and strong effects of strain or loading rates were identified. (orig.) 19 refs.

  7. Small Punch Tests applied to the nuclear industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moreno, M.; Gongora, P.; Bertolino, G; Yawny, A.

    2012-01-01

    The interest on miniaturized specimen techniques for the characterization of the mechanical behavior of materials was strongly motivated in the early eighties by the different programs associated with the development of fusion reactor technology. The importance of such developments is obvious in the case of the nuclear industry where the limited space available, the presence of fluence gradients in large specimens, the concern about gamma heating and dose to personnel in post-irradiation testing have all been motivations for reducing specimen size. Testing of miniature specimen includes a wide spectrum of techniques such as tensile, instrumented micro-hardness, small punch, bend, fracture, impact and fatigue. Small Punch Testing (SPT) techniques use a spherical penetrator which deforms to failure a miniature disc shaped flat specimen (typically, 3-10 mm in diameter and 0.25-0.50 mm in thickness) supported on its outer rim. Analysis of load-displacement data recorded along the test is performed for the determination of the property of interest. The present work focuses on the characterization of the elastoplastic response of pure Al, ADN 420 structural steel and AISI 304L using SPT and its correlation with the associated standard uniaxial testing behavior. In addition, the sensitivity of the technique to the specific material under study and to different experimental parameters, i.e. specimen diameter and thickness, clearance or clamping force and friction between disc and dies have been assessed both experimentally and by performing simulations using the finite element method (author)

  8. Recent developments in small punch testing: Applications at elevated temperatures

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Dymáček, Petr

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 86, DEC (2016), s. 25-33 ISSN 0167-8442 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LQ1601 Institutional support: RVO:68081723 Keywords : Small punch test * Creep rupture * Stress relaxation Subject RIV: JL - Materials Fatigue, Friction Mechanics Impact factor: 2.659, year: 2016

  9. Small punch test evaluation methods for material characterisation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Janča, Adam, E-mail: adam.janca@fjfi.cvut.cz; Siegl, Jan, E-mail: jan.siegl@fjfi.cvut.cz; Haušild, Petr, E-mail: petr.hausild@fjfi.cvut.cz

    2016-12-01

    The Small Punch Test (SPT) is one of the most widespread mechanical testing methods using miniaturized specimens. The paper presented deals with the time independent SPT, in which a flat specimen is bent by means of a (hemi)spherical punch moving at a constant velocity. The main goal is to relate the measured data to deformation processes taking place during specimen loading. Understanding of such relations is crucial for characterizing a material using any non-standardized experimental procedure. Using enhanced instrumentation, not only traditional load-displacement or load-deflection curves could be obtained, but also specimen thinning could be continuously measured and evaluated. Five alloys having a broad range of mechanical properties were tested. The results obtained were evaluated using both traditional and newly proposed methods and they were correlated with results of the conventional tensile test. The methods proposed seem to lead to a universal correlation between SPT results and tensile characteristics. - Highlights: • The newly proposed methodology significantly improved results of SPT. • Plastic deformation starts inside the specimen from the very beginning of loading. • Specimen thinning = punch displacement−specimen deflection. • Material response to loading is well illustrated by the novel load-thinning curve.

  10. Small punch creep test in a 316 austenitic stainless steel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saucedo-Muñoz, Maribel L.

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The small punch creep test was applied to evaluate the creep behavior of a 316 type austenitic stainless steel at temperatures of 650, 675 and 700 °C. The small punch test was carried out using a creep tester with a specimen size of 10×10×0.3 mm at 650, 675 and 700 °C using loads from 199 to 512 N. The small punch creep curves show the three stages found in the creep curves of the conventional uniaxial test. The conventional creep relationships which involve parameters such as creep rate, stress, time to rupture and temperature were followed with the corresponding parameters of small punch creep test and they permitted to explain the creep behavior in this steel. The mechanism and activation energy of the deformation process were the grain boundary sliding and diffusion, respectively, during creep which caused the intergranular fracture in the tested specimens.El ensayo de termofluencia por indentación se utilizó para evaluar el comportamiento a la termofluencia en un acero inoxidable austenítico 316. Este ensayo se realizó en una máquina de indentación con muestras de 10×10×0,3 mm a temperaturas de 650, 675 y 700 °C con cargas de 199 a 512 N. Las curvas de termofluencia del ensayo mostraron las tres etapas características observadas en el ensayo convencional de tensión. Asimismo, las principales relaciones de termofluencia entre parámetros como velocidad de termofluencia, esfuerzo, tiempo de ruptura y temperatura se observaron en los parámetros correspondientes al ensayo de indentación, lo que permitió caracterizar el comportamiento de termofluencia en este acero. El mecanismo y la energía de activación del proceso de deformación en la termofluencia corresponden al deslizamiento de los límites de grano y la difusión a través de los mismos, respectivamente, lo cual causó la fractura intergranular en las muestras ensayadas.

  11. Measurement of tensile and fracture toughness properties using small punch test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chatterjee, S.; Shah Priti Kotak

    2005-05-01

    Small punch test wu carried out at room temperature on five different steels using 10 mm by 10 mm specimens of 0.4 mm thickness in a univesal testing machine. The tensile and fracture toughness properties of the five steels obtained from small punch test were compared with those obtained from the standard test method. The results (except in one steel) show that the tensile properties obtained from small punch test are in close proximity to those obtained ftom uni-axial tension test. The results also show that fracture toughness (Jic) properties obtained ftom small punch test are within ±20% of the corresponding values obtained using standard test procedures. (author)

  12. Relationship between strain and central deflection in small punch creep specimens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Zhen; Wang Zhiwen

    2003-01-01

    Acquiring information about creep strain directly from small punch creep tests is difficult because the deformation behaviour of the small punch specimen is complicated. A routine is suggested in the present paper to treat this problem indirectly. Based on a finite element analysis, it is proposed that the relationship of central deflection δ to central creep strain ε c of a specimen subjected to creep can be represented approximately by the relationship of central deflection δ to central (elastic-plastic) strain ε of a specimen not subjected to creep. With this hypothesis, the δ∼ε c relation of the small punch creep specimen is obtained by resorting to a rigid-plastic membrane stretch forming model. Finally, small punch creep test results are used to evaluate creep strain and creep strain rate by taking advantage of this δ∼ε c relation

  13. Analysis of potential factors influencing the relation between small punch and conventional creep test

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Dymáček, Petr; Milička, Karel; Dobeš, Ferdinand

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 63, Spp. Issue (2010), s. 50-53 ISSN 0018-8069. [International Conference "Determination of Mechanical Properties of Materials by Small Punch and Other Miniature testing Techniques" /1./. Ostrava, 31.08.2010-02.09.2010] R&D Projects: GA AV ČR(CZ) IAA200410801 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20410507 Keywords : creep * small punch test * chromium steel Subject RIV: JG - Metallurgy

  14. Application of Small Punch Test for Estimation of Fracture Properties of Fe-Al Alloys

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Dobeš, Ferdinand; Milička, Karel

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 63, Sp. Iss. (2010), s. 83-86 ISSN 0018-8069. [Determination of Mechanical Properties of Materials by Small Punch and Other Miniature Testing Techniques/1./. Ostrava, 31.08.2010-02.09.2010] R&D Projects: GA ČR GA106/08/1238 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20410507 Keywords : small punch test * ductility * iron aluminides Subject RIV: JG - Metallurgy

  15. Development and validation of the small punch test for UHMWPE used in total joint replacements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Edidin, A.A. [Drexel Univ., Philadelphia, PA (United States). School of Biomedical Engineering, Science and Health Systems; Howmedica Osteonics Corp., Allendale, NJ (United States); Kurtz, S.M. [Drexel Univ., Philadelphia, PA (United States). School of Biomedical Engineering, Science and Health Systems; Thomas Jefferson Univ., Philadelphia, PA (United States). Dept. of Orthopaedic Surgery; Exponent, Inc., Philadelphia, PA (United States)

    2001-07-01

    In order to better understand the mechanical effects of oxidative degradation, improved oxidative stability and crosslinking on ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene (UHMWPE), a unique miniature specimen mechanical testing technique, known as the small punch test, was developed for evaluating total joint replacement components. The small punch test involves deforming a disk-shaped specimen having a thickness of 0.5 mm and a diameter of 6.4 mm. In addition to its small specimen size, the small punch test differs from conventional testing in that deformation of the UHMWPE specimen occurs under multiaxial loading conditions. Using the small punch test, we have traced the evolution of mechanical behavior in UHMWPE after natural (shelf-storage) and accelerated aging conditions. In addition, we have determined relationships between the mechanical behavior of UHMWPE and the biologically relevant wear debris volume generated in total hip replacements. The small punch test has also been used to investigate the effects of radiation crosslinking which has been shown to improve the wear performance in an in vitro hip simulator. However, the crosslinking and subsequent thermal processes used to improve the wear behavior may compromise the native mechanical behavior by changing the ductility and toughness of the UHMWPE bearing. The primary objective of this study was to investigate which tradeoffs exist related to the mechanical behavior associated with various clinically available types of highly crosslinked and thermally treated UHMWPE. We also review the development and validation of the small punch disk bend test and highlight its application to problems of clinical relevance in both hip and knee arthroplasty. (orig.)

  16. Experimental and Computational Study of Ductile Fracture in Small Punch Tests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Betül Gülçimen Çakan

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available A unified experimental-computational study on ductile fracture initiation and propagation during small punch testing is presented. Tests are carried out at room temperature with unnotched disks of different thicknesses where large-scale yielding prevails. In thinner specimens, the fracture occurs with severe necking under membrane tension, whereas for thicker ones a through thickness shearing mode prevails changing the crack orientation relative to the loading direction. Computational studies involve finite element simulations using a shear modified Gurson-Tvergaard-Needleman porous plasticity model with an integral-type nonlocal formulation. The predicted punch load-displacement curves and deformed profiles are in good agreement with the experimental results.

  17. Experimental and Computational Study of Ductile Fracture in Small Punch Tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gülçimen Çakan, Betül; Soyarslan, Celal; Bargmann, Swantje; Hähner, Peter

    2017-10-17

    A unified experimental-computational study on ductile fracture initiation and propagation during small punch testing is presented. Tests are carried out at room temperature with unnotched disks of different thicknesses where large-scale yielding prevails. In thinner specimens, the fracture occurs with severe necking under membrane tension, whereas for thicker ones a through thickness shearing mode prevails changing the crack orientation relative to the loading direction. Computational studies involve finite element simulations using a shear modified Gurson-Tvergaard-Needleman porous plasticity model with an integral-type nonlocal formulation. The predicted punch load-displacement curves and deformed profiles are in good agreement with the experimental results.

  18. Short term creep small punch testing of P91 and P92 steels,

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Dymáček, Petr

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 465, - (2011), s. 179-182 ISSN 1013-9826. [Materials Structure & Micromechanics of Fracture 6. Brno, 28.6.2010-30.6,2010] R&D Projects: GA AV ČR(CZ) IAA200410801 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20410507 Keywords : creep * small punch test * chromium steel Subject RIV: JG - Metallurgy

  19. Small punch creep test: A promising methodology for high temperature plant components life evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tettamanti, S. [CISE SpA, Milan (Italy); Crudeli, R. [ENEL SpA, Milan (Italy)

    1998-12-31

    CISE and ENEL are involved for years in a miniaturization creep methodology project to obtain similar non-destructive test with the same standard creep test reliability. The goal can be reached with `Small punch creep test` that collect all the requested characteristics; quasi nondestructive disk specimens extracted both on external or internal side of components, than accurately machined and tested on little and cheap apparatus. CISE has developed complete creep small punch procedure that involved peculiar test facility and correlation`s law comparable with the more diffused isostress methodology for residual life evaluation on ex-serviced high temperature plant components. The aim of this work is to obtain a simple and immediately applicable relationship useful for plant maintenance managing. More added work is need to validate the Small Punch methodology and for relationship calibration on most diffusion high temperature structural materials. First obtained results on a comparative work on ASTM A355 P12 ex-serviced pipe material are presented joint with a description of the Small Punch apparatus realized in CISE. (orig.) 6 refs.

  20. Small punch creep test: A promising methodology for high temperature plant components life evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tettamanti, S [CISE SpA, Milan (Italy); Crudeli, R [ENEL SpA, Milan (Italy)

    1999-12-31

    CISE and ENEL are involved for years in a miniaturization creep methodology project to obtain similar non-destructive test with the same standard creep test reliability. The goal can be reached with `Small punch creep test` that collect all the requested characteristics; quasi nondestructive disk specimens extracted both on external or internal side of components, than accurately machined and tested on little and cheap apparatus. CISE has developed complete creep small punch procedure that involved peculiar test facility and correlation`s law comparable with the more diffused isostress methodology for residual life evaluation on ex-serviced high temperature plant components. The aim of this work is to obtain a simple and immediately applicable relationship useful for plant maintenance managing. More added work is need to validate the Small Punch methodology and for relationship calibration on most diffusion high temperature structural materials. First obtained results on a comparative work on ASTM A355 P12 ex-serviced pipe material are presented joint with a description of the Small Punch apparatus realized in CISE. (orig.) 6 refs.

  1. Small Punch Tests at Oxide Scales Surface of Structural Steel and Low Silicon Steel

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hrabovský, J.; Dobeš, Ferdinand; Horský, J.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 82, 3-4 (2014), s. 297-310 ISSN 0030-770X Institutional support: RVO:68081723 Keywords : Small punch * Oxide scales * X-ray diffraction * Mechanical properties Subject RIV: JK - Corrosion ; Surface Treatment of Materials Impact factor: 1.140, year: 2014

  2. Fracture-based correlation of uniaxial and small punch creep data

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Dobeš, Ferdinand; Dymáček, Petr

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 86, DEC (2016), s. 34-38 ISSN 0167-8442 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LM2015069; GA MŠk(CZ) LQ1601 Institutional support: RVO:68081723 Keywords : Creep * Small punch test * Chromium steel Subject RIV: JG - Metallurgy Impact factor: 2.659, year: 2016

  3. Application of the small punch test to determine the fatigue properties of additive manufactured aerospace alloys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lancaster Robert

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Additive layer manufacturing (ALM processes are becoming increasingly prevalent in the aerospace industry as design engineers look to profit from the numerous advantages that these advanced techniques can offer. However, given the safety critical nature and arduous operating conditions to which these components will be exposed to whilst in service, it is essential that the mechanical properties of such structures are fully understood. Transient microstructures are a typical characteristic of ALM components and resulting from the thermal cycles that occur during the build operation. Those microstructures make any mechanical assessment an involved procedure when assessing the process variables for any given parameter set. A useful mechanical test technique is small-scale testing, in particular, the small punch (SP test. SP testing is capable of localised sampling of a larger scale component and presents an attractive option to mechanically assess complex parts with representative geometries, that would not be possible using more conventional uniaxial test approaches. This paper will present the recent development of a small-scale testing methodology capable of inducing fatigue damage and a series of novel tests performed on different variants of Ti-6Al-4V.

  4. Effect of Friction Coefficient on the Small Punch Creep Behavior of AISI 316L Stainless Steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Bum-Joon; Cho, Nam-Hyuck; Kim, Moon-K; Lim, Byeong-Soo

    2011-01-01

    Small punch creep testing has received attention due to the convenience of using smaller specimens than those of conventional uniaxial creep tests, which enables creep testing on developing or currently operational components. However, precedent studies have shown that it is necessary to consider friction between the punch and specimen when computing uniaxial equivalent stress from a finite element model. In this study, small punch creep behaviors of AISI 316L stainless steel, which is widely used in high temperature-high pressure machineries, have been compared for the two different ceramic balls such as Si 3 N 4 and Al 2 O 3 . The optimal range of the friction coefficient is 0.4⁓0.5 at 650°C for the best fit between experimental and simulation data of AISI 316 L stainless steel. The higher the friction coefficient, the longer the creep rupture time is. Therefore, the type of ceramic ball used must be specified for standardization of small punch creep testing.

  5. Development of small punch tests for ductile-brittle transition temperature measurement of temper embrittled Ni-Cr steels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baik, J.M.; Kameda, J.; Buck, O.

    1983-01-01

    Small punch tests were developed to determine the ductile-brittle transition temperature of nickel-chromium (Ni-Cr) steels having various degrees of temper embrittlement and various microstructures. It was found that the small punch test clearly shows the ductile-brittle transition behavior of the temper-embrittled steels. The measured values were compared with those obtained from Charpy impact and uniaxial tensile tests. The effects of punch tip shape, a notch, and the strain rate on the ductile-brittle transition behavior were examined. It was found that the combined use of a notch, high strain rates, and a small punch tip strongly affects the ductile-brittle transition behavior. Considerable variations in the data were observed when the small punch tests were performed on coarse-grained steels. Several factors controlling embrittlement measurements of steels are discussed in terms of brittle fracture mechanisms

  6. Influence of friction on stress and strain distributions in small punch creep test models

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Dymáček, Petr; Seitl, Stanislav; Milička, Karel; Dobeš, Ferdinand

    417-418, - (2010), s. 561-564 ISSN 1013-9826. [International Conference on Fracture and Damage Mechanics /8./. Malta, 08.09.2009-10.09.2009] R&D Projects: GA AV ČR(CZ) IAA200410801; GA AV ČR(CZ) 1QS200410502 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20410507 Keywords : small punch test * creep * chromium steel * finite element method Subject RIV: JG - Metallurgy www.scientific.net/KEM.417-418.561

  7. Estimation of ductility of Fe-Al alloys by means of small punch test

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Dobeš, Ferdinand; Milička, Karel

    Roč.18, č.7 (2010), s. 1357-1359 ISSN 0966-9795. [Discussion Meeting on the Development of Innovative Iron Aluminium Alloys /5./. Praha, 21.09.2009-24.09.2009] R&D Projects: GA ČR GA106/08/1238 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20410507 Keywords : iron aluminides * brittleness * small punch test Subject RIV: JG - Metallurgy Impact factor: 2.327, year: 2010

  8. Study of the upper die clamping conditions in the small punch test

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Andrés, D.; Dymáček, Petr

    86A, DEC (2016), s. 117-123 ISSN 0167-8442 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) ED1.1.00/02.0068 Institutional support: RVO:68081723 Keywords : Small punch test * Finite element method * Parametric study * High temperature * Creep Subject RIV: JL - Materials Fatigue, Friction Mechanics Impact factor: 2.659, year: 2016 http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0167844216301835

  9. Development of small specimen test techniques. Development of a remote controlled small punch testing apparatus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohmi, Masao; Saito, Junichi; Ooka, Norikazu; Jitsukawa, Shiro; Hishinuma, Akimichi; Umino, Akira.

    1997-01-01

    An accelerator-driven deuterium-lithium (d-Li) stripping reaction-type neutron source, such as the International Fusion Materials Irradiation Facility (IFMIF) planned by the International Energy Agency is recognized as one of the most promising facility to obtain test environments of high-energy neutrons for fusion reactor materials development. The limitation on the available irradiation volume of the irradiation facility requires the development of the small specimen test techniques (SSTT). Application of SSTT to evaluate the degradation of various components in the light water reactor for the life extension is expected to be also quite beneficial. A remote-controlled testing machine for the Small Punch (SP) and miniaturized tensile tests was developed at the hot laboratory of the Japan Materials Testing Reactor (JMTR). The machine is designed for testing at temperatures ranging between 93 and 1,123 K to evaluate the temperature dependence of the strength of materials including the embrittlement at low temperatures and the softening at elevated temperatures. The tests are performed in a vacuum or in an inert gas environment. The machine has been installed in a hot cell and is being used for the round robin test program of the SP test method. The round robin test program is planned to identify the capability of the test method and to establish a standard test procedure. The configuration and the specifications of the test machine are introduced and the results of the SP tests are also shown. (author)

  10. Creep damage evaluation of low alloy steel weld joint by small punch creep testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishioka, Tomoya; Sawaragi, Yoshiatsu; Uemura, Hiromi

    2013-01-01

    The effect of sampling location on SPC (Small Punch Creep) tests were investigated for weld joints to establish evaluation method of Type IV creep behavior. The SPC specimen shape was 10mm diameter and 0.5mm thick round disc prepared from weld joints of 2.25Cr-1Mo low alloy steel. It was found that the center of SPC specimen should be 2mm apart from the weld interface as the recommended sampling location. Creep damage was imposed for large weld joint specimens by axial creep loading at 620degC, 52MPa with the interrupted time fraction of 0.34, 0.45, 0.64 and 0.82.SPC samples were prepared from those damaged specimens following the recommended way described in this paper. Among the various SPC tests conducted, good relationships were found for the test condition of 625degC, 200N. Namely, good relationships were obtained both between minimum deflection rate and creep life fraction, and between rupture time and creep life fraction. Consequently, creep life assessment of Type IV fracture by SPC tests could be well conducted using the sampling location and the test condition recommended in this paper. (author)

  11. Development of a miniaturized bulge test (small punch test) for post-irradiation mechanical property evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eto, Motokuni; Suzuki, Masahide; Nishiyama, Yutaka; Fukaya, Kiyoshi; Jitsukawa, Shiro; Misawa, Toshihei

    1993-01-01

    To examine the effectiveness of the small punch test for evaluating strength and toughness of irradiated ferritic steels, detailed procedures are described aiming at standardization of the test. The statistical approach to analysis of the SP energy as a function of temperature for evaluation of DBTT was also reviewed. The method was then applied to neutron-irradiated ferritic steels, which included F-82, F-82H, HT-9, and 2 1/4 Cr-1Mo steel. Fluence and irradiation temperatures ranged from 2 to 12 x 10 23 n/m 2 (E ≥ 1 MeV) and from 573 to 673 K, respectively. Comparison of parameters obtained from the small punch test with the properties measured by the conventional method indicated that: (a) the 0.2% offset stress and the ultimate tensile strength at room temperature can be correlated well with the parameters, P y /(t 0 ) 2 and P max /(t 0 ) 2 , respectively. Here, P y and P max are the loads corresponding to the yield and the maximum, and t 0 is the initial thickness of a specimen; (b) fracture toughness, J IC , can be evaluated using equivalent fracture strain, anti ε qf , and the previously established relationship between these values; and (c) DBTT measured by a Charpy test can be predicted from the results of temperature dependence of SP energy determined from the area under the load-deflection curve using a statistical analysis based on a Weibull distribution

  12. Evaluation of toughness degradation by small punch (SP) tests for neutron irradiated structural steels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Misawa, Toshihei; Hamaguchi, Yoshikazu; Kimura, Akihiko; Eto, Motokuni; Suzuki, Masahide; Nakajima, Nobuya.

    1992-01-01

    The small punch (SP) test as one of the useful small specimen testing technique (SSTT) has been developed to evaluate the fracture toughness, ductile-brittle transition temperature (DBTT) and tensile properties for neutron irradiated structural materials. The SP tests using the miniaturized specimens of φ3 mm TEM disk and 10 mm 2 coupon were performed for six kinds of ferritic steels of F-82, F-82H, HT-9, JFMS, 2.25-1Mo and SQV2A. It was shown that the temperature dependence of SP fracture energies with scatter in miniaturized testing can give reliable information on the DBTT by use of the statistical analysis based on the Weibull distribution. A good correlation between the DBTT of the SP tests and that of the standard CVN test has been obtained for the various nuclear ferritic steels. The SP test was performed for cryogenic austenitic steels as a way of evaluating elastic-plastic fracture toughness, J IC , on the basis of a universal empirical relationship between J IC and SP equivalent fracture strain, ε-bar qf . The SP testing using the neutron irradiated specimens of 2.25Cr-1Mo, F-82, F-82H and HT-9 steels was successfully applied and presented the neutron radiation induced changes on the DBTT, fracture toughness and tensile properties. (author)

  13. Recommended practice for small punch (SP) testing of metallic materials (draft)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takahashi, Hideaki; Shoji, Tetsuo; Mao, Xinyuan

    1988-09-01

    This practice covers the determination of fracture toughness characteristics of metallic materials such as ductile to brittle transition temperature (SPDBTT) and elastic-plastic fracture toughness (J ICSP ) using miniature small punch (SP) specimens. Three kinds of specimens with different shape; 10 by 10 by 0.5 mm, 10 by 10 by 0.25 mm and φ3 by 0.25 mm, are selected as the standard SP specimens. Two types of fixture shall be respectively used for the 10 and φ3 specimens. The relationship between load and deflection during buldge tests shall be recorded from low to high temperatures. Following two parameters in relation to fracture toughness are obtained from analyses of load-deflection curves: (1) The SP energy is calculated from the area surrounded with load-deflection curves, which corresponds to the total energy consumed up to the fracture. (2) The equivalent fracture strain (ε-bar qf ) is calculated from the maximum deflection at fracture (δ*). The SPDBTT can be derived from temperature dependence of SP energy, and the J ICSP can be estimated from the rational correlation curve between ε-bar qf and J IC . (author)

  14. On the correlation between minimum thickness and central deflection during small punch test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumar, Pradeep; Chattopadhyay, J.; Dutta, B.K.

    2016-01-01

    Present paper deals with a detailed study on the correlation between minimum thickness (t/t_0) and central deflection (δ/t_0). Such data are obtained during the deformation of a small punch test of miniaturized specimen. Finite element studies have been carried out to investigate the effect of various parameters which are expected to influence this correlation. The parameters under consideration are material hardening, material yield stress, coefficient of friction and initial thickness of the specimen. It is shown that the correlation remains unaffected with respect to change in material parameters. Similarly, the coefficient of friction beyond 0.2 also does not affect the correlation. However, change in thickness has significant effect on the correlation. A modification has been suggested in the existing correlation to consider the influence of thickness change. The modified correlation is then used to calculate fracture toughness using the experimental results quoted in the literature. It is shown that the modified correlation improves the fracture toughness prediction considerably.

  15. Analyses of Small Punch Creep Deformation Behavior of 316LN Stainless Steel Having Different Nitrogen Contents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganesh Kumar, J.; Laha, K.; Ganesan, V.; Prasad Reddy, G. V.

    2018-04-01

    The small punch creep (SPC) behavior of 316LN stainless steel (SS) containing 0.07, 0.11 and 0.14 wt.% nitrogen has been investigated at 923 K. The transient and tertiary SPC deformation of 316LN SS with various nitrogen contents have been analyzed according to the equation proposed for SPC deflection, δ = δ0 + δT (1 - e^{ - κ t} ) + \\dot{δ }s t + δ3 e^[ φ( t - tr ) ]. The relationships among the rate of exhaustion of transient creep (κ), steady-state deflection rate (\\dot{δ }s ) and the rate of acceleration of tertiary creep (φ) revealed the interrelationships among the three stages of SPC curve. The first-order reaction rate theory was found to be applicable to SPC deformation throughout the transient as well as tertiary region, in all the investigated steels. The initial and final creep deflection rates were decreased, whereas time to attain steady-state deflection rate increased with the increase in nitrogen content. By increasing the nitrogen content in 316LN SS from 0.07 to 0.14 wt.%, each stage of SPC was prolonged, and consequently, the values of κ, \\dot{δ }s and φ were lowered. Using the above parameters, the master curves for both transient and tertiary SPC deflections were constructed for 316LN SS containing different nitrogen contents.

  16. Accelerated aging, natural aging, and small punch testing of gamma-air sterilized polycarbonate urethane acetabular components.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurtz, S M; Siskey, R; Reitman, M

    2010-05-01

    The objectives of this study were three-fold: (1) to determine the applicability of the small punch test to characterize Bionate 80A polycarbonate urethane (PCU) acetabular implants; (2) to evaluate the susceptibility of PCU acetabular implants to exhibit degradation of mechanical behavior following gamma irradiation in air and accelerated aging; and (3) to compare the oxidation of gamma-air sterilized PCU following accelerated aging and 5 years of natural shelf aging. In addition to attenuated total reflectance-Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, we also adapted a miniature specimen mechanical test, the small punch test, for the deformable PCU cups. Accelerated aging was performed using ASTM F2003, a standard test that represents a severe oxidative challenge. The results of this study suggest that the small punch test is sufficiently sensitive and reproducible to discriminate slight differences in the large-deformation mechanical behavior of Bionate 80A following accelerated aging. The gamma-air sterilized PCU had a reduction of 9% in ultimate load after aging. Five years of shelf aging had little effect on the mechanical properties of the PCU. Overall, our findings suggest that the Bionate 80A material has greater oxidative stability than ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene following gamma irradiation in air and exposure to a severe oxidative challenge. (c) 2010 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. High temperature strength analysis of welded joint of RAF's by small punch test

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kato, T. [Muroran Institute of Technology, Dept. of Materials Science and Engineeering, Hokkaido (Japan); Komazaki, S.; Kohno, Y. [Muroran Institute of Technology, Muroran (Japan); Tanigawa, H. [Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Naga-gun, Ibaraki-ken (Japan); Kohyama, A. [Kyoto Univ., Institute of Advanced Energy (Japan)

    2007-07-01

    Full text of publication follows: Nucleation and growth of microvoids and/or small cracks in fine-grained heat affected zone (HAZ) after long-term service operation, which is recognized as Type IV creep damage, has recently been a worldwide issue for high Cr ferritic steels. In our group, a small punch (SP) creep test has been successfully applied to evaluate this damage of low alloy ferritic steel. However, the HAZ of fusion reactor material welded by electron-beam (EB) welding is so narrow that it is not easy to evaluate its mechanical properties by conventional tests including the SP creep test with a plate-type specimen (10 x 10 x 0.5 mm{sup 3}). In this study, the SP creep test using a further miniaturized specimen was developed and applied to the welded joint of reduced activation ferritic steels (RAFs), F82H-IEA (Fe-8Cr-2W-0.2V-0.02Ta), for measuring creep properties of the HAZ. For the SP creep test, TEM disk-type samples (diam. 3.0 x 0.30 mm) were removed from the base metal (BM), weld metal (WM) and HAZ, respectively. The specimen surfaces were polished up to a 0.05 {mu}m alumina powder finish and the specimen's thickness was finally adjusted to 0.25 mm. The SP creep tests were performed at temperatures of 823{approx}973 K and under loads ranging from 20 to 200 N. A constant load was applied to the center of the specimen through the Si{sub 3}N{sub 4} bail (diam. 1.0 mm) using the electric servo motor. The central deflection of the specimen was monitored by measuring the displacement of the compression rod. The tests were carried out in an argon gas atmosphere and the gas was continuously passed through during the test to prevent severe oxidation of the specimen. The differences in SP creep properties such as rupture time and minimum creep rate between the BM, WM and HAZ were discussed in terms of microstructural changes during welding thermal cycles. In addition, the result obtained from the BM was correlated with those of uniaxial creep test

  18. Effects of Polarization on Mechanical Properties of Lead Zirconate Titanate Ceramics Evaluated by Modified Small Punch Tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Qihuang; Fan, Yuchi; Wang, Lianjun; Xiong, Zhi; Wang, Hongzhi; Li, Yaogang; Zhang, Qinghong; Kawasaki, Akira; Jiang, Wan

    2012-01-01

    Pb(Zr,Ti)O3 (PZT) ceramics were prepared by the conventional mixed oxide method, and the strength of the resultant PZT ceramics was evaluated using modified small punch (MSP) tests. Load-displacement curve test results showed that the crack-initiation and fracture strengths of PZT ceramics decreased after polarization. The effect of the polarization accelerated the fatigue properties of PZT ceramics. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) results showed that microcracks were formed before the maximum load in the MSP test, and the first load drop corresponded to crack initiation.

  19. Strain gradient effects in periodic flat punch indenting at small scales

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Kim Lau; Niordson, Christian Frithiof; Hutchinson, J. W.

    2014-01-01

    Experiments on soft polycrystalline aluminum have yielded evidence that, besides the required punch load, both the size and shape of imprinted features are affected by the scale of the set-up, e.g. substantial details are lost when the characteristic length is on the order of 10μm. The objective...... are employed. During a largely non-homogeneous deformation, the material is forced up in between the indenters so that an array of identical imprinted features is formed once the tool is retreated. It is confirmed that the additional hardening owing to plastic strain gradients severely affects both the size...

  20. A small punch test technique for characterizing the elastic modulus and fracture behavior of PMMA bone cement used in total joint replacement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giddings, V L; Kurtz, S M; Jewett, C W; Foulds, J R; Edidin, A A

    2001-07-01

    Polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) bone cement is used in total joint replacements to anchor implants to the underlying bone. Establishing and maintaining the integrity of bone cement is thus of critical importance to the long-term outcome of joint replacement surgery. The goal of the present study was to evaluate the suitability of a novel testing technique, the small punch or miniaturized disk bend test, to characterize the elastic modulus and fracture behavior of PMMA. We investigated the hypothesis that the crack initiation behavior of PMMA during the small punch test was sensitive to the test temperature. Miniature disk-shaped specimens, 0.5 mm thick and 6.4 mm in diameter, were prepared from PMMA and Simplex-P bone cement according to manufacturers' instructions. Testing was conducted at ambient and body temperatures, and the effect of test temperature on the elastic modulus and fracture behavior was statistically evaluated using analysis of variance. For both PMMA materials, the test temperature had a significant effect on elastic modulus and crack initiation behavior. At body temperature, the specimens exhibited "ductile" crack initiation, whereas at room temperature "brittle" crack initiation was observed. The small punch test was found to be a sensitive and repeatable test method for evaluating the mechanical behavior of PMMA. In light of the results of this study, future small punch testing should be conducted at body temperature.

  1. A Study on the Small Punch Test for Fracture Strength Evaluation of CANDU Pressure Tube Embrittled by Hydrogen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nho, Seung Hwan; Ong, Jang Woo; Yu, Hyo Sun; Chung, Se Hi

    1996-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate the usefulness of small punch(SP) test using miniaturized specimens as a method for fracture strength evaluation of CANDU pressure tube embrittled by hydrogen. According to the test results, the fracture strength evaluation as a function of hydrogen concentration at -196 .deg. C was much better than that at room temperature, as the difference of SP fracture energy(Esp) with hydrogen concentration was more significant at -196 .deg. C than at room temperature for the hydrogen concentration up to 300ppm-H. It was also observed that the peak of average AE energy, the cumulative average AE energy and the cumulative average AE energy per equivalent fracture, strain increased with the increase of hydrogen concentration. From the results of load-displacement behaviors, Esp behaviors, macro- and micro-SEM fractographs and AE test it has been concluded that the SP test method using miniaturized specimen(10mmx10mmx0.5mm) will be a useful test method to evaluate the fracture strength for CANDU pressure tube embrittled by hydrogen

  2. Evaluation of ductile-brittle transition behavior with neutron irradiation in nuclear reactor pressure vessel steels using small punch test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, M. C.; Lee, B. S.; Oh, Y. J.

    2003-01-01

    A Small Punch (SP) test was performed to evaluate the ductile-brittle transition temperature before and after neutron irradiation in Reactor Pressure Vessel (RPV) steels produced by different manufacturing (refining) processes. The results were compared to the standard transition temperature shifts from the Charpy test and Master Curve fracture toughness test in accordance with the ASTM standard E1921. The samples were taken from 1/4t location of the vessel thickness and machined into a 10x10x0.5mm dimension. Irradiation of the samples was carried out in the research reactor at KAERI (HANARO) at about 290 .deg. C of the different fluence levels respectively. SP tests were performed in the temperature range of RT to -196 .deg. C using a 2.4mm diameter ball. For the materials before and after irradiation, SP transition temperatures (T sp ), which are determined at the middle of the upper and lower SP energies, showed a linear correlation with the Charpy index temperature, T 41J . T sp from the irradiated samples was increased as the fluence level increased and was well within the deviation range of the unirradiated data. The TSP had a correlation with the reference temperature (T 0 ) from the master curve method using a pre-cracked Charpy V-notched (PCVN) specimen

  3. A study on stress analysis of small punch-creep test and its experimental correlations with uniaxial-creep test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Song In; Baek, Seoung Se; Kwon, Il Hyun; Yu, Hyo Sun

    2002-01-01

    A basic research was performed to ensure the usefulness of Small Punch-creep(SP-creep) test for residual life evaluation of heat resistant components effectively. This paper presents analytical results of initial stress and strain distributions in SP specimen caused by constant loading for SP-creep test and its experimental correlations with uniaxial creep(Ten-creep) test on 9CrlMoVNb steel. It was shown that the initial maximum equivalent stress, σ eq · max from FE analysis was correlated with steady-state equivalent creep strain rate, ε qf-ss , rupture time, t r , activation energy, Q and Larson-Miller parameter, LMP during SP-creep deformation. The simple correlation laws, σ SP - σ TEN , P SP -σ TEN and Q SP -Q TEN adopted to established a quantitative correlation between SP-creep and Ten-creep test data. Especially, the activation energy obtained from SP-creep test is linearly related to that from Ten-creep test at 650 deg. C as follows : Q SP-P =1.37 Q TEN , Q SP-σ =1.53 Q TEN

  4. Development of evaluation technique of high temperature creep characteristics by small punch-creep test method (I)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baek, Seung Se; Na, Sung Hun; Yu, Hyo Sun; Na, Eui Gyun

    2001-01-01

    In this study, a Small Punch Creep(SP-Creep) test using miniaturized specimen(10 x 10 x 0.5mm) is described to develop the new creep test method for high temperature structural materials. The SP-Creep test is applied to 2.25Cr-1Mo(STBA24) steel which is widely used as boiler tube material. The test temperatures applied for the creep deformation of miniaturized specimens are between 550∼600 .deg. C. The SP-Creep curves depend definitely on applied load and creep temperature, and show the three stages of creep behavior like in conventional uniaxial tensile creep curves. The load exponent of miniaturized specimen decrease with increasing test temperature, and its behavior is similar to stress exponent behavior of uniaxial creep test. The creep activation energy obtained from the relationship between SP-Creep rate and test temperature decreases as the applied load increases. A predicting equation of SP-Creep rate for 2.25Cr-1Mo steel is suggested, and a good agreement between experimental and calculated data has been found

  5. Small punch tensile/fracture test data and 3D specimen surface data on Grade 91 ferritic/martensitic steel from cryogenic to room temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruchhausen, Matthias; Lapetite, Jean-Marc; Ripplinger, Stefan; Austin, Tim

    2016-12-01

    Raw data from small punch tensile/fracture tests at two displacement rates in the temperature range from -196 °C to room temperature on Grade 91 ferritic/martensitic steel are presented. A number of specimens were analyzed after testing by means of X-ray computed tomography (CT). Based on the CT volume data detailed 3D surface maps of the specimens were established. All data are open access and available from Online Data Information Network (ODIN)https://odin.jrc.ec.europa.eu. The data presented in the current work has been analyzed in the research article "On the determination of the ductile to brittle transition temperature from small punch tests on Grade 91 ferritic-martensitic steel" (M. Bruchhausen, S. Holmström, J.-M. Lapetite, S. Ripplinger, 2015) [1].

  6. Observation of Anisotropy of Creep Fracture Using Small Punch Test for Al-Al4C3 System Produced by Equal Channel Angular Pressing

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Besterci, M.; Dobeš, Ferdinand; Ballóková, B.; Sülleiová, K.; Kvačkaj, T.

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 30, č. 3 (2011), s. 205-210 ISSN 0334-6455 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR 1QS200410502; GA AV ČR IAA200410801 Grant - others:Vega(SK) 2/0025/11 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20410507 Keywords : Equal channel angular pressing * small-punch creep * fracture * metal-matrix composites Subject RIV: JI - Composite Materials Impact factor: 0.242, year: 2011

  7. Numerical development of a new correlation between biaxial fracture strain and material fracture toughness for small punch test

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumar, Pradeep [Homi Bhabha National Institute, Anushaktinagar, Mumbai 400094 (India); Dutta, B.K., E-mail: bijon.dutta@gmail.com [Homi Bhabha National Institute, Anushaktinagar, Mumbai 400094 (India); Chattopadhyay, J. [Homi Bhabha National Institute, Anushaktinagar, Mumbai 400094 (India); Reactor Safety Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai 400085 (India)

    2017-04-01

    The miniaturized specimens are used to determine mechanical properties of the materials, such as yield stress, ultimate stress, fracture toughness etc. Use of such specimens is essential whenever limited quantity of material is available for testing, such as aged/irradiated materials. The miniaturized small punch test (SPT) is a technique which is widely used to determine change in mechanical properties of the materials. Various empirical correlations are proposed in the literature to determine the value of fracture toughness (J{sub IC}) using this technique. bi-axial fracture strain is determined using SPT tests. This parameter is then used to determine J{sub IC} using available empirical correlations. The correlations between J{sub IC} and biaxial fracture strain quoted in the literature are based on experimental data acquired for large number of materials. There are number of such correlations available in the literature, which are generally not in agreement with each other. In the present work, an attempt has been made to determine the correlation between biaxial fracture strain (ε{sub qf}) and crack initiation toughness (J{sub i}) numerically. About one hundred materials are digitally generated by varying yield stress, ultimate stress, hardening coefficient and Gurson parameters. Such set of each material is then used to analyze a SPT specimen and a standard TPB specimen. Analysis of SPT specimen generated biaxial fracture strain (ε{sub qf}) and analysis of TPB specimen generated value of J{sub i}. A graph is then plotted between these two parameters for all the digitally generated materials. The best fit straight line determines the correlation. It has been also observed that it is possible to have variation in J{sub i} for the same value of biaxial fracture strain (ε{sub qf}) within a limit. Such variation in the value of J{sub i} has been also ascertained using the graph. Experimental SPT data acquired earlier for three materials were then used to get J

  8. Development of a Small Punch Test Technique for an Evaluation of the Mechanical Properties of Irradiated Materials in a Hot Cell

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Do-Sik; Ahn, Sang-Bok; Yoo, Byung-Ok; Choo, Yong-Sun; Hong, Kwon-Pyo

    2006-01-01

    Miniaturized specimens have been widely used to evaluate the mechanical properties of steels and plastics. Especially for a study on the irradiation effects in nuclear materials, the small specimen test techniques have attracted considerable attention. Therefore, it is essential that the test techniques be developed and verified to extract the mechanical properties information from small specimens. Among the test techniques using small specimens, the small punch (SP) test technique using small disc-sized specimen has been successfully used to estimate the tensile properties (yield strength and ultimate tensile strength), DBTT (ductile-brittle transition temperature), fracture toughness and creep properties of metals irradiated in a reactor or a proton accelerator. In this paper, the existing SP test techniques are reviewed and summarized. In addition, the information on the development of the SP test procedure is obtained to evaluate the radiation effects on the mechanical properties of nuclear materials in a hot cell

  9. Characterization of a 14Cr ODS steel by means of small punch and uniaxial testing with regard to creep and fatigue at elevated temperatures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bruchhausen, M., E-mail: matthias.bruchhausen@ec.europa.eu [European Commission, Joint Research Centre, Institute for Energy and Transport, P.O. Box 2, 1755 ZG Petten (Netherlands); Turba, K. [European Commission, Joint Research Centre, Institute for Energy and Transport, P.O. Box 2, 1755 ZG Petten (Netherlands); Lund University, Division of Materials Engineering, P.O. Box 118, SE-221 00 Lund (Sweden); Haan, F. de; Hähner, P.; Austin, T. [European Commission, Joint Research Centre, Institute for Energy and Transport, P.O. Box 2, 1755 ZG Petten (Netherlands); Carlan, Y. de [CEA, DEN, Service de Recherches Métallurgiques Appliquées, 91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France)

    2014-01-15

    A 14Cr ODS steel was characterized at elevated temperatures with regard to its behavior in small punch and uniaxial creep tests and in low cycle fatigue tests. A comparison of small punch and uniaxial creep tests at 650 °C revealed a strong anisotropy of the material when strained parallel and perpendicular to the extrusion direction with rupture times being several orders of magnitude lower for the perpendicular direction. The stress-rupture and Larson–Miller plots show a very large scatter of the creep data. This scatter is strongly reduced when rupture time is plotted against minimum deflection rate or minimum creep rate (Monkman–Grant plot). Fatigue tests have been carried out at 650 °C and 750 °C. The alloy is cyclically very stable with practically no hardening/softening. Results from the tests at both temperatures can be described by a common power law. An increase in the test temperature has little influence on the fatigue ductility exponent. For a given total strain level, the fatigue life of the alloy is reduced with increasing temperature.

  10. A novel in vitro bovine cartilage punch model for assessing the regeneration of focal cartilage defects with biocompatible bacterial nanocellulose

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Current therapies for articular cartilage defects fail to achieve qualitatively sufficient tissue regeneration, possibly because of a mismatch between the speed of cartilage rebuilding and the resorption of degradable implant polymers. The present study focused on the self-healing capacity of resident cartilage cells in conjunction with cell-free and biocompatible (but non-resorbable) bacterial nanocellulose (BNC). This was tested in a novel in vitro bovine cartilage punch model. Methods Standardized bovine cartilage discs with a central defect filled with BNC were cultured for up to eight weeks with/without stimulation with transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1. Cartilage formation and integrity were analyzed by histology, immunohistochemistry and electron microscopy. Content, release and neosynthesis of the matrix molecules proteoglycan/aggrecan, collagen II and collagen I were also quantified. Finally, gene expression of these molecules was profiled in resident chondrocytes and chondrocytes migrated onto the cartilage surface or the implant material. Results Non-stimulated and especially TGF-β1-stimulated cartilage discs displayed a preserved structural and functional integrity of the chondrocytes and surrounding matrix, remained vital in long-term culture (eight weeks) without signs of degeneration and showed substantial synthesis of cartilage-specific molecules at the protein and mRNA level. Whereas mobilization of chondrocytes from the matrix onto the surface of cartilage and implant was pivotal for successful seeding of cell-free BNC, chondrocytes did not immigrate into the central BNC area, possibly due to the relatively small diameter of its pores (2 to 5 μm). Chondrocytes on the BNC surface showed signs of successful redifferentiation over time, including increase of aggrecan/collagen type II mRNA, decrease of collagen type I mRNA and initial deposition of proteoglycan and collagen type II in long-term high-density pellet cultures

  11. Computer Data Punch Cards

    CERN Multimedia

    Those card are printed with minimal layout aids for the formatting of FORTRAN programs, plus extra guidelines every ten columns suggesting a generic tabular data layout. A punch card is a piece of stiff paper that can be used to contain digital information represented by the presence or absence of holes in predefined positions. Punched cards were used for specialized unit record machines, organized into semiautomatic data processing systems, used punched cards for data input, output, and storage. Furthermore many new digital computers started to used punched cards.

  12. Recent progress in shear punch testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamilton, M.L.; Toloczko, M.B.; Lucas, G.E.

    1994-09-01

    The shear punch test was developed in response to the needs of the materials development community for small-scale mechanical properties tests. Such tests will be of great importance when a fusion neutron simulation device is built, since such a device is expected to have a limited irradiation volume. The shear punch test blanks a circular disk from a fixed sheet metal specimen, specifically a TEM disk. Load-displacement data generated during the test can be related to uniaxial tensile properties such as yield and ultimate strength. Shear punch and tensile tests were performed at room temperature on a number of unirradiated aluminum, copper, vanadium, and stainless steel alloys and on several irradiated aluminum alloys. Recent results discussed here suggest that the relationship between shear punch strength and tensile strength varies with alloy class, although the relationship determined for the unirradiated condition remains valid for the irradiated aluminum alloys

  13. Paper Punch Tape

    CERN Multimedia

    Physicists coded and recorded their programs through series of holes on punch paper tape or on punched cards. It was popular in the 1970s due to its high throughput speed and low cost, paper tape was one of the original data storage methods for computers. Information was encoded in the distinct pattern of holes punched in the paper; the paper itself was oiled to facilitate being run through the reading mechanism and to prevent tears due to brittleness. Though the paper was cheap, it had low storage capacity (only a few dozen kilobytes per roll) and the machinery involved in punching the holes was quite expensive. Higher capacity alternatives, such as magnetic tape, has get developped.

  14. NCDC Punched Card Reference Manuals

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Documentation for using and reading punched cards kept at the National Weather Records Center (NWRC, previous name for NCDC and NCEI). Many of these punched card...

  15. Flat punch adhesion: transition from fracture-based to strength-limited pull-off

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiang, Yijie; Turner, Kevin T; Grierson, David S

    2014-01-01

    The adhesion of a cylindrical flat punch to a surface due to interatomic forces is a well-known problem that is important in many applications, including indentation experiments and the adhesion of fibrillar structures. Traditionally, the pull-off force has been related to the work of adhesion and punch geometry via the Kendall solution that uses a Griffith energy balance to assess crack propagation and pull-off. More recently, it has been shown that under certain conditions, notably at small punch diameters, the contact can behave in a ‘strength-limited’ fashion in which the interface separates uniformly rather than via crack propagation. Here, a Maugis-Dugdale-type analysis of power-law-shaped bodies in contact is used to examine the change in behaviour from the fracture-based Kendall solution to strength-limited pull-off for cylindrical flat punches. The transition from fracture-based to strength-limited behaviour is described in terms of a non-dimensional parameter that is similar to previous quantities used to describe the transition and is a function of the punch size, the elasticity of the contact, and the adhesion properties. The results of this relatively simple analysis compare favourably with results from more complex computational simulations. In addition, the results are used to develop a function that quantifies the transition between the Kendall solution and the strength-limited solution in order to facilitate interpretation of adhesion measurements in the transition regime between the two limits. Finally, the power-law analysis is used to assess the sensitivity of the transition to the exact shape of the punch. (paper)

  16. Small Wind Site Assessment Guidelines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olsen, Tim [Advanced Energy Systems LLC, Eugene, OR (United States); Preus, Robert [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2015-09-01

    Site assessment for small wind energy systems is one of the key factors in the successful installation, operation, and performance of a small wind turbine. A proper site assessment is a difficult process that includes wind resource assessment and the evaluation of site characteristics. These guidelines address many of the relevant parts of a site assessment with an emphasis on wind resource assessment, using methods other than on-site data collection and creating a small wind site assessment report.

  17. Meniscal shear stress for punching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuijthof, Gabrielle J M; Meulman, Hubert N; Herder, Just L; van Dijk, C Niek

    2009-01-01

    Experimental determination of the shear stress for punching meniscal tissue. Meniscectomy (surgical treatment of a lesion of one of the menisci) is the most frequently performed arthroscopic procedure. The performance of a meniscectomy is not optimal with the currently available instruments. To design new instruments, the punching force of meniscal tissue is an important parameter. Quantitative data are unavailable. The meniscal punching process was simulated by pushing a rod through meniscal tissue at constant speed. Three punching rods were tested: a solid rod of Oslash; 3.00 mm, and two hollow tubes (Oslash; 3.00-2.60 mm) with sharpened cutting edges of 0.15 mm and 0.125 mm thick, respectively. Nineteen menisci acquired from 10 human cadaveric knee joints were punched (30 tests). The force and displacement were recorded from which the maximum shear stress was determined (average added with three times the standard deviation). The maximum shear stress for the solid rod was determined at 10.2 N/mm2. This rod required a significantly lower punch force in comparison with the hollow tube having a 0.15 mm cutting edge (plt;0.01). The maximum shear stress for punching can be applied to design instruments, and virtual reality training environments. This type of experiment is suitable to form a database with material properties of human tissue similar to databases for the manufacturing industry.

  18. Research on the Visual Processing System of the Punch Press

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sun Xuan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Most of raw materials of small hardware processing for plate scraps, and it’s realized through the manual operation of ordinary punch, which way has the low production efficiency and the high labor intensity. In order to improve the automation level of production, developing and designing of a visual processing system for punch press manipulator which based on the MFC tools of Visual Studio software platform. Through the image acquisition and image processing, get the information about the board to be processed, such as shape, length, the center of gravity position and pose, and providing relevant parameters for positioning gripping and placing into the punch table positioning of the feeding manipulator and automatic programming of punching machine, so as to realize the automatic operation about press feeding and processing.

  19. 21 CFR 882.4750 - Skull punch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Skull punch. 882.4750 Section 882.4750 Food and... NEUROLOGICAL DEVICES Neurological Surgical Devices § 882.4750 Skull punch. (a) Identification. A skull punch is a device used to punch holes through a patient's skull to allow fixation of cranioplasty plates or...

  20. Prediction of effects of punch shapes on tableting failure by using a multi-functional single-punch tablet press

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takashi Osamura

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available We previously determined “Tableting properties” by using a multi-functional single-punch tablet press (GTP-1. We proposed plotting “Compactability” on the x-axis against “Manufacturability” on the y-axis to allow visual evaluation of “Tableting properties”. Various types of tableting failure occur in commercial drug production and are influenced by the amount of lubricant used and the shape of the punch. We used the GTP-1 to measure “Tableting properties” with different amounts of lubricant and compared the results with those of tableting on a commercial rotary tableting machine. Tablets compressed with a small amount of lubricant showed bad “Manufacturability”, leading to sticking of powder on punches. We also tested various punch shapes. The GTP-1 correctly predicted the actual tableting results for all punch shapes. With punches that were more likely to cause tableting failure, our system predicted the effects of lubricant quantity in the tablet formulation and the occurrence of sticking in the rotary tableting machine.

  1. FORTRAN text correction with the CDC-1604-A console typewriter during reading a punched card program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kotorobaj, F.; Ruzhichka, Ya.; Stolyarskij, Yu.V.

    1977-01-01

    The paper describes FORTRAN text correction with the CDC 1604-A console typewriter during reading a punched card program. This method gives one more possibility of FORTRAN program correction during program's input to the CDC 1604-A computer. This essentially reduced the time necessary for punched card correction with other methods. Possibility of inputting desired number of punched cards one after another allows one writing small FORTRAN programs to computer core storage with simultaneous punching of the cards. The correction program has been written to the CDC 1604 COOP monitor

  2. Small specimen technique for assessing mechanical properties of metallic components

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lobo, Raquel M.; Andrade, Arnaldo H.P.; Morcelli, Aparecido E., E-mail: rmlobo@ipen.br, E-mail: morcelliae@gmail.com [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2017-11-01

    Small Punch Test (SPT) is one of the most promising techniques of small specimen test, which was originally applied in testing of irradiated materials in nuclear engineering. Then it was introduced to other fields as an almost nondestructive method to measure the local mechanical properties that are difficult to be obtained using conventional mechanical tests. Most studies to date are focused on metallic materials, although SPT applications are recently spreading to other materials. The small punch test (SPT) employs small-sized specimens (for example, samples measuring 8 mm in diameter and 0.5 mm thick). The specimen is firmly clamped between two circular dies and is bi-axially strained until failure into a circular hole using a hemispherical punch. The 'load-punch displacement' record can be used to estimate the yield strength, the ultimate tensile strength, the tensile elongation, and the temperature of the ductile-to-brittle transition. Recently, some researchers are working on the use of miniature notched or pre-cracked specimens (denoted as p-SPT) to validate its geometry and dimensions for obtaining the fracture properties of metallic materials. In a first approach, the technique makes it possible to convert primary experimental data into conventional mechanical properties of a massive specimen. In this paper a comprehensive review of the different STP applications is presented with the aim of clarifying its usefulness. (author)

  3. Small specimen technique for assessing mechanical properties of metallic components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lobo, Raquel M.; Andrade, Arnaldo H.P.; Morcelli, Aparecido E.

    2017-01-01

    Small Punch Test (SPT) is one of the most promising techniques of small specimen test, which was originally applied in testing of irradiated materials in nuclear engineering. Then it was introduced to other fields as an almost nondestructive method to measure the local mechanical properties that are difficult to be obtained using conventional mechanical tests. Most studies to date are focused on metallic materials, although SPT applications are recently spreading to other materials. The small punch test (SPT) employs small-sized specimens (for example, samples measuring 8 mm in diameter and 0.5 mm thick). The specimen is firmly clamped between two circular dies and is bi-axially strained until failure into a circular hole using a hemispherical punch. The 'load-punch displacement' record can be used to estimate the yield strength, the ultimate tensile strength, the tensile elongation, and the temperature of the ductile-to-brittle transition. Recently, some researchers are working on the use of miniature notched or pre-cracked specimens (denoted as p-SPT) to validate its geometry and dimensions for obtaining the fracture properties of metallic materials. In a first approach, the technique makes it possible to convert primary experimental data into conventional mechanical properties of a massive specimen. In this paper a comprehensive review of the different STP applications is presented with the aim of clarifying its usefulness. (author)

  4. NCDC Punched Card Inventory - 1950s

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Index of foreign weather data available on punched cards held at the Joint Punched Card Library in Asheville NC, produced in the late 1950s, and also station/data...

  5. Lubricant test for punching and blanking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsson, David Dam; Bay, Niels; Andreasen, Jan Lasson

    2003-01-01

    Punching/blanking is one of the tribologically wise most severe metal forming processes.Insu $cient lubrication leads to heavy pick-up of work piece material on the punch stem,bad tolerances and eventual breakdown of the punch due to excessive backstroke force,especially in case of tribologically...... of alternative lubricants the present paper describes a new lubricant test for punching....

  6. Shear punch and microhardness tests for strength and ductility measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lucas, G.E.; Odette, G.R.; Sheckherd, J.W.

    1983-01-01

    In response to the requirements of the fusion reactor materials development program for small-scale mechanical property tests, two techniques have been developed, namely ball microhardness and shear punch tests. The ball microhardness test is based on the repeated measurement at increasing loads of the chordal diameter of an impression made by a spherical penetrator. A correlation has been developed to predict the constitutive relation of the test material from these data. In addition, the indentation pile-up geometry can be analyzed to provide information on the homogeneity of plastic flow in the test material. The shear punch test complements the microhardness test. It is based on blanking a circular disk from a fixed sheet metal specimen. The test is instrumented to provide punch load-displacement data, and these data can be used to determine flow properties of the test material such as yield stress, ultimate tensile strength, work-hardening exponent, and reduction of area

  7. Studies of lubricants and punch design in punching of stainless steel

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsson, David Dam; Bay, Niels; Andreasen, Jan Lasson

    2004-01-01

    Environmentally hazardous lubricants such as chlorinated paraffin oils are often applied in punching and blanking operations especially involving stainless steel workpiece materials. This is due to the fact that punching and blanking are among the tribologically most difficult forming operations...

  8. Very heavy iron-punching concretes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dubois, F.

    1966-01-01

    The present report deals with all the heavy iron-punching concretes, metallic wastes produced by the transformation industry. After a detailed description of the physical properties of metallic aggregates, a classification of heavy mortars is given, into three main categories: steel-shot grouts d = 5,3 - 6; steel-shot grouts mixed with a mineral d = 3,7 - 4,2; injection heavy grouts d = 3,5 - 4. The following chapter describes iron-punching concretes the most used in the atomic industry: iron-punching concretes mixed with cast-iron - iron-punching concretes mixed with magnetite; iron-punching concretes mixed with barite; iron-punching concretes mixed with limonite; iron-punching concretes mixed with boron. The compositions of these concretes are given together with their physical and mechanical characteristics. Numerous diagrams make it possible to find rapidly the proportions of the constituents of these concretes as a function of the required density. Technical advice and specifications are given in an appendix together with a bibliography of these heavy concretes. (author) [fr

  9. Single maximal versus combination punch kinematics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piorkowski, Barry A; Lees, Adrian; Barton, Gabor J

    2011-03-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the influence of punch type (Jab, Cross, Lead Hook and Reverse Hook) and punch modality (Single maximal, 'In-synch' and 'Out of synch' combination) on punch speed and delivery time. Ten competition-standard volunteers performed punches with markers placed on their anatomical landmarks for 3D motion capture with an eight-camera optoelectronic system. Speed and duration between key moments were computed. There were significant differences in contact speed between punch types (F(2,18,84.87) = 105.76, p = 0.001) with Lead and Reverse Hooks developing greater speed than Jab and Cross. There were significant differences in contact speed between punch modalities (F(2,64,102.87) = 23.52, p = 0.001) with the Single maximal (M+/- SD: 9.26 +/- 2.09 m/s) higher than 'Out of synch' (7.49 +/- 2.32 m/s), 'In-synch' left (8.01 +/- 2.35 m/s) or right lead (7.97 +/- 2.53 m/s). Delivery times were significantly lower for Jab and Cross than Hook. Times were significantly lower 'In-synch' than a Single maximal or 'Out of synch' combination mode. It is concluded that a defender may have more evasion-time than previously reported. This research could be of use to performers and coaches when considering training preparations.

  10. Small Modular Reactors: Institutional Assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joseph Perkowski, Ph.D.

    2012-06-01

    ? Objectives include, among others, a description of the basic development status of “small modular reactors” (SMRs) focused primarily on domestic activity; investigation of the domestic market appeal of modular reactors from the viewpoints of both key energy sector customers and also key stakeholders in the financial community; and consideration of how to proceed further with a pro-active "core group" of stakeholders substantially interested in modular nuclear deployment in order to provide the basis to expedite design/construction activity and regulatory approval. ? Information gathering was via available resources, both published and personal communications with key individual stakeholders; published information is limited to that already in public domain (no confidentiality); viewpoints from interviews are incorporated within. Discussions at both government-hosted and private-hosted SMR meetings are reflected herein. INL itself maintains a neutral view on all issues described. Note: as per prior discussion between INL and CAP, individual and highly knowledgeable senior-level stakeholders provided the bulk of insights herein, and the results of those interviews are the main source of the observations of this report. ? Attachment A is the list of individual stakeholders consulted to date, including some who provided significant earlier assessments of SMR institutional feasibility. ? Attachments B, C, and D are included to provide substantial context on the international status of SMR development; they are not intended to be comprehensive and are individualized due to the separate nature of the source materials. Attachment E is a summary of the DOE requirements for winning teams regarding the current SMR solicitation. Attachment F deserves separate consideration due to the relative maturity of the SMART SMR program underway in Korea. Attachment G provides illustrative SMR design features and is intended for background. Attachment H is included for overview

  11. Small Wind Turbine Technology Assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Avia Aranda, F.; Cruz Cruz, I.

    1999-01-01

    The result of the study carried out under the scope of the ATYCA project Test Plant of Wind Systems for Isolated Applications, about the state of art of the small wind turbine technology (wind turbines with swept area smaller than 40 m 2 ) is presented. The study analyzes the collected information on 60 models of wind turbines from 23 manufacturers in the worldwide market. Data from Chinese manufacturers, that have a large participation in the total number of small wind turbines in operation, are not included, due to the unavailability of the technical information. (Author) 15 refs

  12. Punch Biopsy Results in Misdiagnosis of Pilomatrixoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Metin Temel

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Punch biopsy results in misdiagnosis of clinically unsuspected giant pilomatrixoma located over the parotid gland. This study presents a case of pilomatrixoma that was misdiagnosed as a malignant epithelial tumor using punch biopsy. A 25-year-old male was admitted to our clinic for the evaluation of a mass measuring 7×8×8 cm located over the parotid gland. The patient had previously undergone punch biopsy at another clinic because of a lesion in the parotid gland. Punch biopsy revealed a malignant epithelial tumor. The patient underwent excisional biopsy at our clinic. After the biopsy, the residual skin defect was treated using full-thickness skin grafts. The facial nerve and parotid gland were preserved during the biopsy. Histopathological examination of the excisional biopsy material revealed pilomatrixoma. Punch biopsy may result in misdiagnosis of skin lesions in the parotid gland. A differential diagnosis for benign tumors such as pilomatrixoma is essential prior to an aggressive surgical intervention of the parotid gland.

  13. The Influence of a Padded Hand Wrap on Punching Force in Elite and Untrained Punchers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew J. Galpin

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Punching is integral to success in combat sports, making it a frequent activity during practice/training. Improving safety of this activity benefits both the athlete and training partners. This study was designed to 1 test the precision and reliability of a commercially available striking device and 2 assess the influence of a novel padded hand wrap on punching force in elite and untrained punchers. Fourteen male professional boxers and mixed martial artists (PRO; age=29.2±5.6y; height=180.3±9.0cm; mass=87.1±17.9kg, winning %=73.8±13.8%, number of victories via knockout/technical knockout=35.6± 21.9% and 24 untrained male punchers (UNT; 27.6±6.9y, 177.6±18.3cm, 84.3±16.9kg wore a standardized boxing glove and performed 20 maximal punches (4 sets of 5 into a device designed to measure punching force. All participants performed, in a counterbalanced order, 2 sets of 5 with a standardized hand wrap and 2 sets of 5 with the same wrap plus an additional 1.2cm thick cylinder 4g foam-like pad (WRAP placed over the knuckles. PRO produced significantly more punching force than UNT, regardless of condition. Punching force was lower by 12.6% (p<0.05 for PRO and 8.9% (p<0.05 for UNT with WRAP (compared to no WRAP. These findings suggest WRAP significantly reduces punching force, which may be important for long-term safety of the puncher’s hand and/or the person receiving the strike. Keywords: safety, punching, striking, hitting, combat, pad

  14. Feasibility of attaining uniform grain structure and enhanced ductility in aluminum alloy by employing a beveled punch in equal-channel angular pressing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nejadseyfi, Omid, E-mail: o.nejadseyfi@gmail.com [Advanced Materials and Nanotechnology Research Lab, Department of Mechanical Engineering, K.N. Toosi University of Technology, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Shokuhfar, Ali [Advanced Materials and Nanotechnology Research Lab, Department of Mechanical Engineering, K.N. Toosi University of Technology, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Sadeghi, Seyedali [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Amirkabir University of Technology, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2016-01-10

    The advantage of using a beveled-edge punch in equal-channel angular pressing is investigated. Lambda angle (λ), the clockwise angle between the theoretical shear plane and punch/billet interface, is used to demonstrate how the punch tip is inclined. Transmission electron microscope is used to assess the microstructure of the samples processed using a beveled-edge punch. In addition, tensile tests at elevated temperature are performed. The results show that using a beveled-edge punch (λ=90°) in the process leads to formation of uniform subgrain structure and increases the tensile ductility for the samples at elevated temperature. Additionally, finite element simulations are performed to study the correlation between measured properties and mechanism of material deformation by employing a beveled-edge punch. Numerical simulations confirm the irregular deformation in case of λ=0° and uniform strain distribution for λ=90°, which were the main reasons of variation in mechanical properties.

  15. A solution for the narrow rectangular punch

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Panek, C.F.; Kalker, J.J.

    1977-01-01

    This paper considers the problem of a rectangular flat ended punch acting on an elastic half-space. An approximate solution is generated through application of the elastic line integral equations. The results produced by this method are then compared with another approximate solution already

  16. Optimization of fruit punch using mixture design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, S Bharath; Ravi, R; Saraswathi, G

    2010-01-01

    A highly acceptable dehydrated fruit punch was developed with selected fruits, namely lemon, orange, and mango, using a mixture design and optimization technique. The fruit juices were freeze dried, powdered, and used in the reconstitution studies. Fruit punches were prepared according to the experimental design combinations (total 10) based on a mixture design and then subjected to sensory evaluation for acceptability. Response surfaces of sensory attributes were also generated as a function of fruit juices. Analysis of data revealed that the fruit punch prepared using 66% of mango, 33% of orange, and 1% of lemon had highly desirable sensory scores for color (6.00), body (5.92), sweetness (5.68), and pleasantness (5.94). The aroma pattern of individual as well as combinations of fruit juices were also analyzed by electronic nose. The electronic nose could discriminate the aroma patterns of individual as well as fruit juice combinations by mixture design. The results provide information on the sensory quality of best fruit punch formulations liked by the consumer panel based on lemon, orange, and mango.

  17. Shear punch testing as a tool for evaluating welded pipeline steel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stewart, G.R.; Elwazri, A.; Varano, R.; Yue, S.; Jonas, J.J. [McGill Univ., Montreal, PQ (Canada). Dept. of Metals and Materials Engineering; Pokutylowicz, N. [ExxonMobil Research and Engineering Co., Annandale, NJ (United States)

    2005-07-01

    This study examined the mechanical properties across a welded joint in a 35 mm steel pipe. Results were compared with microhardness measurements. The chemical composition of the 4130 steel and welding wire included carbon, manganese, silicon, nickel, chromium and molybdenum. The thermal cycles experienced during welding can result in differences in the grain size, phase, composition and morphology of precipitates. These thermal cycles can upset the balance of high strength and good toughness in steels, producing poor toughness in the heat-affected zone (HAZ). In the shear punch test, a flat-ended cylindrical punch was used to produce a 3 mm diameter disk from a sheet specimen with a recommended thickness of 300 to 350 {mu}m. The shear punch test provided tensile property data with only a very small amount of material, which is ideal for testing welds. It also provides full tensile data (yield strength, ultimate tensile strength and elongation) which are not specifically provided by hardness testing. Shear punch techniques can also improve the across-weld resolution of tensile testing. The results showed that the changes in strength properties across the weld were consistent with the microhardness measurements. The change in elongation across the weld joint was successfully measured using the punch test method. The HAZ in the welded joint in this study had a good combination of high strength and ductility, while the weld bead had moderate strength and relatively low ductility. 7 refs., 1 tab., 9 figs.

  18. Novel uses of skin biopsy punches in dermatosurgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deepak S Hurkudli

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The skin punch or surgical punch is an instrument which is used almost exclusively by dermatologists. It is a circular hollow blade attached to a pencil-like handle ranging in size from 0.5 to 10 mm. It is available as a disposable, reusable, and automated instrument. The punch can be used as a diagnostic, therapeutic, and cosmetic tool in dermatology. We have used punch as a diagnostic, therapeutic, and cosmetic tool in our dermatosurgery practice in our hospital. Various original research articles, text book publications, and review articles were studied and compiled. Techniques used by various authors and our own experiences with punch have been described. This article aims at providing the novel usefulness of skin biopsy punch in dermatology as the basic punch surgery is quick and easy to learn. Complications such as bleeding and infection are minimal.

  19. Assessment of plastic flow and fracture properties with small specimens test techniques for IFMIF-designed specimens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spaetig, P.; Campitelli, E.N.; Bonade, R.; Baluc, N.

    2005-01-01

    The primary mission of the International Fusion Material Irradiation Facility (IFMIF) is to generate a material database to be used for the design of various components, for the licensing and for the assessment of the safe operation of a demonstration fusion reactor. IFMIF is an accelerator-based high-energy neutron source whose irradiation volume is quite limited (0.5 l for the high fluence volume). This requires the use of small specimens to measure the irradiation-induced changes on the physical and mechanical properties of materials. In this paper, we developed finite element models to better analyze the results obtained with two different small specimen test techniques applied to the tempered martensitic steel F82H-mod. First, one model was used to reconstruct the load-deflection curves of small ball punch tests, which are usually used to extract standard tensile parameters. It was shown that a reasonable assessment of the overall plastic flow can be done with small ball punch tests. Second, we investigated the stress field sensitivity at a crack tip to the constitutive behavior, for a crack modeled in plane strain, small-scale yielding and fracture mode I conditions. Based upon a local criterion for cleavage, that appears to be the basis to account for the size and geometry effects on fracture toughness, we showed that the details of the constitutive properties play a key role in modeling the irradiation-induced fracture toughness changes. Consequently, we suggest that much more attention and efforts have to be paid in investigating the post-yield behavior of the irradiated specimens and, in order to reach this goal, we recommend the use of not only tensile specimens but also that of compression ones in the IFMIF irradiation matrices. (author)

  20. Numerical investigation by finite element simulation of the bail punch test: application to tempered martensitic steels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Campitelli, E.; Spatig, P.; Bertsch, J.

    2007-01-01

    Full text of publication follows: Over the years, the small ball punch test technique has been used to evaluate conventional tensile properties of a variety of materials. The development and use of this type of small specimen techniques is indispensable for an efficient use of the limited irradiation volume of the future fusion material intense neutron source. Up to now, empirical correlations between features of the load-displacement curves of the ball punch test and the mechanical properties, such as the yield stress or the ultimate tensile stress, are established on materials in the unirradiated condition. These correlations are believed to be applicable to irradiated materials and they have been very often used to estimate the irradiation hardening. However, it is well known that the overall constitutive behavior of the materials is generally affected by neutron irradiation. Therefore, there is a need to quantify the effect of the constitutive behavior on the correlations. In this paper, we employ a 3D non-linear finite element model for the ball punch test to address these effects of the irradiation-induced changes on the ball punch test curve. We apply first the model on the tempered martensitic steel EUROFER97 in the unirradiated condition with variations in the post-yield behavior, either in the low strain domain ( 10%). The effects on the ball punch test load deflection curve are outlined. Second, we study the effects of the irradiation hardening on the same constitutive behaviors as those used for the unirradiated condition. We show that that the usual correlations must be considered with great care on irradiated materials since strong variation on the strain-hardening may lead to erroneous estimation of the irradiation hardening. We also propose a novel approach to calibrate the yield stress to features of the ball punch test curve that decreases the uncertainty related to the post-yield behavior and that, as a consequence, makes the technique more

  1. Small animal PET: aspects of performance assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weber, Simone; Bauer, Andreas

    2004-01-01

    Dedicated small animal positron emission tomography (PET) systems are increasingly prevalent in industry (e.g. for preclinical drug development) and biological research. Such systems permit researchers to perform animal studies of a longitudinal design characterised by repeated measurements in single animals. With the advent of commercial systems, scanners have become readily available and increasingly popular. As a consequence, technical specifications are becoming more diverse, making scanner systems less broadly applicable. The investigator has, therefore, to make a decision regarding which type of scanner is most suitable for the intended experiments. This decision should be based on gantry characteristics and the physical performance. The first few steps have been taken towards standardisation of the assessment of performance characteristics of dedicated animal PET systems, though such assessment is not yet routinely implemented. In this review, we describe current methods of evaluation of physical performance parameters of small animal PET scanners. Effects of methodologically different approaches on the results are assessed. It is underscored that particular attention has to be paid to spatial resolution, sensitivity, scatter fraction and count rate performance. Differences in performance measurement methods are described with regard to commercially available systems, namely the Concorde MicroPET systems P4 and R4 and the quad-HIDAC. Lastly, consequences of differences in scanner performance parameters are rated with respect to applications of small animal PET. (orig.)

  2. Earthquake hazard assessment and small earthquakes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reiter, L.

    1987-01-01

    The significance of small earthquakes and their treatment in nuclear power plant seismic hazard assessment is an issue which has received increased attention over the past few years. In probabilistic studies, sensitivity studies showed that the choice of the lower bound magnitude used in hazard calculations can have a larger than expected effect on the calculated hazard. Of particular interest is the fact that some of the difference in seismic hazard calculations between the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) and Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) studies can be attributed to this choice. The LLNL study assumed a lower bound magnitude of 3.75 while the EPRI study assumed a lower bound magnitude of 5.0. The magnitudes used were assumed to be body wave magnitudes or their equivalents. In deterministic studies recent ground motion recordings of small to moderate earthquakes at or near nuclear power plants have shown that the high frequencies of design response spectra may be exceeded. These exceedances became important issues in the licensing of the Summer and Perry nuclear power plants. At various times in the past particular concerns have been raised with respect to the hazard and damage potential of small to moderate earthquakes occurring at very shallow depths. In this paper a closer look is taken at these issues. Emphasis is given to the impact of lower bound magnitude on probabilistic hazard calculations and the historical record of damage from small to moderate earthquakes. Limited recommendations are made as to how these issues should be viewed

  3. Analysis of Pick-Up Development in Punching

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsson, David Dam; Bay, Niels; Andreasen, Jan Lasson

    2002-01-01

    The development of pick-up of work piece material on the punch surface with increasing number of strokes during punching of stainless steel sheet is investigated applying Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), 3D roughness mapping and measurements of the backstroke force. It is found that pick...

  4. Development of lubricant test for punching and blanking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsson, David Dam

    2001-01-01

    The background for development of new lubricants Requirements to lubricant test for punching Methods of evaluating lubricants Test equipment developed at DTU Conclusion.......The background for development of new lubricants Requirements to lubricant test for punching Methods of evaluating lubricants Test equipment developed at DTU Conclusion....

  5. Applying a punch with microridges in multistage deep drawing processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Bor-Tsuen; Yang, Cheng-Yu

    2016-01-01

    The developers of high aspect ratio components aim to minimize the processing stages in deep drawing processes. This study elucidates the application of microridge punches in multistage deep drawing processes. A microridge punch improves drawing performance, thereby reducing the number of stages required in deep forming processes. As an example, the original eight-stage deep forming process for a copper cylindrical cup with a high aspect ratio was analyzed by finite element simulation. Microridge punch designs were introduced in Stages 4 and 7 to replace the original punches. In addition, Stages 3 and 6 were eliminated. Finally, these changes were verified through experiments. The results showed that the microridge punches reduced the number of deep drawing stages yielding similar thickness difference percentages. Further, the numerical and experimental results demonstrated good consistency in the thickness distribution.

  6. ASSESSING SMALL SAMPLE WAR-GAMING DATASETS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. J. HURLEY

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available One of the fundamental problems faced by military planners is the assessment of changes to force structure. An example is whether to replace an existing capability with an enhanced system. This can be done directly with a comparison of measures such as accuracy, lethality, survivability, etc. However this approach does not allow an assessment of the force multiplier effects of the proposed change. To gauge these effects, planners often turn to war-gaming. For many war-gaming experiments, it is expensive, both in terms of time and dollars, to generate a large number of sample observations. This puts a premium on the statistical methodology used to examine these small datasets. In this paper we compare the power of three tests to assess population differences: the Wald-Wolfowitz test, the Mann-Whitney U test, and re-sampling. We employ a series of Monte Carlo simulation experiments. Not unexpectedly, we find that the Mann-Whitney test performs better than the Wald-Wolfowitz test. Resampling is judged to perform slightly better than the Mann-Whitney test.

  7. Joint punching and frequency effects on practical magnetic characteristics of electrical steels for high-speed machines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kedous-Lebouc, A.; Messal, O.; Youmssi, A.

    2017-03-01

    Mechanical punching of electrical steels causes a degradation of their magnetic characteristics which can extend several millimeters from the cut edge. So, in the field of industrial applications, particularly that of small electrical machines, the stator core made of rigid and thin teeth would be subject to more losses. Thus, this topic of the effect of punching has to be submitted to further deep characterization and development in order to give some insight into the different mechanisms. In this framework, this paper evaluates the combined effect of punching and frequency on the magnetization curve and iron losses in thin SiFe and CoFe soft magnetic sheets. These alloys are typically suitable for the manufacture of high-speed electrical machines used in on board applications (aircraft power generators, automotive, etc). Two SiFe alloys and a CoFe alloy have been investigated. First, different rectangular samples of variable width (15, 10, 5, 3 mm) have been industrially punched. Then, a dedicated magnetic characterization has been made, using basically a mini-Epstein frame. Measurements have been performed from 50 Hz to 1 kHz and from 0.3 T to near saturation. Both rolling and transverse directions have been considered. Finally, a first attempt to predict the degradation due to the punching is presented. A useful description of the magnetic permeability as a function of B and f is given and the degradation parameters are estimated based on the knowledge of the reference permeability.

  8. Joint punching and frequency effects on practical magnetic characteristics of electrical steels for high-speed machines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kedous-Lebouc, A. [Univ. Grenoble Alpes, G2Elab, F-38000 Grenoble, France — CNRS, G2Elab, F-38000 Grenoble (France); Messal, O., E-mail: oualid.messal@g2elab.grenoble-inp.fr [Univ. Grenoble Alpes, G2Elab, F-38000 Grenoble, France — CNRS, G2Elab, F-38000 Grenoble (France); Youmssi, A. [Université de N’gaoundéré, BP. 455 N’Gaoundéré (Cameroon)

    2017-03-15

    Mechanical punching of electrical steels causes a degradation of their magnetic characteristics which can extend several millimeters from the cut edge. So, in the field of industrial applications, particularly that of small electrical machines, the stator core made of rigid and thin teeth would be subject to more losses. Thus, this topic of the effect of punching has to be submitted to further deep characterization and development in order to give some insight into the different mechanisms. In this framework, this paper evaluates the combined effect of punching and frequency on the magnetization curve and iron losses in thin SiFe and CoFe soft magnetic sheets. These alloys are typically suitable for the manufacture of high-speed electrical machines used in on board applications (aircraft power generators, automotive, etc). Two SiFe alloys and a CoFe alloy have been investigated. First, different rectangular samples of variable width (15, 10, 5, 3 mm) have been industrially punched. Then, a dedicated magnetic characterization has been made, using basically a mini-Epstein frame. Measurements have been performed from 50 Hz to 1 kHz and from 0.3 T to near saturation. Both rolling and transverse directions have been considered. Finally, a first attempt to predict the degradation due to the punching is presented. A useful description of the magnetic permeability as a function of B and f is given and the degradation parameters are estimated based on the knowledge of the reference permeability.

  9. Countering Stryker’s Punch: Algorithmically Filling the Black Hole

    OpenAIRE

    Michael J. Bennett

    2017-01-01

    Two current digital image editing programs are examined in the context of filling in missing visual image data from hole-punched United States Farm Security Administration (FSA) negatives. Specifically, Photoshop's Content-Aware Fill feature and GIMP's Resynthesizer plugin are evaluated and contrasted against comparable images. A possible automated workflow geared towards large scale editing of similarly hole-punched negatives is also explored. Finally, potential future research based upon th...

  10. Assessing the sustainability of small wastewater systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoffmann, Birgitte; Nielsen, Susanne Balslev; Elle, Morten

    1999-01-01

    The authors present a planning tool for comparing and assessing the sustainability of different wastewater systems. The core of the planning tool is an assessment method based on both technical and social elements. The point of departure is that no technique is inherently sustainable or ecological...... in itself, but that the sustainability of the total system of technologies for a particular settlement in a given location must be assessed in a holistic and transparent manner. A pilot case is used to demonstrate the structure and the results of the assessment method. The assessment method is still under...

  11. Moment Capacity of Timber Reinforced with Punched Metal Plate Fasteners

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jacob; Ellegaard, Peter

    When designing timber trusses it is often found that the cross section controlling the dimensions of the top chord is located at a joint with a moment peak. However, the timber volume affected by the moment peak is rather limited and by embedding a punched metal plate in this area a reinforcement...... of the section is obtained, resulting in a more economic truss design. In order to develop design methods for sections with plate reinforcement, bending tests have been made. The timber is Swedish spruce of strength class K-18(S8) and K-24(S10) with a thickness of 45 mm. The punched metal plate is from Gang...

  12. Blanking Clearance and Punch Velocity Effects on The Sheared Edge Characteristic in Micro-Blanking of Commercially Pure Copper Sheet

    OpenAIRE

    Didin Zakaria Lubis; Ichsan Ristiawan

    2017-01-01

    This study aims to identify the influences between clearance and punch velocity on the part edge quality of blanked parts. Experiments have been conducted using material copper, punch-die clearance and punch velocity variations. In order to determine the reachable punch-die clearance and punch velocity required for blanking. The quality of the part-edge characteristics shows that higher punch velocity and decreases clearance value can improve the part-edge quality, resulting in smaller burr h...

  13. Study of the mechanical properties of the electric power station components: the punch test; Etude des proprietes mecaniques des composants de centrales thermiques: l'essai punch test

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Isselin, J

    2003-03-15

    The aging of the electric production park implies an increasing need of knowledge concerning the evolution of the mechanical properties of its components. With regard to this problem, the availability in material is more and more small. This work proposes to characterize these properties through a mechanical test called Punch test. The main characteristic of this test is to use very small volume samples. The development of this test has been carried out by the study of a 15 MDV 4-05 steel coming from a steam drum of a thermal power plant after 145000 hours of service. At first, we have measured the influence of the parameters of this test. Then, the study has dealt more particularly on the transition temperature of the material. With the finite element simulation method, the strain hardening coefficient of the material has been determined. (O.M.)

  14. Measuring the force of punches using an accelerometric punching bag - Relationship between force of punches and power of jump - An example of application of the modern information technology in sport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pilewska, Wiesława; Buśko, Krzysztof; Nikolaidis, Pantelis Theodoros

    2017-11-01

    The main aim of the study was to design a new system to measure punching forces in boxers. In addition, the study examined whether there were any relationship between force of punches and power of jump. A total of 9 boxers (age: 17.5±1.2 years, body height: 174.1±8.1 cm, body mass: 73.9±11.8 kg) participated in the study. The punching bag was equipped with acceleration transducers and gyroscopes embedded in a cylinder covered with a layer to absorb shock as well as a set of colour signal diodes. Value of the punching bag's acceleration was used for calculating: strike force; the punching location on the bag; and time of a strike. The relative error of force calculation was 3%; the relative error in acceleration measurement was less than 1%. The maximal straight of rear and lead punching forces were 1702.4±497.8 N and 1262.0±417.7 N in boxers, respectively. Strong correlations were found between the punching force and power of lower limbs developed for the ACMJ, CMJ and SPJ jump. Height of rise of the body mass centre and punching force correlated insignificantly. Based on these findings, it was concluded that the modified punching bag is a good diagnostic tool for combat sports. The measurement of power during the jump may be a good diagnostic test in boxers.

  15. Assessing learning in small sized physics courses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emanuela Ene

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available We describe the construction, validation, and testing of a concept inventory for an Introduction to Physics of Semiconductors course offered by the department of physics to undergraduate engineering students. By design, this inventory addresses both content knowledge and the ability to interpret content via different cognitive processes outlined in Bloom’s revised taxonomy. The primary challenge comes from the low number of test takers. We describe the Rasch modeling analysis for this concept inventory, and the results of the calibration on a small sample size, with the intention of providing a useful blueprint to other instructors. Our study involved 101 students from Oklahoma State University and fourteen faculty teaching or doing research in the field of semiconductors at seven universities. The items were written in four-option multiple-choice format. It was possible to calibrate a 30-item unidimensional scale precisely enough to characterize the student population enrolled each semester and, therefore, to allow the tailoring of the learning activities of each class. We show that this scale can be employed as an item bank from which instructors could extract short testlets and where we can add new items fitting the existing calibration.

  16. Assessing learning in small sized physics courses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ene, Emanuela; Ackerson, Bruce J.

    2018-01-01

    We describe the construction, validation, and testing of a concept inventory for an Introduction to Physics of Semiconductors course offered by the department of physics to undergraduate engineering students. By design, this inventory addresses both content knowledge and the ability to interpret content via different cognitive processes outlined in Bloom's revised taxonomy. The primary challenge comes from the low number of test takers. We describe the Rasch modeling analysis for this concept inventory, and the results of the calibration on a small sample size, with the intention of providing a useful blueprint to other instructors. Our study involved 101 students from Oklahoma State University and fourteen faculty teaching or doing research in the field of semiconductors at seven universities. The items were written in four-option multiple-choice format. It was possible to calibrate a 30-item unidimensional scale precisely enough to characterize the student population enrolled each semester and, therefore, to allow the tailoring of the learning activities of each class. We show that this scale can be employed as an item bank from which instructors could extract short testlets and where we can add new items fitting the existing calibration.

  17. A Semiotics of Cartoons in Two Nigerian Newspapers: The Punch ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The paper explores the semiotics of cartoons using selected samples from The punch and The Guardian, newspapers based in Nigeria. It seeks to bridge the gap between semiotics and the act of cartooning. It also attempts to show the relationship between the cartoons and the semiotic resources employed. It analyses how ...

  18. Preliminary risk assessments of the small HTGR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Everline, C.J.; Bellis, E.A.

    1985-05-01

    Preliminary investment and safety risk assessments were performed for a preconceptual design of a four-module 250-MW(t) side-by-side steel-vessel pebble bed HTGR plant. Broad event spectra were analyzed involving component damage resulting in unscheduled plant outages and fission product releases resulting in offsite doses. The preliminary assessment indicates at this stage of the design that two categories of events govern the investment risk envelope: primary coolant leaks which release some circulating and plate-out activity that contaminates the confinement and turbogenerator damage which involves extensive turbine blade failure. Primary coolant leaks are important contributors because associated cleanup and decontamination requirements result in longer outages that arise from other events with comparable frequencies. Turbogenerator damage is the salient low-frequency investment risk accident due to the relatively long outages being experienced in the industry. Thermal transients are unimportant investment risk contributors because pressurized core heatups cause little damage, and depressurized core heatups occur at negligible frequencies relative to the forced outage goal. These preliminary results demonstrate investment and safety risk goal compliance at this stage in the design process. Studies are continuing in order to provide valuable insights into risk-significant events to assure a balanced approach to meeting user and regulatory requirements

  19. Configurational phases in elastic foams under lengthscale-free punching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabuwala, Tapan; Dai, Xiangyu; Gioia, Gustavo

    2016-08-01

    We carry out experiments with brick-like specimens of elastic open-cell (EOC) foams of three relative densities. Individual specimens may be "tall" (height = width = depth) or "short" (2 height = width = depth). We place each specimen on a supporting plate and use a lengthscale-free (wedge-shaped or conical) punch to apply forces downward along the specimen's height. Regardless of the type of specimen, the force-penetration curves remain linear, for the wedge-shaped punch, or quadratic, for the conical punch, up to a sizable penetration commensurate with the smallest lengthscale of the specimen. After that there is an abrupt, all-but-discontinuous change in stiffness: if the specimen is tall, the stiffness drops; if the specimen is short, the stiffness shoots up. To analyze these curious experimental results, we posit that EOC foams can be found in either of two configurational phases, here termed the low-strain phase and the high-strain phase, which share a two-dimensional interface (a surface of strain discontinuity). The analysis may be outlined as follows. In the first part of an experiment, there obtains a "similarity regime" in which the penetration of the punch and the radius of the interface are the only prevailing lengthscales (because the punch is lengthscale free). In this case, it is possible to show that the force-penetration curve must be linear, or quadratic, depending on whether the punch be wedge-shaped or conical, respectively. This prediction of the analysis is consistent with the experiments. In time, the similarity regime breaks down when the interface reaches one of the specimen's boundaries distal to the tip of the punch. If the specimen is tall, the soft, stress-free lateral boundary is reached first, and the stiffness must drop; if the specimen is short, the hard boundary in contact with the supporting plate is reached first, and the stiffness must shoot up. These predictions too are consistent with the experiments. To provide direct

  20. The Assessment Of Small Games On Fadama Land In Southeastern ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Assessment Of Small Games On Fadama Land In Southeastern Nigeria And The Potential For Development. ... country can offer feasible operational strategy for sustainable wildlife species development. ... AJOL African Journals Online.

  1. The estimation of small probabilities and risk assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kalbfleisch, J.D.; Lawless, J.F.; MacKay, R.J.

    1982-01-01

    The primary contribution of statistics to risk assessment is in the estimation of probabilities. Frequently the probabilities in question are small, and their estimation is particularly difficult. The authors consider three examples illustrating some problems inherent in the estimation of small probabilities

  2. Quality assessment in small businesses: the case of Dutch culinary ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Offering information to potential customers about these two factors are very important in customer decision-making. This research will stimulate discourse on quality in the relatively underexplored sector of culinary restaurant small businesses. Keywords:culinary restaurants, quality assessment, service management, small ...

  3. Analysis of the Strength on the Rotor Punching Sheet of Nuclear Reactor Cooling Medium Driving Motor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GE Bao-jun

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available A strong stress is withstood by the rotor punching sheet during the running of nuclear reactor cooling medium driving motor. In order to study the strength on the rotor punching sheet and the influential factor of its stress,the rotor of driving motor was the research object, the three-dimensional rotor model of driving motor is established by the finite element method to obtain the Mires equivalent stress nephogram and check the rotor’s strength with setting parameters and constraints. According to different rotor speeds,the different average temperatures of rotor punching sheet and shaft and the different static magnitude of interference between rotor punching sheet and shaft,the research about how the contact pressure of matching surface between rotor punching sheet and shaft and the Mires equivalent stress are impacted is carried on. The results show that the maximum Miser equivalent stress value of rotor punching sheet emerges on the axial vents,the stress value is beyond the tensile limit of the materialand. The greater the static magnitude of interference and the smaller temperature difference of rotor punching sheet and shaft lead to the greater interface compressive stress of rotor punching sheet and shaft and the greater maximum Mires equivalent stress value of rotor punching sheet. The higher the rotor speed lead to the smaller interface compressive stress of rotor punching sheet and shaft and the greater equivalent stress value of rotor punching sheet.

  4. Powder properties and compaction parameters that influence punch sticking propensity of pharmaceuticals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul, Shubhajit; Taylor, Lisa J; Murphy, Brendan; Krzyzaniak, Joseph F; Dawson, Neil; Mullarney, Matthew P; Meenan, Paul; Sun, Changquan Calvin

    2017-04-15

    Punch sticking is a frequently occurring problem that challenges successful tablet manufacturing. A mechanistic understanding of the punch sticking phenomenon facilitates the design of effective strategies to solve punch sticking problems of a drug. The first step in this effort is to identify process parameters and particle properties that can profoundly affect sticking performance. This work was aimed at elucidating the key material properties and compaction parameters that influence punch sticking by statistically analyzing punch sticking data of 24 chemically diverse compounds obtained using a set of tooling with removable upper punch tip. Partial least square (PLS) analysis of the data revealed that particle surface area and tablet tensile strength are the most significant factors attributed to punch sticking. Die-wall pressure, ejection force, and take-off force also correlate with sticking, but to a lesser extent. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Characterization of Rubbers from Spherical Punch - Plate Indentation Tests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florina Carmen Ciornei

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Rubber plates with different compositions and hardness were tested by continuous indentation, using a spherical punch and hysteretic phenomenon was evidenced. The experimental data interpolation with polynomial functions is accurate and permits estimation of the lost work during loading cycles. The interpolation by power law functions is more convenient by using less parameters and having a form accepted in literature. From the rubbers tested, two were considered to present good damping properties.

  6. Study of the mechanical properties of the electric power station components: the punch test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Isselin, J.

    2003-03-01

    The aging of the electric production park implies an increasing need of knowledge concerning the evolution of the mechanical properties of its components. With regard to this problem, the availability in material is more and more small. This work proposes to characterize these properties through a mechanical test called Punch test. The main characteristic of this test is to use very small volume samples. The development of this test has been carried out by the study of a 15 MDV 4-05 steel coming from a steam drum of a thermal power plant after 145000 hours of service. At first, we have measured the influence of the parameters of this test. Then, the study has dealt more particularly on the transition temperature of the material. With the finite element simulation method, the strain hardening coefficient of the material has been determined. (O.M.)

  7. From Punched Cards to "Big Data": A Social History of Database Populism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin Driscoll

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Since the diffusion of the punched card tabulator following the 1890 U.S. Census, mass-scale information processing has been alternately a site of opportunity, ambivalence and fear in the American imagination. While large bureaucracies have tended to deploy database technology toward purposes of surveillance and control, the rise of personal computing made databases accessible to individuals and small businesses for the first time. Today, the massive collection of trace communication data by public and private institutions has renewed popular anxiety about the role of the database in society. This essay traces the social history of database technology across three periods that represent significant changes in the accessibility and infrastructure of information processing systems. Although many proposed uses of "big data" seem to threaten individual privacy, a largely-forgotten database populism from the 1970s and 1980s suggests that a reclamation of small-scale data processing might lead to sharper popular critique in the future.

  8. Findings from the experience with the punch technique for auditory osseointegrated implants: A retrospective single center comparative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonilla, Alfonso; Magri, Carlos; Juan, Eulalia

    To compare the punch technique and linear incision with soft tissue reduction for the placement of auditory osseointegrated implants (AOI) and analyze results of osseointegration obtained with the punch technique as measured with the Implant Stability Quotient (ISQ). Case review of 34 patients who received auditory osseointegrated implants between January 2010 and July 2015 and were divided into two groups according to the surgical technique: 18 with the punch technique (PT) and 16 with the linear incision technique (LI). Minimum follow-up was four months (mean: 24 months; range 4-64 months). Included in the analysis were patient profiles and records of the demographic data, surgical indications, surgical technique, implant placement, surgical time, intraoperative complications, as well as postsurgical complications (Holgers classification) and implant stability quotients (ISQ). Use of larger abutments was significantly greater in the PT group (PT, 10mm; LI, 6mm, p<0.001). The PT technique resulted in a shorter procedure than the LI (PT, 20min; LI, 45min, p<0.001). Holgers classification scores identified significantly fewer skin complications one week after surgery for the PT group; however, only small differences were seen between the two groups at the one- and three-month control visits. As shown for our cohort, the punch technique for surgical placement of AOI is faster and presents fewer immediate postoperative complications when compared to the linear incision technique. The clinical application of the ISQ is a useful, easy method to demonstrate the status of osseointegration and, thus, the stability of the device. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier España, S.L.U. and Sociedad Española de Otorrinolaringología y Cirugía de Cabeza y Cuello. All rights reserved.

  9. Boxing headguard performance in punch machine tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McIntosh, Andrew S; Patton, Declan A

    2015-09-01

    The paper presents a novel laboratory method for assessing boxing headguard impact performance. The method is applied to examine the effects of headguards on head impact dynamics and injury risk. A linear impactor was developed, and a range of impacts was delivered to an instrumented Hybrid III head and neck system both with and without an AIBA (Association Internationale de Boxe Amateur)-approved headguard. Impacts at selected speeds between 4.1 and 8.3 m/s were undertaken. The impactor mass was approximately 4 kg and an interface comprising a semirigid 'fist' with a glove was used. The peak contact forces were in the range 1.9-5.9 kN. Differences in head impact responses between the Top Ten AIBA-approved headguard and bare headform in the lateral and forehead tests were large and/or significant. In the 8.3 m/s fist-glove impacts, the mean peak resultant headform accelerations for bare headform tests was approximately 130 g compared with approximately 85 g in the forehead impacts. In the 6.85 m/s bare headform impacts, mean peak resultant angular head accelerations were in the range of 5200-5600 rad/s(2) and almost halved by the headguard. Linear and angular accelerations in 45° forehead and 60° jaw impacts were reduced by the headguard. The data support the opinion that current AIBA headguards can play an important role in reducing the risk of concussion and superficial injury in boxing competition and training. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  10. Effects of plyometric exercise training with external weights on punching ability of experienced amateur boxers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruzas, Vidas; Kamandulis, Sigitas; Venckunas, Tomas; Snieckus, Audrius; Mockus, Pranas

    2018-03-01

    During competition, a boxer must continue to deliver high-impact punches despite increasing fatigue. It is unclear whether the effects of plyometric training using external weights are transferred to sport-specific movements such as punching. The aim of the study was to investigate the effects of a 4-week cycle of plyometric training with external weights on punching ability. The study involved eight male amateur boxers aged 22.3±2.5 years with at least 7 years of competitive experience. They performed 12 plyometric training sessions, each comprising eight exercises of various muscle groups performed at maximum movement velocity. Six drills were performed with external weights, and two drills were performed using the body weight as resistance. All exercises required coordination. The punching ability was tested at baseline and after the 4 weeks of training using the Kiktest-100 boxing bag. The force of single punches and the frequency of punches within a series did not change from before to after the 4 weeks, except for increased power in the rear-hand low punch (Pplyometric training with external weights did not change the maximum punching power or movement frequency significantly, but had a beneficial effect on punching power endurance in boxers.

  11. Experimental and Numerical Simulation Research on Micro-Gears Fabrication by Laser Shock Punching Process

    OpenAIRE

    Huixia Liu; Jianwen Li; Zongbao Shen; Qing Qian; Hongfeng Zhang; Xiao Wang

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to fabricate micro-gears via laser shock punching with Spitlight 2000 Nd-YAG Laser, and to discuss effects of process parameters namely laser energy, soft punch properties and blank-holder on the quality of micro-gears deeply. Results show that dimensional accuracy is the best shocked at 1690 mJ. Tensile fracture instead of shear fracture is the main fracture mode under low laser energy. The soft punch might cause damage to punching quality when too high energy is emp...

  12. Precision hole punching on composite fiber reinforced polymer panels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdullah, A. B.; Zain, M. S. M.; Chan, H. Y.; Samad, Z.

    2017-12-01

    Structural materials, such as composite panels, can only be assembled, and in most cases through the use of fasteners, which are fitted into the drilled holes. However, drilling is costly and time consuming, thus affecting productivity. This research aims to develop an alternative method to drilling. In this paper, the precision of the holes was measured and the effects of the die clearance to the areas around the holes were evaluated. Measurement and evaluation were performed based on the profile of the holes constructed using Alicona IFM, a 3D surface measurement technique. Results showed that punching is a potential alternative to drilling but still requires improvements.

  13. Shear Punch Testing of BOR-60 Irradiated TEM Specimens

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saleh, Tarik A. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Quintana, Matthew Estevan [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Romero, Tobias J. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2017-06-13

    As a part of the project “High Fidelity Ion Beam Simulation of High Dose Neutron Irradiation” an Integrated Research Program (IRP) project from the U.S. Department of Energy, Nuclear Energy University Programs (NEUP), TEM geometry samples of ferritic cladding alloys, Ni based super alloys and model alloys were irradiated in the BOR-60 reactor to ~16 dpa at ~370°C and ~400°C. Samples were sent to Los Alamos National Laboratory and subjected to shear punch testing. This report presents the results from this testing.

  14. Advanced Modelling of Trusses with Punched Metal Plate Fasteners

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ellegaard, Peter; Nielsen, Jacob

    Most of the finite element programs for design of timber trusses with punched metal fasteners are based on models using beam and fictitious elements. Different models have been used for different types of joints. Common problems for all the models are how to calculate the forces in the nail groups...... and the plates and furthermore, how big 'the deformations in the joints are. By developing an advanced model that includes all parts of the joint, i.e. plate, nail groups and contact it is possible to give a better description of the joint. An advanced model with these properties is presented. The advanced model...

  15. Assessment of small hydropower potential by software. Case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moldoveanu Alexandru

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The rivers hydropower potential is considered one of the oldest renewable energy source used in the electricity production process. A method to investigate the possibility to construct a micro hydropower system on a small river is presented. The analysis and the hydropower assessment were done by using Vapidro-Aste software. Results point out that micro-hydro units can be implemented in remote locations or hybrid renewable energy systems, while the environmental flow is guaranteed.

  16. Diagnostic accuracy of confocal microscopy imaging vs. punch biopsy for diagnosing and subtyping basal cell carcinoma

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kadouch, D. J.; Leeflang, M. M.; Elshot, Y. S.; Longo, C.; Ulrich, M.; van der Wal, A. C.; Wolkerstorfer, A.; Bekkenk, M. W.; de Rie, M. A.

    2017-01-01

    BackgroundIn vivo reflectance confocal microscopy (RCM) is a promising non-invasive skin imaging technique that could facilitate early diagnosis of basal cell carcinoma (BCC) instead of routine punch biopsies. However, the clinical value and utility of RCM vs. a punch biopsy in diagnosing and

  17. High-throughput sequencing of forensic genetic samples using punches of FTA cards with buccal swabs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kampmann, Marie-Louise; Buchard, Anders; Børsting, Claus

    2016-01-01

    Here, we demonstrate that punches from buccal swab samples preserved on FTA cards can be used for high-throughput DNA sequencing, also known as massively parallel sequencing (MPS). We typed 44 reference samples with the HID-Ion AmpliSeq Identity Panel using washed 1.2 mm punches from FTA cards...

  18. Criteria for initiation of delamination in quasi-static punch-shear tests of a carbon-fiber composite material.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chin, Eric Brian [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States); English, Shawn Allen [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States); Briggs, Timothy [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2015-09-01

    V arious phenomenological delamination initiation criteria are analyzed in quasi - static punch - shear tests conducted on six different geometries. These six geometries are modeled and analyzed using elastic, large - deformation finite element analysis. Analysis output is post - processed to assess different delamination initiation criteria, and their applicability to each of the geometries. These criteria are compared to test results to assess whether or not they are appropriate based on what occurred in testing. Further, examinations of CT scans and ultrasonic images o f test specimens are conducted in the appendix to determine the sequence of failure in each test geometry.

  19. Comparative study of probabilistic methodologies for small signal stability assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rueda, J.L.; Colome, D.G. [Universidad Nacional de San Juan (IEE-UNSJ), San Juan (Argentina). Inst. de Energia Electrica], Emails: joseluisrt@iee.unsj.edu.ar, colome@iee.unsj.edu.ar

    2009-07-01

    Traditional deterministic approaches for small signal stability assessment (SSSA) are unable to properly reflect the existing uncertainties in real power systems. Hence, the probabilistic analysis of small signal stability (SSS) is attracting more attention by power system engineers. This paper discusses and compares two probabilistic methodologies for SSSA, which are based on the two point estimation method and the so-called Monte Carlo method, respectively. The comparisons are based on the results obtained for several power systems of different sizes and with different SSS performance. It is demonstrated that although with an analytical approach the amount of computation of probabilistic SSSA can be reduced, the different degrees of approximations that are adopted, lead to deceptive results. Conversely, Monte Carlo based probabilistic SSSA can be carried out with reasonable computational effort while holding satisfactory estimation precision. (author)

  20. Punch grafts to treat lower limb intractable sores

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JÚLIO WILSON FERNANDES

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Lower limb recurrent ulcers, usually caused by prolonged decubitus, trauma, diabetes or burns, may not heal with conventional clinical or surgical treatment. Frequently, laminated skin grafts do not integrate with the recipient layer, and the only alternatives are neighbor microsurgical flaps. These have higher morbidity and create secondary defects, to be corrected with skin grafts, when fasciocutaneous or miocutaneous segments are removed for the treatment of the primary defect. We describe the non-conventional use of punch grafts in the treatment of lower limb ulcers, when conventional skin laminated graft failed, without the use of flaps. Since this is a very successful technique, its use should be considered as a valuable alternative for the treatment of recurrent lower limb ulcers. It is a simple and easy-learned technique that may be used by different surgeons, even in remote places without correct specialized hospital facilities.

  1. Performance improvement in a tubular heat exchanger by punched delta-winglet vortex generators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khanoknaiyakarn, C.; Promvonge, P.; Thianpong, C.; Skullong, S.

    2018-01-01

    A novel tubular heat exchanger incorporated with punched delta-winglet vortex generators (called perforated delta-winglet vortex generator, P-DWVG) is proposed for improving its thermal performance and energy saving. The P-DWVG elements are punched out from a straight tape having its width nearly equal to the tube diameter before insertion. The main aim at employing the P-DWVG insert is to produce counter-rotating vortices along the tube to promote turbulence intensity inside as well as to transport the cold fluid at the central core to the near-wall regions. The experiment was performed to study thermal behaviors in a uniform heat-fluxed tube inserted with P-DWVGs. The P-DWVGs with the attack angle of 45° were mounted periodically with three different blockage ratios (BR = 0.1, 0.2 and 0.3) and two pitch ratios (PR = 2 and 3). Air as the test fluid was varied to obtain turbulent airflow for Reynolds number (Re) in a range of 4,150-25,500. The experimental results show that the P-DWVG provides a considerable increase in the rate of heat transfer around 3.1-4.01 times whereas friction factor increases around 11.44- 34.23 times higher than the plain tube. To assess the real benefits of P-DWVGs, thermal performance factor (TEF) is examined and in the range of 1.39-1.48 where its maximum is at BR = 0.1 and PR = 2.

  2. Is small beautiful? A multicriteria assessment of small-scale energy technology applications in local governments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burton, Jonathan; Hubacek, Klaus

    2007-01-01

    In its 2003 White Paper the UK government set ambitious renewable energy targets. Local governments and households have an increasing role in the overall energy system as consumers, suppliers of smaller-scale applications and citizens discussing energy projects. In this paper, we consider if small-scale or large-scale approaches to renewable energy provision can achieve energy targets in the most socially, economically and environmentally (SEE) effective way. We take a local case study of renewable energy provision in the Metropolitan Borough of Kirklees in Yorkshire, UK, and apply a multi-criteria decision analysis methodology to compare the small-scale schemes implemented in Kirklees with large-scale alternatives. The results indicate that small-scale schemes are the most SEE effective, despite large-scale schemes being more financially viable. The selection of the criteria on which the alternatives are assessed and the assigned weights for each criterion are of crucial importance. It is thus very important to include the relevant stakeholders to elicit this information

  3. Ecohydrological Design of small hydropower plants: assessment of environmental flows

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diez H, Juan M; Olmeda S, Sergio

    2008-01-01

    The small hydroelectric energy has contributed substantially to the progress of the life standards in the world by means of a technology with a relatively low environmental impact. The Small Hydroelectric Plant (SHP) is the convenient type of hydro energetic facility for Colombia, reason why it predictably will play a capital role in the exploitation of its excellent potential during this decade. The regulatory guidelines for the SHP re licensing enforce hydrological design criteria that incorporate the ecological requirements of discharge in the fluvial reaches affected by flow derivations. The Instream Flow (IF) should be considered as an ecological restriction to the hydroelectric use, which can be satisfactorily set with reliable approaches. This work shows the basic typology of IF assessment methods, describing the reputed Instream Flow Incremental Methodology (IFIM) with a case study of SHP re licensing. It also demonstrates the possibility of harmonize the hydroelectric operation with the maintenance of an acceptable ecological condition, preserving some IF that can be assessed with the IFIM analytic frame. The new eco hydrological methods for IF setting facilitate SHP that are profitable and defensible in environmental terms.

  4. Tensile properties of modified 9Cr-1Mo steel by shear punch testing and correlation with microstructures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karthik, V., E-mail: karthik@igcar.gov.in [Metallurgy and Materials Group, Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research, Kalpakkam, Tamil Nadu 603102 (India); Laha, K.; Parameswaran, P.; Chandravathi, K.S.; Kasiviswanathan, K.V.; Jayakumar, T.; Raj, Baldev [Metallurgy and Materials Group, Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research, Kalpakkam, Tamil Nadu 603102 (India)

    2011-10-15

    Modified 9Cr-1Mo ferritic steel (P91) is subjected to a series of heat treatments consisting of soaking for 5 min at the selected temperatures in the range 973 K-1623 K (below Ac{sub 1} to above Ac{sub 4}) followed by oil quenching and tempering at 1033 K for 1 h to obtain different microstructural conditions. The tensile properties of the different microstructural conditions are evaluated from small volumes of material by shear punch test technique. A new methodology for evaluating yield strength, ultimate tensile strength and strain hardening exponent from shear punch test by using correlation equations without employing empirical constants is presented and validated. The changes in the tensile properties are related to the microstructural changes of the steel investigated by electron microscopic studies. The steel exhibits minimum strength and hardness when soaked between Ac{sub 1} and Ac{sub 3} (intercritical range) temperatures due to the replacement of original lath martensitic structure with subgrains. The finer martensitic microstructure produced in the steel after soaking at temperatures above Ac{sub 3} leads to a monotonic increase in hardness and strength with decreasing strain hardening exponent. For soaking temperatures above Ac{sub 4}, the hardness and strength of the steel increases marginally due to the formation of soft {delta} ferrite. - Highlights: > A methodology presented for computing tensile properties from shear punch test. > UTS and strain hardening estimated using extended analysis of blanking models. > The analysis methodology validated for different heat treated 9Cr-1Mo steel. > Changes in tensile properties of steel correlated with microstructures.

  5. John Punch, Scotist Holy War, and the Irish Catholic Revolutionary Tradition in the Seventeenth Century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Ian W

    2016-07-01

    During the 1640s, the Irish Franciscan theologian John Punch taught his theology students in Rome that war against Protestants was made just by their religion alone. Jesuits like Luis de Molina identified the holy war tradition in which Punch stood as a Scotist one, and insisted that the Scotists had confused the natural and supernatural spheres. Among Irishmen, Punch was unusual. The main Irish Catholic revolutionary tradition employed Jesuit and Thomist theory. They argued that the Stuarts had lost the right to rule Ireland for natural reasons, not supernatural ones; because the Stuarts were tyrants, not because they were Protestants.

  6. High-throughput sequencing of forensic genetic samples using punches of FTA cards with buccal swabs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kampmann, Marie-Louise; Buchard, Anders; Børsting, Claus; Morling, Niels

    2016-01-01

    Here, we demonstrate that punches from buccal swab samples preserved on FTA cards can be used for high-throughput DNA sequencing, also known as massively parallel sequencing (MPS). We typed 44 reference samples with the HID-Ion AmpliSeq Identity Panel using washed 1.2 mm punches from FTA cards with buccal swabs and compared the results with those obtained with DNA extracted using the EZ1 DNA Investigator Kit. Concordant profiles were obtained for all samples. Our protocol includes simple punch, wash, and PCR steps, reducing cost and hands-on time in the laboratory. Furthermore, it facilitates automation of DNA sequencing.

  7. Blanking Clearance and Punch Velocity Effects on The Sheared Edge Characteristic in Micro-Blanking of Commercially Pure Copper Sheet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Didin Zakaria Lubis

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to identify the influences between clearance and punch velocity on the part edge quality of blanked parts. Experiments have been conducted using material copper, punch-die clearance and punch velocity variations. In order to determine the reachable punch-die clearance and punch velocity required for blanking. The quality of the part-edge characteristics shows that higher punch velocity and decreases clearance value can improve the part-edge quality, resulting in smaller burr height and rollover, and a larger shear zone. Furthermore, it could be observed that the part-edge quality improvement when blanking with high punch velocity is much more distinct for stele than for copper. According to blanking theory, this improvement was expected because copper have much higher heat conduction coefficients. Therefore, the heat dissipates faster and the desired stress relief effect does not take place to the same degree as for stele.

  8. Significance assessment of small-medium sized reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kanno, Minoru [Japan Atomic Power Co., Research and Development Dept., Tokyo (Japan)

    2002-12-01

    Preliminary assessment for deployment of small-medium sized reactor (S and M reactor) as a future option has been conducted at the JAPCO (Japan Atomic Power Company) under the cooperation with the CRIERI (Central Research Institute of Electric Power Industry). Significance of the S and M reactor introduction is listed as follows; lower investment cost, possible siting near demand side, enlarged freedom of siting, shorter transmission line, good compatibility with slow increase of demand and plain explanation of safety using simpler system such as integral type vessel without piping, natural convection core cooling and passive safety system. The deployment of simpler plant system, modular shop fabrication, ship-shell structured building and longer operation period can assure economics comparable with that of a large sized reactor, coping with scale-demerit. Also the S and M reactor is preferable in size for the nuclear heat utilization such as hydrogen production. (T. Tanaka)

  9. Hazard assessment for small torrent catchments - lessons learned

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisl, Julia; Huebl, Johannes

    2013-04-01

    The documentation of extreme events as a part of the integral risk management cycle is an important basis for the analysis and assessment of natural hazards. In July 2011 a flood event occurred in the Wölzer-valley in the province of Styria, Austria. For this event at the "Wölzerbach" a detailed event documentation was carried out, gathering data about rainfall, runoff and sediment transport as well as information on damaged objects, infrastructure or crops using various sources. The flood was triggered by heavy rainfalls in two tributaries of the Wölzer-river. Though a rain as well as a discharge gaging station exists for the Wölzer-river, the torrents affected by the high intensity rainfalls are ungaged. For these ungaged torrent catchments the common methods for hazard assessment were evaluated. The back-calculation of the rainfall event was done using a new approach for precipitation analysis. In torrent catchments especially small-scale and high-intensity rainfall events are mainly responsible for extreme events. Austria's weather surveillance radar is operated by the air traffic service "AustroControl". The usually available dataset is interpreted and shows divergences especially when it comes to high intensity rainfalls. For this study the raw data of the radar were requested and analysed. Further on the event was back-calculated with different rainfall-runoff models, hydraulic models and sediment transport models to obtain calibration parameters for future use in hazard assessment for this region. Since there are often problems with woody debris different scenarios were simulated. The calibrated and plausible results from the runoff models were used for the comparison with empirical approaches used in the practical sector. For the planning of mitigation measures of the Schöttl-torrent, which is one of the affected tributaries of the Wölzer-river, a physical scale model was used in addition to the insights of the event analysis to design a check dam

  10. Effect of Punch Stroke on Deformation During Sheet Forming Through Finite Element

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akinlabi, Stephen; Akinlabi, Esther

    2017-08-01

    Forming is one of the traditional methods of making shapes, bends and curvature in metallic components during a fabrication process. Mechanical forming, in particular, employs the use of a punch, which is pressed against the sheet material to be deformed into a die by the application of an external force. This study reports on the finite element analysis of the effects of punch stroke on the resulting sheet deformation, which is directly a function of the structural integrity of the formed components for possible application in the automotive industry. The results show that punch stroke is directly proportional to the resulting bend angle of the formed components. It was further revealed that the developed plastic strain increases as the punch stroke increases.

  11. A new virtual instrument for estimating punch velocity in combat sports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urbinati, K S; Scheeren, E; Nohama, P

    2013-01-01

    For improving the performance in combat sport, especially percussion, it is necessary achieving high velocity in punches and kicks. The aim of this study was to evaluate the applicability of 3D accelerometry in a Virtual Instrumentation System (VIS) designed for estimating punch velocity in combat sports. It was conducted in two phases: (1) integration of the 3D accelerometer with the communication interface and software for processing and visualization, and (2) applicability of the system. Fifteen karate athletes performed five gyaku zuki type punches (with reverse leg) using the accelerometer on the 3rd metacarpal on the back of the hand. It was performed nonparametric Mann-Whitney U-test to determine differences in the mean linear velocity among three punches performed sequentially (p sport.

  12. Approaches to Assess Competitiveness of Small and Medium Sized Reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuznetsov, V.; Barkatullah, N.

    2011-01-01

    There is continuing interest in Member States concerning the development and application of small and medium sized reactors (SMRs), i.e., reactors with the equivalent electric power of less than 700 MW. Currently, developed SMRs are in most cases intended for markets different than those in which large nuclear power plants operate. Such markets have essentially different investment requirements, siting flexibility, grid connections and infrastructure restrictions. Therefore, economic factors affecting the competitiveness or competition of SMRs in such markets would also be different from those observed in established markets for electricity production. For example, investment capability may be limited, which would favour capacity addition in smaller increments; grids may be small or weak, which would favour capacities exactly matching the demand; infrastructure and human resource may be insufficient, which would favour less complex operation and maintenance requirements; and non-electrical energy products, such as potable water, may be in demand, which would favour reasonably close plant location to the customer. In practice it is futile to compare a single SMR needs to a single larger capacity plant on an economy of scale basis because SMRs are suitable for those locations that might not be appropriate for larger plants. However, a series of SMRs could be considered comparable to fewer larger plants to achieve the same overall power station capacity. In this case, SMRs have a potential to be competitive by employing alternative design strategies, taking advantage of smaller reactor size, offering a less complex design and operation and maintenance, relying on deployment-in-series approaches, taking an advantage of the accelerated learning, multiple unit factors and shorter construction duration. Reflecting on developments in member states, the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) is finalizing the preparation of a report highlighting the economics and

  13. Study of the mechanical properties of the electric power station components: the punch test; Etude des proprietes mecaniques des composants de centrales thermiques: l'essai punch test

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Isselin, J

    2003-03-15

    The aging of the electric production park implies an increasing need of knowledge concerning the evolution of the mechanical properties of its components. With regard to this problem, the availability in material is more and more small. This work proposes to characterize these properties through a mechanical test called Punch test. The main characteristic of this test is to use very small volume samples. The development of this test has been carried out by the study of a 15 MDV 4-05 steel coming from a steam drum of a thermal power plant after 145000 hours of service. At first, we have measured the influence of the parameters of this test. Then, the study has dealt more particularly on the transition temperature of the material. With the finite element simulation method, the strain hardening coefficient of the material has been determined. (O.M.)

  14. Kinematics of self-initiated and reactive karate punches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez de Quel, Oscar; Bennett, Simon J

    2014-03-01

    This study investigated whether within-task expertise affects the reported asymmetry in execution time exhibited in reactive and self-initiated movements. Karate practitioners and no-karate practitioners were compared performing a reverse punch in reaction to an external stimulus or following the intention to produce a response (self-initiated). The task was completed following the presentation of a specific (i.e., life-size image of opponent) or general stimulus and in the presence of click trains or white noise. Kinematic analyses indicated reactive movement had shorter time to peak velocity and movement time, as well as greater accuracy than self-initiated movement. These differences were independent of participant skill level although peak velocity was higher in the karate practice group than in the no-karate practice group. Reaction time (RT) of skilled participants was facilitated by a specific stimulus. There was no effect on RT or kinematic variables of the different type of auditory cues. The results of this study indicate that asymmetry in execution time of reactive and self-initiated movement holds irrespective of within-task expertise and stimulus specificity. This could have implications for training of sports and/or relearning of tasks that require rapid and accurate movements to intercept/contact a target.

  15. Is effective mass in combat sports punching above its weight?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenetsky, Seth; Nates, Roy J; Brughelli, Matt; Harris, Nigel K

    2015-04-01

    The segmental and muscular complexity of the human body can result in challenges when examining the kinetics of impacts. To better understand this complexity, combat sports literature has selected effective mass as a measure of an athlete's inertial contribution to the momentum transfer during the impact of strikes. This measure helps to clarify the analysis of striking kinetics in combat sports. This paper will review: (1) effective mass as a concept and its usage as a measure of impact intensity in combat sports, (2) the neuromuscular pattern known as "double peak muscle activation" which has been theorized to help enhance initial hand velocity upon impact and joint stiffening during impact, (3) the methods and equations used to calculate effective mass, and (4) practitioner recommendations based on the literature. We will argue in this manuscript that the act of punching presents unique challenges to the current understanding of effective mass due to additional force application during impact. This review will improve the understanding of effective mass and its roles in effective striking serving to underpin future research into performance enhancement in striking based combat sports. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Punching influence on magnetic properties of the stator teeth of an induction motor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kedous-Lebouc, A.; Cornut, B.; Perrier, J.C.; Manfe, Ph.; Chevalier, Th.

    2003-01-01

    In order to study the effects of punching of electrical steel sheets, a suitable geometrical structure able to characterize the stator teeth behavior of an induction motor is proposed and validated. The influence of the punching on a fully processed M330-65A is then characterized. A spectacular degradation of loss and B(H) curves is observed. This leads to a perceptible increase of the no-load machine current

  17. Control program for punched paper tape for the PDP-8/1 computer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    German, U.

    1976-01-01

    A program was developed for the PDP-8/1 computer to control the punched paper tape supplied by the measuring instruments. Any departure from the program is detected by an optical reader which stops the tape and displays the error on an accumulator. This program which is suitable for large amounts of data punched on paper tape has been in use at the Beer-Sheva laboratories for detecting errors in the sample changing operation. (B.G.)

  18. Assessing Spatio-temporal Patterns of Groundwater Salinity in Small ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Thus, characterization and monitoring of the freshwater lens will provide a reliable means of observing and managing anticipated climate changes on small islands. Keywords: small coral islands, Grande Glorieuse, hydrogeology, seawater intrusion, borehole monitoring, electrical resistance tomography, climate change.

  19. Safety Assessment of Multi Purpose Small Payload Rack(MSPR)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mizutani, Yoshinobu; Takada, Satomi; Murata, Kosei; Ozawa, Daisaku; Kobayashi, Ryoji; Nakamura, Yasuhiro

    2010-09-01

    We are reporting summary of preliminary safety assessment for Multi Purpose Small Payload Rack(MSPR), which is one of the micro gravity experiment facilities that are being developed for the 2nd phase JEM utilization(JEM: Japanese Experiment Module) that will be launched on H-II Transfer Vehicle(HTV) 2nd flight in 2011. MSPR is used for multi-purpose micro-g experiment providing experimental spaces and work stations. MSPR has three experimental spaces; first, there is a space called Work Volume(WV) with capacity volume of approximately 350 litters, in which multiple resources including electricity, communication, and moving image functions can be used. Within this space, installation of devices can be done by simple, prompt attachment by Velcro and pins with high degree of flexibility. Second, there is Small Experiment Area(SEA), with capacity volume of approximately 70 litters, in which electricity, communication, and moving image functions can also be used in the same way as WV. These spaces protect experiment devices and specimens from contingent loads by the crewmembers. Third, there is Work Bench with area of 0.5 square meters, on which can be used for maintenance, inspection and data operations of installed devices, etc. This bench can be stored in the rack during contingency. Chamber for Combustion Experiment(CCE) that is planned to be installed in WV is a pressure-resistant experimental container that can be used to seal hazardous materials from combustion experiments. This CCE has double sealing design in chamber itself, which resist gas leakage under normal the temperature and pressure. Electricity, communication, moving image function can be used in the same way as WV. JAXA Phase 2 Safety Review Panel(SRP) has been held in April, 2010. For safety analysis of MSPR, hazards were identified based on Fault Tree Analysis methodology and then these hazards were classified into either eight ISS standard-type hazards or eight unique-type hazards that requires

  20. AFM Colloidal Probe Measurements Implicate Capillary Condensation in Punch-Particle Surface Interactions during Tableting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badal Tejedor, Maria; Nordgren, Niklas; Schuleit, Michael; Millqvist-Fureby, Anna; Rutland, Mark W

    2017-11-21

    Adhesion of the powders to the punches is a common issue during tableting. This phenomenon is known as sticking and affects the quality of the manufactured tablets. Defective tablets increase the cost of the manufacturing process. Thus, the ability to predict the tableting performance of the formulation blend before the process is scaled-up is important. The adhesive propensity of the powder to the tableting tools is mostly governed by the surface-surface adhesive interactions. Atomic force microscopy (AFM) colloidal probe is a surface characterization technique that allows the measurement of the adhesive interactions between two materials of interest. In this study, AFM steel colloidal probe measurements were performed on ibuprofen, MCC (microcrystalline cellulose), α-lactose monohydrate, and spray-dried lactose particles as an approach to modeling the punch-particle surface interactions during tableting. The excipients (lactose and MCC) showed constant, small, attractive, and adhesive forces toward the steel surface after a repeated number of contacts. In comparison, ibuprofen displayed a much larger attractive and adhesive interaction increasing over time both in magnitude and in jump-in/jump-out separation distance. The type of interaction acting on the excipient-steel interface can be related to a van der Waals force, which is relatively weak and short-ranged. By contrast, the ibuprofen-steel interaction is described by a capillary force profile. Even though ibuprofen is not highly hydrophilic, the relatively smooth surfaces of the crystals allow "contact flooding" upon contact with the steel probe. Capillary forces increase because of the "harvesting" of moisture-due to the fast condensation kinetics-leaving a residual condensate that contributes to increase the interaction force after each consecutive contact. Local asperity contacts on the more hydrophilic surface of the excipients prevent the flooding of the contact zone, and there is no such adhesive

  1. Threat Assessment of Small Near-Earth Objects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, E.; Ryan, W.

    2010-09-01

    Researchers at the Magdalena Ridge Observatory’s (MRO) 2.4-meter telescope facility are in their third year of a program to derive physical characterization information on some of the smallest (less than 200 meters in diameter) objects in the Near-Earth Object (NEO) population. Tiny comets and asteroids are being discovered by survey programs on a routine basis, so targets available for study have been abundant. Our primary objective is to derive rotation rates for these objects, and to place the results in context with previous data to enhance our understanding of asteroid impact physics and better address the threat from NEOs having Earth-crossing orbits. Rotation rate can be used to infer internal structure, which is a physical property important to assessing the energy needed for object disruption or other forms of hazard mitigation. Since the existing database of rotational data derived from lightcurves of objects in this small size regime is sparse, collection of additional observational data is beneficial. Acquiring more knowledge about the physical nature of NEOs not only contributes to general scientific pursuits, but is important to planetary defense.

  2. Efficacy of Punch Elevation Combined with Fractional Carbon Dioxide Laser Resurfacing in Facial Atrophic Acne Scarring: A Randomized Split-face Clinical Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faghihi, Gita; Nouraei, Saeid; Asilian, Ali; Keyvan, Shima; Abtahi-Naeini, Bahareh; Rakhshanpour, Mehrdad; Nilforoushzadeh, Mohammad Ali; Hosseini, Sayed Mohsen

    2015-01-01

    Background: A number of treatments for reducing the appearance of acne scars are available, but general guidelines for optimizing acne scar treatment do not exist. The aim of this study was to compare the clinical effectiveness and side effects of fractional carbon dioxide (CO2) laser resurfacing combined with punch elevation with fractional CO2 laser resurfacing alone in the treatment of atrophic acne scars. Materials and Methods: Forty-two Iranian subjects (age range 18–55) with Fitzpatrick skin types III to IV and moderate to severe atrophic acne scars on both cheeks received randomized split-face treatments: One side received fractional CO2 laser treatment and the other received one session of punch elevation combined with two sessions of laser fractional CO2 laser treatment, separated by an interval of 1 month. Two dermatologists independently evaluated improvement in acne scars 4 and 16 weeks after the last treatment. Side effects were also recorded after each treatment. Results: The mean ± SD age of patients was 23.4 ± 2.6 years. Clinical improvement of facial acne scarring was assessed by two dermatologists blinded to treatment conditions. No significant difference in evaluation was observed 1 month after treatment (P = 0.56). Their evaluation found that fractional CO2 laser treatment combined with punch elevation had greater efficacy than that with fractional CO2 laser treatment alone, assessed 4 months after treatment (P = 0.02). Among all side effects, coagulated crust formation and pruritus at day 3 after fractional CO2 laser treatment was significant on both treatment sides (P < 0.05). Conclusion: Concurrent use of fractional laser skin resurfacing with punch elevation offers a safe and effective approach for the treatment of acne scarring. PMID:26538695

  3. Efficacy of punch elevation combined with fractional carbon dioxide laser resurfacing in facial atrophic acne scarring: A randomized split-face clinical study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gita Faghihi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: A number of treatments for reducing the appearance of acne scars are available, but general guidelines for optimizing acne scar treatment do not exist. The aim of this study was to compare the clinical effectiveness and side effects of fractional carbon dioxide (CO 2 laser resurfacing combined with punch elevation with fractional CO 2 laser resurfacing alone in the treatment of atrophic acne scars. Materials and Methods: Forty-two Iranian subjects (age range 18-55 with Fitzpatrick skin types III to IV and moderate to severe atrophic acne scars on both cheeks received randomized split-face treatments: One side received fractional CO 2 laser treatment and the other received one session of punch elevation combined with two sessions of laser fractional CO 2 laser treatment, separated by an interval of 1 month. Two dermatologists independently evaluated improvement in acne scars 4 and 16 weeks after the last treatment. Side effects were also recorded after each treatment. Results: The mean ± SD age of patients was 23.4 ± 2.6 years. Clinical improvement of facial acne scarring was assessed by two dermatologists blinded to treatment conditions. No significant difference in evaluation was observed 1 month after treatment (P = 0.56. Their evaluation found that fractional CO 2 laser treatment combined with punch elevation had greater efficacy than that with fractional CO 2 laser treatment alone, assessed 4 months after treatment (P = 0.02. Among all side effects, coagulated crust formation and pruritus at day 3 after fractional CO 2 laser treatment was significant on both treatment sides (P < 0.05. Conclusion: Concurrent use of fractional laser skin resurfacing with punch elevation offers a safe and effective approach for the treatment of acne scarring.

  4. Vibration Control of a High-Speed Precision Servo Numerically Controlled Punching Press: Multidomain Simulation and Experiments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teng Xu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A three-degree-of-freedom mathematical vibration model of a high-speed punching press was developed in order to explore the vibration modes of the punching press. A multidomain model of the punching press was established to predict the kinematic state during different conditions, as well as the effects of load fluctuation on the motor speed. Experimental measurements of the acceleration of the punching press were carried out. The results comparison reveals that the multidomain model is consistent with the vibration model and the experimental measurements. Modal analysis and structure modification of the punching press were conducted. The foundation at the base of the punching press was improved against excess of vibration. The effects of the dimensions of the foundation on the vibration were discussed with the aid of the multidomain model. Finally, proper foundation design, able to reduce the vibration, was obtained.

  5. Small rural communities in the inland Northwest: an assessment of small communities in the interior and upper Columbia River basins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charles C. Harris; William McLaughlin; Greg Brown; Dennis R. Becker

    2000-01-01

    An assessment of small rural communities in the interior and upper Columbia River basin was conducted for the Interior Columbia Basin Ecosystem Management Project (ICBEMP). The characteristics and conditions of the rural communities in this region, which are complex and constantly changing, were examined. The research also assessed the resilience of the region’s...

  6. Flexural behaviour and punching shear of selfcompacting concrete ribbed slab reinforced with steel fibres

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Hazrina

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the effects of steel fibres as a replacement to the conventional reinforcement under flexural behaviour and punching shear in self-compacting (SCC ribbed slab reinforced with steel fibres. Four ribbed slabs with similar dimensions of 2.8 m length × 1.2 m width and 0.2m thickness were constructed. Two of the samples were considered as control samples (conventionally reinforced with reinforcement bars and welded mesh while another two samples were fully reinforced with 1% (80 kg/m3 volume of steel fibres incorporated to the SCC mix. For the flexural behaviour study, the ribbed slab samples were subjected to two line loads under four point bending. Meanwhile, for the punching shear analysis, the ribbed slab samples were subjected to a point load to simulate loading from the column. The analysis of the experimental results displayed that steel fibres incorporation had been found to effectively delay the first crack occurrence under both flexural and punching shear. The steel fibre replacement has been proven to be able to sustain up to 80% and 73% of the ultimate load resistance for flexural and punching shear, respectively, in comparison to conventionally reinforced ribbed slab structure. The visual observation carried out during the experiment exhibited similar failure mode for both steel fibre reinforced and control samples. This was observed for both flexural and punching shear samples. Overall, it can be concluded that the steel fibres had displayed a promising potential to effectively replace the conventional reinforcements.

  7. Shear punch tests performed using a new low compliance test fixture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toloczko, M.B.; Kurtz, R.J.; Hasegawa, A.; Abe, K.

    2002-01-01

    Based on a recent finite element analysis (FEA) study performed on the shear punch test technique, it was suggested that compliance in a test frame and fixturing which is quite acceptable for uniaxial tensile tests, is much too large for shear punch tests. The FEA study suggested that this relatively large compliance was masking both the true yield point and the shape of the load versus displacement trace obtained in shear punch tests. The knowledge gained from the FEA study was used to design a new shear punch test fixture which more directly measures punch tip displacement. The design of this fixture, the traces obtained from this fixture, and the correlation between uniaxial yield stress and shear yield stress obtained using this fixture are presented here. In general, traces obtained from the new fixture contain much less compliance resulting in a trace shape which is more similar in appearance to a corresponding uniaxial tensile trace. Due to the more direct measurement of displacement, it was possible to measure yield stress at an offset shear strain in a manner analogous to yield stress measurement in a uniaxial tensile test. The correlation between shear yield and uniaxial yield was altered by this new yield measurement technique, but the new correlation was not as greatly improved as was suggested would occur from the FEA study

  8. Experimental and Numerical Simulation Research on Micro-Gears Fabrication by Laser Shock Punching Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huixia Liu

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to fabricate micro-gears via laser shock punching with Spitlight 2000 Nd-YAG Laser, and to discuss effects of process parameters namely laser energy, soft punch properties and blank-holder on the quality of micro-gears deeply. Results show that dimensional accuracy is the best shocked at 1690 mJ. Tensile fracture instead of shear fracture is the main fracture mode under low laser energy. The soft punch might cause damage to punching quality when too high energy is employed. Appropriate thickness and hardness of soft punch is necessary. Silica gel with 200 µm in thickness is beneficial to not only homogenize energy but also propagate the shock wave. Polyurethane films need more energy than silica gel with the same thickness. In addition, blank-holders with different weight levels are used. A heavier blank-holder is more beneficial to improve the cutting quality. Furthermore, the simulation is conducted to reveal typical stages and the different deformation behavior under high and low pulse energy. The simulation results show that the fracture mode changes under lower energy.

  9. Assessment of a small pressurized water reactor for industrial energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klepper, O.H.; Fuller, L.C.; Myers, M.L.

    1977-01-01

    An evaluation of several recent ERDA/ORNL sponsored studies on the application of a small, 365 MW(t) pressurized water reactor for industrial energy is presented. Preliminary studies have investigated technical and reliability requirements; costs for nuclear and fossil based steam were compared, including consideration of economic inflation and financing methods. For base-load industrial steam production, small reactors appear economically attractive relative to coal fired boilers that use coal priced at $30/ton

  10. Probabilistic mercury multimedia exposure assessment in small children and risk assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morisset, Typhaine; Ramirez-Martinez, Alejandra; Wesolek, Nathalie; Roudot, Alain-Claude

    2013-09-01

    Emissions of mercury in the environment have been decreasing for several years. However, mercury species are still found in different media (food, water, air and breast-milk). Due to mercury toxicity and typical behaviour in children, we have conducted a mercury exposure assessment in French babies, and small children aged 0 to 36months. Consumption and mercury concentration data were chosen for the exposure assessment. The Monte Carlo technique has been used to calculate the weekly exposure dose in order to integrate inter-individual variability and parameter uncertainty. Exposure values have been compared to toxicological reference values for health risk assessment. Inorganic mercury median exposure levels ranged from 0.160 to 1.649μg/kg of body weight per week (95th percentile (P95): 0.298-2.027µg/kg bw/week); elemental mercury median exposure level in children was 0.11ng/kg bw/week (P95: 28ng/kg bw/week); and methylmercury median exposure level ranged from 0.247 to 0.273µg/kg bw/week (P95: 0.425-0.463µg/kg bw/week). Only elemental mercury by inhalation route (indoor air) and methylmercury by ingestion (fish and breast-milk) seem to lead to a health risk in small children. These results confirm the importance of assessing total mercury concentration in media like breast-milk, indoor air and dust and methylmercury level in food, other than fish and seafood. In this way, informed monitoring plan and risk assessment in an at-risk sub-population can be set. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Frictionless contact of a rigid punch indenting a transversely isotropic elastic layer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajesh Patra

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This article is concerned with the study of frictionless contact between a rigid punch and a transversely isotropic elastic layer. The rigid punch is assumed to be axially symmetric and is being pressed towards the layer by an applied concentrated load. The layer is resting on a rigid base and is assumed to be ufficiently thick in comparison with the amount of indentation by the rigid punch. The relationship between the applied load $P$ and the contact area is obtained by solving the mathematically formulated problem through use of Hankel transform of different order. Effect of indentation on the distribution of normal stress at the surface as well as the relationship between the applied load and the area of contact have been shown graphically.

  12. Assessment of the world market for small and medium reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Csik, B.J.

    2000-01-01

    In the past decades, the major focus for nuclear power has been the design and construction of nuclear plants of ever increasing size. This was appropriate for many industrialized countries, which could readily add generation capability to their electrical grids in large increments. However, recently there has been an increasing emphasis on the development of small and medium reactors especially to meet needs in developing countries where electrical grids cannot accept the additional capacity of a large nuclear plant. The paper presents an estimation of the world market for small and medium sized reactors giving the basic assumptions, criteria, scope, methods and important factors. (author)

  13. Using stamping punch force variation for the identification of changes in lubrication and wear mechanism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voss, B. M.; Pereira, M. P.; Rolfe, B. F.; Doolan, M. C.

    2017-09-01

    The growth in use of Advanced High Strength Steels in the automotive industry for light-weighting and safety has increased the rates of tool wear in sheet metal stamping. This is an issue that adds significant costs to production in terms of manual inspection and part refinishing. To reduce these costs, a tool condition monitoring system is required and a firm understanding of process signal variation must form the foundation for any such monitoring system. Punch force is a stamping process signal that is widely collected by industrial presses and has been linked closely to part quality and tool condition, making it an ideal candidate as a tool condition monitoring signal. In this preliminary investigation, the variation of punch force due to different lubrication conditions and progressive wear are examined. Linking specific punch force signature changes to developing lubrication and wear events is valuable for die wear and stamping condition monitoring. A series of semi-industrial channel forming trials were conducted under different lubrication regimes and progressive die wear. Punch force signatures were captured for each part and Principal Component Analysis (PCA) was applied to determine the key Principal Components of the signature data sets. These Principal Components were linked to the evolution of friction conditions over the course of the stroke for the different lubrication regimes and mechanism of galling wear. As a result, variation in punch force signatures were correlated to the current mechanism of wear dominant on the formed part; either abrasion or adhesion, and to changes in lubrication mechanism. The outcomes of this study provide important insights into punch force signature variation, that will provide a foundation for future work into the development of die wear and lubrication monitoring systems for sheet metal stamping.

  14. Prediction of punching shear capacities of two-way concrete slabs reinforced with FRP bars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ibrahim M. Metwally

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Where corrosion of steel reinforcement is a concern, fiber-reinforced polymer (FRP reinforcing bar or grid reinforcement provides an alternative reinforcement for concrete flat slabs. The existing provisions for punching of slabs in most international design standards for reinforced concrete are based on tests of steel reinforced slabs. The elastic stiffness and bonding characteristics of FRP reinforcement are sufficiently different from those of steel to affect punching strength [1]. This paper evaluates the punching shear strength of concrete flat slabs reinforced with different types of fiber-reinforced polymer (FRP. A total of 59 full-size slabs were constructed and tested collected from the literature of FRP bars reinforced concrete slabs. The test parameters were the amount of FRP reinforcing bars, Young’s modulus of FRP bars, slab thickness, loaded areas and concrete compressive strength. The experimental punching shear strengths were compared with the available theoretical predictions, including the ACI 318 Code, BS 8110 Code, ACI 440 design guidelines, and a number of models proposed by some researchers in the literature. Two approaches for predicting the punching strength of FRP-reinforced slabs are examined. The first is an empirical new model which is considered as a modification of El-Gamal et al. [2] model. The second is a Neural Networks Technique; which has been developed to predict the punching shear capacity of FRP reinforced concrete slabs. The accuracies of both methods were evaluated against the experimental test data. They attained excellent agreement with available test results compared to the existing design formulas.

  15. Techniques and Assessment of Small Business Capital | Narayanan ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The optimal capital structure is the one that strikes a balance between risk and return and thereby maximizes the price of the stock and simultaneously minimizes the cost of capital. When evaluating a small business for a loan, lenders ideally like to see a two-year operating history, a stable management group, a desirable ...

  16. Usage of prestressed vertical bolts for retrofitting flat slabs damaged due to punching shear

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamed S. Askar

    2015-09-01

    An experimental investigation with the objective of retrofitting flat slabs damaged due to punching shear using prestressed vertical bolts is presented in this paper. The parameters examined in this study are vertical prestressed bolts with different ratios within the slab thickness, slab thickness and central column size. Through the experimental tests the load carrying capacity, deformation characteristics and the cracking behavior have been investigated. A comparison between the behavior of retrofitted slabs and their references showed that the proposed system of repair is effective and could be used in practice. A comparison between the experimental results and calculated punching failure load based on the formulas adopted by different codes, showed a reasonable agreement.

  17. Fabrication and loading of oral drug delivery microcontainers using hot punching

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Ritika Singh; Borre, Mads T.; Keller, Stephan Sylvest

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, poly-l-lactic acid (PLLA) solution is spin coated to achieve a PLLA layer of 55 μm thickness. Hot punching with a Ni stamp is optimized to fabricate microcontainers in PLLA. Process optimization of thermal bonding of the microcontainers to a poly acrylic acid (PAA) layer is perform...... by modifying sample preparation and varying temperature. The fabricated microcontainers are loaded by hot punching in a spin coated drug polymer film of furosemide and poly-e-caprolactone (PCL)....

  18. Team Self-Assessment: Problem Solving for Small Workgroups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LoBue, Robert

    2002-01-01

    Describes team self-assessment, a task force approach involving frontline workers/supervisors in solving problems or improving performance. Provides examples and discusses its theoretical bases: control self-assessment, Belbin's team roles research, and the team climate inventory. (Contains 23 references.) (SK)

  19. Effect of mid-thickness rebar mesh on the behavior and punching shear strength of interior slab–column connection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed Ibrahim

    2016-12-01

    The obtained results indicate that, the proposed shear reinforcement system has a positive effect in the enhancement of both the punching shear capacity and the strain energy of interior slab–column connection of both normal and high strength concrete. The general finite element software ANSYS can be used successfully to simulate the punching shear behavior of reinforced concrete flat plates.

  20. Assessment of the Challenges in Policy Implementation in the Small ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Michael

    2017-06-20

    Jun 20, 2017 ... minimum damage to the environment; provide ... 1.1.1 Ministry of Lands and Natural Resources. The Ministry of Lands and ... the environment in Ghana. The EPA .... (e) Environmental Assessment Regulations, 1999. (LI 1652).

  1. Workplace assessment: A tool for occupational health and safety management in small firms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Per Langå

    2001-01-01

    This paper discusses the capability of small firms to comply with legislative demands on risk assessment. The results of a national survey show that only a minor fraction of small firms comply. Two case studies demonstrate that small firms are able to meet the demands. An analysis of these cases ...

  2. Data on treatment of sewage wastewater by electrocoagulation using punched aluminum electrode and characterization of generated sludge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vinita Khandegar

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available The electrocoagulation setup must be optimized in order to design an economically feasible process. Therefore, in this work, the effect of the punched aluminum electrode on the performance of the electrocoagulation (EC has been investigated. A series of experiments were performed for treatment of sewage wastewater using plane electrode and compare with punched electrodes. Effect of contact time, voltage, electrode spacing and stirring speed has been optimized for removal of Biochemical oxygen demand (BOD and Total dissolved solids (TDS. It was observed that the performance of electrocoagulation process increased using punched electrode. Also, the less operating cost noticed in punched electrode as compared to a plane electrode for (70–80% removal of BOD and TDS. These data would be useful in designing of an EC reactor to obtain high removal efficiency at low energy consumption. Keywords: Electrocoagulation, Sewage wastewater, Aluminum, Plane, Punched electrode

  3. Assessing the Internal Dynamics of Mathematical Problem Solving in Small Groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Artzt, Alice F.; Armour-Thomas, Eleanor

    The purpose of this exploratory study was to examine the problem-solving behaviors and perceptions of (n=27) seventh-grade students as they worked on solving a mathematical problem within a small-group setting. An assessment system was developed that allowed for this analysis. To assess problem-solving behaviors within a small group a Group…

  4. Big data in small steps : Assessing the value of data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veenstra, A.F.E. van; Bakker, T.P.; Esmeijer, J.

    2013-01-01

    Data is seen as the new oil: an important driver of innovation and economic growth. At the same time, many find it difficult to determine the value of big data for their organization. TNO presents a stepwise big data model that supports private and public organizations to assess the potential of big

  5. Natural Circulation Capability Assessments for a Small-medium Reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Sun Do

    2010-02-01

    Small-medium reactors have been highly evaluated to have more safe characteristics than those of large reactors. In addition, it could be used for a variety of purposes, such as small-scale power production in mountainous of island area, seawater desalination, regional heating system. For a higher safety, studies about a way of using natural circulation have being conducted around world. CAREM(Argentina), AST- 500(Russia), and NHR-200(china) etc. According to this tendency, REX- 10(Regional Energy rX-10) is designed in Korea for regional heating and small-scale power production. To investigate the thermal-hydraulic behavior of REX-10, we designed Rex-10 Test Facility (RTF), simulating REX-10, by using the scaling law. The scaling ratios of length, volume and power were set with 1/1, 1/50 and 1/50, respectively. The diameter and total length of RTF are 40 cm and approximately 6 m, respectively. The facility is composed of various components, which are a core in the bottom part, a heat exchanger in the middle part, a pressurizer and hot legs in the upper part, and chillers outside the facility. The test instrumentation is also designed to measure temperatures, flow rates, pressures, and pressure drop. The experiment parameters were adopted based on the 1-dimensional approach. There are a variety of parameters which influence natural circulation behavior such as heater power, overall flow resistance parameter, the distance between the center of the heat exchanger and the core. As the experimental geometries are fixed, it is found that the most important parameter is the heater power under the experimental conditions. In addition, to evaluate the effect of heater power, some experiments were conducted at varying heater power condition (from 70 kW to 170 kW) under constant primary pressure (2.0 MPa) and secondary flow rate (4.5 liter per minute). As the results of the experiments, the temperature and flow rate increase with increasing heater power. The flow rate is

  6. Statistical credit risk assessment model of small and very small enterprises for Lithuanian credit unions

    OpenAIRE

    Špicas, Renatas

    2017-01-01

    While functioning in accordance with the new, business and efficiency-oriented operating model, credit unions develop and begin functioning outside the community. It is universally recognised in scientific literature that as credit unions expand their activities beyond a community, social relations with credit union members weaken and the credit unions lose their social control element, which help them to better assess and manage information asymmetry and credit risk. So far, the analysis of ...

  7. Investigating the effect of tablet thickness and punch curvature on density distribution using finite elements method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diarra, Harona; Mazel, Vincent; Busignies, Virginie; Tchoreloff, Pierre

    2015-09-30

    Finite elements method was used to study the influence of tablet thickness and punch curvature on the density distribution inside convex faced (CF) tablets. The modeling of the process was conducted on 2 pharmaceutical excipients (anhydrous calcium phosphate and microcrystalline cellulose) by using Drucker-Prager Cap model in Abaqus(®) software. The parameters of the model were obtained from experimental tests. Several punch shapes based on industrial standards were used. A flat-faced (FF) punch and 3 convex faced (CF) punches (8R11, 8R8 and 8R6) with a diameter of 8mm were chosen. Different tablet thicknesses were studied at a constant compression force. The simulation of the compaction of CF tablets with increasing thicknesses showed an important change on the density distribution inside the tablet. For smaller thicknesses, low density zones are located toward the center. The density is not uniform inside CF tablets and the center of the 2 faces appears with low density whereas the distribution inside FF tablets is almost independent of the tablet thickness. These results showed that FF and CF tablets, even obtained at the same compression force, do not have the same density at the center of the compact. As a consequence differences in tensile strength, as measured by diametral compression, are expected. This was confirmed by experimental tests. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Enhancements to the Image Analysis Tool for Core Punch Experiments and Simulations (vs. 2014)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hogden, John Edward [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Unal, Cetin [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2017-11-06

    A previous paper (Hogden & Unal, 2012, Image Analysis Tool for Core Punch Experiments and Simulations) described an image processing computer program developed at Los Alamos National Laboratory. This program has proven useful so developement has been continued. In this paper we describe enhacements to the program as of 2014.

  9. Newborn screening blood spot analysis in the UK: influence of spot size, punch location and haematocrit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawson, A J; Bernstone, L; Hall, S K

    2016-03-01

    In dried blood spot analysis, punch location and variations in applied sample volume and haematocrit can produce different measured concentrations of analytes. We investigated the magnitude of these effects in newborn screening in the UK. Heparinized blood spiked with thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH), phenylalanine, tyrosine, leucine, methionine, octanoyl carnitine (C8), and immunoreactive trypsinogen (IRT) was spotted onto filter paper: (i) at a constant haematocrit of 50% at various volumes, and (ii) at a range of haematocrits using a constant volume. Subpunches (3.2 mm) of the dried blood spots were then analysed. Compared with a central punch from a 50 µL blood spot with 50% haematocrit, 10 µL spots can have significantly lower measured concentrations of all analytes, with decreases of 15% or more observed for leucine, methionine, phenylalanine, and tyrosine. Punching at the edge of a spot can increase measured concentrations up to 35%. Higher haematocrit decreased measured TSH and C8 yet increased amino acids and IRT by 15% compared with 50% haematocrit. Lower haematocrits had the opposite effect, but only with higher concentrations of some analytes. Differences in blood spot size, haematocrit and punch location substantially affect measured concentrations for analytes used in the UK newborn screening programme, and this could affect false positive and negative rates. To minimize analytical bias, these variables should be controlled or adjusted for where possible. © The Author(s) 2015.

  10. Splitting behaviour of timber loaded perpendicular to the grain by punched metal plates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schoenmakers, J.C.M.; Jorissen, A.J.M.; Leijten, A.J.M.; Aratake, S. xx

    2008-01-01

    Nowadays, prefabricated timber trusses are widely used as load-bearing roof structures. The majority of these trusses are produced with punched metal plates (PMP) to connect two or more timber elements of the same thickness, see Figure 2. In these structures sufficient overlap is required to prevent

  11. Analysis of ancient Indian silver punch-marked coins by external PIXE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rautray, Tapash R.; Nayak, Suman S.; Tripathy, Bipin B.; Das, Saubhagyalaxmi; Das, Manas R.; Das, Satya R.; Chattopadhyay, Pranab K.

    2011-01-01

    Seven silver punch-marked coins were analysed using external particle induced X-ray emission technique. The main group of elements like Ag, Cu, Au, Pb and Fe were estimated along with a number of trace/minor elements such as K, Ca, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Co, Ni and Rb in the analysed silver coins. Gold was found in all the coins and varied between 0.7% and 6.2% indicating the better economic condition of that civilisation. - Highlights: → The silver punch-marked coins, in the current study, were in use in India between 6th century BC to 6th century AD and have been analysed by in-air PIXE. → These sets of coins have immense archaeological importance because of their very rare availability. → These coins are distinguished from other coins because of the presence of gold as major element. → While the British period coins were fabricated using modern technologies, the punch-marked coins were shaped manually with developed metal technology. → The analysis of punch-marked coins using external PIXE beam has been done for the first time, which is unique of its kind.

  12. Book review: Introduction to Social Research: Quantitative and Qualitative Approaches, Third Edition, by Keith F Punch

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lecheler, S.

    2014-01-01

    In Introduction to Social Research, Keith F. Punch wants to ‘demystify’ and ‘simplify’ the research process, in an attempt to show that quality research can always be achieved. With its straightforward language, an intuitive structure, and well-defined learning objectives, this book does just that,

  13. Evaluation of Replacement Grafts and Punch Grafts in the Treatment of Vitiligo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Singh Ajit Kumar

    1980-01-01

    Full Text Available Thirtycasesof vitiligo eachwithminimum of two lesions undent replacement graft and multiple punch grafts in one lesion each. Complications observed at the recipient site like infection and raised nigosed surface were significantly more in replacement grafts. Hypopigmentation of the graft was significantly more when the disease was progressive.

  14. Review of Punching Shear Behaviour of Flat Slabs Reinforced with FRP Bars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohamed, Osama A.; Khattab, Rania

    2017-10-01

    Using Fibre Reinforced Polymer (FRP) bars to reinforce two-way concrete slabs can extend the service life, reduce maintenance cost and improve-life cycle cost efficiency. FRP reinforcing bars are more environmentally friendly alternatives to traditional reinforcing steel. Shear behaviour of reinforced concrete structural members is a complex phenomenon that relies on the development of internal load-carrying mechanisms, the magnitude and combination of which is still a subject of research. Many building codes and design standards provide design formulas for estimation of punching shear capacity of FRP reinforced flat slabs. Building code formulas take into account the effects of the axial stiffness of main reinforcement bars, the ratio of the perimeter of the critical section to the slab effective depth, and the slab thickness on the punching shear capacity of two-way slabs reinforced with FRP bars or grids. The goal of this paper is to compare experimental data published in the literature to the equations offered by building codes for the estimation of punching shear capacity of concrete flat slabs reinforced with FRP bars. Emphasis in this paper is on two North American codes, namely, ACI 440.1R-15 and CSA S806-12. The experimental data covered in this paper include flat slabs reinforced with GFRP, BFRP, and CFRP bars. Both ACI 440.1R-15 and CSA S806-12 are shown to be in good agreement with test results in terms of predicting the punching shear capacity.

  15. Effect of CFRP and TRM Strengthening of RC Slabs on Punching Shear Strength

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Husain Abbas

    Full Text Available Abstract The paper presents experiments involving punching of RC slabs strengthened using externally bonded carbon fiber reinforced polymer (CFRP sheet and textile reinforced mortar (TRM. Twelve RC slab specimens of two concrete grades (39.9 and 63.2 MPa and employing two strengthening schemes (CFRP and TRM were tested. Specimens were supported on two opposite edges. Experimental load-displacement variations show two peak loads in strengthened slabs and one peak followed by a plateau in control. Second peak or the plateau corresponds to the combined action of aggregate interlock and the dowel action of back face rebars and strengthening layers. The dowel action of back face rebars and strengthening layers had no role in ultimate punching load (i.e. first peak. Strengthened slabs showed 9-18% increase in ultimate punching load (i.e. first peak whereas there was significant increase in the second peak load (190-276% for CFRP; 55-136% for TRM and energy absorption (~66% for CFRP and 22-56% for TRM. An analytical model was also developed for predicting the punching shear strength (first and second peaks of strengthened slabs showing good comparison with experiments.

  16. HOW BOXERS DECIDE TO PUNCH A TARGET: EMERGENT BEHAVIOUR IN NONLINEAR DYNAMICAL MOVEMENT SYSTEMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Hristovski

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Previous research has shown how dynamical systems theory provides a relevant framework for investigating decision-making behavior in sport. The aim of this study was to adopt concepts and tools from nonlinear dynamics in examining effects of boxer-target distance and perceived punching efficiency on emergent decision-making during a typical practice task in boxing. Results revealed the existence of critical values of scaled distances between boxers and targets for first time appearance and disappearance of a diverse range of boxing actions including jabs, hooks and uppercuts. Reasons for the diversity of actions were twofold: i abrupt (qualitative changes in the number of the possible punches, i.e. motor solutions to the hitting task; and ii, fine modification of the probabilities of selecting specific striking patterns. Boxers were able to exploit the emerging perception of strikeability, leading to a changing diversity of selected actions and a cascade of abrupt changes in the perceptual-motor work space of the task. Perceived efficiency of a punching action by the participants also changed as a function of the scaled distance to a target and was correlated with the probability of occurrence of specific boxing actions. Accordingly, scaled distance-dependent perceived efficiency seems an important perceptual constraint in the training task of punching a heavy bag in boxers

  17. Small Business Innovation Research, Post-Phase II Opportunity Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Hung D.; Steele, Gynelle C.

    2015-01-01

    This report outlines current Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) Post-Phase II opportunity contract award results for the SBIR technology program from 2007 to 2011 for NASA's Aeronautics Research Mission Directorate (ARMD), Human Exploration and Operations Mission Directorate (HEOMD), Science Mission Directorate (SMD), and Space Technology Mission Directorate (STMD). The report provides guidelines for incorporating SBIR technology into NASA programs and projects and provides a quantitative overview of the post-Phase II award patterns that correspond with each mission directorate at NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC). In recent years, one of NASA's goals has been to not only transfer SBIR technologies to commercial industries, but to ensure that NASA mission directorates incorporate SBIR technologies into their program and project activities. Before incorporating technologies into MD programs, it is important to understand each mission directorate structure because each directorate has different objectives and needs. The directorate program structures follow.

  18. Mapping with Small UAS: A Point Cloud Accuracy Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toth, Charles; Jozkow, Grzegorz; Grejner-Brzezinska, Dorota

    2015-12-01

    Interest in using inexpensive Unmanned Aerial System (UAS) technology for topographic mapping has recently significantly increased. Small UAS platforms equipped with consumer grade cameras can easily acquire high-resolution aerial imagery allowing for dense point cloud generation, followed by surface model creation and orthophoto production. In contrast to conventional airborne mapping systems, UAS has limited ground coverage due to low flying height and limited flying time, yet it offers an attractive alternative to high performance airborne systems, as the cost of the sensors and platform, and the flight logistics, is relatively low. In addition, UAS is better suited for small area data acquisitions and to acquire data in difficult to access areas, such as urban canyons or densely built-up environments. The main question with respect to the use of UAS is whether the inexpensive consumer sensors installed in UAS platforms can provide the geospatial data quality comparable to that provided by conventional systems. This study aims at the performance evaluation of the current practice of UAS-based topographic mapping by reviewing the practical aspects of sensor configuration, georeferencing and point cloud generation, including comparisons between sensor types and processing tools. The main objective is to provide accuracy characterization and practical information for selecting and using UAS solutions in general mapping applications. The analysis is based on statistical evaluation as well as visual examination of experimental data acquired by a Bergen octocopter with three different image sensor configurations, including a GoPro HERO3+ Black Edition, a Nikon D800 DSLR and a Velodyne HDL-32. In addition, georeferencing data of varying quality were acquired and evaluated. The optical imagery was processed by using three commercial point cloud generation tools. Comparing point clouds created by active and passive sensors by using different quality sensors, and finally

  19. Very heavy iron-punching concretes; Betons tres lourds a base de riblons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dubois, F [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay(France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1966-07-01

    The present report deals with all the heavy iron-punching concretes, metallic wastes produced by the transformation industry. After a detailed description of the physical properties of metallic aggregates, a classification of heavy mortars is given, into three main categories: steel-shot grouts d = 5,3 - 6; steel-shot grouts mixed with a mineral d = 3,7 - 4,2; injection heavy grouts d = 3,5 - 4. The following chapter describes iron-punching concretes the most used in the atomic industry: iron-punching concretes mixed with cast-iron - iron-punching concretes mixed with magnetite; iron-punching concretes mixed with barite; iron-punching concretes mixed with limonite; iron-punching concretes mixed with boron. The compositions of these concretes are given together with their physical and mechanical characteristics. Numerous diagrams make it possible to find rapidly the proportions of the constituents of these concretes as a function of the required density. Technical advice and specifications are given in an appendix together with a bibliography of these heavy concretes. (author) [French] Le present rapport traite de l'ensemble des betons lourds realises a l'aide de riblons, dechets metalliques fournis par l'industrie de transformation. Apres une description detaillee des proprietes physiques des agregats metalliques, les mortiers lourds sont d'abord presentes en les classant en trois grandes categories: les mortiers a base de grenailles d 5,3 a 6; les mortiers a base de grenailles avec addition d'un mineral d 3,7 a 4,2; les mortiers lourds injectables d = 3,5 a 4. Le chapitre suivant decrit les betons a base de riblons les plus utilises, dans l'industrie atomique: les betons de riblons avec addition de fonte; les betons de riblons avec addition de magnetite; les betons de riblons avec addition de barytine; les betons de riblons avec addition de limonite; les betons de riblons avec addition de bore. Les compositions de ces betons ainsi que leurs caracteristiques

  20. Very heavy iron-punching concretes; Betons tres lourds a base de riblons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dubois, F. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay(France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1966-07-01

    The present report deals with all the heavy iron-punching concretes, metallic wastes produced by the transformation industry. After a detailed description of the physical properties of metallic aggregates, a classification of heavy mortars is given, into three main categories: steel-shot grouts d = 5,3 - 6; steel-shot grouts mixed with a mineral d = 3,7 - 4,2; injection heavy grouts d = 3,5 - 4. The following chapter describes iron-punching concretes the most used in the atomic industry: iron-punching concretes mixed with cast-iron - iron-punching concretes mixed with magnetite; iron-punching concretes mixed with barite; iron-punching concretes mixed with limonite; iron-punching concretes mixed with boron. The compositions of these concretes are given together with their physical and mechanical characteristics. Numerous diagrams make it possible to find rapidly the proportions of the constituents of these concretes as a function of the required density. Technical advice and specifications are given in an appendix together with a bibliography of these heavy concretes. (author) [French] Le present rapport traite de l'ensemble des betons lourds realises a l'aide de riblons, dechets metalliques fournis par l'industrie de transformation. Apres une description detaillee des proprietes physiques des agregats metalliques, les mortiers lourds sont d'abord presentes en les classant en trois grandes categories: les mortiers a base de grenailles d 5,3 a 6; les mortiers a base de grenailles avec addition d'un mineral d 3,7 a 4,2; les mortiers lourds injectables d = 3,5 a 4. Le chapitre suivant decrit les betons a base de riblons les plus utilises, dans l'industrie atomique: les betons de riblons avec addition de fonte; les betons de riblons avec addition de magnetite; les betons de riblons avec addition de barytine; les betons de riblons avec addition de limonite; les betons de riblons avec addition de bore. Les compositions de ces betons ainsi que

  1. Site Suitability and Hazard Assessment Guide for Small Modular Reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wayne Moe

    2013-10-01

    Commercial nuclear reactor projects in the U.S. have traditionally employed large light water reactors (LWR) to generate regional supplies of electricity. Although large LWRs have consistently dominated commercial nuclear markets both domestically and abroad, the concept of small modular reactors (SMRs) capable of producing between 30 MW(t) and 900 MW(t) to generating steam for electricity is not new. Nor is the idea of locating small nuclear reactors in close proximity to and in physical connection with industrial processes to provide a long-term source of thermal energy. Growing problems associated continued use of fossil fuels and enhancements in efficiency and safety because of recent advancements in reactor technology suggest that the likelihood of near-term SMR technology(s) deployment at multiple locations within the United States is growing. Many different types of SMR technology are viable for siting in the domestic commercial energy market. However, the potential application of a particular proprietary SMR design will vary according to the target heat end-use application and the site upon which it is proposed to be located. Reactor heat applications most commonly referenced in connection with the SMR market include electric power production, district heating, desalinization, and the supply of thermal energy to various processes that require high temperature over long time periods, or a combination thereof. Indeed, the modular construction, reliability and long operational life purported to be associated with some SMR concepts now being discussed may offer flexibility and benefits no other technology can offer. Effective siting is one of the many early challenges that face a proposed SMR installation project. Site-specific factors dealing with support to facility construction and operation, risks to the plant and the surrounding area, and the consequences subsequent to those risks must be fully identified, analyzed, and possibly mitigated before a license

  2. Assessment of the world market for small and medium reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Csik, B.J.

    1998-01-01

    The market for SMRs until 2015 was assessed by individual countries, taking into account energy demand and supply patterns, growth rates, energy resources, economic and financial resources, electric grids, industrial and technical development, infrastructure availability, environmental and nuclear safety concerns and other policy issues. The market assessment includes all applications of these reactors, that is electricity generation as well as the supply of process head and district heating. It is expected that SMRs will be deployed primarily in countries which have already started nuclear projects, in particular in countries which have developed SMR designs themselves. Thus, projects would be supplied predominantly by domestic sources in the years ahead; later, the export market is expected to attain more importance. It is further expected that over two thirds of the SMR units would be in the medium size range, i.e. from 300 to 700 MW(e), the rest would be smaller. About one third of the SMRs to be implemented are expected to supply heat and/or electricity to integrated seawater desalination plants. More than half of these reactors would be below 300 MW(e) or 1000 MW(th). The overall market is estimated at about 60 to 100 SMR units to be implemented up to the year 2015. It is recognized that forecasts, just like national development plans, tend to err on the optimistic side. Therefore, an overall market estimate of 70 to 80 units seems reasonable. (author)

  3. Small Unmanned Aircraft Electromagnetic Interference (EMI) Initial Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Jaewoo; Ippolito, Corey; Rogers, Christopher; Kerczewski, Robert; Downey, Alan; Matheou, Konstantin

    2018-01-01

    With many applications envisioned for small Unmanned Aircraft Systems (sUAS), and potentially millions of sUAS expected to be in operation in the future, the electromagnetic interference environment associated with the sUAS is of interest to understanding the potential performance impacts on the sUAS command and control communications link as well as the sUAS payload and payload links. As part of NASAâ€"TM"s UAS Traffic Management (UTM) Project, flight experiments are planned to characterize the RF environment at altitudes up to 400 ft to better understand how UTM command and control links can be expected to perform. The flight experiments will use an RF channel sensing payload attached to an sUAS. In terms of the payload being capable of measuring relatively low level signals at altitude, electromagnetic interference (EMI) emanating from the sUAS vehicle itself could potentially complicate the measurement process. For this reason, NASA was interested in measuring the EMI performance of the sUAS planned for these flight experiments, a DJI model S1000. The S1000 was thus measured in a controlled EMI test chamber at the NASA Ames Research Center. The S1000 is a carbon fiber based platform with eight rotors. As such, the EMI test results represent potential performance of a number of similar sUAS types. sUAS platforms significantly different from the S1000 may also require EMI testing, and the method employed for NASAâ€"TM"s S1000 EMI tests can be applied to other platforms. In this paper we describe the UTM project, the RF channel sensing payload, the EMI testing method and EMI test results for the S1000, and discuss the implications of these results.

  4. Effect of cutter tip angle on cutting characteristics of acrylic worksheet subjected to punch/die shearing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masami Kojima

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to describe the effect of tool geometry on cutting characteristics of a 1.0 mm thickness acrylic worksheet subjected to a punch/die shearing. A set of side-wedge punch and side-wedge die which had the edge angle of 30°, 60° and/or 90° was prepared and used for cutting off the worksheet. A load cell and a CCD camera were installed in the cutting system to investigate the cutting load resistance and the side-view deformation of the worksheet. From experimental results, it was revealed that a cracking pattern at a sheared zone was remarkably affected by the edge angle of cutting tool. A cracking direction was almost coincident to the edge angle when considering the punch/die edge angle of 30°, while any matching of them was not observed in case of the punch/die edge angle of 60°, 90°. By using the 30° side-wedge tool, a flat-smooth sheared surface was generated. When combing the punch edge angle of 90° and the die edge angle of 60°, the cracking profile was characterized by the both edge angles for each part (die and punch. Carrying out an elasto-plastic finite element method analysis of cutter indentation with a few of symmetric and asymmetric punch/die edges, the stress distribution and deformation flow at the sheared zone were discussed with the initiation of surface cracks

  5. The assessment of helium purification system of small power HTGR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siti Alimah; Sriyono

    2016-01-01

    The helium purification system (HPS) is one of safety system of High Temperature Gas-cooled Reactor. HPS removes impurities in the primary coolant, so that the impact on structure, system and component (SSC) is minimized. The two impurity types are particulates (carbon dust, fission products (Kr, Xe, Cs etc.) and the gases (O_2, N_2, H_2O, CH_4, CO, CO_2 and H_2). Every reactor has a different impurity limit during normal operation, depends on the reactor power, energy conversion system and fuel type. This paper discusses the HPS on HTR-10, HTTR and Indonesian RDE conceptual design. The purpose of this assessment is to determine the optimum HPS design as a role model for Indonesian RDE. The utilized methodology is a literature study based on the operating experiences of both HTR-10 and HTTR as well as the evaluation of RDE conceptual design. This study focuses on the impurities limit during normal operation, the main components of HPS, mass flow-rate and regeneration process. The main component that used in HPS for HTR-10, HTTR and RDE are similar i.e. filter, CuO column, water cooler, molecular sieve bed and cryogenic activated carbon bed. Refer to the HTR-10 and HTTR operational experiences, both of those reactors have a purification systems that capable to maintain the helium purity, even though the impurities limit are different. The HPS of HTTR Japan has a stricter impurities limit that N_2, CH_4, and O_2 should not be contained at all during normal operation and the pre-charcoal trap is used to adsorb the fine dust below 0.1 micron. Both of these parameters can be adopted to the RDE's HPS design to minimize the effect of impurities to SSC. (author)

  6. Small Business Contracting in the United States and Europe: A Comparative Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-01

    unlimited. Prepared for: Naval Postgraduate School, Monterey, California 93943 SMALL BUSINESS CONTRACTING IN THE UNITED STATES AND EUROPE: A...COMPARATIVE ASSESSMENT by Max Kidalov, Assistant Professor Procurement Law & Policy March 2010 Graduate School of Business & Public Policy...Daniel T. Oliver Leonard A. Ferrari President Executive Vice President and Provost The report entitled “Small Business Contracting in

  7. Pleuroscopic punch biopsy using insulated-tip diathermic knife-2 for the diagnosis of desmoplastic malignant mesothelioma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masai, Kyohei; Sasada, Shinji; Izumo, Takehiro; Taniyama, Tomoko; Nakamura, Yukiko; Chavez, Christine; Sakurai, Hiroyuki; Tsuta, Koji; Tsuchida, Takaaki

    2013-10-01

    Desmoplastic malignant mesothelioma (DMM) is a rare subtype of malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM) and is often difficult to distinguish from pleural fibrosis and reactive mesothelial hyperplasia, especially if the biopsy samples are small. We performed full-thickness pleural biopsy on a lesion suspected to be DMM using an insulated-tip diathermic knife-2 (IT knife-2) during flex-rigid pleuroscopy. IT knife-2 is a novel electrosurgical device for endoscopic submucosal dissection in the early gastrointestinal cancer. It consists of a needle knife with 3 short blades at the distal end attached to an insulated ceramic tip. A 54-year-old man presenting with chest wall mass and thickened pleura, in whom a computed tomography-guided percutaneous needle aspiration had remained negative, underwent flex-rigid pleuroscopy for definitive diagnosis. While applying electric current, we used the IT knife-2 to incise the pleura in a circular shape just above the endothoracic fascia. The incised pleura was removed by forceps and examined pathologically. The microscopic examination was compatible with DMM. We discovered that pleuroscopic punch biopsy using IT knife-2 can diagnose DMM. Use of IT knife-2 during flex-rigid pleuroscopy can obtain sufficient samples from densely thickened pleura, which is difficult to diagnose with small biopsies.

  8. Highly sensitive photodetector based on ge double-barrier punch-through structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdulkhaev O. A.

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, transmission and reception systems of optical signals are widely used. Receiving the optical signal in such systems is carried by photoreceiving modules based on a photodetector, which defines the quality of the received signal, the range and speed of the entire system. However, hitherto used p–i–n- and avalanche photodiodes do not fully meet the growing demands. The present work is devoted to investigate the photovoltaic characteristics of semiconductor thin base transistor structure based on germanium, which is superior the silicon counterparts by speed and gain. Investigated p+–n–p-structures were obtained by diffusion of antimony onto the substrate of p-type germanium to a depth of 1 micron and alloying of indium to the part of its surface which creates diffusion layer of ?+-type and with thickness of 0,5 microns. Experiments have shown that the reverse biasing of a single p+-n-emitter-base junction leads to a smooth increase in reverse current, at the same time when it is connected in series to forward biased collector p-n-junction there is a sharp increase in the current by voltage, giving properties of voltage surge suppressor. This behavior of the current-voltage characteristics can be explained by the punch-through effect when the space charge regions of the emitter junction and the space charge region of collector junction touch each other and the conditions are realized for double carrier injection into a fully depleted region of the transistor. At the same time giving small fixed voltages 0,1—0,15 V to the collector-base junction the output static characteristics can be received with an operating voltage of 3—3,5 V. A characteristic feature of the investigated transistor is that when the base region under illumination by integrated light intensity (50 and 3000 lux light current appears, whose magnitude with the increase of operating voltage (up to 1.7 V increases nonlinearly, resulting in increased

  9. Gastric transit and small intestinal transit time and motility assessed by a magnet tracking system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Worsøe, Jonas; Fynne, Lotte; Gregersen, Tine; Schlageter, Vincent; Christensen, Lisbet A; Dahlerup, Jens F; Rijkhoff, Nico J M; Laurberg, Søren; Krogh, Klaus

    2011-12-29

    Tracking an ingested magnet by the Magnet Tracking System MTS-1 (Motilis, Lausanne, Switzerland) is an easy and minimally-invasive method to assess gastrointestinal transit. The aim was to test the validity of MTS-1 for assessment of gastric transit time and small intestinal transit time, and to illustrate transit patterns detected by the system. A small magnet was ingested and tracked by an external matrix of 16 magnetic field sensors (4 × 4) giving a position defined by 5 coordinates (position: x, y, z, and angle: θ, φ). Eight healthy subjects were each investigated three times: (1) with a small magnet mounted on a capsule endoscope (PillCam); (2) with the magnet alone and the small intestine in the fasting state; and (3) with the magnet alone and the small intestine in the postprandial state. Experiment (1) showed good agreement and no systematic differences between MTS-1 and capsule endoscopy when assessing gastric transit (median difference 1 min; range: 0-6 min) and small intestinal transit time (median difference 0.5 min; range: 0-52 min). Comparing experiments (1) and (2) there were no systematic differences in gastric transit or small intestinal transit when using the magnet-PillCam unit and the much smaller magnetic pill. In experiments (2) and (3), short bursts of very fast movements lasting less than 5% of the time accounted for more than half the distance covered during the first two hours in the small intestine, irrespective of whether the small intestine was in the fasting or postprandial state. The mean contraction frequency in the small intestine was significantly lower in the fasting state than in the postprandial state (9.90 min-1 vs. 10.53 min-1) (p = 0.03). MTS-1 is reliable for determination of gastric transit and small intestinal transit time. It is possible to distinguish between the mean contraction frequency of small intestine in the fasting state and in the postprandial state.

  10. The development of a tensile-shear punch correlation for yield properties of model austenitic alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hankin, G.L.; Faulkner, R.G. [Loughborough Univ. (United Kingdom); Hamilton, M.L.; Garner, F.A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab., Richland, WA (United States)

    1997-08-01

    The effective shear yield and maximum strengths of a set of neutron-irradiated, isotopically tailored austentic alloys were evaluated using the shear punch test. The dependence on composition and neutron dose showed the same trends as were observed in the corresponding miniature tensile specimen study conducted earlier. A single tensile-shear punch correlation was developed for the three alloys in which the maximum shear stress or Tresca criterion was successfully applied to predict the slope. The correlation will predict the tensile yield strength of the three different austenitic alloys tested to within {+-}53 MPa. The accuracy of the correlation improves with increasing material strength, to within {+-} MPa for predicting tensile yield strengths in the range of 400-800 MPa.

  11. A possible mechanism for electron-bombardment-induced loop punching in helium-implanted materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Donnelly, S.E.

    1983-01-01

    The recently proposed mechanism for the punching of dislocation loops by overpressurized helium bubbles in molybdenum is studied quantitatively. According to this mechanism, under the electron beam of the transmission microscope, He atoms are excited or ionized and the resulting excited species (excited He atoms and free electrons) are responsible for the pressure rise in the gas beyond the threshold for loop punching. In the model, the pressure increase is attributed to a reduction of the effective volume accessible to the gas due to the formation of a cavity around each excited species. The radius of this cavity is evaluated and, also, the excited fraction required to reach the threshold is discussed in terms of excitation life times. (author)

  12. Cone penetrometer tests and HydroPunch sampling: A screening technique for plume definition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smolley, M.; Kappmeyer, J.C.

    1991-01-01

    Cone penetrometer tests and HydroPunch sampling were used to define the extent of volatile organic compounds in ground water. The investigation indicated that the combination of the these techniques is effective for obtaining ground water samples for preliminary plume definition. HydroPunch samples can be collected in unconsolidated sediments and the analytical results obtained from these samples are comparable to those obtained from adjacent monitoring wells. This sampling method is a rapid and cost-effective screening technique for characterizing the extent of contaminant plumes in soft sediment environments. Use of this screening technique allowed monitoring wells to be located at the plume boundary, thereby reducing the number of wells installed and the overall cost of the plume definition program

  13. The development of a tensile-shear punch correlation for yield properties of model austenitic alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hankin, G.L.; Faulkner, R.G.; Hamilton, M.L.; Garner, F.A.

    1997-01-01

    The effective shear yield and maximum strengths of a set of neutron-irradiated, isotopically tailored austentic alloys were evaluated using the shear punch test. The dependence on composition and neutron dose showed the same trends as were observed in the corresponding miniature tensile specimen study conducted earlier. A single tensile-shear punch correlation was developed for the three alloys in which the maximum shear stress or Tresca criterion was successfully applied to predict the slope. The correlation will predict the tensile yield strength of the three different austenitic alloys tested to within ±53 MPa. The accuracy of the correlation improves with increasing material strength, to within ± MPa for predicting tensile yield strengths in the range of 400-800 MPa

  14. Introducing a Method for Social-ecological Assessment of Small Urban Parks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zanariah Jasman

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Small parks in cities are important to support overall urban biodiversity and ecological network. The aim of this paper is to introduce a method of identifying and assessing the ecological characteristics and anthropogenic factors of small urban parks. We developed a framework that combined structured observation and field measurement. The method suggests an integrative assessment that is practical and understandable to the park planners and managers to enhance small parks to support overall urban biodiversity and ecosystem services. High biodiversity can provide opportunities for humans to experience nature and wildlife in cities, thus contributing to the quality of life of urban dwellers.

  15. Punching above their weight: the role of networking in SMEs

    OpenAIRE

    Harris, Lisa; Rae, Alan; Misner, Ivan

    2011-01-01

    Purpose:We draw upon the findings of a research project which investigated networking styles by owner/managers of small businesses. Our specific objective was to analyse the impact of such networking activities on business growth to develop a taxonomy of networking based on size, business model and attitudes of the owner to their use of online and offline networking.Design/methodology/approach: Our data comes from analysis of an online survey completed by 645 firms based in both the USA and E...

  16. Love-type wave propagation in a pre-stressed viscoelastic medium influenced by smooth moving punch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, A. K.; Parween, Z.; Chatterjee, M.; Chattopadhyay, A.

    2015-04-01

    In the present paper, a mathematical model studying the effect of smooth moving semi-infinite punch on the propagation of Love-type wave in an initially stressed viscoelastic strip is developed. The dynamic stress concentration due to the punch for the force of a constant intensity has been obtained in the closed form. Method based on Weiner-hopf technique which is indicated by Matczynski has been employed. The study manifests the significant effect of various affecting parameters viz. speed of moving punch associated with Love-type wave speed, horizontal compressive/tensile initial stress, vertical compressive/tensile initial stress, frequency parameter, and viscoelastic parameter on dynamic stress concentration due to semi-infinite punch. Moreover, some important peculiarities have been traced out and depicted by means of graphs.

  17. Comparison between full- and small-scale sensory assessments of air quality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wargocki, Pawel; Sabikova, J.; Lagercrantz, Love Per

    2002-01-01

    Thirty-nine untrained subjects made small- and full-scale evaluations of the acceptability of the quality of air at 22 deg.C and 40% RH, polluted by either carpet, felt floor covering, painted gypsum board, linoleum or chipboard. Small-scale evaluations were made on the air extracted from 200-L......-scale sensory ratings of acceptability of air polluted by carpet and by linoleum were systematically better than small-scale assessments, but not for the other three materials. Calculated sensory emission rates from carpet and linoleum were significantly lower in full scale than in small scale. When modelling...

  18. Using "EC-Assess" to Assess a Small Biofuels Project in Honduras

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngassa, Franklin Chamda

    2010-01-01

    Biofuels may contribute to both rural economic development and climate change mitigation and adaptation. The Gota Verde Project in Yoro, Honduras, attempts to demonstrate the technical and economic feasibility of small-scale biofuel production for local use by implementing a distinctive approach to feedstock production that encourages small farm…

  19. Hot embossing and mechanical punching of biodegradable microcontainers for oral drug delivery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Ritika Singh; Mahshid, Rasoul; Andersen, Nis Korsgaard

    2015-01-01

    A process has been developed to fabricate discrete three-dimensional microcontainers for oral drug delivery application in Poly-L-Lactic Acid (PLLA) polymer. The method combines hot embossing for the definition of holes in a PLLA film and mechanical punching to penetrate the polymer layer around...... and shapes of microcontainers. Finally, the process is compatible with roll-to-roll processing that could lead to low cost high volume production. © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved....

  20. Treatment of Die-Punch Fractures with 3D Printing Technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chunhui; Cai, Leyi; Zhang, Chuanxu; Wang, Jianshun; Guo, Xiaoshan; Zhou, Yifei

    2017-07-19

    We evaluated the feasibility, accuracy and effectiveness of applying three-dimensional (3D) printing technology for preoperative planning for die-punch fractures. A total of 107 patients who underwent die-punch fracture surgery were enrolled in the study. They were randomly divided into two groups: 52 cases in the 3D model group and 55 cases in the routine group. A 3D digital model of each die-punch fracture was reconstructed in the 3D group. The 3D digital model was imported to a 3D printer to build the full solid model. The operation time, blood loss volume, and the number of intraoperative fluoroscopy were recorded. Follow-up was performed to evaluate the patients' surgical outcomes. Treatment of die-punch fractures using the 3D printing approach reduced the number of intraoperative fluoroscopy, blood loss volume, and operation time, but did not improve wrist function compared to those in the routine group. The patients wanted the doctor to use the 3D model to introduce the condition and operative plan because it was easier for them to understand. The orthopedic surgeons thought that the 3D model was useful for communicating with their patients, but their satisfaction with the preoperative plan was much lower than the benefit of using the 3D model to communicate with their patients. 3D printing technology produced more accurate morphometric information for orthopedists to provide personalized surgical planning and communicate better with their patients. However, it is difficult to use widely in the department of orthopedics.

  1. The Effects of Biomechanical Factors to Teach Different Hook Punch Techniques in Boxing and Education Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bingul, Bergun Meric; Bulgun, Cigdem; Tore, Ozlem; Bal, Erdal; Aydin, Mensure

    2018-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of biomechanic factors to teach different hook punches in boxing. Eight light middleweight boxing athletes (mean age ± SD 19.00 ± 2.00 yrs, mean height ± SD 173.88 ± 3.89 cm, mean weight ± SD 64.25 ± 4.66 kg) participated in this study. Athletes performed a trial using three different hook punch…

  2. Experimental and numerical analysis of micromechanical damage in the punching process for High-Strength Low-Alloy steels

    OpenAIRE

    ACHOURI, Mohamed; GERMAIN, Guénaël; DAL SANTO, Philippe; SAIDANE, Delphine

    2014-01-01

    Sequential sheet metal forming processes can result in the accumulation of work hardening and damage effects in the workpiece material. The mechanical strength of the final component depends on the “evolution” of these two characteristics in the different production steps. The punching process, which is usually in the beginning of the production chain, has an important impact on the stress, strain and damage states in the punched zones. It is essential that the influence of these mechanical f...

  3. Examining the microtexture evolution in a hole-edge punched into 780 MPa grade hot-rolled steel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shin, J.H.; Kim, M.S. [Department of Printed Electronics Engineering, Sunchon National University, 315 Maegok, Sunchon, Jeonnam 540-950 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, S.I.; Seo, S.J. [POSCO Technical Research Laboratories, Gwangyang 545-090 (Korea, Republic of); Choi, S.-H., E-mail: shihoon@sunchon.ac.kr [Department of Printed Electronics Engineering, Sunchon National University, 315 Maegok, Sunchon, Jeonnam 540-950 (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-08-15

    The deformation behavior in the hole-edge of 780 MPa grade hot-rolled steel during the punching process was investigated via microstructure characterization and computational simulation. Microstructure characterization was conducted to observe the edges of punched holes through the thickness direction, and electron back-scattered diffraction (EBSD) was used to analyze the heterogeneity of the deformation. Finite element analysis (FEA) that could account for a ductile fracture criterion was conducted to simulate the deformation and fracture behaviors of 780 MPa grade hot-rolled steel during the punching process. Calculation of rotation rate fields at the edges of the punched holes during the punching process revealed that metastable orientations in Euler space were confined to specific orientation groups. Rotation-rate fields effectively explained the stability of the initial texture components in the hole-edge region during the punching process. A visco-plastic self-consistent (VPSC) polycrystal model was used to calculate the microtexture evolution in the hole-edge region during the punching process. FEA revealed that the heterogeneous effective strain was closely related to the heterogeneity of the Kernel average misorientation (KAM) distribution in the hole-edge region. A simulation of the deformation microtexture evolution in the hole-edge region using a VPSC model was in good agreement with the experimental results. - Highlights: •We analyzed the microstructure in a hole-edge punched in HR 780HB steel. •Rotation rate fields revealed the stability of the initial texture components. •Heterogeneous effective stain was closely related to the KAM distribution. •VPSC model successfully simulated the deformation microtexture evolution.

  4. Cost Optimization on Energy Consumption of Punching Machine Based on Green Manufacturing Method at PT Buana Intan Gemilang

    OpenAIRE

    Prillia Ayudia; Rachmat Haris; Mulyana Tatang

    2017-01-01

    PT Buana Intan Gemilang is a company engaged in textile industry. The curtain textile production need punching machine to control the fabric process. The operator still works manually so it takes high cost of electrical energy consumption. So to solve the problem can implement green manufacturing on punching machine. The method include firstly to identify the color by classifying the company into the black, brown, gray or green color categories using questionnaire. Secondly is improvement are...

  5. Repetitive forging (RF) using inclined punches as a new bulk severe plastic deformation method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Babaei, A. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University College of Engineering, University of Tehran, Tehran 11155-4563 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Faraji, G., E-mail: ghfaraji@ut.ac.ir [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University College of Engineering, University of Tehran, Tehran 11155-4563 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Department of Engineering Design and Manufacture, University of Malaya, 50603 Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia); Mashhadi, M.M. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University College of Engineering, University of Tehran, Tehran 11155-4563 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Hamdi, M. [Department of Engineering Design and Manufacture, University of Malaya, 50603 Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia)

    2012-12-15

    A new bulk severe plastic deformation method based on repetitive forging (RF) using inclined punches is proposed. This process consists of two half cycles. In the first half cycle, a square cross section deforms to parallelogram by forging with two inclined punches, and the parallelogram cross section is forged back to square using two flat punches in the second half cycle. This method was applied to commercially pure copper and significant grain refinement was achieved after four passes of RF. The results showed that significant improvement in the mechanical properties was obtained. Notable increase of yield and ultimate strengths corresponding to 358 MPa and 381 MPa after four passes of RF from the initial values of 121 MPa and 230.5 MPa is detectable. Microhardness increases to about 100 Hv after four passes of RF from the initial value of 53 Hv. Finite element (FE) results illustrate that RF is able to impose extremely high plastic strains to the materials. In the RF process, the processed samples have the same dimensions and geometry as those of the initial sample without any waste material and there is no need for back pressure.

  6. Circumferential scouting punch biopsies to delineate surgical margin for dermatofibrosarcoma protuberans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsung-Mao Huang

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Dermatofibrosarcoma protuberans (DFSP is an uncommon soft-tissue tumor involving the dermis and subcutaneous tissue with a high local recurrence rate after standard excision. Mohs micrographic surgery offers a lower recurrence rate. However, the procedure requires multiple stages of excision with intraoperative histopathological mapping, which is time consuming and expensive. We report our experience of using circumferential scouting punch biopsy technique in five patients to determine in advance the resection margins for DFSP prior to wide excision. Multiple 4 mm punches, usually eight in number, were performed 1–2.5 cm around the palpable borders of DFSP to delineate the resection margins in five consecutive patients. Tumors were excised at a later date along the margin defined by these biopsies and the wounds were repaired with skin graft. The operation was completed in 2 hours in all cases excluding one that required frozen sections for deep margin. No recurrence was noted 2–10 years after the operations. The results suggest that circumferential scouting punch biopsies before wide excision may be an alternative method to define the resection margins for DFSP when Mohs surgery is not available.

  7. Using Teamcenter engineering software for a successive punching tool lifecycle management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blaga, F.; Pele, A.-V.; Stǎnǎşel, I.; Buidoş, T.; Hule, V.

    2015-11-01

    The paper presents studies and researches results of the implementation of Teamcenter (TC) integrated management of a product lifecycle, in a virtual enterprise. The results are able to be implemented also in a real enterprise. The product was considered a successive punching and cutting tool, designed to materialize a metal sheet part. The paper defines the technical documentation flow (flow of information) in the process of constructive computer aided design of the tool. After the design phase is completed a list of parts is generated containing standard or manufactured components (BOM, Bill of Materials). The BOM may be exported to MS Excel (.xls) format and can be transferred to other departments of the company in order to supply the necessary materials and resources to achieve the final product. This paper describes the procedure to modify or change certain dimensions of sheet metal part obtained by punching. After 3D and 2D design, the digital prototype of punching tool moves to following lifecycle phase of the manufacturing process. For each operation of the technological process the corresponding phases are described in detail. Teamcenter enables to describe manufacturing company structure, underlying workstations that carry out various operations of manufacturing process. The paper revealed that the implementation of Teamcenter PDM in a company, improves efficiency of managing product information, eliminating time working with search, verification and correction of documentation, while ensuring the uniqueness and completeness of the product data.

  8. Small group learning: effect on item analysis and accuracy of self-assessment of medical students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biswas, Shubho Subrata; Jain, Vaishali; Agrawal, Vandana; Bindra, Maninder

    2015-01-01

    Small group sessions are regarded as a more active and student-centered approach to learning. Item analysis provides objective evidence of whether such sessions improve comprehension and make the topic easier for students, in addition to assessing the relative benefit of the sessions to good versus poor performers. Self-assessment makes students aware of their deficiencies. Small group sessions can also help students develop the ability to self-assess. This study was carried out to assess the effect of small group sessions on item analysis and students' self-assessment. A total of 21 female and 29 male first year medical students participated in a small group session on topics covered by didactic lectures two weeks earlier. It was preceded and followed by two multiple choice question (MCQ) tests, in which students were asked to self-assess their likely score. The MCQs used were item analyzed in a previous group and were chosen of matching difficulty and discriminatory indices for the pre- and post-tests. The small group session improved the marks of both genders equally, but female performance was better. The session made the items easier; increasing the difficulty index significantly but there was no significant alteration in the discriminatory index. There was overestimation in the self-assessment of both genders, but male overestimation was greater. The session improved the self-assessment of students in terms of expected marks and expectation of passing. Small group session improved the ability of students to self-assess their knowledge and increased the difficulty index of items reflecting students' better performance.

  9. Strategic Environmental Assessment practices in European small islands: Insights from Azores and Orkney islands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Polido, Alexandra, E-mail: a.polido@campus.fct.unl.pt [CENSE, Center for Environmental and Sustainability Research, Departamento de Ciências e Engenharia do Ambiente, Faculdade de Ciências e Tecnologia, Universidade NOVA de Lisboa, Campus da Caparica, 2829-516 Caparica (Portugal); João, Elsa, E-mail: elsa.joao@strath.ac.uk [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of Strathclyde, Level 5, James Weir Building, 75 Montrose Street, Glasgow G1 1XJ, Scotland (United Kingdom); Ramos, Tomás B., E-mail: tabr@fct.unl.pt [CENSE, Center for Environmental and Sustainability Research, Departamento de Ciências e Engenharia do Ambiente, Faculdade de Ciências e Tecnologia, Universidade NOVA de Lisboa, Campus da Caparica, 2829-516 Caparica (Portugal)

    2016-02-15

    The literature concerning Strategic Environmental Assessment (SEA) often refers to the importance of context-specific approaches. However, there is a lack of systematised and consistent studies that enhance tailor-made SEA practices and procedures. Small islands are bounded units of study which may help explore SEA theory and practice in special territories. Small islands present particular features and unique values, such as, small size and population, geographic isolation, limited resources and vulnerable ecosystems. Hence, the main goal of this research was to profile SEA practices and procedures in European small islands and provide a background for future research aiming to improve context-specific SEA applications. To achieve this goal, an exploratory case study was developed using Azores (Portugal) and Orkney (Scotland) archipelagos. An analysis of the corresponding mainland was also carried out to contextualise both case studies. The data collection was achieved through a qualitative content analysis of 43 Environmental Reports. The research found that there is not an SEA context-specific approach used within these European small islands, including guidelines, assessment topics, assessment techniques, follow-up and stakeholders engagement. The debate concerning specific approaches to small islands must be re-focused on the enhancement of SEA capacity-building amongst different stakeholders (including decision-makers), on the development and implementation of collaborative approaches, and on the exchange of knowledge and experiences between small islands networks. - Highlights: • Reviewed the differences between the Portuguese and Scottish SEA system • Showed a low integration of SEA specific features in reports of European small islands • Provides background for future SEA research for small islands approaches.

  10. Strategic Environmental Assessment practices in European small islands: Insights from Azores and Orkney islands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Polido, Alexandra; João, Elsa; Ramos, Tomás B.

    2016-01-01

    The literature concerning Strategic Environmental Assessment (SEA) often refers to the importance of context-specific approaches. However, there is a lack of systematised and consistent studies that enhance tailor-made SEA practices and procedures. Small islands are bounded units of study which may help explore SEA theory and practice in special territories. Small islands present particular features and unique values, such as, small size and population, geographic isolation, limited resources and vulnerable ecosystems. Hence, the main goal of this research was to profile SEA practices and procedures in European small islands and provide a background for future research aiming to improve context-specific SEA applications. To achieve this goal, an exploratory case study was developed using Azores (Portugal) and Orkney (Scotland) archipelagos. An analysis of the corresponding mainland was also carried out to contextualise both case studies. The data collection was achieved through a qualitative content analysis of 43 Environmental Reports. The research found that there is not an SEA context-specific approach used within these European small islands, including guidelines, assessment topics, assessment techniques, follow-up and stakeholders engagement. The debate concerning specific approaches to small islands must be re-focused on the enhancement of SEA capacity-building amongst different stakeholders (including decision-makers), on the development and implementation of collaborative approaches, and on the exchange of knowledge and experiences between small islands networks. - Highlights: • Reviewed the differences between the Portuguese and Scottish SEA system • Showed a low integration of SEA specific features in reports of European small islands • Provides background for future SEA research for small islands approaches

  11. Mercury use in small scale gold mining in Ghana: an assessment of its impact on miners

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biagya, Robert Yakubu

    2002-12-01

    Small scale gold mining is responsible for about 5% of Ghana’s annual gold production. It is estimated that between 80,000 and 100,000 people are engaged in small scale gold mining either on part-time or permanent basis. Amalgamation is the preferred method used by small scale gold miners for extracting free gold from its ores. The rate at which mercury, an important input in this method, is discharged into the atmosphere and water bodies is alarming. This research describes the various mining and processing methods in small scale gold mining and the extent of mercury use and releases to the environment. It discusses mercury and its human and environmental effects. It defines the various forms of mercury, routes of exposure, toxic effects. The levels of exposure to mercury by all groups of small scale gold miners are determined, and the impacts on the miners and the environment are assessed. It concludes that: • Mercury is mainly released into the environment as a result of small scale gold mining through spillage of elemental mercury and evaporation of mercury from the amalgam and sponge gold when they are heated on open fire. • Mercury in environmental samples from small scale gold mining areas is well above standard limit values. • Mercury released into the environment through small scale gold mining impacts negatively on the miners themselves and the general environment. Finally, it recommends the need for the adoption of mercury emission reduction strategies for dealing with the mercury problem. (au)

  12. Gastric transit and small intestinal transit time and motility assessed by a magnet tracking system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    WorsØe Jonas

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Tracking an ingested magnet by the Magnet Tracking System MTS-1 (Motilis, Lausanne, Switzerland is an easy and minimally-invasive method to assess gastrointestinal transit. The aim was to test the validity of MTS-1 for assessment of gastric transit time and small intestinal transit time, and to illustrate transit patterns detected by the system. Methods A small magnet was ingested and tracked by an external matrix of 16 magnetic field sensors (4 × 4 giving a position defined by 5 coordinates (position: x, y, z, and angle: θ, ϕ. Eight healthy subjects were each investigated three times: (1 with a small magnet mounted on a capsule endoscope (PillCam; (2 with the magnet alone and the small intestine in the fasting state; and (3 with the magnet alone and the small intestine in the postprandial state. Results Experiment (1 showed good agreement and no systematic differences between MTS-1 and capsule endoscopy when assessing gastric transit (median difference 1 min; range: 0-6 min and small intestinal transit time (median difference 0.5 min; range: 0-52 min. Comparing experiments (1 and (2 there were no systematic differences in gastric transit or small intestinal transit when using the magnet-PillCam unit and the much smaller magnetic pill. In experiments (2 and (3, short bursts of very fast movements lasting less than 5% of the time accounted for more than half the distance covered during the first two hours in the small intestine, irrespective of whether the small intestine was in the fasting or postprandial state. The mean contraction frequency in the small intestine was significantly lower in the fasting state than in the postprandial state (9.90 min-1 vs. 10.53 min-1 (p = 0.03. Conclusion MTS-1 is reliable for determination of gastric transit and small intestinal transit time. It is possible to distinguish between the mean contraction frequency of small intestine in the fasting state and in the postprandial state.

  13. Assessment of Current Practice for Tank Testing of Small Marine Energy Devices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kofoed, Jens Peter; Frigaard, Peter

    Discussion Report. Equitable Testing and Evaluation of Marine Energy Extraction Devices in terms of Performance, Cost and Environmental Impact. The report is a contribution by Aalborg University (AAU) to the deliverable on Assessment of current practice for tank testing of small marine energy...

  14. Wide-Area Assessment of Aperiodic Small Signal Rotor Angle Stability in Real-Time

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jóhannsson, Hjörtur; Nielsen, Arne Hejde; Østergaard, Jacob

    2014-01-01

    in rotor angle and a loss of synchronism, referred to as aperiodic small signal instability. The paper provides the theoretical background of the method and an analytical assessment criterion. Furthermore, a mathematical mapping of the generators' operating points that enables informative visualization...

  15. DETECTION OF BACTERIAL SMALL TRANSCRIPTS FROM RNA-SEQ DATA: A COMPARATIVE ASSESSMENT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peña-Castillo, Lourdes; Grüell, Marc; Mulligan, Martin E; Lang, Andrew S

    2016-01-01

    Small non-coding RNAs (sRNAs) are regulatory RNA molecules that have been identified in a multitude of bacterial species and shown to control numerous cellular processes through various regulatory mechanisms. In the last decade, next generation RNA sequencing (RNA-seq) has been used for the genome-wide detection of bacterial sRNAs. Here we describe sRNA-Detect, a novel approach to identify expressed small transcripts from prokaryotic RNA-seq data. Using RNA-seq data from three bacterial species and two sequencing platforms, we performed a comparative assessment of five computational approaches for the detection of small transcripts. We demonstrate that sRNA-Detect improves upon current standalone computational approaches for identifying novel small transcripts in bacteria.

  16. Moving Griffith crack in an orthotropic strip with punches at boundary faces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Mukherjee

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Integral transform technique is employed to solve the elastodynamic problem of steady-state propagation of a Griffith crack centrally situated along the midplane of orthotropic strip of finite thickness 2h and subjected to point loading with centrally situated moving punches under constant pressure along the boundaries of the layer. The problem is reduced to the solution of a pair of simultaneous singular integral equations with Cauchy-type singularities which have finally been solved through the finite Hilbert transform technique. For large h, analytical expression for the stress intensity factor at the crack tip is obtained. Graphical plots of the numerical results are also presented.

  17. Contact stresses by rounded punch subject to axial and transverse shear

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Hyung Kyu [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1999-05-01

    Contact shear stresses by rounded punch were evaluated numerically. Numerical program was successfully implemented by using an influence function method. To simulate the physical fretting problem, a closed load path of shear was considered. The influence functions on surface displacements fo both axial and transverse direction were calculated using a triangular shear traction element. Behaviour of the contact surface, such as stick and slip region during the load path was investigated together with compliance change. Irreversibility of the shear stress was shown. The importance and the utilization of the present research were discussed for analyzing the material failure induced by contact such as fretting wear and fatigue.

  18. Contact stresses by rounded punch subject to axial and transverse shear

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Hyung Kyu

    1999-01-01

    Contact shear stresses by rounded punch were evaluated numerically. Numerical program was successfully implemented by using an influence function method. To simulate the physical fretting problem, a closed load path of shear was considered. The influence functions on surface displacements fo both axial and transverse direction were calculated using a triangular shear traction element. Behaviour of the contact surface, such as stick and slip region during the load path was investigated together with compliance change. Irreversibility of the shear stress was shown. The importance and the utilization of the present research were discussed for analyzing the material failure induced by contact such as fretting wear and fatigue

  19. Backward can extrusion with conical,rotating punch as a cold forging tribology test

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ceron, Ermanno; Bay, Niels; Tetsuo, A.

    2011-01-01

    with an analysis of the sliding velocity distribution along the punch nose. The latter is determined by FE analysis of the test. Results show friction stress for unalloyed low C-steel provided with different types of lubricants, e.g. phosphate coating plus soap, phosphate coating plus MoS2 and single bathe...... lubrication with PULS. The new test is so severe, that it is possible to break down the best lubrication systems for cold forging, such as phosphate coating plus soap and MoS2....

  20. Tooling solutions for sheet metal forming and punching of lean duplex stainless steel

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wadman, Boel; Madsen, Erik; Bay, Niels

    2012-01-01

    .4509 and lean duplex EN1.4162 in a production designed for austenitic stainless steels, such as EN1.4301 and 1.4401. The result is a guideline that summarizes how stainless material properties may affect tool degradation, and suggests tool solutions for reduced production disturbances and tool maintenance cost.......For producers of advanced stainless components the choice of stainless material influences not only the product properties, but also the tooling solution for sheet metal stamping. This work describes how forming and punching tools will be affected when introducing the stainless alloys ferritic EN1...

  1. Contact Problem for an Elastic Layer on an Elastic Half Plane Loaded by Means of Three Rigid Flat Punches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. S. Ozsahin

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The frictionless contact problem for an elastic layer resting on an elastic half plane is considered. The problem is solved by using the theory of elasticity and integral transformation technique. The compressive loads P and Q (per unit thickness in direction are applied to the layer through three rigid flat punches. The elastic layer is also subjected to uniform vertical body force due to effect of gravity. The contact along the interface between elastic layer and half plane is continuous, if the value of the load factor, λ, is less than a critical value, . In this case, initial separation loads, and initial separation points, are determined. Also the required distance between the punches to avoid any separation between the punches and the elastic layer is studied and the limit distance between punches that ends interaction of punches is investigated for various dimensionless quantities. However, if tensile tractions are not allowed on the interface, for the layer separates from the interface along a certain finite region. Numerical results for distance determining the separation area, vertical displacement in the separation zone, contact stress distribution along the interface between elastic layer and half plane are given for this discontinuous contact case.

  2. Cracking the code: a decode strategy for the international business machines punch cards of Korean war soldiers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitsunaga, Erin M

    2006-05-01

    During the Korean War, International Business Machines (IBM) punch cards were created for every individual involved in military combat. Each card contained all pertinent personal information about the individual and was utilized to keep track of all soldiers involved. However, at present, all of the information known about these punch cards reveals only their format and their significance; there is little to no information on how these cards were created or how to interpret the information contained without the aid of the computer system used during the war. Today, it is believed there is no one available to explain this computerized system, nor do the original computers exist. This decode strategy is the result of an attempt to decipher the information on these cards through the use of all available medical and dental records for each individual examined. By cross-referencing the relevant personal information with the known format of the cards, a basic guess-and-check method was utilized. After examining hundreds of IBM punch cards, however, it has become clear that the punch card method of recording information was not infallible. In some cases, there are gaps of information on cards where there are data recorded on personal records; in others, information is punched incorrectly onto the cards, perhaps as the result of a transcription error. Taken all together, it is clear that the information contained on each individual's card should be taken solely as another form of personal documentation.

  3. Desenvolvimento e avaliação do desempenho de uma semeadora puncionadora para plantio direto de milho Development and evaluation performance of a punch planter for direct sowing of corn

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Douglas R Frabetti

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Realizou-se este trabalho com o objetivo de desenvolver uma semeadora pontual para o semeio de milho em sistema de plantio direto e avaliar seu sistema de dosagem e distribuição de sementes. Primeiro, elaborou-se uma lista de requisitos os quais a máquina deveria atender; depois, foi feito o projeto conceitual do corpo da máquina e, em seguida, o projeto detalhado de todas as partes e conjuntos, para posterior construção do protótipo. Em bancada de ensaio avaliou-se o desempenho do sistema dosador e distribuidor de sementes, em relação à variação da velocidade e da quantidade de punções utilizada. O delineamento experimental foi em blocos casualizados arranjados em parcelas subdivididas com a parcela principal composta por 6, 9 e 12 punções e a subparcela sendo quatro rotações da roda dosadora correspondentes às velocidades de deslocamento de 4, 6, 8 e 10 km h-1. De modo geral, tanto o aumento da velocidade como do número de punções nas rodas, diminuiu o número de duplas e aumentou o número de faltas, porém a diminuição do número de duplas não foi significativo quanto ao aumento do número de faltas. A semeadora exerceu desempenho satisfatório, com média geral do número de normais de 91%.The present work was accomplished to develop a punch planter to sow corn seeds in no-tillage system, and also to evaluate the performance of its seed metering and delivery systems. First of all, a requirement list was established, that the machine would have to attend. Next, the conceptual and the embodiment designs of the machine was made. Then, the detailed design of all machine parts was made and a prototype was constructed. In a testing bench the performance of the seed metering unit and its seed delivery system was assessed in relation to the punch wheel speed and the quantity of punches on the wheel. The statistical design was in random blocks arranged in sub-divided plots with the main plot made of 6, 9 and 12 punches and

  4. Ranking of small scale proposals for water system repair using the Rapid Impact Assessment Matrix (RIAM)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shakib-Manesh, T.E.; Hirvonen, K.O.; Jalava, K.J.; Ålander, T.; Kuitunen, M.T., E-mail: markku.kuitunen@jyu.fi

    2014-11-15

    Environmental impacts of small scale projects are often assessed poorly, or not assessed at all. This paper examines the usability of the Rapid Impact Assessment Matrix (RIAM) as a tool to prioritize project proposals for small scale water restoration projects in relation to proposals' potential to improve the environment. The RIAM scoring system was used to assess and rank the proposals based on their environmental impacts, the costs of the projects to repair the harmful impacts, and the size of human population living around the sites. A four-member assessment group (The expert panel) gave the RIAM-scores to the proposals. The assumed impacts of the studied projects at the Eastern Finland water systems were divided into the ecological and social impacts. The more detailed assessment categories of the ecological impacts in this study were impacts on landscape, natural state, and limnology. The social impact categories were impacts to recreational use of the area, fishing, industry, population, and economy. These impacts were scored according to their geographical and social significance, their magnitude of change, their character, permanence, reversibility, and cumulativeness. The RIAM method proved to be an appropriate and recommendable method for the small-scale assessment and prioritizing of project proposals. If the assessments are well documented, the RIAM can be a method for easy assessing and comparison of the various kinds of projects. In the studied project proposals there were no big surprises in the results: the best ranks were received by the projects, which were assumed to return watersheds toward their original state.

  5. Ranking of small scale proposals for water system repair using the Rapid Impact Assessment Matrix (RIAM)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shakib-Manesh, T.E.; Hirvonen, K.O.; Jalava, K.J.; Ålander, T.; Kuitunen, M.T.

    2014-01-01

    Environmental impacts of small scale projects are often assessed poorly, or not assessed at all. This paper examines the usability of the Rapid Impact Assessment Matrix (RIAM) as a tool to prioritize project proposals for small scale water restoration projects in relation to proposals' potential to improve the environment. The RIAM scoring system was used to assess and rank the proposals based on their environmental impacts, the costs of the projects to repair the harmful impacts, and the size of human population living around the sites. A four-member assessment group (The expert panel) gave the RIAM-scores to the proposals. The assumed impacts of the studied projects at the Eastern Finland water systems were divided into the ecological and social impacts. The more detailed assessment categories of the ecological impacts in this study were impacts on landscape, natural state, and limnology. The social impact categories were impacts to recreational use of the area, fishing, industry, population, and economy. These impacts were scored according to their geographical and social significance, their magnitude of change, their character, permanence, reversibility, and cumulativeness. The RIAM method proved to be an appropriate and recommendable method for the small-scale assessment and prioritizing of project proposals. If the assessments are well documented, the RIAM can be a method for easy assessing and comparison of the various kinds of projects. In the studied project proposals there were no big surprises in the results: the best ranks were received by the projects, which were assumed to return watersheds toward their original state

  6. Spatial Analysis and Safety Assessment of Social and Economic Development of Small and Medium Cities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Anatolyevna Orekhova

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The article discusses the spatial patterns of socio-economic development of small and medium-sized cities in the Volgograd region. We know that small and medium-sized cities as spatial socio-economic systems are not only the support frame of settlement, but the main “engine” of innovative impulses for the surrounding periphery. The scientific novelty of the study consists in the effort to implement a spatial approach to the assessment of the economic security of small and medium-sized cities (SCR. The content of the economic security of cities is determined by two system characteristics of the socio-economic system: economic activity (EA and quality of life (QL of the urban population, or SCR = F (EA; QL. For finding spatial patterns in GIS, great interest is in investigating the environment of each city by calculating the local statistical characteristics of geo-variability which allow assessing trends of spatial variation of the six components of security (human security, technosphere safety, environmental safety, etc., local variations in emissions and their values indicators Ki. The successful solution of these problems is possible with the use of tools of exploratory spatial data analysis (ESDA in ARCGIS, and in particular, the Voronoy maps. The spatial approach has allowed to perform an integrated assessment of the economic security and to evaluate safety risks in small and medium-sized cities of the Volgograd region with the security system of indicators.

  7. Methodology for Assessing the Work of Small Business at the Municipal Level

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksandr Evgen’evich Kremin

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available In order to promote sustainable socio-economic development in a municipality, its local authorities face the task of establishing an industrial and financial base on their territory, it will help increase its level of economic independence. On the basis of foreign experience and domestic research on territorial development it can be concluded that one of the most effective ways to enhance the level of socio-economic development of the municipality is to boost its small business. Effective management of this economic sector requires adequate assessment of its functioning at the municipal level. The analysis of existing methodologies for assessing the functioning of small business at the municipal level shows that none of them meets the criteria that the author of the present paper has selected and that are necessary for efficient research into the small business sector. In this regard, a methodology for estimating the work of small business at the municipal level was elaborated, and tested on the statistic data of municipal formations of the Vologda Oblast. The study reveals municipalities with the highest and lowest levels of small business development. In addition, municipalities were grouped in three blocks that represent different characteristics of their functioning. Taking into account the problems of business subjects, the study has developed measures to increase the level of development for each group of municipalities. Implementing these activities will help intensify the work of the sector of the economy under consideration, and increase the economic independence of territorial formations in the region. The paper can be used to assess the effectiveness of activities aimed to support small business in the region and to help regional and municipal authorities to work out a strategy for further development of this economic sector

  8. Environmental assessment of sewer construction in small to medium sized cities using life cycle assessment

    OpenAIRE

    Petit, Anna

    2014-01-01

    In a world with an increasing urban population, analysing the construction impacts of sanitation infrastructures through Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) is necessary for defining the best environmental management strategies. In this study, the environmental impacts of one linear meter of sewer constructive solution were analysed for different pipe materials and diameters used in Southern Europe; a unit of different sewer appurtenances (pump, manhole and inspection chamber) was also considered. Th...

  9. "One can't shake off the women": images of sport and gender in Punch, 1901-10.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Constanzo, Marilyn

    2002-01-01

    Examining the manner in which the popular press portrayed middle-class Edwardian women's activity in sport provides insight into the social liberation of English women. The popular middle-class British journal Punch included thousands of images of sportswomen. Despite the misogynistic satirizing of inept women, Punch's cartoons and articles depict distinct changes in women's behavior and social expectations that are linked to their increasing involvement in sport. By engaging in sport, women unconsciously challenged and permanently altered the pervasive middle-class Victorian ideology. The contents of Punch suggests that middle-class women's participation in sport, though perhaps begun in a conservative manner, completely altered and expanded their social role and changed the traditional image of womanhood.

  10. Interaction between a punch and an arbitrary crack or inclusion in a transversely isotropic half-space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fabrikant, I.; Karapetian, E.; Kalinin, S. V.

    2018-02-01

    We consider the problem of an arbitrary shaped rigid punch pressed against the boundary of a transversely isotropic half-space and interacting with an arbitrary flat crack or inclusion, located in the plane parallel to the boundary. The set of governing integral equations is derived for the most general conditions, namely the presence of both normal and tangential stresses under the punch, as well as general loading of the crack faces. In order to verify correctness of the derivations, two different methods were used to obtain governing integral equations: generalized method of images and utilization of the reciprocal theorem. Both methods gave the same results. Axisymmetric coaxial case of interaction between a rigid inclusion and a flat circular punch both centered along the z-axis is considered as an illustrative example. Most of the final results are presented in terms of elementary functions.

  11. Cost Optimization on Energy Consumption of Punching Machine Based on Green Manufacturing Method at PT Buana Intan Gemilang

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prillia Ayudia

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available PT Buana Intan Gemilang is a company engaged in textile industry. The curtain textile production need punching machine to control the fabric process. The operator still works manually so it takes high cost of electrical energy consumption. So to solve the problem can implement green manufacturing on punching machine. The method include firstly to identify the color by classifying the company into the black, brown, gray or green color categories using questionnaire. Secondly is improvement area to be optimized and analyzed. Improvement plan at this stage that is focusing on energy area and technology. Thirdly is process applies by modifying the technology through implementing automation system on the punching machine so that there is an increase of green level on the process machine. The result obtained after implement the method can save cost on electrical energy consumption in the amount of Rp 1.068.159/day.

  12. Design of punching shear for prestressed slabs with unbonded tendons on internal columns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. A. R. Luchi

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT This paper is related to the punching shear in prestressed slabs with unbonded tendons for interior columns calculated by the codes ABNT NBR 6118:2007, ABNT NBR 6118:2014, EN 1992-1-1:2004 e ACI 318-11. To calculate the punching shear resistance the formulations of the NBR 6118:07, effective until April/2014, did not consider the compression of the concrete in the plane of the slab, due to prestressing. Just the inclined components of some tendons were considered for total load applied relief, but this fact did not generate a significant difference, compared to reinforced concrete, because the inclination angle is very close to zero. The American and European provisions consider a portion related to the compression of the concrete in the planeof the slab. Differences in the results obtained by the four design codes will be exposed, showing that the EC2:04 and the NBR6118:14 achieved the best results.

  13. Optimal design of a main driving mechanism for servo punch press based on performance atlases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Yanhua; Xie, Fugui; Liu, Xinjun

    2013-09-01

    The servomotor drive turret punch press is attracting more attentions and being developed more intensively due to the advantages of high speed, high accuracy, high flexibility, high productivity, low noise, cleaning and energy saving. To effectively improve the performance and lower the cost, it is necessary to develop new mechanisms and establish corresponding optimal design method with uniform performance indices. A new patented main driving mechanism and a new optimal design method are proposed. In the optimal design, the performance indices, i.e., the local motion/force transmission indices ITI, OTI, good transmission workspace good transmission workspace(GTW) and the global transmission indices GTIs are defined. The non-dimensional normalization method is used to get all feasible solutions in dimensional synthesis. Thereafter, the performance atlases, which can present all possible design solutions, are depicted. As a result, the feasible solution of the mechanism with good motion/force transmission performance is obtained. And the solution can be flexibly adjusted by designer according to the practical design requirements. The proposed mechanism is original, and the presented design method provides a feasible solution to the optimal design of the main driving mechanism for servo punch press.

  14. Treatment of a Refractory Skin Ulcer Using Punch Graft and Autologous Platelet-Rich Plasma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauro Carducci

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Chronic ulceration of the lower legs is a relatively common condition amongst adults: one that causes pain and social distress and results in considerable healthcare and personal costs. The technique of punch grafting offers an alternative approach to the treatment of ulcers of the lower limbs. Objective. Combining platelet-rich plasma and skin graft enhances the efficacy of treating chronic diabetic wounds by enhancing healing rate and decreasing recurrence rate. Platelet-rich plasma could, by stimulating dermal regeneration, increase the take rate after skin grafting or speed up reepithelialization. Methods and Materials. The ulcer was prepared by removing fibrin with a curette and the edges of the ulcer were freshened. The platelet-rich plasma has been infiltrated on the bottom and edges of the ulcer. The punch grafts were placed in 5 mm holes arranged. The ulcer was medicated with hydrogel and a pressure dressing was removed after 8 days. Results. After a few days the patient did not report more pain. Granulation tissue appeared quickly between implants. Most of the grafts were viable in 2-3 weeks. The grafts gradually came together to close the ulcer and were completed in four months.

  15. Studying the sensor response in the punch-through-protection region

    CERN Document Server

    Poley, Anne-luise; The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    For the Phase-II Upgrade of the ATLAS detector, a new, all-silicon tracker will be constructed in order to cope with the increased track density and radiation level of the High Luminosity Large Hadron Collider. While silicon strip sensors are designed to minimise the fraction of dead material and maximise the active area of a sensor, concessions must be made to the requirements of operating a sensor in a particle physics detector. Sensor geometry features like the punch-through protection deviate from the standard sensor architecture and thereby affect the charge collection in that area. In order to study the signal collection of silicon strip sensors over their punch-through-protection area, ATLAS silicon strip sensors were scanned with a micro-focused X-ray beam at the Diamond Light Source. Due to the highly focused X-ray beam (2 × 3 µm) and the short average path length of an electron after interaction with an X-ray photon (≤ 2 μm), local signal collection in different sensor areas can be studied with...

  16. Effects of laser power density and initial grain size in laser shock punching of pure copper foil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Chao; Zhang, Xiu; Zhang, Yiliang; Ji, Zhong; Luan, Yiguo; Song, Libin

    2018-06-01

    The effects of laser power density and initial grain size on forming quality of holes in laser shock punching process were investigated in the present study. Three different initial grain sizes as well as three levels of laser power densities were provided, and then laser shock punching experiments of T2 copper foil were conducted. Based upon the experimental results, the characteristics of shape accuracy, fracture surface morphology and microstructures of punched holes were examined. It is revealed that the initial grain size has a noticeable effect on forming quality of holes punched by laser shock. The shape accuracy of punched holes degrades with the increase of grain size. As the laser power density is enhanced, the shape accuracy can be improved except for the case in which the ratio of foil thickness to initial grain size is approximately equal to 1. Compared with the fracture surface morphology in the quasistatic loading conditions, the fracture surface after laser shock can be divided into three zones including rollover, shearing and burr. The distribution of the above three zones strongly relates with the initial grain size. When the laser power density is enhanced, the shearing depth is not increased, but even diminishes in some cases. There is no obvious change of microstructures with the enhancement of laser power density. However, while the initial grain size is close to the foil thickness, single-crystal shear deformation may occur, suggesting that the ratio of foil thickness to initial grain size has an important impact on deformation behavior of metal foil in laser shock punching process.

  17. A DLC-Punch Array to Fabricate the Micro-Textured Aluminum Sheet for Boiling Heat Transfer Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatsuhio Aizawa

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available A diamond-like carbon (DLC film, coated on an SKD11 (alloy tool steel substrate, was shaped by plasma oxidation to form an assembly of DLC macro-pillars and to be used as a DLC-punch array that is micro-embossed into aluminum sheets. First, the SKD11 steel die substrate was prepared and DLC-coated to have a film thickness of 10 μm. This DLC coating worked as a punch material. The two-dimensional micro-patterns were printed onto this DLC film by maskless lithography. The unprinted DLC films were selectively removed by plasma oxidation to leave the three-dimensional DLC-punch array on the SKD11 substrate. Each DLC punch had a head of 3.5 μm × 3.5 μm and a height of 8 μm. This DLC-punch array was fixed into the cassette die set for a micro-embossing process using a table-top servo-stamper. Furthermore, through numerically controlled micro-embossing, an alignment of rectangular punches was transcribed into a micro-cavity array in the aluminum sheet. The single micro-cavity had a bottom surface of 3.2 μm × 3.2 μm and an average depth of 7.5 μm. A heat-transfer experiment in boiling water was also performed to investigate the effect of micro-cavity texture on bubbling behavior and the boiling curve.

  18. Effects of Sparring Load on Reaction Speed and Punch Force During the Precompetition and Competition Periods in Boxing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hukkanen, Esa; Häkkinen, Keijo

    2017-06-01

    Seven, male, national-level boxers (age, 20.3 ± 2.7 years; height, 1.80 ± 0.06 m; mass, 73.8 ± 11.1 kg) participated in this study to investigate the effects of sparring on reaction time and punch force of straight punches measured during the precompetition and competition periods. Heart rate and blood lactate concentrations were also monitored. Sparring load was chosen in accordance with the current rules: 3 × 3-minute bouts with 1-minute break in between. Reaction time of rear straight lengthened (p boxing-specific and explosive strength training.

  19. Small intestine contrast ultrasonography vs computed tomography enteroclysis for assessing ileal Crohn's disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onali, Sara; Calabrese, Emma; Petruzziello, Carmelina; Zorzi, Francesca; Sica, Giuseppe; Fiori, Roberto; Ascolani, Marta; Lolli, Elisabetta; Condino, Giovanna; Palmieri, Giampiero; Simonetti, Giovanni; Pallone, Francesco; Biancone, Livia

    2012-01-01

    AIM: To compare computed tomography enteroclysis (CTE) vs small intestine contrast ultrasonography (SICUS) for assessing small bowel lesions in Crohn's disease (CD), when using surgical pathology as gold standard. METHODS: From January 2007 to July 2008, 15 eligible patients undergoing elective resection of the distal ileum and coecum (or right colon) were prospectively enrolled. All patients were under follow-up. The study population included 6 males and 9 females, with a median age of 44 years (range: 18-80 years). Inclusion criteria: (1) certain diagnosis of small bowel requiring elective ileo-colonic resection; (2) age between 18-80 years; (3) elective surgery in our Surgical Unit; and (4) written informed consent. SICUS and CTE were performed ≤ 3 mo before surgery, followed by surgical pathology. The following small bowel lesions were blindly reported by one sonologist, radiologist, surgeon and histolopathologist: disease site, extent, strictures, abscesses, fistulae, small bowel dilation. Comparison between findings at SICUS, CTE, surgical specimens and histological examination was made by assessing the specificity, sensitivity and accuracy of each technique, when using surgical findings as gold standard. RESULTS: Among the 15 patients enrolled, CTE was not feasible in 2 patients, due to urgent surgery in one patients and to low compliance in the second patient, refusing to perform CTE due to the discomfort related to the naso-jejunal tube. The analysis for comparing CTE vs SICUS findings was therefore performed in 13 out of the 15 CD patients enrolled. Differently from CTE, SICUS was feasible in all the 15 patients enrolled. No complications were observed when using SICUS or CTE. Surgical pathology findings in the tested population included: small bowel stricture in 13 patients, small bowel dilation above ileal stricture in 10 patients, abdominal abscesses in 2 patients, enteric fistulae in 5 patients, lymphnodes enlargement (> 1 cm) in 7 patients and

  20. Watermill and Small-Scale Hydroelectric Power Plant Landscapes Assessed According to Ecological Aspects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lilita Lazdāne

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Research of watermill and small-scale hydroelectric power plant (HPP landscapes in Latvia according to ecological aspects is a part of a more complex research. The aim of this research is to examine the existing situation of watermill and small-scale HPP landscapes in Latvia by applying the ecological assessment criteria, and then try to formulate a definition of common tendencies of the landscape character. This paper provides a landscape inventory matrix for research in the field stu­dies of landscape identification at the local planning level. The duration of the research was from 2010 to 2012. The research includes 42 territories starting with the three most densely developed areas in Latvia: in Latgale, Kurzeme and Vidzeme uplands distribution ranges. The research results reflect tendencies of the landscape features assessed according to the previously developed criteria of ecological aspects.

  1. Supplier segmentation model and multicriteria assessment for micro and small enterprise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Felipe de Oliveira Moura Santos

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The literature has presented many supplier segmentation models and multicriteria assessments; however, these models do not address the characteristics of micro and small enterprises (MSE, which have scarce resources and seek management tools with a large marginal contribution. The objective of this study is to propose a supplier segmentation model and assessment to address the requirements of MSE’s and to illustrate its practicability through a case study in a small furniture manufacturer. The results showed that the model’s direct benefits do not represent large marginal contributions, but the indirect benefits and the structuration process developed contribute to important consensual decisions and actions for the growth of these organizations.

  2. Biota dose assessment of small mammals sampled near uranium mines in northern Arizona

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jannik, T. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Minter, K. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Kuhne, W. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Kubilius, W. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2018-01-09

    In 2015, the U. S. Geological Survey (USGS) collected approximately 50 small mammal carcasses from Northern Arizona uranium mines and other background locations. Based on the highest gross alpha results, 11 small mammal samples were selected for radioisotopic analyses. None of the background samples had significant gross alpha results. The 11 small mammals were identified relative to the three ‘indicator’ mines located south of Fredonia, AZ on the Kanab Plateau (Kanab North Mine, Pinenut Mine, and Arizona 1 Mine) (Figure 1-1) and are operated by Energy Fuels Resources Inc. (EFRI). EFRI annually reports soil analysis for uranium and radium-226 using Arizona Department of Environmental Quality (ADEQ)-approved Standard Operating Procedures for Soil Sampling (EFRI 2016a, 2016b, 2017). In combination with the USGS small mammal radioiosotopic tissue analyses, a biota dose assessment was completed by Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) using the RESidual RADioactivity-BIOTA (RESRAD-BIOTA, V. 1.8) dose assessment tool provided by the Argonne National Laboratory (ANL 2017).

  3. Long-term results of 2-mm punch grafting in patients with vitiligo vulgaris and segmental vitiligo: effect of disease activity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fongers, A.; Wolkerstorfer, A.; Nieuweboer-Krobotova, L.; Krawczyk, P.; Tóth, G. G.; van der Veen, J. P. W.

    2009-01-01

    Background Punch grafting is a simple and frequently used technique for the treatment of stable vitiligo, resistant to medical therapy. However, studies reporting long-term results are exceptional. Objectives To evaluate the long-term results of 2-mm punch grafting in patients with vitiligo vulgaris

  4. Long-term results of 2-mm punch grafting in patients with vitiligo vulgaris and segmental vitiligo : effect of disease activity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fongers, A.; Wolkerstorfer, A.; Nieuweboer-Krobotova, L.; Krawczyk, P.; Toth, G. G.; van der Veen, J. P. W.

    Background Punch grafting is a simple and frequently used technique for the treatment of stable vitiligo, resistant to medical therapy. However, studies reporting long-term results are exceptional. Objectives To evaluate the long-term results of 2-mm punch grafting in patients with vitiligo vulgaris

  5. Long-term results of 2-mm punch grafting in patients with vitiligo vulgaris and segmental vitiligo : effect of disease activity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fongers, A.; Wolkerstorfer, A.; Nieuweboer-Krobotova, L.; Krawczyk, P.; Toth, G. G.; van der Veen, J. P. W.

    2009-01-01

    Background Punch grafting is a simple and frequently used technique for the treatment of stable vitiligo, resistant to medical therapy. However, studies reporting long-term results are exceptional. Objectives To evaluate the long-term results of 2-mm punch grafting in patients with vitiligo vulgaris

  6. Examples from P2 and energy assessments at small to medium size manufacturers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fleischman, M.; Watters, J.C.; Cobourn, W.G.; Collins, D.J.

    1996-01-01

    Using engineering student-faculty teams, the U.S. Department of energy sponsored industrial assessment center (IAC) at the university of louisville does free pollution prevention and energy assessments at small to medium size manufacturers (SIC 20-39) in kentucky and indiana. Each client plant must meet three of the following four criteria: Annual energy bills less than $1, 750, 000 and more than $50, 00. Gross annual sales of less than $75 million. Less than 500 employees. Lack a dedicated energy/waste engineer. Lack of in-house staff to perform these analyses. The program criteria and assessment procedures are briefly described and summaries of assessment at a sheet fed offset (lithographic) printing plant and 2 denim jeans pre washing plants are presented. 4 figs., 8 tabs

  7. Wide-Area Assessment of Aperiodic Small Signal Rotor Angle Stability in Real-Time

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jóhannsson, Hjörtur; Nielsen, Arne Hejde; Østergaard, Jacob

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents the details of a new real-time stability assessment method. The method assesses a particular mechanism of stability: each generator’s capability to generate sufficient steady state electromechanical torque. The lack of sufficient steady state torque causes aperiodic increase...... of multiple operating points is derived in the paper. Finally, results from time-domain simulation of instability scenarios in the Nordic32 test system are presented and results used for testing the assessment method. The results illustrate the method’s capability to efficiently identify the location...... in rotor angle and a loss of synchronism, referred to as aperiodic small signal instability. The paper provides the theoretical background of the method and an analytical assessment criterion. Furthermore, a mathematical mapping of the generators’ operating points that enables informative visualization...

  8. The Art of Making Assessment Anti-Venom: Injecting Assessment in Small Doses to Create a Faculty Culture of Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kramer, Philip I.

    2009-01-01

    Many college faculty react to student outcomes assessment the way most people react when they see a rattlesnake within striking distance. Common faculty reactions to the perceived threat of assessment include metaphorically running away and throwing rocks or sticks at it. Like a hiker in the desert doing her best to avoid being struck when she…

  9. Use of the novel contact heat evoked potential stimulator (CHEPS for the assessment of small fibre neuropathy: correlations with skin flare responses and intra-epidermal nerve fibre counts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chizh Boris A

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Contact Heat Evoked Potential Stimulator (CHEPS rapidly stimulates cutaneous small nerve fibres, and resulting evoked potentials can be recorded from the scalp. We have studied patients with symptoms of sensory neuropathy and controls using CHEPS, and validated the findings using other objective measures of small nerve fibres i.e. the histamine-induced skin flare response and intra-epidermal fibres (IEF, and also quantitative sensory testing (QST, a subjective measure. Methods In patients with symptoms of sensory neuropathy (n = 41 and healthy controls (n = 9 we performed clinical examination, QST (monofilament, vibration and thermal perception thresholds, nerve conduction studies, histamine-induced skin flares and CHEPS. Skin punch biopsies were immunostained using standard ABC immunoperoxidase for the nerve marker PGP 9.5 or the heat and capsaicin receptor TRPV1. Immunoreactive IEF were counted per length of tissue section and epidermal thickness recorded. Results Amplitudes of Aδ evoked potentials (μV following face, arm or leg stimulation were reduced in patients (e.g. for the leg: mean ± SEM – controls 11.7 ± 1.95, patients 3.63 ± 0.85, p = 0.0032. Patients showed reduced leg skin flare responses, which correlated with Aδ amplitudes (rs = 0.40, p = 0.010. In patient leg skin biopsies, PGP 9.5- and TRPV1-immunoreactive IEF were reduced and correlated with Aδ amplitudes (PGP 9.5, rs = 0.51, p = 0.0006; TRPV1, rs = 0.48, p = 0.0012. Conclusion CHEPS appears a sensitive measure, with abnormalities observed in some symptomatic patients who did not have significant IEF loss and/or QST abnormalities. Some of the latter patients may have early small fibre dysfunction or ion channelopathy. CHEPS provides a clinically practical, non-invasive and objective measure, and can be a useful additional tool for the assessment of sensory small fibre neuropathy. Although further evaluation is required, the technique shows

  10. A qualitative assessment of faculty perspectives of small group teaching experience in Iraq.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saleh, Abubakir M; Shabila, Nazar P; Dabbagh, Ali A; Al-Tawil, Namir G; Al-Hadithi, Tariq S

    2015-02-15

    Although medical colleges in Iraq started recently to increasingly use small group teaching approach, there is limited research on the challenges, opportunities and needs of small group teaching in Iraq particularly in Kurdistan Region. Therefore, this study was aimed to assess the small group teaching experience in the 4(th) and 5(th) year of study in Hawler College of Medicine with a focus on characterizing the impressions of faculty members about how small group teaching is proceeding in the college. A qualitative study based on semi-structured interviews with 20 purposively selected faculty members was conducted. An interview guide was used for data collection that was around different issues related to small group teaching in medical education including planning, preparation, positive aspects, problems facing its implementation, factors related to it and recommendations for improvement. Qualitative data analysis comprised identifying themes that emerged from the review of transcribed interviews. Participants reported some positive experience and a number of positive outcomes related to this experience including better controlling the class, enhancing students' understanding of the subject, increasing interaction in the class, increasing the students' confidence, enhancing more contact between teachers and students, improving the presentation skills of the students and improving the teacher performance. The participants emphasized poor preparation and planning for application of this system and highlighted a number of problems and challenges facing this experience particularly in terms of poor infrastructure and teaching facilities, poor orientation of students and teachers, inadequate course time for some subjects and shortage of faculty members in a number of departments. The main suggestions to improve this experience included improving the infrastructure and teaching facilities, using more interactive teaching methods and better organization and management

  11. The influence of punching process on residual stress and magnetic domain structure of non-oriented silicon steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cao, Hongzhi; Hao, Linpo; Yi, Jingwen; Zhang, Xianglin; Luo, Zhonghan; Chen, Shenglin; Li, Rongfeng

    2016-01-01

    The main purpose of this paper is to investigate the influence of punching process on residual stress and magnetic domain structure. The residual stress in non-oriented silicon steel after punching process was measured by nanoindentation. The maximum depth was kept constant as 300 nm during nanoindentation. The material around indentation region exhibited no significant pile-up deformation. The calculation of residual stress was based on the Suresh theoretical model. Our experimental results show that residual compressive stress was generated around the sheared edge after punching. The width of residual stress affected zone by punching was around 0.4–0.5 mm. After annealing treatment, the residual stress was significantly decreased. Magnetic domain structure was observed according to the Bitter method. The un-annealed sample exhibited complicated domain patterns, and the widths of the magnetic domains varied between 3 µm and 8 µm. Most of the domain patterns of the annealed sample were 180°-domains and 90°-domains, and the widths of the domains decreased to 1–3 µm. - Highlights: • The residual stress distribution on sheared edge was measured. • The residual compressive stress was generated around the sheared edge. • The width of residual stress affected zone was about 0.4–0.5 mm. • The shape and width of the domain structure would be changed by annealing.

  12. Study of neuropeptide distribution in the central nervous system by the combined use of radioimmunoassay with the neuroatomic punch technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valenca, M.M.; Negro Vilar, A.

    1991-01-01

    In order to demonstrate an experimental method to study neuropeptide distribution in the central nervous system, the content of beta-endorphin present in several brain regions was determined by the combined use of radioimmunoassay with the neuroanatomic punch technique described by Palkovits. (author)

  13. Automated intelligent rotor tine cultivation and punch planting to improve the selectivity of mechanical intra-row weed control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Jesper; Griepentrog, Hans W.; Nielsen, Jon

    2012-01-01

    in sugar beet and carrot crops showed no synergistic effects between plant establishment procedures and selectivity of post-emergence weed harrowing. Even if punch planting and automated intelligent rotor tine cultivation were not combined, the results indicated that there was no reason to believe...... that mainly work through soil burial....

  14. Battery energy storage systems: Assessment for small-scale renewable energy integration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nair, Nirmal-Kumar C.; Garimella, Niraj [Power Systems Group, Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, The University of Auckland, 38 Princes Street, Science Centre, Auckland 1142 (New Zealand)

    2010-11-15

    Concerns arising due to the variability and intermittency of renewable energy sources while integrating with the power grid can be mitigated to an extent by incorporating a storage element within the renewable energy harnessing system. Thus, battery energy storage systems (BESS) are likely to have a significant impact in the small-scale integration of renewable energy sources into commercial building and residential dwelling. These storage technologies not only enable improvements in consumption levels from renewable energy sources but also provide a range of technical and monetary benefits. This paper provides a modelling framework to be able to quantify the associated benefits of renewable resource integration followed by an overview of various small-scale energy storage technologies. A simple, practical and comprehensive assessment of battery energy storage technologies for small-scale renewable applications based on their technical merit and economic feasibility is presented. Software such as Simulink and HOMER provides the platforms for technical and economic assessments of the battery technologies respectively. (author)

  15. An Integrated Assessment Approach to Address Artisanal and Small-Scale Gold Mining in Ghana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niladri Basu

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Artisanal and small-scale gold mining (ASGM is growing in many regions of the world including Ghana. The problems in these communities are complex and multi-faceted. To help increase understanding of such problems, and to enable consensus-building and effective translation of scientific findings to stakeholders, help inform policies, and ultimately improve decision making, we utilized an Integrated Assessment approach to study artisanal and small-scale gold mining activities in Ghana. Though Integrated Assessments have been used in the fields of environmental science and sustainable development, their use in addressing specific matter in public health, and in particular, environmental and occupational health is quite limited despite their many benefits. The aim of the current paper was to describe specific activities undertaken and how they were organized, and the outputs and outcomes of our activity. In brief, three disciplinary workgroups (Natural Sciences, Human Health, Social Sciences and Economics were formed, with 26 researchers from a range of Ghanaian institutions plus international experts. The workgroups conducted activities in order to address the following question: What are the causes, consequences and correctives of small-scale gold mining in Ghana? More specifically: What alternatives are available in resource-limited settings in Ghana that allow for gold-mining to occur in a manner that maintains ecological health and human health without hindering near- and long-term economic prosperity? Several response options were identified and evaluated, and are currently being disseminated to various stakeholders within Ghana and internationally.

  16. A proposed model for assessing service quality in small machining and industrial maintenance companies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morvam dos Santos Netto

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Machining and industrial maintenance services include repair (corrective maintenance of equipments, activities involving the assembly-disassembly of equipments, fault diagnosis, machining operations, forming operations, welding processes, assembly and test of equipments. This article proposes a model for assessing the quality of services provided by small machining and industrial maintenance companies, since there is a gap in the literature regarding this issue and because the importance of small service companies in socio-economic development of the country. The model is an adaptation of the SERVQUAL instrument and the criteria determining the quality of services are designed according to the service cycle of a typical small machining and industrial maintenance company. In this sense, the Moments of Truth have been considered in the preparation of two separate questionnaires. The first questionnaire contains 24 statements that reflect the expectations of customers, and the second one contains 24 statements that measure perceptions of service performance. An additional item was included in each questionnaire to assess, respectively, the overall expectation about the services and the overall company performance. Therefore, it is a model that considers the interfaces of the client/supplier relationship, the peculiarities of the machining and industrial maintenance service sector and the company size.

  17. An Integrated Assessment Approach to Address Artisanal and Small-Scale Gold Mining in Ghana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basu, Niladri; Renne, Elisha P; Long, Rachel N

    2015-09-17

    Artisanal and small-scale gold mining (ASGM) is growing in many regions of the world including Ghana. The problems in these communities are complex and multi-faceted. To help increase understanding of such problems, and to enable consensus-building and effective translation of scientific findings to stakeholders, help inform policies, and ultimately improve decision making, we utilized an Integrated Assessment approach to study artisanal and small-scale gold mining activities in Ghana. Though Integrated Assessments have been used in the fields of environmental science and sustainable development, their use in addressing specific matter in public health, and in particular, environmental and occupational health is quite limited despite their many benefits. The aim of the current paper was to describe specific activities undertaken and how they were organized, and the outputs and outcomes of our activity. In brief, three disciplinary workgroups (Natural Sciences, Human Health, Social Sciences and Economics) were formed, with 26 researchers from a range of Ghanaian institutions plus international experts. The workgroups conducted activities in order to address the following question: What are the causes, consequences and correctives of small-scale gold mining in Ghana? More specifically: What alternatives are available in resource-limited settings in Ghana that allow for gold-mining to occur in a manner that maintains ecological health and human health without hindering near- and long-term economic prosperity? Several response options were identified and evaluated, and are currently being disseminated to various stakeholders within Ghana and internationally.

  18. Finite-Element Modeling of Timber Joints with Punched Metal Plate Fasteners

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ellegaard, Peter

    2006-01-01

    The focus of this paper is to describe the idea and the theory behind a finite-element model developed for analysis of timber trusses with punched metal plate fasteners (nail plates). The finite-element model includes the semirigid and nonlinear behavior of the joints (nonlinear nail and plate...... elements) and contact between timber beams, if any (bilinear contact elements). The timber beams have linear-elastic properties. The section forces needed for design of the joints are given directly by the finite-element model, since special elements are used to model the nail groups and the nail plate...... the behavior of the joints very well at lower load levels. At higher load levels the stiffness is overestimated due to development of cracks in the timber and the linear-elastic timber properties in the finite-element model....

  19. Operational Risk Assessment and Management in Small and Medium-sized Enterprises

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viktorija Stasytytė

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Modern organizations have raised a need to actively and quickly react to the changes in external business environment, as well as in internal processes considering not only the present situation, but also evaluating possible changes and forecasting the future. Enterprise risk assessment and management, which is strongly related with foreseeing the uncertain future, becomes topical not only scientifically, but also practically seeking to reveal new and unique solutions. Operational risk management in small and medium enterprises, creating the largest part of value added in the whole European Union, demands a separate attention and coordinated decisions and means. The objective of the paper – to analyse the process of enterprise risk management in small and medium-sized enterprises, as well as to propose adequate risk management solutions for these companies. After performing a research, it was found out that small and medium enterprises more than big organizations require a risk management strategy and methodology, need to distinguish activity objectives and events influencing them, and they can efficiently apply a risk portfolio method to manage risk. In small and medium enterprises it is recommended to incorporate a risk management system based on COSO ERM model that can be modified depending on company needs and possibilities, turning it into less formal and structured and easily applicable.

  20. Assessment of intrinsic small signal parameters of submicron SiC MESFETs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riaz, Mohammad; Ahmed, Muhammad Mansoor; Rafique, Umair; Ahmed, Umer Farooq

    2018-01-01

    In this paper, a technique has been developed to estimate intrinsic small signal parameters of submicron SiC MESFETs, designed for high power microwave applications. In the developed technique, small signal parameters are extracted by involving drain-to-source current, Ids instead of Schottky barrier depletion layer expression. It has been demonstrated that in SiC MESFETs, the depletion layer gets modified due to intense transverse electric field and/or self-heating effects, which are conventionally not taken into account. Thus, assessment of AC small signal parameters by employing depletion layer expression loses its accuracy for devices meant for high power applications. A set of expressions for AC small signal elements has been developed using Ids and its dependence on device biasing has been discussed. The validity of the proposed technique has been demonstrated using experimental data. Dr. Ahmed research interests are in Microelectronics, Microwave and RF Engineering and he has supervised numerous MS and PhD research projects. He authored over 100 research papers in the field of microelectronics. Dr. Ahmed is a fellow of the Institution of Engineering and Technology (IET), UK.; a Chartered Engineer (CEng) from the UK Engineering Council and holds the title of European Engineer (Eur Ing) from the European Federation of National Engineering Association (FEANI), Brussels. He is a life member of PEC (Pak); EDS & MTTS (USA).

  1. Assessment of Small-scale Buffalo Milk Dairy Production-A Premise for a Durable Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marian MIHAIU

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Buffalo husbandry is an important source of income for a number of small-scale producers in Romania that is why an assessment of its products quality is much needed for improvement and evaluation of their vulnerability to international competition. In order to ascertain possible developments in the buffalo dairy sector and to broadly identify areas of intervention that favor small-scale dairy producers, the study examined the potential to improve buffalo milk production by evaluating its authenticity and hygienic quality. The methods used involved the molecular testing (PCR-technique for identifying cow, sheep or goat DNA in the dairy products samples collected from the small-scale producers market. The hygienic quality of these samples was determined through classical microbiology methods, highly developed techniques (Trek System and PCR for bacterial species confirmation. The results showed that a high percent (65%, from the products found were adulterated with other species milk, mostly cow milk. The most commonly falsified buffalo dairy products were the cheese and the traditional product telemea. The prevalence of the bacterial species identified belonged to Listeria innocua and Listeria welshmeri. The conclusion of this study is the need of a durable development system in this particular dairy chain to improve and assure the authenticity and quality of the small-scale producers products and their reliability for the consumers.

  2. Assessment of Small-scale Buffalo Milk Dairy Production-A Premise for a Durable Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marian MIHAIU

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Buffalo husbandry is an important source of income for a number of small-scale producers in Romania that is why an assessment of its� product�s quality is much needed for improvement and evaluation of their vulnerability to international competition. In order to ascertain possible developments in the buffalo dairy sector and to broadly identify areas of intervention that favor small-scale dairy producers, the study examined the potential to improve buffalo milk production by evaluating its authenticity and hygienic quality. The methods used involved the molecular testing (PCR-technique for identifying cow, sheep or goat DNA in the dairy products� samples collected from the small-scale producers market. The hygienic quality of these samples was determined through classical microbiology methods, highly developed techniques (Trek System and PCR for bacterial species confirmation. The results showed that a high percent (65%, from the products found were adulterated with other species milk, mostly cow milk. The most commonly falsified buffalo dairy products were the cheese and the traditional product �telemea�. The prevalence of the bacterial species identified belonged to Listeria innocua and Listeria welshmeri. The conclusion of this study is the need of a durable development system in this particular dairy chain to improve and assure the authenticity and quality of the small-scale producers� products and their reliability for the consumers.

  3. Market Assessment of Biomass Gasification and Combustion Technology for Small- and Medium-Scale Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peterson, D.; Haase, S.

    2009-07-01

    This report provides a market assessment of gasification and direct combustion technologies that use wood and agricultural resources to generate heat, power, or combined heat and power (CHP) for small- to medium-scale applications. It contains a brief overview of wood and agricultural resources in the U.S.; a description and discussion of gasification and combustion conversion technologies that utilize solid biomass to generate heat, power, and CHP; an assessment of the commercial status of gasification and combustion technologies; a summary of gasification and combustion system economics; a discussion of the market potential for small- to medium-scale gasification and combustion systems; and an inventory of direct combustion system suppliers and gasification technology companies. The report indicates that while direct combustion and close-coupled gasification boiler systems used to generate heat, power, or CHP are commercially available from a number of manufacturers, two-stage gasification systems are largely in development, with a number of technologies currently in demonstration. The report also cites the need for a searchable, comprehensive database of operating combustion and gasification systems that generate heat, power, or CHP built in the U.S., as well as a national assessment of the market potential for the systems.

  4. Developing a Model to Assess the Potential Impact of TUM Hydropower Turbines on Small River Ecology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weiwei Yao

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Small hydropower is a renewable energy technology that is used for electricity generation worldwide, but still has potential for further development. However, during the installation of small hydropower, the ecological impacts of the power plants need to be thoroughly investigated. In addressing the challenges of energy production and minimizing the environmental impacts of small hydropower installation and operation, this study has applied an ecohydraulic model to investigate river hydrodynamics, hydromorphology, habitat, and the population impacts of small hydropower, and presented the Mum River as a case study. Two scenarios were implemented in this research to simulate the hydrodynamic, sedimentation, habitat, and population status in order to assess the potential effects caused by the TUM plant. At the Mum River, two scenarios were proposed: the TUM plant was not considered in scenario S1, but was considered in scenario S2. The model results for scenario S2 indicated that the habitat was suitable for fish species living in the Mum River, with fish population numbers between 4.6 × 103 and 6.6 × 103. The S2 results indicated that the impacts of the TUM plant were negligible when compared with S1. Although the impact of the TUM plant on the Mum River is relatively large when the discharge is high (19 m3/s, calculations based on stable flow shows that the TUM plant could function well on the river ecosystem when the discharge is low or at normal rates. Therefore, this study shows that the TUM plant would be a good option to meet the needs of energy generation whilst having a minimal impact on river habitats and changes in fish species population in similar small rivers and streams.

  5. Performance of a Fuel-Cell-Powered, Small Electric Airplane Assessed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berton, Jeffrey J.

    2004-01-01

    Rapidly emerging fuel-cell-power technologies may be used to launch a new revolution of electric propulsion systems for light aircraft. Future small electric airplanes using fuel cell technologies hold the promise of high reliability, low maintenance, low noise, and - with the exception of water vapor - zero emissions. An analytical feasibility and performance assessment was conducted by NASA Glenn Research Center's Airbreathing Systems Analysis Office of a fuel-cell-powered, propeller-driven, small electric airplane based on a model of the MCR-01 two-place kitplane (Dyn'Aero, Darois, France). This assessment was conducted in parallel with an ongoing effort by the Advanced Technology Products Corporation and the Foundation for Advancing Science and Technology Education. Their project - partially funded by a NASA grant - is to design, build, and fly the first manned, continuously propelled, nongliding electric airplane. In our study, an analytical performance model of a proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cell propulsion system was developed and applied to a notional, two-place light airplane modeled after the MCR-01 kitplane. The PEM fuel cell stack was fed pure hydrogen fuel and humidified ambient air via a small automotive centrifugal supercharger. The fuel cell performance models were based on chemical reaction analyses calibrated with published data from the fledgling U.S. automotive fuel cell industry. Electric propeller motors, rated at two shaft power levels in separate assessments, were used to directly drive a two-bladed, variable-pitch propeller. Fuel sources considered were compressed hydrogen gas and cryogenic liquid hydrogen. Both of these fuel sources provided pure, contaminant-free hydrogen for the PEM cells.

  6. Exploring experts' views and perspectives on the enhancement of Strategic Environmental Assessment in European small islands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Polido, Alexandra; João, Elsa; Ramos, Tomás B.

    2016-01-01

    Small islands have the attention of the international community because they are territories with unique features, and a pressing need for the enhancement of sustainability. Strategic Environmental Assessment (SEA) has characteristics that may promote the development and improvement of sustainability in these territories: (i) changing the mind-set, and the decision-making and institutional paradigm, (ii) facilitating cooperation and coordination between different stakeholders, and (iii) providing a framework for good governance and community empowerment. The scientific literature suggests that there may be a need for context-specific SEA in these territories. However, SEA studies often do not incorporate local contextual information, including intuitive knowledge and sense of place. Therefore, there is a possible gap between what is found in the literature and what local communities think, including different stakeholders and experts. Hence, the main goal of this research was to gain an insight into the views and perspectives of small islands SEA experts about issues related to SEA in European small islands, including context-specific approaches, as well as the contribution of SEA for sustainability in these territories. To achieve the research aim, exploratory research using a questionnaire-based survey was designed, aimed at experts on SEA in European small islands. Findings showed regional cooperation networks may have a fundamental role when developing SEA-specific approaches in these territories. This is because SEA-specific approaches encourage a joint effort among islands within one region to improve SEA capacity-building, develop and share a baseline information system, and to share and exchange resources, overall. Also, guidelines are preferred among experts over more legal frameworks and regulations. Finally, the research showed that experts view SEA as a way to enhance sustainability in small islands. This study highlights the importance of integrating

  7. Assessment of lubricating oil degradation in small motorcycle engine fueled with gasohol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nakorn Tippayawong

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Assessment of the degradation of lubricating oil was performed on the lubricants which had been used in a small motorcycle engine fueled with gasohol in comparison with the lubricants from gasoline-run engine. The lubricant properties examined in the assessment were lubricating capacity, viscosity and stability to oxidation. Lubricating capacity was evaluated by accelerated wear test on the Timken tester. Lubricating oils from gasohol-run engine appeared to produce about 10% greater wear than that made in oils from gasoline-run engine. There was no significant difference between the effect of gasohol and gasoline on the viscosity of the used lubricating oils. Moreover, no oxidation products in any used oil samples could be detected.

  8. Market profile and conservation opportunity assessment for small businesses in Ontario : final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-05-30

    This report discussed the results of a study that analysed electric energy efficiency, fuel substitution and demand response (CDM) opportunities for small and medium-sized commercial enterprises (SME) in Ontario and made recommendations. The report first provided a market overview of the SME. It addressed the study methodology, building inventory, electricity use and performance, and interpretation of results. Next, the report provided market profiles of priority sub-sectors. These included: office, food retail, food service, shopping malls, as well as an interpretation of results. A stakeholder assessment and energy management opportunity assessment were then provided. Insight into the experience of other jurisdictions relating to energy conservation were also addressed. Last, the report presented recommendations. It was concluded that, the SME Commercial sector demonstrated good potential for energy conservation and demand management. tabs., figs.

  9. Assessment of hydropower potential in small karst catchments: the case of the Rocche Plateau, Central Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leopardi Maurizio

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Estimation of flow duration characteristics is key in assessing hydropower potential in natural catchments. However, such analysis is not usually straightforward, especially in ungauged sites and/or in complex catchment areas. In this study we evaluate the feasibility of revamping of a small hydroelectric power plant, located in a karst plateau in central Italy, by assessing the hydropower potential of its feeding surface and subsurface stream network. A thorough analysis of runoff processes occurring in the examined area is carried out in order to corroborate regionalization studies based on measured specific flows in neighboring homogeneous basins. The results show an appreciable availability of water resources to be exploited for hydropower purposes.

  10. Life cycle assessment of biogas production in small-scale household digesters in Vietnam

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vu, T.K.V.; Vu, D.Q.; Jensen, Lars Stoumann

    2015-01-01

    to transport, and the loss of biogas as a result of cracks and the intentional release of excess biogas. In this study, life cycle assessment (LCA) methodology was used to assess the environmental impacts associated with biogas digesters in Vietnam. Handling 1,000 kg of liquid manure and 100 kg of solid manure......Small-scale household digesters have been promoted across Asia as a sustainable way of handling manure. The major advantages are that they produce biogas and reduce odor. However their disadvantages include the low recycling of nutrients, because digestate is dilute and therefore difficult...... in a system with a biogas digester reduced the impact potential from 4.4 kg carbon dioxide (CO 2) equivalents to 3.2 kg CO2 equivalents compared with traditional manure management. However, this advantage could easily be compromised if digester construction is considered in the LCA or in situations where...

  11. Actinidin enhances protein digestion in the small intestine as assessed using an in vitro digestion model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaur, Lovedeep; Rutherfurd, Shane M; Moughan, Paul J; Drummond, Lynley; Boland, Mike J

    2010-04-28

    This paper describes an in vitro study that tests the proposition that actinidin from green kiwifruit influences the digestion of proteins in the small intestine. Different food proteins, from sources including soy, meat, milk, and cereals, were incubated in the presence or absence of green kiwifruit extract (containing actinidin) using a two-stage in vitro digestion system consisting of an incubation with pepsin at stomach pH (simulating gastric digestion) and then with added pancreatin at small intestinal pH, simulating upper tract digestion in humans. The digests from the small intestinal stage (following the gastric digestion phase) were subjected to gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) to assess loss of intact protein and development of large peptides during the in vitro simulated digestion. Kiwifruit extract influenced the digestion patterns of all of the proteins to various extents. For some proteins, actinidin had little impact on digestion. However, for other proteins, the presence of kiwifruit extract resulted in a substantially greater loss of intact protein and different peptide patterns from those seen after digestion with pepsin and pancreatin alone. In particular, enhanced digestion of whey protein isolate, zein, gluten, and gliadin was observed. In addition, reverse-phase HPLC (RP-HPLC) analysis showed that a 2.5 h incubation of sodium caseinate with kiwifruit extract alone resulted in approximately 45% loss of intact protein.

  12. Assessment of small versus large hydro-power developments - a Norwegian case study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bakken, Tor Haakon; Harby, Atle

    2010-07-01

    Full text: The era of new, large hydro-power development projects seems to be over in Norway. Partly as a response to this, a large number of applications for the development of smallscale hydro power projects up to 10 MW overflow the Water Resources and Energy Directorate, resulting in an extensive development of small tributaries and water courses in Norway. This study has developed a framework for the assessment and comparison of several small versus many large hydro-power projects based on a multi-criteria analysis (MCA) approach, and further tested this approach on planned or developed projects in the Helgeland region, Norway. Multi-criteria analysis is a decision-support tool aimed at providing a systematic approach for the comparison of various alternatives with often non-commensurable and conflicting attributes. At the same time, the technique enables complex problems and various alternatives to be assessed in a transparent and simple way. The MCA-software was in our case equipped with 2 overall criteria (objectives) with a number of sub criteria; Production with sub-criteria like volume of energy production, installed effect, storage capacity and economical profit; Environmental impacts with sub-criteria like fishing interests, biodiversity, protection of unexploited nature The data used in the case study is based on the planned development of Vefsna (large project) with the energy/effect production estimated and the environmental impacts identified as part of the feasibility studies (the project never reached the authorities' licensing system with a formal EIA). The small-scale hydro-power projects used for comparison are based on realized projects in the Helgeland region and a number of proposed projects, up scaled to the size of the proposed Vefsna-development. The results from the study indicate that a large number of small-scale hydro-power projects need to be implemented in order to balance the volume of produced electricity/effect from one

  13. The accurate assessment of small-angle X-ray scattering data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grant, Thomas D; Luft, Joseph R; Carter, Lester G; Matsui, Tsutomu; Weiss, Thomas M; Martel, Anne; Snell, Edward H

    2015-01-01

    Small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) has grown in popularity in recent times with the advent of bright synchrotron X-ray sources, powerful computational resources and algorithms enabling the calculation of increasingly complex models. However, the lack of standardized data-quality metrics presents difficulties for the growing user community in accurately assessing the quality of experimental SAXS data. Here, a series of metrics to quantitatively describe SAXS data in an objective manner using statistical evaluations are defined. These metrics are applied to identify the effects of radiation damage, concentration dependence and interparticle interactions on SAXS data from a set of 27 previously described targets for which high-resolution structures have been determined via X-ray crystallography or nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy. The studies show that these metrics are sufficient to characterize SAXS data quality on a small sample set with statistical rigor and sensitivity similar to or better than manual analysis. The development of data-quality analysis strategies such as these initial efforts is needed to enable the accurate and unbiased assessment of SAXS data quality.

  14. Wind energy potential in Chile: Assessment of a small scale wind farm for residential clients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Becerra, Miguel; Morán, José; Jerez, Alejandro; Cepeda, Francisco; Valenzuela, Miguel

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • An assessment of a small scale wind farm was carried out. • Two Chilean locations were selected, which are geographically dissimilar. • The software tool selected for the project’s evaluation was HOMER. • All the project’s financial evaluations were negative. • Government policy tools and their applications were discussed. - Abstract: This work presents a techno-financial evaluation of two Chilean locations with promising wind potential: Laguna Verde placed in the central region of the country, and Porvenir in the southern region. A small scale wind farm was studied, considering a nominal electrical production capacity of 90 kW. This facility is comprised of three wind turbine models, all available in the national market. Currently, the tariff method used in Chile is the net billing scheme, where the energy bought and sold to the grid has different prices. The study is based on 300 hypothetical residential households. The software tool used to perform the assessment was the Hybrid Optimization of Multiple Energy Resources (HOMER). For all the scenarios the results showed a Net Present Cost (NPC), instead of a financial profit from the proposed projects. A sensitivity analysis was also carried out. From the group of variables studied, the NPC exhibited itself as more sensitive to the price of buying energy from the grid and to the annual average wind speed. Finally, a few government policies and their applications are discussed.

  15. Assessment of good manufacturing practice for small scale food industry in Malang region, East Java, Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purwantiningrum, I.; Widyhastuty, W.; Christian, J.; Sari, N.

    2018-03-01

    Enhancing food safety in developing countries, such as Indonesia, poses more challenges, especially those of the small- and medium-scale. Various food safety systems are available and readily implemented in the food industry. However, to ensure the effectiveness of such systems, pre-requisite programs should be applied prior to the implementation of food safety system. One of the most acknowledged pre-requisite program is Good Manufacturing Practices (GMP). The aim of this study is to assess the GMP compliance of some small-scale food companies in East Java. Three types of traditional food product were selected, include tempe chips, palm sugar, and instant herbal drink. A survey involving three companies for each type of traditional food was conducted. Data was obtained through observation and assessment based on tabulated criteria in GMP criteria. In essential, the result revealed the compliment level of the food companies being surveyed. There was different level of compliment between each type of the food industry, where the palm sugar industry had the lowest level of compliment compared to the other two. This difference is due to the food safety awareness, social and cultural influences, and also knowledge on food safety and hygiene practice.

  16. Life cycle assessment of wastewater treatment options for small and decentralized communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machado, A P; Urbano, L; Brito, A G; Janknecht, P; Salas, J J; Nogueira, R

    2007-01-01

    Sustainability has strong implications on the practice of engineering. Life cycle assessment (LCA) is an appropriate methodology for assessing the sustainability of a wastewater treatment plant design. The present study used a LCA approach for comparing alternative wastewater treatment processes for small and decentralised rural communities. The assessment was focused on two energy-saving systems (constructed wetland and slow rate infiltration) and a conventional one (activated sludge process). The low environmental impact of the energy-saving wastewater treatment plants was demonstrated, the most relevant being the global warming indicator. Options for reduction of life cycle impacts were assessed including materials used in construction and operational lifetime of the systems. A 10% extension of operation lifetime of constructed wetland and slow rate infiltration systems led to a 1% decrease in CO2 emissions, in both systems. The decrease in the abiotic depletion was 5 and 7%, respectively. Also, replacing steel with HDPE in the activated sludge tank resulted in a 1% reduction in CO2 emission and 1% in the abiotic depletion indicator. In the case of the Imhoff tank a 1% reduction in CO2 emissions and 5% in the abiotic depletion indicator were observed when concrete was replaced by HDPE.

  17. Assessing Methane Fluxes in a Small Run-of-River Reservoir: The Importance of Adjacent Marshland

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGinnis, D. F.; Flury, S.; Fietzek, P.; Bilsley, N. A.; Bodmer, P.; Premke, K.; Maeck, A.; Lorke, A.; Schmidt, M.

    2013-12-01

    the marshland. Damming of the rivers potentially creates or increases adjacent marshland, leading to methane production/emission hotspots. Considering only the main branch, the Schwentine River CH4 emission rate is similar to tropical reservoirs. However, including bubble and diffusive emissions from the reed belts and many small side bays and streams could significantly increase this estimate. As millions of such small river impoundments exist worldwide, we discuss the hydrodynamic alterations promoting CH4 production/emission hotspots, illustrate the importance of collecting high-resolution time series data for assessing emissions, and finally estimate the potential contribution of these small aquatic systems to the global terrestrial carbon balance.

  18. Comparative life-cycle assessment of a small wind turbine for residential off-grid use

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fleck, Brian; Huot, Marc

    2009-01-01

    As the popularity of renewable energy systems grows, small wind turbines are becoming a common choice for off-grid household power. However, the true benefits of such systems over the traditional internal combustion systems are unclear. This study employs a life-cycle assessment methodology in order to directly compare the environmental impacts, net-energy inputs, and life-cycle cost of two systems: a stand-alone small wind turbine system and a single-home diesel generator system. The primary focus for the investigation is the emission of greenhouse gases (GHG) including CO 2 , CH 4 , and N 2 O. These emissions are calculated over the life-cycle of the two systems which provide the same amount of energy to a small off-grid home over a twenty-year period. The results show a considerable environmental benefit for small-scale wind power. The wind generator system offered a 93% reduction of GHG emissions when compared to the diesel system. Furthermore, the diesel generator net-energy input was over 200 MW, while the wind system produced an electrical energy output greater than its net-energy input. Economically, the conclusions were less clear. The assumption was made that diesel fuel cost over the next twenty years was based on May 2008 prices, increasing only in proportion to inflation. As such, the net-present cost of the wind turbine system was 14% greater than the diesel system. However, a larger model wind turbine would likely benefit from the effects of the 'economy of scale,' producing superior results both economically and environmentally. (author)

  19. Assessment of the sources of error affecting the quantitative accuracy of SPECT imaging in small animals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joint Graduate Group in Bioengineering, University of California, San Francisco and University of California, Berkeley; Department of Radiology, University of California; Gullberg, Grant T; Hwang, Andrew B.; Franc, Benjamin L.; Gullberg, Grant T.; Hasegawa, Bruce H.

    2008-02-15

    Small animal SPECT imaging systems have multiple potential applications in biomedical research. Whereas SPECT data are commonly interpreted qualitatively in a clinical setting, the ability to accurately quantify measurements will increase the utility of the SPECT data for laboratory measurements involving small animals. In this work, we assess the effect of photon attenuation, scatter and partial volume errors on the quantitative accuracy of small animal SPECT measurements, first with Monte Carlo simulation and then confirmed with experimental measurements. The simulations modeled the imaging geometry of a commercially available small animal SPECT system. We simulated the imaging of a radioactive source within a cylinder of water, and reconstructed the projection data using iterative reconstruction algorithms. The size of the source and the size of the surrounding cylinder were varied to evaluate the effects of photon attenuation and scatter on quantitative accuracy. We found that photon attenuation can reduce the measured concentration of radioactivity in a volume of interest in the center of a rat-sized cylinder of water by up to 50percent when imaging with iodine-125, and up to 25percent when imaging with technetium-99m. When imaging with iodine-125, the scatter-to-primary ratio can reach up to approximately 30percent, and can cause overestimation of the radioactivity concentration when reconstructing data with attenuation correction. We varied the size of the source to evaluate partial volume errors, which we found to be a strong function of the size of the volume of interest and the spatial resolution. These errors can result in large (>50percent) changes in the measured amount of radioactivity. The simulation results were compared with and found to agree with experimental measurements. The inclusion of attenuation correction in the reconstruction algorithm improved quantitative accuracy. We also found that an improvement of the spatial resolution through the

  20. Performance assessment of cogeneration and trigeneration systems for small scale applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Angrisani, Giovanni; Akisawa, Atsushi; Marrasso, Elisa; Roselli, Carlo; Sasso, Maurizio

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Indices and methods to assess the performance of polygeneration systems. • Index to evaluate the economic feasibility of trigeneration system is introduced. • Thermo-economic analysis is performed considering three commercial cogenerators. • Sensitivity analysis varying reference electric efficiency for European Countries. • Sensitivity analysis varying environmental and economic parameters. - Abstract: Cogeneration and trigeneration systems can contribute to the reduction of primary energy consumption and greenhouse gas emissions in residential and tertiary sectors, by reducing fossil fuels demand and grid losses with respect to conventional systems. To evaluate the performance of these systems, several indices and assessment methodologies can be used, due to the high complexity of such systems, which can consist of several energy conversion devices and can perform bidirectional interactions with external electric and thermal grids. In this paper, a review of the available indices and methodologies to assess the performances of polygeneration systems is provided. An index (TSS_t_r_i) aimed to assess the economic feasibility of a trigeneration system is also introduced and discussed. This activity started in the framework of the International Energy Agency Annex 54 project (“Integration of Micro-Generation and Related Energy Technologies in Buildings”), where research groups shared their expertise about methods applied in each Country to evaluate the performance of polygeneration systems. It was concluded that a thermo-economic analysis comparing the performance of a polygeneration system with those of a reference benchmark scenario, is a very suitable assessment method. Some of the reviewed methodologies are then applied to small scale commercial cogenerators. The sensitivity analysis is performed considering different reference average values of electric efficiency, unitary natural gas and electricity prices, and emission factors for

  1. Verification of codes used for the nuclear safety assessment of the small space heterogeneous reactors with zirconium hydride moderator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glushkov, E.S.; Gomin, E.A.; Kompaniets, G.V.

    1994-01-01

    Computer codes used for assessment of nuclear safety for space NPP are compared taking as an example small-sized heterogeneous reactor with zirconium hydride moderator of the Topaz-2 facility. The code verifications are made for five different variants

  2. A Vulnerability Assessment of the U.S. Small Business B2C E-Commerce Network Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Jensen J.; Truell, Allen D.; Alexander, Melody W.; Woosley, Sherry A.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: This study assessed the security vulnerability of the U.S. small companies' business-to-consumer (B2C) e-commerce network systems. Background: As the Internet technologies have been changing the way business is conducted, the U.S. small businesses are investing in such technologies and taking advantage of e-commerce to access global…

  3. Spatially explicit exposure assessment for small streams in catchments of the orchard growing region `Lake Constance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golla, B.; Bach, M.; Krumpe, J.

    2009-04-01

    1. Introduction Small streams differ greatly from the standardised water body used in the context of aquatic risk assessment for the regulation of plant protection products in Germany. The standard water body is static, with a depth of 0.3 m and a width of 1.0 m. No dilution or water replacement takes place. Spray drift happens always in direction to the water body. There is no variability in drift deposition rate (90th percentile spray drift deposition values [2]). There is no spray drift filtering by vegetation. The application takes place directly adjacent to the water body. In order to establish a more realistic risk assessment procedure the Federal Office for Consumer Protection and Food Safety (BVL) and the Federal Environment Agency (UBA) aggreed to replace deterministic assumptions with data distributions and spatially explicit data and introduce probabilistic methods [3, 4, 5]. To consider the spatial and temporal variability in the exposure situations of small streams the hydraulic and morphological characteristics of catchments need to be described as well as the spatial distribution of fields treated with pesticides. As small streams are the dominant type of water body in most German orchard regions, we use the growing region Lake Constance as pilot region. 2. Materials and methods During field surveys we derive basic morphological parameters for small streams in the Lake Constance region. The mean water width/depth ratio is 13 with a mean depth of 0.12 m. The average residence time is 5.6 s/m (n=87) [1]. Orchards are mostly located in the upper parts of the catchments. Based on an authoritative dataset on rivers and streams of Germany (ATKIS DLM25) we constructed a directed network topology for the Lake Constance region. The gradient of the riverbed is calculated for river stretches of > 500 m length. The network for the pilot region consists of 2000 km rivers and streams. 500 km stream length are located within a distance of 150 m to orchards. Within

  4. Analysis and assessment of environmental impacts of small hydro power plant in Slovakia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeleňáková, M.; Fijko, R.; Remeňáková, I.

    2017-10-01

    Environmental impact assessment (EIA) is an important process that, prior to approval of the investment plan, can provide a detailed examination of the likely and foreseeable impacts of proposed construction activity on the environment. The objective of this paper is to apply a specific methodology for the analysis and evaluation of the environmental impacts of selected constructions, namely, small hydro power plant, using matrix of impacts. This analysis method is intended not only to increase the clarity and precision of the evaluation process, but also to align it with the requirements of the environmental impact assessment system. This modification should improve the reliability of the environmental impact assessment, and could moreover also be applied to other infrastructure projects. Comparison of alternatives and designation of the optimal variant are implemented based on selected criteria that objectively describe the characteristic lines of the planned alternatives of activity and their impact on the environment. The use of proper EIA procedures can help the decision-makers to formulate proper activities based on qualified decisions. The designed project in Spišské Bystré, Slovakia is used as a case study to clarify and exemplify the methodology and techniques.

  5. Comparison of ASSESS neutralization module results with actual small force engagement outcomes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gardner, B.H.; Snell, M.K.; Paulus, W.K.

    1991-01-01

    The ASSESS Neutralization module (Neutralization) is part of the Analytic System and Software for Evaluation of Safeguards and Security (ASSESS), a vulnerability assessment tool. Neutralization models a fire fight between security inspectors (SIs) and adversaries. This paper reports that a comparison has been made between actual outcomes of police and small military engagements and the results predicted by the Neutralization module for similar scenarios. The results of this comparison show a surprising correlation between predicted outcomes (based on numbers of combatants, weapon types, and exposures, etc.) and the actual outcomes of the engagements analyzed. The importance of this analysis is that given the defenders have intelligence on actual adversary characteristics or are protecting against a design basis threat, defense capabilities can be evaluated before an engagement. Results could then be used to develop a favorable probability of a desired outcome. For example, law enforcement agencies are frequently able to compile the number of criminals, types of weaponry, willingness to use force, etc., from analysis of crime scenes

  6. MOSFET assessment of radiation dose delivered to mice using the Small Animal Radiation Research Platform (SARRP).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngwa, Wilfred; Korideck, Houari; Chin, Lee M; Makrigiorgos, G Mike; Berbeco, Ross I

    2011-12-01

    The Small Animal Radiation Research Platform (SARRP) is a novel isocentric irradiation system that enables state-of-the-art image-guided radiotherapy research to be performed with animal models. This paper reports the results obtained from investigations assessing the radiation dose delivered by the SARRP to different anatomical target volumes in mice. Surgically implanted metal oxide semiconductor field effect transistors (MOSFET) dosimeters were employed for the dose assessment. The results reveal differences between the calculated and measured dose of -3.5 to 0.5%, -5.2 to -0.7%, -3.9 to 0.5%, -5.9 to 2.5%, -5.5 to 0.5%, and -4.3 to 0% for the left kidney, liver, pancreas, prostate, left lung, and brain, respectively. Overall, the findings show less than 6% difference between the delivered and calculated dose, without tissue heterogeneity corrections. These results provide a useful assessment of the need for tissue heterogeneity corrections in SARRP dose calculations for clinically relevant tumor model sites.

  7. Assessment of the state administration effectiveness in the field of small business control in Slovakia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eleonóra Marišová

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The agenda of small business in Slovakia is administered by state administration - district offices which registry and also control the entrepreneurs. The control units in the period 2008–2011 and its evaluation in terms of efficiency were the objects of the research. A comparative analysis was focused on the number of inspections carried out by inspectors at registered enterprises and the number of fines imposed by law established methods (penalties in block proceedings and fines on the basis of a decision to impose fine. Comparison was made to the NUTS 3 level, and in different regions of Slovakia. The assessment was based on the number of inspections and fines imposed on the incumbent entrepreneur in the respective region and the number of controls per 1 inspector. The result of the research is to evaluate the effectiveness of control activities of units within the NUTS 3. The average proportion of registered enterprises inspections in 2012 was 3.98% (SR. The base index of the average share of inspected enterprises in the period between the year 2008 and 2012 shows a value 0.75, which indicates a decrease in the proportion of subjects controlled by 25%. The results of the research show that the control units should increase the proportion of screened subjects, revise the amount of the fines imposed and the ability to enforce compliance with the obligations under the Act on small business No. 455/1991 Coll. (Small business law and special rules. To achieve the increase of effectiveness of inspectors, its recommended to innovate their temporal and territorial flexibility.

  8. Assessment of mercury exposure among small-scale gold miners using mercury stable isotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sherman, Laura S.; Blum, Joel D.; Basu, Niladri; Rajaee, Mozhgon; Evers, David C.; Buck, David G.; Petrlik, Jindrich; DiGangi, Joseph

    2015-01-01

    Total mercury (Hg) concentrations in hair and urine are often used as biomarkers of exposure to fish-derived methylmercury (MeHg) and gaseous elemental Hg, respectively. We used Hg stable isotopes to assess the validity of these biomarkers among small-scale gold mining populations in Ghana and Indonesia. Urine from Ghanaian miners displayed similar Δ 199 Hg values to Hg derived from ore deposits (mean urine Δ 199 Hg=0.01‰, n=6). This suggests that urine total Hg concentrations accurately reflect exposure to inorganic Hg among this population. Hair samples from Ghanaian miners displayed low positive Δ 199 Hg values (0.23–0.55‰, n=6) and low percentages of total Hg as MeHg (7.6–29%, n=7). These data suggest that the majority of the Hg in these miners' hair samples is exogenously adsorbed inorganic Hg and not fish-derived MeHg. Hair samples from Indonesian gold miners who eat fish daily displayed a wider range of positive Δ 199 Hg values (0.21–1.32‰, n=5) and percentages of total Hg as MeHg (32–72%, n=4). This suggests that total Hg in the hair samples from Indonesian gold miners is likely a mixture of ingested fish MeHg and exogenously adsorbed inorganic Hg. Based on data from both populations, we suggest that total Hg concentrations in hair samples from small-scale gold miners likely overestimate exposure to MeHg from fish consumption. - Highlights: • Mercury isotopes were measured in hair and urine from small-scale gold miners. • Mercury isotopes indicate that Hg in urine comes from mining activity. • Mercury isotopes suggest Hg in hair is a mixture of fish MeHg and inorganic Hg. • A large percentage of Hg in miner’s hair is released during amalgam burning and adsorbed

  9. Delamination measurement of a laminates composite panel due to hole punching based on the focus variation technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdullah, A. B.; Zain, M. S. M.; Abdullah, M. S.; Samad, Z.

    2017-07-01

    Structural materials, such as composite panels, must be assembled, and such panels are typically constructed via the insertion of a fastener through a drilled hole. The main problem encountered in drilling is delamination, which affects assembly strength. The cost of drilling is also high because of the severe wear on drill bits. The main goal of this research is to develop a new punching method as an alternative to drilling during hole preparation. In this study, the main objective is to investigate the effect of different puncher profiles on the quality of holes punched into carbon fiber reinforcement polymer (CFRP) composite panels. Six types of puncher profiles were fabricated with minimum die clearance (1%), and two quality aspects, namely, incomplete shearing and delamination factor, were measured. The conical puncher incurred the least defects in terms of delamination and yielded an acceptable amount of incomplete shearing in comparison with the other punchers.

  10. Influence of the column rectangularity index and of the boundary conditions in the punching resistance of slab-column connections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. S. PAIVA

    Full Text Available Experimental evidence indicates that both the column rectangularity index and the boundary conditions of the connection may affect the ultimate punching resistance. This paper presents general aspects of these topics and, through the analysis of experimental results of tests on 131 slabs, evaluates the accuracy and suitability of recommendations presented by ABNT NBR 6118, Eurocode 2, ACI 318 and fib Model Code 2010. Experimental results showed that the security level of normative estimates trend to reduce as the column rectangularity increases, and in some cases, the punching resistance was overestimated. Finally, adjustments are suggested in equations presented by NBR 6118 and MC2010 in order to eliminate this trend of unsafe results.

  11. Advanced Small Modular Reactor (SMR) Probabilistic Risk Assessment (PRA) Technical Exchange Meeting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, Curtis [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2013-09-01

    During FY13, the INL developed an advanced SMR PRA framework which has been described in the report Small Modular Reactor (SMR) Probabilistic Risk Assessment (PRA) Detailed Technical Framework Specification, INL/EXT-13-28974 (April 2013). In this framework, the various areas are considered: Probabilistic models to provide information specific to advanced SMRs Representation of specific SMR design issues such as having co-located modules and passive safety features Use of modern open-source and readily available analysis methods Internal and external events resulting in impacts to safety All-hazards considerations Methods to support the identification of design vulnerabilities Mechanistic and probabilistic data needs to support modeling and tools In order to describe this framework more fully and obtain feedback on the proposed approaches, the INL hosted a technical exchange meeting during August 2013. This report describes the outcomes of that meeting.

  12. 3D Tree Dimensionality Assessment Using Photogrammetry and Small Unmanned Aerial Vehicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gatziolis, Demetrios; Lienard, Jean F; Vogs, Andre; Strigul, Nikolay S

    2015-01-01

    Detailed, precise, three-dimensional (3D) representations of individual trees are a prerequisite for an accurate assessment of tree competition, growth, and morphological plasticity. Until recently, our ability to measure the dimensionality, spatial arrangement, shape of trees, and shape of tree components with precision has been constrained by technological and logistical limitations and cost. Traditional methods of forest biometrics provide only partial measurements and are labor intensive. Active remote technologies such as LiDAR operated from airborne platforms provide only partial crown reconstructions. The use of terrestrial LiDAR is laborious, has portability limitations and high cost. In this work we capitalized on recent improvements in the capabilities and availability of small unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs), light and inexpensive cameras, and developed an affordable method for obtaining precise and comprehensive 3D models of trees and small groups of trees. The method employs slow-moving UAVs that acquire images along predefined trajectories near and around targeted trees, and computer vision-based approaches that process the images to obtain detailed tree reconstructions. After we confirmed the potential of the methodology via simulation we evaluated several UAV platforms, strategies for image acquisition, and image processing algorithms. We present an original, step-by-step workflow which utilizes open source programs and original software. We anticipate that future development and applications of our method will improve our understanding of forest self-organization emerging from the competition among trees, and will lead to a refined generation of individual-tree-based forest models.

  13. A small-area study of environmental risk assessment of outdoor falls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Poh-Chin; Wong, Wing-Cheung; Low, Chien-Tat; Wong, Martin; Chan, Ming-Houng

    2011-12-01

    Falls in public places are an issue of great health concern especially for the elderly. Falls among the elderly is also a major health burden in many countries. This study describes a spatial approach to assess environmental causes of outdoor falls using a small urban community in Hong Kong as an example. The method involves collecting data on fall occurrences and mapping their geographic positions to examine circumstances and environmental evidence that contribute to falls. High risk locations or hot spots of falls are identified on the bases of spatial proximity and concentration of falls within a threshold distance by means of kernel smoothing and standard deviational ellipses. This method of geographic aggregation of individual fall incidents for a small-area study yields hot spots of manageable sizes. The spatial clustering approach is effective in two ways. Firstly, it allows visualisation and isolation of fall hot spots to draw focus. Secondly and especially under conditions of resource decline, policy makers are able to target specific locations to examine the underlying causal mechanisms and strategise effective response and preventive measures based on the types of environmental risk factors identified.

  14. Assessment of the impact of nuclear power plant construction and operation on small regions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, M.H. Jr.

    1977-01-01

    This study addresses the problem of the comprehensive, quantitative evaluation of the environmental, economic, and social impacts of the construction and operation of nuclear power plant on a given region. A theoretical model of the regional impacts is constructed employing input-output methods that are extended to include ecologic as well as economic effects. Thus, the regional model explicitly incorporates environmental feedback as a consequence of economic activity. The model is then employed to estimate the impact of the construction and operation of a nuclear power facility on a small region in South Carolina. Measures of economic and environmental effects include estimates of changes in output, income, employment, local government revenue and expenditure, external costs of environmental decay, pollution loads, and common-property resource usage. Results indicate that, in the South Carolina case study, significant gains in social welfare accrued to the region due to the construction and operation of the nuclear power facility. Further, the theoretical method developed herein provides a comprehensive method of objectively assessing various types of impacts on a region as small as several contiguous counties or even a single county

  15. Dynamic {sup 18}F-fluoride small animal PET to noninvasively assess renal function in rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schnoeckel, Uta; Stegger, Lars; Schaefers, Klaus P.; Hermann, Sven; Schober, Otmar; Schaefers, Michael [Klinik und Poliklinik fuer Nuklearmedizin, Muenster (Germany); Reuter, Stefan; Schlatter, Eberhard; Gabriels, Gert [Universitaetsklinikum Muenster, Medizinische Klinik und Poliklinik D, Experimentelle Nephrologie, Muenster (Germany)

    2008-12-15

    Renal function can be quantified by both laboratory and scintigraphic methods. In the case of small animal diagnostics, scintigraphic image-based methods are ideal since they can assess split renal function, work noninvasively, and can be repeated. The aim of this study is to validate a {sup 18}F-PET-based method to quantify renal function in rats. Fluoride clearance was calculated from a dynamic whole body listmode acquisition of 60 min length in a small animal PET scanner following an i.v. injection of 15 MBq {sup 18}F-fluoride. Volumes of interest (VOIs) were placed in the left ventricle and the bladder as well as traced around the kidney contours. The respective time-activity curves (TAC) were calculated. The renal {sup 18}F-clearance was calculated by the ratio of the total renal excreted activity (bladder VOI) and the integral of the blood TAC. PET-derived renal function was validated by intraindividual measurements of creatinine clearance (n=23), urea clearance (n=23), and tubular excretion rate (TER-MAG3). The split renal function was derived from the injection of the clinically available radionuclide {sup 99m}Tc-mercaptotriglycine by blood sampling and planar renography (n=8). In all animals studied, PET revealed high-quality TACs. PET-derived renal fluoride clearance was linearly correlated with intraindividual laboratory measures (PET vs. creatinine: r=0.78; PET vs. urea: r=0.73; PET vs. TER-MAG3: r=0.73). Split function was comparable ({sup 18}F-PET vs. MAG3-renography: r=0.98). PET-derived measures were highly reproducible. {sup 18}F-PET is able to noninvasively assess renal function in rats and provides a significant potential for serial studies in different experimental scenarios. (orig.)

  16. Dynamic 18F-fluoride small animal PET to noninvasively assess renal function in rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schnoeckel, Uta; Stegger, Lars; Schaefers, Klaus P.; Hermann, Sven; Schober, Otmar; Schaefers, Michael; Reuter, Stefan; Schlatter, Eberhard; Gabriels, Gert

    2008-01-01

    Renal function can be quantified by both laboratory and scintigraphic methods. In the case of small animal diagnostics, scintigraphic image-based methods are ideal since they can assess split renal function, work noninvasively, and can be repeated. The aim of this study is to validate a 18 F-PET-based method to quantify renal function in rats. Fluoride clearance was calculated from a dynamic whole body listmode acquisition of 60 min length in a small animal PET scanner following an i.v. injection of 15 MBq 18 F-fluoride. Volumes of interest (VOIs) were placed in the left ventricle and the bladder as well as traced around the kidney contours. The respective time-activity curves (TAC) were calculated. The renal 18 F-clearance was calculated by the ratio of the total renal excreted activity (bladder VOI) and the integral of the blood TAC. PET-derived renal function was validated by intraindividual measurements of creatinine clearance (n=23), urea clearance (n=23), and tubular excretion rate (TER-MAG3). The split renal function was derived from the injection of the clinically available radionuclide 99m Tc-mercaptotriglycine by blood sampling and planar renography (n=8). In all animals studied, PET revealed high-quality TACs. PET-derived renal fluoride clearance was linearly correlated with intraindividual laboratory measures (PET vs. creatinine: r=0.78; PET vs. urea: r=0.73; PET vs. TER-MAG3: r=0.73). Split function was comparable ( 18 F-PET vs. MAG3-renography: r=0.98). PET-derived measures were highly reproducible. 18 F-PET is able to noninvasively assess renal function in rats and provides a significant potential for serial studies in different experimental scenarios. (orig.)

  17. "Center punch" and "whole spot" bioanalysis of apixaban in human dried blood spot samples by UHPLC-MS/MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Naiyu; Yuan, Long; Ji, Qin C; Mangus, Heidi; Song, Yan; Frost, Charles; Zeng, Jianing; Aubry, Anne-Françoise; Arnold, Mark E

    2015-04-15

    Apixaban (Eliquis™) was developed by Bristol-Myers Squibb (BMS) and Pfizer to use as an antithrombotic/anticoagulant agent and has been recently approved for the prevention of stroke and systemic embolism in patients with nonvalvular atrial fibrillation. A clinical study of apixaban, sponsored by BMS and Pfizer, included a pilot exploratory portion to evaluate the potential for future drug concentration monitoring using dried blood spot (DBS) sample collection. For DBS sample collection, a fixed blood volume was dispensed onto a DBS card by either regular volumetric pipette (venous blood collection) or capillary dispenser (finger prick blood collection). A 96-well semi-automated liquid-liquid extraction sample preparation procedure was developed to provide clean extracts for UHPLC-MS/MS quantitation. Assays using both partial-spot center punch and whole spot punch were developed and validated. The linear dynamic ranges for all the analyses were from 0.5 to 500 ng/mL. The coefficient of determination (r(2)) values was >0.9944 for all the validation runs. For the center punch approach, the intra-assay precision (%CV) was within 4.4% and inter-assay precision was within 2.6%. The assay accuracy, expressed as %Dev., was within ± 5.4% of the nominal concentrations. One accuracy and precision run was performed using the whole spot approach, the intra-assay precision (%CV) was within 7.1% and the accuracy was within ± 8.0% of the nominal concentrations. In contrast to the center punch approach, the whole spot approach eliminated the effect of hematocrit and high lipids on the analysis of apixaban in human DBS when an accurate sample blood volume was collected on DBS cards. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Analytical and experimental investigation of the elastic and plastic behavior of plates on foundations subjected to dynamic punch loading

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duffey, T.A.; Sutherland, S.H.; Cheresh, M.

    1980-01-01

    Analytical solutions and experimental results are presented for the response of foundation-backed plates to static and dynamic punch loading. Tests were performed on polyurethane foam-backed and unbacked plates; plates were centrally loaded over a range-in plastic deformations up to complete failure. This is part of an attempt to understand the puncture resistance of the sidewalls of containers used to ship hazardous wastes

  19. Numerical And Experimental Analysis Of The Process Of Aviation Drawpiece Forming Using Rigid And Rubber Punch With Various Properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kut S.

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the results of the numerical analysis and experimental research of the forming process of aviation drawpiece made from 0.6 mm thick Inconel 625 sheet metal. First phase of testing was conducted using rigid steel tools for drawpiece forming. Results of conducted simulations show that during rigid tool forming, the middle of the drawpiece losses stability. In consequence, rigid tool forming leads to the formation of unacceptable wrinkles on the drawpiece. Subsequent experimental research confirmed wrinkles of the metal drawpiece in this area. It was assumed that in order to eliminate this negative phenomenon, minor changes in technology and tool construction would have to be made. The drawpiece will be shaped by means of a flexible tool, than re-shaped using rigid tools. In the second phase of the research, tooling design changes have been made. They consisted of replacing the steel punch with a specially designed stamp susceptible for deformation. FEM numerical simulations were performed for flexible punch forming made of polyurethane elastomer with different hardness (50, 70, 85 and 90 Sh A. On their basis, the effect on the mechanical characteristics of the elastomeric drawing process and the formation of wrinkles was shown. They can be effectively eliminated by the use of a punch with hardness of 90 Sh A, which has also been confirmed by experimental research. In addition, the paper presents a comparative analysis of the deformations in selected actual drawpiece areas and in the elastomeric punch with hardness 90 Sh A computer model. The actual drawpiece deformation schedule and the values were determined using photogrammetric system Argus v.6.3., while the computer modeled drawpiece was based on FEM calculations performed in the MARC / Mentat system. In conclusion the difficulties as well as the advantages and disadvantages in determining the deformation of sheet metal parts were indicated using photogrammetric system

  20. Punching shear in reinforced concrete flat slabs with hole adjacent to the column and moment transfer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. C. Oliveira

    Full Text Available The structural behavior and the ultimate punching shear resistance of internal reinforced concrete flat slab-column connections, with one hole adjacent to the column, with or without flexural moment transfer of the slab to the column was investigated. Main variables were: the existence whether or not hole, flexural reinforcement layout and ratio, the direction and sense of the moment transferred and the eccentricity of the load (M (moment transferred to column / V (shear ratio at the connection - 0,50 m or 0,25 m. Seven internal slab-column joining were tested and ultimate loads, cracking, deflections, concrete and reinforcement strains were analyzed. The existence of hole adjacent to the smaller column dimension, the hole dimension, flexural reinforcement rate and placing, the variation of relation Mu/Vu in function of the load, and, than, of eccentricity of the load, influenced the slabs behavior and rupture load. Test results were compared with the estimations from CEB-FIP/MC1990 [7], EC2/2004 [12], ACI-318:2011 [1] and NBR 6118:2007 [5]. ACI [1] and EC2 [12] presented most conservative estimates, although have presented some non conservative estimates. Brazilian NBR [5], even though being partly based in EC2 [12], presented smaller conservative estimates and more non conservative estimates. A modification on all codes is proposed for taking in account the moment caused by the eccentricity at the critical perimeter for slabs with holes.

  1. Failure criterion of concrete type material and punching failure analysis of thick mortar plate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohno, T.; Kuroiwa, M.; Irobe, M.

    1979-01-01

    In this paper falure surface of concrete type material is proposed and its validity to structural analysis is examined. The study is an introductory part of evaluation for ultimate strength of reinforced and prestressed concrete structures in reactor technology. The failure surface is expressed in a linear form in terms of octahedral normal and shear stresses. Coefficient of the latter stress is given by a trigonometric series in threefold angle of similarity. Hence, its meridians are multilinear and traces of its deviatoric sections are smooth curves having periodicity of 2π/3 around space diagonal in principal stress space. The mathematical expression of the surface has an arbitraty number of parameters so that material test results are well reflected. To confirm the effectiveness of proposed failure criterion, experiment and numerical analysis by the finite element method on punching failure of thick mortar plate in axial symmetry are compared. In the numerical procedure yield surface of the material is assumed to exist mainly in compression region, since a brittle cleavage or elastic fracture occurs in the concrete type material under stress state with tension, while a ductile or plastic fracture occurs under compressive stress state. (orig.)

  2. WHAT IS THE BEST RADIOGRAPHIC VIEW FOR "DIE PUNCH" DISTAL RADIUS FRACTURES? A CADAVER MODEL STUDY.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falcochio, Diego Figueira; Crepaldi, Bruno Eiras; Trindade, Christiano Augusto; da Costa, Antonio Carlos; Chakkour, Ivan

    2012-01-01

    the aim of this study is try to show the best view for distal radius fractures so called die-punch fractures. There has been used a human cadaver radius bone from the Salvador Arena Tissue Bank. This bone was cleaned up after removing the soft tissues and osteotomies created displaced lunate fossa fractures of 0, 1, 2, 3 and 5 mm. We have fixed this fragment with adhesive tape. Then the joint deviation were significantly increased with step-offs of 1 mm. Radiographs were then taken into 5 different positions: postero-anterior view, lateral view, oblique views and tangencial view for each of the deviations. The resulting lunate fossa depression in each X-ray film was analyzed by the AutoCAD 2010® software. The tangencial view was the best one to see the 1mm and 3mm bone degrees and the second one view to see the 2mm and 5 mm degrees. The pronated oblique view was the best to see the 2mm degrees and the oblique supinated view wasn't able to see the degrees between 1 and 2mm. The tangencial view was the best one to see the 1mm and 3mm bone degrees and the second one view to see the 2mm and 5 mm degrees.

  3. User-Authentication on Wearable Devices Based on Punch Gesture Biometrics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liang Guan-Cheng

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Due to commoditization and convenience, wearable technology are interwoven with our daily life. However, privacy sensitive data stored on those devices such as personal email, message can be easily stolen. Most devices require a PIN input to unlock. However, this mechanism is vulnerable to shoulder surfing attack. Thus many novel authentication approaches have been proposed to solve this problem. And biometric-based methods have been adopted by many researchers because of the efficiency and excellent performance. In this paper, we propose a new biometric-based authentication system. We focus on how the user performs a straight punch gesture subconsciously. By analysis the acceleration data from the smartwatch when user performing the gesture, we are able to profile the user. And we authenticate the user according to the biometrics of this action. This mechanism is light-weighted and do not require user to remember any secret code. We develop an authentication system on Samsung Gear Fit 2 and conducted a real-world experiment on 20 volunteers. And we collected 13000 gesture samples to evaluate our system. Results show that our system can achieve a classification accuracy of at least 95.45%. In attacking scenario, our system can achieve an equal error rate lower than 4%. The maximum number of samples required by a well-trained classifier is 25.

  4. APPLICATION OF PBL IN THE COURSE FLUID AND ELECTRICAL DRIVE SYSTEMS, CASE STUDY: MANUFACTURING AN AUTOMATED PUNCH MACHINE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Sedaghat

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The PBL unit of fluid and electrical drive systems is taught in final semester of undergraduates in mechanical engineering department of the Australian College of Kuwait (ACK. The recent project on an automated punching machine is discovered more appealing to both students and instructors in triggering new ideas and satisfaction end results. In this case study, the way this PBL unit is coordinated and facilitated is explained. Two examples of student works are presented. The aim is to expose the students to real world engineering problems but in a satisfying manner. Similar to real life problems for engineers, restrictions are applied for the students on costs, availability of ACK facilities, and application of automation tools. Students are directly engaged by using technical standards on punching heads and dies, standard tensile testing of plates, and so on. Arduino microprocessor programming, an open-source hardware and software electronic platform, and electro-pneumatic devices are adopted for developing the automated punching machine. The goal of the PBL course is to acquaint students learning based on the concepts of team working, engineering design, professional manufacturing, and sequential testing of the end product. It is found that students achieved their best and developed new skills in this PBL unit as reflected in their portfolios.

  5. Whole ecosystem approaches for assessing the coupling of N and P cycles in small streams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schade, J. D.; Thomas, S. A.; Seybold, E. C.; Drake, T.; Lewis, K.; MacNeill, K.; Zimov, N.

    2010-12-01

    The most pressing environmental problems faced by society are manifestations of changes in biogeochemical cycles. The urgency of mitigating these problems has brought into sharp focus the need for a stronger mechanistic understanding of the factors that control biogeochemical cycles and how these factors affect multiple elements. Our overarching goal is to assess the strength of coupling between carbon, nitrogen, and phosphorus cycles in small headwater streams, including streams draining small watersheds in Northern California and the East Siberian Arctic. We have used a range of whole ecosystem approaches, rooted in nutrient spiraling theory, including plateau and pulsed nutrient enrichment experiments at a range of N:P ratios in heterotrophic and autotrophic streams. We use these experiments to calculate changes in nutrient spiraling metrics in response to changes in absolute and relative supply of N and P, and we use these results to infer the strength of the linkage between N and P cycles. In all California study streams, ecological processes are N limited, and we have observed significant changes in the strength of N and P coupling depending on position along the stream network. In small heterotrophic streams, addition of N caused significant increases in P uptake, while P had little influence on N. In larger autotrophic streams, N and P were only weakly coupled, which we attributed to a shift towards dominance of uptake by algae rather than heterotrophic bacteria, which is associated with differences in cellular structures. In addition, we have observed a small but consistent reduction in P uptake at high N:P of supply in autotrophic streams, which we speculate may indicate a suppression of N fixers at high N supply. In the Arctic, we have observed less consistency in the response of streams to nutrient enrichment, with some streams showing very little change in N or P uptake with changes in supply N:P, and others showing a decrease in N uptake in response

  6. Methods and devices for small specimen testing at the Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jitsukawa, Shiro; Kizaki, Minoru; Umino, Akira; Shiba, Kiyoyuki; Hishinuma, Akimichi

    1993-01-01

    Devices for a punch test on annular notched specimens, small punch (SP) tests, and miniaturized tension tests in hot cells were developed. A micro-manipulator to handle small specimens and an electro-discharge machine (EDM) to extract miniaturized tension specimens and annular notched specimens from transmission electron microscopy (TEM) disks were also fabricated. These devices were designed and made for remote operation in hot cells. Preliminary tests to evaluate the applicability of test methods were carried out. Correlation between SP test results and tensile properties was not strong. Miniaturized tensile results were reasonably similar to the results with larger specimens. The ductile-brittle transition temperature (DBTT) by the punch test on annular notched specimens was higher than that obtained from the SP test. However, materials dependence of the DBTT was different from that measured by standard Charpy V-notch (CVN) tests. This may be due to a specimen size effect

  7. Life Cycle Assessment of Biogas Production in Small-scale Household Digesters in Vietnam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. K. V. Vu

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Small-scale household digesters have been promoted across Asia as a sustainable way of handling manure. The major advantages are that they produce biogas and reduce odor. However their disadvantages include the low recycling of nutrients, because digestate is dilute and therefore difficult to transport, and the loss of biogas as a result of cracks and the intentional release of excess biogas. In this study, life cycle assessment (LCA methodology was used to assess the environmental impacts associated with biogas digesters in Vietnam. Handling 1,000 kg of liquid manure and 100 kg of solid manure in a system with a biogas digester reduced the impact potential from 4.4 kg carbon dioxide (CO2 equivalents to 3.2 kg CO2 equivalents compared with traditional manure management. However, this advantage could easily be compromised if digester construction is considered in the LCA or in situations where there is an excess of biogas which is intentionally released. A sensitivity analysis showed that biogas digesters could be a means of reducing global warming if methane emissions can be kept low. In terms of eutrophication, farms with biogas digesters had 3 to 4 times greater impacts. In order to make biogas digesters sustainable, methods for recycling digestates are urgently required.

  8. Assessment of water quality from water harvesting using small farm reservoir for irrigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dewi, W. S.; Komariah; Samsuri, I. Y.; Senge, M.

    2018-03-01

    This study aims to assess the quality of rainfall-runoff water harvesting using small farm reservoir (SFR) for irrigation. Water quality assessment criteria based on RI Government Regulation number 82 the year 2001 on Water Quality Management and Pollution Control, and FAO Irrigation Water Quality Guidelines 1985. The experiment was conducted in the dry land of Wonosari Village, Gondangrejo District, Karanganyar Regency. SFR size was 10 m x 3 m x 2 m. Water quality measurements are done every week, ten times. Water samples were taken at 6 points, namely: distance of 2.5 m, 5 m, and 7.5 m from the inlet, at depth 25 cm and 175 cm from surface water. In each sampling point replicated three times. Water quality parameters include dissolved oxygen (DO), Turbidity (TSS), water pH, Nitrate (NO3), and Phosphate. The results show that water harvesting that collected in SFR meets both standards quality used, so the water is feasible for agricultural irrigation. The average value of harvested water was DO 2.6 mg/l, TSS 62.7 mg/l, pH 6.6, P 5.3 mg/l and NO3 0.16 mg/l. Rainfall-runoff water harvesting using SFR prospectus for increasing save water availability for irrigation.

  9. Assessing rural small community water supply in Limpopo, South Africa: water service benchmarks and reliability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majuru, Batsirai; Jagals, Paul; Hunter, Paul R

    2012-10-01

    Although a number of studies have reported on water supply improvements, few have simultaneously taken into account the reliability of the water services. The study aimed to assess whether upgrading water supply systems in small rural communities improved access, availability and potability of water by assessing the water services against selected benchmarks from the World Health Organisation and South African Department of Water Affairs, and to determine the impact of unreliability on the services. These benchmarks were applied in three rural communities in Limpopo, South Africa where rudimentary water supply services were being upgraded to basic services. Data were collected through structured interviews, observations and measurement, and multi-level linear regression models were used to assess the impact of water service upgrades on key outcome measures of distance to source, daily per capita water quantity and Escherichia coli count. When the basic system was operational, 72% of households met the minimum benchmarks for distance and water quantity, but only 8% met both enhanced benchmarks. During non-operational periods of the basic service, daily per capita water consumption decreased by 5.19l (pwater sources were 639 m further (p ≤ 0.001, 95% CI 560-718). Although both rudimentary and basic systems delivered water that met potability criteria at the sources, the quality of stored water sampled in the home was still unacceptable throughout the various service levels. These results show that basic water services can make substantial improvements to water access, availability, potability, but only if such services are reliable. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Simulators of Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Skin: Diagnostic Challenges on Small Biopsies and Clinicopathological Correlation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kong-Bing Tan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Squamous cell carcinoma (SCC is a common and important primary cutaneous malignancy. On skin biopsies, SCC is characterized by significant squamous cell atypia, abnormal keratinization, and invasive features. Diagnostic challenges may occasionally arise, especially in the setting of small punch biopsies or superficial shave biopsies, where only part of the lesion may be assessable by the pathologist. Benign mimics of SCC include pseudoepitheliomatous hyperplasia, eccrine squamous syringometaplasia, inverted follicular keratosis, and keratoacanthoma, while malignant mimics of SCC include basal cell carcinoma, melanoma, and metastatic carcinoma. The careful application of time-honored diagnostic criteria, close clinicopathological correlation and a selective request for a further, deeper, or wider biopsy remain the most useful strategies to clinch the correct diagnosis. This review aims to present the key differential diagnoses of SCC, to discuss common diagnostic pitfalls, and to recommend ways to deal with diagnostically challenging cases.

  11. Work environment and occupational risk assessment for small animal Portuguese veterinary activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macedo, Angela C; Mota, Vânia T; Tavares, João M; Machado, Osvaldo L; Malcata, Francisco X; Cristo, Marinela P; Mayan, Olga N

    2018-03-01

    The professional work of small animal veterinary staff encompasses a wide diversity of demanding tasks. This has prompted a number of studies covering physical, chemical, biological, ergonomic, or psychological hazards, as well as their health effects upon veterinary workers. However, such results were obtained from self-reported surveys (via paper or online). This study reports the identification of potential hazards and provides a risk assessment of 15 veterinary clinics based on data from walk-through surveys, interviews with workers, and quantification of indoor air quality parameters including concentration of volatile organic compounds (total, isoflurane, and glutaraldehyde). The risk arising from X-ray exposure was unacceptable in seven clinics; X-ray examination should be discontinued in the absence of isolated radiation rooms, poor safety practices, and lack of personal protective equipment. Ergonomic-related hazards and work practices should be revised as soon as possible, considering that improper postures, as well as moving and lifting heavy animals are major causes of musculoskeletal disorders. The risk levels were, in general, small or medium (acceptable) with regard to exposure to physical hazards (such as bites, scratches, cuts, and burns) and biological hazards. It was observed that the indoor air quality parameters including temperature, respirable particulate matter and total volatile organic compounds do not indicate a comfortable workplace environment, requiring clinics' attention to keep the safe environment. The veterinarians and nurses were exposed to isoflurane (above 2 ppm) during surgery if an extractor system for waste gas was used instead of a scavenging system. Finally, veterinary workers did not possess any type of training on occupational safety and health issues, even though they recognized its importance.

  12. 3D Tree Dimensionality Assessment Using Photogrammetry and Small Unmanned Aerial Vehicles.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Demetrios Gatziolis

    Full Text Available Detailed, precise, three-dimensional (3D representations of individual trees are a prerequisite for an accurate assessment of tree competition, growth, and morphological plasticity. Until recently, our ability to measure the dimensionality, spatial arrangement, shape of trees, and shape of tree components with precision has been constrained by technological and logistical limitations and cost. Traditional methods of forest biometrics provide only partial measurements and are labor intensive. Active remote technologies such as LiDAR operated from airborne platforms provide only partial crown reconstructions. The use of terrestrial LiDAR is laborious, has portability limitations and high cost. In this work we capitalized on recent improvements in the capabilities and availability of small unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs, light and inexpensive cameras, and developed an affordable method for obtaining precise and comprehensive 3D models of trees and small groups of trees. The method employs slow-moving UAVs that acquire images along predefined trajectories near and around targeted trees, and computer vision-based approaches that process the images to obtain detailed tree reconstructions. After we confirmed the potential of the methodology via simulation we evaluated several UAV platforms, strategies for image acquisition, and image processing algorithms. We present an original, step-by-step workflow which utilizes open source programs and original software. We anticipate that future development and applications of our method will improve our understanding of forest self-organization emerging from the competition among trees, and will lead to a refined generation of individual-tree-based forest models.

  13. Assessment of mercury exposure among small-scale gold miners using mercury stable isotopes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sherman, Laura S., E-mail: lsaylors@umich.edu [University of Michigan, Department of Earth and Environmental Sciences, 1100 North University Avenue, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 (United States); Blum, Joel D. [University of Michigan, Department of Earth and Environmental Sciences, 1100 North University Avenue, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 (United States); Basu, Niladri [McGill University, Faculty of Agricultural and Environmental Sciences, 21,111 Lakeshore Road, Ste. Anne de Bellevue, Quebec, Canada H9X3V9 (Canada); Rajaee, Mozhgon [University of Michigan, Department of Environmental Health Sciences, 1415 Washington Heights, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 (United States); Evers, David C.; Buck, David G. [Biodiversity Research Institute, 19 Flaggy Meadow Road, Gorham, ME 04038 (United States); Petrlik, Jindrich [Arnika Association, Chlumova 17, Prague 3 (Czech Republic); DiGangi, Joseph [IPEN, Box 7256, SE-402 35 Gothenburg (Sweden)

    2015-02-15

    Total mercury (Hg) concentrations in hair and urine are often used as biomarkers of exposure to fish-derived methylmercury (MeHg) and gaseous elemental Hg, respectively. We used Hg stable isotopes to assess the validity of these biomarkers among small-scale gold mining populations in Ghana and Indonesia. Urine from Ghanaian miners displayed similar Δ{sup 199}Hg values to Hg derived from ore deposits (mean urine Δ{sup 199}Hg=0.01‰, n=6). This suggests that urine total Hg concentrations accurately reflect exposure to inorganic Hg among this population. Hair samples from Ghanaian miners displayed low positive Δ{sup 199}Hg values (0.23–0.55‰, n=6) and low percentages of total Hg as MeHg (7.6–29%, n=7). These data suggest that the majority of the Hg in these miners' hair samples is exogenously adsorbed inorganic Hg and not fish-derived MeHg. Hair samples from Indonesian gold miners who eat fish daily displayed a wider range of positive Δ{sup 199}Hg values (0.21–1.32‰, n=5) and percentages of total Hg as MeHg (32–72%, n=4). This suggests that total Hg in the hair samples from Indonesian gold miners is likely a mixture of ingested fish MeHg and exogenously adsorbed inorganic Hg. Based on data from both populations, we suggest that total Hg concentrations in hair samples from small-scale gold miners likely overestimate exposure to MeHg from fish consumption. - Highlights: • Mercury isotopes were measured in hair and urine from small-scale gold miners. • Mercury isotopes indicate that Hg in urine comes from mining activity. • Mercury isotopes suggest Hg in hair is a mixture of fish MeHg and inorganic Hg. • A large percentage of Hg in miner’s hair is released during amalgam burning and adsorbed.

  14. Assessment of background particulate matter concentrations in small cities and rural locations--Prince George, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veira, Andreas; Jackson, Peter L; Ainslie, Bruce; Fudge, Dennis

    2013-07-01

    concentrations for small cities in sparsely populated regions like northern British Columbia. In rural areas like northern British Columbia, particulate matter (PM) monitoring stations are usually located close to emission sources and residential areas in order to assess the PM impact on human health. Thus there is a lack of accurate PM background concentration data that represent PM ambient concentrations in the absence of local emissions. The background calculation method developed in this study uses observed meteorological data as well as local source emission locations and provides annual, seasonal and precipitation-related PM background concentrations that are comparable to literature values for four out of six monitoring stations.

  15. Who receives bank loans? A study of lending officers' assessments of loans to growing small and medium-sized enterprises

    OpenAIRE

    Bruns, Volker

    2004-01-01

    This thesis explores factors that influence lending officers' assessments of credit requests from growing small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs). Building on asymmetric information theory, factors identified in previous research are grouped into the theoretical categories of risk-assessment, risk-alignment, and risk-shifting. Hypotheses are developed as to what influences lending officers' credit assessments. In addition, it is hypothesized that risk-taking proclivity interacts with other ...

  16. Mercury Exposure Assessment and Spatial Distribution in A Ghanaian Small-Scale Gold Mining Community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajaee, Mozhgon; Long, Rachel N; Renne, Elisha P; Basu, Niladri

    2015-09-01

    Mercury is utilized worldwide in artisanal and small-scale gold mining (ASGM) and may pose a risk for miners and mining communities. While a number of studies have characterized mercury in ASGM communities, most have focused on a single media and few have taken a holistic approach. Here, a multiple media exposure assessment and cross-sectional study of mercury was conducted in 2010 through 2012 in northeast Ghana with a small-scale gold mining community, Kejetia, a subsistence farming community, Gorogo, and an urban ASGM gold refinery in Bolgatanga. The objective was to assess mercury in a range of human (urine and hair) and ecological (household soil, sediment, fish, and ore) samples to increase understanding of mercury exposure pathways. All participants were interviewed on demographics, occupational and medical histories, and household characteristics. Participants included 90 women of childbearing age and 97 adults from Kejetia and 75 adults from Gorogo. Median total specific gravity-adjusted urinary, hair, and household soil mercury were significantly higher in Kejetia miners (5.18 µg/L, 0.967 µg/g, and 3.77 µg/g, respectively) than Kejetia non-miners (1.18 µg/L, 0.419 µg/g, and 2.00 µg/g, respectively) and Gorogo participants (0.154 µg/L, 0.181 µg/g, and 0.039 µg/g) in 2011. Sediment, fish, and ore Hg concentrations were below guideline values. Median soil mercury from the Bolgatanga refinery was very high (54.6 µg/g). Estimated mean mercury ingestion for Kejetia adults from soil and dust exceeded the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency reference dose (0.3 µg Hg/kg·day) for pica (0.409 µg Hg/kg·day) and geophagy (20.5 µg Hg/kg·day) scenarios. Most participants with elevated urinary and household soil mercury were miners, but some non-miners approached and exceeded guideline values, suggesting a health risk for non-mining residents living within these communities.

  17. Mercury Exposure Assessment and Spatial Distribution in A Ghanaian Small-Scale Gold Mining Community

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mozhgon Rajaee

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Mercury is utilized worldwide in artisanal and small-scale gold mining (ASGM and may pose a risk for miners and mining communities. While a number of studies have characterized mercury in ASGM communities, most have focused on a single media and few have taken a holistic approach. Here, a multiple media exposure assessment and cross-sectional study of mercury was conducted in 2010 through 2012 in northeast Ghana with a small-scale gold mining community, Kejetia, a subsistence farming community, Gorogo, and an urban ASGM gold refinery in Bolgatanga. The objective was to assess mercury in a range of human (urine and hair and ecological (household soil, sediment, fish, and ore samples to increase understanding of mercury exposure pathways. All participants were interviewed on demographics, occupational and medical histories, and household characteristics. Participants included 90 women of childbearing age and 97 adults from Kejetia and 75 adults from Gorogo. Median total specific gravity-adjusted urinary, hair, and household soil mercury were significantly higher in Kejetia miners (5.18 µg/L, 0.967 µg/g, and 3.77 µg/g, respectively than Kejetia non-miners (1.18 µg/L, 0.419 µg/g, and 2.00 µg/g, respectively and Gorogo participants (0.154 µg/L, 0.181 µg/g, and 0.039 µg/g in 2011. Sediment, fish, and ore Hg concentrations were below guideline values. Median soil mercury from the Bolgatanga refinery was very high (54.6 µg/g. Estimated mean mercury ingestion for Kejetia adults from soil and dust exceeded the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency reference dose (0.3 µg Hg/kg·day for pica (0.409 µg Hg/kg·day and geophagy (20.5 µg Hg/kg·day scenarios. Most participants with elevated urinary and household soil mercury were miners, but some non-miners approached and exceeded guideline values, suggesting a health risk for non-mining residents living within these communities.

  18. Mercury Exposure Assessment and Spatial Distribution in A Ghanaian Small-Scale Gold Mining Community

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajaee, Mozhgon; Long, Rachel N.; Renne, Elisha P.; Basu, Niladri

    2015-01-01

    Mercury is utilized worldwide in artisanal and small-scale gold mining (ASGM) and may pose a risk for miners and mining communities. While a number of studies have characterized mercury in ASGM communities, most have focused on a single media and few have taken a holistic approach. Here, a multiple media exposure assessment and cross-sectional study of mercury was conducted in 2010 through 2012 in northeast Ghana with a small-scale gold mining community, Kejetia, a subsistence farming community, Gorogo, and an urban ASGM gold refinery in Bolgatanga. The objective was to assess mercury in a range of human (urine and hair) and ecological (household soil, sediment, fish, and ore) samples to increase understanding of mercury exposure pathways. All participants were interviewed on demographics, occupational and medical histories, and household characteristics. Participants included 90 women of childbearing age and 97 adults from Kejetia and 75 adults from Gorogo. Median total specific gravity-adjusted urinary, hair, and household soil mercury were significantly higher in Kejetia miners (5.18 µg/L, 0.967 µg/g, and 3.77 µg/g, respectively) than Kejetia non-miners (1.18 µg/L, 0.419 µg/g, and 2.00 µg/g, respectively) and Gorogo participants (0.154 µg/L, 0.181 µg/g, and 0.039 µg/g) in 2011. Sediment, fish, and ore Hg concentrations were below guideline values. Median soil mercury from the Bolgatanga refinery was very high (54.6 µg/g). Estimated mean mercury ingestion for Kejetia adults from soil and dust exceeded the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency reference dose (0.3 µg Hg/kg·day) for pica (0.409 µg Hg/kg·day) and geophagy (20.5 µg Hg/kg·day) scenarios. Most participants with elevated urinary and household soil mercury were miners, but some non-miners approached and exceeded guideline values, suggesting a health risk for non-mining residents living within these communities. PMID:26340636

  19. Shear-wave elastography contributes to accurate tumour size estimation when assessing small breast cancers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mullen, R.; Thompson, J.M.; Moussa, O.; Vinnicombe, S.; Evans, A.

    2014-01-01

    Aim: To assess whether the size of peritumoural stiffness (PTS) on shear-wave elastography (SWE) for small primary breast cancers (≤15 mm) was associated with size discrepancies between grey-scale ultrasound (GSUS) and final histological size and whether the addition of PTS size to GSUS size might result in more accurate tumour size estimation when compared to final histological size. Materials and methods: A retrospective analysis of 86 consecutive patients between August 2011 and February 2013 who underwent breast-conserving surgery for tumours of size ≤15 mm at ultrasound was carried out. The size of PTS stiffness was compared to mean GSUS size, mean histological size, and the extent of size discrepancy between GSUS and histology. PTS size and GSUS were combined and compared to the final histological size. Results: PTS of >3 mm was associated with a larger mean final histological size (16 versus 11.3 mm, p < 0.001). PTS size of >3 mm was associated with a higher frequency of underestimation of final histological size by GSUS of >5 mm (63% versus 18%, p < 0.001). The combination of PTS and GSUS size led to accurate estimation of the final histological size (p = 0.03). The size of PTS was not associated with margin involvement (p = 0.27). Conclusion: PTS extending beyond 3 mm from the grey-scale abnormality is significantly associated with underestimation of tumour size of >5 mm for small invasive breast cancers. Taking into account the size of PTS also led to accurate estimation of the final histological size. Further studies are required to assess the relationship of the extent of SWE stiffness and margin status. - Highlights: • Peritumoural stiffness of greater than 3 mm was associated with larger tumour size. • Underestimation of tumour size by ultrasound was associated with peri-tumoural stiffness size. • Combining peri-tumoural stiffness size to ultrasound produced accurate tumour size estimation

  20. Environmental Assessment of Lead at Camp Edwards, Massachusetts, Small Arms Ranges

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Clausen, Jay L; Korte, Nic; Bostick, Benjamin; Rice, Benjamin; Walsh, Matthew; Nelson, Andrew

    2007-01-01

    Environmental issues for small arms training with lead projectiles are examined in this report for Camp Edwards, Massachusetts, in order to evaluate whether past or future use of lead in small arms...

  1. Assessing the spatial distribution of coral bleaching using small unmanned aerial systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levy, Joshua; Hunter, Cynthia; Lukacazyk, Trent; Franklin, Erik C.

    2018-06-01

    Small unmanned aerial systems (sUAS) are an affordable, effective complement to existing coral reef monitoring and assessment tools. sUAS provide repeatable low-altitude, high-resolution photogrammetry to address fundamental questions of spatial ecology and community dynamics for shallow coral reef ecosystems. Here, we qualitatively describe the use of sUAS to survey the spatial characteristics of coral cover and the distribution of coral bleaching across patch reefs in Kānéohe Bay, Hawaii, and address limitations and anticipated technology advancements within the field of UAS. Overlapping sub-decimeter low-altitude aerial reef imagery collected during the 2015 coral bleaching event was used to construct high-resolution reef image mosaics of coral bleaching responses on four Kānéohe Bay patch reefs, totaling 60,000 m2. Using sUAS imagery, we determined that paled, bleached and healthy corals on all four reefs were spatially clustered. Comparative analyses of data from sUAS imagery and in situ diver surveys found as much as 14% difference in coral cover values between survey methods, depending on the size of the reef and area surveyed. When comparing the abundance of unhealthy coral (paled and bleached) between sUAS and in situ diver surveys, we found differences in cover from 1 to 49%, depending on the depth of in situ surveys, the percent of reef area covered with sUAS surveys and patchiness of the bleaching response. This study demonstrates the effective use of sUAS surveys for assessing the spatial dynamics of coral bleaching at colony-scale resolutions across entire patch reefs and evaluates the complementarity of data from both sUAS and in situ diver surveys to more accurately characterize the spatial ecology of coral communities on reef flats and slopes.

  2. Assessment of UVA-Riboflavin Corneal Cross-Linking Using Small Amplitude Oscillatory Shear Measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aslanides, Ioannis M; Dessi, Claudia; Georgoudis, Panagiotis; Charalambidis, Georgios; Vlassopoulos, Dimitris; Coutsolelos, Athanassios G; Kymionis, George; Mukherjee, Achyut; Kitsopoulos, Theofanis N

    2016-04-01

    The effect of ultraviolet (UV)-riboflavin cross-linking (CXL) has been measured primarily using the strip extensometry technique. We propose a simple and reliable methodology for the assessment of CXL treatment by using an established rheologic protocol based on small amplitude oscillatory shear (SAOS) measurements. It provides information on the average cross-link density and the elastic modulus of treated cornea samples. Three fresh postmortem porcine corneas were used to study the feasibility of the technique, one serving as control and two receiving corneal collagen cross-linking treatment. Subsequently, five pairs of fresh postmortem porcine corneas received corneal collagen cross-linking treatment with riboflavin and UVA-irradiation (370 nm; irradiance of 3 mW/cm2) for 30 minutes (Dresden protocol); the contralateral porcine corneas were used as control samples. After the treatment, the linear viscoelastic moduli of the corneal samples were measured using SAOS measurements and the average cross-linking densities extracted. For all cases investigated, the dynamic moduli of the cross-linked corneas were higher compared to those of the corresponding control samples. The increase of the elastic modulus of the treated samples was between 122% and 1750%. The difference was statistically significant for all tested samples (P = 0.018, 2-tailed t-test). We report a simple and accurate methodology for quantifying the effects of cross-linking on porcine corneas treated with the Dresden protocol by means of SAOS measurements in the linear regime. The measured dynamic moduli, elastic and viscous modulus, represent the energy storage and energy dissipation, respectively. Hence, they provide a means to assess the changing physical properties of the cross-linked collagen networks after CXL treatment.

  3. Assessing the Sustainability of Different Small-Scale Livestock Production Systems in the Afar Region, Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ngufor L. Atanga

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Livestock production is a key income source in eastern Africa, and 80% of the total agricultural land is used for livestock herding. Hence, ecological and socio-economically sustainable rangeland management is crucial. Our study aimed at selecting operational economic, environmental and social sustainability indicators for three main pastoral (P, agro-pastoral (AP, and landless intensive (LI small scale livestock production systems for use in sustainability assessment in Ethiopia. Quantitative and qualitative data were collected through grey literature and semi-structured interviews, assessing livestock and feed resources, production technology, land tenure, financial and gender issues. Our results suggested that feed shortages (FS are directly related to grazing pressure (G and inversely related to grass recovery rates (R. According to our indicators, AP was the most sustainable while P and LI were only conditionally sustainable production systems. 93% of 82 interviewees claimed that private land ownership was the best land tenure incentive for efficient rangeland management. Farmers perceived Prosopis juliflora expansion, sporadic rainfall, and disease infestation as the most significant causes for decreasing livestock productivity. Landless intensive farmers had the highest equality in income distribution (Gini Index: GI = 0.4, followed by P and AP (each with a GI = 0.5. Neither educational background nor income seemed to determine grazing species conservation efforts. We claimed that sustainability indicators are valuable tools to highlight shortcomings and strengths of the three main livestock production systems and help with future livestock management in Ethiopia. Selecting suitable indicators, however, is crucial as data requirements and availability can vary across livestock systems.

  4. Monitoring of cotton dust and health risk assessment in small-scale weaving industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tahir, Muhammad Wajid; Mumtaz, Muhammad Waseem; Tauseef, Shanza; Sajjad, Muqadas; Nazeer, Awais; Farheen, Nazish; Iqbal, Muddsar

    2012-08-01

    The present study describes the estimation of particulate matter (cotton dust) with different sizes, i.e., PM(1.0), PM(2.5), PM(4.0), and PM(10.0 μm) in small-scale weaving industry (power looms) situated in district Hafizabad, Punjab, Pakistan, and the assessment of health problems of workers associated with these pollutants. A significant difference was found in PM(1.0), PM(2.5), PM(4.0), and PM(10.0) with reference to nine different sampling stations with p values 4.0), and PM(10.0), depict that PM(1.0) differs significantly from PM(2.5), PM(4.0), and PM(10.0), with p values 4.0), with a p value >0.05 in defined sampling stations on an average basis. Majority of the workers were facing several diseases due to interaction with particulate matter (cotton dust) during working hours. Flue, cough, eye, and skin infections were the most common diseases among workers caused by particulate matter (cotton dust).

  5. Performance Comparison of Adaptive Estimation Techniques for Power System Small-Signal Stability Assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. A. Feilat

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper demonstrates the assessment of the small-signal stability of a single-machine infinite- bus power system under widely varying loading conditions using the concept of synchronizing and damping torques coefficients. The coefficients are calculated from the time responses of the rotor angle, speed, and torque of the synchronous generator. Three adaptive computation algorithms including Kalman filtering, Adaline, and recursive least squares have been compared to estimate the synchronizing and damping torque coefficients. The steady-state performance of the three adaptive techniques is compared with the conventional static least squares technique by conducting computer simulations at different loading conditions. The algorithms are compared to each other in terms of speed of convergence and accuracy. The recursive least squares estimation offers several advantages including significant reduction in computing time and computational complexity. The tendency of an unsupplemented static exciter to degrade the system damping for medium and heavy loading is verified. Consequently, a power system stabilizer whose parameters are adjusted to compensate for variations in the system loading is designed using phase compensation method. The effectiveness of the stabilizer in enhancing the dynamic stability over wide range of operating conditions is verified through the calculation of the synchronizing and damping torque coefficients using recursive least square technique.

  6. Assessment of in Vitro Digestibility of Dietary Carbohydrates Using Rat Small Intestinal Extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira-Lazarte, Alvaro; Olano, Agustín; Villamiel, Mar; Moreno, F Javier

    2017-09-13

    There are few studies on the assessment of digestibility of nondigestible carbohydrates, despite their increasingly important role in human health. In vitro digestibility of a range of dietary carbohydrates classified as digestible (maltose, sucrose, and lactose), well-recognized (lactulose, fructooligosaccharides (FOS), and two types of galactooligosaccharides (GOS) differing in the predominant glycosidic linkage), and potential (lactosucrose and GOS from lactulose, OsLu) prebiotics using a rat small intestinal extract (RSIE) under physiological conditions of temperature and pH is described. Recognized and potential prebiotics were highly resistant to RSIE digestion although partial hydrolysis at different extents was observed. FOS and lactulose were the most resistant to digestion, followed closely by OsLu and more distantly by both types of GOS and lactosucrose. In GOS, β(1 → 6) linkages were more resistant to digestion than β(1 → 4) bonds. The reported in vitro digestion model is a useful, simple, and cost-effective tool to evaluate the digestibility of dietary oligosaccharides.

  7. Using ground penetrating radar in levee assessment to detect small scale animal burrows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chlaib, Hussein K.; Mahdi, Hanan; Al-Shukri, Haydar; Su, Mehmet M.; Catakli, Aycan; Abd, Najah

    2014-04-01

    Levees are civil engineering structures built to protect human lives, property, and agricultural lands during flood events. To keep these important structures in a safe condition, continuous monitoring must be performed regularly and thoroughly. Small rodent burrows are one of the major defects within levees; however, their early detection and repair helps in protecting levees during flooding events. A set of laboratory experiments was conducted to analyze the polarity change in GPR signals in the presence of subsurface voids and water-filled cavities. Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR) surveys using multi frequency antennas (400 MHz and 900 MHz) were conducted along an 875 meter section of the Lollie Levee near Conway, Arkansas, USA, to assess the levee's structural integrity. Many subsurface animal burrows, water-filled cavities, clay clasts, and metallic objects were investigated and identified. These anomalies were located at different depths and have different sizes. To ground truth the observations, hand dug trenches were excavated to confirm several anomalies. Results show an excellent match between GPR interpreted anomalies and the observed features. In-situ dielectric constant measurements were used to calculate the feature depths. The results of this research show that the 900 MHz antenna has more advantages over the 400 MHz antenna.

  8. The assessment of technological and safety aspects of small power reactor SMART

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Antariksawan, A.R.; Ekariansyah, Andi S.; Sony, D.T.; Suharno; Hastowo, Hudi

    2002-01-01

    This paper describes and discusses the technology and safety of small nuclear power plant SMART. The reactor SMART produces 300 MWth of power is cooled and moderated with light water and integral PWR type developed by KAERI. At present, the development activities had reached the end of basic design stage. The concept design of reactor SMART is based on safety enhancement, economic competitiveness and high performance. The fuel is uranium oxide with approximately 5% w/o enrichment. The safety characteristics of the core are shown with low power density around 62.6 W/cc, high negative reactivity coefficient, and high shutdown and thermal margin. Besides the inherent safety characteristics, SMART is equipped with engineered safety features and severe accident management system which are in compliance with the IAEA recommendations. The application of SMART for dual-purpose produces 90 Mwe and 40,000 to fresh water a day. Based on the technology and core characteristics of the reactor SMART, it is very interesting to be deeply assessed

  9. Life cycle assessment of a small-scale anaerobic digestion plant from cattle waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mezzullo, William G.; McManus, Marcelle C.; Hammond, Geoff P.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► Emissions from plant manufacture contributed little towards the lifecycle impacts. ► The use phase of the AD plant could have significant impacts. ► Production of biogas and fertiliser created significant impacts. ► The consequential displacement of kerosene showed a net-benefit. ► The study concluded that it is essential to cover the digestate storage tank. -- Abstract: This paper outlines the results of a comprehensive life cycle study of the production of energy, in the form of biogas, using a small scale farm based cattle waste fed anaerobic digestion (AD) plant. The life cycle assessment (LCA) shows that in terms of environmental and energy impact the plant manufacture contributes very little to the whole life cycle impacts. The results show that compared with alternative energy supply the production and use of biogas is beneficial in terms of greenhouse gases and fossil fuel use. This is mainly due to the replacement of the alternative, kerosene, and from fertiliser production from the AD process. However, these benefits come at a cost to ecosystem health and the production of respiratory inorganics. These were found to be a result of ammonia emissions during the production phase of the biogas. These damages can be significantly reduced if further emission control measures are undertaken.

  10. Small business needs assessment: a comparison of dental educators' responses with SBDC survey results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comer, R W; Callan, R S; Blalock, J S; Turner, J E; Trombly, R M

    2001-09-01

    A primary focus of dental education is to teach students the knowledge, skills, and values essential for practicing dentistry. However, the preparation of dentists to manage a business is frequently cited as inadequate. A survey was prepared to assess teachers' opinions of business instructional topics: challenges; desired training; employee benefits; learning resources; importance of business topics; and appropriateness of time allocations. The purpose of this project is to compare opinions of teachers of dental practice management with key management aspects reported for service businesses by the Small Business Development Center (SBDC). Practice management teachers from forty-eight (89 percent) schools responded to the survey. They indicated that several challenges confronting dentists are similar to other service businesses. Dentists, however, rank customer relations appreciably higher. In order of importance of teaching topics, the practice management teachers rank ethics and personnel management as a high priority and planning as a low priority. Awareness of the similarities and differences in the perceptions of practice management teachers and businesspeople may result in instructional improvements.

  11. Life Cycle Assessment of concrete manufacturing in small isolated states: the case of Cyprus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chrysostomou, Chrystalla; Kylili, Angeliki; Nicolaides, Demetris; Fokaides, Paris A.

    2017-10-01

    Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) is an effective and valuable methodology for identifying the holistic sustainable behaviour of materials and products. It is also useful in analysing the impact a structure has over the course of its life cycle. Currently, there is no sufficient knowhow regarding the life cycle performance of building materials used in the case of small isolated states. This study focuses on the LCA of the production of concrete for the investigation of its environmental impact in isolated island states, using the case of Cyprus as an example. Four different scenarios for the production of 1 tonne of concrete are examined: (i) manufacturing of concrete by transporting raw materials from different locations around the island, (ii) manufacturing of concrete using alternative energy resources, (iii) manufacturing of concrete with reduced transportation needs, and (iv) on-site manufacturing of concrete. The results, in terms of environmental impacts of concrete produced, indicated that the use of renewable electricity instead of fossil-fuelled electricity in isolated states can drastically improve the environmental performance of the end product. Also, the minimisation of transportation distances and the use of locally available resources can also affect, to a degree, the environmental impact of concrete production.

  12. Preliminary Assessment of Silting and The Quality of Bottom Sediments in A Small Water Reservoir

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bąk Łukasz

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to assess the degree of silting and pollution of bottom sediments in a small water reservoir Lubianka situated in Starachowice, Świętokrzyskie Province, with selected heavy metals (Pb, Cr, Cd, Cu, Ni, Zn, Fe, Mn, Hg. Catchment basin of the reservoir is forested in 92%. Other parts are covered by estates of detached houses, barren lands and green areas. Bathymetric measurements and analyses of trace elements in bottom sediments were made in 2012. After 28 years of exploitation, reservoir's basin accumulated 43 thousand cubic metres of sediments i.e. 4.7% of its initial volume. Mean annual silting rate was 0.17%. Due to the content of copper and chromium, bottom sediments were classified to the II category (sediments of average pollution according to geochemical standards. Concentrations of Pb, Cd and Hg in all analysed samples were below geochemical background. In a sample collected at the inlet to the reservoir, the TEL index for chromium was exceeded by 25.6%. In other samples the threshold values of the TEL and PEL indices were not exceeded.

  13. Assessment of the GOTHIC code for prediction of hydrogen flame propagation in small scale experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Jin-Yong . E-mail jinyong1@fnctech.com; Lee, Jung-Jae; Park, Goon-Cherl . E-mail parkgc@snu.ac.kr

    2006-01-01

    With the rising concerns regarding the time and space dependent hydrogen behavior in severe accidents, the calculation for local hydrogen combustion in compartment has been attempted using CFD codes like GOTHIC. In particular, the space resolved hydrogen combustion analysis is essential to address certain safety issues such as the safety components survivability, and to determine proper positions for hydrogen control devices as e.q. recombiners or igniters. In the GOTHIC 6.1b code, there are many advanced features associated with the hydrogen burn models to enhance its calculation capability. In this study, we performed premixed hydrogen/air combustion experiments with an upright, rectangular shaped, combustion chamber of dimensions 1 m x 0.024 m x 1 m. The GOTHIC 6.1b code was used to simulate the hydrogen/air combustion experiments, and its prediction capability was assessed by comparing the experimental with multidimensional calculational results. Especially, the prediction capability of the GOTHIC 6.1b code for local hydrogen flame propagation phenomena was examined. For some cases, comparisons are also presented for lumped modeling of hydrogen combustion. By evaluating the effect of parametric simulations, we present some instructions for local hydrogen combustion analysis using the GOTHIC 6.1b code. From the analyses results, it is concluded that the modeling parameter of GOTHIC 6.1b code should be modified when applying the mechanistic burn model for hydrogen propagation analysis in small geometry

  14. Department of Energy Small-Scale Hydropower Program: Feasibility assessment and technology development summary report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rinehart, B.N.

    1991-06-01

    This report summarizes two subprograms under the US Department of Energy's Small-Scale Hydroelectric Power Program. These subprograms were part of the financial assistance activities and included the Program Research and Development Announcement (PRDA) feasibility assessments and the technology development projects. The other major subprograms included engineering research and development, legal and institutional aspects, and technology transfer. These other subprograms are covered in their respective summary reports. The problems of energy availability and increasing costs of energy led to a national effort to develop economical and environmental attractive alternative energy resources. One such alternative involved the utilization of existing dams with hydraulic heads of <65 ft and the capacity to generate hydroelectric power of 15 MW or less. Thus, the PRDA program was initiated along with the Technology Development program. The purpose of the PRDA feasibility studies was to encourage development of renewable hydroelectric resources by providing engineering, economic, environmental, safety, and institutional information. Fifty-five feasibility studies were completed under the PRDA. This report briefly summarizes each of those projects. Many of the PRDA projects went on to become technology development projects. 56 refs., 1 fig., 2 tabs

  15. Department of Energy Small-Scale Hydropower Program: Feasibility assessment and technology development summary report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rinehart, B.N.

    1991-06-01

    This report summarizes two subprograms under the US Department of Energy's Small-Scale Hydroelectric Power Program. These subprograms were part of the financial assistance activities and included the Program Research and Development Announcement (PRDA) feasibility assessments and the technology development projects. The other major subprograms included engineering research and development, legal and institutional aspects, and technology transfer. These other subprograms are covered in their respective summary reports. The problems of energy availability and increasing costs of energy led to a national effort to develop economical and environmental attractive alternative energy resources. One such alternative involved the utilization of existing dams with hydraulic heads of <65 ft and the capacity to generate hydroelectric power of 15 MW or less. Thus, the PRDA program was initiated along with the Technology Development program. The purpose of the PRDA feasibility studies was to encourage development of renewable hydroelectric resources by providing engineering, economic, environmental, safety, and institutional information. Fifty-five feasibility studies were completed under the PRDA. This report briefly summarizes each of those projects. Many of the PRDA projects went on to become technology development projects. 56 refs., 1 fig., 2 tabs.

  16. MR imaging in the presence of small circular metallic implants. Assessment of thermal injuries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manner, I.; Alanen, A.; Komu, M.; Savunen, T.; Kantonen, I.; Ekfors, T.

    1996-01-01

    Purpose: The thermal effects of MR imaging in the presence of circular nonferromagnetic metallic implants were studied in 6 rabbits. Material and Methods: A sternotomy was performed and fixed with stainless steel wires, and small titanium rings (diameter 3 mm) were placed on the surface of the ascending aorta and subcutaneous tissue of the thigh. Four of the rabbits were exposed to an imaging procedure with a 1.5 T scanner applying a T1-weighted spin-echo sequence and a gradient echo sequence. Two of the animals served as unexposed controls. Thirty-six hours after the exposure, tissues adjacent to the implants were examined histologically and compared with corresponding samples of the control animals. Results: In the area of the titanium rings, histologic analysis revealed slight inflammatory changes apparently caused by the operation. No evidence of thermal injury was found, suggesting that the presence of the rings does not contraindicate MR examinations. Necrosis was noted in all of the sternal specimens. This was probably post-operative, but it impaired the assessment of thermal injury in this area. (orig.)

  17. Assessment of passive safety system of a Small Modular Reactor (SMR)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Butt, Hassan Nawaz; Ilyas, Muhammad; Ahmad, Masroor; Aydogan, Fatih

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • The MASLWR test facility has been modeled in RELAP5-SCDAP. The model is validated by comparing the simulation results with the experimental data. • Results obtained from various transients show that high pressure vent and sump recirculation lines provide natural circulation flow path for long term cooling of core. • New scenarios are considered in which the effect of vent and sump recirculation valves failure has been investigated. • It is found from the results that continuous loss of inventory occurs due to lack of recirculation. • It is concluded that the high pressure vent valves in the MASLWR safety system require more redundancy. - Abstract: Innovative SMRs are designed with enhanced safety features based on lessons learnt from past experience of plant operation. Reliance on natural circulation and addition of passive safety systems made them inherently safe and simple in design. It is required to study reliability assessment of passive safety systems during postulated transients prior to their deployment on commercial scale. Test facilities and best estimate system codes are playing significant role in assessment of passive safety systems as well as in design, certification and evaluation of these innovative types of reactors. RELAP5 code is widely used for thermal-hydraulic analysis of nuclear reactors. In this work, the passive safety systems of Multi-Application Small Light Water (MASLWR) have been assessed. The complete loop of the MASLWR test facility has been modeled in RELAP5-SCDAP Mod 4.0. The RELAP5 model is validated by comparing the simulation results with the experimental data. Results obtained for various transients show that high pressure vent and sump recirculation lines provide natural circulation flow path for long term cooling of core to avoid core heat up. Some of the components of passive safety system of MASLWR still rely on active power. Therefore, it was necessary to investigate their performance under failure

  18. A Convenient In Vivo Model Using Small Interfering RNA Silencing to Rapidly Assess Skeletal Gene Function.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen Zhang

    Full Text Available It is difficult to study bone in vitro because it contains various cell types that engage in cross-talk. Bone biologically links various organs, and it has thus become increasingly evident that skeletal physiology must be studied in an integrative manner in an intact animal. We developed a model using local intraosseous small interfering RNA (siRNA injection to rapidly assess the effects of a target gene on the local skeletal environment. In this model, 160-g male Sprague-Dawley rats were treated for 1-2 weeks. The left tibia received intraosseous injection of a parathyroid hormone 1 receptor (Pth1r or insulin-like growth factor 1 receptor (Igf-1r siRNA transfection complex loaded in poloxamer 407 hydrogel, and the right tibia received the same volume of control siRNA. All the tibias received an intraosseous injection of recombinant human parathyroid hormone (1-34 (rhPTH (1-34 or insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1. Calcein green and alizarin red were injected 6 and 2 days before euthanasia, respectively. IGF-1R and PTH1R expression levels were detected via RT-PCR assays and immunohistochemistry. Bone mineral density (BMD, microstructure, mineral apposition rates (MARs, and strength were determined by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, micro-CT, histology and biomechanical tests. The RT-PCR and immunohistochemistry results revealed that IGF-1R and PTH1R expression levels were dramatically diminished in the siRNA-treated left tibias compared to the right tibias (both p<0.05. Using poloxamer 407 hydrogel as a controlled-release system prolonged the silencing effect of a single dose of siRNA; the mRNA expression levels of IGF-1R were lower at two weeks than at one week (p<0.01. The BMD, bone microstructure parameters, MAR and bone strength were significantly decreased in the left tibias compared to the right tibias (all p<0.05. This simple and convenient local intraosseous siRNA injection model achieved gene silencing with very small quantities of

  19. Assessment of small-scale integrated water vapour variability during HOPE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinke, S.; Eikenberg, S.; Löhnert, U.; Dick, G.; Klocke, D.; Di Girolamo, P.; Crewell, S.

    2015-03-01

    The spatio-temporal variability of integrated water vapour (IWV) on small scales of less than 10 km and hours is assessed with data from the 2 months of the High Definition Clouds and Precipitation for advancing Climate Prediction (HD(CP)2) Observational Prototype Experiment (HOPE). The statistical intercomparison of the unique set of observations during HOPE (microwave radiometer (MWR), Global Positioning System (GPS), sun photometer, radiosondes, Raman lidar, infrared and near-infrared Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) on the satellites Aqua and Terra) measuring close together reveals a good agreement in terms of random differences (standard deviation ≤1 kg m-2) and correlation coefficient (≥ 0.98). The exception is MODIS, which appears to suffer from insufficient cloud filtering. For a case study during HOPE featuring a typical boundary layer development, the IWV variability in time and space on scales of less than 10 km and less than 1 h is investigated in detail. For this purpose, the measurements are complemented by simulations with the novel ICOsahedral Nonhydrostatic modelling framework (ICON), which for this study has a horizontal resolution of 156 m. These runs show that differences in space of 3-4 km or time of 10-15 min induce IWV variabilities on the order of 0.4 kg m-2. This model finding is confirmed by observed time series from two MWRs approximately 3 km apart with a comparable temporal resolution of a few seconds. Standard deviations of IWV derived from MWR measurements reveal a high variability (> 1 kg m-2) even at very short time scales of a few minutes. These cannot be captured by the temporally lower-resolved instruments and by operational numerical weather prediction models such as COSMO-DE (an application of the Consortium for Small-scale Modelling covering Germany) of Deutscher Wetterdienst, which is included in the comparison. However, for time scales larger than 1 h, a sampling resolution of 15 min is

  20. Technical Needs for Enhancing Risk Monitors with Equipment Condition Assessment for Advanced Small Modular Reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coble, Jamie B.; Coles, Garill A.; Ramuhalli, Pradeep; Meyer, Ryan M.; Berglin, Eric J.; Wootan, David W.; Mitchell, Mark R.

    2013-04-04

    Advanced small modular reactors (aSMRs) can provide the United States with a safe, sustainable, and carbon-neutral energy source. The controllable day-to-day costs of aSMRs are expected to be dominated by operation and maintenance costs. Health and condition assessment coupled with online risk monitors can potentially enhance affordability of aSMRs through optimized operational planning and maintenance scheduling. Currently deployed risk monitors are an extension of probabilistic risk assessment (PRA). For complex engineered systems like nuclear power plants, PRA systematically combines event likelihoods and the probability of failure (POF) of key components, so that when combined with the magnitude of possible adverse consequences to determine risk. Traditional PRA uses population-based POF information to estimate the average plant risk over time. Currently, most nuclear power plants have a PRA that reflects the as-operated, as-modified plant; this model is updated periodically, typically once a year. Risk monitors expand on living PRA by incorporating changes in the day-by-day plant operation and configuration (e.g., changes in equipment availability, operating regime, environmental conditions). However, population-based POF (or population- and time-based POF) is still used to populate fault trees. Health monitoring techniques can be used to establish condition indicators and monitoring capabilities that indicate the component-specific POF at a desired point in time (or over a desired period), which can then be incorporated in the risk monitor to provide a more accurate estimate of the plant risk in different configurations. This is particularly important for active systems, structures, and components (SSCs) proposed for use in aSMR designs. These SSCs may differ significantly from those used in the operating fleet of light-water reactors (or even in LWR-based SMR designs). Additionally, the operating characteristics of aSMRs can present significantly different

  1. Assessing reliability of fatigue indicator parameters for small crack growth via a probabilistic framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rovinelli, Andrea; Guilhem, Yoann; Proudhon, Henry; Lebensohn, Ricardo A.; Ludwig, Wolfgang; Sangid, Michael D.

    2017-06-01

    Microstructurally small cracks exhibit large variability in their fatigue crack growth rate. It is accepted that the inherent variability in microstructural features is related to the uncertainty in the growth rate. However, due to (i) the lack of cycle-by-cycle experimental data, (ii) the complexity of the short crack growth phenomenon, and (iii) the incomplete physics of constitutive relationships, only empirical damage metrics have been postulated to describe the short crack driving force metric (SCDFM) at the mesoscale level. The identification of the SCDFM of polycrystalline engineering alloys is a critical need, in order to achieve more reliable fatigue life prediction and improve material design. In this work, the first steps in the development of a general probabilistic framework are presented, which uses experimental result as an input, retrieves missing experimental data through crystal plasticity (CP) simulations, and extracts correlations utilizing machine learning and Bayesian networks (BNs). More precisely, experimental results representing cycle-by-cycle data of a short crack growing through a beta-metastable titanium alloy, VST-55531, have been acquired via phase and diffraction contrast tomography. These results serve as an input for FFT-based CP simulations, which provide the micromechanical fields influenced by the presence of the crack, complementing the information available from the experiment. In order to assess the correlation between postulated SCDFM and experimental observations, the data is mined and analyzed utilizing BNs. Results show the ability of the framework to autonomously capture relevant correlations and the equivalence in the prediction capability of different postulated SCDFMs for the high cycle fatigue regime.

  2. Lessons from a transplantation of zebra mussels into a small urban river: An integrated ecotoxicological assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourgeault, A; Gourlay-Francé, C; Vincent-Hubert, F; Palais, F; Geffard, A; Biagianti-Risbourg, S; Pain-Devin, S; Tusseau-Vuillemin, M-H

    2010-10-01

    It is often difficult to evaluate the level of contamination in small urban rivers because pollution is mainly diffuse, with low levels of numerous substances. The use of a coupled approach using both chemical and biological measurements may provide an integrated evaluation of the impact of micro-pollution on the river. Zebra mussels were transplanted along a metal and organic pollution gradient in spring 2008. For two months, mussels and water samples were collected from two sites every two weeks and analyzed for metal and PAH content as well as water physicochemical parameters. Diffusive gradients in thin film (DGT) were also used to assess levels of labile metals. Exposure of mussels to contaminants and potential impact were evaluated using physiological indices and various biomarkers including condition index (CI), defense mechanisms (glutathione-S-transferase: GST), digestive enzymes (amylase and cellulase) and genotoxicity (micronucleus test: MN and comet assay: CA). For most contaminants, the water contamination was significantly higher downstream. Bioaccumulation in zebra mussels was related to water contamination in the framework of the biodynamic model, which allowed us to take into account the biological dilution that was caused by the growth of soft tissue downstream. Thus, metal influxes were on average two times higher downstream than upstream in particular for Zn, Cr, Cu and Cd. Significant differences in condition index were observed (final CI was 0.42 ± 0.03 downstream and 0.31 ± 0.03 upstream) reflecting a better food availability downstream. Moreover a significant decrease of GST activity and digestive enzymes activity in the cristalline style was observed downstream. Interpreting this decrease requires considering not only micro-pollution but also the trophic status related to the water's physicochemistry. The MN test and the CA on gill cells highlighted genotoxicity in mussels transplanted downstream compared to upstream. © 2010 Wiley

  3. Assessment of advanced small-scale combined heat and power production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spitzer, J. [Joanneum Research (Austria)

    1996-12-31

    To increase the share of renewable energy sources, bioenergy has to be used for electricity generation, preferably in combined heat and power (CHP) production systems, besides its traditional use in space heating. The need for small-scale, i.e. below 5 MW{sub el}, CHP production arises from the fact that a considerable portion of the available solid biofuels may not be transported over long distances for economic reasons and that in many cases the heat demand is below 10 MW{sub el} in district heating schemes in communities with less than 10 000 inhabitants. The available technical options have to be assessed with respect to performance, reliability and economy. Such an assessment has been performed in a study where the following options have been compared: Gasification - combustion engine or gas turbine; Combustion - steam turbine/engine; Combustion - hot air turbine; Combustion - Stirling engine. While conventional steam cycle systems are available and reliable they are generally not economical in the power range under consideration. Among the other systems, which are not yet commercially available, the Stirling engine system seems to be attractive in the power range below 500 kW{sub el} and the hot air system could close the gap to the steam cycle systems, i.e. cover the power range between 0.5 and 5.0 MW{sub el}. Gasification schemes seem less suitable: The power generation part (combustion engine and gas turbine) is well established for natural gas, with the combustion engine in the lower (<5 MW{sub el}) and the gas turbine in the higher (>5MW{sub el}) power range. However, the gas quality needed for the operation of a combustion engine requires expensive pre-treatment of the gas from wood gasification so that this scheme is less attractive for the power range under consideration. These conclusions lead to R and D efforts in Austria in two directions: Hot air turbine: A utility demonstration plant is under construction with a power of 1 600 kW{sub el

  4. Assessment of advanced small-scale combined heat and power production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spitzer, J [Joanneum Research (Austria)

    1997-12-31

    To increase the share of renewable energy sources, bioenergy has to be used for electricity generation, preferably in combined heat and power (CHP) production systems, besides its traditional use in space heating. The need for small-scale, i.e. below 5 MW{sub el}, CHP production arises from the fact that a considerable portion of the available solid biofuels may not be transported over long distances for economic reasons and that in many cases the heat demand is below 10 MW{sub el} in district heating schemes in communities with less than 10 000 inhabitants. The available technical options have to be assessed with respect to performance, reliability and economy. Such an assessment has been performed in a study where the following options have been compared: Gasification - combustion engine or gas turbine; Combustion - steam turbine/engine; Combustion - hot air turbine; Combustion - Stirling engine. While conventional steam cycle systems are available and reliable they are generally not economical in the power range under consideration. Among the other systems, which are not yet commercially available, the Stirling engine system seems to be attractive in the power range below 500 kW{sub el} and the hot air system could close the gap to the steam cycle systems, i.e. cover the power range between 0.5 and 5.0 MW{sub el}. Gasification schemes seem less suitable: The power generation part (combustion engine and gas turbine) is well established for natural gas, with the combustion engine in the lower (<5 MW{sub el}) and the gas turbine in the higher (>5MW{sub el}) power range. However, the gas quality needed for the operation of a combustion engine requires expensive pre-treatment of the gas from wood gasification so that this scheme is less attractive for the power range under consideration. These conclusions lead to R and D efforts in Austria in two directions: Hot air turbine: A utility demonstration plant is under construction with a power of 1 600 kW{sub el

  5. VIDEO CAPSULE ENDOSCOPY: A TOOL FOR THE ASSESSMENT OF SMALL BOWEL TRANSIT TIME

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reza A Hejazi

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Video capsule endoscopy (VCE is a procedure that uses a wireless camera to take pictures of the gastrointestinal tract. A wireless motility capsule (WMC of a similar size has been developed, which measures pH, pressure, and temperature, and can be used to assess regional and total gastrointestinal transit times. VCE could also potentially be used as a tool for measuring small bowel transit time (SBTT.Methods: This study was designed to obtain SBTT from VCE and compare it with historical data generated by WMC. Gastric transit time (GTT was also measured. Patients were included if the indication for VCE was either iron deficiency anemia (IDA or overt obscure GI bleed (OOGIB and they did not have any known motility disorder. Results from VCE were also compared in diabetic versus non-diabetic patients. Results: There were a total of 147 VCE studies performed, including 42 for OOGIB and 105 for IDA. Median GTT and SBTT were 0.3 and 3.6 hours, respectively. The overall median GTT and SBTT were 0.3 and 3.6 hours, respectively, in the IDA group compared with 0.3 and 3.4 hours in the OOGIB group. When compared with WMC, the GTT and SBTT were significantly faster in both groups (GTT: 3.6 hours and SBTT: 4.6 hours. The median GTT and SBTT were not significantly different in diabetics versus non-diabetics: (GTT: 17.5 vs. 18.0 minutes (P=0.86 and SBTT: 3.9 hours (237 minutes vs. 3.8 hours (230 minutes, respectively (P=0.90.Conclusion: SBTT as measured using VCE is not significantly different in OOGIB compared with IDA. Both GTT and SBTT are significantly faster as assessed by VCE, which is initiated in the fasting state, compared with WMC measurement, which is initiated after a standard meal. In summary, VCE could potentially be used for measuring SBTT in the fasting state.

  6. Video Capsule Endoscopy: A Tool for the Assessment of Small Bowel Transit Time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hejazi, Reza A; Bashashati, Mohammad; Saadi, Mohammed; Mulla, Zuber D; Sarosiek, Irene; McCallum, Richard W; Zuckerman, Marc J

    2016-01-01

    Video capsule endoscopy (VCE) is a procedure that uses a wireless camera to take pictures of the gastrointestinal (GI) tract. A wireless motility capsule (WMC) of a similar size has been developed, which measures pH, pressure, and temperature and can be used to assess regional and total GI transit times. VCE could also potentially be used as a tool for measuring small bowel transit time (SBTT). This study was designed to obtain SBTT from VCE and compare it with historical data generated by WMC. Gastric transit time (GTT) was also measured. Patients were included if the indication for VCE was either iron deficiency anemia (IDA) or overt obscure GI bleed (OOGIB), and they did not have any known motility disorder. Results from VCE were also compared in diabetic vs. non-diabetic patients. There were a total of 147 VCE studies performed, including 42 for OOGIB and 105 for IDA. Median GTT and SBTT were 0.3 and 3.6 h, respectively. The overall median GTT and SBTT were 0.3 and 3.6 h, respectively, in the IDA group compared with 0.3 and 3.4 h in the OOGIB group. When compared with WMC, the GTT and SBTT were significantly faster in both groups (GTT: 3.6 h and SBTT: 4.6 h). The median GTT and SBTT were not significantly different in diabetics vs. non-diabetics [GTT: 17.5 vs. 18.0 min (P = 0.86) and SBTT: 3.9 h (237 min) vs. 3.8 h (230 min), respectively (P = 0.90)]. SBTT as measured using VCE is not significantly different in OOGIB compared with IDA. Both GTT and SBTT are significantly faster as assessed by VCE, which is initiated in the fasting state, compared with WMC measurement, which is initiated after a standard meal. In summary, VCE could potentially be used for measuring SBTT in the fasting state.

  7. Assessing tumor treatment response and prognosis in non-small cell lung cancer with perfusion CT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Jianwei; Wu Ning; Song Ying

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To prospectively investigate whether any of the perfusion parameters would predict early tumor response to chemotherapy and/or radiotherapy and prognosis in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Methods: In a prospective series, Perfusion CT were performed in 152 patients suspected lung cancer with 16-slice or 8-slice multislice CT. Contrast medium (50 ml) was injected at a rate of 4 ml/s with a power injector. The scanning delay was 10 seconds and the scanning time was 50 seconds. Among 152 patients, 123 patients were proved lung cancer by pathology. With the perfusion 3.0 software, the parameters including blood flow (BF), blood volume (BV), mean transit time (MTT) and capillary permeability surface area product (PS) were calculated. The perfusion image quality was evaluated on a 4-1eveal scale. The treatment response after chemotherapy and (or) radiotherapy was assessed with Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumors (RECIST), and then the relationship between perfusion parameters with early tumor response to chemotherapy and (or) radiotherapy was evaluated. Student t test and Kaplan-Meier estimates were used for data analysis. Results: In 84 patients (68.3%), the perfusion image quality was staged level 2 (moderate) and level 3 (good). Among them, 35 patients with NSCLC were assessed with RECIST after chemotherapy and (or) radiotherapy. In these 35 patients, The BF of responders and nonresponders was (81.0 ± 33.6)and (56.3 ± 23.1) ml · min -1 ·100 g -1 , respectively, which was significantly different(t=2.393, P=0.023). The median PFS of low-BF group (BF ≤ 80 ml · min -1 · 100 g -1 ) and high-BF group (BF>80 ml · min -1 · 100 g -1 ) was 11.8 and 8.0 months respectively (P>0.05), and the median PFS of low-BV group (BF ≤ 6 ml/100 g -1 ) and high-BV group (BF>6 ml/100 g -1 ) was 9.2 and 8.0 months respectively(P>0.05), both of them were not significantly different. Conclusion: NSCLC in high perfusion are relatively sensitive to chemotherapy

  8. Demonstration of the self-magnetic-pinch diode as an X-ray source for flash core-punch radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cordova, Steve Ray; Rovang, Dean Curtis; Portillo, Salvador; Oliver, Bryan Velten; Bruner, Nichelle Lee; Ziska, Derek Raymond

    2007-01-01

    Minimization of the radiographic spot size and maximization of the radiation dose is a continuing long-range goal for development of electron beam driven X-ray radiography sources. In collaboration with members of the Atomic Weapons Establishment(AWE), Aldermaston UK, the Advanced Radiographic Technologies Dept. 1645 is conducting research on the development of X-ray sources for flash core-punch radiography. The Hydrodynamics Dept. at AWE has defined a near term radiographic source requirement for scaled core-punch experiments to be 250 rads(at)m with a 2.75 mm source spot-size. As part of this collaborative effort, Dept. 1645 is investigating the potential of the Self-Magnetic-Pinched (SMP) diode as a source for core-punch radiography. Recent experiments conducted on the RITS-6 accelerator [1,2] demonstrated the potential of the SMP diode by meeting and exceeding the near term radiographic requirements established by AWE. During the demonstration experiments, RITS-6 was configured with a low-impedance (40 (Omega)) Magnetically Insulated Transmission Line (MITL), which provided a 75-ns, 180-kA, 7.5-MeV forward going electrical pulse to the diode. The use of a low-impedance MITL enabled greater power coupling to the SMP diode and thus allowed for increased radiation output. In addition to reconfiguring the driver (accelerator), geometric changes to the diode were also performed which allowed for an increase in dose production without sacrificing the time integrated spot characteristics. The combination of changes to both the pulsed power driver and the diode significantly increased the source x-ray intensity

  9. Assessing the Local Need for Family and Child Care Services: A Small Area Utilization Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Percy, Andrew; Carr-Hill, Roy; Dixon, Paul; Jamison, James Q.

    2000-01-01

    Describes study of administrative data from Northern Ireland on the costs of family and child care services, using small area utilization modeling, to derive a new set of needs indicators that could be used within the family and child care capitation funding formula. Argues that small area utilization modeling produces a fairer and more equitable…

  10. Task Shifting and Skin Punch for the Histologic Diagnosis of Kaposi's Sarcoma in Sub-Saharan Africa: A Public Health Solution to a Public Health Problem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laker-Oketta, Miriam O; Wenger, Megan; Semeere, Aggrey; Castelnuovo, Barbara; Kambugu, Andrew; Lukande, Robert; Asirwa, F Chite; Busakhala, Naftali; Buziba, Nathan; Diero, Lameck; Wools-Kaloustian, Kara; Strother, Robert Matthew; Bwana, Mwebesa; Muyindike, Winnie; Amerson, Erin; Mbidde, Edward; Maurer, Toby; Martin, Jeffrey

    2015-01-01

    Fueled by HIV, sub-Saharan Africa has the highest incidence of Kaposi's sarcoma (KS) in the world. Despite this, KS diagnosis in the region is based mostly on clinical grounds. Where biopsy is available, it has traditionally been excisional and performed by surgeons, resulting in multiple appointments, follow-up visits for suture removal, and substantial costs. We hypothesized that a simpler approach - skin punch biopsy - would make histologic diagnosis more accessible. To address this, we provided training and equipment for skin punch biopsy of suspected KS to three HIV clinics in East Africa. The procedure consisted of local anesthesia followed by a disposable cylindrical punch blade to obtain specimens. Hemostasis is facilitated by Gelfoam®. Patients removed the dressing after 4 days. From 2007 to 2013, 2,799 biopsies were performed. Although originally targeted to be used by physicians, biopsies were performed predominantly by nurses (62%), followed by physicians (15%), clinical officers (12%) and technicians (11%). There were no reports of recurrent bleeding or infection. After minimal training and provision of inexpensive equipment (USD 3.06 per biopsy), HIV clinics in East Africa can integrate same-day skin punch biopsy for suspected KS. Task shifting from physician to non-physician greatly increases access. Skin punch biopsy should be part of any HIV clinic's essential procedures. This example of task shifting may also be applicable to the diagnosis of other cancers (e.g., breast) in resource-limited settings.

  11. Performance testing of a semi-automatic card punch system, using direct STR profiling of DNA from blood samples on FTA™ cards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogden, Samantha J; Horton, Jeffrey K; Stubbs, Simon L; Tatnell, Peter J

    2015-01-01

    The 1.2 mm Electric Coring Tool (e-Core™) was developed to increase the throughput of FTA(™) sample collection cards used during forensic workflows and is similar to a 1.2 mm Harris manual micro-punch for sampling dried blood spots. Direct short tandem repeat (STR) DNA profiling was used to compare samples taken by the e-Core tool with those taken by the manual micro-punch. The performance of the e-Core device was evaluated using a commercially available PowerPlex™ 18D STR System. In addition, an analysis was performed that investigated the potential carryover of DNA via the e-Core punch from one FTA disc to another. This contamination study was carried out using Applied Biosystems AmpflSTR™ Identifiler™ Direct PCR Amplification kits. The e-Core instrument does not contaminate FTA discs when a cleaning punch is used following excision of discs containing samples and generates STR profiles that are comparable to those generated by the manual micro-punch. © 2014 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  12. MODERN METHODS OF DESIGN AND ARRANGEMENT OF RAMMING PILES IN PUNCHED HOLES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ZOTSENKO N. L.

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement. Ramming piles in punched holes (RPPH differ of high degree of use of supporting capacity of base because of forming in it a compacted zone at the expense of displacement of soil in the volume rammer and compacted material of expansion. The method of their construction almost exclude excavation and formwork, reducing the consumption of concrete, metal, accelerates zero cycle compared to the foundations raised and excavation and immersion into the soil of precast elements. The expansion of the normative base, their design and construction should be for further implementation of of natural objects. The correctness of the geomechanical model of plane and spatial version of finite element method (FEM should be proved for the calculation of cooperative work of RPPH as part of grillages with base. The most effective kinds of equipment and technological schemes of construction of RPPH should be noticed. Conclusions. The paper presents the main regulations on the design and the arrangement RPPH, corresponding of construction norms of Ukraine. The results of experimental and theoretical studies conducted by the authors for over thirty years, and the experience of the use of these piles on the objects of civil engineering, industrial and agricultural construction made their base. The use of the elastoplastic model with the criterion of Mohr-Coulomb strength for designing of the system "grillage -RPPH- soil" was substantiated. The designing in plane and spatial problems of FEM is proved that in the distance between the axes of adjacent piles up to five diameters is a correct choice of a flat version and simplifying of calculating scheme to the conventional strip foundation. An improved. The method of calculating of RPPH as part of grillages ribbon, where as the width of the foundation was taken a diameter of the broadening of the pile, and the depth of its inception corresponds to the bottom of it. The supporting layer of base under the

  13. An example of population-level risk assessments for small mammals using individual-based population models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmitt, Walter; Auteri, Domenica; Bastiansen, Finn

    2016-01-01

    effects, recovery periods, then determined by recolonization, were of any concern. Conclusions include recommendations for the most important input considerations, including the selection of exposure levels, duration of simulations, statistically robust number of replicates, and endpoints to report...... assessments for small mammals, including consistent and transparent direct links to specific protection goals, and the consideration of more realistic scenarios....

  14. Assessing the small-strain soil stiffness for offshore wind turbines based on in situ seismic measurements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Versteijlen, W.G.; Van Dalen, K.N.; Metrikine, A.; Hamre, L.

    2014-01-01

    In this contribution, in situ seismic measurements are used to derive the small-strain shear modulus of soil as input for two soil-structure interaction (SSI) models to assess the initial soil stiffness for offshore wind turbine foundations. This stiffness has a defining influence on the first

  15. Development of a New Punch Head Shape to Replicate Scale-Up Issues on a Laboratory Tablet Press III: Replicating sticking phenomenon using the SAS punch and evaluation by checking the tablet surface using 3D laser scanning microscope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, Manabu; Aoki, Shigeru; Uchiyama, Jumpei; Yamato, Keisuke

    2018-04-20

    Sticking is a common observation in the scale-up stage on the punch tip using a commercial tableting machine. The difference in the total compression time between a laboratory and a commercial tableting machine is considered one of the main root causes of scale up issues in the tableting processes. The proposed Size Adjusted for Scale-up (SAS) punch can be used to adjust the consolidation and dwell times for commercial tableting machine. As a result, the sticking phenomenon is able to be replicated at the pilot scale stage. As reported in this paper, the quantification of sticking was measured using a 3D laser scanning microscope to check the tablet surface. It was shown that the sticking area decreased with the addition of magnesium stearate in the formulation, but the sticking depth was not affected by the additional amount of magnesium stearate. It is proposed that use of a 3D laser scanning microscope can be applied to evaluate sticking as a process analytical technology (PAT) tool and so sticking can be monitored continuously without stopping the machine. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  16. ASSESSING CLIMATE CHANGE IMPACTS ON THE STABILITY OF SMALL TIDAL INLETS: Part 2- DATA RICH ENVIRONMENTS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duong, Trang Minh; Ranasinghe, Roshanka; Thatcher, Marcus; Mahanama, Sarith; Wang, Zheng Bing; Dissanayake, Pushpa Kumara; Hemer, Mark; Luijendijk, Arjen; Bamunawala, Janaka; Roelvink, Dano; Walstra, Dirkjan

    2018-01-01

    Climate change (CC) is likely to affect the thousands of bar-built or barrier estuaries (here referred to as Small tidal inlets - STIs) around the world. Any such CC impacts on the stability of STIs, which governs the dynamics of STIs as well as that of the inlet-adjacent coastline, can result in significant socio-economic consequences due to the heavy human utilisation of these systems and their surrounds. This article demonstrates the application of a process based snap-shot modelling approach, using the coastal morphodynamic model Delft3D , to 3 case study sites representing the 3 main STI types; Permanently open, locationally stable inlets (Type 1), Permanently open, alongshore migrating inlets (Type 2) and Seasonally/Intermittently open, locationally stable inlets (Type 3). The 3 case study sites (Negombo lagoon - Type 1, Kalutara lagoon - Type 2, and Maha Oya river - Type 3) are all located along the southwest coast of Sri Lanka. After successful hydrodynamic and morphodynamic model validation at the 3 case study sites, CC impact assessment are undertaken for a high end greenhouse gas emission scenario. Future CC modified wave and riverflow conditions are derived from a regional scale application of spectral wave models (WaveWatch III and SWAN) and catchment scale applications of a hydrologic model (CLSM) respectively, both of which are forced with IPCC Global Climate Model output dynamically downscaled to ~ 50 km resolution over the study area with the stretched grid Conformal Cubic Atmospheric Model CCAM. Results show that while all 3 case study STIs will experience significant CC driven variations in their level of stability, none of them will change Type by the year 2100. Specifically, the level of stability of the Type 1 inlet will decrease from 'Good' to 'Fair to poor' by 2100, while the level of (locational) stability of the Type 2 inlet will also decrease with a doubling of the annual migration distance. Conversely, the stability of the Type 3 inlet

  17. Wind Energy Assessment for Small Urban Communities in the Baja California Peninsula, Mexico

    OpenAIRE

    Quetzalcoatl Hernandez-Escobedo

    2016-01-01

    Mexico needs to exploit its renewable resources and many studies have determined the great renewable potential it has using wind energy. However it is necessary to calculate the amount of this resource for small urban communities, which in this country lack essential services such as electricity. This study is focused in the Baja California Peninsula, using GIS as a tool to identify small urban zones with higher wind power. For this work data was analyzed from meteorological stations and reco...

  18. Assessing the Impact of Internet Access on Household Income and Financial Performance of Small Farms

    OpenAIRE

    Khanal, Aditya R.; Mishra, Ashok K.

    2013-01-01

    With increased focus on survival strategies for small farm businesses, we investigate the impact of Internet access on income and farm expenses of small farm business and households. Using a nation-wide farm-level data in the U.S. and non-parametric matching estimators, the study finds a significant positive impact of Internet access on total household and off-farm income.

  19. Non-emergency small bowel obstruction: assessment of CT findings that predict need for surgery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deshmukh, Swati D.; Shin, David S.; Willmann, Juergen K.; Rosenberg, Jarrett; Shin, Lewis; Jeffrey, R.B. [Stanford University, School of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Stanford, CA (United States)

    2011-05-15

    To identify CT findings predictive of surgical management in non-emergency small bowel obstruction (SBO). Contrast-enhanced abdominal CT of 129 patients with non-emergency SBO were evaluated for small bowel luminal diameter, wall thickness, presence of the small bowel faeces sign (intraluminal particulate matter in a dilated small bowel) and length, transition point, submucosal oedema, mesenteric stranding, ascites and degree of obstruction (low grade partial, high grade partial and complete obstruction). Medical records were reviewed for age, gender, management and history of abdominal surgery, abdominal malignancy, or SBO. Statistical analyses were performed with Stata Release 9.2. Degree of obstruction was the only predictor of need for surgery. Whereas 18.0% of patients with low-grade partial obstruction (n = 50) underwent surgery, 32.5% of patients with high-grade partial obstruction (n = 77) and 100% of patients with complete obstruction (n = 2) required surgery (P = 0.004). The small bowel faeces sign was inversely predictive of surgery (P = 0.018). In non-emergency SBO patients with contrast-enhanced CT imaging, grade of obstruction predicts surgery, while the small bowel faeces sign inversely predicts need for surgery. (orig.)

  20. FLOODPLAIN-CHANNEL COMPLEX OF SMALL RIVER: ASSESSMENT OF CURRENT STATE, OPTIMIZATION MEASURES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kovalchuk I.

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The article describes main methodological principles of geoecological assessment of riverbed-floodplain complex condition of one of the small rivers in Ukrainian Carpathians. According to our long-term field, cartographic, laboratory and remote sensing research, division of riverbed into homogeneous geoecological segments was made, as well as their standardization in accordance to the trends of unfavorable processes. Main reasons for deterioration of quality characteristics of channel-floodplain river complex were outlined; the role of natural and anthropogenic factors in deterioration of geoecological condition of the river and its floodplain complex was analyzed. Based on the assessment results it is possible to state that the condition of study segments of the Berezhnytsya river flood-plain and stream-way complex was marked as “excellent”, “good” and “satisfactory”. “Unsatisfactory” and “catastrophic” river and flood-plain condition has not been detected yet, although within Dashava urban settlement the river area condition is close to the “satisfactory” grade. The best situation is at the river head as human impact is minimized here and natural vegetation is preserved. Downstream we trace the tendency of condition worsening as anthropogenic load on the basin system and flood-plain and stream-way complex increases. Its negative impact is balanced by large forests, thus in segments limited by Banya Lysovytska village and Lotatnyky village the river and flood-plain condition is rated as “good”. So, downstream from the named village the value of such an important natural barrier as forest is reducing and anthropogenic load on the river significantly increases. The latter manifests in an intensive agricultural reclamation and housing development of flood-plains. Since degradation processes are rapidly developing over a considerable part of the Berezhnytsya river, negative changes are visible and only the study area

  1. Simulators of Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Skin: Diagnostic Challenges on Small Biopsies and Clinico pathological Correlation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tan, K. B.; Tan, S. H.; Lee, Y. S.; Wee Aw, D. C.; Jaffar, H.; Lim, T. C.; Lee, S. J.

    2013-01-01

    Squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) is a common and important primary cutaneous malignancy. On skin biopsies, SCC is characterized by significant squamous cell atypia, abnormal keratinisation, and invasive features. Diagnostic challenges may occasionally arise, especially in the setting of small punch biopsies or superficial shave biopsies, where only part of the lesion may be assessable by the pathologist. Benign mimics of SCC include pseudoepitheliomatous hyperplasia, eccrine squamous syringometaplasia, inverted follicular keratosis, and keratoacanthoma, while malignant mimics of SCC include basal cell carcinoma, melanoma, and metastatic carcinoma. The careful application of time-honored diagnostic criteria, close clinico pathological correlation and a selective request for a further, deeper, or wider biopsy remain the most useful strategies to clinch the correct diagnosis. This review aims to present the key differential diagnoses of SCC, to discuss common diagnostic pitfalls, and to recommend ways to deal with diagnostically challenging cases

  2. [Women boxing athletes' EMG of upper limbs and lumbar muscles in the training of air striking of straight punch].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ri-Hui; Kang, Zhi-Xin

    2011-05-01

    To study training effect of upper limbs and lumbar muscles in the proceed of air striking of straight punch by analyzing boxing athletes' changes of electromyogram (EMG). We measured EMG of ten women boxing athletes' upper arm biceps (contractor muscle), upper arm triceps (antagonistic muscle), forearm flexor muscle (contractor muscle), forearm extensor muscle (antagonistic muscle), and lumbar muscles by ME6000 (Mega Electronics Ltd.). The stipulated exercise was to do air striking of straight punch with loads of 2.5 kg of dumbbell in the hand until exhausted. In the proceed of exercise-induce exhausted, the descend magnitude and speed of median frequency (MF) in upper limb antagonistic muscle exceeded to contracting muscle, moreover, the work percentage showed that contractor have done a larger percentage of work than antagonistic muscle. Compared with world champion's EMG, the majority of ordinary athletes' lumbar muscles MF revealed non-drop tendency, and the work percentage showed that lumbar muscles had a very little percentage of work. After comparing the EMG test index in upper limb and lumbar muscle of average boxing athletes with that of the world champion, we find the testees lack of the training of upper limb antagonistic muscle and lumbar muscle, and more trainings aimed at these muscles need to be taken.

  3. Approaches for Assessing the Economic Competitiveness of Small and Medium Sized Reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2013-12-15

    One of the IAEA's statutory objectives is to 'seek to accelerate and enlarge the contribution of atomic energy to peace, health and prosperity throughout the world'. One way this objective is achieved is through the publication of a range of technical series. Two of these are the IAEA Nuclear Energy Series and the IAEA Safety Standards Series. According to Article III.A.6 of the IAEA Statute, the safety standards establish 'standards of safety for protection of health and minimization of danger to life and property.' The safety standards include the Safety Fundamentals, Safety Requirements and Safety Guides. These standards are written primarily in a regulatory style, and are binding on the IAEA for its own programmes. The principal users are the regulatory bodies in Member States and other national authorities. The IAEA Nuclear Energy Series comprises reports designed to encourage and assist R and D on, and application of, nuclear energy for peaceful uses. This includes practical examples to be used by owners and operators of utilities in Member States, implementing organizations, academia, and government officials, among others. This information is presented in guides, reports on technology status and advances, and best practices for peaceful uses of nuclear energy based on inputs from international experts. The IAEA Nuclear Energy Series complements the IAEA Safety Standards Series. To be competitive in anticipated markets, small and medium sized reactors (SMRs) rely on design and deployment approaches that are able to offset the adverse impacts of economy of scale. Such approaches include design simplification resulting from the application of safety design features that are the most appropriate for reactors of smaller capacity; the economy of mass production of multiple prefabricated modules; the option of incremental capacity increase, with possible benefits resulting from accelerated learning; sharing of common equipment and facilities; shorter construction

  4. Assessing the sustainability of small wastewater systems. A context-oriented planning approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoffmann, Birgitte; Nielsen, Susanne Balslev; Elle, Morten

    2000-01-01

    in itself, but that the sustainability of the total system of technologies for a particular settlement in a given location must be assessed in a holistic and transparent manner. A pilot case is used to demonstrate the structure and the results of the assessment method. The assessment method is still under...

  5. Simplified assessment of segmental gastrointestinal transit time with orally small amount of barium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yuan, Weitang; Zhang, Zhiyong; Liu, Jinbo; Li, Zhen; Song, Junmin; Wu, Changcai [Department of Colorectal Surgery, The First Affiliated Hospital and Institute of Clinical Medicine, Zhengzhou University, 450052 Zhengzhou (China); Wang, Guixian, E-mail: guixianwang@hotmail.com [Department of Colorectal Surgery, The First Affiliated Hospital and Institute of Clinical Medicine, Zhengzhou University, 450052 Zhengzhou (China)

    2012-09-15

    Objective: To determine the effectiveness and advantage of small amount of barium in the measurement of gastrointestinal transmission function in comparison with radio-opaque pallets. Methods: Protocal 1: 8 healthy volunteers (male 6, female 2) with average age 40 ± 6.1 were subjected to the examination of radio-opaque pellets and small amount of barium with the interval of 1 week. Protocol 2: 30 healthy volunteers in group 1 (male 8, female 22) with average age 42.5 ± 8.1 and 50 patients with chronic functional constipation in group 2 (male 11, female 39) with average age 45.7 ± 7.8 were subjected to the small amount of barium examination. The small amount of barium was made by 30 g barium dissolved in 200 ml breakfast. After taking breakfast which contains barium, objectives were followed with abdominal X-ray at 4, 8, 12, 24, 48, 72, 96 h until the barium was evacuated totally. Results: Small amount of barium presented actual chyme or stool transit. The transit time of radio-opaque pallets through the whole gastrointestinal tract was significantly shorter than that of barium (37 ± 8 h vs. 47 ± 10 h, P < 0.05) in healthy people. The transit times of barium in constipation patients were markedly prolonged in colon (61.1 ± 22 vs. 37.3 ± 11, P < 0.01) and rectum (10.8 ± 3.7 vs. 2.3 ± 0.8 h, P < 0.01) compared with unconstipated volunteers. Transit times in individual gastrointestinal segments were also recorded by using small amount of barium, which allowed identifying the subtypes of constipation. Conclusion: The small amount barium examination is a convenient and low cost method to provide the most useful and reliable information on the transmission function of different gastrointestinal segments and able to classify the subtypes of slow transit constipation.

  6. Simplified assessment of segmental gastrointestinal transit time with orally small amount of barium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yuan, Weitang; Zhang, Zhiyong; Liu, Jinbo; Li, Zhen; Song, Junmin; Wu, Changcai; Wang, Guixian

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To determine the effectiveness and advantage of small amount of barium in the measurement of gastrointestinal transmission function in comparison with radio-opaque pallets. Methods: Protocal 1: 8 healthy volunteers (male 6, female 2) with average age 40 ± 6.1 were subjected to the examination of radio-opaque pellets and small amount of barium with the interval of 1 week. Protocol 2: 30 healthy volunteers in group 1 (male 8, female 22) with average age 42.5 ± 8.1 and 50 patients with chronic functional constipation in group 2 (male 11, female 39) with average age 45.7 ± 7.8 were subjected to the small amount of barium examination. The small amount of barium was made by 30 g barium dissolved in 200 ml breakfast. After taking breakfast which contains barium, objectives were followed with abdominal X-ray at 4, 8, 12, 24, 48, 72, 96 h until the barium was evacuated totally. Results: Small amount of barium presented actual chyme or stool transit. The transit time of radio-opaque pallets through the whole gastrointestinal tract was significantly shorter than that of barium (37 ± 8 h vs. 47 ± 10 h, P < 0.05) in healthy people. The transit times of barium in constipation patients were markedly prolonged in colon (61.1 ± 22 vs. 37.3 ± 11, P < 0.01) and rectum (10.8 ± 3.7 vs. 2.3 ± 0.8 h, P < 0.01) compared with unconstipated volunteers. Transit times in individual gastrointestinal segments were also recorded by using small amount of barium, which allowed identifying the subtypes of constipation. Conclusion: The small amount barium examination is a convenient and low cost method to provide the most useful and reliable information on the transmission function of different gastrointestinal segments and able to classify the subtypes of slow transit constipation

  7. Assessing the Efficiency of Small-Scale and Bottom Trawler Vessels in Greece

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dario Pinello

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available This study explores the technical and scale efficiency of two types of Greek fishing vessels, small-scale vessels and bottom trawlers, using a bias-corrected input-oriented Data Envelopment Analysis model. Moreover, the associations between efficiency scores and vessel’s and skipper’s characteristics are also explored. The results indicate that small-scale vessels achieve a very low average technical efficiency score (0.42 but a much higher scale efficiency score (0.81. Conversely, bottom trawlers achieve lower scale but higher technical efficiency scores (0.68 and 0.73, respectively. One important finding of this study is that the technical efficiency of small-scale vessels, in contrast to trawlers, is positively associated with the experience of the skipper. In a looser context, it can be said that small-scale fisheries mainly rely on skill, whereas bottom trawlers rely more on technology. This study concludes that there is space for improvement in efficiency, mainly for small-scale vessels, which could allow the achievement of the same level of output by using reduced inputs.

  8. Thermodynamic modeling of small scale biomass gasifiers: Development and assessment of the ''Multi-Box'' approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vakalis, Stergios; Patuzzi, Francesco; Baratieri, Marco

    2016-04-01

    Modeling can be a powerful tool for designing and optimizing gasification systems. Modeling applications for small scale/fixed bed biomass gasifiers have been interesting due to their increased commercial practices. Fixed bed gasifiers are characterized by a wide range of operational conditions and are multi-zoned processes. The reactants are distributed in different phases and the products from each zone influence the following process steps and thus the composition of the final products. The present study aims to improve the conventional 'Black-Box' thermodynamic modeling by means of developing multiple intermediate 'boxes' that calculate two phase (solid-vapor) equilibriums in small scale gasifiers. Therefore the model is named ''Multi-Box''. Experimental data from a small scale gasifier have been used for the validation of the model. The returned results are significantly closer with the actual case study measurements in comparison to single-stage thermodynamic modeling. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. [Assessment of work ability index in evaluation of small peptides geroprotective effect].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bashkireva, A S; Kachan, E Yu

    We have conducted a comparative analysis of the work ability index (WAI) application in evaluation of the effectiveness of small peptides (cytogens) used as geroprotectors in the system of preventive medical nutrition of those working with occupational hazards. Our study revealed the necessity of an inclusion of small peptides into the system of preventive medical nutrition, health promotion in people working with occupational hazards and thus subjected to an accelerated aging. The combined application of peptide geroprotectors makes it possible to restore and enhance adaptive resources as well as to correct work ability and maintain health and well-being in different professional groups.

  10. Risk assessment of small-sized HTR with pebble-bed core

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kroeger, W.; Mertens, J.; Wolters, J.

    1987-01-01

    Two recent concepts of small-sized HTR's (HTR-Modul and HTR-100) were analysed regarding their safety concepts and risk protection. In neither case do core cooling accidents contribute to the risk because of the low induced core temperatures. Water ingress accidents dominate the risk in both cases by detaching deposited fission products which can be released into the environment. For these accident sequences no early fatalities and practically no lethal case of cancer were computed. Both HTR concepts include adequate precautionary measures and an infinitely small risk according to the usual standards. The safety concepts make express use of the specific inherent safety features of pebble-bed HTR's. (orig.)

  11. Small Wind Turbine Technology Assessment; Estado del Arte de la Tecnologia de Pequeos Aerogeneradores

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Avia Aranda, F; Cruz Cruz, I [CIEMAT. Madrid (Spain)

    1999-03-01

    The result of the study carried out under the scope of the ATYCA project Test Plant of Wind Systems for Isolated Applications, about the state of art of the small wind turbine technology (wind turbines with swept area smaller than 40 m``2) is presented. The study analyzes the collected information on 60 models of wind turbines from 23 manufactures in the worldwide market. Data from Chinese manufacturers, that have a large participation in the total number of small turbines in operation, are not included, due to the unavailability of the technical information. (Author) 15 refs.

  12. Prevalence of small-bowel neoplasia in Lynch syndrome assessed by video capsule endoscopy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haanstra, Jasmijn F.; Al-Toma, Abdul; Dekker, Evelien; Vanhoutvin, Steven A. L. W.; Nagengast, Fokko M.; Mathus-Vliegen, Elisabeth M.; van Leerdam, Monique E.; de Vos tot Nederveen Cappel, Wouter H.; Sanduleanu, Silvia; Veenendaal, Roeland A.; Cats, Annemieke; Vasen, Hans F. A.; Kleibeuker, Jan H.; Koornstra, Jan J.

    2015-01-01

    The aim was to determine the prevalence of small-bowel neoplasia in asymptomatic patients with Lynch syndrome (LS) by video capsule endoscopy (VCE). After obtaining informed consent, asymptomatic proven gene mutation carriers aged 35-70 years were included in this prospective multicentre study in

  13. Prevalence of small-bowel neoplasia in Lynch syndrome assessed by video capsule endoscopy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haanstra, Jasmijn F.; Al-Toma, Abdul; Dekker, Evelien; Vanhoutvin, Steven A. L. W.; Nagengast, Fokko M.; Mathus-Vliegen, Elisabeth M.; van Leerdam, Monique E.; Cappel, Wouter H. de Vos tot Nederveen; Sanduleanu, Silvia; Veenendaal, Roeland A.; Cats, Annemieke; Vasen, Hans F. A.; Kleibeuker, Jan H.; Koornstra, Jan J.

    2015-01-01

    Objective The aim was to determine the prevalence of small-bowel neoplasia in asymptomatic patients with Lynch syndrome (LS) by video capsule endoscopy (VCE). Design After obtaining informed consent, asymptomatic proven gene mutation carriers aged 3570 years were included in this prospective

  14. SU-F-R-54: CT-Texture Based Early Tumor Treatment Response Assessment During Radiation Therapy Delivery: Small Cell Versus Non-Small Cell Lung Cancers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paul, J; Gore, E; Li, X [Medical College of Wisconsin, Milwaukee, WI (United States)

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: Tumor treatment response may potentially be assessed during radiation therapy (RT) by analyzing changes in CT-textures. We investigated the different early RT-responses between small cell (SCLC) and non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) as assessed by CT-texture. Methods: Daily diagnostic-quality CT acquired during routine CT-guided RT using a CT-on-Rails for 13-NSCLC and 5-SCLC patients were analyzed. These patient had ages ranging from 45–78 and 38–63 years, respectively, for NSCLC and SCLC groups, and tumor-stages ranging from T2-T4, and were treated with either RT or chemotherapy and RT with 45–66Gy/ 20–34 fractions. Gross-tumor volume (GTV) contour was generated on each daily CT by populating GTV contour from simulation to daily CTs with manual editing if necessary. CT-texture parameters, such as Hounsfield Unit (HU) histogram, mean HU, skewness, kurtosis, entropy, and short-run high-gray level emphasis (SRHGLE), were calculated in GTV from each daily CT-set using an in house software tool. Difference in changes of these texture parameters during RT between NSCLC and SCLC was analyzed and compared with GTV volume changes. Results: Radiation-induced changes in CT-texture were different between SCLC and NSCLC. Average changes from first to the last fractions for NSCLC and SCLC in GTV were 28±10(12–44) and 30±15(11–47) HU (mean HU reduction), 12.7% and 18.3% (entropy), 50% and 55% (SRHGLE), 19% and 22% (kurtosis), and 5.2% and 22% (skewness), respectively. Good correlation in kurtosis changes and GTV was seen (R{sup 2}=0.8923) for SCLC, but not for NSCLC (R{sup 2}=0.4748). SCLC had better correlations between GTV volume reduction and entropy (SCLC R{sup 2}=0.847; NSCLC R{sup 2}=0.6485), skewness (SCLC R{sup 2}=0.935; NSCLC R{sup 2}=0.7666), or SRHGLE (SCLC R{sup 2}=0.9619; NSCLC R{sup 2}=0.787). Conclusion: NSCLC and SCLC exhibited different early RT-responses as assessed by CT-texture changes during RT-delivery. The observed larger changes in

  15. An example of population-level risk assessments for small mammals using individual-based population models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmitt, Walter; Auteri, Domenica; Bastiansen, Finn; Ebeling, Markus; Liu, Chun; Luttik, Robert; Mastitsky, Sergey; Nacci, Diane; Topping, Chris; Wang, Magnus

    2016-01-01

    This article presents a case study demonstrating the application of 3 individual-based, spatially explicit population models (IBMs, also known as agent-based models) in ecological risk assessments to predict long-term effects of a pesticide to populations of small mammals. The 3 IBMs each used a hypothetical fungicide (FungicideX) in different scenarios: spraying in cereals (common vole, Microtus arvalis), spraying in orchards (field vole, Microtus agrestis), and cereal seed treatment (wood mouse, Apodemus sylvaticus). Each scenario used existing model landscapes, which differed greatly in size and structural complexity. The toxicological profile of FungicideX was defined so that the deterministic long-term first tier risk assessment would result in high risk to small mammals, thus providing the opportunity to use the IBMs for risk assessment refinement (i.e., higher tier risk assessment). Despite differing internal model design and scenarios, results indicated in all 3 cases low population sensitivity unless FungicideX was applied at very high (×10) rates. Recovery from local population impacts was generally fast. Only when patch extinctions occured in simulations of intentionally high acute toxic effects, recovery periods, then determined by recolonization, were of any concern. Conclusions include recommendations for the most important input considerations, including the selection of exposure levels, duration of simulations, statistically robust number of replicates, and endpoints to report. However, further investigation and agreement are needed to develop recommendations for landscape attributes such as size, structure, and crop rotation to define appropriate regulatory risk assessment scenarios. Overall, the application of IBMs provides multiple advantages to higher tier ecological risk assessments for small mammals, including consistent and transparent direct links to specific protection goals, and the consideration of more realistic scenarios. © 2015 SETAC.

  16. Exposure assessment in SMES: a low-cost approach to bring OHS services to small-scale enterprises.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seneviratne, Mahinda; Phoon, Wai On

    2006-01-01

    There is increased attention to improving occupational health and safety in small to medium-sized Enterprises (SMEs). The Workers Health Centre, a not-for-profit OHS service in western Sydney, assessed workplace exposures in two SMEs following intervention by regulatory agencies. A low-cost monitoring program for noise, airbone dust, fibers and chemicals was conducted at these two metal working industry workplaces. Results showed that exposure to the hazards were above the statutory limits and there was generally an unhealthy access to OHS information by the predominantly immigrant or low literate worker population, were identified. The potential for using a program of low-cost exposure assessments, accompanied by a strategy to provide OHSs information for workers in small-scale enterprises, is discussed.

  17. Energy performance assessment of virtualization technologies using small environmental monitoring sensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Lu; Masfary, Osama; Antonopoulos, Nick

    2012-01-01

    The increasing trends of electrical consumption within data centres are a growing concern for business owners as they are quickly becoming a large fraction of the total cost of ownership. Ultra small sensors could be deployed within a data centre to monitor environmental factors to lower the electrical costs and improve the energy efficiency. Since servers and air conditioners represent the top users of electrical power in the data centre, this research sets out to explore methods from each subsystem of the data centre as part of an overall energy efficient solution. In this paper, we investigate the current trends of Green IT awareness and how the deployment of small environmental sensors and Site Infrastructure equipment optimization techniques which can offer a solution to a global issue by reducing carbon emissions.

  18. QUALITY OF WORK LIFE: PROPOSED ASSESSMENT FOR PROFESSIONAL MICRO AND SMALL ENTERPRISES LOGISTICS SECTOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orlando Roque da Silva

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The concept of Management of Quality of Work Life (MQWL search to develop mechanisms for the individual has balance between their professional and human life. The great challenge for organizations is to match the organizational need, dictated by the market with its rapid businesses changes and individual needs. Understanding the individual as an entire person with numerous and diverse interests and knowledge that can be directed to the activities performed in the organization is one of the conditions for having this compliance. This work, following the proposals made by Richard Walton, is an indication for evaluation especially for micro and small enterprises. The purpose of this article is observe the concepts and establish variants understood as fundamental in the production environment of micro and small enterprises sector logistics.

  19. Wind Energy Assessment for Small Urban Communities in the Baja California Peninsula, Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Quetzalcoatl Hernandez-Escobedo

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Mexico needs to exploit its renewable resources and many studies have determined the great renewable potential it has using wind energy. However it is necessary to calculate the amount of this resource for small urban communities, which in this country lack essential services such as electricity. This study is focused in the Baja California Peninsula, using GIS as a tool to identify small urban zones with higher wind power. For this work data was analyzed from meteorological stations and recorded every 10 min for two years (2012–2014. Weibull distribution, linear regression, kriging interpolation, power and energy output and useful hours were calculated for each station. It was found that the total energy generated is 38,603,666 kWh per year and the mean of useful hours is 5220 h per year for the whole Peninsula. Maps of Wind Power Density (WPD show a good power per square meter, GIS shows the areas with the most wind power where it can be used i.e., the state of Baja California wind power can generate electricity for 12% of those communities, meanwhile for Baja California Sur, the electric power generation could electrify almost 25% of the total of small urban communities.

  20. Rapid Assessment of Small Changes to Major Gun and Projectile Dynamic Parameters

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Erline, Thomas

    1997-01-01

    The U.S. Navy's 5-in 54-cal. (5"/54) gun system Mark (Mk) 45 was subjected to first-order dynamic analysis tools that allowed rapid assessment of ballistic dispersion of a typical naval high explosive projectile...

  1. Draft guidelines for an environmental impact assessment small scale hydroelectric plant redevelopment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    A pulp and paper company in St. George, New Brunswick, is proposing to redevelop an existing hydroelectric plant built around 1900. The redevelopment proposal consists of decommissioning the existing powerhouse, constructing a new powerhouse containing a 12-MW Kaplan turbine, excavating a tailrace channel, and installing a new penstock. Other design considerations include improvements to gates in the main dam for improved flood control and modifications to the trash racks to prevent potential fish mortality. The provincial environment ministry has determined that an environmental impact assessment of the potential impacts of the redevelopment was required. Guidelines to be used in the assessment process are presented, including definition of the study boundaries, prediction of environmental effects, description of methods of mitigating and compensating for anticipated impacts, a commitment to monitoring and public consultation, and submittal of terms of reference in response to final assessment guidelines. Requirements for conducting the assessment study and content of the report are also listed. 1 fig

  2. Occupational exposure in small and medium scale industry with specific reference to heat and noise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lakhwinder Pal Singh

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was undertaken to assess heat and noise exposure and occupational safety practices in small and medium scale casting and forging units (SMEs of Northern India. We conducted personal interviews of 350 male workers of these units through a comprehensive questionnaire and collected information on heat and noise exposure, use of protective equipment, sweat loss and water intake, working hour. The ambient wet bulb globe temperature (WBGT index was measured using quest temp 34/36o area heat stress monitor. A-weighted Leq ambient noise was measured using a quest sound level meter "ANSI SI. 43-1997 (R 2002 type-1 model SOUNDPRO SE/DL". We also incorporated OSHA norms for hearing conservation which include - an exchange rate of 5dB(A, criterion level at 90dB(A, criterion time of eight hours, threshold level is equal to 80dB(A, upper limit is equal to 140dB(A and with F/S response rate. Results of the study revealed that occupational heat exposure in melting, casting, forging and punching sections is high compared to ACGIH/NIOSH norms. Ambience noise in various sections like casting / molding, drop forging, cutting presses, punching, grinding and barreling process was found to be more than 90dB(A. About 95% of the workers suffered speech interference where as high noise annoyance was reported by only 20%. Overall, 68% workers were not using any personal protective equipment (PPE. The study concluded that the proportion of SME workers exposed to high level heat stress and noise (60 - 72 hrs/week is high. The workers engaged in forging and grinding sections are more prone to noise induced hearing loss (NIHL at higher frequencies as compared to workers of other sections. It is recommended that there is a strong need to implement the standard of working hours as well as heat stress and noise control measures.

  3. Automated washing of FTA Card punches and PCR setup for reference samples using a LIMS-controlled Sias Xantus automated liquid handler

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stangegaard, Michael; Olsen, Addie Nina; Frøslev, Tobias G.

    2009-01-01

    We have implemented and validated automated methods for washing FTA Card punches containing buccal samples and subsequent PCR setup using a Sias Xantus automated liquid handler. The automated methods were controlled by worklists generated by our LabWare Laboratory Information Management System...

  4. Assessment of two small-sized innovative nuclear reactors for electricity generation in Brazil using INPRO methodology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goncalves Filho, Orlando Joao Agostinho; Sefidvash, Farhang

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents the main results of the assessment study of two small-sized innovative reactors for electricity generation in Brazil using the methodology developed under the International Project on Innovative Nuclear Reactors and Fuel Cycles (INPRO), co-ordinated by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA). INPRO was initiated in 2001 and has the main objective of helping to ensure that nuclear energy is available to contribute in a sustainable manner to the energy needs of the 21st century. Brazil joined the INPRO project since its beginning and in 2005 submitted a proposal for the assessment using INPRO methodology of two small-sized reactors (IRIS - International Reactor Innovative and Secure, and FBNR - Fixed Bed Nuclear Reactor) as potential components of an innovative nuclear energy system (INS) completed by a conventional open nuclear fuel cycle based on enriched uranium. The scope of this assessment study was restricted to the reactor component of the INS and to the methodology areas of economics and safety for IRIS, and proliferation resistance and safety for FBNR. The results indicate that both IRIS and FBNR innovative designs comply mostly with the basic principles of the areas assessed and have potential to comply with the remaining ones. (author)

  5. Capability of abdominal 320-detector row CT for small vasculature assessment compared with that of 64-detector row CT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kitajima, Kazuhiro, E-mail: kitajima@med.kobe-u.ac.jp [Department of Radiology, Kobe University Graduate School of Medicine, 7-5-2, Kusunoki-cho, Chuo-ku, Kobe, Hyogo 650-0017 (Japan); Maeda, Tetsuo; Ohno, Yoshiharu [Department of Radiology, Kobe University Graduate School of Medicine, 7-5-2, Kusunoki-cho, Chuo-ku, Kobe, Hyogo 650-0017 (Japan); Division of Radiology, Kobe University Hospital, Kobe (Japan); Yoshikawa, Takeshi [Department of Radiology, Kobe University Graduate School of Medicine, 7-5-2, Kusunoki-cho, Chuo-ku, Kobe, Hyogo 650-0017 (Japan); Konishi, Minoru [Division of Radiology, Kobe University Hospital, Kobe (Japan); Kanda, Tomonori; Onishi, Yumiko; Matsumoto, Keiko; Koyama, Hisanobu; Takenaka, Daisuke; Sugimura, Kazuro [Department of Radiology, Kobe University Graduate School of Medicine, 7-5-2, Kusunoki-cho, Chuo-ku, Kobe, Hyogo 650-0017 (Japan)

    2011-11-15

    Objective: To compare the capability of 320-detector row CT (area-detector CT: ADCT) with step-and-shoot scan protocol for small abdominal vasculature assessment with that of 64-detector row CT with helical scan protocol. Materials and methods: Total of 60 patients underwent contrast-enhanced abdominal CT for preoperative assessment. Of all, 30 suspected to have lung cancer underwent ADCT using step-and-shoot scan protocol. The other 30 suspected to have renal cell carcinoma underwent 64-MDCT using helical scan protocol. Two experienced radiologists independently assessed inferior epigastric, hepatic subsegmental (in the segment 8), mesenteric marginal (Griffith point) and inferior phrenic arteries by using 5-point visual scoring systems. Kappa analysis was used for evaluation of interobserver agreement. To compare the visualization capability of the two systems, the Mann-Whitney U-test was used to compare the scores for each of the arteries. Results: Overall interobserver agreements for both systems were almost perfect ({kappa} > 0.80). Visualization scores for inferior epigastric and mesenteric arteries were significantly higher for ADCT than for 64-detector row CT (p < 0.05). No significant difference was found for hepatic subsegmental and inferior phrenic arteries. Conclusion: Small abdominal vasculature assessment by ADCT with step-and-shoot scan protocol is potentially equal to or better than that by 64-detector row CT with helical scan protocol.

  6. Capability of abdominal 320-detector row CT for small vasculature assessment compared with that of 64-detector row CT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kitajima, Kazuhiro; Maeda, Tetsuo; Ohno, Yoshiharu; Yoshikawa, Takeshi; Konishi, Minoru; Kanda, Tomonori; Onishi, Yumiko; Matsumoto, Keiko; Koyama, Hisanobu; Takenaka, Daisuke; Sugimura, Kazuro

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To compare the capability of 320-detector row CT (area-detector CT: ADCT) with step-and-shoot scan protocol for small abdominal vasculature assessment with that of 64-detector row CT with helical scan protocol. Materials and methods: Total of 60 patients underwent contrast-enhanced abdominal CT for preoperative assessment. Of all, 30 suspected to have lung cancer underwent ADCT using step-and-shoot scan protocol. The other 30 suspected to have renal cell carcinoma underwent 64-MDCT using helical scan protocol. Two experienced radiologists independently assessed inferior epigastric, hepatic subsegmental (in the segment 8), mesenteric marginal (Griffith point) and inferior phrenic arteries by using 5-point visual scoring systems. Kappa analysis was used for evaluation of interobserver agreement. To compare the visualization capability of the two systems, the Mann-Whitney U-test was used to compare the scores for each of the arteries. Results: Overall interobserver agreements for both systems were almost perfect (κ > 0.80). Visualization scores for inferior epigastric and mesenteric arteries were significantly higher for ADCT than for 64-detector row CT (p < 0.05). No significant difference was found for hepatic subsegmental and inferior phrenic arteries. Conclusion: Small abdominal vasculature assessment by ADCT with step-and-shoot scan protocol is potentially equal to or better than that by 64-detector row CT with helical scan protocol.

  7. Foulant analysis of hollow fine fiber (HFF) membranes in Red Sea SWRO plants using membrane punch autopsy (MPA)

    KAUST Repository

    Green, Troy N.

    2017-06-12

    Membrane punch autopsy (MPA) is a procedure for quantitative foulant analysis of hollow fine fiber (HFF) permeators. In the past, quantitative autopsies of membranes were restricted to spiral wound. This procedure was developed at SWCC laboratories and tested on permeators of two commercial Red Sea reverse osmosis plants. For membrane autopsies, stainless steel hollow bore picks were penetrated to membrane cores and fibers extracted for foulant analysis. Quantitative analysis of extracted materials contained inorganic and organic foulants including bacteria. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy analysis confirmed the presence of organic fouling functional groups and scanning electron microscopy with energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy in the presence of diatoms and silica most likely not from particulate sand. API analysis revealed the presence of Shewanella and two Vibrio microbial species confirmed by 16S rDNA sequence library. It was observed that fouling content of HFF cellulose triacetate (CTA) membranes were more than 800 times than polyamide spiral wound membranes.

  8. Machine for casting and punching grids for lead batteries. Maschine zum Giessen und Stanzen von Gittern fuer Bleiakkumulatoren

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sperling, F; Hennecke, A

    1981-10-29

    The invention describes a machine, which places the cast parts from a two-part, vertical casting mould onto a transport unit using a lifting device, without any danger of deformation of the not yet hardened grid plates by mechanical loads. The lifting device and rider of the transport unit have guides, in which the plate rests with its grid wings. The transport unit consists of endless chains of variable distance and is also used for cooling, by taking air, for example, as cooling medium through a suitably shaped metal jacket. At the end of the cooling area, the castings are gripped at the bottom by axially controlled pegs pointing towards the inside, and are brought into the horizontal level by a movement of the chains. They are laid on a plate fitted between the chain wheels and are taken by side cams to the punch, from which they are discharged via a further pair of cams on to a belt.

  9. Non-linear finite element analysis of reinforced concrete members and punching shear strength of HSC slabs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nassim Kernou

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available A rational three-dimensional nonlinear finite element model (NLFEAS is used for evaluating the behavior of high strength concrete slabs under monotonic transverse load. The non-linear equations of equilibrium have been solved using the incremental-iterative technique based on the modified Newton-Raphson method. The convergence of the solution was controlled by a load convergence criterion. The validity of the theoretical formulations and the program used was verified, through comparison with results obtained using ANSYS program and with available experimental test results. A parametric study was conducted to investigate the effect of different parameters on the behavior of slabs which was evaluated in terms of loaddeflection characteristics, concrete and steel stresses and strains, and failure mechanisms. Also, punching shear resistance of slabs was numerically evaluated and compared with the prediction specified by some design codes.

  10. Effect of Chord Splice Joints on Force Distribution and Deformations in Trusses with Punched Metal Plate Fasteners

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ellegaard, Peter

    2007-01-01

    The span of roof trusses with punched metal plate fasteners (nail plates) makes it often necessary to use splice joints in the top and bottom chords. In the finite element models used for design of the trusses these splice joints are normally assumed to be either rotationally stiff or pinned....... Timber-to-timber contact and non-linear elastic behaviour are included in the model. Results from tests with joints under fourpoint bending are compared with predictions given by TrussLab, and a good agreement is found. Splice joints in trusses with nail plates may be assumed to be rotationally stiff...... if their deformation has no significant effect upon the distribution of member forces according to Eurocode 5. Two simple guidelines for the design and location of splice joints are given in Eurocode 5 for treating the splice joints as rotationally stiff. The reasonability of these guidelines and the influence...

  11. Risk assessment for fish passage through small, low-head turbines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Turnpenny, A.W.H.; Clough, S.; Hanson, K.P.; Ramsay, R.; McEwan, D.

    2000-07-01

    This report summarises the findings of a study to improve the accuracy of prediction methods for fish fatalities for small-head Francis and Kaplan propeller turbine designs and gives details of computational fluid dynamic modelling to estimate pressure fluxes and shear stresses. Biological data is reviewed, and the STRIKER Excel spreadsheet model is used to predict death caused by pressure flux, shear turbulence, and blade strike. Field validation is discussed, and drawings of the Francis 1 and Kaplan 1 turbines, results of the fish passage trials, and STRIKER instructions and sample runs are presented in the appendices.

  12. Risk assessment for fish passage through small, low-head turbines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turnpenny, A.W.H.; Clough, S.; Hanson, K.P.; Ramsay, R.; McEwan, D.

    2000-01-01

    This report summarises the findings of a study to improve the accuracy of prediction methods for fish fatalities for small-head Francis and Kaplan propeller turbine designs and gives details of computational fluid dynamic modelling to estimate pressure fluxes and shear stresses. Biological data is reviewed, and the STRIKER Excel spreadsheet model is used to predict death caused by pressure flux, shear turbulence, and blade strike. Field validation is discussed, and drawings of the Francis 1 and Kaplan 1 turbines, results of the fish passage trials, and STRIKER instructions and sample runs are presented in the appendices

  13. Established and emerging methods for assessment of small and large intestinal motility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grønlund, D; Poulsen, J L; Sandberg, T H

    2017-01-01

    and validation of objective methods to evaluate motility of the whole gut is important. Such techniques may be applied in clinical settings as diagnostic tools, in research to elucidate underlying mechanisms of diseases, and to evaluate how the gut responds to various drugs. A wide array of such methods exists...... emerged, with the advantages that they are less invasive, use no radiation, and provide much more detailed information. PURPOSE: This review outlines well-established and emerging methods to evaluate small bowel and colonic motility in clinical settings and in research. The latter include the 3D...

  14. Vulnerability assessment of small islands to tourism: The case of the Marine Tourism Park of the Gili Matra Islands, Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fery Kurniawan

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The Indonesian government is currently directing its focus of development on the optimum uses of marine and coastal ecosystem services including the marine and coastal tourism. One of the main locus of coastal and marine tourism is the small islands tourism such as Gili Matra Islands among others. Small islands tourism is one of the favourite touristic activities because the destination provides beauty, exotism, aesthetic and a diversity of natural habitats including the warm, clear and attractive water. Tourism is being considered as a development instrument in order to boost a country’s economy and has become part of the global industry. However, tourism is also one of the actors that is responsible for environmental depletion, due to the constructions of buildings and tourism activities. This paper aims to study the level of vulnerability in small islands to tourism as a basis of integrated small islands management in Indonesian conservation area. The group of islands in this study consists of three islands namely Gili Ayer Island, Gili Meno Island and Gili Trawangan Island (known as Gili Matra Islands that were observed using Small Islands Vulnerability Index (SIVI. The results indicate that Gili Matra Islands have a vulnerability status from low into moderate, ranging from 2.25 to 2.75. Gili Ayer Island has the highest vulnerability with SIVI of 2.75 (Moderate, followed by Gili Meno Island with SIVI of 2.50 (Low and Gili Trawangan Island with SIVI of 2.25 (Low. The driving factor of vulnerability is the intensive utilization of marine tourism activities. Tourism is the sole stress to Gili Matra Island’s ecosystem due to its direct damaging impact and reducing its environmental quality. The vulnerability index which was built from the coastline, coral reef, live coral reef, and development area was applicable to assess the small island’s vulnerability in Indonesia, especially for coral island.

  15. Implementing ILDs and Assessment in Small-enrollment, Calculus-based Physics Classes -- Lessons, Observations and Open Questions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mason-McCaffrey, Deborah

    2011-04-01

    At Salem State, we offer a Physics minor, but most of our teaching load is support courses for other science majors and a lab sequence which satisfies the University's core education requirement. In three years of using assessments and ILDs in small-enrollment calculus-based Physics classes, there has been a significant implementation learning curve, there are encouraging results, a few cautions, and still some open questions to report. ILDs can be highly effective teaching tools. They do require significant advance preparation as well as a safe environment for student participation. Motivating students to do their best on assessment pre- and post-tests can also be difficult. Strategies for motivating assessment performance, experiments using clickers to encourage participation in ILDs, and modifying and developing home-grown ILDs are discussed.

  16. Numerical modelling to assess maintenance strategy management options for a small tidal inlet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaeri, Saeed; Tomlinson, Rodger; Etemad-Shahidi, Amir; Strauss, Darrell

    2017-03-01

    Small tidal inlets are found to be more sensitive to anthropogenic alteration than their larger counterparts. Such alterations, although typically supported by technical design reports, sometimes require amendments or modification. One of the most suitable tools to conduct the necessary studies in this regard is numerical modelling, since the behaviour of the inlet system in response to proposed remedial actions, can easily be identified. In this paper, various alternative proposals are investigated to determine the most practical and viable option to mitigate the need for ongoing maintenance at a typical small, jettied tidal inlet. The main tool to investigate the alternatives is the hydro-sedimentological modelling of the inlet system, which was performed using the Delft3D software package. The proposed alternative entrance modifications were based upon structural alterations of the inlet system (such as a jetty extension or submerged weir) and non-structural scenarios (such as a change of the time of the dredging campaign or the deposition location of the dredged material). It was concluded that whilst a detailed study is inevitable in order to achieve a comprehensive design plan, based upon the results of this study the construction of a submerged weir at the entrance channel can satisfy the needs of most of the stakeholders, with justifiable costs over a longer period.

  17. Use of grey relational analysis to assess and optimize small biomass boilers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moran, J.; Granada, E.; Miguez, J.L.; Porteiro, J.

    2006-01-01

    This paper presents a new methodology for the evaluation of the environmental and economic feasibility of combustion of different biomass fuels in small boilers. The study focuses on pellets as the basic co-firing product and forest residues as the complementary product. Although the co-firing of forest residues can be economically profin, it is difficult to evaluate the general economic advantages due to the worsening of combustion in terms of performance and emissions caused by the presence of the forest residues in the fuel mixture. The grey relational analysis of different energetic and emission variables and also residue prices allows for the definition of a new single variable called the grey relational grade. Thus, evaluation and optimization of complicated multiple responses can be converted into the optimization of a standardised single variable. Experimental analyses by means of the Grey theory of different forest residues have revealed the possibility of co-firing crust of pine combined with wood pellets as a way of reducing fuel costs, keeping performance and emissions within average standards in small pellet boilers. (author)

  18. Small disturbance voltage stability assessment of power systems by modal analysis and dynamic simulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amjady, Nima; Ansari, Mohammad Reza

    2008-01-01

    The introduction of liberalized electricity markets in many countries has resulted in more highly stressed power systems. On the other hand, operating points of a power system are acceptable in the feasible region, which is surrounded by the borders of different stabilities. Power system instability is critical for all participants of the electricity market. Determination of different stability margins can result in the optimum utilization of power system with minimum risk. This paper focuses on the small disturbance voltage stability, which is an important subset of the power system global stability. This kind of voltage stability is usually evaluated by static analysis tools such as continuation power flow, while it essentially has dynamic nature. Besides, a combination of linear and nonlinear analysis tools is required to correctly analyze it. In this paper, a hybrid evaluation method composed of static, dynamic, linear, and nonlinear analysis tools is proposed for this purpose. Effect of load scenario, generation pattern, branch and generator contingency on the small disturbance voltage stability are evaluated by the hybrid method. The test results are given for New England and IEEE68 bus test systems. (author)

  19. Quality of life assessment as a predictor of survival in non-small cell lung cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Staren Edgar D

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There are conflicting and inconsistent results in the literature on the prognostic role of quality of life (QoL in cancer. We investigated whether QoL at admission could predict survival in lung cancer patients. Methods The study population consisted of 1194 non-small cell lung cancer patients treated at our institution between Jan 2001 and Dec 2008. QoL was evaluated using EORTC-QLQ-C30 prior to initiation of treatment. Patient survival was defined as the time interval between the date of first patient visit and the date of death from any cause/date of last contact. Univariate and multivariate Cox regression evaluated the prognostic significance of QoL. Results Mean age at presentation was 58.3 years. There were 605 newly diagnosed and 589 previously treated patients; 601 males and 593 females. Stage of disease at diagnosis was I, 100; II, 63; III, 348; IV, 656; and 27 indeterminate. Upon multivariate analyses, global QoL as well as physical function predicted patient survival in the entire study population. Every 10-point increase in physical function was associated with a 10% increase in survival (95% CI = 6% to 14%, p Conclusions Baseline global QoL and physical function provide useful prognostic information in non-small cell lung cancer patients.

  20. An Assessment of Regional Sustainability through Quality Labels for Small Farmers’ Products: A Slovak Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jana Jaďuďová

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Regional product labelling can help develop regional business activities, especially with traditional regional products. Their general popularity is a significant source of income for less-developed regions. The Gemer-Malohont region is an economically underdeveloped area with a high unemployment rate. The subject of the survey was focused on regional food products that are made by small farmers. The analysis was carried out using data from a questionnaire survey on the period April–July 2017 in each of the region’s districts. The results obtained by the questionnaire survey were processed with the use of statistical methods (two-step cluster analysis, radar chart, box-plots, regression analysis using Microsoft Excel and the IBM SPSS Statistics 23 software. We divided consumers into two groups—knowledgeable regional food purchasers and priced-oriented consumers—based on their preference for regional food and through cluster analysis. We show that the more developed regions (Rimavská Sobota and Rožňava show a higher rate of purchase of regional foods. Less-developed regions (Poltár, Revúca are represented by lower-income consumers for whom the food price is the decisive criterion. Local residents of backward regions should pay attention to domestic food and local small farmers who are tools for the creation of local capital and local development.

  1. Mining the student assessment data: Lessons drawn from a small scale case study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pechenizkiy, M.; Calders, T.G.K.; Vasilyeva, E.; De Bra, P.M.E.; Baker, de R.S.J.; Barnes, T.; Beck, J.E.

    2008-01-01

    In this paper we describe an educational data mining (EDM) case study based on the data collected during the online assessment of students who were able to immediately receive tailored and elaborated feedback (EF) after answering each of the questions in the test. Our main interest as domain experts

  2. Small Data, Online Learning and Assessment Practices in Higher Education: A Case Study of Failure?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Cate; Wilson, Anna; Drew, Valerie; Thompson, Terrie Lynn

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, we present an in-depth case study of a single student who failed an online module which formed part of a master's programme in Professional Education and Leadership. We use this case study to examine assessment practices in higher education in the online environment. In taking this approach, we go against the current predilection…

  3. Automatic mechanical fault assessment of small wind energy systems in microgrids using electric signature analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skrimpas, Georgios Alexandros; Marhadi, Kun Saptohartyadi; Jensen, Bogi Bech

    2013-01-01

    of islanded operation. In this paper, the fault assessment is achieved efficiently and consistently via electric signature analysis (ESA). In ESA the fault related frequency components are manifested as sidebands of the existing current and voltage time harmonics. The energy content between the fundamental, 5...

  4. Circulation as Assessment: Collection Development Policies Evaluated in Terms of Circulation at a Small Academic Library.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dinkins, Debbi

    2003-01-01

    Discusses the use of academic library circulation statistics to assess whether user needs are being met and describes a study at Stetson University that investigated collection development practices by comparing circulation statistics for books selected by faculty in support of departmental curricula with those of librarian selections. (Author/LRW)

  5. Productivity assessments in small ruminant improvement programmes : a case study of the West African dwarf goat

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bosman, H.G.

    1995-01-01

    Livestock production in the tropics is characterised by a high degree of variability in terms of composition, setting and aims. A good understanding of these characteristics is a prerequisite for the planning of a successful improvement programme. A frequently used criterion to assess the

  6. Applying information theory to small groups assessment: emotions and well-being at work.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Izquierdo, Antonio León; Moreno, Blanca; García-Izquierdo, Mariano

    2010-05-01

    This paper explores and analyzes the relations between emotions and well-being in a sample of aviation personnel, passenger crew (flight attendants). There is an increasing interest in studying the influence of emotions and its role as psychosocial factors in the work environment as they are able to act as facilitators or shock absorbers. The contrast of the theoretical models by using traditional parametric techniques requires a large sample size to the efficient estimation of the coefficients that quantify the relations between variables. Since the available sample that we have is small, the most common size in European enterprises, we used the maximum entropy principle to explore the emotions that are involved in the psychosocial risks. The analyses show that this method takes advantage of the limited information available and guarantee an optimal estimation, the results of which are coherent with theoretical models and numerous empirical researches about emotions and well-being.

  7. Siting analysis and risk assessment for small single-purpose heating reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tarjanne, R.

    1979-04-01

    Two alternative sites both 10km away from the centre of Helsinki are considered for reactor unit sizes of 400mw and 800mw. The risks associated with a small single-purpose heating reactor is evaluated for normal operation and accident conditions. The evaluation for accident condition is performed for three characteristics accidents. Three pathways are considered in the calculation of the radiation exposure: direct external gamma dose from the release plume, direct gamma radiation from deposited activity on the ground and dose due to inhalation. The risks are compared with the risks from alternative conventional fossil fuelled district heat production methods. The results show that the heating reactor alternative causes an unsignificant risk, which is far less than the risk caused by the fossil-fuelled alternatives

  8. Longitudinal assessment of TUBB3 expression in non-small cell lung cancer patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Jan Nyrop; Santoni-Rugiu, Eric; Sørensen, Jens Benn

    2014-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Class-III-beta-tubulin (TUBB3) expression may be a potential predictive factor for treatment with microtubule interfering cytotoxic drugs in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Potential changes in TUBB3 expression during chemotherapy may be of interest if future choice...... NSCLC patients stage T1-4N0-1 was treated with surgery alone without preceding chemotherapy (OP-group). Paired repeated samples were compared in order to evaluate for changes in TUBB3 expression. RESULTS: No statistically significant change in TUBB3 expression was observed between initial diagnostic...... during chemotherapy. MATERIALS AND METHODS: TUBB3 expression was investigated by immunohistochemistry performed on diagnostic biopsies and on available subsequent resection specimens in 65 NSCLC patients stage T1-3N0-2 who received neoadjuvant carboplatin and paclitaxel (NAC-group). Another group of 53...

  9. Assessment of TRPM7 functions by drug-like small molecules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chubanov, Vladimir; Ferioli, Silvia; Gudermann, Thomas

    2017-11-01

    Transient receptor potential cation channel subfamily M member 7 (TRPM7) is a plasma membrane ion channel linked to a cytosolic protein kinase domain. Genetic inactivation of this bi-functional protein revealed its crucial role in Ca 2+ signalling, Mg 2+ metabolism, immune responses, cell motility, proliferation and differentiation. Malfunctions of TRPM7 are associated with anoxic neuronal death, cardiac fibrosis, tumour progression and macrothrombocytopenia. Recently, several groups have identified small organic compounds acting as inhibitors or activators of the TRPM7 channel. In follow-up studies, the identified TRPM7 modulators were successfully used to uncover new cellular functions of TRPM7 in situ including a crucial role of TRPM7 in Ca 2+ signaling and Ca 2+ dependent cellular processes. Hence, TRPM7 has been defined as a promising drug target. Here, we summarize the progress in this quickly developing field. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. A Framework to Expand and Advance Probabilistic Risk Assessment to Support Small Modular Reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Curtis Smith; David Schwieder; Robert Nourgaliev; Cherie Phelan; Diego Mandelli; Kellie Kvarfordt; Robert Youngblood

    2012-09-01

    During the early development of nuclear power plants, researchers and engineers focused on many aspects of plant operation, two of which were getting the newly-found technology to work and minimizing the likelihood of perceived accidents through redundancy and diversity. As time, and our experience, has progressed, the realization of plant operational risk/reliability has entered into the design, operation, and regulation of these plants. But, to date, we have only dabbled at the surface of risk and reliability technologies. For the next generation of small modular reactors (SMRs), it is imperative that these technologies evolve into an accepted, encompassing, validated, and integral part of the plant in order to reduce costs and to demonstrate safe operation. Further, while it is presumed that safety margins are substantial for proposed SMR designs, the depiction and demonstration of these margins needs to be better understood in order to optimize the licensing process.

  11. Assessing the Impact of Socioeconomic Variables on Small Area Variations in Suicide Outcomes in England

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Congdon

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Ecological studies of suicide and self-harm have established the importance of area variables (e.g., deprivation, social fragmentation in explaining variations in suicide risk. However, there are likely to be unobserved influences on risk, typically spatially clustered, which can be modeled as random effects. Regression impacts may be biased if no account is taken of spatially structured influences on risk. Furthermore a default assumption of linear effects of area variables may also misstate or understate their impact. This paper considers variations in suicide outcomes for small areas across England, and investigates the impact on them of area socio-economic variables, while also investigating potential nonlinearity in their impact and allowing for spatially clustered unobserved factors. The outcomes are self-harm hospitalisations and suicide mortality over 6,781 Middle Level Super Output Areas.

  12. Assessment of welfare and egg production of laying hens moravia ssl in small-scale breeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mária Angelovičová

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to investigate the welfare of laying hens Moravia SSL housed in small-scale hen house with free range, behavior, egg production and selected physical indicators of eggs and chemical indicators of egg mass. The laying hens were kept in a hen house on deep litter. Breeding facility of hen house was within the meaning of recommendation for applying the principles of welfare, i.e. the space and breeding facility within the meaning of enriched breeding environment. Stocking density of the laying hens corresponded with recommendations for unrestricted movement and implementing natural activities. The hen house was equipped with the perch, nest, feeder and drinker. The commercial feed mixture was used for feeding, which is intended for laying hens. The kitchen remains were added to feed mixture, as are wet bread, the non-edible remains of foodstuffs. A feed mixture was served to laying hens 825 g per day. The laying hens had free access to drinking water, grazing, ground pecking, ground scratching and dust-bathing and in the free range. We focused investigation of on the egg laying intensity, selected parameters of physical egg quality and chemical egg contents. Time to relax of laying hens was adjusted according to the summer and winter breeding seasons. The main activities of free-range hens are grazing, ground pecking, ground scratching and dust-bathing. The main activities of free-range hens are grazing, ground pecking, ground scratching and dust-bathing. These activities were investigated in laying hens too in dependent of year period, more in the summer. Housing of the hens was equipped with the perch. The laying hens regularly used a perch. A beginning of occupation the perch was at the time of time growing dark, at the end of the light day. A nesting material was selected regular, monthly exchange. It was meadow hay of excellent quality for the collection of high quality and safe eggs from nests in the hen house

  13. Assessment of guide vane self-excitation stability at small openings in pump flow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nennemann, B; Sallaberger, M; Henggeler, U; Gentner, C; Parkinson, E

    2012-01-01

    A parameter study of self-excited pump turbine guide vane instability at small openings using a combined CFD-1DOF approach shows that clear tendencies are difficult to obtain. Two types of boundary conditions can be used in the simulations: prescribed mass flow and prescribed pressure. Simulations with both show results that - for one specific operating condition - are consistent with a self-excited guide vane incident at a prototype pump turbine. However, over a larger range of reduced velocities, the tendencies obtained with the two boundary condition types are not always consistent. Pressure boundary conditions may be the more realistic option. Results then show that with increasing reduced velocity, guide vanes will eventually reach static instability or divergence. This may not be problematic. In contrast, passing through a zone of dynamic instability during operation should and can be avoided.

  14. Simulation and operational assessment for a small autonomous wind-hydrogen energy system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bechrakis, D.A.; McKeogh, E.J.; Gallagher, P.D.

    2006-01-01

    A case study with respect to the current trends in hydrogen technology and market developments is presented in this paper. The main goal is to design an autonomous, environmentally sustainable and zero emission power system using commercially available equipment. In order to achieve the optimum cost effective solution, its limitations are defined by simulating its performance over a year. A scenario is chosen which is representative of an area with significant wind potential, where the grid connection is relatively long or the construction of the line itself would irretrievably harm the environment. This study simulated the operation of a small, remote hotel primarily powered by a wind turbine and supported by a hydrogen energy system incorporating a medium pressure electrolyzer, a compressed hydrogen gas storage unit and a PEM fuel cell stack. The simulated load is biased towards a particular season as in the case of a small hotel for summer holidays. This arrangement takes advantage of the long period of low load during the 'off peak' season, which enables the production of reserves of hydrogen to supplement the wind generated electricity during the 'peak' season, avoiding the use of a large electrolyzer system, which is the most expensive and vulnerable component. The simulation results showed that for this particular system, a wind turbine rated at four times the peak load power associated with the optimum combination of an electrolyzer and a hydrogen storage unit would meet the electrical energy needs of a 10 bedroom, non-luxury hotel under the supervision of a load management controller

  15. Assessment of image quality in x-ray radiography imaging using a small plasma focus device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kanani, A.; Shirani, B.; Jabbari, I.; Mokhtari, J.

    2014-01-01

    This paper offers a comprehensive investigation of image quality parameters for a small plasma focus as a pulsed hard x-ray source for radiography applications. A set of images were captured from some metal objects and electronic circuits using a low energy plasma focus at different voltages of capacitor bank and different pressures of argon gas. The x-ray source focal spot of this device was obtained to be about 0.6 mm using the penumbra imaging method. The image quality was studied by several parameters such as image contrast, line spread function (LSF) and modulation transfer function (MTF). Results showed that the contrast changes by variations in gas pressure. The best contrast was obtained at a pressure of 0.5 mbar and 3.75 kJ stored energy. The results of x-ray dose from the device showed that about 0.6 mGy is sufficient to obtain acceptable images on the film. The measurements of LSF and MTF parameters were carried out by means of a thin stainless steel wire 0.8 mm in diameter and the cut-off frequency was obtained to be about 1.5 cycles/mm. - Highlights: • We investigated a small plasma focus as pulsed x-ray source for radiography applications. • The image quality was studied by several parameters such as image contrast, LSF and MTF. • The x-ray source focal spot was obtained to be ∼0.6 mm using the penumbra imaging method. • The x-ray dose measurement showed that about 0.6 mGy is sufficient to obtain acceptable images on the film. • The profiles of LSF and MTF showed that the cut-off frequency is about 1.5 cycles/mm

  16. An assessment of health practises among small-scale farmers in Kwara State, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jones A. Akangbe

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective. The study examines the personal health practices of small scale farmers in Kwara State, Nigeria. Materials and Methods. Primary data were obtained using a well-structured questionnaire which was distributed to 120 small scale farmers. Descriptive statistical techniques such as frequency count, percentages were used, as well as Pearson Product Moment correlation and analysis for empirical analysis. Results. Results revealed that more than half (55% smoke cigarettes, about 48% drink alcohol to a very great extent, while the majority (64.5% indicated they have not been screened to know their HIV status. On a positive note, the results further show that the majority 70%, 53.3%, 80% and 73.3% indicated that they eat a balance diet, engage in physical activity, practice safer sex, and regularly visit a health care centre, respectively. It also revealed that 77% have not attended any training on healthy living. The results of PPMC showed that the health knowledge of respondents had significant (p<0.01 influence on practices like cigarette smoking, eating a balance diet and regular visits to a health care centre. Conclusion. It was concluded that health threatening practices such as cigarette smoking and drinking alcohol among the majority of the respondents, coupled with their lack of health knowledge from health professionals, contributes to the poor health status of respondents which eventually negatively influences the labour efficiency of farmers. It is recommended that farmers should endeavour to make use of health literacy programmes introduced to them at local government level, and that the government should provide more of these health literacy programmes.

  17. Rapid Assessments of Amazon Forest Structure and Biomass Using Small Unmanned Aerial Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Max Messinger

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs can provide new ways to measure forests and supplement expensive or labor-intensive inventory methods. Forest carbon, a key uncertainty in the global carbon cycle and also important for carbon conservation programs, is typically monitored using manned aircraft or extensive forest plot networks to estimate aboveground carbon density (ACD. Manned aircraft are only cost-effective when applied to large areas (>100,000 ha, while plot networks are most effective for total C stock estimation across large areas, not for quantifying spatially-explicit variation. We sought to develop an effective method for frequent and accurate ACD estimation at intermediate scales (100–100,000 ha that would be sensitive to small-scale disturbance. Using small UAVs, we collected imagery of 516 ha of lowland forest in the Peruvian Amazon. We then used a structure-from-motion (SFM approach to create a 3D model of forest canopy. Comparing SFM- and airborne Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR-derived estimates of canopy height and ACD, we found that SFM estimates of top-of-canopy height (TCH and ACD were highly correlated with previous LiDAR estimates (r = 0.86–0.93 and r = 0.73–0.94 for TCH and ACD, respectively, at 0.1–4 ha grain sizes, with r = 0.92 for ACD determination at the 1 ha scale, despite SFM and LiDAR measurements being separated by two years in a dynamic forest. SFM and LiDAR estimates of mean TCH and mean ACD were highly similar, differing by only 0.4% and 0.04%, respectively, within mature forest. The technique allows inexpensive, near-real-time monitoring of ACD for ecological studies, payment for ecosystem services (PES ventures, such as reducing emissions from deforestation and forest degradation (REDD+, forestry enterprises, and governance.

  18. Small molecule screening platform for assessment of cardiovascular toxicity on adult zebrafish heart

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kitambi Satish

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cardiovascular toxicity is a major limiting factor in drug development and requires multiple cost-effective models to perform toxicological evaluation. Zebrafish is an excellent model for many developmental, toxicological and regenerative studies. Using approaches like morpholino knockdown and electrocardiogram, researchers have demonstrated physiological and functional similarities between zebrafish heart and human heart. The close resemblance of the genetic cascade governing heart development in zebrafish to that of humans has propelled the zebrafish system as a cost-effective model to conduct various genetic and pharmacological screens on developing embryos and larvae. The current report describes a methodology for rapid isolation of adult zebrafish heart, maintenance ex vivo, and a setup to perform quick small molecule throughput screening, including an in-house implemented analysis script. Results Adult zebrafish were anesthetized and after rapid decapitation the hearts were isolated. The short time required for isolation of hearts allows dissection of multiple fishes, thereby obtaining a large sample size. The simple protocol for ex vivo culture allowed maintaining the beating heart for several days. The in-house developed script and spectral analyses allowed the readouts to be presented either in time domain or in frequency domain. Taken together, the current report offers an efficient platform for performing cardiac drug testing and pharmacological screens. Conclusion The new methodology presents a fast, cost-effective, sensitive and reliable method for performing small molecule screening. The variety of readouts that can be obtained along with the in-house developed analyses script offers a powerful setup for performing cardiac toxicity evaluation by researchers from both academics and industry.

  19. Small Changes: Using Assessment to Direct Instructional Practices in Large-Enrollment Biochemistry Courses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Xiaoying; Lewis, Jennifer E.; Loertscher, Jennifer; Minderhout, Vicky; Tienson, Heather L.

    2017-01-01

    Multiple-choice assessments provide a straightforward way for instructors of large classes to collect data related to student understanding of key concepts at the beginning and end of a course. By tracking student performance over time, instructors receive formative feedback about their teaching and can assess the impact of instructional changes. The evidence of instructional effectiveness can in turn inform future instruction, and vice versa. In this study, we analyzed student responses on an optimized pretest and posttest administered during four different quarters in a large-enrollment biochemistry course. Student performance and the effect of instructional interventions related to three fundamental concepts—hydrogen bonding, bond energy, and pKa—were analyzed. After instructional interventions, a larger proportion of students demonstrated knowledge of these concepts compared with data collected before instructional interventions. Student responses trended from inconsistent to consistent and from incorrect to correct. The instructional effect was particularly remarkable for the later three quarters related to hydrogen bonding and bond energy. This study supports the use of multiple-choice instruments to assess the effectiveness of instructional interventions, especially in large classes, by providing instructors with quick and reliable feedback on student knowledge of each specific fundamental concept. PMID:28188280

  20. [Informatics support for risk assessment and identification of preventive measures in small and micro-enterprises: occupational hazard datasheets].

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Merich, D; Forte, Giulia

    2011-01-01

    Risk assessment is the fundamental process of an enterprise's prevention system and is the principal mandatory provision contained in the Health and Safety Law (Legislative Decree 81/2008) amended by Legislative Decree 106/2009. In order to properly comply with this obligation also in small-sized enterprises, the appropriate regulatory bodies should provide the enterprises with standardized tools and methods for identifying, assessing and managing risks. To assist in particular small and micro-enterprises (SMEs) with risk assessment, by providing a flexible tool that can also be standardized in the form of a datasheet, that can be updated with more detailed information on the various work contexts in Italy. Official efforts to provide Italian SMEs with information may initially make use of the findings of research conducted by ISPESL over the past 20 years, thanks in part to cooperation with other institutions (Regions, INAIL-National Insurance Institute for Occupational Accidents and Diseases), which have led to the creation of an information system on prevention consisting of numerous databases, both statistical and documental ("National System of Surveillance on fatal and serious accidents", "National System of Surveillance on work-related diseases", "Sector hazard profiles" database, "Solutions and Best Practices" database, "Technical Guidelines" database, "Training packages for prevention professionals in enterprises" database). With regard to evaluation criteria applicable within the enterprise, the possibility of combining traditional and uniform areas of assessment (by sector or by risk factor) with assessments by job/occupation has become possible thanks to the cooperation agreement made in 2009 by ISPESL, the ILO (International Labour Organisation) of Geneva and IIOSH (Israel Institute for Occupational Health and Hygiene) regarding the creation of an international Database (HDODB) based on risk datasheets per occupation. The project sets out to assist in

  1. Ambiguity assessment of small-angle scattering curves from monodisperse systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petoukhov, Maxim V; Svergun, Dmitri I

    2015-05-01

    A novel approach is presented for an a priori assessment of the ambiguity associated with spherically averaged single-particle scattering. The approach is of broad interest to the structural biology community, allowing the rapid and model-independent assessment of the inherent non-uniqueness of three-dimensional shape reconstruction from scattering experiments on solutions of biological macromolecules. One-dimensional scattering curves recorded from monodisperse systems are nowadays routinely utilized to generate low-resolution particle shapes, but the potential ambiguity of such reconstructions remains a major issue. At present, the (non)uniqueness can only be assessed by a posteriori comparison and averaging of repetitive Monte Carlo-based shape-determination runs. The new a priori ambiguity measure is based on the number of distinct shape categories compatible with a given data set. For this purpose, a comprehensive library of over 14,000 shape topologies has been generated containing up to seven beads closely packed on a hexagonal grid. The computed scattering curves rescaled to keep only the shape topology rather than the overall size information provide a `scattering map' of this set of shapes. For a given scattering data set, one rapidly obtains the number of neighbours in the map and the associated shape topologies such that in addition to providing a quantitative ambiguity measure the algorithm may also serve as an alternative shape-analysis tool. The approach has been validated in model calculations on geometrical bodies and its usefulness is further demonstrated on a number of experimental X-ray scattering data sets from proteins in solution. A quantitative ambiguity score (a-score) is introduced to provide immediate and convenient guidance to the user on the uniqueness of the ab initio shape reconstruction from the given data set.

  2. Small Changes: Using Assessment to Direct Instructional Practices in Large-Enrollment Biochemistry Courses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Xiaoying; Lewis, Jennifer E; Loertscher, Jennifer; Minderhout, Vicky; Tienson, Heather L

    2017-01-01

    Multiple-choice assessments provide a straightforward way for instructors of large classes to collect data related to student understanding of key concepts at the beginning and end of a course. By tracking student performance over time, instructors receive formative feedback about their teaching and can assess the impact of instructional changes. The evidence of instructional effectiveness can in turn inform future instruction, and vice versa. In this study, we analyzed student responses on an optimized pretest and posttest administered during four different quarters in a large-enrollment biochemistry course. Student performance and the effect of instructional interventions related to three fundamental concepts-hydrogen bonding, bond energy, and pK a -were analyzed. After instructional interventions, a larger proportion of students demonstrated knowledge of these concepts compared with data collected before instructional interventions. Student responses trended from inconsistent to consistent and from incorrect to correct. The instructional effect was particularly remarkable for the later three quarters related to hydrogen bonding and bond energy. This study supports the use of multiple-choice instruments to assess the effectiveness of instructional interventions, especially in large classes, by providing instructors with quick and reliable feedback on student knowledge of each specific fundamental concept. © 2017 X. Xu et al. CBE—Life Sciences Education © 2017 The American Society for Cell Biology. This article is distributed by The American Society for Cell Biology under license from the author(s). It is available to the public under an Attribution–Noncommercial–Share Alike 3.0 Unported Creative Commons License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0).

  3. Efficient, equitable and sustainable energy policy in a small open economy: Concepts and assessments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, Youngho; Fang, Zheng

    2017-01-01

    This study aims to develop three broadly defined concepts of designing and evaluating energy policy of a small open economy, namely, efficiency, equity, and sustainability which are applied to Singapore. By analysing the historical energy and economic data and examining energy policies and programs implemented, this study finds that (1) energy intensity improves over time and three strategies employed to improve energy efficiency - tariffs, deregulation and setting energy standards - are found to have some positive effects. (2) A utility rebate programme is implemented and revised continuously to achieve equity in energy consumption across Singapore households. (3) By the weak concept of sustainability, Singapore is considered marginally sustainable. Institutional, technological and market-based approaches are being implemented to increase energy efficiency, improve energy equity and secure sustainability. - Highlights: • Three concepts of designing and evaluating energy policy are developed. • Efficiency, equity and sustainability are the three concepts. • Three strategies are identified in improving energy efficiency. • A utility rebate programme is to achieve equity in energy consumption across households. • Institutional and market-based approaches are to secure sustainable energy supply.

  4. Comparison of Computational Approaches for Rapid Aerodynamic Assessment of Small UAVs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shafer, Theresa C.; Lynch, C. Eric; Viken, Sally A.; Favaregh, Noah; Zeune, Cale; Williams, Nathan; Dansie, Jonathan

    2014-01-01

    Computational Fluid Dynamic (CFD) methods were used to determine the basic aerodynamic, performance, and stability and control characteristics of the unmanned air vehicle (UAV), Kahu. Accurate and timely prediction of the aerodynamic characteristics of small UAVs is an essential part of military system acquisition and air-worthiness evaluations. The forces and moments of the UAV were predicted using a variety of analytical methods for a range of configurations and conditions. The methods included Navier Stokes (N-S) flow solvers (USM3D, Kestrel and Cobalt) that take days to set up and hours to converge on a single solution; potential flow methods (PMARC, LSAERO, and XFLR5) that take hours to set up and minutes to compute; empirical methods (Datcom) that involve table lookups and produce a solution quickly; and handbook calculations. A preliminary aerodynamic database can be developed very efficiently by using a combination of computational tools. The database can be generated with low-order and empirical methods in linear regions, then replacing or adjusting the data as predictions from higher order methods are obtained. A comparison of results from all the data sources as well as experimental data obtained from a wind-tunnel test will be shown and the methods will be evaluated on their utility during each portion of the flight envelope.

  5. Skeletal injuries in small mammals: a multispecies assessment of prevalence and location

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephens, Ryan B.; Burke, Christopher B.; Woodman, Neal; Poland, Lily B.; Rowe, Rebecca J.

    2018-01-01

    Wild mammals are known to survive injuries that result in skeletal abnormalities. Quantifying and comparing skeletal injuries among species can provide insight into the factors that cause skeletal injuries and enable survival following an injury. We documented the prevalence and location of structural bone abnormalities in a community of 7 small mammal species inhabiting the White Mountains of New Hampshire. These species differ in locomotion type and levels of intraspecific aggression. Overall, the majority of injuries were to the ribs or caudal vertebrae. Incidence of skeletal injuries was highest in older animals, indicating that injuries accumulate over a lifetime. Compared to species with ambulatory locomotion, those with more specialized (semi-fossorial, saltatorial, and scansorial) locomotion exhibited fewer skeletal abnormalities in the arms and legs, which we hypothesize is a result of a lesser ability to survive limb injuries. Patterns of skeletal injuries in shrews (Soricidae) were consistent with intraspecific aggression, particularly in males, whereas skeletal injuries in rodents (Rodentia) were more likely accidental or resulting from interactions with predators. Our results demonstrate that both the incidence and pattern of skeletal injuries vary by species and suggest that the ability of an individual to survive a specific skeletal injury depends on its severity and location as well as the locomotor mode of the species involved.

  6. Assessing subunit dependency of the Plasmodium proteasome using small molecule inhibitors and active site probes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hao; van der Linden, Wouter A; Verdoes, Martijn; Florea, Bogdan I; McAllister, Fiona E; Govindaswamy, Kavitha; Elias, Joshua E; Bhanot, Purnima; Overkleeft, Herman S; Bogyo, Matthew

    2014-08-15

    The ubiquitin-proteasome system (UPS) is a potential pathway for therapeutic intervention for pathogens such as Plasmodium, the causative agent of malaria. However, due to the essential nature of this proteolytic pathway, proteasome inhibitors must avoid inhibition of the host enzyme complex to prevent toxic side effects. The Plasmodium proteasome is poorly characterized, making rational design of inhibitors that induce selective parasite killing difficult. In this study, we developed a chemical probe that labels all catalytic sites of the Plasmodium proteasome. Using this probe, we identified several subunit selective small molecule inhibitors of the parasite enzyme complex. Treatment with an inhibitor that is specific for the β5 subunit during blood stage schizogony led to a dramatic decrease in parasite replication while short-term inhibition of the β2 subunit did not affect viability. Interestingly, coinhibition of both the β2 and β5 catalytic subunits resulted in enhanced parasite killing at all stages of the blood stage life cycle and reduced parasite levels in vivo to barely detectable levels. Parasite killing was achieved with overall low host toxicity, something that has not been possible with existing proteasome inhibitors. Our results highlight differences in the subunit dependency of the parasite and human proteasome, thus providing a strategy for development of potent antimalarial drugs with overall low host toxicity.

  7. Numerical Modelling Approaches for Assessing Improvements to the Flow Circulation in a Small Lake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheng He

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Kamaniskeg Lake is a long, narrow, and deep small lake located in the northern part of Ontario, Canada. The goals of this paper were to examine various options to improve the water quality in the northern part of the lake by altering the local hydraulic flow conditions. Towards this end, a preliminary screening suggested that the flow circulation could be increased around a central island (Mask Island in the northern part of the lake by opening up an existing causeway connecting the mainland and central island. Three-dimensional (3D hydraulic and transport models were adopted in this paper to investigate the hydraulic conditions under various wind forces and causeway structures. The modelling results show that opening the causeway in a few places is unlikely to generate a large flow circulation around the central island. Full circulation only appears to be possible if the causeway is fully removed and a strong wind blows in a favourable direction. The possible reasons for existing water quality variations at the intake of a local WTP (water treatment plant are also explored in the paper.

  8. Assess the Intra-molecular Cavity in PAMAM Dendrimers by Small Angle Neutron Scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Wei-Ren

    2008-01-01

    In this report, we present a contrast variation small angle neutron scattering (SANS) study of a series of neutral PAMAM dendrimer in aqueous solutions using three different generations (G4-6) at a concentration of about 10 mg/ml. Varying the solvent hydrogen-deuterium ratio, the scattering contributions from the water molecules and the constituent components of PAMAM dendrimer can be determined. Using an analytical model of the scattering cross section I(Q) incorporating the effect of water penetration, we have quantified the intra-molecular space of PAMAM dendrimer by evaluating the number of guest water molecules and we draw a direct comparison to computational predictions. As expected, the overall available internal cavity was seen to increase as a function of increasing dendrimer generation. However, the fraction of water accessible volume in the internal cavity of a dendrimer was found to remain invariant for the three generation PAMAM dendrimers studied in this report. We have also estimated the average water density inside a dendrimer, which is found to be higher than that of bulk water

  9. Assessment of image quality in x-ray radiography imaging using a small plasma focus device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanani, A.; Shirani, B.; Jabbari, I.; Mokhtari, J.

    2014-08-01

    This paper offers a comprehensive investigation of image quality parameters for a small plasma focus as a pulsed hard x-ray source for radiography applications. A set of images were captured from some metal objects and electronic circuits using a low energy plasma focus at different voltages of capacitor bank and different pressures of argon gas. The x-ray source focal spot of this device was obtained to be about 0.6 mm using the penumbra imaging method. The image quality was studied by several parameters such as image contrast, line spread function (LSF) and modulation transfer function (MTF). Results showed that the contrast changes by variations in gas pressure. The best contrast was obtained at a pressure of 0.5 mbar and 3.75 kJ stored energy. The results of x-ray dose from the device showed that about 0.6 mGy is sufficient to obtain acceptable images on the film. The measurements of LSF and MTF parameters were carried out by means of a thin stainless steel wire 0.8 mm in diameter and the cut-off frequency was obtained to be about 1.5 cycles/mm.

  10. Assessment of Crohn's disease activity in the small bowel with MR and conventional enteroclysis: preliminary results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gourtsoyiannis, Nicholas; Papanikolaou, Nickolas; Grammatikakis, John; Papamastorakis, George; Prassopoulos, Panos; Roussomoustakaki, Maria

    2004-01-01

    Every single imaging finding that can be disclosed on conventional and MR enteroclysis was correlated with the Crohn's disease activity index (CDAI). Nineteen consecutive patients with Crohn's disease underwent colon endoscopy and both conventional and MR enteroclysis examinations. Seventeen MR imaging findings and seven conventional enteroclysis findings were ranked on a four-point grading scale and correlated with CDAI, with a value of 150 considered as the threshold for disease activity. Six patients had active disease in the colon according to colon endoscopy. In the remaining 13 patients, the presence of deep ulcers (P=0.002), small bowel wall thickening (P=0.022) and gadolinium enhancement of mesenteric lymph nodes (P=0.014) identified on MR enteroclysis images were strongly correlated to disease activity. The product of deep ulcers and enhancement of lymph node ranks identified on MR enteroclysis were the optimum combination for discriminating active from non-active disease (F-test: 55.95, P<0.001). Additionally, the ranking of deep ulcers on conventional enteroclysis provided statistically significant differences between active and non-active patients (F-test: 14.12, P=0.004). Abnormalities strongly suggestive of active Crohn's disease can be disclosed on MR enteroclysis examinations and may provide pictorial information for local inflammatory activity. (orig.)

  11. Exploring experts' views and perspectives on the enhancement of Strategic Environmental Assessment in European small islands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Polido, Alexandra, E-mail: a.polido@campus.fct.unl.pt [CENSE, Center for Environmental and Sustainability Research, Departamento de Ciências e Engenharia do Ambiente, Faculdade de Ciências e Tecnologia, Universidade NOVA de Lisboa, Campus da Caparica, 2829-516 Caparica (Portugal); João, Elsa, E-mail: elsa.joao@strath.ac.uk [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of Strathclyde, Level 5, James Weir Building, 75 Montrose Street, Glasgow G1 1XJ, Scotland (United Kingdom); Ramos, Tomás B., E-mail: tabr@fct.unl.pt [CENSE, Center for Environmental and Sustainability Research, Departamento de Ciências e Engenharia do Ambiente, Faculdade de Ciências e Tecnologia, Universidade NOVA de Lisboa, Campus da Caparica, 2829-516 Caparica (Portugal)

    2016-04-15

    Small islands have the attention of the international community because they are territories with unique features, and a pressing need for the enhancement of sustainability. Strategic Environmental Assessment (SEA) has characteristics that may promote the development and improvement of sustainability in these territories: (i) changing the mind-set, and the decision-making and institutional paradigm, (ii) facilitating cooperation and coordination between different stakeholders, and (iii) providing a framework for good governance and community empowerment. The scientific literature suggests that there may be a need for context-specific SEA in these territories. However, SEA studies often do not incorporate local contextual information, including intuitive knowledge and sense of place. Therefore, there is a possible gap between what is found in the literature and what local communities think, including different stakeholders and experts. Hence, the main goal of this research was to gain an insight into the views and perspectives of small islands SEA experts about issues related to SEA in European small islands, including context-specific approaches, as well as the contribution of SEA for sustainability in these territories. To achieve the research aim, exploratory research using a questionnaire-based survey was designed, aimed at experts on SEA in European small islands. Findings showed regional cooperation networks may have a fundamental role when developing SEA-specific approaches in these territories. This is because SEA-specific approaches encourage a joint effort among islands within one region to improve SEA capacity-building, develop and share a baseline information system, and to share and exchange resources, overall. Also, guidelines are preferred among experts over more legal frameworks and regulations. Finally, the research showed that experts view SEA as a way to enhance sustainability in small islands. This study highlights the importance of integrating

  12. Economic assessments of small-scale drinking-water interventions in pursuit of MDG target 7C.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cameron, John; Jagals, Paul; Hunter, Paul R; Pedley, Steve; Pond, Katherine

    2011-12-01

    This paper uses an applied rural case study of a safer water intervention in South Africa to illustrate how three levels of economic assessment can be used to understand the impact of the intervention on people's well-being. It is set in the context of Millennium Development Goal 7 which sets a target (7C) for safe drinking-water provision and the challenges of reaching people in remote rural areas with relatively small-scale schemes. The assessment moves from cost efficiency to cost effectiveness to a full social cost-benefit analysis (SCBA) with an associated sensitivity test. In addition to demonstrating techniques of analysis, the paper brings out many of the challenges in understanding how safer drinking-water impacts on people's livelihoods. The SCBA shows the case study intervention is justified economically, though the sensitivity test suggests 'downside' vulnerability. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Assessing Disease and Mortality among Small Cetaceans Stranded at a World Heritage Site in Southern Brazil.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabela G Domiciano

    Full Text Available Cetaceans are considered environmental sentinels and their health often reflects either anthropogenic or natural spatio-temporal disturbances. This study investigated the pathological findings and mortality of small cetaceans with the aim of detecting hazards and monitoring health trends in a high-biodiversity area. Between 2007 and 2012, 218 stranded cetaceans were recorded on the Paraná coast, southern Brazil. Fifty-seven (26.1% of these animals, including 50 Sotalia guianensis, 2 Pontoporia blainvillei, 2 Stenella frontalis, 1 Stenella longirostris, 1 Tursiops truncatus and 1 Globicephala melas were necropsied and samples were collected for histopathology. Causes of death were determined in 46 of the 57 (80.7% animals and most (30 or 65.2% were ascribed to anthropogenic activities, including fisheries bycatch (28/30 and trauma (2/30. The remaining 16 fatalities were considered natural, and attributed to pneumonia (10/16, emaciation (3/16, septicemia (1/16, neonatal pathology (1/16 and choking via food obstruction (1/16. Irrespective of the cause, bronchointerstitial pneumonia, associated with parasitism, lymphadenitis and membranous glomerulonephritis were common findings among all fatalities. These results suggest, that while anthropogenic activities are a leading cause of cetacean strandings in Paraná, underlying pre-existing diseases may contribute towards deaths. Although the studied area is considered a biosphere reserve by UNESCO, complex anthropogenic and natural interactions might be occurring, increasing cetacean susceptibility to hazards. This study may help facilitate developing an effective conservation plan for coastal cetaceans focusing on reducing fisheries interactions, habitat degradation and pollution as mechanisms for ultimately increasing species resilience.

  14. Novel penalised likelihood reconstruction of PET in the assessment of histologically verified small pulmonary nodules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Teoh, Eugene J.; Gleeson, Fergus V.; McGowan, Daniel R.; Bradley, Kevin M.; Belcher, Elizabeth; Black, Edward

    2016-01-01

    Investigate the effect of a novel Bayesian penalised likelihood (BPL) reconstruction algorithm on analysis of pulmonary nodules examined with 18F-FDG PET/CT, and to determine its effect on small, sub-10-mm nodules. 18F-FDG PET/CTs performed for nodule evaluation in 104 patients (121 nodules) were retrospectively reconstructed using the new algorithm, and compared to time-of-flight ordered subset expectation maximisation (OSEM) reconstruction. Nodule and background parameters were analysed semi-quantitatively and visually. BPL compared to OSEM resulted in statistically significant increases in nodule SUV max (mean 5.3 to 8.1, p < 0.00001), signal-to-background (mean 3.6 to 5.3, p < 0.00001) and signal-to-noise (mean 24 to 41, p < 0.00001). Mean percentage increase in SUV max (%ΔSUV max ) was significantly higher in nodules ≤10 mm (n = 31, mean 73 %) compared to >10 mm (n = 90, mean 42 %) (p = 0.025). Increase in signal-to-noise was higher in nodules ≤10 mm (224 %, mean 12 to 27) compared to >10 mm (165 %, mean 28 to 46). When applying optimum SUV max thresholds for detecting malignancy, the sensitivity and accuracy increased using BPL, with the greatest improvements in nodules ≤10 mm. BPL results in a significant increase in signal-to-background and signal-to-noise compared to OSEM. When semi-quantitative analyses to diagnose malignancy are applied, higher SUV max thresholds may be warranted owing to the SUV max increase compared to OSEM. (orig.)

  15. Novel penalised likelihood reconstruction of PET in the assessment of histologically verified small pulmonary nodules

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Teoh, Eugene J.; Gleeson, Fergus V. [Oxford University Hospitals NHS Trust, Department of Radiology, Churchill Hospital, Oxford (United Kingdom); University of Oxford, Department of Oncology, Oxford (United Kingdom); McGowan, Daniel R. [University of Oxford, Department of Oncology, Oxford (United Kingdom); Oxford University Hospitals NHS Trust, Radiation Physics and Protection, Churchill Hospital, Oxford (United Kingdom); Bradley, Kevin M. [Oxford University Hospitals NHS Trust, Department of Radiology, Churchill Hospital, Oxford (United Kingdom); Belcher, Elizabeth; Black, Edward [Oxford University Hospitals NHS Trust, Department of Thoracic Surgery, John Radcliffe Hospital, Oxford (United Kingdom)

    2016-02-15

    Investigate the effect of a novel Bayesian penalised likelihood (BPL) reconstruction algorithm on analysis of pulmonary nodules examined with 18F-FDG PET/CT, and to determine its effect on small, sub-10-mm nodules. 18F-FDG PET/CTs performed for nodule evaluation in 104 patients (121 nodules) were retrospectively reconstructed using the new algorithm, and compared to time-of-flight ordered subset expectation maximisation (OSEM) reconstruction. Nodule and background parameters were analysed semi-quantitatively and visually. BPL compared to OSEM resulted in statistically significant increases in nodule SUV{sub max} (mean 5.3 to 8.1, p < 0.00001), signal-to-background (mean 3.6 to 5.3, p < 0.00001) and signal-to-noise (mean 24 to 41, p < 0.00001). Mean percentage increase in SUV{sub max} (%ΔSUV{sub max}) was significantly higher in nodules ≤10 mm (n = 31, mean 73 %) compared to >10 mm (n = 90, mean 42 %) (p = 0.025). Increase in signal-to-noise was higher in nodules ≤10 mm (224 %, mean 12 to 27) compared to >10 mm (165 %, mean 28 to 46). When applying optimum SUV{sub max} thresholds for detecting malignancy, the sensitivity and accuracy increased using BPL, with the greatest improvements in nodules ≤10 mm. BPL results in a significant increase in signal-to-background and signal-to-noise compared to OSEM. When semi-quantitative analyses to diagnose malignancy are applied, higher SUV{sub max} thresholds may be warranted owing to the SUV{sub max} increase compared to OSEM. (orig.)

  16. A profitability assessment of small-scale photovoltaic systems in an electricity market without subsidies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cucchiella, Federica; D’Adamo, Idiano; Gastaldi, Massimo

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Net Present Value varies from 437 to 624 € per kW installed. • Discounted Payback Time ranges from 4 years to 6 years. • Reduction of emissions of 21 tCO 2 eq for each kW installed during the 20 years. • Break-even point of increase of self-consumption varies from 6% to 13%. • The opportunity to keep a 50% of fiscal deduction for 5 years. - Abstract: The installation of photovoltaic power plants in 2015 compared to 2014 registered a growth of 25.6%, reaching a cumulative power equal to 229 GW. In developed solar markets, as many European countries, the sector is pushed by the alignment between the electric power demanded and the one offered. Consequently, self-consumption makes consumers active players of the energy transition. Italy is evaluated as a case study in this paper, in fact is the first country in the world where solar energy contributes largely to the national energetic demand. This paper aims to evaluate photovoltaic systems in residential sector without subsidies. Economic and environmental results are proposed and the indicators used are Net Present Value, Discounted Payback Time and Reduction in the Emissions of Carbon Dioxide. Three sizes (3 kW, 6 kW and 20 kW) are evaluated. In addition, a sensitivity analysis of critical variables (investment cost, annual electricity purchase price, annual electricity sales price, opportunity cost, tax deduction unitary, period of fiscal deduction, average annual insolation and percentage of energy self-consumption) demonstrates the robustness of the economic results. Also for environmental evaluation, alternative scenarios are proposed varying the value of emissions released by source energy analysed (photovoltaic, coal, oil and gas). Economic and environmental results suggest that small-scale photovoltaic systems can support the transition towards a sustainable energy mix.

  17. Water quality assessment of a small peri-urban river using low and high frequency monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivanovsky, A; Criquet, J; Dumoulin, D; Alary, C; Prygiel, J; Duponchel, L; Billon, G

    2016-05-18

    The biogeochemical behaviors of small rivers that pass through suburban areas are difficult to understand because of the multi-origin inputs that can modify their behavior. In this context, a monitoring strategy has been designed for the Marque River, located in Lille Metropolitan area of northern France, that includes both low-frequency monitoring over a one-year period (monthly sampling) and high frequency monitoring (measurements every 10 minutes) in spring and summer. Several environmental and chemical parameters are evaluated including rainfall events, river flow, temperature, dissolved oxygen, turbidity, conductivity, nutritive salts and dissolved organic matter. Our results from the Marque River show that (i) it is impacted by both urban and agricultural inputs, and as a consequence, the concentrations of phosphate and inorganic nitrogen have degraded the water quality; (ii) the classic photosynthesis/respiration processes are disrupted by the inputs of organic matter and nutritive salts; (iii) during dry periods, the urban sewage inputs (treated or not) are more important during the day, as indicated by higher river flows and maximal concentrations of ammonium; (iv) phosphate concentrations depend on oxygen contents in the river; (v) high nutrient concentrations result in eutrophication of the Marque River with lower pH and oxygen concentrations in summer. During rainfalls, additional inputs of ammonium, biodegradable organic matter as well as sediment resuspension result in anoxic events; and finally (vi) concentrations of nitrate are approximately constant over the year, except in winter when higher inputs can be recorded. Having better identified the processes responsible for the observed water quality, a more informed remediation effort can be put forward to move this suburban river to a good status of water quality.

  18. Safety assessment of a new single-use small-incision injector for intraocular lens implantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satanovsky, Alexandra; Ben-Eliahu, Shmuel; Apple, David J; Kleinmann, Guy

    2011-07-01

    To evaluate the safety of a new injector, the Raysert R-INJ-04/18, for implantation of the C-flex intraocular lens (IOL). Ophthalmology Department, Kaplan Medical Center, Rehovot, Israel. Experimental study. Sixty IOLs were subdivided into 2 equally sized groups. Group A IOLs were injected using the established R-INJ-04 injector, and those in Group B were injected with the new injector. The IOLs were injected into a Petri dish. Subsequently, all IOLs and injectors were evaluated macroscopically and microscopically and then photographed under light microscopy (LM). Two IOLs in each group were randomly chosen and sent for evaluation by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy dispersive analysis of x-ray. All remaining IOLs were sent for power and modulation transfer function (MTF) analysis. All Group B IOLs were successfully injected without evident signs of scratching, cracks, or deposits on LM and SEM examination. In Group A, findings were confined to a singular incidence of a small deposit detected on the periphery of the posterior optical surface of the IOL, with corresponding findings detected on the injector nozzle. No signs of scratching, cracks, or deposits were found in the rest of the IOLs or injectors. The power and MTF analyses were within the normal range for all IOLs. The new 1.8 mm external diameter soft-tipped injector for 2.4 to 2.2 mm incisions was shown to be safe for the implantation of the C-flex 21.0 diopter IOL. Copyright © 2011 ASCRS and ESCRS. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Life cycle assessment of small-scale high-input Jatropha biodiesel production in India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pandey, Krishan K.; Pragya, Namita; Sahoo, P.K.

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → NEB and NER of high input Jatropha biodiesel system was higher than those of low input. → These values further increase on including the energy content of the co-products, and in the further years. → Maximum energy use was during oil extraction, followed by oil processing and fertilizer use. → Allocation of resources at right time and with proper care increase the overall system productivity. -- Abstract: In the current scenario of depleting energy resources, increasing food insecurity and global warming, Jatropha has emerged as a promising energy crop for India. The aim of this study is to examine the life cycle energy balance for Jatropha biodiesel production and greenhouse gas emissions from post-energy use and end combustion of biodiesel, over a period of 5 years. It's a case specific study for a small scale, high input Jatropha biodiesel system. Most of the existing studies have considered low input Jatropha biodiesel system and have used NEB (Net energy balance i.e. difference of energy output and energy input) and NER (Net energy ratio i.e. ratio of energy output to energy input) as indicators for estimating the viability of the systems. Although, many of them have shown these indicators to be positive, yet the values are very less. The results of this study, when compared with two previous studies of Jatropha, show that the values for these indicators can be increased to a much greater extent, if we use a high input Jatropha biodiesel system. Further, when compared to a study done on palm oil and Coconut oil, it was found even if the NEB and NER of biodiesel from Jatropha were lesser in comparison to those of Palm oil and Coconut oil, yet, when energy content of the co-products were also considered, Jatropha had the highest value for both the indicators in comparison to the rest two.

  20. An Assessment of Critical Dimension Small Angle X-ray Scattering Metrology for Advanced Semiconductor Manufacturing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Settens, Charles M. [State Univ. of New York (SUNY), Albany, NY (United States)

    2015-01-01

    Simultaneous migration of planar transistors to FinFET architectures, the introduction of a plurality of materials to ensure suitable electrical characteristics, and the establishment of reliable multiple patterning lithography schemes to pattern sub-10 nm feature sizes imposes formidable challenges to current in-line dimensional metrologies. Because the shape of a FinFET channel cross-section immediately influences the electrical characteristics, the evaluation of 3D device structures requires measurement of parameters beyond traditional critical dimension (CD), including their sidewall angles, top corner rounding and footing, roughness, recesses and undercuts at single nanometer dimensions; thus, metrologies require sub-nm and approaching atomic level measurement uncertainty. Synchrotron critical dimension small angle X-ray scattering (CD-SAXS) has unique capabilities to non-destructively monitor the cross-section shape of surface structures with single nanometer uncertainty and can perform overlay metrology to sub-nm uncertainty. In this dissertation, we perform a systematic experimental investigation using CD-SAXS metrology on a hierarchy of semiconductor 3D device architectures including, high-aspect-ratio contact holes, H2 annealed Si fins, and a series of grating type samples at multiple points along a FinFET fabrication process increasing in structural intricacy and ending with fully fabricated FinFET. Comparative studies between CD-SAXS metrology and other relevant semiconductor dimensional metrologies, particularly CDSEM, CD-AFM and TEM are used to determine physical limits of CD-SAXS approach for advanced semiconductor samples. CD-SAXS experimental tradeoffs, advice for model-dependent analysis and thoughts on the compatibility with a semiconductor manufacturing environment are discussed.

  1. Assessment of Urban Heat Islands in Small- and Mid-Sized Cities in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata dos Santos Cardoso

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Urban heat islands (UHIs in large cities and different climatic regions have been thoroughly studied; however, their effects are becoming a common concern in smaller cities as well. We assessed UHIs in three tropical cities, analyzing how synoptic conditions, urban morphology, and land cover affect the heat island magnitude. Data gathering involved mobile surveys across Paranavaí (Paraná, Rancharia (São Paulo, and Presidente Prudente (São Paulo, Brazil, during summer evenings (December 2013–January 2014. Temperature data collected over five days in each city point to heat islands with magnitudes up to 6 °C, under calm synoptic conditions, whereas summer average UHI magnitudes peak at 3.7 °C. In addition, UHI magnitudes were higher in areas with closely spaced buildings and few or no trees and building materials that are not appropriate for the region’s climate and thermal comfort.

  2. Phasor Measurement Unit Test and Applications for Small Signal Stability Assessment and Improvement of Power System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ghiga, Radu

    to be less predictable. Therefore, the methods used for stability and security assessment will most likely use information from the wide-area measurements systems (WAMS). The work presented in this thesis deals on one hand with the development of test methods and validation of phasor measurement units (PMUs......) which are considered to be one of the key technologies in WAMS, and on the other hand with the possibility of using PMU measurements together with large wind power plants (WPPs) to help improve the damping of inter area oscillations. To validate the PMUs, a laboratory test setup is assembled....... The hardware components are capable of generating, with the required accuracy, the test signals injected in the PMUs. The signals are created according to the requirements defined in the current IEEE C37.118.1-2011 standard, to test the steady-state and dynamic compliance of the PMUs. The performance...

  3. Life cycle assessment of municipal solid waste management scenarios on the small island of Mauritius.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajcoomar, Avinash; Ramjeawon, Toolseeram

    2017-03-01

    The aim of this study was to use the life cycle assessment tool to assess, from an environmental point of view, the different possible municipal solid waste (MSW) management scenarios for the island of Mauritius. The scenarios include landfilling with energy recovery (S1), incineration with energy recovery (S2), composting, incineration and landfilling (S3) and finally composting, recycling, incineration and landfilling (S4). The MSW generated in 2010 was selected as the functional unit. Foreground data were collected through surveys and literature. Background data were obtained from ecoinvent data in SimaPro 8 libraries. The scenarios were compared both through the CML-IA baseline-midpoint method and the ReCiPe end-point method. From the midpoint method, the results obtained indicates that landfilling (S1) has the greatest impact in all the analyzed impact categories except ozone layer depletion and human toxicity, while incineration (S2) has the least impact on almost all the analyzed damage categories except in global warming potential and human toxicity. The collection and transportation of waste has a significant impact on the environment. From the end-point method, S4 reduces the damage impact categories on Human Health, Ecosystems and Resources due to the recycling process. S3 is not favorable due to the impact caused by the composting process. However, it is also very important to emphasize that for incineration, the best available technology with energy recovery shall be considered. It is recommended that S2 and S4 are considered for strategic planning.

  4. From Self-Assessment to Frustration, A Small Step Towards Autonomy in Robotic Navigation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrien eJauffret

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Autonomy and self-improvement capabilities are still challenging in the fields of robotics and machine learning. Allowing a robot to autonomously navigate in wide and unknown environments not only requires a repertoire of robust strategies to cope with miscellaneous situations, but also needs mechanisms of self-assessment for guiding learning and for monitoring strategies. Monitoring strategies requires feedbacks on the behavior’s quality, from a given fitness system in order to take correct decisions.In this work, we focus on how a second-order controller can be used to (1 manage behaviors according to the situation and (2 seek for human interactions to improve skills. Following an incremental and constructivist approach, we present a generic neural architecture, based on an online novelty detection algorithm that may be able to self-evaluate any sensory-motor strategies. This architecture learns contingencies between sensations and actions, giving the expected sensation from the previous perception. Prediction error, coming from surprising events, provides a measure of the quality of the underlying sensory-motor contingencies. We show how a simple second-order controller (emotional system based on the prediction progress allows the system to regulate its behavior to solve complex navigation tasks and also succeeds in asking for help if it detects dead-lock situations.We propose that this model could be a key structure toward self-assessment and autonomy. We made several experiments that can account for such properties for two different strategies (road following and place cells based navigation in different situations.

  5. Assessing the small-strain soil stiffness for offshore wind turbines based on in situ seismic measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Versteijlen, W G; Van Dalen, K N; Metrikine, A V; Hamre, L

    2014-01-01

    The fundamental natural frequency as measured on installed offshore wind turbines is significantly higher than its designed value, and it is expected that the explanation for this can be found in the currently adopted modeling of soil-structure interaction. The small-strain soil stiffness is an important design parameter, as it has a defining influence on the first natural frequency of these structures. In this contribution, in situ seismic measurements are used to derive the small-strain shear modulus of soil as input for 3D soil-structure interaction models to assess the initial soil stiffness at small strains for offshore wind turbine foundations. A linear elastic finite element model of a half-space of solids attached to a pile is used to derive an equivalent first mode shape of the foundation. The second model extends the first one by introducing contact elements between pile and soil, to take possible slip and gap-forming into account. The deflections derived with the 3D models are smaller than those derived with the p- y curve design code. This higher stiffness is in line with the higher measured natural frequencies. Finally a method is suggested to translate the response of 3D models into 1D engineering models of a beam laterally supported by uncoupled distributed springs

  6. Quality assessment in in vivo NMR spectroscopy: V. Multicentre evaluation of prototype test objects and protocols for performance assessment in small bore MRS equipment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Howe, F.A.; Canese, R; Podo, F

    1995-01-01

    This paper reports the results of multicentre studies aimed at designing, constructing, and evaluating prototype test objects for performance assessment in small-bore MRS systems, by utilizing the test protocols already proposed by the EEC COMAC-BME Concerted Action for clinical MRS equipment...... using ISIS as volume localization sequence in 31P MRS. The results suggested the interest of adopting some of these prototypes for improving the comparison of spectroscopy data obtained from different sites, for providing useful means of quality assurance in experimental MRS, and facilitating....... Three classes of test objects were considered: (1) a multicompartment test object for 31P MRS measurements performed with slice-selective sequences; (2) a two-compartment test object for volume-selection 1H MRS; and (3) two-compartment test objects for assessing the performance of experimental systems...

  7. Assessment of small bowel motility in patients with chronic intestinal pseudo-obstruction using cine-MRI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohkubo, Hidenori; Kessoku, Takaomi; Fuyuki, Akiko; Iida, Hiroshi; Inamori, Masahiko; Fujii, Tetsuro; Kawamura, Harunobu; Hata, Yasuo; Manabe, Noriaki; Chiba, Toshimi; Kwee, Thomas C; Haruma, Ken; Matsuhashi, Nobuyuki; Nakajima, Atsushi; Takahara, Taro

    2013-07-01

    Chronic intestinal pseudo-obstruction (CIPO) is a rare, serious motility disorder, with life-threatening complications over time. However, lack of an established, non-invasive diagnostic method has caused delays in the diagnosis of this intractable disease. Cine-magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is an emerging technique, with a potential to evaluate the motility of the entire bowel. We compared small bowel motility in healthy volunteers, patients with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), and those with CIPO, using cine-MRI, and evaluated the usefulness of cine-MRI as a novel diagnostic method for CIPO. Twelve healthy volunteers, IBS patients, and CIPO patients prospectively underwent cine-MRI at 1.5 T. Luminal diameter, contraction ratio, and contraction cycle were measured and compared between the groups. Cine-MRI provided sufficient dynamic images to assess the motility of the entire small bowel. Luminal diameter (mean±s.d.) in CIPO patients was significantly higher than that in healthy volunteers and IBS patients (43.4±14.1, 11.1±1.5, and 10.9±1.9 mm, respectively), and contraction ratio was significantly lower in CIPO patients than that in healthy volunteers and IBS patients (17.1±11.0%, 73.0±9.3%, and 74.6±9.4%, respectively). No significant differences were observed in the contraction cycle. This study is the first to assess the clinical utility of cine-MRI in CIPO patients. Cine-MRI clearly detected contractility impairments in CIPO patients. Cine-MRI is noninvasive, radiation-free, and can directly evaluate the entire small bowel peristalsis, and can detect the affected loops at a glance; therefore, it might be extremely useful for the diagnosis and follow-up of CIPO patients in clinical practice.

  8. Tumour heterogeneity in non-small cell lung carcinoma assessed by CT texture analysis: a potential marker of survival

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ganeshan, Balaji; Miles, Ken; Panayiotou, Elleny; Burnand, Kate; Dizdarevic, Sabina

    2012-01-01

    To establish the potential for tumour heterogeneity in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) as assessed by CT texture analysis (CTTA) to provide an independent marker of survival for patients with NSCLC. Tumour heterogeneity was assessed by CTTA of unenhanced images of primary pulmonary lesions from 54 patients undergoing 18 F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) PET-CT for staging of NSCLC. CTTA comprised image filtration to extract fine, medium and coarse features with quantification of the distribution of pixel values (uniformity) within the filtered images. Receiver operating characteristics identified thresholds for PET and CTTA parameters that were related to patient survival using Kaplan-Meier analysis. The median (range) survival was 29.5 (1-38) months. 24, 10, 14 and 6 patients had tumour stages I, II, III and IV respectively. PET stage and tumour heterogeneity assessed by CTTA were significant independent predictors of survival (PET stage: Odds ratio 3.85, 95% confidence limits 0.9-8.09, P = 0.002; CTTA: Odds ratio 56.4, 95% confidence limits 4.79-666, p = 0.001). SUV was not a significantly associated with survival. Assessment of tumour heterogeneity by CTTA of non-contrast enhanced images has the potential for to provide a novel, independent predictor of survival for patients with NSCLC. (orig.)

  9. Small Drones for Community-Based Forest Monitoring: An Assessment of Their Feasibility and Potential in Tropical Areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaime Paneque-Gálvez

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Data gathered through community-based forest monitoring (CBFM programs may be as accurate as those gathered by professional scientists, but acquired at a much lower cost and capable of providing more detailed data about the occurrence, extent and drivers of forest loss, degradation and regrowth at the community scale. In addition, CBFM enables greater survey repeatability. Therefore, CBFM should be a fundamental component of national forest monitoring systems and programs to measure, report and verify (MRV REDD+ activities. To contribute to the development of more effective approaches to CBFM, in this paper we assess: (1 the feasibility of using small, low-cost drones (i.e., remotely piloted aerial vehicles in CBFM programs; (2 their potential advantages and disadvantages for communities, partner organizations and forest data end-users; and (3 to what extent their utilization, coupled with ground surveys and local ecological knowledge, would improve tropical forest monitoring. To do so, we reviewed the existing literature regarding environmental applications of drones, including forest monitoring, and drew on our own firsthand experience flying small drones to map and monitor tropical forests and training people to operate them. We believe that the utilization of small drones can enhance CBFM and that this approach is feasible in many locations throughout the tropics if some degree of external assistance and funding is provided to communities. We suggest that the use of small drones can help tropical communities to better manage and conserve their forests whilst benefiting partner organizations, governments and forest data end-users, particularly those engaged in forestry, biodiversity conservation and climate change mitigation projects such as REDD+.

  10. Biomass assessment and small scale biomass fired electricity generation in the Green Triangle, Australia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodriguez, Luis C.; May, Barrie; Herr, Alexander; O'Connell, Deborah

    2011-01-01

    Coal fired electricity is a major factor in Australia's greenhouse gas emissions (GHG) emissions. The country has adopted a mandatory renewable energy target (MRET) to ensure that 20% of electricity comes from renewable sources by 2020. In order to support the MRET, a market scheme of tradable Renewable Energy Certificates (RECs) has been implemented since 2001. Generators using biomass from eligible sources are able to contribute to GHG emission reduction through the substitution of coal for electricity production and are eligible to create and trade RECs. This paper quantifies the potential biomass resources available for energy generation from forestry and agriculture in the Green Triangle, one of the most promising Australian Regions for biomass production. We analyse the cost of electricity generation using direct firing of biomass, and estimate the required REC prices to make it competitive with coal fired electricity generation. Major findings suggest that more than 2.6 million tonnes of biomass are produced every year within 200 km of the regional hub of Mount Gambier and biomass fired electricity is viable using feedstock with a plant gate cost of 46 Australian Dollars (AUD) per tonne under the current REC price of 34 AUD per MWh. These findings are then discussed in the context of regional energy security and existing targets and incentives for renewable energies. -- Highlights: → We assessed the biomass production in the Green Triangle. → 2.6 million tonnes of biomass per year are produced within 200 km from Mt Gambier. → Renewable Energy Certificates makes bioenergy competitive with coal electricity. → At a REC price of 34 AUD, biomass of up to 46 AUD/tonne might be used for bionergy

  11. Procedural Documentation and Accuracy Assessment of Bathymetric Maps and Area/Capacity Tables for Small Reservoirs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Gary L.; Richards, Joseph M.

    2006-01-01

    Because of the increasing use and importance of lakes for water supply to communities, a repeatable and reliable procedure to determine lake bathymetry and capacity is needed. A method to determine the accuracy of the procedure will help ensure proper collection and use of the data and resulting products. It is important to clearly define the intended products and desired accuracy before conducting the bathymetric survey to ensure proper data collection. A survey-grade echo sounder and differential global positioning system receivers were used to collect water-depth and position data in December 2003 at Sugar Creek Lake near Moberly, Missouri. Data were collected along planned transects, with an additional set of quality-assurance data collected for use in accuracy computations. All collected data were imported into a geographic information system database. A bathymetric surface model, contour map, and area/capacity tables were created from the geographic information system database. An accuracy assessment was completed on the collected data, bathymetric surface model, area/capacity table, and contour map products. Using established vertical accuracy standards, the accuracy of the collected data, bathymetric surface model, and contour map product was 0.67 foot, 0.91 foot, and 1.51 feet at the 95 percent confidence level. By comparing results from different transect intervals with the quality-assurance transect data, it was determined that a transect interval of 1 percent of the longitudinal length of Sugar Creek Lake produced nearly as good results as 0.5 percent transect interval for the bathymetric surface model, area/capacity table, and contour map products.

  12. A distinct species, Dodona formosana, detected in the Dodona eugenes species complex: clarification of the taxonomic status of the Punch butterfly in Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Li-Wei; Lin, Wen-Jie; Hsu, Yu-Feng

    2018-01-01

    Abstract The Tailed Punch, Dodona eugenes, is widely distributed in East Asia with seven subspecies currently recognized. However, two of them, namely ssp. formosana and ssp. esakii found in Taiwan, are hard to distinguish from each other due to ambiguous diagnostic characters. In this study, their taxonomic status is clarified by comparing genitalia characters and phylogenetic relationships based on mitochondrial sequences, COI and COII (total 2211 bps). Our results show that there is no reliable feature to separate these two subspecies. Surprisingly we found that Dodona in Taiwan is more closely related to the Orange Punch, D. egeon, than to other subspecies of D. eugenes. Therefore, the following nomenclatural changes are proposed: Dodona eugenes formosana is revised to specific status as Dodona formosana Matsumura, 1919, stat. rev, and ssp. esakii is sunk to a junior synonym of Dodona formosana syn. n. PMID:29674868

  13. A distinct species, Dodona formosana, detected in the Dodona eugenes species complex: clarification of the taxonomic status of the Punch butterfly in Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li-Wei Wu

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The Tailed Punch, Dodona eugenes, is widely distributed in East Asia with seven subspecies currently recognized. However, two of them, namely ssp. formosana and ssp. esakii found in Taiwan, are hard to distinguish from each other due to ambiguous diagnostic characters. In this study, their taxonomic status is clarified by comparing genitalia characters and phylogenetic relationships based on mitochondrial sequences, COI and COII (total 2211 bps. Our results show that there is no reliable feature to separate these two subspecies. Surprisingly we found that Dodona in Taiwan is more closely related to the Orange Punch, D. egeon, than to other subspecies of D. eugenes. Therefore, the following nomenclatural changes are proposed: Dodona eugenes formosana is revised to specific status as Dodona formosana Matsumura, 1919, stat. rev, and ssp. esakii is sunk to a junior synonym of Dodona formosana syn. n.

  14. Assessment of irrigation performance: contribution to improve water management in a small catchment in the Brazilian savannas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, Lineu; Marioti, Juliana; Steenhuis, Tammo; Wallender, Wesley

    2010-05-01

    Irrigated agriculture is the major consumer of surface water in Brazil using over 70% of the total supply. Due to the growing competition for water among different sectors of the economy, sustainable water use can only be achieved by decreasing the portion of water used by the irrigated agriculture. Thus, in order to maintain yield, farmers need to irrigate more efficiently. There is little known on irrigation efficiency in Brazil. Therefore a study was carried out in the Buriti Vermelho basin to assess the irrigation performance of existing system. The experimental basin has a drainage area of 940 hectares and is located in the eastern part of the Federal District, in the Brazilian savanna region. Agriculture is the main activity. There is a dominance of red latosols. Several types of land use and crop cover are encountered in the basin. Conflicts among farmers for water are increasing. As water, in quality and quantity, is crucial to maintain the livelihood of the population in the basin, concern about risk of water lack due to climatic and land use change is in place. Once irrigation is the main water user in the basin, to increase water availability and reduce conflicts a water resource management plan has to be established. For this purpose, irrigation system performance has to be understood. The objective of this work was to assess the performance and the management of irrigation (small and big) that has been carried out by farmers in the Buriti Vermelho experimental watershed. A survey undertaken in 2007 was used to identify the irrigation systems in the basin. It was verified that irrigation is practiced by both small (area up to 6 hectare) and big farmers. Small farmers usually crop limes and vegetables and use micro-irrigation, drip, sprinkler, guns or furrow to irrigate them. Big farmers plant annual crops and use center pivot as irrigation system. In this first assessment 13 irrigation systems were evaluated: five conventional sprinklers, four drip

  15. Supporting energy initiatives in small communities by linking visions with energy scenarios and multi-criteria assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trutnevyte, Evelina; Stauffacher, Michael; Scholz, Roland W.

    2011-01-01

    Many decisions about future energy systems in small communities are based on the visions of several key actors about the ideal-type system. Although meaningful, such visions may not inclusively represent the objectives of all relevant actors. Moreover, the visions are mostly intuitively judged by these actors and reflect their experiences and concerns. Yet, analytical expertise provides essential information about the required decisions and their consequences. We argue that coming up with a number of alternative visions about a future energy system and addressing these visions from both intuitive and analytical perspectives leads to better-quality decisions. This paper presents a case study in the small Swiss community of Urnäsch, where actors from practice and academia collaborated in a transdisciplinary process to address the future energy system. Visions of these actors about the ideal-type energy system were linked both with energy scenarios that analytically specified options to implement these visions and with stakeholder-based multi-criteria assessment of the consequences. As a result, most of the involved actors adjusted their initial vision preferences. Thus, we believe this approach could lead to capacity building and formation of stable, informed preferences, which are necessary to support a transition in the coming decades. - Highlights: ► Linking energy visions with realistic options and their consequences. ► Novel methodology developed to support this. ► Applied in a case study whereby stakeholders revised visions in light of results. ► Energy initiatives in small communities are facilitated and supported analytically.

  16. Semi-automatic identification of punching areas for tissue microarray building: the tubular breast cancer pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beltrame Francesco

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Tissue MicroArray technology aims to perform immunohistochemical staining on hundreds of different tissue samples simultaneously. It allows faster analysis, considerably reducing costs incurred in staining. A time consuming phase of the methodology is the selection of tissue areas within paraffin blocks: no utilities have been developed for the identification of areas to be punched from the donor block and assembled in the recipient block. Results The presented work supports, in the specific case of a primary subtype of breast cancer (tubular breast cancer, the semi-automatic discrimination and localization between normal and pathological regions within the tissues. The diagnosis is performed by analysing specific morphological features of the sample such as the absence of a double layer of cells around the lumen and the decay of a regular glands-and-lobules structure. These features are analysed using an algorithm which performs the extraction of morphological parameters from images and compares them to experimentally validated threshold values. Results are satisfactory since in most of the cases the automatic diagnosis matches the response of the pathologists. In particular, on a total of 1296 sub-images showing normal and pathological areas of breast specimens, algorithm accuracy, sensitivity and specificity are respectively 89%, 84% and 94%. Conclusions The proposed work is a first attempt to demonstrate that automation in the Tissue MicroArray field is feasible and it can represent an important tool for scientists to cope with this high-throughput technique.

  17. Evaluation of slim-edge, multi-guard, and punch-through-protection structures before and after proton irradiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitsui, S.; Unno, Y.; Ikegami, Y.; Takubo, Y.; Terada, S.; Hara, K.; Takahashi, Y.; Jinnouchi, O.; Nagai, R.; Kishida, T.; Yorita, K.; Hanagaki, K.; Takashima, R.; Kamada, S.; Yamamura, K.

    2013-01-01

    Planar geometry silicon pixel and strip sensors for the high luminosity upgrade of the LHC (HL-LHC) require a high bias voltage of 1000 V in order to withstand a radiation damage caused by particle fluences of 1×1016 1 MeV neq/cm2 and 1×1015 1 MeV neq/cm2 for pixel and strip detectors, respectively. In order to minimize the inactive edge space that can withstand a bias voltage of 1000 V, edge regions susceptible to microdischarge (MD) should be carefully optimized. We fabricated diodes with various edge distances (slim-edge diodes) and with 1-3 multiple guard rings (multi-guard diodes). AC coupling insulators of strip sensors are vulnerable to sudden heavy charge deposition, such as an accidental beam splash, which may destroy the readout AC capacitors. Thus various types of punch-through-protection (PTP) structures were implemented in order to find the most effective structure to protect against heavy charge deposition. These samples were irradiated with 70 MeV protons at fluences of 5×1012 1 MeV neq/cm2-1×1016 1 MeV neq/cm2. Their performances were evaluated before and after irradiation in terms of an onset voltage of the MD, a turn-on voltage of the PTP, and PTP saturation resistance.

  18. Chromium-51-EDTA and technetium-99m-DTPA excretion for assessment of small bowel Crohn's disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Morain, C.; Chervu, L.; Milstein, D.M.; Das, K.M.

    1984-01-01

    In the present study, 4 patients with radiologically documented Crohn's disease were given 100 μCi of Cr-51-EDTA and 5 mCi of Tc-99m-DTPA together orally in 10ml of water, and urine was collected during the following 24 hr period. Sequential imaging of the stomach and the GI tract was done with a LFOV gamma camera at 10 min intervals until the activity cleared the small bowel. The images failed to show any localization of the activity in any disease process and no extraintestinal accumulation site was observed scintigraphically. Mean 24 hr urinary excretion for Tc-99m-DTPA was 4.8 +- 2.6% comparable to that of Cr-51-EDTA in these patients. This study suggests that a comparable oral dose of Tc-99m-DTPA could be substituted for Cr-51-EDTA as a far more readily available agent for documenting small bowel Crohn's disease by quantitative assessment of its urinary excretion

  19. Assessing pesticide concentrations and fluxes in the stream of a small vineyard catchment - Effect of sampling frequency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rabiet, M., E-mail: marion.rabiet@unilim.f [Cemagref, UR QELY, 3bis quai Chauveau, CP 220, F-69336 Lyon (France); Margoum, C.; Gouy, V.; Carluer, N.; Coquery, M. [Cemagref, UR QELY, 3bis quai Chauveau, CP 220, F-69336 Lyon (France)

    2010-03-15

    This study reports on the occurrence and behaviour of six pesticides and one metabolite in a small stream draining a vineyard catchment. Base flow and flood events were monitored in order to assess the variability of pesticide concentrations according to the season and to evaluate the role of sampling frequency on the evaluation of fluxes estimates. Results showed that dissolved pesticide concentrations displayed a strong temporal and spatial variability. A large mobilisation of pesticides was observed during floods, with total dissolved pesticide fluxes per event ranging from 5.7 x 10{sup -3} g/Ha to 0.34 g/Ha. These results highlight the major role of floods in the transport of pesticides in this small stream which contributed to more than 89% of the total load of diuron during August 2007. The evaluation of pesticide loads using different sampling strategies and method calculation, showed that grab sampling largely underestimated pesticide concentrations and fluxes transiting through the stream. - This work brings new insights about the fluxes of pesticides in surface water of a vineyard catchment, notably during flood events.

  20. Assessing Monkeypox Virus Prevalence in Small Mammals at the Human–Animal Interface in the Democratic Republic of the Congo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeffrey B. Doty

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available During 2012, 2013 and 2015, we collected small mammals within 25 km of the town of Boende in Tshuapa Province, the Democratic Republic of the Congo. The prevalence of monkeypox virus (MPXV in this area is unknown; however, cases of human infection were previously confirmed near these collection sites. Samples were collected from 353 mammals (rodents, shrews, pangolins, elephant shrews, a potamogale, and a hyrax. Some rodents and shrews were captured from houses where human monkeypox cases have recently been identified, but most were trapped in forests and agricultural areas near villages. Real-time PCR and ELISA were used to assess evidence of MPXV infection and other Orthopoxvirus (OPXV infections in these small mammals. Seven (2.0% of these animal samples were found to be anti-orthopoxvirus immunoglobulin G (IgG antibody positive (six rodents: two Funisciurus spp.; one Graphiurus lorraineus; one Cricetomys emini; one Heliosciurus sp.; one Oenomys hypoxanthus, and one elephant shrew Petrodromus tetradactylus; no individuals were found positive in PCR-based assays. These results suggest that a variety of animals can be infected with OPXVs, and that epidemiology studies and educational campaigns should focus on animals that people are regularly contacting, including larger rodents used as protein sources.

  1. Assessing pesticide concentrations and fluxes in the stream of a small vineyard catchment - Effect of sampling frequency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rabiet, M.; Margoum, C.; Gouy, V.; Carluer, N.; Coquery, M.

    2010-01-01

    This study reports on the occurrence and behaviour of six pesticides and one metabolite in a small stream draining a vineyard catchment. Base flow and flood events were monitored in order to assess the variability of pesticide concentrations according to the season and to evaluate the role of sampling frequency on the evaluation of fluxes estimates. Results showed that dissolved pesticide concentrations displayed a strong temporal and spatial variability. A large mobilisation of pesticides was observed during floods, with total dissolved pesticide fluxes per event ranging from 5.7 x 10 -3 g/Ha to 0.34 g/Ha. These results highlight the major role of floods in the transport of pesticides in this small stream which contributed to more than 89% of the total load of diuron during August 2007. The evaluation of pesticide loads using different sampling strategies and method calculation, showed that grab sampling largely underestimated pesticide concentrations and fluxes transiting through the stream. - This work brings new insights about the fluxes of pesticides in surface water of a vineyard catchment, notably during flood events.

  2. Assessing Monkeypox Virus Prevalence in Small Mammals at the Human-Animal Interface in the Democratic Republic of the Congo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doty, Jeffrey B; Malekani, Jean M; Kalemba, Lem's N; Stanley, William T; Monroe, Benjamin P; Nakazawa, Yoshinori U; Mauldin, Matthew R; Bakambana, Trésor L; Liyandja Dja Liyandja, Tobit; Braden, Zachary H; Wallace, Ryan M; Malekani, Divin V; McCollum, Andrea M; Gallardo-Romero, Nadia; Kondas, Ashley; Peterson, A Townsend; Osorio, Jorge E; Rocke, Tonie E; Karem, Kevin L; Emerson, Ginny L; Carroll, Darin S

    2017-10-03

    During 2012, 2013 and 2015, we collected small mammals within 25 km of the town of Boende in Tshuapa Province, the Democratic Republic of the Congo. The prevalence of monkeypox virus (MPXV) in this area is unknown; however, cases of human infection were previously confirmed near these collection sites. Samples were collected from 353 mammals (rodents, shrews, pangolins, elephant shrews, a potamogale, and a hyrax). Some rodents and shrews were captured from houses where human monkeypox cases have recently been identified, but most were trapped in forests and agricultural areas near villages. Real-time PCR and ELISA were used to assess evidence of MPXV infection and other Orthopoxvirus (OPXV) infections in these small mammals. Seven (2.0%) of these animal samples were found to be anti-orthopoxvirus immunoglobulin G (IgG) antibody positive (six rodents: two Funisciurus spp.; one Graphiurus lorraineus ; one Cricetomys emini ; one Heliosciurus sp.; one Oenomys hypoxanthus , and one elephant shrew Petrodromus tetradactylus ); no individuals were found positive in PCR-based assays. These results suggest that a variety of animals can be infected with OPXVs, and that epidemiology studies and educational campaigns should focus on animals that people are regularly contacting, including larger rodents used as protein sources.

  3. Pollen-mediated gene flow and seed exchange in small-scale Zambian maize farming, implications for biosafety assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bøhn, Thomas; Aheto, Denis W; Mwangala, Felix S; Fischer, Klara; Bones, Inger Louise; Simoloka, Christopher; Mbeule, Ireen; Schmidt, Gunther; Breckling, Broder

    2016-10-03

    Gene flow in agricultural crops is important for risk assessment of genetically modified (GM) crops, particularly in countries with a large informal agricultural sector of subsistence cultivation. We present a pollen flow model for maize (Zea mays), a major staple crop in Africa. We use spatial properties of fields (size, position) in three small-scale maize farming communities in Zambia and estimate rates of cross-fertilisation between fields sown with different maize varieties (e.g. conventional and transgene). As an additional factor contributing to gene flow, we present data on seed saving and sharing among farmers that live in the same communities. Our results show that: i) maize fields were small and located in immediate vicinity of neighboring fields; ii) a majority of farmers saved and shared seed; iii) modeled rates of pollen-mediated gene flow showed extensive mixing of germplasm between fields and farms and iv) as a result, segregation of GM and non-GM varieties is not likely to be an option in these systems. We conclude that the overall genetic composition of maize, in this and similar agricultural contexts, will be strongly influenced both by self-organised ecological factors (pollen flow), and by socially mediated intervention (seed recycling and sharing).

  4. The BREAST-V: a unifying predictive formula for volume assessment in small, medium, and large breasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longo, Benedetto; Farcomeni, Alessio; Ferri, Germano; Campanale, Antonella; Sorotos, Micheal; Santanelli, Fabio

    2013-07-01

    Breast volume assessment enhances preoperative planning of both aesthetic and reconstructive procedures, helping the surgeon in the decision-making process of shaping the breast. Numerous methods of breast size determination are currently reported but are limited by methodologic flaws and variable estimations. The authors aimed to develop a unifying predictive formula for volume assessment in small to large breasts based on anthropomorphic values. Ten anthropomorphic breast measurements and direct volumes of 108 mastectomy specimens from 88 women were collected prospectively. The authors performed a multivariate regression to build the optimal model for development of the predictive formula. The final model was then internally validated. A previously published formula was used as a reference. Mean (±SD) breast weight was 527.9 ± 227.6 g (range, 150 to 1250 g). After model selection, sternal notch-to-nipple, inframammary fold-to-nipple, and inframammary fold-to-fold projection distances emerged as the most important predictors. The resulting formula (the BREAST-V) showed an adjusted R of 0.73. The estimated expected absolute error on new breasts is 89.7 g (95 percent CI, 62.4 to 119.1 g) and the expected relative error is 18.4 percent (95 percent CI, 12.9 to 24.3 percent). Application of reference formula on the sample yielded worse predictions than those derived by the formula, showing an R of 0.55. The BREAST-V is a reliable tool for predicting small to large breast volumes accurately for use as a complementary device in surgeon evaluation. An app entitled BREAST-V for both iOS and Android devices is currently available for free download in the Apple App Store and Google Play Store. Diagnostic, II.

  5. Assessment of bacterial contamination in the sectors of Clinical Medicine and Surgery Small Animal Veterinary Hospital, UFCG, PB

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafaela Alves Dias

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT. Dias R.A., Souza A.P. & Garino Júnior F. [Assessment of bacterial contamination in the sectors of Clinical Medicine and Surgery Small Animal Veterinary Hospital, UFCG, PB.] Avaliação da contaminação bacteriana nos setores de Clínica e Cirurgia de Pequenos Animais do Hospital Veterinário da UFCG, PB. Revista Brasileira de Medicina Veterinária, 37(2:173-177, 2015. Programa de Pós-Graduação em Medicina Veterinária, Universidade Federal de Campina Grande, Av. Universitária, s/n, Bairro Santa Cecília, Patos, PB 58708-110, Brasil. E-mail: rafa.ad@hotmail.com With this study aimed to evaluate bacterial contamination sectors Clinic and Surgery Small Animal Veterinary Hospital UFCG, in order to prevent infections in patients attending hospital. An assessment of the environmental contamination of sectors before and after disinfection, where was collected samples of air, surfaces and hands of people who deal directly with the animals. Then the test was made of the effectiveness of disinfectants used. Of the 40 samples collected, was identified in 5 of them (12.5% Enterobacteria such as Escherichia coli and Klebisiella pneumoniae and in 22 samples (55% was identified Staphylococcus coagulase negative and positive. Was seen in the quantitative analysis that the number of cfu in some sample was above the indicated. The test showed that the disinfectant solution was effective against all micro-organisms found in the environments. The results indicate that more attention to procedures performed in the disinfection of areas evaluated, and also include measures to prevent contamination at these sites.

  6. Assessing spatial associations between thermal stress and mortality in Hong Kong: a small-area ecological study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thach, Thuan-Quoc; Zheng, Qishi; Lai, Poh-Chin; Wong, Paulina Pui-Yun; Chau, Patsy Yuen-Kwan; Jahn, Heiko J; Plass, Dietrich; Katzschner, Lutz; Kraemer, Alexander; Wong, Chit-Ming

    2015-01-01

    Physiological equivalent temperature (PET) is a widely used index to assess thermal comfort of the human body. Evidence on how thermal stress-related health effects vary with small geographical areas is limited. The objectives of this study are (i) to explore whether there were significant patterns of geographical clustering of thermal stress as measured by PET and mortality and (ii) to assess the association between PET and mortality in small geographical areas. A small area ecological cross-sectional study was conducted at tertiary planning units (TPUs) level. Age-standardized mortality rates (ASMR) and monthly deaths at TPUs level for 2006 were calculated for cause-specific diseases. A PET map with 100 m × 100 m resolution for the same period was derived from Hong Kong Urban Climatic Analysis Map data and the annual and monthly averages of PET for each TPU were computed. Global Moran's I and local indicator of spatial association (LISA) analyses were performed. A generalized linear mixed model was used to model monthly deaths against PET adjusted for socio-economic deprivation. We found positive spatial autocorrelation between PET and ASMR. There were spatial correlations between PET and ASMR, particularly in the north of Hong Kong Island, most parts of Kowloon, and across New Territories. A 1°C change in PET was associated with an excess risk (%) of 2.99 (95% CI: 0.50-5.48) for all natural causes, 4.75 (1.14-8.36) for cardiovascular, 7.39 (4.64-10.10) for respiratory diseases in the cool season, and 4.31 (0.12 to 8.50) for cardiovascular diseases in the warm season. Variations between TPUs in PET had an important influence on cause-specific mortality, especially in the cool season. PET may have an impact on the health of socio-economically deprived population groups. Our results suggest that targeting policy interventions at high-risk areas may be a feasible option for reducing PET-related mortality. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Coupling physically based and data-driven models for assessing freshwater inflow into the Small Aral Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayzel, Georgy; Izhitskiy, Alexander

    2018-06-01

    The Aral Sea desiccation and related changes in hydroclimatic conditions on a regional level is a hot topic for past decades. The key problem of scientific research projects devoted to an investigation of modern Aral Sea basin hydrological regime is its discontinuous nature - the only limited amount of papers takes into account the complex runoff formation system entirely. Addressing this challenge we have developed a continuous prediction system for assessing freshwater inflow into the Small Aral Sea based on coupling stack of hydrological and data-driven models. Results show a good prediction skill and approve the possibility to develop a valuable water assessment tool which utilizes the power of classical physically based and modern machine learning models both for territories with complex water management system and strong water-related data scarcity. The source code and data of the proposed system is available on a Github page (https://github.com/SMASHIproject/IWRM2018" target="_blank">https://github.com/SMASHIproject/IWRM2018).

  8. Integrated Assessment of Artisanal and Small-Scale Gold Mining in Ghana-Part 2: Natural Sciences Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajaee, Mozhgon; Obiri, Samuel; Green, Allyson; Long, Rachel; Cobbina, Samuel J; Nartey, Vincent; Buck, David; Antwi, Edward; Basu, Niladri

    2015-07-31

    This paper is one of three synthesis documents produced via an integrated assessment (IA) that aims to increase understanding of artisanal and small-scale gold mining (ASGM) in Ghana. Given the complexities surrounding ASGM, an integrated assessment (IA) framework was utilized to analyze socio-economic, health, and environmental data, and co-develop evidence-based responses with stakeholders. This paper focuses on the causes, status, trends, and consequences of ecological issues related to ASGM activity in Ghana. It reviews dozens of studies and thousands of samples to document evidence of heavy metals contamination in ecological media across Ghana. Soil and water mercury concentrations were generally lower than guideline values, but sediment mercury concentrations surpassed guideline values in 64% of samples. Arsenic, cadmium, and lead exceeded guideline values in 67%, 17%, and 24% of water samples, respectively. Other water quality parameters near ASGM sites show impairment, with some samples exceeding guidelines for acidity, turbidity, and nitrates. Additional ASGM-related stressors on environmental quality and ecosystem services include deforestation, land degradation, biodiversity loss, legacy contamination, and potential linkages to climate change. Though more research is needed to further elucidate the long-term impacts of ASGM on the environment, the plausible consequences of ecological damages should guide policies and actions to address the unique challenges posed by ASGM.

  9. Integrated Assessment of Artisanal and Small-Scale Gold Mining in Ghana—Part 2: Natural Sciences Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajaee, Mozhgon; Obiri, Samuel; Green, Allyson; Long, Rachel; Cobbina, Samuel J.; Nartey, Vincent; Buck, David; Antwi, Edward; Basu, Niladri

    2015-01-01

    This paper is one of three synthesis documents produced via an integrated assessment (IA) that aims to increase understanding of artisanal and small-scale gold mining (ASGM) in Ghana. Given the complexities surrounding ASGM, an integrated assessment (IA) framework was utilized to analyze socio-economic, health, and environmental data, and co-develop evidence-based responses with stakeholders. This paper focuses on the causes, status, trends, and consequences of ecological issues related to ASGM activity in Ghana. It reviews dozens of studies and thousands of samples to document evidence of heavy metals contamination in ecological media across Ghana. Soil and water mercury concentrations were generally lower than guideline values, but sediment mercury concentrations surpassed guideline values in 64% of samples. Arsenic, cadmium, and lead exceeded guideline values in 67%, 17%, and 24% of water samples, respectively. Other water quality parameters near ASGM sites show impairment, with some samples exceeding guidelines for acidity, turbidity, and nitrates. Additional ASGM-related stressors on environmental quality and ecosystem services include deforestation, land degradation, biodiversity loss, legacy contamination, and potential linkages to climate change. Though more research is needed to further elucidate the long-term impacts of ASGM on the environment, the plausible consequences of ecological damages should guide policies and actions to address the unique challenges posed by ASGM. PMID:26264012

  10. Fiber Fabry-Perot Force Sensor with Small Volume and High Performance for Assessing Fretting Damage of Steam Generator Tubes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Peijian; Wang, Ning; Li, Junying; Zhu, Yong; Zhang, Jie

    2017-12-13

    Measuring the radial collision force between the steam generator tube (SGT) and the tube support plate (TSP) is essential to assess the fretting damage of the SGT. In order to measure the radial collision force, a novel miniaturized force sensor based on fiber Fabry-Perot (F-P) was designed, and the principle and characteristics of the sensor were analyzed in detail. Then, the F-P force sensor was successfully fabricated and calibrated, and the overall dimensions of the encapsulated fiber F-P sensor were 17 mm × 5 mm × 3 mm (L × W × H). The sensor works well in humid, high pressure (10 MPa), high temperature (350 °C), and vibration (40 kHz) environments. Finally, the F-P force sensors were installed in a 1:1 steam generator test loop, and the radial collision force signals between the SGT and the TSP were obtained. The experiments indicated that the F-P sensor with small volume and high performance could help in assessing the fretting damage of the steam generator tubes.

  11. Energy efficiency and sustainability assessment of about 500 small and medium-sized enterprises in Central Europe region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Viesi, Diego; Pozzar, Francesca; Federici, Alessandro; Crema, Luigi; Mahbub, Md Shahriar

    2017-01-01

    Nowadays more than 20 million small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) are located in the European Union (EU): they are a key driver for economic growth, innovation, employment and social integration. The first step towards better industrial energy and environmental performance is the acknowledgement of the savings potential that can be realized by the company ownership and management board. Following this goal, the CEEM (Central Environmental and Energy Management) project provided to about 500 Central Europe SMEs of 5 countries (Austria, the Czech Republic, Hungary, Italy and Slovenia) a user friendly and free of charge web tool called 3EMT (Eco Energy Efficiency Management Tool). Through a questionnaire the 3EMT analyzes and sums up eco-energy patterns, helps to self-assess the company environmental performance, benchmarks a company with other Central Europe’s enterprises, delivers a customized Assessment Report, suggests further services and facilities. In this paper, the large 3EMT database is analyzed, and statistics focused on SMEs eco-energy performance and future & innovation perspectives are presented and discussed. Furthermore, key challenges and key intervention points were defined by local stakeholders (policy makers, Energy Service Companies, SMEs representatives, researchers), this paper summarizes the main policy outcomes. - Highlights: • Evaluation of Central Europe SME performance in energy efficiency and sustainability. • Extension of SME statistics at European and national level. • Identification of key challenges and key interventions for new industrial policies.

  12. Local Productive Arrangements for Biodiesel Production in Brazil – Environmental Assessment of Small-holder’s Integrated Oleaginous Crops Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geraldo Stachetti Rodrigues

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Sustainability assessments were carried out in small-holders’ farms in four territories where productive arrangements have been organized for production of minor oleaginous crops under the Brazilian biodiesel program. The study aimed at checking local impacts of the biodiesel productive chains at the rural establishment scale, and promoting the environmental performance of the selected farms, henceforth proposed as sustainable management demonstration units. Assessments were carried out with the APOIA-NovoRural system, which integrates 62 objective and quantitative indicators related to five sustainability dimensions: i Landscape Ecology, ii Environmental Quality (Atmosphere, Water and Soil, iii Socio-cultural Values, iv Economic Values and v Management and Administration. The main results point out that, in general, the ecological dimensions of sustainability, that is, the Landscape Ecology and Atmosphere, Water, and Soil quality indicators, show adequate field conditions, seemingly not yet negatively affected by increases in chemical inputs and natural resources use predicted as important potential impacts of the agro-energy sector. The Economic Values indicators have been favorably influenced in the studied farms, due to a steadier demand and improved prices for the oleaginous crops. On the other hand, valuable positive consequences expected for favoring farmers’ market insertion, such as improved Socio-cultural Values and Management & Administration indicators, are still opportunities to be materialized. The Environmental Management Reports issued to the farmers, based on the presented sustainability assessment procedures, offer valuable documentation and communication means for consolidating the organizational influence of the local productive arrangements studied. These productive arrangements were shown to be determinant for the selection of crop associations and diversification, as well as for the provision of technical assistance

  13. Methodology for the Assessment of Confidence in Safety Margin for Small Break Loss of Coolant Accident Sequences

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nagrale, D. B.; Prasad, M.; Rao, R. S.; Gaikwad, A.J., E-mail: avinashg@aerb.gov.in [Nuclear Safety Analysis Division, Atomic Energy Regulatory Board, Mumbai (India)

    2014-10-15

    Deterministic Safety Analysis and Probabilistic Safety Assessment (PSA) analyses are used concurrently to assess the Nuclear Power Plant (NPP) safety. The conventional deterministic analysis is conservative. The best estimate plus uncertainty analysis is increasingly being used for deterministic calculation in NPPs. The PSA methodology aims to be as realistic as possible while integrating information about accident phenomena, plant design, operating practices, component reliability and human behaviour. The peak clad temperature (PCT) distribution provides an insight into the confidence in safety margin for an initiating event. The paper deals with the concept of calculating the peak clad temperature with 95 percent confidence and 95 percent probability (PCT{sub 95/95}) in small break loss of coolant accident (SBLOCA) and methodologies for assessing safety margin. Five input parameters mainly, nominal power level, decay power, fuel clad gap conductivity, fuel thermal conductivity and discharge coefficient, were selected. A Uniform probability density function was assigned to the uncertain parameters and these uncertainties are propagated using Latin Hypercube Sampling (LHS) technique. The sampled data for 5 parameters were randomly mixed by LHS to obtain 25 input sets. A non-core damage accident sequence was selected from the SBLOCA event tree of a typical VVER study to estimate the PCTs and safety margin. A Kolmogorov– Smirnov goodness-of-fit test was carried out for PCTs. The smallest value of safety margin would indicate the robustness of the system with 95% confidence and 95% probability. Regression analysis was also carried out using 1000 sample size for the estimating PCTs. Mean, variance and finally safety margin were analysed. (author)

  14. Quantitative assessment of cross-sectional area of small pulmonary vessels in patients with COPD using inspiratory and expiratory MDCT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsuura, Yukiko; Kawata, Naoko; Yanagawa, Noriyuki; Sugiura, Toshihiko; Sakurai, Yoriko; Sato, Misuzu; Iesato, Ken; Terada, Jiro; Sakao, Seiichiro; Tada, Yuji; Tanabe, Nobuhiro; Suzuki, Yoichi; Tatsumi, Koichiro

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: Structural and functional changes in pulmonary vessels are prevalent at the initial stages of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). These vascular alterations can be assessed using cross-sectional area (CSA) of small pulmonary vessels. However, neither in non-COPD smokers nor in COPD patients it has been defined whether the structural changes of pulmonary vessels detected by paired inspiratory and expiratory CT scans are associated with emphysematous changes. We quantified the CSA and low attenuation area (LAA) and evaluated the changes in these parameters in the inspiratory and expiratory phases. Materials and methods: Fifty consecutive non-COPD smokers and COPD patients were subjected to multi detector-row CT and the percentage of vessels with a CSA less than 5 mm 2 as well as the percentage LAA for total lung area (%CSA < 5, %LAA, respectively) were calculated. Results: The %CSA < 5 correlated negatively with %LAA. The %CSA < 5 was lower in COPD patients with emphysema as compared with non-COPD smokers and COPD patients with or without mild emphysema. In addition, the %CSA < 5 was lower in the no/mild emphysema subgroup as compared with non-COPD smokers. The respiratory phase change of %CSA < 5 in COPD patients was greater than that in non-COPD smokers. Conclusion: The percentage of small pulmonary vessels decreased as emphysematous changes increase, and this decrease was observed even in patients with no/mild emphysema. Furthermore, respiratory phase changes in CSA were higher in COPD patients than in non-COPD smokers

  15. Integrated Assessment of Artisanal and Small-Scale Gold Mining in Ghana - Part 3: Social Sciences and Economics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Mark L; Renne, Elisha; Roncoli, Carla; Agyei-Baffour, Peter; Tenkorang, Emmanuel Yamoah

    2015-07-15

    This article is one of three synthesis reports resulting from an integrated assessment (IA) of artisanal and small-scale gold mining (ASGM) in Ghana. Given the complexities that involve multiple drivers and diverse disciplines influencing ASGM, an IA framework was used to analyze economic, social, health, and environmental data and to co-develop evidence-based responses in collaboration with pertinent stakeholders. We look at both micro- and macro-economic processes surrounding ASGM, including causes, challenges, and consequences. At the micro-level, social and economic evidence suggests that the principal reasons whereby most people engage in ASGM involve "push" factors aimed at meeting livelihood goals. ASGM provides an important source of income for both proximate and distant communities, representing a means of survival for impoverished farmers as well as an engine for small business growth. However, miners and their families often end up in a "poverty trap" of low productivity and indebtedness, which reduce even further their economic options. At a macro level, Ghana's ASGM activities contribute significantly to the national economy even though they are sometimes operating illegally and at a disadvantage compared to large-scale industrial mining companies. Nevertheless, complex issues of land tenure, social stability, mining regulation and taxation, and environmental degradation undermine the viability and sustainability of ASGM as a livelihood strategy. Although more research is needed to understand these complex relationships, we point to key findings and insights from social science and economics research that can guide policies and actions aimed to address the unique challenges of ASGM in Ghana and elsewhere.

  16. Integrated Assessment to Evaluate the Artificial Recharge in a Small Portion of the Aquifer of Puebla, Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arango-Galván, C.; Flores-Marquez, L. E.; Martínez-Serrano, R.

    2009-12-01

    New policies on the use of water resources in Mexico have led to implement some alternative measures to optimize water management. In particular, water regulation entities have recommended some tools to preserve and protect the groundwater supplies. One of these tools is the artificial recharge by injecting water directly into the aquifer. The main goal of this study is to assess if it is suitable to inject rainwater and surface water in a small portion of the aquifer of the city of Puebla, in central Mexico. Artificial aquifer recharging was evaluated using a numeric model, which simulated the physical properties of the system. The model setup was inferred from an integrated study taking into account hydraulic, geological and geophysical data. The geoelectrical model was computed using electric resistivity tomography (ERT) and time domain electromagnetic data (TDEM). The aquifer geological structure inferred from geophysics depicts the presence of a shallower layer composed of sand and clay deposits with low saturation and permeability. This layer contains silt lenses that can be controlling the persistence of small water bodies on surface. Some water surficial bodies seem to be isolated from the main aquifer system. The intermediate layer shows lower electrical resistivity and higher permeability. Underlying this horizon, it is a deeper layer that reaches 200 m depth, according to information obtained from borehole in the zone. This layer shows an electrical resistivity even lower than intermediate layer but low permeability, caused by the higher content of silts. Both of these layers are the shallower aquifer exploited in the area. Once the numeric model was built we proceeded to simulate scenarios that include the continued extraction and recharge of water in wells located in strategic areas of the study zone. The results suggest that the effect of infiltration is beneficial on aquifer recharge and reduces the cone of depression caused by the extraction

  17. Integrated Assessment of Artisanal and Small-Scale Gold Mining in Ghana — Part 3: Social Sciences and Economics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark L. Wilson

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available This article is one of three synthesis reports resulting from an integrated assessment (IA of artisanal and small-scale gold mining (ASGM in Ghana. Given the complexities that involve multiple drivers and diverse disciplines influencing ASGM, an IA framework was used to analyze economic, social, health, and environmental data and to co-develop evidence-based responses in collaboration with pertinent stakeholders. We look at both micro- and macro-economic processes surrounding ASGM, including causes, challenges, and consequences. At the micro-level, social and economic evidence suggests that the principal reasons whereby most people engage in ASGM involve “push” factors aimed at meeting livelihood goals. ASGM provides an important source of income for both proximate and distant communities, representing a means of survival for impoverished farmers as well as an engine for small business growth. However, miners and their families often end up in a “poverty trap” of low productivity and indebtedness, which reduce even further their economic options. At a macro level, Ghana’s ASGM activities contribute significantly to the national economy even though they are sometimes operating illegally and at a disadvantage compared to large-scale industrial mining companies. Nevertheless, complex issues of land tenure, social stability, mining regulation and taxation, and environmental degradation undermine the viability and sustainability of ASGM as a livelihood strategy. Although more research is needed to understand these complex relationships, we point to key findings and insights from social science and economics research that can guide policies and actions aimed to address the unique challenges of ASGM in Ghana and elsewhere.

  18. Quantitative assessment of cross-sectional area of small pulmonary vessels in patients with COPD using inspiratory and expiratory MDCT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matsuura, Yukiko, E-mail: matsuyuki_future@yahoo.co.jp [Department of Respirology, Graduate School of Medicine, Chiba University, Chiba 260-8670 Japan (Japan); Kawata, Naoko, E-mail: chumito_03@yahoo.co.jp [Department of Respirology, Graduate School of Medicine, Chiba University, Chiba 260-8670 Japan (Japan); Yanagawa, Noriyuki, E-mail: yanagawa@ho.chiba-u.ac.jp [Department of Respirology, Graduate School of Medicine, Chiba University, Chiba 260-8670 Japan (Japan); Sugiura, Toshihiko, E-mail: sugiura@js3.so-net.ne.jp [Department of Respirology, Graduate School of Medicine, Chiba University, Chiba 260-8670 Japan (Japan); Sakurai, Yoriko, E-mail: yoliri@nifty.com [Department of Respirology, Graduate School of Medicine, Chiba University, Chiba 260-8670 Japan (Japan); Sato, Misuzu, E-mail: mis_misuzu@yahoo.co.jp [Department of Respirology, Graduate School of Medicine, Chiba University, Chiba 260-8670 Japan (Japan); Iesato, Ken, E-mail: iesato_k@yahoo.co.jp [Department of Respirology, Graduate School of Medicine, Chiba University, Chiba 260-8670 Japan (Japan); Terada, Jiro, E-mail: jirotera@chiba-u.jp [Department of Respirology, Graduate School of Medicine, Chiba University, Chiba 260-8670 Japan (Japan); Sakao, Seiichiro, E-mail: sakao@faculty.chiba-u.jp [Department of Respirology, Graduate School of Medicine, Chiba University, Chiba 260-8670 Japan (Japan); Tada, Yuji, E-mail: ytada@faculty.chiba-u.jp [Department of Respirology, Graduate School of Medicine, Chiba University, Chiba 260-8670 Japan (Japan); Tanabe, Nobuhiro, E-mail: ntanabe@faculty.chiba-u.jp [Department of Respirology, Graduate School of Medicine, Chiba University, Chiba 260-8670 Japan (Japan); Suzuki, Yoichi, E-mail: ysuzuki@faculty.chiba-u.jp [Department of public Health, Graduate School of Medicine, Chiba University, Chiba 260-8670 Japan (Japan); Tatsumi, Koichiro, E-mail: tatsumi@faculty.chiba-u.jp [Department of Respirology, Graduate School of Medicine, Chiba University, Chiba 260-8670 Japan (Japan)

    2013-10-01

    Objectives: Structural and functional changes in pulmonary vessels are prevalent at the initial stages of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). These vascular alterations can be assessed using cross-sectional area (CSA) of small pulmonary vessels. However, neither in non-COPD smokers nor in COPD patients it has been defined whether the structural changes of pulmonary vessels detected by paired inspiratory and expiratory CT scans are associated with emphysematous changes. We quantified the CSA and low attenuation area (LAA) and evaluated the changes in these parameters in the inspiratory and expiratory phases. Materials and methods: Fifty consecutive non-COPD smokers and COPD patients were subjected to multi detector-row CT and the percentage of vessels with a CSA less than 5 mm{sup 2} as well as the percentage LAA for total lung area (%CSA < 5, %LAA, respectively) were calculated. Results: The %CSA < 5 correlated negatively with %LAA. The %CSA < 5 was lower in COPD patients with emphysema as compared with non-COPD smokers and COPD patients with or without mild emphysema. In addition, the %CSA < 5 was lower in the no/mild emphysema subgroup as compared with non-COPD smokers. The respiratory phase change of %CSA < 5 in COPD patients was greater than that in non-COPD smokers. Conclusion: The percentage of small pulmonary vessels decreased as emphysematous changes increase, and this decrease was observed even in patients with no/mild emphysema. Furthermore, respiratory phase changes in CSA were higher in COPD patients than in non-COPD smokers.

  19. Integrated Assessment of Artisanal and Small-Scale Gold Mining in Ghana — Part 3: Social Sciences and Economics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Mark L.; Renne, Elisha; Roncoli, Carla; Agyei-Baffour, Peter; Yamoah Tenkorang, Emmanuel

    2015-01-01

    This article is one of three synthesis reports resulting from an integrated assessment (IA) of artisanal and small-scale gold mining (ASGM) in Ghana. Given the complexities that involve multiple drivers and diverse disciplines influencing ASGM, an IA framework was used to analyze economic, social, health, and environmental data and to co-develop evidence-based responses in collaboration with pertinent stakeholders. We look at both micro- and macro-economic processes surrounding ASGM, including causes, challenges, and consequences. At the micro-level, social and economic evidence suggests that the principal reasons whereby most people engage in ASGM involve “push” factors aimed at meeting livelihood goals. ASGM provides an important source of income for both proximate and distant communities, representing a means of survival for impoverished farmers as well as an engine for small business growth. However, miners and their families often end up in a “poverty trap” of low productivity and indebtedness, which reduce even further their economic options. At a macro level, Ghana’s ASGM activities contribute significantly to the national economy even though they are sometimes operating illegally and at a disadvantage compared to large-scale industrial mining companies. Nevertheless, complex issues of land tenure, social stability, mining regulation and taxation, and environmental degradation undermine the viability and sustainability of ASGM as a livelihood strategy. Although more research is needed to understand these complex relationships, we point to key findings and insights from social science and economics research that can guide policies and actions aimed to address the unique challenges of ASGM in Ghana and elsewhere. PMID:26184277

  20. Diagnosis of aggressive subtypes of eyelid basal cell carcinoma by 2-mm punch biopsy: prospective and comparative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossato, Luiz Angelo; Carneiro, Rachel Camargo; Macedo, Erick Marcet Santiago de; Lima, Patrícia Picciarelli de; Miyazaki, Ahlys Ayumi; Matayoshi, Suzana

    2016-01-01

    : to compare the accuracy of preoperative 2-mm punch biopsy at one site and at two sites in the diagnosis of aggressive subtypes of eyelid basal cell carcinoma (BCC). : we randomly assigned patients to Group 1 (biopsy at one site) and Group 2 (biopsy at two sites). We compared the biopsy results to the gold standard (pathology of the surgical specimen). We calculated the sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, negative predictive value, accuracy and Kappa coefficient to determine the level of agreement in both groups. : we analyzed 105 lesions (Group 1: n = 44; Group 2: n = 61). The agreement was 54.5% in Group 1 and 73.8% in Group 2 (p = 0.041). There was no significant difference between the groups regarding the distribution of quantitative and qualitative variables (gender, age, disease duration, tumor larger diameter, area and commitment of margins). Biopsy at two sites was two times more likely to agree with the gold standard than the biopsy of a single site. : the accuracy and the performance indicators were better for 2-mm punch biopsy in two sites than in one site for the diagnosis of aggressive subtypes of eyelid BCC. comparar a acurácia da biópsia pré-operatória por trépano de 2mm em um sítio e em dois sítios no diagnóstico dos subtipos agressivos de carcinoma basocelular (CBC) palpebral. os pacientes foram distribuídos aleatoriamente em Grupo 1 (biópsia em um sítio) e Grupo 2 (biópsia em dois sítios). Os resultados das biópsias foram comparados com o padrão-ouro (exame anatomopatológico da peça cirúrgica). A sensibilidade, especificidade, valor preditivo positivo, valor preditivo negativo, precisão e coeficiente Kappa foram calculados para determinar o nível de concordância nos dois grupos. foram analisadas 105 lesões (Grupo 1: n = 44; Grupo 2: n = 61). A concordância foi de 54,5% no Grupo 1 e 73,8% no Grupo 2 (p-valor = 0,041). Não houve diferença significativa entre os grupos quanto à distribuição das vari

  1. Assessing Specific Oligonucleotides and Small Molecule Antibiotics for the Ability to Inhibit the CRD-BP-CD44 RNA Interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomsen, Dana; Lee, Chow H.

    2014-01-01

    Studies on Coding Region Determinant-Binding Protein (CRD-BP) and its orthologs have confirmed their functional role in mRNA stability and localization. CRD-BP is present in extremely low levels in normal adult tissues, but it is over-expressed in many types of aggressive human cancers and in neonatal tissues. Although the exact role of CRD-BP in tumour progression is unclear, cumulative evidence suggests that its ability to physically associate with target mRNAs is an important criterion for its oncogenic role. CRD-BP has high affinity for the 3′UTR of the oncogenic CD44 mRNA and depletion of CRD-BP in cells led to destabilization of CD44 mRNA, decreased CD44 expression, reduced adhesion and disruption of invadopodia formation. Here, we further characterize the CRD-BP-CD44 RNA interaction and assess specific antisense oligonucleotides and small molecule antibiotics for their ability to inhibit the CRD-BP-CD44 RNA interaction. CRD-BP has a high affinity for binding to CD44 RNA nts 2862–3055 with a Kd of 645 nM. Out of ten antisense oligonucleotides spanning nts 2862–3055, only three antisense oligonucleotides (DD4, DD7 and DD10) were effective in competing with CRD-BP for binding to 32P-labeled CD44 RNA. The potency of DD4, DD7 and DD10 in inhibiting the CRD-BP-CD44 RNA interaction in vitro correlated with their ability to specifically reduce the steady-state level of CD44 mRNA in cells. The aminoglycoside antibiotics neomycin, paramomycin, kanamycin and streptomycin effectively inhibited the CRD-BP-CD44 RNA interaction in vitro. Assessing the potential inhibitory effect of aminoglycoside antibiotics including neomycin on the CRD-BP-CD44 mRNA interaction in cells proved difficult, likely due to their propensity to non-specifically bind nucleic acids. Our results have important implications for future studies in finding small molecules and nucleic acid-based inhibitors that interfere with protein-RNA interactions. PMID:24622399

  2. Urban Heat Island Over Delhi Punches Holes in Widespread Fog in the Indo-Gangetic Plains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gautam, Ritesh; Singh, Manoj K.

    2018-01-01

    Persistent and widespread fog affects several densely populated and agriculturally fertile basins around the world. Dense and polluted fog is especially known to impact transportation, air quality, and public health. Here we report a striking observation of holes in fog over urban areas in satellite imagery. The extent of fog holes appear highly correlated with city populations in fog-prevalent regions of Asia, Europe, and the United States. We find the highest frequency and largest extent of fog holes over Delhi along with suppressed fog fraction, amidst increased fog occurrence over the Indo-Gangetic Plains, based on 17 years of satellite data (2000-2016). This apparent urban heat impact is characterized in sharp urban-rural gradients in surface temperatures and fog thickness. Urban heating seems to have already amplified the long-term fog decline in Europe and the United States and should be assessed over regions undergoing urban expansion including India, where no previous linkages are reported between urban heating and fog.

  3. Visual gut punch: persuasion, emotion, and the constitutional meaning of graphic disclosure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodman, Ellen P

    2014-01-01

    The ability of government to "nudge" with information mandates, or merely to inform consumers of risks, is circumscribed by First Amendment interests that have been poorly articulated. New graphic cigarette warning labels supplied courts with the first opportunity to assess the informational interests attending novel forms of product disclosures. The D.C. Circuit enjoined them as unconstitutional, compelled by a narrative that the graphic labels converted government from objective informer to ideological persuader, shouting its warning to manipulate consumer decisions. This interpretation will leave little room for graphic disclosure and is already being used to challenge textual disclosure requirements (such as county-of-origin labeling) as unconstitutional. Graphic warning and the increasing reliance on regulation-by-disclosure present new free speech quandaries related to consumer autonomy, state normativity, and speaker liberty. This Article examines the distinct goals of product disclosure requirements and how those goals may serve to vindicate, or to frustrate, listener interests. I argue that many disclosures, and especially warnings, are necessarily both normative and informative, expressing value along with fact. It is not the existence of a norm that raises constitutional concern but rather the insistence on a controversial norm. Turning to the means of disclosure, this Article examines how emotional and graphic communication might change the constitutional calculus. Using autonomy theory and the communications research on speech processing, I conclude that disclosures do not bypass reason simply by reaching for the heart. If large graphic labels are unconstitutional, it will be because of undue burden on the speaker, not because they are emotionally powerful. This Article makes the following distinct contributions to the compelled commercial speech literature: critiques the leading precedent, Zauderer v. Office of Disciplinary Counsel, from a consumer

  4. Environmental Impact Assessment of Sand Mining from the Small Catchment Rivers in the Southwestern Coast of India: A Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sreebha, Sreedharan; Padmalal, Damodaran

    2011-01-01

    In the past few decades, the demand for construction grade sand is increasing in many parts of the world due to rapid economic development and subsequent growth of building activities. This, in many of the occasions, has resulted in indiscriminate mining of sand from instream and floodplain areas leading to severe damages to the river basin environment. The case is rather alarming in the small catchment rivers like those draining the southwestern coast of India due to limited sand resources in their alluvial reaches. Moreover, lack of adequate information on the environmental impact of river sand mining is a major lacuna challenging regulatory efforts in many developing countries. Therefore, a scientific assessment is a pre-requisite in formulating management strategies in the sand mining-hit areas. In this context, a study has been made as a case to address the environmental impact of sand mining from the instream and floodplain areas of three important rivers in the southwestern coast of India namely the Chalakudy, Periyar and Muvattupuzha rivers, whose lowlands host one of the fast developing urban-cum-industrial centre, the Kochi city. The study reveals that an amount of 11.527 million ty-1 of sand (8.764 million ty-1 of instream sand and 2.763 million ty-1 of floodplain sand) is being mined from the midland and lowland reaches of these rivers for construction of buildings and other infrastructural facilities in Kochi city and its satellite townships. Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) carried out as a part of this investigation shows that the activities associated with mining and processing of sands have not only affected the health of the river ecosystems but also degraded its overbank areas to a large extent. Considering the degree of degradation caused by sand mining from these rivers, no mining scenario may be opted in the deeper zones of the river channels. Also, a set of suggestions are made for the overall improvement of the rivers and its

  5. Assessment of water consumptions in small mediterranean islands' primary schools by means of a long-term online monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferraris, Marco; De Gisi, Sabino; Farina, Roberto

    2017-10-01

    A key challenge of our society is improving schools through the sustainable use of resources especially in countries at risk of desertification. The estimation of water consumption is the starting point for the correct dimensioning of water recovery systems. To date, unlike the energy sector, there is a lack of scientific information regarding water consumption in school buildings. Available data refer roughly to indirect estimates by means of utility bills and therefore no information on the role of water leakage in the internal network of the school is provided. In this context, the aim of the work was to define and implement an on-line monitoring system for the assessment of water consumptions in a small Mediterranean island primary school to achieve the following sub-goals: (1) definition of water consumption profile considering teaching activities and secretarial work; (2) direct assessment of water consumptions and leakages and, (3) quantification of the behaviour parameters. The installed monitoring system consisted of 33 water metres (3.24 persons per water metre) equipped with sensors set on 1-L impulse signal and connected to a data logging system. Results showed consumptions in the range 13.6-14.2 L/student/day and leakage equal to 54.8 % of the total water consumptions. Considering the behavioural parameters, the consumptions related to toilet flushing, personal, and building cleaning were, respectively, 54, 43 and 3 % of the total water ones. Finally, the obtained results could be used for dimensioning the most suitable water recovery strategies at school level such as grey water or rainwater recovery systems.

  6. Comparative Assessment of Heavy Metals in Drinking Water Sources in Two Small-Scale Mining Communities in Northern Ghana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cobbina, Samuel J.; Duwiejuah, Abudu B.; Quansah, Reginald; Obiri, Samuel; Bakobie, Noel

    2015-01-01

    The study assessed levels of heavy metals in drinking water sources in two small-scale mining communities (Nangodi and Tinga) in northern Ghana. Seventy-two (72) water samples were collected from boreholes, hand dug wells, dug-out, and a stream in the two mining communities. The levels of mercury (Hg), arsenic (As), lead (Pb), zinc (Zn), and cadmium (Cd) were determined using an atomic absorption spectrophotometer (AAS). Mean levels (mg/l) of heavy metals in water samples from Nangodi and Tinga communities were 0.038 and 0.064 (Hg), 0.031 and 0.002 (As), 0.250 and 0.031 (Pb), 0.034 and 0.002 (Zn), and 0.534 and 0.023 (Cd), respectively, for each community. Generally, levels of Hg, As, Pb, Zn, and Cd in water from Nangodi exceeded the World Health Organisation (WHO) stipulated limits of 0.010 for Hg, As, and Pb, 3.0 for Zn and 0.003 for Cd for drinking water, and levels of Hg, Pb, and Cd recorded in Tinga, exceeded the stipulated WHO limits. Ingestion of water, containing elevated levels of Hg, As, and Cd by residents in these mining communities may pose significant health risks. Continuous monitoring of the quality of drinking water sources in these two communities is recommended. PMID:26343702

  7. Comparative Assessment of Heavy Metals in Drinking Water Sources in Two Small-Scale Mining Communities in Northern Ghana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samuel J. Cobbina

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The study assessed levels of heavy metals in drinking water sources in two small-scale mining communities (Nangodi and Tinga in northern Ghana. Seventy-two (72 water samples were collected from boreholes, hand dug wells, dug-out, and a stream in the two mining communities. The levels of mercury (Hg, arsenic (As, lead (Pb, zinc (Zn, and cadmium (Cd were determined using an atomic absorption spectrophotometer (AAS. Mean levels (mg/l of heavy metals in water samples from Nangodi and Tinga communities were 0.038 and 0.064 (Hg, 0.031 and 0.002 (As, 0.250 and 0.031 (Pb, 0.034 and 0.002 (Zn, and 0.534 and 0.023 (Cd, respectively, for each community. Generally, levels of Hg, As, Pb, Zn, and Cd in water from Nangodi exceeded the World Health Organisation (WHO stipulated limits of 0.010 for Hg, As, and Pb, 3.0 for Zn and 0.003 for Cd for drinking water, and levels of Hg, Pb, and Cd recorded in Tinga, exceeded the stipulated WHO limits. Ingestion of water, containing elevated levels of Hg, As, and Cd by residents in these mining communities may pose significant health risks. Continuous monitoring of the quality of drinking water sources in these two communities is recommended.

  8. Stability assessment and operating parameter optimization on experimental results in very small plasma focus, using sensitivity analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jafari, Hossein; Habibi, Morteza

    2018-04-01

    Regarding the importance of stability in small-scale plasma focus devices for producing the repeatable and strength pinching, a sensitivity analysis approach has been used for applicability in design parameters optimization of an actually very low energy device (84 nF, 48 nH, 8-9.5 kV, ∼2.7-3.7 J). To optimize the devices functional specification, four different coaxial electrode configurations have been studied, scanning an argon gas pressure range from 0.6 to 1.5 mbar via the charging voltage variation study from 8.3 to 9.3 kV. The strength and efficient pinching was observed for the tapered anode configuration, over an expanded operating pressure range of 0.6 to 1.5 mbar. The analysis results showed that the most sensitive of the pinch voltage was associated with 0.88 ± 0.8mbar argon gas pressure and 8.3-8.5 kV charging voltage, respectively, as the optimum operating parameters. From the viewpoint of stability assessment of the device, it was observed that the least variation in stable operation of the device was for a charging voltage range of 8.3 to 8.7 kV in an operating pressure range from 0.6 to 1.1 mbar.

  9. Integrated Assessment of Artisanal and Small-Scale Gold Mining in Ghana—Part 1: Human Health Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niladri Basu

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available This report is one of three synthesis documents produced via an integrated assessment (IA that aims to increase understanding of artisanal and small-scale gold mining (ASGM in Ghana. Given the complexities surrounding ASGM, an IA framework was utilized to analyze economic, social, health, and environmental data, and co-develop evidence-based responses with pertinent stakeholders. The current analysis focuses on the health of ASGM miners and community members, and synthesizes extant data from the literature as well as co-authors’ recent findings regarding the causes, status, trends, and consequences of ASGM in Ghana. The results provide evidence from across multiple Ghanaian ASGM sites that document relatively high exposures to mercury and other heavy metals, occupational injuries and noise exposure. The work also reviews limited data on psychosocial health, nutrition, cardiovascular and respiratory health, sexual health, and water and sanitation. Taken together, the findings provide a thorough overview of human health issues in Ghanaian ASGM communities. Though more research is needed to further elucidate the relationships between ASGM and health outcomes, the existing research on plausible health consequences of ASGM should guide policies and actions to better address the unique challenges of ASGM in Ghana and potentially elsewhere.

  10. Assessing the Economic Situation of Small-Scale Farm Forestry in Mountain Regions: A Case Study in Austria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philipp Toscani

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Austria is one of the few countries with a long tradition of monitoring the economic performance of forest holdings. The national Farm Accountancy Data Network also addresses some forestry-specific issues, given the high significance of farm forestry in this country. However, it is not possible to assess the profitability of small-scale farm forestry in mountainous regions based on a representative sample. In this paper, we demonstrate how information gaps can be overcome by means of economic modeling and present results of this approach for mountain forestry for the first time. In spite of the unfavorable conditions of an alpine setting, forestry tends to be of special significance for the viability and resilience of family farms in these regions. Sustainable forest management that safeguards the ecosystem services provided by forests relies mostly on the profitability of timber production. Thus, the economic development of farm forestry is a key factor in achieving targets 15.1 and 15.4 of the United Nations Sustainable Development Goals in mountain regions.

  11. The importance of building downwash in assessing the need to heighten stacks of existing small and medium sized industries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gomes, J.F.P. [Centro de Tecnologias Ambientais, ISQ - Inst. de Soldadura e Qualidade, Oeiras (Portugal); Duarte, R. [Escola Superior de Tecnologia - Inst. Politecnico de Setubal (Portugal)

    2004-07-01

    This extended abstract intends to share the authors experience on the modelling of atmospheric pollutant dispersal and on the importance of building downwash considerations when assessing the need to heighten stacks of small and medium sized industrial enterprises (SME's). In order to understand the reasons that make industrial companies, especially SME's, consider stack heightening, in section 2 the existing Portuguese legislation on air quality and the stack heightening rules are briefly commented. New legislation that ought to appear soon (new Portuguese Air Act) is also commented and compared critically with the existing one. Then, section 3 characterizes Portuguese industry in terms of the ambient quality problems related to stack height. The adequacy of the stack heightening legislation to the particularities of the Portuguese case is discussed. In section 4 the authors experience in the specific study of stack heightening is presented. The methodology considered in these studies is discussed and compared with the application of existing and soon to appear legislation on stack height calculation. Finally, section 5 presents the conclusions and the need for an increased awareness on the pollutant dispersal problem is discussed. (orig.)

  12. Integrated Assessment of Artisanal and Small-Scale Gold Mining in Ghana—Part 1: Human Health Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basu, Niladri; Clarke, Edith; Green, Allyson; Calys-Tagoe, Benedict; Chan, Laurie; Dzodzomenyo, Mawuli; Fobil, Julius; Long, Rachel N.; Neitzel, Richard L.; Obiri, Samuel; Odei, Eric; Ovadje, Lauretta; Quansah, Reginald; Rajaee, Mozhgon; Wilson, Mark L.

    2015-01-01

    This report is one of three synthesis documents produced via an integrated assessment (IA) that aims to increase understanding of artisanal and small-scale gold mining (ASGM) in Ghana. Given the complexities surrounding ASGM, an IA framework was utilized to analyze economic, social, health, and environmental data, and co-develop evidence-based responses with pertinent stakeholders. The current analysis focuses on the health of ASGM miners and community members, and synthesizes extant data from the literature as well as co-authors’ recent findings regarding the causes, status, trends, and consequences of ASGM in Ghana. The results provide evidence from across multiple Ghanaian ASGM sites that document relatively high exposures to mercury and other heavy metals, occupational injuries and noise exposure. The work also reviews limited data on psychosocial health, nutrition, cardiovascular and respiratory health, sexual health, and water and sanitation. Taken together, the findings provide a thorough overview of human health issues in Ghanaian ASGM communities. Though more research is needed to further elucidate the relationships between ASGM and health outcomes, the existing research on plausible health consequences of ASGM should guide policies and actions to better address the unique challenges of ASGM in Ghana and potentially elsewhere. PMID:25985314

  13. Integrated assessment of artisanal and small-scale gold mining in Ghana--part 1: human health review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basu, Niladri; Clarke, Edith; Green, Allyson; Calys-Tagoe, Benedict; Chan, Laurie; Dzodzomenyo, Mawuli; Fobil, Julius; Long, Rachel N; Neitzel, Richard L; Obiri, Samuel; Odei, Eric; Ovadje, Lauretta; Quansah, Reginald; Rajaee, Mozhgon; Wilson, Mark L

    2015-05-13

    This report is one of three synthesis documents produced via an integrated assessment (IA) that aims to increase understanding of artisanal and small-scale gold mining (ASGM) in Ghana. Given the complexities surrounding ASGM, an IA framework was utilized to analyze economic, social, health, and environmental data, and co-develop evidence-based responses with pertinent stakeholders. The current analysis focuses on the health of ASGM miners and community members, and synthesizes extant data from the literature as well as co-authors' recent findings regarding the causes, status, trends, and consequences of ASGM in Ghana. The results provide evidence from across multiple Ghanaian ASGM sites that document relatively high exposures to mercury and other heavy metals, occupational injuries and noise exposure. The work also reviews limited data on psychosocial health, nutrition, cardiovascular and respiratory health, sexual health, and water and sanitation. Taken together, the findings provide a thorough overview of human health issues in Ghanaian ASGM communities. Though more research is needed to further elucidate the relationships between ASGM and health outcomes, the existing research on plausible health consequences of ASGM should guide policies and actions to better address the unique challenges of ASGM in Ghana and potentially elsewhere.

  14. Comparative Assessment of Heavy Metals in Drinking Water Sources in Two Small-Scale Mining Communities in Northern Ghana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cobbina, Samuel J; Duwiejuah, Abudu B; Quansah, Reginald; Obiri, Samuel; Bakobie, Noel

    2015-08-28

    The study assessed levels of heavy metals in drinking water sources in two small-scale mining communities (Nangodi and Tinga) in northern Ghana. Seventy-two (72) water samples were collected from boreholes, hand dug wells, dug-out, and a stream in the two mining communities. The levels of mercury (Hg), arsenic (As), lead (Pb), zinc (Zn), and cadmium (Cd) were determined using an atomic absorption spectrophotometer (AAS). Mean levels (mg/l) of heavy metals in water samples from Nangodi and Tinga communities were 0.038 and 0.064 (Hg), 0.031 and 0.002 (As), 0.250 and 0.031 (Pb), 0.034 and 0.002 (Zn), and 0.534 and 0.023 (Cd), respectively, for each community. Generally, levels of Hg, As, Pb, Zn, and Cd in water from Nangodi exceeded the World Health Organisation (WHO) stipulated limits of 0.010 for Hg, As, and Pb, 3.0 for Zn and 0.003 for Cd for drinking water, and levels of Hg, Pb, and Cd recorded in Tinga, exceeded the stipulated WHO limits. Ingestion of water, containing elevated levels of Hg, As, and Cd by residents in these mining communities may pose significant health risks. Continuous monitoring of the quality of drinking water sources in these two communities is recommended.

  15. Ecotoxicological Assessment of Sediment Leachates of Small Watercourses in the Brno City Suburban Area (South Moravia, Czech Republic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miroslava Beklová

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Sediments of two small watercourses Leskava and Troubsky Brook in the Brno city suburban area were examined for their ecotoxicity. Using a standard procedure, extracts of the sediments were prepared for diagnostic tests. These extracts were tested for acute toxicity to fresh-water organisms. The ecotoxicological tests were performed on the fresh-water alga Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata, the vascular water plant Lemna minor, on a representative of invertebrates – the water flea Daphnia magna and on the Xenopus laevis frog embryo and luminiscent Vibrio fischeri bacteria. Possible toxic effects were evaluated using the test determining the inhibition of the growth of white mustard root Sinapis alba. Results of ecotoxicological assessment of sediment leachates showed that their quality varied significantly during the year. Differences were found between results of sediment evaluations from different collection profiles, which may indicate effects of point source pollution. Of the ecotoxicological tests used, the most sensitive organisms included the green algae Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata, bioluminiscent bacteria Vibrio fischeri and the African clawed frog Xenopus laevis. The highest concentrations of arsenic were found by chemical analysis in both spring and autumn sediment leachate samples collected at Site L1 (Leskava. The highest organic pollutant concentrations were found in autumn sediment leachate samples from Site L1. In total PAH sums, phenanthrene was the dominant pollutant at all the sites investigated.

  16. Preliminary assessment of the imaging capability of the YAP-(S)PET small animal scanner in neuroscience

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bartoli, Antonietta [Department of Physics ' E. Fermi' and Center of Excellence ' AmbiSEN' , University of Pisa, and INFN, Sezione di Pisa, Pisa I- 56127 (Italy)]. E-mail: bartoli@df.unipi.it; Belcari, Nicola [Department of Physics ' E. Fermi' and Center of Excellence ' AmbiSEN' , University of Pisa, and INFN, Sezione di Pisa, Pisa I- 56127 (Italy); Stark, Daniela [Institute of Nuclear Chemistry, University of Mainz, Mainz D-55099 (Germany); Hoehnemann, Sabine [Institute of Nuclear Chemistry, University of Mainz, Mainz D-55099 (Germany); Piel, Markus [Institute of Nuclear Chemistry, University of Mainz, Mainz D-55099 (Germany); Jennewein, Marc [Institute of Nuclear Chemistry, University of Mainz, Mainz D-55099 (Germany); Schmitt, Ulrich [Department of Psychiatry, University of Mainz, Mainz D-55099 (Germany); Tillmanns, Julia [Institute of Physiology and Pathophysiology, University of Mainz, Mainz D-55099 (Germany); Thews, Oliver [Institute of Physiology and Pathophysiology, University of Mainz, Mainz D-55099 (Germany); Hiemke, Christoph [Department of Psychiatry, University of Mainz, Mainz D-55099 (Germany); Roesch, Frank [Institute of Nuclear Chemistry, University of Mainz, Mainz D-55099 (Germany); Del Guerra, Alberto [Department of Physics ' E. Fermi' and Center of Excellence ' AmbiSEN' , University of Pisa, and INFN, Sezione di Pisa, Pisa I- 56127 (Italy)

    2006-12-20

    The new and fully engineered version of the YAP-(S)PET small animal scanner has been tested at the University of Mainz for preliminary assessment of its imaging capability for studies related to neuropharmacology and psychiatry. The main feature of the scanner is the capability to combine PET and SPECT techniques. It allows the development of new and interesting protocols for the investigation of many biological phenomena, more effectively than with PET or SPECT modalities alone. The scanner is made up of four detector heads, each one composed of a 4x4 cm{sup 2} of YAlO{sub 3}:Ce (or YAP:Ce) matrix, and has a field of view (FOV) of 4 cm axiallyx4 cm o transaxially. In PET mode, the volume resolution is less than 8 mm{sup 3} and is nearly constant over the whole FOV, while the sensitivity is about 2%. The SPECT performance is not so good, due to the presence of the multi-hole lead collimator in front of each head. Nevertheless, the YAP-PET scanner offers excellent resolution and sensitivity for performing on the availability of D2-like dopamine receptors on mice and rats in both PET and SPECT modalities.

  17. Preliminary assessment of the imaging capability of the YAP-(S)PET small animal scanner in neuroscience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bartoli, Antonietta; Belcari, Nicola; Stark, Daniela; Hoehnemann, Sabine; Piel, Markus; Jennewein, Marc; Schmitt, Ulrich; Tillmanns, Julia; Thews, Oliver; Hiemke, Christoph; Roesch, Frank; Del Guerra, Alberto

    2006-01-01

    The new and fully engineered version of the YAP-(S)PET small animal scanner has been tested at the University of Mainz for preliminary assessment of its imaging capability for studies related to neuropharmacology and psychiatry. The main feature of the scanner is the capability to combine PET and SPECT techniques. It allows the development of new and interesting protocols for the investigation of many biological phenomena, more effectively than with PET or SPECT modalities alone. The scanner is made up of four detector heads, each one composed of a 4x4 cm 2 of YAlO 3 :Ce (or YAP:Ce) matrix, and has a field of view (FOV) of 4 cm axiallyx4 cm o transaxially. In PET mode, the volume resolution is less than 8 mm 3 and is nearly constant over the whole FOV, while the sensitivity is about 2%. The SPECT performance is not so good, due to the presence of the multi-hole lead collimator in front of each head. Nevertheless, the YAP-PET scanner offers excellent resolution and sensitivity for performing on the availability of D2-like dopamine receptors on mice and rats in both PET and SPECT modalities

  18. A Bayesian Belief Network approach to assess the potential of non wood forest products for small scale forest owners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vacik, Harald; Huber, Patrick; Hujala, Teppo; Kurtilla, Mikko; Wolfslehner, Bernhard

    2015-04-01

    It is an integral element of the European understanding of sustainable forest management to foster the design and marketing of forest products, non-wood forest products (NWFPs) and services that go beyond the production of timber. Despite the relevance of NWFPs in Europe, forest management and planning methods have been traditionally tailored towards wood and wood products, because most forest management models and silviculture techniques were developed to ensure a sustained production of timber. Although several approaches exist which explicitly consider NWFPs as management objectives in forest planning, specific models are needed for the assessment of their production potential in different environmental contexts and for different management regimes. Empirical data supporting a comprehensive assessment of the potential of NWFPs are rare, thus making development of statistical models particularly problematic. However, the complex causal relationships between the sustained production of NWFPs, the available ecological resources, as well as the organizational and the market potential of forest management regimes are well suited for knowledge-based expert models. Bayesian belief networks (BBNs) are a kind of probabilistic graphical model that have become very popular to practitioners and scientists mainly due to the powerful probability theory involved, which makes BBNs suitable to deal with a wide range of environmental problems. In this contribution we present the development of a Bayesian belief network to assess the potential of NWFPs for small scale forest owners. A three stage iterative process with stakeholder and expert participation was used to develop the Bayesian Network within the frame of the StarTree Project. The group of participants varied in the stages of the modelling process. A core team, consisting of one technical expert and two domain experts was responsible for the entire modelling process as well as for the first prototype of the network

  19. Comparative Experiments to Assess the Effects of Accumulator Nitrogen Injection on Passive Core Cooling During S