WorldWideScience

Sample records for small photodestruction rates

  1. Biomcompatible gold nanorods conjugated with photosensitizers assisted for photostability and photodestructive ability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuo, Wen-Shuo; Chen, Shean-Jen

    2012-02-01

    Light-exposure-mediated higher temperatures that markedly accelerate the degradation of indocyanine green (ICG) in aqueous solutions by thermal decomposition have been a serious medical problem. In this work, we present the example of using gold nanorods (Au NRs) simultaneously serving as photodynamic and photothermal agents to destroy malignant cells. Au NRs were successfully conjugated with hydrophilic photosensitizer, indocyanine green (ICG), to achieve photodynamic therapy (PDT) and photothermal therapy (PTT). We also demonstrated that Au NRs conjugated with ICG displayed high chemical stability and acted as a promising diagnostic probe. Due to its stability even via higher temperatures mediated by laser irradiation, the combination of PDT and PTT proved to be efficiently killing cancer cells as compared to PDT or PTT treatment alone and enhanced the effectiveness of photodestruction and was demonstrated to enhance its photostability.

  2. Polyphenols attached graphene nanosheets for high efficiency NIR mediated photodestruction of cancer cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdolahad, M.; Janmaleki, M.; Mohajerzadeh, S.; Akhavan, O.; Abbasi, S.

    2013-01-01

    Green tea-reduced graphene oxide (GT-rGO) sheets have been exploited for high efficiency near infrared (NIR) photothermal therapy of HT29 and SW48 colon cancer cells. The biocompatibility of GT-rGO sheets was investigated by means of MTT assays. The polyphenol constituents of GT-rGO act as effective targeting ligands for the attachment of rGO to the surface of cancer cells, as confirmed by the cell granularity test in flow cytometry assays and also by scanning electron microscopy. The photo-thermal destruction of higher metastatic cancer cells (SW48) is found to be more than 20% higher than that of the lower metastatic one (HT29). The photo-destruction efficiency factor of the GT-rGO is found to be at least two orders of magnitude higher than other carbon-based nano-materials. Such excellent cancer cell destruction efficiency provided application of a low concentration of rGO (3 mg/L) and NIR laser power density (0.25 W/cm 2 ) in our photo-thermal therapy of cancer cells. Highlights: ► Attachment of polyphenol groups to graphene nano-sheets during reduction process by green tea. ► Selective attachment of polyphenols to cancer cell membrane. ► High efficiency photothermal therapy of colon cancer cells with green-tea reduced graphene oxide

  3. Skiba points for small discount rates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wagener, F.O.O.

    2006-01-01

    The present article uses perturbation techniques to approximate the value function of an economic minimization problem for small values of the discount rate. This can be used to obtain the approximate location of the Skiba states in the problem; these are states for which there are two distinct

  4. Overcoming Multidrug Resistance via Photodestruction of ABCG2-Rich Extracellular Vesicles Sequestering Photosensitive Chemotherapeutics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goler-Baron, Vicky; Assaraf, Yehuda G.

    2012-01-01

    lysosomal photodestruction of normal breast epithelial cells. Thus, MDR modalities including ABCG2-dependent drug sequestration within EVs can be rationally converted to a pharmacologically lethal Trojan horse to selectively eradicate MDR cancer cells. PMID:22530032

  5. THE OCCURRENCE RATE OF SMALL PLANETS AROUND SMALL STARS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dressing, Courtney D.; Charbonneau, David

    2013-01-01

    We use the optical and near-infrared photometry from the Kepler Input Catalog to provide improved estimates of the stellar characteristics of the smallest stars in the Kepler target list. We find 3897 dwarfs with temperatures below 4000 K, including 64 planet candidate host stars orbited by 95 transiting planet candidates. We refit the transit events in the Kepler light curves for these planet candidates and combine the revised planet/star radius ratios with our improved stellar radii to revise the radii of the planet candidates orbiting the cool target stars. We then compare the number of observed planet candidates to the number of stars around which such planets could have been detected in order to estimate the planet occurrence rate around cool stars. We find that the occurrence rate of 0.5-4 R ⊕ planets with orbital periods shorter than 50 days is 0.90 +0.04 -0.03 planets per star. The occurrence rate of Earth-size (0.5-1.4 R ⊕ ) planets is constant across the temperature range of our sample at 0.51 -0.05 +0.06 Earth-size planets per star, but the occurrence of 1.4-4 R ⊕ planets decreases significantly at cooler temperatures. Our sample includes two Earth-size planet candidates in the habitable zone, allowing us to estimate that the mean number of Earth-size planets in the habitable zone is 0.15 +0.13 -0.06 planets per cool star. Our 95% confidence lower limit on the occurrence rate of Earth-size planets in the habitable zones of cool stars is 0.04 planets per star. With 95% confidence, the nearest transiting Earth-size planet in the habitable zone of a cool star is within 21 pc. Moreover, the nearest non-transiting planet in the habitable zone is within 5 pc with 95% confidence.

  6. Measurement and numerical simulation of a small centrifugal compressor characteristics at small or negative flow rate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsukamoto, Kaname; Okada, Mizuki; Inokuchi, Yuzo; Yamasaki, Nobuhiko; Yamagata, Akihiro

    2017-04-01

    For centrifugal compressors used in automotive turbochargers, the extension of the surge margin is demanded because of lower engine speed. In order to estimate the surge line exactly, it is required to acquire the compressor characteristics at small or negative flow rate. In this paper, measurement and numerical simulation of the characteristics at small or negative flow rate are carried out. In the measurement, an experimental facility with a valve immediately downstream of the compressor is used to suppress the surge. In the numerical work, a new boundary condition that specifies mass flow rate at the outlet boundary is used to simulate the characteristics around the zero flow rate region. Furthermore, flow field analyses at small or negative flow rate are performed with the numerical results. The separated and re-circulated flow fields are investigated by visualization to identify the origin of losses.

  7. Inflation, Growth and Exchange Rate Regimes in Small Open Economies

    OpenAIRE

    Hernandez-Verme, Paula

    2002-01-01

    Summary. This is an extended working paper version of the paper that appeared in Economic Theory. It paper compares the merits of alternative exchange rate regimes in small open economies where financial intermediaries perform a real allocative function, there are multiple reserve requirements, and credit market frictions may or may not cause credit rationing. Under floating exchange rates, raising domestic inflation can increase production if credit is rationed. However, there exist infla...

  8. Seasonal Variation in Trypanosomosis Rates in Small Ruminants at ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Seasonal variation in trypanosome parasitological infection rates in small ruminants was studied at the Kaduna Central abattoir, North Central Nigeria. Blood samples were obtained at slaughter from 320 goats and 209 sheep during the dry and rainy seasons and examined using the Haematocrit Centrifugation Technique ...

  9. The reduced VAT rate for small business in Croatia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mira Dimitrić

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper assesses the potential effects of introduction of the reduced VAT rate for small business, based on the EU VAT legislation development. The analysis includes effects on prices, sales, shadow economy and employment. It starts with the assumption of no substantial effect. Survey for Croatia is done by small business owners’ interviews and encompasses descriptive and inferential statistics based on parametric tests. The EU expected existence of a link between VAT reduction, price reduction, sales increase and positive effects on employment (as well as decline in the shadow economy is proved even in this research. However, the pass-through to prices is very moderate as well as other effects. The reduced VAT rate could have some positive results for the restaurants and bars only. There exists also some possibility for construction of housing and construction services related to housing as well as some other labour intensive services.

  10. Development of a New Small-Rated Reference Torque Wrench

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishino, Atsuhiro; Ogushi, Koji; Ueda, Kazunaga

    It is imperative that torque standard of small rated capacity is established and disseminated throughout Japanese industry. A 10 N·m dead weight torque standard machine (10-N·m-DWTSM) has been developed and evaluated at the National Metrology Institute of Japan (NMIJ), part of the National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST). By 2012, the relative expanded uncertainty of torque realized by the 10-N·m-DWTSM was estimated to be 6.6 × 10-5, with the coverage factor k begin equal to 2, in a range from 0.1 N·m to 10 N·m for calibrations of the torque measuring devices (TMDs). Calibration service for small-rated-capacity TMDs was started to disseminate the torque standard throughout Japanese industry. Here, there are two routes in the torque traceability system in Japan. One is the route for TMDs and the other one is the route for reference torque wrenches (RTWs). The torque standard in the form of RTWs has been disseminated in the range from 5 N·m to 5 kN·m by using the TSMs owned by NMIJ. There remains a strong demand to expand the calibration range of RTWs. To expand the range, we should develop the new high-accuracy small-rated-capacity RTW and evaluate its calibration method. In this study, a high-accuracy RTW (TP-5N-1109), which had a rated capacity of 5 N·m, was newly developed and calibrated with the 10-N·m-DWTSM to evaluate its characteristics. The ordinary calibration procedures adopted at NMIJ was investigated whether it was applicable to the small-rated-capacity RTWs. As a result, the TP-5N-1109 showed good performance in the creep testing, and its characteristic curves were draw for all cases of the calibration procedures. The repeatability in the calibration results was good. We clarified the problem with the calibration conditions of the small-rated-capacity RTW to calibrate it by three cases.

  11. Modelling hourly rates of evaporation from small lakes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. J. Granger

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the results of a field study of open water evaporation carried out on three small lakes in Western and Northern Canada. In this case small lakes are defined as those for which the temperature above the water surface is governed by the upwind land surface conditions; that is, a continuous boundary layer exists over the lake, and large-scale atmospheric effects such as entrainment do not come into play. Lake evaporation was measured directly using eddy covariance equipment; profiles of wind speed, air temperature and humidity were also obtained over the water surfaces. Observations were made as well over the upwind land surface.

    The major factors controlling open water evaporation were examined. The study showed that for time periods shorter than daily, the open water evaporation bears no relationship to the net radiation; the wind speed is the most significant factor governing the evaporation rates, followed by the land-water temperature contrast and the land-water vapour pressure contrast. The effect of the stability on the wind field was demonstrated; relationships were developed relating the land-water wind speed contrast to the land-water temperature contrast. The open water period can be separated into two distinct evaporative regimes: the warming period in the Spring, when the land is warmer than the water, the turbulent fluxes over water are suppressed; and the cooling period, when the water is warmer than the land, the turbulent fluxes over water are enhanced.

    Relationships were developed between the hourly rates of lake evaporation and the following significant variables and parameters (wind speed, land-lake temperature and humidity contrasts, and the downwind distance from shore. The result is a relatively simple versatile model for estimating the hourly lake evaporation rates. The model was tested using two independent data sets. Results show that the modelled evaporation follows the observed values

  12. Role of active oxygen species in the photodestruction of microsomal cytochrome P-450 and associated monooxygenases by hematoporphyrin derivative in rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Das, M.; Dixit, R.; Mukhtar, H.; Bickers, D.R.

    1985-01-01

    The cytochrome P-450 in hepatic microsomes prepared from rats pretreated with hematoporphyrin derivative was shown to be rapidly destroyed in the presence of long-wave ultraviolet light. The photocatalytic destruction of the heme-protein was dependent on both the dose of ultraviolet light and of hematoporphyrin derivative administered to the animals. The destructive reaction was accompanied by increased formation of cytochrome P-420, loss of microsomal heme content, and diminished catalytic activity of cytochrome P-450-dependent monooxygenases such as aryl hydrocarbon hydroxylase and 7-ethoxycoumarin O-deethylase. The specificity of the effect on cytochrome P-450 was confirmed by the observation that other heme-containing moieties such as myoglobin and cytochrome c were not susceptible to photocatalytic destruction. The destruction of cytochrome P-450 was a photodynamic process requiring oxygen since quenchers of singlet oxygen, including 2,5-dimethylfuran, histidine, and beta-carotene, each substantially diminished the reaction. Scavengers of superoxide anion such as superoxide dismutase and of H 2 O 2 such as catalase did not protect against photodestruction of cytochrome P-450, whereas inhibitors of the hydroxyl radical, including benzoate, mannitol, and ethyl alcohol, did afford protection. These results indicate that lipid-rich microsomal membranes and the heme-protein cytochrome P-450 embedded therein are potential targets of injury in cells exposed to hematoporphyrin derivative photosensitization

  13. Can peers rate reliably as experts in small CSCL groups?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Magnisalis, Ioannis; Demetriadis, Stavros; Papadopoulos, Pantelis M.

    2016-01-01

    Research on the impact of peer rating (PR) has provided encouraging results, as a method to foster collaborative learning and improve its outcomes. The scope of this paper is to discuss peer rating towards two specific directions that usually are neglected in the CSCL field, namely: (a) coaching...... of objective anonymous peer rating through a rubric, and (b) provision of peer rating summary information during collaboration. The case study utilized an asynchronous CSCL tool with the two aforementioned capabilities. Initial results showed that peer rating, when anonymous, and guided, can be as reliable...

  14. A comparison of surveillance methods for small incidence rates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sego, Landon H.; Woodall, William H.; Reynolds, Marion R.

    2008-05-15

    A number of methods have been proposed to detect an increasing shift in the incidence rate of a rare health event, such as a congenital malformation. Among these are the Sets method, two modifcations of the Sets method, and the CUSUM method based on the Poisson distribution. We consider the situation where data are observed as a sequence of Bernoulli trials and propose the Bernoulli CUSUM chart as a desirable method for the surveillance of rare health events. We compare the performance of the Sets method and its modifcations to the Bernoulli CUSUM chart under a wide variety of circumstances. Chart design parameters were chosen to satisfy a minimax criteria.We used the steady- state average run length to measure chart performance instead of the average run length which was used in nearly all previous comparisons involving the Sets method or its modifcations. Except in a very few instances, we found that the Bernoulli CUSUM chart has better steady-state average run length performance than the Sets method and its modifcations for the extensive number of cases considered.

  15. Small-volume amnioinfusion: a potential stimulus of intrapartum fetal heart rate accelerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wax, Joseph R; Flaherty, Nina; Pinette, Michael G; Blackstone, Jacquelyn; Cartin, Angelina

    2004-02-01

    We describe a recurrent nonreassuring fetal heart rate pattern in which small-volume amnioinfusions apparently evoked fetal heart rate accelerations suggested fetal well-being, allowing that progressive labor that culminated in the vaginal delivery of a healthy infant.

  16. The effect of barium infusion rate on the diagnostic value of small bowel enteroclysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oudkerk, M.; Rijke, A.M.

    1988-01-01

    Although enteroclysis may have many advantages over the conventional methods of small bowel examination, the contrast material is not always infused at a rate appropriate to gain maximum diagnostic information. In this study, 190 patients were examined by small bowell enteroclysis at five contrast infusion rates ranging from 50 to 150 ml/min using a newly designed infusion pump system. The results show that at rates above 75 ml/min, motility disturbances are masked by small bowel dilatation and paralysis, transit times are extended and morphological detail is obscured. At rates below 75 ml/min, incomplete filling of the loops renders optimal diagnostic evaluation impossible. An infusion rate of 75 ml/min was found to be optimal for initiating small bowel studies. This rate can be adjusted for individual cases when pathology or drugs affect the motility of the small bowel. 13 refs.; 5 figs.; 1 table

  17. Internal Flow of Contra-Rotating Small Hydroturbine at Off- Design Flow Rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    SHIGEMITSU, Toru; TAKESHIMA, Yasutoshi; OGAWA, Yuya; FUKUTOMI, Junichiro

    2016-11-01

    Small hydropower generation is one of important alternative energy, and enormous potential lie in the small hydropower. However, efficiency of small hydroturbines is lower than that of large one. Then, there are demands for small hydroturbines to keep high performance in wide flow rate range. Therefore, we adopted contra-rotating rotors, which can be expected to achieve high performance. In this research, performance of the contra-rotating small hydroturbine with 60mm casing diameter was investigated by an experiment and numerical analysis. Efficiency of the contra-rotating small hydroturbine was high in pico-hydroturbine and high efficiency could be kept in wide flow rate range, however the performance of a rear rotor decreased significantly in partial flow rates. Then, internal flow condition, which was difficult to measure experimentally, was investigated by the numerical flow analysis. Then, a relation between the performance and internal flow condition was considered by the numerical analysis result.

  18. Real Exchange Rate Dynamics in a Small, Primary-Exporting Country

    OpenAIRE

    Mohsin S. Khan; Peter J. Montiel

    1987-01-01

    Although the nominal exchange rate is often used as a policy instrument in small, primary-commodity-exporting countries, the real exchange rate is an endogenous variable that responds to both exogenous and policyinduced shocks. This paper examines the dynamic effects on the real exchange rate of various shocks, such as devaluation, fiscal and trade policies, and changes in the terms of trade and foreign real interest rates. Because the path of the real exchange rate differs for different type...

  19. Small Business Administration (SBA) Loan Program Performance- Post-Charge Off Recovery Rates by Program

    Data.gov (United States)

    Small Business Administration — Reflects total post-charge off recovery rates, as a percent of the amounts charged off by charge off year, for the major loan programs and aggregate totals by charge...

  20. On the upper ocean turbulent dissipation rate due to microscale breakers and small whitecaps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banner, Michael L.; Morison, Russel P.

    2018-06-01

    In ocean wave modelling, accurately computing the evolution of the wind-wave spectrum depends on the source terms and the spectral bandwidth used. The wave dissipation rate source term which spectrally quantifies wave breaking and other dissipative processes remains poorly understood, including the spectral bandwidth needed to capture the essential model physics. The observational study of Sutherland and Melville (2015a) investigated the relative dissipation rate contributions of breaking waves, from large-scale whitecaps to microbreakers. They concluded that a large fraction of wave energy was dissipated by microbreakers. However, in strong contrast with their findings, our analysis of their data and other recent data sets shows that for young seas, microbreakers and small whitecaps contribute only a small fraction of the total breaking wave dissipation rate. For older seas, we find microbreakers and small whitecaps contribute a large fraction of the breaking wave dissipation rate, but this is only a small fraction of the total dissipation rate, which is now dominated by non-breaking contributions. Hence, for all the wave age conditions observed, microbreakers make an insignificant contribution to the total wave dissipation rate in the wave boundary layer. We tested the sensitivity of the results to the SM15a whitecap analysis methodology by transforming the SM15a breaking data using our breaking crest processing methodology. This resulted in the small-scale breaking waves making an even smaller contribution to the total wave dissipation rate, and so the result is independent of the breaker processing methodology. Comparison with other near-surface total TKE dissipation rate observations also support this conclusion. These contributions to the spectral dissipation rate in ocean wave models are small and need not be explicitly resolved.

  1. Estimating the erosion and deposition rates in a small watershed by the 137Cs tracing method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Mian; Li Zhanbin; Yao Wenyi; Liu Puling

    2009-01-01

    Understanding the erosion and deposition rates in a small watershed is important for designing soil and water conservation measures. The objective of this study is to estimate the net soil loss and gain at points with various land use types and landform positions in a small watershed in the Sichuan Hilly Basin of China by the 137 Cs tracing technique. Among various land use types, the order of erosion rate was bare rock > sloping cultivated land > forest land. The paddy field and Caotu (a kind of cultivated land located at the foot of hills) were depositional areas. The erosion rate under different landform was in this order: hillside > saddle > hilltop. The footslope and the valley were depositional areas. The 137 Cs technique was shown to provide an effective means of documenting the spatial distribution of soil erosion and deposition within the small watershed

  2. Monetary Policy in Small Open Economies: The Role of Exchange Rate Rules

    OpenAIRE

    Santacreu, Ana Maria

    2015-01-01

    Understanding the costs and benefits of alternative monetary policy rules is important for economic welfare. Within the context of a small open economy model and building on the work of Mihov and Santacreu (2013), the author analyzes the economic implications of two monetary policy rules. The first is a rule in which the central bank uses the nominal exchange rate as its policy instrument and adjusts the rate whenever there are changes in the economic environment. The second is a standard int...

  3. The Small Nuclear Genomes of Selaginella Are Associated with a Low Rate of Genome Size Evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baniaga, Anthony E; Arrigo, Nils; Barker, Michael S

    2016-06-03

    The haploid nuclear genome size (1C DNA) of vascular land plants varies over several orders of magnitude. Much of this observed diversity in genome size is due to the proliferation and deletion of transposable elements. To date, all vascular land plant lineages with extremely small nuclear genomes represent recently derived states, having ancestors with much larger genome sizes. The Selaginellaceae represent an ancient lineage with extremely small genomes. It is unclear how small nuclear genomes evolved in Selaginella We compared the rates of nuclear genome size evolution in Selaginella and major vascular plant clades in a comparative phylogenetic framework. For the analyses, we collected 29 new flow cytometry estimates of haploid genome size in Selaginella to augment publicly available data. Selaginella possess some of the smallest known haploid nuclear genome sizes, as well as the lowest rate of genome size evolution observed across all vascular land plants included in our analyses. Additionally, our analyses provide strong support for a history of haploid nuclear genome size stasis in Selaginella Our results indicate that Selaginella, similar to other early diverging lineages of vascular land plants, has relatively low rates of genome size evolution. Further, our analyses highlight that a rapid transition to a small genome size is only one route to an extremely small genome. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Molecular Biology and Evolution.

  4. Effect of fishing effort on catch rate and catchability of largemouth bass in small impoundments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wegener, M. G.; Schramm, Harold; Neal, J. W.; Gerard, P.D.

    2018-01-01

    Largemouth bass Micropterus salmoides (Lacepède) catch rates decline with sustained fishing effort, even without harvest. It is unclear why declines in catch rate occur, and little research has been directed at how to improve catch rate. Learning has been proposed as a reason for declining catch rate, but has never been tested on largemouth bass. If catch rate declines because fish learn to avoid lures, periods of no fishing could be a management tool for increasing catch rate. In this study, six small impoundments with established fish populations were fished for two May to October fishing seasons to evaluate the effect of fishing effort on catch rate. Closed seasons were implemented to test whether a 2‐month period of no fishing improved catch rates and to determine whether conditioning from factors other than being captured reduced catch rate. Mixed‐model analysis indicated catch rate and catchability declined throughout the fishing season. Catch rate and catchability increased after a 2‐month closure but soon declined to the lowest levels of the fishing season. These changes in catch rate and catchability support the conclusion of learned angler avoidance, but sustained catchability of fish not previously caught does not support that associative or social learning affected catchability.

  5. Selected Influences on Solo and Small-Ensemble Festival Ratings: Replication and Extension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergee, Martin J.; McWhirter, Jamila L.

    2005-01-01

    Festival performance is no trivial endeavor. At one midwestern state festival alone, 10,938 events received a rating over a 3-year period (2001-2003). Such an extensive level of participation justifies sustained study. To learn more about variables that may underlie success at solo and small ensemble evaluative festivals, Bergee and Platt (2003)…

  6. Stability of a Model Explaining Selected Extramusical Influences on Solo and Small-Ensemble Festival Ratings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergee, Martin J.; Westfall, Claude R.

    2005-01-01

    This is the third study in a line of inquiry whose purpose has been to develop a theoretical model of selected extra musical variables' influence on solo and small-ensemble festival ratings. Authors of the second of these (Bergee & McWhirter, 2005) had used binomial logistic regression as the basis for their model-formulation strategy. Their…

  7. Disappearance rate of praziquantel-containing bait around villages and small towns in southern Bavaria, Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janko, Christof; König, Andreas

    2011-04-01

    In recent years, the red fox (Vulpes vulpes) has increasingly occupied urban areas in central Europe. Meanwhile, prevalence of infection in foxes with the small fox tapeworm (Echinococcus multilocularis) has increased, thereby increasing the human risk of infection with the parasite, which causes alveolar echinococcosis. Baiting strategies to counteract E. multilocularis have been implemented in cities and the open countryside, but there are few data on the situation in villages and small towns (edges for 7 days after distribution. Disappearance rates were 89.2% in villages, 88.8% in small towns, and 91.8% in settlement edges. More than 75% of the bait was consistently taken within the first three nights. There were no significant differences in disappearance rates between years or among seasons (Cox proportional hazard model). The survival time of the bait in small towns (P=0.021) and villages (P=0.026) depended on the zone (zone 1, first row of houses bordering on open countryside; zone 2, second to fourth rows, zone 3; beyond the fifth row) in which bait was distributed. In villages, the probability of bait being eaten in zone 1 was 119% higher than it was in zone 3 (P=0.007). In small towns, the probability was 60% higher (P=0.006).

  8. Optimal Monetary Policy and Exchange Rate in a Small Open Economy with Unemployment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyuk-Jae Rhee

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we consider a small open economy under the New Keynesian model with unemployment of Gali (2011a, b to discuss the design of the monetary policy. Our findings can be summarized in three parts. First, even with the existence of unemployment, the optimal policy is to minimize variance of domestic price inflation, wage inflation, and the output gap when both domestic price and wage are sticky. Second, stabilizing unemployment rate is important in reducing the welfare loss incurred by both technology and labor supply shocks. Therefore, introducing the unemployment rate as an another argument into the Taylor-rule type interest rate rule will be welfare-enhancing. Lastly, controlling CPI inflation is the best option when the policy is not allowed to respond to unemployment rate. Once the unemployment rate is controlled, however, stabilizing power of CPI inflation-based Taylor rule is diminished.

  9. A comparison of small-area hospitalisation rates, estimated morbidity and hospital access.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shulman, H; Birkin, M; Clarke, G P

    2015-11-01

    Published data on hospitalisation rates tend to reveal marked spatial variations within a city or region. Such variations may simply reflect corresponding variations in need at the small-area level. However, they might also be a consequence of poorer accessibility to medical facilities for certain communities within the region. To help answer this question it is important to compare these variable hospitalisation rates with small-area estimates of need. This paper first maps hospitalisation rates at the small-area level across the region of Yorkshire in the UK to show the spatial variations present. Then the Health Survey of England is used to explore the characteristics of persons with heart disease, using chi-square and logistic regression analysis. Using the most significant variables from this analysis the authors build a spatial microsimulation model of morbidity for heart disease for the Yorkshire region. We then compare these estimates of need with the patterns of hospitalisation rates seen across the region. Crown Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Peritoneal fluid transport in CAPD patients with different transport rates of small solutes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobiecka, Danuta; Waniewski, Jacek; Weryński, Andrzej; Lindholm, Bengt

    2004-01-01

    Continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD) patients with high peritoneal solute transport rate often have inadequate peritoneal fluid transport. It is not known whether this inadequate fluid transport is due solely to a too rapid fall of osmotic pressure, or if the decreased effectiveness of fluid transport is also a contributing factor. To analyze fluid transport parameters and the effectiveness of dialysis fluid osmotic pressure in the induction of fluid flow in CAPD patients with different small solute transport rates. 44 CAPD patients were placed in low (n = 6), low-average (n = 13), high-average (n = 19), and high (n = 6) transport groups according to a modified peritoneal equilibration test (PET). The study involved a 6-hour peritoneal dialysis dwell with 2 L 3.86% glucose dialysis fluid for each patient. Radioisotopically labeled serum albumin was added as a volume marker.The fluid transport parameters (osmotic conductance and fluid absorption rate) were estimated using three mathematical models of fluid transport: (1) Pyle model (model P), which describes ultrafiltration rate as an exponential function of time; (2) model OS, which is based on the linear relationship of ultrafiltration rate and overall osmolality gradient between dialysis fluid and blood; and (3) model G, which is based on the linear relationship between ultrafiltration rate and glucose concentration gradient between dialysis fluid and blood. Diffusive mass transport coefficients (K(BD)) for glucose, urea, creatinine, potassium, and sodium were estimated using the modified Babb-Randerson-Farrell model. The high transport group had significantly lower dialysate volume and glucose and osmolality gradients between dialysate and blood, but significantly higher K(BD) for small solutes compared with the other transport groups. Osmotic conductance, fluid absorption rate, and initial ultrafiltration rate did not differ among the transport groups for model OS and model P. Model G yielded

  11. Modelling small-area inequality in premature mortality using years of life lost rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Congdon, Peter

    2013-04-01

    Analysis of premature mortality variations via standardized expected years of life lost (SEYLL) measures raises questions about suitable modelling for mortality data, especially when developing SEYLL profiles for areas with small populations. Existing fixed effects estimation methods take no account of correlations in mortality levels over ages, causes, socio-ethnic groups or areas. They also do not specify an underlying data generating process, or a likelihood model that can include trends or correlations, and are likely to produce unstable estimates for small-areas. An alternative strategy involves a fully specified data generation process, and a random effects model which "borrows strength" to produce stable SEYLL estimates, allowing for correlations between ages, areas and socio-ethnic groups. The resulting modelling strategy is applied to gender-specific differences in SEYLL rates in small-areas in NE London, and to cause-specific mortality for leading causes of premature mortality in these areas.

  12. Effect of orientation and loading rate on compression behavior of small-scale Mo pillars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schneider, A.S.; Clark, B.G.; Frick, C.P.; Gruber, P.A.; Arzt, E.

    2009-01-01

    Recently, much work has focused on the size effect in face centered cubic (fcc) structures, however few pillar studies have focused on body centered cubic (bcc) metals. This paper explores the role of bcc crystal structure on the size effect, through compression testing of [001] and [235] Molybdenum (Mo) small-scale pillars manufactured by focused ion beam (FIB). The pillar diameters ranged from 200 nm to 5 μm. Results show that the relationship between yield stress and diameter exhibits an inverse relationship (σ y ∝ d -0.22 for [001] Mo and σ y ∝ d -0.34 for [235] Mo) weaker than that observed for face centered cubic (fcc) metals (σ y ∝ d -0.6to-1.0 ). Additional tests at various loading rates revealed that small-scale Mo pillars exhibit a strain rate sensitivity similar to bulk Mo.

  13. Effect of control activity on blade fatigue damage rate for a small horizontal axis wind turbine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Riddle, A F; Freris, L L; Graham, J M.R. [Imperial College, London (United Kingdom)

    1996-09-01

    An experiment into the effect of control activity on blade fatigue damage rate for a 5 kW, two bladed, teetered HAWT has been performed. It has been shown that control activity influences the distribution of strain in the blade but that in a high rotor speed, high cycle fatigue regime this has little influence on damage rate. The experiment was conducted on a small test turbine by implementing variable speed stall, pitch and yaw control strategies and measuring blade flapwise strain response at root and midspan locations. A full description of the investigation is provided. (au)

  14. Interference Mitigation and Sum Rate Optimization for MIMO Downlink Small Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. H. Kha

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper addresses interference issues in multiuser multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO downlink heterogeneous networks in which multiple small cells are deployed in macrocell coverage. With the higher priority to access the frequency bands, the macro base station (MBS will exploit eigenmode transmission along with water-filling based power allocation to maximize its data rate. To avoid harmful interference to macro users, we propose structures of the precoders at the small cell BSs (SBSs as cascades of two precoding matrices. In addition, to mitigate intra-tier inference in small cells, the SBSs exploit the user scheduling schemes for their associated users. We investigate two user scheduling schemes using the minimum interference leakage and maximum signal to noise ratio criteria. The sum rate of the selected users can be further improved by power allocation. We develop an iterative algorithm using difference of convex functions (d.c. programming to tackle the mathematical challenges of the nonconvex power allocation problem, Numerical simulation results show that the proposed strategy outperforms the conventional methods in terms of the achievable sum rate.

  15. Local control rate and prognosis after sequential chemoradiation for small cell carcinoma of the bladder

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meijer, Richard P.; Meinhardt, Wim; Poel, Henk G. van der; Rhijn, Bas W. van; Kerst, J. Martijn; Pos, Floris J.; Horenblas, Simon; Bex, Axel

    2013-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to assess the long-term outcome and the risk for local recurrence of patients with small cell carcinoma of the bladder (SCCB) treated with neoadjuvant chemotherapy followed by external beam radiotherapy (sequential chemoradiation). All consecutive patients with primary small cell carcinoma of the bladder (n=66), treated in our institution between 1993 and 2011 were retrospectively evaluated from an institutional database. Only patients with limited disease (Tx-4N0-1M0) small cell carcinoma of the bladder treated with sequential chemoradiation (n=27) were included in this study. Recurrence rates, overall survival and cancer-specific survival were analyzed using the Kaplan-Meier method. Median time to recurrence was 20 months, median overall survival 26 months, 5-year overall survival 22.2%, median cancer-specific survival 47 months and 5-year cancer-specific survival 39.6%. For complete responders after neoadjuvant chemotherapy (n=19), median cancer-specific survival was 52 months with a 5-year cancer-specific survival 45.9% versus a median cancer-specific survival of 22 months and 5-year cancer-specific survival 0.0% for incomplete responders (n=8; P=0.034). Eight patients (29.6%) underwent transurethral resections (TUR-BT) for local recurrences in the bladder. At the end of follow up, four patients had undergone cystectomy for recurrence of disease resulting in a bladder-preservation rate of 85.2%. Median time to local recurrence was 29 months and median time to distant recurrence was 10 months. Sequential chemoradiation for limited disease small cell carcinoma of the bladder results in a reasonable outcome with a high bladder preservation rate. Response to neoadjuvant chemotherapy represents a significant prognostic factor in this patient population. (author)

  16. An Experimental investigation of critical flow rates of subcooled water through short pipes with small diameters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Choon Kyung

    1997-02-01

    The primary objective of this study is to improve our understanding on critical flow phenomena in a small size leak and to develop a model which can be used to estimate the critical mass flow rates through reactor vessel or primary coolant pipe wall. For this purpose, critical two-phase flow phenomena of subcooled water through short pipes (100 ≤ L ≤ 400 mm) with small diameters (3.4 ≤ D ≤ 7.15 mm) have been experimentally investigated for wide ranges of subcooling (0∼199 .deg. C) and pressure (0.5∼2.0MPa). To examine the effects of various parameters (i.e., the location of flashing inception, the degree of subcooling, the stagnation temperature and pressure, and the pipe size) on the critical two-phase flow rates of subcooled water, a total of 135 runs were made for various combinations of test parameters using four different L/D test sections. Experimental results that show effects of various parameters on subcooled critical two-phase flow rates are presented. The measured static pressure profiles along the discharge pipe show that the critical flow rate can be strongly influenced by the flashing location. The locations of saturation pressure for different values of the stagnation subcooling have been consistently determined from the pressure profiles. Based upon the test results, two important parameters have been identified. These are cold state discharge coefficient and dimensionless subcooling, which are found to efficiently take into account the test section geometry and the stagnation conditions, respectively. A semi-empirical model has been developed to predict subcooled two-phase flow rates through small size openings. This model provides a simple and direct calculation of the critical mass flow rates with information on the initial condition and on the test section geometry. Comparisons between the mass fluxes calculated by present model and a total of 755 selected experimental data from 9 different investigators show that the agreement is

  17. Preliminary Design and Simulation of a Turbo Expander for Small Rated Power Organic Rankine Cycle (ORC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Capata

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, the Organic Rankine Cycle (ORC system, which operates with organic fluids, is one of the leading technologies for “waste energy recovery”. It works as a conventional Rankine Cycle but, as mentioned, instead of steam/water, an organic fluid is used. This change allows it to convert low temperature heat into electric energy where required. Large numbers of studies have been carried out to identify the most suitable fluids, system parameters and the various configurations. In the present market, most ORC systems are designed and manufactured for the recovery of thermal energy from various sources operating at “large power rating” (exhaust gas turbines, internal combustion engines, geothermal sources, large melting furnaces, biomass, solar, etc.; from which it is possible to produce a large amount of electric energy (30 kW ÷ 300 kW. Such applications for small nominal power sources, as well as the exhaust gases of internal combustion engines (car sedan or town, ships, etc. or small heat exchangers, are very limited. The few systems that have been designed and built for small scale applications, have, on the other hand, different types of expander (screw, scroll, etc.. These devices are not adapted for placement in small and restricted places like the interior of a conventional car. The aim of this work is to perform the preliminary design of a turbo-expander that meets diverse system requirements such as low pressure, small size and low mass flow rates. The expander must be adaptable to a small ORC system utilizing gas of a diesel engine or small gas turbine as thermal source to produce 2–10 kW of electricity. The temperature and pressure of the exhaust gases, in this case study (400–600 °C and a pressure of 2 bar, imposes a limit on the use of an organic fluid and on the net power that can be produced. In addition to water, fluids such as CO2, R134a and R245fa have been considered. Once the operating fluids has been chosen

  18. Economic fluctuations in a small economy with two productive sectors under a floating exchange rate regime

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Ustorgio Mora Mora

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a theoretical model of aggregate supply and demand in a small economy with two productive sectors, under a flexible exchange regime and imperfect capital mobility. Only one of the production sectors is assumed to produce an exportable commodity sold at world market prices, while the production of the other sector is assumed to supply the domestic market. This model helps to explain how the impact of both domestic (economic policy, productivity, etc. and foreign (changes in exchange terms shocks is spread. In every case studied, results show that real output increases consistently with those cases postulated by economic theory. Conversely, the effects on the price level, the exchange rate and the real interest rate are ambiguous. In terms of domestic shocks, fiscal or monetary policy may be seen as a way to stabilize or stimulate the economy but the costs involved raise the price level.

  19. Penguin head movement detected using small accelerometers: a proxy of prey encounter rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kokubun, Nobuo; Kim, Jeong-Hoon; Shin, Hyoung-Chul; Naito, Yasuhiko; Takahashi, Akinori

    2011-11-15

    Determining temporal and spatial variation in feeding rates is essential for understanding the relationship between habitat features and the foraging behavior of top predators. In this study we examined the utility of head movement as a proxy of prey encounter rates in medium-sized Antarctic penguins, under the presumption that the birds should move their heads actively when they encounter and peck prey. A field study of free-ranging chinstrap and gentoo penguins was conducted at King George Island, Antarctica. Head movement was recorded using small accelerometers attached to the head, with simultaneous monitoring for prey encounter or body angle. The main prey was Antarctic krill (>99% in wet mass) for both species. Penguin head movement coincided with a slow change in body angle during dives. Active head movements were extracted using a high-pass filter (5 Hz acceleration signals) and the remaining acceleration peaks (higher than a threshold acceleration of 1.0 g) were counted. The timing of head movements coincided well with images of prey taken from the back-mounted cameras: head movement was recorded within ±2.5 s of a prey image on 89.1±16.1% (N=7 trips) of images. The number of head movements varied largely among dive bouts, suggesting large temporal variations in prey encounter rates. Our results show that head movement is an effective proxy of prey encounter, and we suggest that the method will be widely applicable for a variety of predators.

  20. Evaluation of effective coolant flow rate in advanced design of the small scale VHTR core

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fumizawa, Motoo; Suzuki, Kunihiko; Murakami, Tomoyuki.

    1988-02-01

    This report describes the evaluation of effective coolant flow rate in the advanced design of the small scale VHTR core. The analytical design study was carried out after the 2nd stage of detailed design in order to reduce the cost of construction. The summary of the analytical results are as follows: (1) Crossflow loss coefficient of flange type fuel block having 0.1 mm of sealing gap is about 100 times higher than that of dowel type block adopted in the 2nd stage of detailed design. (2) In case that coolant channel outer diameter is 52 mm and hydraulic diameter is 6 mm, the effective coolant flow rates using flange and dowel type fuel blocks are 80 % and 70 % respectively. Because the crossflow loss coefficients of dowel type are lower than that of flange type. (3) The effective coolant flow rate, when crossflow loss coefficients are distributed along with the axial direction, agrees well with that using mean value of crossflow loss coefficient i.e. 5 x 10 11 m -4 . (author)

  1. Small crater modification on Meridiani Planum and implications for erosion rates and climate change on Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golombek, M.P.; Warner, N.H.; Ganti, V.; Lamb, M.P.; Parker, T.J.; Fergason, Robin L.; Sullivan, R.

    2014-01-01

    A morphometric and morphologic catalog of ~100 small craters imaged by the Opportunity rover over the 33.5 km traverse between Eagle and Endeavour craters on Meridiani Planum shows craters in six stages of degradation that range from fresh and blocky to eroded and shallow depressions ringed by planed off rim blocks. The age of each morphologic class from Mars over ~100 Myr and 3 Gyr timescales from the Amazonian and Hesperian are of order <0.01 m/Myr, which is 3–4 orders of magnitude slower than typical terrestrial rates. Erosion rates during the Middle-Late Noachian averaged over ~250 Myr, and ~700 Myr intervals are around 1 m/Myr, comparable to slow terrestrial erosion rates calculated over similar timescales. This argues for a wet climate before ~3 Ga in which liquid water was the erosional agent, followed by a dry environment dominated by slow eolian erosion.

  2. Inter-Location Small Business Tax Rate Variation in Ukraine: What Is Behind It?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergii Slukhai

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper’s aim is to research into the variation in effective tax rates among local jurisdictions of two regions of Ukraine, Ivano-Frankivsk and Vinnitsa, in order to get new insights into the peculiarity of inter-location fiscal competition in the context of a transitional economy. It is argued that, despite a highly centralized taxation system, the room for inter-jurisdictional tax competition is somewhat limited, at least with regard to a unified small business tax for natural persons. This competition could take on a very specific shape because it is closely related to the issue of hidden economy. The study demonstrates that local fiscal policy has a potential to affect the number of business units registered in a specific jurisdiction.

  3. Estimating dust production rate of carbon-rich stars in the Small Magellanic Cloud

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nanni, A.; Marigo, P.; Groenewegen, M. A. T.; Aringer, B.; Pastorelli, G.; Rubele, S.; Girardi, L.; Bressan, A.; Bladh, S.

    We compute a grid of spectra describing dusty Circumstellar Envelopes of Thermally Pulsing Asymptotic Giant Branch carbon-rich stars by employing a physically grounded description for dust growth. The optical constants for carbon dust have been selected in order to reproduce simultaneously the most important color-color diagrams in the Near and Mid Infrared bands. We fit the Spectral Energy Distribution of ≈2000 carbon-rich in the Small Magellanic Cloud and we compute their total dust production rate. We compare our results with the ones in the literature. Different choices of the dust-to-gas ratio and outflow expansion velocity adopted in different works, yield, in some cases, a total dust budget about three times lower than the one derived from our scheme, with the same optical data set for carbon dust.

  4. Nitrogen replenishment using variable rate application technique in a small hand-harvested pear orchard

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vatsanidou, A.; Nanos, G.D.; Fountas, S.; Baras, J.; Castrignano, A.; Gemtos, T.A.

    2017-01-01

    Precision agriculture is a management approach for sustainable agriculture. It can be applied even in small fields. It aims to optimize inputs, improve profits, and reduce adverse environmental impacts. In this study, a series of measurements were conducted over three growing seasons to assess variability in a 0.55 ha pear orchard located in central Greece. Soil ECa was measured using EM38 sensor, while soil samples were taken from a grid 17 × 8 m and analysed for texture, pH, P, K, Mg, CaCO3, and organic matter content. Data analysis indicated that most of the nutrients were at sufficient levels. Soil and yield maps showed considerable variability while fruit quality presented small variations across the orchard. Yield fluctuations were observed, possibly due to climatic conditions. Prescription maps were developed for nitrogen variable rate application (VRA) for two years based on the replacement of the nutrients removed by the crop. VRA application resulted in 56% and 50% reduction of N fertiliser compared to uniform application.

  5. Nitrogen replenishment using variable rate application technique in a small hand-harvested pear orchard

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vatsanidou, A.; Nanos, G.D.; Fountas, S.; Baras, J.; Castrignano, A.; Gemtos, T.A.

    2017-07-01

    Precision agriculture is a management approach for sustainable agriculture. It can be applied even in small fields. It aims to optimize inputs, improve profits, and reduce adverse environmental impacts. In this study, a series of measurements were conducted over three growing seasons to assess variability in a 0.55 ha pear orchard located in central Greece. Soil ECa was measured using EM38 sensor, while soil samples were taken from a grid 17 × 8 m and analysed for texture, pH, P, K, Mg, CaCO3, and organic matter content. Data analysis indicated that most of the nutrients were at sufficient levels. Soil and yield maps showed considerable variability while fruit quality presented small variations across the orchard. Yield fluctuations were observed, possibly due to climatic conditions. Prescription maps were developed for nitrogen variable rate application (VRA) for two years based on the replacement of the nutrients removed by the crop. VRA application resulted in 56% and 50% reduction of N fertiliser compared to uniform application.

  6. Transcutaneous measurement of glomerular filtration rate in small rodents: through the skin for the win?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellery, Stacey J; Cai, Xiaochu; Walker, David D; Dickinson, Hayley; Kett, Michelle M

    2015-03-01

    Rodent models of renal physiology and pathology are crucial to our understanding of the molecular, histological and functional sequelae that contribute to kidney diseases. One of the most important measures of renal function is glomerular filtration rate (GFR). While the accurate determination of GFR is pivotal to understanding the progression of disease and/or the benefits of treatment strategies, in rodents the conventional methods for assessment of GFR are inconvenient and cumbersome, not the least because they involve stress and often anaesthesia. The legitimacy of assay-based assessment of plasma and urine markers of GFR in mice has also been heavily scrutinized for their insensitivity to minor declines in GFR and inaccurate detection of renal biomarkers. While infusion-based clearance methods of GFR assessment are thus the gold standard in terms of accuracy, they are limited by the fact that they are primarily non-recovery procedures. This presents a dilemma when trying to document the progression of renal disease, as these measures cannot be taken in the same experimental subject. Here we review a technique of transcutaneous measurement of fluorescein isothiocyanate-labelled sinistrin to calculate GFR in small rodents, using a non-invasive clearance device (NIC-Kidney Device). This is a recently validated non-invasive technique for measuring GFR in small rodents that allows for the real-time measurement of GFR in conscious animals, without the need for plasma and urine assays. © 2014 Asian Pacific Society of Nephrology.

  7. Nitrogen replenishment using variable rate application technique in a small hand-harvested pear orchard

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Vatsanidou

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Precision agriculture is a management approach for sustainable agriculture. It can be applied even in small fields. It aims to optimize inputs, improve profits, and reduce adverse environmental impacts. In this study, a series of measurements were conducted over three growing seasons to assess variability in a 0.55 ha pear orchard located in central Greece. Soil ECa was measured using EM38 sensor, while soil samples were taken from a grid 17 × 8 m and analysed for texture, pH, P, K, Mg, CaCO3, and organic matter content. Data analysis indicated that most of the nutrients were at sufficient levels. Soil and yield maps showed considerable variability while fruit quality presented small variations across the orchard. Yield fluctuations were observed, possibly due to climatic conditions. Prescription maps were developed for nitrogen variable rate application (VRA for two years based on the replacement of the nutrients removed by the crop. VRA application resulted in 56% and 50% reduction of N fertiliser compared to uniform application.

  8. E-Government Attempts in Small Island Developing States: The Rate of Corruption with Virtualization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sari, Arif

    2017-12-01

    In recent years, many Small Island Developing State (SIDS) governments have worked to increase openness and transparency of their transactions as a means to enhance efficiency and reduce corruption in their economies. In order to achieve a cost-effective and efficient strategy to implement a transparent government, Information Communication Technologies offer an opportunity of virtualization by deploying e-government services to promote transparency, accountability and consistency in the public sector and to minimize corruption. This paper explores the potential impact of government virtualization by SIDS and against corruption by comparing the corruption perception index (CPI) rates of 15 SIDS countries. The CPI relates to the degree by which corruption is perceived to exist among public officials and politicians by business people and country analysts. In order to reveal the long-term impact of virtual deployment and its consequences on corruption, an in-depth case analysis based on the CPI index rates was conducted on the deployment of the e-government system in Cyprus.

  9. Fracture toughness evaluation of small notched specimen in consideration of notch effect and loading rate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Baik Woo; Kwon, Dong Il; Jang, Jae Il

    2000-01-01

    Notch effect and loading rate dependency on fracture toughness were considered when evaluating fracture toughness of small notched specimens using the instrumented impact test. Notch effect was analyzed into stress redistribution effect and stress relaxation with a viewpoint of stress triaxiality. Stress redistribution effect was corrected by introducing effective crack length, which was the sum of actual crack length and plastic zone size. Stress relaxation effect was also corrected using elastic stress concentration factor, which would decrease if plastic deformation occurred. As a result, corrected fracture toughness of the notched specimen was very consistent with the reference fracture toughness obtained using precracked specimen. In addition, limiting notch root radius, below which fracture toughness was independent of notch radius, was observed and discussed. Loading rate dependency on fracture toughness, which was obtained from the static three point bending test and the instrumented impact test, was also discussed with stress field in plastic zone ahead of a notch and fracture based on stress control mechanism. (author)

  10. Precision for Smallholder Farmers: A Small-Scale-Tailored Variable Rate Fertilizer Application Kit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jelle Van Loon

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Precision agriculture technology at the hands of smallholder farmers in the developing world is often deemed far-fetched. Low-resource farmers, however, are the most susceptible to negative changes in the environment. Providing these farmers with the right tools to mitigate adversity and to gain greater control of the production process could unlock their potential and support rural communities to meet the increasing global food demand. In this study, a real-time variable rate fertilizer application system was developed and tested as an add-on kit to conventional farm machinery. In the context of low investment costs for smallholder farmers, high user-friendliness and easy installment were the main concerns for the system to be viable. The system used nitrogen (N-sensors to assess the plant nutrient status on the spot and subsequently adjust the amount of fertilizer deposited according to the plant’s needs. Test bench trials showed that the add-on kit performed well with basic operations, but more precision is required. Variability between N-sensors and metering systems, combined with power fluctuations, created inaccuracies in the resulting application rate. Nevertheless, this work is a stepping stone towards catalyzing the elaboration of more cutting-edge precision solutions to support small-scale farmers to become successful, high producing agro-entrepreneurs.

  11. Pattern and Rate of Cognitive Decline in Cerebral Small Vessel Disease: A Prospective Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew J Lawrence

    Full Text Available Cognitive impairment, predominantly affecting processing speed and executive function, is an important consequence of cerebral small vessel disease (SVD. To date, few longitudinal studies of cognition in SVD have been conducted. We determined the pattern and rate of cognitive decline in SVD and used the results to determine sample size calculations for clinical trials of interventions reducing cognitive decline.121 patients with MRI confirmed lacunar stroke and leukoaraiosis were enrolled into the prospective St George's Cognition And Neuroimaging in Stroke (SCANS study. Patients attended one baseline and three annual cognitive assessments providing 36 month follow-up data. Neuropsychological assessment comprised a battery of tests assessing working memory, long-term (episodic memory, processing speed and executive function. We calculated annualized change in cognition for the 98 patients who completed at least two time-points.Task performance was heterogeneous, but significant cognitive decline was found for the executive function index (p<0.007. Working memory and processing speed decreased numerically, but not significantly. The executive function composite score would require the smallest samples sizes for a treatment trial with an aim of halting decline, but this would still require over 2,000 patients per arm to detect a 30% difference with power of 0.8 over a three year follow-up.The pattern of cognitive decline seen in SVD over three years is consistent with the pattern of impairments at baseline. Rates of decline were slow and sample sizes would need to be large for clinical trials aimed at halting decline beyond initial diagnosis using cognitive scores as an outcome measure. This emphasizes the importance of more sensitive surrogate markers in this disease.

  12. Increasing Winter Maximal Metabolic Rate Improves Intrawinter Survival in Small Birds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petit, Magali; Clavijo-Baquet, Sabrina; Vézina, François

    Small resident bird species living at northern latitudes increase their metabolism in winter, and this is widely assumed to improve their chances of survival. However, the relationship between winter metabolic performance and survival has yet to be demonstrated. Using capture-mark-recapture, we followed a population of free-living black-capped chickadees (Poecile atricapillus) over 3 yr and evaluated their survival probability within and among winters. We also measured the size-independent body mass (M s ), hematocrit (Hct), basal metabolic rate (BMR), and maximal thermogenic capacity (Msum) and investigated how these parameters influenced survival within and among winters. Results showed that survival probability was high and constant both within (0.92) and among (0.96) winters. They also showed that while M s , Hct, and BMR had no significant influence, survival was positively related to Msum-following a sigmoid relationship-within but not among winter. Birds expressing an Msum below 1.26 W (i.e., similar to summer levels) had a winter. Our data therefore suggest that black-capped chickadees that are either too slow or unable to adjust their phenotype from summer to winter have little chances of survival and thus that seasonal upregulation of metabolic performance is highly beneficial. This study is the first to document in an avian system the relationship between thermogenic capacity and winter survival, a proxy of fitness.

  13. Small regulatory RNA-induced growth rate heterogeneity of Bacillus subtilis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mars, Ruben A T; Nicolas, Pierre; Ciccolini, Mariano; Reilman, Ewoud; Reder, Alexander; Schaffer, Marc; Mäder, Ulrike; Völker, Uwe; van Dijl, Jan Maarten; Denham, Emma L

    2015-03-01

    Isogenic bacterial populations can consist of cells displaying heterogeneous physiological traits. Small regulatory RNAs (sRNAs) could affect this heterogeneity since they act by fine-tuning mRNA or protein levels to coordinate the appropriate cellular behavior. Here we show that the sRNA RnaC/S1022 from the Gram-positive bacterium Bacillus subtilis can suppress exponential growth by modulation of the transcriptional regulator AbrB. Specifically, the post-transcriptional abrB-RnaC/S1022 interaction allows B. subtilis to increase the cell-to-cell variation in AbrB protein levels, despite strong negative autoregulation of the abrB promoter. This behavior is consistent with existing mathematical models of sRNA action, thus suggesting that induction of protein expression noise could be a new general aspect of sRNA regulation. Importantly, we show that the sRNA-induced diversity in AbrB levels generates heterogeneity in growth rates during the exponential growth phase. Based on these findings, we hypothesize that the resulting subpopulations of fast- and slow-growing B. subtilis cells reflect a bet-hedging strategy for enhanced survival of unfavorable conditions.

  14. Scaling A Moment-Rate Function For Small To Large Magnitude Events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Archuleta, Ralph; Ji, Chen

    2017-04-01

    Since the 1980's seismologists have recognized that peak ground acceleration (PGA) and peak ground velocity (PGV) scale differently with magnitude for large and moderate earthquakes. In a recent paper (Archuleta and Ji, GRL 2016) we introduced an apparent moment-rate function (aMRF) that accurately predicts the scaling with magnitude of PGA, PGV, PWA (Wood-Anderson Displacement) and the ratio PGA/2πPGV (dominant frequency) for earthquakes 3.3 ≤ M ≤ 5.3. This apparent moment-rate function is controlled by two temporal parameters, tp and td, which are related to the time for the moment-rate function to reach its peak amplitude and the total duration of the earthquake, respectively. These two temporal parameters lead to a Fourier amplitude spectrum (FAS) of displacement that has two corners in between which the spectral amplitudes decay as 1/f, f denotes frequency. At higher or lower frequencies, the FAS of the aMRF looks like a single-corner Aki-Brune omega squared spectrum. However, in the presence of attenuation the higher corner is almost certainly masked. Attempting to correct the spectrum to an Aki-Brune omega-squared spectrum will produce an "apparent" corner frequency that falls between the double corner frequency of the aMRF. We reason that the two corners of the aMRF are the reason that seismologists deduce a stress drop (e.g., Allmann and Shearer, JGR 2009) that is generally much smaller than the stress parameter used to produce ground motions from stochastic simulations (e.g., Boore, 2003 Pageoph.). The presence of two corners for the smaller magnitude earthquakes leads to several questions. Can deconvolution be successfully used to determine scaling from small to large earthquakes? Equivalently will large earthquakes have a double corner? If large earthquakes are the sum of many smaller magnitude earthquakes, what should the displacement FAS look like for a large magnitude earthquake? Can a combination of such a double-corner spectrum and random

  15. Estimates of ground-water recharge rates for two small basins in central Nevada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lichty, R.W.; McKinley, P.W.

    1995-01-01

    Estimates of ground-water recharge rates developed from hydrologic modeling studies are presented for 3-Springs and East Stewart basins, two small basins (analog sites) located in central Nevada. The analog-site studies were conducted to aid in the estimation of recharge to the paleohydrologic regime associated with ground water in the vicinity of Yucca Mountain under wetter climatic conditions. The two analog sites are located to the north and at higher elevations than Yucca Mountain, and the prevailing (current) climatic conditions at these sites is thought to be representative of the possible range of paleoclimatic conditions in the general area of Yucca Mountain during the Quaternary. Two independent modeling approaches were conducted at each of the analog sites using observed hydrologic data on precipitation, temperature, solar radiation, stream discharge, and chloride-ion water chemistry for a 6-year study period (October 1986 through September 1992). Both models quantify the hydrologic water-balance equation and yield estimates of ground-water recharge, given appropriate input data. Results of the modeling approaches support the conclusion that reasonable estimates of average-annual recharge to ground water range from about 1 to 3 centimeters per year for 3-Springs basin (the drier site), and from about 30 to 32 centimeters per year for East Stewart basin (the wetter site). The most reliable results are those derived from a reduced form of the chloride-ion model because they reflect integrated, basinwide processes in terms of only three measured variables: precipitation amount, precipitation chemistry, and streamflow chemistry

  16. Effects of landforms on the erosion rate in a small watershed by the {sup 137}Cs tracing method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li Mian, E-mail: hnli-mian@163.co [Yellow River Institute of Hydraulic Research, Key Laboratory of Sediment Research of Yellow River of Ministry of Water Resources, Zhengzhou, Henan 450003 (China); Yao Wenyi [Yellow River Institute of Hydraulic Research, Key Laboratory of Sediment Research of Yellow River of Ministry of Water Resources, Zhengzhou, Henan 450003 (China); Li Zhanbin [Xi' an University of Technology, Xi' an, Shaanxi 710048 (China); Institute of Soil and Water Conservation, Chinese Academy of Sciences and Ministry of Water Resources, Yangling, Shaanxi 712100 (China); Liu Puling [Institute of Soil and Water Conservation, Chinese Academy of Sciences and Ministry of Water Resources, Yangling, Shaanxi 712100 (China); Shen Zhenzhou [Yellow River Institute of Hydraulic Research, Key Laboratory of Sediment Research of Yellow River of Ministry of Water Resources, Zhengzhou, Henan 450003 (China)

    2010-05-15

    It's very important to analyze and evaluate quantitatively the effects of landforms on soil erosion for the prevention and treatment of soil loss in a small watershed. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of landform factors on erosion rate by the {sup 137}Cs tracing method in a small watershed in the Purple Hilly Area of China. The erosion rates under different slope lengths, slope gradients and slope aspects were estimated in Xiangshuitan watershed in the Purple Hilly Area in Sichuan Basin by the {sup 137}Cs tracing method. The results showed that the erosion rate decreased exponentially with downslope distance, and it increased with increasing slope gradient during the scope of 5 deg. - 16 deg. The slope aspect had great impact on the erosion rate, and the hillside on the sunny slope had larger erosion rate than that on the shady slope, particularly for the farmland.

  17. Effects of landforms on the erosion rate in a small watershed by the 137Cs tracing method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Mian; Yao Wenyi; Li Zhanbin; Liu Puling; Shen Zhenzhou

    2010-01-01

    It's very important to analyze and evaluate quantitatively the effects of landforms on soil erosion for the prevention and treatment of soil loss in a small watershed. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of landform factors on erosion rate by the 137 Cs tracing method in a small watershed in the Purple Hilly Area of China. The erosion rates under different slope lengths, slope gradients and slope aspects were estimated in Xiangshuitan watershed in the Purple Hilly Area in Sichuan Basin by the 137 Cs tracing method. The results showed that the erosion rate decreased exponentially with downslope distance, and it increased with increasing slope gradient during the scope of 5 deg. - 16 deg. The slope aspect had great impact on the erosion rate, and the hillside on the sunny slope had larger erosion rate than that on the shady slope, particularly for the farmland.

  18. Estimating the erosion and deposition rates in a small watershed by the {sup 137}Cs tracing method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li Mian [Yellow River Institute of Hydraulic Research, Key Laboratory of Sediment Research of Yellow River of Ministry of Water Resources, Zhengzhou, Henan 450003 (China)], E-mail: hnli-mian@163.com; Li Zhanbin [Xi' an University of Technology, Xi' an, Shaanxi 710048 (China); Institute of Soil and Water Conservation, Chinese Academy of Sciences and Ministry of Water Resources, Yangling, Shaanxi 712100 (China); Yao Wenyi [Yellow River Institute of Hydraulic Research, Key Laboratory of Sediment Research of Yellow River of Ministry of Water Resources, Zhengzhou, Henan 450003 (China); Liu Puling [Institute of Soil and Water Conservation, Chinese Academy of Sciences and Ministry of Water Resources, Yangling, Shaanxi 712100 (China)

    2009-02-15

    Understanding the erosion and deposition rates in a small watershed is important for designing soil and water conservation measures. The objective of this study is to estimate the net soil loss and gain at points with various land use types and landform positions in a small watershed in the Sichuan Hilly Basin of China by the {sup 137}Cs tracing technique. Among various land use types, the order of erosion rate was bare rock > sloping cultivated land > forest land. The paddy field and Caotu (a kind of cultivated land located at the foot of hills) were depositional areas. The erosion rate under different landform was in this order: hillside > saddle > hilltop. The footslope and the valley were depositional areas. The {sup 137}Cs technique was shown to provide an effective means of documenting the spatial distribution of soil erosion and deposition within the small watershed.

  19. Estimates of ground-water recharge rates for two small basins in central Nevada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lichty, R.W.; McKinley, P.W.

    1995-01-01

    Estimates of ground-water recharge rates developed from hydrologic modeling studies are presented for 3-Springs and East Stewart basins. two small basins (analog sites) located in central Nevada. The analog-site studies were conducted to aid in the estimation of recharge to the paleohydrologic regime associated with ground water in the vicinity of Yucca Mountain under wetter climatic conditions. The two analog sites are located to the north and at higher elevations than Yucca Mountain, and the prevailing (current) climatic conditions at these sites is thought to be representative of the possible range of paleoclimatic conditions in the general area of Yucca Mountain during the Quaternary. Two independent modeling approaches were conducted at each of the analog sites using observed hydrologic data on precipitation, temperature, solar radiation stream discharge, and chloride-ion water chemistry for a 6-year study period (October 1986 through September 1992). Both models quantify the hydrologic water-balance equation and yield estimates of ground-water recharge, given appropriate input data. The first model uses a traditional approach to quantify watershed hydrology through a precipitation-runoff modeling system that accounts for the spatial variability of hydrologic inputs, processes, and responses (outputs) using a dailycomputational time step. The second model is based on the conservative nature of the dissolved chloride ion in selected hydrologic environments, and its use as a natural tracer allows the computation of acoupled, water and chloride-ion, mass-balance system of equations to estimate available water (sum ofsurface runoff and groundwater recharge). Results of the modeling approaches support the conclusion that reasonable estimates of average-annual recharge to ground water range from about 1 to 3 centimeters per year for 3-Springs basin (the drier site), and from about 30 to 32 centimeters per year for East Stewart basin (the wetter site). The most

  20. Blood pressure and heart rate during stress in children born small for gestational age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pirojsakul, Kwanchai; Thanapinyo, Apinya; Nuntnarumit, Pracha

    2017-06-01

    Increased sympathetic nervous system activity has been proposed as a potential mechanism for the blood pressure (BP) elevation seen in individuals born small for gestational age (SGA). This study was carried out to detect the changes in BP and heart rate (HR) in children born SGA during exposure to stress and to assess for changes in urinary catecholamine excretion. Nineteen children aged 6-14 years born SGA and 17 age- and gender-matched healthy controls were included in the study. The stress test included a mathematical test and venipuncture. BP and HR were monitored during the test. Spot urine samples were collected at baseline and after the stress test to determine dopamine, epinephrine and norepinephrine levels. At baseline, there was no difference in BP and HR between the SGA and control groups, but mean urinary norepinephrine levels were slightly higher in the SGA group (55.7 ± 16.1 vs. 43.4 ± 3.8 mcg/gCr; P = 0.10). Compared to the control group, mean maximal HR increase was higher in the SGA group (31.3 ± 3.1 vs. 19.2 ± 3.8%; P = 0.008), and mean duration of maximal HR to baseline HR was longer (186 ± 23 vs. 97 ± 13 s, respectively; P = 0.003). There was a significant negative correlation between birth weight and maximal HR increase (r = -0.497, P = 0.003). Children born SGA showed significantly greater increases in HR and significantly longer periods of tachycardia during exposure to stress than did healthy controls. The rise in HR was inversely correlated with birth weight. These findings suggest that children born SGA have a greater increase in sympathetic response when exposed to stress than do healthy individuals.

  1. To Selection of Small-Capacity Turbine Type and Rated Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. B. Karnitsky

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Profitability of industrial-heating boiler transition to mini-TPP is revealed in the paper. The paper presents a comparative analysis of high- and low-speed turbines of small capacity.

  2. Rotational rates of very small asteroids - 123 Brunhild, 376 Geometria, 437 Rhodia and 1224 Fantasia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barucci, M. A.; di Martino, M.

    1984-07-01

    This paper presents observations of four small main belt asteroids (D Geometria, an accurate rotational period was determined. For the other two asteroids, 437 Rhodia and 1224 Fantasia, only tentative periods are suggested.

  3. A comparison of methods for calculating NMR cross-relaxation rates (NOESY and ROESY intensities) in small peptides

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Feenstra, K Anton; Peter, Christine; Scheek, Ruud M; van Gunsteren, Wilfred F; Mark, Alan E

    Three methods for calculating nuclear magnetic resonance cross-relaxation rates from molecular dynamics simulations of small flexible molecules have been compared in terms of their ability to reproduce relaxation data obtained experimentally and to produce consistent descriptions of the system. The

  4. Variation in angler distribution and catch rates of stocked rainbow trout in a small reservoir

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harmon, Brian S.; Martin, Dustin R.; Chizinski, Christopher J.; Pope, Kevin L.

    2018-01-01

    We investigated the spatial and temporal relationship of catch rates and angler party location for two days following a publicly announced put-and-take stocking of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). Catch rates declined with time since stocking and distance from stocking. We hypothesized that opportunity for high catch rates would cause anglers to fish near the stocking location and disperse with time, however distance between angler parties and stocking was highly variable at any given time. Spatially explicit differences in catch rates can affect fishing quality. Further research could investigate the variation between angler distribution and fish distribution within a waterbody.

  5. Cracked-Mixture Sieving Rates And Efficiencies In Small-Scale ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A number of innovations, including the inclined manual rotary sieve or trommel, have been introduced by small-scale process equipment manufacturers and are being used in palm-nut cracked mixture separation. But the proficiency of these innovations has not been officially established. The study measures the sieving ...

  6. Computing Rates of Small Molecule Diffusion Through Protein Channels Using Markovian Milestoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abrams, Cameron

    2014-03-01

    Measuring diffusion rates of ligands plays a key role in understanding the kinetic processes inside proteins. For example, although many molecular simulation studies have reported free energy barriers to infer rates for CO diffusion in myoglobin (Mb), they typically do not include direct calculation of diffusion rates because of the long simulation times needed to infer these rates with statistical accuracy. We show in this talk how to apply Markovian milestoning along minimum free-energy pathways to calculate diffusion rates of CO inside Mb. In Markovian milestoning, one partitions a suitable reaction coordinate space into regions and performs restrained molecular dynamics in each region to accumulate kinetic statistics that, when assembled across regions, provides an estimate of the mean first-passage time between states. The mean escape time for CO directly from the so-called distal pocket (DP) through the histidine gate (HG) is estimated at about 24 ns, confirming the importance of this portal for CO. But Mb is known to contain several internal cavities, and cavity-to-cavity diffusion rates are also computed and used to build a complete kinetic network as a Markov state model. Within this framework, the effective mean time of escape to the solvent through HG increases to 30 ns. Our results suggest that carrier protein structure may have evolved under pressure to modulate dissolved gas release rates using a network of ligand-accessible cavities. Support: NIH R01GM100472.

  7. Financial Fragility, Exchange-Rate Regimes, and Sudden Stops in a Small Open Economy

    OpenAIRE

    Wen-Yao Grace Wang; Paula Hernandez-Verme; Raymond A. K. Cox Author E-mail:

    2012-01-01

    We model a typical Asian economy in crisis using a dynamic general equilibrium technique and establishing exchange rates from nontrivial fiatcurrency demands. Sudden stops/bank panics are possible and are essential for evaluating the merits of alternative exchange-rate regimes. Strategic complementarities contribute to the severe indeterminacy of a continuum of equilibria. Social welfare and the scope of equilibria are also associated with the underlying policy regime and the built-in Sequent...

  8. Multiple Reserve Requirements, Exchange Rates, Sudden Stops and Equilibrium Dynamics in a Small Open Economy

    OpenAIRE

    Paula Hernandez-Verme; Wen-Yao Wang

    2009-01-01

    We model a typical Asian-crisis-economy using dynamic general equilibrium tech-niques. Exchange rates obtain from nontrivial fiat-currencies demands. Sudden stops/bank-panics are possible, and key for evaluating the merits of alternative ex-change rate regimes. Strategic complementarities contribute to the severe indetermi-nacy of the continuum of equilibria. The scope for existence and indeterminacy of equilibria and dynamic properties are associated with the underlying policy regime. Bindin...

  9. Firms Started As Franchises Have Lower Survival Rates Than Independent Small Business Startups

    OpenAIRE

    Timothy Bates

    1994-01-01

    Aspiring entrepreneurs choosing to become franchisees certainly expect to improve their chances of survival during the turbulent early years of business startup and operation. Alignment with a franchiser parent company offers the franchisee managerial assistance, access to financial capital, and access to markets via the right to utilize the parent company trademark. This study examines survival patterns among franchise and nonfranchise small firms started between 1984 and 1987: survival thro...

  10. Experimental Platform for Ultra-high Dose Rate FLASH Irradiation of Small Animals Using a Clinical Linear Accelerator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schüler, Emil; Trovati, Stefania; King, Gregory; Lartey, Frederick; Rafat, Marjan; Villegas, Manuel; Praxel, A. Joe [Department of Radiation Oncology, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, California (United States); Loo, Billy W., E-mail: BWLoo@stanford.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, California (United States); Stanford Cancer Institute, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, California (United States); Maxim, Peter G., E-mail: PMaxim@stanford.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, California (United States); Stanford Cancer Institute, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, California (United States)

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: A key factor limiting the effectiveness of radiation therapy is normal tissue toxicity, and recent preclinical data have shown that ultra-high dose rate irradiation (>50 Gy/s, “FLASH”) potentially mitigates this effect. However, research in this field has been strongly limited by the availability of FLASH irradiators suitable for small animal experiments. We present a simple methodologic approach for FLASH electron small animal irradiation with a clinically available linear accelerator (LINAC). Methods and Materials: We investigated the FLASH irradiation potential of a Varian Clinac 21EX in both clinical mode and after tuning of the LINAC. We performed detailed FLUKA Monte Carlo and experimental dosimetric characterization at multiple experimental locations within the LINAC head. Results: Average dose rates of ≤74 Gy/s were achieved in clinical mode, and the dose rate after tuning exceeded 900 Gy/s. We obtained 220 Gy/s at 1-cm depth for a >4-cm field size with 90% homogeneity throughout a 2-cm-thick volume. Conclusions: We present an approach for using a clinical LINAC for FLASH irradiation. We obtained dose rates exceeding 200 Gy/s after simple tuning of the LINAC, with excellent dosimetric properties for small animal experiments. This will allow for increased availability of FLASH irradiation to the general research community.

  11. Experimental Platform for Ultra-high Dose Rate FLASH Irradiation of Small Animals Using a Clinical Linear Accelerator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schüler, Emil; Trovati, Stefania; King, Gregory; Lartey, Frederick; Rafat, Marjan; Villegas, Manuel; Praxel, A Joe; Loo, Billy W; Maxim, Peter G

    2017-01-01

    A key factor limiting the effectiveness of radiation therapy is normal tissue toxicity, and recent preclinical data have shown that ultra-high dose rate irradiation (>50 Gy/s, "FLASH") potentially mitigates this effect. However, research in this field has been strongly limited by the availability of FLASH irradiators suitable for small animal experiments. We present a simple methodologic approach for FLASH electron small animal irradiation with a clinically available linear accelerator (LINAC). We investigated the FLASH irradiation potential of a Varian Clinac 21EX in both clinical mode and after tuning of the LINAC. We performed detailed FLUKA Monte Carlo and experimental dosimetric characterization at multiple experimental locations within the LINAC head. Average dose rates of ≤74 Gy/s were achieved in clinical mode, and the dose rate after tuning exceeded 900 Gy/s. We obtained 220 Gy/s at 1-cm depth for a >4-cm field size with 90% homogeneity throughout a 2-cm-thick volume. We present an approach for using a clinical LINAC for FLASH irradiation. We obtained dose rates exceeding 200 Gy/s after simple tuning of the LINAC, with excellent dosimetric properties for small animal experiments. This will allow for increased availability of FLASH irradiation to the general research community. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Small groups, large profits: Calculating interest rates in community-managed microfinance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Ole Dahl

    2012-01-01

    Savings groups are a widely used strategy for women’s economic resilience – over 80% of members worldwide are women, and in the case described here, 72.5%. In these savings groups it is common to see the interest rate on savings reported as "20-30% annually". Using panel data from 204 groups...... in Malawi, I show that the right figure is likely to be at least twice this figure. For these groups, the annual return is 62%. The difference comes from sector-wide application of a non-standard interest rate calculations and unrealistic assumptions about the savings profile in the groups. As a result......, it is impossible to compare returns in savings groups with returns elsewhere. Moreover, the interest on savings is incomparable to the interest rate on loans. I argue for the use of a standardized comparable metric and suggest easy ways to implement it. Developments of new tools and standard along these lines...

  13. Heat Release Rate of an Open Kitchen Fire of Small Residential Units in Tall Buildings

    OpenAIRE

    Chow, W.K.

    2014-01-01

    Many small units of area less than 30 m2 in residential buildings over 200 m tall are equipped with open kitchens in Asia, including Hong Kong. Fire safety provisions of these kitchens are determined by performance-based design (PBD). In most PBD projects, only the spread of smoke from the kitchen on fire to the outside was commonly studied. However, a fire load survey in Hong Kong indicated large quantities of combustibles are stored in residential units. Cooking oil was found to be ignited ...

  14. Small flow rate can supply inwardly migrating shortest-period planets

    OpenAIRE

    Taylor, Stuart F.

    2013-01-01

    The number of exoplanets found with periods as short as one day and less was surprising given how fast these planets had been expected to migrate into the star due to the tides raised on the star by planets at such close distances. It has been seen as improbable that we would find planets in such a small final fraction of their lives. The favored solution has been that the tidal dissipation is much weaker than expected, which would mean that the final infall would be a larger fraction of the ...

  15. Is Small Beautiful? Size Effects of Volatility Spillovers for Firm Performance and Exchange Rates in Tourism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C-L. Chang (Chia-Lin); H-K. Hsu (Hui-Kuang); M.J. McAleer (Michael)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractThis paper examines the size effects of volatility spillovers for firm performance and exchange rates with asymmetry in the Taiwan tourism industry. The analysis is based on two conditional multivariate models, BEKK-AGARCH and VARMA-AGARCH, in the volatility specification. Daily data

  16. Is Small Beautiful? Size Effects of Volatility Spillovers for Firm Performance and Exchange Rates in Tourism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C-L. Chang (Chia-Lin); H-K. Hsu (Hui-Kuang); M.J. McAleer (Michael)

    2013-01-01

    textabstractThis paper examines the size effects of volatility spillovers for firm performance and exchange rates with asymmetry in the Taiwan tourism industry. The analysis is based on two conditional multivariate models, BEKK-AGARCH and VARMA-AGARCH, in the volatility specification. Daily data

  17. Small Business Administration (SBA) Loan Program Performance- Charge Off Rates as a Percent of Unpaid Principal Balance (UPB) Amount by Program

    Data.gov (United States)

    Small Business Administration — Reflects charge off rates, as a percent of the UPB amounts, at the end of the fiscal year for the major loan programs and aggregate totals for the small direct and...

  18. Temperature and rainfall are related to fertility rate after spring artificial insemination in small ruminants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abecia, J. A.; Arrébola, F.; Macías, A.; Laviña, A.; González-Casquet, O.; Benítez, F.; Palacios, C.

    2016-10-01

    A total number of 1092 artificial inseminations (AIs) performed from March to May were documented over four consecutive years on 10 Payoya goat farms (36° N) and 19,392 AIs on 102 Rasa Aragonesa sheep farms (41° N) over 10 years. Mean, maximum, and minimum ambient temperatures, mean relative humidity, mean solar radiation, and total rainfall on each insemination day were recorded. Overall, fertility rates were 58 % in goats and 45 % in sheep. The fertility rates of the highest and lowest deciles of each of the meteorological variables indicated that temperature and rainfall had a significant effect on fertility in goats. Specifically, inseminations that were performed when mean (68 %), maximum (68 %), and minimum (66 %) temperatures were in the highest decile, and rainfall was in the lowest decile (59 %), had a significantly ( P goats and sheep.

  19. Thermodynamics and analysis of rate-independent adhesive contact at small strains

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Rossi, R.; Roubíček, Tomáš

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 74, č. 10 (2011), s. 3159-3190 ISSN 0362-546X R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP201/10/0357 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20760514 Keywords : adhesive contact * nonlinear heat equation * rate-independence Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 1.536, year: 2011 http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0362546X11000496

  20. On the relationship between tumour growth rate and survival in non-small cell lung cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hitesh B. Mistry

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available A recurrent question within oncology drug development is predicting phase III outcome for a new treatment using early clinical data. One approach to tackle this problem has been to derive metrics from mathematical models that describe tumour size dynamics termed re-growth rate and time to tumour re-growth. They have shown to be strong predictors of overall survival in numerous studies but there is debate about how these metrics are derived and if they are more predictive than empirical end-points. This work explores the issues raised in using model-derived metric as predictors for survival analyses. Re-growth rate and time to tumour re-growth were calculated for three large clinical studies by forward and reverse alignment. The latter involves re-aligning patients to their time of progression. Hence, it accounts for the time taken to estimate re-growth rate and time to tumour re-growth but also assesses if these predictors correlate to survival from the time of progression. I found that neither re-growth rate nor time to tumour re-growth correlated to survival using reverse alignment. This suggests that the dynamics of tumours up until disease progression has no relationship to survival post progression. For prediction of a phase III trial I found the metrics performed no better than empirical end-points. These results highlight that care must be taken when relating dynamics of tumour imaging to survival and that bench-marking new approaches to existing ones is essential.

  1. Small flow rate can supply inwardly migrating shortest-period planets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taylor S.F.

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The number of exoplanets found with periods as short as one day and less was surprising given how fast these planets had been expected to migrate into the star due to the tides raised on the star by planets at such close distances. It has been seen as improbable that we would find planets in such a small final fraction of their lives [1]. The favored solution has been that the tidal dissipation is much weaker than expected, which would mean that the final infall would be a larger fraction of the planets’ life. We find no reason, however, to exclude the explanation that a small number of planets are continuously sent migrating inwards such that these planets indeed are in the last fraction of their lives. Following the observation that the distribution of medium planets disfavors tidal dissipation being significantly weaker than has been found from observations of binary stars [2], we now show that the numbers of planets in such a “flow” of excess planets migrating inwards is low enough that even depletion of the three-day pileup is a plausible source. Then the shortest period occurrence distribution would be shaped by planets continuously being sent into the star, which may explain the depletion of the pileup in the Kepler field relative to the solar neighborhood [3]. Because Kepler observes above the galactic plan, [3] suggested the Kepler field may include an older population of stars. The tidal dissipation strength in stars due to giant planets may be not greatly weaker than it is in binary stars.

  2. DEM study of granular discharge rate through a vertical pipe with a bend outlet in small absorber sphere system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Tianjin, E-mail: tjli@tsinghua.edu.cn; Zhang, He; Liu, Malin; Huang, Zhiyong; Bo, Hanliang; Dong, Yujie

    2017-04-01

    Highlights: • The work concerns granular flow in a vertical pipe with a bend. • Discharge rate fluctuation in vertical pipe are mainly from velocity fluctuation. • Steady discharge rate decreases rapidly and saturates with μ{sub s} increasing. • Steady discharge rate W{sub s} still obey the 5/2 power law of pipe internal diameter. • A correlation developed for steady discharge rate for this new geometry. - Abstract: Absorber sphere pneumatic conveying is a special application of pneumatic conveying technique in the pebble bed High Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactor (HTGR or HTR). Granular discharge through a vertical pipe with a bend outlet is one of the control modes to determine solid mass flowrate which is an important parameter for the design of absorber sphere pneumatic conveying. Granular discharge rate through the vertical pipe with a bend outlet in the small absorber sphere system are investigated by discrete element method simulation. The effect of geometry parameters on discharge rate, the discharge rate fluctuation in the vertical pipe, and the effect of friction on steady discharge rate (W{sub s}) are analyzed and discussed. The phenomena of discharge rate fluctuation in the vertical pipe are observed, which are mainly resulted from the evolution of the average downward granular velocity. The steady discharge rate decreases rapidly with sliding friction coefficient increasing from 0.125 to 0.5, and gradually saturates with the friction coefficient further increasing from 0.5 to 1. It is interesting that the linear relation between W{sub s}{sup 2/5} and pipe internal diameter D with zero intercept are found for the vertical pipe discharge with a bend outlet, which is different from the orifice discharge through a hopper or silo with none-zero intercept. A correlation similar to Beverloo’s correlation is developed to predict the steady discharge rate through the vertical pipe with a bend outlet. These results are helpful for the design of sphere

  3. Asymptotics of steady states of a selection–mutation equation for small mutation rate

    KAUST Repository

    Calsina, Àngel

    2013-12-01

    We consider a selection-mutation equation for the density of individuals with respect to a continuous phenotypic evolutionary trait. We assume that the competition term for an individual with a given trait depends on the traits of all the other individuals, therefore giving an infinite-dimensional nonlinearity. Mutations are modelled by means of an integral operator. We prove existence of steady states and show that, when the mutation rate goes to zero, the asymptotic profile of the population is a Cauchy distribution. © Royal Society of Edinburgh 2013.

  4. Asymptotics of steady states of a selection–mutation equation for small mutation rate

    KAUST Repository

    Calsina, À ngel; Cuadrado, Sí lvia; Desvillettes, Laurent; Raoul, Gaë l

    2013-01-01

    We consider a selection-mutation equation for the density of individuals with respect to a continuous phenotypic evolutionary trait. We assume that the competition term for an individual with a given trait depends on the traits of all the other individuals, therefore giving an infinite-dimensional nonlinearity. Mutations are modelled by means of an integral operator. We prove existence of steady states and show that, when the mutation rate goes to zero, the asymptotic profile of the population is a Cauchy distribution. © Royal Society of Edinburgh 2013.

  5. Supporting information for the estimation of plutonium oxide leak rates through very small apertures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schwendiman, L.C.

    1977-01-01

    Information is presented from which an estimate can be made of the release of plutonium oxide from shipping containers. The leak diameter is estimated from gas leak tests of the container and an estimate is made of gas leak rate as a function of pressure over the time of interest in the accident. These calculations are limited in accuracy because of assumptions regarding leak geometry and the basic formulations of hydrodynamic flow for the assumed conditions. Sonic flow is assumed to be the limiting gas flow rate. Particles leaking from the air space above the powder will be limited by the low availability of particles due to rapid settling, the very limited driving force (pressure buildup) during the first minute, and the deposition in the leak channel. Equations are given to estimate deposition losses. Leaks of particles occurring below the level of the bulk powder will be limited by mechanical interference when leaks are of dimension smaller than particle sizes present. Some limiting cases can be calculated. When the leak dimension is large compared to the particle sizes present, maximum particle releases can be estimated, but will be very conservative

  6. The allele-frequency spectrum in a decoupled Moran model with mutation, drift, and directional selection, assuming small mutation rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogl, Claus; Clemente, Florian

    2012-05-01

    We analyze a decoupled Moran model with haploid population size N, a biallelic locus under mutation and drift with scaled forward and backward mutation rates θ(1)=μ(1)N and θ(0)=μ(0)N, and directional selection with scaled strength γ=sN. With small scaled mutation rates θ(0) and θ(1), which is appropriate for single nucleotide polymorphism data in highly recombining regions, we derive a simple approximate equilibrium distribution for polymorphic alleles with a constant of proportionality. We also put forth an even simpler model, where all mutations originate from monomorphic states. Using this model we derive the sojourn times, conditional on the ancestral and fixed allele, and under equilibrium the distributions of fixed and polymorphic alleles and fixation rates. Furthermore, we also derive the distribution of small samples in the diffusion limit and provide convenient recurrence relations for calculating this distribution. This enables us to give formulas analogous to the Ewens-Watterson estimator of θ for biased mutation rates and selection. We apply this theory to a polymorphism dataset of fourfold degenerate sites in Drosophila melanogaster. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Progress in generating fracture data base as a function of loading rate and temperature using small-scale tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Couque, H.; Hudak, S.J. Jr.

    1993-01-01

    Structural integrity assessment of nuclear pressure vessels requires small specimen fracture testing to generate data over a wide range of material loading, and temperature conditions. Small scale testing is employed since extensive testing is required including small radiation embrittled samples from nuclear surveillance capsules. However, current small scale technology does not provide the needed dynamic fracture toughness relevant to the crack arrest/reinitiation events that may occur during pressurized thermal shock transients following emergency shutdown. This paper addresses the generation of this much needed dynamic toughness data using a novel experimental-computational approach involving a coupled pressure bars (CPB) technique and a viscoplastic dynamic fracture code. CPB data have been generated to testing temperatures never before reached: 37 to 100 degrees C -- 60 to 123 degrees C above the nil ductility transition temperature. Fracture behavior of pressure vessel steel from lower shelf to upper shelf temperatures and previous toughness estimates for the 10 6 MPa√m s -1 loading rate regime are assessed in light of the new CPB data. 26 refs., 14 figs., 3 tabs

  8. Mechanistic drivers of flexibility in summit metabolic rates of small birds.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Swanson

    Full Text Available Flexible metabolic phenotypes allow animals to adjust physiology to better fit ecological or environmental demands, thereby influencing fitness. Summit metabolic rate (Msum = maximal thermogenic capacity is one such flexible trait. Skeletal muscle and heart masses and myocyte metabolic intensity are potential drivers of Msum flexibility in birds. We examined correlations of skeletal muscle and heart masses and pectoralis muscle citrate synthase (CS activity (an indicator of cellular metabolic intensity with Msum in house sparrows (Passer domesticus and dark-eyed juncos (Junco hyemalis to determine whether these traits are associated with Msum variation. Pectoralis mass was positively correlated with Msum for both species, but no significant correlation remained for either species after accounting for body mass (Mb variation. Combined flight and leg muscle masses were also not significantly correlated with Msum for either species. In contrast, heart mass was significantly positively correlated with Msum for juncos and nearly so (P = 0.054 for sparrows. Mass-specific and total pectoralis CS activities were significantly positively correlated with Msum for sparrows, but not for juncos. Thus, myocyte metabolic intensity influences Msum variation in house sparrows, although the stronger correlation of total (r = 0.495 than mass-specific (r = 0.378 CS activity with Msum suggests that both pectoralis mass and metabolic intensity impact Msum. In contrast, neither skeletal muscle masses nor pectoralis metabolic intensity varied with Msum in juncos. However, heart mass was associated with Msum variation in both species. These data suggest that drivers of metabolic flexibility are not uniform among bird species.

  9. Effect of clearcutting operations on the survival rate of a small mammal.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martín A H Escobar

    Full Text Available Clearcutting is a common timber harvesting technique that represents a significant and abrupt change in habitat conditions for wildlife living in industrial forests. Most research on this type of impact has focused on comparing populations or communities in mature forests/plantations and the resulting clearcut stands. However, this approach does not separate the effect of changes in habitat attributes from direct mortality produced by the intensive use of heavy machinery required for cutting down trees and dragging them to a road. Because knowing the fate of individuals after a disturbance is important for modelling landscape-scale population dynamics in industrial forests, we conducted a study in South-Central Chile to understand the short-term response to clearcutting operations of the long-haired Akodont (Abrothrix longipillis, a forest specialist mouse. Between 2009 and 2013 we radiotracked a total of 51 adult male Akodonts, before, during and after the clearcutting of the pine plantations in which they lived. A minimum of 52.4% of the individuals died as a direct cause of the timbering operations, being crushed by vehicles or logs during logging operations. Our observations suggest that, instead of fleeing the area, the response of long-haired Akodonts to the approaching machinery is to hide under the forest litter or in burrows, which exposes them to a serious risk of death. The real mortality rate associated to clearcutting may be higher than that estimated by us because of some methodological biases (i.e. individuals with crushed radiotransmitters not recorded and the fact that additional mortality sources may affect the population in the weeks following logging operations (e.g., higher exposure to predation, effects of site preparation for the new plantation, etc.

  10. Measurement of disintegration rates of small [60Co]Co sources in lead containers by the sum-peak method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawano, Takao; Ebihara, Hiroshi

    1991-01-01

    The sum-peak method has been applied to determine the disintegration rates of two small [ 60 Co]Co sources (30 and 350 kBq) in lead containers with several thickness by using a NaI(Tl) detector. The experimental results showed that the sum-peak method was perfectly effective for the determination of the disintegration rates (unrelated to the thicknesses of the containers) of the 350 kBq source. The sum-peak method was also absolutely effective for the 30 kBq source in the case of containers with thicknesses of 15 mm and less, but in the cases of those with thicknesses of 21, 27 and 33 mm, the disintegration rates were under-estimated and the deviations from the true disintegration rate increased rapidly with increasing thicknesses of the containers. We presume that the under-estimation of the disintegration rates was the result of the over-estimation of the areas under the sum peaks, caused by the interference of the γ-ray (2614 keV) emitted from the naturally occurring radionuclide 208 Tl. (author)

  11. Effect of small-dose levosimendan on mortality rates and organ functions in Chinese elderly patients with sepsis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang X

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Xin Wang,1,* Shikui Li2,* 1Intensive Care Unit, 2Cardiothoracic Surgery, Daqing Oilfield General Hospital, Daqing, Heilongjiang, People’s Republic of China *These authors contributed equally to this work Aim: As a primary cause of death not only in Western countries but also in the People’s Republic of China, sepsis is diagnosed as abnormal organ functions as a result of a disordered response to a severe infection. This study was designed to assess the effect of small-dose levosimendan without a loading dose on mortality rates and organ functions in Chinese elderly patients with sepsis.Methods: Following a prospective, randomized, and double-blinded design, 240 Chinese elderly patients with sepsis shock were admitted to the intensive care unit (ICU. All patients were randomly and evenly assigned into a levosimendan group (number of patients =120 and a control group (number of patients =120. The control group underwent standard care, and the levosimendan group was administered levosimendan in addition to standard care.Results: All participants, comprising 134 males (55.8% and 106 females (44.2%, were 70 (67–73 years old. Baseline characteristics, preexisting illnesses, initial infections, organ failures, and additional agents and therapies showed no significant difference between the two groups (P>0.05 for all. There were no significant differences in mortality rates at 28 days, at ICU discharge, and at hospital discharge between the two groups (P>0.05 for all. The number of days of ICU and hospital stay in the levosimendan group was significantly less than for those in the control group (P<0.05 for all. Mean daily total sequential organ failure assessment score and all organ scores except the cardiovascular scores showed no significant difference between the two groups (P>0.05 for all. Cardiovascular scores in the levosimendan group were significantly higher than those in the control group (P<0.05 for all.Conclusion: Small

  12. Estimation of unemployment rates using small area estimation model by combining time series and cross-sectional data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muchlisoh, Siti; Kurnia, Anang; Notodiputro, Khairil Anwar; Mangku, I. Wayan

    2016-02-01

    Labor force surveys conducted over time by the rotating panel design have been carried out in many countries, including Indonesia. Labor force survey in Indonesia is regularly conducted by Statistics Indonesia (Badan Pusat Statistik-BPS) and has been known as the National Labor Force Survey (Sakernas). The main purpose of Sakernas is to obtain information about unemployment rates and its changes over time. Sakernas is a quarterly survey. The quarterly survey is designed only for estimating the parameters at the provincial level. The quarterly unemployment rate published by BPS (official statistics) is calculated based on only cross-sectional methods, despite the fact that the data is collected under rotating panel design. The study purpose to estimate a quarterly unemployment rate at the district level used small area estimation (SAE) model by combining time series and cross-sectional data. The study focused on the application and comparison between the Rao-Yu model and dynamic model in context estimating the unemployment rate based on a rotating panel survey. The goodness of fit of both models was almost similar. Both models produced an almost similar estimation and better than direct estimation, but the dynamic model was more capable than the Rao-Yu model to capture a heterogeneity across area, although it was reduced over time.

  13. The impact of small irrigation diversion dams on the recent migration rates of steelhead and redband trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weigel, Dana E.; Connolly, Patrick J.; Powell, Madison S.

    2013-01-01

    Barriers to migration are numerous in stream environments and can occur from anthropogenic activities (such as dams and culverts) or natural processes (such as log jams or dams constructed by beaver (Castor canadensis)). Identification of barriers can be difficult when obstructions are temporary or incomplete providing passage periodically. We examine the effect of several small irrigation diversion dams on the recent migration rates of steelhead (Oncorhynchus mykiss) in three tributaries to the Methow River, Washington. The three basins had different recent migration patterns: Beaver Creek did not have any recent migration between sites, Libby Creek had two-way migration between sites and Gold Creek had downstream migration between sites. Sites with migration were significantly different from sites without migration in distance, number of obstructions, obstruction height to depth ratio and maximum stream gradient. When comparing the sites without migration in Beaver Creek to the sites with migration in Libby and Gold creeks, the number of obstructions was the only significant variable. Multinomial logistic regression identified obstruction height to depth ratio and maximum stream gradient as the best fitting model to predict the level of migration among sites. Small irrigation diversion dams were limiting population interactions in Beaver Creek and collectively blocking steelhead migration into the stream. Variables related to stream resistance (gradient, obstruction number and obstruction height to depth ratio) were better predictors of recent migration rates than distance, and can provide important insight into migration and population demographic processes in lotic species.

  14. Comparing sensitivity and count rate performance of small-bore DOI-PET scanners by computer simulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kobayashi, Tetsuya; Takahashi, Hisashi; Yamaya, Taiga; Murayama, Hideo; Kitamura, Keishi; Hasegawa, Tomoyuki; Suga, Mikio

    2006-01-01

    In the development of a dedicated small-bore DOI-PET scanner for small animals (jPET-RD), we performed Monte Carlo simulations using the GATE based on Geant4 and investigated the influence of the proximity of the detectors to the target object on the sensitivity and count rate performance. The jPET-RD is based on a large-size depth-of-interaction (DOI) block detector that consists of a 4-layered array of 32 x 32 LSO crystals (1.4 mm x 1.4 mm x 4.5 mm) and a 256-ch flat panel position-sensitive photomultiplier tube. In this work, three detector geometries were simulated: two rings of six detector blocks arranged in a hexagonal pattern (FOV 85 mm in diameter) and four detector blocks arranged in a tetragonal pattern (FOV 49 mm in diameter) and in an overlapped tetragonal pattern (FOV 38 mm in diameter). The simulation results showed that the smaller bore geometry can provide higher sensitivity because of its larger solid angle. Although it clearly affected the noise equivalent count rate (NECR) due to its high dead-time, parallel readout with appropriate anode segmentation improved the NECR at 20 MBq by a factor of 1.1 to 1.4 compared with the case of 256-ch anodes read out by one front-end circuit. (author)

  15. Analysis of successful rate factors for small and medium enterprises in furniture manufacturing sector in Klaten Regency - Central Java, Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budhi Utomo, R.; Lasminiasih; Prajaka, S.

    2018-03-01

    Small and Medium Enterprises (SMEs) are business activities that can expand the level of employment rate and provide economic services to the wider community and can play a role in the process of equalizing and improving people’s income, stimulating economic growth as well as realizing national stabilities. The aim of this study is to identify the factors of the success rate for Small and Medium Enterprises (SMEs) in furniture manufacturing sector in Klaten regency, Central Java, Indonesia. The method employed in this study was descriptive qualitative by also employing quantitative analysis of which the data were collected through observations, interviews and by administering questionnaires. The results seemed to indicate that the furniture business in Klaten is still experiencing difficulties in managing its various aspects of business, namely in terms of marketing (either directly or indirectly or by making the best use media of technology) and managing capital. All this time, the SMEs in furniture manufacturing sector in Klaten have been utilizing a very simple system in producing tables, chairs, wardrobes and any other furniture products which are then distributed to be sold by larger furniture companies. This condition makes the SMEs unable to be independent in running their business.

  16. Success and failure rates of tumor genotyping techniques in routine pathological samples with non-small-cell lung cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanderlaan, Paul A; Yamaguchi, Norihiro; Folch, Erik; Boucher, David H; Kent, Michael S; Gangadharan, Sidharta P; Majid, Adnan; Goldstein, Michael A; Huberman, Mark S; Kocher, Olivier N; Costa, Daniel B

    2014-04-01

    Identification of some somatic molecular alterations in non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) has become evidence-based practice. The success and failure rate of using commercially available tumor genotyping techniques in routine day-to-day NSCLC pathology samples is not well described. We sought to evaluate the success and failure rate of EGFR mutation, KRAS mutation, and ALK FISH in a cohort of lung cancers subjected to routine clinical tumor genotype. Clinicopathologic data, tumor genotype success and failure rates were retrospectively compiled and analyzed from 381 patient-tumor samples. From these 381 patients with lung cancer, the mean age was 65 years, 61.2% were women, 75.9% were white, 27.8% were never smokers, 73.8% had advanced NSCLC and 86.1% had adenocarcinoma histology. The tumor tissue was obtained from surgical specimens in 48.8%, core needle biopsies in 17.9%, and as cell blocks from aspirates or fluid in 33.3% of cases. Anatomic sites for tissue collection included lung (49.3%), lymph nodes (22.3%), pleura (11.8%), bone (6.0%), brain (6.0%), among others. The overall success rate for EGFR mutation analysis was 94.2%, for KRAS mutation 91.6% and for ALK FISH 91.6%. The highest failure rates were observed when the tissue was obtained from image-guided percutaneous transthoracic core-needle biopsies (31.8%, 27.3%, and 35.3% for EGFR, KRAS, and ALK tests, respectively) and bone specimens (23.1%, 15.4%, and 23.1%, respectively). In specimens obtained from bone, the failure rates were significantly higher for biopsies than resection specimens (40% vs. 0%, p=0.024 for EGFR) and for decalcified compared to non-decalcified samples (60% vs. 5.5%, p=0.021 for EGFR). Tumor genotype techniques are feasible in most samples, outside small image-guided percutaneous transthoracic core-needle biopsies and bone samples from core biopsies with decalcification, and therefore expansion of routine tumor genotype into the care of patients with NSCLC may not require special

  17. Limnology of nine small lakes, Matanuska-Susitna Borough, Alaska, and the survival and growth rates of rainbow trout

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woods, P.F.

    1985-01-01

    The survival and growth rates of rainbow trout (Salmo gairdnieri) were concurrently measured with selected limnological characteristics in nine small (surface area Gasterosteus aculeatus) also influenced survival of rainbow trout but their effects were overshadowed by winterkill. Predictive capability was also reduced because of inconsistencies in rankings generated by each of the four limnological variables chosen as indicators of potential biological productivity. A lake ranked low in productivity by one variable was commonly ranked high in productivity by another variable. The survivability of rainbow trout stocked in lakes such as these nine may be a more important indicator of potential biomass production than are indicators of lake fertility. Assessments of a lake 's susceptibility to winterkill and the degree of competition with threespine stickleback are suggested as important topics for additional research. (Author 's abstract)

  18. The relationship between physical activity level and completion rate of small bowel examination in patients undergoing capsule endoscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shibuya, Tomoyoshi; Mori, Hiroki; Takeda, Tsutomu; Konishi, Masae; Fukuo, Yuka; Matsumoto, Kenshi; Beppu, Kazuko; Sakamoto, Naoto; Osada, Taro; Nagahara, Akihito; Otaka, Michiro; Ogihara, Tatsuo; Watanabe, Sumio

    2012-01-01

    Capsule endoscopy (CE) allows direct examination of the small bowel in a safe, noninvasive and well-tolerated manner. Nonetheless, experience indicates failure to reach the cecum in 20-30% of patients within the 8 hour battery life. Attempts to improve the completion rate (CR) as defined by reaching the cecum have been unsuccessful. This study was to investigate the relationship between patients' physical activity and CR. Between January 2009 and January 2010, 76 patients (44 men, 32 women; median age 64.5 yr) underwent CE for the diagnosis of small intestinal disorders. Indications for CE were obscure gastrointestinal bleeding/anemia (62 cases), others (14 cases). Patients were divided into an outpatient group (n=23), mild bed rest group (n=35) and strict bed rest group (n=18). For all patients, the average gastric transit time was 65.5 minutes, small bowel transit time was 301.4 minutes and the CR was 86.8%. However, the CR was 100% (23/23) in the outpatient group, an 85.7% (30/35) in the mild bed rest group, and 72.2% (13/18) in the strict bed rest group. The CR increased with physical activity of patients by Cochran-Armitage Trend Test (p=0.009). In multivariate logistic regression analyses, low physical activity was a significant risk factor for failure to reach the cecum during CE examination; adjusted OR: 3.39, 95% CI: 1.01-11.42 (p=0.048). Our observations suggested that increasing physical activity would increase the likelihood of a complete bowel examination by CE. Further, for CE, inconvenient bowel preparations like the use of polyethylene glycol may be avoided.

  19. Small protease sensitive oligomers of PrPSc in distinct human prions determine conversion rate of PrP(C.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chae Kim

    Full Text Available The mammalian prions replicate by converting cellular prion protein (PrP(C into pathogenic conformational isoform (PrP(Sc. Variations in prions, which cause different disease phenotypes, are referred to as strains. The mechanism of high-fidelity replication of prion strains in the absence of nucleic acid remains unsolved. We investigated the impact of different conformational characteristics of PrP(Sc on conversion of PrP(C in vitro using PrP(Sc seeds from the most frequent human prion disease worldwide, the Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (sCJD. The conversion potency of a broad spectrum of distinct sCJD prions was governed by the level, conformation, and stability of small oligomers of the protease-sensitive (s PrP(Sc. The smallest most potent prions present in sCJD brains were composed only of∼20 monomers of PrP(Sc. The tight correlation between conversion potency of small oligomers of human sPrP(Sc observed in vitro and duration of the disease suggests that sPrP(Sc conformers are an important determinant of prion strain characteristics that control the progression rate of the disease.

  20. 13 CFR 107.855 - Interest rate ceiling and limitations on fees charged to Small Businesses (“Cost of Money”).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Interest rate ceiling and... § 107.855 Interest rate ceiling and limitations on fees charged to Small Businesses (“Cost of Money... weighted average interest rate you pay on your “qualified borrowings”. “Qualified borrowings” means your...

  1. A low-power and small-area column-level ADC for high frame-rate CMOS pixel sensor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, L., E-mail: liang.zhang@iphc.cnrs.fr [School of Physics, Key Laboratory of Particle Physics and Particle Irradiation, Shandong University, 250100 Jinan (China); Institut Pluridisciplinaire Hubert Curien, University of Strasbourg, CNRS/IN2P3/UDS, 23 rue du loess, BP 28, 67037 Strasbourg (France); Morel, F.; Hu-Guo, C.; Hu, Y. [Institut Pluridisciplinaire Hubert Curien, University of Strasbourg, CNRS/IN2P3/UDS, 23 rue du loess, BP 28, 67037 Strasbourg (France)

    2014-07-01

    CMOS pixel sensors (CPS) have demonstrated performances meeting the specifications of the International Linear Collider (ILC) vertex detector (VTX). This paper presents a low-power and small-area 4-bit column-level analog-to-digital converter (ADC) for CMOS pixel sensors. The ADC employs a self-timed trigger and completes the conversion by performing a multi-bit/step approximation. As in the outer layers of the ILC vertex detector hit density is of the order of a few per thousand, in order to reduce power consumption, the ADC is designed to work in two modes: active mode and idle mode. The ADC is fabricated in a 0.35 μm CMOS process with a pixel pitch of 35 μm. It is implemented with 48 columns in a sensor prototype. Each column ADC covers an area of 35 ×545 μm{sup 2}. The measured temporal noise and Fixed Pattern Noise (FPN) are 0.96 mV and 0.40 mV, respectively. The power consumption, for a 3 V supply and 6.25 MS/s sampling rate, is 486 μW during idle time, which is by far the most frequently employed one. This value rises to 714 μW in the case of the active mode. The measured differential nonlinearity (DNL) and integral nonlinearity (INL) are 0.49/−0.28 LSB and 0.29/−0.20 LSB, respectively. - Highlights: • CMOS sensor integrated with column-level ADC is proposed for ILC VTX outer layers. • A low-power and small-area column-level ADC for high frame-rate CPS is presented. • The test results demonstrate the power and area efficiency. • The architecture is suitable for the outer layer CMOS sensors.

  2. A low-power and small-area column-level ADC for high frame-rate CMOS pixel sensor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, L.; Morel, F.; Hu-Guo, C.; Hu, Y.

    2014-01-01

    CMOS pixel sensors (CPS) have demonstrated performances meeting the specifications of the International Linear Collider (ILC) vertex detector (VTX). This paper presents a low-power and small-area 4-bit column-level analog-to-digital converter (ADC) for CMOS pixel sensors. The ADC employs a self-timed trigger and completes the conversion by performing a multi-bit/step approximation. As in the outer layers of the ILC vertex detector hit density is of the order of a few per thousand, in order to reduce power consumption, the ADC is designed to work in two modes: active mode and idle mode. The ADC is fabricated in a 0.35 μm CMOS process with a pixel pitch of 35 μm. It is implemented with 48 columns in a sensor prototype. Each column ADC covers an area of 35 ×545 μm 2 . The measured temporal noise and Fixed Pattern Noise (FPN) are 0.96 mV and 0.40 mV, respectively. The power consumption, for a 3 V supply and 6.25 MS/s sampling rate, is 486 μW during idle time, which is by far the most frequently employed one. This value rises to 714 μW in the case of the active mode. The measured differential nonlinearity (DNL) and integral nonlinearity (INL) are 0.49/−0.28 LSB and 0.29/−0.20 LSB, respectively. - Highlights: • CMOS sensor integrated with column-level ADC is proposed for ILC VTX outer layers. • A low-power and small-area column-level ADC for high frame-rate CPS is presented. • The test results demonstrate the power and area efficiency. • The architecture is suitable for the outer layer CMOS sensors

  3. Overcoming time scale and finite size limitations to compute nucleation rates from small scale well tempered metadynamics simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salvalaglio, Matteo; Tiwary, Pratyush; Maggioni, Giovanni Maria; Mazzotti, Marco; Parrinello, Michele

    2016-12-01

    Condensation of a liquid droplet from a supersaturated vapour phase is initiated by a prototypical nucleation event. As such it is challenging to compute its rate from atomistic molecular dynamics simulations. In fact at realistic supersaturation conditions condensation occurs on time scales that far exceed what can be reached with conventional molecular dynamics methods. Another known problem in this context is the distortion of the free energy profile associated to nucleation due to the small, finite size of typical simulation boxes. In this work the problem of time scale is addressed with a recently developed enhanced sampling method while contextually correcting for finite size effects. We demonstrate our approach by studying the condensation of argon, and showing that characteristic nucleation times of the order of magnitude of hours can be reliably calculated. Nucleation rates spanning a range of 10 orders of magnitude are computed at moderate supersaturation levels, thus bridging the gap between what standard molecular dynamics simulations can do and real physical systems.

  4. The Association between Noise, Cortisol and Heart Rate in a Small-Scale Gold Mining Community—A Pilot Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Allyson Green

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available We performed a cross-sectional pilot study on salivary cortisol, heart rate, and personal noise exposures in a small-scale gold mining village in northeastern Ghana in 2013. Cortisol level changes between morning and evening among participants showed a relatively low decline in cortisol through the day (−1.44 ± 4.27 nmol/L, n = 18, a pattern consistent with chronic stress. A multiple linear regression, adjusting for age, sex, smoking status, and time between samples indicated a significant increase of 0.25 nmol/L cortisol from afternoon to evening per 1 dBA increase in equivalent continuous noise exposure (Leq over that period (95% CI: 0.08–0.42, Adj R2 = 0.502, n = 17. A mixed effect linear regression model adjusting for age and sex indicated a significant increase of 0.29 heart beats per minute (BPM for every 1 dB increase in Leq. Using standard deviations (SDs as measures of variation, and adjusting for age and sex over the sampling period, we found that a 1 dBA increase in noise variation over time (Leq SD was associated with a 0.5 BPM increase in heart rate SD (95% CI: 0.04–−0.9, Adj. R2 = 0.229, n = 16. Noise levels were consistently high, with 24-hour average Leq exposures ranging from 56.9 to 92.0 dBA, with a mean daily Leq of 82.2 ± 7.3 dBA (mean monitoring duration 22.1 ± 1.9 hours, n = 22. Ninety-five percent of participants had 24-hour average Leq noise levels over the 70 dBA World health Organization (WHO guideline level for prevention of hearing loss. These findings suggest that small-scale mining communities may face multiple, potentially additive health risks that are not yet well documented, including hearing loss and cardiovascular effects of stress and noise.

  5. The Association between Noise, Cortisol and Heart Rate in a Small-Scale Gold Mining Community-A Pilot Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Allyson; Jones, Andrew D; Sun, Kan; Neitzel, Richard L

    2015-08-21

    We performed a cross-sectional pilot study on salivary cortisol, heart rate, and personal noise exposures in a small-scale gold mining village in northeastern Ghana in 2013. Cortisol level changes between morning and evening among participants showed a relatively low decline in cortisol through the day (-1.44 ± 4.27 nmol/L, n = 18), a pattern consistent with chronic stress. A multiple linear regression, adjusting for age, sex, smoking status, and time between samples indicated a significant increase of 0.25 nmol/L cortisol from afternoon to evening per 1 dBA increase in equivalent continuous noise exposure (Leq) over that period (95% CI: 0.08-0.42, Adj R(2) = 0.502, n = 17). A mixed effect linear regression model adjusting for age and sex indicated a significant increase of 0.29 heart beats per minute (BPM) for every 1 dB increase in Leq. Using standard deviations (SDs) as measures of variation, and adjusting for age and sex over the sampling period, we found that a 1 dBA increase in noise variation over time (Leq SD) was associated with a 0.5 BPM increase in heart rate SD (95% CI: 0.04--0.9, Adj. R(2) = 0.229, n = 16). Noise levels were consistently high, with 24-hour average Leq exposures ranging from 56.9 to 92.0 dBA, with a mean daily Leq of 82.2 ± 7.3 dBA (mean monitoring duration 22.1 ± 1.9 hours, n = 22). Ninety-five percent of participants had 24-hour average Leq noise levels over the 70 dBA World health Organization (WHO) guideline level for prevention of hearing loss. These findings suggest that small-scale mining communities may face multiple, potentially additive health risks that are not yet well documented, including hearing loss and cardiovascular effects of stress and noise.

  6. A single-supply, high rate, small size and cheap electronic chain for 3He neutron counters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boffa, A.; Fazzi, A.; Pirovano, C.; Varoli, V.

    1996-01-01

    The paper describes a complete counting chain (charge preamplifier, shaping amplifier and threshold discriminator) devoted to 3 He neutron detectors. Since it is characterized by single supply operation, high counting rate, small size and low cost, it is well suited for high efficiency neutron well detectors where a large number (10 - 100) of counting tubes are used. Such detectors are commonly used for verification of Plutonium stocks. The preamplifier adopts an innovative circuit with the gate of the input JFET floating and a DC feedback loop that stabilizes the output voltage acting on the input cascode second transistor. Static and dynamic analysis, including the effects of the detector bias network, is reported. The shaping amplifier transfer function is a fifth order approximation of the gaussian response. All the complex pole pairs are realized with a single fourth order Voltage Controlled Voltage Source cell thus minimizing component count. Experimental signals and spectra, obtained with shaping time constants in the 1 μs - 100 ns range, are reported and discussed

  7. Winter reduction in body mass in a very small, nonhibernating mammal: consequences for heat loss and metabolic rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Jan R E; Rychlik, Leszek; Churchfield, Sara

    2013-01-01

    Low temperatures in northern winters are energetically challenging for mammals, and a special energetic burden is expected for diminutive species like shrews, which are among the smallest of mammals. Surprisingly, shrews shrink their body size in winter and reduce body and brain mass, an effect known as Dehnel's phenomenon, which is suggested to lower absolute energy intake requirements and thereby enhance survival when food availability is low. Yet reduced body size coupled with higher body-surface-to-mass ratio in these tiny mammals may result in thermoregulatory heat production at a given temperature constituting a larger proportion of the total energy expenditure. To evaluate energetic consequences of reduced body size in winter, we investigated common shrews Sorex araneus in northeastern Poland. Average body mass decreased by 19.0% from summer to winter, and mean skull depth decreased by 13.1%. There was no difference in Dehnel's phenomenon between years despite different weather conditions. The whole-animal thermal conductance (proportional to absolute heat loss) in shrews was 19% lower in winter than in summer; the difference between the two seasons remained significant after correcting for body mass and was caused by improved fur insulation in winter. Thermogenic capacity of shrews, although much enhanced in winter, did not reach its full potential of increase, and this corresponded with relatively mild subnivean temperatures. These findings indicate that, despite their small body size, shrews effectively decrease their costs of thermoregulation. The recorded decrease in body mass from summer to winter resulted in a reduction of overall resting metabolic rate (in thermoneutrality) by 18%. This, combined with the reduced heat loss, should translate to food requirements that are substantially lower than would be the case if shrews did not undergo seasonal decrease in body mass.

  8. A small unconditional non-financial incentive suggests an increase in survey response rates amongst older general practitioners (GPs): a randomised controlled trial study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pit, Sabrina Winona; Hansen, Vibeke; Ewald, Dan

    2013-07-30

    Few studies have investigated the effect of small unconditional non-monetary incentives on survey response rates amongst GPs or medical practitioners. This study assessed the effectiveness of offering a small unconditional non-financial incentive to increase survey response rates amongst general practitioners within a randomised controlled trial (RCT). An RCT was conducted within a general practice survey that investigated how to prolong working lives amongst ageing GPs in Australia. GPs (n = 125) were randomised to receive an attractive pen or no pen during their first invitation for participation in a survey. GPs could elect to complete the survey online or via mail. Two follow up reminders were sent without a pen to both groups. The main outcome measure was response rates. The response rate for GPs who received a pen was higher in the intervention group (61.9%) compared to the control group (46.8%). This study did not find a statistically significant effect of a small unconditional non-financial incentive (in the form of a pen) on survey response rates amongst GPs (Odds ratio, 95% confidence interval: 1.85 (0.91 to 3.77). No GPs completed the online version. A small unconditional non-financial incentives, in the form of a pen, may improve response rates for GPs.

  9. Rapid protein disappearance rates along the small intestine advantage poultry performance and influence the post-enteral availability of amino acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Truong, Ha H; Chrystal, Peter V; Moss, Amy F; Selle, Peter H; Liu, Sonia Yun

    2017-12-01

    A foundation diet, an intermediate blend and a summit diet were formulated with different levels of soyabean meal, casein and crystalline amino acids to compare 'slow' and 'rapid' protein diets. The diets were offered to male Ross 308 chicks from 7 to 28 d post-hatch and assessed parameters included growth performance, nutrient utilisation, apparent digestibility coefficients and disappearance rates of starch and protein (N) in four small intestinal segments. Digestibility coefficients and disappearance rates of sixteen amino acids in three small intestinal segments and amino acid concentrations in plasma from portal and systemic circulations from the foundation and summit diets were determined. The dietary transition significantly accelerated protein (N) disappearance rates in the distal jejunum and ileum. The transition from foundation to summit diets significantly increased starch digestibility coefficients in the ileum and disappearance rates in all four small intestinal segments. These starch responses were associated with significant enhancements in nutrient utilisation. The dietary transition linearly increased digestibility coefficients and disappearance rates of amino acids in the majority of cases. The summit diet increased plasma concentrations of five amino acids but decreased those of four amino acids relative to the foundation diet to significant extents. Plasma concentrations of free amino acids were higher in the portal than systemic circulations. Rapid protein disappearance rates advantaged poultry performance and influenced post-enteral availability of amino acids. If the underlying mechanisms are to be identified, further research into the impact of protein digestive dynamics on broiler performance is required but appears justified.

  10. Gastric emptying rate and small bowel transit time in patients with irritable bowel syndrome determined with 99mTc-labeled pellets and scintigraphy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nielsen, O.H.; Gjorup, T.; Christensen, F.N.

    1986-12-01

    A new method employing 99mTc-labeled pellets for determination of the gastric emptying rate and small bowel transit time is described. The participants were six normal subjects and 16 patients with irritable bowel syndrome (eight with diarrhea and eight with obstipation as the primary complaint). The gastric emptying rate was the same in the three groups. The patients in the obstipation group had a significantly longer small bowel transit time than the normals (P less than 0.02) and the patients in the diarrhea group (P less than 0.01). There was no demonstrable difference between the small bowel transit time in the normals and in the patients in the diarrhea group.

  11. Gastric emptying rate and small bowel transit time in patients with irritable bowel syndrome determined with 99mTc-labeled pellets and scintigraphy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nielsen, O.H.; Gjorup, T.; Christensen, F.N.

    1986-01-01

    A new method employing 99mTc-labeled pellets for determination of the gastric emptying rate and small bowel transit time is described. The participants were six normal subjects and 16 patients with irritable bowel syndrome (eight with diarrhea and eight with obstipation as the primary complaint). The gastric emptying rate was the same in the three groups. The patients in the obstipation group had a significantly longer small bowel transit time than the normals (P less than 0.02) and the patients in the diarrhea group (P less than 0.01). There was no demonstrable difference between the small bowel transit time in the normals and in the patients in the diarrhea group

  12. RELATION OF FETAL BLOOD-GASES AND DATA FROM COMPUTER-ASSISTED ANALYSIS OF FETAL HEART-RATE PATTERNS IN SMALL FOR GESTATION FETUSES

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    RIBBERT, LSM; SNIJDERS, RJM; NICOLAIDES, KH; VISSER, GHA

    Fetal heart rate (FHR) monitoring and computer-assisted analysis were performed immediately before cordocentesis in 25 severely small-for-gestational age fetuses. There were significant associations between FHR variation and both umbilical vein blood Po2 (r = 0.66) and pH (r = 0.69). However, the

  13. Exchange rate and price dynamics in a small open economy - the role of the zero lower bound and monetary policy regimes

    OpenAIRE

    Gregor Bäurle; Daniel Kaufmann

    2014-01-01

    We analyse nominal exchange rate and price dynamics after risk premium shocks with short-term interest rates constrained by the zero lower bound (ZLB). In a small-open-economy DSGE model, temporary risk premium shocks lead to shifts of the exchange rate and the price level if a central bank implements an inflation target by means of a traditional Taylor rule. These shifts are strongly amplified and become more persistent once the ZLB is included in the model. We also provide empirical support...

  14. An Analysis of New Small High Schools' On-Time Graduation Rates in New York City

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dudley, Nathan

    2017-01-01

    Beginning in 2002, with the election of Mayor Michael Bloomberg, New York City's Department of Education undertook an unprecedented overhaul of the largest school district in the United States. Over the next 10 years the Department of Education closed more than 25 large, underperforming high schools, and created almost 200 new, small high schools,…

  15. Microbial degradation rates of small peptides and amino acids in the oxygen minimum zone of Chilean coastal waters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pantoja, Silvio; Rossel, Pamela; Castro, Rodrigo; Cuevas, L. Antonio; Daneri, Giovanni; Córdova, Candy

    2009-07-01

    We found similar microbial degradation rates of labile dissolved organic matter in oxic and suboxic waters off northern Chile. Rates of peptide hydrolysis and amino acid uptake in unconcentrated water samples were not low in the water column where oxygen concentration was depleted. Hydrolysis rates ranged from 65 to 160 nmol peptide L -1 h -1 in the top 20 m, 8-28 nmol peptide L -1 h -1 between 100 and 300 m (O 2-depleted zone), and 14-19 nmol peptide L -1 h -1 between 600 and 800 m. Dissolved free amino acid uptake rates were 9-26, 3-17, and 6 nmol L -1 h -1 at similar depth intervals. Since these findings are consistent with a model of comparable potential activity of microbes in degrading labile substrates of planktonic origin, we suggest, as do other authors, that differences in decomposition rates with high and low oxygen concentrations may be a matter of substrate lability. The comparison between hydrolysis and uptake rates indicates that microbial peptide hydrolysis occurs at similar or faster rates than amino acid uptake in the water column, and that the hydrolysis of peptides is not a rate-limiting step for the complete remineralization of labile macromolecules. Low O 2 waters process about 10 tons of peptide carbon per h, double the amount processed in surface-oxygenated water. In the oxygen minimum zone, we suggest that the C balance may be affected by the low lability of the dissolved organic matter when this is upwelled to the surface. An important fraction of dissolved organic matter is processed in the oxygen minimum layer, a prominent feature of the coastal ocean in the highly productive Humboldt Current System.

  16. A high resolution, high counting rate bidimensional, MWPC imaging detector for small angle X-ray diffraction studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bateman, J.E.; Connolly, J.F.; Sawyer, E.C.; Stephenson, R.

    1981-07-01

    The performance is reported of a 200 mm x 200 mm X-ray imaging MWPC aimed at applications in small angle X-ray diffraction and scattering. With quantum energies of approximately 8 keV high spatial resolution (+- 0.5 mm x +- 0.14 mm) with a capability for data taking at >approximately 350 kHz is reported. The detection efficiency is approximately 75% and the detector operates as a sealed unit with a long lifetime. (author)

  17. A practical approach to estimate emission rates of indoor air pollutants due to the use of personal combustible products based on small-chamber studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szulejko, Jan E; Kim, Ki-Hyun

    2016-02-01

    As emission rates of airborne pollutants are commonly measured from combusting substances placed inside small chambers, those values need to be re-evaluated for the possible significance under practical conditions. Here, a simple numerical procedure is investigated to extrapolate the chamber-based emission rates of formaldehyde that can be released from various combustible sources including e-cigarettes, conventional cigarettes, or scented candles to their concentration levels in a small room with relatively poor ventilation. This simple procedure relies on a mass balance approach by considering the masses of pollutants emitted from source and lost through ventilation under the assumption that mixing occurs instantaneously in the room without chemical reactions or surface sorption. The results of our study provide valuable insights into re-evaluation procedure of chamber data to allow comparison between extrapolated and recommended values to judge the safe use of various combustible products in confined spaces. If two scented candles with a formaldehyde emission rate of 310 µg h(-1) each were lit for 4 h in a small 20 m(3) room with an air change rate of 0.5 h(-1), then the 4-h (candle lit) and 8-h (up to 8 h after candle lighting) TWA [FA] were determined to be 28.5 and 23.5 ppb, respectively. This is clearly above the 8-h NIOSH recommended exposure limit (REL) time weighted average of 16 ppb. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Feeding rates in the chaetognath Sagitta elegans : effects of prey size, prey swimming behaviour and small-scale turbulence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Saito, H.; Kiørboe, Thomas

    2001-01-01

    distances. We develop a simple prey encounter rate model by describing the swimming prey as a 'force dipole' and assuming that a critical signal strength is required to elicit an attack. By fitting the model to the observations, a critical signal strength of 10(-2) cm s(-1) is estimated; this is very...... at rates up to an order of magnitude higher than similarly sized females, probably owing to differences in swimming behaviour. Sagitta elegans is an ambush predator that perceives its prey by hydromechanical signals. Faster swimming prey generates stronger signals and is, hence, perceived at longer...

  19. Self-rated health: small area large area comparisons amongst older adults at the state, district and sub-district level in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirve, Siddhivinayak; Vounatsou, Penelope; Juvekar, Sanjay; Blomstedt, Yulia; Wall, Stig; Chatterji, Somnath; Ng, Nawi

    2014-03-01

    We compared prevalence estimates of self-rated health (SRH) derived indirectly using four different small area estimation methods for the Vadu (small) area from the national Study on Global AGEing (SAGE) survey with estimates derived directly from the Vadu SAGE survey. The indirect synthetic estimate for Vadu was 24% whereas the model based estimates were 45.6% and 45.7% with smaller prediction errors and comparable to the direct survey estimate of 50%. The model based techniques were better suited to estimate the prevalence of SRH than the indirect synthetic method. We conclude that a simplified mixed effects regression model can produce valid small area estimates of SRH. © 2013 Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  20. Effect of hole geometry and Electric-Discharge Machining (EDM) on airflow rates through small diameter holes in turbine blade material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hippensteele, S. A.; Cochran, R. P.

    1980-01-01

    The effects of two design parameters, electrode diameter and hole angle, and two machine parameters, electrode current and current-on time, on air flow rates through small-diameter (0.257 to 0.462 mm) electric-discharge-machined holes were measured. The holes were machined individually in rows of 14 each through 1.6 mm thick IN-100 strips. The data showed linear increase in air flow rate with increases in electrode cross sectional area and current-on time and little change with changes in hole angle and electrode current. The average flow-rate deviation (from the mean flow rate for a given row) decreased linearly with electrode diameter and increased with hole angle. Burn time and finished hole diameter were also measured.

  1. Diagnostic accuracy of gadoxetic acid-enhanced MR for small hypervascular hepatocellular carcinoma and the concordance rate of Liver Imaging Reporting and Data System (LI-RADS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bae, Jae Seok; Kim, Jung Hoon; Yu, Mi Hye; Lee, Dong Ho; Kim, Hyo-Cheol; Chung, Jin Wook; Han, Joon Koo

    2017-01-01

    To assess diagnostic accuracy of gadoxetic acid-enhanced MR for small hypervascular hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) detected by C-arm CT and concordance rate of Liver Imaging Reporting and Data System (LI-RADS). In this retrospective study, we recruited 4,544 patients suspected of having HCC underwent C-arm CT from November 2008 to May 2013. Among these patients, gadoxetic acid-enhanced MR was performed in 167 patients with HCC (n = 379; 257 > 1 cm, 122 ≤ 1 cm). HCC was confirmed by MR, CT, or follow-up images. Two radiologists graded likelihood of HCC and assessed MR features. Jackknife alternative free-response receiver operating characteristic (JAFROC) analysis was performed. All HCCs were evaluated concordance rate of LI-RADS. Mean JAFROC figure of merit for large (>1-cm) HCC was 0.948, while that for small HCC was 0.787 with fair agreement (κ = 0.409). Mean sensitivity and positive predictive value (PPV) were 91% and 90% for large HCC versus 63.0% and 79% for small HCC, respectively. Seventeen of 122 small HCCs (13.9%) were not visible on MR. Among 379 HCCs, 99 met LR-5, and 259 met LR-4. Common features for small HCC included arterial enhancement (81.9%), hepatobiliary phase hypointensity (80.3%), and delayed washout (72.9%). Diagnostic accuracy of gadoxetic acid-enhanced MR imaging for small, hypervascular HCCs (Mean figure of merit = 0.787) was still low compared with large HCC (Mean figure of merit = 0.948). LR-5 and LR-4 covered 94% (358/379) of the HCCs.

  2. Effects of Vildagliptin and Metformin on Blood Pressure and Heart Rate Responses to Small Intestinal Glucose in Type 2 Diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Tongzhi; Trahair, Laurence G; Little, Tanya J; Bound, Michelle J; Zhang, Xiang; Wu, Hang; Sun, Zilin; Horowitz, Michael; Rayner, Christopher K; Jones, Karen L

    2017-05-01

    To evaluate effects of vildagliptin and metformin on blood pressure (BP) and heart rate (HR) responses to intraduodenal (ID) glucose in diet-controlled type 2 diabetes. Study A compared vildagliptin (50 mg) and placebo, given 60 min before a 120-min ID glucose infusion at 2 or 4 kcal/min (ID2 or ID4) in 16 patients. Study B compared metformin (850 mg) and placebo, given 30 min before ID2 over 120 min in 9 patients. Systolic ( P = 0.002) and diastolic ( P vildagliptin compared with placebo, without interaction between vildagliptin and the glucose infusion rate. In contrast, HR was greater after metformin than placebo ( P Vildagliptin reduces BP and increases HR, whereas metformin increases HR without affecting BP during ID glucose infusion in type 2 diabetes. These distinct cardiovascular profiles during enteral nutrient exposure may have implications for postprandial hypotension. © 2017 by the American Diabetes Association.

  3. POWER, HEART RATE AND PERCEIVED EXERTION RESPONSES TO 3X3 AND 4X4 BASKETBALL SMALL-SIDED GAMES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaime Sampaio

    2009-01-01

    significant increase in the countermovement jump posttest jump results could suggest that the 4x4 were not played as quickly nor intensely as the 3x3. Decreases of the space and number of players in game allow greater self-recreation of players and greater intervention in game. Therefore, the heart rate response during the series displays a higher physiologic impact in 3x3 than in 4x4.

  4. Stress-driven solution to rate-independent elasto-plasticity with damage at small strains and its computer implementation

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Roubíček, Tomáš; Valdman, Jan

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 22, č. 6 (2017), s. 1267-1287 ISSN 1081-2865 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA14-15264S Institutional support: RVO:61388998 ; RVO:67985556 Keywords : rate-independent systems * nonsmooth continuum mechanics * incomplete ductile damage Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics; BA - General Mathematics (UTIA-B) OBOR OECD: Pure mathematics; Pure mathematics (UTIA-B) Impact factor: 2.953, year: 2016 http://journals.sagepub.com/doi/abs/10.1177/1081286515627674

  5. The rate of spread of sheep scab within small groups of Merino and Dorper sheep : short communication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Meintjies

    2002-07-01

    Full Text Available A single Merino sheep, artificially infested with the sheep scab mite, Psoroptes ovis, and a similarly infested Dorper sheep were placed with 9 uninfested Merino or 9 uninfested Dorper sheep respectively during winter and the rate of spread of infestation on the uninfested sheep observed. The same procedure was repeated in summer. It took 14 and 8 weeks respectively in winter before all sheep in the 2 groups displayed lesions of sheep scab, whereas in summer it took 10 and 12 weeks before all sheep had lesions.

  6. Stress-driven solution to rate-independent elasto-plasticity with damage at small strains and its computer implementation

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Roubíček, Tomáš; Valdman, Jan

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 22, č. 6 (2017), s. 1267-1287 ISSN 1081-2865 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA14-15264S; GA ČR GA13-18652S Institutional support: RVO:67985556 ; RVO:61388998 Keywords : rate-independent systems * nonsmooth continuum mechanics * incomplete ductile damage Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics; BA - General Mathematics (UT-L) OBOR OECD: Pure mathematics; Pure mathematics (UT-L) Impact factor: 2.953, year: 2016 http://library.utia.cas.cz/separaty/2016/MTR/valdman-0458555.pdf

  7. Pulse Generator Exchange Does Not Accelerate the Rate of Electrical Failure in a Recalled Small Caliber ICD Lead.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lovelock, Joshua D; Premkumar, Ajay; Levy, Mathew R; Mengistu, Andenet; Hoskins, Michael H; El-Chami, Mikhael F; Lloyd, Michael S; Leon, Angel R; Langberg, Jonathan J; Delurgio, David B

    2015-12-01

    St. Jude Riata/Riata ST defibrillator leads (St. Jude Medical, Sylmar, CA, USA) were recalled by the Food and Drug Administration in 2011 for an increased rate of failure. More than 227,000 leads were implanted and at least 79,000 patients still have active Riata leads. Studies have examined clinical predictors of lead failure in Riata leads, but none have addressed the effect of implantable cardioverter defibrillator (ICD) generator exchange on lead failure. The purpose of this study is to assess the effect of ICD generator exchange on the rate of electrical failure in the Riata lead at 1 year. A retrospective chart review was conducted in patients who underwent implantation of a Riata/Riata ST lead at one center. Patients with a functioning Riata lead (with/without externalized conductor) at the time of ICD exchange were compared to controls with Riata leads implanted for a comparable amount of time who did not undergo generator replacement. Riata leads were implanted in 1,042 patients prior to the recall and 153 of these patients underwent generator exchange without lead replacement. Conductor externalization was noted in 21.5% of Riata leads in the ICD exchange cohort, which was not different from the control group (19.2%; P = 0.32). Two leads failed in the first year after generator replacement (1.5%) which did not significantly differ from the control group (2.0%; P = 0.57). At change-out, 54% received a commanded shock (18.6 ± 0.9 J) that did not result in any change in the high-voltage lead impedance (46.1 ± 1.1 ohms). Conductor externalization was seen frequently in our cohort of patients. ICD generator exchange did not accelerate the rate of Riata lead failure at 1 year. Although both the control and the change-out cohorts failed at a rate much greater than nonrecalled leads, generator exchange did not appear to add to the problem. ©2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Soil erosion and sedimentation rates in a small eutrophic lake in southern Chile estimated by 210Pb isotope analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cisternas, M.; Urrutia, R.; Araneda, A.; Debels, P.; Rios, F.

    1999-01-01

    The purpose of this research is to study the effects of historical land use patterns on soil erosion within the San Pedro Lake watershed (Concepcion, VIII Region, Chile). To this end, a geochronological reconstruction of the last 50 years was accomplished by 210 Pb isotope and photo-interpretation analysis through the use of GIS. The erosion rate has varied from 0.40 t ha -1 y -1 in 1955 to 0.86 t ha -1 y -1 in 1994. The decrease in native forest was closely coupled with the increase in exotic forestry. The Total Change, meaning the land use change without considering each typology, shows a constant trend indicating a greater degree of anthropogenic intervention. As opposed to the expected, there is no relationship between land use typologies and erosion rates, however it is possible to recognise some degree of dependency between Total Change and erosion values. It is concluded that over the last 50 years the soil erosion processes in the San Pedro Lake watershed may have been more regulated more by land use changes than by land use typologies themselves. (author)

  9. Acute Effects of Different Formats of Small-Sided and Conditioned Handball Games on Heart Rate Responses in Female Students During PE Classes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filipe Manuel Clemente

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to analyze the impact of different formats (2-a-side, 3-a-side and 4-a-side on heart rate responses of female students during small-sided and conditioned handball games. The heart rate responses were measured using heart rate monitors during physical education classes. Eight female students participated in the study (15 ± 0.0 years. The one-way ANOVA showed statistical differences with moderate effect between the three different formats (F(2, 1674 = 86.538; p-value ˂ 0.001;  = 0.094; Power = 1.0. The results showed that smaller formats (2-a-side and 3-a-side increased the heart rate responses of female students during small-sided and conditioned handball games during physical education (PE classes. The results also suggested that 2-a-side games can be used for anaerobic workouts and the 3-a-side and 4-a-side games can be better used to reach lactate-threshold and for aerobic workouts of high intensity.

  10. Effect of Acidity of a Medium on Riboflavin Photodestruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Astanov, S. Kh.; Turdiev, M.; Sharipov, M. Z.; Kurtaliev, É. N.; Nizomov, N. N.

    2016-03-01

    Effect of acidity of a medium on the spectroscopic characteristics of riboflavin aqueous solutions is investigated by the method of fluorescent and absorption spectroscopy. Significant deformation of the electronic spectra of riboflavin aqueous solutions irradiated with unfiltered light of a PRK-2 lamp is observed. It is established that riboflavin photostability in an acid medium is about twice as much as the photostability in a neutral medium, which is caused by the formation of a protonated species.

  11. Population growth rate and genetic variability of small and large populations of Red flour beetle (Tribolium castaneum) following multigenerational exposure to copper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laskowski, Ryszard; Radwan, Jacek; Kuduk, Katarzyna; Mendrok, Magdalena; Kramarz, Paulina

    2015-07-01

    We reared large (1000 individuals) and small (20 individuals) populations of Tribolium castaneum on diet contaminated with copper in order to determine if the size of a population affects its ability to adapt to adverse environmental conditions. After 10 generations, we used microsatellite markers to estimate and subsequently compare the genetic variability of the copper-treated populations with that of the control populations, which were reared on uncontaminated medium. Additionally, we conducted a full cross-factorial experiment which evaluated the effects of 10 generations of "pre-exposure" to copper on a population's fitness in control and copper-contaminated environments. In order to distinguish results potentially arising from genetic adaptation from those due to non-genetic effects associated to parental exposure to copper, we subjected also F11 generation, originating from parents not exposed to copper, to the same cross-factorial experiment. The effects of long-term exposure to copper depended on population size: the growth rates of small populations that were pre-exposed to copper were inhibited compared to those of small populations reared in uncontaminated environments. Large Cu-exposed populations had a higher growth rate in the F10 generation compared to the control groups, while the growth rate of the F11 generation was unaffected by copper exposure history. The only factor that had a significant effect on genetic variability was population size, but this was to be expected given the large difference in the number of individuals between large and small populations. Neither copper contamination nor its interaction with population size affected the number of microsatellite alleles retained in the F10 generation.

  12. Study on flow rate measurement and visualization of helium-air exchange flow through a small opening

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fumizawa, Motoo

    1992-01-01

    This paper deals with an experimental investigation on buoyancy-driven exchange flows through horizontal and inclined openings. The method of the mass increment was developed to measure the flow rate in helium-air system and a displacement fringe technique was adopted in Mach-Zehnder interferometer to visualize the flow. As the result, the followings were obtained: Flow visualization results indicate that the upward and downward plumes of helium and air break through the opening intermittently, and they swing in the lateral direction through the horizontal opening. It is clearly visualized that the exchange flows through the inclined openings take place smoothly and stably in the separated passages. The inclination angle for the maximum Froude number decreases with increasing length-to-diameter ratio in the helium-air system, on the contrary to Mercer's experimental results in the water-brine system indicating that the angle remains almost constant. (author)

  13. Estimating movement and survival rates of a small saltwater fish using autonomous antenna receiver arrays and passive integrated transponder tags

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudershausen, Paul J.; Buckel, Jeffery A.; Dubreuil, Todd; O'Donnell, Matthew J.; Hightower, Joseph E.; Poland, Steven J.; Letcher, Benjamin H.

    2014-01-01

    We evaluated the performance of small (12.5 mm long) passive integrated transponder (PIT) tags and custom detection antennas for obtaining fine-scale movement and demographic data of mummichog Fundulus heteroclitus in a salt marsh creek. Apparent survival and detection probability were estimated using a Cormack Jolly Seber (CJS) model fitted to detection data collected by an array of 3 vertical antennas from November 2010 to March 2011 and by a single horizontal antenna from April to August 2011. Movement of mummichogs was monitored during the period when the array of vertical antennas was used. Antenna performance was examined in situ using tags placed in wooden dowels (drones) and in live mummichogs. Of the 44 tagged fish, 42 were resighted over the 9 mo monitoring period. The in situ detection probabilities of the drone and live mummichogs were high (~80-100%) when the ambient water depth was less than ~0.8 m. Upstream and downstream movement of mummichogs was related to hourly water depth and direction of tidal current in a way that maximized time periods over which mummichogs utilized the intertidal vegetated marsh. Apparent survival was lower during periods of colder water temperatures in December 2010 and early January 2011 (median estimate of daily apparent survival = 0.979) than during other periods of the study (median estimate of daily apparent survival = 0.992). During late fall and winter, temperature had a positive effect on the CJS detection probability of a tagged mummichog, likely due to greater fish activity over warmer periods. During the spring and summer, this pattern reversed possibly due to mummichogs having reduced activity during the hottest periods. This study demonstrates the utility of PIT tags and continuously operating autonomous detection systems for tracking fish at fine temporal scales, and improving estimates of demographic parameters in salt marsh creeks that are difficult or impractical to sample with active fishing gear.

  14. Increased accuracy of the carbon-14 D-xylose breath test in detecting small-intestinal bacterial overgrowth by correction with the gastric emptying rate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang Chisen; Chen Granhum; Kao Chiahung; Wang Shyhjen; Peng Shihnen; Huang Chihkuen; Poon Sekkwong

    1995-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine whether the accuracy of 14 C-D-xylose breath test for detecting bacterial overgrowth can be increased by correction with the gastric emptying rate of 14 C-D-xylose. Ten culture-positive patients and ten culture-negative controls were included in the study. Small-intestinal aspirates for bacteriological culture were obtained endoscopically. A liquid-phase gastric emptying study was performed simultaneously to assess the amount of 14 C-D-xylose that entered the small intestine. The results of the percentage of expired 14 CO 2 at 30 min were corrected with the amount of 14 C-D-xylose that entered the small intestine. There were six patients in the culture-positive group with a 14 CO 2 concentration above the normal limit. Three out of four patients with initially negative results using the uncorrected method proved to be positive after correction. All these three patients had prolonged gastric emptying of 14 C-D-xylose. When compared with cultures of small-intestine aspirates, the sensitivity and specificity of the uncorrected 14 C-D-xylose breath test were 60% and 90%, respectively. In contrast, the sensitivity and specificity of the corrected 14 C-D-xylose breath test improved to 90% and 100%, respectively. (orig./MG)

  15. Low Goiter Rate Associated with Small Average Thyroid Volume in Schoolchildren after the Elimination of Iodine Deficiency Disorders.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peihua Wang

    Full Text Available After the implementation of the universal salt iodization (USI program in 1996, seven cross-sectional school-based surveys have been conducted to monitor iodine deficiency disorders (IDD among children in eastern China.This study aimed to examine the correlation of total goiter rate (TGR with average thyroid volume (Tvol and urinary iodine concentration (UIC in Jiangsu province after IDD elimination.Probability-proportional-to-size sampling was applied to select 1,200 children aged 8-10 years old in 30 clusters for each survey in 1995, 1997, 1999, 2001, 2002, 2005, 2009 and 2011. We measured Tvol using ultrasonography in 8,314 children and measured UIC (4,767 subjects and salt iodine (10,184 samples using methods recommended by the World Health Organization. Tvol was used to calculate TGR based on the reference criteria specified for sex and body surface area (BSA.TGR decreased from 55.2% in 1997 to 1.0% in 2009, and geometric means of Tvol decreased from 3.63 mL to 1.33 mL, along with the UIC increasing from 83 μg/L in 1995 to 407 μg/L in 1999, then decreasing to 243 μg/L in 2005, and then increasing to 345 μg/L in 2011. In the low goiter population (TGR 300 μg/L was associated with a smaller average Tvol in children.After IDD elimination in Jiangsu province in 2001, lower TGR was associated with smaller average Tvol. Average Tvol was more sensitive than TGR in detecting the fluctuation of UIC. A UIC of 300 μg/L may be defined as a critical value for population level iodine status monitoring.

  16. Increasing the success rate of groundwater exploration in developing nation using geophysical methods: Case of a small community in Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isiorho, S. A.; Omole, D.; Aizebeokhai, A.

    2016-12-01

    About 35 percent of Nigeria's population of the more than 180 M relies on groundwater. Due to the lack of an adequate water supply system within Ogun State, many homes result to drilling their own private wells. Most groundwater is sourced from shallow wells (less than 30 m) and is often of poor water quality. The number of borehole failures is also alarming. Several entrepreneurs have seized on the lack of adequate water supply to drill for groundwater. Several of these wells have either failed or are not adequate for the purposed use of the water. There also appears to be no proper coordination of the citing of these wells. To increase the success rates of the boreholes, the use of geophysical methods amongst others is recommended. This study examines the exploration for groundwater and water quality in Ogun State in Nigeria, using Ota as an example. Ogun State has both significant surface and groundwater resources. However, due to the indiscriminate and lack of proper waste disposal, the vast majority of the surface waters and shallow well waters are impaired making them unsuitable for many users. To access a deeper groundwater source, a geophysical survey was performed to assist in finding a possible location for a borehole. A geophysical survey using the vertical electric sounding (VES) with Schlumberger configuration was carried out. The data shows that there are five layers within the proposed borehole site. Based on the data, it was suggested that a well be placed at a depth between 65-75 m (213-246 ft.). The borehole was drilled to 67m. This depth, from the literature, corresponds to the Abeokuta formation. A pump was installed at 66 m (217 ft.) depth and the first 50 feet of the borehole was grouted to prevent surface water from getting into the hole. A pumping test was performed for about two hours. While this was noteworthy, the data is not made available to any centralized body. No water chemistry was undertaken and more still needs to be done with

  17. Effect of Amifostine on Response Rates in Locally Advanced Non-Small-Cell Lung Cancer Patients Treated on Randomized Controlled Trials: A Meta-Analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mell, Loren K.; Malik, Renuka; Komaki, Ritsuko; Movsas, Benjamin; Swann, R. Suzanne; Langer, Corey; Antonadou, Dosia; Koukourakis, Michael; Mundt, Arno J.

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: Amifostine can reduce the cytotoxic effects of chemotherapy and radiotherapy in patients with locally advanced non-small-cell lung cancer, but concerns remain regarding its possible tumor-protective effects. Studies with sufficient statistical power to address this question are lacking. Methods and Materials: We performed a meta-analysis of all published clinical trials involving locally advanced non-small-cell lung cancer patients treated with radiotherapy with or without chemotherapy, who had been randomized to treatment with amifostine vs. no amifostine or placebo. Random effects estimates of the relative risk of overall, partial, and complete response were obtained. Results: Seven randomized trials involving 601 patients were identified. Response rate data were available for six studies (552 patients). The pooled relative risk (RR) estimate was 1.07 (95% confidence interval, 0.97-1.18; p = 0.18), 1.21 (95% confidence interval, 0.83-1.78; p = 0.33), and 0.99 (95% confidence interval, 0.78-1.26; p = 0.95) for overall, complete, and partial response, respectively (a RR >1 indicates improvement in response with amifostine compared with the control arm). The results were similar after sensitivity analyses. No evidence was found of treatment effect heterogeneity across the studies. Conclusions: Amifostine has no effect on tumor response in patients with locally advanced non-small-cell lung cancer treated with radiotherapy with or without chemotherapy

  18. Effects of growth rate, size, and light availability on tree survival across life stages: a demographic analysis accounting for missing values and small sample sizes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moustakas, Aristides; Evans, Matthew R

    2015-02-28

    Plant survival is a key factor in forest dynamics and survival probabilities often vary across life stages. Studies specifically aimed at assessing tree survival are unusual and so data initially designed for other purposes often need to be used; such data are more likely to contain errors than data collected for this specific purpose. We investigate the survival rates of ten tree species in a dataset designed to monitor growth rates. As some individuals were not included in the census at some time points we use capture-mark-recapture methods both to allow us to account for missing individuals, and to estimate relocation probabilities. Growth rates, size, and light availability were included as covariates in the model predicting survival rates. The study demonstrates that tree mortality is best described as constant between years and size-dependent at early life stages and size independent at later life stages for most species of UK hardwood. We have demonstrated that even with a twenty-year dataset it is possible to discern variability both between individuals and between species. Our work illustrates the potential utility of the method applied here for calculating plant population dynamics parameters in time replicated datasets with small sample sizes and missing individuals without any loss of sample size, and including explanatory covariates.

  19. Experiment and analyses on intentional secondary-side depressurization during PWR small break LOCA. Effects of depressurization rate and break area on core liquid level behavior

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asaka, Hideaki; Ohtsu, Iwao; Anoda, Yoshinari; Kukita, Yutaka

    1997-01-01

    The effects of the secondary-side depressurization rate and break area on the core liquid level behavior during a PWR small-break LOCA were studied using experimental data from the Large Scale Test Facility (LSTF) and by using analysis results obtained with a JAERI modified version of RELAP5/MOD3 code. The LSTF is a 1/ 48 volumetrically scaled full-height integral model of a Westinghouse-type PWR. The code reproduced the thermal-hydraulic responses, observed in the experiment, for important parameters such as the primary and secondary side pressures and core liquid level behavior. The sensitivity of the core minimum liquid level to the depressurization rate and break area was studied by using the code assessed above. It was found that the core liquid level took a local minimum value for a given break area as a function of secondary side depressurization rate. Further efforts are, however, needed to quantitatively define the maximum core temperature as a function of break area and depressurization rate. (author)

  20. Tumor Delineation and Quantitative Assessment of Glucose Metabolic Rate within Histologic Subtypes of Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer by Using Dynamic 18F Fluorodeoxyglucose PET.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meijer, Tineke W H; de Geus-Oei, Lioe-Fee; Visser, Eric P; Oyen, Wim J G; Looijen-Salamon, Monika G; Visvikis, Dimitris; Verhagen, Ad F T M; Bussink, Johan; Vriens, Dennis

    2017-05-01

    Purpose To assess whether dynamic fluorine 18 ( 18 F) fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) positron emission tomography (PET) has added value over static 18 F-FDG PET for tumor delineation in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) radiation therapy planning by using pathology volumes as the reference standard and to compare pharmacokinetic rate constants of 18 F-FDG metabolism, including regional variation, between NSCLC histologic subtypes. Materials and Methods The study was approved by the institutional review board. Patients gave written informed consent. In this prospective observational study, 1-hour dynamic 18 F-FDG PET/computed tomographic examinations were performed in 35 patients (36 resectable NSCLCs) between 2009 and 2014. Static and parametric images of glucose metabolic rate were obtained to determine lesion volumes by using three delineation strategies. Pathology volume was calculated from three orthogonal dimensions (n = 32). Whole tumor and regional rate constants and blood volume fraction (V B ) were computed by using compartment modeling. Results Pathology volumes were larger than PET volumes (median difference, 8.7-25.2 cm 3 ; Wilcoxon signed rank test, P PET images is in best agreement with pathology volume and could be useful for NSCLC autocontouring. Differences in glycolytic rate and V B between SCC and AC are relevant for research in targeting agents and radiation therapy dose escalation. © RSNA, 2016 Online supplemental material is available for this article.

  1. Predicting the 3D fatigue crack growth rate of small cracks using multimodal data via Bayesian networks: In-situ experiments and crystal plasticity simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rovinelli, Andrea; Sangid, Michael D.; Proudhon, Henry; Guilhem, Yoann; Lebensohn, Ricardo A.; Ludwig, Wolfgang

    2018-06-01

    Small crack propagation accounts for most of the fatigue life of engineering structures subject to high cycle fatigue loading conditions. Determining the fatigue crack growth rate of small cracks propagating into polycrystalline engineering alloys is critical to improving fatigue life predictions, thus lowering cost and increasing safety. In this work, cycle-by-cycle data of a small crack propagating in a beta metastable titanium alloy is available via phase and diffraction contrast tomography. Crystal plasticity simulations are used to supplement experimental data regarding the micromechanical fields ahead of the crack tip. Experimental and numerical results are combined into a multimodal dataset and sampled utilizing a non-local data mining procedure. Furthermore, to capture the propensity of body-centered cubic metals to deform according to the pencil-glide model, a non-local driving force is postulated. The proposed driving force serves as the basis to construct a data-driven probabilistic crack propagation framework using Bayesian networks as building blocks. The spatial correlation between the postulated driving force and experimental observations is obtained by analyzing the results of the proposed framework. Results show that the above correlation increases proportionally to the distance from the crack front until the edge of the plastic zone. Moreover, the predictions of the propagation framework show good agreement with experimental observations. Finally, we studied the interaction of a small crack with grain boundaries (GBs) utilizing various slip transmission criteria, revealing the tendency of a crack to cross a GB by propagating along the slip directions minimizing the residual Burgers vector within the GB.

  2. Locomotor and Heart Rate Responses of Floaters During Small-Sided Games in Elite Soccer Players: Effect of Pitch Size and Inclusion of Goal Keepers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacome, Mathieu; Simpson, Ben M; Cholley, Yannick; Buchheit, Martin

    2017-09-27

    To (1) compare the locomotor and heart rate responses between floaters and regular players during both small and large small sided games (SSGs) and (2) examine whether the type of game (i.e., game simulation vs possession game) affects the magnitude of the difference between floaters and regular players. Data were collected in 41 players belonging to an elite French football team during three consecutive seasons (2014-2017). 5-Hz GPS were used to collect all training data, with the Athletic Data Innovation analyser (v5.4.1.514, Sydney, Australia) used to derive total distance (m), high-speed distance (> 14.4 km.h -1 , m) and external mechanical load (MechL, a.u). All SSGs included exclusively one floater, and were divided into two main categories, according to the participation of goal-keepers (GK) (game simulation, GS) or not (possession games, PO) and then further divided into small and large (>100 m2/player) SSGs based on the area per player ratio. Locomotor activity and mechanical load performed were likely-to-most likely lower (moderate to large magnitude) in floaters compared with regular players, while differences in HR responses were unclear to possibly higher (small) in floaters. The magnitude of the difference in locomotor activity and MechL between floaters and regular players was substantially greater during GS compared with PO. Compared with regular players, floaters present decreased external load (both locomotor and MechL) despite unclear to possibly slightly higher HR responses during SSGs. Moreover, the responses of floaters compared with regular players are not consistent across different sizes of SSGs, with greater differences during GS than PO.

  3. An evaluation of fresh gas flow rates for spontaneously breathing cats and small dogs on the Humphrey ADE semi-closed breathing system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gale, Elizabeth; Ticehurst, Kim E; Zaki, Sanaa

    2015-05-01

    To evaluate the fresh gas flow (FGF) rate requirements for the Humphrey ADE semi-closed breathing system in the Mapleson A mode; to determine the FGF at which rebreathing occurs, and compare the efficiency of this system to the Bain (Mapleson D) system in spontaneously breathing cats and small dogs. Prospective clinical study. Twenty-five healthy (ASA score I or II) client-owned cats and dogs (mean ± SD age 4.7 ± 5.0 years, and body weight 5.64 ± 3.26 kg) undergoing elective surgery or minor procedures. Anaesthesia was maintained with isoflurane delivered via the Humphrey ADE system in the A mode using an oxygen FGF of 100 mL kg(-1) minute(-1). The FGF was then reduced incrementally by 5-10 mL kg(-1) minute(-1) at approximately five-minute intervals, until rebreathing (inspired CO(2) >5 mmHg (0.7 kPa)) was observed, after which flow rates were increased. In six animals, once the minimum FGF at which rebreathing occurred was found, the breathing system was changed to the Bain, and the effects of this FGF delivery examined, before FGF was increased. Rebreathing did not occur at the FGF recommended by the manufacturer for the ADE. The mean ± SD FGF that resulted in rebreathing was 60 ± 20 mL kg(-1) minute(-1). The mean minimum FGF at which rebreathing did not occur with the ADE was 87 ± 39 mL kg(-1) minute(-1). This FGF resulted in significant rebreathing (inspired CO(2) 8.8 ± 2.6 mmHg (1.2 ± 0.3 kPa)) on the Bain system. The FGF rates recommended for the Humphrey ADE are adequate to prevent rebreathing in spontaneously breathing cats and dogs cats and small dogs. © 2014 Association of Veterinary Anaesthetists and the American College of Veterinary Anesthesia and Analgesia.

  4. A comparison of licensed and un-licensed artisanal and small-scale gold miners (ASGM) in terms of socio-demographics, work profiles, and injury rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calys-Tagoe, Benedict N L; Clarke, Edith; Robins, Thomas; Basu, Niladri

    2017-11-06

    Artisanal and small-scale gold mining (ASGM) represents one of the most hazardous work environments. While formalization of this sector has been suggested (e.g., Minamata Convention) as a means to improve working conditions, we are unaware of empirical evidence that supports this notion. This study aimed to compare sociodemographic profiles, work profiles, and injury rates among miners working in licensed versus un-licensed ASGM sites. In the Tarkwa mining region of Ghana, 404 small-scale miners were recruited in 2014 and interviewed regarding their occupational injury experiences over the preceding 10 years. Workers were drawn from 9 mining sites, of which 5 were licensed and 4 were not licensed. Sociodemographic characteristics of miners from the two groups were relatively similar. Those currently working in an un-licensed mine have spent more time in the ASGM sector than those currently working in a licensed mine (94 vs. 70 months). Miners working in an un-licensed site tended to experience more injury episodes (e.g., 26% vs. 8% had 3 or more injury events) and not use personal protective equipment during the time of an injury (92% indicated to not using vs. 73%) when compared to miners working in a licensed site. A total of 121 injury episodes were recorded for 2245 person years of ASGM work. The injury rate for those working in un-licensed mines was 5.9 per 100 person years (59 injuries in 995 person years) versus 5.0 (62 injuries in 1250 person-years) in the licensed mines. When focusing on the male miners, there was a significant difference in injury rates between those working in a licensed mine (4.2 per 100 person years) versus an un-licensed mine (6.1 per 100 person years). These findings advance our understanding of injuries amongst ASGM workers, and help identify important differences in socio-demographics, work profiles, and injury rates between miners working in a licensed versus and un-licensed site. The findings suggest that certain working

  5. A comparison of licensed and un-licensed artisanal and small-scale gold miners (ASGM in terms of socio-demographics, work profiles, and injury rates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benedict N. L. Calys-Tagoe

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Artisanal and small-scale gold mining (ASGM represents one of the most hazardous work environments. While formalization of this sector has been suggested (e.g., Minamata Convention as a means to improve working conditions, we are unaware of empirical evidence that supports this notion. This study aimed to compare sociodemographic profiles, work profiles, and injury rates among miners working in licensed versus un-licensed ASGM sites. Methods In the Tarkwa mining region of Ghana, 404 small-scale miners were recruited in 2014 and interviewed regarding their occupational injury experiences over the preceding 10 years. Workers were drawn from 9 mining sites, of which 5 were licensed and 4 were not licensed. Results Sociodemographic characteristics of miners from the two groups were relatively similar. Those currently working in an un-licensed mine have spent more time in the ASGM sector than those currently working in a licensed mine (94 vs. 70 months. Miners working in an un-licensed site tended to experience more injury episodes (e.g., 26% vs. 8% had 3 or more injury events and not use personal protective equipment during the time of an injury (92% indicated to not using vs. 73% when compared to miners working in a licensed site. A total of 121 injury episodes were recorded for 2245 person years of ASGM work. The injury rate for those working in un-licensed mines was 5.9 per 100 person years (59 injuries in 995 person years versus 5.0 (62 injuries in 1250 person-years in the licensed mines. When focusing on the male miners, there was a significant difference in injury rates between those working in a licensed mine (4.2 per 100 person years versus an un-licensed mine (6.1 per 100 person years. Conclusions These findings advance our understanding of injuries amongst ASGM workers, and help identify important differences in socio-demographics, work profiles, and injury rates between miners working in a licensed versus and un

  6. Investigation of the Relationship Between Gross Tumor Volume Location and Pneumonitis Rates Using a Large Clinical Database of Non-Small-Cell Lung Cancer Patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vinogradskiy, Yevgeniy; Tucker, Susan L.; Liao Zhongxing; Martel, Mary K.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: Studies have suggested that function may vary throughout the lung, and that patients who have tumors located in the base of the lung are more susceptible to radiation pneumonitis. The purpose of our study was to investigate the relationship between gross tumor volume (GTV) location and pneumonitis rates using a large clinical database of 547 patients with non–small-cell lung cancer. Methods and Materials: The GTV centroids of all patients were mapped onto one common coordinate system, in which the boundaries of the coordinate system were defined by the extreme points of each individual patient lung. The data were qualitatively analyzed by graphing all centroids and displaying the data according to the presence of severe pneumonitis, tumor stage, and smoking status. The centroids were grouped according to superior–inferior segments, and the pneumonitis rates were analyzed. In addition, we incorporated the GTV centroid information into a Lyman–Kutcher–Burman normal tissue complication probability model and tested whether adding spatial information significantly improved the fit of the model. Results: Of the 547 patients analyzed, 111 (20.3%) experienced severe radiation pneumonitis. The pneumonitis incidence rates were 16%, 23%, and 21% for the superior, middle, and inferior thirds of the lung, respectively. Qualitatively, the GTV centroids of nonsmokers were notably absent from the superior portion of the lung. In addition, the GTV centroids of patients who had Stage III and IV clinical staging were concentrated toward the medial edge of the lung. The comparison between the GTV centroid model and the conventional dose–volume model did not yield a statistically significant difference in model fit. Conclusions: Lower pneumonitis rates were noted for the superior portion of the lung; however the differences were not statistically significant. For our patient cohort, incorporating GTV centroid information did not lead to a statistically significant

  7. Investigation of the relationship between gross tumor volume location and pneumonitis rates using a large clinical database of non-small-cell lung cancer patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinogradskiy, Yevgeniy; Tucker, Susan L; Liao, Zhongxing; Martel, Mary K

    2012-04-01

    Studies have suggested that function may vary throughout the lung, and that patients who have tumors located in the base of the lung are more susceptible to radiation pneumonitis. The purpose of our study was to investigate the relationship between gross tumor volume (GTV) location and pneumonitis rates using a large clinical database of 547 patients with non-small-cell lung cancer. The GTV centroids of all patients were mapped onto one common coordinate system, in which the boundaries of the coordinate system were defined by the extreme points of each individual patient lung. The data were qualitatively analyzed by graphing all centroids and displaying the data according to the presence of severe pneumonitis, tumor stage, and smoking status. The centroids were grouped according to superior-inferior segments, and the pneumonitis rates were analyzed. In addition, we incorporated the GTV centroid information into a Lyman-Kutcher-Burman normal tissue complication probability model and tested whether adding spatial information significantly improved the fit of the model. Of the 547 patients analyzed, 111 (20.3%) experienced severe radiation pneumonitis. The pneumonitis incidence rates were 16%, 23%, and 21% for the superior, middle, and inferior thirds of the lung, respectively. Qualitatively, the GTV centroids of nonsmokers were notably absent from the superior portion of the lung. In addition, the GTV centroids of patients who had Stage III and IV clinical staging were concentrated toward the medial edge of the lung. The comparison between the GTV centroid model and the conventional dose-volume model did not yield a statistically significant difference in model fit. Lower pneumonitis rates were noted for the superior portion of the lung; however the differences were not statistically significant. For our patient cohort, incorporating GTV centroid information did not lead to a statistically significant improvement in the fit of the pneumonitis model. Copyright

  8. Having your cake and eating it - Staphylococcus aureus small colony variants can evolve faster growth rate without losing their antibiotic resistance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerrit Brandis

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Staphylococcus aureus can produce small colony variants (SCVs during infections. These cause significant clinical problems because they are difficult to detect in standard microbiological screening and are associated with persistent infections. The major causes of the SCV phenotype are mutations that inhibit respiration by inactivation of genes of the menadione or hemin biosynthesis pathways. This reduces the production of ATP required to support fast growth. Importantly, it also decreases cross-membrane potential in SCVs, resulting in decreased uptake of cationic compounds, with reduced susceptibility to aminoglycoside antibiotics as a consequence. Because SCVs are slow-growing (mutations in men genes are associated with growth rates in rich medium ~30% of the wild-type growth rate bacterial cultures are very susceptible to rapid takeover by faster-growing mutants (revertants or suppressors. In the case of reversion, the resulting fast growth is obviously associated with the loss of antibiotic resistance. However, direct reversion is relatively rare due to the very small genetic target size for such mutations. We explored the phenotypic consequences of SCVs evolving faster growth by routes other than direct reversion, and in particular whether any of those routes allowed for the maintenance of antibiotic resistance. In a recent paper (mBio 8: e00358-17 we demonstrated the existence of several different routes of SCV evolution to faster growth, one of which maintained the antibiotic resistance phenotype. This discovery suggests that SCVs might be more adaptable and problematic that previously thought. They are capable of surviving as a slow-growing persistent form, before evolving into a significantly faster-growing form without sacrificing their antibiotic resistance phenotype.

  9. A low background-rate detector for ions in the 5 to 50 keV energy range to be used for radioisotope dating with a small cyclotron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Friedman, P.G.

    1986-01-01

    Accelerator mass spectrometry in tandem Van de Graaff accelerators has proven successful for radioisotope dating small samples. We are developing a 20 cm diameter 30 to 40 keV cyclotron dedicated to high-sensitivity radioisotope dating, initially for 14 C. At this energy, range and dE/dx methods of particle identification are impossible. Thus arises the difficult problem of reliably detecting 30 to 40 keV 14 C at 10 -2 counts/sec in the high background environment of the cyclotron, where lower energy ions, electrons, and photons bombard the detector at much higher rates. We have developed and tested an inexpensive, generally useful ion detector that allows dark-count rates below 10 -4 counts/sec and excellent background suppression. With the cyclotron tuned near the 13 CH background peak, to the frequency for 14 C, the detector suppresses the background to 6 x 10 -4 counts/sec. For each 14 C ion the detectors grazing-incidence Al 2 O 3 conversion dynode emits about 20 secondary electrons, which are independently multiplied in separate pores of a microchannel plate. The output signal is proportional to the number of secondary electrons, allowing pulse-height discrimination of background. We have successfully tested the detector with positive 12 C, 23 Na, 39 K, 41 K, 85 Rb, 87 Rb, and 133 Cs at 5 to 40 keV, and with 36 keV negative 12 C and 13 CH. It should detect ions and neutrals of all species, at energies above 5 keV, with good efficiency and excellent background discrimination. Counting efficiency and background discrimination improve with higher ion energy. The detector can be operated at least up to 2 x 10 -7 Torr and be repeatedly exposed to air. The maximum rate is 10/sup 6.4/ ions/sec in pulse counting mode and 10/sup 9.7/ ions/sec in current integrating mode

  10. The small-molecule TNF-α inhibitor, UTL-5g, delays deaths and increases survival rates for mice treated with high doses of cisplatin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, Jiajiu; Media, Joseph; Chen, Ben; Valeriote, Fredrick

    2013-09-01

    UTL-5g is a novel small-molecule chemoprotector that lowers hepatotoxicity, nephrotoxicity, and myelotoxicity induced by cisplatin through TNF-α inhibition among other factors. The objective of this study was to investigate whether UTL-5g can reduce the overall acute toxicity of cisplatin and increase cisplatin tolerability in mice. BDF1 female mice were treated individually with UTL-5g (suspended in Ora-Plus) by oral gavage at 60 mg/kg, 30 min before i.p. injection of cisplatin at 10, 15, and 20 mg/kg, respectively, on Day 0. Starting from Day 1, individual mice were again treated daily by the same dose of UTL-5g for 4 consecutive days. Survivals and body weights were monitored. UTL-5g treatment increased the survival rate and delayed the time to death for mice treated with 150 % of the maximum tolerated dose (MTD) of cisplatin (15 mg/kg). Likewise, at 200 % of the MTD of cisplatin (20 mg/kg), treatment of UTL-5g increased the survival rate and delayed the time to death. Treatment of UTL-5g did not have a significant effect on weight loss induced by cisplatin, indicating that body weight may not be a sensitive-enough measure for chemoprotection of UTL-5g against cisplatin. In summary, UTL-5g delayed deaths and increased survival rates of mice treated by high doses of cisplatin, indicating that UTL-5g is capable of reducing the overall acute toxicity of cisplatin and increased cisplatin tolerability in mice; this is in line with the specific chemoprotective effects of UTL-5g previously reported. Further investigation of UTL-5g in combination with cisplatin is warranted.

  11. Effect of Number of Touches and Exercise Duration on the Kinematic Profile and Heart Rate Response During Small-Sided Games in Soccer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Casamichana David

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to examine the effect of exercise duration and the number of touches allowed during possession on time-motion characteristics and the physiological responses of soccer players in 6 vs. 6 small-sided games (SSGs lasting 12 minutes. The analysis divided each game into two 6-min periods and we compared two formats: free play (SSGfp vs. a maximum of two touches per individual possession (SSG 2T. Participants were 12 semi-professional players (age: 22.7±4.3 years; body height: 177.5+4.9 cm; body mass: 74.9±6.3 kg and the following variables were measured by means of heart rate monitors and GPS devices: mean heart rate (HRmean, time spent in each exercise intensity zone, total distance covered, total distance covered in different speed zones, number of accelerations at different intensities, maximum speed reached, player load, and the work-to-rest ratio. The results showed that in SSGFP there was a decrease in the intensity of physical parameters during the second 6-min period (6-12 min, whereas this decrease was not observed when a maximum of two touches per individual possession was allowed. During the second period (6-12 min of SSG2T there was an increase in HRmean and in the time spent in high exercise intensity zones, but these differences were not observed in SSGFP. The value of these findings for soccer coaches is that they illustrate how different technical, tactical or conditioning objectives could be addressed by altering the length and format of the SSG used in training.

  12. Flux rates of atmospheric lead pollution within soils of a small catchment in northern Sweden and their implications for future stream water quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klaminder, Jonatan; Bindler, Richard; Laudon, Hjalmar; Bishop, Kevin; Emteryd, Ove; Renberg, Ingemar

    2006-08-01

    It is not well-known how the accumulated pool of atmospheric lead pollution in the boreal forest soil will affect the groundwater and surface water chemistry in the future as this lead migrates through the soil profile. This study uses stable lead isotopes (206Pb/207Pb and 208Pb/ 207Pb ratios) to trace the transport of atmospheric lead pollution within the soil of a small catchment and predict future lead level changes in a stream draining the catchment. Low 206Pb/207Pb and 208Pb/207Pb ratios for the lead in the soil water (1.16 +/- 0.02; 2.43 +/- 0.03) and streamwater (1.18 +/- 0.03; 2.42 +/- 0.03) in comparison to that of the mineral soil (>1.4; >2.5) suggest that atmospheric pollution contributes by about 90% (65-100%) to the lead pool found in these matrixes. Calculated transport rates of atmospheric lead along a soil transect indicate that the mean residence time of lead in organic and mineral soil layers is at a centennial to millennial time scale. A maximum release of the present pool of lead pollution in the soil to the stream is predicted to occur within 200-800 years. Even though the uncertainty of the prediction is large, it emphasizes the magnitude of the time lag between the accumulation of atmospheric lead pollution in soils and the subsequent response in streamwater quality.

  13. Assessment of myocardial metabolic rate of glucose by means of Bayesian ICA and Markov Chain Monte Carlo methods in small animal PET imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berradja, Khadidja; Boughanmi, Nabil

    2016-09-01

    In dynamic cardiac PET FDG studies the assessment of myocardial metabolic rate of glucose (MMRG) requires the knowledge of the blood input function (IF). IF can be obtained by manual or automatic blood sampling and cross calibrated with PET. These procedures are cumbersome, invasive and generate uncertainties. The IF is contaminated by spillover of radioactivity from the adjacent myocardium and this could cause important error in the estimated MMRG. In this study, we show that the IF can be extracted from the images in a rat heart study with 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose (18F-FDG) by means of Independent Component Analysis (ICA) based on Bayesian theory and Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) sampling method (BICA). Images of the heart from rats were acquired with the Sherbrooke small animal PET scanner. A region of interest (ROI) was drawn around the rat image and decomposed into blood and tissue using BICA. The Statistical study showed that there is a significant difference (p corrupted with spillover.

  14. In vivo assessment of the gastric mucosal tolerance dose after single fraction, small volume irradiation of liver malignancies by computed tomography-guided, high-dose-rate brachytherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Streitparth, Florian; Pech, Maciej; Boehmig, Michael; Ruehl, Ricarda; Peters, Nils; Wieners, Gero; Steinberg, Johannes; Lopez-Haenninen, Enrique; Felix, Roland; Wust, Peter; Ricke, Jens

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of this study was to assess the tolerance dose of gastric mucosa for single-fraction computed tomography (CT)-guided, high-dose-rate (HDR) brachytherapy of liver malignancies. Methods and Materials: A total of 33 patients treated by CT-guided HDR brachytherapy of liver malignancies in segments II and/or III were included. Dose planning was performed upon a three-dimensional CT data set acquired after percutaneous applicator positioning. All patients received gastric protection post-treatment. For further analysis, the contours of the gastric wall were defined in every CT slice using Brachyvision Software. Dose-volume histograms were calculated for each treatment and correlated with clinical data derived from questionnaires assessing Common Toxicity Criteria (CTC). All patients presenting symptoms of upper GI toxicity were examined endoscopically. Results: Summarizing all patients the minimum dose applied to 1 ml of the gastric wall (D 1ml ) ranged from 6.3 to 34.2 Gy; median, 14.3 Gy. Toxicity was present in 18 patients (55%). We found nausea in 16 (69%), emesis in 9 (27%), cramping in 13 (39%), weight loss in 12 (36%), gastritis in 4 (12%), and ulceration in 5 patients (15%). We found a threshold dose D 1ml of 11 Gy for general gastric toxicity and 15.5 Gy for gastric ulceration verified by an univariate analysis (p = 0.01). Conclusions: For a single fraction, small volume irradiation we found in the upper abdomen a threshold dose D 1ml of 15.5 Gy for the clinical endpoint ulceration of the gastric mucosa. This in vivo assessment is in accordance with previously published tolerance data

  15. Comparison of Survival Rate in Primary Non-Small-Cell Lung Cancer Among Elderly Patients Treated With Radiofrequency Ablation, Surgery, or Chemotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Heon; Jin, Gong Yong; Han, Young Min; Chung, Gyung Ho; Lee, Yong Chul; Kwon, Keun Sang; Lynch, David

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: We retrospectively compared the survival rate in patients with non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) treated with radiofrequency ablation (RFA), surgery, or chemotherapy according to lung cancer staging. Materials and Methods: From 2000 to 2004, 77 NSCLC patients, all of whom had WHO performance status 0–2 and were >60 years old, were enrolled in a cancer registry and retrospectively evaluated. RFA was performed on patients who had medical contraindications to surgery/unsuitability for surgery, such as advanced lung cancer or refusal of surgery. In the RFA group, 40 patients with inoperable NSCLC underwent RFA under computed tomography (CT) guidance. These included 16 patients with stage I to II cancer and 24 patients with stage III to IV cancer who underwent RFA in an adjuvant setting. In the comparison group (n = 37), 13 patients with stage I to II cancer underwent surgery; 18 patients with stage III to IV cancer underwent chemotherapy; and 6 patients with stage III to IV cancer were not actively treated. The survival curves for RFA, surgery, and chemotherapy in these patients were calculated using Kaplan–Meier method. Results: Median survival times for patients treated with (1) surgery alone and (2) RFA alone for stage I to II lung cancer were 33.8 and 28.2 months, respectively (P = 0.426). Median survival times for patients treated with (1) chemotherapy alone and (2) RFA with chemotherapy for stage III to IV cancer were 29 and 42 months, respectively (P = 0.03). Conclusion: RFA can be used as an alternative treatment to surgery for older NSCLC patients with stage I to II inoperable cancer and can play a role as adjuvant therapy with chemotherapy for patients with stage III to IV lung cancer.

  16. Results of combined photodynamic therapy (PDT) and high dose rate brachytherapy (HDR) in treatment of obstructive endobronchial non-small cell lung cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinberg, Benjamin D.; Allison, Ron R.; Sibata, Claudio; Parent, Teresa; Downie, Gordon

    2009-06-01

    We reviewed the outcome of combined photodynamic therapy (PDT) and high dose rate brachytherapy (HDR) for patients with symptomatic obstruction from endobronchial non-small cell lung cancer. Methods: Nine patients who received combined PDT and HDR for endobronchial cancers were identified and their charts reviewed. The patients were eight males and one female aged 52-73 at diagnosis, initially presenting with various stages of disease: stage IA (N=1), stage IIA (N=1), stage III (N=6), and stage IV (N=1). Intervention was with HDR (500 cGy to 5 mm once weekly for 3 weeks) and PDT (2 mg/kg Photofrin, followed by 200 J/cm2 illumination 48 hours post infusion). Treatment group 1 (TG-1, N=7) received HDR first; Treatment group 2 (TG-2, N=2) received PDT first. Patients were followed by regular bronchoscopies. Results: Treatments were well tolerated, all patients completed therapy, and none were lost to follow-up. In TG-1, local tumor control was achieved in six of seven patients for: 3 months (until death), 15 months, 2+ years (until death), 2+ years (ongoing), and 5+ years (ongoing, N=2). In TG-2, local control was achieved in only one patient, for 84 days. Morbidities included: stenosis and/or other reversible benign local tissue reactions (N=8); photosensitivity reaction (N=2), and self-limited pleural effusion (N=2). Conclusions: Combined HDR/PDT treatment for endobronchial tumors is well tolerated and can achieve prolonged local control with acceptable morbidity when PDT follows HDR and when the spacing between treatments is one month or less. This treatment regimen should be studied in a larger patient population.

  17. Effects of α-amino acids and small peptides on the rate of an SN1 acetal hydrolysis reaction in aqueous solution : The interplay of hydrophobic and hydrophilic solute hydration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Streefland, L.; Blandamer, M.J; Engberts, J.B.F.N.

    The effects of small amounts of anionic a-amino acids and several small peptides on the kinetics of the S(N)1 hydrolysis of 2-(4-nitrophenoxy)tetrahydropyran have been investigated at pH 11 and 40 degrees C. The rate-retarding effect at 1 molal of cosolute is plotted as ln (k(m=1)/k(m=0)) versus the

  18. 75 FR 17453 - Interest Rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-06

    ... SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION Interest Rates The Small Business Administration publishes an interest rate called the optional ``peg'' rate (13 CFR 120.214) on a quarterly basis. This rate is a.... This rate may [[Page 17454

  19. The Relationship between Patient Satisfaction with Service Quality and Survival in Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer - Is Self-Rated Health a Potential Confounder?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher G Lis

    Full Text Available Previously we reported that higher patient satisfaction (PS with service quality is associated with favorable survival outcomes in a variety of cancers. However, we cautioned the readers that patients with greater satisfaction might be the ones with better self-rated health (SRH, a well-established prognosticator of cancer survival. In other words, SRH could potentially confound the PS and survival relationship. We investigated this hypothesis in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC.778 NSCLC patients (327 males and 451 females; mean age 58.8 years treated at 4 Cancer Treatment Centers of America hospitals between July 2011 and March 2013. PS was measured on a 7-point scale ranging from "completely dissatisfied" to "completely satisfied". SRH was measured on a 7-point scale ranging from "very poor" to "excellent". Both were dichotomized into 2 categories: top box response (7 versus all others (1-6. Patient survival was the primary end point. Cox regression was used to evaluate the association between PS and survival controlling for covariates.74, 70, 232 and 391 patients had stage I, II, III and IV disease respectively. 631 (81.1% patients were "completely satisfied". 184 (23.7% patients had "excellent" SRH. There was a weak but significant correlation between overall PS and SRH (Kendall's tau b = 0.19; p<0.001. On univariate analysis, "completely satisfied" patients had a significantly lower risk of mortality (HR = 0.75; 95% CI: 0.57 to 0.99; p = 0.04. Similarly, patients with "excellent" SRH had a significantly lower risk of mortality (HR = 0.61; 95% CI: 0.46 to 0.81; p = 0.001. On multivariate analysis controlling for stage at diagnosis, treatment history and gender, SRH was found to be a significant predictor of survival (HR = 0.67; 95% CI: 0.50 to 0.89; p = 0.007 while PS was not (HR = 0.86; 95% CI: 0.64 to 1.2; p = 0.32. Among the individual PS items, the only significant independent predictor of survival was "teams communicating with each

  20. The Relationship between Patient Satisfaction with Service Quality and Survival in Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer - Is Self-Rated Health a Potential Confounder?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lis, Christopher G; Patel, Kamal; Gupta, Digant

    2015-01-01

    Previously we reported that higher patient satisfaction (PS) with service quality is associated with favorable survival outcomes in a variety of cancers. However, we cautioned the readers that patients with greater satisfaction might be the ones with better self-rated health (SRH), a well-established prognosticator of cancer survival. In other words, SRH could potentially confound the PS and survival relationship. We investigated this hypothesis in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). 778 NSCLC patients (327 males and 451 females; mean age 58.8 years) treated at 4 Cancer Treatment Centers of America hospitals between July 2011 and March 2013. PS was measured on a 7-point scale ranging from "completely dissatisfied" to "completely satisfied". SRH was measured on a 7-point scale ranging from "very poor" to "excellent". Both were dichotomized into 2 categories: top box response (7) versus all others (1-6). Patient survival was the primary end point. Cox regression was used to evaluate the association between PS and survival controlling for covariates. 74, 70, 232 and 391 patients had stage I, II, III and IV disease respectively. 631 (81.1%) patients were "completely satisfied". 184 (23.7%) patients had "excellent" SRH. There was a weak but significant correlation between overall PS and SRH (Kendall's tau b = 0.19; p<0.001). On univariate analysis, "completely satisfied" patients had a significantly lower risk of mortality (HR = 0.75; 95% CI: 0.57 to 0.99; p = 0.04). Similarly, patients with "excellent" SRH had a significantly lower risk of mortality (HR = 0.61; 95% CI: 0.46 to 0.81; p = 0.001). On multivariate analysis controlling for stage at diagnosis, treatment history and gender, SRH was found to be a significant predictor of survival (HR = 0.67; 95% CI: 0.50 to 0.89; p = 0.007) while PS was not (HR = 0.86; 95% CI: 0.64 to 1.2; p = 0.32). Among the individual PS items, the only significant independent predictor of survival was "teams communicating with each other

  1. Multicentric evaluation of the impact of central tumour location when comparing rates of N1 upstaging in patients undergoing video-assisted and open surgery for clinical Stage I non-small-cell lung cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Decaluwé, Herbert; Petersen, René Horsleben; Brunelli, Alex

    2018-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Large retrospective series have indicated lower rates of cN0 to pN1 nodal upstaging after video-assisted thoracic surgery (VATS) compared with open resections for Stage I non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). The objective of our multicentre study was to investigate whether the presumed...

  2. An effective rate equation approach to reaction kinetics in small volumes: theory and application to biochemical reactions in nonequilibrium steady-state conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grima, R

    2010-07-21

    Chemical master equations provide a mathematical description of stochastic reaction kinetics in well-mixed conditions. They are a valid description over length scales that are larger than the reactive mean free path and thus describe kinetics in compartments of mesoscopic and macroscopic dimensions. The trajectories of the stochastic chemical processes described by the master equation can be ensemble-averaged to obtain the average number density of chemical species, i.e., the true concentration, at any spatial scale of interest. For macroscopic volumes, the true concentration is very well approximated by the solution of the corresponding deterministic and macroscopic rate equations, i.e., the macroscopic concentration. However, this equivalence breaks down for mesoscopic volumes. These deviations are particularly significant for open systems and cannot be calculated via the Fokker-Planck or linear-noise approximations of the master equation. We utilize the system-size expansion including terms of the order of Omega(-1/2) to derive a set of differential equations whose solution approximates the true concentration as given by the master equation. These equations are valid in any open or closed chemical reaction network and at both the mesoscopic and macroscopic scales. In the limit of large volumes, the effective mesoscopic rate equations become precisely equal to the conventional macroscopic rate equations. We compare the three formalisms of effective mesoscopic rate equations, conventional rate equations, and chemical master equations by applying them to several biochemical reaction systems (homodimeric and heterodimeric protein-protein interactions, series of sequential enzyme reactions, and positive feedback loops) in nonequilibrium steady-state conditions. In all cases, we find that the effective mesoscopic rate equations can predict very well the true concentration of a chemical species. This provides a useful method by which one can quickly determine the

  3. 利率市场化对中小企业融资的影响及对策%Impact of Interest Rate Marketization on Financing of Small and Medium-Sized Enterprises and Countermeasures

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    潘向亚

    2015-01-01

    中小企业是我国经济的重要组成部分,在改善民生、促进就业方面发挥着重要的作用。但是中小企业的发展受到种种限制,尤其是在融资方面。最近,央行实施了利率市场化调控措施,全面放开了金融贷款利率管制,这一政策对处于融资困境的中小企业带来了一定的影响。  本文首先分析中小企业在经济中的重要地位,然后阐述中小企业的融资现状,紧接着,分析了利率市场化对中小企业的影响,最后提出在利率市场化下中小企业应如何应对和利用好这一发展契机来为自己谋福利。%Abstrac:As an important part of Chinese national economy, small and medium-sized enterprises have helped improve people's livelihood, employment, etc. However, the development of small and medium-sized enterprises is limited, especially the ifnancing problem. Recently, the central bank has carried out the interest rate marketization measures, opening the ifnancial loan interest rate control. The small and medium-sized enterprises get a chance from the policy. At ifrst, the paper analyses the current economic role of small and medium-sized enterprises; secondly, the present ifnancing situation of the small and medium-sized enterprise is revealed; thirdly, this paper analyzes the inlfuence of interest rate marketization for small and medium-sized enterprises; ifnally, this paper proposes how the small and medium-sized enterprises should deal with and make good use of this development opportunity under the marketization of interest rate.

  4. The Influence of Tissue Ischemia Time on RNA Integrity and Patient-Derived Xenografts (PDX) Engraftment Rate in a Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer (NSCLC) Biobank.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerrera, Francesco; Tabbò, Fabrizio; Bessone, Luca; Maletta, Francesca; Gaudiano, Marcello; Ercole, Elisabetta; Annaratone, Laura; Todaro, Maria; Boita, Monica; Filosso, Pier Luigi; Solidoro, Paolo; Delsedime, Luisa; Oliaro, Alberto; Sapino, Anna; Ruffini, Enrico; Inghirami, Giorgio

    2016-01-01

    Bio-repositories are invaluable resources to implement translational cancer research and clinical programs. They represent one of the most powerful tools for biomolecular studies of clinically annotated cohorts, but high quality samples are required to generate reliable molecular readouts and functional studies. The objective of our study was to define the impact of cancer tissue ischemia time on RNA and DNA quality, and for the generation of Patient-Derived Xenografts (PDXs). One-hundred thirty-five lung cancer specimens were selected among our Institutional BioBank samples. Associations between different warm (surgical) and cold (ex-vivo) ischemia time ranges and RNA quality or PDXs engraftment rates were assessed. RNA quality was determined by RNA integrity number (RINs) values. Fresh viable tissue fragments were implanted subcutaneously in NSG mice and serially transplanted. RNAs with a RIN>7 were detected in 51% of the sample (70/135), with values of RIN significantly lower (OR 0.08, P = 0.01) in samples preserved for more than 3 hours before cryopreservation. Higher quality DNA samples had a concomitant high RIN. Sixty-three primary tumors (41 adenocarcinoma) were implanted with an overall engraftment rate of 33%. Both prolonged warm (>2 hours) and ex-vivo ischemia time (>10 hours) were associated to a lower engraftment rate (OR 0.09 P = 0.01 and OR 0.04 P = 0.008, respectively). RNA quality and PDXs engraftment rate were adversely affected by prolonged ischemia times. Proper tissue collection and processing reduce failure rate. Overall, NSCLC BioBanking represents an innovative modality, which can be successfully executed in routine clinical settings, when stringent Standard Operating Procedures are adopted.

  5. Synthesis and performances of poly(butylene-succinate) with enhanced viscosity and crystallization rate via introducing a small amount of diacetylene groups

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Gui-Cheng Liu; Wen-Qiang Zhang; Xiu-Li Wang; Yu-Zhong Wang

    2017-01-01

    A cross-linkable comonomer containing a diacetylene group,named dimethyl 4,4'-(buta-1,3-diyne-1,4-diyl)dibenzoate (DA) was synthesized and copolymerized with dimethyl succinate and 1,4-butanediol to prepare a series of slightly cross-linked PBS copolyesters (PBDA Sx).The chemical structure,crystallization and theological behaviours of PBDASx were well investigated.Compared to neat PBS,PBDASx showed the greatly increased crystallization rate because of the promoting nucleation of the cross-linking domains,and the XRD results indicated that it had no influence on crystallization structure of PBS.The rheological behaviours indicate that PBDASx possessed higher viscosity than neat PBS even at high shear rate and temperature.PBDAS0.3 exhibited better comprehensive properties than neat PBS,which will widen applications of PBS.

  6. 76 FR 77581 - Interest Rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-13

    ... SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION Interest Rates The Small Business Administration publishes an interest rate called the optional ``peg'' rate (13 CFR 120.214) on a quarterly basis. This rate is a.... This rate may be used as a base rate for guaranteed fluctuating interest rate SBA loans. This rate will...

  7. 77 FR 76586 - Interest Rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-28

    ... SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION Interest Rates The Small Business Administration publishes an interest rate called the optional ``peg'' rate (13 CFR 120.214) on a quarterly basis. This rate is a.... This rate may be used as a base rate for guaranteed fluctuating interest rate SBA loans. This rate will...

  8. 76 FR 18821 - Interest Rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-05

    ... SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION Interest Rates The Small Business Administration publishes an interest rate called the optional ``peg'' rate (13 CFR 120.214) on a quarterly basis. This rate is a.... This rate may be used as a base rate for guaranteed fluctuating interest rate SBA loans. This rate will...

  9. 78 FR 18664 - Interest Rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-27

    ... SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION Interest Rates The Small Business Administration publishes an interest rate called the optional ``peg'' rate (13 CFR 120.214) on a quarterly basis. This rate is a.... This rate may be used as a base rate for guaranteed fluctuating interest rate SBA loans. This rate will...

  10. 75 FR 81326 - Interest Rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-27

    ... SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION Interest Rates The Small Business Administration publishes an interest rate called the optional ``peg'' rate (13 CFR 120.214) on a quarterly basis. This rate is a.... This rate may be used as a base rate for guaranteed fluctuating interest rate SBA loans. This rate will...

  11. 77 FR 39560 - Interest Rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-03

    ... SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION Interest Rates The Small Business Administration publishes an interest rate called the optional ``peg'' rate (13 CFR 120.214) on a quarterly basis. This rate is a.... This rate may be used as a base rate for guaranteed fluctuating interest rate SBA loans. This rate will...

  12. 75 FR 37872 - Interest Rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-30

    ... SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION Interest Rates The Small Business Administration publishes an interest rate called the optional ``peg'' rate (13 CFR 120.214) on a quarterly basis. This rate is a.... This rate may be used as a base rate for guaranteed fluctuating interest rate SBA loans. This rate will...

  13. 77 FR 20476 - Interest Rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-04

    ... SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION Interest Rates The Small Business Administration publishes an interest rate called the optional ``peg'' rate (13 CFR 120.214) on a quarterly basis. This rate is a.... This rate may be used as a base rate for guaranteed fluctuating interest rate SBA loans. This rate will...

  14. 75 FR 60152 - Interest Rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-29

    ... SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION Interest Rates The Small Business Administration publishes an interest rate called the optional ``peg'' rate (13 CFR 120.214) on a quarterly basis. This rate is a.... This rate may be used as a base rate for guaranteed fluctuating interest rate SBA loans. This rate will...

  15. 77 FR 59447 - Interest Rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-27

    ... SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION Interest Rates The Small Business Administration publishes an interest rate called the optional ``peg'' rate (13 CFR 120.214) on a quarterly basis. This rate is a.... This rate may be used as a base rate for guaranteed fluctuating interest rate SBA loans. This rate will...

  16. 78 FR 62932 - Interest Rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-22

    ... SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION Interest Rates The Small Business Administration publishes an interest rate called the optional ``peg'' rate (13 CFR 120.214) on a quarterly basis. This rate is a.... This rate may be used as a base rate for guaranteed fluctuating interest rate SBA loans. This rate will...

  17. 78 FR 39434 - Interest Rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-01

    ... SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION Interest Rates The Small Business Administration publishes an interest rate called the optional ``peg'' rate (13 CFR 120.214) on a quarterly basis. This rate is a.... This rate may be used as a base rate for guaranteed fluctuating interest rate SBA loans. This rate will...

  18. What Drives Bank Lending in Domestic and Foreign Currency Loans in a Small Open Transition Economy with Fixed Exchange Rate? The Case of Macedonia

    OpenAIRE

    Jane Bogoev

    2011-01-01

    This paper investigates two different bank loan supply functions and their determinants according to the currency of bank loans in the Republic of Macedonia. There is robust statistical evidence in favour of the existence of a bank lending channel through foreign currency loans and the foreign reference interest rate. This suggests that the impact of domestic monetary policy over the bank lending channel is limited. The most significant bank-specific characteristic for the foreign currency lo...

  19. Low-Protein Diet Supplemented with Keto Acids Is Associated with Suppression of Small-Solute Peritoneal Transport Rate in Peritoneal Dialysis Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Na Jiang

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. We investigate whether low-protein diet would show benefits in suppressing peritoneal transport rate in peritoneal dialysis (PD patients. Methods. This is a supplemented analysis of our previously published trial, which randomized 60 PD patients to receive low- (LP: dietary protein intake of 0.6–0.8 g/kg/d, keto-acid-supplemented low- (sLP: 0.6–0.8 g/kg/d with 0.12 g/kg/d of keto acids, or high- (HP: 1.0–1.2 g/kg/d protein diet and lasted for one year. In this study, the variations of peritoneal transport rate were assessed. Results. While baseline D/Pcr (dialysate-to-plasma concentration ratio for creatinine at 4 hour and D/D0glu (dialysate glucose at 4 hour to baseline dialysate glucose concentration ratio were similar, D/Pcr in group sLP was lower, and D/D0glu was higher than those in the other two groups (P<0.05 at 12th month. D/D0glu increased (P<0.05, and D/Pcr tended to decrease, (P=0.071 in group sLP. Conclusions. Low-protein diet with keto acids may benefit PD patients by maintaining peritoneum at a lower transport rate.

  20. Low-protein diet supplemented with keto acids is associated with suppression of small-solute peritoneal transport rate in peritoneal dialysis patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Na; Qian, Jiaqi; Lin, Aiwu; Fang, Wei; Zhang, Weiming; Cao, Liou; Wang, Qin; Ni, Zhaohui; Yao, Qiang

    2011-01-01

    Objective. We investigate whether low-protein diet would show benefits in suppressing peritoneal transport rate in peritoneal dialysis (PD) patients. Methods. This is a supplemented analysis of our previously published trial, which randomized 60 PD patients to receive low- (LP: dietary protein intake of 0.6-0.8 g/kg/d), keto-acid-supplemented low- (sLP: 0.6-0.8 g/kg/d with 0.12 g/kg/d of keto acids), or high- (HP: 1.0-1.2 g/kg/d) protein diet and lasted for one year. In this study, the variations of peritoneal transport rate were assessed. Results. While baseline D/P(cr) (dialysate-to-plasma concentration ratio for creatinine at 4 hour) and D/D0(glu) (dialysate glucose at 4 hour to baseline dialysate glucose concentration ratio) were similar, D/P(cr) in group sLP was lower, and D/D0(glu) was higher than those in the other two groups (P diet with keto acids may benefit PD patients by maintaining peritoneum at a lower transport rate.

  1. Healing rate and autoimmune safety of full-thickness wounds treated with fish skin acellular dermal matrix versus porcine small-intestine submucosa: a noninferiority study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldursson, Baldur Tumi; Kjartansson, Hilmar; Konrádsdóttir, Fífa; Gudnason, Palmar; Sigurjonsson, Gudmundur F; Lund, Sigrún Helga

    2015-03-01

    A novel product, the fish skin acellular dermal matrix (ADM) has recently been introduced into the family of biological materials for the treatment of wounds. Hitherto, these products have been produced from the organs of livestock. A noninferiority test was used to compare the effect of fish skin ADM against porcine small-intestine submucosa extracellular matrix in the healing of 162 full-thickness 4-mm wounds on the forearm of 81 volunteers. The fish skin product was noninferior at the primary end point, healing at 28 days. Furthermore, the wounds treated with fish skin acellular matrix healed significantly faster. These results might give the fish skin ADM an advantage because of its environmental neutrality when compared with livestock-derived products. The study results on these acute full-thickness wounds might apply for diabetic foot ulcers and other chronic full-thickness wounds, and the shorter healing time for the fish skin-treated group could influence treatment decisions. To test the autoimmune reactivity of the fish skin, the participants were tested with the following ELISA (enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay) tests: RF, ANA, ENA, anti ds-DNA, ANCA, anti-CCP, and anticollagen I and II. These showed no reactivity. The results demonstrate the claims of safety and efficacy of fish skin ADM for wound care. © The Author(s) 2015.

  2. Low-Protein Diet Supplemented with Keto Acids Is Associated with Suppression of Small-Solute Peritoneal Transport Rate in Peritoneal Dialysis Patients

    OpenAIRE

    Jiang, Na; Qian, Jiaqi; Lin, Aiwu; Fang, Wei; Zhang, Weiming; Cao, Liou; Wang, Qin; Ni, Zhaohui; Yao, Qiang

    2011-01-01

    Objective. We investigate whether low-protein diet would show benefits in suppressing peritoneal transport rate in peritoneal dialysis (PD) patients. Methods. This is a supplemented analysis of our previously published trial, which randomized 60 PD patients to receive low- (LP: dietary protein intake of 0.6–0.8 g/kg/d), keto-acid-supplemented low- (sLP: 0.6–0.8 g/kg/d with 0.12 g/kg/d of keto acids), or high- (HP: 1.0–1.2 g/kg/d) protein diet and lasted for one year. In this study, the variat...

  3. IMPACT OF INFLATION AND EXCHANGE RATE RUPIAH TOWARD POVERTY AND UNEMPLOYMENT IN INDONESIA (CASE STUDY: SMALL INDUSTRY IN THE TOURIST AREA OF LOMBOK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edy Supriyadi

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this research are: (1. Evaluate the impact of inflation and the weakening of the rupiah against US $ against unemployment, poverty. (2. Obtain some alternative ways to overcome inflation and weakening of rupiah exchange rate against US dollar in maintaining stability of welfare of SMEs in Lombok region. (3 To evaluate the marketing system used by MSMEs (4 To know the obstacles faced by MSMEs (5 To know the related sectors in supporting the success of UMKM. Method of research used descriptive and qualitative method, with literary study approach, Data Collection, using participant observation and in-depth interviews. Data Validity, with triangulation method of source, method and time. The results show that the SME sector has contributed to the economic and development of Indonesia. There are several factors that challenge the development of SMEs. 

  4. Factors which modulate the rates of skeletal muscle mass loss in non-small cell lung cancer patients: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atlan, Philippe; Bayar, Mohamed Amine; Lanoy, Emilie; Besse, Benjamin; Planchard, David; Ramon, Jordy; Raynard, Bruno; Antoun, Sami

    2017-11-01

    Advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) is associated with weight loss which may reflect skeletal muscle mass (SMM) and/or total adipose tissue (TAT) depletion. This study aimed to describe changes in body composition (BC) parameters and to identify the factors unrelated to the tumor which modulate them. SMM, TAT, and the proportion of SMM to SMM + TAT were assessed with computed tomography. Estimates of each BC parameter at follow-up initiation and across time were derived from a mixed linear model of repeated measurements with a random intercept and a random slope. The same models were used to assess the independent effect of gender, age, body mass index (BMI), and initial values on changes in each BC parameter. Sixty-four patients with stage III or IV NSCLC were reviewed. The mean ± SD decreases in body weight and SMM were respectively 59 ± 3 g/week (P SMM to SMM + TAT, estimated at 37 ± 2% at baseline. SMM loss was influenced by initial BMI (P SMM values (P = 0.0002): the higher the initial BMI or SMM values, the greater the loss observed. Weight loss was greater when the initial weight was heavier (P SMM wasting in NSCLC is lower when initial SMM and BMI values are low. These exploratory findings after our attempt to better understand the intrinsic factors associated with muscle mass depletion need to be confirmed in larger studies.

  5. 76 FR 38717 - Interest Rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-01

    ... SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION Interest Rates The Small Business Administration publishes an interest rate called the optional ``peg'' rate (13 CFR 120.214) on a quarterly basis. This rate is a.... This rate may be used as a base rate for guaranteed fluctuating interest rate SBA loans. This [[Page...

  6. Predicting electrical and thermal abuse behaviours of practical lithium-ion cells from accelerating rate calorimeter studies on small samples in electrolyte

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richard, M. N.; Dahn, J. R.

    An accelerating rate calorimeter (ARC) is used to measure the thermal stability of de-intercalated Li 1+ xMn 2- xO 4 in LiPF 6 EC:DEC (33:67) electrolyte. Self-heating is detected well after the 80°C onset of self-heating measured for lithium intercalated mesocarbon microbead (MCMB) electrodes in LiPF 6 EC:DEC (33:67) electrolyte. As a result, the initial self-heating measured in a practical carbon/Li 1+ xMn 2- xO 4 lithium-ion cell is caused by reactions at the anode. In previous work, we have proposed a model for the reactions that cause self-heating in MCMB electrodes in electrolyte. By assuming that a cell self-heats only because reactions occur at the anode, the model can be used to predict the power generated by the amount of MCMB in practical cells with an inert cathode. The calculated chemically generated power can be combined with power loss measurements, due to the transfer of heat to the environment, to predict the short-circuit behaviour and the oven exposure behaviour for a cell containing an MCMB anode and an inert cathode. The results agree qualitatively with short-circuit and oven exposure results measured on NEC Moli energy 18650 cells containing an Li 1+ xMn 2- xO 4 cathode.

  7. Modeling of the Nano- and Picoseismicity Rate Changes Resulting from Static Stress Triggering due to Small (MW2.2) Event Recorded at Mponeng Deep Gold Mine, South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozlowska, M.; Orlecka-Sikora, B.; Kwiatek, G.; Boettcher, M. S.; Dresen, G. H.

    2014-12-01

    Static stress changes following large earthquakes are known to affect the rate and spatio-temporal distribution of the aftershocks. Here we utilize a unique dataset of M ≥ -3.4 earthquakes following a MW 2.2 earthquake in Mponeng gold mine, South Africa, to investigate this process for nano- and pico- scale seismicity at centimeter length scales in shallow, mining conditions. The aftershock sequence was recorded during a quiet interval in the mine and thus enabled us to perform the analysis using Dietrich's (1994) rate and state dependent friction law. The formulation for earthquake productivity requires estimation of Coulomb stress changes due to the mainshock, the reference seismicity rate, frictional resistance parameter, and the duration of aftershock relaxation time. We divided the area into six depth intervals and for each we estimated the parameters and modeled the spatio-temporal patterns of seismicity rates after the stress perturbation. Comparing the modeled patterns of seismicity with the observed distribution we found that while the spatial patterns match well, the rate of modeled aftershocks is lower than the observed rate. To test our model, we used four metrics of the goodness-of-fit evaluation. Testing procedure allowed rejecting the null hypothesis of no significant difference between seismicity rates only for one depth interval containing the mainshock, for the other, no significant differences have been found. Results show that mining-induced earthquakes may be followed by a stress relaxation expressed through aftershocks located on the rupture plane and in regions of positive Coulomb stress change. Furthermore, we demonstrate that the main features of the temporal and spatial distribution of very small, mining-induced earthquakes at shallow depths can be successfully determined using rate- and state-based stress modeling.

  8. Spin rate distribution of small asteroids

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pravec, Petr; Harris, A. W.; Vokrouhlický, D.; Warner, B. D.; Kušnirák, Peter; Hornoch, Kamil; Pray, D. P.; Higgins, D.; Oey, J.; Galád, Adrián; Gajdoš, Š.; Kornoš, L.; Világi, J.; Husárik, M.; Krugly, Yu. N.; Shevchenko, V. G.; Chiorny, V. G.; Gaftonyuk, N. M.; Cooney jr., W. R.; Gross, J.; Terrell, D.; Stephens, R.; Dyvig, R.; Reddy, V.; Ries, J.G.; Colas, F.; Lecacheux, J.; Durkee, R.; Masi, G.; Koff, R.; Goncalves, R.

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 197, č. 2 (2008), s. 497-504 ISSN 0019-1035 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA205/05/0604 Grant - others: NASA (US) NAG5-13244; NASA (US) NNG06GI32G; VEGA(SK) 1/3074/06; VEGA(SK) 1/3067/06; VEGA(SK) 2/7009/27 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10030501 Keywords : asteroids rotation * photometry * near-Earth objects Subject RIV: BN - Astronomy, Celestial Mechanics, Astrophysics Impact factor: 3.268, year: 2008

  9. Small Data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S. Pemberton (Steven)

    2014-01-01

    htmlabstractThe term “Open Data” often goes hand in hand with the term “Big Data”, where large data sets get released allowing for analysis, but the Cinderella of the Open Data ball is Small Data, small amounts of data, nonetheless possibly essential, that are too small to be put in some database or

  10. Small Data

    OpenAIRE

    Pemberton, Steven

    2014-01-01

    htmlabstractThe term “Open Data” often goes hand in hand with the term “Big Data”, where large data sets get released allowing for analysis, but the Cinderella of the Open Data ball is Small Data, small amounts of data, nonetheless possibly essential, that are too small to be put in some database or online dataset to be put to use. RDFa is a technology that allows Cinderella to go to the ball.

  11. Effects of the charge-transfer reorganization energy on the open-circuit voltage in small-molecular bilayer organic photovoltaic devices: comparison of the influence of deposition rates of the donor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Chih-Chien; Su, Wei-Cheng; Chang, Wen-Chang

    2016-05-14

    The theoretical maximum of open-circuit voltage (VOC) of organic photovoltaic (OPV) devices has yet to be determined, and its origin remains debated. Here, we demonstrate that VOC of small-molecule OPV devices can be improved by controlling the deposition rate of a donor without changing the interfacial energy gap at the donor/acceptor interface. The measurement of external quantum efficiency and electroluminescence spectra facilitates the observation of the existence of charge transfer (CT) states. A simplified approach by reusing the reciprocity relationship for obtaining the properties of the CT states is proposed without introducing complex techniques. We compare experimental and fitting results and propose that reorganization energy is the primary factor in determining VOC instead of either the CT energy or electronic coupling term in bilayer OPV devices. Atomic force microscopy images indicate a weak molecular aggregation when a higher deposition rate is used. The results of temperature-dependent measurements suggest the importance of molecular stacking for the CT properties.

  12. Computed Tomography–Guided Interstitial High-Dose-Rate Brachytherapy in Combination With Regional Positive Lymph Node Intensity-Modulated Radiation Therapy in Locally Advanced Peripheral Non–Small Cell Lung Cancer: A Phase 1 Clinical Trial

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xiang, Li; Zhang, Jian-wen; Lin, Sheng; Luo, Hui-Qun; Wen, Qing-Lian; He, Li-Jia; Shang, Chang-Ling; Ren, Pei-Rong; Yang, Hong-Ru; Pang, Hao-Wen; Yang, Bo; He, Huai-Lin [Department of Oncology, Affiliated Hospital of Luzhou Medical College, Luzhou (China); Chen, Yue, E-mail: chenyue5523@126.com [Department of Nuclear Medicine, Affiliated Hospital of Luzhou Medical College, Luzhou (China); Wu, Jing-Bo, E-mail: wjb6147@163.com [Department of Oncology, Affiliated Hospital of Luzhou Medical College, Luzhou (China)

    2015-08-01

    Purpose: To assess the technical safety, adverse events, and efficacy of computed tomography (CT)-guided interstitial high-dose-rate (HDR) brachytherapy in combination with regional positive lymph node intensity modulated radiation therapy in patients with locally advanced peripheral non–small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Methods and Materials: Twenty-six patients with histologically confirmed NSCLC were enrolled in a prospective, officially approved phase 1 trial. Primary tumors were treated with HDR brachytherapy. A single 30-Gy dose was delivered to the 90% isodose line of the gross lung tumor volume. A total dose of at least 70 Gy was administered to the 95% isodose line of the planning target volume of malignant lymph nodes using 6-MV X-rays. The patients received concurrent or sequential chemotherapy. We assessed treatment efficacy, adverse events, and radiation toxicity. Results: The median follow-up time was 28 months (range, 7-44 months). There were 3 cases of mild pneumothorax but no cases of hemothorax, dyspnea, or pyothorax after the procedure. Grade 3 or 4 acute hematologic toxicity was observed in 5 patients. During follow-up, mild fibrosis around the puncture point was observed on the CT scans of 2 patients, but both patients were asymptomatic. The overall response rates (complete and partial) for the primary mass and positive lymph nodes were 100% and 92.3%, respectively. The 1-year and 2-year overall survival (OS) rates were 90.9% and 67%, respectively, with a median OS of 22.5 months. Conclusion: Our findings suggest that HDR brachytherapy is safe and feasible for peripheral locally advanced NSCLC, justifying a phase 2 clinical trial.

  13. Assessment of contemporary erosion/sedimentation rates trend within a small well-cultivated catchments using caesium-137 as a chronomarker (on the example of the Republic of Tatarstan, Russia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharifullin, Aidar; Gusarov, Artem; Gafurov, Artur; Golosov, Valentin

    2017-04-01

    extreme (storm) precipitation (>50 mm per a day). The influence of agricultural activity on the erosion and sedimentation changeability was insignificant, although some regional variation of crop rotation including an increase in the proportion of perennial grasses obviously caused the decline in soil losses during warm period of year. The similar trend of erosion/sedimentation rates due to mostly climate changes was identified for south-western sector of the East European Plain, but the more serious reduction of erosion rates is established for the Middle Volga region. Keywords: erosion, sedimentation, sediment, caesium-137, dry valley, small catchment, cultivated lands, Republic of Tatarstan, East European Plain.

  14. Small hydro

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bennett, K.; Tung, T.

    1995-01-01

    A small hydro plant in Canada is defined as any project between 1 MW and 15 MW but the international standard is 10 MW. The global market for small hydro development was considered good. There are some 1000 to 2000 MW of generating capacity being added each year. In Canada, growth potential is considered small, primarily in remote areas, but significant growth is anticipated in Eastern Europe, Africa and Asia. Canada with its expertise in engineering, manufacturing and development is considered to have a good chance to take advantage of these growing markets

  15. Small liquid sodium leaks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dufresne, J.; Rochedereux, Y.; Antonakas, D.; Casselman, C.; Malet, J.C.

    1986-05-01

    Usually, pessimistic considerations inassessing the safety of secondary sodium loops in LMFBR reactor lead to assume guillotine rupture releasing a large amount of sodium estimate the consequences of large sodium fires. In order to reduce these consequences, one has to detect the smallest leak as soon as possible and to evaluate the future of an initial small leak. Analysis of the relationship between crack size and sodium outflow rate; Analysis of a sodium pipe with a small open crack

  16. 76 FR 59767 - Interest Rates; Notice

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-27

    ... SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION Interest Rates; Notice AGENCY: Small Business Administration. The Small Business Administration publishes an interest rate called the optional ``peg'' rate (13 CFR 120... fluctuating interest rate SBA loans. This rate will be 3.125 (3\\1/8\\) percent for the October-December quarter...

  17. Allegheny County Obesity Rates

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — Obesity rates for each Census Tract in Allegheny County were produced for the study “Developing small-area predictions for smoking and obesity prevalence in the...

  18. Allegheny County Smoking Rates

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — Smoking rates for each Census Tract in Allegheny County were produced for the study “Developing small-area predictions for smoking and obesity prevalence in the...

  19. Multicentric evaluation of the impact of central tumour location when comparing rates of N1 upstaging in patients undergoing video-assisted and open surgery for clinical Stage I non-small-cell lung cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Decaluwé, Herbert; Petersen, René Horsleben; Brunelli, Alex; Pompili, Cecilia; Seguin-Givelet, Agathe; Gust, Lucile; Aigner, Clemens; Falcoz, Pierre-Emmanuel; Rinieri, Philippe; Augustin, Florian; Sokolow, Youri; Verhagen, Ad; Depypere, Lieven; Papagiannopoulos, Kostas; Gossot, Dominique; D'Journo, Xavier Benoit; Guerrera, Francesco; Baste, Jean-Marc; Schmid, Thomas; Stanzi, Alessia; Van Raemdonck, Dirk; Bardet, Jeremy; Thomas, Pascal-Alexandre; Massard, Gilbert; Fieuws, Steffen; Moons, Johnny; Dooms, Christophe; De Leyn, Paul; Hansen, Henrik Jessen

    2017-09-27

    Large retrospective series have indicated lower rates of cN0 to pN1 nodal upstaging after video-assisted thoracic surgery (VATS) compared with open resections for Stage I non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). The objective of our multicentre study was to investigate whether the presumed lower rate of N1 upstaging after VATS disappears after correction for central tumour location in a multivariable analysis. Consecutive patients operated for PET-CT based clinical Stage I NSCLC were selected from prospectively managed surgical databases in 11 European centres. Central tumour location was defined as contact with bronchovascular structures on computer tomography and/or visibility on standard bronchoscopy. Eight hundred and ninety-five patients underwent pulmonary resection by VATS (n = 699, 9% conversions) or an open technique (n = 196) in 2014. Incidence of nodal pN1 and pN2 upstaging was 8% and 7% after VATS and 15% and 6% after open surgery, respectively. pN1 was found in 27% of patients with central tumours. Less central tumours were operated on by VATS compared with the open technique (12% vs 28%, P < 0.001). Logistic regression analysis showed that only tumour location had a significant impact on N1 upstaging (OR 6.2, confidence interval 3.6-10.8; P < 0.001) and that the effect of surgical technique (VATS versus open surgery) was no longer significant when accounting for tumour location. A quarter of patients with central clinical Stage I NSCLC was upstaged to pN1 at resection. Central tumour location was the only independent factor associated with N1 upstaging, undermining the evidence for lower N1 upstaging after VATS resections. Studies investigating N1 upstaging after VATS compared with open surgery should be interpreted with caution due to possible selection bias, i.e. relatively more central tumours in the open group with a higher chance of N1 upstaging. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European

  20. Stereotactic body radiation therapy versus conventional radiation therapy in patients with early stage non-small cell lung cancer - An updated retrospective study on local failure and survival rates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeppesen, Stefan S.; Schytte, Tine; Hansen, Olfred; Jensen, Henrik R.; Brink, Carsten

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: Stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) for early stage non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) is now an accepted and patient friendly treatment, but still controversy exists about its comparability to conventional radiation therapy (RT). The purpose of this single-institutional report is to describe survival outcome for medically inoperable patients with early stage NSCLC treated with SBRT compared with high dose conventional RT. Material and methods: From August 2005 to June 2012, 100 medically inoperable patients were treated with SBRT at Odense Univ. Hospital. The thoracic RT consisted of 3 fractions (F) of 15-22 Gy delivered in nine days. For comparison a group of 32 medically inoperable patients treated with conventional RT with 80 Gy/35-40 F (5 F/week) in the period of July 1998 to August 2011 were analyzed. All tumors had histological or cytological proven NSCLC T1-2N0M0. Results: The median overall survival was 36.1 months versus 24.4 months for SBRT and conventional RT, respectively (p = 0.015). Local failure-free survival rates at one year were in SBRT group 93 % versus 89 % in the conventional RT group and at five years 69 % versus 66 %, SBRT and conventional RT respectively (p = 0.99). On multivariate analysis, female gender and performance status of 0-1 and SBRT predicted improved prognosis. Conclusion: In a cohort of patients with NSCLC there was a significant difference in overall survival favoring SBRT. Performance status of 0-1, female gender and SBRT predicted improved prognosis. However, staging procedure, confirmation procedure of recurrence and technical improvements of radiation treatment is likely to influence outcomes. However, SBRT seems to be as efficient as conventional RT and is a more convenient treatment for the patients

  1. The effect of a miniature argon flow rate on the spectral characteristics of a direct current atmospheric pressure glow micro-discharge between an argon microjet and a small sized flowing liquid cathode

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jamroz, Piotr, E-mail: piotr.jamroz@pwr.wroc.pl; Zyrnicki, Wieslaw; Pohl, Pawel

    2012-07-15

    A stable direct current atmospheric pressure glow microdischarge (dc-{mu}APGD) was generated between a miniature Ar flow microjet and a small sized flowing liquid cathode. The microdischarge was operated in the open to air atmosphere. High energy species, including OH, NH, NO, N{sub 2}, H, O and Ar were identified in the emission spectra of this microdischarge. Additionally, atomic lines of metals dissolved in water solutions were easily excited. The near cathode and the near anode zones of the microdischarge were investigated as a function of an Ar flow rate up to 300 sccm. The spectroscopic parameters, i.e., the excitation, the vibrational and the rotational temperatures as well as the electron number density, were determined in the near cathode and the near anode regions of the microdischarge. In the near cathode region, the rotational temperatures obtained for OH (2000-2600 K) and N{sub 2} bands (1600-1950 K) were significantly lower than the excitation temperatures of Ar (7400 K-7800 K) and H (11 000-15 500 K) atoms. Vibrational temperatures of N{sub 2}, OH and NO varied from 3400 to 4000 K, from 2900 to 3400 K and from 2700 to 3000 K, respectively. In the near anode region, rotational temperatures of OH (350-1750 K) and N{sub 2} (400-1350 K) and excitation temperatures of Ar (5200-5500 K) and H (3600-12 600 K) atoms were lower than those measured in the near cathode region. The effect of the introduction of a liquid sample on the microdischarge radiation and spectroscopic parameters was also investigated in the near cathode zone. The electron number density was calculated from the Stark broadening of the H{sub {beta}} line and equals to (0.25-1.1) Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 15} cm{sup -3} and (0.68-1.2) Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 15} cm{sup -3} in the near cathode and the near anode zones, respectively. The intensity of the Na I emission line and the signal to background ratio (SBR) of this line were investigated in both zones to evaluate the excitation

  2. The effect of a miniature argon flow rate on the spectral characteristics of a direct current atmospheric pressure glow micro-discharge between an argon microjet and a small sized flowing liquid cathode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jamróz, Piotr; Żyrnicki, Wiesław; Pohl, Paweł

    2012-01-01

    A stable direct current atmospheric pressure glow microdischarge (dc-μAPGD) was generated between a miniature Ar flow microjet and a small sized flowing liquid cathode. The microdischarge was operated in the open to air atmosphere. High energy species, including OH, NH, NO, N 2 , H, O and Ar were identified in the emission spectra of this microdischarge. Additionally, atomic lines of metals dissolved in water solutions were easily excited. The near cathode and the near anode zones of the microdischarge were investigated as a function of an Ar flow rate up to 300 sccm. The spectroscopic parameters, i.e., the excitation, the vibrational and the rotational temperatures as well as the electron number density, were determined in the near cathode and the near anode regions of the microdischarge. In the near cathode region, the rotational temperatures obtained for OH (2000–2600 K) and N 2 bands (1600–1950 K) were significantly lower than the excitation temperatures of Ar (7400 K–7800 K) and H (11 000–15 500 K) atoms. Vibrational temperatures of N 2 , OH and NO varied from 3400 to 4000 K, from 2900 to 3400 K and from 2700 to 3000 K, respectively. In the near anode region, rotational temperatures of OH (350–1750 K) and N 2 (400–1350 K) and excitation temperatures of Ar (5200–5500 K) and H (3600–12 600 K) atoms were lower than those measured in the near cathode region. The effect of the introduction of a liquid sample on the microdischarge radiation and spectroscopic parameters was also investigated in the near cathode zone. The electron number density was calculated from the Stark broadening of the H β line and equals to (0.25–1.1) × 10 15 cm −3 and (0.68–1.2) × 10 15 cm −3 in the near cathode and the near anode zones, respectively. The intensity of the Na I emission line and the signal to background ratio (SBR) of this line were investigated in both zones to evaluate the excitation properties of the developed excitation microsource. The limit of

  3. Big Data, Small Sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerlovina, Inna; van der Laan, Mark J; Hubbard, Alan

    2017-05-20

    Multiple comparisons and small sample size, common characteristics of many types of "Big Data" including those that are produced by genomic studies, present specific challenges that affect reliability of inference. Use of multiple testing procedures necessitates calculation of very small tail probabilities of a test statistic distribution. Results based on large deviation theory provide a formal condition that is necessary to guarantee error rate control given practical sample sizes, linking the number of tests and the sample size; this condition, however, is rarely satisfied. Using methods that are based on Edgeworth expansions (relying especially on the work of Peter Hall), we explore the impact of departures of sampling distributions from typical assumptions on actual error rates. Our investigation illustrates how far the actual error rates can be from the declared nominal levels, suggesting potentially wide-spread problems with error rate control, specifically excessive false positives. This is an important factor that contributes to "reproducibility crisis". We also review some other commonly used methods (such as permutation and methods based on finite sampling inequalities) in their application to multiple testing/small sample data. We point out that Edgeworth expansions, providing higher order approximations to the sampling distribution, offer a promising direction for data analysis that could improve reliability of studies relying on large numbers of comparisons with modest sample sizes.

  4. SmallSat Database

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petropulos, Dolores; Bittner, David; Murawski, Robert; Golden, Bert

    2015-01-01

    The SmallSat has an unrealized potential in both the private industry and in the federal government. Currently over 70 companies, 50 universities and 17 governmental agencies are involved in SmallSat research and development. In 1994, the U.S. Army Missile and Defense mapped the moon using smallSat imagery. Since then Smart Phones have introduced this imagery to the people of the world as diverse industries watched this trend. The deployment cost of smallSats is also greatly reduced compared to traditional satellites due to the fact that multiple units can be deployed in a single mission. Imaging payloads have become more sophisticated, smaller and lighter. In addition, the growth of small technology obtained from private industries has led to the more widespread use of smallSats. This includes greater revisit rates in imagery, significantly lower costs, the ability to update technology more frequently and the ability to decrease vulnerability of enemy attacks. The popularity of smallSats show a changing mentality in this fast paced world of tomorrow. What impact has this created on the NASA communication networks now and in future years? In this project, we are developing the SmallSat Relational Database which can support a simulation of smallSats within the NASA SCaN Compatability Environment for Networks and Integrated Communications (SCENIC) Modeling and Simulation Lab. The NASA Space Communications and Networks (SCaN) Program can use this modeling to project required network support needs in the next 10 to 15 years. The SmallSat Rational Database could model smallSats just as the other SCaN databases model the more traditional larger satellites, with a few exceptions. One being that the smallSat Database is designed to be built-to-order. The SmallSat database holds various hardware configurations that can be used to model a smallSat. It will require significant effort to develop as the research material can only be populated by hand to obtain the unique data

  5. Small talk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryszard Przybylski

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The poem Small talk conjures up a communicative situation in which the main character, a newcomer from Poland, answers conventional questions related to their country. Bearing in mind the fact that this poem is set during a military dictatorship, superficial interest in his homeland may trigger a feeling of impatience. This is at least the impression formed if we adopt the perspective defined within the romantic tradition, and when taking into account the conventional poetry of martial law in Poland. Nevertheless, Barańczak retains an ironic distance towards such communicative situations and, as a consequence, does not create poetry that meets most readersʼ expectations. His poetic imperative for verbal art to be the expression of mistrust remains valid.

  6. Small Composers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holgersen, Sven-Erik; Bruun, Peter; Tjagvad, Mette

    2018-01-01

    the study: What expectations do the class teacher and the professional musicians have to the creative practice, i.e. to the collaboration and to the musical outcome? To which extent do the collaborating partners share a common understanding of the aim, content and method of the workshop? How do the roles......The present chapter discusses roles and responsibilities of the collaborating partners in a creative music workshop called Small Composers. The aim is to be attentive to a number of potential alterations implicated by the collaborating partners’ different backgrounds. The following questions guided...... and responsibilities of the collaborating partners become visible through the practice? How do the professional identities of the teacher and the musicians become visible and what are the implications for the workshop as a musical community of practice?...

  7. The perception of small crime

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Douhou, S.; Magnus, J.R.; van Soest, A.H.O.

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we measure perceptions of incorrect behavior or ‘small crime’, based on a questionnaire administered to a large representative sample from the Dutch population. In the questionnaire we ask the respondents to rate the severity or justifiability of a number of small crimes. We present

  8. Dose-response relationship between probability of pathologic tumor control and glucose metabolic rate measured with FDG PET after preoperative chemoradiotherapy in locally advanced non-small-cell lung cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Noah C.; Fischman, Alan J.; Niemierko, Andrzej; Ryu, Jin-Sook; Lynch, Thomas; Wain, John; Wright, Cameron; Fidias, Panos; Mathisen, Douglas

    2002-01-01

    Purpose: To determine the dose-response relationship between the probability of tumor control on the basis of pathologic tumor response (pTCP) and the residual metabolic rate of glucose (MRglc) in response to preoperative chemoradiotherapy in locally advanced non-small-cell lung cancer and to define the level of residual MRglc that corresponds to pTCP 50% and pTCP ≥95%. Methods and Materials: Quantitative dynamic 18F-2-fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose (18F-FDG) positron emission tomography was performed to measure regional MRglc at the primary lesion before and 2 weeks after preoperative chemoradiotherapy in an initial group of 13 patients with locally advanced NSCLC. A simplified kinetic method was developed subsequently from the initial dynamic study and used in the subsequent 16 patients. The preoperative radiotherapy programs consisted of (1) a split course of 42 Gy in 28 fractions within a period of 28 days using a twice-daily treatment schedule for Stage IIIA(N2) NSCLC (n=18) and (2) standard once-daily radiation schedule of 45-63 Gy in 25-35 fractions during a 5-7-week period (n=11). The preoperative chemotherapy regimens included two cycles of cisplatin, vinblastine, and 5-fluorouracil (n=24), cisplatin and etoposide (n=2), and cisplatin, Taxol, and 5-fluorouracil (n=3). Patients free of tumor progression after preoperative chemoradiotherapy underwent surgery. The degree of residual MRglc measured 2 weeks after preoperative chemoradiotherapy and 2 weeks before surgery was correlated with the pathologic tumor response. The relationship between MRglc and pTCP was modeled using logistic regression. Results: Of 32 patients entered into the study, 29 (16 men and 13 women; 30 lesions) were evaluated for the correlation between residual MRglc and pathologic tumor response. Three patients did not participate in the second study because of a steady decline in general condition. The median age was 60 years (range 42-78). One of the 29 patients had two separate lesions, and

  9. Small Business Development Center

    Data.gov (United States)

    Small Business Administration — Small Business Development Centers (SBDCs) provide assistance to small businesses and aspiring entrepreneurs throughout the United States and its territories. SBDCs...

  10. Exchange rate smoothing in Hungary

    OpenAIRE

    Karádi, Péter

    2005-01-01

    The paper proposes a structural empirical model capable of examining exchange rate smoothing in the small, open economy of Hungary. The framework assumes the existence of an unobserved and changing implicit exchange rate target. The central bank is assumed to use interest rate policy to obtain this preferred rate in the medium term, while market participants are assumed to form rational expectations about this target and influence exchange rates accordingly. The paper applies unobserved varia...

  11. New concept of combustion technology in small DI diesel engines. 4th Report. Effects of fuel injection rates on MK combustion; Kogata chokufun diesel kikan no shinnensho concept. 4. Funsharitsu no MK nensho eno eikyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kimura, S; Matsui, Y; Kamihara, T [Nissan Motor Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    1997-10-01

    A previous paper showed that EGR cooling and a low compression ratio which prolongs the ignition delay can expand the area of the new combustion concept. Experimental investigations were conducted in this research to examine the effects of the fuel injection rates, the injection pressure and the injection duration, on the exhaust emissions of an engine incorporating the MK concept The results showed that a higher injection pressure was effective in reducing NOx and particulate matter (PM) under MK combustion conditions. 10 refs., 9 figs., 1 tab.

  12. Ratings Revisited

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lai, Signe Sophus

    2015-01-01

    tværs af medier og platforme, forskudt i tid og on-demand. This article focuses on audience ratings, which have functioned as the central ‘currency’ informing the media trade. It discusses changes to the production and accuracy of audience ratings at a time when established standards are being...

  13. Rating mutual funds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bechmann, Ken L.; Rangvid, Jesper

    2007-01-01

    We develop a new rating of mutual funds: the atpRating. The atpRating assigns crowns to each individual mutual fund based upon the costs an investor pays when investing in the fund in relation to what it would cost to invest in the fund's peers. Within each investment category, the rating assigns...... the return of a fund in a certain year generally contains only little information about the future return that the fund will generate. Finally, we have information on the investments in different mutual funds made by a small subgroup of investors known to have been exposed to both the atp...... five crowns to funds with the lowest costs and one crown to funds with the highest costs. We investigate the ability of the atpRating to predict the future performance of a fund. We find that an investor who has invested in the funds with the lowest costs within an investment category would have...

  14. Rating Mutual Funds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bechmann, Ken L.; Rangvid, Jesper

    We develop a new rating of mutual funds: the atpRating. The atpRating assigns crowns to each individual mutual fund based upon the costs an investor pays when investing in the fund in relation to what it would cost to invest in the fund’s peers. Within each investment category, the rating assigns......, whereas the return of a fund in a certain year generally contains only little information about the future return that the fund will generate. Finally, we have information on the investments in different mutual funds made by a small subgroup of investors known to have been exposed to both the atp...... five crowns to funds with the lowest costs and one crown to funds with the highest costs. We investigate the ability of the atpRating to predict the future performance of a fund. We find that an investor who has invested in the funds with the lowest costs within an investment category would have...

  15. Addition of rapamycin and hydroxychloroquine to metronomic chemotherapy as a second line treatment results in high salvage rates for refractory metastatic solid tumors: a pilot safety and effectiveness analysis in a small patient cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chi, Kwan-Hwa; Ko, Hui-Ling; Yang, Kai-Lin; Lee, Cheng-Yen; Chi, Mau-Shin; Kao, Shang-Jyh

    2015-06-30

    Autophagy is an important oncotarget that can be modulated during anti-cancer therapy. Enhancing autophagy using chemotherapy and rapamycin (Rapa) treatment and then inhibiting it using hydroxychloroquine (HCQ) could synergistically improve therapy outcome in cancer patients. It is still unclear whether addition of Rapa and HCQ to chemotherapy could be used for reversing drug resistance. Twenty-five stage IV cancer patients were identified. They had no clinical response to first-line metronomic chemotherapy; the patients were salvaged by adding an autophagy inducer (Rapa, 2 mg/day) and an autophagosome inhibitor (HCQ, 400 mg/day) to their current metronomic chemotherapy for at least 3 months. Patients included 4 prostate, 4 bladder, 4 lung, 4 breast, 2 colon, and 3 head and neck cancer patients as well as 4 sarcoma patients. Chemotherapy was administered for a total of 137 months. The median duration of chemotherapy cycles per patient was 4 months (95% confidence interval, 3-7 months). The overall response rate to this treatment was of 40%, with an 84% disease control rate. The most frequent and clinically significant toxicities were myelotoxicities. Grade ≥3 leucopenia occurred in 6 patients (24%), grade ≥3 thrombocytopenia in 8 (32%), and anemia in 3 (12%). None of them developed febrile neutropenia. Non-hematologic toxicities were fatigue (total 32%, with 1 patient developing grade 3 fatigue), diarrhea (total 20%, 1 patient developed grade 3 fatigue), reversible grade 3 cardiotoxicity (1 patient), and grade V liver toxicity from hepatitis B reactivation (1 patient). Our results of Rapa, HCQ and chemotherapy triplet combination suggest autophagy is a promising oncotarget and warrants further investigation in phase II studies.

  16. Adenocarcinoma of the small bowel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Savli, M.; Jamar, B.

    2007-01-01

    Adenocarcinoma of small bowel is generally a rather rare primary tumour of small bowel with a prevalence rate of 0.5 - 3.0 / 100.000 population, but the most frequent tumour of small intestine. It more often involves the duodenum and jejunum than the ileum. The aim of this paper is also to point out the value of small bowel follow through (SBFT) in the diagnosis of stenosing lesions. An 83 - year old male patient suffered from abdominal pain, malaise, vomiting, cachexia and diarrhoea for 3 months. The result of occult blood testing was negative. Haemoglobin level was normal. Proctoscopy, colonoscopy, upper gastrointestinal (GI) endoscopy, and ultrasonography (US) did not explain the patient's problems. Ileus of the small bowel was established with abdominal plain film. Small bowel follow through (SBFT) and computer tomography (CT) showed a stenosing tumour in the jejunum. Adenocarcinoma of the small bowel was established with histological examination after resection of the tumor. SBFT, with manual compression of all segments of the small bowel, can be a very accurate diagnostic investigation for evaluation of stenosing lesions in this part of the intestine. (author)

  17. Adenocarcinoma of the small bowel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Savli, M; Jamar, B [Inst. of Clinical Radiology, Univ. Medical Centre, Ljubljana (Slovenia)

    2007-06-15

    Adenocarcinoma of small bowel is generally a rather rare primary tumour of small bowel with a prevalence rate of 0.5 - 3.0 / 100.000 population, but the most frequent tumour of small intestine. It more often involves the duodenum and jejunum than the ileum. The aim of this paper is also to point out the value of small bowel follow through (SBFT) in the diagnosis of stenosing lesions. An 83 - year old male patient suffered from abdominal pain, malaise, vomiting, cachexia and diarrhoea for 3 months. The result of occult blood testing was negative. Haemoglobin level was normal. Proctoscopy, colonoscopy, upper gastrointestinal (GI) endoscopy, and ultrasonography (US) did not explain the patient's problems. Ileus of the small bowel was established with abdominal plain film. Small bowel follow through (SBFT) and computer tomography (CT) showed a stenosing tumour in the jejunum. Adenocarcinoma of the small bowel was established with histological examination after resection of the tumor. SBFT, with manual compression of all segments of the small bowel, can be a very accurate diagnostic investigation for evaluation of stenosing lesions in this part of the intestine. (author)

  18. Exchange rate policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Plačkov Slađana

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Small oscillations of exchange rate certainly affect the loss of confidence in the currency (Serbian dinar, CSD and because of the shallow market even the smallest change in the supply and demand leads to a shift in exchange rate and brings uncertainty. Some economists suggest that the course should be linked to inflation and thus ensure predictable and stable exchange rates. Real exchange rate or slightly depressed exchange rate will encourage the competitiveness of exporters and perhaps ensure the development of new production lines which, in terms of overvalued exchange rate, had no economic justification. Fixed exchange rate will bring lower interest rates, lower risk and lower business uncertainty (uncertainty avoidance, but Serbia will also reduce foreign exchange reserves by following this trend. On the other hand, a completely free exchange rate, would lead to a (real fall of Serbian currency, which in a certain period would lead to a significant increase in exports, but the consequences for businessmen and citizens with loans pegged to the euro exchange rate, would be disastrous. We will pay special attention to the depreciation of the exchange rate, as it is generally favorable to the export competitiveness of Serbia and, on the other hand, it leads to an increase in debt servicing costs of the government as well as of the private sector. Oscillations of the dinar exchange rate, appreciation and depreciation, sometimes have disastrous consequences on the economy, investors, imports and exports. In subsequent work, we will observe the movement of the dinar exchange rate in Serbia, in the time interval 2009-2012, in order to strike a balance and maintain economic equilibrium. A movement of foreign currencies against the local currency is controlled in the foreign exchange market, so in case economic interests require, The National Bank of Serbia (NBS, on the basis of arbitrary criteria, can intervene in the market.

  19. Small Enterprise Dynamics in Indonesia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berry, A.; Rodriquez, E.; Sandee, H.M.

    2001-01-01

    This paper discusses the development of small and medium enterprises (SMEs) in Indonesia before and during the crisis. It argues that SME productivity has risen substantially, at rates not far from those of larger firms. Case studies indicate that various mechanisms are at work, such as technology

  20. Lung cancer - small cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cancer - lung - small cell; Small cell lung cancer; SCLC ... About 15% of all lung cancer cases are SCLC. Small cell lung cancer is slightly more common in men than women. Almost all cases of SCLC are ...

  1. Small millets, big potential

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    consumption of small millets, mainly due to limited productivity, high ... for effective integration of small millets in the ... replicated in other cities. ... to micro-, small- and medium-entrepreneurs producing millet-based ... and Activities Network,.

  2. BRANDING IN SMALL BUSINESS

    OpenAIRE

    Catalin Mihail BARBU; Radu Florin OGARCA; Mihai Razvan Constantin BARBU

    2010-01-01

    In this paper we analyzed the branding in small business. Using a desk research on Internet and the press we have identified the practices small businesses use to enhance their brand and the brand dynamics in small business. Our main contribution is that we tried to figure out the strategy of branding in small business. This need further to be investigated in order to understand how branding works in small business and to better capture the role of branding in small business.

  3. Small Business Size Standards

    Data.gov (United States)

    Small Business Administration — Certain government programs, such as SBA loan programs and contracting opportunities, are reserved for small business concerns. In order to qualify, businesses must...

  4. River rating complexity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmes, Robert R.

    2016-01-01

    Accuracy of streamflow data depends on the veracity of the rating model used to derive a continuous time series of discharge from the surrogate variables that can readily be collected autonomously at a streamgage. Ratings are typically represented as a simple monotonic increasing function (simple rating), meaning the discharge is a function of stage alone, however this is never truly the case unless the flow is completely uniform at all stages and in transitions from one stage to the next. For example, at some streamflow-monitoring sites the discharge on the rising limb of the hydrograph is discernably larger than the discharge at the same stage on the falling limb of the hydrograph. This is the so-called “loop rating curve” (loop rating). In many cases, these loops are quite small and variation between rising- and falling-limb discharge measurements made at the same stage are well within the accuracy of the measurements. However, certain hydraulic conditions can produce a loop that is large enough to preclude use of a monotonic rating. A detailed data campaign for the Mississippi River at St. Louis, Missouri during a multi-peaked flood over a 56-day period in 2015 demonstrates the rating complexity at this location. The shifting-control method used to deal with complexity at this site matched all measurements within 8%.

  5. Streamflow ratings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmes, Robert R.; Singh, Vijay P.

    2016-01-01

    Autonomous direct determination of a continuous time series of streamflow is not economically feasible at present (2014). As such, surrogates are used to derive a continuous time series of streamflow. The derivation process entails developing a streamflow rating, which can range from a simple, single-valued relation between stage and streamflow to a fully dynamic one-dimensional model based on hydraulics of the flow.

  6. Seasonal Variation in Trypanosomosis Rates in Small Ruminants at ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Rev Dr Olaleye

    blood. The blood samples were kept cool by placing them in cold boxes containing ice packs after collection. Parasitological examination was done in the Laboratory using the haematocrit centrifugation technique, HCT (Woo, 1971), buffy coat method (BCM) (Murry et. al; 1977) and. Giemsa stained thin films made after BCM.

  7. Quantifying ground impact fatality rate for small unmanned aircraft

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    La Cour-Harbo, Anders

    2018-01-01

    is based on a standard stochastic model, and employs a parameterized high fidelity ground impact distribution model that accounts for both aircraft specifications, parameter uncertainties, and wind. The method also samples the flight path to create an almost continuous quantification of the risk......One of the major challenges of conducting operation of unmanned aircraft, especially operations beyond visual line-of-sight (BVLOS), is to make a realistic and sufficiently detailed risk assessment. An important part of such an assessment is to identify the risk of fatalities, preferably...... in a quantitative way since this allows for comparison with manned aviation to determine whether an equivalent level of safety is achievable. This work presents a method for quantifying the probability of fatalities resulting from an uncontrolled descent of an unmanned aircraft conducting a BVLOS flight. The method...

  8. Hate Speech on Small College Campuses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemmer, Joseph J., Jr.

    A study identified and evaluated the approach of small colleges in dealing with hate speech and/or verbal harassment incidents. A questionnaire was sent to the Dean of Students at 200 randomly-selected small (500-2000 students), private, liberal arts colleges and universities. Responses were received from 132 institutions, for a response rate of…

  9. NIF small optics laser damage test specifications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sheehan, L

    1999-01-01

    The Laser Damage Group is currently conducting tests on small optics samples supplied for initial evaluation of potential NIF suppliers. This document is meant to define the specification of laser-induced damage for small optics and the test methods used to collect the data. A rating system which will be applied for vendor selection is presented

  10. Estimating diversification rates for higher taxa: BAMM can give problematic estimates of rates and rate shifts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Andreas L S; Wiens, John J

    2018-01-01

    Estimates of diversification rates are invaluable for many macroevolutionary studies. Recently, an approach called BAMM (Bayesian Analysis of Macro-evolutionary Mixtures) has become widely used for estimating diversification rates and rate shifts. At the same time, several articles have concluded that estimates of net diversification rates from the method-of-moments (MS) estimators are inaccurate. Yet, no studies have compared the ability of these two methods to accurately estimate clade diversification rates. Here, we use simulations to compare their performance. We found that BAMM yielded relatively weak relationships between true and estimated diversification rates. This occurred because BAMM underestimated the number of rates shifts across each tree, and assigned high rates to small clades with low rates. Errors in both speciation and extinction rates contributed to these errors, showing that using BAMM to estimate only speciation rates is also problematic. In contrast, the MS estimators (particularly using stem group ages), yielded stronger relationships between true and estimated diversification rates, by roughly twofold. Furthermore, the MS approach remained relatively accurate when diversification rates were heterogeneous within clades, despite the widespread assumption that it requires constant rates within clades. Overall, we caution that BAMM may be problematic for estimating diversification rates and rate shifts. © 2017 The Author(s). Evolution © 2017 The Society for the Study of Evolution.

  11. The BCRA’s Small Economic Model

    OpenAIRE

    Pedro Elosegui; Guillermo Escudé; Lorena Garegnani; Juan Martín Sotes Paladino

    2007-01-01

    The use of macroeconomic forecasting models is a common practice in central banks for monetary policy design, for the analysis of the current economic developments and for medium and long term forecasts. Among those models, the small-scale macroeconomic models stand out. Though relatively simple, they are structured and take into account the transmission mechanisms that relate the main variables of interest: the interest rate, the exchange rate, GDP and inflation. The Small Economic Model (ME...

  12. Small angle spectrometers: Summary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Courant, E.; Foley, K.J.; Schlein, P.E.

    1986-01-01

    Aspects of experiments at small angles at the Superconducting Super Collider are considered. Topics summarized include a small angle spectrometer, a high contingency spectrometer, dipole and toroid spectrometers, and magnet choices

  13. Small Community Training & Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Operators Small Systems Small Community Training & Education education, training and professional implement the 1996 Amendments to the Safe Drinking Water Act (SDWA). • EPA Environmental Education Center

  14. Financing to meet community needs: a guide for small hospitals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Bill

    2009-03-01

    To succeed in the current financial markets, small hospitals need flexible project and financing plans. Many small local banks today can offer small hospitals financing solutions on par with what was previously offered only by the country's strongest investment-grade rated banks. Federal assistance through programs such as HUD's Section 242 mortgage insurance program is also a viable option for small hospitals.

  15. Gender Segregation Small Firms

    OpenAIRE

    Kenneth R Troske; William J Carrington

    1992-01-01

    This paper studies interfirm gender segregation in a unique sample of small employers. We focus on small firms because previous research on interfirm segregation has studied only large firms and because it is easier to link the demographic characteristics of employers and employees in small firms. This latter feature permits an assessment of the role of employer discrimination in creating gender segregation. Our first finding is that interfirm segregation is prevalent among small employers. I...

  16. Rate theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maillard, S.; Skorek, R.; Maugis, P.; Dumont, M.

    2015-01-01

    This chapter presents the basic principles of cluster dynamics as a particular case of mesoscopic rate theory models developed to investigate fuel behaviour under irradiation such as in UO 2 . It is shown that as this method simulates the evolution of the concentration of every type of point or aggregated defect in a grain of material. It produces rich information that sheds light on the mechanisms involved in microstructure evolution and gas behaviour that are not accessible through conventional models but yet can provide for improvements in those models. Cluster dynamics parameters are mainly the energetic values governing the basic evolution mechanisms of the material (diffusion, trapping and thermal resolution). In this sense, the model has a general applicability to very different operational situations (irradiation, ion-beam implantation, annealing) provided that they rely on the same basic mechanisms, without requiring additional data fitting, as is required for more empirical conventional models. This technique, when applied to krypton implanted and annealed samples, yields a precise interpretation of the release curves and helps assess migration mechanisms and the krypton diffusion coefficient, for which data is very difficult to obtain due to the low solubility of the gas. (authors)

  17. Small Business Commitment | NREL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Small Business Commitment Small Business Commitment Central to NREL's mission is our commitment to small business through a comprehensive and mature outreach program that combines proven techniques with the latest technology and best business practices. For More Information Contact Us Please email Rexann

  18. Small hepatocellular carcinoma versus small cavernous hemangioma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, B.I.; Park, H.W.; Kim, S.H.; Han, M.C.; Kim, C.W.

    1989-01-01

    To determine the optimal pulse sequence for detection and differential diagnosis of small hepatocellular carcinomas and cavernous hemangiomas less than 5 cm in diameter, the authors have analyzed spin-echo (SE) images of 15 small hepatocellular carcinomas and 31 small cavernous hemangiomas obtained at 2.0 T. Pulse sequences used included repetition times (TRs) of 500 and 2,000 msec and echo times (TEs) of 30,60,90,120,150, and 180 msec. Mean tumor-liver contrast-to-noise ratios on the SE 2,000/60 (TR msec/TE msec) sequence were 23.90 ± 16.33 and 62.10 ± 25.94 for small hepatocellular carcinomas and hemangiomas, respectively, and were significantly greater than for all other pulse sequences. Mean tumor-liver signal intensity ratios on the SE 2,000/150 sequence were 2.34 ± 1.72 and 6.04 ± 2.72 for small hepatocellular carcinomas and hemangiomas, respectively, and were significantly greater than for all other pulse sequences in hemangiomas

  19. Formation of small sparks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barreto, E.; Jurenka, H.; Reynolds, S.I.

    1977-01-01

    The formation of a small incendiary spark at atmospheric pressure is identified with the transition from a weakly to a strongly ionized plasma. It is shown that initial gaseous ionization produced by avalanches and/or streamers always creates a high-temperature ideal electron gas that can shield the applied voltage difference and reduce ionization in the volume of the gas. The electron gas is collision dominated but able to maintain its high temperature, for times long compared to discharge events, through long-range Coulomb forces. In fact, electrons in the weakly ionized plasma constitute a collisionless independent fluid with a thermodynamic state that can be affected directly by field or density changes. Accordingly, with metal electrodes, cathode spot emission is always associated with the transition to a strongly ionized plasma. Neutral heating can be accomplished in two different ways. Effective dispersal of the electrons from the cathode leads to electron heating dominated by diffusion effects. Conversely, a fast rate of emission or rapid field changes can produce nonlinear wave propagation. It is shown that solitary waves are possible, and it is suggested that some spark transitions are associated with shock waves in the collisionless electron gas. In either the diffuse or nonlinear regime, neutral gas heating is controlled by collisions of ions with isotropic thermal electrons. This interaction is always subsequent to changes in state of the electron gas population. The basic results obtained should apply to all sparks

  20. The influence of surface roughness on volatile transport on the Moon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prem, P.; Goldstein, D. B.; Varghese, P. L.; Trafton, L. M.

    2018-01-01

    The Moon and other virtually airless bodies provide distinctive environments for the transport and sequestration of water and other volatiles delivered to their surfaces by various sources. In this work, we conduct Monte Carlo simulations of water vapor transport on the Moon to investigate the role of small-scale roughness (unresolved by orbital measurements) in the migration and cold-trapping of volatiles. Observations indicate that surface roughness, combined with the insulating nature of lunar regolith and the absence of significant exospheric heat flow, can cause large variations in temperature over very small scales. Surface temperature has a strong influence on the residence time of migrating water molecules on the lunar surface, which in turn affects the rate and magnitude of volatile transport to permanently shadowed craters (cold traps) near the lunar poles, as well as exospheric structure and the susceptibility of migrating molecules to photodestruction. Here, we develop a stochastic rough surface temperature model suitable for simulations of volatile transport on a global scale, and compare the results of Monte Carlo simulations of volatile transport with and without the surface roughness model. We find that including small-scale temperature variations and shadowing leads to a slight increase in cold-trapping at the lunar poles, accompanied by a slight decrease in photodestruction. Exospheric structure is altered only slightly, primarily at the dawn terminator. We also examine the sensitivity of our results to the temperature of small-scale shadows, and the energetics of water molecule desorption from the lunar regolith - two factors that remain to be definitively constrained by other methods - and find that both these factors affect the rate at which cold trap capture and photodissociation occur, as well as exospheric density and longevity.

  1. Epidemics in interconnected small-world networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Meng; Li, Daqing; Qin, Pengju; Liu, Chaoran; Wang, Huijuan; Wang, Feilong

    2015-01-01

    Networks can be used to describe the interconnections among individuals, which play an important role in the spread of disease. Although the small-world effect has been found to have a significant impact on epidemics in single networks, the small-world effect on epidemics in interconnected networks has rarely been considered. Here, we study the susceptible-infected-susceptible (SIS) model of epidemic spreading in a system comprising two interconnected small-world networks. We find that the epidemic threshold in such networks decreases when the rewiring probability of the component small-world networks increases. When the infection rate is low, the rewiring probability affects the global steady-state infection density, whereas when the infection rate is high, the infection density is insensitive to the rewiring probability. Moreover, epidemics in interconnected small-world networks are found to spread at different velocities that depend on the rewiring probability.

  2. Epidemics in interconnected small-world networks.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meng Liu

    Full Text Available Networks can be used to describe the interconnections among individuals, which play an important role in the spread of disease. Although the small-world effect has been found to have a significant impact on epidemics in single networks, the small-world effect on epidemics in interconnected networks has rarely been considered. Here, we study the susceptible-infected-susceptible (SIS model of epidemic spreading in a system comprising two interconnected small-world networks. We find that the epidemic threshold in such networks decreases when the rewiring probability of the component small-world networks increases. When the infection rate is low, the rewiring probability affects the global steady-state infection density, whereas when the infection rate is high, the infection density is insensitive to the rewiring probability. Moreover, epidemics in interconnected small-world networks are found to spread at different velocities that depend on the rewiring probability.

  3. Small cell glioblastoma or small cell carcinoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hilbrandt, Christine; Sathyadas, Sathya; Dahlrot, Rikke H

    2013-01-01

    was admitted to the hospital with left-sided loss of motor function. A MRI revealed a 6 cm tumor in the right temporoparietal area. The histology was consistent with both glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) and small cell lung carcinoma (SCLC) but IHC was suggestive of a SCLC metastasis. PET-CT revealed...

  4. Microcredit Loan Repayment Default among Small Scale ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The model is applied to primary data from a survey of 200 small scale entrepreneurs in the Upper West Region of Ghana. Results show that enterprise size, interest rate, loan duration, level of profit and loan amount are the simultaneous determinants of probability and rate of default. The study recommends that the National ...

  5. Small but super

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Donald, R.L.

    1994-01-01

    This paper compares the advantages and disadvantages between large and small gas utility companies. It discusses areas of construction, gaining markets, technology advances, pricing, and customer service. The paper includes discussions from four chairmen of small utility companies whom describe their perceived position among the larger companies. It also describes methods which small companies use to unite for state and nationally significant issues to voice their opinions

  6. Small Business Procurement Event

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-08-13

    Small Business Procurement Event 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) 5d. PROJECT NUMBER 5e. TASK...NUMBER 5f. WORK UNIT NUMBER 7. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES) Department of the Navy,Office of Small Business Programs,720 Kennon...distribution unlimited 13. SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES NDIA 27th Navy Gold Coast Small Business Procurement Event, 12-13 Aug 2014, San Diego, CA. 14. ABSTRACT

  7. Minijets at small x

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Landshoff, P.V.

    1994-01-01

    Nonperturbative pomeron exchange at high energy includes minijet production. Minijets are jets whose transverse momentum is so small that they are difficult, or even impossible, to detect experimentally. At moderate Q 2 it is responsible for the small-x behaviour of νW 2 . Hence minijet production should be a feature of deep inelastic scattering at small x. (author). 9 refs., 7 figs

  8. Canadian small wind market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moorhouse, E.

    2010-01-01

    This PowerPoint presentation discussed initiatives and strategies adopted by the Canadian Wind Energy Association (CanWEA) to support the development of Canada's small wind market. The general public has shown a significant interest in small wind projects of 300 kW. Studies have demonstrated that familiarity and comfort with small wind projects can help to ensure the successful implementation of larger wind projects. Small wind markets include residential, farming and commercial, and remote community applications. The results of CanWEA market survey show that the small wind market grew by 78 percent in 2008 over 2007, and again in 2009 by 32 percent over 2008. The average turbine size is 1 kW. A total of 11,000 turbines were purchased in 2007 and 2008. Global small wind market growth increased by 110 percent in 2008, and the average turbine size was 2.4 kW. Eighty-seven percent of the turbines made by Canadian mid-size wind turbine manufacturers are exported, and there is now a significant risk that Canada will lose its competitive advantage in small wind manufacturing as financial incentives have not been implemented. American and Canadian-based small wind manufacturers were listed, and small wind policies were reviewed. The presentation concluded with a set of recommendations for future incentives, educational programs and legislation. tabs., figs.

  9. Small Intestine Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... disease Crohn's disease Infections Intestinal cancer Intestinal obstruction Irritable bowel syndrome Ulcers, such as peptic ulcer Treatment of disorders of the small intestine depends on the cause.

  10. Small School Reform

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carroll E. Bronson

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available This qualitative ethnographic case study explored the evolution of a public urban high school in its 3rd year of small school reform. The study focused on how the high school proceeded from its initial concept, moving to a small school program, and emerging as a new small high school. Data collection included interviews, observations, and document review to develop a case study of one small high school sharing a multiplex building. The first key finding, “Too Many Pieces, Not Enough Glue,” revealed that the school had too many new programs starting at once and they lacked a clear understanding of their concept and vision for their new small school, training on the Montessori philosophies, teaching and learning in small schools, and how to operate within a teacher-cooperative model. The second key finding, “A Continuous Struggle,” revealed that the shared building space presented problems for teachers and students. District policies remain unchanged, resulting in staff and students resorting to activist approaches to get things done. These findings offer small school reform leaders suggestions for developing and sustaining a small school culture and cohesion despite the pressures to revert back to top-down, comprehensive high school norms.

  11. Sensitive Small Area Photometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levenson, M. D.

    1970-01-01

    Describes a simple photometer capable of measuring small light intensities over small areas. The inexpensive, easy-to- construct instrument is intended for use in a student laboratory to measure the light intensities in a diffraction experiment from single or multiple slits. Typical experimental results are presented along with the theoretical…

  12. Industrial Education. "Small Engines".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parma City School District, OH.

    Part of a series of curriculum guides dealing with industrial education in junior high schools, this guide provides the student with information and manipulative experiences on small gasoline engines. Included are sections on shop adjustment, safety, small engines, internal combustion, engine construction, four stroke engines, two stroke engines,…

  13. Small States in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    This book offers an accessible, coherent and informative analysis of contemporary and future foreign policy challenges facing small states in Europe.......This book offers an accessible, coherent and informative analysis of contemporary and future foreign policy challenges facing small states in Europe....

  14. Small x physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kwiecinski, J.

    1993-01-01

    The QCD expectations concerning the small x limit of parton distributions where x is the Bjorken scaling variable are reviewed. This includes discussion of the evolutions equations in the small x region, the Lipatov equation which sums the leading powers of ln(1/x) and the shadowing effects. Phenomenological implantations of the theoretical expectations for the deep inelastic lepton-hadron scattering in the small x region which will be accessible at the HERA ep collider are described. We give predictions for structure functions F 2 and F L and discuss specific processes sensitive to the small x physics such as heavy quark production, deep inelastic diffraction and jet production in deep inelastic lepton scattering. A brief review of nuclear shadowing in the inelastic lepton nucleus scattering at small x is also presented. (author). 86 refs, 29 figs

  15. Exchange rate policy under sovereign default risk

    OpenAIRE

    Schabert, Andreas

    2011-01-01

    We examine monetary policy options for a small open economy where sovereign default might occur due to intertemporal insolvency. Under interest rate policy and floating exchange rates the equilibrium is indetermined. Under a fixed exchange rate the equilibrium is uniquely determined and independent of sovereign default.

  16. 12 CFR 563e.28 - Assigned ratings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Assigned ratings. 563e.28 Section 563e.28 Banks... for Assessing Performance § 563e.28 Assigned ratings. (a) Ratings in general. Subject to paragraphs (b... performance under the lending, investment and service tests, the community development test, the small savings...

  17. 13 CFR 120.932 - Interest rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Interest rate. 120.932 Section 120.932 Business Credit and Assistance SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION BUSINESS LOANS Development Company Loan Program (504) 504 Loans and Debentures § 120.932 Interest rate. The interest rate of the 504 Loan...

  18. Wind: small is beautiful

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vries, E. de

    2005-01-01

    The small wind sector (0.5-100 kW) is often overlooked but could provide decentralised energy systems. Small wind turbines have been used for homes, farms and small businesses for over 80 years (e.g. in the USA and the Netherlands), receiving a boost in the 1970s and 1980s following the 1973 oil crisis when a new generation of turbines entered the European and US markets. Bergey Windpower and Southwest Windpower from the USA are the market leaders in this sector in terms of sales volume but are still classed as medium-sized enterprises. Small turbines have the disadvantage of higher costs compared with large turbines due to higher manufacturing costs, technical factors associated with the tendency to use small turbines on relatively short towers, small production runs and a failure to keep up with the latest design developments such as cost-effective state-of-the-art frequency converters. Most small turbines are horizontal axis turbines, though vertical axis turbines are produced by some manufacturers. Examples of the systems available from European suppliers are described

  19. Small systems – hydrodynamics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bożek, Piotr, E-mail: piotr.bozek@fis.agh.edu.pl

    2016-12-15

    The scenario assuming a collective expansion stage in collisions of small systems, p-A, d-Au, and {sup 3}He-Au is discussed. A review of the observables predicted in relativistic hydrodynamic models in comparison with experimental data is presented, with arguments indicating the presence of collective expansion. The limits of applicability of the hydrodynamic model are addressed. We briefly indicate possible applications of the collective flow in small systems to study the space-time dynamics at very small scales in relativistic collisions.

  20. Small scale optics

    CERN Document Server

    Yupapin, Preecha

    2013-01-01

    The behavior of light in small scale optics or nano/micro optical devices has shown promising results, which can be used for basic and applied research, especially in nanoelectronics. Small Scale Optics presents the use of optical nonlinear behaviors for spins, antennae, and whispering gallery modes within micro/nano devices and circuits, which can be used in many applications. This book proposes a new design for a small scale optical device-a microring resonator device. Most chapters are based on the proposed device, which uses a configuration know as a PANDA ring resonator. Analytical and nu

  1. 75 FR 9257 - SBA Lender Risk Rating System

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-01

    ... Liquidation Rate; 3. Gross Delinquency Rate; 4. Gross Past-Due Rate; 5. Six (6) Month Net Flow Indicator; 6.... The statistical analysis performed showed that incorporating the Portfolio Size/Age component improved...) Month Delinquency Rate; 3. Gross Delinquency Rate; 4. Gross Past-Due Rate; 5. Average Small Business...

  2. Small polaron hopping in magnetic semiconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Emin, D.; Liu, N.L.H.

    1978-01-01

    In a number of magnetic insulators it has been hypothesized that the charge carriers form small polarons. The transfer of an electron between magnetic sites and how the magnetic nature of the material affects the rate which characterizes small-polaron hops between magnetic sites were studied. The basic transfer processes are addressed from a many-electron point in which the itinerant electron is treated as indistinguishable from those which contribute unpaired spins at the magnetic sites

  3. The Power of Small

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 20; Issue 12. The Power of Small: Championing the Underdogs of Modern Medicine. Suvasini Ramaswamy Anirban Mitra. General Article Volume 20 Issue 12 December 2015 pp 1136-1153 ...

  4. Small Intestine Cancer Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... barium (a silver-white metallic compound ). The liquid coats the esophagus, stomach, and small bowel. X-rays ... made by the body or made in a laboratory are used to boost, direct, or restore the ...

  5. Analysis of small leaks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frisch, W.; Hofmann, K.

    1979-01-01

    Problems associated with 'small leaks' are described and requirements are derived for experimental facilities and computer codes. Based on these requirements, a valuation of the existing experimental facilities and codes is presented. Facilities for integral tests in relatively large scale (ex. LOFT) are suitable for small leak test in principle, however minor changes (instrumentation, secondary side) are necessary for the evaluation of certain phenomena. The 'advanced blowdown codes' are capable of describing most of the phenomena occurring during small leak events, however a substantial amount of code development and verification is still needed. In addition, the use of transient codes in small leak analysis is demonstrated. There are some areas (neutronics feedback, influence of control system) in which the use of transient codes is possible and advantageous. (orig.) 891 HP/orig. 892 BRE [de

  6. [Small renal mass].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prokofiev, D; Kreutzer, N; Kress, A; Wissing, F; Pfeifer, H; Stolzenburg, J-U; Dietel, A; Schwalenberg, T; Do, M; Truß, M C

    2012-10-01

    The frequent application of ultrasound and radiological imaging for non-urological indications in recent years has resulted in an increase in the diagnosis of small renal masses. The treatment options for patients with a small renal mass include active surveillance, surgery (both open and minimally invasive) as well as ablative techniques. As there is a risk for metastatic spread even in small renal masses surgical extirpation remains the treatment of choice in most patients. Ablative procedures, such as cryoablation and radiofrequency ablation are appropriate for old and multi-morbid patients who require active treatment of a small renal mass. Active surveillance is an alternative for high-risk patients. Meticulous patient selection by the urologist and patient preference will determine the choice of treatment option in the future.

  7. Small Bowel Bleeding

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... pouchings in the wall of the colon), or cancer. Upper GI (esophagus, stomach, or duodenum) bleeding is most often due ... begins transmitting images of the inside of the esophagus, stomach, and small bowel to a ... Bowel Disease Irritable Bowel Syndrome ...

  8. Small bowel bacterial overgrowth

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Surgical procedures that create a loop of small intestine where excess bacteria can grow. An example is a Billroth II type of stomach removal ( gastrectomy ). Some cases of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS).

  9. UNDERSTANDING SMALL BUSINESS SCAMS

    OpenAIRE

    MICHAEL T. SCHAPER; PAUL WEBER

    2012-01-01

    This paper provides an overview of the current state of knowledge about small business scams. A scam is a form of dishonest action, based upon an invitation to participate in an activity. Victims are encouraged, mislead or induced to voluntarily interact with the perpetrator, and ultimately to willingly surrender over money, information or other valuable resources. Common forms of scams directed towards small business include phishing, false business valuations and sales, fake overpayments, f...

  10. Small test SDHW systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vejen, Niels Kristian

    1999-01-01

    Three small test SDHW systems was tested in a laboratory test facility.The three SDHW systems where all based on the low flow principe and a mantle tank but the design of the systems where different.......Three small test SDHW systems was tested in a laboratory test facility.The three SDHW systems where all based on the low flow principe and a mantle tank but the design of the systems where different....

  11. Small-x physics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mueller, A.H. [Columbia Univ., New York, NY (United States). Dept. of Physics

    1997-06-01

    After a brief review of the kinematics of deep inelastic lepton-proton scattering, the parton model is described. Small-x behavior coming from DGLAP evolution and from BFKL evolution is discussed, and the two types of evolution are contrasted and compared. Then a more detailed discussion of BFKL dynamics is given. The phenomenology of small-x physics is discussed with an emphasis on ways in which BFKL dynamics may be discussed and measured. 45 refs., 12 figs.

  12. Vaksvikelva small hydro

    OpenAIRE

    Loe, Daniel Aarset

    2017-01-01

    Norway is in constant need of renewable energy, and hydroelectric power is still the main source. A great future potential can be found in countless small rivers scattered across the country, which could be developed through small hydro projects. In the process of converting mechanical movement - flowing water - into electric energy, about 5% turns into heat. From a power plant with an annual production of 15 GWh, this means energy enough to heat approximately 30 households is lost. In my pro...

  13. 46 CFR 63.25-1 - Small automatic auxiliary boilers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Small automatic auxiliary boilers. 63.25-1 Section 63.25... AUXILIARY BOILERS Requirements for Specific Types of Automatic Auxiliary Boilers § 63.25-1 Small automatic auxiliary boilers. Small automatic auxiliary boilers defined as having heat-input ratings of 400,000 Btu/hr...

  14. How small is a small cloud?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Koren

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available The interplay between clouds and aerosols and their contribution to the radiation budget is one of the largest uncertainties of climate change. Most work to date has separated cloudy and cloud-free areas in order to evaluate the individual radiative forcing of aerosols, clouds, and aerosol effects on clouds.

    Here we examine the size distribution and the optical properties of small, sparse cumulus clouds and the associated optical properties of what is considered a cloud-free atmosphere within the cloud field. We show that any separation between clouds and cloud free atmosphere will incur errors in the calculated radiative forcing.

    The nature of small cumulus cloud size distributions suggests that at any resolution, a significant fraction of the clouds are missed, and their optical properties are relegated to the apparent cloud-free optical properties. At the same time, the cloudy portion incorporates significant contribution from non-cloudy pixels.

    We show that the largest contribution to the total cloud reflectance comes from the smallest clouds and that the spatial resolution changes the apparent energy flux of a broken cloudy scene. When changing the resolution from 30 m to 1 km (Landsat to MODIS the average "cloud-free" reflectance at 1.65 μm increases from 0.0095 to 0.0115 (>20%, the cloud reflectance decreases from 0.13 to 0.066 (~50%, and the cloud coverage doubles, resulting in an important impact on climate forcing estimations. The apparent aerosol forcing is on the order of 0.5 to 1 Wm−2 per cloud field.

  15. Small gauge vitrectomy: Recent update

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sumeet Khanduja

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Small gauge vitrectomy, also known as minimally invasive vitreous surgery (MIVS, is a classic example of progress in biomedical engineering. Disparity in conjunctival and scleral wound location and reduction in wound diameter are its core principles. Fluidic changes include increased pressure head loss with consequent reduction in infusional flow rate and use of higher aspiration vacuum at the cutter port. Increase An increase in port open/port closed time maintains an adequate rate of vitreous removal. High Intensity Discharge (HID lamps maintain adequate illumination in spite of a decrease in the number of fiberoptic fibers. The advantages of MIVS are, a shorter surgical time, minimal conjunctival damage, and early postoperative recovery. Most complications are centered on wound stability and risk of postoperative hypotony, endophthalmitis, and port site retinal break formation. MIVS is suited in most cases, however, it can cause dehiscence of recent cataract wounds. Retraction of the infusion cannula in the suprachoroidal space may occur in eyes with scleral thinning. As a lot has been published and discussed about sutureless vitrectomy a review of this subject is necessary. A PubMed search was performed in December 2011 with terms small gauge vitrectomy, 23-gauge vitrectomy, 25-gauge vitrectomy, and 27 gauge vitrectomy, which were revised in August 2012. There were no restrictions on the date of publication but it was restricted to articles in English or other languages, if there abstracts were available in English.

  16. Concomitant chemoradiotherapy with high dose rate brachytherapy ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Concomitant chemoradiotherapy with high dose rate brachytherapy as a definitive treatment modality for locally advanced cervical cancer. T Refaat, A Elsaid, N Lotfy, K Kiel, W Small Jr, P Nickers, E Lartigau ...

  17. 77 FR 28520 - Small Business Size Regulations, Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) Program and Small...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-15

    ... SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION 13 CFR Part 121 RIN 3245-AG46 Small Business Size Regulations, Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) Program and Small Business Technology Transfer (STTR) Program AGENCY: Small Business Administration. ACTION: Proposed rule. SUMMARY: The U.S. Small Business Administration...

  18. 47 CFR 76.1805 - Alternative rate regulation agreements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... agreements. Small systems owned by small cable companies must file with the Commission a copy of any operative alternative rate regulation agreement entered into with a local franchising authority pursuant to...

  19. Small intestine diverticuli

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pomakov, P.; Risov, A.

    1991-01-01

    The routine method of contrast matter passage applied to 850 patients with different gastrointestinal diseases proved inefficient to detect any small-intestinal diverticuli. The following modiffications of the method have been tested in order to improve the diagnostic possibilities of the X-ray: study at short intervals, assisted passage, enteroclysm, pharmacodynamic impact, retrograde filling of the ileum by irrigoscopy. Twelve diverticuli of the small-intestinal loops were identified: 5 Meckel's diverticuli, 2 solitary of which one of the therminal ileum, 2 double diverticuli and 1 multiple diverticulosis of the jejunum. The results show that the short interval X-ray examination of the small intestines is the method of choice for identifying local changes in them. The solitary diverticuli are not casuistic scarcity, its occurrence is about 0.5% at purposeful X-ray investigation. The assisted passage method is proposed as a method of choice for detection of the Meckel's diverticulum. 5 figs., 3 tabs. 18 refs

  20. Small Intestinal Infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munot, Khushboo; Kotler, Donald P

    2016-06-01

    Small intestinal infections are extremely common worldwide. They may be bacterial, viral, or parasitic in etiology. Most are foodborne or waterborne, with specific etiologies differing by region and with diverse pathophysiologies. Very young, very old, and immune-deficient individuals are the most vulnerable to morbidity or mortality from small intestinal infections. There have been significant advances in diagnostic sophistication with the development and early application of molecular diagnostic assays, though these tests have not become mainstream. The lack of rapid diagnoses combined with the self-limited nature of small intestinal infections has hampered the development of specific and effective treatments other than oral rehydration. Antibiotics are not indicated in the absence of an etiologic diagnosis, and not at all in the case of some infections.

  1. Small Island Visitor Attractions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haven Allahar

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This article proposes a process framework for developing and managing visitor attractions (VA in small island developing states with Trinidad and Tobago, a two-island state in the Caribbean, as the case study. An extensive literature review was conducted, supported by field observations, individual depth interviews, and small and large focus group meetings. The process framework identified four sets of processes: national policy formulation and legislation; inventory, classification, evaluation, and ranking of VA; general operations management involving project management activities; and site specific activities of development, operations, and maintenance. The value of the framework lies in the fact that no similar framework applicable to small islands was covered in the literature and validation was obtained from a panel of experts and a cross section of tourism stakeholders in Tobago.

  2. Development of an UPLC-MS/MS method for quantification of Avitinib (AC0010) and its five metabolites in human cerebrospinal fluid: Application to a study of the blood-brain barrier penetration rate of non-small cell lung cancer patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Weicong; Zheng, Xin; Wang, Hanping; Wang, Lu; Jiang, Ji; Hu, Pei

    2017-05-30

    Avitinib (AC0010) is a mutant-selective epidermal growth factor receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitors (EGFR-TKI), designed to be a targeted therapeutic agent for non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients harboring EGFR active and T790M resistant mutations. A rapid and sensitive ultra-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS) method was developed and validated for the determination of Avitinib and its five metabolites (M1, M2, M4, M7, MII-6) in human cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). The samples were purified by protein precipitation and separated on a BEH C 18 column (2.1×50mm, 1.7μm). Electrospray ionization (ESI) in positive ion mode and multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) were used to monitor the ion transitions at m/z 488/257, 474/403, 504/487, 434/377, 490/405, 476/391. The results indicated that the method had excellent sensitivity and specificity. The linear range covered from 0.05 to 50ng/mL for Avitinib, M1, M4, M7, and MII-6, and from 0.01 to 10ng/mL for M2. Intra-day and inter-day precisions (in terms of% RSD) were all <15% and the accuracies (in terms of% RE) were within the range of ±15%. The lower limit of quantification (LLOQ), matrix effect, extraction recovery, stability and dilution integrity were also validated and satisfied with the criteria of validation. Finally, the method was successfully applied to a blood-brain barrier (BBB) penetration rate research of NSCLC patients after an oral administration of Avitinib. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  3. Adult small bowel obstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Mark R; Lalani, Nadim

    2013-06-01

    Small bowel obstruction (SBO) is a clinical condition that is often initially diagnosed and managed in the emergency department (ED). The high rates of potential complications that are associated with an SBO make it essential for the emergency physician (EP) to make a timely and accurate diagnosis. The primary objective was to perform a systematic review and meta-analysis of the history, physical examination, and imaging modalities associated with the diagnosis of SBO. The secondary objectives were to identify the prevalence of SBO in prospective ED-based studies of adult abdominal pain and to apply Pauker and Kassirer's threshold approach to clinical decision-making to the diagnosis and management of SBO. MEDLINE, EMBASE, major emergency medicine (EM) textbooks, and the bibliographies of selected articles were scanned for studies that assessed one or more components of the history, physical examination, or diagnostic imaging modalities used for the diagnosis of SBO. The selected articles underwent a quality assessment by two of the authors using the Quality Assessment of Diagnostic Accuracy Studies 2 (QUADAS-2) tool. Data used to compile sensitivities and specificities were obtained from these studies and a meta-analysis was performed on those that examined the same historical component, physical examination technique, or diagnostic test. Separate information on the prevalence and management of SBO was used in conjunction with the meta-analysis findings of computed tomography (CT) to determine the test and treatment threshold. The prevalence of SBO in the ED was determined to be approximately 2% of all patients who present with abdominal pain. Having a previous history of abdominal surgery, constipation, abnormal bowel sounds, and/or abdominal distention on examination were the best history and physical examination predictors of SBO. X-ray was determined to be the least useful imaging modality for the diagnosis of SBO, with a pooled positive likelihood ratio (+LR

  4. Choice of exchange rate regimes for African countries: Fixed or Flexible Exchange rate regimes?

    OpenAIRE

    Simwaka, Kisu

    2010-01-01

    The choice of an appropriate exchange rate regime has been a subject of ongoing debate in international economics. The majority of African countries are small open economies and thus where the choice of the exchange rate regime is an important policy issue. Aside from factors such as interest rates and inflation, the exchange rate is one of the most important determinants of a country’s relative level of economic health. For this reason, exchange rates are among the most watched analyzed and ...

  5. Small finance banks: Challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jayadev M

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available A recent innovation in the Indian banking structure has been the formation of a new banking institution—small finance banks (SFBs. These banks are expected to penetrate into financial inclusion by providing basic banking and credit services with a differentiated banking model to the larger population. In this context the new SFBs have multiple challenges in coming out with a new, differentiated business model. The challenges include building low cost liability portfolio, technology management, and balancing the regulatory compliances. This paper also presents the top of mind views of three senior executives of new small finance banks.

  6. Small hydroelectric engineering practice

    CERN Document Server

    Leyland, Bryan

    2014-01-01

    Small Hydroelectric Engineering Practice is a comprehensive reference book covering all aspects of identifying, building, and operating hydroelectric schemes between 500 kW and 50 MW. In this range of outputs there are many options for all aspects of the scheme and it is very important that the best options are chosen.As small hydroelectric schemes are usually built against a limited budget it is extremely important that the concept design is optimum and every component is designed to maximise the benefi t and minimise the cost. As operating costs are often a high proportion of the income it i

  7. Small Column Ion Exchange

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huff, Thomas

    2010-01-01

    Small Column Ion Exchange (SCIX) leverages a suite of technologies developed by DOE across the complex to achieve lifecycle savings. Technologies are applicable to multiple sites. Early testing supported multiple sites. Balance of SRS SCIX testing supports SRS deployment. A forma Systems Engineering Evaluation (SEE) was performed and selected Small Column Ion Exchange columns containing Crystalline Silicotitanate (CST) in a 2-column lead/lag configuration. SEE considered use of Spherical Resorcinol-Formaldehyde (sRF). Advantages of approach at SRS include: (1) no new buildings, (2) low volume of Cs waste in solid form compared to aqueous strip effluent; and availability of downstream processing facilities for immediate processing of spent resin.

  8. Small - Display Cartography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nissen, Flemming; Hvas, Anders; Münster-Swendsen, Jørgen

    Service Communication and finally, Part IV: Concluding remarks and topics for further research on small-display cartography. Part II includes a separate Appendix D consisting of a cartographic design specification. Part III includes a separate Appendix C consisting of a schema specification, a separate...

  9. Small bowel resection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Ileostomy and your diet Ileostomy - caring for your stoma Ileostomy - changing your pouch Ileostomy - discharge Ileostomy - what to ask your doctor Low-fiber diet Preventing falls Small bowel resection - discharge Surgical wound care - open Types of ileostomy Ulcerative colitis - discharge When ...

  10. Small hydrogen liquefier

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Airoldi, V.J.T.; Corat, E.J.; Minucci, M.A.S.; Leite, V.S.F.O.

    1986-09-01

    In this work the deign and construction of a small hydrogen liquefier (two liters per hour maximum production) is described. The isenthalpic expansion process is used, because its construction is simple and it is generally cheaper to operate. A comparison with other liquefier processes, and considerations about their basic theory are also presented. (author) [pt

  11. Small hydroelectric power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Helgesen, Boerre

    2002-01-01

    Small hydroelectric power plants are power plants of 1 - 10 MW. For a supplier, this is an unnatural limit. A more natural limit involves compact engine design and simplified control system. The article discusses most of the engine and electrotechnical aspects in the development, construction and operation of such a plant

  12. Radiotherapy in small countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barton, Michael B; Zubizarreta, Eduardo H; Polo Rubio, J Alfredo

    2017-10-01

    To examine the availability of radiotherapy in small countries. A small country was defined as a country with a population less than one million persons. The economic status of each country was defined using the World Bank Classification. The number of cancers in each country was obtained from GLOBOCAN 2012. The number of cancer cases with an indication or radiotherapy was calculated using the CCORE model. There were 41 countries with a population of under 1 million; 15 were classified as High Income, 15 Upper Middle Income, 10 Lower Middle Income and one Low Income. 28 countries were islands. Populations ranged from 799 (Holy See) to 886450 (Fiji) and the total number of cancer cases occurring in small countries was 21,043 (range by country from 4 to 2476). Overall the total number of radiotherapy cases in small countries was 10982 (range by country from 2 to 1239). Radiotherapy was available in all HIC islands with 80 or more new cases of cancer in 2012 but was not available in any LMIC island. Fiji was the only LMIC island with a large radiotherapy caseload. Similar caseloads in non-island LMIC all had radiotherapy services. Most non-island HIC did not have radiotherapy services presumably because of the easy access to radiotherapy in neighbouring countries. There are no radiotherapy services in any LMIC islands. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  13. On small clusters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bernardes, N.

    1984-01-01

    A discussion is presented of zero-point motion effects on the binding energy of a small cluster of identical particles interacting through short range attractive-repulsive forces. The model is appropriate to a discussion of both Van der Waals as well as nuclear forces. (Author) [pt

  14. Small public private partnerships

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koch, Christian; Jensen, Jesper Ole

    2009-01-01

    Public Private Partnerships (PPP) are frequently mobilized as a purchasing form suitable for large infrastructure projects. And it is commonly assumed that transaction costs linked to the establishment of PPP make them prohibitive in small sizes. In a Danish context this has been safeguarded by t...

  15. Research using small tokamaks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    This document consists of a collection of papers presented at the IAEA Technical Committee Meeting on Research Using Small Tokamaks. It contains 22 papers on a wide variety of research aspects, including diagnostics, design, transport, equilibrium, stability, and confinement. Some of these papers are devoted to other concepts (stellarators, compact tori). Refs, figs and tabs

  16. Imaging the small bowel.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Murphy, Kevin P

    2014-03-01

    Radiologic investigations continue to play a pivotal role in the diagnosis of pathologic conditions of the small intestine despite enhancement of capsule endoscopy and double-balloon endoscopy. Imaging techniques continue to evolve and new techniques in MRI in particular, are being developed.

  17. Small Group Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGrath, Joseph E.

    1978-01-01

    Summarizes research on small group processes by giving a comprehensive account of the types of variables primarily studied in the laboratory. These include group structure, group composition, group size, and group relations. Considers effects of power, leadership, conformity to social norms, and role relationships. (Author/AV)

  18. Small Schools, Real Gains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wasley, Patricia A.; Lear, Richard J.

    2001-01-01

    Small school size (fewer than 400 students) makes possible success-enhancing structures and practices: strong, ongoing student/adult and home/school relationships; flat organizational structure; concentration on a few goals; ongoing, site-specific professional development; a respectful culture; and community engagement. Implementation barriers are…

  19. Small intestinal motility

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smout, André J. P. M.

    2004-01-01

    PURPOSE OF REVIEW: In the past year, many studies were published in which new and relevant information on small intestinal motility in humans and laboratory animals was obtained. RECENT FINDINGS: Although the reported findings are heterogeneous, some themes appear to be particularly interesting and

  20. Small hydro in Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Jonker Klunne, W

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available hydro, the author has started an online database of small hydropower projects in eastern and southern Africa. The main aim of the database is to catalogue the current situation and to make that accessible to policymakers, project developers, as well...

  1. Heart rate response and technical demands of different small-sided game formats in young female basketballers. [Respuesta de la frecuencia cardíaca y demanda técnica en diferentes formatos de juegos reducidos realizados por jugadoras jóvenes de baloncesto].

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier Sanchez-Sanchez

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to describe the physiological and technical responses in young female during a basketball 3 vs. 3 small-sided games (SSG with and without verbal coach encouragement and dribbling. Six young female basketball players (age: 14.3 ± 0.5 years; height: 167.8 ± 0.8 cm; body mass: 56.5 ± 5.7 kg were recruited to participate in the present pilot study. The games were video recorded and afterwards the technical demands were notated with observational ad hoc software. The peak of maximum heart rate was increased from set 1 to set 3 during both the SSG with dribble and coach encouragement, as well as in the SSG without dribble and coach presence. With coach encouragement caused greater responses of heart rate and rate of perceived exertion than without both dribble and coach encouragement. There were no differences in technical actions, exception of the number of offensive rebounds showing a higher number in the coach encouragement task. In conclusion, the SSG with verbal encouragement should be selected to focus in physiological load, and SSG without might be useful to enhance collective behavior, without limitations in physiological load. Resumen El objetivo del presente estudio fue describir las respuestas fisiológicas y técnico-tácticas en mujeres jóvenes durante juegos reducidos (SSG de baloncesto 3 contra 3 con y sin el estímulo verbal del entrenador y el bote. Seis jugadoras de baloncesto (edad: 14.3 ± 0.5 años; altura: 167.8 ± 0.8 cm; peso: 56.5 ± 5.7 kg tomaron parte del estudio piloto. Los juegos fueron grabados en video y después las demandas técnicas fueron registradas con software ad hoc de observación. El pico de frecuencia cardíaca máxima se incrementó de la serie 1 a la 3 durante el SSG con bote y estímulo del entrenador, así como en el SSG sin bote y presencia del entrenador. Con el estímulo del entrenador se produjo mayores respuestas de frecuencia cardíaca y esfuerzo percivido que

  2. Composición de especies, tasas de captura y estructura de tamaño de peces capturados en la pesquería espinelera artesanal de rayas en la zona sur-austral de Chile Species composition, catch rates, and size structures of fishes caught in the small-scale longline skate fishery off southern Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Carlos Quiroz

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available En los últimos diez años los desembarques de rayas en la pesquería espinelera artesanal se han incrementado aceleradamente en la zona sur-austral de Chile y actualmente se desconocen características fundamentales para la descripción de la dinámica poblacional, como es la composición de especies, tasas de capturas y estructura de tamaño. En este estudio se exploraron estas características mediante información biológico-pesquera obtenida en un programa de moni toreo experimental desarrollado entre febrero 2003 y agosto 2004. Se analizaron 403 lances de pesca donde se registró información operational (fecha, profundidad, tiempo de reposo, número de anzuelos, captura total y zona de pesca y biológica (identificación de especies, número de especies, peso, sexo y longitud total. Se examinó por zona de pesca la composición de un grupo de 16 especies correspondientes al 98% de la captura total. Las capturas estuvieron constituidas principalmente por raya volantín (Dipturus chilensis y congrio dorado (Genypterus blacodes, que en conjunto representaron el 87,8% de la captura total, mientras que la importancia del resto de las especies de elasmobranquios incidentales no superó el 9%. Adicionalmente, se obtuvo la estructura de tamaño y tasas de captura de congrio dorado y de las únicas dos especies de rajiformes reportadas en las capturas, raya volantín y raya espinuda (Dipturus trachyderma. En estas tres especies, la estructura de tamaño evidenció cambios significativos (p Landings of the small-scale longline skate fishery have increased rapidly off southern Chile during the last ten years. At present, the fundamental characteristics for describing the population dynamics (e.g., species composition, catch rates, size structures are not known. The present study explored these characteristics using biological-fishery information coming from an experimental sampling program carried out between February 2003 and August 2004. A total

  3. Spontaneous mutation rates and the rate-doubling dose

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Von Borstel, R.C.; Moustaccki, E.; Latarjet, R.

    1978-01-01

    The amount of radiation required to double the frequency of mutations or tumours over the rate of those that occur spontaneously is called the rate-doubling dose. An equivalent concept has been proposed for exposure to other environmental mutagens. The doubling dose concept is predicated on the assumption that all human populations have the same spontaneous mutation rate, and that this spontaneous mutation rate is known. It is now established for prokaryotes and lower eukaryotes that numerous genes control the spontaneous mutation rate, and it is likely that the same is true for human cells as well. Given that the accepted mode of evolution of human populatons is from small, isolated groups of individuals, it seems likely that each population would have a different spontaneous mutation rate. Given that a minimum of twenty genes control or affect the spontaneous mutation rate, and that each of these in turn is susceptible to spontaneously arising or environmentally induced mutations, it seems likely that every individual within a population (except for siblings from identical multiple births) will have a unique spontaneous mutation rate. If each individual in a population does have a different spontaneous mutation rate, the doubling dose concept, in rigorous terms, is fallacious. Therefore, as with other concepts of risk evaluation, the doubling dose concept is subject to criticism. Nevertheless, until we know individual spontaneous mutation rates with precision, and can evaluate risks based on this information, the doubling dose concept has a heuristic value and is needed for practical assessment of risks for defined populations. (author)

  4. An evaluation of small businesses in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyed Mohammad karimi

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available As one of the most important and fundamental issues, employment is an indicator of development and welfare in any country. Due to the rapid growth of population over the past decades in Iran, investigating unemployment and the obstacles hindering employment is of paramount importance. In this study, a questionnaire was used and a group of experts were interviewed in order to identify four groups of legal, economic, social as well as individual factors, which could improve or hinder the growth of small businesses and self-employment. In this paper, having determined the factors influencing the expansion or downsizing the small businesses, the entrepreneurs, agents supporting small businesses, and the members of employment groups in Mazandaran Province, Iran rated the four categories. Finally, the most important growth factors or challenges faced by small businesses from the three aforementioned perspectives were compared.

  5. Rules versus Discretion in Loan Rate Setting

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cerqueiro, G.M.; Degryse, H.A.; Ongena, S.

    2007-01-01

    We propose a heteroscedastic regression model to identify the determinants of the dispersion in interest rates on loans granted to small and medium sized enterprises. We interpret unexplained deviations as evidence of the banks’ discretionary use of market power in the loan rate setting process.

  6. Size and support ratings of US banks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Poghosyan, Tigran; Werger, Charlotte; de Haan, Jakob

    We examine whether Fitch support ratings of US banks depend on bank size. Using quarterly data for the period 2004:Q4 to 2012:Q4 and controlling for several factors that make large and small banks different, we find that bank size is positively related to support ratings. However, the effect is

  7. Rules versus discretion in loan rate setting

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cerqueiro, G.M.; Degryse, H.A.; Ongena, S.

    2011-01-01

    Loan rates for seemingly identical borrowers often exhibit substantial dispersion. This paper investigates the determinants of the dispersion in interest rates on loans granted by banks to small and medium sized enterprises. We associate this dispersion with the loan officers’ use of “discretion” in

  8. Model Uncertainty and Exchange Rate Forecasting

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kouwenberg, R.; Markiewicz, A.; Verhoeks, R.; Zwinkels, R.C.J.

    2017-01-01

    Exchange rate models with uncertain and incomplete information predict that investors focus on a small set of fundamentals that changes frequently over time. We design a model selection rule that captures the current set of fundamentals that best predicts the exchange rate. Out-of-sample tests show

  9. Forming parts over small radii

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hazra, S K; Hughes, D J; Pereira, M P; Rolfe, B F

    2016-01-01

    Stamping simulations usually make the plane stress simplifying assumption. However, this becomes less valid when material draws around features with radius to sheet thickness ratios less than 20. Pereira, Yan and Rolfe (Wear, Vol.265, p.1687 (2008)) predicted that out-of-plane stress equivalent to material yield can occur because a line contact forms briefly at the start of the draw process. The high transient stress can cause high rates of tool wear and may cause the ‘die impact line’ cosmetic defect. In this work, we present residual strain results of a channel section that was drawn over a small radius. Using the neutron source at the Institut Laue-Langevin, in-plane and out-of-plane strains were measured in the channel part to show some support for the conclusions of Pereira et. al. (paper)

  10. Optimisation of Investment Resources at Small Enterprises

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shvets Iryna B.

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The goal of the article lies in the study of the process of optimisation of the structure of investment resources, development of criteria and stages of optimisation of volumes of investment resources for small enterprises by types of economic activity. The article characterises the process of transformation of investment resources into assets and liabilities of the balances of small enterprises and conducts calculation of the structure of sources of formation of investment resources in Ukraine at small enterprises by types of economic activity in 2011. On the basis of the conducted analysis of the structure of investment resources of small enterprises the article forms main groups of criteria of optimisation in the context of individual small enterprises by types of economic activity. The article offers an algorithm and step-by-step scheme of optimisation of investment resources at small enterprises in the form of a multi-stage process of management of investment resources in the context of increase of their mobility and rate of transformation of existing resources into investments. The prospect of further studies in this direction is development of a structural and logic scheme of optimisation of volumes of investment resources at small enterprises.

  11. Small Engine & Accessory Test Area

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Small Engine and Accessories Test Area (SEATA) facilitates testaircraft starting and auxiliary power systems, small engines and accessories. The SEATA consists...

  12. VTrans Small Culvert Inventory - Culverts

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — Vermont Agency of Transportation Small Culvert Inventory: Culverts. This data contains small culverts locations along VTrans maintained roadways. The data was...

  13. Small Wind Energy Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simões, Marcelo Godoy; Farret, Felix Alberto; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2017-01-01

    considered when selecting a generator for a wind power plant, including capacity of the AC system, types of loads, availability of spare parts, voltage regulation, technical personal and cost. If several loads are likely inductive, such asphase-controlled converters, motors and fluorescent lights......This chapter intends to serve as a brief guide when someone is considering the use of wind energy for small power applications. It is discussed that small wind energy systems act as the major energy source for residential or commercial applications, or how to make it part of a microgrid...... as a distributed generator. In this way, sources and loads are connected in such a way to behave as a renewable dispatch center. With this regard, non-critical loads might be curtailed or shed during times of energy shortfall or periods of high costs of energy production. If such a wind energy system is connected...

  14. Small steps for hydro

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wicke, Peter

    1998-01-01

    The government in Peru has decided to utilise its gas reserves and restrict hydro to relatively small schemes. A number of reasons for the decision are given. In 1997, the Shell-Mobile-Bechtel-COSAPI consortium was formed and agreements were signed regarding exploiting Gas de Camisea. The country's energy needs to 2010 are being assessed. It is likely that by 2001 the whole of south Peru will be receiving gas from Camisea. The Peru situation is discussed under the headings of (i) existing capacity, (ii) growing demands, (iii) a history of hydro in Peru, (iv) electrification and SHP and (v) outlook. The future for Peru's electric energy development is bright. While most of its new power capacity will come from natural gas, the small hydros also have a part to play. A stronger commitment of national and regional political authorities to consider supplies outside the big cities is said to be needed. (UK)

  15. Small reactor operating mode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Snell, V.G.

    1997-01-01

    There is a potential need for small reactors in the future for applications such as district heating, electricity production at remote sites, and desalination. Nuclear power can provide these at low cost and with insignificant pollution. The economies required by the small scale application, and/or the remote location, require a review of the size and location of the operating staff. Current concepts range all the way from reactors which are fully automatic, and need no local attention for days or weeks, to those with reduced local staff. In general the less dependent a reactor is on local human intervention, the greater its dependence on intrinsic safety features such as passive decay heat removal, low-stored energy and limited reactivity speed and depth in the control systems. A case study of the design and licensing of the SLOWPOKE Energy System heating reactor is presented. (author)

  16. Small angle neutron scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bernardini, G.; Cherubini, G.; Fioravanti, A.; Olivi, A.

    1976-09-01

    A method for the analysis of the data derived from neutron small angle scattering measurements has been accomplished in the case of homogeneous particles, starting from the basic theory without making any assumption on the form of particle size distribution function. The experimental scattering curves are interpreted with the aid the computer by means of a proper routine. The parameters obtained are compared with the corresponding ones derived from observations at the transmission electron microscope

  17. Programming in the Small

    OpenAIRE

    Gersten, David B.; Langer, Steve G.

    2010-01-01

    Academic medical centers, in general, and radiation oncology research, in particular, rely heavily on custom software tools and applications. The code development is typically the responsibility of a single individual or at most a small team. Often these individuals are not professional programmers but physicists, students, and physicians. While they possess domain expertise and algorithm knowledge, they often are not fully aware of general “safe coding” practices—nor do they need the full co...

  18. 78 FR 11745 - Small Business Size Regulations, Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) Program and Small...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-20

    .... As published, the final regulations contain two points where the word ``small'' was inadvertently... and procedure, Government procurement, Government property, Loan programs-business, Small businesses...

  19. Influence of an oscillator bath on the nucleation rate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amritkar, R.E.

    1984-09-01

    The nucleation rate of a system in a metastable state coupled to an oscillator bath is considered. It is shown that for a weak coupling and small oscillator frequencies the nucleation rate increases. (author)

  20. Safety activities in small businesses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinclair, Raymond C.; Cunningham, Thomas R.

    2015-01-01

    Background Workplace injuries occur at higher rates in smaller firms than in larger firms, and the number of workplace safety activities appear to be inversely associated with those rates. Predictors of safety activities are rarely studied. Methods This study uses data from a national random survey of firms (n = 722) with less than 250 employees conducted in 2002. Results We found that, regardless of firm size or industry, safety activities were more common in 2002 than they were in a similar 1983 study. Having had an OSHA inspection in the last five years and firm size were stronger predictors of safety activities than industry hazardousness and manager’s perceptions of hazardousness. All four variables were significant predictors (β range .19 to .28; R2 = .27). Conclusions Further progress in the prevention of injuries in small firms will require attention to factors likely subsumed within the firm size variable, especially the relative lack of slack resources that might be devoted to safety activities. PMID:26339124

  1. Ecology in Small Aquatic Ecosystems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Mikkel René

    Small ecosystems are many-fold more abundant than their larger counterparts. Both on regional and global scale small lakes outnumber medium and large lakes and account for a much larger surface area. Small streams are also far more common than rivers. Despite their abundance small ecosystems are ...

  2. The small library manager's handbook

    CERN Document Server

    Graves, Alice

    2014-01-01

    The Small Library Manager's Handbook is for librarians working in all types of small libraries. It covers the everyday nuts-and-bolts operations that all librarians must perform. This handbook, written by experts who are small librarians themselves, will help all small librarians to do multiple jobs at the same time.

  3. The Small Mars System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fantino, E.; Grassi, M.; Pasolini, P.; Causa, F.; Molfese, C.; Aurigemma, R.; Cimminiello, N.; de la Torre, D.; Dell'Aversana, P.; Esposito, F.; Gramiccia, L.; Paudice, F.; Punzo, F.; Roma, I.; Savino, R.; Zuppardi, G.

    2017-08-01

    The Small Mars System is a proposed mission to Mars. Funded by the European Space Agency, the project has successfully completed Phase 0. The contractor is ALI S.c.a.r.l., and the study team includes the University of Naples ;Federico II;, the Astronomical Observatory of Capodimonte and the Space Studies Institute of Catalonia. The objectives of the mission are both technological and scientific, and will be achieved by delivering a small Mars lander carrying a dust particle analyser and an aerial drone. The former shall perform in situ measurements of the size distribution and abundance of dust particles suspended in the Martian atmosphere, whereas the latter shall demonstrate low-altitude flight in the rarefied planetary environment. The mission-enabling technology is an innovative umbrella-like heat shield, known as IRENE, developed and patented by ALI. The mission is also a technological demonstration of the shield in the upper atmosphere of Mars. The core characteristics of SMS are the low cost (120 M€) and the small size (320 kg of wet mass at launch, 110 kg at landing), features which stand out with respect to previous Mars landers. To comply with them is extremely challenging at all levels, and sets strict requirements on the choice of the materials, the sizing of payloads and subsystems, their arrangement inside the spacecraft and the launcher's selection. In this contribution, the mission and system concept and design are illustrated and discussed. Special emphasis is given to the innovative features and to the challenges faced in the development of the work.

  4. Small Business Innovations

    Science.gov (United States)

    1995-01-01

    The PER-Force Handcontroller was originally developed for the International Space Station under a Johnson Space Center Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) contract. Produced by Cybernet Systems Corporation, the unit is a force-reflecting system that manipulates robots or objects by "feel." The Handcontroller moves in six degrees of freedom, with real and virtual reality forces simulated by a 3-D molecular modeling software package. It is used in molecular modeling in metallurgy applications, satellite docking research, and in research on military unmanned ground vehicles.

  5. Small radioisotope powered batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Myatt, J.

    1975-06-01

    Various methods of converting the large amounts of energy stored in radioisotopes are described. These are based on:- (a) the Seebeck effect; (b) thermionic emission of electrons from a hot body; (c) the Stirling Cycle; and (d) radiovoltaic charge separation in 'p-n' junctions. Small generators in the range 0 to 100 W(e) developed using these effects are described and typical applications for each of these systems are given. These include data collection and transmission from remote sites, implantable medical devices, lighthouses, radio beacons, and space power supplies. (author)

  6. Small circuits for cryptography.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Torgerson, Mark Dolan; Draelos, Timothy John; Schroeppel, Richard Crabtree; Miller, Russell D.; Anderson, William Erik

    2005-10-01

    This report examines a number of hardware circuit design issues associated with implementing certain functions in FPGA and ASIC technologies. Here we show circuit designs for AES and SHA-1 that have an extremely small hardware footprint, yet show reasonably good performance characteristics as compared to the state of the art designs found in the literature. Our AES performance numbers are fueled by an optimized composite field S-box design for the Stratix chipset. Our SHA-1 designs use register packing and feedback functionalities of the Stratix LE, which reduce the logic element usage by as much as 72% as compared to other SHA-1 designs.

  7. Small mirror fusion reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carlson, G.A.; Schultz, K.R.; Smith, A.C. Jr.

    1978-01-01

    Basic requirements for the pilot plants are that they produce a net product and that they have a potential for commercial upgrade. We have investigated a small standard mirror fusion-fission hybrid, a two-component tandem mirror hybrid, and two versions of a field-reversed mirror fusion reactor--one a steady state, single cell reactor with a neutral beam-sustained plasma, the other a moving ring field-reversed mirror where the plasma passes through a reaction chamber with no energy addition

  8. Data: Big and Small.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones-Schenk, Jan

    2017-02-01

    Big data is a big topic in all leadership circles. Leaders in professional development must develop an understanding of what data are available across the organization that can inform effective planning for forecasting. Collaborating with others to integrate data sets can increase the power of prediction. Big data alone is insufficient to make big decisions. Leaders must find ways to access small data and triangulate multiple types of data to ensure the best decision making. J Contin Educ Nurs. 2017;48(2):60-61. Copyright 2017, SLACK Incorporated.

  9. Going with small ICBMs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arkin, W.M.

    1984-01-01

    Support for the small ICBM (SICBM) is coming from government bureaucrats, contractors, MX opponents, ''build-down'' supporters, and those who have no confidence in arms control. Despite this support, which the author sees as a failure of administration policies, the SICBM has most of the technological and basing drawbacks of the MX. Mobile and superhardening basing techniques are as questionable for the SICBM as for the MX. Moreover, there is no evidence to support the claim that their deployment will increase stability and enhance the arms control process

  10. Rolling at small scales

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Kim L.; Niordson, Christian F.; Hutchinson, John W.

    2016-01-01

    The rolling process is widely used in the metal forming industry and has been so for many years. However, the process has attracted renewed interest as it recently has been adapted to very small scales where conventional plasticity theory cannot accurately predict the material response. It is well....... Metals are known to be stronger when large strain gradients appear over a few microns; hence, the forces involved in the rolling process are expected to increase relatively at these smaller scales. In the present numerical analysis, a steady-state modeling technique that enables convergence without...

  11. [Small vessel cerebrovascular disease].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardona Portela, P; Escrig Avellaneda, A

    2018-05-09

    Small vessel vascular disease is a spectrum of different conditions that includes lacunar infarction, alteration of deep white matter, or microbleeds. Hypertension is the main risk factor, although the atherothrombotic lesion may be present, particularly in large-sized lacunar infarctions along with other vascular risk factors. MRI findings are characteristic and the lesions authentic biomarkers that allow differentiating the value of risk factors and defining their prognostic value. Copyright © 2018 SEH-LELHA. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  12. Heart rate index

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haedersdal, C; Pedersen, F H; Svendsen, J H

    1992-01-01

    after the myocardial infarction. A significant correlation (Spearman's correlation coefficient rs, p less than 0.05) was found between LVEF at rest and the following variables assessed at exercise test: 1) the heart rate at rest, 2) rise in heart rate, 3) ratio between maximal heart rate and heart rate...... at rest, 4) rise in systolic blood pressure, 5) rate pressure product at rest, 6) rise in rate pressure product, 7) ratio (rHR) between maximal rate pressure product and rate pressure product at rest, 8) total exercise time. The heart rate was corrected for effects caused by age (heart index (HR...

  13. Computed tomography features of small bowel volvulus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loh, Y.H.; Dunn, G.D.

    2000-01-01

    Small bowel volvulus is a cause of acute abdomen and commonly occurs in neonates and young infants. Although it is rare in adults in the Western world,' it is a relatively common surgical emergency in the Middle East, India and Central Africa. It is associated with a mortality rate of 10-67% and, hence, it is important to make an early diagnosis to expedite surgical intervention. Computed tomography has become an important imaging modality in diagnosis and a number of signs have been recognized in a handful of documented case reports. We describe a case of small bowel volvulus that illustrates these important CT signs. Copyright (1999) Blackwell Science Pty Ltd

  14. Identifying New Small Proteins in Escherichia coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    VanOrsdel, Caitlin E; Kelly, John P; Burke, Brittany N; Lein, Christina D; Oufiero, Christopher E; Sanchez, Joseph F; Wimmers, Larry E; Hearn, David J; Abuikhdair, Fatimeh J; Barnhart, Kathryn R; Duley, Michelle L; Ernst, Sarah E G; Kenerson, Briana A; Serafin, Aubrey J; Hemm, Matthew R

    2018-04-12

    The number of small proteins (SPs) encoded in the Escherichia coli genome is unknown, as current bioinformatics and biochemical techniques make short gene and small protein identification challenging. One method of small protein identification involves adding an epitope tag to the 3' end of a short open reading frame (sORF) on the chromosome, with synthesis confirmed by immunoblot assays. In this study, this strategy was used to identify new E. coli small proteins, tagging 80 sORFs in the E. coli genome, and assayed for protein synthesis. The selected sORFs represent diverse sequence characteristics, including degrees of sORF conservation, predicted transmembrane domains, sORF direction with respect to flanking genes, ribosome binding site (RBS) prediction, and ribosome profiling results. Of 80 sORFs, 36 resulted in encoded synthesized proteins-a 45% success rate. Modeling of detected versus non-detected small proteins analysis showed predictions based on RBS prediction, transcription data, and ribosome profiling had statistically-significant correlation with protein synthesis; however, there was no correlation between current sORF annotation and protein synthesis. These results suggest substantial numbers of small proteins remain undiscovered in E. coli, and existing bioinformatics techniques must continue to improve to facilitate identification. © 2018 The Authors. Proteomics Published by WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim, Towson University.

  15. Superconductivity of small particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leavens, C.R.; Fenton, E.W.

    1981-01-01

    The Eliashberg gap equations are used to investigate the contribution of surface-phonon softening to the size dependence of the superconducting transition temperature (T/sub c/) of small metallic particles. Because of our limited quantitative knowledge of phonon spectra and electron-phonon coupling in the surface region, the effect cannot be calculated with certainty. Previous calculations which agree with experiment depend on a fortuitous choice of input parameters which cannot be justified at present. For this reason the absence of any observable size effect for T/sub c/ in Pb is especially important. This null effect is obtained in Pb if the electron-phonon coupling strength is the same in the surface region as in the bulk. This assumption can be tested experimentally because it means that the energy gap of Pb should not be independent of particle size but rather should increase significantly with decreasing radius. Hence, measurement of the size dependence of the energy gap for well-characterized small particles of Pb could provide information regarding the importance of the phonon-softening mechanism, at least for Pb

  16. How to engage small retail businesses in workplace violence prevention: Perspectives from small businesses and influential organizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruening, Rebecca A; Strazza, Karen; Nocera, Maryalice; Peek-Asa, Corinne; Casteel, Carri

    2015-06-01

    Small retail businesses experience high robbery and violent crime rates leading to injury and death. Workplace violence prevention programs (WVPP) based on Crime Prevention Through Environmental Design reduce this risk, but low small business participation limits their effectiveness. Recent dissemination models of occupational safety and health information recommend collaborating with an intermediary organization to engage small businesses. Qualitative interviews with 70 small business operators and 32 representatives of organizations with small business influence were conducted to identify factors and recommendations for improving dissemination of a WVPP. Both study groups recommended promoting WVPPs through personal contacts but differed on other promotion methods and the type of influential groups to target. Small business operators indicated few connections to formal business networks. Dissemination of WVPPs to small businesses may require models inclusive of influential individuals (e.g., respected business owners) as intermediaries to reach small businesses with few formal connections. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. 77 FR 30227 - Small Business Size Regulations, Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) Program and Small...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-22

    ... Business Size Regulations, Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) Program and Small Business Technology... public Webinar and Roundtable Meetings regarding its proposal to amend its regulations governing size and eligibility for the Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) and Small Business Technology Transfer (STTR...

  18. Real Property Tax Rates

    Data.gov (United States)

    Montgomery County of Maryland — The Levy Year 2012 real property tax rate dataset reflects all the rates per $100 set each year by the County Council. These rates are applied to the assessed value...

  19. Variable-Rate Premiums

    Data.gov (United States)

    Pension Benefit Guaranty Corporation — These interest rates are used to value vested benefits for variable rate premium purposes as described in PBGC's regulation on Premium Rates (29 CFR Part 4006) and...

  20. 75 FR 13145 - SBA Lender Risk Rating System

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-18

    ... SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION [Docket No. SBA-2010-0004] SBA Lender Risk Rating System AGENCY: Small Business Administration. ACTION: Notice; extension of comment period and correction. SUMMARY: On... of Credit Risk Management, U.S. Small Business Administration, 409 Third Street, SW., 8th Floor...

  1. Small Enterprise Strategies in an Unstable Public Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daryl D. Green

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Many small business owners in the United States dream about getting a large contract with the federal government, feeling that their lives would be easier if they did. Ironically, there have been numerous occasions where small businesses have gone out of business after being overwhelmed by a government contract. This case study addresses how small businesses can improve their survival and success rate in the public sector with a strategic approach to their operations. It begins by discussing the preparation that goes into federal contracting by small businesses. Case examples of four American companies involved in contracting with the Department of Energy are evaluated. Data collection is achieved through qualitative analysis. The application of these conclusions could increase the survival rate of small businesses operating in an unstable public environment. The study is significant because this research widens contemporary assumptions about strategic thinking for small businesses engaged in government contracting.

  2. 13 CFR 120.1015 - Risk Rating System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Risk Rating System. 120.1015 Section 120.1015 Business Credit and Assistance SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION BUSINESS LOANS Risk-Based Lender Oversight Supervision § 120.1015 Risk Rating System. (a) Risk Rating. SBA may assign a Risk Rating...

  3. Nesting success and survival rates of suburban Olive Thrushes ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Reproductive rate, clutch size, nesting success and survival rate of dependent fledglings were estimated from breeding records in the Eastern Cape. These data were used to estimate survival rate of independent fledglings. The estimated adult survival rate in this region was high and the clutch size was small, compared to ...

  4. Small intestinal transplantation.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Quigley, E M

    2012-02-03

    The past few years have witnessed a considerable shift in the clinical status of intestinal transplantation. A great deal of experience has been gained at the most active centers, and results comparable with those reported at a similar stage in the development of other solid-organ graft programs are now being achieved by these highly proficient transplant teams. Rejection and its inevitable associate, sepsis, remain ubiquitous, and new immunosuppressant regimes are urgently needed; some may already be on the near horizon. The recent success of isolated intestinal grafts, together with the mortality and morbidity attendant upon the development of advanced liver disease related to total parenteral nutrition, has prompted the bold proposal that patients at risk for this complication should be identified and should receive isolated small bowel grafts before the onset of end-stage hepatic failure. The very fact that such a suggestion has begun to emerge reflects real progress in this challenging field.

  5. Problems of Small Debris

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. V. Zelentsov

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available During the exploration of outer space (as of 1/1 2011 6853 was launched spacecraft (SC are successful 6264, representing 95% of the total number of starts. The most intensively exploited space Russia (USSR (3701 starts, 94% successful, USA (2774 starts, 90% successful, China (234 starts, 96% successful and India (89 starts, 90% successful. A small part of running the spacecraft returned to Earth (manned spacecraft and transport, and the rest remained in orbit. Some of them are descended from orbit and burned up in the atmosphere, the rest remained in the OCP and turned into space debris (SD.The composition of the Cabinet is diverse: finish the job spacecraft; boosters and the last stage of launch vehicles left in orbit after SC injection; technological waste arising during the opening drop-down structures and fragments of the destroyed spacecraft. The resulting explosion orbital SD forms ellipsoidal region which orbits blasted object. Then, as a result of precession, is the distribution of objects in orbit explosion exploding spacecraft.The whole Cabinet is divided into two factions: the observed (larger than 100 mm and not observed (less than 100 mm. Observed debris katalogalizirovan and 0.2% of the total number of SD, there was no SD is the bulk - 99.8%.SC meeting working with a fragment observed SD predictable and due to changes in altitude spacecraft avoids a possible meeting. Contact spacecraft with large fragment lead to disaster (which took place at a meeting of the Russian communications satellite "Cosmos-2251" and the American machine "Iridium". Meeting with small SD is not predictable, especially if it was formed by an explosion or collision fragments together. Orbit that KM is not predictable, and the speed can be up to 10 km / s. Meeting with small particle SD no less dangerous for the spacecraft. The impact speed of spacecraft with space debris particles can reach up to 10 ... 15 km / s at such speeds the breakdown probability thin

  6. Small Wind Energy Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simoes, Marcelo; Farret, Felix Alberto; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2015-01-01

    devices, and a centralized distribution control. In order to establish a small wind energy system it is important to observe the following: (i) Attending the energy requirements of the actual or future consumers; (ii) Establishing civil liabilities in case of accidents and financial losses due to shortage...... or low quality of energy; (iii) Negotiating collective conditions to interconnect the microgrid with the public network or with other sources of energy that is independent of wind resources; (iv) Establishing a performance criteria of power quality and reliability to end-users, in order to reduce costs...... and guaranteeing an acceptable energy supply. This paper discuss how performance is affected by local conditions and random nature of the wind, power demand profiles, turbine related factors, and presents the technical issues for implementing a self-excited induction generator system, or a permanent magnet based...

  7. Small transport aircraft technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, L. J.

    1983-01-01

    Information on commuter airline trends and aircraft developments is provided to upgrade the preliminary findings of a NASA-formed small transport aircraft technology (STAT) team, established to determine whether the agency's research and development programs could help commuter aircraft manufacturers solve technical problems related to passenger acceptance and use of 19- to 50-passenger aircraft. The results and conclusions of the full set of completed STAT studies are presented. These studies were performed by five airplane manufacturers, five engine manufacturers, and two propeller manufacturers. Those portions of NASA's overall aeronautics research and development programs which are applicable to commuter aircraft design are summarized. Areas of technology that might beneficially be expanded or initiated to aid the US commuter aircraft manufacturers in the evolution of improved aircraft for the market are suggested.

  8. [Is allastrim small pox?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiexeira, L A

    2000-01-01

    Between 1910 and 1913, two renowned physicians in the city of Sao Paulo found themselves engaged in a scientific controversy regarding the classification of a disease then assailing the state. Antonio Carini, director of the Instituto Pasteur de Sao Paulo, believed the illness to be small pox, while Emilio Ribas, director of the Servico Sanitario, claimed it was allastrim, or milk pox. The controversy started in the Sociedade de Medicina e Cirurgia but later migrated to other forums and came to incorporate other figures as well. This presentation and discussion of the polemic is meant as a contribution to our understanding of the process by which a scientific consensus is constructed and solidified within the field of the biomedical sciences.

  9. Small caliber guided projectile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, James F [Albuquerque, NM; Kast, Brian A [Albuquerque, NM; Kniskern, Marc W [Albuquerque, NM; Rose, Scott E [Albuquerque, NM; Rohrer, Brandon R [Albuquerque, NM; Woods, James W [Albuquerque, NM; Greene, Ronald W [Albuquerque, NM

    2010-08-24

    A non-spinning projectile that is self-guided to a laser designated target and is configured to be fired from a small caliber smooth bore gun barrel has an optical sensor mounted in the nose of the projectile, a counterbalancing mass portion near the fore end of the projectile and a hollow tapered body mounted aft of the counterbalancing mass. Stabilizing strakes are mounted to and extend outward from the tapered body with control fins located at the aft end of the strakes. Guidance and control electronics and electromagnetic actuators for operating the control fins are located within the tapered body section. Output from the optical sensor is processed by the guidance and control electronics to produce command signals for the electromagnetic actuators. A guidance control algorithm incorporating non-proportional, "bang-bang" control is used to steer the projectile to the target.

  10. Tumor of small bowel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruiz Lobo, Elmer Jair; Rubio Vargas, Romulo; Cecilia Hani, Albis

    2009-01-01

    Young woman who is having episodes of overt obscure gastrointestinal bleeding that requires transfusions. The endoscopic study consists of 2 endoscopies of the upper digestive system and two colonoscopies. The tests do not find the cause of the digestive hemorrhage. A double-balloon enteroscopy is performed and it is found that the Ileum has an ulcerate subepithelial lesion with neoplasia appearance which is marked with Chinese ink and biopsies are taken from the tissue which are not diagnosed. Studies of staging are performed ant the result is negative. A laparotomy is performed for diagnosis and treatment which includes the intestinal resection of ileum where the tumor is placed. The result of the test shows to be a neuroendocrine carcinoma of high degree of large cells undifferentiated. One appears in addition a revision to overt obscure gastrointestinal bleeding and neuroendocrine tumor of small

  11. Small dose... big poison.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braitberg, George; Oakley, Ed

    2010-11-01

    It is not possible to identify all toxic substances in a single journal article. However, there are some exposures that in small doses are potentially fatal. Many of these exposures are particularly toxic to children. Using data from poison control centres, it is possible to recognise this group of exposures. This article provides information to assist the general practitioner to identify potential toxic substance exposures in children. In this article the authors report the signs and symptoms of toxic exposures and identify the time of onset. Where clear recommendations on the period of observation and known fatal dose are available, these are provided. We do not discuss management or disposition, and advise readers to contact the Poison Information Service or a toxicologist for this advice.

  12. Small demonstration HTGR concept

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kiryushin, A.I.

    1989-01-01

    Currently the USSR is investigating two high-temperature gas-cooled reactors. The first plant is the VGM, a modular type HTGR with power rating of 180-250 MWth. The second plant is the VG-400 with 1000 MWth and a prestressed concrete reactor vessel. The paper contains the description of the VGM design and its main components. (author). 1 fig., 1 tab

  13. Collection of large and small food particles by Bosmina

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bleiwas, A.H.; Stokes, P.M.

    1985-01-01

    The rate of collection by Bosmina of large and small food particles was measured with 14 C-labeled algae and checked by visual observation. Bosmina collected and ingested a large alga, Cosmarium, about six times faster than a small one, Chlorella. This is consistent with the observation of DeMott and Kerfoot that Bosmina has two modes of feeding: small-particle filtering and large-particle grasping

  14. Charge balancing fill rate monitor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rothman, J.L.; Blum, E.B.

    1995-01-01

    A fill rate monitor has been developed for the NSLS storage rings to allow machine tuning over a very large dynamic range of beam current. Synchrotron light, focused on a photodiode, produces a signal proportional to the beam current. A charge balancing circuit processes the diode current, creating an output signal proportional to the current injected into the ring. The unit operates linearly over a dynamic range of 120 dB and can resolve pulses of injected beam as small as 1 μA

  15. Rating Movies and Rating the Raters Who Rate Them.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Hua; Lange, Kenneth

    2009-11-01

    The movie distribution company Netflix has generated considerable buzz in the statistics community by offering a million dollar prize for improvements to its movie rating system. Among the statisticians and computer scientists who have disclosed their techniques, the emphasis has been on machine learning approaches. This article has the modest goal of discussing a simple model for movie rating and other forms of democratic rating. Because the model involves a large number of parameters, it is nontrivial to carry out maximum likelihood estimation. Here we derive a straightforward EM algorithm from the perspective of the more general MM algorithm. The algorithm is capable of finding the global maximum on a likelihood landscape littered with inferior modes. We apply two variants of the model to a dataset from the MovieLens archive and compare their results. Our model identifies quirky raters, redefines the raw rankings, and permits imputation of missing ratings. The model is intended to stimulate discussion and development of better theory rather than to win the prize. It has the added benefit of introducing readers to some of the issues connected with analyzing high-dimensional data.

  16. (Azadirachta indica) seed extract for tick control in Small

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dr. Matayo David

    ... extract for tick control in Small East African and Toggenburg female goat kids in Tanzania ... adoption rate by the local traditional small-scale resource poor farmers, etc.) (de Castro ..... SAS Institute Inc., Cary, North California. Saxena, R.C. ...

  17. Neuroendocrine small cell carcinoma of the uterine cervix.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reig Castillejo, Anna; Membrive Conejo, Ismael; Foro Arnalot, Palmira; Rodríguez de Dios, Nuria; Algara López, Manuel

    2010-07-01

    Neuroendocrine small cell carcinoma of the uterine cervix (SCC) is a rare disease that mixes clinical and biological characteristics of both cervical neoplasms and neuroendocrine small cell cancer. The prognosis is poor and the optimal treatment has not yet been clarified. Multimodality treatment, with surgery and concurrent chemoradiation has recently been shown to improve local control and survival rates.

  18. Analysis of small-signal intensity modulation of semiconductor ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    This paper demonstrates theoretical characterization of intensity modulation of semiconductor lasers (SL's). The study is based on a small-signal model to solve the laser rate equations taking into account suppression of optical gain. Analytical forms of the small-signal modulation response and modulation bandwidth are ...

  19. Chemisorption and Reactions of Small Molecules on Small Gold Particles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geoffrey C. Bond

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The activity of supported gold particles for a number of oxidations and hydrogenations starts to increase dramatically as the size falls below ~3 nm. This is accompanied by an increased propensity to chemisorption, especially of oxygen and hydrogen. The explanation for these phenomena has to be sought in kinetic analysis that connects catalytic activity with the strength and extent of chemisorption of the reactants, the latter depending on the electronic structure of the gold atoms constituting the active centre. Examination of the changes to the utilisation of electrons as particle size is decreased points to loss of metallic character at about 3 nm, as energy bands are replaced by levels, and a band gap appears. Detailed consideration of the Arrhenius parameters (E and ln A for CO oxidation points clearly to a step-change in activity at the point where metallic character is lost, as opposed to there being a monotonic dependence of rate on a physical property such as the fraction of atoms at corners or edges of particles. The deplorable scarcity of kinetic information on other reactions makes extension of this analysis difficult, but non-metallic behaviour is an unavoidable property of very small gold particles, and therefore cannot be ignored when seeking to explain their exceptional activity.

  20. Interest rate derivatives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svenstrup, Mikkel

    This Ph.D. thesis consists of four self-contained essays on valuation of interest rate derivatives. In particular derivatives related to management of interest rate risk care are considered.......This Ph.D. thesis consists of four self-contained essays on valuation of interest rate derivatives. In particular derivatives related to management of interest rate risk care are considered....

  1. Diagnosis of small hepatocellular carcinoma by incremental dynamic CT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uchida, Masafumi; Kumabe, Tsutomu; Edamitsu, Osamu

    1993-01-01

    Thirty cases of pathologically confirmed small hepatocellular carcinoma were examined by Incremental Dynamic CT (ICT). ICT scanned the whole liver with single-breath-hold technique; therefore, effective early contrast enhancement could be obtained for diagnosis. Among the 30 tumors, 26 were detected. The detection rate was 87%. A high detection rate was obtained in tumors more than 20 mm in diameter. Twenty-two of 26 tumors could be diagnosed correctly. ICT examination was useful for detection of small hepatocellular carcinoma. (author)

  2. Small business activity does not measure entrepreneurship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henrekson, Magnus; Sanandaji, Tino

    2014-02-04

    Entrepreneurship policy mainly aims to promote innovative Schumpeterian entrepreneurship. However, the rate of entrepreneurship is commonly proxied using quantity-based metrics, such as small business activity, the self-employment rate, or the number of startups. We argue that those metrics give rise to misleading inferences regarding high-impact Schumpeterian entrepreneurship. To unambiguously identify high-impact entrepreneurs we focus on self-made billionaires (in US dollars) who appear on Forbes Magazine's list and who became wealthy by founding new firms. We identify 996 such billionaire entrepreneurs in 50 countries in 1996-2010, a systematic cross-country study of billionaire entrepreneurs. The rate of billionaire entrepreneurs correlates negatively with self-employment, small business ownership, and firm startup rates. Countries with higher income, higher trust, lower taxes, more venture capital investment, and lower regulatory burdens have higher billionaire entrepreneurship rates but less self-employment. Despite its limitations, the number of billionaire entrepreneurs appears to be a plausible cross-country measure of Schumpeterian entrepreneurship.

  3. Small business activity does not measure entrepreneurship

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henrekson, Magnus; Sanandaji, Tino

    2014-01-01

    Entrepreneurship policy mainly aims to promote innovative Schumpeterian entrepreneurship. However, the rate of entrepreneurship is commonly proxied using quantity-based metrics, such as small business activity, the self-employment rate, or the number of startups. We argue that those metrics give rise to misleading inferences regarding high-impact Schumpeterian entrepreneurship. To unambiguously identify high-impact entrepreneurs we focus on self-made billionaires (in US dollars) who appear on Forbes Magazine’s list and who became wealthy by founding new firms. We identify 996 such billionaire entrepreneurs in 50 countries in 1996–2010, a systematic cross-country study of billionaire entrepreneurs. The rate of billionaire entrepreneurs correlates negatively with self-employment, small business ownership, and firm startup rates. Countries with higher income, higher trust, lower taxes, more venture capital investment, and lower regulatory burdens have higher billionaire entrepreneurship rates but less self-employment. Despite its limitations, the number of billionaire entrepreneurs appears to be a plausible cross-country measure of Schumpeterian entrepreneurship. PMID:24449873

  4. Financing options for small hydro projects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shepherd, J.C.

    1993-01-01

    Examples and techniques used to enhance the ability to finance small hydro projects, or to finance them in non-standard ways, were discussed. It was suggested that factors that motivate investors, namely the maximization of the rate of return on capital, and minimization of risk, should be the primary concern for any would-be developer. A responsible, conservative approach to financial projections was recommended as the best to impress potential investors

  5. Brighter for small power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haaland, Leif

    2003-01-01

    The article presents a small tunnel drilling machine aimed at using for the construction of small hydroelectric power plants and mentions briefly some advantages economically and environmentally of both the machine and the power production solution

  6. Small Area Fair Market Rent

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Housing and Urban Development — Due to the increasing demand for more localized rents for a variety of purposes, HUD is making Small Area FMRs for all metropolitan areas available. Small Area FMRs...

  7. Small intestine aspirate and culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... ency/article/003731.htm Small intestine aspirate and culture To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Small intestine aspirate and culture is a lab test to check for infection ...

  8. Airline Quality Rating 1996

    OpenAIRE

    Bowen, Brent D.; Headley, Dean E.

    1996-01-01

    The Airline Quality Rating (AQR) was developed and first announced in early 1991 as an objective method of comparing airline performance on combined multiple factors important to consumers. Development history and calculation details for the AQR rating system are detailed in The Airline Quality Rating issued in April, 1991, by the National Institute for Aviation Research at Wichita State University. This current report, Airline Quality Rating 1996, contains monthly Airline Quality Rating scor...

  9. Echolocation in small cetaceans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ladegaard, Michael

    2017-01-01

    Many animals exploit sound for navigational purposes, but only some produce signals dedicated to probe their environment actively through echolocation. Only in bats and toothed whales has echolocation evolved to serve as a primary sense informing not only navigation, but also foraging on highly...... a directional, short-range biosonar operated at very high update rates compared to marine toothed whales (Chapter 2). I further studied how these river dolphins adjust their biosonar as they close in on and intercept prey in the first study to measure on-axis source parameters on wild toothed whales during prey...

  10. THE COMPUTER AND SMALL BUSINESS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    The place of the computer in small business is investigated with respect to what type of problems it can solve for small business and how the small...firm can acquire time on one. The decision-making process and the importance of information is discussed in relation to small business . Several...applications of computers are examined to show how the firm can use the computer in day-to-day business operations. The capabilities of a digital computer

  11. Small Hydropower - The comeback of small hydropower stations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Niederhaeusern, A.

    2008-01-01

    This issue of the 'Erneuerbare Energien' (renewable energies) magazine published by the Swiss Solar Energy Society takes a look at small hydropower projects in Switzerland. In a number of interviews and articles, various topics concerning small hydropower are dealt with. First of all, an interview with Bruno Guggisberg, previously responsible for small hydro at the Swiss Federal Office of Energy, examines the potential of small hydro and the various political, technical and economic influences on such projects. Further articles provide an overview of the various types of small hydro schemes, including power generation using height differences in drinking-water and wastewater installations. As far as the components of small hydro schemes are concerned, various types of turbines and further system components that are needed are examined. A further article takes a look at the small hydro market and the market players involved. Ecological aspects and research activities are discussed in further articles. In a second interview with Martin Boelli, presently responsible for small hydropower at the Swiss Federal Office of Energy, the unused potential for the use of hydropower in Switzerland is discussed. Examples of small-scale hydro schemes are examined and the support offered by the Small Hydropower Program is discussed. Finally the question is asked, if the small hydro market in Switzerland is overheated as a result of promotion schemes such as cost-covering remuneration for electricity from renewable energy sources.

  12. Optimum solar collector fluid flow rates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Furbo, Simon; Shah, Louise Jivan

    1996-01-01

    Experiments showed that by means of a standard electronically controlled pump, type UPE 2000 from Grundfos it is possible to control the flow rate in a solar collector loop in such a way that the flow rate is strongly influenced by the temperature of the solar collector fluid passing the pump....... The flow rate is increasing for increasing temperature.The flow rate at the high temperature level is typically 70 % greater than the flow rate at the low temperature level.Further, the energy consumption for the electronically controlled pump in a solar heating system will be somewhat smaller than...... the energy consumption of a normal ciculation pump in the solar heating system.Calculations showed that the highest thermal performances for small SDHW systems based on mantle tanks with constant volume flow rates in the solar collector loops are achieved if the flow rate is situated in the interval from 0...

  13. Modified Small Business Network Security

    OpenAIRE

    Md. Belayet Ali; Oveget Das; Md. Shamim Hossain

    2012-01-01

    This paper covers some likely threats and effectivesteps for a secure small business. It also involves a flowchart tocomprehend the overall small business network security easilyand we identify a set of security issues and applyappropriate techniques to satisfy the correspondingsecurity requirements. In respect of all, this document isstrong enough for any small business network security.

  14. SBA - Dynamic Small Business Search

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mobile View Print Exit Help DSBS Quick Market Search TM OnLine DSBS Welcome to the Dynamic Small Business relating to 8(a) Business Development, HUBZone or Small Disadvantaged Business status. The SBA strongly recommends that contracting officers diligently review a bidder's small business self-certification before

  15. Spin State Estimation of Tumbling Small Bodies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olson, Corwin; Russell, Ryan P.; Bhaskaran, Shyam

    2016-06-01

    It is expected that a non-trivial percentage of small bodies that future missions may visit are in non-principal axis rotation (i.e. "tumbling"). The primary contribution of this paper is the application of the Extended Kalman Filter (EKF) Simultaneous Localization and Mapping (SLAM) method to estimate the small body spin state, mass, and moments of inertia; the spacecraft position and velocity; and the surface landmark locations. The method uses optical landmark measurements, and an example scenario based on the Rosetta mission is used. The SLAM method proves effective, with order of magnitude decreases in the spacecraft and small body spin state errors after less than a quarter of the comet characterization phase. The SLAM method converges nicely for initial small body angular velocity errors several times larger than the true rates (effectively having no a priori knowledge of the angular velocity). Surface landmark generation and identification are not treated in this work, but significant errors in the initial body-fixed landmark positions are effectively estimated. The algorithm remains effective for a range of different truth spin states, masses, and center of mass offsets that correspond to expected tumbling small bodies throughout the solar system.

  16. Exposition regarding small windmills

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-12-01

    Emphasis is laid on the elucidation of the current situation of small windmills in Denmark by estimating the industry's strengths and weaknesses and evaluating the technical status and user economy relevant to these wind turbines, in addition to their technical and marketing potentials within the next 3-5 years. It is also attempted to survey and forecast their situation within a competitive market which includes marketing and sales potential outside Denmark, often by way of development projects financed by DANIDA (Danish International Development Agency, a department under the Danish Foreign Ministry that takes responsibility for Danish aid to developing countries, often by direct agreement). It is noted that it is difficult to make predictions in the light of currently rapidly changing global political aspects, but it is suggested that sales of smaller Danish windmills within the country could amount to 300-700 wind turbines by the year 2000. Regarding sales abroad, it is concluded that the current number will not increase unless great efforts are made within the export market and the instigation of close cooperation with foreign companies which use an international sales network and have access to local distribution channels. (AB) (15 refs.)

  17. Small-cell osteosarcoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Edeiken, J.; Raymond, A.K.; Ayala, A.G.; Benjamin, R.S.; Murray, J.A.; Carrasco, H.C.

    1987-01-01

    Small-cell osteosarcoma, a subtype of osteogenic sarcoma, consists of sheets of round cells that produce an osteoid matrix. It may be confused with Ewing sarcoma if the osteoid matrix is not included in the biopsy. The distinctive radiographic features of an osteoblastic tumor and a pattern of permeative destruction will confirm the histologic diagnosis or indicate the true nature if tumor osteoid is not included in the histological sections. We add 13 patients to the 32 previously reported in the literature. Fourteen (31%) of the 45 are living and well, though three have been followed for only 2 months. The treatments have been so varied that a statistically significant evaluation cannot be developed. The radiographic features are not distinctive, but the diagnosis may be suggested when a tumor has osteoblastic features in the metaphysis and extends well down into the shaft with a pattern of permeative destruction. The radiographic features are especially important when limited biopsies reveal only sheets of round cells, thus suggesting Ewing sarcoma. The presence of an osteoid-producing tumor as evident by osteoblastic new bone formation will lead to the correct diagnosis. (orig.)

  18. Research using small tokamaks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-01-01

    The technical reports contained in this collection of papers on research using small tokamaks fall into four main categories, i.e., (i) experimental work (heating, stability, plasma radial profiles, fluctuations and transport, confinement, ultra-low-q tokamaks, wall physics, a.o.), (ii) diagnostics (beam probes, laser scattering, X-ray tomography, laser interferometry, electron-cyclotron absorption and emission systems), (iii) theory (strong turbulence, effects of heating on stability, plasma beta limits, wave absorption, macrostability, low-q tokamak configurations and bootstrap currents, turbulent heating, stability of vortex flows, nonlinear islands growth, plasma-drift-induced anomalous transport, ergodic divertor design, a.o.), and (iv) new technical facilities (varistors applied to establish constant current and loop voltage in HT-6M), lower-hybrid-current-drive systems for HT-6B and HT-6M, radio-frequency systems for HT-6M ICR heating experimentation, and applications of fiber optics for visible and vacuum ultraviolet radiation detection as applied to tokamaks and reversed-field pinches. A total number of 51 papers are included in the collection. Refs, figs and tabs

  19. 48 CFR 970.1907 - Subcontracting with Small Business, Small Disadvantaged Business and Woman-Owned Small Business...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... MANAGEMENT AND OPERATING CONTRACTS Small, Small Disadvantaged and Women-Owned Small Business Concerns 970.1907 Subcontracting with Small Business, Small Disadvantaged Business and Woman-Owned Small Business... Business, Small Disadvantaged Business and Woman-Owned Small Business Concerns. 970.1907 Section 970.1907...

  20. Role of the Rubisco Small Subunit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spreitzer, Robert Joseph [Univ. of Nebraska, Lincoln, NE (United States)

    2016-11-05

    Ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase (Rubisco) catalyzes the rate-limiting step of CO2 fixation in photosynthesis. However, it is a slow enzyme, and O2 competes with CO2 at the active site. Oxygenation initiates the photorespiratory pathway, which also results in the loss of CO2. If carboxylation could be increased or oxygenation decreased, an increase in net CO2 fixation would be realized. Because Rubisco provides the primary means by which carbon enters all life on earth, there is much interest in engineering Rubisco to increase the production of food and renewable energy. Rubisco is located in the chloroplasts of plants, and it is comprised of two subunits. Much is known about the chloroplast-gene-encoded large subunit (rbcL gene), which contains the active site, but much less is known about the role of the nuclear-gene-encoded small subunit in Rubisco function (rbcS gene). Both subunits are coded by multiple genes in plants, which makes genetic engineering difficult. In the eukaryotic, green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, it has been possible to eliminate all the Rubisco genes. These Rubisco-less mutants can be maintained by providing acetate as an alternative carbon source. In this project, focus has been placed on determining whether the small subunit might be a better genetic-engineering target for improving Rubisco. Analysis of a variable-loop structure (βA-βB loop) of the small subunit by genetic selection, directed mutagenesis, and construction of chimeras has shown that the small subunit can influence CO2/O2 specificity. X-ray crystal structures of engineered chimeric-loop enzymes have indicated that additional residues and regions of the small subunit may also contribute to Rubisco function. Structural dynamics of the small-subunit carboxyl terminus was also investigated. Alanine-scanning mutagenesis of the most-conserved small-subunit residues has identified a

  1. Combination chemotherapy concurrent with small dose radiation therapy for small cell carcinoma of the lung

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tada, Toshihiko; Fujita, Hiroji; Shintomi, Takenori

    1987-01-01

    Forty consecutive patients with small cell carcinoma of the lung were treated with chemotherapy, radiotherapy or both. Of 34 patients treated with chemotherapy, 24 were treated with combination chemotherapy, containing cyclophosphamide vincristine methotrexate and procarbazine, concurrent with small dose radiation therapy (500 cGy/5 fraction) as a chemosensitizer (COMPrt). The response rate to this regimen was 81 % (29 % complete) and the 2 year survival rate was 28.6 %. These results have been superior to other regimens and the toxicity was not see to be any higher. After completion of COMPrt regimen, 10 patients were treated with intrathoracic radiation therapy (average dose 3000 cGy) and 3 recieved surgical treatment. Radiation therapy improved the 2-year survival rate (42.2 %) when compared with those patients who received no radiation therapy (18.2 %). Three patients received surgical treatment were considered to be disease-free for 23, 17, and 9 months respectively, after induction of chemotherapy. (author)

  2. Small 'l' leadership.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parsons, Jenni

    2009-05-01

    Recently I attended the RACGP Leadership Masterclass in Sydney. When I enrolled, I thought, 'Yes... sounds interesting...good speakers... I need to learn something about leadership...'As the time drew closer I started to get a bit anxious about the whole thing. I realised that the title, 'Masterclass', probably implied that the attendees were expected to already know something about leadership and its theories, if not have considerable expertise and experience in leadership. I also wondered how the workshop sessions were going to go and I started to feel a bit sorry for the facilitators. Imagine trying to facilitate a group of 10 aspiring leaders... a bit like trying to herd cats. A few days later I received a call from the organisers,saying they were a bit short of facilitators and could I help out if necessary. Great... better do a crash course in cat herding! Then there was the first 'predisposing activity'. Step 1: think of leaders you admire. Easy enough. Leaders of social justice and social change on a world stage, people who have shown great courage of their convictions and great orators popped into my head... Ghandi, Martin Luther King, Mandela, JFK. Step 2:describe the ways in which you are like these leaders. Whoa!Never going to measure up here. I wondered if there was going to be sessions on 'leadership for introverts', or 'leadership of small things', or 'leaders without grand vision or fabulous oratory skills', or perhaps 'leadership for people who are deeply suspicious of the corrupting influence of power'.

  3. Small angle neutron scattering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cousin Fabrice

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Small Angle Neutron Scattering (SANS is a technique that enables to probe the 3-D structure of materials on a typical size range lying from ∼ 1 nm up to ∼ a few 100 nm, the obtained information being statistically averaged on a sample whose volume is ∼ 1 cm3. This very rich technique enables to make a full structural characterization of a given object of nanometric dimensions (radius of gyration, shape, volume or mass, fractal dimension, specific area… through the determination of the form factor as well as the determination of the way objects are organized within in a continuous media, and therefore to describe interactions between them, through the determination of the structure factor. The specific properties of neutrons (possibility of tuning the scattering intensity by using the isotopic substitution, sensitivity to magnetism, negligible absorption, low energy of the incident neutrons make it particularly interesting in the fields of soft matter, biophysics, magnetic materials and metallurgy. In particular, the contrast variation methods allow to extract some informations that cannot be obtained by any other experimental techniques. This course is divided in two parts. The first one is devoted to the description of the principle of SANS: basics (formalism, coherent scattering/incoherent scattering, notion of elementary scatterer, form factor analysis (I(q→0, Guinier regime, intermediate regime, Porod regime, polydisperse system, structure factor analysis (2nd Virial coefficient, integral equations, characterization of aggregates, and contrast variation methods (how to create contrast in an homogeneous system, matching in ternary systems, extrapolation to zero concentration, Zero Averaged Contrast. It is illustrated by some representative examples. The second one describes the experimental aspects of SANS to guide user in its future experiments: description of SANS spectrometer, resolution of the spectrometer, optimization of

  4. The rating reliability calculator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Solomon David J

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Rating scales form an important means of gathering evaluation data. Since important decisions are often based on these evaluations, determining the reliability of rating data can be critical. Most commonly used methods of estimating reliability require a complete set of ratings i.e. every subject being rated must be rated by each judge. Over fifty years ago Ebel described an algorithm for estimating the reliability of ratings based on incomplete data. While his article has been widely cited over the years, software based on the algorithm is not readily available. This paper describes an easy-to-use Web-based utility for estimating the reliability of ratings based on incomplete data using Ebel's algorithm. Methods The program is available public use on our server and the source code is freely available under GNU General Public License. The utility is written in PHP, a common open source imbedded scripting language. The rating data can be entered in a convenient format on the user's personal computer that the program will upload to the server for calculating the reliability and other statistics describing the ratings. Results When the program is run it displays the reliability, number of subject rated, harmonic mean number of judges rating each subject, the mean and standard deviation of the averaged ratings per subject. The program also displays the mean, standard deviation and number of ratings for each subject rated. Additionally the program will estimate the reliability of an average of a number of ratings for each subject via the Spearman-Brown prophecy formula. Conclusion This simple web-based program provides a convenient means of estimating the reliability of rating data without the need to conduct special studies in order to provide complete rating data. I would welcome other researchers revising and enhancing the program.

  5. Joint research using small tokamaks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gryaznevich, M.P.; Del Bosco, E.; Malaquias, A.; Mank, G.; Oost, G. van

    2005-01-01

    Small tokamaks have an important role in fusion research. More than 40 small tokamaks are operational. Research on small tokamaks has created a scientific basis for the scaling-up to larger tokamaks. Well-known scientific and engineering schools, which are now determining the main directions of fusion science and technology, have been established through research on small tokamaks. Combined efforts within a network of small and medium size tokamaks will further enhance the contribution of small tokamaks. A new concept of interactive co-ordinated research using small tokamaks in the mainstream fusion science areas, in testing of new diagnostics, materials and technologies as well as in education, training and broadening of the geography of fusion research in the scope of the IAEA Co-ordinated Research Project is presented. (author)

  6. Joint research using small tokamaks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gryaznevich, M.P.; Bosco, E. Del; Malaquias, A.; Mank, G.; Oost, G. van; He, Yexi; Hegazy, H.; Hirose, A.; Hron, M.; Kuteev, B.; Ludwig, G.O.; Nascimento, I.C.; Silva, C.; Vorobyev, G.M.

    2005-01-01

    Small tokamaks have an important role in fusion research. More than 40 small tokamaks are operational. Research on small tokamaks has created a scientific basis for the scaling-up to larger tokamaks. Well-known scientific and engineering schools, which are now determining the main directions of fusion science and technology, have been established through research on small tokamaks. Combined efforts within a network of small and medium size tokamaks will further enhance the contribution of small tokamaks. A new concept of interactive coordinated research using small tokamaks in the mainstream fusion science areas, in testing of new diagnostics, materials and technologies as well as in education, training and broadening of the geography of fusion research in the scope of the IAEA Coordinated Research Project, is presented

  7. Labor Force Participation Rate

    Data.gov (United States)

    City and County of Durham, North Carolina — This thematic map presents the labor force participation rate of working-age people in the United States in 2010. The 2010 Labor Force Participation Rate shows the...

  8. Rate Review Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — As of September 1, 2011, the Affordable Care Act and rate review regulation require review of rate increases of 10 percent or more. A non-grandfathered health plan...

  9. The Growth of Small Corrosion Fatigue Cracks in Alloy 7075

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piascik, Robert S.

    2015-01-01

    The corrosion fatigue crack growth characteristics of small (greater than 35 micrometers) surface and corner cracks in aluminum alloy 7075 is established. The early stage of crack growth is studied by performing in situ long focal length microscope (500×) crack length measurements in laboratory air and 1% sodium chloride (NaCl) environments. To quantify the "small crack effect" in the corrosive environment, the corrosion fatigue crack propagation behavior of small cracks is compared to long through-the-thickness cracks grown under identical experimental conditions. In salt water, long crack constant K(sub max) growth rates are similar to small crack da/dN.

  10. Interest Rates and Inflation

    OpenAIRE

    Coopersmith, Michael; Gambardella, Pascal J.

    2016-01-01

    This article is an extension of the work of one of us (Coopersmith, 2011) in deriving the relationship between certain interest rates and the inflation rate of a two component economic system. We use the well-known Fisher relation between the difference of the nominal interest rate and its inflation adjusted value to eliminate the inflation rate and obtain a delay differential equation. We provide computer simulated solutions for this equation over regimes of interest. This paper could be of ...

  11. Interest Rate Swaps

    OpenAIRE

    Marina Pepic

    2014-01-01

    Interest rates changes have a huge impact on the business performance. Therefore, it is of great importance for the market participants to identify and adequately manage this risk. Financial derivatives are a relatively simple way of protection from adverse changes in interest rates. Interest rate swaps are particularly popular because they reduce interest rate risk to a minimum with a relatively low initial cost and without great risk, but also because of the fact that there are many modific...

  12. Understanding Interest Rate Volatility

    OpenAIRE

    Volker, Desi

    2016-01-01

    This thesis is the result of my Ph.D. studies at the Department of Finance of the Copenhagen Business School. It consists of three essays covering topics related to the term structure of interest rates, monetary policy and interest rate volatility. The rst essay, \\Monetary Policy Uncertainty and Interest Rates", examines the role of monetary policy uncertainty on the term structure of interest rates. The second essay, \\A Regime-Switching A ne Term Structure Model with Stochast...

  13. Airline Quality Rating 2003

    OpenAIRE

    Bowen, Brent D.; Headley, Dean E.

    2003-01-01

    The Airline Quality Rating (AQR) was developed and first announced in early 1991 as an objective method of comparing airline quality on combined multiple performance criteria. This current report, the Airline Quality Rating 2003, reflects monthly Airline Quality Rating scores for 2002. AQR scores for the calendar year 2002 are based on 15 elements that focus on airline performance areas important to air travel consumers. The Airline Quality Rating 2003 is a summary of month-by-month qualit...

  14. Airline Quality Rating 2001

    OpenAIRE

    Bowen, Brent D.; Headley, Dean E.

    2001-01-01

    The Airline Quality Rating (AQR) was developed and first announced in early 1991 as an objective method of comparing airline quality on combined multiple performance criteria. This current report, Airline Quality Rating 2001, reflects monthly Airline Quality Rating scores for 2000. AQR scores for the calendar year 2000 are based on 15 elements that focus on airline performance areas important to air travel consumers. The Airline Quality Rating 2001 is a summary of month-by-month quality ra...

  15. Thermonuclear reaction rates. III

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harris, M.J.; Fowler, W.A.; Caughlan, G.R.; Zimmerman, B.A.

    1983-01-01

    Stellar thermonuclear reaction rates are revised and updated, adding a number of new important reaction rates. Several reactions with large negative Q-values are included, and examples of them are discussed. The importance of the decay rates for Mg-26(p,n) exp 26 Al and Al-26(n,p) exp 26 Mg for stellar studies is emphasized. 19 references

  16. Resonant thermonuclear reaction rate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haubold, H.J.; Mathai, A.M.

    1986-01-01

    Basic physical principles for the resonant and nonresonant thermonuclear reaction rates are applied to find their standard representations for nuclear astrophysics. Closed-form representations for the resonant reaction rate are derived in terms of Meijer's G-function. Analytic representations of the resonant and nonresonant nuclear reaction rates are compared and the appearance of Meijer's G-function is discussed in physical terms

  17. SMALL BUSINESS: Status of Small Disadvantaged Business Certifications

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-01-01

    agencies’ Offices of Small Disadvantaged Business Utilization, as well as officials from the U. S. Chamber of Commerce , and other small business...being lower than anticipated by SBA. Officials from SBA, the U. S. Chamber of Commerce , the Women’s Business Enterprise National Council, the...certified as SDBs. Officials from SBA, two federal agencies’ Offices of Small and Disadvantaged Business Utilization, the U. S. Chamber of Commerce , the

  18. FY 1998 results of the regional consortium R and D project/the venture promotion type regional consortium R and D (small-/medium-size venture creation type). 2nd year. R and D of the audiovisual coding/decoding technology in the low bit-rate mutltimedia communication system; 1998 nendo tei bit rate multimedia tsushinkei ni okeru gazo onsei fugo fukugoka gijutsu no kenkyu kaihatsu seika hokokusho. 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-03-01

    The paper studied how to solve the problems in TV telephones such as low quality of pictures and less application. As to the development of H.263 codec LSI, an architecture which makes the efficient moving image codec possible even at low action frequency was designed for achieving low electric power consumption, and the LSI was mounted. In relation to the development of G.723.1 codec soft on SH3, encoding motion was conducted with audio data inputted, and it was confirmed that the bit stream obtained was effective. For the verification of motion/system of ASIC, conducted were the design/development of the reference board for mobile information devices and the verification using the board. The one that is correspondent to the low bit-rate for development is 1485 macroblock/second in the required performance in MPEG-4, and it was confirmed that it could be fully achieved even by the designed H.263 core. Concerning the object processing, an object extraction algorithm was devised. An algorithm of the moving picture codec was designed by conversion of discrete wavelets which were reduced in memory use amount. (NEDO)

  19. Research using small tokamaks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-05-01

    The technical reports in this document were presented at the IAEA Technical Committee Meeting ''Research on Small Tokamaks'', September 1990, in three sessions, viz., (1) Plasma Modes, Control, and Internal Phenomena, (2) Edge Phenomena, and (3) Advanced Configurations and New Facilities. In Section (1) experiments at controlling low mode number modes, feedback control using external coils, lower-hybrid current drive for the stabilization of sawtooth activity and continuous (1,1) mode, and unmodulated and fast modulated ECRH mode stabilization experiments were reported, as well as the relation to disruptions and transport of low m,n modes and magnetic island growth; static magnetic perturbations by helical windings causing mode locking and sawtooth suppression; island widths and frequency of the m=2 tearing mode; ultra-fast cooling due to pellet injection; and, finally, some papers on advanced diagnostics, i.e., lithium-beam activated charge-exchange spectroscopy, and detection through laser scattering of discrete Alfven waves. In Section (2), experimental edge physics results from a number of machines were presented (positive biasing on HYBTOK II enhancing the radial electric field and improving confinement; lower hybrid current drive on CASTOR improving global particle confinement, good current drive efficiency in HT-6B showing stabilization of sawteeth and Mirnov oscillations), as well as diagnostic developments (multi-chord time resolved soft and ultra-soft X-ray plasma radiation detection on MT-1; measurements on electron capture cross sections in multi-charged ion-atom collisions; development of a diagnostic neutral beam on Phaedrus-T). Theoretical papers discussed the influence of sheared flow and/or active feedback on edge microstability, large edge electric fields, and two-fluid modelling of non-ambipolar scrape-off layers. Section (3) contained (i) a proposal to construct a spherical tokamak ''Proto-Eta'', (ii) an analysis of ultra-low-q and runaway

  20. Small Business Innovation Research and Small Business Technology Transfer Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrison, Lynn; Jasper, Gwen

    2015-01-01

    The Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR)/Small Business Technology Transfer (STTR) programs fund the research, development, and demonstration of innovative technologies that fulfill NASA's needs as described in the annual Solicitations and have significant potential for successful commercialization. The only eligible participants are small business concern (SBC) with 500 or fewer employees or a nonprofit research institute such as a university or a research laboratory with ties to an SBC. These programs are potential sources of seed funding for the development of small business innovations.

  1. Small but powerful

    CERN Multimedia

    Anaïs Schaeffer

    2012-01-01

    Magnet size is crucial to an accelerator as it determines the final circumference and power. This spring, Fermilab unveiled a 10.4 Tesla magnet that is shorter than the 8 Tesla magnets currently installed in the LHC. These new magnets will be a valuable asset to the HL-LHC, the next step of the LHC machine.   Members of the CERN-Fermilab team wind the magnet coil. From left to right: M. Whitson, A. Zlobin, B. Auchmann, M. Karppinen, F. Nobrega and J. Alvarez. A. Zlobin (Fermilab) and M. Karppinen (CERN) are the technical heads of the 11 T Collaboration. The HL-LHC (High Luminosity LHC) represents the future of CERN's flagship accelerator. From around 2020, this major upgrade will allow a substantial increase in the rate of collisions compared to today. The project poses various technical challenges, some of which appear to be close to being resolved. The success of the HL-LHC hinges on two essential conditions: the installation of more powerful magnets to guide the beams, and the add...

  2. Unification, small and large

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fritzsch, Harald

    1993-04-15

    Full text: Fruitful exchanges between particle physics, astrophysics and cosmology have become a common feature in the last decade. In January, Coral Gables near Miami was the stage for a 'Unified Symmetry in the Small and the Large' meeting. Coral Gables is a famous physics venue. In January 1964, the year that the quark model of hadrons emerged, Behram Kursunoglu initiated a series of particle physics meetings that continued for 20 years and formed a regular focus for this development. The final such meeting was in 1983, coinciding with both the 80th birthday of field theory pioneer Paul Dirac, who worked in Florida towards the end of his career, and the discovery of the W bosons at CERN. The resurrected Coral Gables meeting began with historical accounts of the emergence of Big Bang cosmology, by Robert Ralph and Herman Alpher, while Andrei Linde proposed our expanding universe as a small part of a stationary system, infinite both in space and in time. The observational status of Big Bang cosmology was reviewed by Bruce Partridge, John Mather and Martin Harwit, emphasizing the cosmic background radiation, where temperature is now measured by the COBE satellite detectors to 2.726 ± 0.01 OK. The tiny fluctuations observed by COBE pose problems for standard cold dark matter models. Edward ('Rocky') Kolb reported on new studies on the electroweak phase transition, based on an analogy with the physics of liquid crystals. Richard Holman discussed the fate of global symmetries at energies near the Planck (grand unification) energy, and Paul Steinhardt talked about tensorial and scalar metric fluctuations in the light of the COBE results. Anthony Tyson gave an impressive description of dark matter studies using gravitational lensing, now emerging as a unique tool for indirectly observing intervening dark matter. A neutrino mass of 10 electronvolts could account for observed dark matter distributions, but fails to provide the necessary seeds for galaxy formation. A

  3. Unification, small and large

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fritzsch, Harald

    1993-01-01

    Full text: Fruitful exchanges between particle physics, astrophysics and cosmology have become a common feature in the last decade. In January, Coral Gables near Miami was the stage for a 'Unified Symmetry in the Small and the Large' meeting. Coral Gables is a famous physics venue. In January 1964, the year that the quark model of hadrons emerged, Behram Kursunoglu initiated a series of particle physics meetings that continued for 20 years and formed a regular focus for this development. The final such meeting was in 1983, coinciding with both the 80th birthday of field theory pioneer Paul Dirac, who worked in Florida towards the end of his career, and the discovery of the W bosons at CERN. The resurrected Coral Gables meeting began with historical accounts of the emergence of Big Bang cosmology, by Robert Ralph and Herman Alpher, while Andrei Linde proposed our expanding universe as a small part of a stationary system, infinite both in space and in time. The observational status of Big Bang cosmology was reviewed by Bruce Partridge, John Mather and Martin Harwit, emphasizing the cosmic background radiation, where temperature is now measured by the COBE satellite detectors to 2.726 ± 0.01 OK. The tiny fluctuations observed by COBE pose problems for standard cold dark matter models. Edward ('Rocky') Kolb reported on new studies on the electroweak phase transition, based on an analogy with the physics of liquid crystals. Richard Holman discussed the fate of global symmetries at energies near the Planck (grand unification) energy, and Paul Steinhardt talked about tensorial and scalar metric fluctuations in the light of the COBE results. Anthony Tyson gave an impressive description of dark matter studies using gravitational lensing, now emerging as a unique tool for indirectly observing intervening dark matter. A neutrino mass of 10 electronvolts could account for observed dark matter distributions, but fails to provide the necessary seeds for

  4. Credit Rating and Competition

    OpenAIRE

    Nelson Camanho; Pragyan Deb; Zijun Liu

    2010-01-01

    In principle, credit rating agencies are supposed to be impartial observers that bridge the gap between private information of issuers and the information available to the wider pool of investors. However, since the 1970s, rating agencies have relied on an issuer-pay model, creating a conflict of interest the largest source of income for the rating agencies are the fees paid by the issuers the rating agencies are supposed to impartially rate. In this paper, we explore the trade-off between re...

  5. Rising Long-term Interest Rates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hallett, Andrew Hughes

    Rather than chronicle recent developments in European long-term interest rates as such, this paper assesses the impact of increases in those interest rates on economic performance and inflation. That puts us in a position to evaluate the economic pressures for further rises in those rates......, the first question posed in this assignment, and the scope for overshooting (the second question), and then make some illustrative predictions of future interest rates in the euro area. We find a wide range of effects from rising interest rates, mostly small and mostly negative, focused on investment...... till the emerging European recovery is on a firmer basis and capable of overcoming increases in the cost of borrowing and shrinking fiscal space. There is also an implication that worries about rising/overshooting interest rates often reflect the fact that inflation risks are unequally distributed...

  6. Disproportion in the falling birth rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, R R

    1977-10-08

    Since 1962 there has been a disproportionately greater fall in the number of small (less than 1000 g) live births than total live births: this has applied to Sheffield and to England and Wales but more to the former. This may have affected falling neonatal mortality rates.

  7. Understanding Interest Rate Volatility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Volker, Desi

    This thesis is the result of my Ph.D. studies at the Department of Finance of the Copenhagen Business School. It consists of three essays covering topics related to the term structure of interest rates, monetary policy and interest rate volatility. The rst essay, \\Monetary Policy Uncertainty...... and Interest Rates", examines the role of monetary policy uncertainty on the term structure of interest rates. The second essay, \\A Regime-Switching A ne Term Structure Model with Stochastic Volatility" (co-authored with Sebastian Fux), investigates the ability of the class of regime switching models...... with and without stochastic volatility to capture the main stylized features of U.S. interest rates. The third essay, \\Variance Risk Premia in the Interest Rate Swap Market", investigates the time-series and cross-sectional properties of the compensation demanded for holding interest rate variance risk. The essays...

  8. Small Wind Site Assessment Guidelines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olsen, Tim [Advanced Energy Systems LLC, Eugene, OR (United States); Preus, Robert [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2015-09-01

    Site assessment for small wind energy systems is one of the key factors in the successful installation, operation, and performance of a small wind turbine. A proper site assessment is a difficult process that includes wind resource assessment and the evaluation of site characteristics. These guidelines address many of the relevant parts of a site assessment with an emphasis on wind resource assessment, using methods other than on-site data collection and creating a small wind site assessment report.

  9. Are small business owners more successful in avoiding taxes: Evidence from Sweden

    OpenAIRE

    Hansson, Åsa

    2009-01-01

    It is commonly argued that high tax rates motivate individuals to start a business as it is easier to avoid and evade taxes if self-employed compared to employed. If this is the case we would expect small business owners to be more responsive to tax rate changes than employees. This study investigates how responsive existing small business owners are to tax rate changes by estimating the elasticities of taxable income, gross income and reported income from business ventures for small business...

  10. Small animal PET: aspects of performance assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weber, Simone; Bauer, Andreas

    2004-01-01

    Dedicated small animal positron emission tomography (PET) systems are increasingly prevalent in industry (e.g. for preclinical drug development) and biological research. Such systems permit researchers to perform animal studies of a longitudinal design characterised by repeated measurements in single animals. With the advent of commercial systems, scanners have become readily available and increasingly popular. As a consequence, technical specifications are becoming more diverse, making scanner systems less broadly applicable. The investigator has, therefore, to make a decision regarding which type of scanner is most suitable for the intended experiments. This decision should be based on gantry characteristics and the physical performance. The first few steps have been taken towards standardisation of the assessment of performance characteristics of dedicated animal PET systems, though such assessment is not yet routinely implemented. In this review, we describe current methods of evaluation of physical performance parameters of small animal PET scanners. Effects of methodologically different approaches on the results are assessed. It is underscored that particular attention has to be paid to spatial resolution, sensitivity, scatter fraction and count rate performance. Differences in performance measurement methods are described with regard to commercially available systems, namely the Concorde MicroPET systems P4 and R4 and the quad-HIDAC. Lastly, consequences of differences in scanner performance parameters are rated with respect to applications of small animal PET. (orig.)

  11. Patient Safety Outcomes in Small Urban and Small Rural Hospitals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vartak, Smruti; Ward, Marcia M.; Vaughn, Thomas E.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: To assess patient safety outcomes in small urban and small rural hospitals and to examine the relationship of hospital and patient factors to patient safety outcomes. Methods: The Nationwide Inpatient Sample and American Hospital Association annual survey data were used for analyses. To increase comparability, the study sample was…

  12. Small white matter lesion detection in cerebral small vessel disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghafoorian, Mohsen; Karssemeijer, Nico; van Uden, Inge; de Leeuw, Frank E.; Heskes, Tom; Marchiori, Elena; Platel, Bram

    2015-03-01

    Cerebral small vessel disease (SVD) is a common finding on magnetic resonance images of elderly people. White matter lesions (WML) are important markers for not only the small vessel disease, but also neuro-degenerative diseases including multiple sclerosis, Alzheimer's disease and vascular dementia. Volumetric measurements such as the "total lesion load", have been studied and related to these diseases. With respect to SVD we conjecture that small lesions are important, as they have been observed to grow over time and they form the majority of lesions in number. To study these small lesions they need to be annotated, which is a complex and time-consuming task. Existing (semi) automatic methods have been aimed at volumetric measurements and large lesions, and are not suitable for the detection of small lesions. In this research we established a supervised voxel classification CAD system, optimized and trained to exclusively detect small WMLs. To achieve this, several preprocessing steps were taken, which included a robust standardization of subject intensities to reduce inter-subject intensity variability as much as possible. A number of features that were found to be well identifying small lesions were calculated including multimodal intensities, tissue probabilities, several features for accurate location description, a number of second order derivative features as well as multi-scale annular filter for blobness detection. Only small lesions were used to learn the target concept via Adaboost using random forests as its basic classifiers. Finally the results were evaluated using Free-response receiver operating characteristic.

  13. Foreshock occurrence rates before large earthquakes worldwide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reasenberg, P.A.

    1999-01-01

    Global rates of foreshock occurrence involving shallow M ??? 6 and M ??? 7 mainshocks and M ??? 5 foreshocks were measured, using earthquakes listed in the Harvard CMT catalog for the period 1978-1996. These rates are similar to rates ones measured in previous worldwide and regional studies when they are normalized for the ranges of magnitude difference they each span. The observed worldwide rates were compared to a generic model of earthquake clustering, which is based on patterns of small and moderate aftershocks in California, and were found to exceed the California model by a factor of approximately 2. Significant differences in foreshock rate were found among subsets of earthquakes defined by their focal mechanism and tectonic region, with the rate before thrust events higher and the rate before strike-slip events lower than the worldwide average. Among the thrust events a large majority, composed of events located in shallow subduction zones, registered a high foreshock rate, while a minority, located in continental thrust belts, measured a low rate. These differences may explain why previous surveys have revealed low foreshock rates among thrust events in California (especially southern California), while the worldwide observations suggest the opposite: California, lacking an active subduction zone in most of its territory, and including a region of mountain-building thrusts in the south, reflects the low rate apparently typical for continental thrusts, while the worldwide observations, dominated by shallow subduction zone events, are foreshock-rich.

  14. Familial versus mass selection in small populations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Couvet Denis

    2003-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract We used diffusion approximations and a Markov-chain approach to investigate the consequences of familial selection on the viability of small populations both in the short and in the long term. The outcome of familial selection was compared to the case of a random mating population under mass selection. In small populations, the higher effective size, associated with familial selection, resulted in higher fitness for slightly deleterious and/or highly recessive alleles. Conversely, because familial selection leads to a lower rate of directional selection, a lower fitness was observed for more detrimental genes that are not highly recessive, and with high population sizes. However, in the long term, genetic load was almost identical for both mass and familial selection for populations of up to 200 individuals. In terms of mean time to extinction, familial selection did not have any negative effect at least for small populations (N ≤ 50. Overall, familial selection could be proposed for use in management programs of small populations since it increases genetic variability and short-term viability without impairing the overall persistence times.

  15. Electric rate operations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maillard, D.

    1993-01-01

    The share of nuclear power in EDF production implies multiple rate structures. How are these rates determined. What are the new applications of electricity, and in particular those that make use of the especially low summer prices for electricity. These are topics of interest to the man in the street (witness EDF's recent 'red-white-blue' rates). This prompted the 'Nuclear Power in the Financial, Energy and Economic situation' department of France's nuclear power company to organize a conference bringing together an expert on rates - M.P. Bernard, head of the rate fixing service at the EDF's headquarters - and representatives from suppliers of equipment taking advantage of the various EDF rate options

  16. Observed Barium Emission Rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stenbaek-Nielsen, H. C.; Wescott, E. M.; Hallinan, T. J.

    1993-01-01

    The barium releases from the CRRES satellite have provided an opportunity for verifying theoretically calculated barium ion and neutral emission rates. Spectra of the five Caribbean releases in the summer of 1991 were taken with a spectrograph on board a U.S. Air Force jet aircraft. Because the line of sight release densities are not known, only relative rates could be obtained. The observed relative rates agree well with the theoretically calculated rates and, together with other observations, confirm the earlier detailed theoretical emission rates. The calculated emission rates can thus with good accuracy be used with photometric observations. It has been postulated that charge exchange between neutral barium and oxygen ions represents a significant source for ionization. If so. it should be associated with emissions at 4957.15 A and 5013.00 A, but these emissions were not detected.

  17. International Competition and Small-Firm Exit in US Manufacturing

    OpenAIRE

    Robert M Feinberg

    2013-01-01

    This study analyzes both the determinants of small firm exit rates in US manufacturing over the 1989–2004 period, especially the reaction of domestic firms to the nature of foreign competition as measured by industry-specific real exchange rate movements (interacted with import penetration by industry). These international pressures seem to lead to increased rates of smallest-firm exit in manufacturing, though the magnitudes of these effects are smaller than sometimes discussed. However, high...

  18. 76 FR 26549 - Removal of Certain References to Credit Ratings Under the Securities Exchange Act of 1934

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-06

    ... related security'' and ``small business related security,'' respectively, as the Commission considers how... terms ``mortgage related security'' and ``small business related security,'' respectively, as the...),\\9\\ which defines the term ``small business related security.'' In place of the credit rating...

  19. Understanding Rig Rates

    OpenAIRE

    Petter Osmundsen; Knut Einar Rosendahl; Terje Skjerpen

    2013-01-01

    We examine the largest cost component in offshore development projects, drilling rates, which have been high over the last years. To our knowledge, rig rates have not been analysed empirically before in the economic literature. By econometric analysis we examine the effects on Gulf of Mexico rig rates of gas and oil prices, rig capacity utilization, contract length and lead time, and rig specific characteristics. Having access to a unique data set containing contract information, we are able ...

  20. Airline Quality Rating 2013

    OpenAIRE

    Bowen, Brent D.; Headley, Dean E.

    2013-01-01

    The Airline Quality Rating (AQR) was developed and first announced in early 1991 as an objective method for assessing airline quality on combined multiple performance criteria. This current report, the Airline Quality Rating 2013, reflects monthly Airline Quality Rating scores for calendar year 2012. AQR scores for 2013 are based on 15 elements in four major areas that focus on airline performance aspects important to air travel consumers over the calendar year of 2012. The Airline Quality...

  1. Long Maturity Forward Rates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Charlotte

    2001-01-01

    The paper aims to improve the knowledge of the empirical properties of the long maturity region of the forward rate curve. Firstly, the theoretical negative correlation between the slope at the long end of the forward rate curve and the term structure variance is recovered empirically and found...... to be statistically significant. Secondly, the expectations hypothesis is analyzed for the long maturity region of the forward rate curve using "forward rate" regressions. The expectations hypothesis is numerically close to being accepted but is statistically rejected. The findings provide mixed support...... for the affine term structure model....

  2. Interest Rate Swaps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina Pepić

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Interest rates changes have a huge impact on the business performance. Therefore, it is of great importance for the market participants to identify and adequately manage this risk. Financial derivatives are a relatively simple way of protection from adverse changes in interest rates. Interest rate swaps are particularly popular because they reduce interest rate risk to a minimum with a relatively low initial cost and without great risk, but also because of the fact that there are manymodifications of the standard swap created to better satisfy the different needs of market players.

  3. Issues in contracting with small minority businesses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wood, M.T.; Radford, M.L.; Saari, L.M.; Wright, J.

    1986-04-01

    The focus of this investigation was to identify issues central to increasing the involvement of small minority businesses (MBs) in federal or prime contracts with the Department of Energy (DOE), as a foundation for designing a program to assist buyers of contracted goods and services. The approach to determining issues involved interviewing the owners of 15 MBs, representing a range of businesses, and buyers and purchasing officers from three large DOE prime contractors. The interviewees identified issues related to positive working relationships and rated a predetermined set of 27 potential MB-DOE problems regarding their existence and criticalness. The issues identified by MBs were of two broad types. The predominant issues and barriers were associated with their being small businesses. Secondary issues reflected the disadvantaged status of the business (woman and/or minority-owned).

  4. Transport in a small aspect ratio torus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    White, R.B.; Gates, D.A.; Mynick, H.E.

    2005-01-01

    Transport theory in toroidal devices often assumes large aspect ratio and also assumes the poloidal field is small compared to the toroidal field. These assumptions result in transport which in the low collision rate limit is dominated by banana orbits, giving the largest collisionless excursion of a particle from an initial flux surface. However in a small aspect ratio device the gyro radius may be larger than the banana excursion, resulting in significant deviations from the standard neoclassical predictions. In this paper we report numerical simulation of diffusion in low and high beta low aspect ratio equilibria. We also sketch an analytic theory. The diffusion, which we refer to as omniclassical, is a combination of neoclassical and properly averaged classical effects, and can be two or three times the neoclassical value. Good agreement of the analytic theory with numerical simulations is obtained. (author)

  5. Small cell lung cancer: chemo- and radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drings, P.

    1992-01-01

    Small-Cell Lung Cancer - Chemo- and Radiotherapy: Small-cell lung cancer (SCLC) should be regarded as a systematic disease for which systematic therapy, i.e. chemotherapy, is considered as the cornerstone of treatment. Combination chemotherapy consisting of 2 or mostly 3 active drugs, given at an adequate dose, should be used. Thoracic radiation therapy promises both survival and local-regional control benefits to patients though its optimal role remains to be definitively established. The results of treatment have reached a plateau with a remission rate of up to 90% in stage 'limited disease' and 60% in stage 'extensive disease'. But considering long-term results diseasefree survival and cure only seem possible in 5-10% of patients with limited disease. (orig.) [de

  6. 78 FR 48537 - Small Business Innovation Research and Small Business Technology Transfer Programs...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-08

    ... SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION [Docket Number: 2013-0008] Small Business Innovation Research and Small Business Technology Transfer Programs Commercialization Benchmark AGENCY: Small Business Administration. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Small Business Administration (SBA) is publishing the Small Business...

  7. Does basal metabolic rate drive eating rate?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henry, Christiani Jeyakumar; Ponnalagu, Shalini; Bi, Xinyan; Forde, Ciaran

    2018-05-15

    There have been recent advances in our understanding of the drivers of energy intake (EI). However, the biological drivers of differences in eating rate (ER) remain less clear. Studies have reported that the fat-free mass (FFM) and basal metabolic rate (BMR) are both major components that contribute to daily energy expenditure (EE) and drive EI. More recently, a number of observations report that higher ER can lead to greater EI. The current study proposed that adults with a higher BMR and higher energy requirements would also exhibit higher ERs. Data on BMR, FFM, and ER were collected from 272 Chinese adults (91 males and 181 females) in a cross-sectional study. Analysis showed significant positive associations between BMR and ER (r s  = 0.405, p BMR explained about 15% of the variation in ER which was taken to be metabolically significant. This association provides metabolic explanation that the differences in an individual's BMR (hence energy requirements) may be correlated with ERs. This merits further research. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Optimising India's small hydro resources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumar, A.

    1995-01-01

    A brief history is given of an initiation to develop small scale hydropower projects in the Himalayas. The experience of the Indian project managers in utilising international funds from the Global Environment Facility could serve as a model for other small remote communities in the rest of the world. Lessons learned are reported. (UK)

  9. Standard Deviation for Small Samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joarder, Anwar H.; Latif, Raja M.

    2006-01-01

    Neater representations for variance are given for small sample sizes, especially for 3 and 4. With these representations, variance can be calculated without a calculator if sample sizes are small and observations are integers, and an upper bound for the standard deviation is immediate. Accessible proofs of lower and upper bounds are presented for…

  10. Benthic invertebrate fauna, small streams

    Science.gov (United States)

    J. Bruce Wallace; S.L. Eggert

    2009-01-01

    Small streams (first- through third-order streams) make up >98% of the total number of stream segments and >86% of stream length in many drainage networks. Small streams occur over a wide array of climates, geology, and biomes, which influence temperature, hydrologic regimes, water chemistry, light, substrate, stream permanence, a basin's terrestrial plant...

  11. Financial management for small companies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruce Hansen; Jeff Palmer; Jeff Palmer

    2000-01-01

    The wood-products industry is characterized by many small manufacturers that lack the staff to compile and analyze information on their operations and investments. Two computer programs, FRAN and JEFFI, have been developed by the USDA Forest Service at Princeton, West Virginia,to help small companies better analyze and monitor current performance, and better evaluate...

  12. The Perception of Small Crime

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Douhou, S.; Magnus, J.R.; van Soest, A.H.O.

    2010-01-01

    Violations of social norms can be costly to society and they are, in the case of large crimes, followed by prosecution. Minor misbehaviors — small crimes — do not usually result in legal proceedings. Although the economic consequences of a single small crime can be low, such crimes generate

  13. What Is a Small Business?

    OpenAIRE

    Jerome S. Osteryoung; Derek Newman

    1993-01-01

    This paper argues that a definition of small business is important for both research and governmental policy. A chronological history of definitions is discussed along with their limitations. A new definition of small business is advocated when a business has personal guarantees and has no public stock. This definition is measurable, meaningful, and congruent with the perceptions of the market system.

  14. Resourcing Change in Small Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Michelle; White, Simone

    2011-01-01

    The theme of this article is the challenge that school leaders face in creating the conditions for learning in small schools. We draw on the concepts of "social capital" and "social entrepreneurship" to identify tensions and possibilities for school leaders in a case study of a small rural school as they seek to find resources…

  15. Introduction: innovation and small business

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.R. Thurik (Roy)

    1996-01-01

    textabstractThis paper introduces the special issue of Small Business Economics on Innovation. What binds the papers together is either their focus on the effect of firm size on the causes and consequences of innovation or their focus on the role small firms play in reshaping the industrial

  16. Effect of massing on larval growth rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Aidan P; Wallman, James F

    2014-08-01

    Estimation of minimum postmortem interval commonly relies on predicting the age of blowfly larvae based on their size and an estimate of the temperatures to which they have been exposed throughout their development. The majority of larval growth rate data have been developed using small larval masses in order to avoid excess heat generation. The current study collected growth rate data for larvae at different mass volumes, and assessed the temperature production of these masses, for two forensically important blow fly species, Chrysomya rufifacies and Calliphora vicina. The growth rate of larvae in a small mass, exposed to the higher temperatures equivalent to those experienced by large masses, was also assessed to determine if observed differences were due to the known temperature effects of maggot masses. The results showed that temperature production increased with increasing mass volume, with temperature increases of 11 °C observed in the large Ch. rufifacies masses and increases of 5 °C in the large C. vicina masses. Similarly, the growth rate of the larvae was affected by mass size. The larvae from small masses grown at the higher temperatures experienced by large masses displayed an initial delay in growth, but then grew at a similar rate to those larvae at a constant 23 °C. Since these larvae from masses of equivalent sizes displayed similar patterns of growth rate, despite differing temperatures, and these growth rates differed from larger masses exposed to the same temperatures, it can be concluded that larval growth rate within a mass may be affected by additional factors other than temperature. Overall, this study highlights the importance of understanding the role of massing in larval development and provides initial developmental data for mass sizes of two forensically important blowfly species commonly encountered in Australian forensic casework. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Small dams need better management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balcerak, Ernie

    2012-03-01

    Many small dams around the world are poorly maintained and represent a safety hazard, according to Pisaniello et al. Better oversight of small dams is needed, the authors argue. The researchers reviewed literature, conducted case studies in four states in Australia, and developed policy benchmarks and best practices for small-dam management. Small dams, often just several meters high and typically privately owned by individual farmers, have historically caused major damage when they fail. For instance, in China in 1975, 230,000 people died when two large dams failed because of the cumulative failure of 60 smaller upstream dams. In the United States, in 1977 the 8-meter-high Kelly Barnes Lake dam failed, killing 39 people. Many other small-dam failures around the world have resulted in casualties and severe ecological and economic damage.

  18. Primary malignant small bowel tumor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oh, Kyung Seung; Suh, Ho Jong; Kim, So Sun; Kim, Ho Joon; Chun, Byung Hee; Joh, Young Duk [Kosin College, Pusan (Korea, Republic of)

    1990-07-15

    Small bowel tumors are rarely detected unless there is intestinal obstruction or bleeding. In the seven years 1982-1988, at Kosin Medical Center, 25 primary malignant small bowel tumors were studied radiographically with barium and / or computed tomography (CT). CT revealed gastrointestinal abnormalities in 20 patients. In ten, lesion were identified by upper G-I series, in 15 by small bowel series, and in addition, in 3 by colon enema. The most common malignant small bowel tumor was adenocarcinoma (N=15) and was next common lymphoma (N=7). On barium study, primary adenocarcinoma appeared as an irregular stricture (66.7%) and polypoid mass with intussusception was most prominent finding in lymphoma. Leiomyosarcoma appeared as an exophytic mass with excavation or ulceration. CT was found to be accurate in detecting wall thickening, complications and other associated findings. In conclusion, barium study was useful in the diagnosis of primary malignant small bowel tumor and CT was more accurate in detecting secondary findings.

  19. Primary malignant small bowel tumor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oh, Kyung Seung; Suh, Ho Jong; Kim, So Sun; Kim, Ho Joon; Chun, Byung Hee; Joh, Young Duk

    1990-01-01

    Small bowel tumors are rarely detected unless there is intestinal obstruction or bleeding. In the seven years 1982-1988, at Kosin Medical Center, 25 primary malignant small bowel tumors were studied radiographically with barium and / or computed tomography (CT). CT revealed gastrointestinal abnormalities in 20 patients. In ten, lesion were identified by upper G-I series, in 15 by small bowel series, and in addition, in 3 by colon enema. The most common malignant small bowel tumor was adenocarcinoma (N=15) and was next common lymphoma (N=7). On barium study, primary adenocarcinoma appeared as an irregular stricture (66.7%) and polypoid mass with intussusception was most prominent finding in lymphoma. Leiomyosarcoma appeared as an exophytic mass with excavation or ulceration. CT was found to be accurate in detecting wall thickening, complications and other associated findings. In conclusion, barium study was useful in the diagnosis of primary malignant small bowel tumor and CT was more accurate in detecting secondary findings

  20. Stellarator fields with small PS current at small rotational transform

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herrnegger, F.

    2001-01-01

    One aspect of the optimization concept of stellarators is the reduction of the normalized Pfirsch-Schlueter current density p arallel 2 / j p erpendikular 2 > 1/2 to a reasonable level but obeying other side conditions, e.g., concerning small bootstrap currents, good stability properties, reasonable aspect ratio, etc. This problem is addressed in the present work. Various stellarator vacuum field are given analytically for M 2, 3, 5, 10, 12 (M is the number of field period around the torus) where the PS-current density is reduced by more than a factor of ten to rather small values around 0.3 even at small i-values

  1. Factors Impacting Online Ratings for Otolaryngologists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calixto, Nathaniel E; Chiao, Whitney; Durr, Megan L; Jiang, Nancy

    2018-06-01

    To identify factors associated with online patient ratings and comments for a nationwide sample of otolaryngologists. Ratings, demographic information, and written comments were obtained for a random sample of otolaryngologists from HealthGrades.com and Vitals.com . Online Presence Score (OPS) was based on 10 criteria, including professional website and social media profiles. Regression analyses identified factors associated with increased rating. We evaluated for correlations between OPS and other attributes with star rating and used chi-square tests to evaluate content differences between positive and negative comments. On linear regression, increased OPS was associated with higher ratings on HealthGrades and Vitals; higher ratings were also associated with younger age on Vitals and less experience on HealthGrades. However, detailed correlation studies showed weak correlation between OPS and rating; age and graduation year also showed low correlation with ratings. Negative comments more likely focused on surgeon-independent factors or poor bedside manner. Though younger otolaryngologists with greater online presence tend to have higher ratings, weak correlations suggest that age and online presence have only a small impact on the content found on ratings websites. While most written comments are positive, deficiencies in bedside manner or other physician-independent factors tend to elicit negative comments.

  2. Rate of force development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maffiuletti, Nicola A; Aagaard, Per; Blazevich, Anthony J

    2016-01-01

    The evaluation of rate of force development during rapid contractions has recently become quite popular for characterising explosive strength of athletes, elderly individuals and patients. The main aims of this narrative review are to describe the neuromuscular determinants of rate of force devel...

  3. Extended rate equations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shore, B.W.

    1981-01-01

    The equations of motion are discussed which describe time dependent population flows in an N-level system, reviewing the relationship between incoherent (rate) equations, coherent (Schrodinger) equations, and more general partially coherent (Bloch) equations. Approximations are discussed which replace the elaborate Bloch equations by simpler rate equations whose coefficients incorporate long-time consequences of coherence

  4. Applications of Reaction Rate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunningham, Kevin

    2007-01-01

    This article presents an assignment in which students are to research and report on a chemical reaction whose increased or decreased rate is of practical importance. Specifically, students are asked to represent the reaction they have chosen with an acceptable chemical equation, identify a factor that influences its rate and explain how and why it…

  5. Chaos regularization of quantum tunneling rates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pecora, Louis M.; Wu Dongho; Lee, Hoshik; Antonsen, Thomas; Lee, Ming-Jer; Ott, Edward

    2011-01-01

    Quantum tunneling rates through a barrier separating two-dimensional, symmetric, double-well potentials are shown to depend on the classical dynamics of the billiard trajectories in each well and, hence, on the shape of the wells. For shapes that lead to regular (integrable) classical dynamics the tunneling rates fluctuate greatly with eigenenergies of the states sometimes by over two orders of magnitude. Contrarily, shapes that lead to completely chaotic trajectories lead to tunneling rates whose fluctuations are greatly reduced, a phenomenon we call regularization of tunneling rates. We show that a random-plane-wave theory of tunneling accounts for the mean tunneling rates and the small fluctuation variances for the chaotic systems.

  6. Interest rates mapping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanevski, M.; Maignan, M.; Pozdnoukhov, A.; Timonin, V.

    2008-06-01

    The present study deals with the analysis and mapping of Swiss franc interest rates. Interest rates depend on time and maturity, defining term structure of the interest rate curves (IRC). In the present study IRC are considered in a two-dimensional feature space-time and maturity. Exploratory data analysis includes a variety of tools widely used in econophysics and geostatistics. Geostatistical models and machine learning algorithms (multilayer perceptron and Support Vector Machines) were applied to produce interest rate maps. IR maps can be used for the visualisation and pattern perception purposes, to develop and to explore economical hypotheses, to produce dynamic asset-liability simulations and for financial risk assessments. The feasibility of an application of interest rates mapping approach for the IRC forecasting is considered as well.

  7. Investigation of small break loss-of-coolant phenomena in a small scale nonnuclear test facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cozzuol, J.M.; Fauble, T.J.; Harvego, E.A.

    1980-01-01

    A small-scale nonnuclear integral test facility designed to simulate a pressurized water reactor (PWR) system was used to evaluate the effects of a small break loss-of-coolant accident (LOCA) on the system thermal-hydraulic response. The experiment approximated a 2.5% (11-cm diameter) communicative break in the cold leg of a PWR, and included initial conditions which were similar to conditions in a PWR operating at full power. The 2.5% break size ensured that the nominal break flow rate was greater than the high pressure injection system (HPIS) flow rate, thus providing the potential for a continuous system depressurization. The sequence of events was similar to that used in evaluation model analysis of small break loss-of-coolant accidents, and included simulated reactor scram and loss of offsite power. Comparisions of experimental data with computer code calculations are used to demonstrate the capabilities and limitations of integral system calculations used to predict phenomena which can be important in the assessment of a small break LOCA in a PWR

  8. Foreign Currency Borrowing by Small Firms

    OpenAIRE

    Martin Brown; Steven Ongena; Pinar Yesin

    2009-01-01

    We examine the firm- and country-level determinants of the currency denomination of small business loans. We first model the choice of loan currency in a framework which features a trade-off between lower cost of debt and the risk of firm-level distress costs, and also incorporates the impact of information asymmetry between banks and firms. When foreign currency funds come at a lower interest rate, all foreign currency earners as well as those local currency earners with high revenues and lo...

  9. Editorial : entrepreneurship and small business development in small islands

    OpenAIRE

    Baldacchino, Godfrey; Fairbairn, Te’o I. J.;

    2006-01-01

    This paper reviews the limited literature on successful small business and entrepreneurship in small islands, with a focus on Pacific and European research. It argues that the notable specific contribution of this collection is its focus on tangible examples of successful island entrepreneurship, and the specific challenges towards entrepreneurship faced by island people. This approach is micro-oriented and very close to the actual human entrepreneurs that lead and shine by exampl...

  10. Police suicide in small departments: a comparative analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Violanti, John M; Mnatsakanova, Anna; Burchfiel, Cecil M; Hartley, Tara A; Andrew, Michael E

    2012-01-01

    The majority of police suicide research has focused on larger police departments. Very little research has been done within small departments. The present study compared suicide rates between small and larger police departments. Two Hundred ninty-eight departments were drawn from the U.S. Public Safety Officer Benefits database totaling 119,624 officers. Annual suicide rates were calculated per 100,000 for each of four category (by size of department) and p-values from Chi-square tests were employed to assess differences in rates across categories. The annual suicide rate varied significantly across departments. Smaller police departments had a significantly higher suicide rate than large departments. Possible reasons include lack of availability for mental health assistance, increased workload and danger and community visibility.

  11. Medicare Program; Hospital Inpatient Prospective Payment Systems for Acute Care Hospitals and the Long-Term Care Hospital Prospective Payment System Policy Changes and Fiscal Year 2016 Rates; Revisions of Quality Reporting Requirements for Specific Providers, Including Changes Related to the Electronic Health Record Incentive Program; Extensions of the Medicare-Dependent, Small Rural Hospital Program and the Low-Volume Payment Adjustment for Hospitals. Final rule; interim final rule with comment period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-08-17

    We are revising the Medicare hospital inpatient prospective payment systems (IPPS) for operating and capital related costs of acute care hospitals to implement changes arising from our continuing experience with these systems for FY 2016. Some of these changes implement certain statutory provisions contained in the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act and the Health Care and Education Reconciliation Act of 2010 (collectively known as the Affordable Care Act), the Pathway for Sustainable Growth Reform(SGR) Act of 2013, the Protecting Access to Medicare Act of 2014, the Improving Medicare Post-Acute Care Transformation Act of 2014, the Medicare Access and CHIP Reauthorization Act of 2015, and other legislation. We also are addressing the update of the rate-of-increase limits for certain hospitals excluded from the IPPS that are paid on a reasonable cost basis subject to these limits for FY 2016.As an interim final rule with comment period, we are implementing the statutory extensions of the Medicare dependent,small rural hospital (MDH)Program and changes to the payment adjustment for low-volume hospitals under the IPPS.We also are updating the payment policies and the annual payment rates for the Medicare prospective payment system (PPS) for inpatient hospital services provided by long-term care hospitals (LTCHs) for FY 2016 and implementing certain statutory changes to the LTCH PPS under the Affordable Care Act and the Pathway for Sustainable Growth Rate (SGR) Reform Act of 2013 and the Protecting Access to Medicare Act of 2014.In addition, we are establishing new requirements or revising existing requirements for quality reporting by specific providers (acute care hospitals,PPS-exempt cancer hospitals, and LTCHs) that are participating in Medicare, including related provisions for eligible hospitals and critical access hospitals participating in the Medicare Electronic Health Record (EHR)Incentive Program. We also are updating policies relating to the

  12. Small bowel volvulus in children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siegel, M.J.; Shackelford, G.D.; McAlister, W.H.

    1980-01-01

    Two children with small bowel volvulus diagnosed on barium enema examination are reported. In one patient the volvulus was associated with malrotation and in the other patient there was a post-operative peritoneal adhesion. In both cases the diagnosis was based on beaking of the head of the barium column at the site of volvulus. Radiographic demonstration of a beak sign in the small bowel on barium enema examination should suggest a diagnosis of small bowel volvulus, and indicates the need for immediate surgery. (orig.) [de

  13. Throughput rate study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ford, L.; Bailey, W.; Gottlieb, P.; Emami, F.; Fleming, M.; Robertson, D.

    1993-01-01

    The Civilian Radioactive Waste Management System (CRWMS) Management and Operating (M ampersand O) Contractor, has completed a study to analyze system wide impacts of operating the CRWMS at varying throughput rates, including the 3000 MTU/year rate which has been assumed in the past. Impacts of throughput rate on all phases of the CRWMS operations (acceptance, transportation, storage and disposal) were evaluated. The results of the study indicate that a range from 3000 to 5000 MTU/year is preferred, based on system cost per MTU of SNF emplaced and logistics constraints

  14. Hydrogen Peroxide Storage in Small Sealed Tanks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whitehead, J.

    1999-01-01

    Unstabilized hydrogen peroxide of 85% concentration has been prepared in laboratory quantities for testing material compatibility and long term storage on a small scale. Vessels made of candidate tank and liner materials ranged in volume from 1 cc to 2540 cc. Numerous metals and plastics were tried at the smallest scales, while promising ones were used to fabricate larger vessels and liners. An aluminum alloy (6061-T6) performed poorly, including increasing homogeneous decay due to alloying elements entering solution. The decay rate in this high strength aluminum was greatly reduced by anodizing. Better results were obtained with polymers, particularly polyvinylidene fluoride. Data reported herein include ullage pressures as a function of time with changing decay rates, and contamination analysis results

  15. Chaotic Zones around Rotating Small Bodies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lages, José; Shevchenko, Ivan I. [Institut UTINAM, Observatoire des Sciences de l’Univers THETA, CNRS, Université de Franche-Comté, Besançon F-25030 (France); Shepelyansky, Dima L., E-mail: jose.lages@utinam.cnrs.fr [Laboratoire de Physique Théorique du CNRS, IRSAMC, Université de Toulouse, UPS, Toulouse F-31062 (France)

    2017-06-01

    Small bodies of the solar system, like asteroids, trans-Neptunian objects, cometary nuclei, and planetary satellites, with diameters smaller than 1000 km usually have irregular shapes, often resembling dumb-bells or contact binaries. The spinning of such a gravitating dumb-bell creates around it a zone of chaotic orbits. We determine its extent analytically and numerically. We find that the chaotic zone swells significantly if the rotation rate is decreased; in particular, the zone swells more than twice if the rotation rate is decreased 10 times with respect to the “centrifugal breakup” threshold. We illustrate the properties of the chaotic orbital zones in examples of the global orbital dynamics about asteroid 243 Ida (which has a moon, Dactyl, orbiting near the edge of the chaotic zone) and asteroid 25143 Itokawa.

  16. Effects of small, intense laser spots on thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Estabrook, K.

    1986-01-01

    Two-dimensional hydrodynamic simulations show that small diameter laser spots burn through flat foils considerably faster than larger spots. The physical mechanisms are (1) more nearly spherical divergence from the smaller spots which allows the debris to rapidly convect radially away from the small volume of laser heated plasma and (2) a variation on thermal self-focusing in which light is refracted into this volume, increasing the local heating rate

  17. "Lines of Credit and Relationship Lending in Small Firm Finance"

    OpenAIRE

    Allen N. Berger; Gregory E. Udell

    1994-01-01

    This paper examines the role of relationship lending using a data set on small firm finance. The abilities to acquire private information over time about borrower quality and to use this information in designing debt contracts largely define the unique nature of commercial banking. Recently, a theoretical literature on relationship lending has appeared which provides predictions about how loan interest rates evolve over the course of a bank-borrower relationship. The study focuses on small, m...

  18. The determinants of exchange rate in Croatia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel BENAZIC

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The dilemma for every country with an independent monetary policy is which kind of exchange rate arrangement should be applied. Through the exchange rate policy, countries can influence their economies, i.e. price stability and export competiveness. Croatia is a new EU member state, it has its own monetary policy and currency but it is on the way to euro introduction. Regarding the experiences from the beginning of the 1990s when Croatia was faced with serious monetary instabilities and hyperinflation, the goal of Croatian National Bank (CNB is to ensure price stability and one way to do so is through exchange rate policy. Croatia, as a small and open economy, has applied a managed floating exchange rate regime. The exchange rate is determined primarily by the foreign exchange supply and demand on the foreign exchange market, with occasional market interventions by the CNB. Therefore, in order to maintain exchange rate stability, policymakers must be able to recognize how changes in these factors affect changes in the exchange rate. This research aims to find a relationship among the main sources of foreign currency inflow and outflow and the level of exchange rate in Croatia. The analysis is carried out by using the bounds testing (ARDL approach for co-integration. The results indicate the existence of a stable co-integration relationship between the observed variables, whereby an increase in the majority of variables leads to an exchange rate appreciation.

  19. Portrait of a small population of boreal toads (Anaxyrus boreas)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muths, Erin; Scherer, Rick D.

    2011-01-01

    Much attention has been given to the conservation of small populations, those that are small because of decline, and those that are naturally small. Small populations are of particular interest because ecological theory suggests that they are vulnerable to the deleterious effects of environmental, demographic, and genetic stochasticity as well as natural and human-induced catastrophes. However, testing theory and developing applicable conservation measures for small populations is hampered by sparse data. This lack of information is frequently driven by computational issues with small data sets that can be confounded by the impacts of stressors. We present estimates of demographic parameters from a small population of Boreal Toads (Anaxyrus boreas) that has been surveyed since 2001 by using capture-recapture methods. Estimates of annual adult survival probability are high relative to other Boreal Toad populations, whereas estimates of recruitment rate are low. Despite using simple models, clear patterns emerged from the analyses, suggesting that population size is constrained by low recruitment of adults and is declining slowly. These patterns provide insights that are useful in developing management directions for this small population, and this study serves as an example of the potential for small populations to yield robust and useful information despite sample size constraints.

  20. Lapse rate modeling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    De Giovanni, Domenico

    2010-01-01

    prepayment models for mortgage backed securities, this paper builds a Rational Expectation (RE) model describing the policyholders' behavior in lapsing the contract. A market model with stochastic interest rates is considered, and the pricing is carried out through numerical approximation...

  1. Lapse Rate Modeling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    De Giovanni, Domenico

    prepayment models for mortgage backed securities, this paper builds a Rational Expectation (RE) model describing the policyholders' behavior in lapsing the contract. A market model with stochastic interest rates is considered, and the pricing is carried out through numerical approximation...

  2. Resettlement and Birth Rates

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    GB

    The Relationship between Resettlement and Birth Rates: The Case of ... statistical software. SAS is used. RESULTS: In a univariate analysis of Gambella's ..... World Bank Conference on Land And. Poverty. Washington DC, World Bank, April.

  3. Bridge element deterioration rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-10-01

    This report describes the development of bridge element deterioration rates using the NYSDOT : bridge inspection database using Markov chains and Weibull-based approaches. It is observed : that Weibull-based approach is more reliable for developing b...

  4. Interest Rates and Inflation

    OpenAIRE

    Coopersmith, Michael

    2011-01-01

    A relation between interest rates and inflation is presented using a two component economic model and a simple general principle. Preliminary results indicate a remarkable similarity to classical economic theories, in particular that of Wicksell.

  5. Fertility Clinic Success Rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Defects ART and Autism 2013 Assisted Reproductive Technology Fertility Clinic Success Rates Report Recommend on Facebook Tweet ... Additional Information About ART in the United States. Fertility Clinic Tables Introduction to Fertility Clinic Tables [PDF - ...

  6. Debenture Interest Rates

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Housing and Urban Development — Interest rates to be paid on debentures issued with respect to a loan or mortgage insured by the Federal Housing Commissioner under the provisions of the National...

  7. Rate of Speed

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — Rate of spread was modeled using FlamMap, an interagency fire behavior mapping and analysis program that computes potential fire behavior characteristics. The tool...

  8. Rating Your Cash Manager?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, George A.; Johannisson, Eric E.

    1989-01-01

    The primary objective of a public cash management policy should include safety, liquidity, yield, and legality. Contains a cash management policy/procedure checklist, a test for cash managers, and a formula for calculating the rate of return. (MLF)

  9. Optimising camera traps for monitoring small mammals.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alistair S Glen

    Full Text Available Practical techniques are required to monitor invasive animals, which are often cryptic and occur at low density. Camera traps have potential for this purpose, but may have problems detecting and identifying small species. A further challenge is how to standardise the size of each camera's field of view so capture rates are comparable between different places and times. We investigated the optimal specifications for a low-cost camera trap for small mammals. The factors tested were 1 trigger speed, 2 passive infrared vs. microwave sensor, 3 white vs. infrared flash, and 4 still photographs vs. video. We also tested a new approach to standardise each camera's field of view. We compared the success rates of four camera trap designs in detecting and taking recognisable photographs of captive stoats (Mustelaerminea, feral cats (Felis catus and hedgehogs (Erinaceuseuropaeus. Trigger speeds of 0.2-2.1 s captured photographs of all three target species unless the animal was running at high speed. The camera with a microwave sensor was prone to false triggers, and often failed to trigger when an animal moved in front of it. A white flash produced photographs that were more readily identified to species than those obtained under infrared light. However, a white flash may be more likely to frighten target animals, potentially affecting detection probabilities. Video footage achieved similar success rates to still cameras but required more processing time and computer memory. Placing two camera traps side by side achieved a higher success rate than using a single camera. Camera traps show considerable promise for monitoring invasive mammal control operations. Further research should address how best to standardise the size of each camera's field of view, maximise the probability that an animal encountering a camera trap will be detected, and eliminate visible or audible cues emitted by camera traps.

  10. Ventilation rates and health

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sundell, Jan; Levin, H; Nazaroff, W W

    2011-01-01

    and health effects to inform the relationship. Consistency was found across multiple investigations and different epidemiologic designs for different populations. Multiple health endpoints show similar relationships with ventilation rate. There is biological plausibility for an association of health outcomes...... studies of the relationship between ventilation rates and health, especially in diverse climates, in locations with polluted outdoor air and in buildings other than offices. PRACTICAL IMPLICATIONS: Ventilation with outdoor air plays an important role influencing human exposures to indoor pollutants...

  11. High population increase rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-09-01

    In addition to its economic and ethnic difficulties, the USSR faces several pressing demographic problems, including high population increase rates in several of its constituent republics. It has now become clear that although the country's rigid centralized planning succeeded in covering the basic needs of people, it did not lead to welfare growth. Since the 1970s, the Soviet economy has remained sluggish, which as led to increase in the death and birth rates. Furthermore, the ideology that held that demography could be entirely controlled by the country's political and economic system is contradicted by current Soviet reality, which shows that religion and ethnicity also play a significant role in demographic dynamics. Currently, Soviet republics fall under 2 categories--areas with high or low natural population increase rates. Republics with low rates consist of Christian populations (Armenia, Moldavia, Georgia, Byelorussia, Russia, Lithuania, Estonia, Latvia, Ukraine), while republics with high rates are Muslim (Tadzhikistan, Uzbekistan, Turkmenistan, Kirgizia, Azerbaijan Kazakhstan). The later group has natural increase rates as high as 3.3%. Although the USSR as a whole is not considered a developing country, the later group of republics fit the description of the UNFPA's priority list. Another serious demographic issue facing the USSR is its extremely high rate of abortion. This is especially true in the republics of low birth rates, where up to 60% of all pregnancies are terminated by induced abortions. Up to 1/5 of the USSR's annual health care budget is spent on clinical abortions -- money which could be better spent on the production of contraceptives. Along with the recent political and economic changes, the USSR is now eager to deal with its demographic problems.

  12. Floating Exchange Rate Regime

    OpenAIRE

    Quader, Syed Manzur

    2004-01-01

    In recent years, many developing countries having a history of high inflation, unfavorable balance of payment situation and a high level of foreign currencies denominated debt, have switched or are in the process of switching to a more flexible exchange rate regime. Therefore, the stability of the exchange rate and the dynamics of its volatility are more crucial than before to prevent financial crises and macroeconomic disturbances. This paper is designed to find out the reasons behind Bangla...

  13. Real exchange rate misalignments

    OpenAIRE

    Terra, Maria Cristina T.; Valladares, Frederico Estrella Carneiro

    2003-01-01

    This paper characterizes episodes of real appreciations and depreciations for a sample of 85 countries, approximately from 1960 to 1998. First, the equilibrium real exchange rate series are constructed for each country using Goldfajn and Valdes (1999) methodology (cointegration with fundamentals). Then, departures from equilibrium real exchange rate (misalignments) are obtained, and a Markov Switching Model is used to characterize the misalignments series as stochastic autor...

  14. Small Bowel Follow-Through

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Small bowel follow-through uses a form of real-time x-ray called fluoroscopy and a barium-based ... Dense bone absorbs much of the radiation while soft tissue, such as muscle, fat and organs, allow ...

  15. Stages of Small Intestine Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... barium (a silver-white metallic compound ). The liquid coats the esophagus, stomach, and small bowel. X-rays ... made by the body or made in a laboratory are used to boost, direct, or restore the ...

  16. Urban Waters Small Grants 101

    Science.gov (United States)

    General information on Urban Waters Small Grants is provided in this document. Grantees are listed by themes, including Environmental Justice, Water Quality, Job Training and Creation, and Green Infrastructure.

  17. Small satellites and their regulation

    CERN Document Server

    Jakhu, Ram S

    2014-01-01

    Since the launch of UoSat-1 of the University of Surrey (United Kingdom) in 1981, small satellites proved regularly to be useful, beneficial, and cost-effective tools. Typical tasks cover education and workforce development, technology demonstration, verification and validation, scientific and engineering research as well as commercial applications. Today the launch masses range over almost three orders of magnitude starting at less than a kilogram up to a few hundred kilograms, with budgets of less than US$ 100.00 and up to millions within very short timeframes of sometimes less than two years. Therefore each category of small satellites provides specific challenges in design, development and operations. Small satellites offer great potentials to gain responsive, low-cost access to space within a short timeframe for institutions, companies, regions and countries beyond the traditional big players in the space arena. For these reasons (particularly the low cost of construction, launch and operation), small (m...

  18. Business Opportunities for Small Reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Minato, Akio; Nishimura, Satoshi; Brown, Neil W.

    2007-01-01

    This report assesses the market potential and identifies a number of potential paths for developing the small nuclear reactor business. There are several potential opportunities identified and evaluated. Selecting a specific approach for the business development requires additional information related to a specific market and sources of capital to support the investment. If and how a market for small nuclear plants may develop is difficult to predict because of the complexity of the economic and institutional factors that will influence such development. Key factors are; economics, safety, proliferation resistance and investment risk. The economic and political interest of any of the identified markets is also dependent on successful demonstration of the safety and reliability of small nuclear reactor. Obtaining a US-NRC Standard Design approval would be an important development step toward establishing a market for small reactors. (authors)

  19. Severe small bowel radiation enteritis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jaen, J.; Santos, J.A.; Carrion, J.R.; Garcia, P.

    1989-01-01

    We have during recent years observed 8 patients with serious radiation injury to the small intestine. As the cases are quite illustrative, their symptomatology is briefly reported and the treatment and possible predisposing factors are analysed. (orig./MG)

  20. Small Satellite Mechanical Design Experience

    OpenAIRE

    Meyers, Stewart

    1993-01-01

    The design approach used and the experience gained in the building of four small satellite payloads is explained. Specific recommendations are made and the lessons learned on the SAMPEX program are detailed.

  1. Urgent problems at small x

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Landshoff, P. V.

    1999-01-01

    Regge theory provides an excellent fit to small-x structure-function data from Q 2 = 0 right up to the highest available values, but it also teaches us that conventional approaches to perturbative evolution are incorrect

  2. Morocco - Small-Scale Fisheries

    Data.gov (United States)

    Millennium Challenge Corporation — The final performance evaluation roadmap for the Small-Scale Fisheries Project (PPA-MCC) is developed using a grid constructed around indicators relating to Project...

  3. Hydration rate of obsidian.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedman, I; Long, W

    1976-01-30

    The hydration rates of 12 obsidian samples of different chemical compositions were measured at temperatures from 95 degrees to 245 degrees C. An expression relating hydration rate to temperature was derived for each sample. The SiO(2) content and refractive index are related to the hydration rate, as are the CaO, MgO, and original water contents. With this information it is possible to calculate the hydration rate of a sample from its silica content, refractive index, or chemical index and a knowledge of the effective temperature at which the hydration occurred. The effective hydration temperature can be either measured or approximated from weather records. Rates have been calculated by both methods, and the results show that weather records can give a good approximation to the true EHT, particularly in tropical and subtropical climates. If one determines the EHT by any of the methods suggested, and also measures or knows the rate of hydration of the particular obsidian used, it should be possible to carry out absolute dating to +/- 10 percent of the true age over periods as short as several years and as long as millions of years.

  4. Ratings are Overrated!

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georgios N. Yannakakis

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Are ratings of any use in human-computer interaction and user studies at large? If ratings are of limited use, is there a better alternative for quantitative subjective assessment? Beyond the intrinsic shortcomings of human reporting, there are a number of supplementary limitations and fundamental methodological flaws associated with rating-based questionnaires --- i.e. questionnaires that ask participants to rate their level of agreement with a given statement such as a Likert item. While the effect of these pitfalls has been largely downplayed, recent findings from diverse areas of study question the reliability of using ratings. Rank-based questionnaires --- i.e. questionnaires that ask participants to rank two or more options --- appear as the evident alternative that not only eliminates the core limitations of ratings but also simplifies the use of sound methodologies that yield more reliable models of the underlying reported construct: user emotion, preference, or opinion. This paper solicits recent findings from various disciplines interlinked with psychometrics and offers a quick guide for the use, processing and analysis of rank-based questionnaires for the unique advantages they offer. The paper challenges the traditional state-of-practice in human-computer interaction and psychometrics directly contributing towards a paradigm shift in subjective reporting.

  5. Phase recording for formation of holographic optical elements on silver-halide photographic emulsions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganzherli, Nina M.; Gulyaev, Sergey N.; Maurer, Irina A.; Chernykh, Dmitrii F.

    2009-05-01

    Holographic fabrication methods of regular and nonregular relief-phase structures on silver-halide photographic emulsions are considered. Methods of gelatin photodestruction under short-wave ultra-violet radiation and chemical hardening with the help of dichromated solutions were used as a technique for surface relief formation. The developed techniques permitted us to study specimens of holographic diffusers and microlens rasters with small absorption and high light efficiency.

  6. Lipo sarcoma in small intestine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodriguez Iglesias, J.; Pineyro Gutierrez, A.; Taroco Medeiros, L.; Fein Kolodny, C.; Navarrete Pedocchi, H.

    1987-01-01

    A case is presented by primitive liposarcoma in small intestine , an extensive bibliographical review foreigner and national in this case. It detach the exceptional of the intestinal topography of the liposarcomas; and making stress in the relative value of the computerized tomography and ultrasonography in the diagnose of the small intestine tumors . As well as in the sarcomas of another topography, chemo and radiotherapy associated to the exeresis surgery, it can be of benefit [es

  7. Spring Small Grains Area Estimation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmer, W. F.; Mohler, R. J.

    1986-01-01

    SSG3 automatically estimates acreage of spring small grains from Landsat data. Report describes development and testing of a computerized technique for using Landsat multispectral scanner (MSS) data to estimate acreage of spring small grains (wheat, barley, and oats). Application of technique to analysis of four years of data from United States and Canada yielded estimates of accuracy comparable to those obtained through procedures that rely on trained analysis.

  8. Water Loss in Small Settlements

    OpenAIRE

    Mindaugas Rimeika; Anželika Jurkienė

    2014-01-01

    The main performance indicators of a water supply system include the quality and safety of water, continuous work, relevant pressure and small water loss. The majority of foreign and local projects on reducing water loss have been carried out in the water supply systems of metropolitans; however, the specificity of small settlements differs from that of big cities. Differences can be observed not only in the development of infrastructure and technical indicators but also in the features of wa...

  9. Radioactivity: ''small users, big problems''

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McDonnell, C.

    1993-01-01

    In the United Kingdom there are at least one thousand small users of radioactivity in industry, in medicine, in higher education establishments and even schools. These users of small amounts of radioactivity, covering a wide variety of forms and applications, have difficulty in disposing of their wastes. Disposal provisions for users outside the nuclear industry, the practical problems they encounter and the future developments likely are discussed. (UK)

  10. World Small Hydropower Development Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Heng; Esser, Lara [ICSGP (China); Masera, Diego [UNIDO, Vienna (Austria)

    2013-07-01

    Currently, small hydropower plants with a capacity of 10 MW, exist in 148 countries or territories worldwide. Four other countries have been identified with resource potential. This report aims to identify the development status and resource potential of small hydro in various countries, territories and regions throughout the world. Working with experts at the ground level to compile and share existing information, experiences and challenges, one comprehensive report was created. Decision-makers, stakeholders and potential investors clearly need this comprehensive information to more effectively promote small hydropower as a renewable and rural energy source for sustainable development and to overcome the existing development barriers. The findings of this report show that small hydropower potential globally is approximated at almost 173 GW. The figure is arrived by totaling data from a wide range of sources with potential compromise of data integrity to varying degrees. For example, research data on economically feasible potential were more readily available in developed countries than those in the least developed or developing countries. More than half of the world's known hydropower potential is located in Asia, around one third can be found in Europe and the Americas. It is possible in the future that more small hydropower potential might be identified both on the African and American continents. The installed small hydropower capacity (up to 10 MW) is estimated to be 75 GW in 2011/2012. The report provides detailed data for each country/region, including recommendations on the national, regional and international level.

  11. Chartering Launchers for Small Satellites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernandez, Daniel

    The question of how to launch small satellites has been solved over the years by the larger launchers offering small satellites the possibility of piggy-backing. Specific fixtures have been developed and commercialized: Arianespace developed the ASAP interface, the USAF studied ESPA, NASA has promoted Shuttle launch possibilities, Russian authorities and companies have been able to find solutions with many different launchers... It is fair to say that most launcher suppliers have worked hard and finally often been able to find solutions to launch most small satellites into orbit. It is also true, however, that most of these small satellites were technology demonstration missions capable of accepting a wide range of orbit and launch characteristics: orbit altitude and inclination, launch date, etc. In some cases the small satellite missions required a well-defined type of orbit and have therefore been obliged to hire a small launcher on which they were the prime passenger. In our paper we would like to propose an additional solution to all these possibilities: launchers could plan well in advance (for example about 3 years), trips to precisely defined orbits to allow potential passengers to organize themselves and be ready on the D-Day. On the scheduled date the chartered launcher goes to the stated orbit while on another date, another chartered launcher goes to another orbit. The idea is to organize departures for space like trains or airplanes leaving on known schedules for known destinations.

  12. World Small Hydropower Development Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Heng; Esser, Lara (ICSGP (China)); Masera, Diego (UNIDO, Vienna (Austria))

    2013-07-01

    Currently, small hydropower plants with a capacity of 10 MW, exist in 148 countries or territories worldwide. Four other countries have been identified with resource potential. This report aims to identify the development status and resource potential of small hydro in various countries, territories and regions throughout the world. Working with experts at the ground level to compile and share existing information, experiences and challenges, one comprehensive report was created. Decision-makers, stakeholders and potential investors clearly need this comprehensive information to more effectively promote small hydropower as a renewable and rural energy source for sustainable development and to overcome the existing development barriers. The findings of this report show that small hydropower potential globally is approximated at almost 173 GW. The figure is arrived by totaling data from a wide range of sources with potential compromise of data integrity to varying degrees. For example, research data on economically feasible potential were more readily available in developed countries than those in the least developed or developing countries. More than half of the world's known hydropower potential is located in Asia, around one third can be found in Europe and the Americas. It is possible in the future that more small hydropower potential might be identified both on the African and American continents. The installed small hydropower capacity (up to 10 MW) is estimated to be 75 GW in 2011/2012. The report provides detailed data for each country/region, including recommendations on the national, regional and international level.

  13. Who needs a small reactor?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wood, Janet.

    1991-01-01

    The opportunities and problems facing small reactors were debated at the Delhi seminar. It was established that these were markets where small reactors, producing heat as well as electricity, might be of use. Small combined heat and power reactors would be more useful in district heating than would large reactors, as their optimum heat production is in line with current district heating schemes. Most process heat requirements are below 900 o C and so may be provided by small nuclear plants. Several areas in electricity supply where small and medium sized reactors could find a market were also identified. Despite good reasons for favouring nuclear plants in these markets, such as no production of carbon dioxide, no need to use expensive oil or other scarce fossil fuels and flexibility, these are, however, disincentives to potential buyers. While serial production would decrease plant costs, the lead plants would bear heavy financial risks. Currently too many options in plant design make it difficult to present the advantages of small reactor technology. Siting reactors near centres of population would be problematical. The disposal of spent fuel and radioactive wastes would create problems in developing or non-nuclear countries. Over and above all these problems, however, was that of public acceptance. Some ways of overcoming these disincentives were discussed. (author)

  14. Radiological imagings of small hepatocellular carcinomas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miyake, Hidetoshi; Hayashi, Kuniaki; Futagawa, Sakae; Matsunaga, Naofumi; Maeda, Tohru [Nagasaki Univ. (Japan). School of Medicine

    1984-08-01

    Forty three cases of small hepatocellular carcinoma (measuring less than 3 cm in diameter on imaging modalities) were detected during a period of four years and two months. There were two cases in which hepatoma measured 1 cm in diameter, twenty four cases between 1 and 2 cm, and seventeen cases between 2 and 3 cm. The relative role of each modality and AFP value in the detection of these tumors was evaluated. The detection rate of small hepatocellular carcinoma by liver scintigraphy, ultrasonography (US), computed tomography (CT) and angiography was 8%, 74%, 70% and 95%, respectively. The sensitivity of serum AFP value was 67% (either measuring more than 200ng/ml or showing a tendency of steady rising even if below the level of 200ng/ml). Most hepatomas less than 2 cm in size were hypoechoic on US, and those above 2 cm in size were hyperechoic with peripheral sonolucency (halo). Almost all cases were described as low density area on both plain and enhancement CT. Angiography was the best method for detecting small hepatomas. It may be recommended to perform angiography on every patient with liver cirrhosis at the time of diagnosis of this disease. Periodic examinations by AFP, US and CT should be done if the angiography was negative. Evaluation by US in every three months and by CT in every twelve months may be appropriate.

  15. The demographic dynamics of small island societies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruz, M; D'ayala, P G; Marcus, E; Mcelroy, J L; Rossi, O

    1987-01-01

    Small islands and microstates have demonstrated a unique demographic pattern, including cycles of swift population increases or decreases well beyond natural birth and death rate balances. These demographic fluctuations have been produced largely by rises or declines in market opportunities. The process of taking advantage of favorable opportunities is always followed by a specialization in the given activity, without regard to environmental protection issues or a longterm strategy for economic development and resource diversification. The population growth phase is associated with increasing fragility of the economic base, whether because of the external dangers of overspecialization or induced internal dysfunctions such as disease and resource depletion. Eventually complete collapse results, causing chronic outmigration or even depopulation. Case histories of maritime basins in the Mediterranean, Caribbean, and Pacific show that the demographic structure of small islands has been particularly sensitive to changing economic opportunities, the vagaries of market forces, and cataclysmic natural events. Experience in these areas suggests that balanced economic development of small islands should be based on diversification of activities, thus ensuring a relatively stable pattern of growth, sound environmental management, and control of dangerous demographic fluctuations. Special attention should be given to the development of broad-based research and cooperation to integrate specific island opportunities within a regional network.

  16. Conservative management of small renal tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsuzaki, Masato; Kawano, Yoshiyuki; Morikawa, Hirofumi; Shiga, Yoshiyuki; Murata, Hirokatsu; Komatsu, Hideki

    2007-01-01

    With the widespread use of imaging modalities, incidentally discovered small renal cell carcinomas have increased. Some patients, however, are too old or weak due to various diseases to undergo surgery and other patients occasionally refuse surgery. To investigate the natural history of small renal cell carcinoma, we retrospectively reviewed patients with small renal tumors suggestive of carcinoma. We retrospectively reviewed 15 patients with contrast-enhancing renal masses less than 4.0 cm in diameter who were observed without treatment. The mean follow-up period was 38 months (range, 8-91). The average patient age was 67 years (range, 44-87). The initial average tumor diameter was 2.2 cm (range, 1.0-3.9). The average growth rate was 0.06 cm per year (range, -0.09-0.28). Only 4 tumors grew obviously during the follow-up period. Three tumors were removed surgically by radical nephrectomy, and all tumors were pathologically diagnosed as renal cell carcinoma. None of the patients developed metastases during the follow-up period or after surgery. Two patients died of other causes. Nonsurgical watchful waiting may be an acceptable treatment option for elderly or severely comorbid patients; however, it is not known whether this conservative management can he applied to young or otherwise healthy patients. (author)

  17. Predicting Agency Rating Migrations with Spread Implied Ratings

    OpenAIRE

    Jianming Kou; Dr Simone Varotto

    2005-01-01

    Investors traditionally rely on credit ratings to price debt instruments. However, rating agencies are known to be prudent in their approach to rating revisions, which results in delayed ratings adjustments to mutating credit conditions. For a large set of eurobonds we derive credit spread implied ratings and compare them with the ratings issued by rating agencies. Our results indicate that spread implied ratings often anticipate future movement of agency ratings and hence could help track cr...

  18. Police Suicide in Small Departments: A Comparative Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Violanti, John M.; Mnatsakanova, Anna; Hartley, Tara A.; Andrew, Michael E.; Burchfiel, Cecil M.

    2012-01-01

    The majority of police suicide research has focused on larger police departments. Very little research has been done within small departments. The present study compared suicide rates between small and larger police departments. Two Hundred ninty-eight departments were drawn from the U.S. Public Safety Officer Benefits database totaling 119,624 officers. Annual suicide rates were calculated per 100,000 for each of four category (by size of department) and p-values from Chi-square tests were e...

  19. Asteroid rotation rates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Binzel, R.P.; Farinella, P.

    1989-01-01

    Within the last decade the data base of asteroid rotation parameters (rotation rates and lightcurve amplitudes) has become sufficiently large to identify some definite rends and properties which can help us to interpret asteroid collisional evolution. Many significant correlations are found between rotation parameters and diameter, with distinct changes occurring near 125 km. The size range, which is also the diameter above which self-gravity may become important, perhaps represents a division between surviving primordial asteroids and collisional fragments. A Maxwellian is able to fit the observed rotation rate distributions of asteroids with D>125 km, implying that their rotation rates may be determined by collisional evolution. Asteroids with D<125 km show an excess of slow rotators and their non-Maxwellian distributions suggests that their rotation rates are more strongly influenced by other processes, such as the distribution resulting from their formation in catastrophic disruption events. Other correlations observed in the data set include different mean rotation rates for C, S and M type asteroids implying that their surface spectra are indicative of bulk properties

  20. Life cycle costing with a discount rate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Posner, E. C.

    1978-01-01

    This article studies life cycle costing for a capability needed for the indefinite future, and specifically investigates the dependence of optimal policies on the discount rate chosen. The two costs considered are reprocurement cost and maintenance and operations (M and O) cost. The procurement price is assumed known, and the M and O costs are assumed to be a known function, in fact, a non-decreasing function, of the time since last reprocurement. The problem is to choose the optimum reprocurement time so as to minimize the quotient of the total cost over a reprocurement period divided by the period. Or one could assume a discount rate and try to minimize the total discounted costs into the indefinite future. It is shown that the optimum policy in the presence of a small discount rate hardly depends on the discount rate at all, and leads to essentially the same policy as in the case in which discounting is not considered.