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Sample records for small peptide effects

  1. Small lytic peptides escape the inhibitory effect of heparan sulfate on the surface of cancer cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background Several naturally occurring cationic antimicrobial peptides (CAPs), including bovine lactoferricin (LfcinB), display promising anticancer activities. These peptides are unaffected by multidrug resistance mechanisms and have been shown to induce a protective immune response against solid tumors, thus making them interesting candidates for developing novel lead structures for anticancer treatment. Recently, we showed that the anticancer activity by LfcinB was inhibited by the presence of heparan sulfate (HS) on the surface of tumor cells. Based on extensive structure-activity relationship studies performed on LfcinB, shorter and more potent peptides have been constructed. In the present study, we have investigated the anticancer activity of three chemically modified 9-mer peptides and the influence of HS and chondroitin sulfate (CS) on their cytotoxic activity. Methods Various cell lines and red blood cells were used to investigate the anticancer activity and selectivity of the peptides. The cytotoxic effect of the peptides against the different cell lines was measured by use of a colorimetric MTT viability assay. The influence of HS and CS on their cytotoxic activity was evaluated by using HS/CS expressing and HS/CS deficient cell lines. The ability of soluble HS and CS to inhibit the cytotoxic activity of the peptides and the peptides' affinity for HS and CS were also investigated. Results The 9-mer peptides displayed selective anticancer activity. Cells expressing HS/CS were equally or more susceptible to the peptides than cells not expressing HS/CS. The peptides displayed a higher affinity for HS compared to CS, and exogenously added HS inhibited the cytotoxic effect of the peptides. Conclusions In contrast to the previously reported inhibitory effect of HS on LfcinB, the present study shows that the cytotoxic activity of small lytic peptides was increased or not affected by cell surface HS. PMID:21453492

  2. Small lytic peptides escape the inhibitory effect of heparan sulfate on the surface of cancer cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lindin Inger

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Several naturally occurring cationic antimicrobial peptides (CAPs, including bovine lactoferricin (LfcinB, display promising anticancer activities. These peptides are unaffected by multidrug resistance mechanisms and have been shown to induce a protective immune response against solid tumors, thus making them interesting candidates for developing novel lead structures for anticancer treatment. Recently, we showed that the anticancer activity by LfcinB was inhibited by the presence of heparan sulfate (HS on the surface of tumor cells. Based on extensive structure-activity relationship studies performed on LfcinB, shorter and more potent peptides have been constructed. In the present study, we have investigated the anticancer activity of three chemically modified 9-mer peptides and the influence of HS and chondroitin sulfate (CS on their cytotoxic activity. Methods Various cell lines and red blood cells were used to investigate the anticancer activity and selectivity of the peptides. The cytotoxic effect of the peptides against the different cell lines was measured by use of a colorimetric MTT viability assay. The influence of HS and CS on their cytotoxic activity was evaluated by using HS/CS expressing and HS/CS deficient cell lines. The ability of soluble HS and CS to inhibit the cytotoxic activity of the peptides and the peptides' affinity for HS and CS were also investigated. Results The 9-mer peptides displayed selective anticancer activity. Cells expressing HS/CS were equally or more susceptible to the peptides than cells not expressing HS/CS. The peptides displayed a higher affinity for HS compared to CS, and exogenously added HS inhibited the cytotoxic effect of the peptides. Conclusions In contrast to the previously reported inhibitory effect of HS on LfcinB, the present study shows that the cytotoxic activity of small lytic peptides was increased or not affected by cell surface HS.

  3. [Assessment of work ability index in evaluation of small peptides geroprotective effect].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bashkireva, A S; Kachan, E Yu

    We have conducted a comparative analysis of the work ability index (WAI) application in evaluation of the effectiveness of small peptides (cytogens) used as geroprotectors in the system of preventive medical nutrition of those working with occupational hazards. Our study revealed the necessity of an inclusion of small peptides into the system of preventive medical nutrition, health promotion in people working with occupational hazards and thus subjected to an accelerated aging. The combined application of peptide geroprotectors makes it possible to restore and enhance adaptive resources as well as to correct work ability and maintain health and well-being in different professional groups.

  4. Molecular Characterisation of Small Molecule Agonists Effect on the Human Glucagon Like Peptide-1 Receptor Internalisation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Aiysha; Stephens, Jeffrey W; Bain, Stephen C; Kanamarlapudi, Venkateswarlu

    2016-01-01

    The glucagon-like peptide receptor (GLP-1R), which is a G-protein coupled receptor (GPCR), signals through both Gαs and Gαq coupled pathways and ERK phosphorylation to stimulate insulin secretion. The aim of this study was to determine molecular details of the effect of small molecule agonists, compounds 2 and B, on GLP-1R mediated cAMP production, intracellular Ca2+ accumulation, ERK phosphorylation and its internalisation. In human GLP-1R (hGLP-1R) expressing cells, compounds 2 and B induced cAMP production but caused no intracellular Ca2+ accumulation, ERK phosphorylation or hGLP-1R internalisation. GLP-1 antagonists Ex(9-39) and JANT-4 and the orthosteric binding site mutation (V36A) in hGLP-1R failed to inhibit compounds 2 and B induced cAMP production, confirming that their binding site distinct from the GLP-1 binding site on GLP-1R. However, K334A mutation of hGLP-1R, which affects Gαs coupling, inhibited GLP-1 as well as compounds 2 and B induced cAMP production, indicating that GLP-1, compounds 2 and B binding induce similar conformational changes in the GLP-1R for Gαs coupling. Additionally, compound 2 or B binding to the hGLP-1R had significantly reduced GLP-1 induced intracellular Ca2+ accumulation, ERK phosphorylation and hGLP-1R internalisation. This study illustrates pharmacology of differential activation of GLP-1R by GLP-1 and compounds 2 and B.

  5. Molecular Characterisation of Small Molecule Agonists Effect on the Human Glucagon Like Peptide-1 Receptor Internalisation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aiysha Thompson

    Full Text Available The glucagon-like peptide receptor (GLP-1R, which is a G-protein coupled receptor (GPCR, signals through both Gαs and Gαq coupled pathways and ERK phosphorylation to stimulate insulin secretion. The aim of this study was to determine molecular details of the effect of small molecule agonists, compounds 2 and B, on GLP-1R mediated cAMP production, intracellular Ca2+ accumulation, ERK phosphorylation and its internalisation. In human GLP-1R (hGLP-1R expressing cells, compounds 2 and B induced cAMP production but caused no intracellular Ca2+ accumulation, ERK phosphorylation or hGLP-1R internalisation. GLP-1 antagonists Ex(9-39 and JANT-4 and the orthosteric binding site mutation (V36A in hGLP-1R failed to inhibit compounds 2 and B induced cAMP production, confirming that their binding site distinct from the GLP-1 binding site on GLP-1R. However, K334A mutation of hGLP-1R, which affects Gαs coupling, inhibited GLP-1 as well as compounds 2 and B induced cAMP production, indicating that GLP-1, compounds 2 and B binding induce similar conformational changes in the GLP-1R for Gαs coupling. Additionally, compound 2 or B binding to the hGLP-1R had significantly reduced GLP-1 induced intracellular Ca2+ accumulation, ERK phosphorylation and hGLP-1R internalisation. This study illustrates pharmacology of differential activation of GLP-1R by GLP-1 and compounds 2 and B.

  6. Effects on in vitro and in vivo angiogenesis induced by small peptides carrying adhesion sequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conconi, Maria Teresa; Ghezzo, Francesca; Dettin, Monica; Urbani, Luca; Grandi, Claudio; Guidolin, Diego; Nico, Beatrice; Di Bello, Carlo; Ribatti, Domenico; Parnigotto, Pier Paolo

    2010-07-01

    It is well known that tumor growth is strictly dependent on neo-vessel formation inside the tumor mass and that cell adhesion is required to allow EC proliferation and migration inside the tumor. In this work, we have evaluated the in vitro and in vivo effects on angiogenesis of some peptides, originally designed to promote cell adhesion on biomaterials, containing RGD motif mediating cell adhesion via integrin receptors [RGD, GRGDSPK, and (GRGDSP)(4)K] or the heparin-binding sequence of human vitronectin that interacts with HSPGs [HVP(351-359)]. Cell adhesion, proliferation, migration, and capillary-like tube formation in Matrigel were determined on HUVECs, whereas the effects on in vivo angiogenesis were evaluated using the CAM assay. (GRGDSP)(4)K linear sequence inhibited cell adhesion, decreased cell proliferation, migration and morphogenesis in Matrigel, and induced anti-angiogenic responses on CAM at higher degree than that determined after incubation with RGD or GRGDSPK. Moreover, it counteracted both in vitro and in vivo the pro-angiogenic effects induced by the Fibroblast growth factor (FGF-2). On the other hand, HVP was not able to affect cell adhesion and appeared less effective than (GRGDSP)(4)K. Our data indicate that the activity of RGD-containing peptides is related to their adhesive properties, and their effects are modulated by the number of cell adhesion motifs and the aminoacidic residues next to these sequences. The anti-angiogenic properties of (GRGDSP)(4)K seem to depend on its interaction with integrins, whereas the effects of HVP may be partially due to an impairment of HSPGs/FGF-2.

  7. Use of artificial intelligence in the design of small peptide antibiotics effective against a broad spectrum of highly antibiotic-resistant superbugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cherkasov, Artem; Hilpert, Kai; Jenssen, Håvard; Fjell, Christopher D; Waldbrook, Matt; Mullaly, Sarah C; Volkmer, Rudolf; Hancock, Robert E W

    2009-01-16

    Increased multiple antibiotic resistance in the face of declining antibiotic discovery is one of society's most pressing health issues. Antimicrobial peptides represent a promising new class of antibiotics. Here we ask whether it is possible to make small broad spectrum peptides employing minimal assumptions, by capitalizing on accumulating chemical biology information. Using peptide array technology, two large random 9-amino-acid peptide libraries were iteratively created using the amino acid composition of the most active peptides. The resultant data was used together with Artificial Neural Networks, a powerful machine learning technique, to create quantitative in silico models of antibiotic activity. On the basis of random testing, these models proved remarkably effective in predicting the activity of 100,000 virtual peptides. The best peptides, representing the top quartile of predicted activities, were effective against a broad array of multidrug-resistant "Superbugs" with activities that were equal to or better than four highly used conventional antibiotics, more effective than the most advanced clinical candidate antimicrobial peptide, and protective against Staphylococcus aureus infections in animal models.

  8. Effects of small peptides, probiotics, prebiotics, and synbiotics on growth performance, digestive enzymes, and oxidative stress in orange-spotted grouper, Epinephelus coioides, juveniles reared in artificial seawater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Tao; Cheng, Yongzhou; Chen, Xiaoyan; Liu, Zhaopu; Long, Xiaohua

    2017-01-01

    Aquaculture production efficiency may increase by using feed additives. This study investigated the effects of different dietary additives [w/w: 2% small peptides, 0.01% probiotics ( Bacillus licheniformis) and 0.2% prebiotics (inulin)] on growth performance, digestive enzyme activities, and oxidative stress in juvenile Epinephelus coioides reared in artificial seawater of two salt concentrations (13.5 vs. 28.5). Weight gain rate was significantly higher in fish fed the diet supplemented with small peptides, B. licheniformis, inulin, or synbiotics than that in fish fed the basal diet; the greatest weight gain rate was found in fish fed the small peptide treatment [56.0% higher than basal diet]. Higher feed efficiency was detected in fish fed the diet supplemented with small peptides than that of fish in the other dietary treatments. Total protease activity in the stomach and intestines was highest in fish fed the small peptide-treated diet, whereas lipase activity was highest in those fed synbiotics (combination of Bacillus licheniformis and inulin) than that in fish fed the other treatments. Antioxidant enzyme (total superoxide dismutase and catalase) activities and hepatic malondialdehyde content were higher in fish receiving the dietary supplements and maintained in artificial seawater containing 13.5 salinity compared with those in the control (28.5). Hepatic catalase activity in grouper fed the diets with small peptides or synbiotics decreased significantly compared with that in control fish. Overall, the three types of additives improved growth rate of juvenile grouper and digestive enzymes activities to varying degrees but did not effectively improve antioxidant capacity under low-salinity stress conditions.

  9. Effect of small peptide (P-15) on HJMSCs adhesion to hydroxyap-atite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Wei; Tong, Xin; Hu, QinGang; Mou, YongBin; Qin, HaiYan

    2016-02-01

    P-15, a synthetic peptide of 15-amino acids, has been tested in clinical trials to enhance cell adhesion and promote osseointe- gration. This feature of P-15 has also inspired the development of designing new bone substitute materials. Despite the increasing applications of P-15 in bone graft alternatives, few studies focus on the mechanism of cell adhesion promoted by P-15 and the mechanical property changes of the cells interacting with P-15. In this article, we used atomic force microscope (AFM) based single cell indentation force spectroscopy to study the impact of P-15 on the stiffness and the adhesion ability of human jaw bone mesenchymal stem cells (HJMSCs) to hydroxyapatite (HA). We found that the stiffness of HJMSCs increases as the concentration of P-15 grows in short culture intervals and that the adhesion forces between HJMSCs and HA particles in both the presence and absence of P-15 are all around 30pN. Moreover, by calculating the binding energy of HJMSCs to HA particles mixed with and without P-15, we proved that P-15 could increase the adhesion energy by nearly four times. Scanning electron microscope (SEM) was also exploited to study the morphology of HJMSCs cultured in the presence and absence of P-15 on HA disc surface for a short term. Apparent morphological differences were observed between the cells cultured with and without P-15. These results explain the probable underlying adhesion mechanism of HJMSC promoted by P-15 and can serve as the bases for the design of bone graft substitute materials.

  10. Synthesis of Functional Polyester Based on Polylactic Acid and Its Effect on PC12 Cells after Coupling with Small Peptides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Na Qiang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Polyesters containing functional groups are a suitable candidate matrix for cell culture in tissue engineering. Three types of semicrystalline copolymer poly(L-lactide-co-β-malic acid [P(LA-co-BMD] with pendent carboxyl groups were synthesized in this study. The functional monomer 3(S-[(benzyloxycarbonylmethyl]-1,4-dioxane-2,5-dione (BMD was synthesized using L-aspartic acid. The copolymer P(LA-co-BMD was then synthesized through ring-opening copolymerization of L-LA and BMD, with dodecanol as initiator and stannous octoate as catalyst. Copolymer structure was characterized by 1H nuclear magnetic resonance (1H NMR, gel permeation chromatography (GPC, and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC analyses. Results of 1H NMR and GPC analyses showed that the copolymers were synthesized successfully. DSC curves showed that the crystal melting peak and enthalpy decreased with increased BMD. The crystallinity of the copolymer was destroyed by the presence of the functional monomer. After deprotection, carboxyl groups were coupled with the isoleucine-lysine-valine-alanine-valine peptide through N-hydroxysuccinimide/dicyclohexylcarbodiimide method. The small peptide was beneficial to the axon growth of PC12 cells.

  11. Peptide imprinted receptors for the determination of the small cell lung cancer associated biomarker progastrin releasing peptide

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Qader, A. A.; Urraca, J.; Torsetnes, S. B.

    2014-01-01

    Peptide imprinted polymers were developed for detection of progastrin releasing peptide (ProGRP); a low abundant blood based biomarker for small cell lung cancer. The polymers targeted the proteotypic nona-peptide sequence NLLGLIEAK and were used for selective enrichment of the proteotypic peptide...... prior to LCMS based quantification. Peptide imprinted polymers with the best affinity characteristics were first identified from a 96-polymer combinatorial library. The effects of functional monomers, crosslinker, porogen, and template on adsorption capacity and selectivity for NLLGLIEAK were...

  12. Enhancement of Gene Silencing Effect and Membrane Permeability by Peptide-Conjugated 27-Nucleotide Small Interfering RNA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toshio Seyama

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Two different sizes of siRNAs, of which one type was 21-nucleotide (nt siRNA containing 2-nt dangling ends and the other type was 27-nt siRNA with blunt ends, were conjugated with a nuclear export signal peptide of HIV-1 Rev at the 5′-sense end. Processing by Dicer enzyme, cell membrane permeability, and RNAi efficiency of the peptide-conjugated siRNAs were examined. Dicer cleaved the peptide-conjugated 27-nt siRNA leading to the release of 21-nt siRNA, whereas the peptide-conjugated 21-nt siRNA was not cleaved. High membrane permeability and cytoplasmic localization was found in the conjugates. Moreover, the peptide-conjugated 27-nt siRNA showed increased potency of RNAi in comparison with the nonmodified 21-nt and 27-nt siRNAs, whereas the peptide-conjugated 21-nt siRNA showed decreased RNAi efficacy. This potent RNAi efficacy is probably owing to acceleration of RISC through recognition by Dicer, as well as to the improvement of cell membrane permeability and intracellular accumulation.

  13. Maturation processes and structures of small secreted peptides in plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryo eTabata

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available In the past decade, small secreted peptides have proven to be essential for various aspects of plant growth and development, including the maintenance of certain stem cell populations. Most small secreted peptides identified in plants to date are recognised by membrane-localized receptor kinases, the largest family of receptor proteins in the plant genome. This peptide-receptor interaction is essential for initiating intracellular signalling cascades. Small secreted peptides often undergo post-translational modifications and proteolytic processing to generate the mature peptides. Recent studies suggest that, in contrast to the situation in mammals, the proteolytic processing of plant peptides involves a number of complex steps. Furthermore, NMR-based structural analysis demonstrated that post-translational modifications induce the conformational changes needed for full activity. In this mini review, we summarise recent advances in our understanding of how small secreted peptides are modified and processed into biologically active peptides and describe the mature structures of small secreted peptides in plants.

  14. Peptides and Anti-peptide Antibodies for Small and Medium Scale Peptide and Anti-peptide Affinity Microarrays: Antigenic Peptide Selection, Immobilization, and Processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Fan; Briones, Andrea; Soloviev, Mikhail

    2016-01-01

    This chapter describes the principles of selection of antigenic peptides for the development of anti-peptide antibodies for use in microarray-based multiplex affinity assays and also with mass-spectrometry detection. The methods described here are mostly applicable to small to medium scale arrays. Although the same principles of peptide selection would be suitable for larger scale arrays (with 100+ features) the actual informatics software and printing methods may well be different. Because of the sheer number of proteins/peptides to be processed and analyzed dedicated software capable of processing all the proteins and an enterprise level array robotics may be necessary for larger scale efforts. This report aims to provide practical advice to those who develop or use arrays with up to ~100 different peptide or protein features.

  15. Ligand-regulated peptides: a general approach for modulating protein-peptide interactions with small molecules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Binkowski, Brock F; Miller, Russell A; Belshaw, Peter J

    2005-07-01

    We engineered a novel ligand-regulated peptide (LiRP) system where the binding activity of intracellular peptides is controlled by a cell-permeable small molecule. In the absence of ligand, peptides expressed as fusions in an FKBP-peptide-FRB-GST LiRP scaffold protein are free to interact with target proteins. In the presence of the ligand rapamycin, or the nonimmunosuppressive rapamycin derivative AP23102, the scaffold protein undergoes a conformational change that prevents the interaction of the peptide with the target protein. The modular design of the scaffold enables the creation of LiRPs through rational design or selection from combinatorial peptide libraries. Using these methods, we identified LiRPs that interact with three independent targets: retinoblastoma protein, c-Src, and the AMP-activated protein kinase. The LiRP system should provide a general method to temporally and spatially regulate protein function in cells and organisms.

  16. Effects of α-amino acids and small peptides on the rate of an SN1 acetal hydrolysis reaction in aqueous solution : The interplay of hydrophobic and hydrophilic solute hydration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Streefland, L.; Blandamer, M.J; Engberts, J.B.F.N.

    The effects of small amounts of anionic a-amino acids and several small peptides on the kinetics of the S(N)1 hydrolysis of 2-(4-nitrophenoxy)tetrahydropyran have been investigated at pH 11 and 40 degrees C. The rate-retarding effect at 1 molal of cosolute is plotted as ln (k(m=1)/k(m=0)) versus the

  17. Peptide array-based interaction assay of solid-bound peptides and anchorage-dependant cells and its effectiveness in cell-adhesive peptide design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kato, Ryuji; Kaga, Chiaki; Kunimatsu, Mitoshi; Kobayashi, Takeshi; Honda, Hiroyuki

    2006-06-01

    Peptide array, the designable peptide library covalently synthesized on cellulose support, was applied to assay peptide-cell interaction, between solid-bound peptides and anchorage-dependant cells, to study objective peptide design. As a model case, cell-adhesive peptides that could enhance cell growth as tissue engineering scaffold material, was studied. On the peptide array, the relative cell-adhesion ratio of NIH/3T3 cells was 2.5-fold higher on the RGDS (Arg-Gly-Asp-Ser) peptide spot as compared to the spot with no peptide, thus indicating integrin-mediated peptide-cell interaction. Such strong cell adhesion mediated by the RGDS peptide was easily disrupted by single residue substitution on the peptide array, thus indicating that the sequence recognition accuracy of cells was strictly conserved in our optimized scheme. The observed cellular morphological extension with active actin stress-fiber on the RGD motif-containing peptide supported our strategy that peptide array-based interaction assay of solid-bound peptide and anchorage-dependant cells (PIASPAC) could provide quantitative data on biological peptide-cell interaction. The analysis of 180 peptides obtained from fibronectin type III domain (no. 1447-1629) yielded 18 novel cell-adhesive peptides without the RGD motif. Taken together with the novel candidates, representative rules of ineffective amino acid usage were obtained from non-effective candidate sequences for the effective designing of cell-adhesive peptides. On comparing the amino acid usage of the top 20 and last 20 peptides from the 180 peptides, the following four brief design rules were indicated: (i) Arg or Lys of positively charged amino acids (except His) could enhance cell adhesion, (ii) small hydrophilic amino acids are favored in cell-adhesion peptides, (iii) negatively charged amino acids and small amino acids (except Gly) could reduce cell adhesion, and (iv) Cys and Met could be excluded from the sequence combination since they have

  18. Synergistic Protective Effects of Mitochondrial Division Inhibitor 1 and Mitochondria-Targeted Small Peptide SS31 in Alzheimer's Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reddy, P Hemachandra; Manczak, Maria; Yin, XiangLing; Reddy, Arubala P

    2018-01-01

    The purpose of our study was to determine the synergistic protective effects of mitochondria-targeted antioxidant SS31 and mitochondria division inhibitor 1 (Mdivi1) in Alzheimer's disease (AD). Using biochemical methods, we assessed mitochondrial function by measuring the levels of hydrogen peroxide, lipid peroxidation, cytochrome c oxidase activity, mitochondrial ATP, and GTPase Drp1 enzymatic activity in mutant AβPP cells. Using biochemical methods, we also measured cell survival and apoptotic cell death. Amyloid-β (Aβ) levels were measured using sandwich ELISA, and using real-time quantitative RT-PCR, we assessed mtDNA (mtDNA) copy number in relation to nuclear DNA (nDNA) in all groups of cells. We found significantly reduced levels of Aβ40 and Aβ42 in mutant AβPP cells treated with SS31, Mdivi1, and SS31+Mdivi1, and the reduction of Aβ42 levels were much higher in SS31+Mdivi1 treated cells than individual treatments of SS31 and Mdivi1. The levels of mtDNA copy number and cell survival were significantly increased in SS31, Mdivi1, and SS31+Mdivi1 treated mutant AβPP cells; however, the increased levels of mtDNA copy number and cell survival were much higher in SS31+Mdivi1 treated cells than individual treatments of SS31 and Mdivi1. Mitochondrial dysfunction is significantly reduced in SS31, Mdivi1, and SS31+Mdivi1 treated mutant AβPP cells; however, the reduction is much higher in cells treated with both SS31+Mdvi1. Similarly, GTPase Drp1 activity is reduced in all treatments, but reduced much higher in SS31+Mdivi1 treated cells. These observations strongly suggest that combined treatment of SS31+Mdivi1 is effective than individual treatments of SS31 and Mdivi1. Therefore, we propose that combined treatment of SS31+Mdivi1 is a better therapeutic strategy for AD. Ours is the first study to investigate combined treatment of mitochondria-targeted antioxidant SS31 and mitochondrial division inhibitor 1 in AD neurons.

  19. Complete sequences of glucagon-like peptide-1 from human and pig small intestine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Orskov, C; Bersani, M; Johnsen, A H

    1989-01-01

    intestine of the proglucagon precursor were determined by pairs of basic amino acid residues flanking the two peptides. Earlier studies have shown that synthetic glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) synthesized according to the proposed structure (proglucagon 71-108 or because residue 108 is Gly, 72-107 amide......) had no physiological effects, whereas a truncated from of GLP-1, corresponding to proglucagon 78-107 amide, strongly stimulated insulin secretion and depressed glucagon secretion. To determine the amino acid sequence of the naturally occurring peptide we isolated GLP-1 from human small intestine...

  20. Intervention with Serine Protease Activity with Small Peptides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xu, Peng

    2015-01-01

    Serine proteases perform proteolytic reactions in many physiological and metabolic processes and have been certified as targets for therapeutics. Small peptides can be used as potent antagonists to target serine proteases and intervene with their activities. Urokinase-type plasminogen activator (u......PA) plays an important role in plasminogen activation system, which has many physiological and pathological functions and is closely associated with the metastasis of tumor cells. Based on a mono-cyclic peptidic inhibitor of murine uPA (muPA), mupain-1, which was screened out from a phage-display library...... before, we elucidated the binding and inhibitory mechanism by using multiple techniques, like X-ray crystallography, site-directed mutagenesis, isothermal titration calorimetry and surface plasmon resonance analysis. By studying the peptide-enzyme interaction, we discovered an unusual inhibitor...

  1. A small peptide with potential ability to promote wound healing.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Tang

    Full Text Available Wound-healing represents a major health burden, such as diabetes-induced skin ulcers and burning. Many works are being tried to find ideal clinical wound-healing biomaterials. Especially, small molecules with low cost and function to promote production of endogenous wound healing agents (i.e. transforming growth factor beta, TGF-β are excellent candidates. In this study, a small peptide (tiger17, c[WCKPKPKPRCH-NH2] containing only 11 amino acid residues was designed and proved to be a potent wound healer. It showed strong wound healing-promoting activity in a murine model of full thickness dermal wound. Tiger17 exerted significant effects on three stages of wound healing progresses including (1 the induction of macrophages recruitment to wound site at inflammatory reaction stage; (2 the promotion of the migration and proliferation both keratinocytes and fibroblasts, leading to reepithelialization and granulation tissue formation; and (3 tissue remodeling phase, by promoting the release of transforming TGF-β1 and interleukin 6 (IL-6 in murine macrophages and activating mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPK signaling pathways. Considering its easy production, store and transfer and function to promote production of endogenous wound healing agents (TGF-β, tiger17 might be an exciting biomaterial or template for the development of novel wound-healing agents.

  2. A novel small peptide as an epidermal growth factor receptor targeting ligand for nanodelivery in vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Han CY

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Cui-yan Han,1,2 Li-ling Yue,2 Ling-yu Tai,1 Li Zhou,2 Xue-yan Li,2 Gui-hua Xing,2 Xing-gang Yang,1 Ming-shuang Sun,1 Wei-san Pan1 1School of Pharmacy, Shenyang Pharmaceutical University, Shenyang, People’s Republic of China; 2Qiqihar Medical University, Qiqihar, People’s Republic of China Abstract: The epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR serves an important function in the proliferation of tumors in humans and is an effective target for the treatment of cancer. In this paper, we studied the targeting characteristics of small peptides (AEYLR, EYINQ, and PDYQQD that were derived from three major autophosphorylation sites of the EGFR C-terminus domain in vitro. These small peptides were labeled with fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC and used the peptide LARLLT as a positive control, which bound to putative EGFR selected from a virtual peptide library by computer-aided design, and the independent peptide RALEL as a negative control. Analyses with flow cytometry and an internalization assay using NCI-H1299 and K562 with high EGFR and no EGFR expression, respectively, indicated that FITC-AEYLR had high EGFR targeting activity. Biotin-AEYLR that was specifically bound to human EGFR proteins demonstrated a high affinity for human non-small-cell lung tumors. We found that AEYLR peptide-conjugated, nanostructured lipid carriers enhanced specific cellular uptake in vitro during a process that was apparently mediated by tumor cells with high-expression EGFR. Analysis of the MTT assay indicated that the AEYLR peptide did not significantly stimulate or inhibit the growth activity of the cells. These findings suggest that, when mediated by EGFR, AEYLR may be a potentially safe and efficient delivery ligand for targeted chemotherapy, radiotherapy, and gene therapy. Keywords: EGFR, small peptide, tumor targeting, lung cancer, NLC

  3. An efficient method for isolating antibody fragments against small peptides by antibody phage display

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Duan, Zhi; Siegumfeldt, Henrik

    2010-01-01

    We generated monoclonal scFv (single chain variable fragment) antibodies from an antibody phage display library towards three small synthetic peptides derived from the sequence of s1-casein. Key difficulties for selection of scFv-phages against small peptides were addressed. Small peptides do....... The scFvs were sequenced and characterized, and specificity was characterized by ELISA. The methods developed in this study are universally applicable for antibody phage display to efficiently produce antibody fragments against small peptides....

  4. Dynamic behavior of small heat shock protein inhibition on amyloid fibrillization of a small peptide (SSTSAA) from RNase A

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xi, Dong; Dong, Xiao; Deng, Wei; Lai, Luhua

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: ► Mechanism of small heat shock protein inhibition on fibril formation was studied. ► Peptide SSTSAA with modified ends was used for amyloid fibril formation. ► FRET signal was followed during the fibril formation. ► Mj HSP16.5 inhibits fibril formation when introduced in the lag phase. ► Mj HSP16.5 slows down fibril formation when introduced after the lag phase. -- Abstract: Small heat shock proteins, a class of molecular chaperones, are reported to inhibit amyloid fibril formation in vitro, while the mechanism of inhibition remains unknown. In the present study, we investigated the mechanism by which Mj HSP16.5 inhibits amyloid fibril formation of a small peptide (SSTSAA) from RNase A. A model peptide (dansyl-SSTSAA-W) was designed by introducing a pair of fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) probes into the peptide, allowing for the monitoring of fibril formation by this experimental model. Mj HSP16.5 completely inhibited fibril formation of the model peptide at a molar ratio of 1:120. The dynamic process of fibril formation, revealed by FRET, circular dichroism, and electron microscopy, showed a lag phase of about 2 h followed by a fast growth period. The effect of Mj HSP16.5 on amyloid fibril formation was investigated by adding it into the incubation solution during different growth phases. Adding Mj HSP16.5 to the incubating peptide before or during the lag phase completely inhibited fibril formation. However, introducing Mj HSP16.5 after the lag phase only slowed down the fibril formation process by adhering to the already formed fibrils. These findings provide insight into the inhibitory roles of small heat shock proteins on amyloid fibril formation at the molecular level.

  5. Dynamic behavior of small heat shock protein inhibition on amyloid fibrillization of a small peptide (SSTSAA) from RNase A

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xi, Dong [BNLMS, State Key Laboratory of Structural Chemistry for Unstable and Stable Species, College of Chemistry and Molecular Engineering, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); Center for Theoretical Biology, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); Dong, Xiao; Deng, Wei [BNLMS, State Key Laboratory of Structural Chemistry for Unstable and Stable Species, College of Chemistry and Molecular Engineering, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); Lai, Luhua, E-mail: lhlai@pku.edu.cn [BNLMS, State Key Laboratory of Structural Chemistry for Unstable and Stable Species, College of Chemistry and Molecular Engineering, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); Center for Theoretical Biology, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China)

    2011-12-09

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Mechanism of small heat shock protein inhibition on fibril formation was studied. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Peptide SSTSAA with modified ends was used for amyloid fibril formation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer FRET signal was followed during the fibril formation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Mj HSP16.5 inhibits fibril formation when introduced in the lag phase. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Mj HSP16.5 slows down fibril formation when introduced after the lag phase. -- Abstract: Small heat shock proteins, a class of molecular chaperones, are reported to inhibit amyloid fibril formation in vitro, while the mechanism of inhibition remains unknown. In the present study, we investigated the mechanism by which Mj HSP16.5 inhibits amyloid fibril formation of a small peptide (SSTSAA) from RNase A. A model peptide (dansyl-SSTSAA-W) was designed by introducing a pair of fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) probes into the peptide, allowing for the monitoring of fibril formation by this experimental model. Mj HSP16.5 completely inhibited fibril formation of the model peptide at a molar ratio of 1:120. The dynamic process of fibril formation, revealed by FRET, circular dichroism, and electron microscopy, showed a lag phase of about 2 h followed by a fast growth period. The effect of Mj HSP16.5 on amyloid fibril formation was investigated by adding it into the incubation solution during different growth phases. Adding Mj HSP16.5 to the incubating peptide before or during the lag phase completely inhibited fibril formation. However, introducing Mj HSP16.5 after the lag phase only slowed down the fibril formation process by adhering to the already formed fibrils. These findings provide insight into the inhibitory roles of small heat shock proteins on amyloid fibril formation at the molecular level.

  6. Solvation of a Small Metal-Binding Peptide in Room-Temperature Ionic Liquids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shim, Youngseon; Jung, Younjoon [Seoul National Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Hyung J. [Carnegie Mellon Univ., Pittsburgh (United States)

    2012-11-15

    Structural properties of a small hexapeptide molecule modeled after metal-binding siderochrome immersed in a room-temperature ionic liquid (RTIL) are studied via molecular dynamics simulations. We consider two different RTILs, each of which is made up of the same cationic species, 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium (BMI{sup +}), but different anions, hexafluorophosphate (PF{sub 6}{sup -}) and chloride (Cl{sup -}). We investigate how anionic properties such as hydrophobicity/hydrophilicity or hydrogen bonding capability affect the stabilization of the peptide in RTILs. To examine the effect of peptide-RTIL electrostatic interactions on solvation, we also consider a hypothetical solvent BMI{sup 0}Cl{sup 0}, a non-ionic counter-part of BMI{sup +}Cl{sup -}. For reference, we investigate solvation structures in common polar solvents, water and dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO). Comparison of BMI{sup +}Cl{sup -} and BMI{sup 0}Cl{sup 0} shows that electrostatic interactions of the peptide and RTIL play a significant role in the conformational fluctuation of the peptide. For example, strong electrostatic interactions between the two favor an extended conformation of the peptide by reducing its structural fluctuations. The hydrophobicity/hydrophilicity of RTIL anions also exerts a notable influence; specifically, structural fluctuations of the peptide become reduced in more hydrophilic BMI{sup +}Cl{sup -}, compared with those in more hydrophobic BMI{sup +}PF{sub 6}{sup -}. This is ascribed to the good hydrogen-bond accepting power of chloride anions, which enables them to bind strongly to hydroxyl groups of the peptide and to stabilize its structure. Transport properties of the peptide are examined briefly. Translations of the peptide significantly slow down in highly viscous RTILs.

  7. Novel production method of innovative antiangiogenic and antitumor small peptides in Escherichia coli

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Setrerrahmane S

    2017-11-01

    increased antiangiogenic effect (>75% of the purified products compared with the single molecules. Meanwhile, MTT assay confirmed their enhanced antitumor activity against gastric cancer cell line MGC-803; however, no significant effect was observed on hepatoma HepG2 cells and no cytotoxicity on normal human lens epithelial cell SRA01/04 and human epithelial esophageal cells.Conclusion: Bifunctional molecules with antiangiogenic and antiproliferative effects were obtained by using this technique, which presents an alternative for small peptide production, instead of the conventional chemical method. The increased molecular weight facilitates the peptide expression with a simultaneous improvement in their stability and biological activity. Keywords: innovative drugs, bifunctional peptides, linkers, auto-induction, antiangiogenic, antitumor

  8. Biomimetic small peptide functionalized affinity monoliths for monoclonal antibody purification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiangyu; Xia, Donghai; Han, Hai; Peng, Kun; Zhu, Peijie; Crommen, Jacques; Wang, Qiqin; Jiang, Zhengjin

    2018-08-09

    The rapid development of monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) in therapeutic and diagnostic applications has necessitated the advancement of mAbs purification technologies. In this study, a biomimetic small peptide ligand 3,5-di-tert-butyl-4-hydroxybenzoic acid-Arg-Arg-Gly (DAAG) functionalized monolith was fabricated through a metal ion chelation-based multi-step approach. The resulting monolith showed good chromatographic performance. Compared with the Ni 2+ based IMAC monolith, the DAAG functionalized monolith exhibited not only excellent specificity but also higher dynamic binding capacity (DBC). The 10% DBC and 50% DBC for hIgG reached as high values as 26.0 and 34.6 mg/mL, respectively, at a ligand density of 8.8 μmol/mL, due to the high porosity and accessibility of the monolithic matrix. Moreover, the stability of the DAAG functionalized monolith in successive breakthrough experiments indicates that it has a promising potential for long-term use in mAbs purification. Finally, the DAAG functionalized monolith was successfully applied to the purification of trastuzumab or human immunoglobulin G (hIgG) from biological samples. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Topical Peptide Treatments with Effective Anti-Aging Results

    OpenAIRE

    Silke Karin Schagen

    2017-01-01

    In the last two decades, many new peptides have been developed, and new knowledge on how peptides improve the skin has been uncovered. The spectrum of peptides in the field of cosmetics is continuously growing. This review summarizes some of the effective data on cosmeceutical peptides that work against intrinsic and extrinsic aging. Some peptides have been proven in their efficacy through clinical skin trials. Well-known and documented peptides like copper tripeptide are still under research...

  10. Small molecule and peptide-mediated inhibition of Epstein-Barr virus nuclear antigen 1 dimerization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Sun Young; Song, Kyung-A; Kieff, Elliott; Kang, Myung-Soo

    2012-01-01

    novel inhibitors of EBNA1 dimerization. This study demonstrates that EBNA1 homodimerization can be effectively targeted by a small molecule or peptide.

  11. Small molecule and peptide-mediated inhibition of Epstein-Barr virus nuclear antigen 1 dimerization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Sun Young; Song, Kyung-A [Samsung Advanced Institute for Health Sciences and Technology (SAIHST), Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Samsung Biomedical Research Institute (SBRI), Samsung Medical Center, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kieff, Elliott [Department of Medicine, Brigham and Women' s Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02115 (United States); Kang, Myung-Soo, E-mail: mkang@skku.edu [Samsung Advanced Institute for Health Sciences and Technology (SAIHST), Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Samsung Biomedical Research Institute (SBRI), Samsung Medical Center, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Department of Medicine, Brigham and Women' s Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02115 (United States)

    2012-07-27

    with EBNA1 in vitro, and repressed EBNA1-dependent transcription in vivo. Collectively, this study describes two novel inhibitors of EBNA1 dimerization. This study demonstrates that EBNA1 homodimerization can be effectively targeted by a small molecule or peptide.

  12. Effect of a Fusion Peptide by Covalent Conjugation of a Mitochondrial Cell-Penetrating Peptide and a Glutathione Analog Peptide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmine Pasquale Cerrato

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Previously, we designed and synthesized a library of mitochondrial antioxidative cell-penetrating peptides (mtCPPs superior to the parent peptide, SS31, to protect mitochondria from oxidative damage. A library of antioxidative glutathione analogs called glutathione peptides (UPFs, exceptional in hydroxyl radical elimination compared with glutathione, were also designed and synthesized. Here, a follow-up study is described, investigating the effects of the most promising members from both libraries on reactive oxidative species scavenging ability. None of the peptides influenced cell viability at the concentrations used. Fluorescence microscopy studies showed that the fluorescein-mtCPP1-UPF25 (mtgCPP internalized into cells, and spectrofluorometric analysis determined the presence and extent of peptide into different cell compartments. mtgCPP has superior antioxidative activity compared with mtCPP1 and UPF25 against H2O2 insult, preventing ROS formation by 2- and 3-fold, respectively. Moreover, we neither observed effects on mitochondrial membrane potential nor production of ATP. These data indicate that mtgCPP is targeting mitochondria, protecting them from oxidative damage, while also being present in the cytosol. Our hypothesis is based on a synergistic effect resulting from the fused peptide. The mitochondrial peptide segment is targeting mitochondria, whereas the glutathione analog peptide segment is active in the cytosol, resulting in increased scavenging ability.

  13. Effect of the renal natriuretic peptide, ularitide, alone or combined ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effect of the renal natriuretic peptide, ularitide, alone or combined with ... inhibitor, Omapatrilat, on experimental volume overloadinduced congestive heart failure in ... N-terminal pro–brain natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP) and high-sensitivity ...

  14. Topical Peptide Treatments with Effective Anti-Aging Results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silke Karin Schagen

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available In the last two decades, many new peptides have been developed, and new knowledge on how peptides improve the skin has been uncovered. The spectrum of peptides in the field of cosmetics is continuously growing. This review summarizes some of the effective data on cosmeceutical peptides that work against intrinsic and extrinsic aging. Some peptides have been proven in their efficacy through clinical skin trials. Well-known and documented peptides like copper tripeptide are still under research to obtain more details on their effectiveness, and for the development of new treatments. Palmitoyl pentapeptide-4 and Carnosine are other well-researched cosmeceuticals. Additionally, there are many more peptides that are used in cosmetics. However, study results for some are sparse, or have not been published in scientific journals. This article summarizes topical peptides with proven efficacy in controlled in vivo studies.

  15. Peptide receptor chemoradionuclide therapy in small cell carcinoma: from bench to bedside

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lewin, Jeremy; Rao, Aparna; Mileshkin, Linda; Cullinane, Carleen; Akhurst, Tim; Eu, Peter; Waldeck, Kelly; Watkins, D.N.; Hicks, Rodney J.

    2015-01-01

    Small cell cancers (SmCC), whether pulmonary (SCLC) or extrapulmonary, have a poor prognosis unless localised at diagnosis. Given a proportion of these cancers express somatostatin receptor subtype 2 (SSTR2), we aimed to investigate the efficacy of targeted peptide receptor chemoradionuclide therapy (PRCRT). In this preclinical study, we used a SCLC xenograft mouse model with high expression of SSTR2 to investigate the effect of peptide receptor radionuclide therapy (PRRT) with chemotherapy compared to either alone. We subsequently explored the clinical utility in a patient with SmCC with high SSTR expression treated with PRCRT. Robust expression of SSTR2 in NCI-H69 SCLC xenografts was documented by 68 Ga-DOTA-octreotate (GaTate) (tumour to background uptake ratio = 35). The combination of PRRT using 177 Lu-DOTA-octreotate (LuTate) with carboplatin/etoposide (C/E) chemotherapy was more effective than either LuTate or C/E alone for regression of the NCI-H69 model (p value < 0.05). PRCRT was associated with significantly prolonged survival versus PRRT (p value = 0.0001) or chemotherapy alone (p value = 0.0058). In the subsequent case study, a patient with relapsed SmCC with high SSTR2 expression on GaTate PET underwent PRCRT with radiosensitising etoposide with evidence of a complete metabolic response for 4 months. Given the limited treatment options in this setting, PRCRT is a promising therapeutic option for SSTR2-expressing SmCC. (orig.)

  16. Mixture-based combinatorial libraries from small individual peptide libraries: a case study on α1-antitrypsin deficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Yi-Pin; Chu, Yen-Ho

    2014-05-16

    The design, synthesis and screening of diversity-oriented peptide libraries using a "libraries from libraries" strategy for the development of inhibitors of α1-antitrypsin deficiency are described. The major buttress of the biochemical approach presented here is the use of well-established solid-phase split-and-mix method for the generation of mixture-based libraries. The combinatorial technique iterative deconvolution was employed for library screening. While molecular diversity is the general consideration of combinatorial libraries, exquisite design through systematic screening of small individual libraries is a prerequisite for effective library screening and can avoid potential problems in some cases. This review will also illustrate how large peptide libraries were designed, as well as how a conformation-sensitive assay was developed based on the mechanism of the conformational disease. Finally, the combinatorially selected peptide inhibitor capable of blocking abnormal protein aggregation will be characterized by biophysical, cellular and computational methods.

  17. Small stress molecules inhibit aggregation and neurotoxicity of prion peptide 106-126

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kanapathipillai, Mathumai; Ku, Sook Hee; Girigoswami, Koyeli; Park, Chan Beum

    2008-01-01

    In prion diseases, the posttranslational modification of host-encoded prion protein PrP c yields a high β-sheet content modified protein PrP sc , which further polymerizes into amyloid fibrils. PrP106-126 initiates the conformational changes leading to the conversion of PrP c to PrP sc . Molecules that can defunctionalize such peptides can serve as a potential tool in combating prion diseases. In microorganisms during stressed conditions, small stress molecules (SSMs) are formed to prevent protein denaturation and maintain protein stability and function. The effect of such SSMs on PrP106-126 amyloid formation is explored in the present study using turbidity, atomic force microscopy (AFM), and cellular toxicity assay. Turbidity and AFM studies clearly depict that the SSMs-ectoine and mannosylglyceramide (MGA) inhibit the PrP106-126 aggregation. Our study also connotes that ectoine and MGA offer strong resistance to prion peptide-induced toxicity in human neuroblastoma cells, concluding that such molecules can be potential inhibitors of prion aggregation and toxicity

  18. Development and clinical applications of a small peptide as a radiolabeled in vivo diagnostic probe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reubi, J.C.; Lamberts, S.W.; Krenning, E.

    1995-01-01

    Several dozens of small peptides, widely distributed in the human body, highly potent and important regulators of biological processes in numerous tissues, have been identified in the past several years. One of those, somatostatin, the first of such peptides used in the nuclear medicine field, has been developed as an in vivo labeled diagnostic probe for a variety of pathologies. Basic knowledge on somatostatin, somatostatin receptors and somatostatin target tissues as well as on the clinical implications of this diagnostic tool are briefly reviewed. (authors). 9 refs., 3 figs

  19. Peptide receptor chemoradionuclide therapy in small cell carcinoma: from bench to bedside

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lewin, Jeremy; Rao, Aparna; Mileshkin, Linda [Division of Hematology and Medical Oncology, East Melbourne, VIC (Australia); Cullinane, Carleen [Division of Cancer Research, East Melbourne, VIC (Australia); The University of Melbourne, Sir Peter MacCallum Department of Oncology, Melbourne, VIC (Australia); Akhurst, Tim; Eu, Peter [Centre for Cancer Imaging, Peter MacCallum Cancer Centre, East Melbourne, VIC (Australia); Waldeck, Kelly [Division of Cancer Research, East Melbourne, VIC (Australia); Watkins, D.N. [Monash University, Monash Institute of Medical Research, Clayton, VIC (Australia); Hicks, Rodney J. [Centre for Cancer Imaging, Peter MacCallum Cancer Centre, East Melbourne, VIC (Australia); The University of Melbourne, Sir Peter MacCallum Department of Oncology, Melbourne, VIC (Australia)

    2015-01-15

    Small cell cancers (SmCC), whether pulmonary (SCLC) or extrapulmonary, have a poor prognosis unless localised at diagnosis. Given a proportion of these cancers express somatostatin receptor subtype 2 (SSTR2), we aimed to investigate the efficacy of targeted peptide receptor chemoradionuclide therapy (PRCRT). In this preclinical study, we used a SCLC xenograft mouse model with high expression of SSTR2 to investigate the effect of peptide receptor radionuclide therapy (PRRT) with chemotherapy compared to either alone. We subsequently explored the clinical utility in a patient with SmCC with high SSTR expression treated with PRCRT. Robust expression of SSTR2 in NCI-H69 SCLC xenografts was documented by {sup 68}Ga-DOTA-octreotate (GaTate) (tumour to background uptake ratio = 35). The combination of PRRT using {sup 177}Lu-DOTA-octreotate (LuTate) with carboplatin/etoposide (C/E) chemotherapy was more effective than either LuTate or C/E alone for regression of the NCI-H69 model (p value < 0.05). PRCRT was associated with significantly prolonged survival versus PRRT (p value = 0.0001) or chemotherapy alone (p value = 0.0058). In the subsequent case study, a patient with relapsed SmCC with high SSTR2 expression on GaTate PET underwent PRCRT with radiosensitising etoposide with evidence of a complete metabolic response for 4 months. Given the limited treatment options in this setting, PRCRT is a promising therapeutic option for SSTR2-expressing SmCC. (orig.)

  20. Protective Effect of Wheat Peptides against Indomethacin-Induced Oxidative Stress in IEC-6 Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong Yin

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Recent studies have demonstrated that wheat peptides protected rats against non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs-induced small intestinal epithelial cells damage, but the mechanism of action is unclear. In the present study, an indomethacin-induced oxidative stress model was used to investigate the effect of wheat peptides on the nuclear factor-κB(NF-κB-inducible nitric oxide synthase-nitric oxide signal pathway in intestinal epithelial cells-6 cells. IEC-6 cells were treated with wheat peptides (0, 125, 500 and 2000 mg/L for 24 h, followed by 90 mg/L indomethacin for 12 h. Wheat peptides significantly attenuated the indomethacin-induced decrease in superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase activity. Wheat peptides at 2000 mg/L markedly decreased the expression of the NF-κB in response to indomethacin-induced oxidative stress. This study demonstrated that the addition of wheat peptides to a culture medium significantly inhibited the indomethacin-induced release of malondialdehyde and nitrogen monoxide, and increased antioxidant enzyme activity in IEC-6 cells, thereby providing a possible explanation for the protective effect proposed for wheat peptides in the prevention of indomethacin-induced oxidative stress in small intestinal epithelial cells.

  1. Dendrimer effects on peptide and protein fibrillation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heegaard, Peter M. H.; Boas, Ulrik; Otzen, Daniel E.

    2007-01-01

    involved in a range of serious and irreversibly progressive pathological conditions (protein-misfolding diseases). Interesting as this may be, the interaction of dendrimers with such generic peptidic aggregates also offers a new perspective on the molecular mechanisms governing assembly and disassembly......, they offer numerous possibilities for interactions with and responses to biological macromolecules and biostructures including cell membranes and proteins. By way of their multiple functional surface groups, they allow the design of surfaces carrying a multitude of biological motifs and/or charges giving...... rise to quite significant biological and physico-chemical effects. Here we describe the surprising ability of dendrimers to interact with and perturb polypeptide conformations, particularly efficiently towards amyloid structures; that is, the structures of highly insoluble polypeptide aggregates...

  2. Changes in Serum Natriuretic Peptide Levels after Percutaneous Closure of Small to Moderate Ventricular Septal Defects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuksel Kaya

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. B-type natriuretic peptide has been shown to be a very sensitive and specific marker of heart failure. In this study, we aimed to investigate the effect of percutaneous closure of ventricular septal defects with Amplatzer septal occluders on brain natriuretic peptide levels. Methods. Between 2008 and 2011, 23 patients underwent successfully percutaneous ventricular septal defect closure in 4 cardiology centers. Brain natriuretic peptide levels were measured in nine patients (4 male, mean ages were 25.3±14.3 who underwent percutaneous closure with Amplatzer occluders for membranous or muscular ventricular septal defects were enrolled in the study. Brain natriuretic peptide levels were measured one day before and one month after the closure. Patients were evaluated clinically and by echocardiography one month after the procedure. Results. Percutaneous closures of ventricular septal defects were successfully performed in all patients. There was not any significant adverse event in patients group during followup. Decrease in brain natriuretic peptide levels after closure were statistically significant (97.3±78.6 versus 26.8±15.6, =0.013. Conclusion. Brain Natriuretic Peptide levels are elevated in patients with ventricular septal defects as compared to controls. Percutaneous closure of Ventricular Septal Defect with Amplatzer occluders decreases the BNP levels.

  3. Small Molecule Drug Discovery at the Glucagon-Like Peptide-1 Receptor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francis S. Willard

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The therapeutic success of peptide glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1 receptor agonists for the treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus has inspired discovery efforts aimed at developing orally available small molecule GLP-1 receptor agonists. Although the GLP-1 receptor is a member of the structurally complex class B1 family of GPCRs, in recent years, a diverse array of orthosteric and allosteric nonpeptide ligands has been reported. These compounds include antagonists, agonists, and positive allosteric modulators with intrinsic efficacy. In this paper, a comprehensive review of currently disclosed small molecule GLP-1 receptor ligands is presented. In addition, examples of “ligand bias” and “probe dependency” for the GLP-1 receptor are discussed; these emerging concepts may influence further optimization of known molecules or persuade designs of expanded screening strategies to identify novel chemical starting points for GLP-1 receptor drug discovery.

  4. Neoglycolipids for Prolonging the Effects of Peptides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van Witteloostuijn, Søren Blok; Mannerstedt, Karin Margareta Sophia; Wismann, Pernille

    2017-01-01

    Novel principles for optimizing the properties of peptide-based drugs are needed in order to leverage their full pharmacological potential. We present the design, synthesis, and evaluation of a library of neoglycolipidated glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) analogues, which are valuable drug...... was maintained or even improved compared to native GLP-1. This translated into pronounced in vivo efficacy in terms of both decreased acute food intake and improved glucose homeostasis in mice. Thus, we propose neoglycolipidation as a novel, general method for modulating the properties of therapeutic peptides...

  5. Delayed Treatment with a Small Pigment Epithelium Derived Factor (PEDF Peptide Prevents the Progression of Diabetic Renal Injury.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alaa S Awad

    Full Text Available Our recent publication showed that a small bioactive pigment epithelium derived factor (PEDF peptide (P78-PEDF prevents the development of diabetic nephropathy (DN. However, its effects on the progression of established DN were not clear. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to determine the effect of P78-PEDF in the progression of DN and to compare the effects of P78-PEDF and an ACE inhibitor (ACEi, a standard of care in DN. Experiments were conducted in Ins2(Akita mice treated with P78-PEDF or captopril starting at 6 wks of age for 12 wks (early treatment or starting at 12 wks of age for 6 wks (late treatment. We first established the optimal dose of the P78-PEDF peptide to ameliorate DN in Ins2(Akita mouse for a 6 wk study period and found that the peptide was effective at 0.1- 0.5 µg/g/day. We next showed that early or late treatment with P78-PEDF resulted in protection from DN as indicated by reduced albuminuria, kidney macrophage recruitment, histological changes, inflammatory cytokines and fibrotic markers (kidney TNF-α, fibronectin, VEGFA and EGFR, and restored nephrin expression compared with vehicle-treated Ins2(Akita mice. Interestingly, only early but not late treatment with captopril was as effective as P78-PEDF in reducing most DN complications, despite its lack of effect on nephrin, VEGFA and EGFR expression. These findings highlight the importance of P78-PEDF peptide as a potential therapeutic modality in both the development and progression of diabetic renal injury.

  6. Infusion of Soybean Small Peptides into Rumen: Effects on Rumen Fermentation of Beef Cattle%瘤胃灌注大豆小肽对肉牛瘤胃发酵的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王文娟; 万发春; 杨维仁; 宋恩亮; 刘晓牧; 谭秀文; 刘桂芬

    2011-01-01

    The experiment was conducted to investigate the effects of infusion of different levels of soybean small peptides ( SSP) on rumen fermentation and rumen microbes in Luxi cattle. Four heads of Luxi cattle fixed with permanent ruminal cannula were used in a 4 ×4 Latin square design. Cattle were infused SSP by 0, 100, 200 and 300 g/d, respectively. Ruminal fluid was collected for the analysis of rumen fermentation indices, as well as the relative content of rumen microbes by real-time PCR. The results showed as follows: the mean of ruminal pH was not significantly affected by SSP infusion (P >0.05), the means of NH3-N and MCP concentrations were significantly increased (P 0. 05) , compared with those in 0 g/d group, the proportions of pro-pionate in 200 g/d group and 300 g/d group were increased significantly (P <0.05), while the proportions of acetate in 100 g/d group and 200 g/d group, as well as the proportions of butyrate in 300 g/d group were decreased significantly (P <0. 05) ; the ratio of acetate to propionate was significantly decreased by SSP infusion (P <0.05); the relative content of Butyrivibrio fibrisolvens was significantly increased by SSP infusion (P < 0. 05). In conclusion, infusion of SSP can promote microbial protein synthesis, increase Butyrivibrio fibrisolvens content and improve rumen metabolism. [ Chinese Journal of Animal Nutrition, 2011, 23 (8) : 1324-1331]%本试验旨在探讨瘤胃灌注不同水平大豆小肽对内牛瘤胃发酵指标和瘤胃微生物的影响.选用4头安装永久性瘤胃瘘管的鲁西黄牛阉牛,采用4×4拉丁方试验设计,分别瘤胃灌注0、100、200和300 g/d的大豆小肽.采集瘤胃液,测定瘤胃发酵指标,实时定量PCR法测定瘤胃微生物相对含量.结果表明,灌注大豆小肽对瘤胃液pH平均值无显著影响(P>0.05),显著提高了瘤胃液氨态氮(NH3-N)与微生物蛋白(MCP)平均浓度(P<0.05);灌注大豆小肽显著提高了瘤胃液总挥

  7. Staphylococcus aureus small colony variants are resistant to the antimicrobial peptide lactoferricin B.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samuelsen, Orjan; Haukland, Hanne Husom; Kahl, Barbara C; von Eiff, Christof; Proctor, Richard A; Ulvatne, Hilde; Sandvik, Kjersti; Vorland, Lars H

    2005-12-01

    To determine whether Staphylococcus aureus small colony variants (SCVs) are resistant to the antimicrobial peptide lactoferricin B. To assess if deficiency in transmembrane potential, a common characteristic of SCVs that are haemin- or menadione-auxotrophs, affects the uptake of the peptide into the bacterial cytoplasm. A broth microdilution technique was used for susceptibility testing to determine the MIC of lactoferricin B for SCVs with three different auxotrophisms (haemin, menadione or thymidine) and their isogenic parent strains. Both clinical isolates and genetically defined mutants were used. The internalization of lactoferricin B in a hemB mutant and the respective parent strain was studied using transmission electron microscopy and immunogold labelling. All SCVs showed reduced susceptibility to lactoferricin B irrespective of their auxotrophy compared with their isogenic parent strains. The MIC for all SCVs was >256 mg/L, whereas the MICs for the parent strains ranged from 16-256 mg/L. Surprisingly, the hemB mutant contained significantly more lactoferricin B intracellularly than the respective parent strain. The resistance mechanism of SCVs towards the antimicrobial peptide lactoferricin B is presumably caused by the metabolic changes present in SCVs rather than by a changed transmembrane potential of SCVs or reduced uptake of the peptide.

  8. Calcium ions effectively enhance the effect of antisense peptide nucleic acids conjugated to cationic tat and oligoarginine peptides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shiraishi, Takehiko; Pankratova, Stanislava; Nielsen, Peter E

    2005-01-01

    Cell-penetrating peptides have been widely used to improve cellular delivery of a variety of proteins and antisense agents. However, recent studies indicate that such cationic peptides are predominantly entering cells via an endosomal pathway. We now show that the nuclear antisense effect in He......La cells of a variety of peptide nucleic acid (PNA) peptide conjugates is significantly enhanced by addition of 6 mM Ca(2+) (as well as by the lysosomotrophic agent chloroquine). In particular, the antisense activities of Tat(48-60) and heptaarginine-conjugated PNAs were increased 44-fold and 8.5-fold......, respectively. Evidence is presented that the mechanism involves endosomal release. The present results show that Ca(2+) can be used as an effective enhancer for in vitro cellular delivery of cationic peptide-conjugated PNA oligomers, and also emphasize the significance of the endosomal escape route...

  9. Oxidative diversification of amino acids and peptides by small-molecule iron catalysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osberger, Thomas J; Rogness, Donald C; Kohrt, Jeffrey T; Stepan, Antonia F; White, M Christina

    2016-09-08

    Secondary metabolites synthesized by non-ribosomal peptide synthetases display diverse and complex topologies and possess a range of biological activities. Much of this diversity derives from a synthetic strategy that entails pre- and post-assembly oxidation of both the chiral amino acid building blocks and the assembled peptide scaffolds. The vancomycin biosynthetic pathway is an excellent example of the range of oxidative transformations that can be performed by the iron-containing enzymes involved in its biosynthesis. However, because of the challenges associated with using such oxidative enzymes to carry out chemical transformations in vitro, chemical syntheses guided by these principles have not been fully realized in the laboratory. Here we report that two small-molecule iron catalysts are capable of facilitating the targeted C-H oxidative modification of amino acids and peptides with preservation of α-centre chirality. Oxidation of proline to 5-hydroxyproline furnishes a versatile intermediate that can be transformed to rigid arylated derivatives or flexible linear carboxylic acids, alcohols, olefins and amines in both monomer and peptide settings. The value of this C-H oxidation strategy is demonstrated in its capacity for generating diversity: four 'chiral pool' amino acids are transformed to twenty-one chiral unnatural amino acids representing seven distinct functional group arrays; late-stage C-H functionalizations of a single proline-containing tripeptide furnish eight tripeptides, each having different unnatural amino acids. Additionally, a macrocyclic peptide containing a proline turn element is transformed via late-stage C-H oxidation to one containing a linear unnatural amino acid.

  10. Identification and Characterization of a Small Inhibitory Peptide That Can Target DNA-PKcs Autophosphorylation and Increase Tumor Radiosensitivity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sun Xiaonan [Department of Radiation Oncology, Sir Run Run Shaw Hospital, Sir Run Run Shaw Institute of Clinical Medicine of Zhejiang University, Hangzhou (China); Yang Chunying [Department of Radiation Oncology, Methodist Hospital Research Institute, Weill Cornell Medical College, Houston, TX (United States); Liu Hai; Wang Qi [Department of Radiation Oncology, Sir Run Run Shaw Hospital, Sir Run Run Shaw Institute of Clinical Medicine of Zhejiang University, Hangzhou (China); Wu Shixiu [Department of Radiation Oncology, The First Affiliated Hospital of Wenzhou Medical College, Wenzhou (China); Li Xia; Xie Tian [Research Center of Biomedicine and Health, Hangzhou Normal University, Hangzhou (China); Brinkman, Kathryn L.; Teh, Bin S.; Butler, E. Brian [Department of Radiation Oncology, Methodist Hospital Research Institute, Weill Cornell Medical College, Houston, TX (United States); Xu Bo, E-mail: bxu@tmhs.org [Department of Radiation Oncology, Methodist Hospital Research Institute, Weill Cornell Medical College, Houston, TX (United States); Zheng, Shu, E-mail: zhengshu@zju.edu.cn [Cancer Institute, The Second Affiliated Hospital, Zhejiang University School of Medicine, Hangzhou (China)

    2012-12-01

    Purpose: The DNA protein kinase catalytic subunit (DNA-PKcs) is one of the critical elements involved in the DNA damage repair process. Inhibition of DNA-PKcs results in hypersensitivity to ionizing radiation (IR); therefore, this approach has been explored to develop molecular targeted radiosensitizers. Here, we aimed to develop small inhibitory peptides that could specifically target DNA-PKcs autophosphorylation, a critical step for the enzymatic activation of the kinase in response to IR. Methods and Materials: We generated several small fusion peptides consisting of 2 functional domains, 1 an internalization domain and the other a DNA-PKcs autophosphorylation inhibitory domain. We characterized the internalization, toxicity, and radiosensitization activities of the fusion peptides. Furthermore, we studied the mechanisms of the inhibitory peptides on DNA-PKcs autophosphorylation and DNA repair. Results: We found that among several peptides, the biotin-labeled peptide 3 (BTW3) peptide, which targets DNA-PKcs threonine 2647 autophosphorylation, can abrogate IR-induced DNA-PKcs activation and cause prolonged {gamma}-H2AX focus formation. We demonstrated that BTW3 exposure led to hypersensitivity to IR in DNA-PKcs-proficient cells but not in DNA-PKcs-deficient cells. Conclusions: The small inhibitory peptide BTW3 can specifically target DNA-PKcs autophosphorylation and enhance radiosensitivity; therefore, it can be further developed as a novel class of radiosensitizer.

  11. Identification and Characterization of a Small Inhibitory Peptide That Can Target DNA-PKcs Autophosphorylation and Increase Tumor Radiosensitivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun Xiaonan; Yang Chunying; Liu Hai; Wang Qi; Wu Shixiu; Li Xia; Xie Tian; Brinkman, Kathryn L.; Teh, Bin S.; Butler, E. Brian; Xu Bo; Zheng, Shu

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The DNA protein kinase catalytic subunit (DNA-PKcs) is one of the critical elements involved in the DNA damage repair process. Inhibition of DNA-PKcs results in hypersensitivity to ionizing radiation (IR); therefore, this approach has been explored to develop molecular targeted radiosensitizers. Here, we aimed to develop small inhibitory peptides that could specifically target DNA-PKcs autophosphorylation, a critical step for the enzymatic activation of the kinase in response to IR. Methods and Materials: We generated several small fusion peptides consisting of 2 functional domains, 1 an internalization domain and the other a DNA-PKcs autophosphorylation inhibitory domain. We characterized the internalization, toxicity, and radiosensitization activities of the fusion peptides. Furthermore, we studied the mechanisms of the inhibitory peptides on DNA-PKcs autophosphorylation and DNA repair. Results: We found that among several peptides, the biotin-labeled peptide 3 (BTW3) peptide, which targets DNA-PKcs threonine 2647 autophosphorylation, can abrogate IR-induced DNA-PKcs activation and cause prolonged γ-H2AX focus formation. We demonstrated that BTW3 exposure led to hypersensitivity to IR in DNA-PKcs-proficient cells but not in DNA-PKcs-deficient cells. Conclusions: The small inhibitory peptide BTW3 can specifically target DNA-PKcs autophosphorylation and enhance radiosensitivity; therefore, it can be further developed as a novel class of radiosensitizer.

  12. 小肽在反刍动物营养中的应用%The Application of Small Peptide in Ruminant Nutrition

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    许晴; 王斌星; 郭春华; 付洋洋; 王鼎

    2017-01-01

    Small peptide is the intermediate production of protein degradation;proteins are absorbed after degraded into free amino acids and peptides in the digestive tract of ruminants.Recently,the research of oligopeptide,especially small-peptide has become a hot topic in ruminant protein nutrition research.In order to fully understand the application of small peptides in ruminant nutrition,this paper reviews the effect of small peptides in ruminant diet on the production performance of ruminants,substance metabolism and rumen fermentation;this will provide a reference for the research and application of small peptides in ruminant nutrition.%小肽是动物降解蛋白质过程中产生的中间产物,蛋白质在动物消化道内降解成游离氨基酸和小肽后被吸收.近年来,对寡肽特别是小肽在反刍动物蛋白质营养中的作用有了越来越多的研究.为了全面了解小肽在反刍动物营养中的应用情况.论文综述了小肽应用于反刍动物日粮中对反刍动物的生产性能、物质代谢及瘤胃发酵的作用效果,以期为小肽在反刍动物营养中的研究和应用提供参考.

  13. 99m Tc-HYNIC-(Ser)3 -J18 peptide: A radiotracer for non-small-cell lung cancer targeting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaghaghi, Zahra; Abedi, Seyed Mohammad; Hosseinimehr, Seyed Jalal

    2018-02-14

    Radiolabeled peptide could be a useful tool for the diagnosis of non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). In this study, HYNIC-(Ser) 3 -J18 peptide was labeled with 99m Tc using EDDA/tricine as coligands. The in vitro and in vivo studies of this radiolabeled peptide were performed for cellular-specific binding and tumor targeting in A-549 cells and tumor-bearing mice, respectively. The high radiochemical purity was obtained and this radiolabeled peptide exhibited high stability in buffer and serum. The radiolabeled peptide showed high affinity for the A-549 cells with a dissociation constant value (K D ) of 4.4 ± 0.8 nm. The tumor-muscles ratios were 2.7 and 4.4 at 1 and 2 hr after injection of 99m Tc-(EDDA/tricine)-HYNIC-(Ser) 3 -J18 in tumor-bearing mice. The tumor uptake was decreased after preinjection with non-labeled peptide for this radiolabeled peptide in blocking experiment. The results of this study showed the 99m Tc-(EDDA/tricine)-(Ser) 3 -HYNIC-J18 peptide might be a promising radiolabeled peptide for NSCLC targeting. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  14. Rapid phenolic O-glycosylation of small molecules and complex unprotected peptides in aqueous solvent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wadzinski, Tyler J.; Steinauer, Angela; Hie, Liana; Pelletier, Guillaume; Schepartz, Alanna; Miller, Scott J.

    2018-06-01

    Glycosylated natural products and synthetic glycopeptides represent a significant and growing source of biochemical probes and therapeutic agents. However, methods that enable the aqueous glycosylation of endogenous amino acid functionality in peptides without the use of protecting groups are scarce. Here, we report a transformation that facilitates the efficient aqueous O-glycosylation of phenolic functionality in a wide range of small molecules, unprotected tyrosine, and tyrosine residues embedded within a range of complex, fully unprotected peptides. The transformation, which uses glycosyl fluoride donors and is promoted by Ca(OH)2, proceeds rapidly at room temperature in water, with good yields and selective formation of unique anomeric products depending on the stereochemistry of the glycosyl donor. High functional group tolerance is observed, and the phenol glycosylation occurs selectively in the presence of virtually all side chains of the proteinogenic amino acids with the singular exception of Cys. This method offers a highly selective, efficient, and operationally simple approach for the protecting-group-free synthesis of O-aryl glycosides and Tyr-O-glycosylated peptides in water.

  15. Steric-electronic effects in malarial peptides inducing sterile immunity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moreno-Vranich, Armando [Fundacion Instituto de Inmunologia de Colombia (FIDIC), Bogota (Colombia); Patarroyo, Manuel E., E-mail: mepatarr@mail.com [Fundacion Instituto de Inmunologia de Colombia (FIDIC), Bogota (Colombia); Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Bogota (Colombia)

    2012-07-13

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Is it evident that the residues position are relevant regarding of {phi} angular value. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The geometry considered for detailing the alterations undergone by HABPs. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The inter planar interactions ruled by clashes between the atoms making them up. -- Abstract: Conserved Plasmodium falciparum high activity binding peptides' (HABPs) most relevant proteins involved in malaria parasite invasion are immunologically silent; critical binding residues must therefore be specifically replaced to render them highly immunogenic and protection-inducing. Such changes have a tremendous impact on these peptides' steric-electronic effects, such as modifications to peptide length peptide bonds and electronic orbitals' disposition, to allow a better fit into immune system MHCII molecules and better interaction with the TCR which might account for the final immunological outcome.

  16. Peptide-Mediated Liposome Fusion: The Effect of Anchor Positioning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niek S. A. Crone

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available A minimal model system for membrane fusion, comprising two complementary peptides dubbed “E” and “K” joined to a cholesterol anchor via a polyethyleneglycol spacer, has previously been developed in our group. This system promotes the fusion of large unilamellar vesicles and facilitates liposome-cell fusion both in vitro and in vivo. Whilst several aspects of the system have previously been investigated to provide an insight as to how fusion is facilitated, anchor positioning has not yet been considered. In this study, the effects of placing the anchor at either the N-terminus or in the center of the peptide are investigated using a combination of circular dichroism spectroscopy, dynamic light scattering, and fluorescence assays. It was discovered that anchoring the “K” peptide in the center of the sequence had no effect on its structure, its ability to interact with membranes, or its ability to promote fusion, whereas anchoring the ‘E’ peptide in the middle of the sequence dramatically decreases fusion efficiency. We postulate that anchoring the ‘E’ peptide in the middle of the sequence disrupts its ability to form homodimers with peptides on the same membrane, leading to aggregation and content leakage.

  17. Amphiphilic Peptide Interactions with Complex Biological Membranes : Effect of peptide properties on antimicrobial and anti-inflammatory effects

    OpenAIRE

    Singh, Shalini

    2016-01-01

    With increasing problem of resistance development in bacteria against conventional antibiotics, as well as problems associated with diseases either triggered or enhanced by infection, there is an urgent need to identify new types of effective therapeutics for the treatment of infectious diseases and its consequences. Antimicrobial and anti-inflammatory peptides have attracted considerable interest as potential new antibiotics in this context. While antimicrobial function of such peptides is b...

  18. Sera from Children with Autism Induce Autistic Features Which Can Be Rescued with a CNTF Small Peptide Mimetic in Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazim, Syed Faraz; Cardenas-Aguayo, Maria del Carmen; Arif, Mohammad; Blanchard, Julie; Fayyaz, Fatima; Grundke-Iqbal, Inge; Iqbal, Khalid

    2015-01-01

    Autism is a neurodevelopmental disorder characterized clinically by impairments in social interaction and verbal and non-verbal communication skills as well as restricted interests and repetitive behavior. It has been hypothesized that altered brain environment including an imbalance in neurotrophic support during early development contributes to the pathophysiology of autism. Here we report that sera from children with autism which exhibited abnormal levels of various neurotrophic factors induced cell death and oxidative stress in mouse primary cultured cortical neurons. The effects of sera from autistic children were rescued by pre-treatment with a ciliary neurotrophic factor (CNTF) small peptide mimetic, Peptide 6 (P6), which was previously shown to exert its neuroprotective effect by modulating CNTF/JAK/STAT pathway and LIF signaling and by enhancing brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) expression. Similar neurotoxic effects and neuroinflammation were observed in young Wistar rats injected intracerebroventricularly with autism sera within hours after birth. The autism sera injected rats demonstrated developmental delay and deficits in social communication, interaction, and novelty. Both the neurobiological changes and the behavioral autistic phenotype were ameliorated by P6 treatment. These findings implicate the involvement of neurotrophic imbalance during early brain development in the pathophysiology of autism and a proof of principle of P6 as a potential therapeutic strategy for autism. PMID:25769033

  19. Sera from children with autism induce autistic features which can be rescued with a CNTF small peptide mimetic in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazim, Syed Faraz; Cardenas-Aguayo, Maria Del Carmen; Arif, Mohammad; Blanchard, Julie; Fayyaz, Fatima; Grundke-Iqbal, Inge; Iqbal, Khalid

    2015-01-01

    Autism is a neurodevelopmental disorder characterized clinically by impairments in social interaction and verbal and non-verbal communication skills as well as restricted interests and repetitive behavior. It has been hypothesized that altered brain environment including an imbalance in neurotrophic support during early development contributes to the pathophysiology of autism. Here we report that sera from children with autism which exhibited abnormal levels of various neurotrophic factors induced cell death and oxidative stress in mouse primary cultured cortical neurons. The effects of sera from autistic children were rescued by pre-treatment with a ciliary neurotrophic factor (CNTF) small peptide mimetic, Peptide 6 (P6), which was previously shown to exert its neuroprotective effect by modulating CNTF/JAK/STAT pathway and LIF signaling and by enhancing brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) expression. Similar neurotoxic effects and neuroinflammation were observed in young Wistar rats injected intracerebroventricularly with autism sera within hours after birth. The autism sera injected rats demonstrated developmental delay and deficits in social communication, interaction, and novelty. Both the neurobiological changes and the behavioral autistic phenotype were ameliorated by P6 treatment. These findings implicate the involvement of neurotrophic imbalance during early brain development in the pathophysiology of autism and a proof of principle of P6 as a potential therapeutic strategy for autism.

  20. Effect of Gastrointestinal Protease Digestion on Bioactivity of Marine Peptides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Ida-Johanne; Andersen, Lisa Lystbæk; Ossum, Carlo Gunnar

    2014-01-01

    executed without concerning subsequent digestion after intake and the aim of this work was hence to investigate how the in vitro antioxidative, antihypertensive and caspase activating activities of peptides are affected by digestion with gastrointestinal (GI) proteases. Five different fish protein...... hydrolysates were chosen to study the effect of in vitro digestion on bioactivity. The protein concentration decreased in all samples during digestion and the molecular weight distribution of the peptides shifted towards lower values. Thus, in vitro digestion with GI proteases resulted in a further degradation...... of the peptides obtained by hydrolysis. The antihypertensive effect increased in all samples after digestion with GI proteases whereas the antioxidative capacity decreased. The effect on the caspase activity depended on the proteases used in the preparation of hydrolysates. In conclusion, the caspase activity...

  1. Topical Anti-Nuclear Factor-Kappa B Small Interfering RNA with Functional Peptides Containing Sericin-Based Hydrogel for Atopic Dermatitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takanori Kanazawa

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The small interfering RNA (siRNA is suggested to offer a novel means of treating atopic dermatitis (AD because it allows the specific silencing of genes related to AD pathogenesis. In our previous study, we found that siRNA targeted against RelA, an important nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB subdomain, with functional peptides, showed therapeutic effects in a mouse model of AD. In the present study, to develop a topical skin application against AD, we prepared a hydrogel containing anti-RelA siRNA and functional peptides and determined the intradermal permeation and the anti-AD effects in an AD mouse model. We selected the silk protein, sericin (SC, which is a versatile biocompatible biomaterial to prepare hydrogel as an aqueous gel base. We found that the siRNA was more widely delivered to the site of application in AD-induced ear skin of mice after topical application via the hydrogel containing functional peptides than via the preparation without functional peptides. In addition, the ear thickness and clinical skin severity of the AD-induced mice treated with hydrogel containing anti-RelA siRNA with functional peptides improved more than that of mice treated with the preparation formulated with negative siRNA.

  2. Co-delivery of a hydrophobic small molecule and a hydrophilic peptide by porous silicon nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Dongfei; Bimbo, Luis M; Mäkilä, Ermei; Villanova, Francesca; Kaasalainen, Martti; Herranz-Blanco, Barbara; Caramella, Carla M; Lehto, Vesa-Pekka; Salonen, Jarno; Herzig, Karl-Heinz; Hirvonen, Jouni; Santos, Hélder A

    2013-09-10

    Nanoparticulate drug delivery systems offer remarkable opportunities for clinical treatment. However, there are several challenges when they are employed to deliver multiple cargos/payloads, particularly concerning the synchronous delivery of small molecular weight drugs and relatively larger peptides. Since porous silicon (PSi) nanoparticles (NPs) can easily contain high payloads of drugs with various properties, we evaluated their carrier potential in multi-drug delivery for co-loading of the hydrophobic drug indomethacin and the hydrophilic human peptide YY3-36 (PYY3-36). Sequential loading of these two drugs into the PSi NPs enhanced the drug release rate of each drug and also their amount permeated across Caco-2 and Caco-2/HT29 cell monolayers. Regardless of the loading approach used, dual or single, the drug permeation profiles were in good correlation with their drug release behaviour. Furthermore, the permeation studies indicated the critical role of the mucus intestinal layer and the paracellular resistance in the permeation of the therapeutic compounds across the intestinal wall. Loading with PYY3-36 also greatly improved the cytocompatibility of the PSi NPs. Conformational analysis indicated that the PYY3-36 could still display biological activity after release from the PSi NPs and permeation across the intestinal cell monolayers. These results are the first demonstration of the promising potential of PSi NPs for simultaneous multi-drug delivery of both hydrophobic and hydrophilic compounds. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Pentastatin-1, a collagen IV derived 20-mer peptide, suppresses tumor growth in a small cell lung cancer xenograft model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koskimaki, Jacob E; Karagiannis, Emmanouil D; Tang, Benjamin C; Hammers, Hans; Watkins, D Neil; Pili, Roberto; Popel, Aleksander S

    2010-02-01

    Angiogenesis is the formation of neovasculature from a pre-existing vascular network. Progression of solid tumors including lung cancer is angiogenesis-dependent. We previously introduced a bioinformatics-based methodology to identify endogenous anti-angiogenic peptide sequences, and validated these predictions in vitro in human umbilical vein endothelial cell (HUVEC) proliferation and migration assays. One family of peptides with high activity is derived from the alpha-fibrils of type IV collagen. Based on the results from the in vitro screening, we have evaluated the ability of a 20 amino acid peptide derived from the alpha5 fibril of type IV collagen, pentastatin-1, to suppress vessel growth in an angioreactor-based directed in vivo angiogenesis assay (DIVAA). In addition, pentastatin-1 suppressed tumor growth with intraperitoneal peptide administration in a small cell lung cancer (SCLC) xenograft model in nude mice using the NCI-H82 human cancer cell line. Pentastatin-1 decreased the invasion of vessels into angioreactors in vivo in a dose dependent manner. The peptide also decreased the rate of tumor growth and microvascular density in vivo in a small cell lung cancer xenograft model. The peptide treatment significantly decreased the invasion of microvessels in angioreactors and the rate of tumor growth in the xenograft model, indicating potential treatment for angiogenesis-dependent disease, and for translational development as a therapeutic agent for lung cancer.

  4. Pentastatin-1, a collagen IV derived 20-mer peptide, suppresses tumor growth in a small cell lung cancer xenograft model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koskimaki, Jacob E; Karagiannis, Emmanouil D; Tang, Benjamin C; Hammers, Hans; Watkins, D Neil; Pili, Roberto; Popel, Aleksander S

    2010-01-01

    Angiogenesis is the formation of neovasculature from a pre-existing vascular network. Progression of solid tumors including lung cancer is angiogenesis-dependent. We previously introduced a bioinformatics-based methodology to identify endogenous anti-angiogenic peptide sequences, and validated these predictions in vitro in human umbilical vein endothelial cell (HUVEC) proliferation and migration assays. One family of peptides with high activity is derived from the α-fibrils of type IV collagen. Based on the results from the in vitro screening, we have evaluated the ability of a 20 amino acid peptide derived from the α5 fibril of type IV collagen, pentastatin-1, to suppress vessel growth in an angioreactor-based directed in vivo angiogenesis assay (DIVAA). In addition, pentastatin-1 suppressed tumor growth with intraperitoneal peptide administration in a small cell lung cancer (SCLC) xenograft model in nude mice using the NCI-H82 human cancer cell line. Pentastatin-1 decreased the invasion of vessels into angioreactors in vivo in a dose dependent manner. The peptide also decreased the rate of tumor growth and microvascular density in vivo in a small cell lung cancer xenograft model. The peptide treatment significantly decreased the invasion of microvessels in angioreactors and the rate of tumor growth in the xenograft model, indicating potential treatment for angiogenesis-dependent disease, and for translational development as a therapeutic agent for lung cancer

  5. Computational prediction of the pKas of small peptides through Conceptual DFT descriptors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frau, Juan; Hernández-Haro, Noemí; Glossman-Mitnik, Daniel

    2017-03-01

    The experimental pKa of a group of simple amines have been plotted against several Conceptual DFT descriptors calculated by means of different density functionals, basis sets and solvation schemes. It was found that the best fits are those that relate the pKa of the amines with the global hardness η through the MN12SX density functional in connection with the Def2TZVP basis set and the SMD solvation model, using water as a solvent. The parameterized equation resulting from the linear regression analysis has then been used for the prediction of the pKa of small peptides of interest in the study of diabetes and Alzheimer disease. The accuracy of the results is relatively good, with a MAD of 0.36 units of pKa.

  6. Characterization of oligomerization of a peptide from the ebola virus glycoprotein by small-angle neutron scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Egorov, V. V.; Gorshkov, A. N.; Murugova, T. N.; Vasin, A. V.; Lebedev, D. V.; Isaev-Ivanov, V. V.; Kiselev, O. I.

    2016-01-01

    Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and small-angle neutron scattering (SANS) studies showed that model peptides QNALVCGLRQ (G33) and QNALVCGLRG (G31) corresponding to region 551–560 of the GP protein of the Sudan Ebola virus are prone to oligomerization in solution. Both peptides can form amyloid-like fibrills. The G33 peptide forms fibrils within one day of incubation, whereas the fibrillogenesis of the G31 peptide is observed only after incubation for several months. The possible role of the observed processes in the pathogenesis and the possibility of applying a combination of the TEM and SANS techniques to search for new compounds that are able to influence the protein oligomerization are discussed

  7. Characterization of oligomerization of a peptide from the ebola virus glycoprotein by small-angle neutron scattering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Egorov, V. V., E-mail: vlaegur@omrb.pnpi.spb.ru [National Research Center “Kurchatov Institute”, Konstantinov Petersburg Nuclear Physics Institute (Russian Federation); Gorshkov, A. N. [Ministry of Health of the Russian Federation, Research Institute of Influenza (Russian Federation); Murugova, T. N. [Joint Institute for Nuclear Research (Russian Federation); Vasin, A. V. [Ministry of Health of the Russian Federation, Research Institute of Influenza (Russian Federation); Lebedev, D. V.; Isaev-Ivanov, V. V. [National Research Center “Kurchatov Institute”, Konstantinov Petersburg Nuclear Physics Institute (Russian Federation); Kiselev, O. I. [Ministry of Health of the Russian Federation, Research Institute of Influenza (Russian Federation)

    2016-01-15

    Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and small-angle neutron scattering (SANS) studies showed that model peptides QNALVCGLRQ (G33) and QNALVCGLRG (G31) corresponding to region 551–560 of the GP protein of the Sudan Ebola virus are prone to oligomerization in solution. Both peptides can form amyloid-like fibrills. The G33 peptide forms fibrils within one day of incubation, whereas the fibrillogenesis of the G31 peptide is observed only after incubation for several months. The possible role of the observed processes in the pathogenesis and the possibility of applying a combination of the TEM and SANS techniques to search for new compounds that are able to influence the protein oligomerization are discussed.

  8. Characterization of oligomerization of a peptide from the ebola virus glycoprotein by small-angle neutron scattering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egorov, V. V.; Gorshkov, A. N.; Murugova, T. N.; Vasin, A. V.; Lebedev, D. V.; Isaev-Ivanov, V. V.; Kiselev, O. I.

    2016-01-01

    Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and small-angle neutron scattering (SANS) studies showed that model peptides QNALVCGLRQ (G33) and QNALVCGLRG (G31) corresponding to region 551-560 of the GP protein of the Sudan Ebola virus are prone to oligomerization in solution. Both peptides can form amyloid-like fibrills. The G33 peptide forms fibrils within one day of incubation, whereas the fibrillogenesis of the G31 peptide is observed only after incubation for several months. The possible role of the observed processes in the pathogenesis and the possibility of applying a combination of the TEM and SANS techniques to search for new compounds that are able to influence the protein oligomerization are discussed.

  9. Identification of Small Peptides in Human Cerebrospinal Fluid upon Amyloid-β Degradation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mizuta, Naoki; Yanagida, Kanta; Kodama, Takashi; Tomonaga, Takeshi; Takami, Mako; Oyama, Hiroshi; Kudo, Takashi; Ikeda, Manabu; Takeda, Masatoshi; Tagami, Shinji; Okochi, Masayasu

    2017-01-01

    Amyloid-β (Aβ) degradation in brains of Alzheimer disease patients is a crucial focus for the clarification of disease pathogenesis. Nevertheless, the mechanisms underlying Aβ degradation in the human brain remain unclear. This study aimed to quantify the levels of small C-terminal Aβ fragments generated upon Aβ degradation in human cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). A fraction containing small peptides was isolated and purified from human CSF by high-pressure liquid chromatography. Degradation products of Aβ C termini were identified and measured by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. The C-terminal fragments of Aβ in the conditioned medium of cultured cells transfected with the Swedish variant of βAPP (sw βAPP) were analyzed. These fragments in brains of PS1 I213T knock-in transgenic mice, overexpressing sw βAPP, were also analyzed. The peptide fragments GGVV and GVV, produced by the cleavage of Aβ40, were identified in human CSF as well as in the brains of the transgenic mice and in the conditioned medium of the cultured cells. Relative to Aβ40 levels, GGVV and GVV levels were 7.6 ± 0.81 and 1.5 ± 0.18%, respectively, in human CSF. Levels of the GGVV fragment did not increase by the introduction of genes encoding neprilysin and insulin-degrading enzyme to the cultured cells. Our results indicate that a substantial amount of Aβ40 in human brains is degraded via a neprilysin- or insulin-degrading enzyme-independent pathway. © 2017 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  10. Predicting Antitumor Activity of Peptides by Consensus of Regression Models Trained on a Small Data Sample

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivanka Jerić

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Predicting antitumor activity of compounds using regression models trained on a small number of compounds with measured biological activity is an ill-posed inverse problem. Yet, it occurs very often within the academic community. To counteract, up to some extent, overfitting problems caused by a small training data, we propose to use consensus of six regression models for prediction of biological activity of virtual library of compounds. The QSAR descriptors of 22 compounds related to the opioid growth factor (OGF, Tyr-Gly-Gly-Phe-Met with known antitumor activity were used to train regression models: the feed-forward artificial neural network, the k-nearest neighbor, sparseness constrained linear regression, the linear and nonlinear (with polynomial and Gaussian kernel support vector machine. Regression models were applied on a virtual library of 429 compounds that resulted in six lists with candidate compounds ranked by predicted antitumor activity. The highly ranked candidate compounds were synthesized, characterized and tested for an antiproliferative activity. Some of prepared peptides showed more pronounced activity compared with the native OGF; however, they were less active than highly ranked compounds selected previously by the radial basis function support vector machine (RBF SVM regression model. The ill-posedness of the related inverse problem causes unstable behavior of trained regression models on test data. These results point to high complexity of prediction based on the regression models trained on a small data sample.

  11. Field effect of screened charges: electrical detection of peptides and proteins by a thin-film resistor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lud, Simon Q; Nikolaides, Michael G; Haase, Ilka; Fischer, Markus; Bausch, Andreas R

    2006-02-13

    For many biotechnological applications the label-free detection of biomolecular interactions is becoming of outstanding importance. In this Article we report the direct electrical detection of small peptides and proteins by their intrinsic charges using a biofunctionalized thin-film resistor. The label-free selective and quantitative detection of small peptides and proteins is achieved using hydrophobized silicon-on-insulator (SOI) substrates functionalized with lipid membranes that incorporate metal-chelating lipids. The response of the nanometer-thin conducting silicon film to electrolyte screening effects is taken into account to determine quantitatively the charges of peptides. It is even possible to detect peptides with a single charge and to distinguish single charge variations of the analytes even in physiological electrolyte solutions. As the device is based on standard semiconductor technologies, parallelization and miniaturization of the SOI-based biosensor is achievable by standard CMOS technologies and thus a promising basis for high-throughput screening or biotechnological applications.

  12. peptide

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Prakash

    effects can be observed under certain conditions but these are not always .... of proteins with amyloid characteristics in muscle (Jayaraman et al. 2008) ... not enhance the growth of dangerous fibrils generated at pH. 7.4. ..... The lower chart shows Aβ(25-35) aggregation kinetics during the first 4 min of monitoring. Results are ...

  13. Effects of salmon calcitonin and calcitonin gene related peptide ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of this investigation was to examine and compare the effects of calcitonin gene related peptide (CGRP) and salmon calcitonin (sCT) on gastric lesions and mucosal barrier components such as mucus and phospholipids in rats exposed to cold + restraint stress (CRS). Twenty-eight Wistar albino rats (150 – 200 g) ...

  14. Systematic Moiety Variations of Ultrashort Peptides Produce Profound Effects on Self-Assembly, Nanostructure Formation, Hydrogelation, and Phase Transition

    KAUST Repository

    Chan, Kiat Hwa

    2017-10-04

    Self-assembly of small biomolecules is a prevalent phenomenon that is increasingly being recognised to hold the key to building complex structures from simple monomeric units. Small peptides, in particular ultrashort peptides containing up to seven amino acids, for which our laboratory has found many biomedical applications, exhibit immense potential in this regard. For next-generation applications, more intricate control is required over the self-assembly processes. We seek to find out how subtle moiety variation of peptides can affect self-assembly and nanostructure formation. To this end, we have selected a library of 54 tripeptides, derived from systematic moiety variations from seven tripeptides. Our study reveals that subtle structural changes in the tripeptides can exert profound effects on self-assembly, nanostructure formation, hydrogelation, and even phase transition of peptide nanostructures. By comparing the X-ray crystal structures of two tripeptides, acetylated leucine-leucine-glutamic acid (Ac-LLE) and acetylated tyrosine-leucine-aspartic acid (Ac-YLD), we obtained valuable insights into the structural factors that can influence the formation of supramolecular peptide structures. We believe that our results have major implications on the understanding of the factors that affect peptide self-assembly. In addition, our findings can potentially assist current computational efforts to predict and design self-assembling peptide systems for diverse biomedical applications.

  15. Systematic Moiety Variations of Ultrashort Peptides Produce Profound Effects on Self-Assembly, Nanostructure Formation, Hydrogelation, and Phase Transition

    KAUST Repository

    Chan, Kiat Hwa; Xue, Bo; Robinson, Robert C.; Hauser, Charlotte

    2017-01-01

    Self-assembly of small biomolecules is a prevalent phenomenon that is increasingly being recognised to hold the key to building complex structures from simple monomeric units. Small peptides, in particular ultrashort peptides containing up to seven

  16. Effect of positively charged short peptides on stability of cubic phases of monoolein/dioleoylphosphatidic acid mixtures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masum, Shah Md; Li, Shu Jie; Awad, Tarek S; Yamazaki, Masahito

    2005-06-07

    To elucidate the stability and phase transition of cubic phases of biomembranes with infinite periodic minimal surface is indispensable from biological and physicochemical aspects. In this report, we investigated the effect of positively charged peptide-3K (LLKKK) and poly(L-lysine) on the phase stability of monoolein (MO) membranes containing negatively charged dioleoylphosphatidic acid (DOPA) (i.e., DOPA/MO membranes) using small-angle X-ray scattering. At first, the effect of peptide-3K on 10% DOPA/90% MO membrane in excess water, which is in the Q229 phase, was investigated. At 3.4 mM peptide-3K, a Q229 to Q230 phase transition occurred, and at >3.4 mM peptide-3K, the membrane was in the Q230 phase. Poly(L-lysine) (M(w) 1K-4K) also induced the Q230 phase, but peptide-2K (LLKK) could not induce it in the same membrane. We also investigated the effect of peptide-3K on the multilamellar vesicle (MLV) of 25% DOPA/75% MO membrane, which is in L(alpha) phase. In the absence of peptide, the spacing of MLV was very large (11.3 nm), but at > or = 8 mM peptide-3K, it greatly decreased to a constant value (5.2 nm), irrespective of the peptide concentration, indicating that peptide-3K and the membranes form an electrostatically stabilized aggregation with low water content. Poly(L-lysine) also decreased greatly the spacing of the 25% DOPA/75% MO MLV, indicating the formation of a similar aggregation. To compare the effects of peptide-3K and poly(L-lysine) with that of osmotic stress on stability of the cubic phase, we investigated the effect of poly(ethylene glycol) with molecular weight 7500 (PEG-6K) on the phase stability of 10% DOPA/90% MO membrane. With an increase in PEG-6K concentration, i.e., with an increase in osmotic stress, the most stable phase changed as follows; Q229 (Schwartz's P surface) --> Q224 (D) --> Q230 (G). On the basis of these results, we discuss the mechanism of the effects of the positively charged short peptides (peptide-3K) and poly

  17. Glycotriazole-peptides derived from the peptide HSP1: synergistic effect of triazole and saccharide rings on the antifungal activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Junior, Eduardo F C; Guimarães, Carlos F R C; Franco, Lucas L; Alves, Ricardo J; Kato, Kelly C; Martins, Helen R; de Souza Filho, José D; Bemquerer, Marcelo P; Munhoz, Victor H O; Resende, Jarbas M; Verly, Rodrigo M

    2017-08-01

    This work proposes a strategy that uses solid-phase peptide synthesis associated with copper(I)-catalyzed azide alkyne cycloaddition reaction to promote the glycosylation of an antimicrobial peptide (HSP1) containing a carboxyamidated C-terminus (HSP1-NH 2 ). Two glycotriazole-peptides, namely [p-Glc-trz-G 1 ]HSP1-NH 2 and [p-GlcNAc-trz-G 1 ]HSP1-NH 2 , were prepared using per-O-acetylated azide derivatives of glucose and N-acetylglucosamine in the presence of copper(II) sulfate pentahydrate (CuSO 4 ·5H 2 O) and sodium ascorbate as a reducing agent. In order to investigate the synergistic action of the carbohydrate motif linked to the triazole-peptide structure, a triazole derivative [trz-G 1 ]HSP1-NH 2 was also prepared. A set of biophysical approaches such as DLS, Zeta Potential, SPR and carboxyfluorescein leakage from phospholipid vesicles confirmed higher membrane disruption and lytic activities as well as stronger peptide-LUVs interactions for the glycotriazole-peptides when compared to HSP1-NH 2 and to its triazole derivative, which is in accordance with the performed biological assays: whereas HSP1-NH 2 presents relatively low and [trz-G 1 ]HSP1-NH 2 just moderate fungicidal activity, the glycotriazole-peptides are significantly more effective antifungal agents. In addition, the glycotriazole-peptides and the triazole derivative present strong inhibition effects on ergosterol biosynthesis in Candida albicans, when compared to HSP1-NH 2 alone. In conclusion, the increased fungicidal activity of the glycotriazole-peptides seems to be the result of (A) more pronounced membrane-disruptive properties, which is related to the presence of a saccharide ring, together with (B) the inhibition of ergosterol biosynthesis, which seems to be related to the presence of both the monosaccharide and the triazole rings.

  18. Applications of neural network prediction of conformational states for small peptides from spectra and of fold classes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bohr, Henrik; Røgen, Peter; Jalkanen, Karl J.

    2001-01-01

    but already at this stage they could be compared with reasonable agreements to experiments. The neural networks are shown to be good in distinguishing the different conformers of the small alanine peptides. especially when in the gas phase. Also the task of predicting protein fold-classes, defined from line...... to construct vibrational spectra for each of the conformational states with low energy. From the spectra, neural networks could be trained to distinguish between the various states and thus be able to generate a larger set of relevant structures and their relation to secondary structures of the peptides....... The calculations were done both with solvent atoms (up to ten water molecules) and without, and hence the neural networks could be used to monitor the influence of the solvent on hydrogen bond formation. The calculations at this stage only involved very short peptide fragments of a few alanine amino acids...

  19. Effect of organic molecules on hydrolysis of peptide bond: A DFT study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Makshakova, Olga; Ermakova, Elena

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► DFT study of the effects of small organic molecules on the hydrolysis reactions of peptide bonds. ► Organic molecules can activate nonenzymatic hydrolysis reaction. ► Influence of organic acids on activation energy barrier correlates with their electronegativity. - Abstract: The activation and inhibition effects of small organic molecules on peptide hydrolysis have been studied using a model compound dialanine and DFT approach. Solvent-assisted and non-assisted concerted mechanisms were analyzed. Several transition states for the systems: alanine dipeptide–water molecule in complexes with alcohol molecules, acetonitrile, dimethylsulfoxide, propionic, lactic and pyruvic acids and water molecules were localized. The formation of hydrogen bonds between dipeptide, reactive water molecule and molecules of solvents influences the activation energy barrier of the peptide bond hydrolytic reaction. Strong effect of organic acids on the activation energy barrier correlates with their electronegativity. Acetonitrile can act as an inhibitor of reaction. Mechanisms of regulation of the activation energy barrier are discussed in the terms of donor-acceptor interactions

  20. Structure-Based Drug Design of Small Molecule Peptide Deformylase Inhibitors to Treat Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian Gao

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Human peptide deformylase (HsPDF is an important target for anticancer drug discovery. In view of the limited HsPDF, inhibitors were reported, and high-throughput virtual screening (HTVS studies based on HsPDF for developing new PDF inhibitors remain to be reported. We reported here on diverse small molecule inhibitors with excellent anticancer activities designed based on HTVS and molecular docking studies using the crystal structure of HsPDF. The compound M7594_0037 exhibited potent anticancer activities against HeLa, A549 and MCF-7 cell lines with IC50s of 35.26, 29.63 and 24.63 μM, respectively. Molecular docking studies suggested that M7594_0037 and its three derivatives could interact with HsPDF by several conserved hydrogen bonds. Moreover, the pharmacokinetic and toxicity properties of M7594_0037 and its derivatives were predicted using the OSIRIS property explorer. Thus, M7594_0037 and its derivatives might represent a promising scaffold for the further development of novel anticancer drugs.

  1. RPL41, a Small Ribosomal Peptide Deregulated in Tumors, Is Essential for Mitosis and Centrosome Integrity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shan Wang

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Ribosomal large subunit protein RPL41 is a basic (positively charged peptide consisting of only 25 amino acids. An antisense-based functional screening revealed that the down-regulation of RPL41 led to an anchorage-independent growth of NIH3T3 cells in soft agar plates. RPL41 depletion with gene-specific small interfering RNA also resulted in malignant transformation of NIH3T3 cells including increased tumor growth in mice. RPL41 deletion was detected in 59% of tumor cell lines by fluorescence in situ hybridization analyses and RPL41 down-regulation in 75% of primary breast cancers by real-time quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. These studies suggest a tumor suppression role for RPL41. By mass spectrometry, RPL41 was associated with several cytoskeleton components including tubulin β, γ, and myosin IIA, which was confirmed by Western blot analysis on both cellular lysis and individually in vitro-expressed proteins. RPL41 also bound directly to polymerized tubulins. Cells overexpressing a GFP-RPL41 were resistant to nocodazole-induced microtubule depolymerization. A synthetic RPL41 induced cellular α-tubulin acetylation and G2/M cell cycle arrest. These results indicate a stabilizing role of RPL41 on microtubule. Microtubule spindles are essential for chromosome segregation during mitosis. Cells with RPL41 knock-down showed abnormal spindles, frequent failure of cytokinesis, and formation of polynuclear cells. In interphase cells, RPL41-depleted cells had premature splitting of centrosome. Our results provide evidence that RPL41 is a microtubule-associated protein essential for functional spindles and for the integrity of centrosome and that the abnormal mitosis and disrupted centrosome associated with the RPL41 down-regulation may be related to malignant transformation.

  2. Identification of small secreted peptides (SSPs) in maize and expression analysis of partial SSP genes in reproductive tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ye Long; Dai, Xin Ren; Yue, Xun; Gao, Xin-Qi; Zhang, Xian Sheng

    2014-10-01

    Maize 1,491 small secreted peptides were identified, which were classified according to the character of peptide sequences. Partial SSP gene expressions in reproductive tissues were determined by qRT-PCR. Small secreted peptides (SSPs) are important cell-cell communication messengers in plants. Most information on plant SSPs come from Arabidopsis thaliana and Oryza sativa, while little is known about the SSPs of other grass species such as maize (Zea mays). In this study, we identified 1,491 SSP genes from maize genomic sequences. These putative SSP genes were distributed throughout the ten maize chromosomes. Among them, 611 SSPs were classified into 198 superfamilies according to their conserved domains, and 725 SSPs with four or more cysteines at their C-termini shared similar cysteine arrangements with their counterparts in other plant species. Moreover, the SSPs requiring post-translational modification, as well as defensin-like (DEFL) proteins, were identified. Further, the expression levels of 110 SSP genes were analyzed in reproductive tissues, including male flower, pollen, silk, and ovary. Most of the genes encoding basal-layer antifungal peptide-like, small coat proteins-like, thioredoxin-like proteins, γ-thionins-like, and DEFL proteins showed high expression levels in the ovary and male flower compared with their levels in silk and mature pollen. The rapid alkalinization factor-like genes were highly expressed only in the mature ovary and mature pollen, and pollen Ole e 1-like genes showed low expression in silk. The results of this study provide basic information for further analysis of SSP functions in the reproductive process of maize.

  3. Steric effects in peptide and protein exchange with activated disulfides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerr, Jason; Schlosser, Jessica L; Griffin, Donald R; Wong, Darice Y; Kasko, Andrea M

    2013-08-12

    Disulfide exchange is an important bioconjugation tool, enabling chemical modification of peptides and proteins containing free cysteines. We previously reported the synthesis of a macromer bearing an activated disulfide and its incorporation into hydrogels. Despite their ability to diffuse freely into hydrogels, larger proteins were unable to undergo in-gel disulfide exchange. In order to understand this phenomenon, we synthesized four different activated disulfide-bearing model compounds (Mn = 300 Da to 10 kDa) and quantified their rate of disulfide exchange with a small peptide (glutathione), a moderate-sized protein (β-lactoglobulin), and a large protein (bovine serum albumin) in four different pH solutions (6.0, 7.0, 7.4, and 8.0) to mimic biological systems. Rate constants of exchange depend significantly on the size and accessibility of the thiolate. pH also significantly affects the rate of reaction, with the faster reactions occurring at higher pH. Surprisingly, little difference in exchange rates is seen between macromolecular disulfides of varying size (Mn = 2 kDa - 10 kDa), although all undergo exchange more slowly than their small molecule analogue (MW = 300 g/mol). The maximum exchange efficiencies (% disulfides exchanged after 24 h) are not siginificantly affected by thiol size or pH, but somewhat affected by disulfide size. Therefore, while all three factors investigated (pH, disulfide size, and thiolate size) can influence the exchange kinetics and extent of reaction, the size of the thiolate and its accessibility plays the most significant role.

  4. Identification of small peptides arising from hydrolysis of meat proteins in dry fermented sausages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López, Constanza M; Bru, Elena; Vignolo, Graciela M; Fadda, Silvina G

    2015-06-01

    In this study, proteolysis and low molecular weight (LMW) peptides (<3kDa) from commercial Argentinean fermented sausages were characterized by applying a peptidomic approach. Protein profiles and peptides obtained by Tricine-SDS-PAGE and RP-HPLC-MS, respectively, allowed distinguishing two different types of fermented sausages, although no specific biomarkers relating to commercial brands or quality were recognized. From electrophoresis, α-actin, myoglobin, creatine kinase M-type and L-lactate dehydrogenase were degraded at different intensities. In addition, a partial characterization of fermented sausage peptidome through the identification of 36 peptides, in the range of 1000-2100 Da, arising from sarcoplasmic (28) and myofibrillar (8) proteins was achieved. These peptides had been originated from α-actin, myoglobin, and creatine kinase M-type, but also from the hydrolysis of other proteins not previously reported. Although muscle enzymes exerted a major role on peptidogenesis, microbial contribution cannot be excluded as it was postulated herein. This work represents a first peptidomic approach for fermented sausages, thereby providing a baseline to define key peptides acting as potential biomarkers. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. The conjugation of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAID to small peptides for generating multifunctional supramolecular nanofibers/hydrogels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiayang Li

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Here we report supramolecular hydrogelators made of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAID and small peptides. The covalent linkage of Phe–Phe and NSAIDs results in conjugates that self-assemble in water to form molecular nanofibers as the matrices of hydrogels. When the NSAID is naproxen (1, the resultant hydrogelator 1a forms a hydrogel at a critical concentration (cgc of 0.2 wt % at pH 7.0. Hydrogelator 1a, also acting as a general motif, enables enzymatic hydrogelation in which the precursor turns into a hydrogelator upon hydrolysis catalyzed by a phosphatase at physiological conditions. The conjugates of Phe–Phe with other NSAIDs, such as (R-flurbiprofen (2, racemic flurbiprofen (3, and racemic ibuprofen (4, are able to form molecular hydrogels, except in the case of aspirin (5. After the conjugation with the small peptides, NSAIDs exhibit improved selectivity to their targets. In addition, the peptides made of D-amino acids help preserve the activities of NSAIDs. Besides demonstrating that common NSAIDs are excellent candidates to promote aromatic–aromatic interaction in water to form hydrogels, this work contributes to the development of functional molecules that have dual or multiple roles and ultimately may lead to new molecular hydrogels of therapeutic agents for topical use.

  6. An in silico analysis of the binding modes and binding affinities of small molecule modulators of PDZ-peptide interactions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Garima Tiwari

    Full Text Available Inhibitors of PDZ-peptide interactions have important implications in a variety of biological processes including treatment of cancer and Parkinson's disease. Even though experimental studies have reported characterization of peptidomimetic inhibitors of PDZ-peptide interactions, the binding modes for most of them have not been characterized by structural studies. In this study we have attempted to understand the structural basis of the small molecule-PDZ interactions by in silico analysis of the binding modes and binding affinities of a set of 38 small molecules with known K(i or K(d values for PDZ2 and PDZ3 domains of PSD-95 protein. These two PDZ domains show differential selectivity for these compounds despite having a high degree of sequence similarity and almost identical peptide binding pockets. Optimum binding modes for these ligands for PDZ2 and PDZ3 domains were identified by using a novel combination of semi-flexible docking and explicit solvent molecular dynamics (MD simulations. Analysis of the binding modes revealed most of the peptidomimectic ligands which had high K(i or K(d moved away from the peptide binding pocket, while ligands with high binding affinities remained in the peptide binding pocket. The differential specificities of the PDZ2 and PDZ3 domains primarily arise from differences in the conformation of the loop connecting βB and βC strands, because this loop interacts with the N-terminal chemical moieties of the ligands. We have also computed the MM/PBSA binding free energy values for these 38 compounds with both the PDZ domains from multiple 5 ns MD trajectories on each complex i.e. a total of 228 MD trajectories of 5 ns length each. Interestingly, computational binding free energies show good agreement with experimental binding free energies with a correlation coefficient of approximately 0.6. Thus our study demonstrates that combined use of docking and MD simulations can help in identification of potent inhibitors

  7. Activation of Relaxin Family Receptor 1 from different mammalian species by relaxin peptide and small molecule agonist ML290

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zaohua eHuang

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Relaxin peptide (RLN, which signals through the relaxin family peptide 1 (RXFP1 GPCR receptor, has shown therapeutic effects in an acute heart failure clinical trial. We have identified a small molecule agonist of human RXFP1, ML290; however, it does not activate the mouse receptor. To find a suitable animal model for ML290 testing and to gain mechanistic insights into the interaction of various ligands with RXFP1, we have cloned rhesus macaque, pig, rabbit, and guinea pig RXFP1s and analyzed their activation by RLN and ML290. HEK293T cells expressing macaque or pig RXFP1 responded to relaxin and ML290 treatment as measured by an increase of cAMP production. Guinea pig RXFP1 responded to relaxin but had very low response to ML290 treatment only at highest concentrations used. The rabbit RXFP1 amino acid sequence was the most divergent, with a number of unique substitutions within the ectodomain and the 7-transmembrane domain (7TM. Two splice variants of rabbit RXFP1 derived through alternative splicing of the forth exon were identified. In contrast to the other species, rabbit RXFP1s were activated by ML290, but not with human, pig, mouse, or rabbit relaxins. Using FLAG-tagged constructs, we have shown that both rabbit RXFP1 variants are expressed on the cell surface. No binding of human Eu-labeled relaxin to rabbit RXFP1 was detected, suggesting that in this species RXFP1 might be non-functional. We used chimeric rabbit-human and guinea pig-human constructs to identify regions important for RLN or ML290 receptor activation. Chimeras with the human ectodomain and rabbit 7TM domain were activated by RLN, whereas substitution of part of the guinea pig 7TM domain with the human sequence only partially restored ML290 activation, confirming the allosteric mode of action for the two ligands. Our data demonstrate that macaque and pig models can be used for ML290 testing.

  8. Characterization of genes coding for small hypervariable peptides in Globodera rostochiensis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bers, van N.E.M.

    2008-01-01

    Plant parasitic nematodes secrete a cocktail of effector molecules, which are involved
    in several aspects of the interaction with the host, eg. in host defense suppression, in
    migration and in feeding cell formation. In this thesis, we performed the first study on
    10 novel peptide

  9. Small surfactant-like peptides can drive soluble proteins into active aggregates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhou Bihong

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Inactive protein inclusion bodies occur commonly in Escherichia coli (E. coli cells expressing heterologous proteins. Previously several independent groups have found that active protein aggregates or pseudo inclusion bodies can be induced by a fusion partner such as a cellulose binding domain from Clostridium cellulovorans (CBDclos when expressed in E. coli. More recently we further showed that a short amphipathic helical octadecapeptide 18A (EWLKAFYEKVLEKLKELF and a short beta structure peptide ELK16 (LELELKLKLELELKLK have a similar property. Results In this work, we explored a third type of peptides, surfactant-like peptides, for performing such a "pulling-down" function. One or more of three such peptides (L6KD, L6K2, DKL6 were fused to the carboxyl termini of model proteins including Aspergillus fumigatus amadoriase II (AMA, all three peptides were used, Bacillus subtilis lipase A (LipA, only L6KD was used, hereinafter the same, Bacillus pumilus xylosidase (XynB, and green fluorescent protein (GFP, and expressed in E. coli. All fusions were found to predominantly accumulate in the insoluble fractions, with specific activities ranging from 25% to 92% of the native counterparts. Transmission electron microscopic (TEM and confocal fluorescence microscopic analyses confirmed the formation of protein aggregates in the cell. Furthermore, binding assays with amyloid-specific dyes (thioflavin T and Cong red to the AMA-L6KD aggregate and the TEM analysis of the aggregate following digestion with protease K suggested that the AMA-L6KD aggregate may contain structures reminiscent of amyloids, including a fibril-like structure core. Conclusions This study shows that the surfactant-like peptides L6KD and it derivatives can act as a pull-down handler for converting soluble proteins into active aggregates, much like 18A and ELK16. These peptide-mediated protein aggregations might have important implications for protein aggregation in

  10. Discovery of non-peptidic small molecule inhibitors of cyclophilin D as neuroprotective agents in Aβ-induced mitochondrial dysfunction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Insun; Londhe, Ashwini M.; Lim, Ji Woong; Park, Beoung-Geon; Jung, Seo Yun; Lee, Jae Yeol; Lim, Sang Min; No, Kyoung Tai; Lee, Jiyoun; Pae, Ae Nim

    2017-10-01

    Cyclophilin D (CypD) is a mitochondria-specific cyclophilin that is known to play a pivotal role in the formation of the mitochondrial permeability transition pore (mPTP).The formation and opening of the mPTP disrupt mitochondrial homeostasis, cause mitochondrial dysfunction and eventually lead to cell death. Several recent studies have found that CypD promotes the formation of the mPTP upon binding to β amyloid (Aβ) peptides inside brain mitochondria, suggesting that neuronal CypD has a potential to be a promising therapeutic target for Alzheimer's disease (AD). In this study, we generated an energy-based pharmacophore model by using the crystal structure of CypD—cyclosporine A (CsA) complex and performed virtual screening of ChemDiv database, which yielded forty-five potential hit compounds with novel scaffolds. We further tested those compounds using mitochondrial functional assays in neuronal cells and identified fifteen compounds with excellent protective effects against Aβ-induced mitochondrial dysfunction. To validate whether these effects derived from binding to CypD, we performed surface plasmon resonance (SPR)—based direct binding assays with selected compounds and discovered compound 29 was found to have the equilibrium dissociation constants (KD) value of 88.2 nM. This binding affinity value and biological activity correspond well with our predicted binding mode. We believe that this study offers new insights into the rational design of small molecule CypD inhibitors, and provides a promising lead for future therapeutic development.

  11. Central effects of some peptide and non-peptide opioids and naloxone on thermoregulation in the rabbit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kandasamy, S. B.; Williams, B. A.

    1983-01-01

    The effects of several peptide and non-peptide opiods and naloxone on induced hyperthermia is studied in rabbits. The effect of tyical mu, kappa, and sigma receptor antagonists (morphine, ketocyclazcine and SKF 10,0 10, 047) and some opioid peptides (Beta-endorphin /BE/, methionine-enkaphalin /ME/, and D-Ala2-methionine-enkaphalin-amide /DAME/ are determined. The role of prostaglandins (PG), cAMP, and norepinephrine (NE) in morphine, BE, and DAME induced hyperthermia is investigated. In addition, the effect of naloxone on pyrogen, arachidonic acid, PGE2, prostacyclin, dibutyryl cAMP, and NE induced hyperthermia is determined. Among other results, it is found that the three receptor antagonists induced hyperthermia in rabbits. BE, ME, and DAME were also found to cause hyperthermia, and it is suggested that they act on the same type of receptor. It is also determined that neither NE nor cAMP is involved in the hyperthermia due to morphine, BE, and DAME. It is suggested that an action of endogenous peptides on naloxone sensitive receptors plays little role in normal thermoregulation or in hyperthermia.

  12. Cryochemistry: freezing effect on peptide coupling in different organic solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vajda, T; Szókán, G; Hollósi, M

    1998-06-01

    The freezing effect on peptide coupling in organic solutions of different polarity has been investigated and compared with the results obtained in liquid phase. The model reaction of DCC-activated coupling of Boc-Ala-Phe-OH with H-Ala-OBu(t) has been carried out in dioxane, dimethylsulfoxide and formamide, as well as in mixtures (90%/10%, v/v) of dioxane with acetonitrile, dimethylformamide, dimethylsulfoxide and formamide. The reactions have been traced and evaluated by RP-HPLC analysis. Freezing the reaction mixture resulted in all cases in a significant suppression of the N-dipeptidylurea side-product formation together with a slight decrease of tripeptide epimerization. The coupling yields and the side effects depended on the solvent, with the dioxane and dioxane/acetonitrile mixture produced the best results. The role of freezing and solvent in the improved results is discussed.

  13. 9,10-Anthraquinone hinders β-aggregation: How does a small molecule interfere with Aβ-peptide amyloid fibrillation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Convertino, Marino; Pellarin, Riccardo; Catto, Marco; Carotti, Angelo; Caflisch, Amedeo

    2009-01-01

    Amyloid aggregation is linked to a number of neurodegenerative syndromes, the most prevalent one being Alzheimer's disease. In this pathology, the β-amyloid peptides (Aβ) aggregate into oligomers, protofibrils, and fibrils and eventually into plaques, which constitute the characteristic hallmark of Alzheimer's disease. Several low-molecular-weight compounds able to impair the Aβ aggregation process have been recently discovered; yet, a detailed description of their interactions with oligomers and fibrils is hitherto missing. Here, molecular dynamics simulations are used to investigate the influence of two relatively similar tricyclic, planar compounds, that is, 9, 10-anthraquinone (AQ) and anthracene (AC), on the early phase of the aggregation of the Aβ heptapeptide segment H14QKLVFF20, the hydrophobic stretch that promotes the Aβ self-assembly. The simulations show that AQ interferes with β-sheet formation more than AC. In particular, AQ intercalates into the β-sheet because polar interactions between the compound and the peptide backbone destabilize the interstrand hydrogen bonds, thereby favoring disorder. The thioflavin T-binding assay indicates that AQ, but not AC, sensibly reduces the amount of aggregated Aβ1–40 peptide. Taken together, the in silico and in vitro results provide evidence that structural perturbations by AQ can remarkably affect ordered oligomerization. Moreover, the simulations shed light at the atomic level on the interactions between AQ and Aβ oligomers, providing useful insights for the design of small-molecule inhibitors of aggregation with therapeutic potential in Alzheimer's disease. PMID:19309732

  14. 小肽的吸收机制及营养功能%Adsorption Mechanism and Nutrition Function of Small Peptides

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵海云

    2013-01-01

    Peptides are a class of compounds which molecular structure between amino acids and proteins. Small peptides contain 2 or 3 ami-no acid residues. Small peptides may have three transport systems. Ruminant animals' main peptide absorption place is omasum. Small peptides' physical and chemical properties, the animal physiological status, diet, protein and food intake level could influence the absorption of small peptides. Small peptides can avoid the absorption competition among amino acids, promote the absorption of amino acids, accelerate protein synthesis, promote gastrointestinal mucous membrane structure and functional development, stimulate secretion of digestive enzymes and activity of improve, improve the production performance. The adsorption mechanism and nutrition function of small peptides were reviewed.%肽是分子结构介于氨基酸和蛋白质之间的一类化合物,含2或3个氨基酸残基的为小肽.小肽可能存在3种转运系统.反刍动物吸收肽的主要部位是瓣胃.小肽本身的理化性质、动物生理状态、日粮蛋白和采食水平等影响小肽的吸收.小肽可避免氨基酸间的吸收竞争,促进氨基酸的吸收,加速蛋白质的合成,促进肠道黏膜结构和功能发育,刺激消化酶的分泌和活性的提高,改善提高生产性能.对小肽的吸收机制及营养功能进行了综述.

  15. Effects of small radiation doses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fuchs, G.

    1986-01-01

    The term 'small radiation dosis' means doses of about (1 rem), fractions of one rem as well as doses of a few rem. Doses like these are encountered in various practical fields, e.g. in X-ray diagnosis, in the environment and in radiation protection rules. The knowledge about small doses is derived from the same two forces, on which the radiobiology of human beings nearly is based: interpretation of the Hiroshima and Nagasaki data, as well as the experience from radiotherapy. Careful interpretation of Hiroshima dates do not provide any evidence that small doses can induce cancer, fetal malformations or genetic damage. Yet in radiotherapy of various diseases, e.g. inflammations, doses of about 1 Gy (100 rad) do no harm to the patients. According to a widespread hypothesis even very small doses may induce some types of radiation damage ('no threshold'). Nevertheless an alternative view is justified. At present no decision can be made between these two alternatives, but the usefullness of radiology is definitely better established than any damage calculated by theories or extrapolations. Based on experience any exaggerated fear of radiations can be met. (author)

  16. Peptide nucleic acid (PNA) antisense effects in Escherichia coli

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Good, L; Nielsen, P E

    1999-01-01

    Antisense peptide nucleic acid (PNA) can be used to control cell growth, gene expression and growth phenotypes in the bacteria Escherichia coli. PNAs targeted to the RNA components of the ribosome can inhibit translation and cell growth, and PNAs targeted to mRNA can limit gene expression with gene...... and sequence specificity. In an E. coli cell extract, efficient inhibition is observed when using PNA concentrations in the nanomolar range, whereas micromolar concentrations are required for inhibition in growing cells. A mutant strain of E. coli that is more permeable to antibiotics also is more susceptible...... to antisense PNAs than the wild type. This chapter details methods for testing the antisense activities of PNA in E. coli. As an example of the specific antisense inhibition possible, we show the effects of an anti-beta-galactosidase PNA in comparison to control PNAs. With improvements in cell uptake...

  17. Lactoferricin B-derived peptides with inhibitory effects on ECE-dependent vasoconstriction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Musoles, Ricardo; López-Díez, José Javier; Torregrosa, Germán; Vallés, Salvador; Alborch, Enrique; Manzanares, Paloma; Salom, Juan B

    2010-10-01

    Endothelin-converting enzyme (ECE), a key peptidase in the endothelin (ET) system, cleaves inactive big ET-1 to produce active ET-1, which binds to ET(A) receptors to exert its vasoconstrictor and pressor effects. ECE inhibition could be beneficial in the treatment of hypertension. In this study, a set of eight lactoferricin B (LfcinB)-derived peptides, previously characterized in our laboratory as angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitory peptides, was examined for their inhibitory effects on ECE. In vitro inhibitory effects on ECE activity were assessed using both the synthetic fluorogenic peptide substrate V (FPS V) and the natural substrate big ET-1. To study vasoactive effects, an ex vivo functional assay was developed using isolated rabbit carotid artery segments. With FPS V, only four LfcinB-derived peptides induced inhibition of ECE activity, whereas the eight peptides showed ECE inhibitory effects with big ET-1 as substrate. Regarding the ex vivo assays, six LfcinB-derived peptides showed inhibition of big ET-1-induced, ECE-dependent vasoconstriction. A positive correlation between the inhibitory effects of LfcinB-derived peptides on ECE activity when using big ET-1 and the inhibitory effects on ECE-dependent vasoconstriction was shown. ECE-independent vasoconstriction induced by ET-1 was not affected, thus discarding effects of LfcinB-derived peptides on ET(A) receptors or intracellular signal transduction mechanisms. In conclusion, a combined in vitro and ex vivo method to assess the effects of potentially antihypertensive peptides on the ET system has been developed and applied to show the inhibitory effects on ECE-dependent vasoconstriction of six LfcinB-derived peptides, five of which were dual vasopeptidase (ACE/ECE) inhibitors. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Effect of glucagon-like peptide-1 on alpha- and beta-cell function in C-peptide-negative type 1 diabetic patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kielgast, Urd; Asmar, Meena; Madsbad, Sten

    2010-01-01

    The mechanism by which glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) suppresses glucagon secretion is uncertain, and it is not determined whether endogenous insulin is a necessary factor for this effect.......The mechanism by which glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) suppresses glucagon secretion is uncertain, and it is not determined whether endogenous insulin is a necessary factor for this effect....

  19. Blocking the Interaction between EphB2 and ADDLs by a Small Peptide Rescues Impaired Synaptic Plasticity and Memory Deficits in a Mouse Model of Alzheimer's Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Xiao-Dong; Sun, Kai; Hu, Rui; Liu, Xiao-Ya; Hu, Qiu-Mei; Sun, Xiao-Yu; Yao, Bin; Sun, Nan; Hao, Jing-Ru; Wei, Pan; Han, Yuan; Gao, Can

    2016-11-23

    Soluble amyloid-β (Aβ) oligomers, also known as Aβ-derived diffusible ligands (ADDLs), are thought to be the key pathogenic factor in Alzheimer's disease (AD), but there is still no effective treatment for preventing or reversing the progression of the disease. Targeting NMDA receptor trafficking and regulation is a new strategy for early treatment of AD. Aβ oligomers have been found to bind to the fibronectin (FN) type III repeat domain of EphB2 to trigger EphB2 degradation, thereby impairing the normal functioning of NMDA receptors and resulting in cognitive deficits. Here, we identified for the first time the interaction sites of the EphB2 FN domain with ADDLs by applying the peptide array method to design and synthesize four candidate peptides (Pep21, Pep25, Pep32, and Pep63) that might be able to block the EphB2-ADDL interaction. Among them, Pep63 was found to be the most effective at inhibiting the binding between EphB2 and ADDLs. We found that Pep63 not only rescued the ADDL-induced depletion of EphB2- and GluN2B-containing NMDA receptors from the neuronal surface in cultured hippocampal neurons, but also improved impaired memory deficits in APPswe/PS1dE9 (APP/PS1) transgenic mice and the phosphorylation and surface expression of GluN2B-containing NMDA receptors in cultures. Together, these results suggest that blocking the EphB2-ADDL interaction by small interfering peptides may be a promising strategy for AD treatment. Alzheimer's disease (AD) is an age-dependent neurodegenerative disorder and amyloid β-derived diffusible ligands (ADDLs) play a key role in triggering the early cognitive deficits that constitute AD. ADDLs may bind EphB2 and alter NMDA receptor trafficking and synaptic plasticity. Here, we identified the interaction sites of the EphB2 FN domain with ADDLs for the first time to develop a small (10 aa) peptide (Pep63) capable of blocking the EphB2-ADDL interaction. We found that Pep63 not only rescued the ADDL-induced depletion of EphB2

  20. Importance of lipopolysaccharide aggregate disruption for the anti-endotoxic effects of heparin cofactor II peptides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Shalini; Papareddy, Praveen; Kalle, Martina; Schmidtchen, Artur; Malmsten, Martin

    2013-11-01

    Lipid membrane and lipopolysaccharide (LPS) interactions were investigated for a series of amphiphilic and cationic peptides derived from human heparin cofactor II (HCII), using dual polarization interferometry, ellipsometry, circular dichroism (CD), cryoTEM, and z-potential measurements. Antimicrobial effects of these peptides were compared to their ability to disorder bacterial lipid membranes, while their capacity to block endotoxic effects of LPS was correlated to the binding of these peptides to LPS and its lipid A moiety, and to charge, secondary structure, and morphology of peptide/LPS complexes. While the peptide KYE28 (KYEITTIHNLFRKLTHRLFRRNFGYTLR) displayed potent antimicrobial and anti-endotoxic effects, its truncated variants KYE21 (KYEITTIHNLFRKLTHRLFRR) and NLF20 (NLFRKLTHRLFRRNFGYTLR) provide some clues on structure-activity relations, since KYE21 retains both the antimicrobial and anti-endotoxic effects of KYE28 (although both attenuated), while NLF20 retains the antimicrobial but only a fraction of the anti-endotoxic effect, hence locating the anti-endotoxic effects of KYE28 to its N-terminus. The antimicrobial effect, on the other hand, is primarily located at the C-terminus of KYE28. While displaying quite different endotoxic effects, these peptides bind to a similar extent to both LPS and lipid A, and also induce comparable LPS scavenging on model eukaryotic membranes. In contrast, fragmentation and densification of LPS aggregates, in turn dependent on the secondary structure in the peptide/LPS aggregates, correlate to the anti-endotoxic effect of these peptides, thus identifying peptide-induced packing transitions in LPS aggregates as key for anti-endotoxic functionality. This aspect therefore needs to be taken into account in the development of novel anti-endotoxic peptide therapeutics. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  1. A small molecule inhibitor of signal peptide peptidase inhibits Plasmodium development in the liver and decreases malaria severity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iana Parvanova

    Full Text Available The liver stage of Plasmodium's life cycle is the first, obligatory step in malaria infection. Decreasing the hepatic burden of Plasmodium infection decreases the severity of disease and constitutes a promising strategy for malaria prophylaxis. The efficacy of the gamma-secretase and signal peptide peptidase inhibitor LY411,575 in targeting Plasmodium liver stages was evaluated both in human hepatoma cell lines and in mouse primary hepatocytes. LY411,575 was found to prevent Plasmodium's normal development in the liver, with an IC(50 of approximately 80 nM, without affecting hepatocyte invasion by the parasite. In vivo results with a rodent model of malaria showed that LY411,575 decreases the parasite load in the liver and increases by 55% the resistance of mice to cerebral malaria, one of the most severe malaria-associated syndromes. Our data show that LY411,575 does not exert its effect via the Notch signaling pathway suggesting that it may interfere with Plasmodium development through an inhibition of the parasite's signal peptide peptidase. We therefore propose that selective signal peptide peptidase inhibitors could be potentially used for preventive treatment of malaria in humans.

  2. Effect of sequence and stereochemistry reversal on p53 peptide mimicry.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessio Atzori

    Full Text Available Peptidomimetics effective in modulating protein-protein interactions and resistant to proteolysis have potential in therapeutic applications. An appealing yet underperforming peptidomimetic strategy is to employ D-amino acids and reversed sequences to mimic a lead peptide conformation, either separately or as the combined retro-inverso peptide. In this work, we examine the conformations of inverse, reverse and retro-inverso peptides of p53(15-29 using implicit solvent molecular dynamics simulation and circular dichroism spectroscopy. In order to obtain converged ensembles for the peptides, we find enhanced sampling is required via the replica exchange molecular dynamics method. From these replica exchange simulations, the D-peptide analogues of p53(15-29 result in a predominantly left-handed helical conformation. When the parent sequence is reversed sequence as either the L-peptide and D-peptide, these peptides display a greater helical propensity, feature reflected by NMR and CD studies in TFE/water solvent. The simulations also indicate that, while approximately similar orientations of the side-chains are possible by the peptide analogues, their ability to mimic the parent peptide is severely compromised by backbone orientation (for D-amino acids and side-chain orientation (for reversed sequences. A retro-inverso peptide is disadvantaged as a mimic in both aspects, and further chemical modification is required to enable this concept to be used fruitfully in peptidomimetic design. The replica exchange molecular simulation approach adopted here, with its ability to provide detailed conformational insights into modified peptides, has potential as a tool to guide structure-based design of new improved peptidomimetics.

  3. Adamantoylated biologically active small peptides and glycopeptides structurally related to the bacterial peptidoglycan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frkanec, Ruža; Vranešić, Branka; Tomić, Srdjanka

    2013-01-01

    A large number of novel synthetic compounds representing smaller parts of original peptidoglycan molecules have been synthesized and found to possess versatile biological activity, particularly immunomodulating properties. A series of compounds containing the adamantyl residues coupled to peptides and glycopeptides characteristic for bacterial peptidoglycan was described. The new adamantylpeptides and adamantylglycopeptides were prepared starting from N-protected racemic adamantylglycine and dipeptide L-Ala-D-isoglutamine. The adamantyl glycopeptides were obtained by coupling the adamantyltripeptides with alpha-D-mannose moiety through spacer molecule of fixed chirality. Since the starting material was D,L-(adamantyl-glycine) the condensation products with the dipeptide were mixtures of diastereoisomers. The obtained diastereoisomers were separated, characterized, and tested for immunostimulating activity. An HPLC method for purity testing was developed and adapted for the particular compounds.

  4. Proteolytic activity of prostate-specific antigen (PSA towards protein substrates and effect of peptides stimulating PSA activity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johanna M Mattsson

    Full Text Available Prostate-specific antigen (PSA or kallikrein-related peptidase-3, KLK3 exerts chymotrypsin-like proteolytic activity. The main biological function of PSA is the liquefaction of the clot formed after ejaculation by cleavage of semenogelins I and II in seminal fluid. PSA also cleaves several other substrates, which may explain its putative functions in prostate cancer and its antiangiogenic activity. We compared the proteolytic efficiency of PSA towards several protein and peptide substrates and studied the effect of peptides stimulating the activity of PSA with these substrates. An endothelial cell tube formation model was used to analyze the effect of PSA-degraded protein fragments on angiogenesis. We showed that PSA degrades semenogelins I and II much more efficiently than other previously identified protein substrates, e.g., fibronectin, galectin-3 and IGFBP-3. We identified nidogen-1 as a new substrate for PSA. Peptides B2 and C4 that stimulate the activity of PSA towards small peptide substrates also enhanced the proteolytic activity of PSA towards protein substrates. Nidogen-1, galectin-3 or their fragments produced by PSA did not have any effect on endothelial cell tube formation. Although PSA cleaves several other protein substrates, in addition to semenogelins, the physiological importance of this activity remains speculative. The PSA levels in prostate are very high, but several other highly active proteases, such as hK2 and trypsin, are also expressed in the prostate and may cleave protein substrates that are weakly cleaved by PSA.

  5. Proteolytic Activity of Prostate-Specific Antigen (PSA) towards Protein Substrates and Effect of Peptides Stimulating PSA Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattsson, Johanna M.; Ravela, Suvi; Hekim, Can; Jonsson, Magnus; Malm, Johan; Närvänen, Ale; Stenman, Ulf-Håkan; Koistinen, Hannu

    2014-01-01

    Prostate-specific antigen (PSA or kallikrein-related peptidase-3, KLK3) exerts chymotrypsin-like proteolytic activity. The main biological function of PSA is the liquefaction of the clot formed after ejaculation by cleavage of semenogelins I and II in seminal fluid. PSA also cleaves several other substrates, which may explain its putative functions in prostate cancer and its antiangiogenic activity. We compared the proteolytic efficiency of PSA towards several protein and peptide substrates and studied the effect of peptides stimulating the activity of PSA with these substrates. An endothelial cell tube formation model was used to analyze the effect of PSA-degraded protein fragments on angiogenesis. We showed that PSA degrades semenogelins I and II much more efficiently than other previously identified protein substrates, e.g., fibronectin, galectin-3 and IGFBP-3. We identified nidogen-1 as a new substrate for PSA. Peptides B2 and C4 that stimulate the activity of PSA towards small peptide substrates also enhanced the proteolytic activity of PSA towards protein substrates. Nidogen-1, galectin-3 or their fragments produced by PSA did not have any effect on endothelial cell tube formation. Although PSA cleaves several other protein substrates, in addition to semenogelins, the physiological importance of this activity remains speculative. The PSA levels in prostate are very high, but several other highly active proteases, such as hK2 and trypsin, are also expressed in the prostate and may cleave protein substrates that are weakly cleaved by PSA. PMID:25237904

  6. Therapeutic peptides for cancer therapy. Part II - cell cycle inhibitory peptides and apoptosis-inducing peptides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raucher, Drazen; Moktan, Shama; Massodi, Iqbal; Bidwell, Gene L

    2009-10-01

    Therapeutic peptides have great potential as anticancer agents owing to their ease of rational design and target specificity. However, their utility in vivo is limited by low stability and poor tumor penetration. The authors review the development of peptide inhibitors with potential for cancer therapy. Peptides that arrest the cell cycle by mimicking CDK inhibitors or induce apoptosis directly are discussed. The authors searched Medline for articles concerning the development of therapeutic peptides and their delivery. Inhibition of cancer cell proliferation directly using peptides that arrest the cell cycle or induce apoptosis is a promising strategy. Peptides can be designed that interact very specifically with cyclins and/or cyclin-dependent kinases and with members of apoptotic cascades. Use of these peptides is not limited by their design, as a rational approach to peptide design is much less challenging than the design of small molecule inhibitors of specific protein-protein interactions. However, the limitations of peptide therapy lie in the poor pharmacokinetic properties of these large, often charged molecules. Therefore, overcoming the drug delivery hurdles could open the door for effective peptide therapy, thus making an entirely new class of molecules useful as anticancer drugs.

  7. Human peptide transporters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Carsten Uhd; Brodin, Birger; Jørgensen, Flemming Steen

    2002-01-01

    Peptide transporters are epithelial solute carriers. Their functional role has been characterised in the small intestine and proximal tubules, where they are involved in absorption of dietary peptides and peptide reabsorption, respectively. Currently, two peptide transporters, PepT1 and PepT2, wh...

  8. Plant natriuretic peptides control of synthesis and systemic effects

    KAUST Repository

    Wang, Yuhua; Donaldson, Lara Elizabeth; Gehring, Christoph A; Irving, Helen R.

    2011-01-01

    Plant natriuretic peptides (PNPs) are signaling molecules that are secreted into the apoplast particularly under conditions of biotic and abiotic stress. At the local level, PNPs modulate their own expression via feed forward and feedback loops

  9. Data on endogenous bovine ovarian follicular cells peptides and small proteins obtained through Top-down High Resolution Mass Spectrometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valérie Labas

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The endogenous peptides and small proteins extracted from bovine ovarian follicular cells (oocytes, cumulus and granulosa cells were identified by Top-down High Resolution Mass Spectrometry (TD-HR-MS/MS in order to annotate peptido- and proteoforms detected using qualitative and quantitative profiling method based on ICM-MS (Intact Cell Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption/Ionization Time-of-Flight Mass Spectrometry. The description and analysis of these Top-down MS data in the context of oocyte quality biomarkers research are available in the original research article of Labas et al. (2017 http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jprot.2017.03.027 [1]. Raw data derived from this peptidomic/proteomic analysis have been deposited to the ProteomeXchange Consortium via the PRIDE partner repository (dataset identifier PXD004892. Here, we described the inventory of all identified peptido- and proteoforms including their biochemical and structural features, and functional annotation of correspondent proteins. This peptide/protein inventory revealed that TD-HR-MS/MS was appropriate method for both global and targeted proteomic analysis of ovarian tissues, and it can be further employed as a reference for other studies on follicular cells including single oocytes.

  10. T-peptide Enhances the Killing Effects of Cisplatinum on Lung Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongyi ZHANG

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Background and objective T peptide is extensively used in anti-tumor treatment. The aims of this study were to investigate whether T peptide enhances cisplatinum efficiency while reducing its side effects and to identify its effective mechanisms. Methods (1 Human macrophage U937 cells were treated with T peptide and/or cisplatinum. The levels of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α and interferon-γ (IFN-γ of each group were detected by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA; (2 Xenograft mouse models of human lung cancer were treated with T peptide and/or cisplatinum once every five days for three times. Tumor volumes were measured during treatment; (3 The percentages of macrophages in the peripheral blood of the xenograft mouse models were measured by FACS. Results (1 Compared with other groups, the level of TNF-α was significantly higher in the human macrophage U937 cells that were treated with T peptide combined with cisplatinum. The levels of IFN-γ were significantly higher in human macrophage U937 cells that were treated with T peptide alone or T peptide combined with cisplatinum; (2 In the xenograft mouse models, T peptide combined with cisplatinum treatment significantly inhibited tumor growth without weight loss compared with the other groups; (3 The percentages of macrophages in the peripheral blood were significantly higher in the xenograft mouse models that were treated with T peptide combined with cisplatinum compared with in the other groups. Conclusion T peptide promotes macrophage proliferation and increases tumor cell killing factors (TNF-α, IFN-γ in vitro. Moreover, T peptide enhances the efficacy of cisplatin and reduces its toxicity in vivo.

  11. Protective effect of C-peptide on experimentally induced diabetic nephropathy and the possible link between C-peptide and nitric oxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elbassuoni, Eman A; Aziz, Neven M; El-Tahawy, Nashwa F

    2018-06-01

    Diabetic nephropathy one of the major microvascular diabetic complications. Besides hyperglycemia, other factors contribute to the development of diabetic complications as the proinsulin connecting peptide, C-peptide. We described the role of C-peptide replacement therapy on experimentally induced diabetic nephropathy, and its potential mechanisms of action by studying the role of nitric oxide (NO) as a mediator of C-peptide effects by in vivo modulating its production by N G -nitro-l-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME). Renal injury markers measured were serum urea, creatinine, tumor necrosis factor alpha, and angiotensin II, and malondialdehyde, total antioxidant, Bcl-2, and NO in renal tissue. In conclusion, diabetic induction resulted in islet degenerations and decreased insulin secretion with its metabolic consequences and subsequent renal complications. C-Peptide deficiencies in diabetes might have contributed to the metabolic and renal error, since C-peptide treatment to the diabetic rats completely corrected these errors. The beneficial effects of C-peptide are partially antagonized by L-NAME coadministration, indicating that NO partially mediates C-peptide effects.

  12. Effect of osmolytes on the conformation and aggregation of some amyloid peptides: CD spectroscopic data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed Inayathullah

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Protein misfolding and aggregation are responsible for a large number of diseases called protein conformational diseases or disorders that include Alzheimer׳s disease, Huntington׳s diseases, Prion related encephalopathies and type-II diabetes (http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/35041139 (Kopito and Ron, 2000 [1]. A variety of studies have shown that some small organic molecules, known as osmolytes have the ability to stabilize native conformation of proteins and prevent misfolding and aggregation (http://www.la-press.com/article.php?article_id=447 (Zhao et al., 2008 [2]. It has been shown that certain short segment or fragment of respective proteins can also form amyloids, and the segments also promote the aggregation in the full-length protein (http://dx.doi.org/10.2174/0929867023369187 (Gazit, 2002 [3]. This article presents circular dichroism spectroscopic data on conformational analysis and effect of osmolytes on Aβ peptide fragments, different lengths of polyglutamine peptide and the amyloidogenic segment of islet amyloid polypeptide.

  13. Neurogenic and neurotrophic effects of BDNF peptides in mouse hippocampal primary neuronal cell cultures.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria del Carmen Cardenas-Aguayo

    Full Text Available The level of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF, a member of the neurotrophin family, is down regulated in Alzheimer's disease (AD, Parkinson's disease (PD, depression, stress, and anxiety; conversely the level of this neurotrophin is increased in autism spectrum disorders. Thus, modulating the level of BDNF can be a potential therapeutic approach for nervous system pathologies. In the present study, we designed five different tetra peptides (peptides B-1 to B-5 corresponding to different active regions of BDNF. These tetra peptides were found to be non-toxic, and they induced the expression of neuronal markers in mouse embryonic day 18 (E18 primary hippocampal neuronal cultures. Additionally, peptide B-5 induced the expression of BDNF and its receptor, TrkB, suggesting a positive feedback mechanism. The BDNF peptides induced only a moderate activation (phosphorylation at Tyr 706 of the TrkB receptor, which could be blocked by the Trk's inhibitor, K252a. Peptide B-3, when combined with BDNF, potentiated the survival effect of this neurotrophin on H(2O(2-treated E18 hippocampal cells. Peptides B-3 and B-5 were found to work as partial agonists and as partial antagonists competing with BDNF to activate the TrkB receptor in a dose-dependent manner. Taken together, these results suggest that the described BDNF tetra peptides are neurotrophic, can modulate BDNF signaling in a partial agonist/antagonist way, and offer a novel therapeutic approach to neural pathologies where BDNF levels are dysregulated.

  14. Effects of exogenous glucagon-like peptide-2 and distal bowel resection on intestinal and systemic adaptive responses in rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lai, Sarah W; de Heuvel, Elaine; Wallace, Laurie E

    2017-01-01

    mount immunohistochemistry for neurons (HuC/D, VIP, nNOS), plasma glucose, gut hormones, and body composition. RESULTS: Resection increased the proportion of nNOS immunopositive myenteric neurons, intestinal muscularis propria thickness and crypt cell proliferation, which were not recapitulated by GLP-2......-2 attenuated resection-induced increases in blood glucose and body fat loss. CONCLUSIONS: Exogenous GLP-2 stimulates jejunal adaptation independent of enteric neuronal VIP or nNOS changes, and has divergent effects on plasma amylin and peptide YY concentrations. The novel ability of exogenous GLP-2......OBJECTIVE: To determine the effects of exogenous glucagon-like peptide-2 (GLP-2), with or without massive distal bowel resection, on adaptation of jejunal mucosa, enteric neurons, gut hormones and tissue reserves in rats. BACKGROUND: GLP-2 is a gut hormone known to be trophic for small bowel mucosa...

  15. 小肽对奶牛瘤胃微生物蛋白产量、产奶性能和氮排泄的影响%Effects of Small Peptides on Ruminal Microbial Protein Production, Milk Performance and Nitrogen Excretion of Dairy Cows

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴丹丹; 滕乐邦; 栾正庆; 孙国强

    2016-01-01

    This experiment was conducted to determine the effects of small peptides ( SP) on ruminal microbial protein production, milk performance and nitrogen excretion of dairy cows. Forty Holstein cows with similar age, body weight, milk yield and lactation stage [(45±15) days in milk] were divided into 4 groups with 10 cows per group. The supplement level of SP in control and test groups 1, 2 and 3 was 0, 50, 100 and 150 g/( d·head) , respectively. The pretest lasted for 15 days, and the test lasted for 60 days. The results showed as follows: 1) ruminal microbial protein production in test groups 1, 2 and 3 was significantly in-creased by 17.38%, 22.94% and 12.22% compared with that in control group ( P<0.05) . 2) Test groups 1, 2 and 3 had 9.93%, 12.64% and 7.53% greater milk yield than control group ( P<0.05); SP could signifi-cantly increase milk fat percentage and milk protein percentage (P<0.05), and significantly reduce milk so-matic cell count ( P<0.05) , especially test group 2. 3) Compared with control group, total nitrogen excretion in test groups was significantly reduced ( P<0.05) , and was reduced by 13.31%, 15.01% and 9.43% in test groups 1, 2 and 3, respectively. Based on the data of ruminal microbial protein production, milk yield, milk composition content and nitrogen excretion indices, it can be concluded that the suitable supplement level of SP is 100 g/(d·head) in dairy cows under the condition in the present study.%本试验旨在研究小肽( small peptides,SP)对奶牛瘤胃微生物蛋白产量、产奶性能及氮排泄的影响。选取年龄、体重、产奶量、乳成分及泌乳期[(45±15) d]相近的荷斯坦奶牛40头,分为4组,每组10头,对照组和试验1组、2组、3组分别补饲0、50、100和150 g/( d·头) SP。预试期15 d,正试期60 d。结果表明:1)试验组的瘤胃微生物蛋白产量显著高于对照组( P<0.05),试验1组、2组、3组分别比对照组提高17.38%、22.94%、12.22%。2)试验组产

  16. Structural and Pharmacological Effects of Ring-Closing Metathesis in Peptides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pål Rongved

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Applications of ring-closing alkene metathesis (RCM in acyclic α- and β-peptides and closely related systems are reviewed, with a special emphasis on the structural and pharmacological effects of cyclization by RCM.

  17. Monomeric Amyloid Beta Peptide in Hexafluoroisopropanol Detected by Small Angle Neutron Scattering.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bo Zhang-Haagen

    Full Text Available Small proteins like amyloid beta (Aβ monomers are related to neurodegenerative disorders by aggregation to insoluble fibrils. Small angle neutron scattering (SANS is a nondestructive method to observe the aggregation process in solution. We show that SANS is able to resolve monomers of small molecular weight like Aβ for aggregation studies. We examine Aβ monomers after prolonged storing in d-hexafluoroisopropanol (dHFIP by using SANS and dynamic light scattering (DLS. We determined the radius of gyration from SANS as 1.0±0.1 nm for Aβ1-40 and 1.6±0.1 nm for Aβ1-42 in agreement with 3D NMR structures in similar solvents suggesting a solvent surface layer with 5% increased density. After initial dissolution in dHFIP Aβ aggregates sediment with a major component of pure monomers showing a hydrodynamic radius of 1.8±0.3 nm for Aβ1-40 and 3.2±0.4 nm for Aβ1-42 including a surface layer of dHFIP solvent molecules.

  18. Spiral counter-current chromatography of small molecules, peptides and proteins using the spiral tubing support rotor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knight, Martha; Finn, Thomas M; Zehmer, John; Clayton, Adam; Pilon, Aprile

    2011-09-09

    An important advance in countercurrent chromatography (CCC) carried out in open flow-tubing coils, rotated in planetary centrifuges, is the new design to spread out the tubing in spirals. More spacing between the tubing was found to significantly increase the stationary phase retention, such that now all types of two-phase solvent systems can be used for liquid-liquid partition chromatography in the J-type planetary centrifuges. A spiral tubing support (STS) frame with circular channels was constructed by laser sintering technology into which FEP tubing was placed in 4 spiral loops per layer from the bottom to the top and a cover affixed allowing the tubing to connect to flow-tubing of the planetary centrifuge. The rotor was mounted and run in a P.C. Inc. type instrument. Examples of compounds of molecular weights ranging from <300 to approximately 15,000 were chromatographed in appropriate two-phase solvent systems to assess the capability for separation and purification. A mixture of small molecules including aspirin was completely separated in hexane-ethyl acetate-methanol-water. Synthetic peptides including a very hydrophobic peptide were each purified to a very high purity level in a sec-butanol solvent system. In the STS rotor high stationary phase retention was possible with the aqueous sec-butanol solvent system at a normal flow rate. Finally, the two-phase aqueous polyethylene glycol-potassium phosphate solvent system was applied to separate a protein from a lysate of an Escherichia coli expression system. These experiments demonstrate the versatility of spiral CCC using the STS rotor. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Glucagon-like peptides GLP-1 and GLP-2, predicted products of the glucagon gene, are secreted separately from pig small intestine but not pancreas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holst, J J; Poulsen, Steen Seier

    1986-01-01

    We developed specific antibodies and RIAs for glucagon-like peptides 1 and 2 (GLP-1 and GLP-2), two predicted products of the glucagon gene, and studied the occurrence, nature, and secretion of immunoreactive GLP-1 and GLP-2 in pig pancreas and small intestine. Immunoreactive GLP-1 and GLP-2 were...

  20. Early detection of response in small cell bronchogenic carcinoma by changes in serum concentrations of creatine kinase, neuron specific enolase, calcitonin, ACTH, serotonin and gastrin releasing peptide

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bork, E; Hansen, M; Urdal, P

    1988-01-01

    Creatine kinase (CK-BB), neuron specific enolase (NSE), ACTH, calcitonin, serotonin and gastrin releasing peptide (GRP) were measured in serum or plasma before and immediately after initiation of treatment in patients with small cell lung cancer (SCC). Pretherapeutic elevated concentrations of CK...

  1. Reversal of the Hofmeister Series: Specific Ion Effects on Peptides

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Paterová, Jana; Rembert, K. B.; Heyda, J.; Kurra, Y.; Okur, H. I.; Liu, W. R.; Hilty, Ch.; Cremer, P. S.; Jungwirth, Pavel

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 117, č. 27 (2013), s. 8150-8158 ISSN 1520-6106 R&D Projects: GA ČR GBP208/12/G016 Institutional support: RVO:61388963 Keywords : ions * peptide * NMR * molecular dynamics Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 3.377, year: 2013

  2. Rational design of DKK3 structure-based small peptides as antagonists of Wnt signaling pathway and in silico evaluation of their efficiency.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mansour Poorebrahim

    Full Text Available Dysregulated Wnt signaling pathway is highly associated with the pathogenesis of several human cancers. Dickkopf proteins (DKKs are thought to inhibit Wnt signaling pathway through binding to lipoprotein receptor-related protein (LRP 5/6. In this study, based on the 3-dimensional (3D structure of DKK3 Cys-rich domain 2 (CRD2, we have designed and developed several peptide inhibitors of Wnt signaling pathway. Modeller 9.15 package was used to predict 3D structure of CRD2 based on the Homology modeling (HM protocol. After refinement and minimization with GalaxyRefine and NOMAD-REF servers, the quality of selected models was evaluated utilizing VADAR, SAVES and ProSA servers. Molecular docking studies as well as literature-based information revealed two distinct boxes located at CRD2 which are actively involved in the DKK3-LRP5/6 interaction. A peptide library was constructed conducting the backrub sequence tolerance scanning protocol in Rosetta3.5 according to the DKK3-LRP5/6 binding sites. Seven tolerated peptides were chosen and their binding affinity and stability were improved by some logical amino acid substitutions. Molecular dynamics (MD simulations of peptide-LRP5/6 complexes were carried out using GROMACS package. After evaluation of binding free energies, stability, electrostatic potential and some physicochemical properties utilizing computational approaches, three peptides (PEP-I1, PEP-I3 and PEP-II2 demonstrated desirable features. However, all seven improved peptides could sufficiently block the Wnt-binding site of LRP6 in silico. In conclusion, we have designed and improved several small peptides based on the LRP6-binding site of CRD2 of DKK3. These peptides are highly capable of binding to LRP6 in silico, and may prevent the formation of active Wnt-LRP6-Fz complex.

  3. Chemical annotation of small and peptide-like molecules at the Protein Data Bank

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Jasmine Y.; Feng, Zukang; Dimitropoulos, Dimitris; Sala, Raul; Westbrook, John; Zhuravleva, Marina; Shao, Chenghua; Quesada, Martha; Peisach, Ezra; Berman, Helen M.

    2013-01-01

    Over the past decade, the number of polymers and their complexes with small molecules in the Protein Data Bank archive (PDB) has continued to increase significantly. To support scientific advancements and ensure the best quality and completeness of the data files over the next 10 years and beyond, the Worldwide PDB partnership that manages the PDB archive is developing a new deposition and annotation system. This system focuses on efficient data capture across all supported experimental methods. The new deposition and annotation system is composed of four major modules that together support all of the processing requirements for a PDB entry. In this article, we describe one such module called the Chemical Component Annotation Tool. This tool uses information from both the Chemical Component Dictionary and Biologically Interesting molecule Reference Dictionary to aid in annotation. Benchmark studies have shown that the Chemical Component Annotation Tool provides significant improvements in processing efficiency and data quality. Database URL: http://wwpdb.org PMID:24291661

  4. Serum peptide expression and treatment responses in patients with advanced non-small-cell lung cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    An, Juan; Tang, Chuan-Hao; Wang, Na; Liu, Yi; Lv, Jin; Xu, Bin; Li, Xiao-Yan; Guo, Wan-Feng; Gao, Hong-Jun; He, Kun; Liu, Xiao-Qing

    2018-01-01

    Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) mutation is an important predictor for response to personalized treatments of patients with advanced non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). However its usage is limited due to the difficult of obtaining tissue specimens. A novel prediction system using matrix assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) has been reported to be a perspective tool in European countries to identify patients who are likely to benefit from EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI) treatment. In the present study, MALDI-TOF MS was used on pretreatment serum samples of patients with advanced non-small-cell lung cancer to discriminate the spectra between disease control and disease progression groups in one cohort of Chinese patients. The candidate features for classification were subsequently validated in a blinded fashion in another set of patients. The correlation between plasma EGFR mutation status and the intensities of representative spectra for classification was evaluated. A total of 103 patients that were treated with EGFR-TKIs were included. It was determined that 8 polypeptides peaks were significant different between the disease control and disease progression group. A total of 6 polypeptides were established in the classification algorithm. The sensitivity of the algorithm to predict treatment responses was 76.2% (16/21) and the specificity was 81.8% (18/22). The accuracy rate of the algorithm was 79.1% (34/43). A total of 3 polypeptides were significantly correlated with EGFR mutations (P=0.04, P=0.03 and P=0.04, respectively). The present study confirmed that MALDI-TOF MS analysis can be used to predict responses to EGFR-TKI treatment of the Asian population where the EGFR mutation status differs from the European population. Furthermore, the expression intensities of the three polypeptides in the classification model were associated with EGFR mutation. PMID:29844828

  5. Cosmeceutical product consisting of biomimetic peptides: antiaging effects in vivo and in vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gazitaeva ZI

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Zarema I Gazitaeva,1 Anna O Drobintseva,2 Yongji Chung,3 Victoria O Polyakova,2 Igor M Kvetnoy2 1Institute of Beauty Fijie, Moscow, 2Department of Pathomorphology, D.O. Ott Research Institute of Obstetrics, Gynecology and Reproductology, Saint-Petersburg, Russian Federation; 3Caregen Co., Ltd. Research Center, Seoul, South Korea Background: Biomimetic peptides are synthetic compounds that are identical to amino acid sequence synthesized by an organism and can interact with growth factor receptors and provide antiaging clinical effects.Purpose: The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of biomimetic peptides on the repair processes in the dermis using a model of cell cultures and in vivo.Patients and methods: Five female volunteers were subjected to the injection of biomimetic peptides 1 month prior to the abdominoplasty procedure. Cell culture, immunocytochemistry, and confocal microscopy methods were used in this study.Results: Biomimetic peptides regulate the synthesis of proteins Ki-67, type I procollagen, AP-1, and SIRT6 in cell cultures of human fibroblasts. They contribute to the activation of regeneration processes and initiation of mechanisms that prevent aging. Intradermal administration of complex of biomimetic peptides produces a more dense arrangement of collagen fibers in the dermis and increased size of the fibers after 2 weeks. The complex of biomimetic peptides was effective in the in vivo experiments, where an increase in the proliferative and synthetic activities of fibroblasts was observed.Conclusion: This investigation showed that the studied peptides have biological effects, testifying the stimulation of reparative processes in the skin under their control. Keywords: biomimetic peptides, skin aging, collagen, reparation processes, mesotherapy

  6. Effects of Trimetaphosphate on Abiotic Formation and Hydrolysis of Peptides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Izabela K. Sibilska

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The primordial Earth probably had most of the factors needed for the emergence and development of life. It is believed that it had not only water, but also simple inorganic and organic materials. While studies since the 1950s on the origins of organic matter have established key roles for amino acids, conditions that would have promoted their condensation to make polymers, such as peptides or proteins, have yet to be fully defined. The condensation of amino acids in a water-rich environment is not thermodynamically favored. Therefore, the efficient formation of peptides requires the presence of a catalyst or the activation of a substrate. In living cells, the biosynthesis of proteins is assisted by enzymes and requires adenosine triphosphate (ATP, a relatively complex organic polyphosphate, which serves as an energy source. Outside the living organism, simpler inorganic polyphosphates can form active aminoacyl–phosphate anhydrides, which suggests the broader potential of phosphorus for enabling the polymerization of amino acids. However, this has yet to be demonstrated. To address this gap, aqueous solutions containing a simple dipeptide, diglycine, and a simple polyphosphate, trimetaphosphate, were dried, and reaction products were analyzed by high performance liquid chromatography and mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS. Different reaction environments, which were defined by the initial solution composition, pH, temperature, and incubation time, were found to affect the distribution and yield of products. Our results collectively provide strong evidence for reactions that both condense and hydrolyze peptides. It is noteworthy that the co-occurrence of reactions that form and cleave peptides are a central feature of Kauffman’s theory for the emergence of autocatalytic sets, which is a key step in the chemical origins of life.

  7. Lactoferricin-related peptides with inhibitory effects on ACE-dependent vasoconstriction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Centeno, José M; Burguete, María C; Castelló-Ruiz, María; Enrique, María; Vallés, Salvador; Salom, Juan B; Torregrosa, Germán; Marcos, José F; Alborch, Enrique; Manzanares, Paloma

    2006-07-26

    A selection of lactoferricin B (LfcinB)-related peptides with an angiotensin I-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitory effect have been examined using in vitro and ex vivo functional assays. Peptides that were analyzed included a set of sequence-related antimicrobial hexapeptides previously reported and two representative LfcinB-derived peptides. In vitro assays using hippuryl-L-histidyl-L-leucine (HHL) and angiotensin I as substrates allowed us to select two hexapeptides, PACEI32 (Ac-RKWHFW-NH2) and PACEI34 (Ac-RKWLFW-NH2), and also a LfcinB-derived peptide, LfcinB17-31 (Ac-FKCRRWQWRMKKLGA-NH2). Ex vivo functional assays using rabbit carotid arterial segments showed PACEI32 (both D- and L-enantiomers) and LfcinB17-31 have inhibitory effects on ACE-dependent angiotensin I-induced contraction. None of the peptides exhibited in vitro ACE inhibitory activity using bradykinin as the substrate. In conclusion, three bioactive lactoferricin-related peptides exhibit inhibitory effects on both ACE activity and ACE-dependent vasoconstriction with potential to modulate hypertension that deserves further investigation.

  8. Gp96 Peptide Antagonist gp96-II Confers Therapeutic Effects in Murine Intestinal Inflammation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia A. Nold-Petry

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundThe expression of heat shock protein gp96 is strongly correlated with the degree of tissue inflammation in ulcerative colitis and Crohn’s disease, thereby leading us to the hypothesis that inhibition of expression via gp96-II peptide prevents intestinal inflammation.MethodsWe employed daily injections of gp96-II peptide in two murine models of intestinal inflammation, the first resulting from five daily injections of IL-12/IL-18, the second via a single intrarectal application of TNBS (2,4,6-trinitrobenzenesulfonic acid. We also assessed the effectiveness of gp96-II peptide in murine and human primary cell culture.ResultsIn the IL-12/IL-18 model, all gp96-II peptide-treated animals survived until day 5, whereas 80% of placebo-injected animals died. gp96-II peptide reduced IL-12/IL-18-induced plasma IFNγ by 89%, IL-1β by 63%, IL-6 by 43% and tumor necrosis factor (TNF by 70% compared to controls. The clinical assessment Disease Activity Index of intestinal inflammation severity was found to be significantly lower in the gp96-II-treated animals when compared to vehicle-injected mice. gp96-II peptide treatment in the TNBS model limited weight loss to 5% on day 7 compared with prednisolone treatment, whereas placebo-treated animals suffered a 20% weight loss. Histological disease severity was reduced equally by prednisolone (by 40% and gp96-II peptide (35%. Mice treated with either gp96-II peptide or prednisolone exhibited improved endoscopic scores compared with vehicle-treated control mice: vascularity, fibrin, granularity, and translucency scores were reduced by up to 49% by prednisolone and by up to 30% by gp96-II peptide. In vitro, gp96-II peptide reduced TLR2-, TLR4- and IL-12/IL-18-induced cytokine expression in murine splenocytes, with declines in constitutive IL-6 (54%, lipopolysaccharide-induced TNF (48%, IL-6 (81% and in Staphylococcus epidermidis-induced TNF (67% and IL-6 (81%, as well as IL-12/IL-18-induced IFNγ (75%. gp

  9. Exogenous glucagon-like peptide-1 attenuates glucose absorption and reduces blood glucose concentration after small intestinal glucose delivery in critical illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Asaf; Deane, Adam M; Plummer, Mark P; Cousins, Caroline E; Chapple, Lee-Anne S; Horowitz, Michael; Chapman, Marianne J

    2017-03-01

    To evaluate the effect of exogenous glucagonlike peptide-1 (GLP-1) on small intestinal glucose absorption and blood glucose concentrations during critical illness. A prospective, blinded, placebo-controlled, cross-over, randomised trial in a mixed medical-surgical adult intensive care unit, with 12 mechanically ventilated critically ill patients, who were suitable for receiving small intestinal nutrient. On consecutive days, in a randomised order, participants received intravenous GLP-1 (1.2 pmol/ kg/min) or placebo (0.9% saline) as a continuous infusion over 270 minutes. After 6 hours of fasting, intravenous infusions of GLP-1 or placebo began at T = -30 min (in which T = time), with the infusion maintained at a constant rate until study completion at T = 240 min. At T = 0 min, a 100 mL bolus of mixed liquid nutrient meal (1 kcal/mL) containing 3 g of 3-O-methyl-D-gluco-pyranose (3-OMG), a marker of glucose absorption, was administered directly into the small intestine, via a post-pyloric catheter, over 6 minutes. Blood samples were taken at regular intervals for the measurement of plasma glucose and 3-OMG concentrations. Intravenous GLP-1 attenuated initial small intestinal glucose absorption (mean area under the curve [AUC] 0-30 for 3-OMG: GLP-1 group, 4.4 mmol/L/min [SEM, 0.9 mmol/L/min] v placebo group, 6.5 mmol/L/min [SEM, 1.0 mmol/L/min]; P = 0.01), overall small intestinal glucose absorption (mean AUC 0-240 for 3-OMG: GLP-1, 68.2 mmol/L/ min [SEM, 4.7 mmol/L/min] v placebo, 77.7 mmol/L/min [SEM, 4.4 mmol/lLmin]; P = 0.02), small intestinal glucose absorption and overall blood glucose concentration (mean AUC 0-240 for blood glucose: GLP-1, 2062 mmol/L/min [SEM, 111 mmol/L/min] v placebo 2328 mmol/L/min [SEM, 145 mmol/L/min]; P = 0.005). Short-term administration of exogenous GLP-1 reduces small intestinal glucose absorption for up to 4 hours during critical illness. This is likely to be an additional mechanism for the glucose-lowering effect of this agent.

  10. Improved functional immobilization of llama single-domain antibody fragments to polystyrene surfaces using small peptides

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Harmsen, M.M.; Fijten, H.P.D.

    2012-01-01

    We studied the effect of different fusion domains on the functional immobilization of three llama single-domain antibody fragments (VHHs) after passive adsorption to polystyrene in enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA). Three VHHs produced without any fusion domain were efficiently adsorbed to

  11. Stabilization of neurotensin analogues: effect on peptide catabolism, biodistribution and tumor binding

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bruehlmeier, Matthias E-mail: peter.blaeuenstein@psi.ch; Garayoa, Elisa Garcia; Blanc, Alain; Holzer, Barbara; Gergely, Suzanne; Tourwe, Dirk; Schubiger, Pius August; Blaeuenstein, Peter

    2002-04-01

    Neurotensin (NT) receptors in pancreatic and other neuroendocrine tumors are promising targets for imaging and therapeutic purposes. Here, we report on the effect of distinct changes in the peptide chain on catabolism in vitro for five radiolabeled [{sup 99m}Tc] neurotensin analogues having high affinity for neurotensin receptors. Substitution of NT(1-7) by (N{alpha}His)Ac--the Tc-binding moiety--combined with a reduced bond 8-9 (CH{sub 2}NH), N-methylation of peptide bonds or replacement of Ile(12) by tertiary leucin (Tle) led to peptide stabilization of various degrees. Biodistribution studies in nude mice bearing HT29 xenografts showed higher tumor uptake with more stable peptides, yielding high tumor to blood ratios of up to 70.

  12. Inhibitory effect of a novel peptide, H-RN, on keratitis induced by LPS or poly(I:C) in vitro and in vivo via suppressing NF-?B and MAPK activation

    OpenAIRE

    Zhu, Shaopin; Xu, Xun; Wang, Lili; Su, Li; Gu, Qing; Wei, Fang; Liu, Kun

    2017-01-01

    Background Keratitis is a common cause of blindness. Current anti-inflammatory drugs used in keratitis have profound side effects. Small peptides derived from endogenous proteins potentially display both desired efficiency and safety. We identified an 11-amino-acid peptide, H-RN, from hepatocyte growth factor (HGF), an endogenous protein with anti-inflammatory properties. We evaluated the effects of H-RN in keratitis in vitro and in vivo. Methods In vitro, corneal fibroblasts were stimulated ...

  13. Plant natriuretic peptides control of synthesis and systemic effects

    KAUST Repository

    Wang, Yuhua

    2011-10-01

    Plant natriuretic peptides (PNPs) are signaling molecules that are secreted into the apoplast particularly under conditions of biotic and abiotic stress. At the local level, PNPs modulate their own expression via feed forward and feedback loops to enable tuning of the response at the transcript and protein level and to prevent overexpression. PNPs also employ a systemic signal, possibly electrical, to rapidly alter photosynthesis and respiration not only in treated leaves but also in upper and lower leaves thereby modulating and integrating physiological responses at the level of the whole plant. © 2011 Landes Bioscience.

  14. Comparative analysis of internalisation, haemolytic, cytotoxic and antibacterial effect of membrane-active cationic peptides: aspects of experimental setup.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horváti, Kata; Bacsa, Bernadett; Mlinkó, Tamás; Szabó, Nóra; Hudecz, Ferenc; Zsila, Ferenc; Bősze, Szilvia

    2017-06-01

    Cationic peptides proved fundamental importance as pharmaceutical agents and/or drug carrier moieties functioning in cellular processes. The comparison of the in vitro activity of these peptides is an experimental challenge and a combination of different methods, such as cytotoxicity, internalisation rate, haemolytic and antibacterial effect, is necessary. At the same time, several issues need to be addressed as the assay conditions have a great influence on the measured biological effects and the experimental setup needs to be optimised. Therefore, critical comparison of results from different assays using representative examples of cell penetrating and antimicrobial peptides was performed and optimal test conditions were suggested. Our main goal was to identify carrier peptides for drug delivery systems of antimicrobial drug candidates. Based on the results of internalisation, haemolytic, cytotoxic and antibacterial activity assays, a classification of cationic peptides is advocated. We found eight promising carrier peptides with good penetration ability of which Penetratin, Tat, Buforin and Dhvar4 peptides showed low adverse haemolytic effect. Penetratin, Transportan, Dhvar4 and the hybrid CM15 peptide had the most potent antibacterial activity on Streptococcus pneumoniae (MIC lower than 1.2 μM) and Transportan was effective against Mycobacterium tuberculosis as well. The most selective peptide was the Penetratin, where the effective antimicrobial concentration on pneumococcus was more than 250 times lower than the HC 50 value. Therefore, these peptides and their analogues will be further investigated as drug delivery systems for antimicrobial agents.

  15. Responses of mRNA expression of PepT1 in small intestine to ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    To study the effect of circulation small peptides concentration on mRNA expression in small intestine, graded amount of soybean small peptides (SSP) were infused into lactating goats through duodenal fistulas. Peptide-bound amino acid (PBAA) concentration in arterial plasma and the mRNA expression of PepT1 was ...

  16. Pharmacologic Effects in vivo in Brain by Vector-Mediated Peptide Drug Delivery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bickel, Ulrich; Yoshikawa, Takayoshi; Landaw, Elliot M.; Faull, Kym F.; Pardridge, William M.

    1993-04-01

    Pharmacologic effects in brain caused by systemic administration of neuropeptides are prevented by poor transport of the peptide through the brain vascular endothelium, which comprises the blood-brain barrier in vivo. In the present study, successful application of a chimeric peptide approach to enhance drug delivery through the blood-brain barrier for the purpose of achieving a central nervous system pharmacologic effect is described. The chimeric peptide was formed by linkage of a potent vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) analogue, which had been monobiotinylated, to a drug transport vector. The vector consisted of a covalent conjugate of avidin and the OX26 monoclonal antibody to the transferrin receptor. Owing to the high concentration of transferrin receptors on brain capillary endothelia, OX26 targets brain and undergoes receptor-mediated transcytosis through the blood-brain barrier. Systemic infusion of low doses (12 μg/kg) of the VIP chimeric peptide in rats resulted in an in vivo central nervous system pharmacologic effect: a 65% increase in cerebral blood flow. Biotinylated VIP analogue without the brain transport vector was ineffective.

  17. Peptides PHI and VIP: comparison between vascular and nonvascular smooth muscle effect in rabbit uterus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bardrum, B.; Ottesen, B.; Fahrenkrug, J.

    1986-01-01

    The distribution and effects of the two neuropeptides, vasoactive intestinal polypeptide (VIP) and peptide histidine isoleucine amide (PHI), on vascular and nonvascular smooth muscle in the urogenital tract of nonpregnant rabbit female, were investigated. Immunoreactive VIP and PHI were present in all regions except the ovary with the highest concentration in the uterin cervix. By using in vitro tension recordings of myometrial specimens, it was demonstrated that both peptides displayed a dose-dependent inhibition of the mechanical activity. The dose-response curves of VIP and PHI were superimposable with and ID 50 of 3 x 10 -8 mol/l, and their combined effect was additive. In addition, the influence of the two peptides on myometrial blood flow (MBF) was investigated by the xenon-133 washout technique. Both peptides were found to increase MBF with the same potency and efficacy. Their combined effect was additive. In conclusion VIP and PHI are present in the rabbit urogenital tract, and the two peptides are equipotent inhibitors of mechanical nonvascular and vascular smooth muscle activity in the uterus

  18. Overexpression of pro-gastrin releasing peptide promotes the cell proliferation and progression in small cell lung cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gong, Zhiyun; Lu, Renquan; Xie, Suhong; Jiang, Minglei; Liu, Kai; Xiao, Ran; Shen, Jiabin; Wang, Yanchun; Guo, Lin

    2016-01-01

    Pro-gastrin releasing peptide (ProGRP) plays the role of oncogene in small cell lung cancer (SCLC). In this study, we aim to explore the biological function of ProGRP in SCLC cells and its potential mechanism. Expression of ProGRP in SCLC tissues and cell lines were detected by immunohistochemistry and western blot analysis, respectively. The transduced cell lines with ProGRP down-regulation were established using RNA interference technology. Cell viability, cologenic, apoptosis-associated assay and the biomarker levels determination for cell supernatant were performed in the transduced cells to elucidate the biological functions and mechanisms of ProGRP in SCLC cells. Our data showed that ProGRP protein was demonstrated a higher level in SCLC tissues and cells compared with the control, and its diagnostic efficiency was better than NSE, further, the higher levels of ProGRP were detected in the patients with extensive disease stage (P < 0.05), were also the unfavorable factor to the prognosis of SCLC patients. Additionally, the concentration of serum ProGRP is a useful biomarker in disease-monitoring of the patients with SCLC. Down-regulation of ProGRP significantly reduced SCLC cell growth, repressed colony formation, but increased cancer cell apoptosis. Additionally, repression of ProGRP also induced change in the cell cycle and output of NSE. Our data indicated that ProGRP serve as the useful biomarker in the management of SCLC and might be a potential therapeutic target. - Highlights: • ProGRP is overexpressed in the tissues and sera of the patients with SCLC. • Down-regulation of ProGRP inhibited cell proliferation. • Inhibition of ProGRP altered cell cycle distribution and triggers the apoptosis of lung cancer cells.

  19. ‘‘I think that the small peptides are the best for healthy ageing…’’, an interview with Vladimir Khavinson

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rattan, Suresh

    2013-01-01

    Since its inception in 2000, Biogerontology has published interviews with some of the most renowned and intellectually influential biogerontologists, including Len Hayflick, Robin Holliday, Denham Harman,VincentCristofalo, Claudio Franceschi, Leslie Robert, Ken Kitani, Geroge Martin, Zhores Medve...... Vladimir Khavinson talking about his life and work in Russia during and after the Soviet times, his ideas on stress and health, his discoveries of the healthy ageing promoting small peptides, and other anti-ageing interventions....

  20. Staphylococcus aureus Sortase A-Mediated Incorporation of Peptides: Effect of Peptide Modification on Incorporation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvie Hansenová Maňásková

    Full Text Available The endogenous Staphylococcus aureus sortase A (SrtA transpeptidase covalently anchors cell wall-anchored (CWA proteins equipped with a specific recognition motif (LPXTG into the peptidoglycan layer of the staphylococcal cell wall. Previous in situ experiments have shown that SrtA is also able to incorporate exogenous, fluorescently labelled, synthetic substrates equipped with the LPXTG motif (K(FITCLPETG-amide into the bacterial cell wall, albeit at high concentrations of 500 μM to 1 mM. In the present study, we have evaluated the effect of substrate modification on the incorporation efficiency. This revealed that (i by elongation of LPETG-amide with a sequence of positively charged amino acids, derived from the C-terminal domain of physiological SrtA substrates, the incorporation efficiency was increased by 20-fold at 10 μM, 100 μM and 250 μM; (ii Substituting aspartic acid (E for methionine increased the incorporation of the resulting K(FITCLPMTG-amide approximately three times at all concentrations tested; (iii conjugation of the lipid II binding antibiotic vancomycin to K(FITCLPMTG-amide resulted in the same incorporation levels as K(FITCLPETG-amide, but much more efficient at an impressive 500-fold lower substrate concentration. These newly developed synthetic substrates can potentially find broad applications in for example the in situ imaging of bacteria; the incorporation of antibody recruiting moieties; the targeted delivery and covalent incorporation of antimicrobial compounds into the bacterial cell wall.

  1. Peptide and small molecules rescue the functional activity and agonist potency of dysfunctional human melanocortin-4 receptor polymorphisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiang, Zhimin; Pogozheva, Irina D; Sorenson, Nicholas B; Wilczynski, Andrzej M; Holder, Jerry Ryan; Litherland, Sally A; Millard, William J; Mosberg, Henry I; Haskell-Luevano, Carrie

    2007-07-17

    The melanocortin pathway, specifically the melanocortin-4 receptor and the cognate endogenous agonist and antagonist ligands, have been strongly implicated in the regulation of energy homeostasis and satiety. Genetic studies of morbidly obese human patients and normal weight control patients have resulted in the discovery of over 70 human melanocortin-4 receptor (MC4R) polymorphisms observed as both heterozygous and homozygous forms. A number of laboratories have been studying these hMC4R polymorphisms attempting to understand the molecular mechanism(s) that might explain the obese human phenotype. Herein, we have studied 13 polymorphic hMC4Rs that have been identified to possess statistically significant decreased endogenous agonist potency with synthetic peptides and small molecules attempting to identify ligands that can pharmacologically rescue the hMC4R polymorphic agonist response. The ligands examined in this study include NDP-MSH, MTII, Ac-His-DPhe-Arg-Trp-NH2 (JRH887-9), Ac-Anc-DPhe-Arg-Trp-NH2 (amino-2-naphtylcarboxylic acid, Anc, JRH420-12), Ac-His-(pI)DPhe-Arg-Trp-NH2 (JRH322-18), chimeric AGRP-melanocortin based ligands (Tyr-c[Cys-His-DPhe-Arg-Trp-Asn-Ala-Phe-Cys]-Tyr-NH2, AMW3-130 and Ac-mini-(His-DPhe-Arg-Trp)-hAGRP-NH2, AMW3-106), and the small molecules JB25 and THIQ. The hMC4R polymorphisms included in this study are S58C, N97D, I102S, L106P, S127L, T150I, R165Q, R165W, L250Q, G252S, C271Y, Y287Stop, and I301T. These studies resulted in the NDP-MSH, MTII, AMW3-130, THIQ, and AMW3-106 ligands possessing nanomolar to subnanomolar agonist potency at the hMC4R polymorphisms examined in this study. Thus, these ligands could generically rescue the potency and stimulatory response of the abnormally functioning hMC4Rs studied and may provide tools to further clarify the molecular mechanism(s) involving these receptor modifications.

  2. Effects of small doses of ionising radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doll, R.

    1998-01-01

    Uncertainty remains about the quantitative effects of doses of ionising radiation less than 0.2 Sv. Estimates of hereditary effects, based on the atomic bomb survivors, suggest that the mutation doubling dose is about 2 Sv for acute low LET radiation, but the confidence limits are wide. The idea that paternal gonadal irradiation might explain the Seascale cluster of childhood leukaemia has been disproved. Fetal irradiation may lead to a reduction in IQ and an increase in seizures in childhood proportional to dose. Estimates that doses to a whole population cause a risk of cancer proportional to dose, with 0.1 Sv given acutely causing a risk of 1%, will need to be modified as more information is obtained, but the idea that there is a threshold for risk above this level is not supported by observations on the irradiated fetus or the effect of fallout. The idea, based on ecological observations, that small doses protect against the development of cancer is refuted by the effect of radon in houses. New observations on the atomic bomb survivors have raised afresh the possibility that small doses may also have other somatic effects. (author)

  3. DMSO Assisted Electrospray Ionization for the Detection of Small Peptide Hormones in Urine by Dilute-and-Shoot-Liquid-Chromatography-High Resolution Mass Spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Judák, Péter; Grainger, Janelle; Goebel, Catrin; Van Eenoo, Peter; Deventer, Koen

    2017-08-01

    The mobile phase additive (DMSO) has been described as a useful tool to enhance electrospray ionization (ESI) of peptides and proteins. So far, this technique has mainly been used in proteomic/peptide research, and its applicability in a routine clinical laboratory setting (i.e., doping control analysis) has not been described yet. This work provides a simple, easy to implement screening method for the detection of doping relevant small peptides (GHRPs, GnRHs, GHS, and vasopressin-analogues) with molecular weight less than 2 kDa applying DMSO in the mobile phase. The gain in sensitivity was sufficient to inject the urine samples after a 2-fold dilution step omitting a time consuming sample preparation. The employed analytical procedure was validated for the qualitative determination of 36 compounds, including 13 metabolites. The detection limits (LODs) ranged between 50 and 1000 pg/mL and were compliant with the 2 ng/mL minimum detection level required by the World Anti-Doping Agency (WADA) for all the target peptides. To demonstrate the feasibility of the work, urine samples obtained from patients who have been treated with desmopressin or leuprolide and urine samples that have been declared as adverse analytical findings were analyzed.

  4. Calf Spleen Extractive Injection (CSEI, a small peptides enriched extraction, induces human hepatocellular carcinoma cell apoptosis via ROS/MAPKs dependent mitochondrial pathway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dongxu Jia

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Calf Spleen Extractive Injection (CSEI, a small peptides enriched extraction, performs immunomodulatory activity on cancer patients suffering from radiotherapy or chemotherapy. The present study aims to investigate the anti-hepatocellular carcinoma effects of CSEI in cells and tumor-xenografted mouse models. In HepG2 and SMMC-7721 cells, CSEI reduced cell viability, enhanced apoptosis rate, caused reactive oxygen species (ROS accumulation, inhibited migration ability, and induced caspases cascade and mitochondrial membrane potential dissipation. CSEI significantly inhibited HepG2-xenografted tumor growth in nude mice. In cell and animal experiments, CSEI increased the activations of pro-apoptotic proteins including caspase 8, caspase 9 and caspase 3; meanwhile, it suppressed the expressions of anti-apoptotic protein B-cell lymphoma 2 (Bcl-2 and anti-oxidation proteins, such as nuclear factor-erythroid 2 related factor 2 (Nrf2 and catalase (CAT. The enhanced phosphorylation of P38 and c-JunN-terminalkinase (JNK, and decreased phosphorylation of extra cellular signal-regulated protein kinase (ERKs were observed in CSEI-treated cells and tumor tissues. CSEI-induced cell viability reduction was significantly attenuated by N-Acetyl-l-cysteine (a ROS inhibitor pretreatment. All data demonstrated that the upregulated oxidative stress status and the altered mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs phosphorylation contributed to CSEI-driven mitochondrial dysfunction. Taken together, CSEI exactly induced apoptosis in human hepatocellular carcinoma cells via ROS/MAPKs dependent mitochondrial pathway.

  5. Microbial degradation rates of small peptides and amino acids in the oxygen minimum zone of Chilean coastal waters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pantoja, Silvio; Rossel, Pamela; Castro, Rodrigo; Cuevas, L. Antonio; Daneri, Giovanni; Córdova, Candy

    2009-07-01

    We found similar microbial degradation rates of labile dissolved organic matter in oxic and suboxic waters off northern Chile. Rates of peptide hydrolysis and amino acid uptake in unconcentrated water samples were not low in the water column where oxygen concentration was depleted. Hydrolysis rates ranged from 65 to 160 nmol peptide L -1 h -1 in the top 20 m, 8-28 nmol peptide L -1 h -1 between 100 and 300 m (O 2-depleted zone), and 14-19 nmol peptide L -1 h -1 between 600 and 800 m. Dissolved free amino acid uptake rates were 9-26, 3-17, and 6 nmol L -1 h -1 at similar depth intervals. Since these findings are consistent with a model of comparable potential activity of microbes in degrading labile substrates of planktonic origin, we suggest, as do other authors, that differences in decomposition rates with high and low oxygen concentrations may be a matter of substrate lability. The comparison between hydrolysis and uptake rates indicates that microbial peptide hydrolysis occurs at similar or faster rates than amino acid uptake in the water column, and that the hydrolysis of peptides is not a rate-limiting step for the complete remineralization of labile macromolecules. Low O 2 waters process about 10 tons of peptide carbon per h, double the amount processed in surface-oxygenated water. In the oxygen minimum zone, we suggest that the C balance may be affected by the low lability of the dissolved organic matter when this is upwelled to the surface. An important fraction of dissolved organic matter is processed in the oxygen minimum layer, a prominent feature of the coastal ocean in the highly productive Humboldt Current System.

  6. Effects of Synthetic Neural Adhesion Molecule Mimetic Peptides and Related Proteins on the Cardiomyogenic Differentiation of Mouse Embryonic Stem Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruodan Xu

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: Pluripotent stem cells differentiating into cardiomyocyte-like cells in an appropriate cellular environment have attracted significant attention, given the potential use of such cells for regenerative medicine. However, the precise mechanisms of lineage specification of pluripotent stem cells are still largely to be explored. Identifying the role of various small synthetic peptides involved in cardiomyogenesis may provide new insights into pathways promoting cardiomyogenesis. Methods: In the present study, using a transgenic murine embryonic stem (ES cell lineage expressing enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP under the control of α-myosin heavy chain (α-MHC promoter (pαMHC-EGFP, we investigated the cardiomyogenic effects of 7 synthetic peptides (Betrofin3, FGLs, FGLL, hNgf_C2, EnkaminE, Plannexin and C3 on cardiac differentiation. The expression of several cardiac-specific markers was determined by RT-PCR whereas the structural and functional properties of derived cardiomyocytes were examined by immunofluorescence and electrophysiology, respectively. Results: The results revealed that Betrofin3, an agonist of brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF peptide exerted the most striking pro-cardiomyogenic effect on ES cells. We found that BDNF receptor, TrkB expression was up-regulated during differentiation. Treatment of differentiating cells with Betrofin3 between days 3 and 5 enhanced the expression of cardiac-specific markers and improved cardiomyocyte differentiation and functionality as revealed by genes regulation, flow cytometry and patch clamp analysis. Thus Betrofin3 may exert its cardiomyogenic effects on ES cells via TrkB receptor. Conclusion: Taken together, the results suggest that Betrofin3 modulates BDNF signaling with positive cardiomyogenic effect in stage and dose-dependent manner providing an effective strategy to increase ES cell-based generation of cardiomyocytes and offer a novel therapeutic approach to

  7. Effects of pig antibacterial peptides on growth performance and intestine mucosal immune of broiler chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bao, H; She, R; Liu, T; Zhang, Y; Peng, K S; Luo, D; Yue, Z; Ding, Y; Hu, Y; Liu, W; Zhai, L

    2009-02-01

    Currently, substitutions for antibiotic growth promoters in animals are attracting interest. This study investigated the effects of pig antibacterial peptides (PABP) on growth performance and small intestine mucosal immune responses in broilers. Three hundred 1-d-old Arbor Acre male broiler chickens were randomly allocated to 5 groups with 60 birds per group. The groups were control group; PABP administered in drinking water at 20 and 30 mg/L of water; or PABP supplemented in feed at 150 and 200 mg/kg of diet. The birds were fed a corn-soybean based diet for 6 wk. Chickens were weighed weekly and killed after 42 d of feeding, and growth performance was measured. Samples of the duodenum and jejunum were collected. The villus height, mucosa thickness, alkaline phosphatase activity, and numbers of secreting IgA and goblet cells were evaluated. The PABP-treated groups had greater BW and average daily gain, greater height of villus and thickness of gut mucosa, greater activity of alkaline phosphatase, higher ratio of secreting IgA, and a greater number of goblet cells compared with the control group (P<0.05). In conclusion, PABP can improve the growth performance, increase the intestinal ability to absorb nutrients, and improve the mucosal immunity of the intestine.

  8. Antibacterial Effects of a Cell-Penetrating Peptide Isolated from Kefir.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miao, Jianyin; Guo, Haoxian; Chen, Feilong; Zhao, Lichao; He, Liping; Ou, Yangwen; Huang, Manman; Zhang, Yi; Guo, Baoyan; Cao, Yong; Huang, Qingrong

    2016-04-27

    Kefir is a traditional fermented milk beverage used throughout the world for centuries. A cell-penetrating peptide, F3, was isolated from kefir by Sephadex G-50 gel filtration, DEAE-52 ion exchange, and reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatography. F3 was determined to be a low molecular weight peptide containing one leucine and one tyrosine with two phosphate radicals. This peptide displayed antimicrobial activity across a broad spectrum of organisms including several Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria as well as fungi, with minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) values ranging from 125 to 500 μg/mL. Cellular penetration and accumulation of F3 were determined by confocal laser scanning microscopy. The peptide was able to penetrate the cellular membrane of Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus. Changes in cell morphology were observed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The results indicate that peptide F3 may be a good candidate for use as an effective biological preservative in agriculture and the food industry.

  9. Effect of N-Terminal Acylation on the Activity of Myostatin Inhibitory Peptides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takayama, Kentaro; Nakamura, Akari; Rentier, Cédric; Mino, Yusaku; Asari, Tomo; Saga, Yusuke; Taguchi, Akihiro; Yakushiji, Fumika; Hayashi, Yoshio

    2016-04-19

    Inhibition of myostatin, which negatively regulates skeletal muscle growth, is a promising strategy for the treatment of muscle atrophic disorders, such as muscular dystrophy, cachexia and sarcopenia. Recently, we identified peptide A (H-WRQNTRYSRIEAIKIQILSKLRL-NH2 ), the 23-amino-acid minimum myostatin inhibitory peptide derived from mouse myostatin prodomain, and highlighted the importance of its N-terminal tryptophan residue for the effective inhibition. In this study, we synthesized a series of acylated peptide derivatives focused on the tryptophan residue to develop potent myostatin inhibitors. As a result of the investigation, a more potent derivative of peptide A was successfully identified in which the N-terminal tryptophan residue is replaced with a 2-naphthyloxyacetyl moiety to give an inhibitory peptide three times (1.19±0.11 μm) more potent than parent peptide A (3.53±0.25 μm). This peptide could prove useful as a new starting point for the development of improved inhibitory peptides. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  10. PEPTIDE SOLUBILITY, STRUCTURE AND CHARGE POSITION EFFECT ON ADSORPTION BY ALUMINIUM HYDROXIDE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mary Trujillo

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Solubility, structure and position of charges in a peptide antigen sequence can be mentioned as being amongst the basic features of adsorption. In order to study their effect on adsorption, seven analogue series were synthesized from a MSP-1 peptide sequence by systematically replacing each one of the positions in the peptide sequence by aspartic acid, glutamic acid, serine, alanine, asparagine, glutamine or lysine. Such modifications in analogue peptide sequences showed a non-regular tendency regarding solubility and adsorption data. Aspartic acid and Glutamic acid analogue series showed great improvements in adsorption, especially in peptides where Lysine in position 6 and Arginine in position 13 were replaced. Solubility of position 5 analogue was greater than the position 6 analogue in Aspartic acid series; however, the position 6 analogue showed best adsorption results whilst the Aspartic acid in position 5 analogue showed no adsorption in the same conditions. Nuclear Magnetic Resonance structural analysis revealed differences in the -helical structureextension between these analogues. The Aspartic acid in position 6, located in the polar side of the helix, may allow this analogueto fit better onto the adsorption regions suggesting that the local electrostatic charge is responsible for this behavior.

  11. Opposing effects of cationic antimicrobial peptides and divalent cations on bacterial lipopolysaccharides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smart, Matthew; Rajagopal, Aruna; Liu, Wing-Ki; Ha, Bae-Yeun

    2017-10-01

    The permeability of the bacterial outer membrane, enclosing Gram-negative bacteria, depends on the interactions of the outer, lipopolysaccharide (LPS) layer, with surrounding ions and molecules. We present a coarse-grained model for describing how cationic amphiphilic molecules (e.g., antimicrobial peptides) interact with and perturb the LPS layer in a biologically relevant medium, containing monovalent and divalent salt ions (e.g., Mg2+). In our approach, peptide binding is driven by electrostatic and hydrophobic interactions and is assumed to expand the LPS layer, eventually priming it for disruption. Our results suggest that in parameter ranges of biological relevance (e.g., at micromolar concentrations) the antimicrobial peptide magainin 2 effectively disrupts the LPS layer, even though it has to compete with Mg2+ for the layer. They also show how the integrity of LPS is restored with an increasing concentration of Mg2+. Using the approach, we make a number of predictions relevant for optimizing peptide parameters against Gram-negative bacteria and for understanding bacterial strategies to develop resistance against cationic peptides.

  12. Cytotoxic and antioxidant capacity of camel milk peptides: Effects of isolated peptide on superoxide dismutase and catalase gene expression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masoud Homayouni-Tabrizi

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Peptides from natural sources such as milk are shown to have a wide spectrum of biological activities. In this study, three peptides with antioxidant capacity were identified from camel milk protein hydrolysate. Pepsin and pancreatin were used for hydrolysis of milk proteins. Ultrafiltration and reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatography were used for the concentration and purification of the hydrolysate, respectively. Sequences of the three peptides, which were determined by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight spectrophotometry, were LEEQQQTEDEQQDQL [molecular weight (MW: 1860.85 Da, LL-15], YLEELHRLNAGY (MW: 1477.63 Da, YY-11, and RGLHPVPQ (MW: 903.04 Da, RQ-8. The 3-(4,5-dimethylthia-zol-2-yl-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide assay was used to evaluate the cytotoxicity of these chemically synthesized peptides against HepG2 cells. In vitro analysis showed antioxidant properties and radical scavenging activities of these peptides on 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl, 2,2′-azino-bis (3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid+, O2–, and OH– free radicals. HepG2 cells were treated with YY-11 peptide for 48 hours, and the expression of superoxide dismutase and catalase genes was examined using real-time polymerase chain reaction. The results revealed a significant increase in the expression of superoxide dismutase and catalase genes in treated HepG2 cells.

  13. Antifungal effect and action mechanism of antimicrobial peptide polybia-CP.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Kairong; Jia, Fengjing; Dang, Wen; Zhao, Yanyan; Zhu, Ranran; Sun, Mengyang; Qiu, Shuai; An, Xiaoping; Ma, Zelin; Zhu, Yuanyuan; Yan, Jiexi; Kong, Ziqing; Yan, Wenjin; Wang, Rui

    2016-01-01

    The incidence of life-threatening invasive fungal infections increased significantly in recent years. However, the antifungal therapeutic options are very limited. Antimicrobial peptides are a class of potential lead chemical for the development of novel antifungal agents. Antimicrobial peptide polybia-CP was purified from the venom of the social wasp Polybia paulista. In this study, we synthesized polybia-CP and determined its antifungal effects against a series of Candidian species. Our results showed that polybia-CP has potent antifungal activity and fungicidal activity against the tested fungal cells with a proposed membrane-active action mode. In addition, polybia-CP could induce the increase of cellular reactive oxygen species production, which would attribute to its antifungal activity. In conclusion, the present study suggests that polybia-CP has potential as an antifungal agent or may offer a new strategy for antifungal therapeutic option. Copyright © 2015 European Peptide Society and John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  14. Controlled long-term release of small peptide hormones using a new microporous polypropylene polymer: its application for vasopressin in the Brattleboro rat and potential perinatal use

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kruisbrink, J.; Boer, G.J.

    1984-01-01

    Based on drug release by microporous hollow fibers and the recent introduction of microporous polymers, a new technique was developed for controlled delivery of peptides. Small-diameter microporous polypropylene tubing, lumen-loaded with microgram quantities of vasopressin, and coated with collodion, releases vasopressin after in vitro immersion slowly (1-100 ng/d) and constantly for months. The mechanism of pseudo-zero-order delivery is based on high adsorption of vasopressin, keeping the void volume concentration of dissolved vasopressin constant, which is consequently a constant driving force of outward diffusion. The collodion coating prevents the entry of proteinaceous compounds which would result in rapid desorption of vasopressin. The present delivery module provides a lasting release for other peptides as well (lysine-vasopressin, oxytocin, alpha-melanocyte-stimulating hormone and, to a lesser extent, Met-enkephalin). The microporous polymer-collodion device is biocompatible and, loaded with vasopressin, successfully alleviates the diabetes insipidus of Brattleboro rats deficient for vasopressin. Subcutaneous implantation normalized diuresis for a period of 60 d and constant urine vasopressin excretion is observed. When the commercially available osmotic minipump is too large for implantation, the small size of the present controlled-delivery system allows peptide treatment of young and immature laboratory rats, even if located in utero

  15. Hydrodynamic effects on β-amyloid (16-22) peptide aggregation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chiricotto, Mara; Sterpone, Fabio, E-mail: fabio.sterpone@ibpc.fr [Laboratoire de Biochimie Théorique, IBPC, CNRS UPR9080, University Paris Diderot, Sorbonne Paris Cité, 13 rue Pierre et Marie Curie, 75005 Paris (France); Melchionna, Simone [CNR-ISC, Institute for Complex System, Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, Rome (Italy); Derreumaux, Philippe [Laboratoire de Biochimie Théorique, IBPC, CNRS UPR9080, University Paris Diderot, Sorbonne Paris Cité, 13 rue Pierre et Marie Curie, 75005 Paris (France); IUF, Institut Universitaire de France, Boulevard Saint Michel, 75005 Paris (France)

    2016-07-21

    Computer simulations based on simplified representations are routinely used to explore the early steps of amyloid aggregation. However, when protein models with implicit solvent are employed, these simulations miss the effect of solvent induced correlations on the aggregation kinetics and lifetimes of metastable states. In this work, we apply the multi-scale Lattice Boltzmann Molecular Dynamics technique (LBMD) to investigate the initial aggregation phases of the amyloid Aβ{sub 16−22} peptide. LBMD includes naturally hydrodynamic interactions (HIs) via a kinetic on-lattice representation of the fluid kinetics. The peptides are represented by the flexible OPEP coarse-grained force field. First, we have tuned the essential parameters that control the coupling between the molecular and fluid evolutions in order to reproduce the experimental diffusivity of elementary species. The method is then deployed to investigate the effect of HIs on the aggregation of 100 and 1000 Aβ{sub 16−22} peptides. We show that HIs clearly impact the aggregation process and the fluctuations of the oligomer sizes by favouring the fusion and exchange dynamics of oligomers between aggregates. HIs also guide the growth of the leading largest cluster. For the 100 Aβ{sub 16−22} peptide system, the simulation of ∼300 ns allowed us to observe the transition from ellipsoidal assemblies to an elongated and slightly twisted aggregate involving almost the totality of the peptides. For the 1000 Aβ{sub 16−22} peptides, a system of unprecedented size at quasi-atomistic resolution, we were able to explore a branched disordered fibril-like structure that has never been described by other computer simulations, but has been observed experimentally.

  16. Thermal properties of some small peptides (N-acetyl-amino acid-N′-methylamides) with non-polar side groups

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Badea, Elena; Della Gatta, Giuseppe; Pałecz, Bartłomiej

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • T fus and Δ fus H m of methylamides of N-acetyl substituted non-polar amino acids were measured. • T fus and Δ fus H m increased as a function of the molar mass of the alkyl side chains. • DL racemates showed T fus of about 40 °C lower than those of the corresponding pure L enantiomers. • Ideal solubility of solids at T = 298.15 K was estimated based on their T fus and Δ fus S m . - Abstract: Temperatures and molar enthalpies of fusion of a series of uncharged small peptides, namely the methylamides of N-acetyl substituted glycine, α-amino-butyric acid, alanine, valine, norvaline, leucine, isoleucine, norleucine, and proline, were measured by differential scanning calorimetry (d.s.c.), and molar entropies of fusion were derived. Both L- and DL-compunds were taken into account for the chiral molecules. No solid-to-solid transitions were detected from room temperature to fusion except for N-acetyl-N′-methyl alaninamide. Comparisons were made with the values for the N-acetyl amides of the corresponding amino acids previously reported. Both L enantiomers and DL racemates of α-aminobutyric acid, alanine, valine and isoleucine methylamides displayed temperatures of fusion sharply increasing as a function of molar mass, whereas much lower values, in countertendency with their molar mass increase, were found for proline and leucine methylamides. The racemic DL crystals showed temperatures of fusion of about 40 °C lower than those of the corresponding pure L enantiomers, except for proline and leucine derivatives. The enthalpies and entropies of fusion also varied as a function of molar mass following a similar trend with that of temperatures of fusion, except for alanine derivatives which showed lower values than expected. The values of ideal solubility of solids at T = 298.15 K were estimated based on their temperatures and molar entropies of fusion. Results were discussed with reference to the packing patterns based on hydrogen bonding and

  17. Radionuclide imaging of small-cell lung cancer (SCLC) using 99mTc-labeled neurotensin peptide 8-13

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Kaijun; An Rui; Gao Zairong; Zhang Yongxue; Aruva, Mohan R.

    2006-01-01

    Objectives: To prepare 99m technetium ( 99m Tc)-labeled neurotensin (NT) peptide and to evaluate the feasibility of imaging oncogene NT receptors overexpressed in human small-cell lung cancer (SCLC) cells. Methods: The NT analogue (Nα-His)Ac-NT(8-13) was synthesized such that histidine was attached at the N-terminus. The analogue was labeled with [ 99m Tc(H 2 O) 3 (CO) 3 ] at pH 7. 99m Tc-(Nα-His)Ac-NT(8-13) in vitro stability was determined by challenging it with 100 times the molar excess of DTPA, human serum albumin (HSA) and cysteine. The affinity, 99m Tc-(Nα-His)Ac-NT(8-13) binding to SCLC cell line NCI-H446, was studied in vitro. Biodistribution and imaging with 99m Tc-(Nα-His)Ac-NT(8-13) were performed at 4 and 12 h postinjection, and tissue distribution and imaging after receptor blocking were carried out at 4 h in nude mice bearing human SCLC tumor. Blood clearance was determined in normal mice. Results: The affinity constant (K d ) of 99m Tc-(Nα-His)Ac-NT(8-13) to SCLC cells was 0.56 nmol/L. When challenged with 100 times the molar excess of DTPA, HSA or cysteine, more than 97±1.8% radioactivity remained as 99m Tc-(Nα-His)Ac-NT(8-13). Tumor-to-muscle ratio was 3.35±1.01 at 4 h and 4.20±1.35 at 12 h postinjection. The excretory route of 99m Tc-(Nα-His)Ac-NT(8-13) was chiefly through the renal pathway. In the receptor-blocking group treated with unlabeled (Nα-His)Ac-NT(8-13), tumor-to-muscle ratio at 4 h was 1.25±0.55. Conclusion: The results suggest that 99m Tc-(Nα-His)Ac-NT(8-13) specifically binds to the SCLC cells and made 99m Tc-(Nα-His)Ac-NT(8-13) a desirable compound for further studies in planar or SPECT imaging of oncogene receptors overexpressed in SCLC cells

  18. Effects of chronic glucagon-like peptide-2 therapy during weaning in neonatal pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sigalet, David L; de Heuvel, Elaine; Wallace, Laurie

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The enteroendocrine hormone glucagon like peptide-2 (GLP-2) and its ligands are under development as therapeutic agents for a variety of intestinal pathologies. A number of these conditions occur in neonates and infants, and thus a detailed understanding of the effects of GLP-2 during...

  19. Effect of the calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) receptor antagonist telcagepant in human cranial arteries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L. Edvinsson (Lars); K.Y. Chan (Kayi); S. Eftekhari; E. Nilsson (Elisabeth); R. de Vries (René); H. Säveland (Hans); C.M.F. Dirven (Clemens); A.H.J. Danser (Jan)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractIntroduction: Calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) is a neuronal messenger in intracranial sensory nerves and is considered to play a significant role in migraine pathophysiology. Materials and methods: We investigated the effect of the CGRP receptor antagonist, telcagepant, on

  20. Effect of abomasal glucose infusion on plasma concentrations of gut peptides in periparturient dairy cows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Mogens; Relling, A E; Reynolds, C K

    2010-01-01

    Six Holstein cows fitted with ruminal cannulas and permanent indwelling catheters in the portal vein, hepatic vein, mesenteric vein, and an artery were used to study the effects of abomasal glucose infusion on splanchnic plasma concentrations of gut peptides. The experimental design was a randomi...

  1. Effect of Pancreatic Hormones on pro-Atrial Natriuretic Peptide in Humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zois, Nora E.; Terzic, Dijana; Faerch, Kristine

    2017-01-01

    Plasma concentrations of pro-Atrial natriuretic peptide, proANP, are decreased in obesity and diabetes. Decreased proANP concentrations have also been noted after meal intake, and recently, a glucose-mediated regulation of ANP gene expression was reported. Hence, we evaluated the effects of insul...

  2. Genetic selection of peptide aptamers that interact and inhibit both Small protein B and alternative ribosome-rescue factor A of Aeromonas veronii C4

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peng Liu

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Aeromonas veronii is a pathogenic gram-negative bacterium, which infects a variety of animals and results in mass mortality. The stalled-ribosome rescues are reported to ensure viability and virulence under stress conditions, of which primarily include trans-translation and alternative ribosome-rescue factor A (ArfA in A. veronii. For identification of specific peptides that interact and inhibit the stalled-ribosome rescues, peptide aptamer library (pTRG-SN-peptides was constructed using pTRG as vector and Staphylococcus aureus nuclease (SN as scaffold protein, in which 16 random amino acids were introduced to form an exposed surface loop. In the meantime both Small Protein B (SmpB which acts as one of the key components in trans-translation, and alternative ribosome-rescue factor A (ArfA were inserted to pBT to constitute pBT-SmpB and pBT-ArfA, respectively. The peptide aptamer PA-2 was selected from pTRG-SN-peptides by bacterial two-hybrid system (B2H employing pBT-SmpB or pBT-ArfA as baits. The conserved sites G133K134 and D138K139R140 of C-terminal SmpB were identified by interacting with N-terminal SN, and concurrently the residue K62 of ArfA was recognized by interacting with the surface loop of the specific peptide aptamer PA-2. The expression plasmids pN-SN or pN-PA-2, which combined the duplication origin of pRE112 with the neokanamycin promoter expressing SN or PA-2, were created and transformed into A. veronii C4, separately. The engineered A. veronii C4 which endowing SN or PA-2 expression impaired growth capabilities under stress conditions including temperatures, sucrose, glucose, potassium chloride (KCl and antibiotics, and the stress-related genes rpoS and nhaP were down-regulated significantly by Quantitative Real-time PCR (qRT-PCR when treating in 2.0% KCl. Thus,the engineered A. veronii C4 conferring PA-2 expression might be potentially attenuated vaccine, and also the peptide aptamer PA-2 could develop as anti

  3. Genetic Selection of Peptide Aptamers That Interact and Inhibit Both Small Protein B and Alternative Ribosome-Rescue Factor A of Aeromonas veronii C4.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Peng; Chen, Yong; Wang, Dan; Tang, Yanqiong; Tang, Hongqian; Song, Haichao; Sun, Qun; Zhang, Yueling; Liu, Zhu

    2016-01-01

    Aeromonas veronii is a pathogenic gram-negative bacterium, which infects a variety of animals and results in mass mortality. The stalled-ribosome rescues are reported to ensure viability and virulence under stress conditions, of which primarily include trans-translation and alternative ribosome-rescue factor A (ArfA) in A. veronii. For identification of specific peptides that interact and inhibit the stalled-ribosome rescues, peptide aptamer library (pTRG-SN-peptides) was constructed using pTRG as vector and Staphylococcus aureus nuclease (SN) as scaffold protein, in which 16 random amino acids were introduced to form an exposed surface loop. In the meantime both Small Protein B (SmpB) which acts as one of the key components in trans-translation, and ArfA were inserted to pBT to constitute pBT-SmpB and pBT-ArfA, respectively. The peptide aptamer PA-2 was selected from pTRG-SN-peptides by bacterial two-hybrid system (B2H) employing pBT-SmpB or pBT-ArfA as baits. The conserved sites G133K134 and D138K139R140 of C-terminal SmpB were identified by interacting with N-terminal SN, and concurrently the residue K62 of ArfA was recognized by interacting with the surface loop of the specific peptide aptamer PA-2. The expression plasmids pN-SN or pN-PA-2, which combined the duplication origin of pRE112 with the neokanamycin promoter expressing SN or PA-2, were created and transformed into A. veronii C4, separately. The engineered A. veronii C4 which endowing SN or PA-2 expression impaired growth capabilities under stress conditions including temperatures, sucrose, glucose, potassium chloride (KCl) and antibiotics, and the stress-related genes rpoS and nhaP were down-regulated significantly by Quantitative Real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) when treating in 2.0% KCl. Thus, the engineered A. veronii C4 conferring PA-2 expression might be potentially attenuated vaccine, and also the peptide aptamer PA-2 could develop as anti-microbial drugs targeted to the ribosome rescued factors in A

  4. Effects of lactoferrin derived peptides on simulants of biological warfare agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sijbrandij, Tjitske; Ligtenberg, Antoon J; Nazmi, Kamran; Veerman, Enno C I; Bolscher, Jan G M; Bikker, Floris J

    2017-01-01

    Lactoferrin (LF) is an important immune protein in neutrophils and secretory fluids of mammals. Bovine LF (bLF) harbours two antimicrobial stretches, lactoferricin and lactoferampin, situated in close proximity in the N1 domain. To mimic these antimicrobial domain parts a chimeric peptide (LFchimera) has been constructed comprising parts of both stretches (LFcin17-30 and LFampin265-284). To investigate the potency of this construct to combat a set of Gram positive and Gram negative bacteria which are regarded as simulants for biological warfare agents, the effect on bacterial killing, membrane permeability and membrane polarity were determined in comparison to the constituent peptides and the native bLF. Furthermore we aimed to increase the antimicrobial potency of the bLF derived peptides by cationic amino acid substitutions. Overall, the bactericidal activity of the peptides could be related to membrane disturbing effects, i.e. membrane permeabilization and depolarization. Those effects were most prominent for the LFchimera. Arginine residues were found to be crucial for displaying antimicrobial activity, as lysine to arginine substitutions resulted in an increased antimicrobial activity, affecting mostly LFampin265-284 whereas arginine to lysine substitutions resulted in a decreased bactericidal activity, predominantly in case of LFcin17-30.

  5. Effects of exogenous glucagon-like peptide-2 and distal bowel resection on intestinal and systemic adaptive responses in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Sarah W; de Heuvel, Elaine; Wallace, Laurie E; Hartmann, Bolette; Holst, Jens J; Brindle, Mary E; Chelikani, Prasanth K; Sigalet, David L

    2017-01-01

    To determine the effects of exogenous glucagon-like peptide-2 (GLP-2), with or without massive distal bowel resection, on adaptation of jejunal mucosa, enteric neurons, gut hormones and tissue reserves in rats. GLP-2 is a gut hormone known to be trophic for small bowel mucosa, and to mimic intestinal adaptation in short bowel syndrome (SBS). However, the effects of exogenous GLP-2 and SBS on enteric neurons are unclear. Sprague Dawley rats were randomized to four treatments: Transected Bowel (TB) (n = 8), TB + GLP-2 (2.5 nmol/kg/h, n = 8), SBS (n = 5), or SBS + GLP-2 (2.5 nmol/kg/h, n = 9). SBS groups underwent a 60% jejunoileal resection with cecectomy and jejunocolic anastomosis. All rats were maintained on parenteral nutrition for 7 d. Parameters measured included gut morphometry, qPCR for hexose transporter (SGLT-1, GLUT-2, GLUT-5) and GLP-2 receptor mRNA, whole mount immunohistochemistry for neurons (HuC/D, VIP, nNOS), plasma glucose, gut hormones, and body composition. Resection increased the proportion of nNOS immunopositive myenteric neurons, intestinal muscularis propria thickness and crypt cell proliferation, which were not recapitulated by GLP-2 therapy. Exogenous GLP-2 increased jejunal mucosal surface area without affecting enteric VIP or nNOS neuronal immunopositivity, attenuated resection-induced reductions in jejunal hexose transporter abundance (SGLT-1, GLUT-2), increased plasma amylin and decreased peptide YY concentrations. Exogenous GLP-2 attenuated resection-induced increases in blood glucose and body fat loss. Exogenous GLP-2 stimulates jejunal adaptation independent of enteric neuronal VIP or nNOS changes, and has divergent effects on plasma amylin and peptide YY concentrations. The novel ability of exogenous GLP-2 to modulate resection-induced changes in peripheral glucose and lipid reserves may be important in understanding the whole-body response following intestinal resection, and is worthy of further study.

  6. Effects of exogenous glucagon-like peptide-2 and distal bowel resection on intestinal and systemic adaptive responses in rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah W Lai

    Full Text Available To determine the effects of exogenous glucagon-like peptide-2 (GLP-2, with or without massive distal bowel resection, on adaptation of jejunal mucosa, enteric neurons, gut hormones and tissue reserves in rats.GLP-2 is a gut hormone known to be trophic for small bowel mucosa, and to mimic intestinal adaptation in short bowel syndrome (SBS. However, the effects of exogenous GLP-2 and SBS on enteric neurons are unclear.Sprague Dawley rats were randomized to four treatments: Transected Bowel (TB (n = 8, TB + GLP-2 (2.5 nmol/kg/h, n = 8, SBS (n = 5, or SBS + GLP-2 (2.5 nmol/kg/h, n = 9. SBS groups underwent a 60% jejunoileal resection with cecectomy and jejunocolic anastomosis. All rats were maintained on parenteral nutrition for 7 d. Parameters measured included gut morphometry, qPCR for hexose transporter (SGLT-1, GLUT-2, GLUT-5 and GLP-2 receptor mRNA, whole mount immunohistochemistry for neurons (HuC/D, VIP, nNOS, plasma glucose, gut hormones, and body composition.Resection increased the proportion of nNOS immunopositive myenteric neurons, intestinal muscularis propria thickness and crypt cell proliferation, which were not recapitulated by GLP-2 therapy. Exogenous GLP-2 increased jejunal mucosal surface area without affecting enteric VIP or nNOS neuronal immunopositivity, attenuated resection-induced reductions in jejunal hexose transporter abundance (SGLT-1, GLUT-2, increased plasma amylin and decreased peptide YY concentrations. Exogenous GLP-2 attenuated resection-induced increases in blood glucose and body fat loss.Exogenous GLP-2 stimulates jejunal adaptation independent of enteric neuronal VIP or nNOS changes, and has divergent effects on plasma amylin and peptide YY concentrations. The novel ability of exogenous GLP-2 to modulate resection-induced changes in peripheral glucose and lipid reserves may be important in understanding the whole-body response following intestinal resection, and is worthy of further study.

  7. Synthetic Growth Hormone-Releasing Peptides (GHRPs: A Historical Appraisal of the Evidences Supporting Their Cytoprotective Effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Berlanga-Acosta

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Growth hormone-releasing peptides (GHRPs constitute a group of small synthetic peptides that stimulate the growth hormone secretion and the downstream axis activity. Mounting evidences since the early 1980s delineated unexpected pharmacological cardioprotective and cytoprotective properties for the GHRPs. However, despite intense basic pharmacological research, alternatives to prevent cell and tissue demise before lethal insults have remained as an empty niche in the clinical armamentarium. Here, we have rigorously reviewed the investigational development of GHRPs and their clinical niching perspectives. Methodology: PubMed/MEDLINE databases, including original research and review articles, were explored. The search design was date escalated from 1980 and included articles in English only. Results and Conclusions: GHRPs bind to two different receptors (GHS-R1a and CD36, which redundantly or independently exert relevant biological effects. GHRPs’ binding to CD36 activates prosurvival pathways such as PI-3K/AKT1, thus reducing cellular death. Furthermore, GHRPs decrease reactive oxygen species (ROS spillover, enhance the antioxidant defenses, and reduce inflammation. These cytoprotective abilities have been revealed in cardiac, neuronal, gastrointestinal, and hepatic cells, representing a comprehensive spectrum of protection of parenchymal organs. Antifibrotic effects have been attributed to some of the GHRPs by counteracting fibrogenic cytokines. In addition, GHRP family members have shown a potent myotropic effect by promoting anabolia and inhibiting catabolia. Finally, GHRPs exhibit a broad safety profile in preclinical and clinical settings. Despite these fragmented lines incite to envision multiple pharmacological uses for GHRPs, especially as a myocardial reperfusion damage-attenuating candidate, this family of “drugable” peptides awaits for a definitive clinical niche.

  8. Effects of exogenous glucagon-like peptide-2 and distal bowel resection on intestinal and systemic adaptive responses in rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Heuvel, Elaine; Wallace, Laurie E.; Hartmann, Bolette; Holst, Jens J.; Brindle, Mary E.; Chelikani, Prasanth K.; Sigalet, David L.

    2017-01-01

    Objective To determine the effects of exogenous glucagon-like peptide-2 (GLP-2), with or without massive distal bowel resection, on adaptation of jejunal mucosa, enteric neurons, gut hormones and tissue reserves in rats. Background GLP-2 is a gut hormone known to be trophic for small bowel mucosa, and to mimic intestinal adaptation in short bowel syndrome (SBS). However, the effects of exogenous GLP-2 and SBS on enteric neurons are unclear. Methods Sprague Dawley rats were randomized to four treatments: Transected Bowel (TB) (n = 8), TB + GLP-2 (2.5 nmol/kg/h, n = 8), SBS (n = 5), or SBS + GLP-2 (2.5 nmol/kg/h, n = 9). SBS groups underwent a 60% jejunoileal resection with cecectomy and jejunocolic anastomosis. All rats were maintained on parenteral nutrition for 7 d. Parameters measured included gut morphometry, qPCR for hexose transporter (SGLT-1, GLUT-2, GLUT-5) and GLP-2 receptor mRNA, whole mount immunohistochemistry for neurons (HuC/D, VIP, nNOS), plasma glucose, gut hormones, and body composition. Results Resection increased the proportion of nNOS immunopositive myenteric neurons, intestinal muscularis propria thickness and crypt cell proliferation, which were not recapitulated by GLP-2 therapy. Exogenous GLP-2 increased jejunal mucosal surface area without affecting enteric VIP or nNOS neuronal immunopositivity, attenuated resection-induced reductions in jejunal hexose transporter abundance (SGLT-1, GLUT-2), increased plasma amylin and decreased peptide YY concentrations. Exogenous GLP-2 attenuated resection-induced increases in blood glucose and body fat loss. Conclusions Exogenous GLP-2 stimulates jejunal adaptation independent of enteric neuronal VIP or nNOS changes, and has divergent effects on plasma amylin and peptide YY concentrations. The novel ability of exogenous GLP-2 to modulate resection-induced changes in peripheral glucose and lipid reserves may be important in understanding the whole-body response following intestinal resection, and is worthy

  9. Synthetic Growth Hormone-Releasing Peptides (GHRPs): A Historical Appraisal of the Evidences Supporting Their Cytoprotective Effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berlanga-Acosta, Jorge; Abreu-Cruz, Angel; Herrera, Diana García-Del Barco; Mendoza-Marí, Yssel; Rodríguez-Ulloa, Arielis; García-Ojalvo, Ariana; Falcón-Cama, Viviana; Hernández-Bernal, Francisco; Beichen, Qu; Guillén-Nieto, Gerardo

    2017-01-01

    Growth hormone-releasing peptides (GHRPs) constitute a group of small synthetic peptides that stimulate the growth hormone secretion and the downstream axis activity. Mounting evidences since the early 1980s delineated unexpected pharmacological cardioprotective and cytoprotective properties for the GHRPs. However, despite intense basic pharmacological research, alternatives to prevent cell and tissue demise before lethal insults have remained as an empty niche in the clinical armamentarium. Here, we have rigorously reviewed the investigational development of GHRPs and their clinical niching perspectives. PubMed/MEDLINE databases, including original research and review articles, were explored. The search design was date escalated from 1980 and included articles in English only. GHRPs bind to two different receptors (GHS-R1a and CD36), which redundantly or independently exert relevant biological effects. GHRPs' binding to CD36 activates prosurvival pathways such as PI-3K/AKT1, thus reducing cellular death. Furthermore, GHRPs decrease reactive oxygen species (ROS) spillover, enhance the antioxidant defenses, and reduce inflammation. These cytoprotective abilities have been revealed in cardiac, neuronal, gastrointestinal, and hepatic cells, representing a comprehensive spectrum of protection of parenchymal organs. Antifibrotic effects have been attributed to some of the GHRPs by counteracting fibrogenic cytokines. In addition, GHRP family members have shown a potent myotropic effect by promoting anabolia and inhibiting catabolia. Finally, GHRPs exhibit a broad safety profile in preclinical and clinical settings. Despite these fragmented lines incite to envision multiple pharmacological uses for GHRPs, especially as a myocardial reperfusion damage-attenuating candidate, this family of "drugable" peptides awaits for a definitive clinical niche.

  10. Anti-tumor effects of a novel chimeric peptide on S180 and H22 xenografts bearing nude mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Dongdong; Gao, Yanfeng; Chen, Lixiang; Qi, Yuanming; Kang, Qiaozhen; Wang, Haili; Zhu, Linyu; Ye, Yong; Zhai, Mingxia

    2010-05-01

    In recent years, many endogenous peptides have been identified by screening combinatory phage display peptide library, which play important roles in the process of angiogenesis. A heptapeptide, ATWLPPR, binds specifically to NRP-1 and selectively inhibits VEGF165 binding to VEGFR-2. Another heptapeptide, NLLMAAS, blocks both Ang-1 and Ang-2 binding to Tie-2 in a dose-dependent manner. In the present study, we aimed to connect ATWLPPR (V1) with NLLMAAS (V2) via a flexible linker, Ala-Ala, to reconstruct a novel peptide ATWLPPRAANLLMAAS (V3). We firstly investigated the anti-tumor and anti-angiogenic effects of peptide V3 on sarcoma S180 and hepatoma H22 bearing BALB/c nude mice. Mice were continuously subcutaneously administrated with normal saline, V1 (320microg/kg/d), V2 (320microg/kg/d), V1+V2 (320microg/kg/d), and V3 (160, 320 and 480microg/kg/d), for 7 days. Treatment with peptide V3 could significantly reduce the tumor weight and volume. Pathological examination showed that the tumors treated with peptide V3 had a larger region of necrosis than that of peptide V1, V2, and V1+V2 at the same dose. A significant decrease of microvessel density (MVD) in a dose-dependent manner was observed in each group of peptide V3. The results of pathological examination on normal tissue, lung, heart, liver, spleen, kidney and white blood cells showed that peptide V3 might have no significant toxicity. In conclusion, our results demonstrated that peptide V3 could be more effective on inhibiting tumor growth and angiogenesis than that of V1, V2, and V1+V2. Peptide V3 could be considered as a novel chimeric peptide with potent anti-tumor activity. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Transistor Small Signal Analysis under Radiation Effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharshar, K.A.A.

    2004-01-01

    A Small signal transistor parameters dedicate the operation of bipolar transistor before and after exposed to gamma radiation (1 Mrad up to 5 Mrads) and electron beam(1 MeV, 25 mA) with the same doses as a radiation sources, the electrical parameters of the device are changed. The circuit Model has been discussed.Parameters, such as internal emitter resistance (re), internal base resistance, internal collector resistance (re), emitter base photocurrent (Ippe) and base collector photocurrent (Ippe). These parameters affect on the operation of the device in its applications, which work as an effective element, such as current gain (hFE≡β)degradation it's and effective parameter in the device operation. Also the leakage currents (IcBO) and (IEBO) are most important parameters, Which increased with radiation doses. Theoretical representation of the change in the equivalent circuit for NPN and PNP bipolar transistor were discussed, the input and output parameters of the two types were discussed due to the change in small signal input resistance of the two types. The emitter resistance(re) were changed by the effect of gamma and electron beam irradiation, which makes a change in the role of matching impedances between transistor stages. Also the transistor stability factors S(Ico), S(VBE) and S(β are detected to indicate the transistor operations after exposed to radiation fields. In low doses the gain stability is modified due to recombination of induced charge generated during device fabrication. Also the load resistance values are connected to compensate the effect

  12. Effect of Synthetic Truncated Apolipoprotein C-I Peptide on Plasma Lipoprotein Cholesterol in Nonhuman Primates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rampratap S. Kushwaha

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The present studies were conducted to determine whether a synthetic truncated apoC-I peptide that inhibits CETP activity in baboons would raise plasma HDL cholesterol levels in nonhuman primates with low HDL levels. We used 2 cynomolgus monkeys and 3 baboons fed a cholesterol- and fat-enriched diet. In cynomolgus monkeys, we injected synthetic truncated apoC-I inhibitor peptide at a dose of 20 mg/kg and, in baboons, at doses of 10, 15, and 20 mg/kg at weekly intervals. Blood samples were collected 3 times a week and VLDL + LDL and HDL cholesterol concentrations were measured. In cynomolgus monkeys, administration of the inhibitor peptide caused a rapid decrease in VLDL + LDL cholesterol concentrations (30%–60% and an increase in HDL cholesterol concentrations (10%–20%. VLDL + LDL cholesterol concentrations returned to baseline levels in approximately 15 days. In baboons, administration of the synthetic inhibitor peptide caused a decrease in VLDL + LDL cholesterol (20%–60% and an increase in HDL cholesterol (10%–20%. VLDL + LDL cholesterol returned to baseline levels by day 21, whereas HDL cholesterol concentrations remained elevated for up to 26 days. ApoA-I concentrations increased, whereas apoE and triglyceride concentrations decreased. Subcutaneous and intravenous administrations of the inhibitor peptide had similar effects on LDL and HDL cholesterol concentrations. There was no change in body weight, food consumption, or plasma IgG levels of any baboon during the study. These studies suggest that the truncated apoC-I peptide can be used to raise HDL in humans.

  13. VCD Robustness of the Amide-I and Amide-II Vibrational Modes of Small Peptide Models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Góbi, Sándor; Magyarfalvi, Gábor; Tarczay, György

    2015-09-01

    The rotational strengths and the robustness values of amide-I and amide-II vibrational modes of For(AA)n NHMe (where AA is Val, Asn, Asp, or Cys, n = 1-5 for Val and Asn; n = 1 for Asp and Cys) model peptides with α-helix and β-sheet backbone conformations were computed by density functional methods. The robustness results verify empirical rules drawn from experiments and from computed rotational strengths linking amide-I and amide-II patterns in the vibrational circular dichroism (VCD) spectra of peptides with their backbone structures. For peptides with at least three residues (n ≥ 3) these characteristic patterns from coupled amide vibrational modes have robust signatures. For shorter peptide models many vibrational modes are nonrobust, and the robust modes can be dependent on the residues or on their side chain conformations in addition to backbone conformations. These robust VCD bands, however, provide information for the detailed structural analysis of these smaller systems. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Effect of electrostatics on aggregation of prion protein Sup35 peptide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Portillo, Alexander M; Krasnoslobodtsev, Alexey V; Lyubchenko, Yuri L

    2012-01-01

    Self-assembly of misfolded proteins into ordered fibrillar structures is a fundamental property of a wide range of proteins and peptides. This property is also linked with the development of various neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer’s and Parkinson’s. Environmental conditions modulate the misfolding and aggregation processes. We used a peptide, CGNNQQNY, from yeast prion protein Sup35, as a model system to address effects of environmental conditions on aggregate formation. The GNNQQNY peptide self-assembles in fibrils with structural features that are similar to amyloidogenic proteins. Atomic force microscopy (AFM) and thioflavin T (ThT) fluorescence assay were employed to follow the aggregation process at various pHs and ionic strengths. We also used single molecule AFM force spectroscopy to probe interactions between the peptides under various conditions. The ThT fluorescence data showed that the peptide aggregates fast at pH values approaching the peptide isoelectric point (pI = 5.3) and the kinetics is 10 times slower at acidic pH (pH 2.0), suggesting that electrostatic interactions contribute to the peptide self-assembly into aggregates. This hypothesis was tested by experiments performed at low (11 mM) and high (150 mM) ionic strengths. Indeed, the aggregation lag time measured at pH 2 at low ionic strength (11 mM) is 195 h, whereas the lag time decreases ∼5 times when the ionic strength is increased to 150 mM. At conditions close to the pI value, pH 5.6, the aggregation lag time is 12 ± 6 h under low ionic strength, and there is minimal change to the lag time at 150 mM NaCl. The ionic strength also influences the morphology of aggregates visualized with AFM. In pH 2.0 and at high ionic strength, the aggregates are twofold taller than those formed at low ionic strength. In parallel, AFM force spectroscopy studies revealed minimal contribution of electrostatics to dissociation of transient peptide dimers. (paper)

  15. A Small Modular Laboratory Hall Effect Thruster

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Ty Davis

    Electric propulsion technologies promise to revolutionize access to space, opening the door for mission concepts unfeasible by traditional propulsion methods alone. The Hall effect thruster is a relatively high thrust, moderate specific impulse electric propulsion device that belongs to the class of electrostatic thrusters. Hall effect thrusters benefit from an extensive flight history, and offer significant performance and cost advantages when compared to other forms of electric propulsion. Ongoing research on these devices includes the investigation of mechanisms that tend to decrease overall thruster efficiency, as well as the development of new techniques to extend operational lifetimes. This thesis is primarily concerned with the design and construction of a Small Modular Laboratory Hall Effect Thruster (SMLHET), and its operation on argon propellant gas. Particular attention was addressed at low-cost, modular design principles, that would facilitate simple replacement and modification of key thruster parts such as the magnetic circuit and discharge channel. This capability is intended to facilitate future studies of device physics such as anomalous electron transport and magnetic shielding of the channel walls, that have an impact on thruster performance and life. Preliminary results demonstrate SMLHET running on argon in a manner characteristic of Hall effect thrusters, additionally a power balance method was utilized to estimate thruster performance. It is expected that future thruster studies utilizing heavier though more expensive gases like xenon or krypton, will observe increased efficiency and stability.

  16. Structures of self-assembled amphiphilic peptide-heterodimers: effects of concentration, pH, temperature and ionic strength

    KAUST Repository

    Luo, Zhongli; Å kerman, Bjö rn; Zhang, Shuguang; Nordé n, Bengt

    2010-01-01

    -studies indicate that the NaCl has only a minor effect on the peptide secondary structure we propose that the main role of the added salt is to screen the electrostatic repulsion between the peptide building blocks. According to the AFM images ADG and AKG support a

  17. Antagonistic effect of disulfide-rich peptide aptamers selected by cDNA display on interleukin-6-dependent cell proliferation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nemoto, Naoto; Tsutsui, Chihiro; Yamaguchi, Junichi; Ueno, Shingo; Machida, Masayuki; Kobayashi, Toshikatsu; Sakai, Takafumi

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Disulfide-rich peptide aptamer inhibits IL-6-dependent cell proliferation. ► Disulfide bond of peptide aptamer is essential for its affinity to IL-6R. ► Inhibitory effect of peptide depends on number and pattern of its disulfide bonds. -- Abstract: Several engineered protein scaffolds have been developed recently to circumvent particular disadvantages of antibodies such as their large size and complex composition, low stability, and high production costs. We previously identified peptide aptamers containing one or two disulfide-bonds as an alternative ligand to the interleukin-6 receptor (IL-6R). Peptide aptamers (32 amino acids in length) were screened from a random peptide library by in vitro peptide selection using the evolutionary molecular engineering method “cDNA display”. In this report, the antagonistic activity of the peptide aptamers were examined by an in vitro competition enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and an IL-6-dependent cell proliferation assay. The results revealed that a disulfide-rich peptide aptamer inhibited IL-6-dependent cell proliferation with similar efficacy to an anti-IL-6R monoclonal antibody.

  18. Effects of glucagon-like peptide-1 on endothelial function in type 2 diabetes patients with stable coronary artery disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nyström, Thomas; Gutniak, Mark K; Zhang, Qimin

    2004-01-01

    GLP-1 stimulates insulin secretion, suppresses glucagon secretion, delays gastric emptying, and inhibits small bowel motility, all actions contributing to the anti-diabetogenic peptide effect. Endothelial dysfunction is strongly associated with insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes mellitus...... and may cause the angiopathy typifying this debilitating disease. Therefore, interventions affecting both endothelial dysfunction and insulin resistance may prove useful in improving survival in type 2 diabetes patients. We investigated GLP-1's effect on endothelial function and insulin sensitivity (S......(I)) in two groups: 1) 12 type 2 diabetes patients with stable coronary artery disease and 2) 10 healthy subjects with normal endothelial function and S(I). Subjects underwent infusion of recombinant GLP-1 or saline in a random crossover study. Endothelial function was measured by postischemic FMD of brachial...

  19. Specific efficacy of peptide receptor radionuclide therapy with {sup 177}Lu-octreotate in advanced neuroendocrine tumours of the small intestine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sabet, Amir; Dautzenberg, Kristina; Haslerud, Torjan; Aouf, Anas; Sabet, Amin; Biersack, Hans-Juergen [University Hospital, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Bonn (Germany); Simon, Birgit [University Hospital, Department of Radiology, Bonn (Germany); Mayer, Karin [University Hospital, Department of Internal Medicine and Oncology, Bonn (Germany); Ezziddin, Samer [University Hospital, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Bonn (Germany); Saarland University, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Homburg (Germany)

    2015-07-15

    Increasing evidence supports the value of peptide receptor radionuclide therapy (PRRT) in patients with metastatic neuroendocrine tumours (NET), but there are limited data on its specific efficacy in NET of small intestinal (midgut) origin. This study aims to define the benefit of PRRT with {sup 177}Lu-octreotate for this circumscribed entity derived by a uniformly treated patient cohort. A total of 61 consecutive patients with unresectable, advanced small intestinal NET G1-2 stage IV treated with {sup 177}Lu-octreotate (4 intended cycles at 3-month intervals, mean activity per cycle 7.9 GBq) were analysed. Sufficient tumour uptake on baseline receptor imaging and either documented tumour progression (n = 46) or uncontrolled symptoms (n = 15) were prerequisites for treatment. Response was evaluated according to modified Southwest Oncology Group (SWOG) criteria and additionally with Response Criteria in Solid Tumors (RECIST) 1.1. Assessment of survival was performed using Kaplan-Meier curves and Cox proportional hazards model for uni- and multivariate analyses. Toxicity was assessed according to standardized follow-up laboratory work-up including blood counts, liver and renal function, supplemented with serial {sup 99m}Tc-diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (DTPA) clearance measurements. The median follow-up period was 62 months. Reversible haematotoxicity (≥ grade 3) occurred in five patients (8.2 %). No significant nephrotoxicity (≥ grade 3) was observed. Treatment response according to modified SWOG criteria consisted of partial response in 8 (13.1 %), minor response in 19 (31.1 %), stable disease in 29 (47.5 %) and progressive disease in 5 (8.2 %) patients. The disease control rate was 91.8 %. Median progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS) was 33 [95 % confidence interval (CI) 25-41] and 61 months (95 % CI NA), respectively. Objective response was associated with longer survival (p = 0.005). Independent predictors of shorter PFS were

  20. Small-angle scattering studies show distinct conformations of calmodulin in its complexes with two peptides based on the regulatory domain of the catalytic subunit of phosphorylase kinase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trewhella, J.; Blumenthal, D.K.; Rokop, S.E.; Seeger, P.A.

    1990-01-01

    Small-angle X-ray and neutron scattering have been used to study the solution structures of calmodulin complexed with synthetic peptides corresponding to residues 342-366 and 301-326, designated PhK5 and PhK13, respectively, in the regulatory domain of the catalytic subunit of skeletal muscle phosphorylase kinase. The scattering data show that binding of PhK5 to calmodulin induces a dramatic contraction of calmodulin, similar to that previously observed when calmodulin is complexed with the calmodulin-binding domain peptide from rabbit skeletal muscle myosin light chain kinase. In contrast, calmodulin remains extended upon binding PhK13. In the presence of both peptides, calmodulin also remains extended. Apparently, the presence of PhK13 inhibits calmodulin from undergoing the PhK5-induced contraction. These data indicate that there is a fundamentally different type of calmodulin-target enzyme interaction in the case of the catalytic subunit of phosphorylase kinase compared with that for myosin light chain kinase

  1. [Peptide fragments of chemokine domain of fractalkine: effect on human monocyte migration].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kukhtina, N B; Aref'eva, T I; Ruleva, N Iu; Sidorova, M V; Az'muko, A A; Bespalova, Zh D; Krasnikova, T L

    2012-01-01

    Leukocyte chemotaxis to the area of tissue damage is mediated by chemokines. According to the primary structure, chemokines are divided into four families, fractalkine (CX3CL1) is the only one member of CX3C family and the only membrane-bound chemokine. Fractalkine molecule includes the extracellular N-terminal chemokine domain, mucin-like rod, the transmembrane and the intracellular domains. In membrane-bound state fractalkine has the properties of an adhesion molecule. Chemokine domain of fractalkine (CDF) is released from cell membrane by proteolysis, and this soluble form acts as a chemoattractant for leukocytes expressing fractalkine receptor CX3CR1. Fractalkine is involved in development of a number of pathological processes caused by inflammation, and therefore a search for fractalkine inhibitors is very important. For this purpose we identified several antigenic determinants--the fragments of CDF, and the following peptides were synthesized--P41-52 H-Leu-Glu-Thr-Arg-Gln-His-Arg-Leu-Phe-Cys-Ala-Asp-NH2, P53-60 H-Pro-Lys-Glu-Gln-Trp-Val-Lys-Asp-NH2 and P60-71 H-Asp-Ala-Met-Gln-His-Leu-Asp-Arg-Gln-Ala-Ala-Ala-NH2. The peptide effects on adhesion and migration of human peripheral blood monocytes expressing fractalkine receptors were investigated. In the presence of CDF and P41-52 we observed the increased adhesion and migration of monocytes compared with spontaneous values. Peptides P53-60 and P60-71 significantly inhibited monocyte adhesion and migration stimulated by CDF. Since the chemotactic activity of chemokines was shown to be dependent on their binding to glycosaminoglycans of the cell surface and extracellular matrix, the effect ofpeptides on the interaction of CDF with heparin was analyzed by ELISA. Peptide P41-52 competed with CDF for heparin binding, while peptides P53-60 and P60-71 had no significant activity.

  2. Intrinsic folding of small peptide chains: spectroscopic evidence for the formation of beta-turns in the gas phase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chin, Wutharath; Dognon, Jean-Pierre; Piuzzi, François; Tardivel, Benjamin; Dimicoli, Iliana; Mons, Michel

    2005-01-19

    Laser desorption of model peptides coupled to laser spectroscopic techniques enables the gas-phase observation of genuine secondary structures of biology. Spectroscopic evidence for the formation of beta-turns in gas-phase peptide chains containing glycine and phenylalanine residues establishes the intrinsic stability of these forms and their ability to compete with other stable structures. The precise characterization of local minima on the potential energy surface from IR spectroscopy constitutes an acute assessment for the state-of-the-art quantum mechanical calculations also presented. The observation of different types of beta-turns depending upon the residue order within the sequence is found to be consistent with the residue propensities in beta-turns of proteins, which suggests that the prevalence of glycine in type II and II' turns stems essentially from an energetic origin, already at play under isolated conditions.

  3. Context Dependent Effects of Chimeric Peptide Morpholino Conjugates Contribute to Dystrophin Exon-skipping Efficiency

    OpenAIRE

    HaiFang Yin; Prisca Boisguerin; Hong M Moulton; Corinne Betts; Yiqi Seow; Jordan Boutilier; Qingsong Wang; Anthony Walsh; Bernard Lebleu; Matthew JA Wood

    2013-01-01

    We have recently reported that cell-penetrating peptides (CPPs) and novel chimeric peptides containing CPP (referred as B peptide) and muscle-targeting peptide (referred as MSP) motifs significantly improve the systemic exon-skipping activity of morpholino phosphorodiamidate oligomers (PMOs) in dystrophin-deficient mdx mice. In the present study, the general mechanistic significance of the chimeric peptide configuration on the activity and tissue uptake of peptide conjugated PMOs in vivo was ...

  4. Effect of BMAP-28 antimicrobial peptides on Leishmania major promastigote and amastigote growth: role of leishmanolysin in parasite survival.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miriam A Lynn

    Full Text Available Protozoan parasites, such as Leishmania, still pose an enormous public health problem in many countries throughout the world. Current measures are outdated and have some associated drug resistance, prompting the search into novel therapies. Several innovative approaches are under investigation, including the utilization of host defence peptides (HDPs as emerging anti-parasitic therapies. HDPs are characterised by their small size, amphipathic nature and cationicity, which induce permeabilization of cell membranes, whilst modulating the immune response of the host. Recently, members of the cathelicidin family of HDPs have demonstrated significant antimicrobial activities against various parasites including Leishmania. The cathelicidin bovine myeloid antimicrobial peptide 28 (BMAP-28 has broad antimicrobial activities and confers protection in animal models of bacterial infection or sepsis. We tested the effectiveness of the use of BMAP-28 and two of its isomers the D-amino acid form (D-BMAP-28 and the retro-inverso form (RI-BMAP-28, as anti-leishmanial agents against the promastigote and amastigote intracellular Leishmania major lifecycle stages.An MTS viability assay was utilized to show the potent antiparasitic activity of BMAP-28 and its protease resistant isomers against L. major promastigotes in vitro. Cell membrane permeability assays, caspase 3/7, Tunel assays and morphologic studies suggested that this was a late stage apoptotic cell death with early osmotic cell lysis caused by the antimicrobial peptides. Furthermore, BMAP-28 and its isomers demonstrated anti-leishmanial activities against intracellular amastigotes within a macrophage infection model.Interestingly, D-BMAP-28 appears to be the most potent antiparasitic of the three isomers against wild type L. major promastigotes and amastigotes. These exciting results suggest that BMAP-28 and its protease resistant isomers have significant therapeutic potential as novel anti-leishmanials.

  5. Biophysical and biological properties of small linear peptides derived from crotamine, a cationic antimicrobial/antitumoral toxin with cell penetrating and cargo delivery abilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dal Mas, C; Pinheiro, D A; Campeiro, J D; Mattei, B; Oliveira, V; Oliveira, E B; Miranda, A; Perez, K R; Hayashi, M A F

    2017-12-01

    Crotamine is a natural polypeptide from snake venom which delivers nucleic acid molecules into cells, besides having pronounced affinity for negatively charged membranes and antifungal activity. We previously demonstrated that crotamine derived short linear peptides were not very effective as antifungal, although the non-structured recombinant crotamine was overridingly more potent compared to the native structured crotamine. Aiming to identify the features necessary for the antifungal activity of crotamine, two linear short peptides, each comprising half of the total positively charged amino acid residues of the full-length crotamine were evaluated here to show that these linear peptides keep the ability to interact with lipid membrane model systems with different phospholipid compositions, even after forming complexes with DNA. Interestingly, the presence of cysteine residues in the structure of these linear peptides highly influenced the antifungal activity, which was not associated to the lipid membrane lytic activity. In addition to the importance of the positive charges, the crucial role of cysteine residues was noticed for these linear analogs of crotamine, although the tridimensional structure and lipid membrane lytic activity observed only for native crotamine was not essential for the antifungal activity. As these peptides still keep the ability to form complexes with DNA molecules with no prejudice to their ability to bind to lipid membranes, they may be potentially advantageous as membrane translocation vector, as they do not show lipid membrane lytic activity and may harbor or not antifungal activity, by keeping or not the semi-essential amino acid cysteine in their sequence. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Individually timing high-protein preloads has no effect on daily energy intake, peptide YY and glucagon-like peptide-1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willbond, S M; Doucet, É

    2011-01-01

    Gut hormones have been shown to influence energy intake (EI). To our knowledge, no study has investigated the effects of dietary patterns aimed at optimizing fullness on EI, appetite and gut hormones. To determine whether individually timing high-protein preloads would impact EI, appetite, and peptide YY and glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) levels. Ten men (body mass index = 25.5 ± 2.6 kg/m(2)) participated in a randomized crossover trial. The three conditions consisted of the self-selection of snacks (condition 1), or the consumption of a preload (300 kcal: 40% protein, 40% carbohydrates and 20% fat) at either 15 min (condition 2) or ∼ 50 min (individually set) (condition 3) before lunch and dinner. During each condition, a standardized breakfast was served, whereas lunch and dinner were self-selected from a five-item menu, and eaten ad libitum. Mealtime and daily EI were measured. Appetite, peptide YY and GLP-1 were sampled over 9 h. No differences in daily EI were noted across conditions (1 = 3078 ± 720 kcal; 2 = 2929 ± 264 kcal; 3 = 2998 ± 437 kcal; not significant). For the most part, daily profiles as well as premeal levels of peptide YY and GLP-1 were not different between conditions. Desire to eat, hunger and prospective food consumption were found to be lowest during condition 1 (P daily EI in healthy human subjects.

  7. Peptides Interfering 3A Protein Dimerization Decrease FMDV Multiplication.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mónica González-Magaldi

    Full Text Available Nonstructural protein 3A is involved in relevant functions in foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV replication. FMDV 3A can form homodimers and preservation of the two hydrophobic α-helices (α1 and α2 that stabilize the dimer interface is essential for virus replication. In this work, small peptides mimicking residues involved in the dimer interface were used to interfere with dimerization and thus gain insight on its biological function. The dimer interface peptides α1, α2 and that spanning the two hydrophobic α-helices, α12, impaired in vitro dimer formation of a peptide containing the two α-helices, this effect being higher with peptide α12. To assess the effect of dimer inhibition in cultured cells, the interfering peptides were N-terminally fused to a heptaarginine (R7 sequence to favor their intracellular translocation. Thus, when fused to R7, interference peptides (100 μM were able to inhibit dimerization of transiently expressed 3A, the higher inhibitions being found with peptides α1 and α12. The 3A dimerization impairment exerted by the peptides correlated with significant, specific reductions in the viral yield recovered from peptide-treated FMDV infected cells. In this case, α2 was the only peptide producing significant reductions at concentrations lower than 100 μM. Thus, dimer interface peptides constitute a tool to understand the structure-function relationship of this viral protein and point to 3A dimerization as a potential antiviral target.

  8. Effect of PEG biofunctional spacers and TAT peptide on dsRNA loading on gold nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanz, Vanesa; Conde, João; Hernández, Yulán; Baptista, Pedro V.; Ibarra, M. R.; Fuente, Jesús M. de la

    2012-01-01

    The surface chemistry of gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) plays a critical role in the self-assembly of thiolated molecules and in retaining the biological function of the conjugated biomolecules. According to the well-established gold–thiol interaction the undefined ionic species on citrate-reduced gold nanoparticle surface can be replaced with a self-assembled monolayer of certain thiolate derivatives and other biomolecules. Understanding the effect of such derivatives in the functionalization of several types of biomolecules, such as PEGs, peptides or nucleic acids, has become a significant challenge. Here, an approach to attach specific biomolecules to the AuNPs (∼14 nm) surface is presented together with a study of their effect in the functionalization with other specific derivatives. The effect of biofunctional spacers such as thiolated poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) chains and a positive peptide, TAT, in dsRNA loading on AuNPs is reported. Based on the obtained data, we hypothesize that loading of oligonucleotides onto the AuNP surface may be controlled by ionic and weak interactions positioning the entry of the oligo through the PEG layer. We demonstrate that there is a synergistic effect of the TAT peptide and PEG chains with specific functional groups on the enhancement of dsRNA loading onto AuNPs.

  9. Effect of PEG biofunctional spacers and TAT peptide on dsRNA loading on gold nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanz, Vanesa; Conde, Joao; Hernandez, Yulan [Universidad de Zaragoza, Instituto de Nanociencia de Aragon (Spain); Baptista, Pedro V. [Universidade Nova de Lisboa, Departamento de Ciencias da Vida, Faculdade de Ciencias e Tecnologia, Centro de Investigacao em Genetica Molecular Humana (Portugal); Ibarra, M. R.; Fuente, Jesus M. de la, E-mail: jmfuente@unizar.es [Universidad de Zaragoza, Instituto de Nanociencia de Aragon (Spain)

    2012-06-15

    The surface chemistry of gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) plays a critical role in the self-assembly of thiolated molecules and in retaining the biological function of the conjugated biomolecules. According to the well-established gold-thiol interaction the undefined ionic species on citrate-reduced gold nanoparticle surface can be replaced with a self-assembled monolayer of certain thiolate derivatives and other biomolecules. Understanding the effect of such derivatives in the functionalization of several types of biomolecules, such as PEGs, peptides or nucleic acids, has become a significant challenge. Here, an approach to attach specific biomolecules to the AuNPs ({approx}14 nm) surface is presented together with a study of their effect in the functionalization with other specific derivatives. The effect of biofunctional spacers such as thiolated poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) chains and a positive peptide, TAT, in dsRNA loading on AuNPs is reported. Based on the obtained data, we hypothesize that loading of oligonucleotides onto the AuNP surface may be controlled by ionic and weak interactions positioning the entry of the oligo through the PEG layer. We demonstrate that there is a synergistic effect of the TAT peptide and PEG chains with specific functional groups on the enhancement of dsRNA loading onto AuNPs.

  10. [Regulatory effect of Erbao granules on brain-gut peptide in juvenile animal model of anorexia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Y; Du, Y; Wang, S

    2000-10-01

    To study the regulatory effect of Erbao granules (EBG) on central and peripheral brain-gut peptide in juvenile animal model of anorexia. Juvenile rat model of anorexia was established by imitating the major cause of infantile anorexia and treated with EBG. The cholocystokinin-octapeptide (CCK-8) and beta-endorphin (beta-EP) concentration in hypothalamus, antrum pyloricum and peripheral blood were examined by radioimmunoassay. CCK-8 concentration in hypothalamus and plasma in the model rats increased (P anorexia model.

  11. A Tetrameric Peptide Derived from Bovine Lactoferricin Exhibits Specific Cytotoxic Effects against Oral Squamous-Cell Carcinoma Cell Lines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Víctor A. Solarte

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Several short linear peptides derived from cyclic bovine lactoferricin were synthesized and tested for their cytotoxic effect against the oral cavity squamous-cell carcinoma (OSCC cell lines CAL27 and SCC15. As a control, an immortalized and nontumorigenic cell line, Het-1A, was used. Linear peptides based on the RRWQWR core sequence showed a moderate cytotoxic effect and specificity towards tumorigenic cells. A tetrameric peptide, LfcinB(20–254, containing the RRWQWR motif, exhibited greater cytotoxic activity (>90% in both OSCC cell lines compared to the linear lactoferricin peptide or the lactoferrin protein. Additionally, this tetrameric peptide showed the highest specificity towards tumorigenic cells among the tested peptides. Interestingly, this effect was very fast, with cell shrinkage, severe damage to cell membrane permeability, and lysis within one hour of treatment. Our results are consistent with a necrotic effect rather than an apoptotic one and suggest that this tetrameric peptide could be considered as a new candidate for the therapeutic treatment of OSCC.

  12. A Tetrameric Peptide Derived from Bovine Lactoferricin Exhibits Specific Cytotoxic Effects against Oral Squamous-Cell Carcinoma Cell Lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solarte, Víctor A; Rosas, Jaiver E; Rivera, Zuly J; Arango-Rodríguez, Martha L; García, Javier E; Vernot, Jean-Paul

    2015-01-01

    Several short linear peptides derived from cyclic bovine lactoferricin were synthesized and tested for their cytotoxic effect against the oral cavity squamous-cell carcinoma (OSCC) cell lines CAL27 and SCC15. As a control, an immortalized and nontumorigenic cell line, Het-1A, was used. Linear peptides based on the RRWQWR core sequence showed a moderate cytotoxic effect and specificity towards tumorigenic cells. A tetrameric peptide, LfcinB(20-25)4, containing the RRWQWR motif, exhibited greater cytotoxic activity (>90%) in both OSCC cell lines compared to the linear lactoferricin peptide or the lactoferrin protein. Additionally, this tetrameric peptide showed the highest specificity towards tumorigenic cells among the tested peptides. Interestingly, this effect was very fast, with cell shrinkage, severe damage to cell membrane permeability, and lysis within one hour of treatment. Our results are consistent with a necrotic effect rather than an apoptotic one and suggest that this tetrameric peptide could be considered as a new candidate for the therapeutic treatment of OSCC.

  13. BnaA.bZIP1 Negatively Regulates a Novel Small Peptide Gene, BnaC.SP6, Involved in Pollen Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xuanpeng Wang

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Small peptides secreted to the extracellular matrix control many aspects of the plant’s physiological activities which were identified in Arabidopsis thaliana, called ATSPs. Here, we isolated and characterized the small peptide gene Bna.SP6 from Brassica napus. The BnaC.SP6 promoter was cloned and identified. Promoter deletion analysis suggested that the -447 to -375 and -210 to -135 regions are crucial for the silique septum and pollen expression of BnaC.SP6, respectively. Furthermore, the minimal promoter region of p158 (-210 to -52 was sufficient for driving gene expression specifically in pollen and highly conserved in Brassica species. In addition, BnaA.bZIP1 was predominantly expressed in anthers where BnaC.SP6 was also expressed, and was localized to the nuclei. BnaA.bZIP1 possessed transcriptional activation activity in yeast and protoplast system. It could specifically bind to the C-box in p158 in vitro, and negatively regulate p158 activity in vivo. BnaA.bZIP1 functions as a transcriptional repressor of BnaC.SP6 in pollen activity. These results provide novel insight into the transcriptional regulation of BnaC.SP6 in pollen activity and the pollen/anther-specific promoter regions of BnaC.SP6 may have their potential agricultural application for new male sterility line generation.

  14. Effectiveness and side-effects of peptide receptor radionuclide therapy for neuroendocrine neoplasms in Germany: A multi-institutional registry study with prospective follow-up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hörsch, Dieter; Ezziddin, Samer; Haug, Alexander; Gratz, Klaus Friedrich; Dunkelmann, Simone; Miederer, Matthias; Schreckenberger, Mathias; Krause, Bernd Joachim; Bengel, Frank M; Bartenstein, Peter; Biersack, Hans-Jürgen; Pöpperl, Gabriele; Baum, R P

    2016-05-01

    Monocentric and retrospective studies indicate effectiveness of peptide receptor radionuclide therapy targeting somatostatin receptors of neuroendocrine neoplasms. We assessed overall and progression-free survival and adverse events of peptide receptor radionuclide therapy by a multi-institutional, board certified registry with prospective follow-up in five centres in Germany. A total of 450 patients were included and followed for a mean of 24.4 months. Most patients had progressive low- or intermediate grade neuroendocrine neoplasms and 73% were pretreated with at least one therapy. Primary neuroendocrine neoplasms were mainly derived of pancreas (38%), small bowel (30%), unknown primary (19%) or bronchial system (4%). Patients were treated with Lutetium-177 in 54%, with Yttrium-90 in 17% and with both radionuclides in 29%. Overall and progression-free survival was determined with Kaplan-Meier curves and uni-variate log rank test Cox models. Median overall survival of all patients was 59 (95% confidence interval [CI] 49-68.9) months. Overall survival was significantly inferior in the patients treated with Yttrium-90 solely (hazard ratio, 3.22; 95% CI, 1.83-5.64) compared to any peptide receptor radionuclide therapy with Lutetium-177. Grade II (hazard ratio, 2.06; 95% CI, 0.79-5.32) and grade III (hazard ratio, 4.22; 95% CI, 1.41-12.06) neuroendocrine neoplasms had significantly worse overall survival than grade I neuroendocrine neoplasms. Patients with small neuroendocrine neoplasms of small bowel had significantly increased survival (hazard ratio, 0.39; 95% CI, 0.18-0.87) compared to neuroendocrine neoplasms of other locations. Median progression-free survival was 41 (35.9-46.1) months and significantly inferior in patients treated with Yttrium solely (hazard ratio, 2.7; 95% CI, 1.71-4.55). Complete remission was observed in 5.6% of patients, 22.4% had a partial remission, 47.3% were stable and 4% were progressive as best response. Adverse events of bone marrow

  15. Effects of cationic antimicrobial peptides on liquid-preserved boar spermatozoa.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Schulze

    Full Text Available Antibiotics are mandatory additives in semen extenders to control bacterial contamination. The worldwide increase in resistance to conventional antibiotics requires the search for alternatives not only for animal artificial insemination industries, but also for veterinary and human medicine. Cationic antimicrobial peptides are of interest as a novel class of antimicrobial additives for boar semen preservation. The present study investigated effects of two synthetic cyclic hexapeptides (c-WFW, c-WWW and a synthetic helical magainin II amide derivative (MK5E on boar sperm during semen storage at 16 °C for 4 days. The standard extender, Beltsville Thawing Solution (BTS containing 250 µg/mL gentamicin (standard, was compared to combinations of BTS with each of the peptides in a split-sample procedure. Examination revealed peptide- and concentration-dependent effects on sperm integrity and motility. Negative effects were more pronounced for MK5E than in hexapeptide-supplemented samples. The cyclic hexapeptides were partly able to stimulate a linear progressive sperm movement. When using low concentrations of cyclic hexapeptides (4 µM c-WFW, 2 µM c-WWW sperm quality was comparable to the standard extender over the course of preservation. C-WFW-supplemented boar semen resulted in normal fertility rates after AI. In order to investigate the interaction of peptides with the membrane, electron spin resonance spectroscopic measurements were performed using spin-labeled lipids. C-WWW and c-WFW reversibly immobilized an analog of phosphatidylcholine (PC, whereas MK5E caused an irreversible increase of PC mobility. These results suggest testing the antimicrobial efficiency of non-toxic concentrations of selected cyclic hexapeptides as potential candidates to supplement/replace common antibiotics in semen preservation.

  16. Effects of cationic antimicrobial peptides on liquid-preserved boar spermatozoa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulze, Martin; Junkes, Christof; Mueller, Peter; Speck, Stephanie; Ruediger, Karin; Dathe, Margitta; Mueller, Karin

    2014-01-01

    Antibiotics are mandatory additives in semen extenders to control bacterial contamination. The worldwide increase in resistance to conventional antibiotics requires the search for alternatives not only for animal artificial insemination industries, but also for veterinary and human medicine. Cationic antimicrobial peptides are of interest as a novel class of antimicrobial additives for boar semen preservation. The present study investigated effects of two synthetic cyclic hexapeptides (c-WFW, c-WWW) and a synthetic helical magainin II amide derivative (MK5E) on boar sperm during semen storage at 16 °C for 4 days. The standard extender, Beltsville Thawing Solution (BTS) containing 250 µg/mL gentamicin (standard), was compared to combinations of BTS with each of the peptides in a split-sample procedure. Examination revealed peptide- and concentration-dependent effects on sperm integrity and motility. Negative effects were more pronounced for MK5E than in hexapeptide-supplemented samples. The cyclic hexapeptides were partly able to stimulate a linear progressive sperm movement. When using low concentrations of cyclic hexapeptides (4 µM c-WFW, 2 µM c-WWW) sperm quality was comparable to the standard extender over the course of preservation. C-WFW-supplemented boar semen resulted in normal fertility rates after AI. In order to investigate the interaction of peptides with the membrane, electron spin resonance spectroscopic measurements were performed using spin-labeled lipids. C-WWW and c-WFW reversibly immobilized an analog of phosphatidylcholine (PC), whereas MK5E caused an irreversible increase of PC mobility. These results suggest testing the antimicrobial efficiency of non-toxic concentrations of selected cyclic hexapeptides as potential candidates to supplement/replace common antibiotics in semen preservation.

  17. Emulsified phosphatidylserine, simple and effective peptide carrier for induction of potent epitope-specific T cell responses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toru Ichihashi

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: To induce potent epitope-specific T cell immunity by a peptide-based vaccine, epitope peptides must be delivered efficiently to antigen-presenting cells (APCs in vivo. Therefore, selecting an appropriate peptide carrier is crucial for the development of an effective peptide vaccine. In this study, we explored new peptide carriers which show enhancement in cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL induction capability. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Data from an epitope-specific in vivo CTL assay revealed that phosphatidylserine (PS has a potent adjuvant effect among candidate materials tested. Further analyses showed that PS-conjugated antigens were preferentially and efficiently captured by professional APCs, in particular, by CD11c(+CD11b(+MHCII(+ conventional dendritic cells (cDCs compared to multilamellar liposome-conjugates or unconjugated antigens. In addition, PS demonstrated the stimulatory capacity of peptide-specific helper T cells in vivo. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: This work indicates that PS is the easily preparable efficient carrier with a simple structure that delivers antigen to professional APCs effectively and induce both helper and cytotoxic T cell responses in vivo. Therefore, PS is a promising novel adjuvant for T cell-inducing peptide vaccines.

  18. Emulsified phosphatidylserine, simple and effective peptide carrier for induction of potent epitope-specific T cell responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ichihashi, Toru; Satoh, Toshifumi; Sugimoto, Chihiro; Kajino, Kiichi

    2013-01-01

    To induce potent epitope-specific T cell immunity by a peptide-based vaccine, epitope peptides must be delivered efficiently to antigen-presenting cells (APCs) in vivo. Therefore, selecting an appropriate peptide carrier is crucial for the development of an effective peptide vaccine. In this study, we explored new peptide carriers which show enhancement in cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL) induction capability. Data from an epitope-specific in vivo CTL assay revealed that phosphatidylserine (PS) has a potent adjuvant effect among candidate materials tested. Further analyses showed that PS-conjugated antigens were preferentially and efficiently captured by professional APCs, in particular, by CD11c(+)CD11b(+)MHCII(+) conventional dendritic cells (cDCs) compared to multilamellar liposome-conjugates or unconjugated antigens. In addition, PS demonstrated the stimulatory capacity of peptide-specific helper T cells in vivo. This work indicates that PS is the easily preparable efficient carrier with a simple structure that delivers antigen to professional APCs effectively and induce both helper and cytotoxic T cell responses in vivo. Therefore, PS is a promising novel adjuvant for T cell-inducing peptide vaccines.

  19. EFFECT OF MARKET ORIENTATION ON SMALL BUSINESS PERORMANCE IN SMALL TOWN IN MALAYSIA: AN EMPRICAL STUDY ON MALAYSIAN SMALL FIRMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Masroor ALAM

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Most research on market orientation, and performance was related to big firms. In this study, based on the theoretical framework, a model was developed to investigate the effect of market orientation on business performance in small firms. To test the relationships among the variables, data from 53 small firms in the small town of Chunglun at Sintok, Kedah was used. The findings show that the three components of market orientation are related positive to business performance of small firms. The further analysis also confirmed that customer orientation and competitor orientation are strong predictors of small firm performance. The findings of this study confirm that market orientation behavior also applies to small firms.

  20. Effect of Jatropha curcas Peptide Fractions on the Angiotensin I-Converting Enzyme Inhibitory Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segura-Campos, Maira R.; Peralta-González, Fanny; Castellanos-Ruelas, Arturo; Chel-Guerrero, Luis A.; Betancur-Ancona, David A.

    2013-01-01

    Hypertension is one of the most common worldwide diseases in humans. Angiotensin I-converting enzyme (ACE) plays an important role in regulating blood pressure and hypertension. An evaluation was done on the effect of Alcalase hydrolysis of defatted Jatropha curcas kernel meal on ACE inhibitory activity in the resulting hydrolysate and its purified fractions. Alcalase exhibited broad specificity and produced a protein hydrolysate with a 21.35% degree of hydrolysis and 34.87% ACE inhibition. Ultrafiltration of the hydrolysate produced peptide fractions with increased biological activity (24.46–61.41%). Hydrophobic residues contributed substantially to the peptides' inhibitory potency. The 5–10 and Jatropha kernel have potential applications in alternative hypertension therapies, adding a new application for the Jatropha plant protein fraction and improving the financial viability and sustainability of a Jatropha-based biodiesel industry. PMID:24224169

  1. Amyloid-β Peptide Induces Prion Protein Amyloid Formation: Evidence for Its Widespread Amyloidogenic Effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honda, Ryo

    2018-04-12

    Transmissible spongiform encephalopathy is associated with misfolding of prion protein (PrP) into an amyloid β-rich aggregate. Previous studies have indicated that PrP interacts with Alzheimer's disease amyloid-β peptide (Aβ), but it remains elusive how this interaction impacts on the misfolding of PrP. This study presents the first in vitro evidence that Aβ induces PrP-amyloid formation at submicromolar concentrations. Interestingly, systematic mutagenesis of PrP revealed that Aβ requires no specific amino acid sequences in PrP, and induces the misfolding of other unrelated proteins (insulin and lysozyme) into amyloid fibrils in a manner analogous to PrP. This unanticipated nonspecific amyloidogenic effect of Aβ indicates that this peptide might be involved in widespread protein aggregation, regardless of the amino acid sequences of target proteins, and exacerbate the pathology of many neurodegenerative diseases. © 2018 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  2. Cost-effective expression and purification of antimicrobial and host defense peptides in Escherichia coli

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bommarius, B.; Jenssen, Håvard; Elliott, M.

    2010-01-01

    Cationic antimicrobial host defense peptides (HDPs) combat infection by directly killing a wide variety of microbes, and/or modulating host immunity. HDPs have great therapeutic potential against antibioticresistant bacteria, viruses and even parasites, but there are substantial roadblocks......, we describe (i) a method, using fusions to SUMO, for producing high yields of intact recombinant HDPs in bacteria without significant toxicity and (ii) a simplified 2-step purification method appropriate for industrial use. We have used this method to produce seven HDPs to date (IDR1, MX226, LL37......, CRAMP, HHC-10, E5 and E6). Using this technology, pilot-scale fermentation (10 L) was performed to produce large quantities of biologically active cationic peptides. Together, these data indicate that this new method represents a cost-effective means to enable commercial enterprises to produce HDPs...

  3. Antimicrobial Effects of Helix D-derived Peptides of Human Antithrombin III*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papareddy, Praveen; Kalle, Martina; Bhongir, Ravi K. V.; Mörgelin, Matthias; Malmsten, Martin; Schmidtchen, Artur

    2014-01-01

    Antithrombin III (ATIII) is a key antiproteinase involved in blood coagulation. Previous investigations have shown that ATIII is degraded by Staphylococcus aureus V8 protease, leading to release of heparin binding fragments derived from its D helix. As heparin binding and antimicrobial activity of peptides frequently overlap, we here set out to explore possible antibacterial effects of intact and degraded ATIII. In contrast to intact ATIII, the results showed that extensive degradation of the molecule yielded fragments with antimicrobial activity. Correspondingly, the heparin-binding, helix d-derived, peptide FFFAKLNCRLYRKANKSSKLV (FFF21) of human ATIII, was found to be antimicrobial against particularly the Gram-negative bacteria Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Fluorescence microscopy and electron microscopy studies demonstrated that FFF21 binds to and permeabilizes bacterial membranes. Analogously, FFF21 was found to induce membrane leakage of model anionic liposomes. In vivo, FFF21 significantly reduced P. aeruginosa infection in mice. Additionally, FFF21 displayed anti-endotoxic effects in vitro. Taken together, our results suggest novel roles for ATIII-derived peptide fragments in host defense. PMID:25202017

  4. Antimicrobial effects of helix D-derived peptides of human antithrombin III.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papareddy, Praveen; Kalle, Martina; Bhongir, Ravi K V; Mörgelin, Matthias; Malmsten, Martin; Schmidtchen, Artur

    2014-10-24

    Antithrombin III (ATIII) is a key antiproteinase involved in blood coagulation. Previous investigations have shown that ATIII is degraded by Staphylococcus aureus V8 protease, leading to release of heparin binding fragments derived from its D helix. As heparin binding and antimicrobial activity of peptides frequently overlap, we here set out to explore possible antibacterial effects of intact and degraded ATIII. In contrast to intact ATIII, the results showed that extensive degradation of the molecule yielded fragments with antimicrobial activity. Correspondingly, the heparin-binding, helix D-derived, peptide FFFAKLNCRLYRKANKSSKLV (FFF21) of human ATIII, was found to be antimicrobial against particularly the Gram-negative bacteria Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Fluorescence microscopy and electron microscopy studies demonstrated that FFF21 binds to and permeabilizes bacterial membranes. Analogously, FFF21 was found to induce membrane leakage of model anionic liposomes. In vivo, FFF21 significantly reduced P. aeruginosa infection in mice. Additionally, FFF21 displayed anti-endotoxic effects in vitro. Taken together, our results suggest novel roles for ATIII-derived peptide fragments in host defense. © 2014 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  5. The effects of sex and neonatal stress on pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating peptide expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mosca, E V; Rousseau, J P; Gulemetova, R; Kinkead, R; Wilson, R J A

    2015-02-01

    What is the central question of this study? Does sex or neonatal stress affect the expression of pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating peptide or its receptors? What is the main finding and its importance? Neonatal-maternal separation stress has little long-lasting effect on the expression of pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating peptide or its receptors, but sex differences exist in these genes between males and females at baseline. Sex differences in classic stress hormones have been studied in depth, but pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating peptide (PACAP), recently identified as playing a critical role in the stress axes, has not. Here we studied whether baseline levels of PACAP differ between sexes in various stress-related tissues and whether neonatal-maternal separation stress has a sex-dependent effect on PACAP gene expression in stress pathways. Using quantitative RT-PCR, we found sex differences in PACAP and PACAP receptor gene expression in several respiratory and/or stress-related tissues, while neonatal-maternal separation stress did little to affect PACAP signalling in adult animals. We propose that sex differences in PACAP expression are likely to contribute to differences between males and females in responses to stress. © 2015 The Authors. Experimental Physiology © 2015 The Physiological Society.

  6. Effects of gastric inhibitory polypeptide, glucagon-like peptide-1 and glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonists on Bone Cell Metabolism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Morten S S; Tencerova, Michaela; Frølich, Jacob

    2018-01-01

    The relationship between gut and skeleton is increasingly recognised as part of the integrated physiology of the whole organism. The incretin hormones gastric inhibitory polypeptide (GIP) and glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) are secreted from the intestine in response to nutrient intake and exhibi......-clinical investigations, clinical trials are needed to clarify if similar effects are present and clinically relevant in humans. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved....

  7. Effects of the TAT peptide orientation and relative location on the protein transduction efficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Qingguo; Zhao, Guojie; Hao, Fengjin; Guan, Yifu

    2012-05-01

    To understand the protein transduction domain (PTD)-mediated protein transduction behavior and to explore its potential in delivering biopharmaceutic drugs, we prepared four TAT-EGFP conjugates: TAT(+)-EGFP, TAT(-)-EGFP, EGFP-TAT(+) and EGFP-TAT(-), where TAT(+) and TAT(-) represent the original and the reversed TAT sequence, respectively. These four TAT-EGFP conjugates were incubated with HeLa and PC12 cells for in vitro study as well as injected intraperitoneally to mice for in vivo study. Flow cytometric results showed that four TAT-EGFP conjugates were able to traverse HeLa and PC12 cells with almost equal transduction efficiency. The in vivo study showed that the TAT-EGFP conjugates could be delivered into different organs of mice with different transduction capabilities. Bioinformatic analyses and CD spectroscopic data revealed that the TAT peptide has no defined secondary structure, and conjugating the TAT peptide to the EGFP cargo protein would not alter the native structure and the function of the EGFP protein. These results conclude that the sequence orientation, the spatial structure, and the relative location of the TAT peptide have much less effect on the TAT-mediated protein transduction. Thus, the TAT-fused conjugates could be constructed in more convenient and flexible formats for a wide range of biopharmaceutical applications. © 2011 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  8. Stereospecific effects of morphine on plasma opioid peptide levels and nociception in dogs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adams, M.L.; Morris, D.L.; Dewey, W.L.

    1986-03-05

    ..beta..-endorphin, (met)enkephalin, and (leu)enkephalin were quantitated in canine plasma by radioimmunoassay (RIA) after extraction of the peptides on Sep Pak C18 cartridges. Plasma samples were taken one hour after a 10 mg/kg s.c. injection of (-)-morphine SO/sub 4/ or (+)-morphine HBr. Antinociception, measured by a dog tail-flick test, and morphine-induced emesis, salivation, diarrhea, and ataxia were quantitated before sampling. Control levels for each dog were taken one week earlier at the same time of day after saline injections. Antinociception, morphine signs, and opioid peptide levels in plasma were significantly increased by (-)-morphine. Antinociception increased from zero to 83.54 +/- 11.0%. The number of morphine signs increased from zero to 2.9 +/- 0.28 per dog. ..beta..-endorphin levels increased from 44.52 +/- 4.25 to 90.6 +/- 7.38 pg/ml; (met)enkephalin levels increased from 253.56 +/- 22.04 to 497.1 +/- 58.12 pg/ml; (leu)-enkephalin increased from 141.65 +/- 12.9 to 313.24 +/- 35.95 pg/ml. None of these effects were observed in the dogs that received (+)-morphine. The conclude that morphine stereospecifically inhibits nociception, induces observable signs, and increases plasma opioid peptide levels in dogs.

  9. Stereospecific effects of morphine on plasma opioid peptide levels and nociception in dogs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adams, M.L.; Morris, D.L.; Dewey, W.L.

    1986-01-01

    β-endorphin, [met]enkephalin, and [leu]enkephalin were quantitated in canine plasma by radioimmunoassay (RIA) after extraction of the peptides on Sep Pak C18 cartridges. Plasma samples were taken one hour after a 10 mg/kg s.c. injection of (-)-morphine SO 4 or (+)-morphine HBr. Antinociception, measured by a dog tail-flick test, and morphine-induced emesis, salivation, diarrhea, and ataxia were quantitated before sampling. Control levels for each dog were taken one week earlier at the same time of day after saline injections. Antinociception, morphine signs, and opioid peptide levels in plasma were significantly increased by (-)-morphine. Antinociception increased from zero to 83.54 +/- 11.0%. The number of morphine signs increased from zero to 2.9 +/- 0.28 per dog. β-endorphin levels increased from 44.52 +/- 4.25 to 90.6 +/- 7.38 pg/ml; [met]enkephalin levels increased from 253.56 +/- 22.04 to 497.1 +/- 58.12 pg/ml; [leu]-enkephalin increased from 141.65 +/- 12.9 to 313.24 +/- 35.95 pg/ml. None of these effects were observed in the dogs that received (+)-morphine. The conclude that morphine stereospecifically inhibits nociception, induces observable signs, and increases plasma opioid peptide levels in dogs

  10. Effective delivery of a nematode-repellent peptide using a root-cap-specific promoter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lilley, Catherine J; Wang, Dong; Atkinson, Howard J; Urwin, Peter E

    2011-02-01

    The potential of the MDK4-20 promoter of Arabidopsis thaliana to direct effective transgenic expression of a secreted nematode-repellent peptide was investigated. Its expression pattern was studied in both transgenic Arabidopsis and Solanum tuberosum (potato) plants. It directed root-specific β-glucuronidase expression in both species that was chiefly localized to cells of the root cap. Use of the fluorescent timer protein dsRED-E5 established that the MDK4-20 promoter remains active for longer than the commonly used constitutive promoter CaMV35S in separated potato root border cells. Transgenic Arabidopsis lines that expressed the nematode-repellent peptide under the control of either AtMDK4-20 or CaMV35S reduced the establishment of the beet cyst nematode Heterodera schachtii. The best line using the AtMDK4-20 promoter displayed a level of resistance >80%, comparable to that of lines using the CaMV35S promoter. In transgenic potato plants, 94.9 ± 0.8% resistance to the potato cyst nematode Globodera pallida was achieved using the AtMDK4-20 promoter, compared with 34.4 ± 8.4% resistance displayed by a line expressing the repellent peptide from the CaMV35S promoter. These results establish the potential of the AtMDK4-20 promoter to limit expression of a repellent peptide whilst maintaining or even improving the efficacy of the cyst-nematode defence. © 2010 The Authors. Plant Biotechnology Journal © 2010 Society for Experimental Biology, Association of Applied Biologists and Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  11. Effect of glycosylation on biodistribution of radiolabeled glucagon-like peptide 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watanabe, Ayahisa; Nishijima, Ken-ichi; Zhao, Songji; Tamaki, Nagara; Kuge, Yuji; Tanaka, Yoshikazu; Itoh, Takeshi; Takemoto, Hiroshi

    2012-01-01

    Glycosylation is generally applicable as a strategy for increasing the activity of bioactive proteins. In this study, we examined the effect of glycosylation on biodistribution of radiolabeled glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) as a bioactive peptide for type 2 diabetes. Noninvasive imaging studies were performed using a gamma camera after the intravenous administration of 123 I-GLP-1 or 123 I-α2, 6-sialyl N-acetyllactosamine (glycosylated) GLP-1 in rats. In ex vivo biodistribution studies using 125 I-GLP-1 or 125 I-glycosylated GLP-1, organ samples were measured for radioactivity. Plasma samples were added to 15% trichloroacetic acid (TCA) to obtain TCA-insoluble and TCA-soluble fractions. The radioactivity in the TCA-insoluble and TCA-soluble fractions was measured. In the noninvasive imaging studies, a relatively high accumulation level of 123 I-GLP-1 was found in the liver, which is the major organ to eliminate exogenous GLP-1. The area under the time-activity curve (AUC) of 123 I-glycosylated GLP-1 in the liver was significantly lower (89%) than that of 123 I-GLP-1. These results were consistent with those of ex vivo biodistribution studies using 125 I-labeled peptides. The AUC of 125 I-glycosylated GLP-1 in the TCA-insoluble fraction was significantly higher (1.7-fold) than that of GLP-1. This study demonstrated that glycosylation significantly decreased the distribution of radiolabeled GLP-1 into the liver and increased the concentration of radiolabeled GLP-1 in plasma. These results suggested that glycosylation is a useful strategy for decreasing the distribution into the liver of bioactive peptides as desirable pharmaceuticals. (author)

  12. Effects of Small Oscillations on the Effective Area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cotroneo, V.; Conconi, P.; Pareschi, G.; Spiga, D.; Tagliaferri, G.; Cusumano, G.

    2009-01-01

    We analyze the effective area of the Simbol-X mirrors as a function of the off-axis angle for small oscillations. A reduction is expected due to: 1) geometrical effects, because some of the photons miss the secondary mirror surface; 2) reflectivity effects, caused by the variation of the coating reflectivity with the incidence angle. The former are related to the length of the two mirror surfaces, and can be reduced by making the secondary mirror longer. The second ones are energy-dependent, and strongly related to the characteristics of the reflecting coating. These effects are analyzed by means of ray-tracing simulations in order to optimize the mirror and coating design, aiming to improve the effective area stability.

  13. Effects of Small Oscillations on the Effective Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cotroneo, V.; Conconi, P.; Cusumano, G.; Pareschi, G.; Spiga, D.; Tagliaferri, G.

    2009-05-01

    We analyze the effective area of the Simbol-X mirrors as a function of the off-axis angle for small oscillations. A reduction is expected due to: 1) geometrical effects, because some of the photons miss the secondary mirror surface; 2) reflectivity effects, caused by the variation of the coating reflectivity with the incidence angle. The former are related to the length of the two mirror surfaces, and can be reduced by making the secondary mirror longer. The second ones are energy-dependent, and strongly related to the characteristics of the reflecting coating. These effects are analyzed by means of ray-tracing simulations in order to optimize the mirror and coating design, aiming to improve the effective area stability.

  14. Improving oral bioavailability of cyclic peptides by N-methylation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Räder, Andreas F B; Reichart, Florian; Weinmüller, Michael; Kessler, Horst

    2018-06-01

    The renaissance of peptides in pharmaceutical industry results from their importance in many biological functions. However, low metabolic stability and the lack of oral availability of most peptides is a certain limitation. Whereas metabolic instability may be often overcome by development of small cyclic peptides containing d-amino acids, the very low oral availability of most peptides is a serious limitation for some medicinal applications. The situation is complicated because a twofold optimization - biological activity and oral availability - is required to overcome this problem. Moreover, most simple "rules" for achieving oral availability are not general and are applicable only to limited cases. Many structural modifications for increasing biological activities and metabolic stabilities of cyclic peptides have been described, of which N-alkylation is probably the most common. This mini-review focuses on the effects of N-methylation of cyclic peptides in strategies to optimize bioavailabilities. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  15. The Activation Effect of Hainantoxin-I, a Peptide Toxin from the Chinese Spider, Ornithoctonus hainana, on Intermediate-Conductance Ca2+-Activated K+ Channels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pengfei Huang

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Intermediate-conductance Ca2+-activated K+ (IK channels are calcium/calmodulin-regulated voltage-independent K+ channels. Activation of IK currents is important in vessel and respiratory tissues, rendering the channels potential drug targets. A variety of small organic molecules have been synthesized and found to be potent activators of IK channels. However, the poor selectivity of these molecules limits their therapeutic value. Venom-derived peptides usually block their targets with high specificity. Therefore, we searched for novel peptide activators of IK channels by testing a series of toxins from spiders. Using electrophysiological experiments, we identified hainantoxin-I (HNTX-I as an IK-channel activator. HNTX-I has little effect on voltage-gated Na+ and Ca2+ channels from rat dorsal root ganglion neurons and on the heterologous expression of voltage-gated rapidly activating delayed rectifier K+ channels (human ether-à-go-go-related gene; human ERG in HEK293T cells. Only 35.2% ± 0.4% of the currents were activated in SK channels, and there was no effect on BK channels. We demonstrated that HNTX-I was not a phrenic nerve conduction blocker or acutely toxic. This is believed to be the first report of a peptide activator effect on IK channels. Our study suggests that the activity and selectivity of HNTX-I on IK channels make HNTX-I a promising template for designing new drugs for cardiovascular diseases.

  16. Early detection of response in small cell bronchogenic carcinoma by changes in serum concentrations of creatine kinase, neuron specific enolase, calcitonin, ACTH, serotonin and gastrin releasing peptide

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bork, E; Hansen, M; Urdal, P

    1988-01-01

    Creatine kinase (CK-BB), neuron specific enolase (NSE), ACTH, calcitonin, serotonin and gastrin releasing peptide (GRP) were measured in serum or plasma before and immediately after initiation of treatment in patients with small cell lung cancer (SCC). Pretherapeutic elevated concentrations of CK...... stage patients and 71% in limited stage patients. Frequent initial monitoring of the substances showed an increase in the concentrations of pretherapeutic elevated CK-BB and NSE on day 1 or 2 followed by a sharp decrease within 1 week. These changes were correlated to objective clinical response...... determined within 4-8 weeks. The results indicate that serum CK-BB and NSE are potential markers for SCC at the time of diagnosis and that changes in the concentrations during the first course of cytostatic therapy are promising as biochemical tests for early detection of response to chemotherapy....

  17. Structures of self-assembled amphiphilic peptide-heterodimers: effects of concentration, pH, temperature and ionic strength

    KAUST Repository

    Luo, Zhongli

    2010-01-01

    The amphiphilic double-tail peptides AXG were studied regarding secondary structure and self-assembly in aqueous solution. The two tails A = Ala 6 and G = Gly6 are connected by a central pair X of hydrophilic residues, X being two aspartic acids in ADG, two lysines in AKG and two arginines in ARG. The peptide AD (Ala6Asp) served as a single-tail reference. The secondary structure of the four peptides was characterized by circular dichroism spectroscopy under a wide range of peptide concentrations (0.01-0.8 mM), temperatures (20-98 °C), pHs (4-9.5) and ionic strengths. In salt-free water both ADG and AD form a β-sheet type of structure at high concentration, low pH and low temperature, in a peptide-peptide driven assembly of individual peptides. The transition has a two-state character for ADG but not for AD, which indicates that the added tail in ADG makes the assembly more cooperative. By comparison the secondary structures of AKG and ARG are comparatively stable over the large range of conditions covered. According to dynamic light scattering the two-tail peptides form supra-molecular aggregates in water, but high-resolution AFM-imaging indicate that ordered (self-assembled) structures are only formed when salt (0.1 M NaCl) is added. Since the CD-studies indicate that the NaCl has only a minor effect on the peptide secondary structure we propose that the main role of the added salt is to screen the electrostatic repulsion between the peptide building blocks. According to the AFM images ADG and AKG support a correlation between nanofibers and a β-sheet or unordered secondary structure, whereas ARG forms fibers in spite of lacking β-sheet structure. Since the AKG and ARG double-tail peptides self-assemble into distinct nanostructures while their secondary structures are resistant to environment factors, these new peptides show potential as robust building blocks for nano-materials in various medical and nanobiotechnical applications. © 2010 The Royal Society

  18. Bioactive Mimetics of Conotoxins and other Venom Peptides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter J. Duggan

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Ziconotide (Prialt®, a synthetic version of the peptide ω-conotoxin MVIIA found in the venom of a fish-hunting marine cone snail Conus magnus, is one of very few drugs effective in the treatment of intractable chronic pain. However, its intrathecal mode of delivery and narrow therapeutic window cause complications for patients. This review will summarize progress in the development of small molecule, non-peptidic mimics of Conotoxins and a small number of other venom peptides. This will include a description of how some of the initially designed mimics have been modified to improve their drug-like properties.

  19. Context Dependent Effects of Chimeric Peptide Morpholino Conjugates Contribute to Dystrophin Exon-skipping Efficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Haifang; Boisguerin, Prisca; Moulton, Hong M; Betts, Corinne; Seow, Yiqi; Boutilier, Jordan; Wang, Qingsong; Walsh, Anthony; Lebleu, Bernard; Wood, Matthew Ja

    2013-09-24

    We have recently reported that cell-penetrating peptides (CPPs) and novel chimeric peptides containing CPP (referred as B peptide) and muscle-targeting peptide (referred as MSP) motifs significantly improve the systemic exon-skipping activity of morpholino phosphorodiamidate oligomers (PMOs) in dystrophin-deficient mdx mice. In the present study, the general mechanistic significance of the chimeric peptide configuration on the activity and tissue uptake of peptide conjugated PMOs in vivo was investigated. Four additional chimeric peptide-PMO conjugates including newly identified peptide 9 (B-9-PMO and 9-B-PMO) and control peptide 3 (B-3-PMO and 3-B-PMO) were tested in mdx mice. Immunohistochemical staining, RT-PCR and western blot results indicated that B-9-PMO induced significantly higher level of exon skipping and dystrophin restoration than its counterpart (9-B-PMO), further corroborating the notion that the activity of chimeric peptide-PMO conjugates is dependent on relative position of the tissue-targeting peptide motif within the chimeric peptide with respect to PMOs. Subsequent mechanistic studies showed that enhanced cellular uptake of B-MSP-PMO into muscle cells leads to increased exon-skipping activity in comparison with MSP-B-PMO. Surprisingly, further evidence showed that the uptake of chimeric peptide-PMO conjugates of both orientations (B-MSP-PMO and MSP-B-PMO) was ATP- and temperature-dependent and also partially mediated by heparan sulfate proteoglycans (HSPG), indicating that endocytosis is likely the main uptake pathway for both chimeric peptide-PMO conjugates. Collectively, our data demonstrate that peptide orientation in chimeric peptides is an important parameter that determines cellular uptake and activity when conjugated directly to oligonucleotides. These observations provide insight into the design of improved cell targeting compounds for future therapeutics studies.Molecular Therapy-Nucleic Acids (2013) 2, e124; doi:10.1038/mtna.2013

  20. Context Dependent Effects of Chimeric Peptide Morpholino Conjugates Contribute to Dystrophin Exon-skipping Efficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    HaiFang Yin

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We have recently reported that cell-penetrating peptides (CPPs and novel chimeric peptides containing CPP (referred as B peptide and muscle-targeting peptide (referred as MSP motifs significantly improve the systemic exon-skipping activity of morpholino phosphorodiamidate oligomers (PMOs in dystrophin-deficient mdx mice. In the present study, the general mechanistic significance of the chimeric peptide configuration on the activity and tissue uptake of peptide conjugated PMOs in vivo was investigated. Four additional chimeric peptide-PMO conjugates including newly identified peptide 9 (B-9-PMO and 9-B-PMO and control peptide 3 (B-3-PMO and 3-B-PMO were tested in mdx mice. Immunohistochemical staining, RT-PCR and western blot results indicated that B-9-PMO induced significantly higher level of exon skipping and dystrophin restoration than its counterpart (9-B-PMO, further corroborating the notion that the activity of chimeric peptide-PMO conjugates is dependent on relative position of the tissue-targeting peptide motif within the chimeric peptide with respect to PMOs. Subsequent mechanistic studies showed that enhanced cellular uptake of B-MSP-PMO into muscle cells leads to increased exon-skipping activity in comparison with MSP-B-PMO. Surprisingly, further evidence showed that the uptake of chimeric peptide-PMO conjugates of both orientations (B-MSP-PMO and MSP-B-PMO was ATP- and temperature-dependent and also partially mediated by heparan sulfate proteoglycans (HSPG, indicating that endocytosis is likely the main uptake pathway for both chimeric peptide-PMO conjugates. Collectively, our data demonstrate that peptide orientation in chimeric peptides is an important parameter that determines cellular uptake and activity when conjugated directly to oligonucleotides. These observations provide insight into the design of improved cell targeting compounds for future therapeutics studies.

  1. Conjugation to the cell-penetrating peptide TAT potentiates the photodynamic effect of carboxytetramethylrhodamine.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Divyamani Srinivasan

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Cell-penetrating peptides (CPPs can transport macromolecular cargos into live cells. However, the cellular delivery efficiency of these reagents is often suboptimal because CPP-cargo conjugates typically remain trapped inside endosomes. Interestingly, irradiation of fluorescently labeled CPPs with light increases the release of the peptide and its cargos into the cytosol. However, the mechanism of this phenomenon is not clear. Here we investigate the molecular basis of the photo-induced endosomolytic activity of the prototypical CPPs TAT labeled to the fluorophore 5(6-carboxytetramethylrhodamine (TMR.We report that TMR-TAT acts as a photosensitizer that can destroy membranes. TMR-TAT escapes from endosomes after exposure to moderate light doses. However, this is also accompanied by loss of plasma membrane integrity, membrane blebbing, and cell-death. In addition, the peptide causes the destruction of cells when applied extracellularly and also triggers the photohemolysis of red blood cells. These photolytic and photocytotoxic effects were inhibited by hydrophobic singlet oxygen quenchers but not by hydrophilic quenchers.Together, these results suggest that TAT can convert an innocuous fluorophore such as TMR into a potent photolytic agent. This effect involves the targeting of the fluorophore to cellular membranes and the production of singlet oxygen within the hydrophobic environment of the membranes. Our findings may be relevant for the design of reagents with photo-induced endosomolytic activity. The photocytotoxicity exhibited by TMR-TAT also suggests that CPP-chromophore conjugates could aid the development of novel Photodynamic Therapy agents.

  2. Effective modification of cell death-inducing intracellular peptides by means of a photo-cleavable peptide array-based screening system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozaki, Ikko; Shimizu, Kazunori; Honda, Hiroyuki

    2017-08-01

    Intracellular functional peptides that play a significant role inside cells have been receiving a lot of attention as regulators of cellular activity. Previously, we proposed a novel screening system for intracellular functional peptides; it combined a photo-cleavable peptide array system with cell-penetrating peptides (CPPs). Various peptides can be delivered into cells and intracellular functions of the peptides can be assayed by means of our system. The aim of the present study was to demonstrate that the proposed screening system can be used for assessing the intracellular activity of peptides. The cell death-inducing peptide (LNLISKLF) identified in a mitochondria-targeting domain (MTD) of the Noxa protein served as an original peptide sequence for screening of peptides with higher activity via modification of the peptide sequence. We obtained 4 peptides with higher activity, in which we substituted serine (S) at the fifth position with phenylalanine (F), valine (V), tryptophan (W), or tyrosine (Y). During analysis of the mechanism of action, the modified peptides induced an increase in intracellular calcium concentration, which was caused by the treatment with the original peptide. Higher capacity for cell death induction by the modified peptides may be caused by increased hydrophobicity or an increased number of aromatic residues. Thus, the present work suggests that the intracellular activity of peptides can be assessed using the proposed screening system. It could be used for identifying intracellular functional peptides with higher activity through comprehensive screening. Copyright © 2017 The Society for Biotechnology, Japan. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. A comparison of methods for calculating NMR cross-relaxation rates (NOESY and ROESY intensities) in small peptides

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Feenstra, K Anton; Peter, Christine; Scheek, Ruud M; van Gunsteren, Wilfred F; Mark, Alan E

    Three methods for calculating nuclear magnetic resonance cross-relaxation rates from molecular dynamics simulations of small flexible molecules have been compared in terms of their ability to reproduce relaxation data obtained experimentally and to produce consistent descriptions of the system. The

  4. Use of galerina marginata genes and proteins for peptide production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hallen-Adams, Heather E.; Scott-Craig, John S.; Walton, Jonathan D.; Luo, Hong

    2018-04-03

    The present invention relates to compositions and methods comprising genes and peptides associated with cyclic peptides and cyclic peptide production in mushrooms. In particular, the present invention relates to using genes and proteins from Galerina species encoding peptides specifically relating to amatoxins in addition to proteins involved with processing cyclic peptide toxins. In a preferred embodiment, the present invention also relates to methods for making small peptides and small cyclic peptides including peptides similar to amanitin. Further, the present inventions relate to providing kits for making small peptides.

  5. Use of Galerina marginata genes and proteins for peptide production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hallen-Adams, Heather E.; Scott-Craig, John S.; Walton, Jonathan D.; Luo, Hong

    2017-03-21

    The present invention relates to compositions and methods comprising genes and peptides associated with cyclic peptides and cyclic peptide production in mushrooms. In particular, the present invention relates to using genes and proteins from Galerina species encoding peptides specifically relating to amatoxins in addition to proteins involved with processing cyclic peptide toxins. In a preferred embodiment, the present invention also relates to methods for making small peptides and small cyclic peptides including peptides similar to amanitin. Further, the present inventions relate to providing kits for making small peptides.

  6. Antibiotic and synergistic effect of Leu-Lys rich peptide against antibiotic resistant microorganisms isolated from patients with cholelithiasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Nari; Kim, Jin-Young; Park, Seong-Cheol; Lee, Jong-Kook; Gopal, Ramamourthy; Yoo, Suyeon; Son, Byoung Kwan; Hahm, Joon Soo; Park, Yoonkyung; Hahm, Kyung-Soo

    2010-09-03

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa has eventually developed resistance against flomoxef sodium, isepamicin and cefpiramide. Therefore, in this study, the antibacterial activity and synergistic effects of the amphipathic-derived P5-18mer antimicrobial peptide were tested against pathogens associated with cholelithiasis that have developed resistance against commonly used antibiotics. The results were then compared with the activities of the amphipathic-derived peptide, P5-18mer, melittin and common antibiotics. Growth inhibition of planktonic bacteria was tested using the National Committee for Clinical Laboratory Standards (NCCLS). The bactericidal activity of the antimicrobial peptides was measured using time-kill curves. Synergistic effects were evaluated by testing the effects of P5-18mer alone and in combination with flomoxef sodium, isepamicin or cefpiramide at 0.5xMIC. P5-18mer peptide displayed strong activity against pathogens and flomoxef sodium, isepamicin and cefpiramide-resistant bacteria cell lines obtained from a patient with gallstones; however, it did not exert cytotoxicity against the human keratinocyte HaCat cell line. In addition, the results of time-kill curves indicated that P5-18mer peptide exerted bactericidal activity against four strains of P. aeruginosa. Finally, the use of P5-18mer and antibiotics exerted synergistic effects against cell lines that were resistant to commonly used antibiotics. These results indicate that this class of peptides has a rapid microbicidal effect on flomoxef sodium, isepamicin and cefpiramide-resistant strains of P. aeruginosa. Therefore, these peptides may be used as a lead drug for the treatment of acquired pathogens from patients with cholelithiasis who are affected with antibiotic-resistant bacteria. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Short peptide based nanotubes capable of effective curcumin delivery for treating drug resistant malaria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alam, Shadab; Panda, Jiban Jyoti; Mukherjee, Tapan Kumar; Chauhan, Virander Singh

    2016-04-05

    Curcumin (Ccm) has shown immense potential as an antimalarial agent; however its low solubility and less bioavailability attenuate the in vivo efficacy of this potent compound. In order to increase Ccm's bioavailability, a number of organic/inorganic polymer based nanoparticles have been investigated. However, most of the present day nano based delivery systems pose a conundrum with respect to their complex synthesis procedures, poor in vivo stability and toxicity issues. Peptides due to their high biocompatibility could act as excellent materials for the synthesis of nanoparticulate drug delivery systems. Here, we have investigated dehydrophenylalanine (ΔPhe) di-peptide based self-assembled nanoparticles for the efficient delivery of Ccm as an antimalarial agent. The self-assembly and curcumin loading capacity of different ΔPhe dipeptides, phenylalanine-α,β-dehydrophenylalanine (FΔF), arginine-α,β-dehydrophenylalanine (RΔF), valine-α,β-dehydrophenylalanine (VΔF) and methonine-α,β-dehydrophenylalanine (MΔF) were investigated for achieving enhanced and effective delivery of the compound for potential anti-malarial therapy. FΔF, RΔF, VΔF and MΔF peptides formed different types of nanoparticles like nanotubes and nanovesicles under similar assembling conditions. Out of these, F∆F nanotubes showed maximum curcumin loading capacity of almost 68 % W/W. Ccm loaded F∆F nanotubes (Ccm-F∆F) showed comparatively higher (IC50, 3.0 µM) inhibition of Plasmodium falciparum (Indo strain) as compared to free Ccm (IC50, 13 µM). Ccm-F∆F nano formulation further demonstrated higher inhibition of parasite growth in malaria infected mice as compared to free Ccm. The dipeptide nanoparticles were highly biocompatible and didn't show any toxic effect on mammalian cell lines and normal blood cells. This work provides a proof of principle of using highly biocompatible short peptide based nanoparticles for entrapment and in vivo delivery of Ccm leading to an

  8. Chimeric peptides as modulators of CK2-dependent signaling: Mechanism of action and off-target effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zanin, Sofia; Sandre, Michele; Cozza, Giorgio; Ottaviani, Daniele; Marin, Oriano; Pinna, Lorenzo A; Ruzzene, Maria

    2015-10-01

    Protein kinase CK2 is a tetrameric enzyme composed of two catalytic (α/α') and two regulatory (β) subunits. It has a global prosurvival function, especially in cancer, and represents an attractive therapeutic target. Most CK2 inhibitors available so far are ATP-competitive compounds; however, the possibility to block only the phosphorylation of few substrates has been recently explored, and a compound composed of a Tat cell-penetrating peptide and an active cyclic peptide, selected for its ability to bind to the CK2 substrate E7 protein of human papilloma virus, has been developed [Perea et al., Cancer Res. 2004; 64:7127-7129]. By using a similar chimeric peptide (CK2 modulatory chimeric peptide, CK2-MCP), we performed a study to dissect its molecular mechanism of action and the signaling pathways that it affects in cells. We found that it directly interacts with CK2 itself, counteracting the regulatory and stabilizing functions of the β subunit. Cell treatment with CK2-MCP induces a rapid decrease of the amount of CK2 subunits, as well as of other signaling proteins. Concomitant cell death is observed, more pronounced in tumor cells and not accompanied by apoptotic events. CK2 relocalizes to lysosomes, whose proteases are activated, while the proteasome machinery is inhibited. Several sequence variants of the chimeric peptide have been also synthesized, and their effects compared to those of the parental peptide. Intriguingly, the Tat moiety is essential not only for cell penetration but also for the in vitro efficacy of the peptide. We conclude that this class of chimeric peptides, in addition to altering some properties of CK2 holoenzyme, affects several other cellular targets, causing profound perturbations of cell biology. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Inhibitors of Protein Kinases. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Effect of gestational age and blood glucose on C-peptide excretion rate and clearance in neonates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salis, Emma R; Soelbeck, Mikkel K; Reith, David M; Wheeler, Benjamin J; Broadbent, Roland S; Medlicott, Natalie J

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to measure urinary C-peptide concentrations, and then calculate C-peptide clearance (Cl), and excretion rate (UER) in neonates. In addition, the effect of gestational age (GA) and blood glucose levels (BGL) on C-peptide UER were investigated. Insulin concentrations in plasma and C-peptide concentrations were measured in plasma and urine, in 20 neonates. Chemiluminescent immunoassays were used for insulin and C-peptide measurements, with urine diluted to 40% with bovine serum albumin 1% in phosphate buffered saline. Urine volume and time of collection were recorded and used to calculate UER and Cl. The mean Cl of C-peptide was 0.309 ± 0.329 mL/min/kg, and UER was 0.0329 ± 0.0342 pmol/min/kg. Correlations between Cl or UER and GA were not significant (P > 0.05). No significant correlation was shown between Cl or UER and BGL (P > 0.05). Both Cl and UER were highly variable in neonates, but were not correlated with GA. Additionally, BGL did not appear to affect C-peptide UER and Cl. As GA and BGL did not appear to affect Cl and UER, urinary C-peptide may provide a non-invasive method of measuring insulin production in neonates. © 2015 The Authors. Journal of Paediatrics and Child Health © 2015 Paediatrics and Child Health Division (Royal Australasian College of Physicians).

  10. Effects of atrial natriuretic peptide on glomerular filtration rate in essential hypertension: A radionuclide study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cuocolo, A.; Volpe, M.; Mele, A.F.; Celentano, L.; Neumann, R.D.; Trimarco, B.; Salvatore, M. (Naples Univ. (Italy). Ist. di Scienze Radiologiche Istituto Nazionale dei Tumori, Naples (Italy))

    1991-01-01

    A number of studies show that atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) raises renal sodium excretion with a concomitant increase in glomerular filtration rate (GFR) in both experimental animals and normal humans. Studies using indirect evaluation of GFR have provided less consistent results in hypertensive patients. We studied the effects of intravenously administered (iv) {alpha}-human ANP on GFR in patients with hypertension by a radionuclide technique using technetium 99m diethylenetriaminepenta-acetic acid. In six patients (ANP group), GFR was determined under control conditions, during iv ANP (initial bolus of 0.5 {mu}g/kg followed by a 21-min maintenance infusion at 0.05 {mu}g.kg{sup -1}.min{sup -1}) and during a recovery phase. In six other patients (control group), GFR was determined under control conditions, during saline iv infusion and during recovery. The two groups did not differ with respect to age, sex, basal blood pressure, heart rate or GFR. In the ANP group, the infusion of the peptide induced a significant decrease of mean blood pressure (from 133+-5 to 120+-5 mmHg, P<0.01), no change in heart rate and a significant increase in GFR (from 104+-4 to 125+-5 ml/min, P<0.01). During recovery, blood pressure, heart rate and GFR were not different from the values recorded under control conditions. No changes in blood pressure, heart rate or GFR (from 106+-5 to 108+-5 ml/min, n.s.) were detected during saline infusion in the control group. Our results demonstrated that in patients with essential hypertension, ANP induces an augmentation in GFR in spite of a decrease in blood pressure; this suggests a unique role for atrial peptide-related drugs in the treatment of human hypertension. (orig.).

  11. The effects of different exercise training modalities on plasma proenkephalin Peptide F in women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DuPont, William H; Kraemer, William J; Nindl, Bradley C; Lee, Elaine C; Fragala, Maren S; Hatfield, Disa L; Caldwell, Lydia K; Post, Emily M; Beeler, Matthew K; Volek, Jeff S; Maresh, Carl M

    2017-05-01

    Due to the important interactions of proenkephalin fragments (e.g., proenkephalin [107-140] Peptide F) to enhance activation of immune cells and potentially combat pain associated with exercise-induced muscle tissue damage, we examined the differential plasma responses of Peptide F to different exercise training programs. Participants were tested pre-training (T1), and after 8 weeks (T2) of training. Fifty-nine healthy women were matched and then randomly assigned to one of four groups: heavy resistance strength training (STR, n=18), high intensity endurance training (END, n=14), combined strength and endurance training (CMB, n=17), or control (CON, n=10). Blood was collected using a cannula inserted into a superficial vein in the antecubital fossa with samples collected at rest and immediately after an acute bout of 6 X 10 RM in a squat resistance exercise before training and after training. Prior to any training, no significant differences were observed for any of the groups before or after acute exercise. With training, significant (P≤0.95) elevations were observed with acute exercise in each of the exercise training groups and this effect was significantly greater in the CMB group. These data indicate that in untrained women exercise training will not change resting of plasma Peptide F concentrations unless both forms of exercise are performed but will result in significant increases in the immediate post-exercise responses. Such findings appear to indicate adrenal medullary adaptations opioid production significantly altered with exercise training. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  12. Exploitation of the Ornithine Effect Enhances Characterization of Stapled and Cyclic Peptides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crittenden, Christopher M.; Parker, W. Ryan; Jenner, Zachary B.; Bruns, Kerry A.; Akin, Lucas D.; McGee, William M.; Ciccimaro, Eugene; Brodbelt, Jennifer S.

    2016-05-01

    A method to facilitate the characterization of stapled or cyclic peptides is reported via an arginine-selective derivatization strategy coupled with MS/MS analysis. Arginine residues are converted to ornithine residues through a deguanidination reaction that installs a highly selectively cleavable site in peptides. Upon activation by CID or UVPD, the ornithine residue cyclizes to promote cleavage of the adjacent amide bond. This Arg-specific process offers a unique strategy for site-selective ring opening of stapled and cyclic peptides. Upon activation of each derivatized peptide, site-specific backbone cleavage at the ornithine residue results in two complementary products: the lactam ring-containing portion of the peptide and the amine-containing portion. The deguanidination process not only provides a specific marker site that initiates fragmentation of the peptide but also offers a means to unlock the staple and differentiate isobaric stapled peptides.

  13. Vasoactive intestinal peptide and secretin: effects of combined and separate intravenous infusions on bile secretion in man

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nyberg, B.; Sonnenfeld, T.; Einarsson, K.

    1991-01-01

    The effects of intravenously administered vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) and secretin on bile secretion were studied in 12 patients with complete biliary fistulas. The two peptides were administered both simultaneously and separately. During VIP infusion, bile volume increased by 60%, and during the combined VIP and secretin infursion bile volume increased by another 70%. VIP increased bile bicarbonate concentration by some 30%. Although secretin did not increase the concentration, bicarbonate output increased threefold during secretin infusion but only twofold during VIP infusion. The outputs of bile acids were not significantly affected by the two peptides, whereas the concentration decreased by 40% and 70% after VIP and secretin, respectively. The canalicular bile flow, measured by [ 14 C]erythritol, was unaffected by VIP infusion, whereas secretin alone and the combination of the two peptides increased the canalicular clearance by 80%. The choleretic effect of VIP thus seems to occur only at the ductular level. Secretin exerts its effect at the ductular level and possibly also at the canalicular level. It is concluded that the two peptides have additive effects on the ductular bile flow.. 32 refs., 5 figs., 5 tabs

  14. Short-term effects of beta-amyloid25-35 peptide aggregates on transmitter release in neuromuscular synapses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Neus; Santafé, Manel M; Tomàs, Marta; Lanuza, Maria A; Tomàs, Josep

    2008-03-01

    The beta-amyloid (AB) peptide25-35 contains the functional domain of the AB precursor protein that is both required for neurotrophic effects in normal neural tissues and is involved in the neurotoxic effects in Alzheimer disease. We demonstrated the presence of the amyloid precursor protein/AB peptide in intramuscular axons, presynaptic motor nerve terminals, terminal and myelinating Schwann cells, and the postsynaptic and subsarcolemmal region in the Levator auris longus muscle of adult rats by immunocytochemistry. Using intracellular recording, we investigated possible short-term functional effects of the AB fragment (0.1-10 micromol/L) on acetylcholine release in adult and newborn motor end plates. We found no change in evoked, spontaneous transmitter release or resting membrane potential of the muscle cells. A previous block of the presynaptic muscarinic receptor subtypes and a previous block or stimulation of protein kinase C revealed no masked effect of the peptide on the regulation of transmitter release. The aggregated form of AB peptide25-35, however, interfered acutely with acetylcholine release (quantal content reduction) when synaptic activity was maintained by electric stimulation. The possible relevance of this inhibition of neurotransmission by AB peptide25-35 to the pathogenesis of Alzheimer remains to be determined.

  15. A small jab - a big effect

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Benn, Christine Stabell; Netea, Mihai G; Selin, Liisa K

    2013-01-01

    Recent epidemiological studies have shown that, in addition to disease-specific effects, vaccines against infectious diseases have nonspecific effects on the ability of the immune system to handle other pathogens. For instance, in randomized trials tuberculosis and measles vaccines are associated...... with a substantial reduction in overall child mortality, which cannot be explained by prevention of the target disease. New research suggests that the nonspecific effects of vaccines are related to cross-reactivity of the adaptive immune system with unrelated pathogens, and to training of the innate immune system...... through epigenetic reprogramming. Hence, epidemiological findings are backed by immunological data. This generates a new understanding of the immune system and about how it can be modulated by vaccines to impact the general resistance to disease....

  16. Developing countries: small technology with big effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McRobie, G.; Carr, M.

    1978-01-01

    As far the poor countries of the world are concerned, during the past twenty years they have had access only to the technologies developed by the rich to suit the rich. It is now beyond question that some of the most daunting problems confronting the majority of the worlds populations stem directly from the kind of technology transferred to them under current aid and development programs. That the technology of the rich is generally inappropriate to meet the needs and resources of the poor countries is becoming more widley recognized both by aid-givers and aid-receivers. Yet it is this technology that continues to be almost exclusively and most powerfully promoted in the developing countries. To meet their needs a new technology must be discovered or devised: one that lies between the sickle and the combine harvester and is small, simple and cheap enough to harmonise withlocal human and material resources and lends itself to widespread reproduction with the minimum of outside help. What we now need most urgently is a new set of technologies, designed, by people who are informed by the need to develop capital-saving technologies capable of being decentralized to the maximum extend. The technology gap is not only wide, but the knowledge an resources required to fill is, although they exist in the industrialized countries, have not been mobilized to provide the right kind of knowledge and to make it available to those who need it. It was to do this that the Intermediate Technology Development Group was set up ten years ago. (orig.) 891 HP 892 EKI [de

  17. ProSAAS-derived peptides are regulated by cocaine and are required for sensitization to the locomotor effects of cocaine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berezniuk, Iryna; Rodriguiz, Ramona M; Zee, Michael L; Marcus, David J; Pintar, John; Morgan, Daniel J; Wetsel, William C; Fricker, Lloyd D

    2017-11-01

    To identify neuropeptides that are regulated by cocaine, we used a quantitative peptidomic technique to examine the relative levels of neuropeptides in several regions of mouse brain following daily intraperitoneal administration of 10 mg/kg cocaine or saline for 7 days. A total of 102 distinct peptides were identified in one or more of the following brain regions: nucleus accumbens, caudate putamen, frontal cortex, and ventral tegmental area. None of the peptides detected in the caudate putamen or frontal cortex were altered by cocaine administration. Three peptides in the nucleus accumbens and seven peptides in the ventral tegmental area were significantly decreased in cocaine-treated mice. Five of these ten peptides are derived from proSAAS, a secretory pathway protein and neuropeptide precursor. To investigate whether proSAAS peptides contribute to the physiological effects of psychostimulants, we examined acute responses to cocaine and amphetamine in the open field with wild-type (WT) and proSAAS knockout (KO) mice. Locomotion was stimulated more robustly in the WT compared to mutant mice for both psychostimulants. Behavioral sensitization to amphetamine was not maintained in proSAAS KO mice and these mutants failed to sensitize to cocaine. To determine whether the rewarding effects of cocaine were altered, mice were tested in conditioned place preference (CPP). Both WT and proSAAS KO mice showed dose-dependent CPP to cocaine that was not distinguished by genotype. Taken together, these results suggest that proSAAS-derived peptides contribute differentially to the behavioral sensitization to psychostimulants, while the rewarding effects of cocaine appear intact in mice lacking proSAAS. © 2017 International Society for Neurochemistry.

  18. Therapeutic effects of Glucagon-Like Peptide-2 on experimental radiation enteritis in rat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Torres, S.

    2007-01-01

    Radiation enteritis in patients treated by abdominal and pelvic radiotherapy is characterized by acute mucosal disruption and chronic intestinal fibrosis. Using a model of localized intestinal irradiation in the rat, we showed remote intestinal dysfunction outside the irradiation field along the whole gut, probably associated with perturbations in the systems regulating intestinal functions. Based on the hypothesis of consequential late effects, acute administration of Glucagon-Like Peptide-2, a growth factor with specific trophic effect on the intestinal mucosa, limited the apparition of both acute and chronic radiation enteritis. This suggests that therapeutic strategies targeting the severity of acute tissue damage may also limit chronic sequelae. The study of GLP-2 effects on epithelial cells in co-culture with either subepithelial myo-fibroblasts or enteric nervous system emphasized the problem of the modelization of complex systems in vitro, and suggested a synergic action from these different actors in vivo. (author)

  19. Antifibrogenic Effects of the Antimicrobial Peptide Cathelicidin in Murine Colitis-Associated FibrosisSummary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Hwan Yoo

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background & Aims: Cathelicidin (LL-37 in human and mCRAMP in mice represents a family of endogenous antimicrobial peptides with anti-inflammatory effects. LL-37 also suppresses collagen synthesis, an important fibrotic response, in dermal fibroblasts. Here, we determined whether exogenous cathelicidin administration modulates intestinal fibrosis in two animal models of intestinal inflammation and in human colonic fibroblasts. Methods: C57BL/6J mice (n = 6 per group were administered intracolonically with a trinitrobenzene sulphonic acid (TNBS enema to induce chronic (6–7 weeks colitis with fibrosis. We administered mCRAMP peptide (5 mg/kg every 3 day, week 5–7 or cathelicidin gene (Camp-expressing lentivirus (107 infectious units week 4 intracolonically or intravenously, respectively. We then infected 129Sv/J mice with Salmonella typhimurium orally to induce cecal inflammation with fibrosis. Camp-expressing lentivirus (107 infectious units day 11 was administered intravenously. Results: TNBS-induced chronic colitis was associated with increased colonic collagen (col1a2 mRNA expression. Intracolonic cathelicidin (mCRAMP peptide administration or intravenous delivery of lentivirus-overexpressing cathelicidin gene significantly reduced colonic col1a2 mRNA expression in TNBS-exposed mice compared with vehicle administration. Salmonella infection also caused increased cecal inflammation associated with collagen (col1a2 mRNA expression that was prevented by intravenous delivery of Camp-expressing lentivirus. Exposure of human primary intestinal fibroblasts and human colonic CCD-18Co fibroblasts to transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1 and/or insulin-like growth factor 1 induced collagen protein and mRNA expression, which was reduced by LL-37 (3–5 μM through a MAP kinase-dependent mechanism. Conclusions: Cathelicidin can reverse intestinal fibrosis by directly inhibiting collagen synthesis in colonic fibroblasts. Keywords

  20. Nanoparticle Delivered Human Biliverdin Reductase-Based Peptide Increases Glucose Uptake by Activating IRK/Akt/GSK3 Axis: The Peptide Is Effective in the Cell and Wild-Type and Diabetic Ob/Ob Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter E. M. Gibbs

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Insulin’s stimulation of glucose uptake by binding to the IRK extracellular domain is compromised in diabetes. We have recently described an unprecedented approach to stimulating glucose uptake. KYCCSRK (P2 peptide, corresponding to the C-terminal segment of hBVR, was effective in binding to and inducing conformational change in the IRK intracellular kinase domain. Although myristoylated P2, made of L-amino acids, was effective in cell culture, its use for animal studies was unsuitable. We developed a peptidase-resistant formulation of the peptide that was efficient in both mice and cell culture systems. The peptide was constructed of D-amino acids, in reverse order, and blocked at both termini. Delivery of the encapsulated peptide to HepG2 and HSKM cells was confirmed by its prolonged effect on stimulation of glucose uptake (>6 h. The peptide improved glucose clearance in both wild-type and Ob/Ob mice; it lowered blood glucose levels and suppressed glucose-stimulated insulin secretion. IRK activity was stimulated in the liver of treated mice and in cultured cells. The peptide potentiated function of IRK’s downstream effector, Akt-GSK3-(α,β axis. Thus, P2-based approach can be used for improving glucose uptake by cells. Also, it allows for screening peptides in vitro and in animal models for treatment of diabetes.

  1. Ligand-regulated peptide aptamers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Russell A

    2009-01-01

    The peptide aptamer approach employs high-throughput selection to identify members of a randomized peptide library displayed from a scaffold protein by virtue of their interaction with a target molecule. Extending this approach, we have developed a peptide aptamer scaffold protein that can impart small-molecule control over the aptamer-target interaction. This ligand-regulated peptide (LiRP) scaffold, consisting of the protein domains FKBP12, FRB, and GST, binds to the cell-permeable small-molecule rapamycin and the binding of this molecule can prevent the interaction of the randomizable linker region connecting FKBP12 with FRB. Here we present a detailed protocol for the creation of a peptide aptamer plasmid library, selection of peptide aptamers using the LiRP scaffold in a yeast two-hybrid system, and the screening of those peptide aptamers for a ligand-regulated interaction.

  2. The cardiovascular effects of a chimeric opioid peptide based on morphiceptin and PFRTic-NH2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Meixing; Zhou, Lanxia; Ma, Guoning; Cao, Shuo; Dong, Shouliang

    2013-01-01

    MCRT (YPFPFRTic-NH(2)) is a chimeric opioid peptide based on morphiceptin and PFRTic-NH(2). In order to assess the cardiovascular effect of MCRT, it was administered by intravenous (i.v.) injection targeting at the peripheral nervous system and by intracerebroventricular (i.c.v.) injection targeting at the central nervous system. Naloxone and L-NAME were injected before MCRT to investigate possible interactions with MCRT. Results show that administration of MCRT by i.v. or i.c.v. injection could induce bradycardia and decrease in mean arterial pressure (MAP) at a greater degree than that with morphiceptin and PFRTic-NH(2). When MCRT and NPFF were coinjected, we observed a dose-dependent weakening of these cardiovascular effects by MCRT. Because naloxone completely abolished the cardiovascular effects of MCRT, we conclude that opioid receptors are involved in regulating the MAP of MCRT regardless of modes of injection. The effect of MCRT on heart rate is completely dependent on opioid receptors when MCRT was administered by i.c.v. instead of i.v. The central nitric oxide (NO) pathway is involved in regulating blood pressure by MCRT under both modes of injection, but the peripheral NO pathway had no effect on lowering blood pressure mediated by MCRT when it was administered by i.c.v. Based on the results from different modes of injection, the regulation of heart rate by MCRT mainly involves in the central NO pathway. Lastly, we observed that the cardiovascular effects of MCRT such as bradycardia and decrease of blood pressure, were stronger than that of its parent peptides. Opioid receptors and the NO pathway are involved in the cardiovascular regulation by MCRT, and their degree of involvement differs between intravenous and intracerebroventricular injection. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Effects of prepartum fat supplementation on plasma concentrations of glucagon-like peptide-1, peptide YY, adropin, insulin, and leptin in periparturient dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zapata, Rizaldy C; Salehi, Reza; Ambrose, Divakar J; Chelikani, Prasanth K

    2015-10-01

    Dietary fat supplementation during the periparturient period is one strategy to increase energy intake and attenuate the degree of negative energy balance during early lactation; however, little is known of the underlying hormonal and metabolic adaptations. We evaluated the effects of prepartum fat supplementation on energy-balance parameters and plasma concentrations of glucagon-like peptide-1, peptide tyrosine-tyrosine (PYY), adropin, insulin, leptin, glucose, nonesterified fatty acid, and β-hydroxybutyric acid in dairy cows. Twenty-four pregnant dairy cows were randomized to diets containing either rolled canola or sunflower seed at 8% of dry matter, or no oilseed supplementation, during the last 5 wk of gestation and then assigned to a common lactation diet postpartum. Blood samples were collected at -2, +2, and +14 h relative to feeding, at 2 wk after the initiation of the diets, and at 2 wk postpartum. Dietary canola and sunflower supplementation alone did not affect energy balance, body weight, and plasma concentrations of glucagon-like peptide-1, PYY, adropin, insulin, leptin, nonesterified fatty acid, and β-hydroxybutyric acid; however, canola decreased and sunflower tended to decrease dry matter intake. We also observed that the physiological stage had a significant, but divergent, effect on circulating hormones and metabolite concentrations. Plasma glucagon-like peptide-1, PYY, adropin, nonesterified fatty acid, and β-hydroxybutyric acid concentrations were greater postpartum than prepartum, whereas glucose, insulin, leptin, body weight, and energy balance were greater prepartum than postpartum. Furthermore, the interaction of treatment and stage was significant for leptin and adropin, and tended toward significance for PYY and insulin; only insulin exhibited an apparent postprandial increase. Postpartum PYY concentrations exhibited a strong negative correlation with body weight, suggesting that PYY may be associated with body weight regulation during

  4. Effects of the antimicrobial peptide protegrine 1 on sperm viability and bacterial load of boar seminal doses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sancho, S; Briz, M; Yeste, M; Bonet, S; Bussalleu, E

    2017-10-01

    The presence of bacteria adversely affects boar sperm quality of seminal doses intended for artificial insemination. Currently, the most common measure to prevent bacteriospermia is the addition of antibiotics in semen extenders; however, mounting evidence shows that microbial resistance exists. A promising alternative to replace antibiotics are antimicrobial peptides. In this study, the effects of the antimicrobial peptide protegrine 1 (PG1) on the sperm viability and bacterial load of boar seminal doses were evaluated. Three different concentrations of PG1 (2.5, 25 and 100 μg/ml) were tested over a storing period of 10 days at 17°C. Sperm viability was analysed by fluorescence microscopy (SYBR14/propidium iodide), and bacterial load was assessed by plating 100 μl of each sample in Luria-Bertani medium and incubated at 37°C for 72 hr under aerobic conditions. Protegrine 1 was effective in controlling the bacterial load in all the assessed concentrations (p < .05), reaching the lowest values at the highest concentrations of the antimicrobial peptide. Nevertheless, sperm viability was significantly (p < .05) reduced by all tested concentrations of this peptide, the most cytotoxic effects being observed at the highest PG1 concentrations. Despite these results, the use of PG1 as an alternative to antibiotics cannot be totally discarded, as further studies using the truncated form of this peptide are needed. © 2017 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  5. Effect of Porcine Collagen Peptides on the Rheological and Sensory Properties of Ice Cream.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Liying; Kim, Jae-Hyeong; Jo, Yeon-Ji; Min, Sang-Gi; Chun, Ji-Yeon

    2015-01-01

    The effects of low molecular-weight collagen peptides derived from porcine skin were investigated on the physicochemical and sensorial properties of chocolate ice cream. Collagen peptides less than 1 kDa in weight were obtained by sub-critical water hydrolysis at a temperature of 300℃ and a pressure of 80 bar. Ice cream was then prepared with gelatin powder and porcine skin hydrolysate (PSH) stabilizers mixed at seven different ratios (for a total of 0.5 wt%). There was no significant difference in color between the resulting ice cream mixtures. The increase in apparent viscosity and shear thinning of the ice cream was more moderate with PSH added than with gelatin. Moreover, the samples containing more than 0.2 wt% PSH had enhanced melting resistance, while the mixture with 0.2 wt% PSH had the lowest storage modulus at -20℃ and the second highest loss modulus at 10℃, indicating that this combination of hydrocolloids leads to relatively softer and creamier chocolate ice cream. Among the seven types of ice creams tested, the mixture with 0.2 wt% PSH and 0.3 wt% gelatin had the best physicochemical properties. However, in sensory evaluations, the samples containing PSH had lower chocolate flavor scores and higher off-flavor scores than the sample prepared with just 0.5 wt% gelatin due to the strong off-flavor of PSH.

  6. Antimicrobial effects of GL13K peptide coatings on S. mutans and L. casei

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schnitt, Rebecca Ann

    Background: Enamel breakdown around orthodontic brackets, so-called "white spot lesions", is the most common complication of orthodontic treatment. White spot lesions are caused by bacteria such as Streptococci and Lactobacilli, whose acidic byproducts cause demineralization of enamel crystals. Aims: The aim of this project was to develop an antimicrobial peptide coating for titanium alloy that is capable of killing acidogenic bacteria, specifically Streptococcus mutans and Lactobacillus casei. The long-term goal is to create an antimicrobial-coated orthodontic bracket with the ability to reduce or prevent the formation of white spot lesions in orthodontic patients thereby improving clinical outcomes. Methods: First, an alkaline etching method with NaOH was established to allow effective coating of titanium discs with GL13K, an antimicrobial peptide derived from human saliva. Coatings were verified by contact angle measures, and treated discs were characterized using scanning electron microscopy. Secondly, GL13K coatings were tested against hydrolytic, proteolytic and mechanical challenges to ensure robust coatings. Third, a series of qualitative and quantitative microbiology experiments were performed to determine the effects of GL13K--L and GL13K--D on S. mutans and L. casei, both in solution and coated on titanium. Results: GL13K-coated discs were stable after two weeks of challenges. GL13K--D was effective at killing S. mutans in vitro at low doses. GL13K--D also demonstrated a bactericidal effect on L. casei, however, in contrast to S. mutans, the effect on L. casei was not statistically significant. Conclusion: GL13K--D is a promising candidate for antimicrobial therapy with possible applications for prevention of white spot lesions in orthodontics.

  7. Effects of spaceflight on hypothalamic peptide systems controlling pituitary growth hormone dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawchenko, P. E.; Arias, C.; Krasnov, I.; Grindeland, R. E.; Vale, W.

    1992-01-01

    Possible effects of reduced gravity on central hypophysiotropic systems controlling growth hormone (GH) secretion were investigated in rats flown on Cosmos 1887 and 2044 biosatellites. Immunohistochemical (IHC)staining for the growth hormone-releasing factor (GRF), somatostatin (SS), and other hypothalamic hormones was performed on hypothalami obtained from rats. IHC analysis was complemented by quantitative in situ assessments of mRNAs encoding the precursors for these hormones. Data obtained suggest that exposure to microgravity causes a preferential reduction in GRF peptide and mRNA levels in hypophysiotropic neurons, which may contribute to impared GH secretion in animals subjected to spaceflight. Effects of weightlessness are not mimicked by hindlimb suspension in this system.

  8. Involvement of glucagon-like peptide-1 in the glucose-lowering effect of metformin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bahne, Emilie; Hansen, Morten; Brønden, Andreas

    2016-01-01

    Metformin is an oral antihyperglycaemic drug used in the first-line treatment of type 2 diabetes. Metformin's classic and most well-known blood glucose-lowering mechanisms include reduction of hepatic gluconeogenesis and increased peripheral insulin sensitivity. Interestingly, intravenously...... administered metformin is ineffective and recently, metformin was shown to increase plasma concentrations of the glucose-lowering gut incretin hormone glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1), which may contribute to metformin's glucose-lowering effect in patients with type 2 diabetes. The mechanisms behind metformin......-induced increments in GLP-1 levels remain unknown, but it has been hypothesized that metformin stimulates GLP-1 secretion directly and/or indirectly and that metformin prolongs the half-life of GLP-1. Also, it has been suggested that metformin may potentiate the glucose-lowering effects of GLP-1 by increasing target...

  9. The vasorelaxant effect of adrenomedullin, proadrenomedullin N-terminal 20 peptide and amylin in human skin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hasbak, Philip; Eskesen, Karen; Lind, Peter Henrik

    2006-01-01

    of the peptides. The mRNA expression was assessed by real-time reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (real-time PCR). CGRP, adrenomedullin and amylin induced concentration-dependent, long-lasting increases in skin blood flow. The response to PAMP was shorter in duration appearing similar...... to the transient response induced by substance P. PAMP (10(-6)-10(-5) M) caused distinct itch sensation and local erythema. This effect could be abolished when combining the histamine H1-receptor antagonist mepyramin and PAMP. Real-time PCR data showed a higher level of mRNA for RAMP2 than CL-R, RAMP1 and RAMP3...... of CGRP, adrenomedullin and amylin induces long lasting dilatation of human skin vasculature by activation of CGRP1 receptors. PAMP induces transient vasodilatation. PAMP but not CGRP, adrenomedullin and amylin causes itch sensation and local erythema. The transient effect on vasodilatation as response...

  10. Discovery of non-peptide small molecular CXCR4 antagonists as anti-HIV agents: Recent advances and future opportunities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Heng; Kang, Dongwei; Huang, Boshi; Liu, Na; Zhao, Fabao; Zhan, Peng; Liu, Xinyong

    2016-05-23

    CXCR4 plays vital roles in HIV-1 life cycle for it's essential in mediating the interaction of host and virus and completing the entry process in the lifecycle of HIV-1 infection. Compared with some traditional targets, CXCR4 provides a novel and less mutated drug target in the battle against AIDS. Its antagonists have no cross resistance with other antagonists. Great achievements have been made recent years and a number of small molecular CXCR4 antagonists with diversity scaffolds have been discovered. In this review, recent advances in the discovery of CXCR4 antagonists with special attentions on their evolution and structure-activity relationships of representative CXCR4 antagonists are described. Moreover, some classical medicinal chemistry strategies and novel methodologies are also introduced. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  11. The effects of variations in dose and method of administration on glucagon like peptide-2 activity in the rat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaji, Tatsuru; Tanaka, Hiroaki; Holst, Jens Juul

    2008-01-01

    Glucagon-like peptide-2 (GLP-2) is a potent, intestinal-specific trophic hormone. However, the relationship between the dose and timing of GLP-2 administration and these trophic effects is not clear. We investigated the effects of variations in the dose and timing of GLP-2 administration on its...

  12. Effects of intranasal and peripheral oxytocin or gastrin-releasing peptide administration on social interaction and corticosterone levels in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kent, Pamela; Awadia, Alisha; Zhao, Leah; Ensan, Donna; Silva, Dinuka; Cayer, Christian; James, Jonathan S; Anisman, Hymie; Merali, Zul

    2016-02-01

    The intranasal route of drug administration has gained increased popularity as it is thought to allow large molecules, such as peptide hormones, more direct access to the brain, while limiting systemic exposure. Several studies have investigated the effects of intranasal oxytocin administration in humans as this peptide is associated with prosocial behavior. There are, however, few preclinical studies investigating the effects of intranasal oxytocin administration in rodents. Oxytocin modulates hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis functioning and it has been suggested that oxytocin's ability to increase sociability may occur through a reduction in stress reactivity. Another peptide that appears to influence both social behavior and HPA axis activity is gastrin-releasing peptide (GRP), but it is not known if these GRP-induced effects are related. With this in mind, in the present study, we assessed the effects of intranasal and intraperitoneal oxytocin and GRP administration on social interaction and release of corticosterone in rats. Intranasal and intraperitoneal administration of 20, but not 5 μg, of oxytocin significantly increased social interaction, whereas intranasal and peripheral administration of GRP (20 but not 5 μg) significantly decreased levels of social interaction. In addition, while intranasal oxytocin (20 μg) had no effect on blood corticosterone levels, a marked increase in blood corticosterone levels was observed following intraperitoneal oxytocin administration. With GRP, intranasal (20 μg) but not peripheral administration increased corticosterone levels. These findings provide further evidence that intranasal peptide delivery can induce behavioral alterations in rodents which is consistent with findings from human studies. In addition, the peptide-induced changes in social interaction were not linked to fluctuations in corticosterone levels. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Effect of processing on polyamine content and bioactive peptides released after in vitro gastrointestinal digestion of infant formulas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-Gallego, C; Recio, I; Gómez-Gómez, V; Ortuño, I; Bernal, M J; Ros, G; Periago, M J

    2016-02-01

    This study examined the influence of processing on polyamines and peptide release after the digestion of a commercial infant formula designed for children during the first months of life. Polyamine oxidase activity was not suppressed during the manufacturing process, which implicates that polyamine concentrations were reduced over time and during infant formula self-life. In gel electrophoresis, in vitro gastrointestinal digestion of samples with reduced amount of enzymes and time of digestion shows an increase in protein digestibility, reflected in the increase in nonprotein nitrogen after digestion and the disappearance of β-lactoglobulin and α-lactalbumin bands in gel electrophoresis. Depending on the sample, between 22 and 87 peptides were identified after gastrointestinal digestion. A peptide from β-casein f(98-105) with the sequence VKEAMAPK and antioxidant activity appeared in all of the samples. Other peptides with antioxidant, immunomodulatory, and antimicrobial activities were frequently found, which could have an effect on infant health. The present study confirms that the infant formula manufacturing process determines the polyamine content and peptidic profile after digestion of the infant formula. Because compositional dissimilarity between human milk and infant formula in polyamines and proteins could be responsible for some of the differences in health reported between breast-fed and formula-fed children, these changes must be taken into consideration because they may have a great effect on infant nutrition and development. Copyright © 2016 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. A peptide targeting an interaction interface disrupts the dopamine D1-D2 receptor heteromer to block signaling and function in vitro and in vivo: effective selective antagonism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasbi, Ahmed; Perreault, Melissa L.; Shen, Maurice Y. F.; Zhang, Lucia; To, Ryan; Fan, Theresa; Nguyen, Tuan; Ji, Xiaodong; O'Dowd, Brian F.; George, Susan R.

    2014-01-01

    Although the dopamine D1-D2 receptor heteromer has emerging physiological relevance and a postulated role in different neuropsychiatric disorders, such as drug addiction, depression, and schizophrenia, there is a need for pharmacological tools that selectively target such receptor complexes in order to analyze their biological and pathophysiological functions. Since no selective antagonists for the D1-D2 heteromer are available, serial deletions and point mutations were used to precisely identify the amino acids involved in an interaction interface between the receptors, residing within the carboxyl tail of the D1 receptor that interacted with the D2 receptor to form the D1-D2 receptor heteromer. It was determined that D1 receptor carboxyl tail residues 404Glu and 405Glu were critical in mediating the interaction with the D2 receptor. Isolated mutation of these residues in the D1 receptor resulted in the loss of agonist activation of the calcium signaling pathway mediated through the D1-D2 receptor heteromer. The physical interaction between the D1 and D2 receptor could be disrupted, as shown by coimmunoprecipitation and BRET analysis, by a small peptide generated from the D1 receptor sequence that contained these amino acids, leading to a switch in G-protein affinities and loss of calcium signaling, resulting in the inhibition of D1-D2 heteromer function. The use of the D1-D2 heteromer-disrupting peptide in vivo revealed a pathophysiological role for the D1-D2 heteromer in the modulation of behavioral despair. This peptide may represent a novel pharmacological tool with potential therapeutic benefits in depression treatment.—Hasbi, A., Perreault, M. L., Shen, M. Y. F., Zhang, L., To, R., Fan, T., Nguyen, T., Ji, X., O'Dowd, B. F., George, S. R. A peptide targeting an interaction interface disrupts the dopamine D1-D2 receptor heteromer to block signaling and function in vitro and in vivo: effective selective antagonism. PMID:25063849

  15. Peptides in melanoma therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mocellin, Simone

    2012-01-01

    Peptides derived from tumor associated antigens can be utilized to elicit a therapeutically effective immune response against melanoma in experimental models. However, patient vaccination with peptides - although it is often followed by the induction of melanoma- specific T lymphocytes - is rarely associated with tumor response of clinical relevance. In this review I summarize the principles of peptide design as well as the results so far obtained in the clinical setting while treating cutaneous melanoma by means of this active immunotherapy strategy. I also discuss some immunological and methodological issues that might be helpful for the successful development of peptide-based vaccines.

  16. Selection of SARS-Coronavirus-specific B cell epitopes by phage peptide library screening and evaluation of the immunological effect of epitope-based peptides on mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu Hua; Jiang Lifang; Fang Danyun; Yan Huijun; Zhou Jingjiao; Zhou Junmei; Liang Yu; Gao Yang; Zhao, Wei; Long Beiguo

    2007-01-01

    Antibodies to SARS-Coronavirus (SARS-CoV)-specific B cell epitopes might recognize the pathogen and interrupt its adherence to and penetration of host cells. Hence, these epitopes could be useful for diagnosis and as vaccine constituents. Using the phage-displayed peptide library screening method and purified Fab fragments of immunoglobulin G (IgG Fab) from normal human sera and convalescent sera from SARS-CoV-infected patients as targets, 11 B cell epitopes of SARS-CoV spike glycoprotein (S protein) and membrane protein (M protein) were screened. After a bioinformatics tool was used to analyze these epitopes, four epitope-based S protein dodecapeptides corresponding to the predominant epitopes were chosen for synthesis. Their antigenic specificities and immunogenicities were studied in vitro and in vivo. Flow cytometry and ELISPOT analysis of lymphocytes as well as a serologic analysis of antibody showed that these peptides could trigger a rapid, highly effective, and relatively safe immune response in BALB/c mice. These findings might aid development of SARS diagnostics and vaccines. Moreover, the role of S and M proteins as important surface antigens is confirmed

  17. OmpA Binding Mediates the Effect of Antimicrobial Peptide LL-37 on Acinetobacter baumannii.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming-Feng Lin

    Full Text Available Multidrug-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii has recently emerged as an important pathogen in nosocomial infection; thus, effective antimicrobial regimens are urgently needed. Human antimicrobial peptides (AMPs exhibit multiple functions and antimicrobial activities against bacteria and fungi and are proposed to be potential adjuvant therapeutic agents. This study examined the effect of the human cathelicidin-derived AMP LL-37 on A. baumannii and revealed the underlying mode of action. We found that LL-37 killed A. baumannii efficiently and reduced cell motility and adhesion. The bacteria-killing effect of LL-37 on A. baumannii was more efficient compared to other AMPs, including human ß-defensin 3 (hBD3 and histatin 5 (Hst5. Both flow cytometric analysis and immunofluorescence staining showed that LL-37 bound to A. baumannii cells. Moreover, far-western analysis demonstrated that LL-37 could bind to the A. baumannii OmpA (AbOmpA protein. An ELISA assay indicated that biotin-labelled LL-37 (BA-LL37 bound to the AbOmpA74-84 peptide in a dose-dependent manner. Using BA-LL37 as a probe, the ~38 kDa OmpA signal was detected in the wild type but the ompA deletion strain did not show the protein, thereby validating the interaction. Finally, we found that the ompA deletion mutant was more sensitive to LL-37 and decreased cell adhesion by 32% compared to the wild type. However, ompA deletion mutant showed a greatly reduced adhesion defect after LL-37 treatment compared to the wild strain. Taken together, this study provides evidence that LL-37 affects A. baumannii through OmpA binding.

  18. Neuroprotective Effects of Pomegranate Peel Extract after Chronic Infusion with Amyloid-β Peptide in Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morzelle, Maressa Caldeira; Salgado, Jocelem Mastrodi; Telles, Milena; Mourelle, Danilo; Bachiega, Patricia; Buck, Hudson Sousa

    2016-01-01

    Alzheimer’s disease is a chronic and degenerative condition that had no treatment until recently. The current therapeutic strategies reduce progression of the disease but are expensive and commonly cause side effects that are uncomfortable for treated patients. Functional foods to prevent and/or treat many conditions, including neurodegenerative diseases, represent a promising field of study currently gaining attention. To this end, here we demonstrate the effects of pomegranate (Punica granatum) peel extract (PPE) regarding spatial memory, biomarkers of neuroplasticity, oxidative stress and inflammation in a mouse model of neurodegeneration. Male C57Bl/6 mice were chronically infused for 35 days with amyloid-β peptide 1–42 (Aβ) or vehicle (control) using mini-osmotic pumps. Another group, also infused with Aβ, was treated with PPE (p.o.– βA+PPE, 800 mg/kg/day). Spatial memory was evaluated in the Barnes maze. Animals treated with PPE and in the control group exhibited a reduction in failure to find the escape box, a finding that was not observed in the Aβ group. The consumption of PPE reduced amyloid plaque density, increased the expression of neurotrophin BDNF and reduced the activity of acetylcholinesterase enzyme. A reduction in lipid peroxidation and in the concentration of the pro-inflammatory cytokine TNF-α was also observed in the PPE group. No hepatic lesions were observed in animals treated with PPE. In conclusion, administration of pomegranate peel extract has neuroprotective effects involving multiple mechanisms to prevent establishment and progression of the neurodegenerative process induced by infusion with amyloid-β peptide in mice. PMID:27829013

  19. Dimerization effects on coacervation property of an elastin-derived synthetic peptide (FPGVG)5.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suyama, Keitaro; Taniguchi, Suguru; Tatsubo, Daiki; Maeda, Iori; Nose, Takeru

    2016-04-01

    Elastin, a core protein of the elastic fibers, exhibits the coacervation (temperature-dependent reversible association/dissociation) under physiological conditions. Because of this characteristic, elastin and elastin-derived peptides have been considered to be useful as base materials for developing various biomedical products, skin substitutes, synthetic vascular grafts, and drug delivery systems. Although elastin-derived polypeptide (Val-Pro-Gly-Val-Gly)n also has been known to demonstrate coacervation property, a sufficiently high (VPGVG)n repetition number (n>40) is required for coacervation. In the present study, a series of elastin-derived peptide (Phe-Pro-Gly-Val-Gly)5 dimers possessing high coacervation potential were newly developed. These novel dimeric peptides exhibited coacervation at significantly lower concentrations and temperatures than the commonly used elastin-derived peptide analogs; this result suggests that the coacervation ability of the peptides is enhanced by dimerization. Circular dichroism (CD) measurements indicate that the dimers undergo similar temperature-dependent and reversible conformational changes when coacervation occurs. The molecular dynamics calculation results reveal that the sheet-turn-sheet motif involving a type II β-turn-like structure commonly observed among the dimers and caused formation of globular conformation of them. These synthesized peptide dimers may be useful not only as model peptides for structural analysis of elastin and elastin-derived peptides, but also as base materials for developing various temperature-sensitive biomedical and industrial products. Copyright © 2016 European Peptide Society and John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  20. Road Zone Effects in Small-Mammal Communities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John A. Bissonette

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Our study focused on the putative effects of roads on small-mammal communities in a high desert region of southern Utah. Specifically, we tested whether or not roads create adjacent zones characterized by lower small- mammal densities, abundance, and diversity. We sampled abundance of small mammals at increasing distances from Interstate 15 during two summers. We recorded 11 genera and 13 species. We detected no clear abundance, density, or diversity effects relative to distance from the road. Only two of 13 species were never captured near roads. The abundance of the remaining 11 small mammal species was either similar at different distances from the road or higher closer to the road. We conclude that although roads may act as barriers and possible sources of mortality, adjacent zones of vegetation often provide favorable microhabitat in the desert landscape for many small mammals.

  1. Biological effects of a de novo designed myxoma virus peptide analogue: evaluation of cytotoxicity on tumor cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taghrid S Istivan

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The Resonant Recognition Model (RRM is a physico-mathematical model that interprets protein sequence linear information using digital signal processing methods. In this study the RRM concept was employed for structure-function analysis of myxoma virus (MV proteins and the design of a short bioactive therapeutic peptide with MV-like antitumor/cytotoxic activity. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The analogue RRM-MV was designed by RRM as a linear 18 aa 2.3 kDa peptide. The biological activity of this computationally designed peptide analogue against cancer and normal cell lines was investigated. The cellular cytotoxicity effects were confirmed by confocal immunofluorescence microscopy, by measuring the levels of cytoplasmic lactate dehydrogenase (LDH and by Prestoblue cell viability assay for up to 72 hours in peptide treated and non-treated cell cultures. Our results revealed that RRM-MV induced a significant dose and time-dependent cytotoxic effect on murine and human cancer cell lines. Yet, when normal murine cell lines were similarly treated with RRM-MV, no cytotoxic effects were observed. Furthermore, the non-bioactive RRM designed peptide RRM-C produced negligible cytotoxic effects on these cancer and normal cell lines when used at similar concentrations. The presence/absence of phosphorylated Akt activity in B16F0 mouse melanoma cells was assessed to indicate the possible apoptosis signalling pathway that could be affected by the peptide treatment. So far, Akt activity did not seem to be significantly affected by RRM-MV as is the case for the original viral protein. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our findings indicate the successful application of the RRM concept to design a bioactive peptide analogue (RRM-MV with cytotoxic effects on tumor cells only. This 2.345 kDa peptide analogue to a 49 kDa viral protein may be suitable to be developed as a potential cancer therapeutic. These results also open a new direction to the rational

  2. Wong's equations and the small x effective action in QCD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jalilian-Marian, Jamal; Jeon, Sangyong; Venugopalan, Raju

    2001-01-01

    We propose a new form for the small x effective action in QCD. This form of the effective action is motivated by Wong's equations for classical, colored particles in non-Abelian background fields. We show that the BFKL equation, which sums leading logarithms in x, is efficiently reproduced with this form of the action. We argue that this form of the action may be particularly useful in computing next-to-leading-order results in QCD at small x

  3. Wong's equations and the small x effective action in QCD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jalilian-Marian, Jamal; Jeon, Sangyong; Venugopalan, Raju

    2000-01-01

    We propose a new form for the small x effective action in QCD. This form of the effective action is motivated by Wong's equations for classical, colored particles in non-Abelian background fields. We show that the BFKL equation, which sums leading logarithms in x, is efficiently reproduced with this form of the action. We argue that this form of the action may be particularly useful in computing next-to-leading-order results in QCD at small x

  4. Prophylactic effects of elastin peptide derived from the bulbus arteriosus of fish on vascular dysfunction in spontaneously hypertensive rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takemori, Kumiko; Yamamoto, Ei; Ito, Hiroyuki; Kometani, Takashi

    2015-01-01

    To determine the prophylactic effects of an elastin peptide derived from the bulbus arteriosus of bonitos and prolylglycine (PG), a degradation product of elastin peptide, on vascular dysfunction in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRs). Male 15-week-old SHR/Izm rats were fed without (control group) or with elastin peptide (1 g/kg body weight) for 5 weeks (EP group), or were infused via an osmotic mini-pump for 4 weeks with PG (PG group) or saline (control group). Using thoracic aortas, we assessed endothelial changes by scanning electron microscopy. Vascular reactivity (contraction and relaxation) and pressure-induced distension was compared. mRNA production levels of endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) and intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) were investigated by real-time-polymerase chain reaction. Aortas of the EP group displayed limited endothelial damage compared with that in the control group. Under treatment of SHRs with elastin peptide, the effect of phenylephrine returned closer to the normal level observed in normotensive Wistar-Kyoto (WKY/Izm) rats. mRNA production of eNOS (but not ICAM-1) was greater in the EP group than in the control group. Endothelial damage was suppressed and pressure-induced vascular distension was greater in the PG group than in the corresponding control group. These results suggest that elastin peptide from bonitos elicits prophylactic affects hypertension-associated vascular dysfunction by targeting the eNOS signaling pathway. PG may be a key mediator of the beneficial effects of elastin peptide. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Effect of TFE on the Helical Content of AK17 and HAL-1 Peptides: Theoretical Insights into the Mechanism of Helix Stabilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vymětal, Jiří; Bednárová, Lucie; Vondrášek, Jiří

    2016-02-18

    Fluorinated alcohols such as 2,2,2-trifluoroethanol (TFE) are among the most frequently used cosolvents in experiment studies of peptides. They have significant effects on secondary structure and a particularly strong promotion of α-helix is induced by TFE. In this study we validated recently proposed force field parameters for TFE in molecular dynamics simulations with two model peptides-alanine-rich AK-17 and antimicrobial peptide halictine-1 (HAL-1). In the case of HAL-1, we characterized the effect of TFE on this peptide experimentally by ECD spectroscopy. Our TFE model in question reproduced the helix-promoting effect of TFE and provided insight into the mechanisms of TFE action on peptides. Our simulations confirmed the preferential interaction of TFE molecules with α-helices, although the TFE molecules accumulate in the vicinity of the peptides in various conformations. Moreover, we observed a significant effect of TFE on the thermodynamics of the helix-coil transition and a change in local conformational preferences in the unfolded (coil) state induced by TFE. In addition, our simulation-based analysis suggests that different mechanisms participate in helix stabilization in both model peptides in water and TFE solution. Our results thus support the picture of complex TFE action on peptides that is further diversified by the identity and intrinsic properties of the peptide.

  6. Peptide dendrimers

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Niederhafner, Petr; Šebestík, Jaroslav; Ježek, Jan

    2005-01-01

    Roč. 11, - (2005), 757-788 ISSN 1075-2617 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA203/03/1362 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40550506 Keywords : multiple antigen peptides * peptide dendrimers * synthetic vaccine * multipleantigenic peptides Subject RIV: CC - Organic Chemistry Impact factor: 1.803, year: 2005

  7. Protective effects of recombinant human brain natriuretic peptide in perioperative period during open heart surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Yunbin; Li, Yong; Bao, Weiguo; Qiu, Shi

    2018-03-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the protective effects and safety aspects of recombinant human brain natriuretic peptide (rhBNP) on cardiac functions of patients undergoing open-heart surgery during perioperative period. In total, 150 patients undergoing open heart surgery in the Second Hospital of Shandong Universty from August 2015 to July 2016 were randomly divided into control group and observation group each with 75 cases. Patients in control group were treated by routine rehabilitation while patients in the observation group were treated by both the routine rehabilitation and rhBNP. All the observations were made before operation, after operation and 7 days after operation. The changes of N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP) of patients, the left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF), cardiac function [Cardiac output (CO), pulmonary capillary wedge pressure (PAWP) and central venous pressure (CVP)] of patients were measured. Further, respirator support time, ICU stay time, incidence of complications and vital signs (BP, HR, SaO2) of patients in the two groups were also compared. NT-proBNP levels of all patients improved after operation but it decreased in both groups after 7 days of operation. The decrease of NT-proBNP levels in observation group was significantly higher than that of control group. Whereas, LVEF, CO, PAWP and CVP of patients in both the groups increased after operation but effects were significantly higher in the observation group after 7 days of medication. Respirator support time and ICU stay time of patients in observation group were significantly shorter than those in control group, and the incidence of postoperative complications of patients in the observation group were significantly lower than the control group. Moreover, BP, HR and SaO2 of patients in observation group were significantly elevated in comparison to control group (Popen heart surgery, and is safe as well as reliable.

  8. Antibiotic activity and synergistic effect of antimicrobial peptide against pathogens from a patient with gallstones

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Yoonkyung; Park, Soon Nang; Park, Seong-Cheol; Park, Joon Yong; Park, Yong Ha; Hahm, Joon Soo; Hahm, Kyung-Soo

    2004-01-01

    HP (2-20) is a peptide derived from the N-terminus of Helicobacter pylori ribosomal protein L1 that has been shown to have antimicrobial activity against various species of bacteria. When we tested the effects of HP (2-20), we found that this peptide displayed strong activity against pathogens from a patient with gallstones, but it did not have hemolytic activity against human erythrocytes. We also found that HP (2-20) had potent activity against cefazolin sodium-resistant bacterial cell lines, and that HP (2-20) and cefazolin sodium had synergistic effects against cell lines resistant to the latter. To investigate the mechanism of action of HP (2-20), we performed fluorescence activated flow cytometry using pathogens from the patient with gallstones. As determined by propidium iodide (PI) staining, pathogenic bacteria treated with HP (2-20) showed higher fluorescence intensity than untreated cells, similar to melittin-treated cells, and that HP (2-20) acted in an energy- and salt-dependent manner. Scanning electron microscopy showed that HP (2-20) caused significant morphological alterations in the cell surface of pathogens from the patient with gallstones. By determining their 16S rDNA sequences, we found that both the pathogens from the patient with gallstones and the cefazolin sodium-resistant cell lines showed 100% homology with sequences from Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Taken together, these results suggest that HP (2-20) has antibiotic activity and that it may be used as a lead drug for the treatment of acquired pathogens from patients with gallstones and antibiotic-resistant cell lines

  9. The effect of enteral and parenteral feeding on secretion of orexigenic peptides in infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sztefko Krystyna

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The feeding in the first months of the life seems to influence the risks of obesity and affinity to some diseases including atherosclerosis. The mechanisms of these relations are unknown, however, the modification of hormonal action can likely be taken into account. Therefore, in this study the levels of ghrelin and orexin A - peripheral and central peptide from the orexigenic gut-brain axis were determined. Methods Fasting and one hour after the meal plasma concentrations of ghrelin and orexin were measured in breast-fed (group I; n = 17, milk formula-fed (group II; n = 16 and highly hydrolyzed, hypoallergic formula-fed (group III; n = 14 groups, age matched infants (mean 4 months as well as in children with iv provision of nutrients (glucose - group IV; n = 15; total parenteral nutrition - group V; n = 14. Peptides were determined using EIA commercial kits. Results Despite the similar caloric intake in orally fed children the fasting ghrelin and orexin levels were significantly lower in the breast-fed children (0.37 ± 0.17 and 1.24 ± 0.29 ng/ml, respectively than in the remaining groups (0.5 ± 0.27 and 1.64 ± 0.52 ng/ml, respectively in group II and 0.77 ± 0.27 and 2.04 ± 1.1 ng/ml, respectively, in group III. The postprandial concentrations of ghrelin increased to 0.87 ± 0.29 ng/ml, p Conclusion The highly hydrolyzed diet strongly affects fasting and postprandial ghrelin and orexin plasma concentrations with possible negative effect on short- and long-time effects on development. Also total parenteral nutrition with the continuous stimulation and lack of fasting/postprandial modulation might be responsible for disturbed development in children fed this way.

  10. PEDF-derived peptide promotes skeletal muscle regeneration through its mitogenic effect on muscle progenitor cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Tsung-Chuan; Chiang, Yi-Pin; Chuang, Chih-Kuang; Chen, Show-Li; Hsieh, Jui-Wen; Lan, Yu-Wen; Tsao, Yeou-Ping

    2015-08-01

    In response injury, intrinsic repair mechanisms are activated in skeletal muscle to replace the damaged muscle fibers with new muscle fibers. The regeneration process starts with the proliferation of satellite cells to give rise to myoblasts, which subsequently differentiate terminally into myofibers. Here, we investigated the promotion effect of pigment epithelial-derived factor (PEDF) on muscle regeneration. We report that PEDF and a synthetic PEDF-derived short peptide (PSP; residues Ser(93)-Leu(112)) induce satellite cell proliferation in vitro and promote muscle regeneration in vivo. Extensively, soleus muscle necrosis was induced in rats by bupivacaine, and an injectable alginate gel was used to release the PSP in the injured muscle. PSP delivery was found to stimulate satellite cell proliferation in damaged muscle and enhance the growth of regenerating myofibers, with complete regeneration of normal muscle mass by 2 wk. In cell culture, PEDF/PSP stimulated C2C12 myoblast proliferation, together with a rise in cyclin D1 expression. PEDF induced the phosphorylation of ERK1/2, Akt, and STAT3 in C2C12 myoblasts. Blocking the activity of ERK, Akt, or STAT3 with pharmacological inhibitors attenuated the effects of PEDF/PSP on the induction of C2C12 cell proliferation and cyclin D1 expression. Moreover, 5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine pulse-labeling demonstrated that PEDF/PSP stimulated primary rat satellite cell proliferation in myofibers in vitro. In summary, we report for the first time that PSP is capable of promoting the regeneration of skeletal muscle. The signaling mechanism involves the ERK, AKT, and STAT3 pathways. These results show the potential utility of this PEDF peptide for muscle regeneration. Copyright © 2015 the American Physiological Society.

  11. Large scale Full QM-MD investigation of small peptides and insulin adsorption on ideal and defective TiO2 (1 0 0) surfaces. Influence of peptide size on interfacial bonds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubot, Pierre; Boisseau, Nicolas; Cenedese, Pierre

    2018-05-01

    Large biomolecule interaction with oxide surface has attracted a lot of attention because it drives behavior of implanted devices in the living body. To investigate the role of TiO2 surface structure on a large polypeptide (insulin) adsorption, we use a homemade mixed Molecular Dynamics-Full large scale Quantum Mechanics code. A specific re-parameterized (Ti) and globally convergent NDDO method fitted on high level ab initio method (coupled cluster CCSD(T) and DFT) allows us to safely describe the electronic structure of the whole insulin-TiO2 surface system (up to 4000 atoms). Looking specifically at carboxylate residues, we demonstrate in this work that specific interfacial bonds are obtained from the insulin/TiO2 system that are not observed in the case of smaller peptides (tripeptides, insulin segment chains with different configurations). We also demonstrate that a large part of the adsorption energy is compensated by insulin conformational energy changes and surface defects enhanced this trend. Large slab dimensions allow us to take into account surface defects that are actually beyond ab initio capabilities owing to size effect. These results highlight the influence of the surface structure on the conformation and therefore of the possible inactivity of an adsorbed polypeptides.

  12. Isolation and molecular characterization of porcine calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) and its endocrine effects in the porcine pancreas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, T N; Bersani, M; Schmidt, P

    1998-01-01

    was found in the two tissues. The adrenal peptide was sequenced and found to differ from human alpha-CGRP at six positions and from human beta-CGRP at three positions. By immunohistochemistry, CGRP was found in nerve fibers in the pancreatic ganglia. A synthetic replica of the porcine peptide was infused...... significantly by 10(-8) M CGRP. In immunoneutralization studies (n = 6) using a high-affinity somatostatin antibody, the inhibitory effect of CGRP at 10(-8) M was reversed to a significant stimulation of insulin and glucagon secretion. Insulin secretion in response to square-wave increases in glucose...

  13. Cationic Antimicrobial Peptide LL-37 Is Effective against both Extra- and Intracellular Staphylococcus aureus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noore, Jabeen; Noore, Adly

    2013-01-01

    The increasing resistance of bacteria to conventional antibiotics and the challenges posed by intracellular bacteria, which may be responsible for chronic and recurrent infections, have driven the need for advanced antimicrobial drugs for effective elimination of both extra- and intracellular pathogens. The purpose of this study was to determine the killing efficacy of cationic antimicrobial peptide LL-37 compared to conventional antibiotics against extra- and intracellular Staphylococcus aureus. Bacterial killing assays and an infection model of osteoblasts and S. aureus were studied to determine the bacterial killing efficacy of LL-37 and conventional antibiotics against extra- and intracellular S. aureus. We found that LL-37 was effective in killing extracellular S. aureus at nanomolar concentrations, while lactoferricin B was effective at micromolar concentrations and doxycycline and cefazolin at millimolar concentrations. LL-37 was surprisingly more effective in killing the clinical strain than in killing an ATCC strain of S. aureus. Moreover, LL-37 was superior to conventional antibiotics in eliminating intracellular S. aureus. The kinetic studies further revealed that LL-37 was fast in eliminating both extra- and intracellular S. aureus. Therefore, LL-37 was shown to be very potent and prompt in eliminating both extra- and intracellular S. aureus and was more effective in killing extra- and intracellular S. aureus than commonly used conventional antibiotics. LL-37 could potentially be used to treat chronic and recurrent infections due to its effectiveness in eliminating not only extracellular but also intracellular pathogens. PMID:23274662

  14. Nature of the Charged-Group Effect on the Stability of the C-Peptide Helix

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shoemaker, Kevin R.; Kim, Peter S.; Brems, David N.; Marqusee, Susan; York, Eunice J.; Chaiken, Irwin M.; Stewart, John M.; Baldwin, Robert L.

    1985-04-01

    The residues responsible for the pH-dependent stability of the helix formed by the isolated C-peptide (residues 1-13 of ribonuclease A) have been identified by chemical synthesis of analogues and measurement of their helix-forming properties. Each of the residues ionizing between pH 2 and pH 8 has been replaced separately by an uncharged residue. Protonation of Glu-2- is responsible for the sharp decrease in helix stability between pH 5 and pH 2, and deprotonation of His-12+ causes a similar decrease between pH 5 and pH 8. Glu-9- is not needed for helix stability. The results cannot be explained by the Zimm-Bragg model and host-guest data for α -helix formation, which predict that the stability of the C-peptide helix should increase when Glu-2- is protonated or when His-12+ is deprotonated. Moreover, histidine+ is a strong helix-breaker in host-guest studies. In proteins, acidic and basic residues tend to occur at opposite ends of α -helices: acidic residues occur preferentially near the NH2-terminal end and basic residues near the COOH-terminal end. A possible explanation, based on a helix dipole model, has been given [Blagdon, D. E. & Goodman, M. (1975) Biopolymers 14, 241-245]. Our results are consistent with the helix dipole model and they support the suggestion that the distribution of charged residues in protein helices reflects the helix-stabilizing propensity of those residues. Because Glu-9 is not needed for helix stability, a possible Glu-9-\\cdots His-12+ salt bridge does not contribute significantly to helix stability. The role of a possible Glu-2-\\cdots Arg-10+ salt bridge has not yet been evaluated. A charged-group effect on α -helix stability in water has also been observed in a different peptide system [Ihara, S., Ooi, T. & Takahashi, S. (1982) Biopolymers 21, 131-145]: block copolymers containing (Ala)20 and (Glu)20 show partial helix formation at low temperatures, pH 7.5, where the glutamic acid residues are ionized. (Glu)20(Ala)20Phe forms a

  15. The Small Firm Effect and the Quality of Entrepreneurs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Jing

    of this alternative explanation, versus the existing theories for the small firm effect, this paper examines the persistence of the small firm effect on new business survival and the founders’ post-entry occupational choice. Using employer-employee matched panel data obtained from Statistics Denmark, I find...... that the size of entrepreneurs’ prior employers continues to have a negative correlation with the survival of startups for the first three years, but the size effect gradually fades away afterwards. The magnitude of the correlation is largely reduced if the new businesses were formed in sectors...... barriers of entry in sectors clustered by small firms, while related industry experience further facilitates the transition into self-employment for small firm employees....

  16. Synergistic effect of CART (cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript peptide and cholecystokinin on food intake regulation in lean mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kiss Alexander

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background CART (cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript peptide and cholecystokinin (CCK are neuromodulators involved in feeding behavior. This study is based on previously found synergistic effect of leptin and CCK on food intake and our hypothesis on a co-operation of the CART peptide and CCK in food intake regulation and Fos activation in their common targets, the nucleus tractus solitarii of the brainstem (NTS, the paraventricular nucleus (PVN, and the dorsomedial nucleus (DMH of the hypothalamus. Results In fasted C57BL/6 mice, the anorexigenic effect of CART(61-102 in the doses of 0.1 or 0.5 μg/mouse was significantly enhanced by low doses of CCK-8 of 0.4 or 4 μg/kg, while 1 mg/kg dose of CCK-A receptor antagonist devazepide blocked the effect of CART(61-102 on food intake. After simultaneous administration of 0.1 μg/mouse CART(61-102 and of 4 μg/kg of CCK-8, the number of Fos-positive neurons in NTS, PVN, and DMH was significantly higher than after administration of each particular peptide. Besides, CART(61-102 and CCK-8 showed an additive effect on inhibition of the locomotor activity of mice in an open field test. Conclusion The synergistic and long-lasting effect of the CART peptide and CCK on food intake and their additive effect on Fos immunoreactivity in their common targets suggest a co-operative action of CART peptide and CCK which could be related to synergistic effect of leptin on CCK satiety.

  17. Synthesis, analysis, and cytotoxic effects of novel SMAC-based peptides

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Georgieva, M.; Dzimbova, T.; Sázelová, Petra; Detcheva, R.; Kašička, Václav; Momekov, G.; Pajpanova, T.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 47, č. 8 (2015), s. 1687 ISSN 0939-4451. [International Congress on Amino Acids , Peptides and Proteins /14./. 03.08.2015-07.08.2015, Vienna] Institutional support: RVO:61388963 Keywords : apoptotic peptides * SMAC-mimetics * capillary electrophoresis Subject RIV: CB - Analytical Chemistry, Separation

  18. Synergistic effects of antimicrobial peptide DP7 combined with antibiotics against multidrug-resistant bacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wu X

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Xiaozhe Wu,1 Zhan Li,1 Xiaolu Li,2,3 Yaomei Tian,1 Yingzi Fan,1 Chaoheng Yu,1 Bailing Zhou,1 Yi Liu,4 Rong Xiang,5 Li Yang1 1State Key Laboratory of Biotherapy/Collaborative Innovation Center of Biotherapy, West China Hospital, Sichuan University, 2International Center for Translational Chinese Medicine, Sichuan Academy of Chinese Medicine Sciences, Chengdu, 3Department of Plastic and Burn Surgery, Affiliated Hospital of Southwest Medical University, Luzhou, 4Department of Microbial Examination, Sichuan Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Chengdu, 5Nankai University School of Medicine, Tianjin, People’s Republic of China Abstract: Antibiotic-resistant bacteria present a great threat to public health. In this study, the synergistic effects of antimicrobial peptides (AMPs and antibiotics on several multidrug-resistant bacterial strains were studied, and their synergistic effects on azithromycin (AZT-resistance genes were analyzed to determine the relationships between antimicrobial resistance and these synergistic effects. A checkerboard method was used to evaluate the synergistic effects of AMPs (DP7 and CLS001 and several antibiotics (gentamicin, vancomycin [VAN], AZT, and amoxicillin on clinical bacterial strains (Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Acinetobacter baumannii, and Escherichia coli. The AZT-resistance genes (ermA, ermB, ermC, mefA, and msrA were identified in the resistant strains using quantitative polymerase chain reaction. For all the clinical isolates tested that were resistant to different antibiotics, DP7 had high antimicrobial activity (≤32 mg/L. When DP7 was combined with VAN or AZT, the effect was most frequently synergistic. When we studied the resistance genes of the AZT-resistant isolates, the synergistic effect of DP7–AZT occurred most frequently in highly resistant strains or strains carrying more than two AZT-resistance genes. A transmission electron microscopic analysis of the S. aureus

  19. Dipeptidyl peptidase IV inhibition enhances the intestinotrophic effect of glucagon-like peptide-2 in rats and mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hartmann, B; Thulesen, J; Kissow, Hannelouise

    2000-01-01

    Glucagon-like peptide-2 (GLP-2) induces intestinal growth in mice; but in normal rats, it seems less potent, possibly because of degradation of GLP-2 by the enzyme dipeptidyl peptidase IV (DPP-IV). The purpose of this study was to investigate the survival and effect of GLP-2 in rats and mice afte...

  20. Determination of effective charges and ionic mobilities of polycationic antimicrobial peptides by capillary isotachophoresis and capillary zone electrophoresis

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Tůmová, Tereza; Monincová, Lenka; Nešuta, Ondřej; Čeřovský, Václav; Kašička, Václav

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 38, č. 16 (2017), s. 2018-2024 ISSN 0173-0835 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA15-01948S Institutional support: RVO:61388963 Keywords : antimicrobial peptides * capillary isotachophoresis * counterion condensation * effective charge * ionic mobility Subject RIV: CB - Analytical Chemistry, Separation OBOR OECD: Analytical chemistry Impact factor: 2.744, year: 2016

  1. Peptides with Dual Antimicrobial and Anticancer Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felício, Mário R.; Silva, Osmar N.; Gonçalves, Sônia; Santos, Nuno C.; Franco, Octávio L.

    2017-02-01

    In recent years, the number of people suffering from cancer and multi-resistant infections has increased, such that both diseases are already seen as current and future major causes of death. Moreover, chronic infections are one of the main causes of cancer, due to the instability in the immune system that allows cancer cells to proliferate. Likewise, the physical debility associated with cancer or with anticancer therapy itself often paves the way for opportunistic infections. It is urgent to develop new therapeutic methods, with higher efficiency and lower side effects. Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) are found in the innate immune system of a wide range of organisms. Identified as the most promising alternative to conventional molecules used nowadays against infections, some of them have been shown to have dual activity, both as antimicrobial and anticancer peptides (ACPs). Highly cationic and amphipathic, they have demonstrated efficacy against both conditions, with the number of nature-driven or synthetically designed peptides increasing year by year. With similar properties, AMPs that can also act as ACPs are viewed as future chemotherapeutic drugs, with the advantage of low propensity to resistance, which started this paradigm in the pharmaceutical market. These peptides have already been described as molecules presenting killing mechanisms at the membrane level, but also acting towards intracellular targets, which increases their success comparatively to specific one-target drugs. This review will approach the desirable characteristics of small peptides that demonstrated dual activity against microbial infections and cancer, as well as the peptides engaged in clinical trials.

  2. hTERT peptide fragment GV1001 demonstrates radioprotective and antifibrotic effects through suppression of TGF‑β signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Wei; Shin, Ki-Hyuk; Kim, Sangjae; Shon, Won-Jun; Kim, Reuben H; Park, No-Hee; Kang, Mo K

    2018-06-01

    GV1001 is a 16‑amino acid peptide derived from the human telomerase reverse transcriptase (hTERT) protein (616‑626; EARPALLTSRLRFIPK), which lies within the reverse transcriptase domain. Originally developed as an anticancer vaccine, GV1001 demonstrates diverse cellular effects, including anti‑inflammatory, tumor suppressive and antiviral effects. In the present study, the radioprotective and antifibrotic effects of GV1001 were demonstrated through suppressing transforming growth factor‑β (TGF‑β) signaling. Proliferating human keratinocytes underwent premature senescence upon exposure to ionizing radiation (IR), however, treatment of cells with GV1001 allowed the cells to proliferate and showed a reduction in senescent phenotype. GV1001 treatment notably increased the levels of Grainyhead‑like 2 and phosphorylated (p‑)Akt (Ser473), and reduced the activation of p53 and the level of p21/WAF1 in irradiated keratinocytes. It also markedly suppressed the level of TGF‑β signaling molecules, including p‑small mothers against decapentaplegic (Smad)2/3 and Smad4, and TGF‑β target genes, including zinc finger E‑box binding homeobox 1, fibronectin, N‑cadharin and Snail, in irradiated keratinocytes. Furthermore, GV1001 suppressed TGF‑β signaling in primary human fibroblasts and inhibited myofibroblast differentiation. Chromatin immunoprecipitation revealed that GV1001 suppressed the binding of Smad2 on the promoter regions of collagen type III α1 chain (Col3a1) and Col1a1. In a dermal fibrosis model in vivo, GV1001 treatment notably reduced the thickness of fibrotic lesions and the synthesis of Col3a1. These data indicated that GV1001 ameliorated the IR‑induced senescence phenotype and tissue fibrosis by inhibiting TGF‑β signaling and may have therapeutic effects on radiation‑induced tissue damage.

  3. Screening and Identification of Peptides Specifically Targeted to Gastric Cancer Cells from a Phage Display Peptide Library

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahin, Deniz; Taflan, Sevket Onur; Yartas, Gizem; Ashktorab, Hassan; Smoot, Duane T

    2018-04-25

    Background: Gastric cancer is the second most common cancer among the malign cancer types. Inefficiency of traditional techniques both in diagnosis and therapy of the disease makes the development of alternative and novel techniques indispensable. As an alternative to traditional methods, tumor specific targeting small peptides can be used to increase the efficiency of the treatment and reduce the side effects related to traditional techniques. The aim of this study is screening and identification of individual peptides specifically targeted to human gastric cancer cells using a phage-displayed peptide library and designing specific peptide sequences by using experimentally-eluted peptide sequences. Methods: Here, MKN-45 human gastric cancer cells and HFE-145 human normal gastric epithelial cells were used as the target and control cells, respectively. 5 rounds of biopannning with a phage display 12-peptide library were applied following subtraction biopanning with HFE-145 control cells. The selected phage clones were established by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and immunofluorescence detection. We first obtain random phage clones after five biopanning rounds, determine the binding levels of each individual clone. Then, we analyze the frequencies of each amino acid in best binding clones to determine positively overexpressed amino acids for designing novel peptide sequences. Results: DE532 (VETSQYFRGTLS) phage clone was screened positive, showing specific binding on MKN-45 gastric cancer cells. DE-Obs (HNDLFPSWYHNY) peptide, which was designed by using amino acid frequencies of experimentally selected peptides in the 5th round of biopanning, showed specific binding in MKN-45 cells. Conclusion: Selection and characterization of individual clones may give us specifically binding peptides, but more importantly, data extracted from eluted phage clones may be used to design theoretical peptides with better binding properties than even experimentally selected ones

  4. Role of calcium in effects of atrial natriuretic peptide on aldosterone production in adrenal glomerulosa cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chartier, L.; Schiffrin, E.L.

    1987-01-01

    Atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) inhibits the stimulation of aldosterone secretion by isolated adrenal glomerulosa cells produced by angiotensin II (ANG II), ACTH, and potassium. The effect of ANP on the dose-response curve of aldosterone stimulated by ANG II, ACTH, and potassium on isolated rat adrenal glomerulosa cells was studied. In the presence of ANP the maximal response of aldosterone output stimulated by ANG II or potassium decreased and the half-maximum (EC 50 ) of the response to ACTH was displaced to the right. Because these effects resemble those of calcium-channel blockers, the authors investigated the effect of different concentrations of nifedipine, a dihydropyridine calcium-channel blocker, on the dose-response curve of aldosterone stimulated by ANG II, ACTH, and potassium. Nifedipine produced effects similar to ANP. The maximal response of aldosterone stimulated by ANG II and potassium was decreased and the dose-response curve to ACTH was displaced to the right. ANP decreased the maximal response of aldosterone to the dihydropyridine derivative BAY K8644, a calcium-channel activator, without change in its EC 50 . In contrast, nifedipine displaced the dose-response curve to BAY K8644 to the right as expected of a competitive inhibitor. The effect of ANP and nifedipine on basal and stimulated 45 Ca influx into isolated rat adrenal glomerulosa cells was studied. ANP may act on the rat adrenal glomerulosa cells at least in part by interference with calcium entry

  5. Rotavirus NSP4114-135 peptide has no direct, specific effect on chloride transport in rabbit brush-border membrane

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasseur Monique

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The direct effect of the rotavirus NSP4114-135 and Norovirus NV464-483 peptides on 36Cl uptake was studied by using villus cell brush border membrane (BBM isolated from young rabbits. Both peptides inhibited the Cl-/H+ symport activity about equally and partially. The interaction involved one peptide-binding site per carrier unit. Whereas in vitro NSP4114-135 caused nonspecific inhibition of the Cl-/H+ symporter, the situation in vivo is different. Because rotavirus infection in young rabbits accelerated both Cl- influx and Cl- efflux rates across villi BBM without stimulating Cl- transport in crypt BBM, we conclude that the NSP4114-135 peptide, which causes diarrhea in young rodents, did not have any direct, specific effect on either intestinal absorption or secretion of chloride. The lack of direct effect of NSP4 on chloride transport strengthens the hypothesis that NSP4 would trigger signal transduction pathways to enhance net chloride secretion at the onset of rotavirus diarrhea.

  6. Effects of matrix metalloproteinase inhibitor doxycycline and CD147 antagonist peptide-9 on gallbladder carcinoma cell lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shihang; Liu, Chao; Liu, Xinjiang; He, Yanxin; Shen, Dongfang; Luo, Qiankun; Dong, Yuxi; Dong, Haifeng; Pang, Zhigang

    2017-10-01

    Gallbladder carcinoma is the most common and aggressive malignancy of the biliary tree and highly expresses CD147, which is closely related to disease prognosis in a variety of human cancers. Doxycycline exhibited anti-tumor properties in many cancer cells. CD147 antagonist peptide-9 is a polypeptide and can specifically bind to CD147. The effect of these two drugs on gallbladder cancer cells has not been studied. The aim of this study is to investigate the effect of doxycycline and antagonist peptide-9 on gallbladder carcinoma cells and the possible mechanism of inhibition on cancer cell of doxycycline. To investigate the effects of doxycycline and antagonist peptide-9 on gallbladder carcinoma cells (GBC-SD and SGC-996), cell proliferation, CD147 expression, and early-stage apoptosis rate were measured after treated with doxycycline. Matrix metalloproteinase-2 and matrix metalloproteinase-9 activities were measured after treated with different concentrations of doxycycline, antagonist peptide-9, and their combination. The results demonstrated that doxycycline inhibited cell proliferation, reduced CD147 expression level, and induced an early-stage apoptosis response in GBC-SD and SGC-996 cells. The matrix metalloproteinase-2 and matrix metalloproteinase-9 activities were inhibited by antagonist peptide-9 and doxycycline, and the inhibitory effects were enhanced by combined drugs in gallbladder carcinoma cell lines. Taken together, doxycycline showed inhibitory effects on gallbladder carcinoma cell lines and reduced the expression of CD147, and this may be the mechanism by which doxycycline inhibits cancer cells. This study provides new information and tries to implement the design of adjuvant therapy method for gallbladder carcinoma.

  7. E-Mentoring for Small Business: An Examination of Effectiveness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rickard, Kim; Rickard, Alex

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: While information and communications technology provides new opportunities for supporting mentoring, there is a need to explore how effectively these potential benefits are being realized. This paper seeks to evaluate the effectiveness of a program in the small business context as a basis for proposing determinants of e-mentoring…

  8. Effect of alginate hydrogel containing polyproline-rich peptides on osteoblast differentiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rubert, M; Monjo, M; Ramis, J M; Lyngstadaas, S P

    2012-01-01

    Polyproline-rich synthetic peptides have previously been shown to induce bone formation and mineralization in vitro and to decrease bone resorption in vivo. Alginate hydrogel formulations containing these synthetic peptides (P2, P5, P6) or Emdogain® (EMD) were tested for surface coating of bone implants. In an aqueous environment, the alginate hydrogels disclosed a highly compact structure suitable for cell adhesion and proliferation. Lack of cytotoxicity of the alginate-gel coating containing peptides was tested in MC3T3-E1 cell cultures. In the present study, relative mRNA expression levels of integrin alpha 8 were induced by P5 compared to untreated alginate gel, and osteopontin mRNA levels were increased after 21 days of culture by treatment with synthetic peptides or EMD compared to control. Further, in agreement with previous results when the synthetic peptides were administered in the culture media, osteocalcin mRNA was significantly upregulated after long-term treatment with the formulated synthetic peptides compared to untreated and EMD alginate gel. These results indicate that the alginate gel is a suitable carrier for the delivery of synthetic peptides, and that the formulation is promising as biodegradable and biocompatible coating for bone implants. (paper)

  9. Effects of Tryptophan Content and Backbone Spacing on the Uptake Efficiency of Cell-Penetrating Peptides

    KAUST Repository

    Rydberg, Hanna A.; Matson, Maria; Å mand, Helene L.; Esbjö rner, Elin K.; Nordé n, Bengt

    2012-01-01

    Cell-penetrating peptides (CPPs) are able to traverse cellular membranes and deliver macromolecular cargo. Uptake occurs through both endocytotic and nonendocytotic pathways, but the molecular requirements for efficient internalization are not fully understood. Here we investigate how the presence of tryptophans and their position within an oligoarginine influence uptake mechanism and efficiency. Flow cytometry and confocal fluorescence imaging are used to estimate uptake efficiency, intracellular distribution and toxicity in Chinese hamster ovarian cells. Further, membrane leakage and lipid membrane affinity are investigated. The peptides contain eight arginine residues and one to four tryptophans, the tryptophans positioned either at the N-terminus, in the middle, or evenly distributed along the amino acid sequence. Our data show that the intracellular distribution varies among peptides with different tryptophan content and backbone spacing. Uptake efficiency is higher for the peptides with four tryptophans in the middle, or evenly distributed along the peptide sequence, than for the peptide with four tryptophans at the N-terminus. All peptides display low cytotoxicity except for the one with four tryptophans at the N-terminus, which was moderately toxic. This finding is consistent with their inability to induce efficient leakage of dye from lipid vesicles. All peptides have comparable affinities for lipid vesicles, showing that lipid binding is not a decisive parameter for uptake. Our results indicate that tryptophan content and backbone spacing can affect both the CPP uptake efficiency and the CPP uptake mechanism. The low cytotoxicity of these peptides and the possibilities of tuning their uptake mechanism are interesting from a therapeutic point of view. © 2012 American Chemical Society.

  10. Effects of Tryptophan Content and Backbone Spacing on the Uptake Efficiency of Cell-Penetrating Peptides

    KAUST Repository

    Rydberg, Hanna A.

    2012-07-10

    Cell-penetrating peptides (CPPs) are able to traverse cellular membranes and deliver macromolecular cargo. Uptake occurs through both endocytotic and nonendocytotic pathways, but the molecular requirements for efficient internalization are not fully understood. Here we investigate how the presence of tryptophans and their position within an oligoarginine influence uptake mechanism and efficiency. Flow cytometry and confocal fluorescence imaging are used to estimate uptake efficiency, intracellular distribution and toxicity in Chinese hamster ovarian cells. Further, membrane leakage and lipid membrane affinity are investigated. The peptides contain eight arginine residues and one to four tryptophans, the tryptophans positioned either at the N-terminus, in the middle, or evenly distributed along the amino acid sequence. Our data show that the intracellular distribution varies among peptides with different tryptophan content and backbone spacing. Uptake efficiency is higher for the peptides with four tryptophans in the middle, or evenly distributed along the peptide sequence, than for the peptide with four tryptophans at the N-terminus. All peptides display low cytotoxicity except for the one with four tryptophans at the N-terminus, which was moderately toxic. This finding is consistent with their inability to induce efficient leakage of dye from lipid vesicles. All peptides have comparable affinities for lipid vesicles, showing that lipid binding is not a decisive parameter for uptake. Our results indicate that tryptophan content and backbone spacing can affect both the CPP uptake efficiency and the CPP uptake mechanism. The low cytotoxicity of these peptides and the possibilities of tuning their uptake mechanism are interesting from a therapeutic point of view. © 2012 American Chemical Society.

  11. Effects of the substitution of amino acid residues, through chemical synthesis, on the conformation and activity of antimicrobial peptides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Regina C. Adão

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Antimicrobial peptides make up an assorted group of molecules which contain from 12 to 50 amino acid residues and which may be produced by microorganisms, plants and animals. From the discovery that these biomolecules are lethal to bacteria, inhibiting the pathogenic organism’s growth, and are also related to innate and adapted defense mechanisms, the investigation of such molecules came to be an emergent research field, in which more than 1800 antimicrobial peptides have so far been discovered throughout the last three decades. These molecules are potential representatives of a new generation of antibiotic agents and the main motivation for such use is their activity against a wide variety of pathogens, including Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria as well as fungi and viruses. An important class of comprising some of these peptides may be found in anurans, from which it has been isolated, a considerable number of antimicrobial peptides with diverse sequences and structures, including linear and dimeric ones. In this work monomeric chains (CH1 e CH2 of the heterodimeric antimicrobial peptide distinctin (isolated in 1999 from Phyllomedusa distincta anurans, as well as its mutated monomers (CH1-S and CH2-S and the heterodimer itself were synthesized. The distinctin is the peptide with two chains of different sequences (Table 1 bound each other by disulfide bond from the cystein residues constituting the heterodimer. To investigate the effects on the biological activity by amino acids substitution at normal distinctin CH1 and CH2 chains, both were synthesized as well as their similar chains (CH1-S and CH2-S in which the cystein (Fig.1 a residues of each chain were changed by serin residues (Fig. 1 b. The new chains were named mutants. The synthesis was carried out in solid phase, using Fmoc strategy. The heterodimer distinctin was obtained from CH1 and CH2 chains coupling through cystein residues air oxidation. The results from HPLC

  12. Liposomes equipped with cell penetrating peptide BR2 enhances chemotherapeutic effects of cantharidin against hepatocellular carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xue; Lin, Congcong; Lu, Aiping; Lin, Ge; Chen, Huoji; Liu, Qiang; Yang, Zhijun; Zhang, Hongqi

    2017-11-01

    A main hurdle for the success of tumor-specific liposomes is their inability to penetrate tumors efficiently. In this study, we incorporated a cell-penetrating peptide BR2 onto the surface of a liposome loaded with the anticancer drug cantharidin (CTD) to create a system targeting hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) cells more efficiently and effectively. The in vitro cytotoxicity assay comparing the loaded liposomes' effects on hepatocellular cancer HepG2 and the control Miha cells showed that CTD-loaded liposomes had a stronger anticancer effect after BR2 modification. The cellular uptake results of HepG2 and Miha cells further confirmed the superior ability of BR2-modified liposomes to penetrate cancer cells. The colocalization study revealed that BR2-modified liposomes could enter tumor cells and subsequently release drugs. A higher efficiency of delivery by BR2 liposomes as compared to unmodified liposomes was evident by evaluation of the HepG2 tumor spheroids penetration and inhibition. The biodistribution studies and anticancer efficacy results in vivo showed the significant accumulation of BR2-modified liposomes into tumor sites and an enhanced tumor inhibition. In conclusion, BR2-modified liposomes improve the anticancer potency of drugs for HCC.

  13. Differential effects of doxorubicin on atrial natriuretic peptide expression in vivo and in vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ASIM RAHMAN

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Doxorubicin (Dox is a potent anti-cancer agent with cardiotoxic side-effects but the mechanism of its cardiotoxicity and its effect on expression of the vasoactive atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP, an important marker for cardiac hypertrophy, are little understood. The present study examined Dox-induced changes in vivo in hearts of 6 mongrel dogs and 5 Sprague-Dawley rats and in vitro in cardiac cultures of neonatal rats. Quantitative RT-PCR analysis using g32-p labeled primers for ß-actin, phospholamban (PLB and ANP showed a selective 5-fold increase of ANP mRNA in Dox-treated dog hearts in comparison to controls. Similarly, northern analysis of GAPD, ß-actin, cardiac a-actin and ANP gave a selective 4.5-fold increase in ANP transcripts in Dox-treated rat hearts. On the other hand, there was a selective decrease (approximately 39% of ANP transcripts in Dox-treated cardiac cultures relative to controls. Immunohistochemistry localized the ANP changes both in tissue sections and in cultures to the cardiomyocytes. The data clearly showed that Dox selectively increases ANP expression in dog and rat hearts in absence of cardiocyte hypertrophy but selectively decreases it in cardiac cultures. This differential effect of Dox on cardiocytes in vivo and in vitro should be a useful parameter for studies of transcriptional control of ANP expression.

  14. The Effects of Exercise on Natriuretic Peptides in Individuals without Heart Failure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hidetaka Hamasaki

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Cardiac natriuretic peptides (NPs play an important role in the regulation of energy expenditure in skeletal muscle and adipose tissue. A systematic review on the effects of exercise on NPs in patients with heart failure reported that aerobic and resistance training reduced NPs; however, the effects of exercise on NPs and the underlying mechanism of exercise-induced NP secretion in subjects without heart failure remain unknown. In athletes and young, healthy subjects, the NP concentration at rest is not elevated, but strenuous endurance exercise significantly increases NPs. The exercise-induced increase in NPs may be caused by transient myocardial wall stress, cardiomyocyte metabolic changes, or neuroendocrinological response, which may have cytoprotective and growth-regulating effects on the heart. On the other hand, in elderly, overweight/obese subjects, and patients with hypertension, NP concentrations also increase during exercise; however, NP secretion may be more susceptible to cardiac stress compared to young, healthy individuals. Recent studies have shown that NPs are associated with thermogenesis in fat tissue and oxidative capacity in skeletal muscles. NPs may also have a protective role for skeletal muscle in humans, although further studies are warranted to elucidate the physiological mechanism of exercise-induced NP secretion.

  15. Exploring biological effects of MoS{sub 2} nanosheets on native structures of α-helical peptides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gu, Zonglin; Li, Weifeng, E-mail: wfli@suda.edu.cn, E-mail: ruhong@us.ibm.com [School for Radiological and Interdisciplinary Sciences (RAD-X) and Collaborative Innovation Center of Radiation Medicine of Jiangsu Higher Education Institutions, Soochow University, Suzhou 215123 (China); Hong, Linbi [Computational Biological Center, IBM Thomas J. Watson Research Center, Yorktown Heights, New York 10598 (United States); Zhou, Ruhong, E-mail: wfli@suda.edu.cn, E-mail: ruhong@us.ibm.com [School for Radiological and Interdisciplinary Sciences (RAD-X) and Collaborative Innovation Center of Radiation Medicine of Jiangsu Higher Education Institutions, Soochow University, Suzhou 215123 (China); Computational Biological Center, IBM Thomas J. Watson Research Center, Yorktown Heights, New York 10598 (United States); Department of Chemistry, Columbia University, New York, New York 10027 (United States)

    2016-05-07

    Recent reports of mono- and few-layer molybdenum disulfide (MoS{sub 2}), a representative transition metal dichacogenide (TMD), as antibacterial and anticancer agents have shed light on their potential in biomedical applications. To better facilitate these promising applications, one needs to understand the biological effects of these TMDs as well, such as their potential adverse effects on protein structure and function. Here, we sought to understand the interaction of MoS{sub 2} nanosheets with peptides using molecular dynamics simulations and a simple model polyalanine with various lengths (PA{sub n}, n = 10, 20, 30, and 40; mainly α − helices). Our results demonstrated that MoS{sub 2} monolayer has an exceptional capability to bind all peptides in a fast and strong manner. The strong attraction from the MoS{sub 2} nanosheet is more than enough to compensate the energy needed to unfold the peptide, regardless of the length, which induces drastic disruptions to the intra-peptide hydrogen bonds and subsequent secondary structures of α − helices. This universal phenomenon may point to the potential nanotoxicity of MoS{sub 2} when used in biological systems. Moreover, these results aligned well with previous findings on the potential cytotoxicity of TMD nanomaterials.

  16. Exploring biological effects of MoS2 nanosheets on native structures of α-helical peptides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gu, Zonglin; Li, Weifeng; Hong, Linbi; Zhou, Ruhong

    2016-01-01

    Recent reports of mono- and few-layer molybdenum disulfide (MoS 2 ), a representative transition metal dichacogenide (TMD), as antibacterial and anticancer agents have shed light on their potential in biomedical applications. To better facilitate these promising applications, one needs to understand the biological effects of these TMDs as well, such as their potential adverse effects on protein structure and function. Here, we sought to understand the interaction of MoS 2 nanosheets with peptides using molecular dynamics simulations and a simple model polyalanine with various lengths (PA n , n = 10, 20, 30, and 40; mainly α − helices). Our results demonstrated that MoS 2 monolayer has an exceptional capability to bind all peptides in a fast and strong manner. The strong attraction from the MoS 2 nanosheet is more than enough to compensate the energy needed to unfold the peptide, regardless of the length, which induces drastic disruptions to the intra-peptide hydrogen bonds and subsequent secondary structures of α − helices. This universal phenomenon may point to the potential nanotoxicity of MoS 2 when used in biological systems. Moreover, these results aligned well with previous findings on the potential cytotoxicity of TMD nanomaterials.

  17. Antibacterial Synthetic Peptides Derived from Bovine Lactoferricin Exhibit Cytotoxic Effect against MDA-MB-468 and MDA-MB-231 Breast Cancer Cell Lines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yerly Vargas Casanova

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Linear, dimeric, tetrameric, and cyclic peptides derived from lactoferricin B, containing the RRWQWR motif, were designed, synthesized, purified, and characterized using RP-HPLC chromatography and MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry. The antibacterial activity of the designed peptides against E. coli (ATCC 11775 and 25922 and their cytotoxic effect against MDA-MB-468 and MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cell lines were evaluated. Dimeric and tetrameric peptides showed higher antibacterial activity in both bacteria strains than linear peptides. The dimeric peptide (RRWQWR2K-Ahx exhibited the highest antibacterial activity against the tested bacterial strains. Furthermore, the peptides with high antibacterial activity exhibited significant cytotoxic effect against the tested breast cancer cell lines. This cytotoxic effect was fast and dependent on the peptide concentration. The tetrameric molecule containing RRWQWR motif has an optimal cytotoxic effect at a concentration of 22 µM. The evaluated dimeric and tetrameric peptides could be considered as candidates for developing new therapeutic agents against breast cancer. Polyvalence of linear sequences could be considered as a novel and versatile strategy for obtaining molecules with high anticancer activity.

  18. Antibacterial Synthetic Peptides Derived from Bovine Lactoferricin Exhibit Cytotoxic Effect against MDA-MB-468 and MDA-MB-231 Breast Cancer Cell Lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vargas Casanova, Yerly; Rodríguez Guerra, Jorge Antonio; Umaña Pérez, Yadi Adriana; Leal Castro, Aura Lucía; Almanzar Reina, Giovanni; García Castañeda, Javier Eduardo; Rivera Monroy, Zuly Jenny

    2017-09-29

    Linear, dimeric, tetrameric, and cyclic peptides derived from lactoferricin B, containing the RRWQWR motif, were designed, synthesized, purified, and characterized using RP-HPLC chromatography and MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry. The antibacterial activity of the designed peptides against E. coli (ATCC 11775 and 25922) and their cytotoxic effect against MDA-MB-468 and MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cell lines were evaluated. Dimeric and tetrameric peptides showed higher antibacterial activity in both bacteria strains than linear peptides. The dimeric peptide (RRWQWR)₂K-Ahx exhibited the highest antibacterial activity against the tested bacterial strains. Furthermore, the peptides with high antibacterial activity exhibited significant cytotoxic effect against the tested breast cancer cell lines. This cytotoxic effect was fast and dependent on the peptide concentration. The tetrameric molecule containing RRWQWR motif has an optimal cytotoxic effect at a concentration of 22 µM. The evaluated dimeric and tetrameric peptides could be considered as candidates for developing new therapeutic agents against breast cancer. Polyvalence of linear sequences could be considered as a novel and versatile strategy for obtaining molecules with high anticancer activity.

  19. Oxalyl retro-peptide gelators. Synthesis, gelation properties and stereochemical effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makarević, Janja; Jokić, Milan; Frkanec, Leo; Caplar, Vesna; Sijaković Vujičić, Nataša; Zinić, Mladen

    2010-10-04

    In this work we report on gelation properties, self-assembly motifs, chirality effects and morphological characteristics of gels formed by chiral retro-dipeptidic gelators in the form of terminal diacids (1a-5a) and their dimethyl ester (1b-5b) and dicarboxamide (1c-5c) derivatives. Terminal free acid retro-dipeptides (S,S)-bis(LeuLeu) 1a, (S,S)-bis(PhgPhg) 3a and (S,S)-bis(PhePhe) 5a showed moderate to excellent gelation of highly polar water/DMSO and water/DMF solvent mixtures. Retro-peptides incorporating different amino acids (S,S)-(LeuPhg) 2a and (S,S)-(PhgLeu) 4a showed no or very weak gelation. Different gelation effectiveness was found for racemic and single enantiomer gelators. The heterochiral (S,R)-1c diastereoisomer is capable of immobilizing up to 10 and 4 times larger volumes of dichloromethane/DMSO and toluene/DMSO solvent mixtures compared to homochiral (S,S)-1c. Based on the results of (1)H NMR, FTIR, CD investigations, molecular modeling and XRPD studies of diasteroisomeric diesters (S,S)-1b/(S,R)-1b and diacids (S,S)-1b/(S,R)-1a, a basic packing model in their gel aggregates is proposed. The intermolecular hydrogen bonding between extended gelator molecules utilizing both, the oxalamide and peptidic units and layered organization were identified as the most likely motifs appearing in the gel aggregates. Molecular modeling studies of (S,S)-1a/(S,R)-1a and (S,S)-1b/(S,R)-1b diasteroisomeric pairs revealed a decisive stereochemical influence yielding distinctly different low energy conformations: those of (S,R)-diastereoisomers with lipophilic i-Bu groups and polar carboxylic acid or ester groups located on the opposite sides of the oxalamide plane resembling bola amphiphilic structures and those of (S,S)-diasteroisomers possessing the same groups located at both sides of the oxalamide plane. Such conformational characteristics were found to strongly influence both, gelator effectiveness and morphological characteristics of gel aggregates.

  20. Oxalyl retro-peptide gelators. Synthesis, gelation properties and stereochemical effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janja Makarević

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available In this work we report on gelation properties, self-assembly motifs, chirality effects and morphological characteristics of gels formed by chiral retro-dipeptidic gelators in the form of terminal diacids (1a–5a and their dimethyl ester (1b–5b and dicarboxamide (1c–5c derivatives. Terminal free acid retro-dipeptides (S,S-bis(LeuLeu 1a, (S,S-bis(PhgPhg 3a and (S,S-bis(PhePhe 5a showed moderate to excellent gelation of highly polar water/DMSO and water/DMF solvent mixtures. Retro-peptides incorporating different amino acids (S,S-(LeuPhg 2a and (S,S-(PhgLeu 4a showed no or very weak gelation. Different gelation effectiveness was found for racemic and single enantiomer gelators. The heterochiral (S,R-1c diastereoisomer is capable of immobilizing up to 10 and 4 times larger volumes of dichloromethane/DMSO and toluene/DMSO solvent mixtures compared to homochiral (S,S-1c. Based on the results of 1H NMR, FTIR, CD investigations, molecular modeling and XRPD studies of diasteroisomeric diesters (S,S-1b/(S,R-1b and diacids (S,S-1b/(S,R-1a, a basic packing model in their gel aggregates is proposed. The intermolecular hydrogen bonding between extended gelator molecules utilizing both, the oxalamide and peptidic units and layered organization were identified as the most likely motifs appearing in the gel aggregates. Molecular modeling studies of (S,S-1a/(S,R-1a and (S,S-1b/(S,R-1b diasteroisomeric pairs revealed a decisive stereochemical influence yielding distinctly different low energy conformations: those of (S,R-diastereoisomers with lipophilic i-Bu groups and polar carboxylic acid or ester groups located on the opposite sides of the oxalamide plane resembling bola amphiphilic structures and those of (S,S-diasteroisomers possessing the same groups located at both sides of the oxalamide plane. Such conformational characteristics were found to strongly influence both, gelator effectiveness and morphological characteristics of gel aggregates.

  1. STAT1, STAT3 and p38MAPK are involved in the apoptotic effect induced by a chimeric cyclic interferon-{alpha}2b peptide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blank, Viviana C.; Pena, Clara [Institute of Biochemistry and Biophysics (UBA-CONICET), School of Pharmacy and Biochemistry, University of Buenos Aires, Junin 956-C1113AAD Buenos Aires (Argentina); Roguin, Leonor P., E-mail: rvroguin@qb.ffyb.uba.ar [Institute of Biochemistry and Biophysics (UBA-CONICET), School of Pharmacy and Biochemistry, University of Buenos Aires, Junin 956-C1113AAD Buenos Aires (Argentina)

    2010-02-15

    In the search of mimetic peptides of the interferon-{alpha}2b molecule (IFN-{alpha}2b), we have previously designed and synthesized a chimeric cyclic peptide of the IFN-{alpha}2b that inhibits WISH cell proliferation by inducing an apoptotic response. Here, we first studied the ability of this peptide to activate intracellular signaling pathways and then evaluated the participation of some signals in the induction of apoptosis. Stimulation of WISH cells with the cyclic peptide showed tyrosine phosphorylation of Jak1 and Tyk2 kinases, tyrosine and serine phosphorylation of STAT1 and STAT3 transcription factors and activation of p38 MAPK pathway, although phosphorylation levels or kinetics were in some conditions different to those obtained under IFN-{alpha}2b stimulus. JNK and p44/42 pathways were not activated by the peptide in WISH cells. We also showed that STAT1 and STAT3 downregulation by RNA interference decreased the antiproliferative activity and the amount of apoptotic cells induced by the peptide. Pharmacological inhibition of p38 MAPK also reduced the peptide growth inhibitory activity and the apoptotic effect. Thus, we demonstrated that the cyclic peptide regulates WISH cell proliferation through the activation of Jak/STAT signaling pathway. In addition, our results indicate that p38 MAPK may also be involved in cell growth regulation. This study suggests that STAT1, STAT3 and p38 MAPK would be mediating the antitumor and apoptotic response triggered by the cyclic peptide in WISH cells.

  2. STAT1, STAT3 and p38MAPK are involved in the apoptotic effect induced by a chimeric cyclic interferon-α2b peptide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blank, Viviana C.; Pena, Clara; Roguin, Leonor P.

    2010-01-01

    In the search of mimetic peptides of the interferon-α2b molecule (IFN-α2b), we have previously designed and synthesized a chimeric cyclic peptide of the IFN-α2b that inhibits WISH cell proliferation by inducing an apoptotic response. Here, we first studied the ability of this peptide to activate intracellular signaling pathways and then evaluated the participation of some signals in the induction of apoptosis. Stimulation of WISH cells with the cyclic peptide showed tyrosine phosphorylation of Jak1 and Tyk2 kinases, tyrosine and serine phosphorylation of STAT1 and STAT3 transcription factors and activation of p38 MAPK pathway, although phosphorylation levels or kinetics were in some conditions different to those obtained under IFN-α2b stimulus. JNK and p44/42 pathways were not activated by the peptide in WISH cells. We also showed that STAT1 and STAT3 downregulation by RNA interference decreased the antiproliferative activity and the amount of apoptotic cells induced by the peptide. Pharmacological inhibition of p38 MAPK also reduced the peptide growth inhibitory activity and the apoptotic effect. Thus, we demonstrated that the cyclic peptide regulates WISH cell proliferation through the activation of Jak/STAT signaling pathway. In addition, our results indicate that p38 MAPK may also be involved in cell growth regulation. This study suggests that STAT1, STAT3 and p38 MAPK would be mediating the antitumor and apoptotic response triggered by the cyclic peptide in WISH cells.

  3. Lack of effects of a single high-fat meal enriched with vegetable n-3 or a combination of vegetable and marine n-3 fatty acids on intestinal peptide release and adipokines in healthy female subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ingunn Naverud

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Peptides released from the small intestine and colon regulate short-term food intake by suppressing appetite and inducing satiety. Intake of marine omega-3 (n-3 fatty acids from fish and fish oils is associated with beneficial health effects, whereas the relation between intake of the vegetable n-3 fatty acid α-linolenic acid and diseases is less clear. The aim of the present study was to investigate the postprandial effects of a single high-fat meal enriched with vegetable n-3 or a combination of vegetable and marine n-3 fatty acids with their different unsaturated fatty acid composition on intestinal peptide release and the adipose tissue. Fourteen healthy lean females consumed three test meals with different fat quality in a fixed order. The test meal consisted of three cakes enriched with coconut fat, linseed oil and a combination of linseed and cod liver oil. The test days were separated by two weeks. Fasting and postprandial blood samples at three and six hours after intake were analysed. A significant postprandial effect was observed for cholecystokinin, peptide YY, glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide, amylin and insulin which increased, while leptin decreased postprandially independent of the fat composition in the high-fat meal. In conclusion, in healthy, young, lean females, an intake of a high-fat meal enriched with n-3 fatty acids from different origin stimulates intestinal peptide release without any difference between the different fat compositions.

  4. Fast micro Hall effect measurements on small pads

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østerberg, Frederik Westergaard; Petersen, Dirch Hjorth; Nielsen, Peter F.

    2011-01-01

    Sheet resistance, carrier mobility, and sheet carrier density are important parameters in semiconductor production, and it is therefore important to be able to rapidly and accurately measure these parameters even on small samples or pads. The interpretation of four-point probe measurements on small...... pads is non-trivial. In this paper we discuss how conformal mapping can be used to evaluate theoretically expected measurement values on small pads. Theoretical values calculated from analytical mappings of simple geometries are compared to the values found from the numerical conformal mapping...... of a square onto the infinite half-plane, where well-established solutions are known. Hall effect measurements are performed to show, experimentally, that it is possible to measure Hall mobility in less than one minute on squares as small as 7070 lm2 with a deviation of 66.5% on a 1r level from accurate...

  5. Muramyl peptides in mammalian tissues and their effects at the cellular level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karnovsky, M L

    1986-10-01

    Muramyl peptides (MPs), presumably breakdown products of bacterial cell walls, have been found in the brain, liver, and kidney of the rat. They exert multiple physiological effects on higher animals as immunoadjuvants, activators of macrophages, pyrogens, antitumor agents, inducers of contractility of smooth muscle, and promoters of slow-wave sleep, as well as nonspecific protectors of animals against infection. Structure-function relationships of these substances have been extensively studied, especially with respect to somnogenicity. In the role an intact muramyl ring is required, and the 1,6-anhydro form is active. The presence of free carboxyls or amides on the glutamyl and diaminopimelyl entities have important effects. The stereochemistry is crucial: the alanine adjacent to the N-acetylmuramyl entity must be L, and the glutamate must be D. Studies were carried out with murine macrophages to establish mechanisms of action of these glycopeptides. There are two populations of binding sites for MPs on those cells. When compounds of different structure are compared, binding ability correlates with pyrogenic and somnogenic activity. Serotonin competes with these agents for binding sites. Binding of that substance induces at least one macrophage response characteristic of the binding of MP.

  6. Co-solvent effects on reaction rate and reaction equilibrium of an enzymatic peptide hydrolysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wangler, A; Canales, R; Held, C; Luong, T Q; Winter, R; Zaitsau, D H; Verevkin, S P; Sadowski, G

    2018-04-25

    This work presents an approach that expresses the Michaelis constant KaM and the equilibrium constant Kth of an enzymatic peptide hydrolysis based on thermodynamic activities instead of concentrations. This provides KaM and Kth values that are independent of any co-solvent. To this end, the hydrolysis reaction of N-succinyl-l-phenylalanine-p-nitroanilide catalysed by the enzyme α-chymotrypsin was studied in pure buffer and in the presence of the co-solvents dimethyl sulfoxide, trimethylamine-N-oxide, urea, and two salts. A strong influence of the co-solvents on the measured Michaelis constant (KM) and equilibrium constant (Kx) was observed, which was found to be caused by molecular interactions expressed as activity coefficients. Substrate and product activity coefficients were used to calculate the activity-based values KaM and Kth for the co-solvent free reaction. Based on these constants, the co-solvent effect on KM and Kx was predicted in almost quantitative agreement with the experimental data. The approach presented here does not only reveal the importance of understanding the thermodynamic non-ideality of reactions taking place in biological solutions and in many technological applications, it also provides a framework for interpreting and quantifying the multifaceted co-solvent effects on enzyme-catalysed reactions that are known and have been observed experimentally for a long time.

  7. Energetic and frictional effects in the transport of ions in a cyclic peptide nanotube

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seo, Yongil; Song, Yeon Ho; Hwang, Hyeon Seok [Dept. of Chemistry and Institute for Molecular Science and Fusion Technology, Kangwon National University, Chuncheon (Korea, Republic of); Schatz, George C. [Dept. of Chemistry, Northwestern University, Evanston (United States)

    2017-01-15

    The effects of geometric restraints and frictional parameters on the energetics and dynamics of ion transport through a synthetic ion channel are investigated using molecular dynamics (MD) simulations for several different ions. To do so, potential of mean force profiles and position-dependent diffusion coefficients for Na{sup +}, K{sup +}, Ca{sup 2+}, and Cl{sup −} transport through a simple cyclic peptide nanotube, which is composed of 4× cyclo[−(D-Ala-Glu-D-Ala-Gln){sub 2−}] rings, are calculated via an adaptive biasing force MD simulation method and a Baysian inference/Monte Carlo algorithm. Among the restraints and parameters examined in this work, the radius parameter used in the flat-bottom half-harmonic restraint at the entrance and exit to channel has a great effect on the energetics of ion transport through the variation of entropy in the outside of the channel. The diffusivity profiles for the ions show a strong dependence on the damping coefficient, but the dependence on the coefficient becomes minimal inside the channel, indicating that the most important factor which affects the diffusivity of ions inside the channel is local interactions of ions with the structured channel water molecules through confinement.

  8. Effect of Marine Collagen Peptides on Physiological and Neurobehavioral Development of Male Rats with Perinatal Asphyxia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linlin Xu

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Asphyxia during delivery produces long-term deficits in brain development. We investigated the neuroprotective effects of marine collagen peptides (MCPs, isolated from Chum Salmon skin by enzymatic hydrolysis, on male rats with perinatal asphyxia (PA. PA was performed by immersing rat fetuses with uterine horns removed from ready-to-deliver rats into a water bath for 15 min. Caesarean-delivered pups were used as controls. PA rats were intragastrically administered with 0.33 g/kg, 1.0 g/kg and 3.0 g/kg body weight MCPs from postnatal day 0 (PND 0 till the age of 90-days. Behavioral tests were carried out at PND21, PND 28 and PND 90. The results indicated that MCPs facilitated early body weight gain of the PA pups, however had little effects on early physiological development. Behavioral tests revealed that MCPs facilitated long-term learning and memory of the pups with PA through reducing oxidative damage and acetylcholinesterase (AChE activity in the brain, and increasing hippocampus phosphorylated cAMP-response element binding protein (p-CREB and brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF expression.

  9. Bioactive peptides: production, health effects and application as natural supplements for functional foods production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Mirdamadi

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Bioactive peptides, are inactive components within the structure of the protein and when they are released by enzymatic hydrolysis, show different physiological functions. Recently, the identification and characterization of bioactive peptides derived from plant and animal sources and different microorganisms is highly regarded. They are produced during enzymatic hydrolysis by gastrointestinal enzymes or enzymes extracted from microorganisms and plants or by proteolytic starter cultures during fermentation process and exhibit different activities including: opioid, mineral binding, immunomodulatory, antioxidant, antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory, chlosterol lowering and so on. Take advantage of bioactive peptides as components of health is related to bio stability assurance, bioavailability and safety of them. The use of computer-based techniques and the use of various databases completed in laboratory studies,  have provided the possibility of studying the mechanisms of action of different peptides.

  10. Effects of oral contraceptives on natriuretic peptide levels in women with hypothalamic amenorrhea: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Eleanor; Grinspoon, Steven; Wang, Thomas; Miller, Karen K

    2011-06-30

    Natriuretic peptides, which are important regulators of salt handling and blood pressure, are 60%-75% higher in healthy young women than in men, consistent with a gender dimorphism. In this randomized, placebo-controlled study in women with functional hypothalamic amenorrhea, we show that administration of oral contraceptives (OC) increases natriuretic peptide levels and that end-of-study free T levels are inversely associated with amino-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide levels, consistent with the hypothesis that natriuretic peptide levels may be mediated by differences in gonadal steroid concentrations-estrogens (E) or androgens. Copyright © 2011 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Effects of Oral Contraceptives on Natriuretic Peptide Levels in Women with Hypothalamic Amenorrhea: A Pilot Study

    OpenAIRE

    Lin, Eleanor; Grinspoon, Steven; Wang, Thomas; Miller, Karen K.

    2011-01-01

    Natriuretic peptides, which are important regulators of salt handling and blood pressure, are 60 – 75% higher in healthy young women than in men, consistent with a gender dimorphism. In this randomized, placebo-controlled study in women with functional hypothalamic amenorrhea, we show that administration of oral contraceptives increases natriuretic peptide levels and that end-of-study free testosterone levels are inversely associated with NT-proBNP levels, consistent with the hypothesis that ...

  12. Iterative design of peptide-based hydrogels and the effect of network electrostatics on primary chondrocyte behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinthuvanich, Chomdao; Haines-Butterick, Lisa A; Nagy, Katelyn J; Schneider, Joel P

    2012-10-01

    Iterative peptide design was used to generate two peptide-based hydrogels to study the effect of network electrostatics on primary chondrocyte behavior. MAX8 and HLT2 peptides have formal charge states of +7 and +5 per monomer, respectively. These peptides undergo triggered folding and self-assembly to afford hydrogel networks having similar rheological behavior and local network morphologies, yet different electrostatic character. Each gel can be used to directly encapsulate and syringe-deliver cells. The influence of network electrostatics on cell viability after encapsulation and delivery, extracellular matrix deposition, gene expression, and the bulk mechanical properties of the gel-cell constructs as a function of culture time was assessed. The less electropositive HLT2 gel provides a microenvironment more conducive to chondrocyte encapsulation, delivery, and phenotype maintenance. Cell viability was higher for this gel and although a moderate number of cells dedifferentiated to a fibroblast-like phenotype, many retained their chondrocytic behavior. As a result, gel-cell constructs prepared with HLT2, cultured under static in vitro conditions, contained more GAG and type II collagen resulting in mechanically superior constructs. Chondrocytes delivered in the more electropositive MAX8 gel experienced a greater degree of cell death during encapsulation and delivery and the remaining viable cells were less prone to maintain their phenotype. As a result, MAX8 gel-cell constructs had fewer cells, of which a limited number were capable of laying down cartilage-specific ECM. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  13. The Equine Antimicrobial Peptide eCATH1 Is Effective against the Facultative Intracellular Pathogen Rhodococcus equi in Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlusselhuber, Margot; Torelli, Riccardo; Martini, Cecilia; Leippe, Matthias; Cattoir, Vincent; Leclercq, Roland; Laugier, Claire; Grötzinger, Joachim; Sanguinetti, Maurizio

    2013-01-01

    Rhodococcus equi, the causal agent of rhodococcosis, is a major pathogen of foals and is also responsible for severe infections in immunocompromised humans. Of great concern, strains resistant to currently used antibiotics have emerged. As the number of drugs that are efficient in vivo is limited because of the intracellular localization of the bacterium inside macrophages, new active but cell-permeant drugs will be needed in the near future. In the present study, we evaluated, by in vitro and ex vivo experiments, the ability of the alpha-helical equine antimicrobial peptide eCATH1 to kill intracellular bacterial cells. Moreover, the therapeutic potential of the peptide was assessed in experimental rhodococcosis induced in mice, while the in vivo toxicity was evaluated by behavioral and histopathological analysis. The study revealed that eCATH1 significantly reduced the number of bacteria inside macrophages. Furthermore, the bactericidal potential of the peptide was maintained in vivo at doses that appeared to have no visible deleterious effects for the mice even after 7 days of treatment. Indeed, daily subcutaneous injections of 1 mg/kg body weight of eCATH1 led to a significant reduction of the bacterial load in organs comparable to that obtained after treatment with 10 mg/kg body weight of rifampin. Interestingly, the combination of the peptide with rifampin showed a synergistic interaction in both ex vivo and in vivo experiments. These results emphasize the therapeutic potential that eCATH1 represents in the treatment of rhodococcosis. PMID:23817377

  14. Effects of glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonists on cardiovascular risk factors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalsgaard, Niels B; Vilsbøll, Tina; Knop, Filip K

    2018-01-01

    with continuous-acting treatments, while large GLP-1RAs had a reduced effect on body weight compared with small GLP-1RAs. For glycaemic control, short-acting GLP-1RAs had a greater impact on postprandial glucose levels vs continuous-acting GLP-1RAs, but for fasting plasma glucose levels and HbA1c, continuous...

  15. Effects of glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) receptor agonists on cardiovascular risk factors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalsgaard, Niels B; Vilsbøll, Tina; Knop, Filip K

    2018-01-01

    with continuous-acting treatments, while large GLP-1RAs had a reduced effect on body weight compared with small GLP-1RAs. For glycaemic control, short-acting GLP-1RAs had a greater impact on post-prandial glucose levels versus continuous-acting GLP-1RAs, but for fasting plasma glucose levels and HbA1c, continuous...

  16. Self-assembly of fibronectin mimetic peptide-amphiphile nanofibers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rexeisen, Emilie Lynn

    Many therapeutic strategies incorporate peptides into their designs to mimic the natural protein ligands found in vivo. A few examples are the short peptide sequences RGD and PHSRN that mimic the primary and synergy-binding domains of the extracellular matrix protein, fibronectin, which is recognized by the cell surface receptor, alpha5beta 1 integrin. Even though scaffold modification with biomimetic peptides remains one of the most promising approaches for tissue engineering, the use of these peptides in therapeutic tissue-engineered products and drug delivery systems available on the commercial market is limited because the peptides are not easily able to mimic the natural protein. The design of a peptide that can effectively target the alpha5beta1 integrin would greatly increase biomimetic scaffold therapeutic potential. A novel peptide containing both the RGD primary binding domain and PHSRN synergy-binding domain for fibronectin joined with the appropriate linker should bind alpha 5beta1 integrin more efficiently and lead to greater cell adhesion over RGD alone. Several fibronectin mimetic peptides were designed and coupled to dialkyl hydrocarbon tails to make peptide-amphiphiles. The peptides contained different linkers connecting the two binding domains and different spacers separating the hydrophobic tails from the hydrophilic headgroups. The peptide-amphiphiles were deposited on mica substrates using the Langmuir-Blodgett technique. Langmuir isotherms indicated that the peptide-amphiphiles that contained higher numbers of serine residues formed a more tightly packed monolayer, but the increased number of serines also made transferring the amphiphiles to the mica substrate more difficult. Atomic force microscopy (AFM) images of the bilayers showed that the headgroups might be bent, forming small divots in the surface. These divots may help expose the PHSRN synergy-binding domain. Parallel studies undertaken by fellow group members showed that human

  17. What are the ideal properties for functional food peptides with antihypertensive effect? A computational peptidology approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Peng; Yang, Chao; Ren, Yanrong; Wang, Congcong; Tian, Feifei

    2013-12-01

    Peptides with antihypertensive potency have long been attractive to the medical and food communities. However, serving as food additives, rather than therapeutic agents, peptides should have a good taste. In the present study, we explore the intrinsic relationship between the angiotensin I-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibition and bitterness of short peptides in the framework of computational peptidology, attempting to find out the appropriate properties for functional food peptides with satisfactory bioactivities. As might be expected, quantitative structure-activity relationship modeling reveals a significant positive correlation between the ACE inhibition and bitterness of dipeptides, but this correlation is quite modest for tripeptides and, particularly, tetrapeptides. Moreover, quantum mechanics/molecular mechanics analysis of the structural basis and energetic profile involved in ACE-peptide complexes unravels that peptides of up to 4 amino acids long are sufficient to have efficient binding to ACE, and more additional residues do not bring with substantial enhance in their ACE-binding affinity and, thus, antihypertensive capability. All of above, it is coming together to suggest that the tripeptides and tetrapeptides could be considered as ideal candidates for seeking potential functional food additives with both high antihypertensive activity and low bitterness. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Effect of probiotics on antioxidant and antimutagenic activities of crude peptide extract from yogurt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sah, B N P; Vasiljevic, T; McKechnie, S; Donkor, O N

    2014-08-01

    Search for bioactive peptides is intensifying because of the risks associated with the use of synthetic therapeutics, thus peptide liberation by lactic acid bacteria and probiotics has received a great focus. However, proteolytic capacity of these bacteria is strain specific. The study was conducted to establish proteolytic activity of Lactobacillus acidophilus (ATCC® 4356™), Lactobacillus casei (ATCC® 393™) and Lactobacillus paracasei subsp. paracasei (ATCC® BAA52™) in yogurt. Crude peptides were separated by high-speed centrifugation and tested for antioxidant and antimutagenic activities. The degree of proteolysis highly correlated with these bioactivities, and its value (11.91%) for samples containing all the cultures was double that of the control. Liberated peptides showed high radical scavenging activities with 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl and 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid), IC50 1.51 and 1.63mg/ml, respectively and strong antimutagenicity (26.35%). These probiotics enhanced the generation of bioactive peptides and could possibly be commercially applied in new products, or production of novel anticancer peptides. Crown Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Functional Mixed Effects Model for Small Area Estimation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maiti, Tapabrata; Sinha, Samiran; Zhong, Ping-Shou

    2016-09-01

    Functional data analysis has become an important area of research due to its ability of handling high dimensional and complex data structures. However, the development is limited in the context of linear mixed effect models, and in particular, for small area estimation. The linear mixed effect models are the backbone of small area estimation. In this article, we consider area level data, and fit a varying coefficient linear mixed effect model where the varying coefficients are semi-parametrically modeled via B-splines. We propose a method of estimating the fixed effect parameters and consider prediction of random effects that can be implemented using a standard software. For measuring prediction uncertainties, we derive an analytical expression for the mean squared errors, and propose a method of estimating the mean squared errors. The procedure is illustrated via a real data example, and operating characteristics of the method are judged using finite sample simulation studies.

  20. Progesterone up-regulates vasodilator effects of calcitonin gene-related peptide in N(G)-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester-induced hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gangula, P R; Wimalawansa, S J; Yallampalli, C

    1997-04-01

    We recently reported that calcitonin gene-related peptide can reverse the hypertension produced by N(G)-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester in pregnant rats. In the current study we investigated whether these vasodilator effects of calcitonin gene-related peptide were progesterone dependent. Calcitonin gene-related peptide or N(G)-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester was infused through osmotic minipumps, either separately or in combination, to groups of five pregnant rats from day 17 of gestation until day 8 post partum or to nonpregnant ovariectomized rats for 8 days. Progesterone was injected during days 1 to 6 post partum and for 6 days after ovariectomy. Systolic blood pressure was measured daily. Animals receiving N(G)-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester exhibited significant elevations of blood pressure during pregnancy and post partum. Coadministration of calcitonin gene-related peptide to these rats reversed the hypertension during pregnancy but not during the postpartum period. At the dose used in this study calcitonin gene-related peptide administered alone was without significant effects on blood pressure. However, it reduced both the mortality and growth restriction of the fetus associated with N(G)-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester in these animals. Calcitonin gene-related peptide reversed the hypertension in N(G)-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester-infused postpartum rats during the periods of progesterone treatment only, and these effects were lost when progesterone treatment was stopped. Neither progesterone nor calcitonin gene-related peptide alone were effective. To further confirm these observations, progesterone effects were tested in ovariectomized adult rats. Similar to the findings in postpartum rats, calcitonin gene-related peptide completely reversed the elevation in blood pressure in N(G)-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester-treated rats receiving progesterone injections. The effects of calcitonin gene-related peptide were apparent only during the progesterone treatment

  1. Nanoparticle (MPG)-mediated delivery of small RNAs into human ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The cellular membrane constitutes an effective barrier that protects the complex, yet highly ordered, intracellular compartment of the cell. Passage of molecules across this barrier is highly regulated and highly restricted. Cell penetrating peptides (CPPs) are a class of small cationic peptides that are able to defy the rules of ...

  2. DNA methylation mediates the effect of maternal cognitive appraisal of a disaster in pregnancy on the child's C-peptide secretion in adolescence: Project Ice Storm.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lei Cao-Lei

    Full Text Available Animal and human studies suggest that prenatal exposure to stress is associated with adverse health outcomes such as type 2 diabetes. Epigenetic modification, such as DNA methylation, is considered one possible underlying mechanism. The 1998 Quebec ice storm provides a unique opportunity to study an independent prenatal stressor on child outcomes. C-peptide is the best measure of endogenous insulin secretion and is widely used in the clinical management of patients with diabetes. The objectives of this study are to determine 1 the extent to which prenatal exposure to disaster-related stress (maternal objective hardship and maternal cognitive appraisal influences children's C-peptide secretion, and 2 whether DNA methylation of diabetes-related genes mediates the effects of prenatal stress on C-peptide secretion. Children's (n = 30 C-peptide secretion in response to an oral glucose tolerance test were assessed in blood at 13½ years. DNA methylation levels of selected type 1 and 2 diabetes-related genes were chosen based upon the genes associated with prenatal maternal objective hardship and/or cognitive appraisal levels. Bootstrapping analyses were performed to determine the mediation effect of DNA methylation. We found that children whose mothers experienced higher objective hardship exhibited higher C-peptide secretion. Cognitive appraisal was not directly associated with C-peptide secretion. DNA methylation of diabetes-related genes had a positive mediation effect of objective hardship on C-peptide secretion: higher objective hardship predicted higher C-peptide secretion through DNA methylation. Negative mediation effects of cognitive appraisal were observed: negative cognitive appraisal predicted higher C-peptide secretion through DNA methylation. However, only one gene, LTA, remained a significant mediator of cognitive appraisal on C-peptide secretion after the conservative Bonferroni multiple corrections. Our findings suggest that DNA

  3. Effects of vasoactive intestinal peptide on vascular conductance are unaffected by anesthesia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bouder, T.G.; Huffman, L.J.; Hedge, G.A.

    1988-01-01

    In rats anesthetized with ketamine and pentobarbital (KET/PB), vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) increases vascular conductance (VC) in the salivary gland, pancreas, and thyroid gland, whereas no changes in VC are observed in a number of other organs. Because anesthesia may alter the responsiveness of physiological systems, we compared the effects of VIP on organ VC in conscious or anesthetized rats. Chronically catheterized rats were studied in the conscious state or 30 min after induction of anesthesia with KET/PB, isoflurane, or Inactin. Blood flows were measured by the reference sample version of the radioactive microsphere (MS) technique using two MS injections ( 141 Ce-MS/ 85 Sr-MS). Mean arterial blood pressure was monitored and used in the calculation of VC. Organ VCs were similar under basal conditions in conscious and anesthetized rats. VIP infusion caused systemic hypotension and increased VCs in the salivary gland, pancreas, and thyroid gland, and these responses were largely unaffected by anesthesia. These results indicate that the anesthetics used do not alter basal VC or the responsiveness of the vasculature to exogenous VIP

  4. Supraspinal inhibitory effects of chimeric peptide MCRT on gastrointestinal motility in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Chunbo; Li, Hailan; Zhang, Jing; Kang, Yanping; Jia, Fang; Dong, Shouliang; Zhou, Lanxia

    2017-09-01

    Chimeric peptide MCRT, based on morphiceptin and PFRTic-NH 2 , was a bifunctional ligand of μ- and δ-opioid receptors (MOR-DOR) and produced potent analgesia in tail-withdrawal test. The study focused on the supraspinal effects of morphiceptin, PFRTic-NH 2 and MCRT on gastrointestinal motility. Moreover, opioid receptor antagonists, naloxone (non-selective), cyprodime (MOR selective) and naltrindole (DOR selective) were utilized to explore the mechanisms. Intracerebroventricular administration was achieved via the implanted cannula. Gastric emptying and intestinal transit were measured to evaluate gastrointestinal motility. (1) At supraspinal level, morphiceptin, PFRTic-NH 2 and MCRT significantly decreased gastric emptying and intestinal transit; (2) MCRT at 1 nmol/mouse, far higher than its analgesic dose (ED 50  = 29.8 pmol/mouse), failed to regulate the gastrointestinal motility; (3) MCRT-induced gastrointestinal dysfunction could be completely blocked by naloxone and naltrindole, but not affected by cyprodime. (1) Morphiceptin and PFRTic-NH 2 played important roles in the regulation of gastrointestinal motility; (2) MCRT possessed higher bioactivity of pain relief than gastrointestinal regulation, suggesting its promising analgesic property; (3) MCRT-induced motility disorders were sensitive to DOR but not to MOR blockade, indicating the pain-relieving specificity of speculated MOR subtype or splice variant or MOR-DOR heterodimer. © 2017 Royal Pharmaceutical Society.

  5. Effect of signal peptide on stability and folding of Escherichia coli thioredoxin.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pranveer Singh

    Full Text Available The signal peptide plays a key role in targeting and membrane insertion of secretory and membrane proteins in both prokaryotes and eukaryotes. In E. coli, recombinant proteins can be targeted to the periplasmic space by fusing naturally occurring signal sequences to their N-terminus. The model protein thioredoxin was fused at its N-terminus with malE and pelB signal sequences. While WT and the pelB fusion are soluble when expressed, the malE fusion was targeted to inclusion bodies and was refolded in vitro to yield a monomeric product with identical secondary structure to WT thioredoxin. The purified recombinant proteins were studied with respect to their thermodynamic stability, aggregation propensity and activity, and compared with wild type thioredoxin, without a signal sequence. The presence of signal sequences leads to thermodynamic destabilization, reduces the activity and increases the aggregation propensity, with malE having much larger effects than pelB. These studies show that besides acting as address labels, signal sequences can modulate protein stability and aggregation in a sequence dependent manner.

  6. Effect of signal peptide on stability and folding of Escherichia coli thioredoxin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Pranveer; Sharma, Likhesh; Kulothungan, S Rajendra; Adkar, Bharat V; Prajapati, Ravindra Singh; Ali, P Shaik Syed; Krishnan, Beena; Varadarajan, Raghavan

    2013-01-01

    The signal peptide plays a key role in targeting and membrane insertion of secretory and membrane proteins in both prokaryotes and eukaryotes. In E. coli, recombinant proteins can be targeted to the periplasmic space by fusing naturally occurring signal sequences to their N-terminus. The model protein thioredoxin was fused at its N-terminus with malE and pelB signal sequences. While WT and the pelB fusion are soluble when expressed, the malE fusion was targeted to inclusion bodies and was refolded in vitro to yield a monomeric product with identical secondary structure to WT thioredoxin. The purified recombinant proteins were studied with respect to their thermodynamic stability, aggregation propensity and activity, and compared with wild type thioredoxin, without a signal sequence. The presence of signal sequences leads to thermodynamic destabilization, reduces the activity and increases the aggregation propensity, with malE having much larger effects than pelB. These studies show that besides acting as address labels, signal sequences can modulate protein stability and aggregation in a sequence dependent manner.

  7. Effect of Jatropha curcas Peptide Fractions on the Angiotensin I-Converting Enzyme Inhibitory Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maira R. Segura-Campos

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Hypertension is one of the most common worldwide diseases in humans. Angiotensin I-converting enzyme (ACE plays an important role in regulating blood pressure and hypertension. An evaluation was done on the effect of Alcalase hydrolysis of defatted Jatropha curcas kernel meal on ACE inhibitory activity in the resulting hydrolysate and its purified fractions. Alcalase exhibited broad specificity and produced a protein hydrolysate with a 21.35% degree of hydrolysis and 34.87% ACE inhibition. Ultrafiltration of the hydrolysate produced peptide fractions with increased biological activity (24.46–61.41%. Hydrophobic residues contributed substantially to the peptides’ inhibitory potency. The 5–10 and <1 kDa fractions were selected for further fractionation by gel filtration chromatography. ACE inhibitory activity (% ranged from 22.66 to 45.96% with the 5–10 kDa ultrafiltered fraction and from 36.91 to 55.83% with the <1 kDa ultrafiltered fraction. The highest ACE inhibitory activity was observed in F2 ( μg/mL from the 5–10 kDa fraction and F1 ( μg/mL from the <1 kDa fraction. ACE inhibitory fractions from Jatropha kernel have potential applications in alternative hypertension therapies, adding a new application for the Jatropha plant protein fraction and improving the financial viability and sustainability of a Jatropha-based biodiesel industry.

  8. Effects of peptides derived from dietary proteins on mucus secretion in rat jejunum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Claustre, Jean; Toumi, Férial; Trompette, Aurélien; Jourdan, Gérard; Guignard, Henri; Chayvialle, Jean Alain; Plaisancié, Pascale

    2002-09-01

    The hypothesis that dietary proteins or their hydrolysates may regulate intestinal mucin discharge was investigated in the isolated vascularly perfused rat jejunum using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for rat intestinal mucins. On luminal administration, casein hydrolysate [0.05-5% (wt/vol)] stimulated mucin secretion in rat jejunum (maximal response at 417% of controls). Lactalbumin hydrolysate (5%) also evoked mucin discharge. In contrast, casein, and a mixture of amino acids was without effect. Chicken egg albumin and its hydrolysate or meat hydrolysate also did not modify mucin release. Interestingly, casein hydrolysate-induced mucin secretion was abolished by intra-arterial TTX or naloxone (an opioid antagonist). beta-Casomorphin-7, an opioid peptide released from beta-casein on milk ingestion, induced a strong mucin secretion (response at 563% of controls) that was inhibited by naloxone. Intra-arterial beta-casomorphin-7 also markedly increased mucin secretion (410% of controls). In conclusion, two enzymatic milk protein hydrolysates (casein and lactalbumin hydrolysates) and beta-casomorphin-7, specifically, induced mucin release in rat jejunum. The casein hydrolysate-induced mucin secretion is triggered by a neural pathway and mediated by opioid receptor activation.

  9. Atrial natriuretic peptide receptor heterogeneity and effects on cyclic GMP accumulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leitman, D.C.

    1988-01-01

    The effects of atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP), oxytocin (OT) and vasopressin (AVP) on guanylate cyclase activity and cyclic GMP accumulation were examined, since these hormones appear to be intimately associated with blood pressure and intravascular volume homeostasis. ANP was found to increase cyclic GMP accumulation in ten cell culture systems, which were derived from blood vessels, adrenal cortex, kidney, lung, testes and mammary gland. ANP receptors were characterized in intact cultured cells using 125 I-ANP 8-33 . Specific 125 I-ANP binding was saturable and of high affinity. Scratchard analysis of the binding data for all cell types exhibited a straight line, indicating that these cells possessed a single class of binding sites. Despite the presence of linear Scatchard plots, these studies demonstrated that cultured cells possess two functionally and physically distinct ANP-binding sites. Most of the ANP-binding sites in cultured cells have a molecular size of 66,000 daltons under reducing conditions. The identification of cultured cell types in which hormones (ANP and oxytocin) regulate guanylate cyclase activity and increase cyclic GMP synthesis will provide valuable systems to determine the mechanisms of hormone-receptor coupling to guanylate cyclase and the cellular processes regulated by cyclic GMP

  10. Effects of gastric inhibitory polypeptide, glucagon-like peptide-1 and glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonists on Bone Cell Metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Morten S S; Tencerova, Michaela; Frølich, Jacob; Kassem, Moustapha; Frost, Morten

    2018-01-01

    The relationship between gut and skeleton is increasingly recognized as part of the integrated physiology of the whole organism. The incretin hormones gastric inhibitory polypeptide (GIP) and glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) are secreted from the intestine in response to nutrient intake and exhibit several physiological functions including regulation of islet hormone secretion and glucose levels. A number of GLP-1 receptor agonists (GLP-1RAs) are currently used in treatment of type 2 diabetes and obesity. However, GIP and GLP-1 cognate receptors are widely expressed suggesting that incretin hormones mediate effects beyond control of glucose homeostasis, and reports on associations between incretin hormones and bone metabolism have emerged. The aim of this MiniReview was to provide an overview of current knowledge regarding the in vivo and in vitro effects of GIP and GLP-1 on bone metabolism. We identified a total of 30 pre-clinical and clinical investigations of the effects of GIP, GLP-1 and GLP-1RAs on bone turnover markers, bone mineral density (BMD), bone microarchitecture and fracture risk. Studies conducted in cell cultures and rodents demonstrated that GIP and GLP-1 play a role in regulating skeletal homeostasis, with pre-clinical data suggesting that GIP inhibits bone resorption whereas GLP-1 may promote bone formation and enhance bone material properties. These effects are not corroborated by clinical studies. While there is evidence of effects of GIP and GLP-1 on bone metabolism in pre-clinical investigations, clinical trials are needed to clarify whether similar effects are present and clinically relevant in humans. © 2017 Nordic Association for the Publication of BCPT (former Nordic Pharmacological Society).

  11. Dollars & Sense: The Cost Effectiveness of Small Schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bingler, Steven; Diamond, Barbara M.; Hill, Bobbie; Hoffman, Jerry L.; Howley, Craig B.; Lawrence, Barbara Kent; Mitchell, Stacy; Rudolph, David; Washor, Elliot

    This publication summarizes research on the educational and social benefits of small schools and the negative effects of large schools on students, teachers, and members of the community, as well as the "diseconomies of scale" inherent in large schools. It asserts that research shows that measuring the cost of education by graduates rather than by…

  12. [Distiller Yeasts Producing Antibacterial Peptides].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klyachko, E V; Morozkina, E V; Zaitchik, B Ts; Benevolensky, S V

    2015-01-01

    A new method of controlling lactic acid bacteria contamination was developed with the use of recombinant Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains producing antibacterial peptides. Genes encoding the antibacterial peptides pediocin and plantaricin with codons preferable for S. cerevisiae were synthesized, and a system was constructed for their secretory expression. Recombinant S. cerevisiae strains producing antibacterial peptides effectively inhibit the growth of Lactobacillus sakei, Pediacoccus pentasaceus, Pediacoccus acidilactici, etc. The application of distiller yeasts producing antibacterial peptides enhances the ethanol yield in cases of bacterial contamination. Recombinant yeasts producing the antibacterial peptides pediocin and plantaricin can successfully substitute the available industrial yeast strains upon ethanol production.

  13. Effect of chenodeoxycholic acid and the bile acid sequestrant colesevelam on glucagon-like peptide-1 secretion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Morten; Scheltema, Matthijs J; Sonne, David P

    2016-01-01

    AIMS: In patients with type 2 diabetes, rectal administration of bile acids increases glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) secretion and reduces plasma glucose. In addition, oral bile acid sequestrants (BASs) reduce blood glucose by an unknown mechanism. In this study we evaluated the effects...... of the primary human bile acid, chenodeoxycholic acid (CDCA), and the BAS, colesevelam, instilled into the stomach, on plasma levels of GLP-1, glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide, glucose, insulin, C-peptide, glucagon, cholecystokinin and gastrin as well as gastric emptying, gallbladder volume, appetite......, and delayed gastric emptying. We speculate that bile acid-induced activation of TGR5 on L cells increases GLP-1 secretion, which in turn may result in amplification of glucose-stimulated insulin secretion. Furthermore our data suggest that colesevelam does not have an acute effect on GLP-1 secretion in humans....

  14. Immunogenicity of peptides of measles virus origin and influence of adjuvants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halassy, Beata; Mateljak, Sanja; Bouche, Fabienne B; Pütz, Mike M; Muller, Claude P; Frkanec, Ruza; Habjanec, Lidija; Tomasić, Jelka

    2006-01-12

    Epitope-based peptide antigens have been under development for protection against measles virus. The immunogenicity of five peptides composed of the same B cell epitope (BCE) (H236-250 of the measles virus hemagglutinin), and different T cell epitopes of measles virus fusion protein (F421-435, F256-270, F288-302) and nucleoprotein (NP335-345) was studied in mice (subcutaneous immunisation). The adjuvant effects of peptidoglycan monomer (PGM), Montanide ISA 720 and 206 were also investigated. Results showed basic differences in peptide immunogenicity that were consistent with already described structural differences. PGM elevated peptide-specific IgG when applied together with four of five tested peptides. A strong synergistic effect was observed after co-immunisation of mice with a mixture containing all five chimeric peptides in small and equal amounts. Results revealed for the first time that immunisation with several peptides having the common BCE generated significantly higher levels of both anti-peptide and anti-BCE IgG in comparison to those obtained after immunisation with a single peptide in much higher quantity. Further improvement of immune response was obtained after incorporation of such a peptide mixture into oil-based adjuvants.

  15. [D-Leu-4]-OB3 and MA-[D-Leu-4]-OB3, small molecule synthetic peptide leptin mimetics, improve glycemic control in diet-induced obese (DIO) mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Anke; Anderson, Brian M; Novakovic, Zachary M; Grasso, Patricia

    2018-03-01

    We have previously shown that following oral delivery in dodecyl maltoside (DDM), [D-Leu-4]-OB3 and its myristic acid conjugate, MA-[D-Leu-4]-OB3, improved energy balance and glucose homeostasis in genetically obese/diabetic mouse models. More recently, we have provided immunohistochemical evidence indicating that these synthetic peptide leptin mimetics cross the blood-brain barrier and concentrate in the area of the arcuate nucleus of the hypothalamus in normal C57BL/6J and Swiss Webster mice, in genetically obese ob/ob mice, and in diet-induced obese (DIO) mice. In the present study, we describe the effects of oral delivery of [D-Leu-4]-OB3 and MA-[D-Leu-4]-OB3 on glycemic control in diet-induced (DIO) mice, a non-genetic rodent model of obesity and its associated insulin resistance, which more closely recapitulates common obesity and diabetes in humans. Male C57BL/6J and DIO mice, 17, 20, and 28 weeks of age, were maintained on a low-fat or high-fat diet and given vehicle (DDM) alone or [D-Leu-4]-OB3 or MA-[D-Leu-4]-OB3 in DDM by oral gavage for 12 or 14 days. Body weight gain, food and water intake, fasting blood glucose, oral glucose tolerance, and serum insulin levels were measured. Our data indicate that (1) [D-Leu-4]-OB3 and MA-[D-Leu-4]-OB3 restore glucose tolerance in male DIO mice maintained on a high-fat diet to levels comparable to those of non-obese C57BL/6J wild-type mice of the same age and sex maintained on a low-fat diet; and (2) the influence of [D-Leu-4]-OB3 and MA-[D-Leu-4]-OB3 on glycemic control appears to be independent of their effects on energy balance. These results suggest that [D-Leu-4]-OB3 and/or MA-[D-Leu-4]-OB3 may have application to the management of the majority of cases of common obesity in humans, a state characterized at least in part, by leptin resistance resulting from a defect in leptin transport across the blood-brain barrier. They further suggest that these small molecule synthetic peptide leptin mimetics, through their

  16. Effects of Wen Dan Tang on insomnia-related anxiety and levels of the brain-gut peptide Ghrelin

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Liye; Song, Yuehan; Li, Feng; Liu, Yan; Ma, Jie; Mao, Meng; Wu, Fengzhi; Wu, Ying; Li, Sinai; Guan, Binghe; Liu, Xiaolan

    2014-01-01

    Ghrelin, a brain-gut peptide that induces anxiety and other abnormal emotions, contributes to the effects of insomnia on emotional behavior. In contrast, the traditional Chinese Medicine remedy Wen Dan Tang reduces insomnia-related anxiety, which may perhaps correspond to changes in the brain-gut axis. This suggests a possible relationship between Wen Dan Tang's pharmacological mechanism and the brain-gut axis. Based on this hypothesis, a sleep-deprived rat model was induced and Wen Dan Tang ...

  17. Preparation of ⁶⁸Ga-labelled DOTA-peptides using a manual labelling approach for small-animal PET imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero, Eduardo; Martínez, Alfonso; Oteo, Marta; García, Angel; Morcillo, Miguel Angel

    2016-01-01

    (68)Ga-DOTA-peptides are a promising PET radiotracers used in the detection of different tumours types due to their ability for binding specifically receptors overexpressed in these. Furthermore, (68)Ga can be produced by a (68)Ge/(68)Ga generator on site which is a very good alternative to cyclotron-based PET isotopes. Here, we describe a manual labelling approach for the synthesis of (68)Ga-labelled DOTA-peptides based on concentration and purification of the commercial (68)Ga/(68)Ga generator eluate using an anion exchange-cartridge. (68)Ga-DOTA-TATE was used to image a pheochromocytoma xenograft mouse model by a microPET/CT scanner. The method described provides satisfactory results, allowing the subsequent (68)Ga use to label DOTA-peptides. The simplicity of the method along with its implementation reduced cost, makes it useful in preclinical PET studies. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. The Effect of Peripheral CRF Peptide and Water Avoidance Stress on Colonic and Gastric Transit in Guinea Pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussain, Zahid; Kim, Hae Won; Huh, Cheal Wung; Lee, Young Ju; Park, Hyojin

    2017-07-01

    Functional dyspepsia (FD) and irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) are common gastrointestinal (GI) diseases; however, there is frequent overlap between FD and IBS patients. Emerging evidence links the activation of corticotropin releasing factor (CRF) receptors with stress-related alterations of gastric and colonic motor function. Therefore, we investigated the effect of peripheral CRF peptide and water avoidance stress (WAS) on upper and lower GI transit in guinea pigs. Dosages 1, 3, and 10 μg/kg of CRF were injected intraperitoneally (IP) in fasted guinea pigs 30 minutes prior to the intragastric administration of charcoal mix to measure upper GI transit. Colonic transits in non-fasted guinea pigs were assessed by fecal pellet output assay after above IP CRF doses. Blockade of CRF receptors by Astressin, and its effect on GI transit was also analyzed. Guinea pigs were subjected to WAS to measure gastrocolonic transit in different sets of experiments. Dose 10 μg/kg of CRF significantly inhibited upper GI transit. In contrast, there was dose dependent acceleration of the colonic transit. Remarkably, pretreatment of astressin significantly reverses the effect of CRF peptide on GI transit. WAS significantly increase colonic transit, but failed to accelerate upper GI transit. Peripheral CRF peptide significantly suppressed upper GI transit and accelerated colon transit, while central CRF involved WAS stimulated only colonic transit. Therefore, peripheral CRF could be utilized to establish the animal model of overlap syndrome. © Copyright: Yonsei University College of Medicine 2017.

  19. Novel tumor-targeting, self-assembling peptide nanofiber as a carrier for effective curcumin delivery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu J

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Jianfeng Liu, Jinjian Liu, Hongyan Xu, Yumin Zhang, Liping Chu, Qingfen Liu, Naling Song, Cuihong YangTianjin Key Laboratory of Molecular Nuclear Medicine, Institute of Radiation Medicine, Chinese Academy of Medical Science and Peking Union Medical College, People's Republic of ChinaAbstract: The poor aqueous solubility and low bioavailability of curcumin restrict its clinical application for cancer treatment. In this study, a novel tumor-targeting nanofiber carrier was developed to improve the solubility and tumor-targeting ability of curcumin using a self-assembled Nap-GFFYG-RGD peptide. The morphologies of the peptide nanofiber and the curcumin-encapsulated nanofiber were visualized by transmission electron microscopy. The tumor-targeting activity of the curcumin-encapsulated Nap-GFFYG-RGD peptide nanofiber (f-RGD-Cur was studied in vitro and in vivo, using Nap-GFFYG-RGE peptide nanofiber (f-RGE-Cur as the control. Curcumin was encapsulated into the peptide nanofiber, which had a diameter of approximately 10–20 nm. Curcumin showed sustained-release behavior from the nanofibers in vitro. f-RGD-Cur showed much higher cellular uptake in αvβ3 integrin-positive HepG2 liver carcinoma cells than did non-targeted f-RGE-Cur, thereby leading to significantly higher cytotoxicity. Ex vivo studies further demonstrated that curcumin could accumulate markedly in mouse tumors after administration of f-RGD-Cur via the tail vein. These results indicate that Nap-GFFYG-RGD peptide self-assembled nanofibers are a promising hydrophobic drug delivery system for targeted treatment of cancer.Keywords: nanofiber, tumor-targeting, self-assembling, curcumin, drug delivery

  20. Anti-endotoxic and antibacterial effects of a dermal substitute coated with host defense peptides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasetty, Gopinath; Kalle, Martina; Mörgelin, Matthias; Brune, Jan C; Schmidtchen, Artur

    2015-01-01

    Biomaterials used during surgery and wound treatment are of increasing importance in modern medical care. In the present study we set out to evaluate the addition of thrombin-derived host defense peptides to human acellular dermis (hAD, i.e. epiflex(®)). Antimicrobial activity of the functionalized hAD was demonstrated using radial diffusion and viable count assays against Gram-negative Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Gram-positive Staphylococcus aureus bacteria. Electron microscopy analyses showed that peptide-mediated bacterial killing led to reduced hAD degradation. Furthermore, peptide-functionalized hAD displayed endotoxin-binding activity in vitro, as evidenced by inhibition of NF-κB activation in human monocytic cells (THP-1 cells) and a reduction of pro-inflammatory cytokine production in whole blood in response to lipopolysaccharide stimulation. The dermal substitute retained its anti-endotoxic activity after washing, compatible with results showing that the hAD bound a significant amount of peptide. Furthermore, bacteria-induced contact activation was inhibited by peptide addition to the hAD. E. coli infected hAD, alone, or after treatment with the antiseptic substance polyhexamethylenebiguanide (PHMB), yielded NF-κB activation in THP-1 cells. The activation was abrogated by peptide addition. Thus, thrombin-derived HDPs should be of interest in the further development of new biomaterials with combined antimicrobial and anti-endotoxic functions for use in surgery and wound treatment. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  1. Immunoregulatory activities of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) proteins: Effect of HIV recombinant and synthetic peptides on immunoglobulin synthesis and proliferative responses by normal lymphocytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nair, M.P.N.; Pottathil, R.; Heimer, E.P.; Schwartz, S.A.

    1988-01-01

    Recombinant and synthetic peptides corresponding to envelope proteins of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) were examined for their effects on the activities of lymphocytes from normal donors in vitro. Although lymphocytes cultured with env-gag peptides produced significant amounts of IgG, addition of env-gag peptides to a pokeweed mitogen-induced B-cell activation system resulted in suppression of immunoglobulin synthesis by normal lymphocytes. Recombinant antigens, env-gag and env-80 dihydrofolate reductase (DHFR), produced a substantial proliferative response by peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) as determined by [ 3 H]thymidine incorporation. PBMC precultured with HIV synthetic peptide env 578-608 also manifested significant proliferative responses as compared to control cultures. CD3 + lymphocytes precultured with recombinant HIV antigens, env-gag and env-80 DHFR, and synthetic HIV peptide, env 487-511, showed moderate but significant proliferative responses. Both recombinant antigens and synthetic peptides also produced a dose-dependent stimulatory effect on proliferation by CD3 - lymphocytes. These studies demonstrate that recombinant and synthetic peptides of the HIV genome express immunoregulatory T- and B-cell epitopes. Identification of unique HIV epitopes with immunogenic and immunoregulatory activities is necessary for the development of an effective vaccine against HIV infection

  2. Effects of Amyloid Precursor Protein 17 Peptide on the Protection of Diabetic Encephalopathy and Improvement of Glycol Metabolism in the Diabetic Rat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heng Meng

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Researchers have proposed that amyloid precursor protein 17 peptide (APP17 peptide, an active fragment of amyloid precursor protein (APP in the nervous system, has therapeutic effects on neurodegeneration. Diabetic encephalopathy (DE is a neurological disease caused by diabetes. Here we use multiple experimental approaches to investigate the effect of APP17 peptide on changes in learning behavior and glycol metabolism in rats. It was found that rats with DE treated by APP17 peptide showed reversed behavioral alternation. The [18F]-FDG-PET images and other results all showed that the APP17 peptide could promote glucose metabolism in the brain of the DE rat model. Meanwhile, the insulin signaling was markedly increased as shown by increased phosphorylation of Akt and enhanced GLUT4 activation. Compared with the DE group, the activities of SOD, GSH-Px, and CAT in the rat hippocampal gyrus were increased, while MDA decreased markedly in the DE + APP17 peptide group. No amyloid plaques in the cortex and the hippocampus were detected in either group, indicating that the experimental animals in the current study were not suffering from Alzheimer’s disease. These results indicate that APP17 peptide could be used to treat DE effectively.

  3. Suppressive effect on polyclonal B-cell activation of a synthetic peptide homologous to a transmembrane component of oncogenic retroviruses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mitani, M.; Cianciolo, G.J.; Snyderman, R.; Yasuda, M.; Good, R.A.; Day, N.K.

    1987-01-01

    Purified feline leukemia virus, UV light-inactivated feline leukemia virus, and a synthetic peptide (CKS-17) homologous to a well-conserved region of the transmembrane components of several human and animal retroviruses were each studied for their effect on IgG production by feline peripheral blood lymphocytes. Using a reverse hemolytic plaque assay, both the viable virus and the UV-inactivated feline leukemia virus, but not the CKS-17, activated B lymphocytes to secrete IgG. When staphylococcal protein A, a polyclonal B-cell activator, was used to stimulate IgG synthesis by feline lymphocytes, the viable virus, the UV-inactivated virus, and the CKS-17 peptide each strongly suppressed IgG secretion without compromising viability of the lymphocytes. These finding suggest that the immunosuppressive influences of feline leukemia virus on immunoglobulin synthesis may reside in a conserved portion of the envelope glycoprotein that includes the region homologous to CKS-17.

  4. Suppressive effect on polyclonal B-cell activation of a synthetic peptide homologous to a transmembrane component of oncogenic retroviruses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mitani, M.; Cianciolo, G.J.; Snyderman, R.; Yasuda, M.; Good, R.A.; Day, N.K.

    1987-01-01

    Purified feline leukemia virus, UV light-inactivated feline leukemia virus, and a synthetic peptide (CKS-17) homologous to a well-conserved region of the transmembrane components of several human and animal retroviruses were each studied for their effect on IgG production by feline peripheral blood lymphocytes. Using a reverse hemolytic plaque assay, both the viable virus and the UV-inactivated feline leukemia virus, but not the CKS-17, activated B lymphocytes to secrete IgG. When staphylococcal protein A, a polyclonal B-cell activator, was used to stimulate IgG synthesis by feline lymphocytes, the viable virus, the UV-inactivated virus, and the CKS-17 peptide each strongly suppressed IgG secretion without compromising viability of the lymphocytes. These finding suggest that the immunosuppressive influences of feline leukemia virus on immunoglobulin synthesis may reside in a conserved portion of the envelope glycoprotein that includes the region homologous to CKS-17

  5. Effects of truncation of the peptide chain on the secondary structure and bioactivities of palmitoylated anoplin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salas, Remmer L; Garcia, Jan Kathryne D L; Miranda, Ana Carmela R; Rivera, Windell L; Nellas, Ricky B; Sabido, Portia Mahal G

    2018-06-01

    Anoplin (GLLKRIKTLL-NH 2 ) is of current interest due to its short sequence and specificity towards bacteria. Recent studies on anoplin have shown that truncation and acylation compromises its antimicrobial activity and specificity, respectively. In this study, truncated analogues (pal-ano-9 to pal-ano-5) of palmitoylated anoplin (pal-anoplin) were synthesized to determine the effects of C-truncation on its bioactivities. Moreover, secondary structure of each analogue using circular dichroism (CD) spectroscopy was determined to correlate with bioactivities. Interestingly, pal-anoplin, pal-ano-9 and pal-ano-6 were helical in water, unlike anoplin. In contrast, pal-ano-8, pal-ano-7 and pal-ano-5, with polar amino acid residues at the C-terminus, were random coil in water. Nevertheless, all the peptides folded into helical structures in 30% trifluoroethanol/water (TFE/H 2 O) except for the shortest analogue pal-ano-5. Hydrophobicity played a significant role in the enhancement of activity against bacteria E. coli and S. aureus as all lipopeptides including the random coil pal-ano-5 were more active than the parent anoplin. Meanwhile, the greatest improvement in activity against the fungus C. albicans was observed for pal-anoplin analogues (pal-ano-9 and pal-ano-6) that were helical in water. Although, hydrophobicity is a major factor in the secondary structure and antimicrobial activity, it appears that the nature of amino acids at the C-terminus also influence folding of lipopeptides in water and its antifungal activity. Moreover, the hemolytic activity of the analogues was found to correlate with hydrophobicity, except for the least hemolytic, pal-ano-5. Since most of the analogues are more potent and shorter than anoplin, they are promising drug candidates for further development. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  6. Effect of bioactive peptides (BPs) on the development of Pacific white shrimp ( Litopenaeus vannamei Boone, 1931)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Guangjun; Yu, Ermeng; Li, Zhifei; Yu, Deguang; Wang, Haiying; Gong, Wangbao

    2016-06-01

    The present study was conducted to evaluate the feasibility of replacing fish meal (FM) with bioactive peptides (BPs) in diet of white shrimp ( Litopenaeus vannamei). The changes in growth performance, body composition, non-specific immunity, and water quality were examined after the shrimp were fed four diets, in which 0% (control), 33.3%, 66.7% and 100% of FM was replaced by BPs, respectively. The groups were designated as Con, 1/3BPs, 2/3BPs, and 3/3BPs. A total of 720 shrimp with an initial body weight of 1.46 ± 0.78 g were fed the experimental diets for 56 days. The results revealed that: 1) the weight gain rate (WGR) in 1/3BPs, 2/3BPs, and 3/3BPs was significantly higher than that in Con ( P < 0.05), while no significant difference was found on survival rate and feed conversion ratio (FCR); 2) the whole-body crude protein (CP) and crude lipids (CL) were significantly different among groups, while there was no significant difference between crude ash and phosphorus contents; 3) the levels of acid phosphatase (ACP), lysozyme (LZM), superoxide dismutase (SOD), phenol oxidase (PO) and bactericidal activity increased significantly with the inclusion of BPs; 4) in terms of water quality, no significant difference was found in pH and dissolved oxygen among diets during the whole experimental period. Moreover, even though nitrite and ammonium levels tended to increase with time, there was no significant difference among groups. The results indicated that BPs is an applicable alternative of protein source, which can substitute FM in the diets of L. vannamei; it is able to effectively promote growth performance and improve immunity. Moreover, BPs in the diets had no negative impact on water quality.

  7. Cooperative effects in differentiation and proliferation between PDGF-BB and matrix derived synthetic peptides in human osteoblasts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vordemvenne Thomas

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Enhancing osteogenic capabilities of bone matrix for the treatment of fractures and segmental defects using growth factors is an active area of research. Recently, synthetic peptides like AC- 100, TP508 or p-15 corresponding to biologically active sequences of matrix proteins have been proven to stimulate bone formation. The platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF BB has been identified as an important paracrine factor in early bone healing. We hypothesized that the combined use of PDGF-BB with synthetic peptides could result in an increase in proliferation and calcification of osteoblast-like cells. Methods Osteoblast-like cell cultures were treated with PDGF and synthetic peptides, singly and as combinations, and compared to non-treated control cell cultures. The cultures were evaluated at days 2, 5, and 10 in terms of cell proliferation, calcification and gene expression of alkaline phosphate, collagen I and osteocalcin. Results Experimental findings revealed that the addition of PDGF, p-15 and TP508 and combinations of PDGF/AC-100, PDGF/p-15 and PDGF/TP508 resulted in an increase in proliferating osteoblasts, especially in the first 5 days of cultivation. Proliferation did not significantly differ between single factors and factor combinations (p > 0.05. The onset of calcification in osteoblasts occurred earlier and was more distinct compared to the corresponding control or PDGF stimulation alone. Significant difference was found for the combined use of PDGF/p-15 and PDGF/AC-100 (p Conclusions Our findings indicate that PDGF exhibits cooperative effects with synthetic peptides in differentiation and proliferation. These cooperative effects cause a significant early calcification of osteoblast-like cells (p

  8. Bayesian Estimation of Small Effects in Exercise and Sports Science.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kerrie L Mengersen

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to provide a Bayesian formulation of the so-called magnitude-based inference approach to quantifying and interpreting effects, and in a case study example provide accurate probabilistic statements that correspond to the intended magnitude-based inferences. The model is described in the context of a published small-scale athlete study which employed a magnitude-based inference approach to compare the effect of two altitude training regimens (live high-train low (LHTL, and intermittent hypoxic exposure (IHE on running performance and blood measurements of elite triathletes. The posterior distributions, and corresponding point and interval estimates, for the parameters and associated effects and comparisons of interest, were estimated using Markov chain Monte Carlo simulations. The Bayesian analysis was shown to provide more direct probabilistic comparisons of treatments and able to identify small effects of interest. The approach avoided asymptotic assumptions and overcame issues such as multiple testing. Bayesian analysis of unscaled effects showed a probability of 0.96 that LHTL yields a substantially greater increase in hemoglobin mass than IHE, a 0.93 probability of a substantially greater improvement in running economy and a greater than 0.96 probability that both IHE and LHTL yield a substantially greater improvement in maximum blood lactate concentration compared to a Placebo. The conclusions are consistent with those obtained using a 'magnitude-based inference' approach that has been promoted in the field. The paper demonstrates that a fully Bayesian analysis is a simple and effective way of analysing small effects, providing a rich set of results that are straightforward to interpret in terms of probabilistic statements.

  9. Bayesian Estimation of Small Effects in Exercise and Sports Science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mengersen, Kerrie L; Drovandi, Christopher C; Robert, Christian P; Pyne, David B; Gore, Christopher J

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to provide a Bayesian formulation of the so-called magnitude-based inference approach to quantifying and interpreting effects, and in a case study example provide accurate probabilistic statements that correspond to the intended magnitude-based inferences. The model is described in the context of a published small-scale athlete study which employed a magnitude-based inference approach to compare the effect of two altitude training regimens (live high-train low (LHTL), and intermittent hypoxic exposure (IHE)) on running performance and blood measurements of elite triathletes. The posterior distributions, and corresponding point and interval estimates, for the parameters and associated effects and comparisons of interest, were estimated using Markov chain Monte Carlo simulations. The Bayesian analysis was shown to provide more direct probabilistic comparisons of treatments and able to identify small effects of interest. The approach avoided asymptotic assumptions and overcame issues such as multiple testing. Bayesian analysis of unscaled effects showed a probability of 0.96 that LHTL yields a substantially greater increase in hemoglobin mass than IHE, a 0.93 probability of a substantially greater improvement in running economy and a greater than 0.96 probability that both IHE and LHTL yield a substantially greater improvement in maximum blood lactate concentration compared to a Placebo. The conclusions are consistent with those obtained using a 'magnitude-based inference' approach that has been promoted in the field. The paper demonstrates that a fully Bayesian analysis is a simple and effective way of analysing small effects, providing a rich set of results that are straightforward to interpret in terms of probabilistic statements.

  10. Predicted versus expressed adipokinetic hormones, and other small peptides from the corpus cardiacum-corpus allatum: A case study with beetles and moths

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Gäde, G.; Marco, H. G.; Šimek, Petr; Audsley, N.; Clark, K. D.; Weaver, R. J.

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 29, č. 7 (2008), s. 1124-1139 ISSN 0196-9781 Grant - others:National Research Foundation, Pretoria(ZA) 2053806; National Research Foundation, Pretoria(ZA) FA2007021300002 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50070508 Keywords : insects * neuropeptides * adipokinetic peptides Subject RIV: ED - Physiology Impact factor: 2.565, year: 2008

  11. Effects of lactoferrin derived peptides on simulants of biological warfare agents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sijbrandij, T.; Ligtenberg, Antoon J.; Nazmi, K.; Veerman, Enno C. I.; Bolscher, Jan G. M.; Bikker, Floris J.

    2017-01-01

    Lactoferrin (LF) is an important immune protein in neutrophils and secretory fluids of mammals. Bovine LF (bLF) harbours two antimicrobial stretches, lactoferricin and lactoferampin, situated in close proximity in the N1 domain. To mimic these antimicrobial domain parts a chimeric peptide

  12. Strong combined gene-environment effects in anti-cyclic citrullinated peptide-positive rheumatoid arthritis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Line Merete Blak; Jacobsen, Søren; Garred, Peter

    2007-01-01

    To study the role of shared epitope (SE) susceptibility genes, alone and in combination with tobacco smoking and other environmental risk factors, for risk of subtypes of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) defined by the presence or absence of serum antibodies against cyclic citrullinated peptides (CCPs)....

  13. The effect of oral and intravenous dextrose on C-peptide secretion in ponies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Laat, M A; van Haeften, J J; Sillence, M N

    2016-02-01

    Managing equine hyperinsulinemia is crucial for preventing laminitis, but our understanding of the mechanisms involved in insulin dysregulation in this species is incomplete. C-peptide is co-secreted with insulin but is resistant to hepatic metabolism and can be used to study insulin dysregulation. This study examined C-peptide secretion in serial blood samples collected after oral and i.v. dextrose (0.75 g/kg) administration to 9 ponies (BCS, 7.1 ± 0.5). The ponies were designated as hyperinsulinemic (HI) or normoinsulinemic (NI) responders before the study, using oral glucose tests and fasted glucose-to-insulin ratios, and responses were compared between the 2 groups. C-peptide concentrations increased ( dextrose, with similar area under the concentration-time curve (AUC) for both tests and a significant correlation with AUC. The AUC was similar in HI and NI ponies after i.v. dextrose, indicating similar pancreatic capacity for both groups. However, for oral dextrose, the AUC and the AUC were markedly higher ( < 0.05) in the HI ponies, indicating a greater secretion rate of these peptides. Slower insulin clearance might have also contributed to the larger AUC in HI ponies, but this hypothesis requires further investigation with specific measures of hepatic insulin clearance.

  14. The antifungal effect of peptides from hymenoptera venom and their analogs

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Slaninová, Jiřina; Putnová, Helena; Borovičková, Lenka; Šácha, Pavel; Čeřovský, Václav; Monincová, Lenka; Fučík, Vladimír

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 6, č. 2 (2011), s. 150-159 ISSN 1895-104X R&D Projects: GA ČR GA203/08/0536 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40550506 Keywords : antifungal agents * candida * fluorescent microscopy * rhodamine 6G * fluorescein-labeled peptide Subject RIV: CC - Organic Chemistry Impact factor: 1.000, year: 2011

  15. Technetium-99m somatostatin analogues: effect of labelling methods and peptide sequence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Decristoforo, C.; Mather, S.J.

    1999-01-01

    In this paper the preclinical evaluation of the somatostatin analogue RC160 labelled with technetium-99m using bifunctional chelators (BFCs) based on the hydrazinonicotinamide (HYNIC) and N 3 S system is described and a comparison made with [Tyr 3 ]-octreotide (TOC). Conjugates of both peptides with HYNIC, and of RC160 with benzoyl-MAG 3 and an N 3 S-adipate derivative were prepared and radiolabelling performed at high specific activities using tricine, tricine/nicotinic acid and ethylenediamine-N,N'-diacetic adic (EDDA) as co-ligands for HYNIC conjugates. All conjugates and 99m Tc-labelled peptides showed preserved binding affinity for the somatostatin receptor (IC50, Kd 99m Tc-RC160 derivatives compared with 99m Tc-EDDA/HYNIC-[Tyr 3 ]-octreotide (0.2%-3.5%ID/g vs 9.7%ID/g) and correlated well with the reduced internalisation rate for RC160 derivatives. Our results show that the selection of the labelling approach as well as the right choice of the peptide structure are crucial for labelling peptides with 99m Tc to achieve complexes with favourable biodistribution. Despite the relatively low tumour uptake compared with 99m Tc-EDDA/HYNIC-[Tyr 3 ]-octreotide, 99m Tc-RC160 could play a role in imaging tumours that do not bind octreotide derivatives. (orig.)

  16. A Maple Program That Illustrates the Effect of pH on Peptide Charge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sokolik, Charles W.

    1998-11-01

    One topic covered early in an introductory biochemistry course is acid-base chemistry and the Henderson-Hasselbalch equation (buffer equation). Using this equation a biochemistry student can determine the partial charges of amino acids in a peptide chain. This is an important concept to master for a student who is learning the structure-function relationship in proteins. The program described in this paper, written for Maple V, release 3 (Waterloo Maple Software, Waterloo, ON, Canada), uses the Henderson-Hasselbalch equation to calculate the partial charges of individual amino acids and the net charge of a peptide over the pH range 0 to 14. The amino acid sequence of a peptide is entered and an animated histogram is displayed illustrating the partial charge of the amino acids over the pH range. A graph showing the net charge of the peptide from pH 0 to 14 is also given. The program has been used with success in an introductory biochemistry course as an in-class demonstration as well as for individual homework assignments. The program is available through the Web page of the Journal of Chemical Education.

  17. Peptides, polypeptides and peptide-polymer hybrids as nucleic acid carriers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Marya

    2017-10-24

    Cell penetrating peptides (CPPs), and protein transduction domains (PTDs) of viruses and other natural proteins serve as a template for the development of efficient peptide based gene delivery vectors. PTDs are sequences of acidic or basic amphipathic amino acids, with superior membrane trespassing efficacies. Gene delivery vectors derived from these natural, cationic and cationic amphipathic peptides, however, offer little flexibility in tailoring the physicochemical properties of single chain peptide based systems. Owing to significant advances in the field of peptide chemistry, synthetic mimics of natural peptides are often prepared and have been evaluated for their gene expression, as a function of amino acid functionalities, architecture and net cationic content of peptide chains. Moreover, chimeric single polypeptide chains are prepared by a combination of multiple small natural or synthetic peptides, which imparts distinct physiological properties to peptide based gene delivery therapeutics. In order to obtain multivalency and improve the gene delivery efficacies of low molecular weight cationic peptides, bioactive peptides are often incorporated into a polymeric architecture to obtain novel 'polymer-peptide hybrids' with improved gene delivery efficacies. Peptide modified polymers prepared by physical or chemical modifications exhibit enhanced endosomal escape, stimuli responsive degradation and targeting efficacies, as a function of physicochemical and biological activities of peptides attached onto a polymeric scaffold. The focus of this review is to provide comprehensive and step-wise progress in major natural and synthetic peptides, chimeric polypeptides, and peptide-polymer hybrids for nucleic acid delivery applications.

  18. Novel MtCEP1 peptides produced in vivo differentially regulate root development in Medicago truncatula.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohd-Radzman, Nadiatul A; Binos, Steve; Truong, Thy T; Imin, Nijat; Mariani, Michael; Djordjevic, Michael A

    2015-08-01

    Small, post-translationally modified and secreted peptides regulate diverse plant developmental processes. Due to low natural abundance, it is difficult to isolate and identify these peptides. Using an improved peptide isolation protocol and Orbitrap mass spectrometry, nine 15-amino-acid CEP peptides were identified that corresponded to the two domains encoded by Medicago truncatula CEP1 (MtCEP1). Novel arabinosylated and hydroxylated peptides were identified in root cultures overexpressing MtCEP1. The five most abundant CEP peptides were hydroxylated and these species were detected also in low amounts in vector control samples. Synthetic peptides with different hydroxylation patterns differentially affected root development. Notably, the domain 1 peptide hydroxylated at Pro4 and Pro11 (D1:HyP4,11) imparted the strongest inhibition of lateral root emergence when grown with 5mM KNO3 and stimulated the highest increase in nodule number when grown with 0mM KNO3. Inhibition of lateral root emergence by D1:HyP4,11 was not alleviated by removing peptide exposure. In contrast, the domain 2 peptide hydroxylated at Pro11 (D2:HyP11) increased stage III-IV lateral root primordium numbers by 6-fold (P emerge. Auxin addition at levels which stimulated lateral root formation in wild-type plants had little or no ameliorating effect on CEP peptide-mediated inhibition of lateral root formation or emergence. Both peptides increased and altered the root staining pattern of the auxin-responsive reporter GH3:GUS suggesting CEPs alter auxin sensitivity or distribution. The results showed that CEP primary sequence and post-translational modifications influence peptide activities and the improved isolation procedure effectively and reproducibly identifies and characterises CEPs. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Experimental Biology.

  19. Production and characterization of peptide antibodies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trier, Nicole Hartwig; Hansen, Paul Robert; Houen, Gunnar

    2012-01-01

    Proteins are effective immunogens for generation of antibodies. However, occasionally the native protein is known but not available for antibody production. In such cases synthetic peptides derived from the native protein are good alternatives for antibody production. These peptide antibodies...... are powerful tools in experimental biology and are easily produced to any peptide of choice. A widely used approach for production of peptide antibodies is to immunize animals with a synthetic peptide coupled to a carrier protein. Very important is the selection of the synthetic peptide, where factors......, including solid-phase peptide-carrier conjugation and peptide-carrier conjugation in solution. Upon immunization, adjuvants such as Al(OH)(3) are added together with the immunogenic peptide-carrier conjugate, which usually leads to high-titred antisera. Following immunization and peptide antibody...

  20. β-Boomerang Antimicrobial and Antiendotoxic Peptides: Lipidation and Disulfide Bond Effects on Activity and Structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohanram, Harini; Bhattacharjya, Surajit

    2014-04-21

    Drug-resistant Gram-negative bacterial pathogens and endotoxin- or lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-mediated inflammations are among some of the most  prominent health issues globally. Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) are eminent molecules that can kill drug-resistant strains and neutralize LPS toxicity. LPS, the outer layer of the outer membrane of Gram-negative bacteria safeguards cell integrity against hydrophobic compounds, including antibiotics and AMPs. Apart from maintaining structural integrity, LPS, when released into the blood stream, also induces inflammatory pathways leading to septic shock. In previous works, we have reported the de novo design of a set of 12-amino acid long cationic/hydrophobic peptides for LPS binding and activity. These peptides adopt β-boomerang like conformations in complex with LPS. Structure-activity studies demonstrated some critical features of the β-boomerang scaffold that may be utilized for the further development of potent analogs. In this work, β-boomerang lipopeptides were designed and structure-activity correlation studies were carried out. These lipopeptides were homo-dimerized through a disulfide bridge to stabilize conformations and for improved activity. The designed peptides exhibited potent antibacterial activity and efficiently neutralized LPS toxicity under in vitro assays. NMR structure of C4YI13C in aqueous solution demonstrated the conserved folding of the lipopeptide with a boomerang aromatic lock stabilized with disulfide bond at the C-terminus and acylation at the N-terminus. These lipo-peptides displaying bacterial sterilization and low hemolytic activity may be useful for future applications as antimicrobial and antiendotoxin molecules.

  1. β-Boomerang Antimicrobial and Antiendotoxic Peptides: Lipidation and Disulfide Bond Effects on Activity and Structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harini Mohanram

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Drug-resistant Gram-negative bacterial pathogens and endotoxin- or lipopolysaccharide (LPS-mediated inflammations are among some of the most  prominent health issues globally. Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs are eminent molecules that can kill drug-resistant strains and neutralize LPS toxicity. LPS, the outer layer of the outer membrane of Gram-negative bacteria safeguards cell integrity against hydrophobic compounds, including antibiotics and AMPs. Apart from maintaining structural integrity, LPS, when released into the blood stream, also induces inflammatory pathways leading to septic shock. In previous works, we have reported the de novo design of a set of 12-amino acid long cationic/hydrophobic peptides for LPS binding and activity. These peptides adopt β-boomerang like conformations in complex with LPS. Structure-activity studies demonstrated some critical features of the β-boomerang scaffold that may be utilized for the further development of potent analogs. In this work, β-boomerang lipopeptides were designed and structure-activity correlation studies were carried out. These lipopeptides were homo-dimerized through a disulfide bridge to stabilize conformations and for improved activity. The designed peptides exhibited potent antibacterial activity and efficiently neutralized LPS toxicity under in vitro assays. NMR structure of C4YI13C in aqueous solution demonstrated the conserved folding of the lipopeptide with a boomerang aromatic lock stabilized with disulfide bond at the C-terminus and acylation at the N-terminus. These lipo-peptides displaying bacterial sterilization and low hemolytic activity may be useful for future applications as antimicrobial and antiendotoxin molecules.

  2. NGR-peptide-drug conjugates with dual targeting properties.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kata Nóra Enyedi

    Full Text Available Peptides containing the asparagine-glycine-arginine (NGR motif are recognized by CD13/aminopeptidase N (APN receptor isoforms that are selectively overexpressed in tumor neovasculature. Spontaneous decomposition of NGR peptides can result in isoAsp derivatives, which are recognized by RGD-binding integrins that are essential for tumor metastasis. Peptides binding to CD13 and RGD-binding integrins provide tumor-homing, which can be exploited for dual targeted delivery of anticancer drugs. We synthesized small cyclic NGR peptide-daunomycin conjugates using NGR peptides of varying stability (c[KNGRE]-NH2, Ac-c[CNGRC]-NH2 and the thioether bond containing c[CH2-CO-NGRC]-NH2, c[CH2-CO-KNGRC]-NH2. The cytotoxic effect of the novel cyclic NGR peptide-Dau conjugates were examined in vitro on CD13 positive HT-1080 (human fibrosarcoma and CD13 negative HT-29 (human colon adenocarcinoma cell lines. Our results confirm the influence of structure on the antitumor activity and dual acting properties of the conjugates. Attachment of the drug through an enzyme-labile spacer to the C-terminus of cyclic NGR peptide resulted in higher antitumor activity on both CD13 positive and negative cells as compared to the branching versions.

  3. Scaling effects concerning the analysis of small break experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Austregesilo Filho, H.

    1985-01-01

    Some scaling effects related to the experimental facilities as well as to the analytical models used for the design and safety analysis of nuclear power plants are discussed or the basis of phenomena expected to occur during small-break loss - of - coolant accidents. The results of isolated small-break experiments should not be directly extrapolated to the safety analysis of commercial reactors, due to the scaling distortions inherent to the test facilities. With respect to the analytical models used to simulate thermohydraulic processes in experimental facilities, their eventual dependence relative to the system dimension should be examined in order to assess their applicability to the safety analysis of commercial power plants. (Author) [pt

  4. N-acylated peptides derived from human lactoferricin perturb organization of cardiolipin and phosphatidylethanolamine in cell membranes and induce defects in Escherichia coli cell division.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dagmar Zweytick

    Full Text Available Two types of recently described antibacterial peptides derived from human lactoferricin, either nonacylated or N-acylated, were studied for their different interaction with membranes of Escherichia coli in vivo and in model systems. Electron microscopy revealed striking effects on the bacterial membrane as both peptide types induced formation of large membrane blebs. Electron and fluorescence microscopy, however demonstrated that only the N-acylated peptides partially induced the generation of oversized cells, which might reflect defects in cell-division. Further a different distribution of cardiolipin domains on the E. coli membrane was shown only in the presence of the N-acylated peptides. The lipid was distributed over the whole bacterial cell surface, whereas cardiolipin in untreated and nonacylated peptide-treated cells was mainly located at the septum and poles. Studies with bacterial membrane mimics, such as cardiolipin or phosphatidylethanolamine revealed that both types of peptides interacted with the negatively charged lipid cardiolipin. The nonacylated peptides however induced segregation of cardiolipin into peptide-enriched and peptide-poor lipid domains, while the N-acylated peptides promoted formation of many small heterogeneous domains. Only N-acylated peptides caused additional severe effects on the main phase transition of liposomes composed of pure phosphatidylethanolamine, while both peptide types inhibited the lamellar to hexagonal phase transition. Lipid mixtures of phosphatidylethanolamine and cardiolipin revealed anionic clustering by all peptide types. However additional strong perturbation of the neutral lipids was only seen with the N-acylated peptides. Nuclear magnetic resonance demonstrated different conformational arrangement of the N-acylated peptide in anionic and zwitterionic micelles revealing possible mechanistic differences in their action on different membrane lipids. We hypothesized that both peptides kill

  5. Local heterogeneity effects on small-sample worths

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schaefer, R.W.

    1986-01-01

    One of the parameters usually measured in a fast reactor critical assembly is the reactivity associated with inserting a small sample of a material into the core (sample worth). Local heterogeneities introduced by the worth measurement techniques can have a significant effect on the sample worth. Unfortunately, the capability is lacking to model some of the heterogeneity effects associated with the experimental technique traditionally used at ANL (the radial tube technique). It has been suggested that these effects could account for a large portion of what remains of the longstanding central worth discrepancy. The purpose of this paper is to describe a large body of experimental data - most of which has never been reported - that shows the effect of radial tube-related local heterogeneities

  6. 泌乳反刍动物乳腺中小肽的摄取、利用及影响因素%Small Peptides in the Mammary Gland of Lactating Ruminants: Factors Influencing the Efficiency of Uptake and Utilization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周苗苗; 刘红云; 赵珂; 吴跃明; 刘建新

    2011-01-01

    乳蛋白是人类饮食中重要的动物蛋白质来源.乳腺是合成乳蛋白的主要场所.然而,反刍动物乳腺由血液摄取的游离氨基酸并不能满足乳腺合成蛋白质的需要,动物对完整蛋白质本身或小肽有着特殊需要.近年来,由于小肽优于氨基酸的跨膜转运机制和特殊的生理功能,小肽营养受到越来越多的关注.本文主要从泌乳反刍动物乳腺对小肽的摄取、利用以及影响乳腺小肽摄取利用的因素3个方面进行简要综述.%Milk protein is an important animal protein source for human, and mammary gland is the major organ for milk protein synthesis. However, some free amino acids took up by mammary gland of lactating ruminants are less than their output in the milk. Animals have special needs for proteins or small peptides. Because of their advantageous transmembrane transport system and special physiological function, small peptide nutrition is greatly concerned. Uptake and utilization of small peptides in mammary gland of lactating ruminants and influence factors are briefly reviewed in this paper. [ Chinese Journal of Animal Nutrition ,2011,23 (3) :376-380

  7. Effect of RGD Peptide-Coated TiO2 Nanotubes on the Attachment, Proliferation, and Functionality of Bone-Related Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seunghan Oh

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this research was to characterize an Arg-Gly-Asp (RGD peptide immobilized on TiO2 nanotubes. In addition, we investigated the effects of the RGD peptide-coated TiO2 nanotubes on the cellular response, proliferation, and functionality of osteogenic-induced human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs, which are osteoclasts that have been induced by bone marrow macrophages. The RGD peptide was grafted covalently onto the surface of TiO2 nanotubes based on the results of SEM, FT-IR, and XPS. Furthermore, the RGD peptide promoted the initial attachment and proliferation of the hMSCs, regardless of the size of the TiO2 nanotubes. However, the RGD peptide did not prominently affect the osteogenic functionality of the hMSCs because the peptide suppressed hMSC motility associated with osteogenic differentiation. The result of an in vitro osteoclast test showed that the RGD peptide accelerated the initial attachment of preosteoclasts and the formation of mature osteoclasts, which could resorb the bone matrix. Therefore, we believe that an RGD coating on TiO2 nanotubes synthesized on Ti implants might not offer significant acceleration of bone formation in vivo because osteoblasts and osteoclasts reside in the same compartment.

  8. Effects of glucagon-like peptide-1 on glucagon secretion in patients with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Junker, Anders E; Gluud, Lise L; van Hall, Gerrit

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND & AIMS: We evaluated the glucagon-suppressive effect of glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) and its potential effects on endogenous glucose production and whole body lipolysis in non-diabetic patients with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). METHODS: On two separate days 10 non-diabetic...... patients with liver biopsy-verified NAFLD (NAFLD activity score 2.5±1.0) and 10 matched controls underwent a 2-hour intravenous infusions of GLP-1 (0.8 pmol × kg(-1) × min(-1)) and placebo. Since GLP-1-mediated glucagon suppression has been shown to be glucose-dependent, plasma glucose was clamped...

  9. Effect of the aminoacid composition of model α-helical peptides on the physical properties of lipid bilayers and peptide conformation: a molecular dynamics simulation

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Melicherčík, Milan; Holúbeková, A.; Hianik, T.; Urban, J.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 19, č. 11 (2013), s. 4723-4730 ISSN 1610-2940 Institutional support: RVO:67179843 Keywords : Bilayer lipid membranes * Helical peptides * Molecular dynamics simulations * Phase transitions Subject RIV: BO - Biophysics Impact factor: 1.867, year: 2013

  10. Numerical investigation of heat transfer effects in small wave rotor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deng, Shi; Okamoto, Koji; Teramoto, Susumu

    2015-01-01

    Although a wave rotor is expected to enhance the performance of the ultra-micro gas turbine, the device itself may be affected by downsizing. Apart from the immediate effect of viscosity on flow dynamics when downscaled, the effects of heat transfer on flow field increase at such small scales. To gain an insight into the effects of heat transfer on the internal flow dynamics, numerical investigations were carried out with adiabatic, isothermal and conjugate heat transfer boundary treatments at the wall, and the results compared and discussed in the present study. With the light shed by the discussion of adiabatic and conjugate heat transfer boundary treatments, this work presents investigations of the heat flux distributions, as well as the effects of heat transfer on the internal flow dynamics and the consequent charging and discharging processes for various sizes. When heat transfer is taken into account, states of fluid in the cell before compression process varies, shock waves in compression process are found to be weaker, and changes in the charging and discharging processes are observed. Heat transfer differences between conjugate heat transfer boundary treatment and isothermal boundary treatment are addressed through comparisons of local wall temperature and heat flux. As a result, the difference in discharging temperature of high pressure fluid is noticeable in all sizes investigated, and the rapid increase of differences between results of isothermal and conjugate heat transfer boundary treatment in small size reveals that for certain small sizes (length of cell < 23 mm) the thermal boundary treatment should be taken care of.

  11. Cost-Effective Icy Bodies Exploration using Small Satellite Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jonsson, Jonas; Mauro, David; Stupl, Jan; Nayak, Michael; Aziz, Jonathan; Cohen, Aaron; Colaprete, Anthony; Dono-Perez, Andres; Frost, Chad; Klamm, Benjamin; hide

    2015-01-01

    It has long been known that Saturn's moon Enceladus is expelling water-rich plumes into space, providing passing spacecraft with a window into what is hidden underneath its frozen crust. Recent discoveries indicate that similar events could also occur on other bodies in the solar system, such as Jupiter's moon Europa and the dwarf planet Ceres in the asteroid belt. These plumes provide a possible giant leap forward in the search for organics and assessing habitability beyond Earth, stepping stones toward the long-term goal of finding extraterrestrial life. The United States Congress recently requested mission designs to Europa, to fit within a cost cap of $1B, much less than previous mission designs' estimates. Here, innovative cost-effective small spacecraft designs for the deep-space exploration of these icy worlds, using new and emerging enabling technologies, and how to explore the outer solar system on a budget below the cost horizon of a flagship mission, are investigated. Science requirements, instruments selection, rendezvous trajectories, and spacecraft designs are some topics detailed. The mission concepts revolve around a comparably small-sized and low-cost Plume Chaser spacecraft, instrumented to characterize the vapor constituents encountered on its trajectory. In the event that a plume is not encountered, an ejecta plume can be artificially created by a companion spacecraft, the Plume Maker, on the target body at a location timed with the passage of the Plume Chaser spacecraft. Especially in the case of Ceres, such a mission could be a great complimentary mission to Dawn, as well as a possible future Europa Clipper mission. The comparably small volume of the spacecraft enables a launch to GTO as a secondary payload, providing multiple launch opportunities per year. Plume Maker's design is nearly identical to the Plume Chaser, and fits within the constraints for a secondary payload launch. The cost-effectiveness of small spacecraft missions enables the

  12. Neuroprotective effect of erythropoietin against pressure ulcer in a mouse model of small fiber neuropathy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aurore Danigo

    Full Text Available An increased risk of skin pressure ulcers (PUs is common in patients with sensory neuropathies, including those caused by diabetes mellitus. Recombinant human erythropoietin (rhEPO has been shown to protect the skin against PUs developed in animal models of long-term diabetes. The aim of this work was to determine whether rhEPO could prevent PU formation in a mouse model of drug-induced SFN. Functional SFN was induced by systemic injection of resiniferatoxin (RTX, 50 µg/kg, i.p.. RhEPO (3000 UI/kg, i.p. was given the day before RTX injection and then every other day. Seven days after RTX administration, PUs were induced by applying two magnetic plates on the dorsal skin. RTX-treated mice expressed thermal and mechanical hypoalgesia and showed calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP and substance P (SP depletion without nerve degeneration or vascular dysfunction. RTX mice developed significantly larger stage 2 PUs than Vehicle mice. RhEPO prevented thermal and mechanical hypoalgesia and neuropeptide depletion in small nerve fibers. RhEPO increased hematocrit and altered endothelium-dependent vasodilatation without any effect on PU formation in Vehicle mice. The characteristics of PUs in RTX mice treated with rhEPO and Vehicle mice were found similar. In conclusion, RTX appeared to increased PU development through depletion of CGRP and SP in small nerve fibers, whereas systemic rhEPO treatment had beneficial effect on peptidergic nerve fibers and restored skin protective capacities against ischemic pressure. Our findings support the evaluation of rhEPO and/or its non-hematopoietic analogs in preventing to prevent PUs in patients with SFN.

  13. The synergistic use of computation, chemistry and biology to discover novel peptide-based drugs: the time is right.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Audie, J; Boyd, C

    2010-01-01

    The case for peptide-based drugs is compelling. Due to their chemical, physical and conformational diversity, and relatively unproblematic toxicity and immunogenicity, peptides represent excellent starting material for drug discovery. Nature has solved many physiological and pharmacological problems through the use of peptides, polypeptides and proteins. If nature could solve such a diversity of challenging biological problems through the use of peptides, it seems reasonable to infer that human ingenuity will prove even more successful. And this, indeed, appears to be the case, as a number of scientific and methodological advances are making peptides and peptide-based compounds ever more promising pharmacological agents. Chief among these advances are powerful chemical and biological screening technologies for lead identification and optimization, methods for enhancing peptide in vivo stability, bioavailability and cell-permeability, and new delivery technologies. Other advances include the development and experimental validation of robust computational methods for peptide lead identification and optimization. Finally, scientific analysis, biology and chemistry indicate the prospect of designing relatively small peptides to therapeutically modulate so-called 'undruggable' protein-protein interactions. Taken together a clear picture is emerging: through the synergistic use of the scientific imagination and the computational, chemical and biological methods that are currently available, effective peptide therapeutics for novel targets can be designed that surpass even the proven peptidic designs of nature.

  14. A comprehensive strategy for identifying long-distance mobile peptides in xylem sap.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okamoto, Satoru; Suzuki, Takamasa; Kawaguchi, Masayoshi; Higashiyama, Tetsuya; Matsubayashi, Yoshikatsu

    2015-11-01

    There is a growing awareness that secreted pemediate organ-to-organ communication in higher plants. Xylem sap peptidomics is an effective but challenging approach for identifying long-distance mobile peptides. In this study we developed a simple, gel-free purification system that combines o-chlorophenol extraction with HPLC separation. Using this system, we successfully identified seven oligopeptides from soybean xylem sap exudate that had one or more post-transcriptional modifications: glycosylation, sulfation and/or hydroxylation. RNA sequencing and quantitative PCR analyses showed that the peptide-encoding genes are expressed in multiple tissues. We further analyzed the long-distance translocation of four of the seven peptides using gene-encoding peptides with single amino acid substitutions, and identified these four peptides as potential root-to-shoot mobile oligopeptides. Promoter-GUS analysis showed that all four peptide-encoding genes were expressed in the inner tissues of the root endodermis. Moreover, we found that some of these peptide-encoding genes responded to biotic and/or abiotic factors. These results indicate that our purification system provides a comprehensive approach for effectively identifying endogenous small peptides and reinforce the concept that higher plants employ various peptides in root-to-shoot signaling. © 2015 The Authors The Plant Journal © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Studies on lactoferricin-derived Escherichia coli membrane-active peptides reveal differences in the mechanism of N-acylated versus nonacylated peptides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zweytick, Dagmar; Deutsch, Günter; Andrä, Jörg; Blondelle, Sylvie E; Vollmer, Ekkehard; Jerala, Roman; Lohner, Karl

    2011-06-17

    To improve the low antimicrobial activity of LF11, an 11-mer peptide derived from human lactoferricin, mutant sequences were designed based on the defined structure of LF11 in the lipidic environment. Thus, deletion of noncharged polar residues and strengthening of the hydrophobic N-terminal part upon adding a bulky hydrophobic amino acid or N-acylation resulted in enhanced antimicrobial activity against Escherichia coli, which correlated with the peptides' degree of perturbation of bacterial membrane mimics. Nonacylated and N-acylated peptides exhibited different effects at a molecular level. Nonacylated peptides induced segregation of peptide-enriched and peptide-poor lipid domains in negatively charged bilayers, although N-acylated peptides formed small heterogeneous domains resulting in a higher degree of packing defects. Additionally, only N-acylated peptides perturbed the lateral packing of neutral lipids and exhibited increased permeability of E. coli lipid vesicles. The latter did not correlate with the extent of improvement of the antimicrobial activity, which could be explained by the fact that elevated binding of N-acylated peptides to lipopolysaccharides of the outer membrane of gram-negative bacteria seems to counteract the elevated membrane permeabilization, reflected in the respective minimal inhibitory concentration for E. coli. The antimicrobial activity of the peptides correlated with an increase of membrane curvature stress and hence bilayer instability. Transmission electron microscopy revealed that only the N-acylated peptides induced tubular protrusions from the outer membrane, whereas all peptides caused detachment of the outer and inner membrane of E. coli bacteria. Viability tests demonstrated that these bacteria were dead before onset of visible cell lysis.

  16. Studies on Lactoferricin-derived Escherichia coli Membrane-active Peptides Reveal Differences in the Mechanism of N-Acylated Versus Nonacylated Peptides*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zweytick, Dagmar; Deutsch, Günter; Andrä, Jörg; Blondelle, Sylvie E.; Vollmer, Ekkehard; Jerala, Roman; Lohner, Karl

    2011-01-01

    To improve the low antimicrobial activity of LF11, an 11-mer peptide derived from human lactoferricin, mutant sequences were designed based on the defined structure of LF11 in the lipidic environment. Thus, deletion of noncharged polar residues and strengthening of the hydrophobic N-terminal part upon adding a bulky hydrophobic amino acid or N-acylation resulted in enhanced antimicrobial activity against Escherichia coli, which correlated with the peptides' degree of perturbation of bacterial membrane mimics. Nonacylated and N-acylated peptides exhibited different effects at a molecular level. Nonacylated peptides induced segregation of peptide-enriched and peptide-poor lipid domains in negatively charged bilayers, although N-acylated peptides formed small heterogeneous domains resulting in a higher degree of packing defects. Additionally, only N-acylated peptides perturbed the lateral packing of neutral lipids and exhibited increased permeability of E. coli lipid vesicles. The latter did not correlate with the extent of improvement of the antimicrobial activity, which could be explained by the fact that elevated binding of N-acylated peptides to lipopolysaccharides of the outer membrane of Gram-negative bacteria seems to counteract the elevated membrane permeabilization, reflected in the respective minimal inhibitory concentration for E. coli. The antimicrobial activity of the peptides correlated with an increase of membrane curvature stress and hence bilayer instability. Transmission electron microscopy revealed that only the N-acylated peptides induced tubular protrusions from the outer membrane, whereas all peptides caused detachment of the outer and inner membrane of E. coli bacteria. Viability tests demonstrated that these bacteria were dead before onset of visible cell lysis. PMID:21515687

  17. Effect of BMAP-28 antimicrobial peptides on Leishmania major promastigote and amastigote growth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lynn, Miriam A.; Kindrachuk, Jason; Marr, Alexandra K.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Protozoan parasites, such as Leishmania, still pose an enormous public health problem in many countries throughout the world. Current measures are outdated and have some associated drug resistance, prompting the search into novel therapies. Several innovative approaches are under...... of the cathelicidin family of HDPs have demonstrated significant antimicrobial activities against various parasites including Leishmania. The cathelicidin bovine myeloid antimicrobial peptide 28 (BMAP-28) has broad antimicrobial activities and confers protection in animal models of bacterial infection or sepsis. We...... with early osmotic cell lysis caused by the antimicrobial peptides. Furthermore, BMAP-28 and its isomers demonstrated anti-leishmanial activities against intracellular amastigotes within a macrophage infection model. Conclusions/Significance: Interestingly, D-BMAP-28 appears to be the most potent...

  18. Effect of scatter media on small gamma camera imaging characteristics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ser, H. K.; Choi, Y.; Yim, K. C.

    2001-01-01

    Effect of scatter media materials and thickness, located between radioactivity and small gamma camera, on imaging characteristics was evaluated. The small gamma camera developed for breast imaging was consisted of collimator, NaI(TI) crystal (60x60x6 mm 3 ). PSPMT (position sensitive photomultiplier tube), NIMs and personal computer. Monte Carlo simulation was performed to evaluate the system sensitivity with different scatter media thickness (0∼8 cm) and materials (air and acrylie) with parallel hole collimator and diverging collimator. The sensitivity and spatial resolution was measured using the small gamma camera with the same condition applied to the simulation. Counts was decreased by 10% (air) and 54% (acrylic) with the parallel hole collimator and by 35% (air) and 63% (acrylic) with the diverging collimator. Spatial resolution was decreased as increasing the thickness of scatter media. This study substantiate the importance of a gamma camera positioning and the minimization of the distance between detector and target lesion in the clinical application of a gamma camera

  19. Effects of lactoferrin derived peptides on simulants of biological warfare agents

    OpenAIRE

    Sijbrandij, Tjitske; Ligtenberg, Antoon J.; Nazmi, Kamran; Veerman, Enno C. I.; Bolscher, Jan G. M.; Bikker, Floris J.

    2016-01-01

    Lactoferrin (LF) is an important immune protein in neutrophils and secretory fluids of mammals. Bovine LF (bLF) harbours two antimicrobial stretches, lactoferricin and lactoferampin, situated in close proximity in the N1 domain. To mimic these antimicrobial domain parts a chimeric peptide (LFchimera) has been constructed comprising parts of both stretches (LFcin17–30 and LFampin265–284). To investigate the potency of this construct to combat a set of Gram positive and Gram negative bacteria w...

  20. Why is the electrocaloric effect so small in ferroelectrics?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guzman-Verri, Gian G.; Littlewood, Peter B.

    2015-03-01

    Ferroelectrics are attractive candidate materials for environmentally friendly solid state refrigeration free of greenhouse gases. Their thermal response upon variations of external electric fields is largest in the vicinity of their phase transitions, which may occur near room temperature. The magnitude of the effect, however, is too small for useful cooling applications even when they are driven close to dielectric breakdown. Insight from microscopic theory is therefore needed to characterize materials and provide guiding principles to search for new ones with enhanced electrocaloric performance. Here, we present meaningful figures of merit derived from well-known microscopic models of ferroelectricity which provide insight into the relation between the strength of the effect and the characteristic interactions of ferroelectrics such as dipole forces. We find that the long range nature of these interactions results in a small effect. A strategy is proposed to make it larger by shortening the correlation lengths of fluctuations of polarization. Work at Argonne is supported by the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Basic Energy Sciences under Contract No. DE-AC02-06CH11357.

  1. Why is the electrocaloric effect so small in ferroelectrics?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. G. Guzmán-Verri

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Ferroelectrics are attractive candidate materials for environmentally friendly solid state refrigeration free of greenhouse gases. Their thermal response upon variations of external electric fields is largest in the vicinity of their phase transitions, which may occur near room temperature. The magnitude of the effect, however, is too small for useful cooling applications even when they are driven close to dielectric breakdown. Insight from microscopic theory is therefore needed to characterize materials and provide guiding principles to search for new ones with enhanced electrocaloric performance. Here, we derive from well-known microscopic models of ferroelectricity meaningful figures of merit for a wide class of ferroelectric materials. Such figures of merit provide insight into the relation between the strength of the effect and the characteristic interactions of ferroelectrics such as dipolar forces. We find that the long range nature of these interactions results in a small effect. A strategy is proposed to make it larger by shortening the correlation lengths of fluctuations of polarization. In addition, we bring into question other widely used but empirical figures of merit and facilitate understanding of the recently observed secondary broad peak in the electrocalorics of relaxor ferroelectrics.

  2. Effect of nanoparticles binding ß-amyloid peptide on nitric oxide production by cultured endothelial cells and macrophages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orlando A

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Antonina Orlando,1 Francesca Re,1 Silvia Sesana,1 Ilaria Rivolta,1 Alice Panariti,1 Davide Brambilla,2 Julien Nicolas,2 Patrick Couvreur,2 Karine Andrieux,2 Massimo Masserini,1 Emanuela Cazzaniga1 1Department of Health Sciences, University of Milano-Bicocca, Monza, Italy; 2Institut Galien Paris Sud, University Paris-Sud, Châtenay-Malabry, France Background: As part of a project designing nanoparticles for the treatment of Alzheimer’s disease, we have synthesized and characterized a small library of nanoparticles binding with high affinity to the β-amyloid peptide and showing features of biocompatibility in vitro, which are important properties for administration in vivo. In this study, we focused on biocompatibility issues, evaluating production of nitric oxide by cultured human umbilical vein endothelial cells and macrophages, used as models of cells which would be exposed to nanoparticles after systemic administration. Methods: The nanoparticles tested were liposomes and solid lipid nanoparticles carrying phosphatidic acid or cardiolipin, and PEGylated poly(alkyl cyanoacrylate nanoparticles (PEG-PACA. We measured nitric oxide production using the Griess method as well as phosphorylation of endothelial nitric oxide synthase and intracellular free calcium, which are biochemically related to nitric oxide production. MTT viability tests and caspase-3 detection were also undertaken. Results: Exposure to liposomes did not affect the viability of endothelial cells at any concentration tested. Increased production of nitric oxide was detected only with liposomes carrying phosphatidic acid or cardiolipin at the highest concentration (120 µg/mL, together with increased synthase phosphorylation and intracellular calcium levels. Macrophages exposed to liposomes showed a slightly dose-dependent decrease in viability, with no increase in production of nitric oxide. Exposure to solid lipid nanoparticles carrying phosphatidic acid decreased viability in

  3. Effects of semielemental diet containing whey peptides on Peyer's patch lymphocyte number, immunoglobulin A levels, and intestinal morphology in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moriya, Tomoyuki; Fukatsu, Kazuhiko; Noguchi, Midori; Nishikawa, Makoto; Miyazaki, Hiromi; Saitoh, Daizoh; Ueno, Hideki; Yamamoto, Junji

    2018-02-01

    Enteral nutrition (EN) is the gold standard of nutritional therapy for critically ill or severely injured patients, because EN promotes gut and hepatic immunity, thereby preventing infectious complications as compared with parenteral nutrition. However, there are many EN formulas with different protein and fat contents. Their effects on gut-associated lymphoid tissue remain unclear. Recently, semielemental diets (SEDs) containing whey peptides as a nitrogen source have been found to be beneficial in patients with malabsorption or pancreatitis. Herein, we examined the influences of various dietary formulations on gut immunity to clarify the advantages of SEDs over elemental diets. Forty-four male Institute of Cancer Research mice were randomized to four groups: chow (CH: n = 5), intragastric total parenteral nutrition (IG-TPN: n = 13), elemental diet (ED: n = 13), and SED (n = 13). The CH group received CH diet ad libitum, whereas the IG-TPN, ED (Elental, Ajinomoto, Japan), and SED (Peptino, Terumo, Japan) groups were given their respective diets for 5 day via gastrostomy. After 5 days, the mice were killed to obtain whole small intestines. Peyer's patch (PP) lymphocytes were harvested and counted. Their subpopulations were evaluated by flow cytometry. Immunoglobulin A (IgA) levels in intestinal and respiratory tract washings were measured with enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Villous height (VH) and crypt depth in the distal intestine were measured by light microscopy. SED increased the PP cell number and intestinal or respiratory IgA levels to those of CH mice, while ED partially restored these parameters. The IG-TPN group showed the lowest PP cell number and IgA levels among the four groups. VH was significantly greater in the CH than in the other groups. VH in the ED and SED groups also exceeded in the IG-TPN group, while being similar in these two groups. No significant crypt depth differences were observed among the four groups. SED administration

  4. Radiation research contracts: Biological effects of small radiation doses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hug, O [International Atomic Energy Agency, Division of Health, Safety and Waste Disposal, Vienna (Austria)

    1959-04-15

    To establish the maximum permissible radiation doses for occupational and other kinds of radiation exposure, it is necessary to know those biological effects which can be produced by very small radiation doses. This particular field of radiation biology has not yet been sufficiently explored. This holds true for possible delayed damage after occupational radiation exposure over a period of many years as well as for acute reactions of the organism to single low level exposures. We know that irradiation of less than 25 Roentgen units (r) is unlikely to produce symptoms of radiation sickness. We have, however, found indications that even smaller doses may produce certain instantaneous reactions which must not be neglected

  5. Sequence, taste and umami-enhancing effect of the peptides separated from soy sauce.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhuang, Mingzhu; Lin, Lianzhu; Zhao, Mouming; Dong, Yi; Sun-Waterhouse, Dongxiao; Chen, Huiping; Qiu, Chaoying; Su, Guowan

    2016-09-01

    Five tasty peptides were separated from soy sauce, by sensory-guided fractionation, using macroporous resin, medium-pressure liquid chromatography and reverse phase-high performance liquid chromatography, and identified by ultra-performance liquid chromatography tandem mass-spectrometry as ALPEEV, LPEEV, AQALQAQA, EQQQQ and EAGIQ (which originated from glycinin A1bB2-445, glycinin A1bB2-445, cobyric acid synthase, leucine-tRNA ligase and glycoprotein glucosyltransferase, respectively). LPEEV, AQALQAQA and EQQQQ tasted umami with threshold values of 0.43, 1.25 and 0.76mmol/l, respectively. ALPEEV and EAGIQ had minimal umami taste, but ALPEEV, EAGIQ and LPEEV showed umami-enhancement with a threshold estimated at 1.52, 1.94 and 3.41mmol/l, respectively. In addition, the synthetic peptides showed much better sensory taste than mixtures of their constitutive amino acids. It indicated that peptides might play an important role in the umami taste of soy sauce. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Effects of organic solvent and cationic additive on capillary electrophoresis of peptides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Surugau, L.N.; Bergstrom, Ed T.

    2008-01-01

    Capillary electrophoresis (CE) of nine peptides namely, bradykinin, bradykinin fragment 1-5, substance P, Arg 8 -vasopressin, luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone (LHRH), bombesin, leucine-enkephalin, methionine-enkephalin and oxytocin were carried out using 0.5 % and 1.0 % formic acid (FA) as the separation buffers, added with acetonitrile (ACN) and triethylamine (TEA) as an additive at low pH. The electrophoretic behaviour of these peptides was examined at different concentration of TEA (0, 10, 20, 30, 40 and 50 mM), and ACN (30, 40, 50, 60, 70 %) at their respective measured final pH. The results showed that all nine peptides were fully resolved with addition of 10 - 20 mM TEA. Peak efficiency was improved significantly by increasing TEA concentration up to 40 mM where 800 000 m -1 was obtained. Without TEA, the closely related enkephalins were co-migrating. Interestingly, by addition of as little as 5 mM TEA has sufficient to separate them almost at baseline. Increasing ACN to 40 % has shortened the analysis time by ca. 1 min. However, further increase of ACN can cause peak broadening and current instability. (author)

  7. Effects of organic solvent and cationic additive on capillary electrophoresis of peptides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Surugau, L.N.; Bergstrom, E.T.

    2008-01-01

    Capillary electrophoresis (CE) of nine peptides namely, bradykinin, bradykinin fragment 1-5, substance P, Arg 8 -vasopressin, luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone (LHRH), bombesin, leucine-enkephalin, methionine-enkephalin and oxytocin were carried out using 0.5 % and 1.0 % formic acid (FA) as the separation buffers, added with acetonitrile (ACN) and triethylamine (TEA) as an additive at low pH. The electrophoretic behavior of these peptides was examined at different concentration of TEA (0, 10, 20, 30, 40 and 50 mM), and ACN (30, 40, 50, 60, 70 %) at their respective measured final pH. The results showed that all nine peptides were fully resolved with addition of 10-20 mM TEA. Peak efficiency was improved significantly by increasing TEA concentration up to 40 mM where 800 000 m -1 was obtained. Without TEA, the closely related enkephalins were co-migrating. Interestingly, by addition of as little as 5 mM TEA has sufficient to separate them almost at baseline. Increasing ACN to 40 % has shortened the analysis time by ca. 1 min. However, further increase of ACN can cause peak broadening and current instability. (author)

  8. Postprandial effects of consuming a staggered meal on gut peptide and glycemic responses in obese women and men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffith, Lisa; Haddad, Ella H; Tonstad, Serena

    2016-01-01

    Eating slowly by staggering a meal may reduce energy intake. Our aim was to examine the effect of eating a portion of beans 15min before the rest of the meal, on gastrointestinal (GI) peptides, glucose and insulin concentrations and subsequent energy intake in obese adults. This was a randomised crossover design study with 28 obese subjects. Participants consumed a standardised breakfast on test days followed by test meals: (1) control meal containing 86g (0.5 cup) of beans, and (2) staggered meal in which 86g (0.5 cup) of beans were consumed 15min before the rest of the meal. Blood obtained prior to and at 30, 60, and 120min following the meals was analysed for acylated ghrelin, unacylated ghrelin, glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1), peptide YY, oxyntomodulin, glucose and insulin. Feelings of hunger and satiety were assessed using analog visual scales. Energy intake following the test meal was obtained by computer assisted dietary recalls. Mixed model statistical analysis of data showed time effects for unacylated ghrelin, GLP-1, glucose, insulin, hunger and fullness, however, meal effects were not shown for any of the parameters. GLP-1 area under the curve from baseline to 120min (AUC0-120) decreased by 19% (P=0.024) and that of glucose increased by 7% (P=0.046) following the staggered compared to the control bean meal. Energy intake subsequent to the test meals did not differ between treatments. In conclusion, lengthening meal times by staggering eating did not benefit hormonal, metabolic or appetite control in obese individuals. Copyright © 2015 Asia Oceania Association for the Study of Obesity. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. A cyclic peptide derived from alpha-fetoprotein inhibits the proliferative effects of the epidermal growth factor and estradiol in MCF7 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres, Cristian; Antileo, Elmer; Epuñán, Maráa José; Pino, Ana María; Valladares, Luis Emilio; Sierralta, Walter Daniel

    2008-06-01

    A cyclic peptide derived from the active domain of alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) significantly inhibited the proliferation of MCF7 cells stimulated with the epidermal growth factor (EGF) or estradiol (E2). The action of these three agents on cell growth was independent of the presence of calf serum in the culture medium. Our results demonstrated that the cyclic peptide interfered markedly with the regulation of MAPK by activated c-erbB2. The cyclic peptide showed no effect on the E2-stimulated release of matrix metalloproteinases 2 and 9 nor on the shedding of heparin-binding EGF into the culture medium. We propose that the AFP-derived cyclic peptide represents a valuable novel antiproliferative agent for treating breast cancer.

  10. Self-assembling peptide hydrogels immobilized on silicon surfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Franchi, Stefano; Battocchio, Chiara; Galluzzi, Martina; Navisse, Emanuele [Department of Sciences, University “Roma Tre”, Via della Vasca Navale 79, Roma, 00146 (Italy); Zamuner, Annj; Dettin, Monica [Department of Industrial Engineering, University of Padua, Via Marzolo, 9, Padua, 35131 (Italy); Iucci, Giovanna, E-mail: giovanna.iucci@uniroma3.it [Department of Sciences, University “Roma Tre”, Via della Vasca Navale 79, Roma, 00146 (Italy)

    2016-12-01

    The hydrogels of self-assembling ionic complementary peptides have collected in the scientific community increasing consensus as mimetics of the extracellular matrix that can offer 3D supports for cell growth or be vehicles for the delivery of stem cells or drugs. Such scaffolds have also been proposed as bone substitutes for small defects as they promote beneficial effects on human osteoblasts. In this context, our research deals with the introduction of a layer of self-assembling peptides on a silicon surface by covalent anchoring and subsequent physisorption. In this work, we present a spectroscopic investigation of the proposed bioactive scaffolds, carried out by surface-sensitive spectroscopic techniques such as XPS (X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy) and RAIRS (Reflection Absorption Infrared Spectroscopy) and by state-of-the-art synchrotron radiation methodologies such as angle dependent NEXAFS (Near Edge X-ray Absorption Fine Structure). XPS studies confirmed the change in the surface composition in agreement with the proposed enrichments, and led to assess the self-assembling peptide chemical stability. NEXAFS spectra, collected in angular dependent mode at the N K-edge, allowed to investigate the self-assembling behavior of the macromolecules, as well as to determine their molecular orientation on the substrate. Furthermore, Infrared Spectroscopy measurements demonstrated that the peptide maintains its secondary structure (β-sheet anti-parallel) after deposition on the silicon surface. The complementary information acquired by means of XPS, NEXAFS and RAIRS lead to hypothesize a “layer-by-layer” arrangement of the immobilized peptides, giving rise to an ordered 3D nanostructure. - Highlights: • A self-assembling peptide (SAP) was covalently immobilized of on a flat silicon surface. • A physisorbed SAP layer was grown on top of the covalently immobilized peptide layer. • Molecular order and orientation of the peptide overlayer on the flat silicon

  11. Self-assembling peptide hydrogels immobilized on silicon surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Franchi, Stefano; Battocchio, Chiara; Galluzzi, Martina; Navisse, Emanuele; Zamuner, Annj; Dettin, Monica; Iucci, Giovanna

    2016-01-01

    The hydrogels of self-assembling ionic complementary peptides have collected in the scientific community increasing consensus as mimetics of the extracellular matrix that can offer 3D supports for cell growth or be vehicles for the delivery of stem cells or drugs. Such scaffolds have also been proposed as bone substitutes for small defects as they promote beneficial effects on human osteoblasts. In this context, our research deals with the introduction of a layer of self-assembling peptides on a silicon surface by covalent anchoring and subsequent physisorption. In this work, we present a spectroscopic investigation of the proposed bioactive scaffolds, carried out by surface-sensitive spectroscopic techniques such as XPS (X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy) and RAIRS (Reflection Absorption Infrared Spectroscopy) and by state-of-the-art synchrotron radiation methodologies such as angle dependent NEXAFS (Near Edge X-ray Absorption Fine Structure). XPS studies confirmed the change in the surface composition in agreement with the proposed enrichments, and led to assess the self-assembling peptide chemical stability. NEXAFS spectra, collected in angular dependent mode at the N K-edge, allowed to investigate the self-assembling behavior of the macromolecules, as well as to determine their molecular orientation on the substrate. Furthermore, Infrared Spectroscopy measurements demonstrated that the peptide maintains its secondary structure (β-sheet anti-parallel) after deposition on the silicon surface. The complementary information acquired by means of XPS, NEXAFS and RAIRS lead to hypothesize a “layer-by-layer” arrangement of the immobilized peptides, giving rise to an ordered 3D nanostructure. - Highlights: • A self-assembling peptide (SAP) was covalently immobilized of on a flat silicon surface. • A physisorbed SAP layer was grown on top of the covalently immobilized peptide layer. • Molecular order and orientation of the peptide overlayer on the flat silicon

  12. Effect of weight loss by a low-fat diet and a low-carbohydrate diet on peptide YY levels

    OpenAIRE

    Essah, P. A.; Levy, J. R.; Sistrun, S. N.; Kelly, S. M.; Nestler, J. E.

    2010-01-01

    Objective To compare the effects of weight loss by an energy-restricted low-fat diet versus low-carbohydrate diet on serum peptide YY (PYY) levels. Design 8-week prospective study of 30 obese adults (mean age: 42.8 ± 2.0 years, mean BMI 35.5 ± 0.6 kg/m2). Results After 8 weeks, subjects on the low-carbohydrate diet lost substantially more weight than those on the low-fat diet (5.8 kg vs. 0.99 kg, p

  13. Antithrombotic Protective Effects of Arg-Pro-Gly-Pro Peptide during Emotional Stress Provoked by Forced Swimming Test in Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grigor'eva, M E; Lyapina, L A

    2017-01-01

    Blood coagulation was enhanced and all factors (total, enzyme, and non-enzyme) of the fibrinolytic system were suppressed in rats in 60 min after forced swimming test. Argininecontaining tetrapeptide glyproline Arg-Pro-Gly-Pro administered prior to this test activated fibrinolysis and prevented hypercoagulation. Administration of this peptide in 5 min after swimming test also enhanced anticoagulant, fibrinolytic, and antithrombotic activity of the blood. Therefore, glyproline Arg-Pro-Gly-Pro exerted both preventive and curative effects on the hemostasis system and prevented enhancement of blood coagulation provoked by emotional stress modeled by forced swimming test.

  14. Effect of stereochemistry, chain length and sequence pattern on antimicrobial properties of short synthetic β-sheet forming peptide amphiphiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ong, Zhan Yuin; Cheng, Junchi; Huang, Yuan; Xu, Kaijin; Ji, Zhongkang; Fan, Weimin; Yang, Yi Yan

    2014-01-01

    In the face of mounting global antibiotics resistance, the identification and development of membrane-active antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) as an alternative class of antimicrobial agent have gained significant attention. The physical perturbation and disruption of microbial membranes by the AMPs have been proposed to be an effective means to overcome conventional mechanisms of drug resistance. Recently, we have reported the design of a series of short synthetic β-sheet folding peptide amphiphiles comprised of recurring (X1Y1X2Y2)n-NH2 sequences where X: hydrophobic amino acids, Y: cationic amino acids and n: number of repeat units. In efforts to investigate the effects of key parameters including stereochemistry, chain length and sequence pattern on antimicrobial effects, systematic d-amino acid substitutions of the lead peptides (IRIK)2-NH2 (IK8-all L) and (IRVK)3-NH2 (IK12-all L) were performed. It was found that the corresponding D-enantiomers exhibited stronger antimicrobial activities with minimal or no change in hemolytic activities, hence translating very high selectivity indices of 407.0 and >9.8 for IK8-all D and IK12-all D respectively. IK8-all D was also demonstrated to be stable to degradation by broad spectrum proteases trypsin and proteinase K. The membrane disrupting bactericidal properties of IK8-all D effectively prevented drug resistance development and inhibited the growth of various clinically isolated MRSA, VRE, Acinetobacter baumanni, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Cryptococcus. neoformans and Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Significant reduction in intracellular bacteria counts was also observed following treatment with IK8-all D in the Staphylococcus. aureus infected mouse macrophage cell line RAW264.7 (P < 0.01). These results suggest that the d-amino acids substituted β-sheet forming peptide IK8-all D with its enhanced antimicrobial activities and improved protease stability, is a promising therapeutic candidate with potential to combat

  15. Peptide-tagged proteins in aqueous two-phase systems

    OpenAIRE

    Nilsson, Anna

    2002-01-01

    This thesis deals with proteins containing peptide tags for improved partitioning in aqueous two-phase systems. Qualitatively the peptide-tagged protein partitioning could be predicted from peptide data, i.e. partitioning trends found for peptides were also found for the peptide-tagged proteins. However, full effect of the tag as expected from peptide partitioning was not found in the tagged protein. When alkyl-ethylene oxide surfactant was included in a two-polymer system, almost full effect...

  16. Fringe field effects in small rings of large acceptance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Berz

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available Recently there has been renewed interest in the influence of fringe fields on particle dynamics, due to studies that revealed their importance in some cases, as, for example, the proposed Neutrino Factory and muon colliders. In this paper, we present a systematic study of generic fringe field effects. Using as an example a lattice of the proposed Neutrino Factory, we show that fringe fields influence the dynamics of particles at all orders, starting with the linear motion. It is found that the widely used sharp cutoff approximation leads to divergences regardless of the specific fall-off shape of the fields. The results suggest that a careful consideration of fringe field effects in the design stage of small machines for large emittances is always recommended.

  17. Cost-effective climate policy in a small country

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hagem, C.

    1994-01-01

    Unilateral action to curb CO 2 emissions in a small country or a group of countries has only a limited effect on global CO 2 emissions. However, it could be a first step toward a broader climate treaty. So far, unilateral commitments have been aimed at reducing national consumption of fossil fuels. A country that produces and consumes fossil fuels can also infiuence the global CO 2 emissions by reducing its production. The estimated cost of reducing national CO 2 emissions in Norway, through a reduction infossil fuel consumption, is presented in a report from the Environmental Tax Committee (1992). In this paper, that cost is compared with an estimated cost of reducing fossil fuel production. The calculation reveals that it could be less costly to reduce the production than the consumption, given that the effect on global CO 2 emissions is identical. 23 refs., 4 tabs

  18. Physiological effects of increased foraging effort in a small passerine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yap, Kang Nian; Kim, Oh Run; Harris, Karilyn C; Williams, Tony D

    2017-11-15

    Foraging to obtain food, either for self-maintenance or at presumably elevated rates to provide for offspring, is thought to be an energetically demanding activity but one that is essential for fitness (higher reproductive success and survival). Nevertheless, the physiological mechanisms that allow some individuals to support higher foraging performance, and the mechanisms underlying costs of high workload, remain poorly understood. We experimentally manipulated foraging behaviour in zebra finches ( Taeniopygia guttata ) using the technique described by Koetsier and Verhulst (2011) Birds in the 'high foraging effort' (HF) group had to obtain food either while flying/hovering or by making repeated hops or jumps from the ground up to the feeder, behaviour typical of the extremely energetically expensive foraging mode observed in many free-living small passerines. HF birds made significantly more trips to the feeder per 10 min, whereas control birds spent more time (perched) at the feeder. Despite this marked change in foraging behaviour, we documented few short- or long-term effects of 'training' (3 days and 90 days of 'training', respectively) and some of these effects were sex specific. There were no effects of treatment on basal metabolic rate, haematocrit, haemoglobin or plasma glycerol, triglyceride and glucose levels, and masses of kidney, crop, large intestine, small intestine, gizzard and liver. HF females had higher masses of flight muscle, leg muscle, heart and lung compared with controls. In contrast, HF males had lower heart mass than controls and there were no differences for other organs. When both sexes were pooled, there were no effects of treatment on body composition. Finally, birds in the HF treatment group had higher levels of reactive oxygen metabolites (dROMs) and, consequently, although treatment did not affect total anti-oxidant capacity, birds in the HF treatment group had higher oxidative stress. © 2017. Published by The Company of

  19. Biological effects and metabolic rates of glucagonlike peptide-1 7-36 amide and glucagonlike peptide-1 7-37 in healthy subjects are indistinguishable

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Orskov, C; Wettergren, A; Holst, J J

    1993-01-01

    .0 +/- 34.6 pmol/h x L-1). Both GLP-1 7-36 amide and GLP-1 7-37 lowered the plasma concentration of free fatty acids significantly. The plasma half-lives of GLP-1 7-36 amide and GLP-1 7-37 were 5.3 +/- 0.4 vs. 6.1 +/- 0.8 min, and the metabolic clearance rates of the two peptides also were similar (14...

  20. Interactions of GRF(1-29)NH2 with plasma proteins and their effects on the release of the peptide from a PLAGA matrix.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mariette, B; Coudane, J; Vert, M

    2005-09-02

    The administration of the GRF(1-29)NH2 Growth Hormone Releasing Hormone analog is known as relevant of the concept of drug delivery system using a bioresorbable matrix. However, the release of this peptide from poly(dl-lactic acid-co-glycolic acid) matrices is affected by its insolubility at neutral in salted media and in plasma as well. In order to investigate the origin and the nature of the insolubility in these media in more details, the precipitates collected when the peptide was set in contact with saline, isotonic pH=7.4 phosphate buffer and plasma were analyzed by various techniques, namely weighting, gel chromatography, 1D- and 2D-immunoelectrophoresis, and dialysis to discern the soluble from the insoluble or aggregated fractions. It is shown that precipitation in protein-free salted media is due to a salting out phenomenon complemented by the neutralization of the solubilizing electrostatic charges in the isotonic buffer. In contrast, the precipitation in plasma is due to inter polyelectrolyte-type complexation that involved polyanionic proteins having a rather low isoelectric point like albumin, transferin, haptoglobulin and IgG immunoglobulins. When a rather large quantity of GRF(1-29)NH2 was entrapped in bioresorbable pellets working at a percolating regime after subcutaneous implantation in rats, the peptide was slowly released despite the complexation with plasma proteins. However only a very small part of the peptide was found in blood, this small part being still large enough to cause a detectable increase of the circulating growth hormone concentration. Attempts made to increase the solubility of the peptide in plasma were successful when the peptide was combined with arginine, an amino acid known to promote the poor hormonal activity of injected GRF(1-29)NH2 solutions under clinical conditions.

  1. Sequencing Cyclic Peptides by Multistage Mass Spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohimani, Hosein; Yang, Yu-Liang; Liu, Wei-Ting; Hsieh, Pei-Wen; Dorrestein, Pieter C.; Pevzner, Pavel A.

    2012-01-01

    Some of the most effective antibiotics (e.g., Vancomycin and Daptomycin) are cyclic peptides produced by non-ribosomal biosynthetic pathways. While hundreds of biomedically important cyclic peptides have been sequenced, the computational techniques for sequencing cyclic peptides are still in their infancy. Previous methods for sequencing peptide antibiotics and other cyclic peptides are based on Nuclear Magnetic Resonance spectroscopy, and require large amount (miligrams) of purified materials that, for most compounds, are not possible to obtain. Recently, development of mass spectrometry based methods has provided some hope for accurate sequencing of cyclic peptides using picograms of materials. In this paper we develop a method for sequencing of cyclic peptides by multistage mass spectrometry, and show its advantages over single stage mass spectrometry. The method is tested on known and new cyclic peptides from Bacillus brevis, Dianthus superbus and Streptomyces griseus, as well as a new family of cyclic peptides produced by marine bacteria. PMID:21751357

  2. Protective Effects Induced by Microwave-Assisted Aqueous Harpagophytum Extract on Rat Cortex Synaptosomes Challenged with Amyloid β-Peptide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrante, Claudio; Recinella, Lucia; Locatelli, Marcello; Guglielmi, Paolo; Secci, Daniela; Leporini, Lidia; Chiavaroli, Annalisa; Leone, Sheila; Martinotti, Sara; Brunetti, Luigi; Vacca, Michele; Menghini, Luigi; Orlando, Giustino

    2017-08-01

    Harpagophytum procumbens is a plant species that displays anti-inflammatory properties in multiple tissues. The iridoid glycosides arpagoside, harpagide, and procumbide appear to be the most therapeutically important constituents. In addition, harpagoside treatment exerted neuroprotective effects both in vitro and in vivo. Considering these findings, the aim of the present work is to explore the possible protective role of the previously described microwave-assisted aqueous extract of H. procumbens on rat hypothalamic (Hypo-E22) cells, and in rat cortex challenged with amyloid β-peptide (1-40). In this context, we assayed the protective effects induced by H. procumbens by measuring the levels of malondialdehyde, 3-hydroxykynurenine (3-HK), brain-derived neurotrophic factor, and tumor necrosis factor-α, 3-HK. Finally, we evaluated the effects of H. procumbens treatment on cortex levels of dopamine, norepinephrine, and serotonin. H. procumbens extract was well tolerated by Hypo-E22 cells and upregulated brain-derived neurotrophic factor gene expression but down-regulated tumor necrosis factor-α gene expression. In addition, the extract reduced amyloid β-peptide stimulation of malondialdehyde and 3-HK and blunted the decrease of dopamine, norepinephrine, and serotonin, in the cortex. In this context, our work supports further studies for the evaluation and confirmation of Harpagophytum in the management of the clinical symptoms related to Alzheimer's disease. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  3. The Effect of the Human Peptide GHK on Gene Expression Relevant to Nervous System Function and Cognitive Decline

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Loren Pickart

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Neurodegeneration, the progressive death of neurons, loss of brain function, and cognitive decline is an increasing problem for senior populations. Its causes are poorly understood and therapies are largely ineffective. Neurons, with high energy and oxygen requirements, are especially vulnerable to detrimental factors, including age-related dysregulation of biochemical pathways caused by altered expression of multiple genes. GHK (glycyl-l-histidyl-l-lysine is a human copper-binding peptide with biological actions that appear to counter aging-associated diseases and conditions. GHK, which declines with age, has health promoting effects on many tissues such as chondrocytes, liver cells and human fibroblasts, improves wound healing and tissue regeneration (skin, hair follicles, stomach and intestinal linings, boney tissue, increases collagen, decorin, angiogenesis, and nerve outgrowth, possesses anti-oxidant, anti-inflammatory, anti-pain and anti-anxiety effects, increases cellular stemness and the secretion of trophic factors by mesenchymal stem cells. Studies using the Broad Institute Connectivity Map show that GHK peptide modulates expression of multiple genes, resetting pathological gene expression patterns back to health. GHK has been recommended as a treatment for metastatic cancer, Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease, inflammation, acute lung injury, activating stem cells, pain, and anxiety. Here, we present GHK’s effects on gene expression relevant to the nervous system health and function.

  4. Biological Applications of Designed Hairpin Peptides: As Antimicrobials and as Inhibitors of Amyloidogenesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sivanesam, Kalkena

    More than 40 diseases have been associated with the misfolding of peptides (or proteins) that form fibrils with a very specific morphology. These peptides classified as amyloidogenic peptides have been implicated in the development of Alzheimer's Disease, Parkinson's Disease, Type II Diabetes, Hungtinton's Disease etc. To date, these diseases have no cure, only therapies that can ameliorate the symptoms to a degree. Inhibition of the amyloidogenesis of these peptides has been proposed as a possible treatment option. While small molecules have been heavily tested as inhibitors of amyloidogenesis, peptides have emerged as potential inhibitors. In this work, the ability of a set of designed hairpin peptides to inhibit the amyloidogenesis of two different systems, alpha-synuclein (implicated in Parkinson's Disease) and human amylin (implicated in Type II Diabetes) is tested. Using circular dichroism and thioflavin T fluorescence, the ability of these peptides to inhibit amyloidogenesis is tested. The binding loci of these inhibitors to alpha-synuclein are also explored. The use of peptides as antimicrobials on the other hand is not a novel concept. However, most antimicrobial peptides, both natural and designed, rely heavily on covalent stabilizations in order to maintain secondary structure. In this study, non-covalent stabilizations are applied to a couple of natural as well as designed antimicrobials in order to study the effects of secondary structure stabilization on biological activity.

  5. Effects of dietary supplementation with an expressed fusion peptide bovine lactoferricin-lactoferrampin on performance, immune function and intestinal mucosal morphology in piglets weaned at age 21 d.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Zhiru; Yin, Yulong; Zhang, Youming; Huang, Ruilin; Sun, Zhihong; Li, Tiejun; Chu, Wuying; Kong, Xiangfeng; Li, Lili; Geng, Meimei; Tu, Qiang

    2009-04-01

    Lactoferrin has antimicrobial activity associated with peptide fragments lactoferricin (LFC) and lactoferrampin (LFA) released on digestion. These two fragments have been expressed in Photorhabdus luminescens as a fusion peptide linked to protein cipB. The construct cipB-LFC-LFA was tested as an alternative to antimicrobial growth promoters in pig production. Sixty piglets with an average live body weight of 5.42 (sem 0.59) kg were challenged with enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli and randomly assigned to four treatment groups fed a maize-soyabean meal diet containing either no addition (C), cipB at 100 mg/kg (C+B), cipB-LFC-LFA at 100 mg/kg (C+L) or colistin sulfate at 100 mg/kg (C+CS) for 3 weeks. Compared with C, dietary supplementation with C+L for 3 weeks increased daily weight gain by 21 %, increased recovery from diarrhoea, enhanced serum glutathione peroxidase (GPx), peroxidase (POD) and total antioxidant content (T-AOC), liver GPx, POD, superoxide dismutase and T-AOC, Fe, total Fe-binding capacity, IgA, IgG and IgM levels (P < 0.05), decreased the concentration of E. coli in the ileum, caecum and colon (P < 0.05), increased the concentration of lactobacilli and bifidobacteria in the ileum, caecum and colon (P < 0.05), and promoted development of the villus-crypt architecture of the small intestine. Growth performance was similar between C+L- and C+CS-supplemented pigs. The present results indicate that LFC-LFA is an effective alternative to the feed antibiotic CS for enhancing growth performance in piglets weaned at age 21 d.

  6. Radio peptide imaging and therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buscombe, Jonh

    1997-01-01

    Full text. The concept of the magic bullet retains its attraction to us. If only we could take a drug or radioisotope and inject this intravenously and then will attach to the target cancer. This may allow imaging if labelled with a radio pharmaceutical or possibly even effective therapy. Initially work was started using antibodies of mouse origin. These have shown some utility in targeting tumors but there are problems in that these are essentially non-human proteins, often derived from mice. This leads to the formation of antibodies against that antibody so that repeat administrations lead to reduced efficacy and possibly may carry a risk anaphylaxis for the patient. Two different methods have evolved to deal with this situation. Either make antibodies more human or use smaller fragments, so that they are less likely to cause allergic reactions. The second method is to try and use a synthetic peptide. This will contain a series of amino acids which recognize a certain cell receptor. For example the somatostatin analogue Octreotide is an 8 amino acid peptide which has the same biological actions as natural somatostatin but an increased plasma half life. To this is added a linker a good example being DTPA and then radioisotope for example In-111. There we can have the complex In-111-DTPA-Octreotide which can be used to image somatostatin receptors in vivo. The main advantage over antibodies is that the cost production is less and many different variation of peptides for a particular receptor can be manufactured and assessed to find which is the optimal agent tumour imaging at a fraction of the cost of antibody production. There are two main approaches. Firstly to take a natural peptide hormone such as insulin or VIP and label by a simple method such as iodination with I-123. A group in Vienna have done it and shown good uptake of I-123 Insulin in primary hepatomas and of I-123 VIP in pancreatic cancers. Many natural peptide hormones however have a short plasma half

  7. Physicochemical properties of peptide-coated microelectrode arrays and their in vitro effects on neuroblast cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ghane-Motlagh, Bahareh, E-mail: bahar.ghane@gmail.com [Polystim Neurotechnologies Laboratory, Department of Electrical Engineering, Polytechnique Montreal, QC H3C 3A7 (Canada); Javanbakht, Taraneh; Shoghi, Fatemeh; Wilkinson, Kevin J.; Martel, Richard [Department of Chemistry, University of Montreal, QC H3C 3J7 (Canada); Sawan, Mohamad [Polystim Neurotechnologies Laboratory, Department of Electrical Engineering, Polytechnique Montreal, QC H3C 3A7 (Canada)

    2016-11-01

    Silicon micromachined neural electrode arrays, which act as an interface between bioelectronic devices and neural tissues, play an important role in chronic implants, in vivo. The biological compatibility of chronic microelectrode arrays (MEA) is an essential factor that must be taken into account in their design and fabrication. In order to improve biocompatibility of the MEAs, the surface of the electrodes was coated with polyethylene glycol (PEG) and parylene-C, which are biocompatible polymers. An in vitro study was performed to test the capacity of poly-D-lysine (PDL) to improve neural-cell adhesion and proliferation. Increased proliferation of the neuroblast cells on the microelectrodes was observed in the presence of the PDL. The presence of the peptide on the electrode surface was confirmed using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The impedance of the electrodes was not changed significantly before and after PDL deposition. Mouse neuroblast cells were seeded and cultured on the PDL coated and uncoated neural MEAs with different tip-coatings such as platinum, molybdenum, gold, sputtered iridium oxide, and carbon nanotubes. The neuroblast cells grew preferentially on and around peptide coated-microelectrode tips, as compared to the uncoated microelectrodes. - Highlights: • A novel high-density microelectrode array (MEA) for intracortical 3D recording and stimulation was designed and fabricated. • In order to improve neural-cell adhesion and proliferation, the surface of the electrodes was coated with poly-D-lysine (PDL). • An in vitro study was performed to test the capacity of PDL to improve cell adhesion and proliferation. • The neuroblast cells grew preferentially on peptide-coated microelectrode tips compared to the uncoated microelectrodes.

  8. Radiation Synovectomy: an effective alternative treatment for inflamed small joints.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karavida, N; Notopoulos, A

    2010-01-01

    An inflamed painful joint is one of the most common indications for the patient to be referred to a rheumatologist or an orthopedician. In relation to the aetiology, the therapeutic approach might be systemic, local or a combination of them in some cases, always with the thought of balancing risk with benefit for the patient. In all cases, independently of the cause, the goal of therapy is to improve the quality of life through the reduction of pain, improvement of mobility and preservation of function. Nuclear Medicine has to offer Radiosynoviorthesis, an effective alternative procedure for treating inflamed small joints. Various radionuclides are available for radiosynoviorthesis. Their selection depends on the size of the joint to be treated. Small joints are mainly treated with [169Er] erbium under a fluoroscopic or sonographic guidance, usually with a simultaneous instillation of a corticoid. Candidates for radiosynoviorthesis should have been under a six-month systemic treatment without encouraging results or should have undergone at least one unsuccessful intra-articular injection of a long acting glucocorticoid. Since 1973, when [169Er] erbium was firstly suggested as a therapeutic agent for radiosynoviorthesis of the finger joints, there has been quite enough experience in its' application. It has been found to be cost effective in providing long term relief of pain and deformity of the inflamed joints in comparison to other therapeutic approaches. Additionally, there is no radiation risk and can be performed on an out patient basis. Therefore it can stand as an effective alternative procedure for treating early stages of chronic synovitis in RA (rheumatoid arthritis) patients, with minor damage of the cartilage and the adjacent bones, and for synovitis secondary to inflammatory arthropathies.

  9. In silico panning for a non-competitive peptide inhibitor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ikebukuro Kazunori

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Peptide ligands have tremendous therapeutic potential as efficacious drugs. Currently, more than 40 peptides are available in the market for a drug. However, since costly and time-consuming synthesis procedures represent a problem for high-throughput screening, novel procedures to reduce the time and labor involved in screening peptide ligands are required. We propose the novel approach of 'in silico panning' which consists of a two-stage screening, involving affinity selection by docking simulation and evolution of the peptide ligand using genetic algorithms (GAs. In silico panning was successfully applied to the selection of peptide inhibitor for water-soluble quinoprotein glucose dehydrogenase (PQQGDH. Results The evolution of peptide ligands for a target enzyme was achieved by combining a docking simulation with evolution of the peptide ligand using genetic algorithms (GAs, which mimic Darwinian evolution. Designation of the target area as next to the substrate-binding site of the enzyme in the docking simulation enabled the selection of a non-competitive inhibitor. In all, four rounds of selection were carried out on the computer; the distribution of the docking energy decreased gradually for each generation and improvements in the docking energy were observed over the four rounds of selection. One of the top three selected peptides with the lowest docking energy, 'SERG' showed an inhibitory effect with Ki value of 20 μM. PQQGDH activity, in terms of the Vmax value, was 3-fold lower than that of the wild-type enzyme in the presence of this peptide. The mechanism of the SERG blockage of the enzyme was identified as non-competitive inhibition. We confirmed the specific binding of the peptide, and its equilibrium dissociation constant (KD value was calculated as 60 μM by surface plasmon resonance (SPR analysis. Conclusion We demonstrate an effective methodology of in silico panning for the selection of a non

  10. Modulating uranium binding affinity in engineered calmodulin EF-hand peptides: effect of phosphorylation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romain Pardoux

    Full Text Available To improve our understanding of uranium toxicity, the determinants of uranyl affinity in proteins must be better characterized. In this work, we analyzed the contribution of a phosphoryl group on uranium binding affinity in a protein binding site, using the site 1 EF-hand motif of calmodulin. The recombinant domain 1 of calmodulin from A. thaliana was engineered to impair metal binding at site 2 and was used as a structured template. Threonine at position 9 of the loop was phosphorylated in vitro, using the recombinant catalytic subunit of protein kinase CK2. Hence, the T(9TKE(12 sequence was substituted by the CK2 recognition sequence TAAE. A tyrosine was introduced at position 7, so that uranyl and calcium binding affinities could be determined by following tyrosine fluorescence. Phosphorylation was characterized by ESI-MS spectrometry, and the phosphorylated peptide was purified to homogeneity using ion-exchange chromatography. The binding constants for uranyl were determined by competition experiments with iminodiacetate. At pH 6, phosphorylation increased the affinity for uranyl by a factor of ∼5, from K(d = 25±6 nM to K(d = 5±1 nM. The phosphorylated peptide exhibited a much larger affinity at pH 7, with a dissociation constant in the subnanomolar range (K(d = 0.25±0.06 nM. FTIR analyses showed that the phosphothreonine side chain is partly protonated at pH 6, while it is fully deprotonated at pH 7. Moreover, formation of the uranyl-peptide complex at pH 7 resulted in significant frequency shifts of the ν(as(P-O and ν(s(P-O IR modes of phosphothreonine, supporting its direct interaction with uranyl. Accordingly, a bathochromic shift in ν(as(UO(2(2+ vibration (from 923 cm(-1 to 908 cm(-1 was observed upon uranyl coordination to the phosphorylated peptide. Together, our data demonstrate that the phosphoryl group plays a determining role in uranyl binding affinity to proteins at physiological pH.

  11. Glucagon-like peptide 1 inhibition of gastric emptying outweighs its insulinotropic effects in healthy humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nauck, M A; Niedereichholz, U; Ettler, R

    1997-01-01

    Glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) has been shown to inhibit gastric emptying of liquid meals in type 2 diabetic patients. It was the aim of the present study to compare the action of physiological and pharmacological doses of intravenous GLP-1-(7-36) amide and GLP-1-(7-37) on gastric emptying...... (0-240 min), integrated incremental glucose (P inhibits gastric emptying also in normal subjects, 2) physiological doses (0.4 pmol.kg-1.min-1) still have...

  12. Modulating uranium binding affinity in engineered Calmodulin EF-hand peptides: effect of phosphorylation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pardoux, Romain; Sauge-Merle, Sandrine; Lemaire, David; Guilloreau, Luc; Berthomieu, Catherine; Delangle, Pascale; Adriano, Jean-Marc

    2012-01-01

    To improve our understanding of uranium toxicity, the determinants of uranyl affinity in proteins must be better characterized. In this work, we analyzed the contribution of a phosphoryl group on uranium binding affinity in a protein binding site, using the site 1 EF-hand motif of calmodulin. The recombinant domain 1 of calmodulin from A. thaliana was engineered to impair metal binding at site 2 and was used as a structured template. Threonine at position 9 of the loop was phosphorylated in vitro, using the recombinant catalytic subunit of protein kinase CK2. Hence, the T 9 TKE 12 sequence was substituted by the CK2 recognition sequence TAAE. A tyrosine was introduced at position 7, so that uranyl and calcium binding affinities could be determined by following tyrosine fluorescence. Phosphorylation was characterized by ESI-MS spectrometry, and the phosphorylated peptide was purified to homogeneity using ion-exchange chromatography. The binding constants for uranyl were determined by competition experiments with iminodiacetate. At pH 6, phosphorylation increased the affinity for uranyl by a factor of ∼5, from K d =25±6 nM to K d =5±1 nM. The phosphorylated peptide exhibited a much larger affinity at pH 7, with a dissociation constant in the sub-nanomolar range (K d = 0.25±0.06 nM). FTIR analyses showed that the phospho-threonine side chain is partly protonated at pH 6, while it is fully deprotonated at pH 7. Moreover, formation of the uranyl-peptide complex at pH 7 resulted in significant frequency shifts of the ν as (P-O) and ν s (P-O) IR modes of phospho-threonine, supporting its direct interaction with uranyl. Accordingly, a bathochromic shift in ν as (UO 2 ) 2+ vibration (from 923 cm -1 to 908 cm -1 ) was observed upon uranyl coordination to the phosphorylated peptide. Together, our data demonstrate that the phosphoryl group plays a determining role in uranyl binding affinity to proteins at physiological pH. (authors)

  13. The effect of a beta-lactamase inhibitor peptide on bacterial membrane structure and integrity: a comparative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alaybeyoglu, Begum; Uluocak, Bilge Gedik; Akbulut, Berna Sariyar; Ozkirimli, Elif

    2017-05-01

    Co-administration of beta-lactam antibiotics and beta-lactamase inhibitors has been a favored treatment strategy against beta-lactamase-mediated bacterial antibiotic resistance, but the emergence of beta-lactamases resistant to current inhibitors necessitates the discovery of novel non-beta-lactam inhibitors. Peptides derived from the Ala46-Tyr51 region of the beta-lactamase inhibitor protein are considered as potent inhibitors of beta-lactamase; unfortunately, peptide delivery into the cell limits their potential. The properties of cell-penetrating peptides could guide the design of beta-lactamase inhibitory peptides. Here, our goal is to modify the peptide with the sequence RRGHYY that possesses beta-lactamase inhibitory activity under in vitro conditions. Inspired by the work on the cell-penetrating peptide pVEC, our approach involved the addition of the N-terminal hydrophobic residues, LLIIL, from pVEC to the inhibitor peptide to build a chimera. These residues have been reported to be critical in the uptake of pVEC. We tested the potential of RRGHYY and its chimeric derivative as a beta-lactamase inhibitory peptide on Escherichia coli cells and compared the results with the action of the antimicrobial peptide melittin, the beta-lactam antibiotic ampicillin, and the beta-lactamase inhibitor potassium clavulanate to get mechanistic details on their action. Our results show that the addition of LLIIL to the N-terminus of the beta-lactamase inhibitory peptide RRGHYY increases its membrane permeabilizing potential. Interestingly, the addition of this short stretch of hydrophobic residues also modified the inhibitory peptide such that it acquired antimicrobial property. We propose that addition of the hydrophobic LLIIL residues to the peptide N-terminus offers a promising strategy to design novel antimicrobial peptides in the battle against antibiotic resistance. Copyright © 2017 European Peptide Society and John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2017 European

  14. Two-point anchoring of a lanthanide-binding peptide to a target protein enhances the paramagnetic anisotropic effect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saio, Tomohide; Ogura, Kenji; Yokochi, Masashi; Kobashigawa, Yoshihiro; Inagaki, Fuyuhiko

    2009-01-01

    Paramagnetic lanthanide ions fixed in a protein frame induce several paramagnetic effects such as pseudo-contact shifts and residual dipolar couplings. These effects provide long-range distance and angular information for proteins and, therefore, are valuable in protein structural analysis. However, until recently this approach had been restricted to metal-binding proteins, but now it has become applicable to non-metalloproteins through the use of a lanthanide-binding tag. Here we report a lanthanide-binding peptide tag anchored via two points to the target proteins. Compared to conventional single-point attached tags, the two-point linked tag provides two to threefold stronger anisotropic effects. Though there is slight residual mobility of the lanthanide-binding tag, the present tag provides a higher anisotropic paramagnetic effect

  15. Taylor Dispersion Analysis as a promising tool for assessment of peptide-peptide interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Høgstedt, Ulrich B; Schwach, Grégoire; van de Weert, Marco; Østergaard, Jesper

    2016-10-10

    Protein-protein and peptide-peptide (self-)interactions are of key importance in understanding the physiochemical behavior of proteins and peptides in solution. However, due to the small size of peptide molecules, characterization of these interactions is more challenging than for proteins. In this work, we show that protein-protein and peptide-peptide interactions can advantageously be investigated by measurement of the diffusion coefficient using Taylor Dispersion Analysis. Through comparison to Dynamic Light Scattering it was shown that Taylor Dispersion Analysis is well suited for the characterization of protein-protein interactions of solutions of α-lactalbumin and human serum albumin. The peptide-peptide interactions of three selected peptides were then investigated in a concentration range spanning from 0.5mg/ml up to 80mg/ml using Taylor Dispersion Analysis. The peptide-peptide interactions determination indicated that multibody interactions significantly affect the PPIs at concentration levels above 25mg/ml for the two charged peptides. Relative viscosity measurements, performed using the capillary based setup applied for Taylor Dispersion Analysis, showed that the viscosity of the peptide solutions increased with concentration. Our results indicate that a viscosity difference between run buffer and sample in Taylor Dispersion Analysis may result in overestimation of the measured diffusion coefficient. Thus, Taylor Dispersion Analysis provides a practical, but as yet primarily qualitative, approach to assessment of the colloidal stability of both peptide and protein formulations. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Antimicrobial Peptides, Infections and the Skin Barrier

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, Maja Lisa; Agner, Tove

    2016-01-01

    The skin serves as a strong barrier protecting us from invading pathogens and harmful organisms. An important part of this barrier comes from antimicrobial peptides (AMPs), which are small peptides expressed abundantly in the skin. AMPs are produced in the deeper layers of the epidermis and trans......The skin serves as a strong barrier protecting us from invading pathogens and harmful organisms. An important part of this barrier comes from antimicrobial peptides (AMPs), which are small peptides expressed abundantly in the skin. AMPs are produced in the deeper layers of the epidermis...

  17. The small world yields the most effective information spreading

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lü Linyuan; Chen Duanbing; Zhou Tao

    2011-01-01

    The spreading dynamics of information and diseases are usually analyzed by using a unified framework and analogous models. In this paper, we propose a model to emphasize the essential difference between information spreading and epidemic spreading, where the memory effects, the social reinforcement and the non-redundancy of contacts are taken into account. Under certain conditions, the information spreads faster and broader in regular networks than in random networks, which to some extent supports the recent experimental observation of spreading in online society (Centola D 2010 Science 329 1194). At the same time, the simulation result indicates that the random networks tend to be favorable for effective spreading when the network size increases. This challenges the validity of the above-mentioned experiment for large-scale systems. More importantly, we show that the spreading effectiveness can be sharply enhanced by introducing a little randomness into the regular structure, namely the small-world networks yield the most effective information spreading. This work provides insights into the role of local clustering in information spreading. (paper)

  18. Investigating the effect of a single glycine to alanine substitution on interactions of antimicrobial peptide latarcin 2a with a lipid membrane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Idiong, Grace; Won, Amy; Ruscito, Annamaria; Leung, Bonnie O; Hitchcock, Adam P; Ianoul, Anatoli

    2011-09-01

    Latarcins are linear, α-helical antimicrobial peptides purified from the venom of the Central Asian spider Lachesana tarabaevi, with lytic activity against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria, erythrocytes, and yeast at micromolar concentrations. In this work, we investigated the role of the hinge in latarcin 2a (ltc2a, GLFGKLIKKFGRKAISYAVKKARGKH-COOH), which adopts a helix-hinge-helix conformation in membrane-mimicking environments, on peptide-membrane interactions and its potential effect on the selective toxicity of the peptide. A modified latarcin 2a, ltc2aG11A, obtained by replacing the glycine at position 11 with alanine (ltc2aG11A, GLFGKLIKKFARKAISYAVKKARGKH-COOH), adopts a more rigid structure due to the reduced conformational flexibility. Langmuir monolayer measurements combined with atomic force microscopy and X-ray photoemission electron microscopy (X-PEEM) indicate that both peptides bind and insert preferentially into anionic compared with zwitterionic phospholipid monolayers. Modified ltc2aG11A was found to be more disruptive of supported phospholipid bilayer modeling mammalian cell membrane. However, no considerable difference in lytic activity of the two peptides toward bacterial membrane was found. Overall the data indicate that decrease in the flexibility of ltc2a induced by the modification in the hinge region is likely to increase the peptide's nonspecific interactions with zwitterionic cell membranes and potentially increase its toxicity against eukaryotic cells.

  19. Improved Anticancer Photothermal Therapy Using the Bystander Effect Enhanced by Antiarrhythmic Peptide Conjugated Dopamine-Modified Reduced Graphene Oxide Nanocomposite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Jiantao; Lin, Yu-Hsin; Yang, Lingyan; Huang, Chih-Ching; Chen, Liliang; Wang, Wen-Cheng; Chen, Guan-Wen; Yan, Junyan; Sawettanun, Saranta; Lin, Chia-Hua

    2017-01-01

    Despite tremendous efforts toward developing novel near-infrared (NIR)-absorbing nanomaterials, improvement in therapeutic efficiency remains a formidable challenge in photothermal cancer therapy. This study aims to synthesize a specific peptide conjugated polydopamine-modified reduced graphene oxide (pDA/rGO) nanocomposite that promotes the bystander effect to facilitate cancer treatment using NIR-activated photothermal therapy. To prepare a nanoplatform capable of promoting the bystander effect in cancer cells, we immobilized antiarrhythmic peptide 10 (AAP10) on the surface of dopamine-modified rGO (AAP10-pDA/rGO). Our AAP10-pDA/rGO could promote the bystander effect by increasing the expression of connexin 43 protein in MCF-7 breast-cancer cells. Because of its tremendous ability to absorb NIR absorption, AAP10-pDA/rGO offers a high photothermal effect under NIR irradiation. This leads to a massive death of MCF-7 cells via the bystander effect. Using tumor-bearing mice as the model, it is found that NIR radiation effectively ablates breast tumor in the presence of AAP10-pDA/rGO and inhibits tumor growth by ≈100%. Therefore, this research integrates the bystander and photothermal effects into a single nanoplatform in order to facilitate an efficient photothermal therapy. Furthermore, our AAP10-pDA/rGO, which exhibits both hyperthermia and the bystander effect, can prevent breast-cancer recurrence and, therefore, has great potential for future clinical and research applications. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  20. Protective Effects of Proline-Rich Peptide in a Rat Model of Alzheimer Disease: An Electrophysiological Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalaji, Naser; Sarkissian, John; Chavushyan, Vergine; Sarkisian, Vaghinak

    2017-01-01

    Alzheimer disease (AD) is the most common form of dementia in the elderly that slowly destroys memory and cognitive functions. The disease has no cure and leads to significant structural and functional brain abnormalities. To facilitate the treatment of this disease, we aimed to investigate proline-rich peptide (PRP-1) action of hypothalamus on hippocampal (HP) neurons and dynamics of their recovery, after intracerebroventricular (ICV) injection of amyloid-β (Aβ). Experiments were carried out on 24 adult, male Albino rats (average weight: 230±30 g). The animals were randomly divided into 3 groups (control, Aβ, and Aβ plus PRP-1). Electrophysiological patterns of hippocampal neurons in response to stimulation of entorhinal cortex (EC) with high frequency stimulation (50 Hz) were studied. It was found that Aβ (25-35) suppresses the electrical activity of hippocampal neurons. The PRP-1 would return this activity to normal levels. In general, PRP-1 has protective effect against AD-related alterations induced by amyloid peptides. This protective effect is probably due to stimulation of the immune and glia system.

  1. The Effects of Antimicrobial Peptide Nal-P-113 on Inhibiting Periodontal Pathogens and Improving Periodontal Status

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongyan Wang

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Periodontal disease consists of chronic gingival inflammation characterized by both degradation of the periodontal connective tissue and alveolar bone loss. Drug therapy is used as an auxiliary treatment method in severe chronic periodontitis, aggressive periodontitis, and periodontitis-associated systemic disease. Nal-P-113, a modified antimicrobial peptide, specifically replaces the histidine residues of P-113 with the bulky amino acid β-naphthylalanine, and our previous studies have verified that this novel peptide is not toxic to the human body within a certain concentration range. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the effect of Nal-P-113 on periodontal pathogens and periodontal status in clinical studies. In a split-mouth clinical trial, the pocket depth and bleeding index values tended to decrease in the experimental group compared with those in the control group. SEM results verified that Nal-P-113 restrained the maturation of plaque. Based on real-time polymerase chain reaction, the levels of Fusobacterium nucleatum, Streptococcus gordonii, Treponema denticola, and Porphyromonas gingivalis in subgingival plaque were decreased when the subjects were given Nal-P-113. Bacterial growth curve analysis and a biofilm susceptibility assay verified that Nal-P-113 at a concentration of 20 μg/mL restrained the growth of S. gordonii, F. nucleatum, and P. gingivalis and biofilm formation. Therefore, Nal-P-113 effectively reduces periodontal pathogens and ameliorates periodontal status.

  2. Anxiolytic-Like Effect of a Salmon Phospholipopeptidic Complex Composed of Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids and Bioactive Peptides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nabila Belhaj

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available A phospholipopeptidic complex obtained by the enzymatic hydrolysis of salmon heads in green conditions; exert anxiolytic-like effects in a time and dose-dependent manner, with no affection of locomotor activity. This study focused on the physico-chemical properties of the lipidic and peptidic fractions from this natural product. The characterization of mineral composition, amino acid and fatty acids was carried out. Stability of nanoemulsions allowed us to realize a behavioral study conducted with four different tests on 80 mice. This work highlighted the dose dependent effects of the natural complex and its various fractions over a period of 14 days compared to a conventional anxiolytic. The intracellular redox status of neural cells was evaluated in order to determine the free radicals scavenging potential of these products in the central nervous system (CNS, after mice sacrifice. The complex peptidic fraction showed a strong scavenging property and similar results were found for the complex as well as its lipidic fraction. For the first time, the results of this study showed the anxiolytic-like and neuroprotective properties of a phospholipopeptidic complex extracted from salmon head. The applications on anxiety disorders might be relevant, depending on the doses, the fraction used and the chronicity of the supplementation.

  3. Exocrine Gland-Secreting Peptide 1 Is a Key Chemosensory Signal Responsible for the Bruce Effect in Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hattori, Tatsuya; Osakada, Takuya; Masaoka, Takuto; Ooyama, Rumi; Horio, Nao; Mogi, Kazutaka; Nagasawa, Miho; Haga-Yamanaka, Sachiko; Touhara, Kazushige; Kikusui, Takefumi

    2017-10-23

    The Bruce effect refers to pregnancy termination in recently pregnant female rodents upon exposure to unfamiliar males [1]. This event occurs in specific combinations of laboratory mouse strains via the vomeronasal system [2, 3]; however, the responsible chemosensory signals have not been fully identified. Here we demonstrate that the male pheromone exocrine gland-secreting peptide 1 (ESP1) is one of the key factors that causes pregnancy block. Female mice exhibited high pregnancy failure rates upon encountering males that secreted different levels of ESP1 compared to the mated male. The effect was not observed in mice that lacked the ESP1 receptor, V2Rp5, which is expressed in vomeronasal sensory neurons. Prolactin surges in the blood after mating, which are essential for maintaining luteal function, were suppressed by ESP1 exposure, suggesting that a neuroendocrine mechanism underlies ESP1-mediated pregnancy failure. The single peptide pheromone ESP1 conveys not only maleness to promote female receptivity but also the males' characteristics to facilitate memorization of the mating partner. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Improving Peptide Applications Using Nanotechnology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narayanaswamy, Radhika; Wang, Tao; Torchilin, Vladimir P

    2016-01-01

    Peptides are being successfully used in various fields including therapy and drug delivery. With advancement in nanotechnology and targeted delivery carrier systems, suitable modification of peptides has enabled achievement of many desirable goals over-riding some of the major disadvantages associated with the delivery of peptides in vivo. Conjugation or physical encapsulation of peptides to various nanocarriers, such as liposomes, micelles and solid-lipid nanoparticles, has improved their in vivo performance multi-fold. The amenability of peptides to modification in chemistry and functionalization with suitable nanocarriers are very relevant aspects in their use and have led to the use of 'smart' nanoparticles with suitable linker chemistries that favor peptide targeting or release at the desired sites, minimizing off-target effects. This review focuses on how nanotechnology has been used to improve the number of peptide applications. The paper also focuses on the chemistry behind peptide conjugation to nanocarriers, the commonly employed linker chemistries and the several improvements that have already been achieved in the areas of peptide use with the help of nanotechnology.

  5. Effect of micelle interface on the binding of anticoccidial PW2 peptide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tinoco, Luzineide W.; Gomes-Neto, Francisco; Valente, Ana Paula; Almeida, Fabio C. L.

    2007-01-01

    PW2 is an anticoccidial peptide active against Eimeria acervulina and Eimeria tenella. We determined the structure of PW2 in dodecylphosphocholine micelles. The structure showed two distinct regions: an amphipathic N-terminal 3 10 helix and an aromatic region containing WWR interface-binding motif. The aromatic region acted as a scaffold of the protein in the interface and shared the same structure in both DPC and SDS micelles. N-terminal helix interacted with DPC but not with SDS interface. Chemical shift change was slow when SDS was added to PW2 in DPC and fast when DPC was added to PW2 in SDS, indicating that interaction with DPC micelles was kinetically more stable than with SDS micelles. Also, DPC interface was able to accommodate PW2, but it maintained the conformational arrangement in the aromatic region observed for SDS micelles. This behavior, which is different from that observed for other antimicrobial peptides with WWR motif, may be associated with the absence of PW2 antibacterial activity and its selectivity for Eimeria parasites

  6. Effect of micelle interface on the binding of anticoccidial PW2 peptide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tinoco, Luzineide W. [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Nucleo de Pesquisas de Produtos Naturais (Brazil); Gomes-Neto, Francisco; Valente, Ana Paula; Almeida, Fabio C. L. [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Centro Nacional de Ressonancia Magnetica Nuclear Jiri Jonas, Instituto de Bioquimica Medica, Programa de Biologia Estrutural (Brazil)], E-mail: falmeida@cnrmn.bioqmed.ufrj.br

    2007-12-15

    PW2 is an anticoccidial peptide active against Eimeria acervulina and Eimeria tenella. We determined the structure of PW2 in dodecylphosphocholine micelles. The structure showed two distinct regions: an amphipathic N-terminal 3{sub 10} helix and an aromatic region containing WWR interface-binding motif. The aromatic region acted as a scaffold of the protein in the interface and shared the same structure in both DPC and SDS micelles. N-terminal helix interacted with DPC but not with SDS interface. Chemical shift change was slow when SDS was added to PW2 in DPC and fast when DPC was added to PW2 in SDS, indicating that interaction with DPC micelles was kinetically more stable than with SDS micelles. Also, DPC interface was able to accommodate PW2, but it maintained the conformational arrangement in the aromatic region observed for SDS micelles. This behavior, which is different from that observed for other antimicrobial peptides with WWR motif, may be associated with the absence of PW2 antibacterial activity and its selectivity for Eimeria parasites.

  7. Effect of introduction of chondroitin sulfate into polymer-peptide conjugate responding to intracellular signals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomiyama, Tetsuro; Toita, Riki; Kang, Jeong-Hun; Koga, Haruka; Shiosaki, Shujiro; Mori, Takeshi; Niidome, Takuro; Katayama, Yoshiki

    2011-09-01

    We recently developed a novel tumor-targeted gene delivery system responding to hyperactivated intracellular signals. Polymeric carrier for gene delivery consists of hydrophilic neutral polymer as main chains and cationic peptide substrate for target enzyme as side chains, and was named polymer-peptide conjugate (PPC). Introduction of chondroitin sulfate (CS), which induces receptor-medicated endocytosis, into polymers mainly with a high cationic charge density such as polyethylenimine can increase tumor-targeted gene delivery. In the present study, we examined whether introduction of CS into PPC containing five cationic amino acids can increase gene expression in tumor cells. Size and zeta potential of plasmid DNA (pDNA)/PPC/CS complex were <200 nm and between -10 and -15 mV, respectively. In tumor cell experiments, pDNA/PPC/CS complex showed lower stability and gene regulation, compared with that of pDNA/PPC. Moreover, no difference in gene expression was identified between positive and negative polymer. These results were caused by fast disintegration of pDNA/PPC/CS complexes in the presence of serum. Thus, we suggest that introduction of negatively charged CS into polymers with a low charge density may lead to low stability and gene regulation of complexes.

  8. SMALL GROUP LEARNING METHODS AND THEIR EFFECT ON LEARNERS’ RELATIONSHIPS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radka Borůvková

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Building relationships in the classroom is an essential part of any teacher's career. Having healthy teacher-to-learner and learner-to-learner relationships is an effective way to help prevent pedagogical failure, social conflict and quarrelsome behavior. Many strategies are available that can be used to achieve good long-lasting relationships in the classroom setting. Successful teachers’ pedagogical work in the classroom requires detailed knowledge of learners’ relationships. Good understanding of the relationships is necessary, especially in the case of teenagers’ class. This sensitive period of adolescence demands attention of all teachers who should deal with the problems of their learners. Special care should be focused on children that are out of their classmates’ interest (so called isolated learners or isolates in such class and on possibilities to integrate them into the class. Natural idea how to do it is that of using some modern non-traditional teaching/learning methods, especially the methods based on work in small groups involving learners’ cooperation. Small group education (especially problem-based learning, project-based learning, cooperative learning, collaborative learning or inquire-based learning as one of these methods involves a high degree of interaction. The effectiveness of learning groups is determined by the extent to which the interaction enables members to clarify their own understanding, build upon each other's contributions, sift out meanings, ask and answer questions. An influence of this kind of methods (especially cooperative learning (CL on learners’ relationships was a subject of the further described research. Within the small group education, students work with their classmates to solve complex and authentic problems that help develop content knowledge as well as problem-solving, reasoning, communication, and self-assessment skills. The aim of the research was to answer the question: Can the

  9. Antimicrobial peptide CAP18 and its effect on Yersinia ruckeri infections in rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss (Walbaum): comparing administration by injection and oral routes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chettri, Jiwan Kumar; Mehrdana, F.; Hansen, Egon Bech

    2017-01-01

    The antimicrobial peptide CAP18 has been demonstrated to have a strong in vitro bactericidal effect on Yersinia ruckeri, but its activity in vivo has not been described. In this work, we investigated whether CAP18 protects rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss (Walbaum) against enteric red mouth...... the conventional antibiotic oxolinic acid. Oral administration of CAP18 to trout did not prevent infection. The proteolytic effect of secretions on the peptide CAP18 in the fish gastrointestinal tract is suggested to account for the inferior effect of oral administration....

  10. Absence of a memory effect for the insulinotropic action of glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) in healthy volunteers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meier, S; Hücking, K; Ritzel, R

    2003-01-01

    of glucose was injected intravenously (0.33 g/kg body weight). GLP-1 was infused from (b). - 60 to 120 min, (c). - 210 to - 30 min, or (d). - 300 to - 120 min. Glucose (glucose oxidase), insulin, C-peptide, GLP-1, and glucagon (immunoassays) were determined. Statistical analysis was carried out by ANOVA......BACKGROUND/AIMS: The term memory effect refers to the phenomenon that B cell stimuli retain some of their insulinotropic effects after they have been removed. Memory effects exist for glucose and sulfonylureas. It is not known whether there is a B-cell memory for incretin hormones such as GLP-1...... and appropriate post hoc tests. RESULTS: GLP-1 plasma levels during the infusion periods were elevated to 89 +/- 9, 85 +/- 13, and 89 +/- 6 pmol/l (p Glucose was eliminated faster (p

  11. Additive glucose-lowering effects of glucagon-like peptide-1 and metformin in type 2 diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zander, M; Taskiran, M; Toft-Nielsen, M B

    2001-01-01

    ) alternating with GLP-1 (continuous subcutaneous infusion of 2.4 pmol x kg(-1) x min(-1)) alternating with a combination of metformin and GLP-1 for 48 h. Under fixed energy intake, we examined the effects on plasma glucose, insulin, C-peptide, glucagon, and appetite. RESULTS: Fasting plasma glucose (day 2...... this study to investigate the effect of a combination therapy with GLP-1 and metformin, which could theoretically be additive, in type 2 diabetic patients. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: In a semiblinded randomized crossover study, seven patients received treatment with metformin (1,500 mg daily orally......) and 11.7 +/- 0.8 (GLP-1) to 9.8 +/- 0.5 (combination) (P = 0.02, no difference between GLP-1 and metformin). Insulin levels were similar between the three regimens, but glucagon levels were significantly reduced with GLP-1 compared with metformin (P = 0.0003). Combination therapy had no additional effect...

  12. Effects of linker variation on the in vitro and in vivo characteristics of an 111In-labeled RGD peptide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dijkgraaf, Ingrid; Liu, Shuang; Kruijtzer, John A.W.; Soede, Annemieke C.; Oyen, Wim J.G.; Liskamp, Rob M.J.; Corstens, Frans H.M.; Boerman, Otto C.

    2007-01-01

    Introduction: Due to the selective expression of the α v β 3 integrin in tumors, radiolabeled arginine-glycine-aspartic acid (RGD) peptides are attractive candidates for tumor targeting. Minor modifications of these peptides could have a major impact on in vivo characteristics. In this study, we systematically investigated the effects of linker modification between two cyclic RGD sequences and DOTA (1,4,7,10-tetraazadodecane-N,N',N ' ,N'''-tetraacetic acid) on the in vitro and in vivo characteristics of the tracer. Methods: A dimeric RGD peptide was synthesized and conjugated either directly with DOTA or via different linkers: PEG 4 (polyethylene glycol), glutamic acid or lysine. The RGD peptides were radiolabeled with 111 In, and their in vitro and in vivo α v β 3 -binding characteristics were determined. Results: LogP values varied between -2.82±0.06 and -3.95±0.33. The IC 50 values for DOTA-E-[c(RGDfK)] 2 , DOTA-PEG 4 -E-[c(RGDfK)] 2 , DOTA-E-E-[c(RGDfK)] 2 and DOTA-K-E-[c(RGDfK)] 2 were comparable. Two hours after injection, the tumor uptakes of the 111 In-labeled compounds were not significantly different. The kidney accumulation of [ 111 In]-DOTA-K-E-[c(RGDfK)] 2 [4.05±0.20% of the injected dose per gram (ID/g)] was significantly higher as compared with that of [ 111 In]-DOTA-E-[c(RGDfK)] 2 (2.63±0.19% ID/g; P 111 In]-DOTA-E-E-[c(RGDfK)] 2 (2.16±0.21% ID/g; P 111 In]-DOTA-E-E-[c(RGDfK)] 2 (2.12±0.09% ID/g) was significantly higher as compared with that of [ 111 In]-DOTA-E-[c(RGDfK)] 2 (1.64±0.1% ID/g; P 111 In]-DOTA-K-E-[c(RGDfK)] 2 (1.52±0.04% ID/g; P v β 3 and tumor uptake. Insertion of lysine caused enhanced kidney retention; that of glutamic acid also resulted in enhanced retention in the kidneys. PEG 4 appeared to be the most suitable linker as compared with glutamic acid and lysine because it has the highest tumor-to-blood ratio and the lowest uptake in the kidney and liver

  13. Peptide Integrated Optics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Handelman, Amir; Lapshina, Nadezda; Apter, Boris; Rosenman, Gil

    2018-02-01

    Bio-nanophotonics is a wide field in which advanced optical materials, biomedicine, fundamental optics, and nanotechnology are combined and result in the development of biomedical optical chips. Silk fibers or synthetic bioabsorbable polymers are the main light-guiding components. In this work, an advanced concept of integrated bio-optics is proposed, which is based on bioinspired peptide optical materials exhibiting wide optical transparency, nonlinear and electrooptical properties, and effective passive and active waveguiding. Developed new technology combining bottom-up controlled deposition of peptide planar wafers of a large area and top-down focus ion beam lithography provides direct fabrication of peptide optical integrated circuits. Finding a deep modification of peptide optical properties by reconformation of biological secondary structure from native phase to β-sheet architecture is followed by the appearance of visible fluorescence and unexpected transition from a native passive optical waveguiding to an active one. Original biocompatibility, switchable regimes of waveguiding, and multifunctional nonlinear optical properties make these new peptide planar optical materials attractive for application in emerging technology of lab-on-biochips, combining biomedical photonic and electronic circuits toward medical diagnosis, light-activated therapy, and health monitoring. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  14. Two strategies for the development of mitochondrion-targeted small molecule radiation damage mitigators

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rwigema, Jean-Claude M.; Beck, Barbara; Wang, Wei; Doemling, Alexander; Epperly, Michael W.; Shields, Donna; Goff, Julie P.; Franicola, Darcy; Dixon, Tracy; Frantz, Marie-Céline; Wipf, Peter; Tyurina, Yulia; Kagan, Valerian E.; Wang, Hong; Greenberger, Joel S.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the effectiveness of mitigation of acute ionizing radiation damage by mitochondrion-targeted small molecules. Methods and Materials: We evaluated the ability of nitroxide-linked alkene peptide isostere JP4-039, the nitric oxide synthase inhibitor-linked alkene peptide esostere

  15. Acylation of Therapeutic Peptides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trier, Sofie; Henriksen, Jonas Rosager; Jensen, Simon Bjerregaard

    ) , which promotes intestinal growth and is used to treat bowel disorders such as inflammatory bowel diseases and short bowel syndrome, and the 32 amino acid salmon calcitonin (sCT), which lowers blood calcium and is employed in the treatment of post-menopausal osteoporosis and hypercalcemia. The two...... peptides are similar in size and structure, but oppositely charged at physiological pH. Both peptides were acylated with linear acyl chains of systematically increasing length, where sCT was furthermore acylated at two different positions on the peptide backbone. For GLP-2, we found that increasing acyl...... remained optimal overall. The results indicate that rational acylation of GLP-2 can increase its in vitro intestinal absorption, alone or in combination with permeation enhancers, and are consistent with the initial project hypothesis. For sCT, an unpredicted effect of acylation largely superseded...

  16. Natriuretic peptides and cerebral hemodynamics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guo, Song; Barringer, Filippa; Zois, Nora Elisabeth

    2014-01-01

    Natriuretic peptides have emerged as important diagnostic and prognostic tools for cardiovascular disease. Plasma measurement of the bioactive peptides as well as precursor-derived fragments is a sensitive tool in assessing heart failure. In heart failure, the peptides are used as treatment...... in decompensated disease. In contrast, their biological effects on the cerebral hemodynamics are poorly understood. In this mini-review, we summarize the hemodynamic effects of the natriuretic peptides with a focus on the cerebral hemodynamics. In addition, we will discuss its potential implications in diseases...... where alteration of the cerebral hemodynamics plays a role such as migraine and acute brain injury including stroke. We conclude that a possible role of the peptides is feasible as evaluated from animal and in vitro studies, but more research is needed in humans to determine the precise response...

  17. Hypotensive Effects and Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitory Peptides of Reishi (Ganoderma lingzhi Auto-Digested Extract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hai-Bang Tran

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Reishi (Ganoderma lingzhi has been used as a traditional medicine for millennia. However, relatively little is known about this mushroom’s proteins and their bioactivities. In this study, we used reishi’s own proteases to hydrolyze its protein and obtained auto-digested reishi (ADR extract. The extract was subjected to in vitro assays and administered to spontaneous hypertensive rats (SHRs to determine its potential for use as a hypotensive medication. Bioassay-guided fractionation and de novo sequencing were used for identifying the active compounds. After 4 h administration of ADR, the systolic pressure of SHRs significantly decreased to 34.3 mmHg (19.5% change and the effect was maintained up to 8 h of administration, with the decrease reaching as low as 26.8 mmHg (15% reduction–compare to base line a decrease of 26.8 mmHg is less than a decrease of 34.3 mmHg so it should give a smaller % reduction. Eleven peptides were identified and four of them showed potent inhibition against ACE with IC50 values ranging from 73.1 μM to 162.7 μM. The results showed that ADR could be a good source of hypotensive peptides that could be used for antihypertensive medication or incorporation into functional foods.

  18. Cardiac effects of 3 months treatment of acromegaly evaluated by magnetic resonance imaging and B-type natriuretic peptides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andreassen, Mikkel; Faber, Jens; Kjær, Andreas

    2010-01-01

    Long-term treatment of acromegaly prevents aggravation and reverses associated heart disease. A previous study has shown a temporary increase in serum levels of the N-terminal fraction of pro B-type natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP) suggesting an initial decline in cardiac function when treatment...... of acromegaly is initiated. This was a three months prospective study investigating short-term cardiac effects of treatment in acromegalic patients. Cardiac function was evaluated by the gold standard method cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (CMRI) and circulating levels of B-type natriuretic peptides (BNP......) (95% CI 3-14), P = 0.007) and an increase in levels of BNP (median (ranges) 7 (0.58-286) vs. 20 (1-489) pg/mL, P = 0.033) and of NT-proBNP (63 (20-1004) vs. 80 (20-3391) pg/mL, P = 0.027). Assessed by the highly sensitive and precise CMRI method, 3 months treatment of acromegaly resulted...

  19. Sensitivity of ab Initio vs Empirical Methods in Computing Structural Effects on NMR Chemical Shifts for the Example of Peptides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sumowski, Chris Vanessa; Hanni, Matti; Schweizer, Sabine; Ochsenfeld, Christian

    2014-01-14

    The structural sensitivity of NMR chemical shifts as computed by quantum chemical methods is compared to a variety of empirical approaches for the example of a prototypical peptide, the 38-residue kaliotoxin KTX comprising 573 atoms. Despite the simplicity of empirical chemical shift prediction programs, the agreement with experimental results is rather good, underlining their usefulness. However, we show in our present work that they are highly insensitive to structural changes, which renders their use for validating predicted structures questionable. In contrast, quantum chemical methods show the expected high sensitivity to structural and electronic changes. This appears to be independent of the quantum chemical approach or the inclusion of solvent effects. For the latter, explicit solvent simulations with increasing number of snapshots were performed for two conformers of an eight amino acid sequence. In conclusion, the empirical approaches neither provide the expected magnitude nor the patterns of NMR chemical shifts determined by the clearly more costly ab initio methods upon structural changes. This restricts the use of empirical prediction programs in studies where peptide and protein structures are utilized for the NMR chemical shift evaluation such as in NMR refinement processes, structural model verifications, or calculations of NMR nuclear spin relaxation rates.

  20. Therapeutic peptides for cancer therapy. Part I - peptide inhibitors of signal transduction cascades.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bidwell, Gene L; Raucher, Drazen

    2009-10-01

    Therapeutic peptides have great potential as anticancer agents owing to their ease of rational design and target specificity. However, their utility in vivo is limited by low stability and poor tumor penetration. The authors review the development of peptide inhibitors with potential for cancer therapy. Peptides that inhibit signal transduction cascades are discussed. The authors searched Medline for articles concerning the development of therapeutic peptides and their delivery. Given our current knowledge of protein sequences, structures and interaction interfaces, therapeutic peptides that inhibit interactions of interest are easily designed. These peptides are advantageous because they are highly specific for the interaction of interest, and they are much more easily developed than small molecule inhibitors of the same interactions. The main hurdle to application of peptides for cancer therapy is their poor pharmacokinetic and biodistribution parameters. Therefore, successful development of peptide delivery vectors could potentially make possible the use of this new and very promising class of anticancer agents.

  1. Effective intracellular inhibition of the cAMP-dependent protein kinase by microinjection of a modified form of the specific inhibitor peptide PKi in living fibroblasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez, A; Mery, J; Vandromme, M; Basset, M; Cavadore, J C; Lamb, N J

    1991-08-01

    In order to obtain a peptide retaining its biological activity following microinjection into living cells, we have modified a synthetic peptide [PKi(m)(6-24)], derived from the specific inhibitor protein of the cAMP-dependent protein kinase (A-kinase) in two ways: (1) substitution of the arginine at position 18 for a D-arginine; (2) blockade of the side chain on the C-terminal aspartic acid by a cyclohexyl ester group. In an in vitro assay, PKi(m) has retained a specific inhibitory activity against A-kinase as assessed against six other kinases, with similar efficiency to that of the unmodified PKi(5-24) peptide. Microinjection of PKi(m) into living fibroblasts reveals its capacity to prevent the changes in cell morphology and cytoskeleton induced by drugs which activate endogenous A-kinase, whereas the original PKi peptide failed to do so. This inhibition of A-kinase in vivo by PKi(m) lasts between 4 and 6 h after injection. In light of its effective half-life, this modified peptide opens a route for the use of biologically active peptides in vivo, an approach which has been hampered until now by the exceedingly short half-life of peptides inside living cells. By providing a direct means of inhibiting A-kinase activity for sufficiently long periods to observe effects on cellular functions in living cells, PKi(m) represents a powerful tool in studying the potential role of cAMP-dependent phosphorylation in vivo.

  2. Determination of effective charges and ionic mobilities of polycationic antimicrobial peptides by capillary isotachophoresis and capillary zone electrophoresis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tůmová, Tereza; Monincová, Lenka; Nešuta, Ondřej; Čeřovský, Václav; Kašička, Václav

    2017-08-01

    Capillary ITP (CITP) and CZE were applied to the determination of effective charges and ionic mobilities of polycationic antimicrobial peptides (AMPs). Twelve AMPs (deca- to hexadecapeptides) containing three to seven basic amino acid residues (His, Lys, Arg) at variable positions of peptide chain were investigated. Effective charges of the AMPs were determined from the lengths of their ITP zones, ionic mobilities, and molar concentrations, and from the same parameters of the reference compounds. Lengths of the ITP zones of AMPs and reference compounds were obtained from their CITP analyses in cationic mode using leading electrolyte (LE) composed of 10 mM NH 4 OH, 40 mM AcOH (acetic acid), pH 4.1, and terminating electrolyte (TE) containing 40 mM AcOH, pH 3.2. Ionic mobilities of AMPs and singly charged reference compounds (ammediol or arginine) were determined by their CZE analyses in the BGE of the same composition as the LE. The effective charges numbers of AMPs were found to be in the range 1.65-5.04, i.e. significantly reduced as compared to the theoretical charge numbers (2.86-6.99) calculated from the acidity constants of the analyzed AMPs. This reduction of effective charge due to tightly bound acetate counterions (counterion condensation) was in the range 17-47% depending on the number and type of the basic amino acid residues in the AMPs molecules. Ionic mobilities of AMPs achieved values (26.5-38.6) × 10 -9  m 2 V -1 s -1 and in most cases were in a good agreement with the ratio of their effective charges and relative molecular masses. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  3. Effects of small hydropower plants on mercury concentrations in fish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cebalho, Elaine C; Díez, Sergi; Dos Santos Filho, Manoel; Muniz, Claumir Cesar; Lázaro, Wilkinson; Malm, Olaf; Ignácio, Aurea R A

    2017-10-01

    Although the impacts of large dams on freshwater biota are relatively well known, the effects of small hydropower plants (SHP) are not well investigated. In this work, we studied if mercury (Hg) concentrations in fish rise in two tropical SHP reservoirs, and whether similar effects take place during impoundment. Total Hg concentrations in several fish species were determined at two SHP in the Upper Guaporé River basin floodplain, Brazil. In total, 185 specimens were analysed for Hg content in dorsal muscle and none of them reported levels above the safety limit (500 μg kg -1 ) for fish consumption recommended by the World Health Organisation (WHO). The highest levels of Hg (231 and 447 μg kg -1 ) were found in carnivorous species in both reservoirs. Mercury increased as a function of standard length in most of the fish populations in the reservoirs, and higher Hg concentrations were found in fish at the reservoir compared with fish downstream. The high dissolved oxygen concentrations and high transparency of the water column (i.e. oligotrophic reservoir) together with the absence of thermal stratification may explain low Hg methylation and low MeHg levels found in fish after flooding. Overall, according to limnological characteristics of water, we may hypothesise that reservoir conditions are not favourable to high net Hg methylation.

  4. Effects of compositional defects on small polaron hopping in micas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosso, Kevin M; Ilton, Eugene S

    2005-06-22

    Hartree-Fock calculations and electron transfer (ET) theory were used to model the effects of compositional defects on ET in the brucite-like octahedral sheet of mica. ET was modeled as an Fe(IIIII) valence interchange reaction across shared octahedral edges of the M2-M2 iron sublattice. The model entails the hopping of localized electrons and small polaron behavior. Hartree-Fock calculations indicate that substitution of F for structural OH bridges increases the reorganization energy lambda, decreases the electronic coupling matrix element V(AB), and thereby substantially decreases the hopping rate. The lambda increase arises from modification of the metal-ligand bond force constants, and the V(AB) decrease arises from reduction of superexchange interaction through anion bridges. Deprotonation of an OH bridge, consistent with a possible mechanism of maintaining charge neutrality during net oxidation, yields a net increase in the ET rate. Although substitution of Al or Mg for Fe in M1 sites distorts the structure of adjacent Fe-occupied M2 sites, the distortion has little net impact on ET rates through these M2 sites. Hence the main effect of Al or Mg substitution for Fe, should it occur in the M2 sublattice, is to block ET pathways. Collectively, these findings pave the way for larger-scale oxidation/reduction models to be constructed for realistic, compositionally diverse micas.

  5. Anti-nociceptive effects of calcitonin gene-related peptide in nucleus raphe magnus of rats: an effect attenuated by naloxone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Y; Brodda-Jansen, G; Lundeberg, T; Yu, L C

    2000-08-04

    The present study investigated the role of calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) on nociception in nucleus raphe magnus (NRM) and the interaction between CGRP and opioid peptides in NRM of rats. CGRP-like immunoreactivity was found at a concentration of 6.0+/-0. 77 pmol/g in NRM tissue of ten samples of rats, suggesting that it may contribute to physiological responses orchestrated by the NRM. The hindpaw withdrawal latency (HWL) to thermal and mechanical stimulation increased significantly after intra-NRM administration of 0.5 or 1 nmol of CGRP in rats, but not 0.25 nmol. The anti-nociceptive effect induced by CGRP was antagonized by following intra-NRM injection of 1 nmol of the CGRP receptor antagonist CGRP8-37. Furthermore, the CGRP-induced anti-nociceptive effect was attenuated by following intra-NRM administration of 6 nmol of naloxone. The results indicate that CGRP and its receptors play an important role in anti-nociception, and there is a possible interaction between CGRP and opioid peptides in NRM of rats.

  6. Peptide chemistry toolbox - Transforming natural peptides into peptide therapeutics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erak, Miloš; Bellmann-Sickert, Kathrin; Els-Heindl, Sylvia; Beck-Sickinger, Annette G

    2018-06-01

    The development of solid phase peptide synthesis has released tremendous opportunities for using synthetic peptides in medicinal applications. In the last decades, peptide therapeutics became an emerging market in pharmaceutical industry. The need for synthetic strategies in order to improve peptidic properties, such as longer half-life, higher bioavailability, increased potency and efficiency is accordingly rising. In this mini-review, we present a toolbox of modifications in peptide chemistry for overcoming the main drawbacks during the transition from natural peptides to peptide therapeutics. Modifications at the level of the peptide backbone, amino acid side chains and higher orders of structures are described. Furthermore, we are discussing the future of peptide therapeutics development and their impact on the pharmaceutical market. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Effect of liraglutide on atrial natriuretic peptide, adrenomedullin, and copeptin in PCOS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frøssing, Signe; Nylander, Malin; Kistorp, Caroline

    2018-01-01

    CONTEXT: Women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) have an increased risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD), and biomarkers can be used to detect early subclinical CVD. Midregional-pro-adrenomedullin (MR-proADM), midregional-pro-atrial natriuretic peptide (MR-proANP) and copeptin are all associated......-proANP. OBJECTIVE: To investigate if treatment with liraglutide in women with PCOS reduces levels of the cardiovascular biomarkers MR-proADM, MR-proANP and copeptin. METHODS: Seventy-two overweight women with PCOS were treated with 1.8 mg/day liraglutide or placebo for 26 weeks in a placebo-controlled RCT...... in the liraglutide group. Multiple regression analyses with adjustment for BMI, free testosterone, insulin resistance, visceral fat, heart rate and eGFR showed reductions in MR-proANP to be independently correlated with an increase in the heart rate. CONCLUSION: In an RCT, liraglutide treatment in women with PCOS...

  8. Independent effects of both right and left ventricular function on plasma brain natriuretic peptide

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vogelsang, Thomas Wiis; Jensen, Ruben J; Monrad, Astrid L

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Brain natriuretic peptide (BNP) is increased in heart failure; however, the relative contribution of the right and left ventricles is largely unknown. AIM: To investigate if right ventricular function has an independent influence on plasma BNP concentration. METHODS: Right (RVEF), left......, which is a strong prognostic marker in heart failure, independently depends on both left and right ventricular systolic function. This might, at least in part, explain why BNP holds stronger prognostic value than LVEF alone....... ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF), and left ventricular end-diastolic volume index (LVEDVI) were determined in 105 consecutive patients by first-pass radionuclide ventriculography (FP-RNV) and multiple ECG-gated equilibrium radionuclide ventriculography (ERNV), respectively. BNP was analyzed by immunoassay...

  9. Independent effects of both right and left ventricular function on plasma brain natriuretic peptide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogelsang, Thomas Wiis; Jensen, Ruben J; Monrad, Astrid L; Russ, Kaspar; Olesen, Uffe H; Hesse, Birger; Kjaer, Andreas

    2007-09-01

    Brain natriuretic peptide (BNP) is increased in heart failure; however, the relative contribution of the right and left ventricles is largely unknown. To investigate if right ventricular function has an independent influence on plasma BNP concentration. Right (RVEF), left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF), and left ventricular end-diastolic volume index (LVEDVI) were determined in 105 consecutive patients by first-pass radionuclide ventriculography (FP-RNV) and multiple ECG-gated equilibrium radionuclide ventriculography (ERNV), respectively. BNP was analyzed by immunoassay. Mean LVEF was 0.51 (range 0.10-0.83) with 36% having a reduced LVEF (left and right ventricular systolic function. This might, at least in part, explain why BNP holds stronger prognostic value than LVEF alone.

  10. Cellular delivery and antisense effects of peptide nucleic acid conjugated to polyethyleneimine via disulfide linkers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berthold, Peter R; Shiraishi, Takehiko; Nielsen, Peter E

    2010-01-01

    Peptide nucleic acid (PNA) is potentially an attractive antisense and antigene agent for which more efficient cellular delivery systems are still warranted. The cationic polymer polyethylenimine (PEI) is commonly used for cellular transfection of DNA and RNA complexes, but is not readily applicable...... moiety) and further reacted this with a cysteine PNA. The level of modification was determined spectrophotometrically with high accuracy, and the PNA transfection efficiency of the conjugates was evaluated in an antisense luciferase splice-correction assay using HeLa pLuc705 cells. We find that PEI...... is an efficient vector for PNA delivery yielding significantly higher (up to 10-fold) antisense activity than an analogous PNA-octaarginine conjugate, even in the presence of chloroquine, which only slightly enhances the PEI-PNA activity. The PEI-PEG conjugates are preferred due to lower acute cellular toxicity...

  11. Cardiovascular and metabolic effects of 48-h glucagon-like peptide-1 infusion in compensated chronic patients with heart failure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Halbirk, Mads; Nørrelund, Helene; Møller, Niels

    2010-01-01

    effects of 48-h GLP-1 infusions in patients with congestive HF. In a randomized, double-blind crossover design, 20 patients without diabetes and with HF with ischemic heart disease, EF of 30 +/- 2%, New York Heart Association II and III (n = 14 and 6) received 48-h GLP-1 (0.7 pmol.kg(-1).min(-1......)) and placebo infusion. At 0 and 48 h, LVEF, diastolic function, tissue Doppler regional myocardial function, exercise testing, noninvasive cardiac output, and brain natriuretic peptide (BNP) were measured. Blood pressure, heart rate, and metabolic parameters were recorded. Fifteen patients completed...... patients. GLP-1 infusion increased circulating insulin levels and reduced plasma glucose concentration but had no major cardiovascular effects in patients without diabetes but with compensated HF. The impact of minor increases in heart rate and diastolic blood pressure during GLP-1 infusion requires...

  12. An in vitro study of peptide-loaded alginate nanospheres for antagonizing the inhibitory effect of Nogo-A protein on axonal growth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhai, Peng; Chen, X B; Schreyer, David J

    2015-01-01

    The adult mammalian central nervous system has limited ability to regenerate after injury. This is due, in part, to the presence of myelin-associated axon growth inhibitory proteins such as Nogo-A that bind and activate the Nogo receptor, leading to profound inhibition of actin-based motility within the growing axon tip. This paper presents an in vitro study of the use of a Nogo receptor-blocking peptide to antagonize the inhibitory effect of Nogo-A on axon growth. Alginate nanospheres were fabricated using an emulsion technique and loaded with Nogo receptor-blocking peptide, or with other model proteins. Protein release profiles were studied, and retention of the bioactivity of released proteins was verified. Primary dorsal root ganglion neurons were cultured and their ability to grow neurites was challenged with Nogo-A chimeric protein in the absence or presence of Nogo receptor antagonist peptide-loaded alginate nanospheres. Our results demonstrate that peptide released from alginate nanospheres could overcome the growth inhibitory effect of Nogo-A, suggesting that a similar peptide delivery strategy using alginate nanospheres might be used to improve axon regeneration within the injured central nervous system. (paper)

  13. The effect of a slightly acidic somatomedin peptide (ILAs) on the sulphation of proteoglycans from articular and growth plate chondrocytes in culture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Corvol, M.-T.; Dumontier, M.-F.; Rappaport, R.; Guyda, H.; Posner, B.I.

    1978-01-01

    Chondrocyte cultures were prepared from rabbit growth plate (GPC) and articular (ARC) chondrocytes. These two cell types have distinct morphological characteristics. The cells reached maximum numbers by days 10 and 21 for ARC and GPC, respectively. The proteoglycans (PG) contained in the cellular pool were extracted and purified by DEAE cellulose chromatography. The effect of a partially purified somatomedin peptide with insulin-like activity on [ 35 S]sulphate incorporation into PG was evaluated. In both ARC and GPC a significant stimulation of [ 35 S]sulphate uptake into PG subunits was obtained with 1 ng Eq./ml of somatomedin peptide. In order to obtain the same stimulatory effect with porcine insulin, a 1000-fold greater concentration was required. The electrophoretic patterns of the PG subunits on acrylamide-agarose electrophoresis were identical on control incubations and after stimulation with the somatomedin peptide. These data demonstrate in vitro biological activity of this peptide on well differentiated articular and epiphyseal growth plate chondrocytes in culture. These cultures appear to provide a sensitive biological assay for somatomedin peptides. (author)

  14. Short-term glucagon stimulation test of C-peptide effect on glucose utilization in patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mojto, Viliam; Rausova, Zuzana; Chrenova, Jana; Dedik, Ladislav

    2015-12-01

    This work aimed to evaluate the use of a four-point glucagon stimulation test of C-peptide effect on glucose utilization in type 1 diabetic patients using a new mathematical model. A group of 32 type 1 diabetic patients and a group of 10 healthy control subjects underwent a four-point glucagon stimulation test with blood sampling at 0, 6, 15 and 30 min after 1 mg glucagon bolus intravenous administration. Pharmacokinetic and pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic models of C-peptide effect on glucose utilization versus area under curve (AUC) were used. A two-sample t test and ANOVA with Bonferroni correction were used to test the significance of differences between parameters. A significant difference between control and patient groups regarding the coefficient of whole-body glucose utilization and AUC C-peptide/AUC glucose ratio (p ≪ 0.001 and p = 0.002, respectively) was observed. The high correlation (r = 0.97) between modeled coefficient of whole-body glucose utilization and numerically calculated AUC C-peptide/AUC glucose ratio related to entire cohort indicated the stability of used method. The short-term four-point glucagon stimulation test allows the numerically calculated AUC C-peptide/AUC glucose ratio and/or the coefficient of whole-body glucose utilization calculated from model to be used to diagnostically identify type 1 diabetic patients.

  15. Effect of amino acid sequence and pH on nanofiber formation of self-assembling peptides EAK16-II and EAK16-IV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Yooseong; Legge, Raymond L; Zhang, S; Chen, P

    2003-01-01

    Atomic force microscopy (AFM) and axisymmetric drop shape analysis-profile (ASDA-P) were used to investigate the mechanism of self-assembly of peptides. The peptides chosen consisted of 16 alternating hydrophobic and hydrophilic amino acids, where the hydrophilic residues possess alternating negative and positive charges. Two types of peptides, AEAEAKAKAEAEAKAK (EAK16-II) and AEAEAEAEAKAKAKAK (EAK16-IV), were investigated in terms of nanostructure formation through self-assembly. The experimental results, which focused on the effects of the amino acid sequence and pH, show that the nanostructures formed by the peptides are dependent on the amino acid sequence and the pH of the solution. For pH conditions around neutrality, one of the peptides used in this study, EAK16-IV, forms globular assemblies and has lower surface tension at air-water interfaces than another peptide, EAK16-II, which forms fibrillar assemblies at the same pH. When the pH is lowered below 6.5 or raised above 7.5, there is a transition from globular to fibrillar structures for EAK16-IV, but EAK16-II does not show any structural transition. Surface tension measurements using ADSA-P showed different surface activities of peptides at air-water interfaces. EAK16-II does not show a significant difference in surface tension for the pH range between 4 and 9. However, EAK16-IV shows a noticeable decrease in surface tension at pH around neutrality, indicating that the formation of globular assemblies is related to the molecular hydrophobicity.

  16. Inhibition of Metalloprotease Botulinum Serotype A from a Pseudo-Peptide Binding Mode to a Small Molecule that is Active in Primary Neurons

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Burnett, James C; Ruthel, Gordon; Stegmann, Christian M; Panchal, Rekha G; Nguyen, Tam L; Hermone, Ann R; Stafford, Robert G; Lane, Douglas J; Kenny, Tara A; McGarth, Connor F

    2007-01-01

    An efficient research strategy integrating empirically-guided, structure-based modeling and chemoinformatics was used to discover potent small molecule inhibitors of the botulinum neurotoxin serotype A light chain...

  17. Photodissociative Cross-Linking of Non-covalent Peptide-Peptide Ion Complexes in the Gas Phase

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Huong T. H.; Andrikopoulos, Prokopis C.; Rulíšek, Lubomír; Shaffer, Christopher J.; Tureček, František

    2018-05-01

    We report a gas-phase UV photodissociation study investigating non-covalent interactions between neutral hydrophobic pentapeptides and peptide ions incorporating a diazirine-tagged photoleucine residue. Phenylalanine (Phe) and proline (Pro) were chosen as the conformation-affecting residues that were incorporated into a small library of neutral pentapeptides. Gas-phase ion-molecule complexes of these peptides with photo-labeled pentapeptides were subjected to photodissociation. Selective photocleavage of the diazirine ring at 355 nm formed short-lived carbene intermediates that underwent cross-linking by insertion into H-X bonds of the target peptide. The cross-link positions were established from collision-induced dissociation tandem mass spectra (CID-MS3) providing sequence information on the covalent adducts. Effects of the amino acid residue (Pro or Phe) and its position in the target peptide sequence were evaluated. For proline-containing peptides, interactions resulting in covalent cross-links in these complexes became more prominent as proline was moved towards the C-terminus of the target peptide sequence. The photocross-linking yields of phenylalanine-containing peptides depended on the position of both phenylalanine and photoleucine. Density functional theory calculations were used to assign structures of low-energy conformers of the (GLPMG + GLL*LK + H)+ complex. Born-Oppenheimer molecular dynamics trajectory calculations were used to capture the thermal motion in the complexes within 100 ps and determine close contacts between the incipient carbene and the H-X bonds in the target peptide. This provided atomic-level resolution of potential cross-links that aided spectra interpretation and was in agreement with experimental data. [Figure not available: see fulltext.

  18. Moderating effect of innovation on human capital and small firm ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study evaluate the importance of human capital on the performance of small firms in the construction sector in developing countries. Primary data was obtained from 255 small contractors in the construction sector in the state of Kelantan, Malaysia. Analysis of the study was carried out through descriptive and multiple ...

  19. Opinion dynamics within a virtual small group: the stubbornness effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guazzini, Andrea; Cini, Alessandro; Bagnoli, Franco; Ramasco, José

    2015-09-01

    The modeling of opinion dynamics is social systems has attracted a good deal of attention in the last decade. Even though based on intuition and observation, the mechanisms behind many of these models need solid empirical grounding. In this work, we investigate the relation among subjective variables (such as the personality), the dynamics of the affinity network dynamics, the communication patterns emerging throughout the social interactions and the opinions dynamics in a series of experiments with five small groups of ten people each. In order to ignite the discussion, the polemic topic of animal experimentation was proposed. The groups essentially polarized in two factions with a set of stubborn individuals (those not changing their opinions in time) playing the role of anchors. Our results suggest that the different layers present in the group dynamics (i.e., individual level, group dynamics and meso-communication) are deeply intermingled, specifically the stubbornness effect appears to be related to the dynamical features of the network topologies, and only in an undirected way to the personality of the participants.

  20. Latent hardening size effect in small-scale plasticity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bardella, Lorenzo; Segurado, Javier; Panteghini, Andrea; Llorca, Javier

    2013-07-01

    We aim at understanding the multislip behaviour of metals subject to irreversible deformations at small-scales. By focusing on the simple shear of a constrained single-crystal strip, we show that discrete Dislocation Dynamics (DD) simulations predict a strong latent hardening size effect, with smaller being stronger in the range [1.5 µm, 6 µm] for the strip height. We attempt to represent the DD pseudo-experimental results by developing a flow theory of Strain Gradient Crystal Plasticity (SGCP), involving both energetic and dissipative higher-order terms and, as a main novelty, a strain gradient extension of the conventional latent hardening. In order to discuss the capability of the SGCP theory proposed, we implement it into a Finite Element (FE) code and set its material parameters on the basis of the DD results. The SGCP FE code is specifically developed for the boundary value problem under study so that we can implement a fully implicit (Backward Euler) consistent algorithm. Special emphasis is placed on the discussion of the role of the material length scales involved in the SGCP model, from both the mechanical and numerical points of view.

  1. Latent hardening size effect in small-scale plasticity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bardella, Lorenzo; Panteghini, Andrea; Segurado, Javier; Llorca, Javier

    2013-01-01

    We aim at understanding the multislip behaviour of metals subject to irreversible deformations at small-scales. By focusing on the simple shear of a constrained single-crystal strip, we show that discrete Dislocation Dynamics (DD) simulations predict a strong latent hardening size effect, with smaller being stronger in the range [1.5 µm, 6 µm] for the strip height. We attempt to represent the DD pseudo-experimental results by developing a flow theory of Strain Gradient Crystal Plasticity (SGCP), involving both energetic and dissipative higher-order terms and, as a main novelty, a strain gradient extension of the conventional latent hardening. In order to discuss the capability of the SGCP theory proposed, we implement it into a Finite Element (FE) code and set its material parameters on the basis of the DD results. The SGCP FE code is specifically developed for the boundary value problem under study so that we can implement a fully implicit (Backward Euler) consistent algorithm. Special emphasis is placed on the discussion of the role of the material length scales involved in the SGCP model, from both the mechanical and numerical points of view. (paper)

  2. Opinion dynamics within a virtual small group: the stubbornness effect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea eGuazzini

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The modeling of opinion dynamics is social systems has attracted a good deal of attention in the last decade. Even though based on intuition and observation, the mechanisms behind many of these models need solid empirical grounding. In this work, we investigate the relation among subjective variables (such as the personality, the dynamics of the affinity network dynamics, the communication patterns emerging throughout the social interactions and the opinions dynamics in a series of experiments with five small groups of ten people each. In order to ignite the discussion, the polemic topic of animal experimentation was proposed. The groups essentially polarized in two factions with a set of stubborn individuals (those not changing their opinions in time playing the role of anchors. Our results suggest that the different layers present in the group dynamics (i.e., individual level, group dynamics and meso-communication are deeply intermingled, specifically the stubbornness effect appears to be related to the dynamical features of the network topologies, and only in an undirected way to the personality of the participants.