WorldWideScience

Sample records for small pacific island

  1. Changes in shifting cultivation systems on small Pacific islands

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mertz, Ole; Birch-Thomsen, Torben; Elberling, Bo

    2012-01-01

    The limited information on change in shifting cultivation systems of small islands of the Pacific stands in contrast to increasing evidence of this farming system's demise in other parts of the tropics. Here, we assess changes in agricultural activities during the past 40 years of Bellona Island......, Solomon Islands, where shifting cultivation is still maintained in the traditional way. Fallow length has increased despite population growth due to redistribution of the cultivated area, migration-induced extensification and changes in crops. Productivity of the farming system remains high although...

  2. [Trauma surgery in Pacific Small Island Developing States (SIDS)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oberli, H; Martin, C

    2017-10-01

    The small developing countries in the Pacific are grouped together as Small Island Development States (SIDS) because they face similar problems which they cannot cope with nationally. They are developing countries, so-called low and lower middle income countries (LMIC), are economically weak and the islands of the different nations are widely scattered. Approximately 80% of the 10 million inhabitants live in rural regions. Over 40% of patients in the surgical departments of hospitals are hospitalized for injuries, and this tendency is increasing. Fractures of the upper extremities are relatively more frequent in the Pacific than in the countries of the North. Long distances, lack of possibilities for treatment and lack of transport often cause complications, such as infected open fractures, pseudarthrosis and posttraumatic malformations. There are too few hospitals with sufficiently competent surgeons, anesthetists and obstetricians (SAO) and appropriate equipment. The PIOA was founded in Honiara, Solomon Islands, and offers surgeons of the Pacific SIDS a comprehensive, structured trauma and orthopedic surgery training in their own countries. It lasts 4 years and leads to an M‑Med (orthopaedic surgery) diploma and to a Fellowship of the International College of Surgeons (FICS), which are both recognized by the participating hospitals. It is free for participants. The AOAF is an independent organization with the only aim to enhance trauma surgery capacity in LMICs. The AOAF supports the PIOA program together with the Wyss Medical Foundation. Currently, 18 trainees from 8 Pacific SIDS are participating in the PIOA training program.

  3. 33 CFR 334.1420 - Pacific Ocean off Orote Point, Apra Harbor, Island of Guam, Marianas Islands; small arms firing...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Pacific Ocean off Orote Point, Apra Harbor, Island of Guam, Marianas Islands; small arms firing range. 334.1420 Section 334.1420... AND RESTRICTED AREA REGULATIONS § 334.1420 Pacific Ocean off Orote Point, Apra Harbor, Island of Guam...

  4. Researching Pacific island livelihoods:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Egelund Christensen, Andreas; Mertz, Ole

    2010-01-01

    on contemporary theories of nissology and conceptual analytical frameworks for island research. Through a review of selected case-study-based island literature on changing livelihoods coming out of the South Pacific, we wish to illustrate and discuss advantages of finding common grounds for small island studies....... The focus is on two dimensions of island livelihood, migration and natural resource management, both of which are significant contributors in making island livelihoods and shaping Pacific seascapes. We argue that there is still a substantial lack of studies targeting small island dynamics that are empirical...

  5. The MIRAB Model of Small Island Economies in the Pacific and their Security Issues: Revised Version

    OpenAIRE

    Tisdell, Clem

    2014-01-01

    The MIRAB model of Pacific island micro-economies was developed in the mid-1980s by the New Zealand economists, Bertram and Watters, and dominated the literature on the economics of small island nations and economies until alternative models were proposed two decades later. Nevertheless, it is still an influential theory. MIRAB is an acronym for migration (MI), remittance (R) and foreign aid (A) and the public bureaucracy (B); the main components of the MIRAB model. The nature of this model i...

  6. A large foodborne outbreak on a small Pacific island.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thein, C C; Trinidad, R M; Pavlin, B I

    2010-04-01

    On March 25, 2009, the Ebeye Leroj Kitlang Memorial Health Center on the island of Ebeye in the Republic of the Marshall Islands was overwhelmed with over 100 patients presenting for vomiting and diarrhea. Epidemiologic investigation revealed that there were 174 cases among 187 attendees at a local funeral earlier in the day. Most cases had eaten served sandwiches containing egg products that had undergone severe time-temperature abuse. While no causal agents were identified, the epidemiology and clinical presentation is compatible with foodborne toxins, most likely enterotoxins of either Staphylococcus aureus or Bacillus cereus. Mitigation measures undertaken by public health centered on education of food preparers and the general public regarding safe food preparation practices. This large outbreak serves to remind us that, while there are simple and highly effective measures to prevent such foodborne disease outbreaks, we in the public health sector have a duty to improve the community's knowledge and understanding of these measures.

  7. Coastal groundwater exchange on a small Pacific atoll island: Roi Namur, Republic of the Marshall Islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oberle, Ferdinand K. J.; Swarzenski, Peter W.; Storlazzi, Curt

    2017-04-01

    Atoll islands, most of which only average 1-2 meters above today's sea level, provide a tremendous natural laboratory in which to study and better understand the intensifying impacts of high rates of sea-level rise on tropical reef-lined islands globally due to their unique geologic structure and limited water supply. Groundwater resources of atolls are typically minimal due to the low elevation and small surface area of the islands and are also subject to recurring droughts, and more frequent, storm-driven seawater overwash events. Although groundwater is the principal means of freshwater storage on atoll islands and is a major factor in determining the overall sustainability of island communities, hydrological data on how an aquifer will response to changes in sea-level rise or storm-driven overwash remain limited. We here present high-resolution time series hydrogeological and geochemical data to determine the role of the atoll's carbonate geology, land use, and atmospheric and oceanographic forcing in driving coastal groundwater exchange on the island of Roi Namur on Kwajalein Atoll in the Republic of the Marshall Islands. This information can provide new estimates on the recovery and resilience of coastal groundwater resources on such islands to expected climate change-driven perturbations.

  8. Labour market institutions in small Pacific island countries: Main guidelines for labour market reforms

    OpenAIRE

    Malo, Miguel Á.

    2017-01-01

    This report consists of a comprehensive overview of labour market institutions in the small Pacific island countries in order to propose recommendations to improve the performance of their labour markets. We pay particular attention to three countries: Fiji, Palau and Papua New Guinea. We focus on the main pillars of labour market institutions, as employment protection legislation, minimum wage, and labour organization. The analysis considers the possibilities for institutional change in the ...

  9. Renewable Energy Development in Small Island Developing States of the Pacific

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew Dornan

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Small Island Developing States (SIDS of the Pacific over the last decade have established some of the most ambitious renewable energy targets in the world. The promotion of renewable energy has been motivated by a desire to lessen dependence on fossil fuels, given the adverse economic impacts of high oil prices on these countries. Efforts to attract development assistance and to strengthen the position of Pacific SIDS in climate change negotiations have likely also played a role. This paper explores the development of renewable energy resources in the Pacific through a public policy lens. The ambitious renewable energy targets established by Pacific SIDS are argued to be appropriate in some cases, but in other cases are criticised on economic grounds. A potential trade-off is identified between the risk mitigation benefits and poverty alleviation benefits of different renewable technology investments, with questions raised about whether support for the former rather than the latter by development partners is appropriate. A number of institutional and financial challenges to the development of renewable energy resources in Pacific SIDS are also discussed.

  10. Synthesis of underreported small-scale fisheries catch in Pacific island waters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeller, D.; Harper, S.; Zylich, K.; Pauly, D.

    2015-03-01

    We synthesize fisheries catch reconstruction studies for 25 Pacific island countries, states and territories, which compare estimates of total domestic catches with officially reported catch data. We exclude data for the large-scale tuna fleets, which have largely foreign beneficial ownership, even when flying Pacific flags. However, we recognize the considerable financial contributions derived from foreign access or charter fees for Pacific host countries. The reconstructions for the 25 entities from 1950 to 2010 suggested that total domestic catches were 2.5 times the data reported to FAO. This discrepancy was largest in early periods (1950: 6.4 times), while for 2010, total catches were 1.7 times the reported data. There was a significant difference in trend between reported and reconstructed catches since 2000, with reconstructed catches declining strongly since their peak in 2000. Total catches increased from 110,000 t yr-1 in 1950 (of which 17,400 t were reported) to a peak of over 250,000 t yr-1 in 2000, before declining to around 200,000 t yr-1 by 2010. This decrease is driven by a declining artisanal (small-scale commercial) catch, which was not compensated for by increasing domestic industrial (large-scale commercial) catches. The artisanal fisheries appear to be declining from a peak of 97,000 t yr-1 in 1992 to less than 50,000 t yr-1 by 2010. However, total catches were dominated by subsistence (small-scale, non-commercial) fisheries, which accounted for 69 % of total catches, with the majority missing from the reported data. Artisanal catches accounted for 22 %, while truly domestic industrial fisheries accounted for only 6 % of total catches. The smallest component is the recreational (small-scale, non-commercial and largely for leisure) sector (2 %), which, although small in catch, is likely of economic importance in some areas due to its direct link to tourism income.

  11. A Framework for Disaster Vulnerability in a Small Island in the Southwest Pacific: A Case Study of Emae Island, Vanuatu

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Guy Jackson; Karen McNamara; Bradd Witt

    2017-01-01

    The societal costs of disasters around the world are continuing to increase and Pacific Island countries are considered some of the most vulnerable.This is primarily due to a combination of high hazard exposure coupled with a range of social,economic,physical,and political vulnerabilities.This article contributes to the growing body of work that aims to understand the causal factors of disaster vulnerability,but with a specific focus on small island developing states.The article first develops a framework for understanding disaster vulnerability,drawing on extensive literature and the well-established Methods for the Improvement of Vulnerability in Europe (MOVE) framework,and second,applies this adapted framework using empirically-derived data from fieldwork on Emae Island,Vanuatu to provide a working understanding of the causal elements of disaster vulnerability.Drawn from a significant body of scholarship at the time,the MOVE framework was primarily developed as a heuristic tool in which disaster vulnerability is considered to be a function of exposure,susceptibility (socially,economically,physically,culturally,environmentally,institutionally),and a lack of resilience.We posit that this adapted framework for small islands should also include historical susceptibility,and we prefer livelihood resilience (as capabilities,social capital,knowledge,participation,and human rights) over lack of resilience.We maintain that understanding disaster vulnerability holistically,which is inclusive of both strengths and drawbacks,is crucial to ensure that limited resources can target the causal factors that produce vulnerability and help safeguard and improve livelihoods in both the short and long term.

  12. Growth and oil price: A study of causal relationships in small Pacific Island countries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jayaraman, T.K. [School of Economics, Faculty of Business and Economics, The University of the South Pacific, Laucala Bay Road, Suva (Fiji); Choong, Chee-Keong [Department of Economics and Finance, Faculty of Business and Finance, Universiti Tunku Abdul Rahman (Perak Campus), Jalan Universiti, Bandar Barat, 31900 Kampar, Perak Darul Ridzuan (Malaysia)], E-mail: choongck@utar.edu.my

    2009-06-15

    This paper investigates the nexus between economic growth and oil price in small Pacific Island countries (PICs). Except Papua New Guinea, none of the 14 PICs has fossil any fuel resources. Consequently, the other 13 PICs are totally dependent on oil imports for their economic activities. Since PICs have limited foreign exchange earning capacities, as they have a very narrow range of exports and are highly dependent on foreign aid, high oil prices in recent months have seriously tested their economic resilience. This paper applies the ARDL bounds testing methodology to four selected PICs, Samoa, Solomon Islands, Tonga and Vanuatu, which have consistent and reliable time series of data, with a view to assess the impact of oil price on economic growth. The findings are that oil price, gross domestic product and international reserve are cointegrated in all the four PICs. Further, both in the long and short runs, we observe that there is a uni-directional relationship as causality linkage runs only from oil price and international reserves to economic growth. The paper makes some policy recommendations.

  13. Growth and oil price. A study of causal relationships in small Pacific Island countries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jayaraman, T.K. [School of Economics, Faculty of Business and Economics, The University of the South Pacific, Laucala Bay Road, Suva (Fiji); Choong, Chee-Keong [Department of Economics and Finance, Faculty of Business and Finance, Universiti Tunku Abdul Rahman (Perak Campus), Jalan Universiti, Bandar Barat, 31900 Kampar, Perak Darul Ridzuan (Malaysia)

    2009-06-15

    This paper investigates the nexus between economic growth and oil price in small Pacific Island countries (PICs). Except Papua New Guinea, none of the 14 PICs has fossil any fuel resources. Consequently, the other 13 PICs are totally dependent on oil imports for their economic activities. Since PICs have limited foreign exchange earning capacities, as they have a very narrow range of exports and are highly dependent on foreign aid, high oil prices in recent months have seriously tested their economic resilience. This paper applies the ARDL bounds testing methodology to four selected PICs, Samoa, Solomon Islands, Tonga and Vanuatu, which have consistent and reliable time series of data, with a view to assess the impact of oil price on economic growth. The findings are that oil price, gross domestic product and international reserve are cointegrated in all the four PICs. Further, both in the long and short runs, we observe that there is a uni-directional relationship as causality linkage runs only from oil price and international reserves to economic growth. The paper makes some policy recommendations. (author)

  14. Growth and oil price: A study of causal relationships in small Pacific Island countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jayaraman, T.K.; Choong, Chee-Keong

    2009-01-01

    This paper investigates the nexus between economic growth and oil price in small Pacific Island countries (PICs). Except Papua New Guinea, none of the 14 PICs has fossil any fuel resources. Consequently, the other 13 PICs are totally dependent on oil imports for their economic activities. Since PICs have limited foreign exchange earning capacities, as they have a very narrow range of exports and are highly dependent on foreign aid, high oil prices in recent months have seriously tested their economic resilience. This paper applies the ARDL bounds testing methodology to four selected PICs, Samoa, Solomon Islands, Tonga and Vanuatu, which have consistent and reliable time series of data, with a view to assess the impact of oil price on economic growth. The findings are that oil price, gross domestic product and international reserve are cointegrated in all the four PICs. Further, both in the long and short runs, we observe that there is a uni-directional relationship as causality linkage runs only from oil price and international reserves to economic growth. The paper makes some policy recommendations.

  15. Pacific Island Pharmacovigilance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McEwen, John; Vestergaard, Lasse S.; Sanburg, Amanda L C

    2016-01-01

    Many Pacific Island countries (PICs) are recipients of funding support from the Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria (Global Fund). However, most of these countries cannot be expected to meet Global Fund and World Health Organization (WHO) minimum requirements for a functioning...

  16. Sponges from Clipperton Island, East Pacific

    OpenAIRE

    van Soest, R.W.M.; Kaiser, K.L.; van Syoc, R.

    2011-01-01

    Twenty sponge species (totalling 190 individuals) were collected during the 1938, 1994 and 2004/5 expeditions to the remote island of Clipperton in the East Pacific Ocean. Seven species are widespread Indo-Pacific sponges; nine species comprise sponges new to science; four species were represented only by small thin patches insufficient for proper characterization and could be only determined to genus. The new species may not be necessarily endemic to the island, as several show similarities ...

  17. Obesity and Native Hawaiians/Pacific Islanders

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Population Profiles > Native Hawaiian/Other Pacific Islander > Obesity Obesity and Native Hawaiians/Pacific Islanders Native Hawaiians/Pacific ... youthonline . [Accessed 08/18/2017] HEALTH IMPACT OF OBESITY People who are overweight are more likely to ...

  18. Researching Pacific island livelihoods: mobility, natural resource management and nissology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christensen, Andreas E; Mertz, Ole

    2010-01-01

    Small island literature is vast in focus and aim, and is rooted in many different disciplines. The challenge is to find common grounds for researching small islands conceptually and theoretically. The aim of this article is to comment on how to research small islands, including a discussion on contemporary theories of nissology and conceptual analytical frameworks for island research. Through a review of selected case-study-based island literature on changing livelihoods coming out of the South Pacific, we wish to illustrate and discuss advantages of finding common grounds for small island studies. The focus is on two dimensions of island livelihood, migration and natural resource management, both of which are significant contributors in making island livelihoods and shaping Pacific seascapes. We argue that there is still a substantial lack of studies targeting small island dynamics that are empirical and interdisciplinary in focus and link socio-economic and ecological processes of small island societies at temporal and analytical scales.

  19. Identifying key demographic parameters of a small island-associated population of Indo-Pacific bottlenose dolphins (Reunion, Indian Ocean).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dulau, Violaine; Estrade, Vanessa; Fayan, Jacques

    2017-01-01

    Photo-identification surveys of Indo-Pacific bottlenose dolphins were conducted from 2009 to 2014 off Reunion Island (55°E33'/21°S07'), in the Indian Ocean. Robust Design models were applied to produce the most reliable estimate of population abundance and survival rate, while accounting for temporary emigration from the survey area (west coast). The sampling scheme consisted of a five-month (June-October) sampling period in each year of the study. The overall population size at Reunion was estimated to be 72 individuals (SE = 6.17, 95%CI = 61-85), based on a random temporary emigration (γ") of 0.096 and a proportion of 0.70 (SE = 0.03) distinct individuals. The annual survival rate was 0.93 (±0.018 SE, 95%CI = 0.886-0.958) and was constant over time and between sexes. Models considering gender groups indicated different movement patterns between males and females. Males showed null or quasi-null temporary emigration (γ" = γ' < 0.01), while females showed a random temporary emigration (γ") of 0.10, suggesting that a small proportion of females was outside the survey area during each primary sampling period. Sex-specific temporary migration patterns were consistent with movement and residency patterns observed in other areas. The Robust Design approach provided an appropriate sampling scheme for deriving island-associated population parameters, while allowing to restrict survey effort both spatially (i.e. west coast only) and temporally (five months per year). Although abundance and survival were stable over the six years, the small population size of fewer than 100 individuals suggested that this population is highly vulnerable. Priority should be given to reducing any potential impact of human activity on the population and its habitat.

  20. Identifying key demographic parameters of a small island-associated population of Indo-Pacific bottlenose dolphins (Reunion, Indian Ocean.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Violaine Dulau

    Full Text Available Photo-identification surveys of Indo-Pacific bottlenose dolphins were conducted from 2009 to 2014 off Reunion Island (55°E33'/21°S07', in the Indian Ocean. Robust Design models were applied to produce the most reliable estimate of population abundance and survival rate, while accounting for temporary emigration from the survey area (west coast. The sampling scheme consisted of a five-month (June-October sampling period in each year of the study. The overall population size at Reunion was estimated to be 72 individuals (SE = 6.17, 95%CI = 61-85, based on a random temporary emigration (γ" of 0.096 and a proportion of 0.70 (SE = 0.03 distinct individuals. The annual survival rate was 0.93 (±0.018 SE, 95%CI = 0.886-0.958 and was constant over time and between sexes. Models considering gender groups indicated different movement patterns between males and females. Males showed null or quasi-null temporary emigration (γ" = γ' < 0.01, while females showed a random temporary emigration (γ" of 0.10, suggesting that a small proportion of females was outside the survey area during each primary sampling period. Sex-specific temporary migration patterns were consistent with movement and residency patterns observed in other areas. The Robust Design approach provided an appropriate sampling scheme for deriving island-associated population parameters, while allowing to restrict survey effort both spatially (i.e. west coast only and temporally (five months per year. Although abundance and survival were stable over the six years, the small population size of fewer than 100 individuals suggested that this population is highly vulnerable. Priority should be given to reducing any potential impact of human activity on the population and its habitat.

  1. Asthma and Native Hawaiians/Pacific Islanders

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Population Profiles > Native Hawaiian/Other Pacific Islander > Asthma Asthma and Native Hawaiians/Pacific Islanders National data for ... very limited. While all of the causes of asthma remain unclear, children exposed to secondhand tobacco smoke ...

  2. Immunizations and Asians and Pacific Islanders

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and Data > Minority Population Profiles > Asian American > Immunizations Immunizations and Asians and Pacific Islanders Asian/Pacific Islander ... 35 months reached the Healthy People goal for immunizations for hepatitis B, MMR (measles-mumps-rubella), polio ...

  3. Gridded multibeam bathymetry of Baker Island, Pacific Remote Island Areas, Central Pacific

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Gridded bathymetry at 40m resolution surrounding Baker Island, within the Pacific Remote Island Areas - Central Pacific Ocean. Bottom coverage was achieved in depths...

  4. Gridded multibeam bathymetry of Howland Island, Pacific Remote Island Areas, Central Pacific

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Gridded bathymetry at 40m resolution surrounding Howland Island, within the Pacific Remote Island Areas - Central Pacific Ocean. Bottom coverage was achieved in...

  5. Editorial : entrepreneurship and small business development in small islands

    OpenAIRE

    Baldacchino, Godfrey; Fairbairn, Te’o I. J.;

    2006-01-01

    This paper reviews the limited literature on successful small business and entrepreneurship in small islands, with a focus on Pacific and European research. It argues that the notable specific contribution of this collection is its focus on tangible examples of successful island entrepreneurship, and the specific challenges towards entrepreneurship faced by island people. This approach is micro-oriented and very close to the actual human entrepreneurs that lead and shine by exampl...

  6. Small Island Visitor Attractions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haven Allahar

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This article proposes a process framework for developing and managing visitor attractions (VA in small island developing states with Trinidad and Tobago, a two-island state in the Caribbean, as the case study. An extensive literature review was conducted, supported by field observations, individual depth interviews, and small and large focus group meetings. The process framework identified four sets of processes: national policy formulation and legislation; inventory, classification, evaluation, and ranking of VA; general operations management involving project management activities; and site specific activities of development, operations, and maintenance. The value of the framework lies in the fact that no similar framework applicable to small islands was covered in the literature and validation was obtained from a panel of experts and a cross section of tourism stakeholders in Tobago.

  7. Chronic Liver Disease and Asian Americans/Pacific Islanders

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Cancer Asian/Pacific Islander Women Non-Hispanic White Women Asian/Pacific Islander/ Non-Hispanic White Ratio All Sites ... Cancer Asian/Pacific Islander Women Non-Hispanic White Women Asian/Pacific Islander/ Non-Hispanic White Ratio Liver & IBD* ...

  8. The pacific island health care project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Person, Donald Ames

    2014-01-01

    US Associated/Affiliated Pacific Islands (USAPI) include three freely associated states: Marshall Islands, Federated States of Micronesia, Palau, and three Territories: American Samoa, Guam, and Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands. The Pacific Island Health Care Project (PIHCP) provides humanitarian medical referral/consultation/care to >500,000 indigenous people of these remote islands. In the mid-1990s, we developed a simple store-and-forward program to link the USAPI with Tripler Army Medical Center. This application allowed image attachment to email consultations. More than 8000 Pacific Islanders have benefited from the program. Three thousand Pacific Islanders prior to telemedicine (1990-1997) and since store-and-forward telemedicine (1997-present), the PIHCP has helped an additional 5000. Records post dynamically and are stored in an archival database. The PIHCP is the longest running telemedicine program in the world delivering humanitarian medical care. It has bridged the Developing World of the remote Pacific Islands with advanced medical and surgical care available at a major US military teaching hospital. (The opinions expressed here are those of the author and not that of the Army, Department of Defense, or the US Government.).

  9. The Pacific Island Health Care Project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donald Ames Person

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction/BackgroundUS Associated/Affiliated Pacific Islands (USAPI include 3 Freely Associated States: Marshall Islands, Federated States of Micronesia, Palau and 3 Territories: American Samoa, Guam, and Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands. ObjectiveThe Pacific Island Health Care Project (PIHCP provides humanitarian medical referral/consultation/care to >500,000 indigenous people of these remote islands. Methods In the mid-1990s, we developed a simple store-and-forward program to link the USAPI with Tripler Army Medical Center (TAMC. This application allowed image attachment to email consultations. ResultsMore than 8000 Pacific Islanders have benefited from the program. 3000 Pacific Islanders prior to telemedicine (1990-1997 and since store-and-forward telemedicine (1997-present, the PIHCP has helped an additional 5000. Records post dynamically and are stored in an archival database. Conclusion The PIHCP is the longest running telemedicine program in the world delivering humanitarian medical care. It has bridged the Developing World of the remote Pacific islands with advanced medical and surgical care available at a major US military teaching hospital.(The opinions expressed here are those of the author and not that of the Army, Department of Defense, or the US Government.

  10. Pacific Islands Climate Change Virtual Library

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Virtual Library provides access to web based climate variability and climate change information and tools relevant to the Pacific Islands including case studies,...

  11. Pacific Islands Mass Communications; Selected Information Sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richstad, Jim; McMillan, Michael

    1977-01-01

    Presents a bibliography of materials on such area of mass communications in the Pacific Islands as broadcasting, radio and television, cinema, communication research, mass media in education, Honululu Media Council, newspapers and newspapermen, and printing and satellite communication. (JEG)

  12. Asian & Pacific Islanders and Cardiovascular Diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Fact Sheet 2016 Update Asian & Pacific Islanders and Cardiovascular Diseases Cardiovascular Disease (CVD) (ICD 10 codes I00-I99, Q20- ... of na- tive Hawaiians or oth- A indicates cardiovascular disease plus congenital cardiovascular disease (ICD-10 I00- ...

  13. Heart Disease and Asians and Pacific Islanders

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Data > Minority Population Profiles > Asian American > Heart Disease Heart Disease and Asians and Pacific Islanders Overall, Asian American ... are less likely than white adults to have heart disease and they are less likely to die from ...

  14. Sponges from Clipperton Island, East Pacific

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Soest, R.W.M.; Kaiser, K.L.; van Syoc, R.

    2011-01-01

    Twenty sponge species (totalling 190 individuals) were collected during the 1938, 1994 and 2004/5 expeditions to the remote island of Clipperton in the East Pacific Ocean. Seven species are widespread Indo-Pacific sponges; nine species comprise sponges new to science; four species were represented

  15. Mangroves of the Pacific Islands: research opportunities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ariel E. Lugo

    1990-01-01

    The perception of mangroves by people in the Pacific islands and throughout all the world has changed in the past decades. Today, the economic, social, ecologic, and esthetic values of mangroves are well recognized. Past research on these ecosystems is responsible for the change in perception. However, a review of eleven subjects relevant to the management of Pacific...

  16. Impact assessment of climate change on tourism in the Pacific small islands based on the database of long-term high-resolution climate ensemble experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, S.; Utsumi, N.; Take, M.; Iida, A.

    2016-12-01

    This study aims to develop a new approach to assess the impact of climate change on the small oceanic islands in the Pacific. In the new approach, the change of the probabilities of various situations was projected with considering the spread of projection derived from ensemble simulations, instead of projecting the most probable situation. The database for Policy Decision making for Future climate change (d4PDF) is a database of long-term high-resolution climate ensemble experiments, which has the results of 100 ensemble simulations. We utilized the database for Policy Decision making for Future climate change (d4PDF), which was (a long-term and high-resolution database) composed of results of 100 ensemble experiments. A new methodology, Multi Threshold Ensemble Assessment (MTEA), was developed using the d4PDF in order to assess the impact of climate change. We focused on the impact of climate change on tourism because it has played an important role in the economy of the Pacific Islands. The Yaeyama Region, one of the tourist destinations in Okinawa, Japan, was selected as the case study site. Two kinds of impact were assessed: change in probability of extreme climate phenomena and tourist satisfaction associated with weather. The database of long-term high-resolution climate ensemble experiments and the questionnaire survey conducted by a local government were used for the assessment. The result indicated that the strength of extreme events would be increased, whereas the probability of occurrence would be decreased. This change should result in increase of the number of clear days and it could contribute to improve the tourist satisfaction.

  17. Local Government in the South Pacific Islands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Graham Hassall

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we seek to answer some basic questions about the condition of local government in the Pacific. Firstly, we examine what is meant by ‘local government’ in the various islands and for that matter how Pacific Island states have perceived and accepted local government institutions in practice; second, we ask basic questions about existing legal and constitutional recognition and powers; and third, we provide initial findings on current per capita expenditure and local government financial viability in a number of Pacific cities and towns. We also make some observations on current moves towards local government reform.

  18. Climate Change in the Pacific Islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamnett, Michael P.

    Climate change have been a major concern among Pacific Islanders since the late 1990s. During that period, Time Magazine featured a cover story that read: Say Goodbye to the Marshall Islands, Kiribati, and Tuvalu from sea level rise. Since that time, the South Pacific Regional Environment Programme, UN and government agencies and academic researchers have been assessing the impacts of long-term climate change and seasonal to inter-annual climate variability on the Pacific Islands. The consensus is that long-term climate change will result in more extreme weather and tidal events including droughts, floods, tropical cyclones, coastal erosion, and salt water inundation. Extreme weather events already occur in the Pacific Islands and they are patterned. El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO) events impact rainfall, tropical cyclone and tidal patterns. In 2000, the first National Assessment of the Consequences of Climate Variability and Change concluded that long-term climate change will result in more El Niño events or a more El Niño like climate every year. The bad news is that will mean more natural disasters. The good news is that El Niño events can be predicted and people can prepare for them. The reallly bad news is that some Pacific Islands are already becoming uninhabitable because of erosion of land or the loss of fresh water from droughts and salt water intrusion. Many of the most vulnerable countries already overseas populations in New Zealand, the US, or larger Pacific Island countries. For some Pacific Islander abandoning their home countries will be their only option.

  19. Infant Mortality and Native Hawaiians/Pacific Islanders

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Hawaiian/Other Pacific Islander > Infant Health & Mortality Infant Mortality and Native Hawaiians/Pacific Islanders While the overall ... data for this ethnic group is limited. Infant Mortality Rate Infant mortality rate per 1,000 live ...

  20. Rising sea levels and small island states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leatherman, S.P.

    1994-01-01

    A review is given of the problems small island nations face with respect to sea level rise caused by global warming. Many small island nations are very vulnerable to sea level rise. Particularly at risk are coral reef atolls, which are generally quite small, lie within three metres of current sea levels, and have no land at higher elevations to relocate populations and economic activity. Volcanic islands in the Pacific have high ground, but it is largely rugged, high relief and soil-poor. The most vulnerable islands are those that consist entirely of atolls and reef islands, such as Kirabai, Maldives, Tokelau and Tuvalu. Small island states, which by themselves have little power or influence in world affairs, have banded together to form the Strategic Alliance of Small Island States (AOSIS). This alliance had grown to include 42 states by the time of the 1992 U.N. Earth Summit. Although the greenhouse effect is mainly caused by industrial nations, developing countries will suffer the most from it. Choices of response strategy will depend on environmental, economic and social factors. Most small island nations do not have the resources to fight sea level rise in the way that the Dutch have. Retreat can occur as a gradual process or as catastrophic abandonment. Prohibiting construction close to the water's edge is a good approach. Sea level histories for each island state should be compiled and updated, island geomorphology and settlement patterns should be surveyed to determine risk areas, storm regimes should be determined, and information on coastal impacts of sea level rise should be disseminated to the public

  1. Non-Small-Cell Lung Cancer Clinico pathologic Features and Survival Outcomes in Asian Pacific Islanders Residing in the United States: A SEER Analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamid, M. S.; Shameem, R.; Gafoor, K.; George, J.; Mina, B.; Sullivan, K.

    2015-01-01

    The objective of our study was to ascertain racial/ethnic disparities in Asian/Pacific Islanders (API) for non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) clinico pathologic features and survival outcomes based on various tumor characteristics and treatment modalities. Method. SEER database identified invasive NSCLC cases from 2004 to 2010. Variables included American Joint Committee on Cancer (AJCC) stage 7, tumor grade, tumor size, histology, age, marital status, radiation, surgery, and reason for no surgery. The Kruskall-Wallis test and the Z test were used to examine differences between races/ethnicities and the referent, non-Hispanic white (NHW). Multivariate Cox proportional analyses were used to establish the weight of the prognostic significance contributing to disease-specific survival (DSS) in each AJCC stage. Result. Improved DSS was seen in API across stage I (HR: 0.78), stage II (HR: 0.79), and stage IV (HR: 0.86), respectively, compared to the referent NHW (P<0.01). being female gender, AIS histology, and birth outside the US (P<0.01). Conclusion. We have demonstrated improved survival among API in early stage and stage IV NSCLC. Further research is necessary to clarify the role of lifestyle and tumor biology for these differences.

  2. CRED 40 m Gridded bathymetry of Howland Island, Pacific Remote Island Areas, Central Pacific (Arc ASCII Format)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Gridded (40 m cell size) bathymetry of the shelf and slope environments of Howland Island, Pacific Remote Island Areas, Central Pacific. Almost complete bottom...

  3. CRED 5 m Gridded bathymetry of Jarvis Island, Pacific Remote Island Areas, Central Pacific (Arc ASCII Format)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Gridded (5 m cell size) bathymetry of the shelf and slope environments of Jarvis Island, Pacific Remote Island Areas, Central Pacific. Almost complete bottom...

  4. CRED 40 m Gridded bathymetry of Baker Island, Pacific Remote Island Areas, Central Pacific (Arc ASCII Format)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Gridded (40 m cell size) bathymetry of the shelf and slope environments of Baker Island, Pacific Remote Island Areas, Central Pacific. Almost complete bottom...

  5. Processed foods available in the Pacific Islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background There is an increasing reliance on processed foods globally, yet food composition tables include minimal information on their nutrient content. The Pacific Islands share common trade links and are heavily reliant on imported foods. The objective was to develop a dataset for the Pacific Islands on nutrient composition of processed foods sold and their sources. Methods Information on the food labels, including country of origin, nutrient content and promotional claims were recorded into a standardised dataset. Data were cleaned, converted to per 100 g data as needed and then checked for anomalies and recording errors. Setting: Five representative countries were selected for data collection, based on their trading patterns: Fiji, Guam, Nauru, New Caledonia, and Samoa. Data were collected in the capitals, in larger stores which import their own foods. Subjects: Processed foods in stores. Results The data from 6041 foods and drinks were recorded. Fifty four countries of origin were identified, with the main provider of food for each Pacific Island country being that with which it was most strongly linked politically. Nutrient data were not provided for 6% of the foods, imported from various countries. Inaccurate labels were found on 132 products. Over one-quarter of the foods included some nutrient or health-related claims. Conclusions The globalisation of the food supply is having considerable impacts on diets in the Pacific Islands. While nutrient labels can be informative for consumers looking for healthier options, difficulties still exist with poor labelling and interpretation can be challenging. PMID:24160249

  6. Pacific Island rugby: Histories, mobilities, comparisons

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Besnier, N.

    2014-01-01

    The migration of rugby players from Fiji and neighbouring Pacific Island nations poses fundamental questions about the way in which sport is embedded in historical, political, social and global dynamics, all of which give specific meanings to sports and those who play it. An approach that bestows a

  7. Asian & Pacific Islander American Health Forum

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Report.pdf [1.2MB] Obesity and Overweight Among Asian American Children and Adolescents 2016.04.28-OBESITY AND ... Month Stay Connected! Receive the latest APIAHF updates Asian & Pacific Islander American Health Forum. All rights reserved. One Kaiser Plaza, ...

  8. A 'Healthy Islands' framework for climate change in the Pacific.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McIver, Lachlan; Bowen, Kathryn; Hanna, Elizabeth; Iddings, Steven

    2017-06-01

    Small Pacific Island countries (PICs) are among the most vulnerable countries in the world to the anticipated detrimental health effects of climate change. The assessment of health vulnerabilities and planning adaptation strategies to minimize the impacts of climate change on health tests traditional health governance structures and depends on strong linkages and partnerships between actors involved in these vital processes. This article reviews the actors, processes and contexts of the climate change and health vulnerability assessment and adaptation planning project carried out by the World Health Organization and health sector partners in three island countries in the Micronesian region of the Pacific throughout 2010 and 2011: Federated States of Micronesia, Marshall Islands and Palau. Despite their shared history and cultural characteristics, the findings and implications of this article are considered to have substantial relevance and potential application to other PICs. The modified 'Healthy Islands' framework for climate change and health adaptation presented in this article draws upon real-world experience and governance theory from both the health and climate change literature and, for the first time, places health systems adaptation within the vision for 'Healthy Islands' in the Pacific region. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  9. Global warming and small island nations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lechte, R.E.

    1994-01-01

    Climate change has the potential to raise sea levels, and this could be catastrophic for many small island nations. The threats of climate change are reviewed with emphasis on the impacts on women of these nations. Considerations include land and resource inheritance traditionally held by women, traditional gardening and fishing practices for which women are responsible, deterioration of ground water and consequent health problems, increased incidence of hurricanes, and the potential for large scale resettlement programs. The small, rich European states threatened by sea level rise, such as the Netherlands and Denmark, have been proactive in proposing CO 2 reduction targets that go well beyond the Montreal Protocol. However, the Danes and the Dutch have far greater resources than small Pacific island states, or Bangladesh or the Maldives. These countries' very survivial may depend on the political will of the wealthier nations to reduce their emissions and assist the less developed countries in dealing with the threat of sea level rise

  10. Ambae Island, Vanuatu (South Pacific)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-01-01

    The recently active volcano Mt. Manaro is the dominant feature in this shaded relief image of Ambae Island, part of the Vanuatu archipelago located 1400 miles northeast of Sydney, Australia. About 5000 inhabitants, half the island's population, were evacuated in early December from the path of a possible lahar, or mud flow, when the volcano started spewing clouds of steam and toxic gases 10,000 feet into the atmosphere. Last active in 1996, the 1496 meter (4908 ft.) high Hawaiian-style basaltic shield volcano features two lakes within its summit caldera, or crater. The ash and gas plume is actually emerging from a vent at the center of Lake Voui (at left), which was formed approximately 425 years ago after an explosive eruption. Two visualization methods were combined to produce the image: shading and color coding of topographic height. The shade image was derived by computing topographic slope in the northwest-southeast direction, so that northwest slopes appear bright and southeast slopes appear dark. Color coding is directly related to topographic height, with green at the lower elevations, rising through yellow and tan, to white at the highest elevations. Elevation data used in this image were acquired by the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission aboard the Space Shuttle Endeavour, launched on Feb. 11, 2000. SRTM used the same radar instrument that comprised the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) that flew twice on the Space Shuttle Endeavour in 1994. SRTM was designed to collect 3-D measurements of the Earth's surface. To collect the 3-D data, engineers added a 60-meter (approximately 200-foot) mast, installed additional C-band and X-band antennas, and improved tracking and navigation devices. The mission is a cooperative project between NASA, the National Geospatial-Intelligence Agency (NGA) of the U.S. Department of Defense and the German and Italian space agencies. It is managed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena

  11. CRED 5 m Gridded bathymetry of Baker Island, Pacific Remote Island Areas, Central Pacific (Arc ASCII Format)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Gridded (5 m cell size) bathymetry of the shelf and slope environments of Baker Island, Pacific Remote Isand Areas, Central Pacific. Almost complete bottom coverage...

  12. Nuclear activities and the Pacific islanders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dyke, J. Van; Smith, K.R.; Siwatibau, S.

    1984-01-01

    Although to outsiders the Pacific islands may seem far removed from the center of activities and controversies related to nuclear energy, this area has had more direct and negative experiences with nuclear issues than any other area in the world. These experiences have led to a deep-rooted skepticism of all nuclear activities in which distinctions between civilian and military activities, weapons and power, and low-and high-level waste bear little relation to the important Pacific concerns. Antinuclear sentiments are intimately linked to anticolonialism, growing regionalism and emerging cultural pride. Opposition and concern have been expressed in a number of international, regional, national and nongovernmental forums. In this climate, arguments about the relative safety of various waste disposal operations and other nuclear activities are not likely to be meaningful. (author)

  13. The demographic dynamics of small island societies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruz, M; D'ayala, P G; Marcus, E; Mcelroy, J L; Rossi, O

    1987-01-01

    Small islands and microstates have demonstrated a unique demographic pattern, including cycles of swift population increases or decreases well beyond natural birth and death rate balances. These demographic fluctuations have been produced largely by rises or declines in market opportunities. The process of taking advantage of favorable opportunities is always followed by a specialization in the given activity, without regard to environmental protection issues or a longterm strategy for economic development and resource diversification. The population growth phase is associated with increasing fragility of the economic base, whether because of the external dangers of overspecialization or induced internal dysfunctions such as disease and resource depletion. Eventually complete collapse results, causing chronic outmigration or even depopulation. Case histories of maritime basins in the Mediterranean, Caribbean, and Pacific show that the demographic structure of small islands has been particularly sensitive to changing economic opportunities, the vagaries of market forces, and cataclysmic natural events. Experience in these areas suggests that balanced economic development of small islands should be based on diversification of activities, thus ensuring a relatively stable pattern of growth, sound environmental management, and control of dangerous demographic fluctuations. Special attention should be given to the development of broad-based research and cooperation to integrate specific island opportunities within a regional network.

  14. Sociodemographic Factors Influencing Island Food Consumption in the Pacific Islander Health Study

    OpenAIRE

    Baumhofer, Nicole Kau'i

    2016-01-01

    This dissertation explores the relationships between island food consumption, sociodemographic variables, and cardiovascular risk using data from the Pacific Islander Health Study (PIHS). Chapter 1 explores the associations between self-reported level of island food consumption and key covariates. Island food consumption was modeled using Poisson regression and adjusted for demographic, socioeconomic, and cultural characteristics. Increased Pacific Island cultural affinity was the strongest p...

  15. IFRS adoption in Pacific Island Economies: A political perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pran Boolaky

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a new paradigm on the adoption of IFRS in island economies specifically in the pacific region. The adapted Scott (2001 institutional pressure framework on IFRS adoption addresses the political independence and political dependence of pacific island economies at three levels namely high, second and low.

  16. Transition to School from Pacific Islands Early Childhood Services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sauvao, Le'autuli'ilagi M.; Mapa, Lia; Podmore, Valerie N.

    Noting the need for additional information on the transition of children from Pacific Islands early childhood services to primary school, this exploratory study was designed to provide an account of the experiences of children, parents, and teachers, focusing on language and other aspects of children's move from Pacific Islands early childhood…

  17. Health status of Asians and Pacific Islanders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lum, O M

    1995-02-01

    The elder Asian or Pacific-Island American presents a dynamic, interactive paradigm of forces beyond medical practice that includes religious, societal, and historical factors of delivering health care. The cultural characteristics of family and function, perception of time and healing, and the anthropologic factors of health beliefs on health behaviors can add to understanding our medical patients. Some important trends of environmental factors on expression of genetic predisposition to certain illnesses, such as diabetes and gout, can be used in health prevention. The significance of diet on certain cancers can be better understood using nativity factors. Many of the mental illnesses borne by immigrants can be recognized and treated. Significant clinical research directions imply an ability of American medicine to target at-risk Asians and Pacific Islanders for specific prevention and early diagnoses. The base knowledge of differential physiologic changes for aging and disease due to genetic predisposition and the correlates of social, cultural, and behavioral factors of diseases can then be improved.

  18. Place in Pacific Islands Climate Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barros, C.; Koh, M. W.

    2015-12-01

    Understanding place, including both the environment and its people, is essential to understanding our climate, climate change, and its impacts. For us to develop a sense of our place, we need to engage in multiple ways of learning: observation, experimentation, and opportunities to apply new knowledge (Orr, 1992). This approach allows us to access different sources of knowledge and then create local solutions for local issues. It is especially powerful when we rely on experts and elders in our own community along with information from the global community.The Pacific islands Climate Education Partnership (PCEP) is a collaboration of partners—school systems, nongovernmental organizations, and government agencies—working to support learning and teaching about climate in the Pacific. Since 2009, PCEP partners have been working together to develop and implement classroom resources, curriculum standards, and teacher professional learning opportunities in which learners approach climate change and its impacts first through the lens of their own place. Such an approach to putting place central to teaching and learning about climate requires partnership and opportunities for learners to explore solutions for and with their communities. In this presentation, we will share the work unfolding in the Republic of the Marshall Islands (RMI) as one example of PCEP's approach to place-based climate education. Three weeklong K-12 teacher professional learning workshops took place during June-July 2015 in Majuro, RMI on learning gardens, climate science, and project-based learning. Each workshop was co-taught with local partners and supports educators in teaching climate-related curriculum standards through tasks that can foster sense of place through observation, experimentation, and application of new knowledge. Additionally, we will also share PCEP's next steps in place-based climate education, specifically around emerging conversations about the importance of highlighting

  19. Monitoring network of atmospheric Radon-222 concentration in East Asia and backward trajectory analysis of Radon-222 concentration trend at a small solitary island on pacific ocean

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohkura, Takehisa; Yamazawa, Hiromi; Moriizumi, Jun; Hirao, Shigekazu; Iida, Takao; Guo Qiuju; Tohjima, Yasunori

    2009-01-01

    A monitoring network of atmospheric 222 Rn concentration as a tracer for long-range transport in East Asia was established. Atmospheric 222 Rn concentration at Beijing, which is located on China Continent was 10-20 Bq m -3 , at Nagoya, which is located on edge of terrestrial area was 3-10 Bq m -3 and at Hachijo-jima and Hateruma-jima, which are solitary islands in Pacific Ocean was 0.5-3 Bq m -3 , respectively. The atmospheric 222 Rn concentration variations were different from sites. The 222 Rn concentration was the lowest in the summer and the highest in the winter except Nagoya where the highest was observed in the autumn and the lowest in the spring. Diurnal variations were measured at Beijing and Nagoya. In contrast, diurnal variations were not measured but several-day-cycle variations were measured at Hachijo-jima and Hateruma-jima. It was pointed out by this study that the several-day-cycle variations at Hachijo-jima were dependent on synoptic-scale atmospheric disturbance. 222 Rn concentration increased rapidly after a cold front passed through Hachijo-jima. Backward trajectory analysis of the relationship between atmospheric 222 Rn concentrations at Hachijo-jima and transport pathway of air mass indicates that air mass transported from China and Siberia has high concentration 222 Rn and air mass transported from Pacific Ocean has low concentration 222 Rn. In winter, atmospheric 222 Rn concentrations at Hachijo-jima is dependent on vertical transport pathway rather than horizontal transport pathway. (author)

  20. Background issues of oil supply trading in Pacific island countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-01-01

    The 1980s has been a decade of considerable change within the petroleum industry resulting in new supply arrangements and continued uncertainty within the island countries about reasonable supply and pricing terms. Formulating an effective response is all the more challenging for small countries which have only recently become independent, which have miniscule public sector organizations responsible for energy policy and which occupy a region where petroleum dominates commercial energy use to a greater extent, well over 90 per cent, than any other part of the world. During the past five years the Energy Resources Section of ESCAP, and staff members of the Energy Program within the East West Center in Honolulu have frequently worked closely with the Pacific Energy Development Programme (PEDP) to advise Pacific island Governments on a wide range of petroleum policy and administration issues, including shipping, overall supply arrangements, contracts for refined products, price control and monitoring, regional co-operation, and storage options. They have also organized a number of formal and informal training activities within the petroleum sector and worked closely with a World Bank team which investigated regional bulk oil purchase in 1986. This report is of interest to readers concerned with options facing small countries, from both national and regional perspectives, for dealing with petroleum policy. Refs, figs and tabs

  1. FastStats: Health of Asian or Pacific Islander Population

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Whooping Cough or Pertussis Family Life Marriage and Divorce Health Care and Insurance Access to Health Care ... 2015, table 1 [PDF – 2.7 MB] Leading causes of death for Asian or Pacific Islander population ...

  2. Pacific Island Network Marine Fish Monitoring Dataset - Transects

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The benthic marine community in the Pacific Island Network (PACN) is a complex ecologic system and a diverse taxonomic environment, including algae and corals and...

  3. Cancer Epidemiology in the Pacific Islands - Past, Present and Future

    OpenAIRE

    Moore, Malcolm A; Baumann, Francine; Foliaki, Sunia; Goodman, Marc T; Haddock, Robert; Maraka, Roger; Koroivueta, Josefa; Roder, David; Vinit, Thomas; Whippy, Helen JD; Sobue, Tomotaka

    2010-01-01

    The Pacific Ocean contains approximately 25,000 islands, stretching from Papua New Guinea to Easter Island, populated by mixtures of Melanesians, Micronesians and Polynesians, as well as migrant groups from Asia and Europe. The region encompasses a third of the surface of the earth although it is sparsely populated at a total of around 9 million. With the exception of some of the more populated islands, such as New Zealand and Hawaii, few surveys of chronic diseases have been conducted, but i...

  4. Cardiac surgery in the Pacific Islands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Philip John; Wainer, Zoe; O'Keefe, Michael; Nand, Parma

    2011-12-01

    Rheumatic heart disease constitutes a significant disease burden in under-resourced communities. Recognition of the devastating impact of rheumatic heart disease has resulted in volunteer cardiac teams from Australasia providing surgical services to regions of need. The primary objective of this study was to compare New Zealand hospitals' volunteer cardiac surgical operative results in Samoa and Fiji with the accepted surgical mortality and morbidity rates for Australasia. A retrospective review from seven volunteer cardiac surgical trips to Samoa and Fiji from 2003 to 2009 was conducted. Patient data were retrospectively and prospectively collected. Preoperative morbidity and mortality risk were calculated using the European System for Cardiac Operative Risk Evaluation (euroSCORE). Audit data were collated in line with the Australasian Society of Cardiac and Thoracic Surgeons guidelines. One hundred and three operations were performed over 6 years. EuroSCORE predicted an operative mortality of 3.32%. In-hospital mortality was 0.97% and post-discharge mortality was 2.91%, resulting in a 30-day mortality of 3.88%. This study demonstrated that performing cardiac surgery in Fiji and Samoa is viable and safe. However, the mortality was slightly higher than predicted by euroSCORE. Difficulties exist in predicting mortality rates in patients with rheumatic heart disease from Pacific Island nations as known risk scoring models fail to be disease, ethnically or culturally inclusive. Audit processes and risk model development and assessment are an essential part of this complex surgical charity work and will result in improved patient selection and outcomes. © 2011 The Authors. ANZ Journal of Surgery © 2011 Royal Australasian College of Surgeons.

  5. Obesity emergence in the Pacific islands: why understanding colonial history and social change is important.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLennan, Amy K; Ulijaszek, Stanley J

    2015-06-01

    Between 1980 and 2008, two Pacific island nations - Nauru and the Cook Islands - experienced the fastest rates of increasing BMI in the world. Rates were over four times higher than the mean global BMI increase. The aim of the present paper is to examine why these populations have been so prone to obesity increases in recent times. Three explanatory frames that apply to both countries are presented: (i) geographic isolation and genetic predisposition; (ii) small population and low food production capacity; and (iii) social change under colonial influence. These are compared with social changes documented by anthropologists during the colonial and post-colonial periods. Nauru and the Cook Islands. While islands are isolated, islanders are interconnected. Similarly, islands are small, but land use is socially determined. While obesity affects individuals, islanders are interdependent. New social values, which were rapidly propagated through institutions such as the colonial system of education and the cash economy, are today reflected in all aspects of islander life, including diet. Such historical social changes may predispose societies to obesity. Colonial processes may have put in place the conditions for subsequent rapidly escalating obesity. Of the three frameworks discussed, social change under colonial influence is not immutable to further change in the future and could take place rapidly. In theorising obesity emergence in the Pacific islands, there is a need to incorporate the idea of obesity being a product of interdependence and interconnectedness, rather than independence and individual choice.

  6. Legacy of the Pacific Islander cancer control network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hubbell, F Allan; Luce, Pat H; Afeaki, William P; Cruz, Lee Ann C; McMullin, Juliet M; Mummert, Angelina; Pouesi, June; Reyes, Maria Lourdes; Taumoepeau, Leafa Tuita; Tu'ufuli, Galeai Moali'itele; Wenzel, Lari

    2006-10-15

    The groundwork for the Pacific Islander cancer control network (PICCN) began in the early 1990s with a study of the cancer control needs of American Samoans. The necessity for similar studies among other Pacific Islander populations led to the development of PICCN. The project's principal objectives were to increase cancer awareness and to enhance cancer control research among American Samoans, Tongans, and Chamorros. PICCN was organized around a steering committee and 6 community advisory boards, 2 from each of the targeted populations. Membership included community leaders, cancer control experts, and various academic and technical organizations involved with cancer control. Through this infrastructure, the investigators developed new culturally sensitive cancer education materials and distributed them in a culturally appropriate manner. They also initiated a cancer control research training program, educated Pacific Islander students in this field, and conducted pilot research projects. PICCN conducted nearly 200 cancer awareness activities in its 6 study sites and developed cancer educational materials on prostate, colorectal, lung, breast, and cervical cancer and tobacco control in the Samoan, Tongan, and Chamorro languages. PICCN trained 9 students who conducted 7 pilot research projects designed to answer important questions regarding the cancer control needs of Pacific Islanders and to inform interventions targeting those needs. The legacy of PICCN lies in its advancement of improving cancer control among Pacific Islanders and setting the stage for interventions that will help to eliminate cancer-related health disparities. Cancer 2006. (c) 2006 American Cancer Society.

  7. CRED Towed-Diver Fish Biomass Surveys at Jarvis Island, Pacific Remote Island Areas in 2002

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Towed-diver surveys (aka. Towboard surveys) are conducted by the Coral Reef Ecosystem Division (CRED) of the NOAA Pacific Islands Fisheries Science Center (PIFSC) as...

  8. CRED Towed-Diver Fish Biomass Surveys at Wake Island, Pacific Remote Island Areas in 2005

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Towed-diver surveys (aka. Towboard surveys) are conducted by the Coral Reef Ecosystem Division (CRED) of the NOAA Pacific Islands Fisheries Science Center (PIFSC) as...

  9. Precipitation Frequency for Wake Island, Pacific Islands - NOAA Atlas 14 Volume 5

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This GIS grid atlas contains precipitation frequency estimates for the Pacific Islands that are based on precipitation data. This atlas is a new release from the NWS...

  10. CRED Towed-Diver Fish Biomass Surveys at Baker Island, Pacific Remote Island Areas in 2002

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Towed-diver surveys (aka. Towboard surveys) are conducted by the Coral Reef Ecosystem Division (CRED) of the NOAA Pacific Islands Fisheries Science Center (PIFSC) as...

  11. CRED Towed-Diver Fish Biomass Surveys at Howland Island, Pacific Remote Island Areas in 2002

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Towed-diver surveys (aka. Towboard surveys) are conducted by the Coral Reef Ecosystem Division (CRED) of the NOAA Pacific Islands Fisheries Science Center (PIFSC) as...

  12. CRED Towed-Diver Fish Biomass Surveys at Baker Island, Pacific Remote Island Areas in 2008

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Towed-diver surveys (aka. Towboard surveys) are conducted by the Coral Reef Ecosystem Division (CRED) of the NOAA Pacific Islands Fisheries Science Center (PIFSC) as...

  13. CRED Towed-Diver Fish Biomass Surveys at Howland Island, Pacific Remote Island Areas in 2004

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Towed-diver surveys (aka. Towboard surveys) are conducted by the Coral Reef Ecosystem Division (CRED) of the NOAA Pacific Islands Fisheries Science Center (PIFSC) as...

  14. CRED Towed-Diver Fish Biomass Surveys at Baker Island, Pacific Remote Island Areas in 2004

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Towed-diver surveys (aka. Towboard surveys) are conducted by the Coral Reef Ecosystem Division (CRED) of the NOAA Pacific Islands Fisheries Science Center (PIFSC) as...

  15. CRED Towed-Diver Fish Biomass Surveys at Wake Island, Pacific Remote Island Areas in 2009

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Towed-diver surveys (aka. Towboard surveys) are conducted by the Coral Reef Ecosystem Division (CRED) of the NOAA Pacific Islands Fisheries Science Center (PIFSC) as...

  16. CRED Towed-Diver Fish Biomass Surveys at Baker Island, Pacific Remote Island Areas in 2001

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Towed-diver surveys (aka. Towboard surveys) are conducted by the Coral Reef Ecosystem Division (CRED) of the NOAA Pacific Islands Fisheries Science Center (PIFSC) as...

  17. Precipitation Frequency for Republic of the Marshall Islands, Pacific Islands - NOAA Atlas 14 Volume 5

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This GIS grid atlas contains precipitation frequency estimates for the Pacific Islands that are based on precipitation data. This atlas is a new release from the NWS...

  18. CRED Towed-Diver Fish Biomass Surveys at Wake Island, Pacific Remote Island Areas in 2007

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Towed-diver surveys (aka. Towboard surveys) are conducted by the Coral Reef Ecosystem Division (CRED) of the NOAA Pacific Islands Fisheries Science Center (PIFSC) as...

  19. CRED Towed-Diver Fish Biomass Surveys at Howland Island, Pacific Remote Island Areas in 2006

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Towed-diver surveys (aka. Towboard surveys) are conducted by the Coral Reef Ecosystem Division (CRED) of the NOAA Pacific Islands Fisheries Science Center (PIFSC) as...

  20. CRED Towed-Diver Fish Biomass Surveys at Baker Island, Pacific Remote Island Areas in 2006

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Towed-diver surveys (aka. Towboard surveys) are conducted by the Coral Reef Ecosystem Division (CRED) of the NOAA Pacific Islands Fisheries Science Center (PIFSC) as...

  1. 64 Percent of Asian and Pacific Islander Treatment Admissions Name Alcohol as Their Problem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Data Spotlight May 28, 2013 64 Percent of Asian and Pacific Islander Treatment Admissions Name Alcohol as ... common problem in the United States. 1 When Asians and Pacific Islanders (APIs) go to treatment, alcohol ...

  2. 78 FR 7385 - Western Pacific Fisheries; Fishing in the Marianas Trench, Pacific Remote Islands, and Rose Atoll...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-01

    ...-BA98 Western Pacific Fisheries; Fishing in the Marianas Trench, Pacific Remote Islands, and Rose Atoll... Presidential proclamations that created the Marianas Trench, Pacific Remote Islands, and Rose Atoll Marine..., 2009). Proclamation 8337 of January 6, 2009, ``Establishment of the Rose Atoll Marine National Monument...

  3. Mesozoic possibilities seen on Tonga islands in Southwest Pacific

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Helu, S.P.; Khanna, S.N.

    1992-01-01

    This paper reports that the Kingdom of Tonga in the southwestern Pacific Ocean comprises 171 islands of which only 37 are inhabited. There are four main groups of islands: Tongatapu, H'apai, Vava'u, and the Niuas. The total land area is 700 sq km, and the territorial waters extend to 700,000 sq km. The kingdom is bordered by New Zealand, Fiji, Walhis and Fortuna, the Samoas, and Niue

  4. The lived experience of Pacific Island women with a “big body” size

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nafanua Braginsky

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This phenomenological study explored the lived experience with "big body" size of Pacific Island women who migrated to Hawaii. Giorgi’s descriptive phenomenological approach was utilized in this study. A purposive sample included six Pacific Island women. Five of the six women had migrated to Hawaii from the island nations of Micronesia. The sixth participant was a Native Hawaiian who had lived in Micronesia and had returned to Hawaii. The collection and transcription of data were done by the first author. Data were categorized into themes independently by the three authors and bracketing was maintained throughout the study. The women identified the dichotomy of "big body" versus "small body" and the connotation of each body size in how they viewed the world around them. They shared their lifestyle and transitional changes in trying to adapt and ‘fit’ into the new lifestyle in Hawaii. These changes impacted their eating habits and work schedule, level of activity, and financial security. The women identified biopsychosocial concerns in their lives and the need to re-evaluate their "big body" size in relation to their health and physical and psychosocial changes. Implications for future research are to include a diverse representation of women from island countries within the Pacific Basin. The results of this study provided valuable information related to cultural relevance and sensitivity in working with Pacific Island women in managing their health.

  5. Considering native and exotic terrestrial reptiles in island invasive species eradication programmes in the Tropical Pacific

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, Richard N.; Veitch, C.R.; Clout, Mike N.; Towns, D. R.

    2010-01-01

    Most island restoration projects with reptiles, either as direct beneficiaries of conservation or as indicators of recovery responses, have been on temperate or xeric islands. There have been decades of research, particularly on temperate islands in New Zealand, on the responses of native reptiles to mammal eradications but very few studies in tropical insular systems. Recent increases in restoration projects involving feral mammal eradications in the tropical Pacific have led to several specific challenges related to native and invasive reptiles. This paper reviews these challenges and discusses some potential solutions to them. The first challenge is that the tropical Pacific herpetofauna is still being discovered, described and understood. There is thus incomplete knowledge of how eradication activities may affect these faunas and the potential risks facing critical populations of these species from these eradication actions. The long term benefit of the removal of invasives is beneficial, but the possible short term impacts to small populations on small islands might be significant. The second challenge is that protocols for monitoring the responses of these species are not well documented but are often different from those used in temperate or xeric habitats. Lizard monitoring techniques used in the tropical Pacific are discussed. The third challenge involves invasive reptiles already in the tropical Pacific, some of which could easily spread accidentally through eradication and monitoring operations. The species posing the greatest threats in this respect are reviewed, and recommendations for biosecurity concerning these taxa are made.

  6. Asian and Pacific Islander HIV/AIDS Awareness PSA (:30)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2010-05-12

    In this PSA, Asians and Pacific Islanders are encouraged to talk about HIV and get tested for HIV.  Created: 5/12/2010 by Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC).   Date Released: 5/12/2010.

  7. Decision Making for Pap Testing among Pacific Islander Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, Jie W.; Mouttapa, Michele; Sablan-Santos, Lola; DeGuzman Lacsamana, Jasmine; Quitugua, Lourdes; Park Tanjasiri, Sora

    2016-01-01

    This study employed a Multi-Attribute Utility (MAU) model to examine the Pap test decision-making process among Pacific Islanders (PI) residing in Southern California. A total of 585 PI women were recruited through social networks from Samoan and Tongan churches, and Chamorro family clans. A questionnaire assessed Pap test knowledge, beliefs and…

  8. CRED Simrad em300 multibeam backscatter data of Howland Island, Pacific Remote Island Areas, Central Pacific in GeoTIFF format

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Multibeam backscatter imagery extracted from gridded bathymetry of the shelf and slope environments of Howland Atoll, Pacific Island Areas, Central Pacific. These...

  9. Building Tobacco Cessation Capacity in the US-Affiliated Pacific Islands

    OpenAIRE

    David, Annette M.; Cruz, Peter J.; Mercado, Susan P.; Dan, Li

    2013-01-01

    Tobacco control stakeholders in priority populations are searching for culturally appropriate cessation training models to strengthen cessation capacity and infrastructure. We adapted the University of Arizona model for Brief Tobacco Cessation Interventions (BTI) training for Pacific Islanders and pilot-tested it in four Pacific Islands - Palau, the Federated States of Micronesia, the Northern Mariana Islands and the Marshall Islands.

  10. Living on the margin: dealing with climate change in remote Pacific islands

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Birk, Thomas Ladegaard Kümmel

    In the global debate of climate change the fate of small islands states has played a significant role, in spite of the relatively few people affected. This thesis examines how such islands, here mainly represented by two atoll groups in remote parts of Solomon Islands in the Southwest Pacific, Reef...... Islands and Ontong Java, have been and will be affected, and what adaptation strategies they may employ. An attempt is made to cover a wide range of aspects of this problem field, spanning from climate change itself and its impacts on livelihood activities to decision-making processes and sets of actions......, while current voluntary migration may be claimed to have positive effects on island communities. In order for migration to constitute a viable ‘adaptation option’ in a future situation of increased rate of sea-level rise, certain barriers to migration need to be overcome, however. Theses barriers...

  11. Pacific Islands Regional Climate Assessment: Building a Framework to Track Physical and Social Indicators of Climate Change Across Pacific Islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grecni, Z. N.; Keener, V. W.

    2016-12-01

    Assessments inform regional and local climate change governance and provide the critical scientific basis for U.S. climate policy. Despite the centrality of scientific information to public discourse and decision making, comprehensive assessments of climate change drivers, impacts, and the vulnerability of human and ecological systems at regional or local scales are often conducted on an ad hoc basis. Methods for sustained assessment and communication of scientific information are diverse and nascent. The Pacific Islands Regional Climate Assessment (PIRCA) is a collaborative effort to assess climate change indicators, impacts, and adaptive capacity of the Hawaiian archipelago and the US-Affiliated Pacific Islands (USAPI). In 2012, PIRCA released the first comprehensive report summarizing the state of scientific knowledge about climate change in the region as a technical input to the U.S. National Climate Assessment. A multi-method evaluation of PIRCA outputs and delivery revealed that the vast majority of key stakeholders view the report as extremely credible and use it as a resource. The current study will present PIRCA's approach to establishing physical and social indicators to track on an ongoing basis, starting with the Republic of the Marshall Islands as an initial location of focus for providing a cross-sectoral indicators framework. Identifying and tracking useful indicators is aimed at sustaining the process of knowledge coproduction with decision makers who seek to better understand the climate variability and change and its impacts on Pacific Island communities.

  12. Atypical antipsychotic usage among Asian Americans and Pacific Islanders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeshita, Junji; Goebert, Deborah; Else, Iwalani; Carlton, Barry; Matsu, Courtenay; Guerrero, Anthony

    2014-09-01

    Previous studies have shown significant ethnic differences in prescribing patterns of two or more antipsychotics. This study examined changes in atypical and typical antipsychotic prescriptions among Asian Americans and Pacific Islanders. Five hundred consecutive charts were reviewed for antipsychotics at the time of admission and discharge from each of two inpatient psychiatric facilities in Hawai'i. Multiple antipsychotic prescription rates were 9% at intake and 6% at discharge. For the ethnic groups studied, there were no statistically significant differences by patient ethnicity regarding antipsychotics at intake (χ(2) = 29.2, df = 21, P = .110) or discharge (χ(2) = 20.5, df = 24, P = .667). There were no significant differences in prescription and polypharmacy patterns among Asian Americans and Pacific Islanders ethnic groups in this study.

  13. 78 FR 76060 - Pacific Ocean off the Pacific Missile Range Facility at Barking Sands, Island of Kauai, Hawaii...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-16

    ... the Pacific Missile Range Facility at Barking Sands, Island of Kauai, Hawaii; Danger Zone. AGENCY: U.S... Barking Sands, Island of Kauai, Hawaii. The U.S. Navy conducts weapon systems testing and other military... Sands, Island of Kauai, Hawaii. The proposed rule was published in the July 1, 2013 issue of the Federal...

  14. CRED Simrad em300 multibeam backscatter data of Johnston Atoll, Pacific Remote Island Areas, Central Pacific in GeoTIFF format

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Multibeam backscatter imagery extracted from gridded bathymetry of the shelf and slope environments of Johnston Island, Pacific Island Areas, Central Pacific. These...

  15. [Terrestrial flora of Malpelo Island, Colombia, Eastern Tropical Pacific].

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Román, Rubén D; López-Victoria, Mateo; Silverstone-Sopkin, Philip A

    2014-03-01

    Malpelo Island is located 380km off the mainland continental coast of Colombia, in the Pacific Ocean. Several geological, ecological, and zoological studies, both marine and terrestrial, have been conducted in this island. Despite some marginal comments on some publications, no single specific survey has been devoted to botany so far. In order to make a floristic inventory of the terrestrial flora of this island, three field trips were made in 2010 to collect vascular plants, mosses, and lichens, as well as data on their distribution within the island. We collected and identified 25 species of lichens, two species of vascular plants and one moss. Lichens were the most diverse group found, including records of four new genera (Endocarpon, Fuscidea, Lecanographa and Verrucaria) and 13 new species for Colombia. The high lichen richness on Malpelo might be explained by their efficient form of asexual reproduction (soredia and isidia), that may have facilitated their transport to the island by migrating birds or wind. Once on the island, it is possible that lichens persist by being chemically protected against herbivores. The great number of new generic and species records for Colombia is explained by the low number of studies in saxicolous lichens conducted so far in the country, particularly on coastal areas and remote islands. Only two species of vascular plants were collected, a grass, Paspalum sp., and a fern, Pityrogramma calomelanos, and both of them correspond to new determinations for Malpelo. A moss species previously reported but with no positive identification was collected and identified as Octoblepharum albidum. Other species previously reported, for example, some species of shrubs, were not observed. The low number of vascular plants is probably due to a combination of soil conditions and herbivory by land crabs. This study is the first complete inventory of the flora of Malpelo and is a starting and reference point for future comparisons among islands in

  16. Different shades of green on small islands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teresa Tiago

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Many small islands exist as tourism destinations worldwide. In the 1990s, the growth of environmental consciousness led some small islands to question their mass tourism offers and to refocus on more sustainable propositions. However, it remains unclear whether hospitality firms see these sustainability related efforts as drivers of success and whether tourists value this dimension when choosing or recommending a destination. This study chose a small island destination to address these questions using data covering firm and tourism perceptions of green products. The results show that tourists tend to value green efforts with different intensities, corresponding to three segments: Light Green, Green, and Super Green. These findings should help hotels adjust their communication strategies and develop new services. Further, destination marketing organizations can devise a consistent destination strategy, integrating all stakeholders by including their most valued concepts.

  17. Renewable Energy in the Pacific Islands: An overview and exemplary projects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hourcourigaray, Jean; Wary, David; Bitot, Stephane; Audras, Frederic; Riviere, Francoise

    2014-10-01

    The objective of this study was to provide an objective documentary source, relevant and usable for institutional and economic players at a regional colloquium on renewable energies which was to be organized by the French Polynesian community and the High Commission of the Republic in the second quarter of 2014. However, the date was put back due to local political changes which occurred following the last territorial elections (mid-2013). More largely, in the context of the fight against climate change, the subject of renewable energies takes on considerable importance. A large number of island States in the Pacific zone are extremely dependent on fossil fuels, and in the coming years, will face major impacts related to climate change (biodiversity, rising sea level, food security,...). It should be noted here that the small island countries (notably those of the Pacific) which belong to the intergovernmental organization AOSIS (Alliance of Small Island States), constitute a real lobbying force in the face of large industrialized countries at climate negotiations. Images of the Maldives' Council of Ministers meeting underwater demonstrate the will of small island States to make themselves heard at the highest levels. The notion of 'climate refugees' is not a mere idea; it could soon become a veritable legal concept. This study in no way claims to meet these challenges, but strives to highlight some solutions which are working ('good practices' in donors' terms), in order to propose adapting or replicating them. The accepted approach is thus above all positive and constructive: solutions exist, sometimes at low cost, and the projects help give Pacific peoples the feeling that they belong to wider global community, not to mention a sometimes small but important part of their harmony

  18. Three Dinophyceae from Clipperton Island lagoon (eastern Pacific Ocean), including a description of Peridiniopsis cristata var. tubulifera var. nov.

    OpenAIRE

    Coute, Alain; Perrette, Catherine; Chomerat, Nicolas

    2012-01-01

    Clipperton Island is a small French coral atoll in the eastern Pacific Ocean, which has been rarely investigated because of its remote location and difficult access. There is little scientific information on this ecosystem and only a few microalgae have been reported from the lagoon. To date, only one dinoflagellate taxon, Peridiniopsis cristata, is known to inhabit the lagoon. During an expedition in 2005 to study the lagoon and the surrounding oceanic waters of Clipperton Island, a further ...

  19. Depth Contours for select locations across the U.S. Pacific Islands

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — These data are depth contours (isobaths) derived at 50 meters for most islands and reefs in the Mariana Archipelago, American Samoa, and the Pacific Remote Island...

  20. 75 FR 1597 - Western Pacific Crustacean Fisheries; 2010 Northwestern Hawaiian Islands Lobster Harvest Guideline

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-12

    ... Pacific Crustacean Fisheries; 2010 Northwestern Hawaiian Islands Lobster Harvest Guideline AGENCY.... ACTION: Notification of lobster harvest guideline. SUMMARY: NMFS announces that the annual harvest guideline for the commercial lobster fishery in the Northwestern Hawaiian Islands (NWHI) for calendar year...

  1. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species: an assessment of coral reef fishes in the US Pacific Islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zgliczynski, B. J.; Williams, I. D.; Schroeder, R. E.; Nadon, M. O.; Richards, B. L.; Sandin, S. A.

    2013-09-01

    Widespread declines among many coral reef fisheries have led scientists and managers to become increasingly concerned over the extinction risk facing some species. To aid in assessing the extinction risks facing coral reef fishes, large-scale censuses of the abundance and distribution of individual species are critically important. We use fisheries-independent data collected as part of the NOAA Pacific Reef Assessment and Monitoring Program from 2000 to 2009 to describe the range and density across the US Pacific of coral reef fishes included on The International Union for the Conservation of Nature's (IUCN) 2011 Red List of Threatened Species. Forty-five species, including sharks, rays, groupers, humphead wrasse ( Cheilinus undulatus), and bumphead parrotfish ( Bolbometopon muricatum), included on the IUCN List, were recorded in the US Pacific Islands. Most species were generally rare in the US Pacific with the exception of a few species, principally small groupers and reef sharks. The greatest diversity and densities of IUCN-listed fishes were recorded at remote and uninhabited islands of the Pacific Remote Island Areas; in general, lower densities were observed at reefs of inhabited islands. Our findings complement IUCN assessment efforts, emphasize the efficacy of large-scale assessment and monitoring efforts in providing quantitative data on reef fish assemblages, and highlight the importance of protecting populations at remote and uninhabited islands where some species included on the IUCN Red List of Threatened Species can be observed in abundance.

  2. Agricultural diversification strategies in small island states

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Drori, I.; Gayle, D. J.

    1991-01-01

    Across the small island states of the Caribbean, the need for greater agricultural diversification is a constant policy concern, as exemplified by the case of Barbados. Although the cane sugar industry in Barbados remains one of the more cost-efficient in the world, the structures of both the

  3. Census Snapshot: California's Asian/Pacific Islander LGB Population

    OpenAIRE

    Ramos, Christopher; Gates, Gary J

    2008-01-01

    This report provides a general overview of Asian and Pacific Islanders (API) in same-sex couples as well as the broader API lesbian, gay, and bisexual (LGB) population in California. We use data from the 2005/2006 American Community Survey (ACS), conducted by the U.S. Census Bureau, to compare the characteristics of APIs in same-sex couples to their different-sex married counterparts. In all cases, when this report describes characteristics of couples, the data source is the ACS. Whi...

  4. The Pacific Islands. Policy options for telecommunications investment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jussawalla, M; Ogden, M R

    1989-03-01

    The Independent Commission for World-Wide Telecommunications Development (Maitland Commission) reported that telecommunication networks, including public telephone systems, are an infrastructure which aids economic development throughout the world. The Commissions objective is to bring the majority of the world's population within easy access of a telephone and, in time, other communications services. Development in the Pacific Islands region is slowed by a lack of efficient communications. The islands are spread over 29 million square kilometers of ocean and extremely vulnerable to natural disasters. Pacific Island Nations (PINs) have problems of foreign exchange, skill shortages, and poor credit terms. Telecommunications infrastructure audits showed the overall regional teledensity of 3 telephones per 100 population. The individual countries vary form 8.3 in Fiji to 1.5 in Papua New Guinea and 25.2 in New Zealand. The population of the developing island countries is in mostly rural areas where there is a chronic shortage of telephones. The constraints on radio systems can be overcome with satellite technology. The new technologies are coming on the market faster than these countries can afford to handle them. By using satellite technology and sharing facilities PINs can greatly reduce the cost of telecommunications systems. Fiber optic cables will be used to carry large volumes of traffic over major routes while satellites can be used for a array of services for the smallest PIN nation to the largest route rim country. Work is being done to standardize the equipment specifications and to develop policies for the coordination of regional telecommunications training. To further facilitate communications development in this area, changes need to be made in international funding priorities for development, and recommendations by the Maitland Commission must be taken seriously.

  5. Cancer epidemiology in the pacific islands - past, present and future.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Malcolm A; Baumann, Francine; Foliaki, Sunia; Goodman, Marc T; Haddock, Robert; Maraka, Roger; Koroivueta, Josefa; Roder, David; Vinit, Thomas; Whippy, Helen J D; Sobue, Tomotaka

    2010-01-01

    The Pacific Ocean contains approximately 25,000 islands, stretching from Papua New Guinea to Easter Island, populated by mixtures of Melanesians, Micronesians and Polynesians, as well as migrant groups from Asia and Europe. The region encompasses a third of the surface of the earth although it is sparsely populated at a total of around 9 million. With the exception of some of the more populated islands, such as New Zealand and Hawaii, few surveys of chronic diseases have been conducted, but it is increasingly recognized that obesity, diabetes and associated conditions are emerging public health problems and clearly there is a need for cooperation to optimize control. Here we focus on cancer registry and epidemiological findings for Papua New Guinea, the Solomons, Vanuatu, Samoa, New Caledonia, Fiji, Polynesia, French Polynesia, Maori in New Zealand, Native Hawaiians, Micronesia, including Guam, and Aboriginal populations in Australia as assessed by PubMed searches and perusal of the International Agency for Cancer Research descriptive epidemiology database. Overall, the major cancers in males are oral and liver in Papua New Guinea and the Solomon Islands, and lung and prostate elsewhere (Fiji being exceptional in demonstrating a predominance of esophageal cancer), whereas in females it is breast and either cervix or lung, depending largely on whether cervical cancer screening program is active. In certain locations thyroid cancer is also very prevalent in females. The similarities and variation point to advantages for collaborative research to provide the evidence-base for effective cancer control programs in the region.

  6. 77 FR 26643 - Asian American and Pacific Islander Heritage Month, 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-04

    ... Proclamation 8810--Law Day, U.S.A., 2012 Proclamation 8811--Loyalty Day, 2012 Proclamation 8812--National Day... AAPI communities by improving access to Federal programs where Asian American and Pacific Islanders are... Americans and Pacific Islanders, and to observe this month with appropriate programs and activities. IN...

  7. The sexual practices of Asian and Pacific Islander high school students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuster, M A; Bell, R M; Nakajima, G A; Kanouse, D E

    1998-10-01

    To describe the sexual behaviors, beliefs, and attitudes of Asian and Pacific Islander California high school students and to compare them to other racial/ethnic groups. Data were collected from an anonymous self-administered survey of 2026 ninth to 12th graders in a Los Angeles County school district; 186 of the respondents described themselves as Asian and Pacific Islander. The survey was conducted in April 1992. A higher percentage of Asian and Pacific Islander adolescents (73%) compared with African-American (28%, p masturbation of or by a partner, fellatio with ejaculation, cunnilingus, and anal intercourse. Few students in any group reported homosexual genital sexual activities. Asians and Pacific Islanders who had had vaginal intercourse were more likely than most other groups to have used a condom at first vaginal intercourse, but Asians and Pacific Islanders had not used condoms more consistently over the prior year. Asians and Pacific Islanders were more likely to expect parental disapproval if they had vaginal intercourse and less likely to think that their peers had had vaginal intercourse. Asian and Pacific Islander high school students in one California school district appear to be at lower sexual risk than other racial/ethnic groups. However, a large minority are engaging in activities that can transmit disease and lead to unwanted pregnancy. Therefore, current efforts to develop culturally sensitive clinical and community-based approaches to sexual risk prevention should include Asians and Pacific Islanders.

  8. Asian/Pacific Islander Languages Spoken by English Learners (ELs). Fast Facts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Office of English Language Acquisition, US Department of Education, 2015

    2015-01-01

    The Office of English Language Acquisition (OELA) has synthesized key data on English learners (ELs) into two-page PDF sheets, by topic, with graphics, plus key contacts. The topics for this report on Asian/Pacific Islander languages spoken by English Learners (ELs) include: (1) Top 10 Most Common Asian/Pacific Islander Languages Spoken Among ELs:…

  9. The Racialized Experiences of Asian American and Pacific Islander Students: An Examination of Campus Racial Climate at the University of California, Los Angeles. iCount: A Data Quality Movement for Asian Americans and Pacific Islanders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Bach Mai Dolly; Nguyen, Mike Hoa; Chan, Jason; Teranishi, Robert T.

    2016-01-01

    In 2013, the National Commission on Asian American and Pacific Islander Research in Education (CARE) launched iCount: A Data Quality Movement for Asian Americans and Pacific Islanders in Higher Education, a collaborative effort with the White House Initiative on Asian Americans and Pacific Islanders (WHIAAPI) and with generous support from the…

  10. Ciguatera fish poisoning in the Pacific Islands (1998 to 2008).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skinner, Mark P; Brewer, Tom D; Johnstone, Ron; Fleming, Lora E; Lewis, Richard J

    2011-12-01

    Ciguatera is a type of fish poisoning that occurs throughout the tropics, particularly in vulnerable island communities such as the developing Pacific Island Countries and Territories (PICTs). After consuming ciguatoxin-contaminated fish, people report a range of acute neurologic, gastrointestinal, and cardiac symptoms, with some experiencing chronic neurologic symptoms lasting weeks to months. Unfortunately, the true extent of illness and its impact on human communities and ecosystem health are still poorly understood. A questionnaire was emailed to the Health and Fisheries Authorities of the PICTs to quantify the extent of ciguatera. The data were analyzed using t-test, incidence rate ratios, ranked correlation, and regression analysis. There were 39,677 reported cases from 17 PICTs, with a mean annual incidence of 194 cases per 100,000 people across the region from 1998-2008 compared to the reported annual incidence of 104/100,000 from 1973-1983. There has been a 60% increase in the annual incidence of ciguatera between the two time periods based on PICTs that reported for both time periods. Taking into account under-reporting, in the last 35 years an estimated 500,000 Pacific islanders might have suffered from ciguatera. This level of incidence exceeds prior ciguatera estimates locally and globally, and raises the status of ciguatera to an acute and chronic illness with major public health significance. To address this significant public health problem, which is expected to increase in parallel with environmental change, well-funded multidisciplinary research teams are needed to translate research advances into practical management solutions.

  11. Ciguatera fish poisoning in the Pacific Islands (1998 to 2008.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark P Skinner

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Ciguatera is a type of fish poisoning that occurs throughout the tropics, particularly in vulnerable island communities such as the developing Pacific Island Countries and Territories (PICTs. After consuming ciguatoxin-contaminated fish, people report a range of acute neurologic, gastrointestinal, and cardiac symptoms, with some experiencing chronic neurologic symptoms lasting weeks to months. Unfortunately, the true extent of illness and its impact on human communities and ecosystem health are still poorly understood. METHODS: A questionnaire was emailed to the Health and Fisheries Authorities of the PICTs to quantify the extent of ciguatera. The data were analyzed using t-test, incidence rate ratios, ranked correlation, and regression analysis. RESULTS: There were 39,677 reported cases from 17 PICTs, with a mean annual incidence of 194 cases per 100,000 people across the region from 1998-2008 compared to the reported annual incidence of 104/100,000 from 1973-1983. There has been a 60% increase in the annual incidence of ciguatera between the two time periods based on PICTs that reported for both time periods. Taking into account under-reporting, in the last 35 years an estimated 500,000 Pacific islanders might have suffered from ciguatera. CONCLUSIONS: This level of incidence exceeds prior ciguatera estimates locally and globally, and raises the status of ciguatera to an acute and chronic illness with major public health significance. To address this significant public health problem, which is expected to increase in parallel with environmental change, well-funded multidisciplinary research teams are needed to translate research advances into practical management solutions.

  12. 78 FR 12015 - Western Pacific Fisheries; Fishing in the Marianas Trench, Pacific Remote Islands, and Rose Atoll...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-21

    ... Islands, and Rose Atoll Marine National Monuments AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS..., Pacific Remote Islands, and Rose Atoll Marine National Monuments. The proposed rule is intended to...). Proclamation 8337 of January 6, 2009, ``Establishment of the Rose Atoll Marine National Monument'' (74 FR 1577...

  13. Appendix 1: Regional summaries - Hawaii and U.S Affiliated Pacific Islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christian Giardina

    2012-01-01

    Hawaii and the U.S.-affiliated Pacific islands, including Guam, American Samoa, Commonwealth of Northern Mariana Islands, Federated States of Micronesia, Republic of Palau, and the Marshall Islands (fig. A1-3), contain a high diversity of flora, fauna, ecosystems, geographies, and cultures, with climates ranging from lowland tropical to alpine desert. Forest ecosystems...

  14. Cohort profile: Pacific Islands Families (PIF) growth study, Auckland, New Zealand

    OpenAIRE

    Rush, E; Oliver, M; Plank, L D; Taylor, S; Iusitini, L; Jalili-Moghaddam, S; Savila, F; Paterson, J; Tautolo, E

    2016-01-01

    Purpose This article profiles a birth cohort of Pacific children participating in an observational prospective study and describes the study protocol used at ages 14?15?years to investigate how food and activity patterns, metabolic risk and family and built environment are related to rates of physical growth of Pacific children. Participants From 2000 to 2015, the Pacific Islands Families Study has followed, from birth, the growth and development of over 1000 Pacific children born in Auckland...

  15. Mapping the Forgotten Colony: The Ogasawara Islands and the Tokugawa Pivot to the Pacific

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonas Rüegg

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available In 1862, Japan’s Tokugawa shogunate claimed the Ogasawara Islands, a small archipelago between Honshu and Guam, as a part of Japan. In the manageable setting of the islands, the shogunate undertook a colonial experiment that revealed changing attitudes toward non-Japanese ethnicities, modern technologies, and maritime space. Through an examination of four maps, this article shows that Japanese intellectuals had been discussing plans for settler colonialism in the Pacific almost a century before Tokugawa leaders began exploring the open sea as an economic space. In the shogunate’s two-tiered strategy, agriculture assimilated the land, and law subjected its earlier settlers. This approach provided a foothold for offshore whaling, which transformed the surrounding seas into a space of production. However, expanding the sphere of Tokugawa influence necessitated a redefinition of the Japanese realm. Geographical notions were reshaped to make the overseas territory a part of the Izu archipelago some 700 kilometers farther north, and the presence of Western settlers was countered with narratives of earlier possession and relocation of Japanese individuals. Officials were particularly intrigued by formerly unknown plant and animal species found on the islands. Exploring economic opportunities in the Pacific sphere, they prepared a geopolitical shift that is often associated with Japan’s modern empire. This article, by contrast, locates the origins of modern Japan’s “pelagic empire” well before the Meiji Reform and shows how expansionism was reconciled with earlier perceptions of geography.

  16. The energy-GDP nexus: Evidence from a panel of Pacific Island countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mishra, Vinod; Smyth, Russell; Sharma, Susan

    2009-01-01

    The Pacific Island countries are small island economies that are increasingly dependent on energy for growth and development, yet highly susceptible to climate change. Thus, the relationship between energy consumption and GDP is crucial for realizing their future development and growth objectives. This article tests for Granger causality and provides long-run structural estimates for the relationship between energy consumption, GDP and urbanization for a panel of Pacific Island countries. For the panel as a whole in the long-run there is bidirectional Granger causality between energy consumption and GDP and these variables exert a positive impact on each other. A 1% increase in energy consumption increases GDP by 0.11%, while a 1% increase in GDP increases energy consumption by 0.23%. The findings suggest that for the panel as a whole these countries should increase investment in energy infrastructure and regulatory reform of energy infrastructure to improve delivery efficiency, continue to promote alternative energy sources and put in place energy conservation policies to reduce unnecessary wastage. These strategies seek to realize the dual objectives of reducing the adverse effects of energy use on the environment, while avoiding the negative effect on economic growth of reducing energy consumption. (author)

  17. Characteristics of sarcoidosis in Maori and Pacific Islanders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilsher, Margaret L; Young, Lisa M; Hopkins, Raewyn; Cornere, Megan

    2017-02-01

    Ethnicity is strongly associated with variable clinical presentation in sarcoidosis but the association between ethnicity and clinical characteristics has not previously been described in patients of Polynesian ancestry, Maori and Pacific Islander (PI). The objective of this study was to describe the clinical characteristics of sarcoidosis in Maori and PI patients and determine if those were different to European patients. A retrospective review of the medical records of 406 patients (69 Maori/PI) attending a specialist interstitial lung disease (ILD) clinic. The population (207 females, mean age at presentation: 36) reflected the current New Zealand census data (2013) with only people of Indian ethnicity over-represented. Parenchymal lung involvement was uncommon in Maori and PI patients (21% Scadding stage 2, 2% stage 3), and no patient had extensive pulmonary fibrosis (stage 4). Computed tomography (CT) patterns of sarcoid parenchymal lung involvement were less commonly reported for Maori/PI. There were no differences in respect of baseline lung function or requirement for treatment. Ocular and skin involvement occurred more frequently in Maori and PI (P = 0.0045, P = 0.03), and erythema nodosum was more common in Caucasians (P = 0.0008). People of Polynesian ancestry appear to have less pulmonary and more extra-pulmonary manifestations of sarcoidosis. This adds to our knowledge that sarcoidosis heterogeneity is influenced by ethnicity. © 2016 Asian Pacific Society of Respirology.

  18. Acculturation of Pacific mothers in New Zealand over time: findings from the Pacific Islands Families study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schluter Philip J

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The epidemiological investigation of acculturation has often been hampered by inconsistent definitions and measurement, and methodological short-comings. Adopting a bi-directional model, with good theoretical and psychometric properties, this study aimed to describe the temporal, ethnic and socio-demographic influences of acculturation for a group of Pacific mothers residing in New Zealand. Methods Pacific mothers of a cohort of Pacific infants born at a large tertiary hospital in South Auckland in 2000 were interviewed at 6-weeks, 4-years and 6-years postpartum. At each measurement wave a home interview lasting approximately 90 minutes was conducted with each mother. Adapting the General Ethnicity Questionnaire, two scales of acculturation were elicited: one measuring New Zealand cultural orientation (NZAccult and one measuring Pacific Islands cultural orientation (PIAccult. Acculturation scores were standardised and analysed using random intercept polynomial and piecewise mixed-effects regression models, accounting for the longitudinal nature of the repeated measured data. Mothers who immigrated to New Zealand and those who lived their lives in New Zealand were investigated separately. Results Overall, 1276 Pacific mothers provided 3104 NZAccult and 3107 PIAccult responses over the three measurement waves. Important and significant differences were observed in both bi-directional acculturation measures between the two maternal groups studied. New Zealand cultural orientation increased, on average, linearly with years lived in New Zealand both for immigrant mothers (0.013 per year, 95% CI: 0.012, 0.014, after adjusting for maternal age, and for mothers who lived their lives in New Zealand (0.008 per year, 95% CI: 0.06, 0.010. Immigrant mothers maintained their Pacific cultural orientation for, on average, 12 years before it began to linearly decrease with each year lived in New Zealand thereafter (-0.009 per year, 95% CI: -0

  19. Acculturation of Pacific mothers in New Zealand over time: findings from the Pacific Islands Families study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background The epidemiological investigation of acculturation has often been hampered by inconsistent definitions and measurement, and methodological short-comings. Adopting a bi-directional model, with good theoretical and psychometric properties, this study aimed to describe the temporal, ethnic and socio-demographic influences of acculturation for a group of Pacific mothers residing in New Zealand. Methods Pacific mothers of a cohort of Pacific infants born at a large tertiary hospital in South Auckland in 2000 were interviewed at 6-weeks, 4-years and 6-years postpartum. At each measurement wave a home interview lasting approximately 90 minutes was conducted with each mother. Adapting the General Ethnicity Questionnaire, two scales of acculturation were elicited: one measuring New Zealand cultural orientation (NZAccult) and one measuring Pacific Islands cultural orientation (PIAccult). Acculturation scores were standardised and analysed using random intercept polynomial and piecewise mixed-effects regression models, accounting for the longitudinal nature of the repeated measured data. Mothers who immigrated to New Zealand and those who lived their lives in New Zealand were investigated separately. Results Overall, 1276 Pacific mothers provided 3104 NZAccult and 3107 PIAccult responses over the three measurement waves. Important and significant differences were observed in both bi-directional acculturation measures between the two maternal groups studied. New Zealand cultural orientation increased, on average, linearly with years lived in New Zealand both for immigrant mothers (0.013 per year, 95% CI: 0.012, 0.014), after adjusting for maternal age, and for mothers who lived their lives in New Zealand (0.008 per year, 95% CI: 0.06, 0.010). Immigrant mothers maintained their Pacific cultural orientation for, on average, 12 years before it began to linearly decrease with each year lived in New Zealand thereafter (-0.009 per year, 95% CI: -0.010, -0.008), after

  20. The late Quaternary extinction and future resurrection of birds on Pacific islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steadman, David W.; Martin, Paul S.

    2003-04-01

    People have lived on tropical Pacific islands over the past 30,000 years (Bismarcks, Solomons) or 3000 to 1000 years (the rest of Oceania). Their activities have led to the loss of many thousands of populations and as many as 2000 species of birds that probably otherwise would exist today. This extinction event is documented by avian fossils from archaeological (cultural) and paleontological (noncultural) sites from nearly 70 islands in 19 island groups. Extinction of birds in Oceania rivals the late Pleistocene loss of large mammals in North America as the best substantiated rapid extinction episode in the vertebrate fossil record. Some avian extinctions in Oceania occurred within a century or less after human arrival, while others required millennia or even tens of millennia. Any of these time frames is rapid in an evolutionary or geochronological sense. Inter-island differences in the speed and extent of extinction can be explained by variation in abiotic (A), biotic (B), and cultural (C) factors. Levels of extinction on large, near islands can be comparable to those on small, remote islands when C factors (such as high human population density and introduction of invasive plants and animals) override A factors (such as large land area or little isolation) or B factors (such as rich indigenous floras and faunas). An innovative, proactive conservation strategy is needed not only to prevent further extinctions of birds in Oceania, but also to restart evolution of some of the lineages that have suffered the most loss, such as flightless rails. This strategy should focus on islands with ABC traits that retard rather than enhance extinction.

  1. Energy expenditure and metabolism in Maori, Pacific Island and New Zealand European men

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rush, E.; Laulu, M.S.; Mitchelson, E.; Plank, L.

    1999-01-01

    Obesity is an important risk factor for many diseases that contribute to premature death and illness. Particularly for Maori and Pacific Island people in New Zealand, death rates from diabetes, stroke and coronary heart disease are much higher than those of other New Zealanders. We hypothesise that the greater prevalence of obesity in Pacific Island and Maori groups compared to NZ European is related to metabolic differences. We have already shown significant differences in body composition and metabolism in young NZ European and Polynesian women. The goal of the proposed study is to determine whether such differences are also present among young NZ European, Pacific Island and Maori males. (author)

  2. The Pacific Islands Climate Science Center five-year science agenda, 2014-2018

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helweg, David; Nash, Sarah A.B.; Polhemus, Dan A.

    2014-01-01

    From the heights of Mauna Kea on Hawaiʻi Island to the depths of the Mariana Trench, from densely populated cities to sparse rural indigenous communities and uninhabited sandy atolls, the Pacific region encompasses diverse associations of peoples and places that are directly affected by changes to the atmosphere, ocean, and land. The peoples of the Pacific are among the first to observe and experience the effects of global climatic changes. Because the Pacific region is predominantly composed of vast ocean expanses punctuated only by small, isolated emergent islands and atolls, marine processes are critical factors in the region’s climate systems, and their impacts occur here to a greater degree than in continental regions. Rates of sea-level rise in the region during the modern altimetry period exceed the global rate, with the highest increases occurring in the western North Pacific (Cazenave and Llovel, 2010; Nerem and others, 2010; Timmermann and others, 2010). The ocean has also warmed during this period. Since the 1970s, sea-surface temperature has increased at a rate of 0.13 to 0.41 °F (0.07 to 0.23 °C) per decade, depending on the location (Keener and others, 2012a). Ocean chemistry has changed during this period as well, with surface pH having dropped by 0.1 pH units (Feely and others, 2009; Doney and others, 2012). Over the past century, air temperature has increased throughout the Pacific region. In Hawaiʻi, average temperatures increased by 0.08 °F per decade during the period 1919 to 2006, and in recent years, the rate of increase has been accelerating, particularly at high elevations (Giambelluca and others, 2008). In the western North Pacific, temperatures also increased over the past 60 years (Lander and Guard, 2003; Lander, 2004; Lander and Khosrowpanah, 2004; Kruk and others, 2013), with a concurrent warming trend in the central South Pacific since the 1950s (Australian Bureau of Meteorology and CSIRO, 2011).

  3. CRED Reson 8101 multibeam backscatter data of Palmyra Atoll, Pacific Remote Island Areas, Central Pacific with 1 meter resolution in netCDF format

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Multibeam backscatter imagery extracted from gridded bathymetry of the lagoon, shelf, and slope environments of Palmyra Atoll, Pacific Island Areas, Central Pacific....

  4. The destination of Pacific Island health professional graduates from a New Zealand university

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nair Shiva M

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is a shortage of health professionals in Pacific Island states and territories, and a need in New Zealand for Pacific health professionals to serve Pacific communities. Methods A cross-sectional postal survey was conducted to investigate retention of Pacific graduates. All graduates of Pacific ethnicity or nationality from the University of Otago in the years 1994 to 2004 in medicine, dentistry, pharmacy, physiotherapy and medical laboratory science were included. Results The response rate was 59% (75 out of 128. Only 7% of respondents were working in the Pacific Islands (12% of non-residents and 4% of New Zealand residents, though the proportion in the whole cohort could be up to 20%. One third intended to work in Pacific communities in New Zealand or the Pacific Islands in the future. Factors that would favour such an intention were an adequate income, job availability, and good working conditions. Conclusions Retention of graduates in the Pacific Islands is poor and measures to improve retention are needed.

  5. CRED Towed-Diver Fish Biomass Surveys at Johnston Atoll, Pacific Remote Island Areas in 2008

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Towed-diver surveys (aka. Towboard surveys) are conducted by the Coral Reef Ecosystem Division (CRED) of the NOAA Pacific Islands Fisheries Science Center (PIFSC) as...

  6. Precipitation Frequency for American Samoa, Pacific Islands - NOAA Atlas 14 Volume 5

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This GIS grid atlas contains precipitation frequency estimates for the Pacific Islands that are based on precipitation data. This atlas is a new release from the NWS...

  7. Precipitation Frequency for Pohnpei, Pacific Islands - NOAA Atlas 14 Volume 5

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This GIS grid atlas contains precipitation frequency estimates for the Pacific Islands that are based on precipitation data. This atlas is a new release from the NWS...

  8. SWFSC/MMTD/PI: Pacific Islands Cetacean Ecosystem Assessment Survey (PICEAS) 2005

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — PICEAS (Pacific Islands Cetacean Ecosystem Assessment Survey) 2005 was an ecosystem survey in the U.S. Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ) waters of Palmyra and Johnston...

  9. CRED 10 m Gridded multibeam bathymetry of Wake Island, West Central Pacific

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Gridded bathymetry shelf, bank and slope environments of Wake Island, West Central Pacific, under joint management of the United States Dept. of Interior and Air...

  10. Precipitation Frequency for Kosrae, Pacific Islands - NOAA Atlas 14 Volume 5

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This GIS grid atlas contains precipitation frequency estimates for the Pacific Islands that are based on precipitation data. This atlas is a new release from the NWS...

  11. CRED 1 meter resolution Reson 8101 multibeam backscatter data of Wake Island, West Central Pacific, 2007.

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Multibeam backscatter imagery extracted from gridded bathymetry of Wake Island, West Central Pacific.These data provide coverage between 0 and 200m meters. The...

  12. CRED 60 m Gridded multibeam bathymetry of Wake Island, West Central Pacific

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Gridded bathymetry shelf, bank and slope environments of Wake Island, West Central Pacific, under joint management of the United States Dept. of Interior and Air...

  13. CRED Towed-Diver Fish Biomass Surveys at Palmyra Atoll, Pacific Remote Island Areas in 2008

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Towed-diver surveys (aka. Towboard surveys) are conducted by the Coral Reef Ecosystem Division (CRED) of the NOAA Pacific Islands Fisheries Science Center (PIFSC) as...

  14. CRED Towed-Diver Fish Biomass Surveys at Palmyra Atoll, Pacific Remote Island Areas in 2002

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Towed-diver surveys (aka. Towboard surveys) are conducted by the Coral Reef Ecosystem Division (CRED) of the NOAA Pacific Islands Fisheries Science Center (PIFSC) as...

  15. AFSC/REFM: Pacific cod genetics in the Aleutian Islands 2004-2007

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Landscape genetics of Pacific cod Gadus macrocephalus within the Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands (BSAI) management area of Alaska was examined in samples from nine...

  16. 75 FR 49484 - Office of Postsecondary Education; Asian American and Native American Pacific Islander-Serving...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-13

    ... DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION Office of Postsecondary Education; Asian American and Native American Pacific Islander-Serving Institutions (AANAPISI), Native American-Serving Nontribal Institutions (NASNTI), Hispanic Serving Institutions-STEM and Articulation (HSI-STEM), and Predominantly Black Institutions (PBI...

  17. CRED Towed-Diver Fish Biomass Surveys at Johnston Atoll, Pacific Remote Island Areas in 2004

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Towed-diver surveys (aka. Towboard surveys) are conducted by the Coral Reef Ecosystem Division (CRED) of the NOAA Pacific Islands Fisheries Science Center (PIFSC) as...

  18. Lessons from Principal-Agent Theory for Public Expenditure Management in Pacific Island Countries

    OpenAIRE

    Paul, Elisabeth

    2006-01-01

    The paper discusses how the principal-agent theory of economics may provide a suitable analytical framework and interesting lessons for the targeting of public expenditure management reforms in Pacific island economies Peer reviewed

  19. Risk to Water Security on Small Islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holding, S. T.; Allen, D. M.

    2013-12-01

    The majority of fresh water available on small islands is shallow groundwater that forms a freshwater lens. Freshwater lenses are generally limited in extent and as such are vulnerable to many stressors that impact water security. These include stressors related to climate change, such as sea level rise, as well as those related to human impacts, such as contamination. Traditionally, water security assessments have focussed on indicators that provide a snapshot of the current condition. However, recent work suggests that in order to effectively manage the water system, it is also important to consider uncertain future impacts to the system by evaluating how different stressors might impact water security. In this study, a framework for assessing risk to water security was developed and tested on Andros Island in The Bahamas. The assessment comprises two main components that characterise the water system: numerical modelling studies and a hazard survey. A baseline numerical model of the freshwater lens throughout Andros Island was developed to simulate the morphology of the freshwater lens and estimate the freshwater resources currently available. The model was prepared using SEAWAT, a density-dependent flow and solute transport code. Various stressors were simulated in the model to evaluate the response of the freshwater lens to predicted future shifts in climate patterns, sea level rise, and changes in water use. A hazard survey was also conducted on the island to collect information related to the storage of contaminants, sanitation infrastructure, waste disposal practices and groundwater abstraction rates. The results of the survey form a geo-spatial database of the location and associated hazards to the freshwater lens. The resulting risk framework provides a ranking of overall risk to water security based on information from the numerical modelling and hazard survey. The risk framework is implemented in a Geographic Information System (GIS) and provides a map

  20. The research management profession within universities in small island states

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Bonnici

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The past fifty years have witnessed a widespread increase in the study of small states, including island studies; and the rise of the research management profession and its associated literature. Within a small island state context, the profession cannot be taken for granted, owing to smallness and other inherent characteristics of small island states. These characteristics may potentially re-shape the profession in a unique fashion and may influence the manner in which the roles of university research managers and administrators evolve in a small island state. So far, studies investigating the profession in the context of islands and small states have been lacking. This paper aims to instigate a discussion that hopefully inspires further studies about how the research manager’s role and profession may be re-shaped within small island states.

  1. Regional approach to the management of fruit flies in the Pacific Island countries and territories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allwood, Allan

    2000-01-01

    Of the 4,500 species of fruit flies (family Tephritidae) world-wide, over 350 species occur in the Pacific region. Of these, at least 25 species are regarded as being of major economic importance to fruit and vegetable production and to international trade within the region. Recognition of the economic importance of fruit flies to horticultural production and trade increased markedly in the 1980s due to the imposition of restrictions on the use of ethylene dibromide (EDB) fumigation by trading partners. This treatment was the mainstay of quarantine treatments for fresh fruits and vegetables susceptible to fruit fly infestations and destined for markets in Australia, New Zealand, USA, Japan and Canada. Small, but economically significant, markets for fresh fruits and vegetables in the Pacific rim countries disappeared because alternative quarantine treatments for EDB fumigation were not available. Countries, such as Cook Islands, Fiji, Tonga and Samoa, looked for modern technologies to overcome these constraints to export. As well as quarantine treatment technologies, procedures new to the Pacific Island countries, such as quality assurance systems and quarantine pathways, had to be included into the production and marketing chains. Quarantine surveillance, particularly for exotic fruit flies, became a prerequisite for trade in fresh fruits and vegetables. The emphasis on fruit flies also regionally increased because of the increasing number of incursions of exotic fruit flies into the region over the past 10-12 years. Outbreaks of exotic fruit flies in the Solomon Islands (1984-85), Nauru (1984-85), Northern Australia (1995 and 1998), New Zealand (1996), French Polynesia (1995-96), and Palau (1995-96) demonstrated the vulnerability of the Pacific Island countries and territories (PICTs) to these incursions. To address the increased threat of introduction of exotic fruit flies through increased tourism and regional travellers, a regional approach to the management

  2. Energy situation and energy-related environment issues of Pacific Island countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siwatibau, Suliana

    1991-01-01

    Pacific Islands have experienced low economic growth during the 1980s, and face significant energy problems. Petroleum products are imported at very high prices and biofuel use often leads to resource over-exploitation. However, perhaps the most basic energy-environment concern is the potential for sea level rise. Some Pacific Island nations would vanish altogether, while others would lose their most productive areas. (author)

  3. Collaboration for Actionable Climate Science in Hawaii and the US-Affiliated Pacific Islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keener, V. W.; Grecni, Z. N.; Helweg, D. A.

    2016-12-01

    Hawaii and the US-Affiliated Pacific Islands (USAPI) encompass more than 2000 islands spread across millions of square miles of ocean. Islands can be high volcanic or low atolls, and vary widely in terms of geography, climate, ecology, language, culture, economies, government, and vulnerability to climate change impacts. For these reasons, meaningful collaboration across research groups and climate organizations is not only helpful, it is mandatory. No single group can address all the needs of every island, stakeholder, or sector, which has led to close collaboration and leveraging of research in the region to fill different niches. The NOAA-funded Pacific Regional Integrated Sciences & Assessments (RISA) program, DOI Pacific Islands Climate Science Center (PICSC), and the DOI LCC the Pacific Islands Climate Change Cooperative (PICCC) all take a stakeholder oriented approach to climate research, and have successfully collaborated on both specific projects and larger initiatives. Examples of these collaborations include comprising the core team of the Pacific Islands Regional Climate Assessment (PIRCA), the regional arm of the US National Climate Assessment, co-sponsoring a workshop on regional downscaling for scientists and managers, leveraging research projects across multiple sectors on a single island, collaborating on communication products such as handouts and websites to ensure a consistent message, and in the case of the Pacific RISA and the PICSC, jointly funding a PIRCA Sustained Assessment Specialist position. Barriers to collaboration have been around topics such as roles of research versus granting groups, perceived research overlap, and funding uncertainties. However, collaborations have been overwhelming positive in the Pacific Islands region due to communication, recognition of partners' strengths and expertise, and especially because of the "umbrella" organization and purpose provided by the PIRCA structure, which provides a shared platform for all

  4. Biology and impacts of Pacific Islands invasive species. 14. Sus scrofa the feral pig (Artiodactyla: Suidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wehr, Nathaniel H.; Hess, Steven C.; Litton, Creighton M.

    2018-01-01

    Feral pigs (Sus scrofa L.) are perhaps the most abundant, widespread, and economically significant large introduced vertebrate across the Pacific island region. Unlike many other nonnative invasive species, feral pigs have both cultural and recreational importance in the region, complicating their management. Today, Pacific island feral pigs are a mixture of several strains of domestic swine, Asiatic wild boar, and European wild boar. Due to their generalist diet and rooting behavior, feral pigs alter soils and watersheds and negatively impact native and nonnative flora and fauna. As a result, feral pigs have played a role in the extinction of several species of plants and animals on Pacific islands and have negative effects on both ecotourism and agricultural industries in the region. Despite numerous published studies on feral pigs in the Pacific island region, of which the majority include systematic analyses of original empirical data, some fundamental aspects of feral pig ecology remain poorly characterized, at least partly due to the remote and inaccessible environments that they often inhabit. To address these knowledge gaps, effort should be made to integrate research conducted outside the Pacific island region into local management strategies. This review summarizes the origins, history, ecology, environmental effects, and current management of feral pigs in the Pacific island region; integrates regional scientific findings with those of other insular and continental systems; and identifies current knowledge gaps requiring further research to inform the ecology and management of this impactful invasive species.

  5. 77 FR 12567 - Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request; Pacific Islands Region Coral Reef Ecosystems...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-01

    ... Collection; Comment Request; Pacific Islands Region Coral Reef Ecosystems Logbook and Reporting AGENCY... with, or any U.S. citizen issued with, a Special Coral Reef Ecosystem Fishing Permit (authorized under the Fishery Management Plan for Coral Reef Ecosystems of the Western Pacific Region), to complete...

  6. 77 FR 12243 - Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request; Pacific Islands Region Coral Reef Ecosystems...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-29

    ... Collection; Comment Request; Pacific Islands Region Coral Reef Ecosystems Permit Form AGENCY: National... using a vessel to fish for Western Pacific coral reef ecosystem management unit species in the... allowed in the regulations; or (3) fishing for, taking, or retaining any Potentially Harvested Coral Reef...

  7. Using Indicators as a Catalyst for Inclusive Education in the Pacific Islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Umesh; Forlin, Chris; Marella, Manjula; Jitoko, Filipe

    2017-01-01

    The Pacific Island countries are committed to promoting disability-inclusive education through enactment of the Pacific Education Development Framework. To support this move, key stakeholders have identified the need for developing local and contextually appropriate indicators for measuring progress of disability-inclusive education. This paper…

  8. 33 CFR 334.1440 - Pacific Ocean at Kwajalein Atoll, Marshall Islands; missile testing area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Pacific Ocean at Kwajalein Atoll, Marshall Islands; missile testing area. 334.1440 Section 334.1440 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS OF ENGINEERS, DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE DANGER ZONE AND RESTRICTED AREA REGULATIONS § 334.1440 Pacific Ocean at Kwajalein...

  9. Building tobacco cessation capacity in the U.S.-affiliated Pacific Islands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    David, Annette M; Cruz, Peter J; Mercado, Susan P; Li, Dan

    2013-09-01

    Tobacco control stakeholders in priority populations are searching for culturally appropriate cessation training models to strengthen cessation capacity and infrastructure. We adapted the University of Arizona model for Brief Tobacco Cessation Interventions training for Pacific Islanders and pilot-tested it in four Pacific Islands-Palau, the Federated States of Micronesia, the Northern Mariana Islands and the Marshall Islands. All participants completed a posttraining knowledge assessment exam, pre- and posttraining confidence assessments, and a quality improvement evaluation. Of 70 participants, 65 (93%) completed the training. Forty-one (63%) passed the posttraining knowledge assessment exam at the first attempt; an additional 9 (14%) successfully passed on their second attempt, for a total pass rate of 77%. The pre- and posttraining confidence surveys demonstrated a statistically significant increase in confidence across all competency areas for delivering brief advice. The quality improvement survey revealed high acceptance and approval for the content and delivery of the locally adapted training model. As Pacific Island communities enact tobacco control policies, cessation demand is growing. The Guam cessation training model used culturally relevant data, materials, and training approaches and appeared effective in four different Pacific island countries. This underscores the importance of culturally competent adaptation of cessation training for priority populations such as Pacific Islanders.

  10. Implementation research and Asian American/Pacific Islander health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jenny Hsin-Chun Tsai

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Numerous barriers prevent the translation of research into practice, especially in settings with diverse populations. Nurses are in contact with diverse populations across settings and can be an important influence to further implementation research. This paper describes conceptual approaches and methodological issues pertinent to implementation research and implications for Asian American/Pacific Islander (AAPI health research. The authors discussed the values of using theory to guide implementation research, levels of theory that are commonly used in interventions, and decisions for theory selection. They also articulated the shortcoming of randomized controlled trials, the gold standard for testing efficacy of interventions, and present quasi-experimental designs as a plausible alternative to randomized controlled trials when research is conducted in real-world settings. They examined three types of quasi-experimental designs, the unit of analysis, the choice of dependent variables, and measurement issues that influence whether research findings and evidence-based interventions are successfully translated into practice. Practicing nurses who are familiar with the AAPI population, as well as nurse researchers who have expertise in AAPI health can play critical roles in shaping future implementation research to advance AAPI health. Nurses can provide practice-based evidence for refining evidence-supported interventions for diverse, real-world settings and theory-based interventions that are socioculturally appropriate for AAPIs. Interdisciplinary, practice-based research networks that bring multiple agencies, organizations, communities, and academic institutions together can be a mechanism for advancing implementation research for AAPI health.

  11. Overview of a public health approach to pediatric hearing impairment in the Pacific Islands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaspar, Annette; Kei, Joseph; Driscoll, Carlie; Swanepoel, De Wet; Goulios, Helen

    2016-07-01

    Childhood hearing impairment is a significant cause of disability in developing countries. Otitis media and meningitis are leading infectious causes of preventable hearing loss in children. It is estimated that the Pacific Islands have among the greatest global burden of childhood hearing impairment due to infectious causes, and yet there is currently very little in the research literature on pediatric hearing disorders in this region. (1) To review existing research literature on pediatric hearing impairment in the Pacific Islands, and (2) to present a public health approach to the development and improvement of childhood hearing services in the Pacific Islands. The primary tool was a comprehensive literature review. MEDLINE and ScienceDirect databases were searched for relevant journal articles. There was no limit on the date of publication. Any article reporting on hearing impairment in the Pacific Region was included. A total of 23 journal articles were found that satisfied the above inclusion criteria. The limited information available in the literature suggests that otitis media and vaccine-preventable infections are a significant cause of avoidable childhood hearing impairment in the Pacific Islands. Pediatric audiology services are limited in this region. Further research is required to develop effective public health programs that should reduce the burden of preventable childhood hearing loss in the Pacific Islands. There is limited information in the research literature on pediatric hearing impairment and audiology services in the Pacific Islands. Epidemiological data based on the WHO Ear and Hearing Disorders Survey Protocol are urgently needed, and the development of audiology services within the existing public and primary health care framework should reduce the burden of preventable hearing loss in the Pacific Islands. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Evaluation of Pacific Islands Early Childhood Caries Prevention Project: Republic of the Marshall Islands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milgrom, Peter; Tut, Ohnmar K

    2009-01-01

    This communication reports an outcomes evaluation of the Pacific Islands Early Childhood Caries Prevention Project. The evaluation includes children in three conditions: a) topical fluoride varnish three times per school year; b) varnish plus twice-per-day toothbrushing; and c) intervention 2 plus three-times-per-day xylitol containing gummy bear snacks at school and home visits to encourage parental involvement. For this evaluation, groups 2 and 3 have been combined. One year after project implementation, mean decayed, extracted, or filled primary teeth was 10.3 [standard deviation (SD)= 4.3] teeth for group 1, and 8.2 (SD = 4.0) teeth for the combination of groups 2 and 3 (P 0.05). Evaluation confirms the outcome of a program including both in-school twice-daily toothbrushing with fluoridated toothpaste and frequent applications of fluoride varnish.

  13. Islands on the edge: housing development and other threats to America's Pacific and Caribbean Island forests: a Forests on the Edge report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Susan M. Stein; Mary A. Carr; Greg C. Liknes; Sara J. Comas

    2014-01-01

    This report provides an overview of expected housing density changes and related impacts to private forests on America's islands in the Pacific and Caribbean, specifically Hawaii, Guam, American Samoa, the Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands, Puerto Rico, and the U.S. Virgin Islands. We discuss the vulnerability of island forests to conversion for housing...

  14. Exploring the role of Micronesian islands in the maintenance of coral genetic diversity in the Pacific Ocean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, S W; Treml, E A; Kenkel, C D; Matz, M V

    2015-01-01

    Understanding how genetic diversity is maintained across patchy marine environments remains a fundamental problem in marine biology. The Coral Triangle, located in the Indo-West Pacific, is the centre of marine biodiversity and has been proposed as an important source of genetic diversity for remote Pacific reefs. Several studies highlight Micronesia, a scattering of hundreds of small islands situated within the North Equatorial Counter Current, as a potentially important migration corridor. To test this hypothesis, we characterized the population genetic structure of two ecologically important congeneric species of reef-building corals across greater Micronesia, from Palau to the Marshall Islands. Genetic divergences between islands followed an isolation-by-distance pattern, with Acropora hyacinthus exhibiting greater genetic divergences than A. digitifera, suggesting different migration capabilities or different effective population sizes for these closely related species. We inferred dispersal distance using a biophysical larval transport model, which explained an additional 15-21% of the observed genetic variation compared to between-island geographical distance alone. For both species, genetic divergence accumulates and genetic diversity diminishes with distance from the Coral Triangle, supporting the hypothesis that Micronesian islands act as important stepping stones connecting the central Pacific with the species-rich Coral Triangle. However, for A. hyacinthus, the species with lower genetic connectivity, immigration from the subequatorial Pacific begins to play a larger role in shaping diversity than input from the Coral Triangle. This work highlights the enormous dispersal potential of broadcast-spawning corals and identifies the biological and physical drivers that influence coral genetic diversity on a regional scale. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Croatian small islands – residential and/or leisure area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josip Faričić

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper discusses modern geographic processes on Croatian small inhabited islands. For centuries, Croatian small islands have been continuously inhabited area characterized by different social and economic activities. However, in the last several decades, the islands have experienced a severe depopulation, and on the other hand, the interest for occasional use of that attractive insular space for recreational purposes increased. Consequently, the basic insular functions have changed, which, among other things, contributes to changes of insular landscape and to the changed role of small islands in regional socio-economic systems.

  16. Mental health in the island nations of the Western Pacific: a rapid review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunter, Ernest; Thusanth, Sneha; McCalman, Janya; Gopalkrishnan, Narayan

    2015-12-01

    The aim of the study was to identify mental-health-relevant literature accessible to policy makers and healthcare workers in the island nations of the Western Pacific. Material collated to support the inaugural Leadership in Mental Health: Island Nations course held in Cairns in May 2015 was used as the basis of a "rapid review". The rapid review considered 303 documents identified by a search carried out using James Cook University's OneSearch, Google Scholar, and the authors' knowledge. Search terms included mental health and the like, and terms with Pacific and current Pacific island country names. Findings were classified by region/country, year of release/publication, mental health issue addressed, peer-reviewed or grey literature, and type of study. Almost half of the findings had been released in the previous five years. However, only 36% were peer-reviewed publications and only 3.6% of the findings were intervention studies. There is limited easily accessible documentation to confidently direct practice or policies regarding which strategies are likely to be effective in responding to the high rates of mental ill-health experienced in the Pacific island nations, or to plan for increases as a consequence of rapid social and demographic changes that are transforming Pacific island societies. © The Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Psychiatrists 2015.

  17. New flags, upward forces and sheltered harbours: The new ‘Great Game’ in the Pacific Islands region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kowasch, Matthias

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The centre of the global economy and the US-geostrategic focus seem to be shifting to the Asia-Pacific region. The present paper deals with the role of Pacific Island states in this new ‘Great Game’ between China and Western powers. Pacific Island states have a long tradition in building non-confrontational and open ties with rival powers. While only four countries in the Pacific have known mineral resources, others depend mainly on tourism, fisheries and remittances. China is interested in the vast mineral resources in the Pacific Island region, visible in increasing investment. Nevertheless, Australia remains the principal economic and key security partner for most of the Island states. Besides a painful colonial history, unequal distribution of mining benefits and social disparities are reasons for independence movements. Besides a painful colonial history, unequal distribution of mining benefits and social disparities are reasons for independence movements that are another issue in Pacific Island politics.

  18. The Energy Challenge for Pacific Island Countries: Sustainable Development and Energy Security through Bio-fuel Substitution for Remote Populations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mace, M.J.

    2006-10-15

    Pacific Island Countries (PICs) face a number of development challenges as a result of their small size and geographically-remote locations. One of the most prominent is access to affordable energy supplies. The high cost of petroleum products affects all sectors, impacting islanders' day to day life and undermining achievement of the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs). Measures are needed that can support energy security and fair pricing in PICs, through improved regulatory frameworks and the substitution of local energy resources for imported fuels wherever possible. At the macro level, regional bulk procurement contracts offer one option to address the challenge of expensive imported petroleum products. At the micro level, biofuel substitution may offer another opportunity. Coconut biodiesel, produced from locally-harvested coconuts, may enable these remote island populations to develop their own sustainable energy supplies, and provide sustainable livelihoods for their people.

  19. Storm impacts on small barrier islands

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kroon, Aart; Fruergaard, Mikkel

    The shorelines of the Baltic Sea and the inner coastal waters in Denmark consist of many barrier islands. These sandy barrier islands were mainly formed in the Holocene and are still very dynamic. The present day changes in the morphology are dominantly governed by storm waves and associated high...

  20. The relationship between ethnicity and obesity in Asian and Pacific Islander populations: a literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, James; Busch, Jessica; Hammatt, Zoë; Novotny, Rachel; Harrigan, Rosanne; Grandinetti, Andrew; Easa, David

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this literature review is to explore the potential relationship between ethnicity and obesity, and obesity-related risks, with a particular emphasis on disparities between Asian and Pacific Islander populations. We conducted a comprehensive search of available medical literature related to the rise of obesity in the United States, factors contributing to obesity, evidence-based clinical guidelines, and obesity and related risks as they occur in Hawaii. In conducting this search, we sought to illuminate obesity rates in Asians and Pacific Islanders in connection with various factors, such as diet and lifestyle, acculturation, and body image, as they occur in diverse cultural contexts. We found that the rates of obesity and related risks were highest in Native Hawaiians and Samoans. Based upon our review of the literature, we conclude that further research is necessary to address the relationship between ethnicity and obesity risk factors in Asian and Pacific Islander populations.

  1. Adapting postcolonial societies: two case studies from the Pacific island region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrien Rodd

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Sovereign Pacific island states attract little attention from the great powers. They achieved independence peacefully, mostly from the United Kingdom, and have generally maintained functional democratic societies. Nonetheless, some Pacific states have struggled with the political, institutional and economic legacy of colonization. Tensions between indigenous norms and practices and the expectations of a transposed Western model of society have led to crises. This paper focuses on two Pacific Island states, Fiji and the Solomon Islands. The collapse of the state in the Solomons at the turn of this century, and repeated military coups in Fiji, are due in part to the failure of British-derived institutions to be fully accepted. In both these countries, indigenous people have proposed reforms of these inherited models. Nonetheless, as we shall see, the recent rewriting of these two countries’ constitutions has maintained the fundamentals of the Westminster system, and a government by Westernized indigenous élites.

  2. A response for substance and harm reduction in Pacific Island countries and territories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Power, Robert; Schmich, Lucina; Nosa, Vili

    2015-10-16

    The Pacific is characterised as a region for the purposes of many international interventions and assistance programmes. Representatives of Pacific States participate in regional fora to build a strategic and unified approach to development. Regionally, bilateral trade agreements impact upon strategies to regulate alcohol imports. Policing and customs initiatives are increasingly supporting prevention of illicit drug production and trafficking, and model laws have been proposed to achieve consistency in enforcement. The aim of this commentary is to provide a response for policies using the case of alcohol and other drug research in the Pacific Islands Countries Territories. This commentary undertook a review of the current literature for regional developments for alcohol and other drug use in the Pacific Island Countries Territories region. A total of 14 articles were used in this article. The publication date for the articles used in this review ranged from 1997 to 2011. The findings of the review found that there should be a co-ordinated approach for adopting alcohol and other drug approaches. Furthermore, there should be a co-ordinated regional response with the inclusion of targeted domestic programming that will meet the needs for the Pacific Island countries and territories. Countries in the Pacific Island territories are characterised by varying degrees of political stability. Without stable government and democratic process, it is likely to remain difficult to develop consistent and effective legislation and policy for implementation of successful alcohol and other drug programmes. We found that there is a lack of robust and current data for alcohol and other drugs in Pacific Island countries and territories. Further research funding is needed to build the limited knowledge of alcohol and other drug substance use.

  3. 3 CFR 8369 - Proclamation 8369 of May 1, 2009. Asian American and Pacific Islander Heritage Month, 2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 3 The President 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Proclamation 8369 of May 1, 2009. Asian American and... Proclamation 8369 of May 1, 2009 Proc. 8369 Asian American and Pacific Islander Heritage Month, 2009By the... cultural traditions of Asian Americans and Pacific Islanders continues to strengthen the fabric of American...

  4. Retention and Attrition of Pacific School Teachers and Administrators (RAPSTA) Study: Republic of the Marshall Islands (RMI). Research Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Research and Development Cadre, Honolulu, HI.

    Pacific Resources for Education and Learning (PREL) works with 10 American-affiliated Pacific entities: American Samoa, the Commonwealth of Northern Mariana Islands, the Federated States of Micronesia (Chuuk, Kosrae, Pohnpei, Yap), Guam, Hawaii, the Republic of the Marshall Islands, and the Republic of Palau. The survey raises awareness of the…

  5. Coastal management strategy for small island: ecotourism potency development in Karimata Island, West Kalimantan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudiastuti, A. W.; Munawaroh; Setyawan, I. E.; Pramono, G. H.

    2018-04-01

    Sustainable coastal management is playing an important role in coastal resources conservation, particularly on small islands. Karimata archipelago has unique characteristics and great potential to be developed as a tourism object, one of which is Karimata Island as the largest island and also reserve area. The concept of ecotourism focuses on the ecology conservation, economic benefits, and social life. Ecotourism aims to build sustainable tourism that provides economically viable and social benefits to the community. This study aims to develop coastal management strategy based on ecotourism at Karimata Island. Spatial approaching through coastal type was done. Qualitative descriptive analysis and SWOT are used to develop sustainable management strategies for the coast of Karimata Island, where the opportunities and challenges to the development of coastal ecotourism Karimata Island also included. If this potential is optimally utilized, it can be relied as an economic opportunity for local communities. Structurally shaped coast, marine depositional coast and coast build by organism are several of coastal types found at Karimata Island. Coastal ecosystems inhabited Karimata Island are mangroves, coral reefs, and macro-algae. Karimata Island have not been optimally utilized for tourist destinations. The biggest obstacle encountered is the accessibility from Kalimantan or other island at Karimata islands. Several problems related to the utilization of coastal resources were found such as mangrove and coral reef damage, also regulation that less supportive. The results of this study are expected to provide an overview of solutions for the development of coastal tourism potentials in Karimata Island.

  6. Energy access and security strategies in Small Island Developing States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wolf, Franziska; Surroop, Dinesh; Singh, Anirudh; Leal, Walter

    2016-01-01

    Small Islands Developing States (SIDS) are isolated and surrounded by ocean. The generation and use of energy resources are two very important aspects for the development of SIDS. Unfortunately, most of SIDS do not use their potential in respect of energy resources, and they as a result have to depend on the import of fossil fuels in order to meet their energy needs. This increases the overall vulnerability of SIDS as they have to depend on the rising or fluctuating fossil fuels prices. Some SIDS, especially in the geographically dispersed Pacific region, do not have proper access to energy whereas other SIDS struggle more with energy security issue. At the same time, SIDS are most vulnerable to the impacts and effects of climate change, as they are among the ones to be most severely affected in case of natural calamities and sea-level rise. Drawing on experiences from Fiji and Mauritius, this paper explains core elements related to energy access and security in SIDS, contextualizes and discusses barriers and list some of the strategies that may be used to ensure access to and a continuous supply of energy in SIDS. A situational analysis of two SIDS outlines their current energy situation and compares their energy policies to globally accepted criteria for SIDS policies as well as with each other. It is claimed that the diverging energy performances of Fiji and Mauritius cannot be explained by policies differences. The reasons for the varying energy performances may therefore lie in the administrative and institutional mechanisms used by the two countries in implementing their energy policies. Finally, to enable SIDS to reduce their overall vulnerability and become truly sustainable islands, it is recommended to undertake careful assessments of the particular local contexts under which island energy regimes operate. - Highlights: • Core elements related to energy access/security in SIDS, barriers and strategies. • Situational analysis of two SIDS: Fiji and

  7. A Comprehensive Approach to Risk Reduction for Asian and Pacific Islander American Women With HIV/AIDS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabato, Todd M

    2014-07-01

    As HIV incidence rises globally, Asian and Pacific Islander communities are increasingly affected. While often overlooked, Asian and Pacific Islander American women have shown the greatest percentage increase in HIV diagnosis rates. The development of a multilevel and multistrategy approach to HIV/AIDS education, prevention, and treatment among Asian and Pacific Islander females requires health care providers to identify personal and cultural barriers to prevention and treatment and implement culturally sensitive and specific measures. The purpose of this article is to illuminate barriers to HIV-related prevention, treatment, and care among Asian and Pacific Islander American females and provide practical application-based suggestions for providers, which may enhance Asian and Pacific Islander female inclusion in comprehensive HIV prevention. © The Author(s) 2014.

  8. The late Quaternary decline and extinction of palms on oceanic Pacific islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prebble, M.; Dowe, J. L.

    2008-12-01

    Late Quaternary palaeoecological records of palm decline, extirpation and extinction are explored from the oceanic islands of the Pacific Ocean. Despite the severe reduction of faunal diversity coincidental with human colonisation of these previously uninhabited oceanic islands, relatively few plant extinctions have been recorded. At low taxonomic levels, recent faunal extinctions on oceanic islands are concentrated in larger bodied representatives of certain genera and families. Fossil and historic records of plant extinction show a similar trend with high representation of the palm family, Arecaceae. Late Holocene decline of palm pollen types is demonstrated from most islands where there are palaeoecological records including the Cook Islands, Fiji, French Polynesia, the Hawaiian Islands, the Juan Fernandez Islands and Rapanui. A strong correspondence between human impact and palm decline is measured from palynological proxies including increased concentrations of charcoal particles and pollen from cultivated plants and invasive weeds. Late Holocene extinctions or extirpations are recorded across all five of the Arecaceae subfamilies of the oceanic Pacific islands. These are most common for the genus Pritchardia but also many sedis fossil palm types were recorded representing groups lacking diagnostic morphological characters.

  9. Floristic account of the marine benthic algae from Jarvis Island and Kingman Reef, Line Islands, Central Pacific

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vroom, P.S.

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The marine benthic algae from Jarvis Island and Kingman Reef were identified from collections obtained from the Whippoorwill Expedition in 1924, the Itasca Expedition in 1935, the U.S. Coast Guard Cutter Taney in 1938, the Smithsonian Institution’s Pacific Ocean Biological Survey Program in 1964 and the U.S. National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration’s Reef Assessment and Monitoring Program (RAMP in 2000, 2001, 2002, 2004 and 2006. A total of 124 species, representing 8 Cyanobacteria (blue-green algae, 82 Rhodophyta (red algae, 6 Heterokontophyta (brown algae and 28 Chlorophyta (green algae, are reported from both islands. Seventy-nine and 95 species of marine benthic algae are recorded from Jarvis Island and Kingman Reef, respectively. Of the 124 species, 77 species or 62% (4 blue-green algae, 57 red algae, 2 brown algae and 14 green algae have never before been reported from the 11 remote reefs, atolls and low islands comprising the Line Islands in the Central Pacific.

  10. Pacific Reef Assessment and Monitoring Program: Rapid Ecological Assessment Quadrat Surveys of Corals around the Marianas Islands from 2003 to 2007

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Pacific Reef Assessment and Monitoring Program (Pacific RAMP), established by the Coral Reef Ecosystem Program (CREP) of the NOAA Pacific Islands Fisheries...

  11. Adult Continuing Education in Small States and Islands: Concept Paper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, Alan

    1996-01-01

    Small states and islands have strengths and weaknesses that affect adult continuing education: marginalization and threats to their legitimacy from economic globalization; educational globalization, with increasing credentialism and sectoralization; and limited resources for technology and teacher development. (SK)

  12. Economic Vulnerability and Resilience of Small Island States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Te’o I. J. Fairbairn

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available This essay assesses the principles of economic vulnerability and resilience and their contribution to the study and development of small island developing states (SIDS. It is based on a detailed critical account of the contents of a recent publication - Briguglio & Kisanga (2004 - that addresses this issue. It is thus an extended book review that examines arguments central to many current mainstream considerations of small island economies.

  13. Defining Population Health Vulnerability Following an Extreme Weather Event in an Urban Pacific Island Environment: Honiara, Solomon Islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Natuzzi, Eileen S.; Joshua, Cynthia; Shortus, Matthew; Reubin, Reginald; Dalipanda, Tenneth; Ferran, Karen; Aumua, Audrey; Brodine, Stephanie

    2016-01-01

    Extreme weather events are common and increasing in intensity in the southwestern Pacific region. Health impacts from cyclones and tropical storms cause acute injuries and infectious disease outbreaks. Defining population vulnerability to extreme weather events by examining a recent flood in Honiara, Solomon Islands, can help stakeholders and policymakers adapt development to reduce future threats. The acute and subacute health impacts following the April 2014 floods were defined using data obtained from hospitals and clinics, the Ministry of Health and in-country World Health Organization office in Honiara. Geographical information system (GIS) was used to assess morbidity and mortality, and vulnerability of the health system infrastructure and households in Honiara. The April flash floods were responsible for 21 acute deaths, 33 injuries, and a diarrhea outbreak that affected 8,584 people with 10 pediatric deaths. A GIS vulnerability assessment of the location of the health system infrastructure and households relative to rivers and the coastline identified 75% of the health infrastructure and over 29% of Honiara's population as vulnerable to future hydrological events. Honiara, Solomon Islands, is a rapidly growing, highly vulnerable urban Pacific Island environment. Evaluation of the mortality and morbidity from the April 2014 floods as well as the infectious disease outbreaks that followed allows public health specialists and policy makers to understand the health system and populations vulnerability to future shocks. Understanding the negative impacts natural disaster have on people living in urban Pacific environments will help the government as well as development partners in crafting resilient adaptation development. PMID:27091867

  14. Factors Influencing Student Achievement in Different Asian American Pacific Islander Cultures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marsing, Deborah J.

    2017-01-01

    Asian American Pacific Islander (AAPI) students are often characterized as model minorities. However, AAPI students represent many diverse communities and a wide spectrum of achievement. Each AAPI culture may experience varying levels of biculturalism and acculturation that can influence students' academic success. This quantitative study…

  15. 76 FR 11227 - President's Advisory Commission on Asian Americans and Pacific Islanders

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-01

    ... improve the economic and community development of AAPI businesses; and (iv) strategies to increase public... White House Initiative on Asian Americans and Pacific Islanders; and determine key strategies to help..., assistive listening devices, or material in alternative format) should notify Shelly Coles at (202) 453-7277...

  16. 76 FR 61348 - President's Advisory Commission on Asian Americans and Pacific Islanders

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-04

    ... businesses; and (iv) strategies to increase public and private-sector collaboration, and community... Americans and Pacific Islanders; and determine key strategies to help meet the Commission's charge as... order to attend the meeting (e.g., interpreting services, assistive listening devices, or material in...

  17. 78 FR 26211 - Asian American and Pacific Islander Heritage Month, 2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-03

    ... generations of striving immigrants who shaped our history--reaching and sweating and scraping to give their... Islanders have prevailed over adversity and risen to the top of their fields--from medicine to business to..., including Asia and the Pacific. Meeting those challenges will not be easy. But the history of the AAPI...

  18. Epidemiology of HIV/AIDS among Asians and Pacific Islanders in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaidi, Irum F.; Crepaz, Nicole; Song, Ruiguang; Wan, Choi K.; Lin, Lillian S.; Hu, Dale J.; Sy, Francisco S.

    2005-01-01

    Although the percentage of overall AIDS diagnoses remains low among Asian and Pacific Islanders (APIs) in the United States compared with other racial/ethnic groups, research on API risk behaviors and health status suggest that the low number of AIDS cases may not provide a full picture of the epidemic and issues faced by this understudied and…

  19. Defense.gov Special Report: Asian-American Pacific Islander Heritage Month

    Science.gov (United States)

    in the Asian American and Pacific Islander community waiting to sworn into the President's Advisory Command's first dedicated campaign geared towards the Asian-American community, 'A Warriors' Education,' is Northwestern University with a Bachelor of Arts degree in Psychology in 2005. After college, Lt. Sham attended

  20. Characterizing butt-rot fungi on USA-affiliated islands in the western Pacific

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phil Cannon; Ned B. Klopfenstein; Robert L. Schlub; Mee-Sook Kim; Yuko Ota; Norio Sahashi; Roland J. Quitugua; John W. Hanna; Amy L. Ross-Davis; J. D. Sweeney

    2014-01-01

    Ganoderma and Phellinus are genera that commonly cause tree butt-rot on USA-affiliated islands of the western Pacific. These fungal genera can be quite prevalent, especially in older mangrove stands. Although the majority of infections caused by these fungi lead to severe rotting of the heartwood, they typically do not directly kill the living tissues of the sapwood,...

  1. Factors Contributing to the Implementation of Inclusive Education in Pacific Island Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Umesh; Loreman, Tim; Macanawai, Setareki

    2016-01-01

    This study reports the outcomes of focus group discussions reflected in presentations of concept maps relating to the implementation of inclusive education in the Pacific based on the views of 39 stakeholders from four countries (Fiji, Samoa, Solomon Islands, and Vanuatu). Five themes emerged, with one of the strongest being that of culture,…

  2. The Potential for Soviet Penetration of the Pacific Islands: An Assessment,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-12-01

    economies also implies diseconornies of 0 scale in both the public and private sectors. Investments in econmic and social infrastructures such as...source) was less to be feared by the Pacific Islands under current circunstances than econmic dcmination (again, whatever the source). Econacnic

  3. Hepatitis B: What Asian and Pacific Islander Americans Need to Know

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... dân Á Châu và vùng Thái Bình Dương Hepatitis B: Tips for Asian & Pacific Islander Americans Did ... to liver failure and liver cancer? What is hepatitis B? Hepatitis B is a liver disease spread ...

  4. Hospitalizations for Pandemic (H1N1) 2009 among Maori and Pacific Islanders, New Zealand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verrall, Ayesha; Norton, Katherine; Rooker, Serena; Dee, Stephen; Olsen, Leeanne; Tan, Chor Ee; Paull, Sharon; Allen, Richard

    2010-01-01

    Community transmission of influenza A pandemic (H1N1) 2009 was followed by high rates of hospital admissions in the Wellington region of New Zealand, particularly among Maori and Pacific Islanders. These findings may help health authorities anticipate the effects of pandemic (H1N1) 2009 in other communities. PMID:20031050

  5. The Gandhi Technique: A Biculturalization Approach for Empowering Asian and Pacific Islander Families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fong, Rowena; Boyd, Carylee; Browne, Collette

    1999-01-01

    Western social-work interventions must be adapted to empower ethnic minority families. A case study of a Hawaiian family-centered, family-empowering, problem-solving intervention using the Gandhi Technique shows it to be compatible with Asian and Pacific-Islander values. Considerations for culturally competent social work practice with Asian and…

  6. Asian and Pacific Islander Cultural Values: Considerations for Health Care Decision Making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLaughlin, Linda A.; Braun, Kathryn L.

    1998-01-01

    Some history on health-care decision making is reviewed. The current "individualist" model in the United States is contrasted with "collectivist" models of Asian and Pacific Islander cultures. Decision making styles are discussed in relationship to Western medicine. Six groups' cultural norms are presented. Conflicts with U.S.…

  7. Critical Race Theory and Research on Asian Americans and Pacific Islanders in Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teranishi, Robert T.; Behringer, Laurie B.; Grey, Emily A.; Parker, Tara L.

    2009-01-01

    In this article, the authors offer critical race theory (CRT) as an alternative theoretical perspective that permits the examination and transcendence of conceptual blockages, while simultaneously offering alternative perspectives on higher education policy and practice and the Asian American and Pacific Islander (AAPI) student population. The…

  8. 76 FR 16610 - Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request; Pacific Islands Region Vessel and Gear...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-24

    ... Collection; Comment Request; Pacific Islands Region Vessel and Gear Identification Requirements AGENCY... and gear, as specified in 50 CFR 665 and 50 CFR 300. Vessels registered for use with a permit issued... require that certain fishing gear must be marked. In the pelagic longline fisheries, the vessel operator...

  9. Aggressive root pathogen Phellinus noxius and implications for western Pacific Islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sara M. Ashiglar; Phil G. Cannon; Ned B. Klopfenstein

    2015-01-01

    Phellinus noxius is an aggressive root rot pathogen affecting tropical and subtropical forests. Causing much damage in tropical Asia, Africa, Taiwan, Japan and the Pacific Islands, its wide host range encompasses more than 200 plant species representing 59 families (Ann et al. 2002). It can devastate agricultural plantations of tea, rubber, cocoa, avocados,...

  10. 75 FR 24363 - Asian American and Pacific Islander Heritage Month, 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-05

    ... opportunities, and weaving their rich heritage into our cultural tapestry. During Asian American and Pacific... 100th anniversary of the Angel Island Immigration Station in San Francisco Bay, a milestone that reminds..., unsanitary barracks. Many who were not turned back by racially prejudiced immigration laws endured hardship...

  11. Asian American and Pacific Islander Serving Institutions: The Motivations and Challenges behind Seeking a Federal Designation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Julie J.; Chang, Mitchell J.

    2010-01-01

    This article examines the development of legislation to create a Minority Serving Institution federal designation for Asian American and Pacific Islander (AAPI) serving institutions. Specifically, the article draws from interviews with nineteen policy makers, congressional staffers, and community advocates in order to address their motivations for…

  12. Strategic Environmental Assessment practices in European small islands: Insights from Azores and Orkney islands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Polido, Alexandra, E-mail: a.polido@campus.fct.unl.pt [CENSE, Center for Environmental and Sustainability Research, Departamento de Ciências e Engenharia do Ambiente, Faculdade de Ciências e Tecnologia, Universidade NOVA de Lisboa, Campus da Caparica, 2829-516 Caparica (Portugal); João, Elsa, E-mail: elsa.joao@strath.ac.uk [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of Strathclyde, Level 5, James Weir Building, 75 Montrose Street, Glasgow G1 1XJ, Scotland (United Kingdom); Ramos, Tomás B., E-mail: tabr@fct.unl.pt [CENSE, Center for Environmental and Sustainability Research, Departamento de Ciências e Engenharia do Ambiente, Faculdade de Ciências e Tecnologia, Universidade NOVA de Lisboa, Campus da Caparica, 2829-516 Caparica (Portugal)

    2016-02-15

    The literature concerning Strategic Environmental Assessment (SEA) often refers to the importance of context-specific approaches. However, there is a lack of systematised and consistent studies that enhance tailor-made SEA practices and procedures. Small islands are bounded units of study which may help explore SEA theory and practice in special territories. Small islands present particular features and unique values, such as, small size and population, geographic isolation, limited resources and vulnerable ecosystems. Hence, the main goal of this research was to profile SEA practices and procedures in European small islands and provide a background for future research aiming to improve context-specific SEA applications. To achieve this goal, an exploratory case study was developed using Azores (Portugal) and Orkney (Scotland) archipelagos. An analysis of the corresponding mainland was also carried out to contextualise both case studies. The data collection was achieved through a qualitative content analysis of 43 Environmental Reports. The research found that there is not an SEA context-specific approach used within these European small islands, including guidelines, assessment topics, assessment techniques, follow-up and stakeholders engagement. The debate concerning specific approaches to small islands must be re-focused on the enhancement of SEA capacity-building amongst different stakeholders (including decision-makers), on the development and implementation of collaborative approaches, and on the exchange of knowledge and experiences between small islands networks. - Highlights: • Reviewed the differences between the Portuguese and Scottish SEA system • Showed a low integration of SEA specific features in reports of European small islands • Provides background for future SEA research for small islands approaches.

  13. Strategic Environmental Assessment practices in European small islands: Insights from Azores and Orkney islands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Polido, Alexandra; João, Elsa; Ramos, Tomás B.

    2016-01-01

    The literature concerning Strategic Environmental Assessment (SEA) often refers to the importance of context-specific approaches. However, there is a lack of systematised and consistent studies that enhance tailor-made SEA practices and procedures. Small islands are bounded units of study which may help explore SEA theory and practice in special territories. Small islands present particular features and unique values, such as, small size and population, geographic isolation, limited resources and vulnerable ecosystems. Hence, the main goal of this research was to profile SEA practices and procedures in European small islands and provide a background for future research aiming to improve context-specific SEA applications. To achieve this goal, an exploratory case study was developed using Azores (Portugal) and Orkney (Scotland) archipelagos. An analysis of the corresponding mainland was also carried out to contextualise both case studies. The data collection was achieved through a qualitative content analysis of 43 Environmental Reports. The research found that there is not an SEA context-specific approach used within these European small islands, including guidelines, assessment topics, assessment techniques, follow-up and stakeholders engagement. The debate concerning specific approaches to small islands must be re-focused on the enhancement of SEA capacity-building amongst different stakeholders (including decision-makers), on the development and implementation of collaborative approaches, and on the exchange of knowledge and experiences between small islands networks. - Highlights: • Reviewed the differences between the Portuguese and Scottish SEA system • Showed a low integration of SEA specific features in reports of European small islands • Provides background for future SEA research for small islands approaches

  14. Development on the periphery: monitoring science, technology and innovation for sustainable development among Pacific Island Countries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amaradasa, R.; Turpin, T

    2016-07-01

    This paper reviews the status of science, technology and innovation indicators in Fiji and other Pacific Island countries. Data are drawn from interviews with senior officials in Fiji, regional policy documents, and data held at the University of the South Pacific. The limited data available is mostly held in separate national agencies with little national or regional collaboration. The paper argues that the paucity of S&T data available for policy making or analysis is symptomatic of the nature of development in the region and the inappropriateness of indicators designed primarily for industrialised economies. It concludes with an observation that the drive toward sustainable development is steering a regional move toward development of an S,T&I indicator hub located across one or more Pacific Island countries. (Author)

  15. Sustainable Energy Portfolios for Small Island States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sándor Szabó

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The study presents a cost effective electricity generation portfolio for six island states for a 20-year period (2015–2035. The underlying concept investigates whether adding sizeable power capacities of renewable energy sources (RES options could decrease the overall costs and contribute to a more sustainable, indigenous electricity generation at the same time. Often, island states rely on fossil fuels which, apart from dependence on foreign resources, also includes an additional, significant transport cost. This is an extra motive to study the extent in which island states represent primary locations for RES technologies. For the aims of the present study an optimization model has been developed and following numerous runs the obtained results show that installing PV and battery capacities can delay-reduce the huge investments in fossil options in early periods. Thus, investment on RES can have a positive, long-term effect on the overall energy mix. This prompt development can happen without adding new subsidies but there is a need to address the existing socio-economic barriers with intelligent design of financing and economic instruments and capacity building as discussed in the conclusions.

  16. Fish, food security and health in Pacific Island countries and territories: a systematic literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charlton, Karen E; Russell, Joanna; Gorman, Emma; Hanich, Quentin; Delisle, Aurélie; Campbell, Brooke; Bell, Johann

    2016-03-24

    Pacific Island countries and territories (PICTs) face a double burden of disease, with a high prevalence of household food insecurity and childhood micronutrient deficiencies, accompanied by a burgeoning increase in adult obesity, diabetes and heart disease. A systematic literature review was undertaken to assess whether increased availability of, and access to, fish improves a) household food security and b) individual nutritional status. A total of 29 studies were reviewed. Fourteen studies identified fish as the primary food source for Pacific Islanders and five studies reported fish/seafood as the primary source of dietary protein. Fish consumption varied by cultural sub-region and Pacific Island countries and territories. Fish consumption and nutritional status was addressed in nine studies, reporting moderate iodine deficiency in Vanuatu where only 30% of participants consumed mostly fresh fish. Similarly, the degree to which Pacific Islanders depended on fishing for household income and livelihood varied between and within PICTs. For more economically developed countries, household income was derived increasingly from salaried work and dependency on fishing activities has been declining. Fishing remains a major contributor to food security in PICTs, through subsistence production and income generation. However, there is a paucity of research aimed at assessing how maintaining and/or improving fish consumption benefits the diets and health of Pacific Islanders as they contend with the ongoing nutrition transition that is characterised by an increasing demand for packaged imported foods, such as canned meats, instant noodles, cereals, rice, and sugar-sweetened beverages, with subsequent decreased consumption of locally-produced plants and animals.

  17. Fish, food security and health in Pacific Island countries and territories: a systematic literature review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen E. Charlton

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Pacific Island countries and territories (PICTs face a double burden of disease, with a high prevalence of household food insecurity and childhood micronutrient deficiencies, accompanied by a burgeoning increase in adult obesity, diabetes and heart disease. Methods A systematic literature review was undertaken to assess whether increased availability of, and access to, fish improves a household food security and b individual nutritional status. Results A total of 29 studies were reviewed. Fourteen studies identified fish as the primary food source for Pacific Islanders and five studies reported fish/seafood as the primary source of dietary protein. Fish consumption varied by cultural sub-region and Pacific Island countries and territories. Fish consumption and nutritional status was addressed in nine studies, reporting moderate iodine deficiency in Vanuatu where only 30 % of participants consumed mostly fresh fish. Similarly, the degree to which Pacific Islanders depended on fishing for household income and livelihood varied between and within PICTs. For more economically developed countries, household income was derived increasingly from salaried work and dependency on fishing activities has been declining. Conclusions Fishing remains a major contributor to food security in PICTs, through subsistence production and income generation. However, there is a paucity of research aimed at assessing how maintaining and/or improving fish consumption benefits the diets and health of Pacific Islanders as they contend with the ongoing nutrition transition that is characterised by an increasing demand for packaged imported foods, such as canned meats, instant noodles, cereals, rice, and sugar-sweetened beverages, with subsequent decreased consumption of locally-produced plants and animals.

  18. Genetic polymorphisms in prehistoric Pacific islanders determined by analysis of ancient bone DNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagelberg, E; Clegg, J B

    1993-05-22

    A previously characterized Asian-specific mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) length mutation has been detected in DNA isolated from prehistoric human bones from Polynesia, including Hawaii, Chatham Islands and Society Islands. In contrast, the Asian mutation was absent in skeletal samples from the Melanesian archipelagos of New Britain and Vanuatu and in the oldest samples from Fiji, Tonga and Samoa in the central Pacific (2700-1600 years BP) although it was present in a more recent prehistoric sample from Tonga. These results, augmented by informative DNA sequence data from the hypervariable region of mtDNA, fail to support current views that the central Pacific was settled directly by voyagers from island Southeast Asia, the putative ancestors of modern Polynesians. An earlier occupation by peoples from the neighbouring Melanesian archipelagos seems more likely.

  19. Mosaic of bathymetry derived from multispectral WV-2 satellite imagery of Baker Island, Pacific Remote Island Areas, Central Pacific.

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Bathymetric data derived from a multipectral World View-2 satellite image mosaiced to provide near complete coverage of nearshore terrain around the islands....

  20. New flags, upward forces and sheltered harbours: The new ‘Great Game’ in the Pacific Islands region

    OpenAIRE

    Kowasch, Matthias; Lindenmann, Peter

    2014-01-01

    The centre of the global economy and the US-geostrategic focus seem to be shifting to the Asia-Pacific region. The present paper deals with the role of Pacific Island states in this new ‘Great Game’ between China and Western powers. Pacific Island states have a long tradition in building non-confrontational and open ties with rival powers. While only four countries in the Pacific have known mineral resources, others depend mainly on tourism, fisheries and remittances. China is interested in t...

  1. Barriers, Springboards and Benchmarks: China Conceptualizes the Pacific Island Chains

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-03-04

    similarly prescient predictions by 1921 before dying on Japanese Palau in 1923. Friedman 2015. For theatre geometry and island chains descriptions, see...Zhongguo de ‘ni huo’ he ‘xiong’” ([ Russian ] “Backfire” and “Bear” [Strategic Bombers] to fly to China). Jianzai wuqi March, 12–16. Ding, Zhaolun. 2011

  2. The Influence of Basaltic Islands on the Oceanic REE Distribution: A Case Study From the Tropical South Pacific

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario Molina-Kescher

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The Rare Earth Elements (REEs have been widely used to investigate marine biogeochemical processes as well as the sources and mixing of water masses. However, there are still important uncertainties about the global aqueous REE cycle with respect to the contributions of highly reactive basaltic minerals originating from volcanic islands and the role of Submarine Groundwater Discharge (SGD. Here we present dissolved REE concentrations obtained from waters at the island-ocean interface (including SGD, river, lagoon and coastal waters from the island of Tahiti and from three detailed open ocean profiles on the Manihiki Plateau (including neodymium (Nd isotope compositions, which are located in ocean currents downstream of Tahiti. Tahitian fresh waters have highly variable REE concentrations that likely result from variable water–rock interaction and removal by secondary minerals. In contrast to studies on other islands, the SGD samples do not exhibit elevated REE concentrations but have distinctive REE distributions and Y/Ho ratios. The basaltic Tahitian rocks impart a REE pattern to the waters characterized by a middle REE enrichment, with a peak at europium similar to groundwaters and coastal waters of other volcanic islands in the Pacific. However, the basaltic island REE characteristics (with the exception of elevated Y/Ho ratios are lost during transport to the Manihiki Plateau within surface waters that also exhibit highly radiogenic Nd isotope signatures. Our new data demonstrate that REE concentrations are enriched in Tahitian coastal water, but without multidimensional sampling, basaltic island Nd flux estimates range over orders of magnitude from relatively small to globally significant. Antarctic Intermediate Water (AAIW loses its characteristic Nd isotopic signature (−6 to −9 around the Manihiki Plateau as a consequence of mixing with South Equatorial Pacific Intermediate Water (SEqPIW, which shows more positive values (−1 to

  3. Exploring the hypothesis of ethnic practice as social capital: violence among Asian/Pacific Islander youth in Hawaii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spencer, James H; Irwin, Katherine; Umemoto, Karen N; Garcia-Santiago, Orlando; Nishimura, Stephanie T; Hishinuma, Earl S; Choi-Misailidis, Soojean

    2009-11-01

    Studies of youth violence have usually examined social capital using qualitative methods, but remain limited by small sample sizes. In addition, few studies examine violence among Asian/Pacific Islander (API) youth, even though they are one of the fastest-growing youth populations in the USA. To contribute to a better understanding of culture and ethnicity in youth violence among Asian Americans and Pacific Islanders by quantifying ethnic forms of social capital. We use an n = 326 sample of three API groups from Oahu, Hawaii. Defining social capital as ethnic practice, we test Filipino, Hawaiian and Samoan forms of youth social capital on intimate and non-intimate violence. Bivariate findings associate lower violence with language ability among Filipinos, coming-of-age practices among Hawaiians, and community leader engagement among Samoans. Multivariate tests showed language to be the strongest correlation. Bivariate tests also suggested potentially risky forms of social capital. results lead us to hypothesize that social capital that deliberately places individuals within their respective ethnic communities are risk-reducing, as are those that promote formal ethnic community structures. Those that formalize ethnic practice and social capital into commercial activities may be associated with higher risk of violence. Given the relatively small sample size and the exploratory approach for the present investigation, further research is needed to determine whether the findings can be replicated and to extend the findings of the present preliminary study.

  4. Current status of solid waste management in small island developing states: A review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohee, Romeela; Mauthoor, Sumayya; Bundhoo, Zumar M.A.; Somaroo, Geeta; Soobhany, Nuhaa; Gunasee, Sanjana

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Waste management is a matter of great concern for small island developing states. • On average, waste generation rate in these islands amounts to 1.29 kg/capita/day. • Illegal dumping and landfilling prevail in most small island developing states. • Sustainable waste management practices, previously absent, are now emerging. • However, many challenges still hinder the implementation of these practices. - Abstract: This article reviews the current status of waste management in Small Island Developing States (SIDS) and the challenges that are faced in solid waste management. The waste generation rates of SIDS were compared within the three geographic regions namely Caribbean SIDS, Pacific SIDS and Atlantic, Indian Ocean, Mediterranean and South China (AIMS) SIDS and with countries of the Organisation for Economic Co-Operation and Development (OECD). Only Pacific SIDS had a waste generation rate less than 1 kg/capita/day. The waste generation rates for the three SIDS regions averaged 1.29 kg/capita/day while that for OECD countries was at a mean value of 1.35 kg/capita/day. The waste compositions in the different SIDS regions were almost similar owing to comparable consumption patterns while these differed to a large extent with wastes generated in OECD countries. In SIDS, the major fraction of MSW comprised of organics (44%) followed by recyclables namely paper, plastics, glass and metals (total: 43%). In contrast, MSW in OECD countries consisted mainly of recyclables (43%) followed by organics (37%). This article also reviewed the other functional elements of the waste management systems in SIDS. Several shortcomings were noted in the process of waste collection, transfer and transport namely the fact of having outdated collection vehicles and narrow roads which are inaccessible. Among the waste management practices in SIDS, waste disposal via landfilling, illegal dumping and backyard burning were favoured most of the time at the expense of

  5. Current status of solid waste management in small island developing states: A review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mohee, Romeela [University of Mauritius, Réduit (Mauritius); Mauthoor, Sumayya, E-mail: sumayya.mauthoor@umail.uom.ac.mu [Department of Chemical & Environmental Engineering, University of Mauritius, Réduit (Mauritius); Bundhoo, Zumar M.A.; Somaroo, Geeta; Soobhany, Nuhaa; Gunasee, Sanjana [Department of Chemical & Environmental Engineering, University of Mauritius, Réduit (Mauritius)

    2015-09-15

    Highlights: • Waste management is a matter of great concern for small island developing states. • On average, waste generation rate in these islands amounts to 1.29 kg/capita/day. • Illegal dumping and landfilling prevail in most small island developing states. • Sustainable waste management practices, previously absent, are now emerging. • However, many challenges still hinder the implementation of these practices. - Abstract: This article reviews the current status of waste management in Small Island Developing States (SIDS) and the challenges that are faced in solid waste management. The waste generation rates of SIDS were compared within the three geographic regions namely Caribbean SIDS, Pacific SIDS and Atlantic, Indian Ocean, Mediterranean and South China (AIMS) SIDS and with countries of the Organisation for Economic Co-Operation and Development (OECD). Only Pacific SIDS had a waste generation rate less than 1 kg/capita/day. The waste generation rates for the three SIDS regions averaged 1.29 kg/capita/day while that for OECD countries was at a mean value of 1.35 kg/capita/day. The waste compositions in the different SIDS regions were almost similar owing to comparable consumption patterns while these differed to a large extent with wastes generated in OECD countries. In SIDS, the major fraction of MSW comprised of organics (44%) followed by recyclables namely paper, plastics, glass and metals (total: 43%). In contrast, MSW in OECD countries consisted mainly of recyclables (43%) followed by organics (37%). This article also reviewed the other functional elements of the waste management systems in SIDS. Several shortcomings were noted in the process of waste collection, transfer and transport namely the fact of having outdated collection vehicles and narrow roads which are inaccessible. Among the waste management practices in SIDS, waste disposal via landfilling, illegal dumping and backyard burning were favoured most of the time at the expense of

  6. Plant invasions in protected areas of tropical pacific islands, with special reference to Hawaii

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, R. Flint; Meyer, Jean-Yves; Loope, Lloyd L.

    2013-01-01

    Isolated tropical islands are notoriously vulnerable to plant invasions. Serious management for protection of native biodiversity in Hawaii began in the 1970s, arguably at Hawaii Volcanoes National Park. Concerted alien plant management began there in the 1980s and has in a sense become a model for protected areas throughout Hawaii and Pacific Island countries and territories. We review the relative successes of their strategies and touch upon how their experience has been applied elsewhere. Protected areas in Hawaii are fortunate in having relatively good resources for addressing plant invasions, but many invasions remain intractable, and invasions from outside the boundaries continue from a highly globalised society with a penchant for horticultural novelty. There are likely few efforts in most Pacific Islands to combat alien plant invasions in protected areas, but such areas may often have fewer plant invasions as a result of their relative remoteness and/or socio-economic development status. The greatest current needs for protected areas in this region may be for establishment of yet more protected areas, for better resources to combat invasions in Pacific Island countries and territories, for more effective control methods including biological control programme to contain intractable species, and for meaningful efforts to address prevention and early detection of potential new invaders.

  7. Day of two suns. US nuclear testing and the Pacific Islanders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dibblin, Jane.

    1988-01-01

    The book focuses on two Pacific communities affected by nuclear testing, the people of Rongelap atoll irradiated by fallout, and the people of Kwajalein atoll forced to leave their islands so it could be used as a target area for missiles launched from the western USA. Both atolls are part of the Marshall Islands which are on the eastern side of the groups of islands known as Micronesia. The USA conducted 66 nuclear tests in the period 1946-1958, one on Bikini Island, codenamed Bravo, causing the contamination of Rongelap. Following the halting of atmospheric nuclear explosions in 1958 the area became a missile testing target area. The reasons why the Marshall Islands were used, the effects of the fallout and destruction of the islanders way of life when they were moved from their homes is described. It draws widely on experience of the Marshall Islanders themselves. One of the appendices lists the tests and displacement in the Marshall Islands in chronological order. (U.K.)

  8. 78 FR 39198 - Pacific Ocean Off the Pacific Missile Range Facility at Barking Sands, Island of Kauai, Hawaii...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-01

    ... indicates that the comment includes information claimed to be Confidential Business Information (CBI) or... businesses and small governments). Unless information is obtained to the contrary during the public notice..., http://www.cnic.navy.mil/PMRF/ , and Facebook Web site, http://www.facebook.com/PacificMissileRange...

  9. Cultural and Environmental Predictors of Pre-European Deforestation on Pacific Islands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atkinson, Quentin D; Coomber, Ties; Passmore, Sam; Greenhill, Simon J; Kushnick, Geoff

    2016-01-01

    The varied islands of the Pacific provide an ideal natural experiment for studying the factors shaping human impact on the environment. Previous research into pre-European deforestation across the Pacific indicated a major effect of environment but did not account for cultural variation or control for dependencies in the data due to shared cultural ancestry and geographic proximity. The relative importance of environment and culture on Pacific deforestation and forest replacement and the extent to which environmental impact is constrained by cultural ancestry therefore remain unexplored. Here we use comparative phylogenetic methods to model the effect of nine ecological and two cultural variables on pre-European Pacific forest outcomes at 80 locations across 67 islands. We show that some but not all ecological features remain important predictors of forest outcomes after accounting for cultural covariates and non-independence in the data. Controlling for ecology, cultural variation in agricultural intensification predicts deforestation and forest replacement, and there is some evidence that land tenure norms predict forest replacement. These findings indicate that, alongside ecology, cultural factors also predict pre-European Pacific forest outcomes. Although forest outcomes covary with cultural ancestry, this effect disappears after controlling for geographic proximity and ecology. This suggests that forest outcomes were not tightly constrained by colonists' cultural ancestry, but instead reflect a combination of ecological constraints and the short-term responses of each culture in the face of those constraints.

  10. Cultural and Environmental Predictors of Pre-European Deforestation on Pacific Islands.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Quentin D Atkinson

    Full Text Available The varied islands of the Pacific provide an ideal natural experiment for studying the factors shaping human impact on the environment. Previous research into pre-European deforestation across the Pacific indicated a major effect of environment but did not account for cultural variation or control for dependencies in the data due to shared cultural ancestry and geographic proximity. The relative importance of environment and culture on Pacific deforestation and forest replacement and the extent to which environmental impact is constrained by cultural ancestry therefore remain unexplored. Here we use comparative phylogenetic methods to model the effect of nine ecological and two cultural variables on pre-European Pacific forest outcomes at 80 locations across 67 islands. We show that some but not all ecological features remain important predictors of forest outcomes after accounting for cultural covariates and non-independence in the data. Controlling for ecology, cultural variation in agricultural intensification predicts deforestation and forest replacement, and there is some evidence that land tenure norms predict forest replacement. These findings indicate that, alongside ecology, cultural factors also predict pre-European Pacific forest outcomes. Although forest outcomes covary with cultural ancestry, this effect disappears after controlling for geographic proximity and ecology. This suggests that forest outcomes were not tightly constrained by colonists' cultural ancestry, but instead reflect a combination of ecological constraints and the short-term responses of each culture in the face of those constraints.

  11. Mortality and cause-of-death reporting and analysis systems in seven pacific island countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carter Karen L

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mortality statistics are essential for population health assessment. Despite limitations in data availability, Pacific Island Countries are considered to be in epidemiological transition, with non-communicable diseases increasingly contributing to premature adult mortality. To address rapidly changing health profiles, countries would require mortality statistics from routine death registration given their relatively small population sizes. Methods This paper uses a standard analytical framework to examine death registration systems in Fiji, Kiribati, Nauru, Palau, Solomon Islands, Tonga and Vanuatu. Results In all countries, legislation on death registration exists but does not necessarily reflect current practices. Health departments carry the bulk of responsibility for civil registration functions. Medical cause-of-death certificates are completed for at least hospital deaths in all countries. Overall, significantly more information is available than perceived or used. Use is primarily limited by poor understanding, lack of coordination, limited analytical skills, and insufficient technical resources. Conclusion Across the region, both registration and statistics systems need strengthening to improve the availability, completeness, and quality of data. Close interaction between health staff and local communities provides a good foundation for further improvements in death reporting. System strengthening activities must include a focus on clear assignment of responsibility, provision of appropriate authority to perform assigned tasks, and fostering ownership of processes and data to ensure sustained improvements. These human elements need to be embedded in a culture of data sharing and use. Lessons from this multi-country exercise would be applicable in other regions afflicted with similar issues of availability and quality of vital statistics.

  12. Geographic Distribution of Ammonia-Oxidizing Archaea along the Kuril Islands in the Western Subarctic Pacific

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongmei Jing

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Community composition and abundance of ammonia-oxidizing archaea (AOA in the ocean were affected by different physicochemical conditions, but their responses to physical barriers (such as a chain of islands were largely unknown. In our study, geographic distribution of the AOA from the surface photic zone to the deep bathypelagic waters in the western subarctic Pacific adjacent to the Kuril Islands was investigated using pyrosequencing based on the ammonia monooxygenase subunit A (amoA gene. Genotypes of clusters A and B dominated in the upper euphotic zone and the deep waters, respectively. Quantitative PCR assays revealed that the occurrence and ammonia-oxidizing activity of ammonia-oxidizing archaea (AOA reached their maxima at the depth of 200 m, where a higher diversity and abundance of actively transcribed AOA was observed at the station located in the marginal sea exposed to more terrestrial input. Similar community composition of AOA observed at the two stations adjacent to the Kuril Islands maybe due to water exchange across the Bussol Strait. They distinct from the station located in the western subarctic gyre, where sub-cluster WCAII had a specific distribution in the surface water, and this sub-cluster seemed having a confined distribution in the western Pacific. Habitat-specific groupings of different WCB sub-clusters were observed reflecting the isolated microevolution existed in cluster WCB. The effect of the Kuril Islands on the phylogenetic composition of AOA between the Sea of Okhotsk and the western subarctic Pacific is not obvious, possibly because our sampling stations are near to the Bussol Strait, the main gateway through which water is exchanged between the Sea of Okhotsk and the Pacific. The vertical and horizontal distribution patterns of AOA communities among stations along the Kuril Islands were essentially determined by the in situ prevailing physicochemical gradients along the two dimensions.

  13. Bitentaculate Cirratulidae (Annelida: Polychaeta) from the northwestern Pacific Islands with description of nine new species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magalhães, Wagner F; Bailey-Brock, Julie H

    2013-01-01

    Thirteen cirratulid species from the Hawaiian, Mariana and Marshall Islands are described. Nine species are new to science: Aphelochaeta arizonae sp. nov., Aphelochaeta honouliuli sp. nov., Caulleriella cordiformia sp. nov., Chaetozone michellae sp. nov., Chaetozone ronaldi sp. nov., Monticellina anterobranchiata sp. nov., Monticellina hanaumaensis sp. nov., and Tharyx tumulosa sp. nov., from Oahu, Hawaii and Aphelochaeta saipanensis sp. nov., from Saipan in the Mariana Islands. Dodecaceria fewkesi and Monticellina nr. cryptica are newly recorded from the Hawaiian Islands. Dodecaceria laddi is widely distributed in the western Pacific and material collected from the Hawaiian, Mariana and Marshall islands is described. We provide SEM photographs for all species in addition to line drawings and methyl green staining pattern photographs for the new species.

  14. Biology and impacts of Pacific island invasive species 9. Capra hircus, the feral goat, (Mammalia: Bovidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chynoweth, Mark W.; Litton, Creighton M.; Lepczyk, Christopher A.; Hess, Steve A.; Cordell, Susan

    2013-01-01

    Domestic goats, Capra hircus, were intentionally introduced to numerous oceanic islands beginning in the sixteenth century. The remarkable ability of C. hircus to survive in a variety of conditions has enabled this animal to become feral and impact native ecosystems on islands throughout the world. Direct ecological impacts include consumption and trampling of native plants, leading to plant community modification and transformation of ecosystem structure. While the negative impacts of feral goats are well-known and effective management strategies have been developed to control this invasive species, large populations persist on many islands. This review summarizes the impacts of feral goats on Pacific island ecosystems, and the management strategies available to control this invasive species.

  15. Tomographic imaging of subducted lithosphere below northwest Pacific island arcs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Der Hilst, R.; Engdahl, R.; Spakman, W.; Nolet, G.

    1991-01-01

    The seismic tomography problem does not have a unique solution, and published tomographic images have been equivocal with regard to the deep structure of subducting slabs. An improved tomographic method, using a more realistic background Earth model and surf ace-reflected as well as direct seismic phases, shows that slabs beneath the Japan and Izu Bonin island arcs are deflected at the boundary between upper and lower mantle, whereas those beneath the northern Kuril and Mariana arcs sink into the lower mantle.

  16. Holocene emergence in the Cook Islands, South Pacific

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodroffe, C. D.; Stoddart, D. R.; Spencer, T.; Scoffin, T. P.; Tudhope, A. W.

    1990-03-01

    There is evidence of Holocene emergence on several of the Cook Islands. On Suwarrow Atoll there are extensive outcrops of emergent, but truncated, reef on the northern atoll rim, radiocarbon-dated 4680 4310 years B. P., overlain by younger cemented boulder conglomerates. On the northeast of the atoll there are fossil algal ridges indicating up to 1 m of emergence; the landwardmost has been dated 4220 years B. P., the intermediate one 3420 years B. P. and the present one 1250 years B. P. On Mitiaro, a makatea island in the Southern Cooks, there are emergent reefal deposits in the centre of the reef flat dated 5140 3620 years B. P. Similar thought poorly preserved deposits occur on Mauke, and an erosional bench and notch occurs on Atiu. Emergence on all islands appears synchronous with that reported on Mangaia, where a relative fall of sea level of at least 1.7 m in the last 3400 years has been reported. The evidence for emergence is broadly similar to that described from French Polynesia, though timing of emergence appears to differ.

  17. Evidence for coral island formation during rising sea level in the central Pacific Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kench, Paul S.; Owen, Susan D.; Ford, Murray R.

    2014-02-01

    The timing and evolution of Jabat Island, Marshall Islands, was investigated using morphostratigraphic analysis and radiometric dating. Results show the first evidence of island building in the Pacific during latter stages of Holocene sea level rise. A three-phase model of development of Jabat is presented. Initially, rapid accumulation of coarse sediments on Jabat occurred 4800-4000 years B.P. across a reef flat higher than present level, as sea level continued to rise. During the highstand, island margins and particularly the western margin accreted vertically to 2.5-3.0 m above contemporary ridge elevations. This accumulation phase was dominated by sand-size sediments. Phase three involved deposition of gravel ridges on the northern reef, as sea level fell to present position. Jabat has remained geomorphically stable for the past 2000 years. Findings suggest reef platforms may accommodate the oldest reef islands in atoll systems, which may have profound implications for questions of prehistoric migration through Pacific archipelagos.

  18. Pacific Islands Coral Reef Ecosystems Division (CRED) Rapid Ecological Assessment (REA) algae species lists (NODC Accession 0010352)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Quadrats were sampled along consecutively placed transect lines as part of Rapid Ecological Assessments conducted at sites in American Pacific Islands: CRED REA...

  19. Comparing metabolic control and complications in type 2 diabetes in two Pacific Islands at baseline and following diabetes care intervention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Si Thu Win Tin

    2016-06-01

    Conclusions: This study indicates improved metabolic control but little change in diabetes complications 15 months after intervention. Efforts to improve and evaluate the ongoing quality and accessibility of diabetes care in Pacific Island settings need to be further strengthened.

  20. CRED REA Algal Assessments at Baker Island, Pacific Remote Island Areas in 2008

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Twelve quadrats were sampled along 2 consecutively-placed, 25m transect lines, as part of Rapid Ecological Assessments, conducted at 1 site at Baker in the Pacific...

  1. Pliocene-Quaternary history of Futuna island, south Vanuatu, southwest Pacific

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neef, G.; McCulloch, M.T.

    2001-01-01

    Uranium-series ages from thermal ionisation mass spectrometry are reported here for the raised coral reefs of Futuna Island, which lies adjacent to the eastern margin of the backarc Futuna Trough in south Vanuatu, southwest Pacific. U-series ages from coral from the lowest raised reef indicate that its upper part is most likely to be ca 210 ka, whereas the most elevated raised reef has a likely age of ca 520 ka (range 600-440 ka). The inferred Pliocene-Quaternary history for Futuna Island and the adjacent Futuna Trough is: (i) formation of the Pliocene - Early Quaternary basaltic-andesite cone in a southeast part of the Vanuatu Island Arc; (ii) inception of the Futuna Trough (adjacent to the west margin of Futuna Island) since 1.8Ma; (iii) subsequent uplift of the volcanic cone above sea-level caused ∼ 500 m of its upper part to be removed by marine erosion; (iv) the island then subsided and at least 160 m of limestone was deposited on the truncated cone; and (v) during the period 520 ka to ca 210 ka seven fringing reefs formed at the margin of the cone as the island was uplifted. Since ca 210 ka Futuna further subsided and, as a result, the post ca 210 ka history of the island is obscure. Copyright (2001) Geological Society of Australia

  2. Motivations to nurse: an exploration of what motivates students in Pacific Island countries to enter nursing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Usher, Kim; West, Caryn; Macmanus, Mary; Waqa, Silina; Stewart, Lee; Henry, Renee; Lindsay, David; Conaglen, Jo; Hall, Julianne; McAuliffe, Marie; Redman-MacLaren, Michelle

    2013-10-01

    The aim of this study was to explore the motivations of student nurses enrolled in nursing courses across a variety of Pacific Island countries. The image of nursing, the desire to help others, family and friends in the profession, personal experience, security, travel opportunities and flexibility have all been identified as motivators for people to enter nursing. To date, what motivates students in Pacific Island countries to enrol in a nursing course has not been investigated. An exploratory qualitative approach using focus group interviews with 152 nursing students was undertaken. Data were analysed using thematic content analysis, revealing four themes: (i) helping others; (ii) 'making a difference for my people'; (iii) following in the footsteps of others; and (iv) financial and professional gain. In a time of health and nursing workforce shortages, developing a deeper understanding of what drives people can be used to improve recruitment strategies in the future. © 2013 Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  3. Are fluctuations in energy consumption per capita transitory? Evidence from a panel of Pacific Island countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mishra, Vinod; Sharma, Susan; Smyth, Russell

    2009-01-01

    This study applies the panel stationarity test developed by [Carrion-i-Silvestre et al 2005. Breaking the panels: An application to GDP per capita. Econometrics Journal 8, 159-175] to examine the stationarity of energy consumption per capita for a panel of 13 Pacific Island countries over the period 1980-2005. This test has the advantage that it allows for multiple structural breaks at unknown dates that can differ across countries and can account for all forms of cross-sectional correlation between countries. The conclusion from the study is that energy consumption per capita in approximately 60% of countries is stationary and that energy consumption per capita for the panel as a whole is stationary. The study offers several suggestions for modelling energy consumption and policy-making in the Pacific Islands.

  4. Are fluctuations in energy consumption per capita transitory? Evidence from a panel of Pacific Island countries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mishra, Vinod [Department of Economics, Monash University, Clyde Road Berwick, VIC. 3086 (Australia); Sharma, Susan [School of Economics, University of the South Pacific, Suva (Fiji); Smyth, Russell [Department of Economics, Monash University, 900 Dandenong Road, Caulfield East, VIC. 3145 (Australia)

    2009-06-15

    This study applies the panel stationarity test developed by [Carrion-i-Silvestre et al 2005. Breaking the panels: An application to GDP per capita. Econometrics Journal 8, 159-175] to examine the stationarity of energy consumption per capita for a panel of 13 Pacific Island countries over the period 1980-2005. This test has the advantage that it allows for multiple structural breaks at unknown dates that can differ across countries and can account for all forms of cross-sectional correlation between countries. The conclusion from the study is that energy consumption per capita in approximately 60% of countries is stationary and that energy consumption per capita for the panel as a whole is stationary. The study offers several suggestions for modelling energy consumption and policy-making in the Pacific Islands. (author)

  5. Wind Energy Resource Atlas. Volume 11. Hawaii and Pacific Islands Region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schroeder, T.A.; Hori, A.M.; Elliott, D.L.; Barchet, W.R.; George, R.L.

    1981-02-01

    This atlas of the wind energy resource is composed of introductory and background information, and assessments of the wind resource in each division of the region. Background on how the wind resource is assessed and on how the results of the assessment should be inerpreted is presented. An introduction and outline to the descriptions of the wind resource for each division are provided. Assessments for individual divisions are presented as separate chapters. Much of the information in the division chapters is given in graphic or tabular form. The sequences for each chapter are similar, but some presentations used for Hawaii are inappropriate or impractical for presentation with the Pacific Islands. Hawaii chapter figure and tables are cited below and appropriate Pacific Islands figure and table numbers are included in brackets ().

  6. Airborne dust transport to the eastern Pacific Ocean off southern California: Evidence from San Clemente Island

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muhs, D.R.; Budahn, J.; Reheis, M.; Beann, J.; Skipp, G.; Fisher, E.

    2007-01-01

    Islands are natural dust traps, and San Clemente Island, California, is a good example. Soils on marine terraces cut into Miocene andesite on this island are clay-rich Vertisols or Alfisols with vertic properties. These soils are overlain by silt-rich mantles, 5-20 cm thick, that contrast sharply with the underlying clay-rich subsoils. The silt mantles have a mineralogy that is distinct from the island bedrock. Silt mantles are rich in quartz, which is rare in the island andesite. The clay fraction of the silt mantles is dominated by mica, also absent from local andesite, and contrasts with the subsoils, dominated by smectite. Ternary plots of immobile trace elements (Sc-Th-La and Ta-Nd-Cr) show that the island andesite has a composition intermediate between average upper continental crust and average oceanic crust. In contrast, the silt and, to a lesser extent, clay fractions of the silt mantles have compositions closer to average upper continental crust. The silt mantles have particle size distributions similar to loess and Mojave Desert dust, but are coarser than long-range-transported Asian dust. We infer from these observations that the silt mantles are derived from airborne dust from the North American mainland, probably river valleys in the coastal mountains of southern California and/or the Mojave Desert. Although average winds are from the northwest in coastal California, easterly winds occur numerous times of the year when "Santa Ana" conditions prevail, caused by a high-pressure cell centered over the Great Basin. Examination of satellite imagery shows that easterly Santa Ana winds carry abundant dust to the eastern Pacific Ocean and the California Channel Islands. Airborne dust from mainland North America may be an important component of the offshore sediment budget in the easternmost Pacific Ocean, a finding of potential biogeochemical and climatic significance.

  7. Sustainability of rainwater catchment systems for small island communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, Ryan T.; Beikmann, Alise; Kottermair, Maria; Taboroši, Danko; Jenson, John W.

    2018-02-01

    Communities living on atolls and similar low-lying islands in the tropical Pacific rely on rainwater and shallow groundwater to meet domestic water needs. Rainwater, generally captured and stored using rooftop rainwater catchment systems, is the preferred water source due to higher quality and convenience of access. This study assesses the performance of rainwater catchment systems (RWCS) on Ifalik Atoll, located in Yap State, Federated States of Micronesia in the western Pacific. A field survey was conducted in August 2015 to evaluate RWCS features (guttered roof area, storage tank size, gutter leakage conditions), determine numbers of users, and estimate daily water use via household surveys. All 152 RWCS were surveyed. Water balance modeling was applied to the RWCS to estimate end-of-day stored rainwater volumes for each day of the 1997-1999 time period, during which an El Niño-induced drought occurred. Results indicate that the community is resilient to drought, although the majority of RWCS were depleted of rainwater and hence community sharing was required. Scenario testing indicates that increasing guttered roof area is the optimal strategy for enhancing system reliability. For example, the volume of water maintained at the peak of a drought can be tripled if the available roof areas for the RWCS are guttered. Design curves, which provide a set of roof area - tank volume combinations that achieve specified levels of reliability, were created and can be used to plan new RWCS. Besides offering insights into community-wide water storage and usage patterns and resiliency for Ifalik Atoll, this study presents methods that can be applied to other atoll island communities throughout the Indo-Pacific region.

  8. Uranium geochemistry and dating of Pacific island apatite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roe, K K; Burnett, W C [Florida State Univ., Tallahassee (USA). Dept. of Oceanography

    1985-07-01

    Uranium-series disequilibrium dating of island phosphate deposits is evaluated in terms of known associated coral ages, uranium geochemistry, and stratigraphic sequences as well as the concordance between the geochronometers /sup 234/U//sup 238/U, /sup 230/Th//sup 234/U and /sup 226/Ra//sup 238/U. U(VI) is the predominant oxidation state of uranium in island phosphorites and by analogy to the youngest surficial deposits, most of the uranium initially bound is in the form of U(VI) sorbed by surfaces from seawater. Insular deposits contain more organic matter than even very young ocean floor samples and this leads to a greater probability of reduction of available recoil uranium than occurs in marine deposits. As a consequence, R(VI) <= R(T) <= R(VI), where R represents the /sup 234/U//sup 238/U activity ratio. This situation is completely opposite from that observed for marine-origin phosphorites. We determined that a fraction of U(VI) in ancient insular phosphorites is very labile and lost to alkaline carbonate solutions with a uranium activity ratio even more depleted in /sup 234/U than the bulk R(VI). The results are discussed.

  9. 33 CFR 110.236 - Pacific Ocean off Barbers Point, Island of Oahu, Hawaii: Offshore pipeline terminal anchorages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Pacific Ocean off Barbers Point... Grounds § 110.236 Pacific Ocean off Barbers Point, Island of Oahu, Hawaii: Offshore pipeline terminal... regulations. (1) No vessels may anchor, moor, or navigate in anchorages A, B, C, or D except: (i) Vessels...

  10. 14C AMS dates on Rattus exulans bones from natural and archaeological contexts on Norfolk Island, south-west Pacific

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holdaway, R.N.; Anderson, A.J.

    1998-01-01

    The Pacific rat (Rattus exulans) was transported throughout the western Pacific by migrant peoples in prehistory. Meredith et al (1985) reported a minimum date for the presence of Rattus exulans on Norfolk Island using dates on charcoal from an apparently enclosing layer (the upper part of their Unit C4) in Cemetery Bay. 8 refs., 3 tabs

  11. Agroforestry In-Service Training. A Training Aid for Asia & the Pacific Islands (Honiara, Solomon Islands, South Pacific, October 23-29, 1983). Training for Development. Peace Corps Information Collection & Exchange Training Manual No. T-16.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fillion, Jacob; Weeks, Julius

    The Forestry/Natural Resources Sector in the Office of Training and Program Support of the Peace Corps conducted an agroforestry inservice training workshop in Honiara, Solomon Islands, in 1983. Participants included Peace Corps volunteers and their host country national counterparts from six countries of the Pacific Islands and Asia (Western…

  12. Small Island States Green Energy Initiative. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khattak, Nasir [Climate Inst., Washington, DC (United States)

    1999-10-15

    This report covers the activities carried out during a one year period from 7/15/99 to 7/15/00 as part of the Small Islands Green Energy Initiative. The three activities were: 1) Energy Ministerial conference in the Caribbean; 2) Training session on renewable energy for utility engineers; and 3) Case studies compilation on renewable energy in the Caribbean.

  13. Increasing Awareness of Gynecologic Cancer Risks and Symptoms among Asian, Native Hawaiian and Pacific Islander Women in the US-Associated Pacific Island Jurisdictions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novinson, Daniel; Puckett, Mary; Townsend, Julie; Reichhardt, Martina; Tareg, Aileen; Palemar, Jennifer; Wichilib, Ritchie; Stewart, Sherri L

    2017-08-27

    Background: Gynecologic cancers are common among Asian/Native Hawaiian/Pacific Islander (A/NH/PI) women. Prevention is important in United States associated Pacific Island jurisdictions (USAPIJ) because there are limited resources to treat cancer. The objective of this study was to educate A/NH/PI women and providers about evidence-based interventions to prevent and control gynecologic cancers in Yap, one of four major islands comprising the Federated States of Micronesia (FSM). This was done through a partnership between Inside Knowledge: Get The Facts About Gynecologic Cancer national campaign and the Yap comprehensive cancer control program, both funded by the Center for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Methods: Inside Knowledge educational materials were obtained from the CDC website and used in facilitated educational sessions. Sessions were planned according to leading health education theories, and were implemented and led by local Yap public health practitioners. Pre- and post-session surveys were used to assess changes in gynecologic cancer awareness, confidence and behavioral intentions related to prevention/early detection for gynecologic cancer. Results: Twenty-nine providers and 326 adult women participated in sessions. All participants demonstrated significant increases in knowledge across all measured domains post-session. Public knowledge that HPV causes cervical, vulvar and vaginal cancer increased from 4.9% pre-session to 51.4% post-session (pgynecologic cancer knowledge pre-session compared to 91.7% post-session. Conclusion: Targeted education about gynecologic cancer symptoms and risk factors can be effective at increasing awareness, behavioral intention, confidence and knowledge. These increases can lead to more widespread prevention of these five cancers. Creative Commons Attribution License

  14. Caribbean small-island tourism styles and sustainable strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Albuquerque, Klaus; McElroy, Jerome L.

    1992-09-01

    This article focuses on developing a sustainable tourism in small Caribbean islands, defined here as those that have populations of fewer than 500,000. Such islands share a very fragile ecology and a high dependence on tourism. They differ in their degree of tourist penetration and visitor density and the related degree of environmental degradation. To explain the link between tourism intensity and ecological vulnerability, the so-called “destination life-cycle model” is presented. This suggests that islands pass through three primary stages of tourist development low-density exploration, rapid growth and consolidation, and high-density maturation involving the substitution of man-made for natural attractions. A broad empirical test of the model is performed through a quantitative examination of the tourism characteristics and visitor densities of a cross section of 23 small Caribbean islands. The three basic stages or tourism styles are identified: low-impact emerging areas, high-density mass-market mature destinations, and rapidly growing intermediate islands in between. Some broad strategies consistent with the systems framework for a sustainable tourism with moderate densitites are briefly explored.

  15. Use of a United States mid-Pacific Island territory for a Pacific Island Repository System (PIRS): Extended summary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Forsberg, C.W.

    1987-08-01

    The concept of using a mid-ocean island for a geologic high-level waste repository was investigated. The technical advantages include geographical isolation and near-infinite ocean dilution as a backup to repository geological waste isolation. The institutional advantages are reduced siting problems and the potential of creating an international waste repository. Establishment of international waste repository would allow cost sharing, aid US nonproliferation goals, and assure proper disposal of spent fuel from developing countries. The major uncertainties in this concept are rock conditions at waste disposal depths and costs. 13 refs., 2 tabs

  16. Dental manpower development in the Pacific: case study in the Republic of the Marshall Islands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tut, Ohnmar K; Langidrik, Justina R; Milgrom, Peter M

    2007-03-01

    This case study reports the ongoing progress and results of a manpower development program to expand indigenous dental personnel at four levels in the Republic of the Marshall Islands. The program was designed to: 1) increase the number of Marshallese students who successfully complete dentistry training; 2) recruit and train a group of Marshallese high school graduates in dental assisting for service in new preventive outreach programs within the community; 3) enhance the dental training of health assistants providing primary medical care to outer islands away from the main population centers of Majuro and Ebeye; and 4) provide in-service training on tooth decay prevention for Head Start teachers. The program resulted in the training of one Marshallese dentist and two Marshallese dental therapist, 16 primary care health aides who received oral health training for work in the outer island dispensaries, and 200 Head Start and kindergarten teachers who completed in-service training in oral health. Additional expertise was shared with other United States Affiliated Pacific Islands (USAPI) to enhance the dental workforce throughout the Pacific.

  17. Amphidromy links a newly documented fish community of continental Australian streams, to oceanic islands of the west Pacific.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul A Thuesen

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Indo-Pacific high island streams experience extreme hydrological variation, and are characterised by freshwater fish species with an amphidromous life history. Amphidromy is a likely adaptation for colonisation of island streams following stochastic events that lead to local extirpation. In the Wet Tropics of north-eastern Australia, steep coastal mountain streams share similar physical characteristics to island systems. These streams are poorly surveyed, but may provide suitable habitat for amphidromous species. However, due to their ephemeral nature, common non-diadromous freshwater species of continental Australia are unlikely to persist. Consequently, we hypothesise that coastal Wet Tropics streams are faunally more similar, to distant Pacific island communities, than to nearby faunas of large continental rivers. METHODS/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Surveys of coastal Wet Tropics streams recorded 26 species, 10 of which are first records for Australia, with three species undescribed. This fish community is unique in an Australian context in that it contains mostly amphidromous species, including sicydiine gobies of the genera Sicyopterus, Sicyopus, Smilosicyopus and Stiphodon. Species presence/absence data of coastal Wet Tropics streams were compared to both Wet Tropics river networks and Pacific island faunas. ANOSIM indicated the fish fauna of north-eastern Australian coastal streams were more similar to distant Pacific islands (R = 0.76, than to nearby continental rivers (R = 0.98. MAIN CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Coastal Wet Tropics streams are faunally more similar to distant Pacific islands (79% of species shared, than to nearby continental fauna due to two factors. First, coastal Wet Tropics streams lack many non-diadromous freshwater fish which are common in nearby large rivers. Second, many amphidromous species found in coastal Wet Tropics streams and Indo-Pacific islands remain absent from large rivers of the Wet Tropics

  18. Small-scale fisheries bycatch jeopardizes endangered Pacific loggerhead turtles.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Hoyt Peckham

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Although bycatch of industrial-scale fisheries can cause declines in migratory megafauna including seabirds, marine mammals, and sea turtles, the impacts of small-scale fisheries have been largely overlooked. Small-scale fisheries occur in coastal waters worldwide, employing over 99% of the world's 51 million fishers. New telemetry data reveal that migratory megafauna frequent coastal habitats well within the range of small-scale fisheries, potentially producing high bycatch. These fisheries occur primarily in developing nations, and their documentation and management are limited or non-existent, precluding evaluation of their impacts on non-target megafauna.30 North Pacific loggerhead turtles that we satellite-tracked from 1996-2005 ranged oceanwide, but juveniles spent 70% of their time at a high use area coincident with small-scale fisheries in Baja California Sur, Mexico (BCS. We assessed loggerhead bycatch mortality in this area by partnering with local fishers to 1 observe two small-scale fleets that operated closest to the high use area and 2 through shoreline surveys for discarded carcasses. Minimum annual bycatch mortality in just these two fleets at the high use area exceeded 1000 loggerheads year(-1, rivaling that of oceanwide industrial-scale fisheries, and threatening the persistence of this critically endangered population. As a result of fisher participation in this study and a bycatch awareness campaign, a consortium of local fishers and other citizens are working to eliminate their bycatch and to establish a national loggerhead refuge.Because of the overlap of ubiquitous small-scale fisheries with newly documented high-use areas in coastal waters worldwide, our case study suggests that small-scale fisheries may be among the greatest current threats to non-target megafauna. Future research is urgently needed to quantify small-scale fisheries bycatch worldwide. Localizing coastal high use areas and mitigating bycatch in

  19. Small-scale fisheries bycatch jeopardizes endangered Pacific loggerhead turtles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peckham, S Hoyt; Maldonado Diaz, David; Walli, Andreas; Ruiz, Georgita; Crowder, Larry B; Nichols, Wallace J

    2007-10-17

    Although bycatch of industrial-scale fisheries can cause declines in migratory megafauna including seabirds, marine mammals, and sea turtles, the impacts of small-scale fisheries have been largely overlooked. Small-scale fisheries occur in coastal waters worldwide, employing over 99% of the world's 51 million fishers. New telemetry data reveal that migratory megafauna frequent coastal habitats well within the range of small-scale fisheries, potentially producing high bycatch. These fisheries occur primarily in developing nations, and their documentation and management are limited or non-existent, precluding evaluation of their impacts on non-target megafauna. 30 North Pacific loggerhead turtles that we satellite-tracked from 1996-2005 ranged oceanwide, but juveniles spent 70% of their time at a high use area coincident with small-scale fisheries in Baja California Sur, Mexico (BCS). We assessed loggerhead bycatch mortality in this area by partnering with local fishers to 1) observe two small-scale fleets that operated closest to the high use area and 2) through shoreline surveys for discarded carcasses. Minimum annual bycatch mortality in just these two fleets at the high use area exceeded 1000 loggerheads year(-1), rivaling that of oceanwide industrial-scale fisheries, and threatening the persistence of this critically endangered population. As a result of fisher participation in this study and a bycatch awareness campaign, a consortium of local fishers and other citizens are working to eliminate their bycatch and to establish a national loggerhead refuge. Because of the overlap of ubiquitous small-scale fisheries with newly documented high-use areas in coastal waters worldwide, our case study suggests that small-scale fisheries may be among the greatest current threats to non-target megafauna. Future research is urgently needed to quantify small-scale fisheries bycatch worldwide. Localizing coastal high use areas and mitigating bycatch in partnership with small

  20. Surface elevation change and susceptibility of different mangrove zones to sea-level rise on Pacific high islands o Micronesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    K.W. Krauss; D.R. Cahoon; J.A. Allen; K.C. Ewel; J.C. Lynch; N. Cormier

    2010-01-01

    Mangroves on Pacific high islands offer a number of important ecosystem services to both natural ecological communities and human societies. High islands are subjected to constant erosion over geologic time, which establishes an important source of terrigeneous sediment for nearby marinecommunities. Many of these sediments are deposited in mangrove forests and offer...

  1. Vulnerability assessment of small islands to tourism: The case of the Marine Tourism Park of the Gili Matra Islands, Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fery Kurniawan

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The Indonesian government is currently directing its focus of development on the optimum uses of marine and coastal ecosystem services including the marine and coastal tourism. One of the main locus of coastal and marine tourism is the small islands tourism such as Gili Matra Islands among others. Small islands tourism is one of the favourite touristic activities because the destination provides beauty, exotism, aesthetic and a diversity of natural habitats including the warm, clear and attractive water. Tourism is being considered as a development instrument in order to boost a country’s economy and has become part of the global industry. However, tourism is also one of the actors that is responsible for environmental depletion, due to the constructions of buildings and tourism activities. This paper aims to study the level of vulnerability in small islands to tourism as a basis of integrated small islands management in Indonesian conservation area. The group of islands in this study consists of three islands namely Gili Ayer Island, Gili Meno Island and Gili Trawangan Island (known as Gili Matra Islands that were observed using Small Islands Vulnerability Index (SIVI. The results indicate that Gili Matra Islands have a vulnerability status from low into moderate, ranging from 2.25 to 2.75. Gili Ayer Island has the highest vulnerability with SIVI of 2.75 (Moderate, followed by Gili Meno Island with SIVI of 2.50 (Low and Gili Trawangan Island with SIVI of 2.25 (Low. The driving factor of vulnerability is the intensive utilization of marine tourism activities. Tourism is the sole stress to Gili Matra Island’s ecosystem due to its direct damaging impact and reducing its environmental quality. The vulnerability index which was built from the coastline, coral reef, live coral reef, and development area was applicable to assess the small island’s vulnerability in Indonesia, especially for coral island.

  2. Time-space variability of satellite chlorophyll-α in the Easter Island Province, southeastern Pacific Ocean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabel Andrade

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The Easter Island Province (EIP encompasses Easter Island (EI and Salas y Gómez Island (SGI, which are located in the eastern boundary of the south Pacific subtropical gyre. This province is one of the most oligotrophic region in the world ocean with a high degree of endemism and distinguished by having the clearest waters in the world. Issues related to the biophysical coupling that sustains biological production in this region are still poorly understood. Satellite data compiled over a ten year period was used to characterize the spatial and temporal chlorophyll-α (Chl-α variability around the EIP and determine the relationship between Chl-α and several physical forcing. Results shows a clear Chl-α annual cycle around the EIP, with maximum concentration during the austral winter. Chl-α spatial distribution shows a strong zonal dipole over EI that divides the island into two zones: southeast and northwest. Due to its small size and low elevation of SGI, it does not generate a significant local effect in Chl-α concentration, but a Chl-α increase is observed southeast of this island (~2 km associated to a seamount. The mean geostrophic current in the EIP flows eastward, associated with the southeastern boundary of the subtropical gyre. However, recurrent mesoscale eddies traveling northwestward and produce large surface current variability with periods of high velocities in opposite direction. In the spring, wakes of high Chl-α concentration can be observed over EI, associated with the generation and detachment of submesoscale eddies from EI, which could have important biological implications during periods of low regional biological production.

  3. Prevalence and concordance of smoking among mothers and fathers within the Pacific Islands Families Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tautolo, El-Shadan; Schluter, Philip J; Taylor, Steve

    2011-09-01

    Cigarette smoking continues to contribute to the adverse mortality and morbidity rates for Pacific people in New Zealand. Using a large cohort study of Pacific families, this paper investigates the prevalence of smoking amongst Pacific mothers and fathers over three time-points, up to six years after the arrival of their child, to determine the concordance of both partners' reports of that smoking. Moreover, the patterns of smoking between partners were investigated over the three major Pacific ethnicities that reside in New Zealand (Samoan, Tongan and Cook Island Māori). Maternal self-report prevalence of smoking estimates ranged from 29.8% (1-year) to 33.6% (6-years). Paternal self-reported prevalence of smoking estimates were higher, and ranged from 37.9% (2-years) to 45.2% (6-years). The prevalence estimates for smoking in both mothers and fathers over all three measurement waves were higher than the 26.9% reported for Pacific people in the 2006/07 New Zealand Health Survey. No significant change in fathers' smoking prevalence over time was observed (p = 0.37); however a significant increase in mothers' smoking prevalence over time was noted (p = 0.002). Significantly, for about 25% of Pacific children both their parents were current smokers. Reducing infant exposure to tobacco smoke, by encouraging parents to quit smoking or banning smoking in the home and local environment (such as vehicles), is likely to bring about improved health outcomes for many Pacific children. Findings suggest that the interaction between parents should be considered rather than focusing on mothers' or fathers' smoking behaviour in isolation.

  4. Gender Differences in the Use of Drug Resistance Strategies: An Analysis of Rural Asian/Pacific Islander Youth

    OpenAIRE

    Okamoto, Scott K.; Pel, Suzanne; Helm, Susana; Valdez, Jessica

    2013-01-01

    This study examines gender differences in the use of drug resistance strategies for rural Asian/Pacific Islander youth. Multi-ethnic Asian/Pacific Islander youth (N = 213) from 6 middle/intermediate schools on the Island of Hawai’i participated in the study, and gender differences in their real-world use of specific strategies (e.g., refuse, explain, avoid, leave) were examined. Despite similar levels of exposure to situations where drugs and/or alcohol were offered, girls indicated significa...

  5. Natural gas to improve energy security in Small Island Developing States: A techno-economic analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pravesh Raghoo

    Full Text Available There is a paucity of studies on natural gas-based energy production in Small Island Developing States (SIDS even though technological improvements today are likely to make the application of natural gas more and more feasible. The development of natural gas in some of the regions of the Pacific, Africa, Indian Ocean and Caribbean attracts nearby countries and the coming up of the compressed natural gas (CNG technology which can serve regional markets are two motivations for SIDS to develop natural gas-based energy provision. A third factor concerns long-term energy security. Due to continued reliance on fossil fuels and slow uptake of renewable energy, there is a need to diversify SIDS’ energy mix for a sustainable electricity industry. Comparing the opportunities and constraints of liquefied natural gas (LNG and compressed natural gas (CNG in a SIDS-specific context, this paper discusses how to improve the integration of natural gas in prevailing energy regimes in SIDS as an alternative fuel to oil and complementary to renewable energy sources. To illustrate feasibility in practice, a techno-economic analysis is carried out using the island of Mauritius as an example. Keywords: Energy security, Natural gas, Small Island Developing States

  6. Eliminating tobacco-related disparities among Pacific Islanders through leadership and capacity building: promising practices and lessons learned.

    Science.gov (United States)

    David, Annette M; Lew, Rod; Lyman, Annabel K; Otto, Caleb; Robles, Rebecca; Cruz, George J

    2013-09-01

    Tobacco remains a major risk factor for premature death and ill health among Pacific Islanders, and tobacco-related disparities persist. Eliminating these disparities requires a comprehensive approach to transform community norms about tobacco use through policy change, as contained in the World Health Organization international Framework Convention on Tobacco Control. Three of the six U.S.-affiliated Pacific Islands-the Federated States of Micronesia, Palau, and the Marshall Islands-are Parties to the Framework; the remaining three territories-American Samoa, the Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands, and Guam-are excluded from the treaty by virtue of U.S. nonratification. Capacity building and leadership development are essential in achieving policy change and health equity within Pacific Islander communities. We describe promising practices from American Samoa, the Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands, the Federated States of Micronesia, Guam, and Palau and highlight some of the key lessons learned in supporting and sustaining the reduction in tobacco use among Pacific Islanders as the first step toward eliminating tobacco-related disparities in these populations.

  7. Topography changes monitoring of small islands using camera drone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bang, E.

    2017-12-01

    Drone aerial photogrammetry was conducted for monitoring topography changes of small islands in the east sea of Korea. Severe weather and sea wave is eroding the islands and sometimes cause landslide and falling rock. Due to rugged cliffs in all direction and bad accessibility, ground based survey methods are less efficient in monitoring topography changes of the whole area. Camera drones can provide digital images and movie in every corner of the islands, and drone aerial photogrammetry is powerful to get precise digital surface model (DSM) for a limited area. We have got a set of digital images to construct a textured 3D model of the project area every year since 2014. Flight height is in less than 100m from the top of those islands to get enough ground sampling distance (GSD). Most images were vertically captured with automatic flights, but we also flied drones around the islands with about 30°-45° camera angle for constructing 3D model better. Every digital image has geo-reference, but we set several ground control points (GCPs) on the islands and their coordinates were measured with RTK surveying methods to increase the absolute accuracy of the project. We constructed 3D textured model using photogrammetry tool, which generates 3D spatial information from digital images. From the polygonal model, we could get DSM with contour lines. Thematic maps such as hill shade relief map, aspect map and slope map were also processed. Those maps make us understand topography condition of the project area better. The purpose of this project is monitoring topography change of these small islands. Elevation difference map between DSMs of each year is constructed. There are two regions showing big negative difference value. By comparing constructed textured models and captured digital images around these regions, it is checked that a region have experienced real topography change. It is due to huge rock fall near the center of the east island. The size of fallen rock can be

  8. A qualitative evaluation of leadership development workshops for mental health workers from four Pacific Island Countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fung, Paul; Montague, Ros

    2015-06-01

    This paper provides a qualitative evaluation of a series of leadership development workshops held at the New South Wales Institute of Psychiatry (NSWIOP) for mental health workers from Papua New Guinea, Federated States of Micronesia, Republic of Marshall Islands, and Palau. Fourteen mental health workers attended the week-long training focused on project management and partnership development skills. In-depth interviews were conducted with participants at the commencement and conclusion of the training, and questionnaires were completed. A focus group was conducted with the NSWIOP organisers. The data was analysed using qualitative techniques to identify emergent themes for both participants and NSWIOP project team. All Pacific Island participants responded positively to the training. All reported greater confidence in taking on formal or informal leadership roles in the workplace, developing project planning skills and interpersonal skills such as networking and partnerships. The NSWIOP organisers identified strengths and weaknesses in the delivery of this training. The strong partnerships developed between NSWIOP and the Ministry of Health in all four countries contributed to the success of the training. Leadership Development Programs are an important aspect of building capacity in the mental health services of Pacific Island Countries. © The Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Psychiatrists 2015.

  9. Environmental Displacements: The Case of Small Island States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina R. Martins Mattar

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The human displacement caused by adverse weather conditions is, and has been for a long time, a natural strategy to adapt to environmental changes. However, the frequency of natural disasters and the negative impact of climate change have increased significantly affecting a growing number of people. Internal and external tensions caused by large-scale displacements, conflicts generated by resource scarcity, increased spread of diseases and geopolitical reordering are among the consequences linked to this phenomenon. The case of the small island nations that will be submerged by the sea level rise is an extreme example that raises fascinating questions. This article aims at analyzing the links of climate change on the dynamics of migration and exploring legal and political implications and possible solutions, in particular, for the populations from small island nations.

  10. A small cohort of Island Southeast Asian women founded Madagascar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cox, Murray P; Nelson, Michael G; Tumonggor, Meryanne K; Ricaut, François-X; Sudoyo, Herawati

    2012-07-22

    The settlement of Madagascar is one of the most unusual, and least understood, episodes in human prehistory. Madagascar was one of the last landmasses to be reached by people, and despite the island's location just off the east coast of Africa, evidence from genetics, language and culture all attests that it was settled jointly by Africans, and more surprisingly, Indonesians. Nevertheless, extremely little is known about the settlement process itself. Here, we report broad geographical screening of Malagasy and Indonesian genetic variation, from which we infer a statistically robust coalescent model of the island's initial settlement. Maximum-likelihood estimates favour a scenario in which Madagascar was settled approximately 1200 years ago by a very small group of women (approx. 30), most of Indonesian descent (approx. 93%). This highly restricted founding population raises the possibility that Madagascar was settled not as a large-scale planned colonization event from Indonesia, but rather through a small, perhaps even unintended, transoceanic crossing.

  11. Solid waste management on small islands. The case of Green Island, Taiwan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, M.C.; Ruijs, A.; Wesseler, J. [Environmental Economics and Natural Resources Group, Wageningen University, P.O. Box 8130, 6700 EW Wageningen (Netherlands)

    2005-09-01

    Municipalities of small islands have limited capacities for waste disposal. In the case of Green Island, Taiwan, continuing with business as usual would only allow the disposal of waste on the island for another 8 years. Three alternatives for solid waste management (SWM) are compared. The cost-effective solution is the one, which is the most expensive in the short run: continuing business as usual and introducing an incineration plant in the year 2010. The results indicate furthermore that deviations from optimal timing of investment only slightly change average annual costs. In the long run, the municipality can hardly avoid transporting waste to the mainland. By investing in an incineration plant, they can buy additional time to investigate alternative SWM strategies.

  12. Strategies for International Cooperation in Support of Energy Development in Pacific Island Nations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, M.; Voss, P.; Warren, A.; Baring-Gould, I.; Conrad, M.

    2012-05-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy's National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) has been partnering with island communities around the world to address the technical, policy, social, and economic hurdles to deploying energy efficiency and renewable energy technologies (RETs) on small, islanded systems. The lessons learned from these partnerships are briefly summarized in this document with the goal of supporting the International Renewable Energy Agency (IRENA) in the development of specific near-term and longer-term strategies for island RET deployment.

  13. Sustainable energy planning for 27 small Danish Islands. Summary report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-06-01

    A methodology has been developed and implemented, whereby detailed assessment of a few model or archetype islands may be used as basis for subsequent estimation of possibilities for other islands of similar kind, provided certain key data for present day energy consumption are available. A consistent interaction with the population on the model islands has been important in that process. The technical-economical results of the study show, that a number of measures seem cost-effective with the aim of contributing to a sustainable energy supply for the small Danish islands. Most prominent are energy savings for both heat and electricity, grid connected wind turbines for electricity production and collective heat supply, in decreasing order of cost-effectiveness. It has become clear, that an organisational structure based on the cooperative idea is essential for realising this potential. In Denmark this is a strong tradition, recently manifesting itself in the fact, that a majority of Danish wind turbines have been installed in the fram work of cooperative idea is essential for realising this potential. In Denmark this is a strong tradition, recently manifesting itself in the fact, that a majority of Danish wind turbines have been installed in the framework of cooperatives. This means that it is a well proven concept, in Denmark well established in the legal and financial structure including the tax laws. Consequently such energy cooperatives represent the organisational structure recommended by the project also for other sustainable energy initiatives on the small Danish islands. The implication on a European level is that the methodology developed in the project, as well as the concrete recommendations of the project including organisational structures, seem well suited to be applied on a European level in the context of local communities with a strong identity. (LN)

  14. Federal collaboration in science for invasive mammal management in U.S. National Parks and Wildlife Refuges of the Pacific Islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hess, Steven C.; Hu, Darcy; Loh, Rhonda; Banko, Paul C.; Conner, L.M.; Smith, M.D.

    2016-01-01

    Some of the most isolated islands in the Pacific Ocean are home to US National Parks and Wildlife Refuges. These islands are known for flora and fauna that occur nowhere else, but also for invasive species and other factors which have resulted in the disproportionate extinction of native species. The control of invasive mammals is the single most expensive natural resource management activity essential for restoring ecological integrity to parks in the Hawaiian Islands, American Samoa, and the islands of Guam and Saipan. Science-based applications supporting management efforts have been shaped by longstanding collaborative federal research programs over the past four decades. Consequently, feral goats (Capra hircus) have been removed from >690 km2 in National Parks, and feral pigs (Sus scrofa) have been removed from >367 km2 of federal lands of Hawai‘i, bringing about the gradual recovery of forest ecosystems. The exclusion of other non-native ungulates and invasive mammals is now being undertaken with more sophisticated control techniques and fences. New fence designs are now capable of excluding feral cats (Felis catus) from large areas to protect endangered native waterfowl and nesting seabirds. Rodenticides which have been tested and registered for hand and aerial broadcast in Hawai‘i have been used to eradicate rats from small offshore islands to protect nesting seabirds and are now being applied to montane environments of larger islands to protect forest birds. Forward-looking infrared radar (FLIR) is also being applied to locate wild ungulates which were more recently introduced to some islands. All invasive mammals have been eradicated from some remote small islands, and it may soon be possible to manage areas on larger islands to be free of invasive mammals at least during seasonally important periods for native species.

  15. Study of Colombia North Wiwa El Encanto Amerindians HLA- genes: Pacific Islanders relatedness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnaiz-Villena, Antonio; Palacio-Grüber, Jose; Juarez, Ignacio; Muñiz, Ester; Hernández, Ennio; Bayona, Brayan; Campos, Cristina; Nuñez, Jorge; Lopez-Nares, Adrian; Martin-Villa, Manuel; Silvera, Carlos

    2018-07-01

    We have studied Wiwa/Sanja Amerindians HLA-A, -B, -C, -DRB1 and DQB1 allele frequencies and extended haplotypes in 52 unrelated individuals from "El Encanto" town at Guanachaca riverside. High frequency alleles were in general present in other Amerindian populations. Also, three extended haplotypes and eight ones were respectively both "new found" and already described in Amerindians from North, Central and South America, including Lakota-Sioux, Mayas, Teeneks, Quechua and Aymaras. Analyses of HLA-A*24:02 and -C*01:02 Wiwa high frequency alleles suggested a specific relatedness with another Amerindian and Pacific Islander ethnic groups (these two particular alleles bearing in high frequencies); they include New Zealand Maoris, Taiwanese, Japanese, Papua New Guinea, and Samoans among others. This may indicate that selective forces are maintaining these two alleles high frequency within this wide American/Pacific area. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  16. Comparisons of health expenditure in 3 Pacific Island Countries using National Health Accounts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopkins, Sandra; Irava, Wayne; Kei, Tin Yiu

    2010-09-01

    National Health Accounts (NHA) is an important monitoring tool for health policy and health systems strengthening. A pilot project amongst three Pacific Island Countries (PICs) to assist in developing their NHAs, allowed these countries to identify their sources of health funds, the health providers on which these funds are spent, and the types of health goods and services provided. In this paper we report some of the findings from the NHA exercises in FSM, Fiji and Vanuatu. The development of these NHA country reports have allowed these countries to better understand the flow of financial resources from financing agents, to health providers, and to health functions. The NHA findings across the three countries enabled a comparative analysis of health expenditures between the three countries as well as with countries in the Asia Pacific Region.

  17. Biological oceanography, biogeochemical cycles, and pelagic ecosystem functioning of the east-central South Pacific Gyre: focus on Easter Island and Salas y Gómez Island

    OpenAIRE

    Von Dassow , Peter; Collado-Fabbri , Silvana

    2014-01-01

    International audience; The Exclusive Economic Zone of Chile defined by Easter Island and Salas y Gómez Island is in the South Pacific Subtropical Gyre (SPSG), putting it at the center of the most oligotrophic and biomass poor waters in the world. Only 10 biological oceanographic expeditions have entered this zone in 105 years (1905-2010). We review key aspects of the plankton ecosystem and biogeochemical function relevant for the understanding of and conservation planning for marine environm...

  18. Climate Change Education in the U.S. Affiliated Pacific Islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sussman, A.; Fletcher, C. H.; Sachs, J. P.

    2013-12-01

    The Pacific Islands Climate Education Partnership (PCEP) serves the U.S. Affiliated Pacific Island (USAPI) Region. The international entities served by PCEP are the state of Hawai';i (USA); three Freely Associated States (the Federated States of Micronesia, the Republic of the Marshall Islands, and the Republic of Palau), and three Territories (Guam, Commonwealth of Northern Mariana Islands, and American Samoa). These Pacific Islands spread across 4.9 million square miles and include diverse indigenous cultures and languages. Many USAPI students live considerably below the poverty line. The Pacific Island region is projected to experience some of the most profound negative impacts considerably sooner than other regions. Funded by NSF, the PCEP aims to educate the region's students and citizens in ways that exemplify modern science and indigenous environmental knowledge, address the urgency of climate change impacts, and honor indigenous cultures. Students and citizens within the region will have the knowledge and skills to advance their and our understanding of climate change, and to adapt to its impacts. The PCEP Strategic Plan incorporates a range of interconnected strategic goals grouped into four priority education areas: Climate Education Framework --Implement a next-generation Climate Education Framework that focuses on the content and skills necessary for understanding the science of global and Pacific island climates, as well as the adaptation to climate impacts in the USAPI region. Indigenous Knowledge and Practices --Gather appropriate local indigenous knowledge based on the cultural stories and traditional practices related to environmental stewardship, climate, and local climate adaptation strategies. Learning and Teaching--Enhance conditions for learning about climate change in K-14 classrooms with the CEF through college-based, credentialed climate education programs; professional learning opportunities for teachers; and increased teacher

  19. Cryptic extinction of a common Pacific lizard Emoia impar (Squamata, Scincidae) from the Hawaiian Islands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, Robert; Ineich, Ivan

    2012-01-01

    Most documented declines of tropical reptiles are of dramatic or enigmatic species. Declines of widespread species tend to be cryptic. The early (1900s) decline and extinction of the common Pacific skink Emoia impar from the Hawaiian Islands is documented here through an assessment of literature, museum vouchers and recent fieldwork. This decline appears contemporaneous with the documented declines of invertebrates and birds across the Hawaiian Islands. A review of the plausible causal factors indicates that the spread of the introduced big-headed ant Pheidole megacephala is the most likely factor in this lizard decline. The introduction and spread of a similar skink Lampropholis delicata across the islands appears to temporally follow the decline of E. impar, although there is no evidence of competition between these species. It appears that L. delicata is spreading to occupy the niche vacated by the extirpated E. impar. Further confusion exists because the skink E. cyanura, which is very similar in appearance to E. impar, appears to have been introduced to one site within a hotel on Kaua'i and persisted as a population at that site for approximately 2 decades (1970s–1990s) but is now also extirpated. This study highlights the cryptic nature of this early species extinction as evidence that current biogeographical patterns of non-charismatic or enigmatic reptiles across the Pacific may be the historical result of early widespread invasion by ants. Conservation and restoration activities for reptiles in the tropical Pacific should consider this possibility and evaluate all evidence prior to any implementation.

  20. Eliminating tobacco-related disparities among Pacific Islanders through leadership and capacity building - Promising practices and lessons learned

    Science.gov (United States)

    David, Annette M.; Lew, Rod; Lyman, Annabel K.; Otto, Caleb; Robles, Rebecca; Cruz, George

    2013-01-01

    Tobacco remains a major risk factor for premature death and ill health among Pacific Islanders, and tobacco-related disparities persist. Eliminating these disparities requires a comprehensive approach to transform community norms about tobacco use through policy change, as contained in the World Health Organization (WHO) international Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC). Three of the six US-affiliated Pacific Islands – the Federated States of Micronesia (FSM), Palau and the Marshall Islands – are Parties to the FCTC; the remaining three territories – American Samoa, the Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (CNMI) and Guam – are excluded from the treaty by virtue of US non-ratification. Capacity building and leadership development are essential in achieving policy change and health equity within Pacific Islander communities. We describe promising practices from American Samoa, CNMI, FSM, Guam and Palau and highlight some of the key lessons learned in supporting and sustaining the reduction in tobacco use among Pacific Islanders as a first step towards eliminating tobacco-related disparities in these populations. PMID:23690256

  1. Improving communication during volcanic crises on small, vulnerable islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGuire, W. J.; Solana, M. C.; Kilburn, C. R. J.; Sanderson, D.

    2009-05-01

    Increased exposure to volcanic hazard, particularly at vulnerable small islands, is driving an urgent and growing need for improved communication between monitoring scientists, emergency managers and the media, in advance of and during volcanic crises. Information gathering exercises undertaken on volcanic islands (Guadeloupe, St. Vincent and Montserrat) in the Lesser Antilles (eastern Caribbean), which have recently experienced - or are currently experiencing - volcanic action, have provided the basis for the compilation and publication of a handbook on Communication During Volcanic Emergencies, aimed at the principal stakeholder groups. The findings of the on-island surveys point up the critical importance of (1) bringing together monitoring scientists, emergency managers, and representatives of the media, well in advance of a volcanic crisis, and (2), ensuring that procedures and protocols are in place that will allow, as far as possible, effective and seamless cooperation and coordination when and if a crisis situation develops. Communication During Volcanic Emergencies is designed to promote and encourage both of these priorities through providing the first source-book addressing working relationships and inter-linkages between the stakeholder groups, and providing examples of good and bad practice. While targeting the volcanic islands of the eastern Caribbean, the source-book and its content are largely generic, and the advice and guidelines contained therein have equal validity in respect of improving communication before and during crises at any volcano, and have application to the communication issue in respect of a range of other geophysical hazards.

  2. The use of home brew in Pacific Islands countries and territories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nosa, Vili; Duffy, Shavonne; Singh, Debbie; Lavelio, Save; Amber, Uma; Homasi-Paelate, Avanoa; Alfred, Julia

    2018-01-01

    This review examines what is known about the production and use of home brew in the Pacific Islands countries and territories. Data collection involved interviews of 78 men and women from the Marshall Islands, Papua New Guinea, Toga, and Tuvalu. The interviews were conducted in 2013 by local interviewers. The questions fell into four key areas: people's history of home-brew consumption, the reasons for home-brew use, the effects of home brew, and people's perceptions about home brew. An open ethnographic approach revealed that males are the main consumers of home brew, that home brew is consumed in private venues by those with low socioeconomic status, and that there are positive and negative outcomes associated with the use of home brew. Finally, policy implications of the findings are included in this article.

  3. The case for investing in family planning in the Pacific: costs and benefits of reducing unmet need for contraception in Vanuatu and the Solomon Islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Unmet need for family planning in the Pacific is among the highest in the world. Better understanding of required investments and associated benefits of increased access to family planning in the Pacific may assist prioritisation and funding. Methods We modelled the costs and associated health, demographic and economic impacts of reducing unmet need for family planning between 2010–2025 in Vanuatu and the Solomon Islands. Baseline data were obtained from census reports, Demographic and Health Surveys, and UN agency reports. Using a demographic modelling program we compared a scenario of “no change in unmet need” with two distinct scenarios: 1) all family planning needs met by 2020; and, 2) all needs met by 2050. Results Meeting family planning needs by 2020 would increase prevalence of modern contraception in 2025 from 36.8 to 65.5% in Vanuatu and 28.5 to 37.6% in the Solomon Islands. Between 2010–2025 the average annual number of unintended pregnancies would decline by 68% in Vanuatu and 50% in the Solomon Islands, and high-risk births would fall by more than 20%, averting 2,573 maternal and infant deaths. Total fertility rates would fall from 4.1 to 2.2 in Vanuatu and 3.5 in the Solomon Islands, contributing to slowed population growth and lower dependency ratios. The direct cost of reducing unmet need by 2020 was estimated to be $5.19 million for Vanuatu and $3.36 million for the Solomon Islands between 2010–2025. Preventing unintended pregnancies would save $112 million in health and education expenditure. Conclusions In small island developing states such as Vanuatu and the Solomon Islands, increasing investment in family planning would contribute to improved maternal and infant outcomes and substantial public sector savings. PMID:23758783

  4. Energy Vulnerability Assessment for the US Pacific Islands. Technical Appendix 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fesharaki, F.; Rizer, J.P.; Greer, L.S.

    1994-05-01

    The study, Energy Vulnerability Assessment of the US Pacific Islands, was mandated by the Congress of the United States as stated in House Resolution 776-220 of 1992, Section 1406. The resolution states that the US Secretary of Energy shall conduct a study of the implications of the unique vulnerabilities of the insular areas to an oil supply disruption. Such study shall outline how the insular areas shall gain access to vital oil supplies during times of national emergency. The resolution defines insular areas as the US Virgin Islands, Puerto Rico, Guam, American Samoa, the Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands, and Palau. The US Virgin Islands and Puerto Rico are not included in this report. The US Department of Energy (USDOE) has broadened the scope of the study contained in the House Resolution to include emergency preparedness and response strategies which would reduce vulnerability to an oil supply disruption as well as steps to ameliorate adverse economic consequences. This includes a review of alternative energy technologies with respect to their potential for reducing dependence on imported petroleum. USDOE has outlined the four tasks of the energy vulnerability assessment as the following: (1) for each island, determine crude oil and refined product demand/supply, and characterize energy and economic infrastructure; (2) forecast global and regional oil trade flow patterns, energy demand/supply, and economic activities; (3) formulate oil supply disruption scenarios and ascertain the general and unique vulnerabilities of these islands to oil supply disruptions; and (4) outline emergency preparedness and response options to secure oil supplies in the short run, and reduce dependence on imported oil in the longer term.

  5. Energy Vulnerability Assessment for the US Pacific Islands. Technical Appendix 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fesharaki, F.; Rizer, J.P.; Greer, L.S.

    1994-05-01

    The study, Energy Vulnerability Assessment of the US Pacific Islands, was mandated by the Congress of the United States as stated in House Resolution 776-220 of 1992, Section 1406. The resolution states that the US Secretary of Energy shall conduct a study of the implications of the unique vulnerabilities of the insular areas to an oil supply disruption. Such study shall outline how the insular areas shall gain access to vital oil supplies during times of national emergency. The resolution defines insular areas as the US Virgin Islands, Puerto Rico, Guam, American Samoa, the Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands, and Palau. The US Virgin Islands and Puerto Rico are not included in this report. The US Department of Energy (USDOE) has broadened the scope of the study contained in the House Resolution to include emergency preparedness and response strategies which would reduce vulnerability to an oil supply disruption as well as steps to ameliorate adverse economic consequences. This includes a review of alternative energy technologies with respect to their potential for reducing dependence on imported petroleum. USDOE has outlined the four tasks of the energy vulnerability assessment as the following: (1) for each island, determine crude oil and refined product demand/supply, and characterize energy and economic infrastructure; (2) forecast global and regional oil trade flow patterns, energy demand/supply, and economic activities; (3) formulate oil supply disruption scenarios and ascertain the general and unique vulnerabilities of these islands to oil supply disruptions; and (4) outline emergency preparedness and response options to secure oil supplies in the short run, and reduce dependence on imported oil in the longer term

  6. A Method for Recruiting Participants from Isolated Islands of Small Island Developing States (SIDS) for Survey Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moosa, Sheena; Koopman-Boyden, Peggy

    2016-01-01

    Representing isolated small island communities through social survey research continues to be challenging. We examine a locally developed method to reach and recruit older people (65+ years) for a survey on well-being in the small island developing state of Maldives. The use of messengers to recruit participants is examined in the context of these…

  7. Assessing the health care system of services for non-communicable diseases in the US-affiliated Pacific Islands: a Pacific regional perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aitaoto, Nia; Ichiho, Henry M

    2013-05-01

    Non-communicable diseases (NCD) have been recognized as a major health threat in the US-affiliated Pacific Islands (USAPI) and health officials declared it an emergency.1 In an effort to address this emergent pandemic, the Pacific Chronic Disease Council (PCDC) conducted an assessment in all six USAPI jurisdictions which include American Samoa, Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (CNMI), Federated States of Micronesia (FSM), Guam, the Republic of the Marshall Islands (RMI) and the Republic of Palau to assess the capacity of the administrative, clinical, support, and data systems to address the problems of NCD. Findings reveal significant gaps in addressing NCDs across all jurisdictions and the negative impact of lifestyle behaviors, overweight, and obesity on the morbidity and mortality of the population. In addition, stakeholders from each site identified and prioritized administrative and clinical systems of service needs.

  8. Primary care in Caribbean Small Island Developing States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.D. Kranenburg

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Caribbean Small Island Developing States (SIDS made good process on improving the health of their populations; but concerns exist when it comes to meeting changing health needs. Due to remoteness and limited resources it is difficult to respond to high rates of non-communicable diseases (NCDs. Furthermore, little is known about how primary care (PC is organised and how this responds to current health issues. This study focused on gaining insights in the organisation of PC of Caribbean SIDS based on currently available literature. This literature review was an explorative multiple case study, where structure of PC and health status of 16 Caribbean SIDS were reviewed using available scientific and grey literature between the years 1997 and 2014. Thirty documents were used to analyse 20 indicators for the dimensions “Structure of Primary Care” and “Health Status”. Results were mapped in order to identify if there is a possible relation between structures of PC to the health of the populations. When reviewing the structure of PC, the majority of information was available for “Economic conditions of PC” (78% and the least information was available for “Governance of PC” (40%. With regards to health status, all islands show improvements on “Life expectancy at birth” since 2007. In contrast, on average, the mortality due to NCDs did not improve. Saint Lucia performs best on “Structure of PC”. The British Virgin Islands have the best health status. When both dimensions were analysed, Saint Lucia performs best. There is still little known on the responsiveness of PC of Caribbean SIDS to NCDs. There is a need for elaborate research on: (1 If and how the functioning of these health systems relate to the health status; (2 What islands can learn from an analysis over time and what they can learn from cross-island analysis; and (3 Filling the gaps of knowledge which currently exist within this field of research.

  9. Cohort profile: Pacific Islands Families (PIF) growth study, Auckland, New Zealand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rush, E; Oliver, M; Plank, L D; Taylor, S; Iusitini, L; Jalili-Moghaddam, S; Savila, F; Paterson, J; Tautolo, E

    2016-01-01

    Purpose This article profiles a birth cohort of Pacific children participating in an observational prospective study and describes the study protocol used at ages 14–15 years to investigate how food and activity patterns, metabolic risk and family and built environment are related to rates of physical growth of Pacific children. Participants From 2000 to 2015, the Pacific Islands Families Study has followed, from birth, the growth and development of over 1000 Pacific children born in Auckland, New Zealand. In 2014, 931 (66%) of the original cohort had field measures of body composition, blood pressure and glycated haemoglobin. A nested subsample (n=204) was drawn by randomly selecting 10 males and 10 females from each decile of body weight. These participants had measurement of body composition by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, food frequency, 6 min walk test and accelerometer-determined physical activity and sedentary behaviours, and blood biomarkers for metabolic disease such as diabetes. Built environment variables were generated from individual addresses. Findings to date Compared to the Centres for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) reference population with mean SD scores (SDS) of 0, this cohort of 931 14-year-olds was taller, weighed more and had a higher body mass index (BMI) (mean SDS height >0.6, weight >1.6 and BMI >1.4). 7 of 10 youth were overweight or obese. The nested-sampling frame achieved an even distribution by body weight. Future plans Cross-sectional relationships between body size, fatness and growth rate, food patterns, activity patterns, pubertal development, risks for diabetes and hypertension and the family and wider environment will be examined. In addition, analyses will investigate relationships with data collected earlier in the life course and measures of the cohort in the future. Understanding past and present influences on child growth and health will inform timely interventions to optimise future health and reduce

  10. Will the Effects of Sea-Level Rise Create Ecological Traps for Pacific Island Seabirds?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michelle H Reynolds

    Full Text Available More than 18 million seabirds nest on 58 Pacific islands protected within vast U.S. Marine National Monuments (1.9 million km2. However, most of these seabird colonies are on low-elevation islands and sea-level rise (SLR and accompanying high-water perturbations are predicted to escalate with climate change. To understand how SLR may impact protected islands and insular biodiversity, we modeled inundation and wave-driven flooding of a globally important seabird rookery in the subtropical Pacific. We acquired new high-resolution Digital Elevation Models (DEMs and used the Delft3D wave model and ArcGIS to model wave heights and inundation for a range of SLR scenarios (+0.5, +1.0, +1.5, and +2.0 m at Midway Atoll. Next, we classified vegetation to delineate habitat exposure to inundation and identified how breeding phenology, colony synchrony, and life history traits affect species-specific sensitivity. We identified 3 of 13 species as highly vulnerable to SLR in the Hawaiian Islands and quantified their atoll-wide distribution (Laysan albatross, Phoebastria immutabilis; black-footed albatross, P. nigripes; and Bonin petrel, Pterodroma hypoleuca. Our models of wave-driven flooding forecast nest losses up to 10% greater than passive inundation models at +1.0 m SLR. At projections of + 2.0 m SLR, approximately 60% of albatross and 44% of Bonin petrel nests were overwashed displacing more than 616,400 breeding albatrosses and petrels. Habitat loss due to passive SLR may decrease the carrying capacity of some islands to support seabird colonies, while sudden high-water events directly reduce survival and reproduction. This is the first study to simulate wave-driven flooding and the combined impacts of SLR, groundwater rise, and storm waves on seabird colonies. Our results highlight the need for early climate change planning and restoration of higher elevation seabird refugia to prevent low-lying protected islands from becoming ecological traps in the

  11. Recent Atlantic Hurricanes, Pacific Super Typhoons, and Tropical Storm Awareness in Underdeveloped Island and Coastal Regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plondke, D. L.

    2017-12-01

    Hurricane Harvey was the first major hurricane to make landfall in the continental U.S. in 12 years. The next tropical storm in the 2017 Atlantic Hurricane Season was Hurricane Irma, a category 5 storm and the strongest storm to strike the U.S. mainland since Hurricane Wilma in 2005. These two storms were the third and fourth in a sequence of 10 consecutive storms to reach hurricane status in this season that ranks at least seventh among the most active seasons as measured by the Accumulate Cyclone Energy (ACE) index. Assessment of damage from Harvey may prove it to be the costliest storm in U.S. history, approaching $190 billion. Irma was the first category 5 hurricane to hit the Leeward Islands, devastating island environments including Puerto Rico, the Virgin Islands, Barbuda, Saint Barthelemy, and Anguilla with sustained winds reaching at times 185 mph. Together with the two super typhoons of the 2017 Pacific season, Noru and Lan, the two Atlantic hurricanes rank among the strongest, longest-lasting tropical cyclones on record. How many more billions of dollars will be expended in recovery and reconstruction efforts following future mega-disasters comparable to those of Hurricanes Harvey and Irma? Particularly on Caribbean and tropical Pacific islands with specialized and underdeveloped economies, aging and substandard infrastructure often cannot even partially mitigate against the impacts of major hurricanes. The most frequently used measurements of storm impact are insufficient to assess the economic impact. Analysis of the storm tracks and periods of greatest storm intensity of Hurricanes Harvey and Irma, and Super Typhoons Lan and Noru, in spatial relationship with island and coastal administrative regions, shows that rainfall totals, flooded area estimates, and property/infrastructure damage dollar estimates are all quantitative indicators of storm impact, but do not measure the costs that result from lack of storm preparedness and education of residents

  12. From Marginalized to Validated: An In-Depth Case Study of an Asian American, Native American and Pacific Islander Serving Institution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Thai-Huy; Nguyen, Mike Hoa; Nguyen, Bach Mai Dolly; Gasman, Marybeth; Conrad, Clifton

    2018-01-01

    This article highlights the capacity of an Asian American, Native American and Pacific Islander Institution (AANAPISI) to serve as an institutional convertor--by addressing challenges commonly associated with marginalized students--for low-income, Asian American and Pacific Islander students entering college. Through an in-depth case study, we…

  13. Maternal self-report of oral health in 4-year-old Pacific children from South Auckland, New Zealand: findings from the Pacific Islands Families Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schluter, Philip J; Durward, Callum; Cartwright, Susan; Paterson, Janis

    2007-01-01

    To report on the oral health risk in a disadvantaged group of 4-year-old Pacific children and their mothers living in South Auckland, New Zealand. The Pacific Islands Families study follows a cohort of Pacific infants born in 2000. Maternal self-report of mother and child's oral health practices and child's filling and extraction experience was undertaken at interview approximately 4 years postpartum. Overall, 1,048 mothers of children were interviewed. Children's reported oral health practices were generally poor, with 47 percent brushing Culturally appropriate and targeted strategies aimed at these modifiable practices need to be widely promoted so that the oral health burden carried by Pacific children can be reduced.

  14. Comprehensive Review of Preschool Age Anemia in the Pacific Island Jurisdictions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Tiffany F; Huang, James N; Cash, Haley L

    2017-12-01

    Anemia can be an indicator of poor nutrition and health, and it can have significant consequences. Children are disproportionately affected by anemia. This comprehensive review summarizes the available literature on anemia prevalence in young children in the islands of the Oceania region. The anemia prevalence, the criteria used for diagnosis, the date the data was reported, and the types of samples collected were reviewed. Anemia prevalence estimates were reported for eighteen of the Pacific Island Jurisdictions. From the fifteen data sources that were evaluable, anemia prevalence ranged from 12.3% to over 70%. A major limitation in the data is a lack of representative primary data from many of the jurisdictions in the region. Prevalance estimates reported for those jurisdictions are estimated by regression analysis from the World Health Organization (WHO). Moreover, the primary data available does not use standardized reporting criteria. Nevertheless, this review serves as a new baseline for further investigations on the prevalence of anemia and a baseline for evaluating public health prevention and treatment measures to detect and improve anemia prevalence in the Pacific.

  15. The migration of doctors and nurses from South Pacific Island Nations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Richard P C; Connell, John

    2004-06-01

    Little is known of the structure of the international migration of skilled health professionals. Accelerated migration of doctors and nurses from the Pacific island states of Fiji, Samoa and Tonga to the Pacific periphery is part of the globalization of health care. The findings from a recent survey of 251 doctors and nurses from the three island countries are reported here. Key determinants of both present migration status and future migration intentions were analyzed using econometric methods. Nurses' and doctors' propensities to migrate are influenced by both income and non-income factors, including ownership of businesses and houses. Migrants also tend to have more close relatives overseas, to have trained there, and so experienced superior working conditions. Migration propensities vary between countries, and between nurses and doctors within countries. Tongan nurses have a higher propensity to migrate, mainly because of greater relative earnings differentials, but are also more likely to return home. The role of kinship ties, relative income differentials and working conditions is evident in other developing country contexts. Remittances and return migration, alongside business investment, bring some benefits to compensate for the skill drain. National development policies should focus on encouraging return migration, alongside retention and recruitment, but are unlikely to prevent out migration.

  16. Psychosocial correlates of cigarette smoking among Asian American and Pacific Islander adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Fang; Cheng, Wendy J Y; Ho, Moon-Ho R; Pooh, Karen

    2013-04-01

    Despite the growing body of research in adolescent cigarette smoking, there is a lack of research on Asian American and Pacific Islander (AAPI) adolescents. This study examined the prevalence and psychosocial correlates of the past 30-day cigarette smoking in Asian American (AA) and Pacific Islander (PI) adolescents by utilizing a multi-systemic theory-the problem behavior theory. Using the 2006-07 High School Questionnaire of California Healthy Kids Survey, variables such as cigarette smoking, individual characteristics and external influences were assessed. Chi-square tests and generalized estimating equations were used in the analyses. PIs had higher past 30-day cigarette smoking rates than AAs. In the whole AAPI population, significant correlates of cigarette smoking included: positive and negative attitudes toward cigarettes, perceived harm of cigarettes, perceived prevalence of peer cigarette smoking, friend disapproval of cigarette use, previous drug use, truancy, and academic performance. Interaction results showed that truancy increased the odds of cigarette use for AAs only. The study found differential prevalence and correlate of cigarette smoking in addition to common psychosocial correlates in AAs and PIs. It sheds light on the importance of studying AAs and PIs separately and further exploring other potential variables that contribute to the prevalence discrepancy. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Trade policy and obesity prevention: challenges and innovation in the Pacific Islands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snowdon, W; Thow, A M

    2013-11-01

    The Pacific Island countries experience some of the highest rates of obesity in the world in part due to substantial dietary changes that mirror changes in the food supply in the region. Economic and political ties, donor aid, and trade links are key drivers of the changing availability and accessibility of processed and imported foods. Pacific Island countries have been innovative in developing trade-related policy approaches to create a less obesogenic food environment. Taxation-based approaches that affect pricing in the region include increased import and excise tariffs on sugared beverages and other high-sugar products, monosodium glutamate, and palm oil and lowered tariffs on fruits and vegetables. Other approaches highlight some higher-fat products through labeling and controlling the supply of high-fat meats. The bans on high-fat turkey tails and mutton flaps highlight the politics, trade agreements and donor influences that can be significant barriers to the pursuit of policy options. Countries that are not signatories to trade agreements may have more policy space for innovative action. However, potential effectiveness and practicality require consideration. The health sector's active engagement in the negotiation of trade agreements is a key way to support healthier trade in the region. © 2013 The Authors. Obesity Reviews published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of the International Association for the Study of Obesity.

  18. Octocoral densities and mortalities in Gorgona Island, Colombia, Tropical Eastern Pacific

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan A. Sánchez

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Owing to the decrease of reef organisms in general, it has become essential to study populations that are prone to marine diseases, with the purpose of developing accurate survivorship predictions and in turn alarm on triggers and drivers of disease outbreaks. In this study, we quantified the octocorals of Gorgona island, Tropical Eastern Pacific (Colombia, during 2007 and 2009 documenting a mass mortality occurred during 2008. We recorded 16 octocoral species with densities that ranged between 2 and 30 colonies m-2. Most abundant octocorals were Leptogorgia alba and Pacifigorgia spp. (Gorgoniidae: Octocorallia. During 2009 we noticed a mass mortality involving Pacifigorgia irene, P. adamsi, P. rubicunda and P. eximia, with a reduction of 70% of the colonies between 12 and 20 m in water depth. Around 5% of seafans during 2007 had an epizootic disease similar to aspergillosis, which seems the cause of the mass octocoral mortality. This disease outbreak observed in Gorgona island, and other nearby areas of the Colombian Pacific during 2007-2010, corresponded to extended periods of anomalous elevated seawater surface temperatures and thermal anomalies during the upwelling season of 2008. Constant monitoring of seawater temperatures and octocoral populations are urgently needed in this area to understand the nature of this new disease outbreak. Rev. Biol. Trop. 62 (Suppl. 1: 209-219. Epub 2014 February 01.

  19. Integration of Small Solar tower Systems into Distributed Power Islands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Romero, M.; Marcos, M. J.; Tellez, F. M.; Blanco, M.; Fernandez, V.; Baonza, F.; Berger, S. [Ciemat, Madrid (Spain)

    2000-07-01

    One of the short-term priorities for renewable energies in Europe is their integration for local power supply into communities and energy islands (blocks of buildings, new neighborhoods in residential areas, shopping centers, hospitals, recreational areas, eco-paks, small rural areas or isolated ones such as islands or mountain communities). Following this strategy, the integration of small tower fields into so-called MIUS (Modular Integrated Utility Systems) is proposed. This application strongly influences field concepts leadings to modular multi-tower systems able to more closely track demand, meet reliability requirements with fewer megawatts of installed power and spread construction costs over time after output has begum. In addition, integration into single-cycle high-efficiency gas turbines plus waste-heat applications clearly increments the solar share. The chief questions are whether solar towers can be redesigned for such distributed markets and the keys to their feasibility. This paper includes the design and performance analysis of a 1.36-MW plant and integration in the MIUS system, as well as the expected cost of electricity and a sensitivity analysis of the small tower plant's performance with design parameters like heliostat configuration and tower height. A practical application is analyzed for a shopping center with 85% power demand during day-time by using a hybrid solar tower and a gas turbine producing electricity and waste heat for hot water and heating and cooling of spaces. The operation mode proposed is covering night demand with power from the grid and solar-gas power island mode during 14 hours daytime with a maximum power production of 1.36 MW. (Author) 26 refs.

  20. Integration of Small Solar Tower Systems Into Distributed Power Islands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Romero, M.; Marcos, M. J.; Tellez, F. M.; Blanco, M.; Fernandez, V.; Baonza, F.; Berger, S.

    1999-01-01

    One of the short-term priorities for renewable energies in Europe is their integration for local power supply into communities and energy islands (blocks of buildings, new neighborhoods in residential areas, shopping centers, hospitals, recreational areas, eco-parks, small rural areas or isolated ones such as islands or mountain communities). Following this strategy, the integration of small tower fields into so-called MIUS (Modular Integrated Utility Systems) is proposed. This application strongly influences field concepts leading to modular multi-tower systems able to more closely track demand, meet reliability requirements with fewer megawatts of installed power and spread construction costs over time after output has begun. In addition, integration into single-cycle high-efficiency gas turbines plus waste-heat applications clearly increments the solar share. The chief questions are whether solar towers can be redesigned for such distributed markets and the keys to their feasibility. This paper includes the design and performance analysis of a 1.36-MW plant and integration in the MIUS system, as well as the expected cost of electricity and a sensitivity analysis of the small tower plant's performance with design parameters like heliostats configuration and tower height. A practical application is analyzed for a shopping center with 85% power demand during day-time by using a hybrid solar tower and a gas turbine producing electricity and waste heat for hot water and heating and cooling of spaces. The operation mode proposed is covering night demand with power from the grid and solar-gas power island mode during 14 hours daytime with a maximum power production of 1.36 MW. (Author) 26 refs

  1. New host and distributional records for Cryptosporidium sp. (Apicomplexa: Cryptosporidiidae) from lizards (Sauria: Gekkonidae, Scincidae) from the Cook Islands and Vanuatu, South Pacific

    Science.gov (United States)

    McAllister, Chris T.; Duszynski, Donald W.; Fisher, Robert N.

    2013-01-01

    Between 1991 and 1993, 295 lizards, comprising 21 species in 2 families (Gekkonidae, Scincidae) from the Cook Islands, Fiji, Palau, Takapoto, and Vanuatu in the South Pacific, were examined for Cryptosporidium oocysts. Only 6 lizards (2%) were found to be passing Cryptosporidium oocysts in their feces, including 2 of 30 (7%) Oceania geckos, Gehyra oceanica, from Rarotonga, Cook Islands, and 4 of 26 (15%) Pacific blue-tailed skinks, Emoia caeruleocauda, from Efate Island, Vanuatu. This represents the largest survey for Cryptosporidium in Pacific island lizards, and we document 2 new host and 2 new locality records for this parasite genus.

  2. Maximizing effectiveness of adaptation action in Pacific Island communities using coastal wave attenuation models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, H.; Carruthers, T.; Allison, M. A.; Weathers, D.; Moss, L.; Timmermans, H.

    2017-12-01

    Pacific Island communities are highly vulnerable to the effects of climate change, specifically accelerating rates of sea level rise, changes to storm intensity and associated rainfall patterns resulting in flooding and shoreline erosion. Nature-based adaptation is being planned not only to reduce the risk from shoreline erosion, but also to support benefits of a healthy ecosystem (e.g., supporting fisheries or coral reefs). In order to assess potential effectiveness of the nature-based actions to dissipate wave energy, two-dimensional X-Beach models were developed to predict the wave attenuation effect of coastal adaptation actions at the pilot sites—the villages of Naselesele and Somosomo on Taveuni island, Fiji. Both sites are experiencing serious shoreline erosion due to sea level rise and storm wave. The water depth (single-beam bathymetry), land elevation (truck-based LiDAR), and vegetation data including stem density and height were collected in both locations in a June 2017 field experiment. Wave height and water velocity were also measured for the model setup and calibration using a series of bottom-mounted instruments deployed in the 0-15 m water depth portions of the study grid. The calibrated model will be used to evaluate a range of possible adaptation actions identified by the community members of Naselesele and Somosomo. Particularly, multiple storm scenario runs with management-relevant shoreline restoration/adaptation options will be implemented to evaluate efficiencies of each adaptation action (e.g., no action, with additional planted trees, with sand mining, with seawalls constructed with natural materials, etc.). These model results will help to better understand how proposed adaption actions may influence future shoreline change and maximize benefits to communities in island nations across the SW Pacific.

  3. Pacific Reef Assessment and Monitoring Program Rapid Ecological Assessment Quadrat Surveys of Corals around the Marianas Islands from 2003-08-22 to 2007-06-08 (NCEI Accession 0129066)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Pacific Reef Assessment and Monitoring Program (Pacific RAMP), established by the Coral Reef Ecosystem Division of the NOAA Pacific Islands Fisheries Science...

  4. The history of brucellosis in the Pacific Island Countries and Territories and its re-emergence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tukana, Andrew; Warner, Jeffrey; Hedlefs, Robert; Gummow, Bruce

    2015-11-01

    There are few publications on brucellosis within the Pacific Island Countries and Territories (PICTs). The reason is possibly because the cattle population has been reportedly free of the disease for many years until a re-emergence occurred in the Fiji Islands (Viti Levu) in 2009. This paper reports on the outbreak of brucellosis in Fiji and its progression between 2009 and 2013 in the context of an overview of brucellosis in the Pacific Island community. Review of the literature found only 28 articles with the oldest record of brucellosis being in 1965 in Papua New Guinea (PNG) and from human cases in Tonga in 1980. The Fiji outbreak of Brucella abortus occurred in cattle in 2009 (Wainivesi basin) in the Tailevu province. Prior to the outbreak, Fiji declared freedom from B. abortus to OIE in 1996 after a successful eradication campaign. During the course of the outbreak investigation, serum samples were collected from between 9790 and 21,624 cattle per annum between 2009 and 2013 from 87 farms on the main island of Fiji (Viti Levu). Blood samples were tested for brucellosis using the Rose Bengal Test (RBT) in 2009 and the indirect ELISA test in subsequent years. At the time of the outbreak in Fiji (2009) the apparent prevalence in cattle was 1.50% and this has fluctuated since the outbreak. The True Prevalence (TP) for the main island in Fiji for the indirect ELISA tests was 2.40% in 2010, reached a peak of 3.49% in 2011 then reduced to 0.12% by 2013. The significant reduction in prevalence compared to 2010 is most likely due to the control programs being implemented in Fiji. The re-emergence of B. abortus in Fiji could be attributed to the lack of monitoring for the disease until 2009 combined with inadequate management of exposed animals, thus illustrating how important it is for authorities not to become complacent. Continued awareness and monitoring for brucellosis is essential if future outbreaks are to be avoided. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights

  5. Health Impacts of Climate Change in Pacific Island Countries: A Regional Assessment of Vulnerabilities and Adaptation Priorities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McIver, Lachlan; Kim, Rokho; Woodward, Alistair; Hales, Simon; Spickett, Jeffery; Katscherian, Dianne; Hashizume, Masahiro; Honda, Yasushi; Kim, Ho; Iddings, Steven; Naicker, Jyotishma; Bambrick, Hilary; McMichael, Anthony J; Ebi, Kristie L

    2016-11-01

    Between 2010 and 2012, the World Health Organization Division of Pacific Technical Support led a regional climate change and health vulnerability assessment and adaptation planning project, in collaboration with health sector partners, in 13 Pacific island countries-Cook Islands, Federated States of Micronesia, Fiji, Kiribati, Marshall Islands, Nauru, Niue, Palau, Samoa, Solomon Islands, Tonga, Tuvalu, and Vanuatu. We assessed the vulnerabilities of Pacific island countries to the health impacts of climate change and planned adaptation strategies to minimize such threats to health. This assessment involved a combination of quantitative and qualitative techniques. The former included descriptive epidemiology, time series analyses, Poisson regression, and spatial modeling of climate and climate-sensitive disease data, in the few instances where this was possible; the latter included wide stakeholder consultations, iterative consensus building, and expert opinion. Vulnerabilities were ranked using a "likelihood versus impact" matrix, and adaptation strategies were prioritized and planned accordingly. The highest-priority climate-sensitive health risks in Pacific island countries included trauma from extreme weather events, heat-related illnesses, compromised safety and security of water and food, vector-borne diseases, zoonoses, respiratory illnesses, psychosocial ill-health, non-communicable diseases, population pressures, and health system deficiencies. Adaptation strategies relating to these climate change and health risks could be clustered according to categories common to many countries in the Pacific region. Pacific island countries are among the most vulnerable in the world to the health impacts of climate change. This vulnerability is a function of their unique geographic, demographic, and socioeconomic characteristics combined with their exposure to changing weather patterns associated with climate change, the health risks entailed, and the limited capacity

  6. Water level effects on breaking wave setup for Pacific Island fringing reefs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, J. M.; Merrifield, M. A.; Ford, M.

    2014-02-01

    The effects of water level variations on breaking wave setup over fringing reefs are assessed using field measurements obtained at three study sites in the Republic of the Marshall Islands and the Mariana Islands in the western tropical Pacific Ocean. At each site, reef flat setup varies over the tidal range with weaker setup at high tide and stronger setup at low tide for a given incident wave height. The observed water level dependence is interpreted in the context of radiation stress gradients specified by an idealized point break model generalized for nonnormally incident waves. The tidally varying setup is due in part to depth-limited wave heights on the reef flat, as anticipated from previous reef studies, but also to tidally dependent breaking on the reef face. The tidal dependence of the breaking is interpreted in the context of the point break model in terms of a tidally varying wave height to water depth ratio at breaking. Implications for predictions of wave-driven setup at reef-fringed island shorelines are discussed.

  7. Social Ecology and Diabetes Self-Management among Pacific Islanders in Arkansas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McElfish, Pearl Anna; Moore, Ramey; Woodring, David; Purvis, Rachel S; Maskarinec, Gregory G; Bing, Williamina Ioanna; Hudson, Jonell; Kohler, Peter O; Goulden, Peter A

    2016-01-01

    Chronic diseases disproportionately affect ethnic and racial minorities. Pacific Islanders, including the Marshallese, experience some of the highest documented rates of type 2 diabetes. Northwest Arkansas is home to the largest population of Marshallese outside of the Republic of the Marshall Islands, and many migrants are employed by the local poultry industry. This migrant population continues to increase because of climate change, limited health care and educational infrastructure in the Marshall Islands, and the ongoing health effects of US nuclear testing. The US nuclear weapons testing program had extensive social, economic, and ecological consequences for the Marshallese and many of the health disparities they face are related to the nuclear fallout. Beginning in 2013, researchers using a community-based participatory (CBPR) approach began working with the local Marshallese community to address diabetes through the development and implementation of culturally appropriate diabetes self-management education in a family setting. Preliminary research captured numerous and significant environmental barriers that constrain self-management behaviors. At the request of our CBPR stakeholders, researchers have documented the ecological barriers faced by the Marshallese living in Arkansas through a series of qualitative research projects. Using the Social Ecological Model as a framework, this research provides an analysis of Marshallese health that expands the traditional diabetes self-management perspective. Participants identified barriers at the organizational, community, and policy levels that constrain their efforts to achieve diabetes self-management. We offer practice and policy recommendations to address barriers at the community, organizational, and policy level.

  8. Characteristics of a dengue outbreak in a remote pacific island chain--Republic of The Marshall Islands, 2011-2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharp, Tyler M; Mackay, Andrew J; Santiago, Gilberto A; Hunsperger, Elizabeth; Nilles, Eric J; Perez-Padilla, Janice; Tikomaidraubuta, Kinisalote S; Colon, Candimar; Amador, Manuel; Chen, Tai-Ho; Lalita, Paul; Muñoz-Jordán, Jorge L; Barrera, Roberto; Langidrik, Justina; Tomashek, Kay M

    2014-01-01

    Dengue is a potentially fatal acute febrile illness caused by four mosquito-transmitted dengue viruses (DENV-1-4). Although dengue outbreaks regularly occur in many regions of the Pacific, little is known about dengue in the Republic of the Marshall Islands (RMI). To better understand dengue in RMI, we investigated an explosive outbreak that began in October 2011. Suspected cases were reported to the Ministry of Health, serum specimens were tested with a dengue rapid diagnostic test (RDT), and confirmatory testing was performed using RT-PCR and IgM ELISA. Laboratory-positive cases were defined by detection of DENV nonstructural protein 1 by RDT, DENV nucleic acid by RT-PCR, or anti-DENV IgM antibody by RDT or ELISA. Secondary infection was defined by detection of anti-DENV IgG antibody by ELISA in a laboratory-positive acute specimen. During the four months of the outbreak, 1,603 suspected dengue cases (3% of the RMI population) were reported. Of 867 (54%) laboratory-positive cases, 209 (24%) had dengue with warning signs, six (0.7%) had severe dengue, and none died. Dengue incidence was highest in residents of Majuro and individuals aged 10-29 years, and ∼95% of dengue cases were experiencing secondary infection. Only DENV-4 was detected by RT-PCR, which phylogenetic analysis demonstrated was most closely related to a virus previously identified in Southeast Asia. Cases of vertical DENV transmission, and DENV/Salmonella Typhi and DENV/Mycobacterium leprae co-infection were identified. Entomological surveys implicated water storage containers and discarded tires as the most important development sites for Aedes aegypti and Ae. albopictus, respectively. Although this is the first documented dengue outbreak in RMI, the age groups of cases and high prevalence of secondary infection demonstrate prior DENV circulation. Dengue surveillance should continue to be strengthened in RMI and throughout the Pacific to identify and rapidly respond to future outbreaks.

  9. Surviving climate change in small islands. A guidebook

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tompkins, E.L.; Nicholson-Cole, S.A.; Boyd, E.; Hurlston, L.A.; Brooks Hodge, G.; Clarke, J.; Trotz, N.; Gray, G.; Varlack, L.

    2005-10-01

    This guidebook contains information about the risks associated with climate change. It explains how existing social, economic and environmental vulnerability can magnify the risks associated with climate change and it describes actions that can be undertaken to prepare for climate change. Key terms and concepts are defined for those unfamiliar with climate change terminology. Chapter 2 outlines what small islands might be able to expect from climate change. It outlines why small islands are vulnerable to climate change, introducing the risks that climate changes pose and the hazards that they might expect. Methods of assessing vulnerability and climate impacts are presented in Chapter 3 and the process of managing the consequences of climate change through the development of an adaptation strategy is introduced. Chapter 4 outlines how you might go about starting the adaptation process, how to make risk management plans and how to link these with other planning processes. Chapter 5 guides you through a process of implementing an adaptation strategy outlining a number of important components including legislation and enforcement, and how to finance adaptation. The importance of continuing the adaptation process is also explained. Chapter 6 includes a glossary containing definitions of the key words and scientific or unusual terms used throughout this guidebook. It also contains information about and links to further sources of information such as useful organisations and publications as well as a list of references to specific documents referenced in the text

  10. Acculturation and its impact on the oral health status of Pacific children in New Zealand: findings from the Pacific Islands Families study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schluter, Philip J; Kanagaratnam, Sathananthan; Taylor, Steve; Tautolo, El-Shadan

    2017-06-01

    Immigration and acculturation are increasingly recognized as important explanatory factors for health disparities, although their impact on oral health is less well understood. This study investigates the relationship between Pacific children's cultural orientation and oral health, after adjusting for potentially moderating and confounding variables. The Pacific Islands Families (PIF) study follows a cohort of Pacific infants born in 2000. PIF study participants' data from their last dental examination were extracted from service records, and matched to the cohort. A bi-directional acculturation classification, derived from maternal reports, was related to children's oral health indices in crude and adjusted analyses. 1,376 children were eligible, of whom 922 (67.0 percent) had mothers born outside New Zealand. Matching was successful for 970 (70.5 percent) children, with mean age 12.2 years (range: 6.8, 15.4 years). Significant differences were found between acculturation groups for children's tooth brushing frequency and school dental service enrollments but these differences did not moderate relationships between acculturation and oral health status. Unmet treatment need was significantly different between acculturation groups, with children of mothers having higher Pacific orientation having worse unmet needs than those with lower Pacific orientation. No other significant differences were noted. Pacific children carry a disproportionate oral health burden, particularly amongst those with mothers more aligned to their Pacific culture. Strategies which enable Pacific people to re-shape their oral health understanding, together with reducing barriers to accessing dental health care, are needed to prevent a legacy of poor oral health in Pacific people within New Zealand. © 2017 American Association of Public Health Dentistry.

  11. Planning for climate change in small islands: insights from national hurricane preparedness in the Cayman Islands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tompkins, E.L.

    2005-01-01

    This paper examines contemporary national scale responses to tropical storm risk in a small island in the Caribbean to derive lessons for adapting to climate change. There is little empirical evidence to guide national planners on how to adapt to climate change, and less still on how to build on past adaptation experiences. The paper investigates the construction of institutional resilience and the process of adaptation to tropical storm risk by the Cayman Islands' Government from 1988 to 2002. It explains the roles of persuasion, exposure and collective action as key components in developing the ability to buffer external disturbance using models of institutional economics and social resilience concepts. The study finds that self-efficacy, strong local and international support networks, combined with a willingness to act collectively and to learn from mistakes appear to have increased the resilience of the Cayman Islands' Government to tropical storm risk. The lessons learned from building resilience to storm risk can contribute to the creation of national level adaptive capacity to climate change, but climate change has to be prioritised before these lessons can be transferred. (author)

  12. Planning for climate change in small islands: insights from national hurricane preparedness in the Cayman Islands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tompkins, E.L. [University of East Anglia, Norwich (United Kingdom). School of Environmental Sciences

    2005-07-01

    This paper examines contemporary national scale responses to tropical storm risk in a small island in the Caribbean to derive lessons for adapting to climate change. There is little empirical evidence to guide national planners on how to adapt to climate change, and less still on how to build on past adaptation experiences. The paper investigates the construction of institutional resilience and the process of adaptation to tropical storm risk by the Cayman Islands' Government from 1988 to 2002. It explains the roles of persuasion, exposure and collective action as key components in developing the ability to buffer external disturbance using models of institutional economics and social resilience concepts. The study finds that self-efficacy, strong local and international support networks, combined with a willingness to act collectively and to learn from mistakes appear to have increased the resilience of the Cayman Islands' Government to tropical storm risk. The lessons learned from building resilience to storm risk can contribute to the creation of national level adaptive capacity to climate change, but climate change has to be prioritised before these lessons can be transferred. (author)

  13. Ethnic and Gender Subgroup Differences in Education, Employment, and Incarceration in the Asian American and Pacific Islander Community

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teranishi, Robert

    2015-01-01

    The stratification of opportunities and disparate outcomes for Black and Latino boys and men has been well documented. However, there remains a lack of awareness about the extent to which these issues are relevant for the Asian American and Pacific Islander (AAPI) community. This brief focuses on key status and leading indicators for the mobility…

  14. 76 FR 10621 - Palmyra Atoll National Wildlife Refuge, U.S. Pacific Island Territory; Nonnative Rat Eradication...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-25

    ... any of the following methods. For information on viewing or obtaining the documents, see ``Public... species in their natural setting on the Atoll. The Pacific Remote Islands Marine National Monument... eliminate black rats from Palmyra Atoll. Public Availability of the DEIS The DEIS is available for viewing...

  15. Targeted Expansion Project for Outreach and Treatment for Substance Abuse and HIV Risk Behaviors in Asian and Pacific Islander Communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nemoto, Tooru; Iwamoto, Mariko; Kamitani, Emiko; Morris, Anne; Sakata, Maria

    2011-01-01

    Access to culturally competent HIV/AIDS and substance abuse treatment and prevention services is limited for Asian and Pacific Islanders (APIs). Based on the intake data for a community outreach project in the San Francisco Bay Area (N = 1,349), HIV risk behaviors were described among the targeted API risk groups. The self-reported HIV prevalence…

  16. Longitudinal Effects of Perceived Maternal Approval on Sexual Behaviors of Asian and Pacific Islander (API) Young Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hahm, Hyeouk; Lee, Jieha; Zerden, Lisa; Ozonoff, Al; Amodeo, Maryann; Adkins, Chris

    2008-01-01

    Data were obtained from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health to examine the longitudinal association between Asian and Pacific Islander (API) adolescents' perceptions of maternal approval of their sexual activity and contraception use, and four sexual outcomes during young adulthood. The study includes a nationally representative…

  17. Pacific island health inequities forecast to grow unless profound changes are made to health systems in the region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matheson, Don; Park, Kunhee; Soakai, Taniela Sunia

    2017-10-01

    Objective Twenty years ago the Pacific's health ministers developed a 'Healthy Islands' vision to lead health development in the subregion. This paper reports on a review of health development over this period and discusses the implications for the attainment of the health related Sustainable Development Goals. Methods The review used qualitative and quantitative methods. The qualitative review included conducting semi-structured interviews with Pacific Island Government Ministers and officials, regional agencies, health workers and community members. A document review was also conducted. The quantitative review consisted of examining secondary data from regional and global data collections. Results The review found improvement in health indicators, but increasing health inequality between the Pacific and the rest of the world. Many of the larger island populations were unable to reach the health Millennium Development Goals. The 'Healthy Islands' vision remained an inspiration to health ministers and senior officials in the region. However, implementation of the 'Healthy Islands' approach was patchy, under-resourced and un-sustained. Communicable and Maternal and Child Health challenges persist alongside unprecedented levels of non-communicable diseases, inadequate levels of health finance and few skilled health workers as the major impediments to health development for many of the Pacific's countries. Conclusions The current trajectory for health in the Pacific will lead to increasing health inequity with the rest of the world. The challenges to health in the region include persisting communicable disease and maternal and child health threats, unprecedented levels of NCDs, climate change and instability, as well as low economic growth. In order to change the fortunes of this region in the age of the SDGs, a substantial investment in health is required, including in the health workforce, by countries and donors alike. That investment requires a nuanced response

  18. First record and impact of the crown-of-thorns starfish, Acanthaster planci (Spinulosida: Acanthasteridae on corals of Malpelo Island, Colombian Pacific

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    Krupskaya Narváez

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available The crown-of-thorns starfish, Acanthaster planci, is a major coral predator widely distributed in the Indo-Pacific region, where population outbreaks have caused dramatic impacts on coral reefs. In the Tropical Eastern Pacific (TEP A. planci occurs at low population densities; it has been significantly abundant only in Panama and Cocos Island. We have recently found two individuals of A. planci at Malpelo Island, a small oceanic island with significant coral communities located off the Colombian Pacific coast. The recent discovery of A. planci at Malpelo is significant in light of recent reports of its increased frequency of observation at Cocos Island and occurrence at the Galapagos Islands. The individuals found at Malpelo have been repeatedly sighted since 2004, actively feeding on nine species of coral. Although densities of A. planci are low at Malpelo and other oceanic islands of the TEP, these islands may act as stepping stones for the colonization of other coral reef areas in the region. However, the low densities of A. planci suggest that it currently poses no threat to coral reefs in the TEP. Rev. Biol. Trop. 58 (Suppl. 1: 139-143. Epub 2010 May 01.La estrella de mar corona de espinas Acanthaster planci, es un importante depredador de coral ampliamente distribuido en la región del Indo-Pacifico, donde explosiones poblacionales han causado dramáticos impactos sobre los arrecifes coralinos. En el Pacifico Oriental Tropical (POT A. planci ocurre con densidades poblacionales bajas; solamente en Panamá e Isla de Cocos su abundancia ha sido significativa. Nosotros encontramos recientemente al menos dos individuos de A. planci en la Isla de Malpelo, una pequeña isla oceánica con comunidades coralinas importantes localizada en el Pacífico Colombiano. El hallazgo de A. planci en Malpelo es significativo a la luz de reportes recientes de un incremento en su frecuencia de observación en Isla de Cocos y su registro en Galápagos. Los

  19. Developing an Internet- and Mobile-Based System to Measure Cigarette Use Among Pacific Islanders: An Ecological Momentary Assessment Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pike, James Russell; Xie, Bin; Tan, Nasya; Sabado-Liwag, Melanie Dee; Orne, Annette; Toilolo, Tupou; Cen, Steven; May, Vanessa; Lee, Cevadne; Pang, Victor Kaiwi; Rainer, Michelle A; Vaivao, Dorothy Etimani S; Lepule, Jonathan Tana; Tanjasiri, Sora Park; Palmer, Paula Healani

    2016-01-07

    Recent prevalence data indicates that Pacific Islanders living in the United States have disproportionately high smoking rates when compared to the general populace. However, little is known about the factors contributing to tobacco use in this at-risk population. Moreover, few studies have attempted to determine these factors utilizing technology-based assessment techniques. The objective was to develop a customized Internet-based Ecological Momentary Assessment (EMA) system capable of measuring cigarette use among Pacific Islanders in Southern California. This system integrated the ubiquity of text messaging, the ease of use associated with mobile phone apps, the enhanced functionality offered by Internet-based Cell phone-optimized Assessment Techniques (ICAT), and the high survey completion rates exhibited by EMA studies that used electronic diaries. These features were tested in a feasibility study designed to assess whether Pacific Islanders would respond to this method of measurement and whether the data gathered would lead to novel insights regarding the intrapersonal, social, and ecological factors associated with cigarette use. 20 young adult smokers in Southern California who self-identified as Pacific Islanders were recruited by 5 community-based organizations to take part in a 7-day EMA study. Participants selected six consecutive two-hour time blocks per day during which they would be willing to receive a text message linking them to an online survey formatted for Web-enabled mobile phones. Both automated reminders and community coaches were used to facilitate survey completion. 720 surveys were completed from 840 survey time blocks, representing a completion rate of 86%. After adjusting for gender, age, and nicotine dependence, feeling happy (P=technology-based assessments of tobacco use among Pacific Islanders. Such systems can foster high levels of survey completion and may lead to novel insights for future research and interventions.

  20. The Transcultural Wellness Center: rehabilitation and recovery in Asian and Pacific Islander mental health care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cameron, Rebecca P; Ton, Hendry; Yang, Cynthia; Endriga, Marya C; Lan, Mei-Fang; Koike, Alan K

    2008-01-01

    Asian and Pacific Islander Americans (APIAs) are a diverse group, representing many cultures of origin, a range of immigration experiences, and varying access to economic and other resources. Despite stereotypes such as the "model minority" and cultural values that stigmatize mental illness and complicate mental health help-seeking, APIAs' psychiatric rehabilitation and recovery needs are significant. These needs are inadequately treated within existing systems of care. Passage of California's Mental Health Services Act (MHSA) in 2004 created the opportunity for Sacramento County to fund a full-service mental health clinic designed to meet the needs of the APIA community. The process by which this clinic, the Transcultural Wellness Center, was conceptualized, advocated for, and launched is described. This clinic is considered a best practice model within the MHSA system redesign effort.

  1. Fiscal and monetary policies in the South Pacific Island countries: an evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayaraman, T K

    2000-06-01

    This paper evaluates the fiscal and monetary policies of South Pacific Island Countries (SPICs) in terms of its efficacy on economic growth. To this effect, the backgrounds on the existing fiscal and monetary policies are discussed with emphasis on their inefficiencies and limitations. In addition, the findings of an empirical study conducted in the countries of Fiji, Tonga, Vanatau, and Samoa regarding the efficacy of the policies are presented. The results, which were subjected to various tests of statistical significance, indicate that both policies were ineffective in all four SPICs. However, monetary policy had a positive impact on growth in Fiji, Tonga, and Vanatau. In view of such, several policy implications are cited, including 1) that delays and inefficiencies involved in the execution of public projects should be minimized; 2) quality and components of public expenditures is of critical significance; and 3) financial sectors should be improved.

  2. Doctor William Gunn (1804-1890): From the South Pacific Islands to Chatham Royal Dockyard.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biddle, Richard

    2016-11-24

    Doctor William Gunn had a long and varied career in the Royal Navy. After spending time on anti-slavery patrols along the west coast of Africa, he was posted to the south Pacific. At Pitcairn Island, he treated the inhabitants during an influenza epidemic, proving himself to be a determined and dedicated practitioner. Subsequently, he was appointed head of the medical department at Chatham Royal Dockyard (1859-1865), an appointment that coincided with the final stages of the Royal Navy's transition from sail and wood to steam and iron. The impact of these changes on the health of dockworkers was quickly felt at Chatham, and Gunn found himself in charge during the building of the first iron warship in a royal dockyard. His story thus offers a window through which to observe a practitioner confronting the health issues and medical uncertainties thrown up by technological change in the Victorian era. © The Author(s) 2016.

  3. Parasites as valuable stock markers for fisheries in Australasia, East Asia and the Pacific Islands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lester, R J G; Moore, B R

    2015-01-01

    Over 30 studies in Australasia, East Asia and the Pacific Islands region have collected and analysed parasite data to determine the ranges of individual fish, many leading to conclusions about stock delineation. Parasites used as biological tags have included both those known to have long residence times in the fish and those thought to be relatively transient. In many cases the parasitological conclusions have been supported by other methods especially analysis of the chemical constituents of otoliths, and to a lesser extent, genetic data. In analysing parasite data, authors have applied multiple different statistical methodologies, including summary statistics, and univariate and multivariate approaches. Recently, a growing number of researchers have found non-parametric methods, such as analysis of similarities and cluster analysis, to be valuable. Future studies into the residence times, life cycles and geographical distributions of parasites together with more robust analytical methods will yield much important information to clarify stock structures in the area.

  4. The mis-measurement of extreme global poverty: A case study in the Pacific Islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gubhaju, Bina

    2015-01-01

    Debate over the measurement of global poverty in low- and middle-income countries continues unabated. There is considerable controversy surrounding the ‘dollar a day’ measure used to monitor progress against the Millennium Development Goals. This article shines fresh light on the debate with new empirical analyses of poverty (including child poverty), inequality and deprivation levels in the Pacific island state of Vanuatu. The study focuses not only on economic and monetary metrics and measures, but also the measures of deprivation derived from sociology in relation to shelter, sanitation, water, information, nutrition, health and education. Until recently, there had been few, if any, attempts to study poverty and deprivation disparities among children in this part of the world. Different measures yield strikingly different estimates of poverty. The article, therefore, attempts to situate the study findings in the broader international context of poverty measurement and discusses their implications for future research and the post-2015 development agenda. PMID:26336359

  5. Cohort profile: Pacific Islands Families (PIF) growth study, Auckland, New Zealand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rush, E; Oliver, M; Plank, L D; Taylor, S; Iusitini, L; Jalili-Moghaddam, S; Savila, F; Paterson, J; Tautolo, E

    2016-11-02

    This article profiles a birth cohort of Pacific children participating in an observational prospective study and describes the study protocol used at ages 14-15 years to investigate how food and activity patterns, metabolic risk and family and built environment are related to rates of physical growth of Pacific children. From 2000 to 2015, the Pacific Islands Families Study has followed, from birth, the growth and development of over 1000 Pacific children born in Auckland, New Zealand. In 2014, 931 (66%) of the original cohort had field measures of body composition, blood pressure and glycated haemoglobin. A nested subsample (n=204) was drawn by randomly selecting 10 males and 10 females from each decile of body weight. These participants had measurement of body composition by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, food frequency, 6 min walk test and accelerometer-determined physical activity and sedentary behaviours, and blood biomarkers for metabolic disease such as diabetes. Built environment variables were generated from individual addresses. Compared to the Centres for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) reference population with mean SD scores (SDS) of 0, this cohort of 931 14-year-olds was taller, weighed more and had a higher body mass index (BMI) (mean SDS height >0.6, weight >1.6 and BMI >1.4). 7 of 10 youth were overweight or obese. The nested-sampling frame achieved an even distribution by body weight. Cross-sectional relationships between body size, fatness and growth rate, food patterns, activity patterns, pubertal development, risks for diabetes and hypertension and the family and wider environment will be examined. In addition, analyses will investigate relationships with data collected earlier in the life course and measures of the cohort in the future. Understanding past and present influences on child growth and health will inform timely interventions to optimise future health and reduce inequalities for Pacific people. Published by the BMJ

  6. Value, market preferences and trade of Beche-de-mer from Pacific Island sea cucumbers.

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    Steven W Purcell

    Full Text Available Market preferences of natural resources contribute to shape their exploitation and production. Beche-de-mer, the product after gutting, cooking, salting and drying sea cucumbers, is exported worldwide to Asian dried seafood markets. A better understanding of the trade, value and market preferences of Pacific island beche-de-mer could identify critical postharvest processing techniques and management strategies for fisheries and aquaculture. Data were collected on export prices and trade of beche-de-mer from Kiribati, Fiji, Tonga and New Caledonia, and the selling prices, respective sizes and organoleptic properties of the products in stores in China. Export prices varied considerably within and among the four countries and low-value species were the most exported by volume. Most of the beche-de-mer from the four Pacific islands is exported to Hong Kong, where quality products are sold and others are distributed to mainland China. Prices of the beche-de-mer in Chinese stores varied up to ten-fold and were mostly influenced by species, body size and, to a lesser extent, physical damage to the products. Market prices across species (averaging US$15-385 kg-1 appear to have mostly increased six- to twelve-fold over the past decade. The data allude that fisheries for Holothuria scabra, H. lessoni, H. fuscogilva, H. whitmaei and Thelenota ananas should be most carefully managed because they were the highest-value species and under greatest demand. The relationships between size of beche-de-mer and sale price were species specific and highly varied. This study also highlights the need for better regulations and/or enforcement of minimum size limits in sea cucumber fisheries, which can help to maximise economic benefits of wild stocks.

  7. Acoustic occurrence detection of a newly recorded Indo-Pacific humpback dolphin population in waters southwest of Hainan Island, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Lijun; Liu, Mingming; Dong, Jianchen; Li, Songhai

    2017-11-01

    In 2014, Indo-Pacific humpback dolphins were recorded for the first time in waters southwest of Hainan Island, China. In this paper, the temporal occurrence of Indo-Pacific humpback dolphins in this region was detected by stationary passive acoustic monitoring. During the 130-day observation period (from January to July 2016), 1969 click trains produced by Indo-Pacific humpback dolphins were identified, and 262 ten-minute recording bins contained echolocation click trains of dolphins, of which 70.9% were at night and 29.1% were during the day. A diurnal rhythm with a nighttime peak in acoustic detections was found. Passive acoustic detections indicated that the Indo-Pacific humpback dolphins frequently occurred in this area and were detected mainly at night. This information may be relevant to conservation efforts for these dolphins in the near future.

  8. Biology and impacts of Pacific island invasive species. 2. Boiga irregularis, the Brown Tree Snake (Reptilia: Colubridae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodda, Gordon H.; Savidge, Julie A.

    2007-01-01

    The Brown Tree Snake, Boiga irregularis (Merrem, 1802), was accidentally transported to the island of Guam shortly after World War II. Over the following two decades it spread throughout the island with little public or professional recognition of its extent or impacts. This secretive nocturnal arboreal snake occurs in all habitats on Guam, from grasslands to forests. Under the right conditions, it is capable of high rates of reproduction and population growth. The Brown Tree Snake caused the extirpation of 13 of Guam's 22 native breeding birds and contributed to the extirpation of several species of native bats and lizards. Guam's 12 forest birds were especially impacted, with 10 species eliminated and the other two severely reduced. In addition, the snake continues to substantially impact domestic poultry, pets, the island's electrical power infrastructure, and human health. To protect other vulnerable Pacific islands, the U.S. government annually spends several million dollars inspecting cargo outbound from Guam to exclude Brown Tree Snakes. Cargo destinations most at risk are in Micronesia, especially the Northern Mariana Islands, but Guam also has direct air transportation links to Hawai'i that will soon be supplemented with direct ship traffic. Ultimately, all Pacific islands are at risk but especially those obtaining cargo through Guam. ?? 2007 by University of Hawai'i Press. All rights reserved.

  9. The Pacific Rat Race to Easter Island: Tracking the Prehistoric Dispersal of Rattus exulans Using Ancient Mitochondrial Genomes

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    Katrina West

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The location of the immediate eastern Polynesian origin for the settlement of Easter Island (Rapa Nui, remains unclear with conflicting archeological and linguistic evidence. Previous genetic commensal research using the Pacific rat, Rattus exulans; a species transported by humans across Remote Oceania and throughout the Polynesian Triangle, has identified broad interaction spheres across the region. However, there has been limited success in distinguishing finer-scale movements between Remote Oceanic islands as the same mitochondrial control region haplotype has been identified in the majority of ancient rat specimens. To improve molecular resolution and identify a pattern of prehistoric dispersal to Easter Island, we sequenced complete mitochondrial genomes from ancient Pacific rat specimens obtained from early archeological contexts across West and East Polynesia. Ancient Polynesian rat haplotypes are closely related and reflect the widely supported scenario of a central East Polynesian homeland region from which eastern expansion occurred. An Easter Island and Tubuai (Austral Islands grouping of related haplotypes suggests that both islands were established by the same colonization wave, proposed to have originated in the central homeland region before dispersing through the south-eastern corridor of East Polynesia.

  10. Sugar-sweetened beverages in Pacific Island countries and territories: problems and solutions?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snowdon, W

    2014-03-01

    Non-communicable diseases are a major problem in the Pacific Islands, with poor diets an important contributing factor. Available data suggests high levels of intake of sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs) across the region, and particularly in adolescents. Due to concerns about the risks to health of high intakes, efforts have been made across the region to reduce the intake of SSBs. French Polynesia, Nauru, Cook Islands, Tonga and Fiji have implemented sales or excise taxes on SSBs to increase the price to the consumer. Many countries in the region have adopted school food policies which intend to limit or ban access to SSBs in schools. Guam also adopted legislation to ensure that healthier foods and beverages were available in all vending machines in schools. Efforts to control advertising and sponsorship of SSBs have been limited to-date in the region, although some school food policies do restrict advertising and sponsorship in schools, school grounds and school vehicles. Efforts around education and awareness raising have shown mixed success in terms of changing behaviour. Greater attention is needed to evaluate the impact of these measures to ensure that actions are effective, and to increase the evidence regionally of the most effective approaches to tackle SSBs.

  11. Seismic hazard of American Samoa and neighboring South Pacific Islands--methods, data, parameters, and results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petersen, Mark D.; Harmsen, Stephen C.; Rukstales, Kenneth S.; Mueller, Charles S.; McNamara, Daniel E.; Luco, Nicolas; Walling, Melanie

    2012-01-01

    American Samoa and the neighboring islands of the South Pacific lie near active tectonic-plate boundaries that host many large earthquakes which can result in strong earthquake shaking and tsunamis. To mitigate earthquake risks from future ground shaking, the Federal Emergency Management Agency requested that the U.S. Geological Survey prepare seismic hazard maps that can be applied in building-design criteria. This Open-File Report describes the data, methods, and parameters used to calculate the seismic shaking hazard as well as the output hazard maps, curves, and deaggregation (disaggregation) information needed for building design. Spectral acceleration hazard for 1 Hertz having a 2-percent probability of exceedance on a firm rock site condition (Vs30=760 meters per second) is 0.12 acceleration of gravity (1 second, 1 Hertz) and 0.32 acceleration of gravity (0.2 seconds, 5 Hertz) on American Samoa, 0.72 acceleration of gravity (1 Hertz) and 2.54 acceleration of gravity (5 Hertz) on Tonga, 0.15 acceleration of gravity (1 Hertz) and 0.55 acceleration of gravity (5 Hertz) on Fiji, and 0.89 acceleration of gravity (1 Hertz) and 2.77 acceleration of gravity (5 Hertz) on the Vanuatu Islands.

  12. Characteristics of a dengue outbreak in a remote pacific island chain--Republic of The Marshall Islands, 2011-2012.

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    Tyler M Sharp

    Full Text Available Dengue is a potentially fatal acute febrile illness caused by four mosquito-transmitted dengue viruses (DENV-1-4. Although dengue outbreaks regularly occur in many regions of the Pacific, little is known about dengue in the Republic of the Marshall Islands (RMI. To better understand dengue in RMI, we investigated an explosive outbreak that began in October 2011. Suspected cases were reported to the Ministry of Health, serum specimens were tested with a dengue rapid diagnostic test (RDT, and confirmatory testing was performed using RT-PCR and IgM ELISA. Laboratory-positive cases were defined by detection of DENV nonstructural protein 1 by RDT, DENV nucleic acid by RT-PCR, or anti-DENV IgM antibody by RDT or ELISA. Secondary infection was defined by detection of anti-DENV IgG antibody by ELISA in a laboratory-positive acute specimen. During the four months of the outbreak, 1,603 suspected dengue cases (3% of the RMI population were reported. Of 867 (54% laboratory-positive cases, 209 (24% had dengue with warning signs, six (0.7% had severe dengue, and none died. Dengue incidence was highest in residents of Majuro and individuals aged 10-29 years, and ∼95% of dengue cases were experiencing secondary infection. Only DENV-4 was detected by RT-PCR, which phylogenetic analysis demonstrated was most closely related to a virus previously identified in Southeast Asia. Cases of vertical DENV transmission, and DENV/Salmonella Typhi and DENV/Mycobacterium leprae co-infection were identified. Entomological surveys implicated water storage containers and discarded tires as the most important development sites for Aedes aegypti and Ae. albopictus, respectively. Although this is the first documented dengue outbreak in RMI, the age groups of cases and high prevalence of secondary infection demonstrate prior DENV circulation. Dengue surveillance should continue to be strengthened in RMI and throughout the Pacific to identify and rapidly respond to future

  13. Characteristics of a Dengue Outbreak in a Remote Pacific Island Chain – Republic of the Marshall Islands, 2011–2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharp, Tyler M.; Mackay, Andrew J.; Santiago, Gilberto A.; Hunsperger, Elizabeth; Nilles, Eric J.; Perez-Padilla, Janice; Tikomaidraubuta, Kinisalote S.; Colon, Candimar; Amador, Manuel; Chen, Tai-Ho; Lalita, Paul; Muñoz-Jordán, Jorge L.; Barrera, Roberto; Langidrik, Justina; Tomashek, Kay M.

    2014-01-01

    Dengue is a potentially fatal acute febrile illness caused by four mosquito-transmitted dengue viruses (DENV-1–4). Although dengue outbreaks regularly occur in many regions of the Pacific, little is known about dengue in the Republic of the Marshall Islands (RMI). To better understand dengue in RMI, we investigated an explosive outbreak that began in October 2011. Suspected cases were reported to the Ministry of Health, serum specimens were tested with a dengue rapid diagnostic test (RDT), and confirmatory testing was performed using RT-PCR and IgM ELISA. Laboratory-positive cases were defined by detection of DENV nonstructural protein 1 by RDT, DENV nucleic acid by RT-PCR, or anti-DENV IgM antibody by RDT or ELISA. Secondary infection was defined by detection of anti-DENV IgG antibody by ELISA in a laboratory-positive acute specimen. During the four months of the outbreak, 1,603 suspected dengue cases (3% of the RMI population) were reported. Of 867 (54%) laboratory-positive cases, 209 (24%) had dengue with warning signs, six (0.7%) had severe dengue, and none died. Dengue incidence was highest in residents of Majuro and individuals aged 10–29 years, and ∼95% of dengue cases were experiencing secondary infection. Only DENV-4 was detected by RT-PCR, which phylogenetic analysis demonstrated was most closely related to a virus previously identified in Southeast Asia. Cases of vertical DENV transmission, and DENV/Salmonella Typhi and DENV/Mycobacterium leprae co-infection were identified. Entomological surveys implicated water storage containers and discarded tires as the most important development sites for Aedes aegypti and Ae. albopictus, respectively. Although this is the first documented dengue outbreak in RMI, the age groups of cases and high prevalence of secondary infection demonstrate prior DENV circulation. Dengue surveillance should continue to be strengthened in RMI and throughout the Pacific to identify and rapidly respond to future outbreaks. PMID

  14. Marine biodiversity of an Eastern Tropical Pacific oceanic island, Isla del Coco, Costa Rica

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    Jorge Cortés

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Isla del Coco (also known as Cocos Island is an oceanic island in the Eastern Tropical Pacific; it is part of the largest national park of Costa Rica and a UNESCO World Heritage Site. The island has been visited since the 16th Century due to its abundance of freshwater and wood. Marine biodiversity studies of the island started in the late 19th Century, with an intense period of research in the 1930’s, and again from the mid 1990’s to the present. The information is scattered and, in some cases, in old publications that are difficult to access. Here I have compiled published records of the marine organisms of the island. At least 1688 species are recorded, with the gastropods (383 species, bony fishes (354 spp. and crustaceans (at least 263 spp. being the most species-rich groups; 45 species are endemic to Isla del Coco National Park (2.7% of the total. The number of species per kilometer of coastline and by square kilometer of seabed shallower than 200m deep are the highest recorded in the Eastern Tropical Pacific. Although the marine biodiversity of Isla del Coco is relatively well known, there are regions that need more exploration, for example, the south side, the pelagic environments, and deeper waters. Also, several groups of organisms, such as the flatworms, nematodes, nemerteans, and gelatinous zooplankton, have been observed around the Island but have been poorly studied or not at all.La Isla del Coco es una isla oceánica en el Pacífico Tropical Oriental; es parte del Parque Nacional más grande de Costa Rica y es un sitio de Patrimonio Mundial. La isla ha sido visitada desde el Siglo XVI por su abundancia de agua dulce y árboles. Estudios de biodiversidad marina de la isla empezaron a finales del Siglo XIX, con un intenso período de investigación en la década de 1930, y de nuevo desde mediados de la década de 1990 al presente. La información sobre organismos marinos se encuentra dispersa y en algunos casos en publicaciones

  15. Diseases of livestock in the Pacific Islands region: setting priorities for food animal biosecurity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brioudes, Aurélie; Warner, Jeffrey; Hedlefs, Robert; Gummow, Bruce

    2015-03-01

    Most Pacific Island countries and territories (PICTs) have developing economies and face a critical shortage of veterinarians with limited financial resources allocated to their animal disease surveillance programmes. Thus, animal health authorities have to set priorities for better focusing their scarce resources. The main objective of this study was to identify animal diseases perceived to be of importance by decision makers within selected PICTs, at the regional and national levels, to ensure better targeting of animal health resources. A second objective was to investigate whether the targeted surveillance programmes resulting from this rationalized approach would also benefit the local communities engaged in livestock production. A multi-criteria prioritization process was developed, involving local experts, to score and rank 132 animal diseases based on their priority at the regional and national levels for four PICTs: Fiji, Papua New Guinea, Solomon Islands, and Vanuatu, which form part of a regional Food Animal Biosecurity Network. In parallel interviews with farmers and field animal health and production workers were conducted to assess their perception of animal diseases. The list of the top-twenty ranked diseases for the Pacific Islands region shows a mix of endemic zoonotic diseases (such as leptospirosis ranked first; brucellosis third; tuberculosis sixth; and endoparasites and ectoparasites, respectively eleventh and thirteenth) with exotic diseases (such as HPAI ranked second, FMD fifth, and rabies ninth). There were different disease ranking lists for each of the four targeted PICTs, confirming different strategies of disease prevention and control may be required for each country, rather than a regional approach. Interviewed animal health and production workers were unfamiliar with most of the prioritized diseases and a majority acknowledged that they would not be able to recognize clinical signs if outbreaks were to occur in their area

  16. Future wave and wind projections for United States and United-States-affiliated Pacific Islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Storlazzi, Curt D.; Shope, James B.; Erikson, Li H.; Hegermiller, Christine A.; Barnard, Patrick L.

    2015-01-01

    Changes in future wave climates in the tropical Pacific Ocean from global climate change are not well understood. Spatially and temporally varying waves dominate coastal morphology and ecosystem structure of the islands throughout the tropical Pacific. Waves also impact coastal infrastructure, natural and cultural resources, and coastal-related economic activities of the islands. Wave heights, periods, and directions were forecast through the year 2100 using wind parameter outputs from four atmosphere-ocean global climate models from the Coupled Model Inter-Comparison Project, Phase 5, for Representative Concentration Pathways (RCP) scenarios 4.5 and 8.5 that correspond to moderately mitigated and unmitigated greenhouse gas emissions, respectively. Wind fields from the global climate models were used to drive a global WAVEWATCH-III wave model and generate hourly time-series of bulk wave parameters for 25 islands in the mid to western tropical Pacific for the years 1976–2005 (historical), 2026–2045 (mid-century projection), and 2085–2100 (end-of-century projection). Although the results show some spatial heterogeneity, overall the December-February extreme significant wave heights, defined as the mean of the top 5 percent of significant wave height time-series data modeled within a specific period, increase from present to mid-century and then decrease toward the end of the century; June-August extreme wave heights increase throughout the century within the Central region of the study area; and September-November wave heights decrease strongly throughout the 21st century, displaying the largest and most widespread decreases of any season. Peak wave periods increase east of the International Date Line during the December-February and June-August seasons under RCP4.5. Under the RCP8.5 scenario, wave periods decrease west of the International Date Line during December-February but increase in the eastern half of the study area. Otherwise, wave periods decrease

  17. Distribution and abundance of small plastic debris on beaches in the SE Pacific (Chile): a study supported by a citizen science project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hidalgo-Ruz, Valeria; Thiel, Martin

    2013-01-01

    The accumulation of large and small plastic debris is a problem throughout the world's oceans and coastlines. Abundances and types of small plastic debris have only been reported for some isolated beaches in the SE Pacific, but these data are insufficient to evaluate the situation in this region. The citizen science project "National Sampling of Small Plastic Debris" was supported by schoolchildren from all over Chile who documented the distribution and abundance of small plastic debris on Chilean beaches. Thirty-nine schools and nearly 1000 students from continental Chile and Easter Island participated in the activity. To validate the data obtained by the students, all samples were recounted in the laboratory. The results of the present study showed that the students were able to follow the instructions and generate reliable data. The average abundance obtained was 27 small plastic pieces per m(2) for the continental coast of Chile, but the samples from Easter Island had extraordinarily higher abundances (>800 items per m(2)). The abundance of small plastic debris on the continental coast could be associated with coastal urban centers and their economic activities. The high abundance found on Easter Island can be explained mainly by the transport of plastic debris via the surface currents in the South Pacific Subtropical Gyre, resulting in the accumulation of small plastic debris on the beaches of the island. This first report of the widespread distribution and abundance of small plastic debris on Chilean beaches underscores the need to extend plastic debris research to ecological aspects of the problem and to improve waste management. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Possibilities and Expectations for mHealth in the Pacific Islands: Insights From Key Informants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umali, Elaine; McCool, Judith; Whittaker, Robyn

    2016-01-20

    The increase in mobile phone use across the globe is creating mounting interest for its application in addressing health system constraints. Although still limited, there is growing evidence of success in using mobile phones for health (mHealth) in low- and middle- income countries. The promise of mHealth to address key health system issues presents a huge potential for the Pacific Island countries where mobile use has radically increased. Current projections indicate an improved information and communications technology (ICT) environment to support greater access to mobile and digital devices in the Pacific region. The objective of the study was to explore key stakeholder perspectives on the potential for mHealth in the Pacific region. A series of in-depth interviews were conducted either face-to-face, via Skype or by email, with a series of key informants from the Pacific Rim region. Interviews were audio-recorded and later transcribed for detailed thematic analysis. We found widespread support for the potential to use mobile phones as a mechanism to facilitate improved health service delivery in the region. Essential elements for the successful development and implementation of mHealth were identified by these stakeholders. These included: developing an understanding of the local context and the problems that may be usefully addressed by the addition of mHealth to existing strategies and services; consideration of local infrastructure, capability, policy, mobile literacy and engagement; learning from others, particularly other low- and middle-income countries (LMICs); the importance of building supportive environments and of evaluation to provide evidence of impact and total cost. The rapid growth of mobile phone use in the region presents a unique juxtaposition of opportunity and promise. Though the region lags behind other LMICs in the adoption of mHealth technologies, this offers the convenience of learning from past mHealth interventions and applying these

  19. Shallow CTD profiles collected from NOAA Ship Hi'ialakai, NOAA Ship Townsend Cromwell and NOAA Ship Oscar Elton Sette, near tropical pacific islands, atolls and shoals of the NE Pacific from 2000 to 2010 (NODC Accession 0039382)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Coral Reef Ecosystem Division of the Pacific Islands Fisheries Science Center, part of the National Marine Fisheries Service, National Oceanic and Atmospheric...

  20. Dive tourism, communities and small islands: lessons from Malaysia and Indonesia

    OpenAIRE

    Hampton, Mark P.; Jeyacheya, Julia

    2014-01-01

    Coastal tourism is growing rapidly across South-East Asia, especially in small islands. Islands and coastal areas face significant issues of how to manage the rapid growth of tourism whilst retaining economic benefits for the local host community. First, the paper sets the context and charts the scale and significance of international dive tourism, especially in less developed countries. The paper draws upon extensive fieldwork in small island destinations in Malaysia and Indonesia and explor...

  1. Distribution of macroinvertebrates on intertidal rocky shores in Gorgona Island, Colombia (Tropical Eastern Pacific

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edgardo Londoño-Cruz

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Organisms found on rocky shores must endure harsh environmental conditions during tidal changes but scientific studies on tropical rocky shores are scarce, particularly in Colombian shores. Here we describe the spatial distribution of macroinvertebrates associated to the intertidal rocky ecosystems of Gorgona Island, Colombia (Tropical Eastern Pacific. Sampling was carried out in four localities around the Island: La Ventana and La Camaronera (sampled during October 2010 and La Mancora and El Muelle (sampled during March 2011. Two methodologies were used: rapid ecological assessments for qualitative data and quadrats for quantitative data. The richness, abundance, diversity (Shannon-Wiener H’, and evenness (Pielou J’ of macroinvertebrates were determined for and compared between, using one way ANOVA, each locality and the three intertidal zones of La Ventana (see methods. One hundred twenty-one species of macroinvertebrates were found during the sampling period. In all localities, Mollusca was the richest and most abundant taxon (46% of the species and 59% of the individuals, followed by Crustacea (32% of the species and 33% of the individuals. The other groups accounted for the remaining 22% of the richness and 8% of the abundance. Several studies have demonstrated that mollusks and crustaceans are the richest and most abundant taxa in marine benthic communities. Most of the abundant species found were herbivores. The species composition varied among zones. The results of dominant species for each zone are consistent with the ones observed in other tropical rocky intertidal shores. All response variables showed a decreasing pattern from the low to the high intertidal (in La Ventana. Post-hoc results indicated that the high intertidal, the zone with the harshest environmental conditions, had significantly lower values than the other two zones for all response variables. Comparisons between the low intertidal zones of the different localities

  2. NOAA/NMFS/CRED Deep CTD profiles from 15 cruises near islands, atolls and shoals in the central tropical Pacific 1999-2012 (NODC Accession 0115299)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Coral Reef Ecosystem Division of the Pacific Islands Fisheries Science Center, part of the National Marine Fisheries Service, National Oceanic and Atmospheric...

  3. National Coral Reef Monitoring Program: Stratified Random Surveys (StRS) of Coral Demography (Adult and Juvenile Corals) across the Pacific Remote Island Areas since 2014

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The data described here result from benthic coral demographic surveys for two life stages (juveniles, adults) across the Pacific Remote Island Areas since 2014....

  4. CRED Subsurface Temperature Recorder (STR); Jarvis Island, Pacific Remote Island Areas; Long: -159.99118, Lat: -00.36291 (WGS84); Sensor Depth: 29.30m; Data Date Range: 20100404-20120504.

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Data from Coral Reef Ecosystem Division (CRED), NOAA Pacific Islands Fisheries Science Center (PIFSC) Subsurface Temperature Recorders (STR) provide a time series of...

  5. CRED Subsurface Temperature Recorder (STR); Jarvis Island, Pacific Remote Island Areas; Long: -159.97227, Lat: -00.37505 (WGS84); Sensor Depth: 33.20m; Data Date Range: 20100403-20120505.

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Data from Coral Reef Ecosystem Division (CRED), NOAA Pacific Islands Fisheries Science Center (PIFSC) Subsurface Temperature Recorders (STR) provide a time series of...

  6. CRED Subsurface Temperature Recorder (STR); Baker Island, Pacific Remote Island Areas; Long: -176.47476, Lat: 00.18783 (WGS84); Sensor Depth: 5.50m; Data Date Range: 20100207-20120316.

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Data from Coral Reef Ecosystem Division (CRED), NOAA Pacific Islands Fisheries Science Center (PIFSC) Subsurface Temperature Recorders (STR) provide a time series of...

  7. CRED Subsurface Temperature Recorder (STR); Jarvis Island, Pacific Remote Island Areas; Long: -159.99663, Lat: -00.38187 (WGS84); Sensor Depth: 10.10m; Data Date Range: 20100403-20120503.

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Data from Coral Reef Ecosystem Division (CRED), NOAA Pacific Islands Fisheries Science Center (PIFSC) Subsurface Temperature Recorders (STR) provide a time series of...

  8. CRED Temperature and Conductivity Recorders (SBE37); Jarvis Island, Pacific Remote Island Areas; Long: -160.00816, Lat: -00.36887 (WGS84); Sensor Depth: 18.60m; Data Date Range: 20100405-20100708.

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Data from Coral Reef Ecosystem Division (CRED), NOAA Pacific Islands Fisheries Science Center (PIFSC) conductivity and temperature recorders provide a time series of...

  9. CRED Subsurface Temperature Recorder (STR); Howland Island, Pacific Remote Island Areas; Long: -176.62134, Lat: 00.80661 (WGS84); Sensor Depth: 4.30m; Data Date Range: 20100203-20120312.

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Data from Coral Reef Ecosystem Division (CRED), NOAA Pacific Islands Fisheries Science Center (PIFSC) Subsurface Temperature Recorders (STR) provide a time series of...

  10. Environmental Impact of Tourism and Air Transport on the Sustainable Development of Small Island Developing States

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-01-01

    The United Nations General Assembly recognized that many small island developing countries were confronted with compelling factors such as their smallness in size, susceptibility and vulnerability to natural disasters, remoteness of access and geogra...

  11. An innovative community organizing campaign to improve mental health and wellbeing among Pacific Island youth in South Auckland, New Zealand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Hahrie; Nicholas, Alexandra; Aimer, Margaret; Gray, Jonathon

    2015-12-01

    To examine whether being an organizer in a community organizing program improves personal agency and self-reported mental health outcomes among low-income Pacific Island youth in Auckland, New Zealand. Counties Manukau Health initiated a community organizing campaign led and run by Pacific Island youth. We used interviews, focus groups and pre- and post-campaign surveys to examine changes among 30 youths as a result of the campaign. Ten youths completed both pre- and post-campaign surveys. Eleven youths participated in focus groups, and four in interviews. Overall, youths reported an increased sense of agency and improvements to their mental health. Community organizing has potential as a preventive approach to improving mental health and developing agency over health among disempowered populations. © The Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Psychiatrists 2015.

  12. Prevalence of Hepatitis B Surface Antigen in US-Born and Foreign-Born Asian/Pacific Islander College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quang, Yen N.; Vu, Joanne; Yuk, Jihey; Li, Chin-Shang; Chen, Moon; Bowlus, Christopher L.

    2010-01-01

    The prevalence of chronic hepatitis B (HBV) among college-age US-born Asian and Pacific Islanders (A/PI) is not well known. Objectives: To compare the prevalence of hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) seropositivity in US-born to A/PI-born students at a public university. Participants: Undergraduate who self-identified themselves as A/PI. Results:…

  13. Prevalence of health-risk behaviors among Asian American and Pacific Islander high school students in the U.S., 2001-2007.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowry, Richard; Eaton, Danice K; Brener, Nancy D; Kann, Laura

    2011-01-01

    We provided national prevalence estimates for selected health-risk behaviors for Asian American and Pacific Islander high school students separately, and compared those prevalence estimates with those of white, black, and Hispanic students. We analyzed data from the Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance System. To generate a sufficient sample of Asian American and Pacific Islander students, we combined data from four nationally representative surveys of U.S. high school students conducted in 2001, 2003, 2005, and 2007 (total n = 56,773). Asian American students were significantly less likely than Pacific Islander, white, black, or Hispanic students to have drunk alcohol or used marijuana. Asian American students also were the least likely to have carried a weapon, to have been in a physical fight, to have ever had sexual intercourse, or to be currently sexually active. Once sexually active, Asian American students were as likely as most other racial/ethnic groups to have used alcohol or drugs at last sexual intercourse or to have used a condom at last sexual intercourse. Pacific Islander students were significantly more likely than Asian American, white, black, or Hispanic students to have seriously considered or attempted suicide. The prevalence estimates of health-risk behaviors exhibited by Asian American students and Pacific Islander students are very different and should be reported separately whenever feasible. To address the different health-risk behaviors exhibited by Asian American and Pacific Islander students, prevention programs should use culturally sensitive strategies and materials.

  14. Current status of solid waste management in small island developing states: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohee, Romeela; Mauthoor, Sumayya; Bundhoo, Zumar M A; Somaroo, Geeta; Soobhany, Nuhaa; Gunasee, Sanjana

    2015-09-01

    This article reviews the current status of waste management in Small Island Developing States (SIDS) and the challenges that are faced in solid waste management. The waste generation rates of SIDS were compared within the three geographic regions namely Caribbean SIDS, Pacific SIDS and Atlantic, Indian Ocean, Mediterranean and South China (AIMS) SIDS and with countries of the Organisation for Economic Co-Operation and Development (OECD). Only Pacific SIDS had a waste generation rate less than 1kg/capita/day. The waste generation rates for the three SIDS regions averaged 1.29kg/capita/day while that for OECD countries was at a mean value of 1.35kg/capita/day. The waste compositions in the different SIDS regions were almost similar owing to comparable consumption patterns while these differed to a large extent with wastes generated in OECD countries. In SIDS, the major fraction of MSW comprised of organics (44%) followed by recyclables namely paper, plastics, glass and metals (total: 43%). In contrast, MSW in OECD countries consisted mainly of recyclables (43%) followed by organics (37%). This article also reviewed the other functional elements of the waste management systems in SIDS. Several shortcomings were noted in the process of waste collection, transfer and transport namely the fact of having outdated collection vehicles and narrow roads which are inaccessible. Among the waste management practices in SIDS, waste disposal via landfilling, illegal dumping and backyard burning were favoured most of the time at the expense of sustainable waste treatment technologies such as composting, anaerobic digestion and recycling. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Political determinants of electricity provision in small island developing states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boräng, Frida; Jagers, Sverker C.; Povitkina, Marina

    2016-01-01

    This paper approaches provision of affordable and reliable electricity in Small Island Developing States (SIDS) as a case of public good provision. It aims to contribute to our understanding of how regime type and the quality of implementing institutions within political systems affect the prerequisites for successful electrification in SIDS. More specifically, we analyse the independent and interdependent effects of level of democracy and control of corruption on per capita household electricity consumption in SIDS, using data from 34 SIDS over the period 1996–2009. The results show that although the independent effects of level of democracy and control of corruption are sensitive to model specification, these two factors do have an interdependent impact on per capita household electricity consumption: democratization has positive effects on provision of electricity to the general population only when there is a certain level of corruption control in place. The results imply a) that it is important for policy actors to acknowledge the interaction between regime type and the quality of implementing institutions, and b) when planning electrification projects in SIDS, it is necessary to have information about the social and political context in order to design the most effective projects. - Highlights: • Effects of political institutions on household electricity consumption in SIDS. • Electrification is seen as an example of public good provision. • Democracy has a positive impact on electricity consumption when corruption is low. • Electrification projects can gain from being sensitive to institutional context.

  16. The impact of socio-cultural context on young people's condom use: evidence from two Pacific Island countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMillan, Karen; Worth, Heather

    2011-03-01

    Young people are a key group for HIV prevention in the Pacific region where levels of STIs are high and condom use is low. During 2008, 62 in-depth interviews were conducted with people aged between 18 and 25 years in Tonga and Vanuatu. The research was aimed at understanding factors impacting on young peoples' condom use in two Pacific Island nations. The data show a marked disjuncture between attitudes and practice with regard to condoms. This paper discusses factors underpinning that inconsistency and directs attention to the effect of social and cultural influences on young people's condom use. The authors conclude that individual-level approaches to improving rates of condom use will be inadequate unless they are informed by an understanding of the role of identity, culture and tradition in young peoples' decisions around condom use. The findings also underline the need for country-specific approaches to condom promotion efforts in the Pacific.

  17. Associations between Psychosocial and Physiological Factors and Diabetes Health Indicators in Asian and Pacific Islander Adults with Type 2 Diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dongmei Li

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The associations between psychosocial and physiological factors and diabetes’ health indicators have not been widely investigated among Asians and Pacific Islanders. We hypothesize that health behaviour and depression are directly or indirectly associated with diabetes’ health indicators such as BMI, glycemic control, general health, and diabetes quality of life. Our hypothesis was tested through a structural equation modelling (SEM approach. Questionnaires that assessed health behaviour, depression, general health, diabetes quality of life, and haemoglobin A1c (HbA1c, along with patients’ demographic information, were obtained from 207 Asian and Pacific Islander adults with type 2 diabetes. IBM SPSS Amos 20 was used for the SEM analysis at 5% level of significance, and the goodness fit of the SEM model was also evaluated. The final SEM model showed that diet and exercise and foot care had positive associations, while depression had a negative association with diabetes’ health indicators. The results highlighted the importance of exercise and depression in diabetes patients’ BMI, glycemic control, general health, and quality of life, which provide evidence for the need to alleviate patients’ depression besides education and training in diet and exercise in future intervention studies among Asians and Pacific Islanders with type 2 diabetes.

  18. 78 FR 32996 - Western Pacific Fisheries; Fishing in the Marianas Trench, Pacific Remote Islands, and Rose Atoll...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-03

    ... Islands, and Rose Atoll Marine National Monuments AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS..., and Rose Atoll Marine National Monuments. The intent of this rule is to implement fishery management... Islands Monument, and Proclamation 8337 established the Rose Atoll Monument. The Proclamations define the...

  19. Acculturation and perceived stress in HIV+ immigrants: depression symptomatology in Asian and Pacific Islanders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Wei-Ti; Guthrie, Barbara; Shiu, Cheng-Shi; Yang, Joyce P; Weng, Zhongqi; Wang, Lixuan; Kamitani, Emiko; Fukuda, Yumiko; Luu, Binh Vinh

    2014-01-01

    Asians and Pacific Islanders (API) are among the fastest growing minority groups within the USA, and this growth has been accompanied by an increase in HIV incidence. Between 2000 and 2010, the API HIV infection rate increased from 4.5% to 8.7%; however, there is a paucity of HIV-related research for this group, and even less is known about the prevalence and correlates of antiretroviral therapy adherence behavior, quality of life, impact of stress, and efficacious self-management among HIV+ API Americans. This paper examines how acculturation and perceived stress affect depression symptomatology and treatment seeking in the HIV+ API population. A series of cross-sectional audio computer-assisted self-interviews were conducted with a convenience sample of 50 HIV+ API (29 in San Francisco and 21 in New York City). The relationship between acculturation and perceived stress was analyzed, and the results indicate that for those HIV+ API who reported low or moderate acculturation (as compared to those who reported high acculturation), stress was significantly mediated by depression symptomology. Interventions to address acculturation and reduce perceived stress among API generally and Asians specifically are therefore needed.

  20. Asian/Pacific Islander women in medical education: personal and professional challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wear, D

    2000-01-01

    The purpose of this qualitative study was to identify the complex issues facing Asian/Pacific Islander (API) women students at one Midwestern medical school as they subjectively experience their medical training. Of particular interest was how students navigated family influences, career planning, and ethnic and gender stereotypes. Sixty-five percent of the students reported that their parents exerted various degrees of encouragement or pressure to enter medicine. The remaining students said that the decision was entirely theirs (20%) or that the decision had been made for them (15%). Many reported the larger Asian "community" as a source of influence. A slight majority of students thought they were perceived by faculty as being "quiet," often too quiet. With only 1 exception, all of the students believed that their cultural identity influenced their specialty choice. Stressors reported by students centered on competition, achievement, and formation of intimate relationships (i.e., dating). Medical educators who provide personal and professional support for API women students should be keenly aware of the career, gender, and family issues that emerge at the intersection of API and Euro-American cultures. Faculty development should include an educational component on issues of concern to API students, men and women. Faculty also need to wrestle with the cultural values of "modesty, respect for authority, public self-consciousness, and other directness" as they intersect with assertion as a primary value found in Euro-American culture in general and in medical education in particular.

  1. The use Pb- and Sr- isotopes for the study of Pacific Islander population

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Budd, P.; Gulson, B.L.; Montgomery, J.; Rainbird, P.; Thomas, R.G.; Young, S.

    1997-01-01

    Lead isotope measurements of dental enamel are regularly used as a means of determining information as to the source of the lead burden in modern human populations (Gulson and Wilson 1994). Lead ions have a considerable propensity to replace calcium ions in skeletal hard tissue; principally composed of hydroxy-apatite. The lead isotopic composition of teeth in adult humans has been shown to relate directly to the subject's exposure to the element at the time of eruption of their adult teeth and is unaffected by changes in the lead burden of an individual in latter life. In children, the analogous lead burden relates to the lead exposure of the mother during pregnancy and in the neo-natal period. Moreover due to its high crystallinity and density dental enamel does not undergo post-mortem recrystallization. This fact raised the exciting possibility that isotopic measurements of hard tissue could be used as a means of determining whether and individual is a migrant to a particular region. Despite a number of complications, briefly described, this paper presents the results of the ongoing study which uses measurements of Sr and Pb isotopes within dental enamel to determine the origin of Pacific Islander populations

  2. Social Network Characteristics, Social Support, and Cigarette Smoking among Asian/Pacific Islander Young Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pokhrel, Pallav; Fagan, Pebbles; Cassel, Kevin; Trinidad, Dennis R; Kaholokula, Joseph Keawe'aimoku; Herzog, Thaddeus A

    2016-06-01

    Cigarette smoking may be one of the factors contributing to the high levels of cancer-related mortality experienced by certain Asian/Pacific Islander (A/PI) subgroups (e.g., Native Hawaiian). Given the collectivist cultural orientation attributed to A/PI groups, social strategies are recommended for substance abuse or smoking cessation treatment among A/PI. However, research examining how social network characteristics and social support relate to smoking across A/PI subgroups has been lacking. This study investigated the associations between social network characteristics (e.g., size, composition), perceived social support, and recent cigarette use across Native Hawaiian, Filipino, and East Asian (e.g., Japanese, Chinese) young adults (18-35 year old). Cross-sectional, self-report data were collected from N = 435 participants (M age = 25.6, SD = 8.3; 61% women). Ethnic differences were found in a number of pathways linking social network characteristics, perceived social support, and cigarette smoking. Larger network size was strongly associated with higher perceived social support and lower recent cigarette smoking among Native Hawaiians but not Filipinos or East Asians. Higher perceived social support was associated with lower recent smoking among East Asians and Filipinos but not Native Hawaiians. Implications are discussed with regard to smoking prevention and cessation among A/PI. © Society for Community Research and Action 2016.

  3. How Did Zika Virus Emerge in the Pacific Islands and Latin America?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John H.-O. Pettersson

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The unexpected emergence of Zika virus (ZIKV in the Pacific Islands and Latin America and its association with congenital Zika virus syndrome (CZVS (which includes microcephaly and Guillain-BarrÅèôÉééééÅèé syndrome (GBS have stimulated wide-ranging research. High densities of susceptible Aedes spp., immunologically naive human populations, global population growth with increased urbanization, and escalation of global transportation of humans and commercial goods carrying vectors and ZIKV undoubtedly enhanced the emergence of ZIKV. However, flavivirus mutations accumulate with time, increasing the likelihood that genetic viral differences are determinants of change in viral phenotype. Based on comparative ZIKV complete genome phylogenetic analyses and temporal estimates, we identify amino acid substitutions that may be associated with increased viral epidemicity, CZVS, and GBS. Reverse genetics, vector competence, and seroepidemiological studies will test our hypothesis that these amino acid substitutions are determinants of epidemic and neurotropic ZIKV emergence.

  4. Gender Comparisons Among Asian American and Pacific Islander Patients in Drug Dependency Treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Yun; Lin, Veronique; Wu, Fei; Hser, Yih-Ing

    2016-05-11

    Few studies have focused on Asian Americans and Pacific Islanders (AAPIs), despite indications of increasing substance abuse among AAPIs in recent years. This prospective longitudinal study examined gender differences among AAPIs in treatment. The study included 567 (177 women, 390 men) AAPI patients drawn from two prior studies, one with 32 community treatment programs in 13 California counties (CalTOP, 3, 9 months), and another project including 36 treatment sites in 5 California counties (TSI, 3, 12 months). Baseline and follow-up assessments utilized the Addiction Severity Index(ASI). A subset of patients was assessed at 3 and 9/12 months (n = 106). Significant gender-related differences were observed at baseline: fewer women than men were employed or never married. More women were living with someone having alcohol and drug problems. Methamphetamine was the primary drug for women and men, followed by alcohol and heroin. Compared to AAPI men, AAPI women reported greater problem severity in family/social relationships (0.18 vs. 0.11, p drug, and legal domains for both genders, and in mental health for men only. Compared to AAPI men, AAPI women demonstrated significantly greater improvements in drug problems (ΔASI = 0.07, p drug use problems for AAPI men.

  5. Obesity and Associated Health Disparities Among Understudied Multiracial, Pacific Islander, and American Indian Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subica, Andrew M; Agarwal, Neha; Sullivan, J Greer; Link, Bruce G

    2017-12-01

    This study examined the state of obesity, diabetes, and associated health disparities among understudied multiracial, Native Hawaiian and Other Pacific Islander (NHOPI), and American Indian and Alaskan Native (AIAN) adults. Aggregated data for 184,617 adults from the California Health Interview Survey (2005 to 2011) were analyzed to determine obesity, diabetes, poor/fair health, and physical disability prevalence by racial group. Logistic regressions controlling for age, gender, and key social determinants (education, marital status, poverty, health insurance) generated multiracial, NHOPI, and AIAN adults' odds ratios (ORs) for our targeted health conditions versus non-Hispanic white adults. Obesity, diabetes, and other targeted health conditions were highly prevalent among multiracial, NHOPI, and AIAN adults, who displayed significantly greater adjusted odds than non-Hispanic white adults for obesity (ORs = 1.2-1.9), diabetes (ORs = 1.6-2.4), poor/fair health (ORs = 1.4-1.7), and, with the exception of NHOPI adults, physical disability (ORs = 1.5-1.6). Multiracial and AIAN adults with obesity also had significantly higher adjusted odds of diabetes (OR = 1.5-2.6) than non-Hispanic white adults with obesity. Multiracial, NHOPI, and AIAN adults experience striking obesity-related disparities versus non-Hispanic white adults, urging further disparities research with these vulnerable minority populations. © 2017 The Obesity Society.

  6. Mapping Precipitation in the Lower Mekong River Basin and the U.S. Affiliated Pacific Islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lakshmi, V.; Sutton, J. R. P.; Bolten, J. D.

    2017-12-01

    Mapping and quantifying precipitation across varying temporal and spatial scales is of utmost importance in understanding, monitoring, and predicting flooding and drought. While there exists many in-situ precipitation gages that can accurately estimate precipitation in a given location, there are still many areas that lack in-situ gages. Many of these locations do not have precipitation gages because they are rural and/or topographically complex. The purpose of our research was to compare different remotely sensed satellite precipitation estimates with in-situ estimates across topographically complex and rural terrain within the United States Affiliated Pacific Islands (USAPI) and the Lower Mekong River Basin (LMRB). We utilize the publicly available Precipitation Estimation from Remotely Sensed Information using Artificial Neural Networks (PERSIANN) Climate Data Record (CDR) from NOAA and two remotely sensed precipitation products from NASA; the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) and the Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM). These precipitation estimates were compared with each other and to the available in-situ precipitation estimates from station gages. We also utilize NASA Landsat data to determine the land cover types of these study areas. Using the precipitation estimates, topography, and the land cover of the study areas, we were able to show areas experiencing differing amounts of rainfall and their agreement with in-situ estimates. Additionally, we study the seasonal and spatial trends in precipitation. These analyses can be used to help understand areas that are experience frequent flood or drought.

  7. Using Comics to Promote Colorectal Cancer Screening in the Asian American and Pacific Islander Communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jiayan Linda; Acevedo, Nazia; Sadler, Georgia Robins

    2017-06-23

    There are unaesthetic aspects in teaching people about the early detection of colorectal cancer using the fecal immunochemical test. Comics were seen as a way to overcome those unaesthetic aspects. This study used the Asian grocery store-based cancer education venue to pilot-test the clarity, cultural acceptability, and alignment of five colorectal cancer education comics intended for publication in Asian American and Pacific Islander (API) community newspapers. After developing the colorectal cancer education comics, API students asked shoppers to review a comic from their collection and provide feedback on how to make the comic clearer and more culturally pertinent to API readers. To evaluate viewers' responses, the students gathered such unobtrusive data as: (1) how many of the predetermined salient information points were discussed as the student educators interacted with shoppers and (2) how many comics the shoppers were willing to review. Shoppers were also asked to evaluate how effective the comics would be at motivating colorectal cancer screening among APIs. The students were able to cover all of the salient information points with the first comic. As evidence of the comics' capacity to engage shoppers' interest, shoppers willingly evaluated all five comics. Using multiple comics enabled the educators to repeatedly address the four salient colorectal cancer information points. Thus, the comics helped student educators to overcome the unesthetic elements of colorectal cancer discussions, while enabling them to engage shoppers in animated discussions, for far more time than with their conventional didactic educational methods.

  8. Modifiable Determinants of Obesity in Native Hawaiian and Pacific Islander Youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braden, Katherine W; Nigg, Claudio R

    2016-06-01

    In the United States, obesity continues to be a major public health concern. Obesity disproportionately affects Native Hawaiian and Other Pacific Islanders (NHOPI) who demonstrate alarming rates of obesity and its related chronic conditions. However, little is known about the causes of obesity for this group. Given the modest effects of individual-level obesity treatments, identifying the most impactful determinants that can be modified to prevent or reduce obesity in NHOPI youth is critical to the development of interventions that best meet the needs of this population. A systematic review was conducted in PubMed, with additional expert-recommended articles identified through the Hawai'i Initiative for Childhood Obesity Research and Education (HICORE) research database, to evaluate the current body of research on modifiable determinants or correlates of obesity in NHOPI youth. Of an initial pool of 471 articles, 60 articles were read in full and 14 articles were selected for inclusion in the qualitative synthesis. Utilizing an ecological framework to identify gaps in the literature and suggest areas for future research, findings from this review indicate that early life and contextual factors-namely, infant-feeding mode, geographic location, and education-appear to play an important role in obesity in NHOPI youth. However, more research is needed, particularly pre-birth cohort studies evaluating the effects of prenatal and early life risk factors, studies on the sociocultural influences on obesity-related psychosocial factors and health behaviors, as well as the influence of environmental and policy-level variables.

  9. Non-deposit system option for waste management on small islands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vilms, Monica; Voronova, Viktoria

    2016-08-01

    This paper analyses waste management on small islands (on a global scale these are micro-islands). In the context of the paper, small islands are islands that have an area less than 50 km(2) The study presents an overview of the problems connected with waste transport from islands to the mainland. Waste generation on islands is very much related to tourists. If tourists do not handle waste properly, it will cause problems. Four small Estonian islands in the range of 3-19 km(2) are studied in detail. For these and other small islands, the main problem is the waste produced by tourists, or related to tourists and waste transport to the mainland. Currently, the local municipality has to arrange and finance waste transport. In fact, and based on the polluter-pays principle, the tourists should bear the cost of waste management. There are different tax options available in order to collect the money from tourists - waste tax, harbour tax, tourist tax, donations, environmental tax and others. The study results revealed that the best possible solution for Estonian islands may be a non-deposit system - including an additional charge on ferry ticket prices. The extra money should cover the costs of waste management and waste shipping. The tourists arriving in their own boats should pay a harbour tax, which includes a waste tax to compensate for the cost of waste management. © The Author(s) 2016.

  10. Seven new species of Paleanotus (Annelida: Chrysopetalidae) described from Lizard Island, Great Barrier Reef, and coral reefs of northern Australia and the Indo-Pacific: two cryptic species pairs revealed between western Pacific Ocean and the eastern Indian Ocean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Charlotte

    2015-09-18

    Morphological investigation into the paleate genus Paleanotus Schmarda 1861 of the family Chrysopetalidae from northern Australian coral reefs, primarily Lizard Island and outlying reefs, included a complex of very small, slender individuals (length < 5 mm). This complex resolved into 7 new species, described herein: Paleanotus inornatus n. sp., P. adornatus n. sp., P. chrysos n. sp., P. aquifolia n. sp., P. latifolia n. sp., P. silus n. sp., and P. silopsis n. sp. A key is provided to the new species and Paleanotus distinguished from Treptopale and Hyalopale, two closely related genera. Diagnostic features of the apical structure and shape of the notochaetal main paleae plus median paleae shape and raised rib pattern, differentiates each species from the other. Gametous states are described. Two cryptic species pairs (Paleanotus silopsis n. sp. and P. silus n. sp.; Paleanotus aquifolia n. sp. and P. latifolia n. sp.) were identified. In each case one species is restricted to either the NE or NW Australian coast. In each pair the most eastern point for the NW Australian species range occurs at Darwin, western Arnhemland, Northern Territory. Additional material for each species pair extends their respective ranges northwards: NW Australia to Thailand, Andaman Sea, eastern Indian Ocean or NE Australia, Great Barrier Reef to the Philippines, western Pacific Ocean. Cryptic morphology and potential genetic diversity is discussed in Paleanotus inornatus n. sp. and P. adornatus n. sp. that possess overlapping widespread distribution patterns across northern Australia and Indo-Pacific reefs. The smallest bodied taxon, Paleanotus chrysos n. sp. is the only species with a Coral Sea range encompassing Lizard Island, Heron Island and New Caledonia.

  11. Proceedings of the workshop on research methodologies and applications for Pacific Island agroforestry; July 16-20, 1990; Kolonia, Pohnpei, Federated States of Micronesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bill Raynor; Roger R. Bay

    1993-01-01

    Includes 19 papers presented at the workshop, covering such topics as sampling techniques and statistical considerations, indigenous agricultural and agroforestry systems, crop testing and evaluation, and agroforestry practices in the Pacific Islands, including Micronesia, Northern Marianas Islands, Palau, and American Samoa.

  12. Entrepreneurship and Small Business : 3rd Asia-Pacific Edition

    OpenAIRE

    Schaper, Michael; Volery, Thierry; Weber, Paull; Lewis, Kate

    2010-01-01

    (See also PDF) PART 1 The nature of small business and entrepreneurship. CHAPTER 1 Entrepreneurship: definition and evolution. CHAPTER 2 The personality of entrepreneurs. CHAPTER 3 Creativity, innovation and entrepreneurship. CHAPTER 4 Small business: definitions and characteristics. PART 2 Getting into business. CHAPTER 5 Options for going into business. CHAPTER 6 Market research and strategy formulation. CHAPTER 7 Preparing a business plan. CHAPTER 7 ...

  13. The creation of reasonable projections toward sustainable development considering the climate and socioeconomic changes in the Pacific Islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, S.; Iida, A.; Nakatani, J.; Noda, K.; Take, M.; Nakamura, S.

    2015-12-01

    The impacts of climate and socioeconomic change in the future are important factors to consider when discussing the issues of sustainable development in the Pacific Islands, since their impacts here are relatively large compared to those in other regions due to the severe limitation of internal resources and the external dependency of the life essentials. The tourism industry is the key driving force behind the economic growth in island region and it is promoted by the environmental attractions. This study constructs scenarios that foresees the effects of these changes and assesses the subsequent impact on both the local community and the tourism industry. In this study, the scenarios have been developed based on the representative concentration pathways (RCPs) and the shared socioeconomic pathways (SSPs). The progress of climate change was expected to affect the attraction of tourists as well as resources availability and food production. The difference of SSPs was expected to affect the quality of life in the local society and the quantity and/or the quality of tourism. A downscale and bias-correction using a local dataset was applied to assess the impacts of climate change, and the relationships between GDP, population, and estimated land availability in the current situation were applied to assess the impact of socioeconomic change. As case studies, the scenarios were constructed to assess the impacts in the Republic of Palau and Ishigaki Island, Japan. Both are typical islands where tourism is the main industry. The situation of environmental resources, local society, and tourism under changing climate and socioeconomic conditions was assessed using these scenarios. The creation of reasonable projections under appropriate scenarios can contribute to sustainable development not only in these islands but also in most Pacific Islands.

  14. Measurements of ozone and nonmethane hydrocarbons at Chichi-jima island, a remote island in the western Pacific: long-range transport of polluted air from the Pacific rim region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kato, Shungo; Pochanart, Pakpong; Kajii, Yoshizumi

    Chichi-jima island is located in the Pacific about 1000 km from the Japanese main island and is an ideal remote observatory from which to assess the long-range transport of polluted air from East Asia. The ozone concentration was measured from August 1997 to August 1998. Owing to the air mass change, the seasonal variation of ozone shows a distinct character: low concentration (about 13 ppbv) for the maritime air mass during the summer, and high concentration (about 40 ppbv) for the continental air mass during the winter. To assess the contribution of the long-range transport of polluted air during winter, nonmethane hydrocarbons were also measured in December 1999. Using backward trajectory analysis, the transport time of the air mass from the source area in the Pacific rim region was calculated for each sample. The concentration of hydrocarbons shows a clear negative correlation against the transport time. This analysis clearly shows the transport of polluted air, emitted in East Asia, to the Pacific during the winter. The plots of suitable hydrocarbon pairs showed that the decrease of hydrocarbon concentrations during winter is mainly caused by the mixing with clean background air.

  15. Enhanced syndromic surveillance for mass gatherings in the Pacific: a case study of the 11th Festival of Pacific Arts in Solomon Islands, 2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoy, Damian; Saketa, Salanieta T; Maraka, Roy Roger; Sio, Alison; Wanyeki, Ian; Frison, Pascal; Ogaoga, Divi; Iniakawala, Dennie; Joshua, Cynthia; Duituturaga, Sala; Lepers, Christelle; Roth, Adam; White, Paul; Souares, Yvan

    2016-01-01

    Mass gatherings pose public health challenges to host countries, as they can cause or exacerbate disease outbreaks within the host location or elsewhere. In July 2012, the 11th Festival of Pacific Arts (FOPA), a mass gathering event involving 22 Pacific island states and territories, was hosted by Solomon Islands. An enhanced syndromic surveillance (ESS) system was implemented for the event. Throughout the capital city, Honiara, 15 sentinel sites were established and successfully took part in the ESS system, which commenced one week before the FOPA (25 June) and concluded eight days after the event (22 July). The ESS involved expanding on the existing syndromic surveillance parameters: from one to 15 sentinel sites, from four to eight syndromes, from aggregated to case-based reporting and from weekly to daily reporting. A web-based system was developed to enable data entry, data storage and data analysis. Towards the end of the ESS period, a focus group discussion and series of key informant interviews were conducted. The ESS was considered a success and played an important role in the early detection of possible outbreaks. For the period of the ESS, 1668 patients with syndrome presentations were received across the 15 sentinel sites. There were no major events of public health significance. Several lessons were learnt that are relevant to ESS in mass gathering scenarios, including the importance of having adequate lead in time for engagement and preparation to ensure appropriate policy and institutional frameworks are put in place.

  16. Palaeo island-affinities revisited--biogeography and systematics of the Indo-Pacific genus Cethosia Fabricius (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, C J; Beheregaray, L B

    2010-10-01

    The Indo-Pacific is a very complex region encompassing several micro-continents with unique tectonic and geomorphologic histories. Unsurprisingly, the biogeographic history of Indo-Pacific biota is generally poorly known, especially that of organisms found in the heart of the region, the biodiversity hotspot known as Wallacea. Here, we explore the biogeographic history of the Indo-Pacific butterfly genus Cethosia using all known species and many distinctive subspecies. Cethosia butterflies span the Indo-Pacific tropics, including several lineages with localized endemism that are critically important when reconstructing biogeographic history of the Indo-Pacific and, in particular, of Wallacea. A phylogenetic hypothesis is proposed, based on sequences of the mitochondrial genes cytochrome oxidase subunit I (COI) and NADH dehydrogenase 5 (ND5), and the nuclear wingless gene. Both Maximum Parsimony and Bayesian analyses showed that the genus is monophyletic and consistently recovered seven, generally very well supported, clades, namely the cydippe, leschenault, biblis, nietneri, hypsea, penthesilea and cyane clades. Species group relationships are largely concordant with general morphology (i.e., wing pattern and colouration) and, based on the phylogeny, we propose a revised systematic classification at the species level. The evolution of the genus appears associated with the inferred geological history of the region, in particular with respect to the expanding Wallacea theory, whereby ancient connected terranes were fragmented during the mid Miocene to early Pliocene, approximately 14-3 Mya. Recent diversification events in Cethosia were likely promoted by climatic fluctuations during the Pliocene and, to a lesser extent, the Pleistocene. Our results support the view that, while dispersal has been important for Cethosia throughout much of the region, the high levels of island endemism and the essentially allopatric radiations recovered in Cethosia in Wallacea are

  17. Can small island mountains provide relief from the Subtropical Precipitation Decline? Simulating future precipitation regimes for small island nations using high resolution Regional Climate Models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowden, J.; Terando, A. J.; Misra, V.; Wootten, A.

    2017-12-01

    Small island nations are vulnerable to changes in the hydrologic cycle because of their limited water resources. This risk to water security is likely even higher in sub-tropical regions where anthropogenic forcing of the climate system is expected to lead to a drier future (the so-called `dry-get-drier' pattern). However, high-resolution numerical modeling experiments have also shown an enhancement of existing orographically-influenced precipitation patterns on islands with steep topography, potentially mitigating subtropical drying on windward mountain sides. Here we explore the robustness of the near-term (25-45 years) subtropical precipitation decline (SPD) across two island groupings in the Caribbean, Puerto Rico and the U.S. Virgin Islands. These islands, forming the boundary between the Greater and Lesser Antilles, significantly differ in size, topographic relief, and orientation to prevailing winds. Two 2-km horizontal resolution regional climate model simulations are used to downscale a total of three different GCMs under the RCP8.5 emissions scenario. Results indicate some possibility for modest increases in precipitation at the leading edge of the Luquillo Mountains in Puerto Rico, but consistent declines elsewhere. We conclude with a discussion of potential explanations for these patterns and the attendant risks to water security that subtropical small island nations could face as the climate warms.

  18. Invasive rats strengthen predation pressure on bird eggs in a South Pacific island rainforest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duron, Quiterie; Bourguet, Edouard; De Meringo, Hélène; Millon, Alexandre; Vidal, Eric

    2017-12-01

    Invasive rats ( Rattus spp.) are known to have pervasive impacts on island birds, particularly on their nesting success. To conserve or restore bird populations, numerous invasive rat control or eradication projects are undertaken on islands worldwide. However, such projects represent a huge investment and the decision-making process requires proper assessment of rat impacts. Here, we assessed the influence of two sympatric invasive rats ( Rattus rattus and R. exulans ) on native bird eggs in a New Caledonian rainforest, using artificial bird-nest monitoring. A total of 178 artificial nests containing two eggs of three different sizes were placed either on the ground or 1.5 m high and monitored at the start of the birds' breeding season. Overall, 12.4% of the nests were depredated during the first 7 days. At site 1, where nests were monitored during 16 days, 41.8% of the nests were depredated. The main predator was the native crow Corvus moneduloides , responsible for 62.9% of the overall predation events. Rats were responsible for only 22.9% of the events, and ate only small and medium eggs at both heights. Our experiment suggests that in New Caledonia, predation pressure by rats strengthens overall bird-nest predation, adding to that by native predators. Experimental rat control operations may allow reduced predation pressure on nests as well as the recording of biodiversity responses after rat population reduction.

  19. Growth of enterotoxigenic Staphylococcus aureus in povi masima, a traditional Pacific island food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, T L; Whyte, R J; Graham, C G; Saunders, D; Schumacher, J; Hudson, J A

    2004-01-01

    To obtain preliminary data on the microbiology and hurdles to pathogen growth in the traditional Pacific Island food, povi masima, which is essentially beef brisket cured in brine. Six containers of povi masima were prepared and two were inoculated with five enterotoxigenic strains of Staphyloccocus aureus. The povi masima were divided into two lots each containing two uninoculated control and an inoculated container. Lot 1 was incubated at room temperature (20 degrees C) and lot 2 under refrigeration (4-5 degrees C) for up to 98 days. During storage, samples were removed and tested for aerobic plate count, coagulase-producing Staphylococci, Clostridium perfringens, staphylococcal enterotoxin and various chemical parameters of the food. Coagulase-producing Staphylococci and aerobic plate counts grew to high levels in both the inoculated and uninoculated lots stored at room temperature, but enterotoxin was only detected at one time point in these lots and this may represent a false positive result. The concentration of NaCl in the meat increased with time as concentrations equilibrated, and nitrite was rapidly lost in those lots stored at room temperature. Storage at 4-5 degrees C prevented proliferation of coagulase-producing Staphylococci. For safe curing and storage, this food should be kept under refrigeration as this prevented growth of staphylococci. Optimum storage would also be achieved with improved attempts to ensure equal distribution of NaCl prior to storage. Under conditions traditionally used to cure and store this food, enterotoxigenic staphylococci can grow to numbers where toxigenesis might occur, especially during the early stages of curing where the salt has not diffused from the brine into the meat.

  20. Evidence for island effects and diurnal signals in satellite images of clouds over the tropical western pacific

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barr-Kumarakulasinghe, S.A. [State Univ. of New York, Stony Brook, NY (United States); Reynolds, R.M.; Minnett, P.J. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States)

    1996-04-01

    Instruments to measure atmospheric radiation and ancillary meteorological variables will be set up on Manus Island as the first site of the tropical western pacific (TWP) locale of the Atmospheric Radiation Measurements (ARM) program. Manus is in the {open_quotes}warm pool{close_quotes} region of the TWP. This region is critical in establishing global atmospheric circulation patterns and is a primary energy source for the Hadley and Walker cells. The myriad islands and enclosed seas in the immediate vicinity of Manus have been referred to as the {open_quotes}maritime continent{close_quotes}, which has the deepest convective activity in the world. Manus is in a region having a global impact on climate and where island effects on clouds are likely to be important. In this preliminary analysis we have sought evidence of island effects in the cloud fields around Manus and have studied the variability of the diurnal cycles of cloud cover over Manus and over other islands and areas of open sea in the region.

  1. Oceanographic data collected during the EX1607 (CAPSTONE Wake Island PRIMNM (Mapping)) on NOAA Ship OKEANOS EXPLORER in the North Pacific Ocean from 2016-08-25 to 2016-09-11 (NCEI Accession 0156614)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset contains oceanographic data collected in and around the Wake Island Unit of the Pacific Remote Islands Marine National Monument (PRIMNM). Operations...

  2. Evolutionary history of a vanishing radiation: isolation-dependent persistence and diversification in Pacific Island partulid tree snails.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Taehwan; Li, Jingchun; Churchill, Celia K C; Foighil, Diarmaid Ó

    2014-09-24

    Partulid tree snails are endemic to Pacific high islands and have experienced extraordinary rates of extinction in recent decades. Although they collectively range across a 10,000 km swath of Oceania, half of the family's total species diversity is endemic to a single Eastern Pacific hot spot archipelago (the Society Islands) and all three partulid genera display highly distinctive distributions. Our goal was to investigate broad scale (range wide) and fine scale (within-Society Islands) molecular phylogenetic relationships of the two widespread genera, Partula and Samoana. What can such data tell us regarding the genesis of such divergent generic distribution patterns, and nominal species diversity levels across Oceania? Museum, captive (zoo) and contemporary field specimens enabled us to genotype 54 of the ~120 recognized species, including many extinct or extirpated taxa, from 14 archipelagoes. The genera Partula and Samoana are products of very distinct diversification processes. Originating at the western edge of the familial range, the derived genus Samoana is a relatively recent arrival in the far eastern archipelagoes (Society, Austral, Marquesas) where it exhibits a stepping-stone phylogenetic pattern and has proven adept at both intra-and inter- archipelago colonization. The pronounced east-west geographic disjunction exhibited by the genus Partula stems from a much older long-distance dispersal event and its high taxonomic diversity in the Society Islands is a product of a long history of within-archipelago diversification. The central importance of isolation for partulid lineage persistence and diversification is evident in time-calibrated phylogenetic trees that show that remote archipelagoes least impacted by continental biotas bear the oldest clades and/or the most speciose radiations. In contemporary Oceania, that isolation is being progressively undermined and these tree snails are now directly exposed to introduced continental predators

  3. Start-up Success in a Small Island State: A Study among Entrepreneurs in Malta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonie Baldacchino

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available This study focuses on entrepreneurs in the small island state of Malta and investigates whether starting up and running an enterprise is facilitated or hindered by being in a small island environment. Specifically it asks (1 whether being on a small island, on the periphery of a major market facilitates or hinders entrepreneurship and start-up success; (2 whether Malta’s cultural context and enterprise environment affect entrepreneurship and start-up success; (3 what the key success factors among Maltese start-ups are; and (4 how are creativity and innovation reflected in Maltese start-ups. Qualitative research among 13 start-ups is supported by telephone-based research among a sample of 90 respondents. Findings contribute to the pool of business expertise and context-specific information from small island states that is often missing from the international literature.

  4. Dengue transmission in the small-island setting: investigations from the Caribbean island of Grenada

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schiøler, Karin Linda; Macpherson, Calum N

    2009-01-01

    The Caribbean region has experienced a major surge in dengue activity in recent decades. Yet, for many, and especially the smaller islands, the true extent and general epidemiology of dengue transmission remains unclear because of inadequate systems of surveillance and reporting. We established...... benign dengue fever. A shift in serotype activity and modal age was evident during the noted transition, with the more densely populated south end of the island presenting the focus of transmission....

  5. Feasibility survey of the introduction of new energy/renewable energy in Pacific island countries. Actual and potential renewable energy uptake in South Pacific countries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-12-01

    Survey was conducted on the present situation of the introduction of photovoltaic power system and the potential installation in Pacific Island countries. As to the preset situation of the introduction of photovoltaic power system, systems installed in Melanesia were 1,699 sets and 529,450 Wp in capacity. Systems installed in Micronesia were 1,352 sets and 107,224 Wp in capacity. Systems installed in Polynesia were 2,942 sets and 1,171,420 Wp in capacity. By country, the number of those installed in French Polynesia was the largest, 1,749 sets. The number in each of the other countries was approximately 0-500 sets. The amount of the potential installation was calculated from the number of households with no electricity service and the average electricity consumption amount per household. As a result, the amount of the potential installation was 74,328 kWh/d in Papua New Guinea, 11,045 kWh/d in the Fiji Islands, 8,136 kWh/d in the Solomon Islands, 2,870 kWh/d in New Caledonia, and 2,708 kWh/d in Tonga. However, schools, remote health clinics, etc. were excluded in the calculation. Further, all the rural households with no electricity service were converted to those to be served by photovoltaic power system, but in some locations the use of hydroelectric power generation and diesel generator may be more appropriate. (NEDO)

  6. Surface elevation change and susceptibility of different mangrove zones to sea-level rise on Pacific high islands of Micronesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krauss, K.W.; Cahoon, D.R.; Allen, J.A.; Ewel, K.C.; Lynch, J.C.; Cormier, N.

    2010-01-01

    Mangroves on Pacific high islands offer a number of important ecosystem services to both natural ecological communities and human societies. High islands are subjected to constant erosion over geologic time, which establishes an important source of terrigeneous sediment for nearby marine communities. Many of these sediments are deposited in mangrove forests and offer mangroves a potentially important means for adjusting surface elevation with rising sea level. In this study, we investigated sedimentation and elevation dynamics of mangrove forests in three hydrogeomorphic settings on the islands of Kosrae and Pohnpei, Federated States of Micronesia (FSM). Surface accretion rates ranged from 2.9 to 20.8 mm y-1, and are high for naturally occurring mangroves. Although mangrove forests in Micronesian high islands appear to have a strong capacity to offset elevation losses by way of sedimentation, elevation change over 61/2 years ranged from -3.2 to 4.1 mm y-1, depending on the location. Mangrove surface elevation change also varied by hydrogeomorphic setting and river, and suggested differential, and not uniformly bleak, susceptibilities among Pacific high island mangroves to sea-level rise. Fringe, riverine, and interior settings registered elevation changes of -1.30, 0.46, and 1.56 mm y-1, respectively, with the greatest elevation deficit (-3.2 mm y-1) from a fringe zone on Pohnpei and the highest rate of elevation gain (4.1 mm y-1) from an interior zone on Kosrae. Relative to sea-level rise estimates for FSM (0.8-1.8 mm y-1) and assuming a consistent linear trend in these estimates, soil elevations in mangroves on Kosrae and Pohnpei are experiencing between an annual deficit of 4.95 mm and an annual surplus of 3.28 mm. Although natural disturbances are important in mediating elevation gain in some situations, constant allochthonous sediment deposition probably matters most on these Pacific high islands, and is especially helpful in certain hydrogeomorphic zones

  7. Species richness of squamate reptiles from two islands in the Mexican Pacific

    OpenAIRE

    Hernández-Salinas, Uriel; Ramírez-Bautista, Aurelio; Mata-Silva, Vicente

    2014-01-01

    Cocinas and San Pancho Islands, located in the Bay of Chamela, Jalisco, México, are two of the few remaining island ecosystems with little ecological disturbance. We studied both islands aiming to assess their reptile richness. Because the environment in Chamela is seasonal, we conducted biodiversity surveys during six samplings: three in the dry season and three in rainy season. We found a total of seven reptile species on Cocinas and San Pancho Islands representing the first description of ...

  8. The waste bin: nuclear waste dumping and storage in the Pacific

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Branch, J.B.

    1984-01-01

    Relatively small amounts of nuclear waste have been stored on Pacific islands and dumped into the Pacific Ocean since 1945. Governments of Pacific countries possessing nuclear power plants are presently seeking permanent waste storage and disposal solutions at Pacific sites including subseabed emplacement of high-level nuclear wastes and ocean dumping of low-level wastes. This article examines these plans and the response of Pacific islanders in their development of policies and international strategies to ban the proposed dumping on a regional basis. Island governments are preparing for a Regional Convention during which a treaty concerned with radioactive waste storage and disposal will be signed. (Author)

  9. Monitoring the multi-faceted problem of youth violence: the Asian/Pacific Islander Youth Violence Prevention Center's surveillance system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugimoto-Matsuda, Jeanelle J; Hishinuma, Earl S; Momohara, Christie-Brianna K; Rehuher, Davis; Soli, Fa'apisa M; Bautista, Randy Paul M; Chang, Janice Y

    2012-10-01

    Youth violence (YV) is a complex public health issue that spans geographic, ethnic, and socioeconomic lines. The Asian/Pacific Islander Youth Violence Prevention Center conducts qualitative and quantitative research on YV in Hawai'i. A critical element in YV prevention involves measuring YV and its risk-protective factors to determine the scope of the problem and to monitor changes across time. Under the Asian/Pacific Islander Youth Violence Prevention Center's (APIYVPC's) surveillance umbrella, a variety of methodologies are utilized. The major forms of active surveillance are a School-Wide Survey for youth, and a Safe Community Household Survey for adults. A variety of secondary data sources are accessed, such as the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance System), the Hawai'i State Department of the Attorney General, the Hawai'i State Department of Education, and the Hawai'i State Department of Health. State data are especially important for the Center, because most of these sources disaggregate ethnicity data for Asian Americans/Pacific Islanders. This paper details the surveillance methodologies utilized by the APIYVPC to monitor YV in one specific community and in Hawai'i, in comparison to the rest of the State and nation. Empirical results demonstrate the utility of each methodology and how they complement one another. Individually, each data source lends valuable information to the field of YV prevention; however, collectively, the APIYVPC's surveillance methods help to paint a more complete picture regarding violence rates and the relationship between YV and its risk-protective factors, particularly for minority communities.

  10. Invasive exotic plants in the tropical Pacific Islands: Patterns of Diversity

    Science.gov (United States)

    J.S. Denslow; J.C. Space; P.A. Thomas

    2009-01-01

    Oceanic islands are good model systems with which to explore factors affecting exotic species diversity. Islands vary in size, topography, substrate type, degree of isolation, native species diversity, history, human population characteristics, and economic development. Moreover, islands are highly vulnerable to exotic species establishment. We used AICc analyses of...

  11. Climate change vulnerability to agrarian ecosystem of small Island: evidence from Sagar Island, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandal, S.; Satpati, L. N.; Choudhury, B. U.; Sadhu, S.

    2018-04-01

    The present study assessed climate change vulnerability in agricultural sector of low-lying Sagar Island of Bay of Bengal. Vulnerability indices were estimated using spatially aggregated biophysical and socio-economic parameters by applying principal component analysis and equal weight method. The similarities and differences of outputs of these two methods were analysed across the island. From the integration of outputs and based on the severity of vulnerability, explicit vulnerable zones were demarcated spatially. Results revealed that life subsistence agriculture in 11.8% geographical area (2829 ha) of the island along the western coast falls under very high vulnerable zone (VHVZ VI of 84-99%) to climate change. Comparatively higher values of exposure (0.53 ± 0.26) and sensitivity (0.78 ± 0.14) subindices affirmed that the VHV zone is highly exposed to climate stressor with very low adaptive capacity (ADI= 0.24 ± 0.16) to combat vulnerability to climate change. Hence, food security for a population of >22 thousands comprising >3.7 thousand agrarian households are highly exposed to climate change. Another 17% area comprising 17.5% population covering 20% villages in north-western and eastern parts of the island also falls under high vulnerable (VI= 61%-77%) zone. Findings revealed large spatial heterogeneity in the degree of vulnerability across the island and thus, demands devising area specific planning (adaptation and mitigation strategies) to address the climate change impact implications both at macro and micro levels.

  12. A systems-based approach to transform climate education in the U.S. Affiliated Pacific islands (USAPI)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sussman, A.; Fletcher, C. H.; Sachs, J. P.

    2011-12-01

    The USAPI has a population of about 1,800,000 people spread across 4.9 million square miles of the Pacific Ocean. The Pacific Islands are characterized by a multitude of indigenous cultures and languages. English is the common language of instruction in all jurisdictions, but is not the language spoken at home for most students outside of Hawai'i. Many USAPI students live considerably below the poverty line. The Pacific Island region is projected to experience some of the most profound negative impacts considerably sooner than other regions. Funded by the National Science Foundation, the Pacific Islands Climate Education Partnership (PCEP) aims to educate the region's students and citizens in ways that exemplify modern science and indigenous environmental knowledge, address the urgency of climate change impacts, and honor indigenous cultures. Students and citizens within the region will have the knowledge and skills to advance their and our understanding of climate change, and to adapt to its impacts. PCEP has developed a regional network, tools, and an emerging plan to systemically transform K-14 climate education in the USAPI. More than 50 organizations and networks have joined the partnership. These partners include all of the region's state departments of education, major universities, and community colleges, and a wide range of local partners, particularly conservation organizations. One of PCEP's major tools is general, multidisciplinary K-14 climate science education framework that organizes major underlying concepts and skills within appropriate grade-span progressions. This framework is based largely upon prior national science and climate literacy work and the National Research Council's recent document "A Framework for K-12 Science Education: Practices, Crosscutting Concepts, and Core Ideas." The PCEP climate education framework has an Earth System Science foundation that is directly applicable in all locations, and it also has orientations that are

  13. Low health literacy and poor health status in Asian Americans and Pacific Islanders in Hawai'i.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sentell, Tetine; Baker, Kay Kromer; Onaka, Alvin; Braun, Kathryn

    2011-01-01

    Health literacy is understudied in Asian Americans/Pacific Islanders (AA/PI). We used a population-based sample in Hawai'i to consider if low health literacy is associated with poor health outcomes in Japanese, Filipino, Native Hawaiians, and other AA/PI groups compared with Whites. In data weighted and adjusted for population undercounts and complex survey design, low health literacy varied significantly by group, from 23.9% among Filipinos, 20.6% in Other AA/PI, 16.0% in Japanese, 15.9% in Native Hawaiians, and 13.2% in Whites (χ(2) (4) = 52.22; p culture, and health outcomes.

  14. Assessment of Gestational Diabetes and Associated Risk Factors and Outcomes in the Pacific Island Nation of Palau.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugiyama, Mindy S; Cash, Haley L; Roseveare, Christine; Reklai, Rumi; Basilius, Kliu; Madraisau, Sherilynn

    2017-10-01

    Objective Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) in Palau and across the Pacific Islands is a serious public health issue that is currently understudied. Methods This study was a retrospective cohort study that included 1730 women with a single live birth in Palau between January 2007 and December 2014. Results The overall prevalence of GDM among women in Palau was 5.5%. Women who were older (≥30 years) or obese (BMI ≥30) were more likely to have GDM than women who were younger (monitoring and treatment of women with GDM should be evaluated and strengthened in order to reduce neonatal mortality rates in Palau.

  15. 2000 years of sustainable use of watersheds and coral reefs in Pacific Islands: A review for Palau

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koshiba, Shirley; Besebes, Meked; Soaladaob, Kiblas; Ngiraingas, Madelsar; Isechal, Adelle Lukes; Victor, Steven; Golbuu, Yimnang

    2014-05-01

    In Palau and everywhere in the world, coastal coral reefs are threatened by sedimentation resulting from land clearing in the watersheds. Palau's largest island of Babeldaob is particularly susceptible to significant erosion due to its steep topography, high rainfall, and highly erodible volcanic soil. Previous studies have shown the damaging impacts of sedimentation on coral reefs around Babeldaob Island. Related studies conducted in Micronesia have also documented that mangroves can trap about 30% of the fine eroded sediment from land. This paper examines the sediment trapping capability of cultivated wetlands, in particular taro (Colocasia esculenta) fields, which are natural wetlands used to grow taro, a main staple crop for the population. A 7-months long field study was undertaken to quantify the sediment accumulation rate for taro fields and to determine their sediment trapping efficiency. The results showed that the taro fields were able to trap on average 90% of sediment, therefore sheltering coastal coral reefs and their fisheries from the negative impacts of terrestrial runoff. Based on the results of this study, we suggest that the combined sediment trapping capacity of taro fields and mangroves helped reduce sedimentation on coral reefs around Babeldaob Island. This enabled human settlement for over 2000 years on a small Pacific Island with the main staple food being taro for starch and reef fish for protein. Even with a population of 30,000 people over Babeldaob Island, the living was sustainable for at least 1000 years, implying that the population was able to survive and prosper with its main food being the starch from taro fields and protein from reef fish. While there was intensive cultivation on land the sustainability of reef fisheries must have required that the reef be sheltered from excessive soil erosion.The structure of the taro field (mesei) initialized by the Palauan ancestors, has been maintained to this day. Their development, probably

  16. Shoreline changes in reef islands of the Central Pacific: Takapoto Atoll, Northern Tuamotu, French Polynesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duvat, Virginie K. E.; Pillet, Valentin

    2017-04-01

    Atoll reef islands are considered highly vulnerable to the impacts of climate change. While accelerated sea-level rise is expected to destabilize reef islands, ocean warming and acidification are considered as major threats to coral reef growth, which is of primary importance for the persistence of islands and of food supply to islanders. Using multi-date aerial imagery, shoreline and island changes between 1969 and 2013 were assessed on Takapoto Atoll, Northern Tuamotu region, in French Polynesia. Results show that over the 44-year study period, 41% of islands were stable in area while 33% expanded and 26% contracted. Island expansion was the dominant mode of change on the leeward side of the atoll. Tropical Cyclone Orama (category 3, 1983) contributed to shoreline and island change on the windward side of the atoll through the reworking of previous storm deposits and the injection of fresh sediments in the island system (with up to 62% of an island's land area being covered with fresh sediments). Human activities contributed significantly to shoreline and island change throughout the atoll through infrastructure construction, the removal of the indigenous vegetation from a number of islets and sediment mining.

  17. Use of serum and blood samples on filter paper to improve the surveillance of Dengue in Pacific Island Countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aubry, Maite; Roche, Claudine; Dupont-Rouzeyrol, Myrielle; Aaskov, John; Viallon, Jérôme; Marfel, Maria; Lalita, Paul; Elbourne-Duituturaga, Salanieta; Chanteau, Suzanne; Musso, Didier; Pavlin, Boris I; Harrison, Dustin; Kool, Jacob L; Cao-Lormeau, Van-Mai

    2012-09-01

    In Pacific Island Countries (PICs) the epidemiology of dengue is characterized by long-term transmission of a single dengue virus (DENV) serotype. The emergence of a new serotype in one island country often indicates major outbreaks with this serotype will follow in other PICs. Filter paper (FP) cards on which whole blood or serum from dengue suspected patients had been dried was evaluated as a method for transportation of this material by standard mail delivery throughout the Pacific. Twenty-two FP-dried whole blood samples collected from patients in New Caledonia and Wallis & Futuna Islands, during DENV-1 and DENV-4 transmission, and 76 FP-dried sera collected from patients in Yap State, Majuro (Republic of Marshall Islands), Tonga and Fiji, before and during outbreaks of DENV-2 in Yap State and DENV-4 in Majuro, were tested for the presence of DENV RNA, by serotype specific RT-PCR, at the Institut Louis Malardé in French Polynesia. The serotype of DENV could be determined, by a variety of RT-PCR procedures, in the FP-dried samples after more than three weeks of transport at ambient temperatures. In most cases, the sequencing of the envelope gene to genotype the viruses also was possible. The serotype and genotype of DENV can be determined from FP-dried serum or whole blood samples transported over thousands of kilometers at ambient, tropical, temperatures. This simple and low-cost approach to virus identification should be evaluated in isolated and resource poor settings for surveillance for a range of significant viral diseases. Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  18. Unprovoked fatal shark attack in Lifou Island (Loyalty Islands, New Caledonia, South Pacific) by a great white shark, Carcharodon carcharias.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clua, Eric; Séret, Bernard

    2010-09-01

    The case of a fatal, unprovoked shark attack is reported and analyzed. The incident took place on the 30th of September 2007, in the lagoon of Luengoni Bay, Lifou Island (Loyalty Islands, New Caledonia). A young French woman who was snorkeling was severely bitten on the right thigh and died of hemorrhage. An analysis based in particular on the size and color of the shark, the characteristics of the wounds, and the behavior of the shark before and after the bite suggests that the aggressor was a great white shark, Carcharodon carcharias.

  19. Sustainable tourism and natural resources management in small islands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cappucci, Sergio; Morabito, Roberto

    2015-01-01

    The present issue reports the results obtained through the activities dedicated to the Management of Natural Resources of Sicily Eco-innovation Project, focused on sustainable tourism. Both studies and interventions were carried out between 2012 and 2015 in collaboration with the City Council and the Marine Protected Area of Egadi Islands, within the islets of Egadi Archipelago (few kilometres offshore of the Sicilian west coast). The study area is characterised by many ecological and naturalistic assets, particularly in the underwater environment, where a very high biodiversity is present thanks to the location and its particular hydrologic conditions. Here, the seabed has an irregular morphology with many cliffs, outcrops, sand banks and submarine valleys. It is a natural laboratory where the seasonal anthropic pressure is strongly related to tourism, leisure and professional/illegal fishing, pollution related to urbanisation (more intense in the Island of Favignana); all activities highly impacting the marine ecosystem and main threat for biological resources [it

  20. Beyond electricity: The potential of ocean thermal energy and ocean technology ecoparks in small tropical islands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Osorio, Andrés F.; Arias-Gaviria, Jessica; Devis-Morales, Andrea; Acevedo, Diego; Velasquez, Héctor Iván; Arango-Aramburo, Santiago

    2016-01-01

    Small islands face difficult challenges to guarantee energy, freshwater and food supply, and sustainable development. The urge to meet their needs, together with the mitigation and adaptation plans to address climate change, have led them to develop renewable energy systems, with a special interest in Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion (OTEC) in tropical islands. Deep Ocean Water (DOW) is a resource that can provide electricity (through OTEC in combination with warm surface water), low temperatures for refrigeration, and nutrients for food production. In this paper we propose an Ocean Technology Ecopark (OTEP) as an integral solution for small islands that consists of an OTEC plant, other alternative uses of DOW, and a Research and Development (R&D) center. We present an application of OTEP to San Andres, a Colombian island that meets all the necessary conditions for the implementation of OTEC technology, water desalinization, and a business model for DOW. We present the main entrance barriers and a four-stage roadmap for the consolidation and sustainability of the OTEP. - Highlights: • Small islands face problems such as development, energy, freshwater and food supply. • Tropical islands with access to deep ocean water can use OTEC all year round. • An Ocean Ecopark is proposed as an integral solution for San Andrés Island, Colombia. • The Ecopark consists of OTEC, desalinization, SWAC, greenhouses, and R&D activities. • This article discusses entrance barriers and presents a four-stage roadmap

  1. Effects of a tropical cyclone on the drinking-water quality of a remote Pacific island.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mosley, Luke M; Sharp, Donald S; Singh, Sarabjeet

    2004-12-01

    The effect of a cyclone (Ami, January 2003) on drinking-water quality on the island of Vanua Levu, Fiji was investigated. Following the cyclone nearly three-quarters of the samples analysed did not conform to World Health Organisation (WHO) guideline values for safe drinking-water in terms of chlorine residual, total and faecal coliforms, and turbidity. Turbidity and total coliform levels significantly increased (up 56 and 62 per cent, respectively) from pre-cyclone levels, which was likely due to the large amounts of silt and debris entering water-supply sources during the cyclone. The utility found it difficult to maintain a reliable supply of treated water in the aftermath of the disaster. Communities were unaware they were drinking water that had not been adequately treated. Circumstances permitted this cyclone to be used as a case study to assess whether a simple paper-strip water-quality test (the hydrogen sulphide, H(2)S) kit could be distributed and used for community-based monitoring following such a disaster event to better protect public health. The H(2)S test results correlated well with faecal and total coliform results as found in previous studies. A small percentage of samples (about 10 per cent) tested positive for faecal and total coliforms but did not test positive in the H(2)S test. It was concluded that the H(2)S test would be well suited to wider use, especially in the absence of water-quality monitoring capabilities for outer island groups as it is inexpensive and easy to use, thus enabling communities and community health workers with minimal training to test their own water supplies without outside assistance. The importance of public education before and after natural disasters is also discussed.

  2. Multiple Household Water Sources and Their Use in Remote Communities With Evidence From Pacific Island Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elliott, Mark; MacDonald, Morgan C.; Chan, Terence; Kearton, Annika; Shields, Katherine F.; Bartram, Jamie K.; Hadwen, Wade L.

    2017-11-01

    Global water research and monitoring typically focus on the household's "main source of drinking-water." Use of multiple water sources to meet daily household needs has been noted in many developing countries but rarely quantified or reported in detail. We gathered self-reported data using a cross-sectional survey of 405 households in eight communities of the Republic of the Marshall Islands (RMI) and five Solomon Islands (SI) communities. Over 90% of households used multiple sources, with differences in sources and uses between wet and dry seasons. Most RMI households had large rainwater tanks and rationed stored rainwater for drinking throughout the dry season, whereas most SI households collected rainwater in small pots, precluding storage across seasons. Use of a source for cooking was strongly positively correlated with use for drinking, whereas use for cooking was negatively correlated or uncorrelated with nonconsumptive uses (e.g., bathing). Dry season water uses implied greater risk of water-borne disease, with fewer (frequently zero) handwashing sources reported and more unimproved sources consumed. Use of multiple sources is fundamental to household water management and feasible to monitor using electronic survey tools. We contend that recognizing multiple water sources can greatly improve understanding of household-level and community-level climate change resilience, that use of multiple sources confounds health impact studies of water interventions, and that incorporating multiple sources into water supply interventions can yield heretofore-unrealized benefits. We propose that failure to consider multiple sources undermines the design and effectiveness of global water monitoring, data interpretation, implementation, policy, and research.

  3. Increase Economic Valuation of Marine Ecotourism Spots In Small Islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahakbauw, Siska D.; Teniwut, Wellem A.; Renjaan, Meiskyana R.; Hungan, Marselus

    2017-10-01

    Ecotourism is one of the fast-growing sectors especially in the developing country as a source of revenue. To get a sustainable development of ecotourism, it needs broad and comprehensive effort from central government and local government, perfect example in that regards in Indonesia is Bali and Lombok. For another area in Indonesia like Kei Islands which located in two administrative governments have a major problem to build a sustainable nature-based tourism because of the location of this area to the major cities in the country makes the travel cost is high. This situation makes the role of local community as the backbone of the growth and development of nature-based tourism is critical. By using structural equation modeling (SEM), we constructed a model to enhance local community perception on economic valuation of ecotourism spots in the area. Results showed that perceived quality as the mediation driven by the intensity of appearance on national television and the internet could increase community attachment to increase willingness to pay from the local community on ecotourism in Kei islands. Also, the result also indicated that WTP value for the local community on ecotourism in Kei Islands was 10.81 per trip, with average trip per month was 1 to 4 times.

  4. Building capacity for HIV/AIDS prevention among Asian Pacific Islander organizations: the experience of a culturally appropriate capacity-building program in Southern California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Lois M; Candelario, Jury; Young, Tim; Mediano, Elizabeth

    2007-01-01

    This article has two goals: (1) to outline a conceptual model for culturally appropriate HIV prevention capacity building; (2) to present the experiences from a 3-year program provided by Asian Pacific AIDS Intervention Team to Asian Pacific Islander (API) organizations in southern California. The participating organizations were of two types: lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, and questioning (LGBTQ) social organizations and social service agencies not targeting LGBTQ. These organizations were selected for participation because of their commitment to HIV/AIDS issues in API communities. An organizational survey and staff observations were used to explore changes in capacity. The organizations were mostly small, targeted diverse populations, served a large geographic area (southern California as a region), and were knowledgeable about HIV. Organizations became more viable (more capacity in human resources, financial, external relations, and strategic management), but also more unstable (large growth in paid staff and board members), and showed more capacity in HIV knowledge environments (especially less stigma and more sensitivity to diverse populations). The results suggest that capacity can expand over a short period of time, but as capacity increases, organizational viability/stability and HIV knowledge environments change, meaning that different types of technical assistance would be needed for sustainability.

  5. Adapting environmental function analysis for management of protected areas in small islands--case of Pico Island (the Azores).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calado, Helena; Bragagnolo, Chiara; Silva, Susana; Vergílio, Marta

    2016-04-15

    Protected areas (PAs) are considered key priorities for ensuring long-term sustainability of small islands. The traditional approach of conservation versus development is currently being replaced by an approach of "win-win" relationships. During the last decades PAs have been increasingly requested to simultaneously ensure biodiversity conservation, mainstream ecosystem services into main development policies, and accounting for leisure-related revenues to sustain local and regional economies. Following this new paradigm, the Smartparks project (Planning and Management System for Small Islands Protected Areas), encompassing this study, aimed at an innovative approach for supporting the management of PAs in small islands. In this study, we propose a methodology based on Environmental Functional Analyses (EFA) to compare the potential for conservation and the potential for use of PAs that can be used not only on small islands but also in other territories. For this purpose, a set of environmental and socio-economic components was defined and selected indicators describing each component to calculate conservation and use/development functions of PAs were established. Pico Island, in the Azores archipelago (Portugal), was selected as the case study for testing the methodology. The EFA for all PAs of Pico Island was performed identifying those with more potential for conservation or for development of human activities, and also those with high levels of conflict. A total of 34 indicators was applied (assigning a value from 1 to 3) to the 22 PAs composing the INP of Pico Island: 44% were scored with a value of 1, in both ecological and social components; 22% and 29% were scored 3 in ecological and social components respectively. Social indicators were generally considered less important than environmental ones. In general, PAs presented higher values for conservation. The results further show that the potential for conservation and/or development was consistent with the

  6. Identifying key demographic parameters of a small island–associated population of Indo-Pacific bottlenose dolphins (Reunion, Indian Ocean)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estrade, Vanessa; Fayan, Jacques

    2017-01-01

    Photo-identification surveys of Indo-Pacific bottlenose dolphins were conducted from 2009 to 2014 off Reunion Island (55°E33’/21°S07’), in the Indian Ocean. Robust Design models were applied to produce the most reliable estimate of population abundance and survival rate, while accounting for temporary emigration from the survey area (west coast). The sampling scheme consisted of a five-month (June–October) sampling period in each year of the study. The overall population size at Reunion was estimated to be 72 individuals (SE = 6.17, 95%CI = 61–85), based on a random temporary emigration (γ”) of 0.096 and a proportion of 0.70 (SE = 0.03) distinct individuals. The annual survival rate was 0.93 (±0.018 SE, 95%CI = 0.886–0.958) and was constant over time and between sexes. Models considering gender groups indicated different movement patterns between males and females. Males showed null or quasi-null temporary emigration (γ” = γ’ < 0.01), while females showed a random temporary emigration (γ”) of 0.10, suggesting that a small proportion of females was outside the survey area during each primary sampling period. Sex-specific temporary migration patterns were consistent with movement and residency patterns observed in other areas. The Robust Design approach provided an appropriate sampling scheme for deriving island-associated population parameters, while allowing to restrict survey effort both spatially (i.e. west coast only) and temporally (five months per year). Although abundance and survival were stable over the six years, the small population size of fewer than 100 individuals suggested that this population is highly vulnerable. Priority should be given to reducing any potential impact of human activity on the population and its habitat. PMID:28640918

  7. Strong indication of an extinction-based saturation of the flora on the Pacific Robinson Crusoe Islands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greimler, Josef; Schulze, Christian H; López Sepúlveda, Patricio; Novoa, Patricio; Gatica, Alejandro; Reiter, Karl; Wessely, Johannes; Baeza, Carlos; Peñailillo, Patricio; Ruiz, Eduardo; Stuessy, Tod

    2018-03-01

    Oceanic islands are vulnerable ecosystems and their flora has been under pressure since the arrival of the first humans. Human activities and both deliberately and inadvertently introduced biota have had and continue to have a severe impact on island endemic plants. The number of alien plants has increased nearly linearly on many islands, perhaps resulting in extinction-based saturation of island floras. Here, we provide evidence for such a scenario in Alejandro Selkirk, Robinson Crusoe Islands (Archipelago Juan Fernández, Chile). We compared species richness and species composition of historical vegetation samples from 1917 with recent ones from 2011. Changes in species' relative occurrence frequency were related to their taxonomic affiliation, dispersal mode, distribution status, and humidity and temperature preferences. While total species richness of vascular plants remained relatively similar, species composition changed significantly. Plants endemic to the Robinson Crusoe Islands declined, exotic species increased substantially within the period of ca. 100 years. Further, the relative occurrence frequency of plants with preferences for very warm and humid climate decreased, while the opposite was found for plants preferring drier and colder environments. Potential drivers responsible for this dramatic shift in the vegetation within only one century might have been the large goat population affecting especially small populations of endemic plants and climatic changes. Taking into account a substantial extinction debt, we expect further shifts in the vegetation of this small oceanic island toward alien plants. This would have significant negative consequences on global biodiversity, considering that island floras contribute substantially to global plant species richness due to their high proportion of endemics.

  8. Biological oceanography, biogeochemical cycles, and pelagic ecosystem functioning of the east-central South Pacific Gyre: focus on Easter Island and Salas y Gómez Island

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter von Dassow

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The Exclusive Economic Zone of Chile defined by Easter Island and Salas y Gómez Island is in the South Pacific Sub-tropical Gyre (SPSG, putting it at the center of the most oligotrophic and biomass poor waters in the world. Only 10 biological oceanographic expeditions have entered this zone in 105 years (19052010. We review key aspects of the plankton ecosystem and biogeochemical function relevant for the understanding of and conservation planning for marine environments. Plankton production is limited by lack of dissolved inorganic fixed nitrogen, not phosphorous. Higher organic nitrogen levels might be biologically unavailable. Short-term experiments suggested iron is not limiting, yet iron still likely limits nitrogen fixation, and thus production, at longer time scales, as the presence of nitrogen-fixers is exceptionally low compared to other ocean gyres. Plankton function is dominated by the smallest unicellular organisms, picoplankton (<3 μm in diameter. The SPSG represents a center of high biodiversity for picoplankton, as well as heterotrophic organisms such as tinntinids, siphonophores, and possibly amphipods, although data for key zooplankton, such as copepods, are lacking. Many groups exhibit negative relationships between diversity and total plankton biomass. High diversity might result from dispersal from a very large metacommunity and minimal competition within functional groups. Whether an island-mass effect causes a real or apparent increase in plankton biomass around Easter Island must be confirmed by high-resolution sampling in situ. Long-term threats to the planktonic ecosystem may include climate change-enhanced ocean stratification and plastic marine debris accumulation. Finally, priorities for future research are highlighted.

  9. USMLE performances in a predominantly Asian and Pacific Islander population of medical students in a problem-based learning curriculum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasuya, Richard T; Naguwa, Gwen S; Guerrero, Anthony P S; Hishinuma, Earl S; Lindberg, Marlene A; Judd, Nanette K

    2003-05-01

    To compare the USMLE performances of students of various ethnicities, predominantly Pacific Islander and Asian, at one medical school and to examine the predictive validity of MCAT scores for USMLE performance. A total of 258 students in the graduating classes of 1996-2000 at the University of Hawai'i School of Medicine were classified by ethnicity. Demographic and performance characteristics of the groups were examined, and MCAT scores with and without undergraduate science GPA were used to predict USMLE performance. Under- and over-prediction rates were computed for each ethnic group. Ethnic groups did not differ significantly by gender or undergraduate GPA. Chinese, Caucasian, and Other Asian students tended to have higher MCAT scores than Hawaiian/other Pacific Islander, and Filipino students. Ethnic groups did not differ significantly in prediction of USMLE Step 1 performance. For Step 2, MCAT scores significantly over-predicted performance of Filipino students and tended to under-predict performance of Caucasian students. Although MCAT scores and science GPA were good predictors of USMLE performance, ethnic differences were found in the degrees of their predictive validity. These findings both replicate and extend results of earlier studies, and again point to the importance of exploring additional predictor variables. The authors encourage future research on the effects of the following factors on success in medical school: reading and test-taking skills, socio-cultural and environmental influences on learning, communication styles, primary language use, family support, and family responsibilities.

  10. Multiple distant origins for green sea turtles aggregating off Gorgona Island in the Colombian eastern Pacific.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego F Amorocho

    Full Text Available Mitochondrial DNA analyses have been useful for resolving maternal lineages and migratory behavior to foraging grounds (FG in sea turtles. However, little is known about source rookeries and haplotype composition of foraging green turtle aggregations in the southeastern Pacific. We used mitochondrial DNA control region sequences to identify the haplotype composition of 55 green turtles, Chelonia mydas, captured in foraging grounds of Gorgona National Park in the Colombian Pacific. Amplified fragments of the control region (457 bp revealed the presence of seven haplotypes, with haplotype (h and nucleotide (π diversities of h = 0.300±0.080 and π = 0.009±0.005 respectively. The most common haplotype was CMP4 observed in 83% of individuals, followed by CMP22 (5%. The genetic composition of the Gorgona foraging population primarily comprised haplotypes that have been found at eastern Pacific rookeries including Mexico and the Galapagos, as well as haplotypes of unknown stock origin that likely originated from more distant western Pacific rookeries. Mixed stock analysis suggests that the Gorgona FG population is comprised mostly of animals from the Galapagos rookery (80%. Lagrangian drifter data showed that movement of turtles along the eastern Pacific coast and eastward from distant western and central Pacific sites was possible through passive drift. Our results highlight the importance of this protected area for conservation management of green turtles recruited from distant sites along the eastern Pacific Ocean.

  11. Multiple distant origins for green sea turtles aggregating off Gorgona Island in the Colombian eastern Pacific.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amorocho, Diego F; Abreu-Grobois, F Alberto; Dutton, Peter H; Reina, Richard D

    2012-01-01

    Mitochondrial DNA analyses have been useful for resolving maternal lineages and migratory behavior to foraging grounds (FG) in sea turtles. However, little is known about source rookeries and haplotype composition of foraging green turtle aggregations in the southeastern Pacific. We used mitochondrial DNA control region sequences to identify the haplotype composition of 55 green turtles, Chelonia mydas, captured in foraging grounds of Gorgona National Park in the Colombian Pacific. Amplified fragments of the control region (457 bp) revealed the presence of seven haplotypes, with haplotype (h) and nucleotide (π) diversities of h = 0.300±0.080 and π = 0.009±0.005 respectively. The most common haplotype was CMP4 observed in 83% of individuals, followed by CMP22 (5%). The genetic composition of the Gorgona foraging population primarily comprised haplotypes that have been found at eastern Pacific rookeries including Mexico and the Galapagos, as well as haplotypes of unknown stock origin that likely originated from more distant western Pacific rookeries. Mixed stock analysis suggests that the Gorgona FG population is comprised mostly of animals from the Galapagos rookery (80%). Lagrangian drifter data showed that movement of turtles along the eastern Pacific coast and eastward from distant western and central Pacific sites was possible through passive drift. Our results highlight the importance of this protected area for conservation management of green turtles recruited from distant sites along the eastern Pacific Ocean.

  12. Contextualizing Next Generation Science Standards to Guide Climate Education in the U.S. Affiliated Pacific Islands (USAPI)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sussman, A.; Fletcher, C. H.; Sachs, J. P.

    2012-12-01

    The USAPI has a population of about 1,800,000 people spread across 4.9 million square miles of the Pacific Ocean. The Pacific Islands are characterized by a multitude of indigenous cultures and languages. Many USAPI students live considerably below the poverty line. The Pacific Island region is projected to experience some of the most profound negative impacts of climate change considerably sooner than other regions. Funded by the National Science Foundation (NSF), the Pacific Islands Climate Education Partnership (PCEP) has developed a detailed strategic plan to collaboratively improve climate knowledge among the region's students and citizens in ways that exemplify modern science and indigenous environmental knowledge, address the urgency of climate change impacts, and honor indigenous cultures. Students and citizens within the region will have the knowledge and skills to advance understanding of climate change, and to adapt to its impacts. Core PCEP partners contribute expertise in climate science, the science of learning, the region's education infrastructure, and the region's cultures and indigenous knowledge and practices. PCEP's strategic education plan is guided by a general, multidisciplinary K-14 Climate Education Framework (CEF) that organizes fundamental science concepts and practices within appropriate grade-span progressions. This CEF is based largely upon the National Research Council's "A Framework for K-12 Science Education: Practices, Crosscutting Concepts, and Core Ideas" and the emerging Next Generation Science Standards. While the CEF is based upon these national Next Generation documents, it is also informed and strongly influenced by the region's geographic, climatic, cultural and socioeconomic contexts, notably indigenous knowledge and practices. Guided by the CEF, the PCEP in its initial development/planning phase has prototyped regional approaches to professional development, contextualizing curricula, and supporting community

  13. Transportation Limitation Access to the Small Islands (Case Study: Banggai Laut Regency)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sunarti, S.

    2018-02-01

    Indonesia is as an archipelago and maritime country, the large number of Islands owned and scattered in all directions makes a challenge for the Government in equitable development. Development in Indonesia has not been spread evenly and tends to focus on the big island, while the smaller islands are still far behind and lack of government attention. One of them is the lack of infrastructure especially the access to the small islands. Among the small islands in Indonesia with minimal maritime infrastructure or transportation is Banggai Laut Regency, Central Sulawesi Province. This Regency is a new regency that separate itself from its previous regency that is Banggai Kepulauan Regency in about 4 years ago. For the development of the Banggai Laut Regency, access to reach that regency is quite difficult. Therefore, the aim of this research is to find infrastructure development strategy to support the development of Banggai Laut Regency. The research method used was the concurrent model mixed method. Data collection method was done with primary data through field observation and interview, secondary data through literature and document review. Analytical techniques used are qualitative descriptive and Map Overlay techniques using GIS to describe the characteristics of study areas and spatial relationships between islands. The results of this research conclude that the Banggai Laut Regency requires infrastructure development particularly maritime transportation to enhance accessibility of the community headed to Banggi Laut Regency or headed to another island from the Banggai Laut Regency.

  14. Challenges to Plastic Up-Cycling in Small Island Communities: A Palauan Tale

    OpenAIRE

    Starkey, Lark

    2017-01-01

    Plastics in the marine environment are a growing environmental threat with mounting research on impacts, sources and management strategies. Small island communities are subject to greater threats because of dual inputs of marine plastics via ocean currents and locally used plastics, with a heavy reliance on imported packaged goods. The resulting plastic buildup on islands is often combined with a lack of infrastructure and remoteness, leaving few options for management. However, a number of e...

  15. Tidal Effects on Groundwater in a Very Small Tropical Island: A Study on the Groundwater Resources of Pag-asa Island, Kalayaan Island Group

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Ong

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available The Pag-asa Island, with its very small land area and low relief, has a very limited fresh water supply occurring as a thin freshwater lens. Climate, topography, vegetation, lithology, human abstractions, and tides affect the volume of the freshwater lens. Topographic and hydrogeologic surveys, coupled with a 72-hour groundwater-monitoring program were done to assess the effects of tides on the freshwater lens.Groundwater parameters measured in wells during the monitoring program include variations in water table depths, specific electrical conductivity (SEC, and temperature. Changes in these parameters were then correlated with the observed variations of the tides.The groundwater levels oscillate with the tides at varying amplitudes. The hydraulic properties of the lithologies making up the island's aquifer influence the amplitude of the oscillations. Groundwater level oscillations are least in the reef materials and greatest in the sandy materials where it is nearly simultaneous with the tidal variations. High electrical conductivity values are marked in wells built near the coasts and in sandy materials.The average annual precipitation is approximately 2,020 mm. Based on empirical studies, the estimated sustainable yield for small tropical islands is 6% of the lowest annual rainfall or about 20,300 m3/yr for Pag-asa Island.

  16. CRED REA Coral Population Parameters at Jarvis, Pacific Remote Island Areas (PRIAs), 2006

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Belt transects along 2 consecutively-placed, 25m transect lines were surveyed as part of Rapid Ecological Assessments conducted at 9 sites at Jarvis in the Pacific...

  17. CRED REA Fish Team Belt Transect Survey at Baker, Pacific Remote Island Areas, 2006

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Belt transects along 3 consecutively-placed, 25m transect lines were surveyed as part of Rapid Ecological Assessments conducted at 9 sites at Baker in the Pacific...

  18. CRED REA Fish Team Belt Transect Survey at Howland, Pacific Remote Island Areas (PRIAS), 2006

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Belt transects along 3 consecutively-placed, 25m transect lines were surveyed as part of Rapid Ecological Assessments conducted at 6 sites at Howland in the Pacific...

  19. Biology and impacts of Pacific island invasive species: Capra hircus, the feral goat, (Mammalia: Bovidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mark W. Chynoweth; Creighton M. Litton; Christopher A. Lepczyk; Steven C. Hess; Susan Cordell

    2013-01-01

    Domestic goats, Capra hircus, were intentionally introduced to numerous oceanic islands beginning in the sixteenth century. The remarkable ability of C. hircus to survive in a variety of conditions has enabled this animal to become feral and impact native ecosystems on islands throughout the world. Direct ecological impacts...

  20. Scurvy in a tropical paradise? Evaluating the possibility of infant and adult vitamin C deficiency in the Lapita skeletal sample of Teouma, Vanuatu, Pacific islands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckley, Hallie R; Kinaston, Rebecca; Halcrow, Siân E; Foster, Aimee; Spriggs, Matthew; Bedford, Stuart

    2014-06-01

    The Neolithic colonisation of the Pacific islands was one of the most challenging migration events in human history. The regions east of the Solomon Islands were colonised relatively recently by a people known as the Lapita. The Lapita brought with them a 'transported landscape' of domesticated plants and animals that had to be established upon arrival for the survival of these fledgling communities. Colonisation of these previously uninhabited islands was potentially perilous, and could leave colonisers vulnerable to periods of resource stress. The largest cemetery sample of Lapita people from the site of Teouma in Vanuatu offers a unique opportunity to assess the impact of colonisation on the health of pioneering populations. This paper explores the possibility that Teouma people experienced vitamin C deficiency as one of the consequences of the agricultural subsistence practices during the initial phases of island colonisation. Skeletal lesions in infants and adults indicative of scurvy suggest that initial colonisation phases in the Pacific islands involved precarious times involving deficiencies of key nutrients. Colonisation of the Pacific islands may share similar frameworks and problems as periods of subsistence transition in other parts of the world. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Ecosystems Potency of Small and Outer Islands of Indonesia for Beef Cattle Farming Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ismeth Inounu

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Indonesian archipelago consists of five main islands and more than seventeen thousand of small islands. These small islands are very effective as natural barrier to the spread of contagious animal diseases. This situation is very advantageous to develop many programs such as beef cattle farming to support beef self sufficient program in 2010. However, there are some constraints in developing of these small islands, namely human resources, natural resources, infrastructure, mean of communications and transportations and lack of intra sector integrated coordination. In taking the advantageous of developing small islands as a screening base and quarantine area, animal production technologies and veterinary science are much needed. The development can be done in integration with transmigration development program so that the beef cattle development could become source of income and job opportunity for the transmigran and local inhabitant as well. Beef cattle farming scheme are recommended by doing cow-calf operation or fattening. Political support from government and legislative are needed in establishment of infrastructure in the area chosen as beef cattle farming location. Besides, it need facilitations in land procurement for beef cattle farming, legal aspect, supports of law enforcement, simple regulation in land used and zone management planning, regulation in controlling beef importation, and credit with minimum interest rate.

  2. Global analysis of the techno-economic potential of renewable energy hybrid systems on small islands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blechinger, P.; Cader, C.; Bertheau, P.; Huyskens, H.; Seguin, R.; Breyer, C.

    2016-01-01

    Globally, small islands below 100,000 inhabitants represent a large number of diesel based mini-grids. With volatile fossil fuel costs which are most likely to increase in the long-run and competitive renewable energy technologies the introduction of such sustainable power generation system seems a viable and environmental friendly option. Nevertheless the implementation of renewable energies on small islands is quite low based on high transaction costs and missing knowledge according to the market potential. Our work provides a global overview on the small island landscape showing the respective population, economic activity, energy demand, and fuel costs for almost 1800 islands with approximately 20 million inhabitants currently supplied by 15 GW of diesel plants. Based on these parameters a detailed techno-economic assessment of the potential integration of solar PV, wind power, and battery storage into the power supply system was performed for each island. The focus on solar and wind was set due to the lack of data on hydro and geothermal potential for a global island study. It revealed that almost 7.5 GW of photovoltaic and 14 GW of wind power could be economically installed and operated on these islands reducing the GHG-emissions and fuel consumption by approximately 50%. In total numbers more than 20 million tons of GHG emissions can be reduced by avoiding the burning of 7.8 billion liters of diesel per year. Cost savings of around 9 USDct/kWh occur on average by implementing these capacities combined with 5.8 GWh of battery storage. This detailed techno-economic evaluation of renewable energies enables policy makers and investors to facilitate the implementation of clean energy supply systems on small islands. To accelerate the implementation of this enormous potential we give specific policy recommendations such as the introduction of proper regulations. - Highlights: • GIS analysis has identified approximately 1800 small island energy systems with

  3. Shredders are abundant and species-rich in tropical continental-island low-order streams: Gorgona Island, Tropical Eastern Pacific, Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magnolia Longo

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Macroinvertebrate shredders may have been overlooked in tropical streams due to the geographical bias of early studies, methodological limitations, and the complex influences of local-scale factors. While shredders seem to be scarce in most oceanic island streams, we here test if they are abundant in a continental island. Gut content analyses of benthic macroinvertebrates were used to identify shredding taxa in streams located in different types of forest in Gorgona Island (Tropical Eastern Pacific. General dietary overlap (GO was quantified and relative biomass, relative frequency and the leaf litter percentage in the guts were used to establish the relative importance of each taxon in the shredding guild. Various indices were used to identify the spatial arrangement (i.e. contagious or random of each taxon and shredding guild among streams. We identified 31 shredding taxa that were divided into specialist-shredders (14 taxa, generalist-shredders (10, and collector-shredders (7. There was a complete GO (0.75, p<0.001 for the guild. Cockroaches (Epilampra were the most represented shredders due to the greatest contribution to guild total biomass and to the highest content of leaf litter in their guts. These organisms were more important than shrimps and crabs in terms of abundance and biomass in leaf pack samples. Potimirin shrimps ranked second and Stenochironomus midges ranked third. Among aquatic insects, other secondarily important species were Leptohyphes (Ephemeroptera, Macrelmis, Anchytarsus and Tetraglosa (Coleoptera. Ten taxa exhibited contagious spatial pattern and twenty-one exhibited a random distribution. Resource distribution (i.e., leaf packs between streams was random too. The guild was contagiously distributed, but this result could be highly influenced by the taxa with contagious distribution. Mean abundance, richness and mean biomass of shredders were not significantly correlated with any of the environmental variables

  4. Comparison of diffusion from a small island and an undisturbed ocean site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raynor, G.S.; Brown, R.M.; SethuRaman, S.

    1978-01-01

    Experiments were conducted to investigate the differences in diffusion from an obstacle to free air flow in the ocean and from an undisturbed ocean site. A small island was used as the obstacle and simultaneous releases of oil-fog smoke were made from the island and from a nearby boat. The widths of the plumes and their concentrations distributions were measured quantitatively during traverses across the plumes by a second boat. Extensive series of photographs were taken of the plumes from the surface and from the air. Meteorological measurements were made at two locations on the island, from the boats and from an aircraft. One test series was conducted during unstable conditions and a second series with neutral and stable conditions.Width of the island plume over short periods was from 1.5 to 4 times that of the boat plume with the greatest difference during stable periods. Over longer periods, the differences were somewhat greater and much of the dispersion was caused by plume meander. Height of the island plume averaged about twice that of the boat plume. Normalized maximum centerline concentrations from the boat plume were 1.4 times those of the island plume during unstable periods but about twice during stable and neutral conditions. Averaged over all tests, dispersion from the island was about twice as great as from the boat

  5. Evaluation of factors influencing the groundwater chemistry in a small tropical island of Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kura, Nura Umar; Ramli, Mohammad Firuz; Sulaiman, Wan Nur Azmin; Ibrahim, Shaharin; Aris, Ahmad Zaharin; Mustapha, Adamu

    2013-05-06

    Groundwater chemistry of small tropical islands is influenced by many factors, such as recharge, weathering and seawater intrusion, among others, which interact with each other in a very complex way. In this work, multivariate statistical analysis was used to evaluate the factors controlling the groundwater chemistry of Kapas Island (Malaysia). Principal component analysis (PCA) was applied to 17 hydrochemical parameters from 108 groundwater samples obtained from 18 sampling sites. PCA extracted four PCs, namely seawater intrusion, redox reaction, anthropogenic pollution and weather factors, which collectively were responsible for more than 87% of the total variance of the island's hydrochemistry. The cluster analysis indicated that three factors (weather, redox reaction and seawater intrusion) controlled the hydrochemistry of the area, and the variables were allocated to three groups based on similarity. A Piper diagram classified the island's water types into Ca-HCO3 water type, Na-HCO3 water type, Na-SO4-Cl water type and Na-Cl water type, indicating recharge, mixed, weathering and leached from sewage and seawater intrusion, respectively. This work will provide policy makers and land managers with knowledge of the precise water quality problems affecting the island and can also serve as a guide for hydrochemistry assessments of other islands that share similar characteristics with the island in question.

  6. Satisfaction with the quality of life on Croatian small islands: Zlarin, Kaprije and Žirje

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satisfaction with the quality of life on Croatian small islands: Zlarin, Kaprije and Žirje

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to determine the levels of satisfaction with various life domains that constitute objective conditions of the quality of island life, and which influence the perception of islanders’ personal well-being among the inhabitants of three small islands (Zlarin, Kaprije and Žirje in Croatia. The obtained results are based on a resident survey (N=141. A quality of life assessment was carried out by recognizing the specificity of an island’s surface area and its population (small communities, mostly elderly people, as well as by evaluating choices that respondents perceive to be important for their well-being. Based on applied multivariate analyses, the research suggests that life satisfaction, besides a significant correlation with material status (income, is also greatly affected by the extent of preserved social values, common to the rural communities to which the observed islands belong, such as the closeness of personal relationships (level of acceptance in the local community, solidarity and the social order maintained through informal control (which provides a sense of security. Both islanders who have never lived off their island, as well as returnees and in-migrants, positively value the way of life in island communities.

  7. Patterns at Multi-Spatial Scales on Tropical Island Stream Insect Assemblages: Gorgona Island Natural National Park, Colombia, Tropical Eastern Pacific

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magnolia Longo

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Tropical Eastern Pacific island streams (TEPis differ from other neotropical streams in their rainy climate, mixed sedimentary-volcanic geology and faunal composition. Yet, their relationships between environmental characteristics and stream biota remain unexplored. We analyzed the environmental subject at three spatial scales using a fully nested sampling design (6 streams, 2 reaches within each stream, 2 habitats within each reach, and 4 replicates per habitat on Gorgona Island (Colombia. Sampling was carried out in two months with contrasting rainfall during early 2009. We studied the spatial variation of assemblage composition and density along with 27 independent variables within two contrasting rainfall conditions. Five stream-scale variables, two reach-scale variables, and five habitat-scale variables were selected using a Canonical Correspondence Analysis (CCA. A partial CCA showed that the total variance explained was 13.98%, while stream- and habitat-scale variables explained the highest proportion of the variance (5.74 and 5.01%, respectively. Dissolved oxygen (as affected by rainfall, high-density use zone (a management category, and sedimentary geology were the best descriptors of insect assemblages. The two latter descriptors affected fine-scale variables such as total benthic organic matter and gravel substratum, respectively. A Nested ANOVA showed significant differences in total density and richness among streams and habitats, and significant differences between the two sampling months regardless of the spatial scale. The evenness showed a significant stream- and habitat-dependent temporal variability. These results suggested that rainfall regime in Gorgona Island might be a driver of insect assemblage dynamics mediated by water chemistry and substratum properties. Spatial assemblage variability here is greater within habitats (among samples, and a minor fraction occurs at habitat- and stream-scales, while no longitudinal

  8. Strategy to control the invasive alien tree Miconia calvescens in Pacific islands: Eradication, containment or something else?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Jean-Yves; Loope, Lloyd; Goarant, Anne-Claire; Veitch, C.R.; Clout, M.N.; Towns, D. R.

    2011-01-01

    Miconia calvescens (Melastomataceae) is a notorious plant invader in the tropical islands of French Polynesia, Hawaii and New Caledonia. A small tree native to Central and South America, it was first introduced as an ornamental in private botanic gardens in Tahiti (1937), Honolulu (1961), and Nouméa (1970s) where it escaped, became naturalised, and formed dense monospecific stands. More than 80,000 ha are currently invaded in French Polynesia, 10,000 ha in the Hawaiian Islands and 140 ha in New Caledonia. Control programmes have been under way in the Hawaiian Islands (Oahu, Maui, Hawaii, Kauai) and French Polynesia (Raiatea, Tahaa, Nuku Hiva, Fatu Hiva) since the early 1990s, and in New Caledonia (Province Sud) since 2006. Despite more than 15 years of intensive control efforts and millions of plants destroyed, eradication has not been achieved in any of these islands, mainly because the species has multiple features that thwart its elimination (e.g., prolific seed production, active dispersal by alien and native frugivorous birds, large and persistent soil seed bank, shade-tolerance), combined with the difficulty of detecting and destroying plants on rough terrain and steep slopes, insufficient control frequency, and limited financial and human resources. Miconia’s life cycle requires at least four years growth from seedling to fruiting. Consequently, prevention of fruit production may be an effective management strategy for small populations. This “juvenilization” process may allow the eradication of small populations when carefully conducted over a quarter century. 

  9. Small-scale hydroelectric power in the Pacific Northwest: new impetus for an old energy source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-07-01

    Energy supply is one of the most important issues facing Northwestern legislators today. To meet the challenge, state legislatures must address the development of alternative energy sources. The Small-Scale Hydroelectric Power Policy Project of the National Conference of State Legislators (NCSL) was designed to assist state legislators in looking at the benefits of one alternative, small-scale hydro. Because of the need for state legislative support in the development of small-scale hydroelectric, NCSL, as part of its contract with the Department of Energy, conducted the following conference on small-scale hydro in the Pacific Northwest. The conference was designed to identify state obstacles to development and to explore options for change available to policymakers. A summary of the conference proceedings is presented.

  10. Chopsticks Don't Make It Culturally Competent: Addressing Larger Issues for HIV Prevention among Gay, Bisexual, and Queer Asian Pacific Islander Men

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Chong-suk

    2009-01-01

    According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, men who have sex with men account for the largest proportion of cumulative AIDS cases among Asian Pacific Islanders. Yet little is known about the factors that need to be addressed in developing culturally competent intervention strategies for members of this group. This article explores…

  11. Aloha Teachers: Teacher Autonomy Support Promotes Native Hawaiian and Pacific Islander Students' Motivation, School Belonging, Course-Taking and Math Achievement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Froiland, John Mark; Davison, Mark L.; Worrell, Frank C.

    2016-01-01

    Among 110 Native Hawaiians and Pacific Islanders, teacher autonomy support in 9th grade significantly predicted intrinsic motivation for math in 9th grade as well as math course-taking over the next 2 years, both of which in turn significantly predicted math achievement by 11th grade. In a second model, teacher autonomy support was positively…

  12. Perceived Discrimination and Its Associations with Mental Health and Substance Use among Asian American and Pacific Islander Undergraduate and Graduate Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Angela Chia-Chen; Szalacha, Laura A.; Menon, Usha

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: Racial discrimination experiences can negatively affect health. This study examined perceived discrimination and its relationship with mental health and substance use among Asian American and Pacific Islander (API) undergraduate and graduate students. Participants: A total of 113 API students aged 18-35 completed the study during…

  13. An innovative team-based stop smoking competition among Maori and Pacific Island smokers: rationale and method for the study and its evaluation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Glover, M.; Bosman, A.; Wagemakers, A.; Kira, A.; Paton, C.; Cowie, N.

    2013-01-01

    Maori and Pacific Island people have significantly higher smoking rates compared to the rest of the New Zealand population. The main aim of this paper is to describe how knowledge of Indigenous people’s practices and principles can be combined with proven effective smoking cessation support into a

  14. Network Connectedness, Sense of Community, and Risk Perception of Climate Change Professionals in the Pacific Islands Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corlew, L. K.; Keener, V. W.; Finucane, M.

    2013-12-01

    The Pacific Regional Integrated Sciences and Assessments (Pacific RISA) Program conducted social network analysis research of climate change professionals (broadly defined) who are from or work in Hawaii and the U.S.-Affiliated Pacific Islands (USAPI) region. This study is supported by the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) and the Pacific Islands Climate Science Center (PICSC) to address an identified need for a resource that quantifies the region's collaborative network of climate change professionals, and that supports the further development of cross-regional and inter-sectoral collaborations for future research and adaptation activities. A survey was distributed to nearly 1,200 people who are from and/or work in climate change related fields in the region. The Part One Survey questions (not confidential) created a preferential attachment network by listing major players in Hawaii and the USAPI, with additional open fields to identify important contacts in the greater professional network. Participants (n=340) identified 975 network contacts and frequency of communications (weekly, monthly, seasonally, yearly, at least once ever). Part Two Survey questions (confidential, n=302) explored climate change risk perceptions, Psychological Sense of Community (PSOC), sense of control over climate change impacts, sense of responsibility to act, policy beliefs and preferences regarding climate change actions, concern and optimism scales about specific impacts, and demographic information. Graphical representations of the professional network are being developed for release in September 2013 as a free online tool to promote and assist collaboration building among climate professionals in the region. The graphs are partitioned according to network 'hubs' (high centrality), participant location, and profession to clearly identify network strengths and opportunities for future collaborations across spatial and professional boundaries. For additional

  15. Island operation - modelling of a small hydro power system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skarp, Stefan

    2000-02-01

    Simulation is a useful tool for investigating a system behaviour. It is a way to examine operating situations without having to perform them in reality. If someone for example wants to test an operating situation where the system possibly will demolish, a computer simulation could be a both cheaper and safer way than to do the test in reality. This master thesis performs and analyses a simulation, modelling an electronic power system. The system consists of a minor hydro power station, a wood refining industry, and interconnecting power system components. In the simulation situation the system works in a so called island operation. The thesis aims at making a capacity analysis of the current system. Above all, the goal is to find restrictions in load power profile of the consumer, under given circumstances. The computer software used in simulations is Matlab and its additional program PSB (Power System Blockset). The work has been carried out in co-operation with the power supplier Skellefteaa Kraft, where the problem formulation of this master thesis was founded.

  16. Encountering Urbanization on Jersey: Development, Sustainability, and Spatiality in a Small Island Setting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henry

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available On the island of Jersey, the success of local industries including agriculture, tourism, and financial services has helped grow the population of permanent residents, contract workers, seasonal workers, and short-term tourists. As a result, between 1950 and 2015 the island’s population nearly doubled from about 55,000 to 100,000, and, consequently, the landscape has undergone much urban development, not only in and around the parish capital of St Helier, but also in varying degrees in each of the island’s other parishes. During this period of population growth, the island’s urbanization has been framed within a context of developing the island’s industries on the one hand, yet sustaining the island’s unique environment on the other. After all, one of the main qualities of Jersey that has helped its tourism industry has been its ability to maintain characteristics of the island in a context of population growth and increased resource restraints. Using a method of critical inquiry of primary and secondary sources, this article foregrounds how the geographically small island of Jersey has encountered urbanization, particularly in the decades following the Second World War. The discussion illustrates some of the consequences for islanders and how development and sustainability as an assemblage of interconnected practices and perceptions have helped craft a distinct environment for the island that contributes to its local character. The article shows that inward migration flows have led to a locally-defined urbanization, which has resulted in a continually growing population and a type of urban island lure. For the field of Island Studies, a study of Jersey’s locally-defined urbanization sheds light on how urban development and sustainability consciousness is characterized and practised on this particular small island in an era that sees it especially dependent on the finance and tourism industries.

  17. Invasive rats strengthen predation pressure on bird eggs in a South Pacific island rainforest

    OpenAIRE

    Duron, Q.; Bourguet, E.; De Meringo, H.; Millon, A.; Vidal, Eric

    2017-01-01

    Invasive rats (Rattus spp.) are known to have pervasive impacts on island birds, particularly on their nesting success. To conserve or restore bird populations, numerous invasive rat control or eradication projects are undertaken on islands worldwide. However, such projects represent a huge investment and the decision-making process requires proper assessment of rat impacts. Here, we assessed the influence of two sympatric invasive rats (Rattus rattus and R. exulans) on native bird eggs in a ...

  18. Exploring experts' views and perspectives on the enhancement of Strategic Environmental Assessment in European small islands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Polido, Alexandra; João, Elsa; Ramos, Tomás B.

    2016-01-01

    Small islands have the attention of the international community because they are territories with unique features, and a pressing need for the enhancement of sustainability. Strategic Environmental Assessment (SEA) has characteristics that may promote the development and improvement of sustainability in these territories: (i) changing the mind-set, and the decision-making and institutional paradigm, (ii) facilitating cooperation and coordination between different stakeholders, and (iii) providing a framework for good governance and community empowerment. The scientific literature suggests that there may be a need for context-specific SEA in these territories. However, SEA studies often do not incorporate local contextual information, including intuitive knowledge and sense of place. Therefore, there is a possible gap between what is found in the literature and what local communities think, including different stakeholders and experts. Hence, the main goal of this research was to gain an insight into the views and perspectives of small islands SEA experts about issues related to SEA in European small islands, including context-specific approaches, as well as the contribution of SEA for sustainability in these territories. To achieve the research aim, exploratory research using a questionnaire-based survey was designed, aimed at experts on SEA in European small islands. Findings showed regional cooperation networks may have a fundamental role when developing SEA-specific approaches in these territories. This is because SEA-specific approaches encourage a joint effort among islands within one region to improve SEA capacity-building, develop and share a baseline information system, and to share and exchange resources, overall. Also, guidelines are preferred among experts over more legal frameworks and regulations. Finally, the research showed that experts view SEA as a way to enhance sustainability in small islands. This study highlights the importance of integrating

  19. Exploring the oil price and real GDP nexus for a small island economy, the Fiji Islands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prasad, Arti; Narayan, Paresh Kumar; Narayan, Jashwini

    2007-01-01

    The goal of this paper is to examine the relationship between real GDP and oil prices using time series data for the period 1970-2005. Our main finding is that an increase in oil has a positive, albeit inelastic, impact on real GDP, inconsistent with the bulk of the literature. We argue that this is not a surprising result for the Fiji Islands. Our central argument focuses on two aspects of the Fijian economy: (1) the fact that actual output in Fiji has been around 50 per cent less than potential output; thus, Fiji's actual output has not reached a threshold level at which oil prices can negatively impact output; and (2) a rise in oil prices filters through to value added, which in turn is reflected in a larger actual output

  20. Vaccination Coverage Among Children Aged 2 Years - U.S. Affiliated Pacific Islands, April-October, 2016.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tippins, Ashley; Murthy, Neil; Meghani, Mehreen; Solsman, Amy; Apaisam, Carter; Basilius, Merlyn; Eckert, Maribeth; Judicpa, Peter; Masunu, Yolanda; Pistotnik, Kelsey; Pedro, Daisy; Sasamoto, Jeremy; Underwood, J Michael

    2018-05-25

    Vaccine-preventable diseases (VPDs) cause substantial morbidity and mortality in the United States Affiliated Pacific Islands (USAPI).* CDC collaborates with USAPI immunization programs to monitor vaccination coverage. In 2016, † USAPI immunization programs and CDC piloted a method for estimating up-to-date status among children aged 2 years using medical record abstraction to ascertain regional vaccination coverage. This was the first concurrent assessment of childhood vaccination coverage across five USAPI jurisdictions (American Samoa; Chuuk State, Federated States of Micronesia [FSM]; Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands [CNMI]; Republic of the Marshall Islands [RMI]; and Republic of Palau). § Differences in vaccination coverage between main and outer islands ¶ were assessed for two jurisdictions where data were adequate.** Series coverage in this report includes the following doses of vaccines: ≥4 doses of diphtheria and tetanus toxoids and acellular pertussis vaccine (DTaP); ≥3 doses of inactivated poliovirus vaccine (IPV); ≥1 dose of measles, mumps, and rubella vaccine (MMR); ≥3 doses of Haemophilus influenzae type B (Hib) vaccine; ≥3 doses of hepatitis B (HepB) vaccine; and ≥4 doses of pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV); i.e., 4:3:1:3:3:4. Coverage with ≥3 doses of rotavirus vaccine was also assessed. Completion of the recommended series of each of these vaccines †† was <90% in all jurisdictions except Palau. Coverage with the full recommended six-vaccine series (4:3:1:3:3:4) ranged from 19.5% (Chuuk) to 69.1% (Palau). In RMI and Chuuk, coverage was lower in the outer islands than in the main islands for most vaccines, with differences ranging from 0.9 to 66.8 percentage points. Medical record abstraction enabled rapid vaccination coverage assessment and timely dissemination of results to guide programmatic decision-making. Effectively monitoring vaccination coverage, coupled with implementation of data-driven interventions

  1. A qualitative exploration of the relationship between racism and unsafe sex among Asian Pacific Islander gay men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Chong-suk

    2008-10-01

    Although reported cases of HIV/AIDS among gay Asian Pacific Islander (API) American men and API men who have sex with men (MSM) are still relatively low, current research findings indicate that incidences of unsafe sexual activity may be higher for this group than for any other group. Among the explanations offered to explain the levels of increasing unsafe sex among gay API men have been sexual norms found in Asian cultures, the lack of culturally relevant and/or linguistically appropriate intervention material, lack of integration into the mainstream gay community, and internalized homophobia. What are often ignored in these analyses are the contextual norms in which sexual behavior for gay API men occur. In this article, I develop the argument that racism within the gay community leads to socially and contextually prescribed sexual roles for gay API men that may also contribute to the practice of unsafe sex among this group.

  2. A novel recruiting and surveying method: Participatory research during a Pacific Islander community’s traditional cultural event

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grace Donoho

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Little is known about the health status of Marshallese, a Pacific Islander subpopulation living in the United States. The Marshallese have established a growing community in Northwest Arkansas, providing a unique opportunity for increasing knowledge regarding the health of this minority group. This article describes how a community-based participatory research process was used by a community and university coalition to identify and refine questionnaires and recruit study participants. Questionnaires were self-administered on computers during a one-week traditional cultural event. A total of 874 Marshallese from Arkansas completed the questionnaire, exceeding the goal of 600 respondents. Lessons learned, including the level and timing of involvement of both the leadership and the community at large, are discussed in detail. This approach enhanced communication and collaboration between the Marshallese community, service providers and researchers, resulting in higher participation and interest among the Marshallese community. Keywords: participatory research, minority populations, community health assessment, community coalition, Marshallese

  3. Risk factors of suicide and depression among Asian American, Native Hawaiian, and Pacific Islander youth: a systematic literature review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wyatt, Laura C.; Ung, Tien; Park, Rebecca; Kwon, Simona C.; Trinh-Shevrin, Chau

    2015-01-01

    Suicide has become an increasing public health challenge, with growing incidence among Asian American, Native Hawaiian, and Pacific Islander (AA and NHPI) youth. Using an ecological framework, the purpose of this systematic review was to explicate risk and protective factors for depression or suicide among AA and NHPI youth from available peer reviewed research. The ecological framework provides a useful blueprint for translating social determinants of health to explain the experience of depression and suicidal behaviors among AA and NHPI youth. Sixty-six studies were extracted from PsychInfo, Ovid Medline, EMBASE, CINAHL, and Web of Science. Policy and practice recommendations are offered in light of relevant themes that emerged. Further research and data disaggregation is needed to develop and strengthen population health strategies, interventions, and policies that address the underlying social conditions and cultural contexts of mental health disparities associated with depression and suicide among AA and NHPI youth. PMID:25981098

  4. Risk Factors of Suicide and Depression among Asian American, Native Hawaiian, and Pacific Islander Youth: A Systematic Literature Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wyatt, Laura C; Ung, Tien; Park, Rebecca; Kwon, Simona C; Trinh-Shevrin, Chau

    2015-05-01

    Suicide has become an increasing public health challenge, with growing incidence among Asian American, Native Hawaiian, and Pacific Islander (AA and NHPI) youth. Using an ecological framework, the purpose of this systematic review was to explicate risk and protective factors for depression or suicide among AA and NHPI youth from available peer reviewed research. The ecological framework provides a useful blueprint for translating social determinants of health to explain the experience of depression and suicidal behaviors among AA and NHPI youth. Sixty-six studies were extracted from PsychInfo, Ovid Med-line, EMBASE, CINAHL, and Web of Science. Policy and practice recommendations are offered in light of relevant themes that emerged. Further research and data disaggregation is needed to develop and strengthen population health strategies, interventions, and policies that address the underlying social conditions and cultural contexts of mental health disparities associated with depression and suicide among AA and NHPI youth.

  5. Asian and Pacific Islander women scientists and engineers: A narrative exploration of model minority, gender, and racial stereotypes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chinn, Pauline W. U.

    2002-04-01

    This qualitative study uses narrative methodology to understand what becoming a scientist or engineer entails for women stereotyped as model minorities. Interviews with four Chinese and Japanese women focused on the social contexts in which science is encountered in classrooms, families, and community. Interpretation was guided by theories that individuals construct personal narratives mediated by cultural symbolic systems to make meaning of experiences. Narratives revealed that Confucian cultural scripts shaped gender expectations even in families several generations in America. Regardless of parents' level of education, country of birth, and number of children, educational expectations, and resources were lower for daughters. Parents expected daughters to be compliant, feminine, and educated enough to be marriageable. Findings suggest K-12 gender equity science practices encouraged development of the women's interests and abilities but did not affect parental beliefs. The author's 1999 study of Hawaiians/Pacific Islander and Filipina female engineers is included in implications for teacher education programs sensitive to gender, culture, ethnicity, and language.

  6. Thirteen years of observations on primary sugars and sugar alcohols over remote Chichijima Island in the western North Pacific

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. K. Verma

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to understand the atmospheric transport of bioaerosols, we conducted long-term observations of primary sugars and sugar alcohols over remote Chichijima Island in the western North Pacific from 2001 to 2013. Our results showed that concentrations of total sugar compounds for 13 years ranged from 1.2 to 310 ng m−3 (average of 46 ± 49 ng m−3. We found that atmospheric circulations significantly affect the seasonal variations of bioaerosol distributions over the western North Pacific. The primary sugars (glucose and fructose maximized in summer, possibly due to an increased emission of the vegetation products from local vascular plants in Chichijima. We also found higher concentrations of sugar components (arabitol, mannitol, and trehalose in more recent years during summer and autumn, suggesting an enhanced emission of fungal and microbial species over the island. Sucrose peaked in late winter to early spring, indicating a springtime pollen contribution by long-range atmospheric transport, while elevated concentrations of sucrose in early summer could be explained by long-range transport of soil dust from Southeast Asia to Chichijima. Sucrose and trehalose were found to present increasing trends from 2001 to 2013, while total sugar components did not show any clear trends during the 13-year period. Positive matrix factorization analyses suggested the locally emitted sugar compounds as well as long-range-transported airborne pollen grains, microbes, and fungal spores are the major contributors to total sugar compounds in the Chichijima aerosols. Backward air mass trajectories support the atmospheric transport of continental aerosols from the Asian continent during winter and spring over Chichijima.

  7. Acculturative Heterogeneity among Asian/Pacific Islanders in the United States: Associations with DSM Mental and Substance Use Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salas-Wright, Christopher P.; Lee, Sharon; Vaughn, Michael G.; Jang, Yuri; Sanglang, Cindy C.

    2014-01-01

    Extant studies on the links between acculturation and mental and substance use disorders among Asian/Pacific Islanders have been based on the assumption that acculturation is a homogeneous construct. However, emerging evidence suggests that the various components of acculturation do not manifest independently, but rather cluster in ways that reflect distinct profiles. We employ data on Asian/Pacific Islanders from the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions (n = 968). Latent profile analysis is used to identify acculturation subgroups on the basis of indicator variables related to cultural identification, language ability and preference, and social engagement. Subsequently, the distribution of outcome variables in the domains of DSM disorders (lifetime history of clinical, personality, and substance use disorders) is examined across latent subgroups. We identified a five class solution: Class 1: “Separated” (12.91%), Class 2: “Partial Bilingual/Bicultural” (30.06%), Class 3: “English Dominant/Asian Oriented” (12.29%), Class 4:”Full Bilingual/Bicultural” (19.42%) and Class 5: “Assimilated” (25.31%). The highest rates of clinical disorders were observed among members of the two classes characterized by a strong preference for the use of the English language (Classes 3 and 5). The highest prevalence of nicotine (12%) and illicit drug use (15%) disorders was observed among members of the “Assimilated” class. Consistent with prior research, findings suggest that risk of morbidity is greater among more acculturated individuals; however, findings also suggest that an important level of nuance can be observed with respect to acculturative subtypes identified on the basis of cultural identification, language ability and preference, and social engagement. PMID:26167805

  8. Thirteen years of observations on primary sugars and sugar alcohols over remote Chichijima Island in the western North Pacific

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verma, Santosh Kumar; Kawamura, Kimitaka; Chen, Jing; Fu, Pingqing

    2018-01-01

    In order to understand the atmospheric transport of bioaerosols, we conducted long-term observations of primary sugars and sugar alcohols over remote Chichijima Island in the western North Pacific from 2001 to 2013. Our results showed that concentrations of total sugar compounds for 13 years ranged from 1.2 to 310 ng m-3 (average of 46 ± 49 ng m-3). We found that atmospheric circulations significantly affect the seasonal variations of bioaerosol distributions over the western North Pacific. The primary sugars (glucose and fructose) maximized in summer, possibly due to an increased emission of the vegetation products from local vascular plants in Chichijima. We also found higher concentrations of sugar components (arabitol, mannitol, and trehalose) in more recent years during summer and autumn, suggesting an enhanced emission of fungal and microbial species over the island. Sucrose peaked in late winter to early spring, indicating a springtime pollen contribution by long-range atmospheric transport, while elevated concentrations of sucrose in early summer could be explained by long-range transport of soil dust from Southeast Asia to Chichijima. Sucrose and trehalose were found to present increasing trends from 2001 to 2013, while total sugar components did not show any clear trends during the 13-year period. Positive matrix factorization analyses suggested the locally emitted sugar compounds as well as long-range-transported airborne pollen grains, microbes, and fungal spores are the major contributors to total sugar compounds in the Chichijima aerosols. Backward air mass trajectories support the atmospheric transport of continental aerosols from the Asian continent during winter and spring over Chichijima.

  9. Acculturative heterogeneity among Asian/Pacific Islanders in the United States: Associations with DSM mental and substance use disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salas-Wright, Christopher P; Lee, Sharon; Vaughn, Michael G; Jang, Yuri; Sanglang, Cindy C

    2015-07-01

    Extant studies on the links between acculturation and mental and substance use disorders among Asian/Pacific Islanders have been based on the assumption that acculturation is a homogeneous construct. However, emerging evidence suggests that the various components of acculturation do not manifest independently, but rather cluster in ways that reflect distinct profiles. We employ data on Asian/Pacific Islanders from the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions (n = 968). Latent profile analysis is used to identify acculturation subgroups on the basis of indicator variables related to cultural identification, language ability and preference, and social engagement. Subsequently, the distribution of outcome variables in the domains of DSM disorders (lifetime history of clinical, personality, and substance use disorders) is examined across latent subgroups. We identified a 5-class solution: Class 1: Separated (12.91%), Class 2: Partial Bilingual/Bicultural (30.06%), Class 3: English Dominant/Asian Oriented (12.29%), Class 4: Full Bilingual/Bicultural (19.42%) and Class 5: Assimilated (25.31%). The highest rates of clinical disorders were observed among members of the 2 classes characterized by a strong preference for the use of the English language (Classes 3 and 5). The highest prevalence of nicotine (12%) and illicit drug use (15%) disorders was observed among members of the Assimilated class. Consistent with prior research, findings suggest that risk of morbidity is greater among more acculturated individuals; however, findings also suggest that an important level of nuance can be observed with respect to acculturative subtypes identified on the basis of cultural identification, language ability and preference, and social engagement. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  10. Defense.gov Special Report: Asian-American Pacific Islander Heritage Month

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niumatalolo was named head coach of the U.S. Naval Academy's football team, making him the first Samoan Heritage Month History U.S. Army Military District of Washington Bases Hold Educational, Cultural Events Veterans History Project: Stories of Asian Pacific Americans Department of Veterans Affairs- Center for

  11. The impact of tourism on the economy and population of small islands : The case of Aruba

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Croes, R.H.

    2007-01-01

    Many small islands in the Caribbean depend on tourism as the dominant sector of their economy. This dependence leads to economic vulnerability, in particular if the sector is dominated by international hotel chains that cater for the North American market. Reliance on a single geographical market

  12. TOURISM MULTIPLIERS FOR A SMALL CARIBBEAN ISLAND STATE; THE CASE OF ARUBA

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steenge, Albert E.; Van De Steeg, Annemieke M.

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, we study the importance of tourism for Aruba, a small Caribbean island state within the Kingdom of The Netherlands. We present an input-output table based on the National Accounts and the Tourism Satellite Account for Aruba, with inbound tourism explicitly included, for the year 1999.

  13. Master Learning: A Way to Manage Tertiary Education in Small Island Jurisdictions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hovgaard, Gestur

    2016-01-01

    As a consequence of globalisation, there is now a general trend among hesitant small island jurisdictions to focus on educational planning in the tertiary sector. The question therefore is how smart solutions adapted to the specific contexts can be developed. This article argues for the need to innovate the societal role of the smaller state…

  14. ‘Genuine Jersey’: Branding and Authenticity in a Small Island Culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henry Johnson

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Jersey has attained a recognized international reputation especially in agriculture, tourism and finance. Over the past century, this small island has developed rapidly as a tourist destination and, since the 1960s, as a leading international finance centre. This paper discusses how a public-private organization uses a notion of islandness in order to help add value to local produce and products, and at the same time offering a sense of authenticity in terms of provenance. As an organization and brand, “Genuine Jersey” was launched in 2001 and is now a particularly visible island-based brand that does much to support local businesses and promote selected island produce and products more broadly to locals and visitors alike, as well as within a wider export industry. Drawing on discourses mainly from island studies and marketing, the article discusses how and why this brand exists on Jersey. While including a critical discussion of the brand itself, the paper shows how Genuine Jersey operates on and as a result of this particular island context.

  15. Role of the urate transporter SLC2A9 gene in susceptibility to gout in New Zealand Māori, Pacific Island, and Caucasian case-control sample sets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hollis-Moffatt, Jade E; Xu, Xin; Dalbeth, Nicola; Merriman, Marilyn E; Topless, Ruth; Waddell, Chloe; Gow, Peter J; Harrison, Andrew A; Highton, John; Jones, Peter B B; Stamp, Lisa K; Merriman, Tony R

    2009-11-01

    To examine the role of genetic variation in the renal urate transporter SLC2A9 in gout in New Zealand sample sets of Māori, Pacific Island, and Caucasian ancestry and to determine if the Māori and Pacific Island samples could be useful for fine-mapping. Patients (n= 56 Māori, 69 Pacific Island, and 131 Caucasian) were recruited from rheumatology outpatient clinics and satisfied the American College of Rheumatology criteria for gout. The control samples comprised 125 Māori subjects, 41 Pacific Island subjects, and 568 Caucasian subjects without arthritis. SLC2A9 single-nucleotide polymorphisms rs16890979 (V253I), rs5028843, rs11942223, and rs12510549 were genotyped (possible etiologic variants in Caucasians). Association of the major allele of rs16890979, rs11942223, and rs5028843 with gout was observed in all sample sets (P = 3.7 x 10(-7), 1.6 x 10(-6), and 7.6 x 10(-5) for rs11942223 in the Māori, Pacific Island, and Caucasian samples, respectively). One 4-marker haplotype (1/1/2/1; more prevalent in the Māori and Pacific Island control samples) was not observed in a single gout case. Our data confirm a role of SLC2A9 in gout susceptibility in a New Zealand Caucasian sample set, with the effect on risk (odds ratio >2.0) greater than previous estimates. We also demonstrate association of SLC2A9 with gout in samples of Māori and Pacific Island ancestry and a consistent pattern of haplotype association. The presence of both alleles of rs16890979 on susceptibility and protective haplotypes in the Māori and Pacific Island sample is evidence against a role for this nonsynonymous variant as the sole etiologic agent. More extensive linkage disequilibrium in Māori and Pacific Island samples suggests that Caucasian samples may be more useful for fine-mapping.

  16. Spatial Ecology of the American Crocodile in a Tropical Pacific Island in Central America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balaguera-Reina, Sergio A; Venegas-Anaya, Miryam; Sánchez, Andrés; Arbelaez, Italo; Lessios, Harilaos A; Densmore, Llewellyn D

    2016-01-01

    Conservation of large predators has long been a challenge for biologists due to the limited information we have about their ecology, generally low numbers in the wild, large home ranges and the continuous expansion of human settlements. The American crocodile (Crocodylus acutus) is a typical apex predator, that has suffered from all of these characteristic problems, especially the latter one. Humans have had a major impact on the recovery of this species throughout its range, even though most of the countries it inhabits have banned hunting. The last decade has made it clear that in order to implement sound conservation and management programs, we must increase our understanding of crocodile spatial ecology. However, in only two countries where American crocodiles have telemetry studies even been published. Herein we have characterized the spatial ecology of C. acutus on Coiba Island, Panama, by radio-tracking (VHF transmitters) 24 individuals between 2010 and 2013, to determine movement patterns, home range, and habitat use. We have then compared our findings with those of previous studies to develop the most comprehensive assessment of American crocodile spatial ecology to date. Females showed a higher average movement distance (AMD) than males; similarly, adults showed a higher AMD than sub-adults and juveniles. However, males exhibited larger home ranges than females, and concomitantly sub-adults had larger home ranges than juveniles, hatchlings, and adults. There was an obvious relationship between seasonal precipitation and AMD, with increased AMD in the dry and "low-wet" seasons, and reduced AMD during the "true" wet season. We found disaggregate distributions according to age groups throughout the 9 habitat types in the study area; adults and hatchlings inhabited fewer habitat types than juveniles and sub-adults. These sex- and age-group discrepancies in movement and habitat choice are likely due to the influences of reproductive biology and Coiba

  17. Disaster risk reduction and sustainable development for small island developing states

    OpenAIRE

    Shultz, James M.; Cohen, Madeline A.; Hermosilla, Sabrina; Espinel, Zelde; McLean, Andrew

    2016-01-01

    In contrast to continental nations, the world's 52 small island developing states (SIDS) are recognized as a collective of countries that experience disproportionate challenges for sustainable development related to their geography, small size, and physical isolation. These same states also face elevated risks for disaster incidence and consequences particularly in the realms of climate change, sea level rise, natural disasters (tropical cyclones, earthquakes, tsunamis, volcanoes), and marine...

  18. Elements of Pacific public health laws: an analysis of the public health acts of Papua New Guinea, Vanuatu, the Solomon Islands, and Fiji.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howse, Genevieve

    2012-09-01

    Pacific countries are sovereign nations with distinctive histories, ethnicity, customs, primary resources, economies, and health systems. Despite these and other acknowledged differences, similarities exist in many areas such as geography, legal history, and culture. Many share the experience of colonization, with imported British laws and the subsequent experience of independence. Most Pacific countries are also developing countries. This article broadly describes approaches to legislating in public health in Papua New Guinea, Fiji, Vanuatu, and the Solomon Islands and notes common elements in their public health laws, in particular, in relation to administration, allocation of powers and responsibilities, interaction with local government, communicable disease control, and nuisance. The article concludes that many Pacific public health laws could deliver better support for current health policy, more sensitivity to the culture and customs of the region, and better management of public health risk through laws that are better suited to their Pacific environment, easier to understand, more flexible, and more relevant to current health policy.

  19. A comparison of controls on freshwater lens morphology of small carbonate and siliciclastic islands: examples from barrier islands in Florida, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, James C.; Kruse, Sarah E.

    2003-12-01

    The freshwater lens on small islands may easily be overexploited or polluted due to dense development combined with improper management. On small carbonate islands complexities in fresh groundwater distribution are most commonly driven by geologic heterogeneities and their attendant impact on permeability and effective recharge patterns. Siliciclastic islands (composed primarily of quartz sand and other silica-based minerals) have been less well studied, and fewer common patterns of lens development have emerged. On some siliciclastic islands correlations between geology and lens geometries are weak; on these islands the freshwater lens geometry may be largely determined by how vegetation and terrain elevation affect recharge. Other factors such as unequal sea level on opposite sides of an island and transient variability (natural island migration and climate variability) may also be locally significant. Two barrier islands in the northeast Gulf of Mexico fall into this category of siliciclastic islands. Relationships between lens morphology, geology, vegetation, terrain, and sea level and transient effects are documented on St George Island and Dog Island, FL. Patterns of fresh groundwater occurrence are deduced with electrical and electromagnetic geophysical methods. Although isolated cores show geologic layering that could potentially control freshwater lens development, ground penetrating radar and seismic surveys show no evidence of semi-continuous subhorizontal layering. Inferred lens thickness and geometry suggests that site geology plays a relatively minor role as a cause of complexity in lens formation. Lens geometry does appear to be related to terrain and vegetation variability, and further complicated by the continuous reforming of these islands by coastal processes and human development.

  20. Reconstruction of Holocene environmental changes in Southern Kurils (North-Western Pacific) based on palaeolake sediment proxies from Shikotan Island

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nazarova, Larisa; Grebennikova, Tatiana A.; Razjigaeva, Nadezhda G.; Ganzey, Larisa A.; Belyanina, Nina I.; Arslanov, Khikmat A.; Kaistrenko, Victor M.; Gorbunov, Aleksey O.; Kharlamov, Andrey A.; Rudaya, Natalia; Palagushkina, Olga; Biskaborn, Boris K.; Diekmann, Bernhard

    2017-12-01

    We investigated a well-dated sediment section of a palaeolake situated in the coastal zone of Shikotan Island (Lesser Kurils) for organic sediment-geochemistry and biotic components (diatoms, chironomids, pollen) in order to provide a reconstruction of the palaeoenvironmental changes and palaeo-events (tsunamis, sea-level fluctuations and landslides) in Holocene. During the ca 8000 years of sedimentation the changes in organic sediment-geochemistry and in composition of the diatoms and chironomids as well as the shifts in composition of terrestrial vegetation suggest that the period until ca 5800 cal yr BP was characterized by a warm and humid climate (corresponds to middle Holocene optimum) with climate cooling thereafter. A warm period reconstructed from ca 900 to at least ca 580 cal yr BP corresponds to a transition to a Nara-Heian-Kamakura warm stage and can be correlated to a Medieval Warm Period. After 580 cal yr PB, the lake gradually dried out and climatic signals could not be obtained from the declining lacustrine biological communities, but the increasing role of spruce and disappearance of the oak from the vegetation give evidences of the climate cooling that can be correlated with the LIA. The marine regression stages at the investigated site are identified for ca 6200-5900 (at the end of the middle Holocene transgression), ca 5500-5100 (Middle Jomon regression or Kemigawa regression), and ca 1070-360 cal yr BP (at the end of Heian transgression). The lithological structure of sediments and the diatom compositions give evidences for the multiple tsunami events of different strengths in the Island. Most remarkable of them can be dated at around ca 7000, 6460, 5750, 4800, 950 cal yr BP. The new results help to understand the Holocene environmental history of the Southern Kurils as a part of the Kuril-Kamchatka and Aleutian Marginal Sea-Island Arc Systems in the North-Western Pacific region.

  1. 77 FR 22771 - President's Advisory Commission on Asian Americans and Pacific Islanders

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-17

    ... businesses; and (iv) strategies to increase public and private-sector collaboration, and community... Islanders; and determine key strategies to help meet the Commission's charge as outlined in E.O. 13515..., assistive listening devices, or material in alternative format) should notify Shelly Coles at (202) 453-7277...

  2. 75 FR 54858 - President's Advisory Commission on Asian Americans and Pacific Islanders

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-09

    ... Islanders. ACTION: Notice of an open meeting. SUMMARY: The notice sets forth the schedule and agenda of the... attend. Date: September 20, 2010. Time: 9 a.m.-5:30 p.m. EDT. Date: September 21, 2010. Time: 9 a.m.-5:30... meeting because of issues related to scheduling the meeting. Agenda The purpose of the meeting is review...

  3. Gentleness and Violence in the Pacific: A View from the Marquesas Islands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martini, Mary

    This research reports on an ethnographic study of Marquesas Islanders and their concepts of violent and aggressive behavior. The study interviewed six mothers about their children's behavior at three stages of early life: (1) infants and toddlers; (2) school-aged children; and (3) adolescents. Analysis of the research suggests that violence is…

  4. Process evaluation of a walking programme delivered through the workplace in the South Pacific island Vanuatu.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siefken, Katja; Schofield, Grant; Schulenkorf, Nico

    2015-06-01

    The South Pacific region is experiencing significant rates of chronic diseases. Well-evaluated health promotion programmes are needed as a central piece of a strategic solution. Just as important as the evaluation itself is how that evaluation outcome can be communicated for future programme use by local programme planners. The objective of this study is to evaluate a physical activity (PA) programme that was designed for Pacific women in urban Vanuatu, and subsequently to develop new techniques to display data that support the understanding and communication of programme success and challenges. Data collection methods included quantitative Likert scale questions and qualitative open-ended questions. A new analysis technique visualises open-ended process evaluation data. We present themes using word sizes proportional to the frequency of the themes identified through thematic analysis. The Likert scale technique revealed little meaningful information; almost all participants rated most elements of the programme highly. This may be related to Pacific people being frequently inclined to assent with external ideas. Open-ended questions provided more significant insights. For example, we found a stronger change in eating habits (68.9%) than in exercise behaviour (28.2%). We present an evaluation of the first pedometer-based PA intervention in the Pacific and respond to the paucity of process evaluations that have been carried out in the context of low- and middle-income countries. Moreover, the new thematic data visualisation (TDV) approach may aid in understanding complex and cluttered data in a constructive and coordinated way; we present a new approach in health promotion research. © The Author(s) 2014.

  5. Small-Island Perceptions of Scholarships: Perspectives from Jamaica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyman, T. A.

    2017-12-01

    The Caribbean has the lowest tertiary enrolment in the Western Hemisphere. This figure currently stands at 10% of the population, instead of a desired 30%. [1] Jamaica specifically, has seen a decline in tertiary education enrolment at major institutions such as the University of Technology, Northern Caribbean University, with the only exception being the University of the West Indies showing a marginal increase of 3.6% in 2016. The inability to cover the cost of tertiary education by citizens is a deterrent - despite government subsidies of up to 80%. Scholarship resources exist in Jamaica, but the challenge is the small number of scholarships granted, in proportion to a large applicant pool. Consequently, only the highest performing students are selected at the expense of other higher performing students. Interestingly though, scholarship resources exist internationally for tertiary studies. In the United States for example, US$100 million funds go unclaimed each year due to a lack of awareness. The European Union (EU) will also invest 80 million Euros in research and innovation from 2014 to 2020, with these funds air marked for partnerships between the EU and the rest of the world. The overall aim of this research is to assess the awareness of Jamaicans ages 17 to 45 years, in terms of their knowledge of these international funds, their perceptions of scholarships as a source of tertiary education financing, and preferences for physical locations of study. [1] UWI Professor Archibald McDonald

  6. Conservation biology for suites of species: Demographic modeling for Pacific island kingfishers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kesler, D.C.; Haig, S.M.

    2007-01-01

    Conservation practitioners frequently extrapolate data from single-species investigations when managing critically endangered populations. However, few researchers initiate work with the intent of making findings useful to conservation efforts for other species. We presented and explored the concept of conducting conservation-oriented research for suites of geographically separated populations with similar natural histories, resource needs, and extinction threats. An example was provided in the form of an investigation into the population demography of endangered Micronesian kingfishers (Todiramphus cinnamominus). We provided the first demographic parameter estimates for any of the 12 endangered Pacific Todiramphus species, and used results to develop a population projection matrix model for management throughout the insular Pacific. Further, we used the model for elasticity and simulation analyses with demographic values that randomly varied across ranges that might characterize congener populations. Results from elasticity and simulation analyses indicated that changes in breeding adult survival exerted the greatest magnitude of influence on population dynamics. However, changes in nestling survival were more consistently correlated with population dynamics as demographic rates were randomly altered. We concluded that conservation practitioners working with endangered Pacific kingfishers should primarily focus efforts on factors affecting nestling and breeder survival, and secondarily address fledgling juveniles and helpers. Further, we described how the generalized base model might be changed to focus on individual populations and discussed the potential application of multi-species models to other conservation situations. ?? 2007 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Pacific Association for Clinical Training (PACT): lessons learned and next steps in developing a sustainable continuing health professionals education system in the United States-Affiliated Pacific Island (USAPI) jurisdictions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buenconsejo-Lum, Lee E; Maskarinec, Gregory G; Palafox, Neal A

    2007-03-01

    In response to the 1998 Institute of Medicine report, "Pacific Partnerships for Health ", acknowledging the need for the continuing education of health workers in the United States-Affiliated Pacific Island (USAPI) jurisdictions, the U.S. Health Resources and Services Administration (HRSA) awarded a grant (1999-2003) to the University of Washington for a continuing education project in the Pacific. When shortfalls in HRSA funding threatened continuation of the program, Pacific advocates aggressively made a case for refunding of this important project. In 2003, HRSA announced competitive funding for a new program for continuing education. The Department of Family Medicine and Community Health (DFMCH) at the University of Hawai'i (UH), John A. Burns School of Medicine (JABSOM) was awarded the HRSA Cooperative Agreement to run from September 2003 through August 2007, creating PACT the Pacific Association for Clinical Training. PACT assembled a professional, community-based advisory board, most of whom were indigenous Pacific Islanders, and conducted a continuing clinical education needs assessment in every jurisdiction, subsequently developing and delivering programs utilizing distance education relevant to the needs of each USAPI jurisdiction. Priority health areas included diabetes, oral health and geriatrics, as mandated by HRSA. This report describes the processes, accomplishments, challenges and lessons learned from the project. PACT needs assessment reports for each jurisdiction and an executive summary are published as Original Articles in this issue of Pacific Health Dialog. As funding for PACT comes to an end, it is clear that much work remains to be done in the region. "Continuing clinical education" is only one part of a continuum of human resources for health (HRH) workforce development. Continued USAPI regional, U.S. national and international collaboration and resources are needed to achieve the ultimate goal of improved health and health care delivery

  8. Productivity and fishing pressure drive variability in fish parasite assemblages of the Line Islands, equatorial Pacific.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Chelsea L; Baum, Julia K; Reddy, Sheila M W; Trebilco, Rowan; Sandin, Stuart A; Zgliczynski, Brian J; Briggs, Amy A; Micheli, Fiorenza

    2015-05-01

    Variability in primary productivity and fishing pressure can shape the abundance, species composition, and diversity of marine life. Though parasites comprise nearly half of marine species, their responses to these important forces remain little explored. We quantified parasite assemblages at two spatial scales, across a gradient in productivity and fishing pressure that spans six coral islands of the Line Islands archipelago and within the largest Line Island, Kiritimati, which experiences a west-to-east gradient in fishing pressure and upwelling-driven productivity. In the across-islands data set, we found that increasing productivity was correlated with increased parasite abundance overall, but that the effects of productivity differed among parasite groups. Trophically transmitted parasites increased in abundance with increasing productivity, but directly transmitted parasites did not exhibit significant changes. This probably arises because productivity has stronger effects on the abundance of the planktonic crustaceans and herbivorous snails that serve as the intermediate hosts of trophically transmitted parasites than on the higher-trophic level fishes that are the sole hosts of directly transmitted parasites. We also found that specialist parasites increased in response to increasing productivity, while generalists did not, possibly because specialist parasites tend to be more strongly limited by host availability than are generalist parasites. After the effect of productivity was controlled for, fishing was correlated with decreases in the abundance of trophically transmitted parasites, while directly transmitted parasites appeared to track host density; we observed increases in the abundance of parasites using hosts that experienced fishing-driven compensatory increases in abundance. The within-island data set confirmed these patterns for the combined effects of productivity and fishing on parasite abundance, suggesting that our conclusions are robust

  9. Optimization of coastal protection measures on small islands in the northfrisian part of the North Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wöffler, T.; Jensen, J.; Schüttrumpf, H.

    2017-12-01

    Low lying small islands are among the most vulnerable regions worldwide due to the consequences of climate change. The reasons for this are the concentration of infrastructure, geographical features and their small size. Worldwide special forms and adaptations of coastal protection strategies and measures can be found on small islands. In the northfrisian part of the North Sea worldwide unique strategies and measures have been developed in the last centuries due to the geographic location and the isolation during extreme events. One special feature of their coastal protection strategy is the lack of dikes. For this reason, the houses are built on artificial dwelling mounds in order to protect the inhabitants and their goods against frequently occurring inundations during storm surge seasons (up to 30 times a year). The Hallig islands themselves benefit by these inundations due to sediments, which are accumulated on the island's surfaces. This sedimentation has enabled a natural adaption to sea level rise in the past. Nevertheless, the construction methods of the coastal protection measures are mainly based on tradition and the knowledge of the inhabitants. No resilient design approaches and safety standards for these special structures like dwelling mounds and elevated revetments exist today. For this reason, neither a cost efficient construction nor a prioritization of measures is possible. Main part of this paper is the scientific investigation of the existing coastal protection measures with the objective of the development of design approaches and safety standards. The results will optimize the construction of the existing coastal protection measures and can be transferred to other small islands and low lying areas worldwide.

  10. Beyond the Continent: Creating an Independent Scientific Assessment Process for the Hawai`i and U.S. Affiliated Pacific Islands Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grecni, Z. N.; Keener, V. W.

    2017-12-01

    An external evaluation found that the inclusion of users of climate information and diverse regional experts in developing the 2012 Pacific Islands Regional Climate Assessment was a key factor in the report's perceived credibility and usefulness (Moser 2013). The 2012 assessment is seen as a foundational summary for Hawai`i and the U.S.-Affiliated Pacific Islands and is still used in vulnerability assessments and to support decisions by public- and private-sector actors. Recently, lessons learned from the 2012 assessment process were applied in engaging technical experts and potential future users in developing a chapter for the U.S. National Climate Assessment, as a regional update that builds on previous assessment activities. In the absence of downscaled climate projection scenarios and products available to the contiguous U.S., the Pacific Islands chapter continued to draw on projections from regional climate models and extensive user engagement. Through surveys, webinars, technical sectoral workshops, and peer review networks, the regional author team received input from a range of stakeholders. In particular, engagement aimed to identify key risks in sectors of importance to the Hawai`i and U.S.-Affiliated Pacific Islands region and cases in which stakeholder groups are already implementing measures toward resilience and adaptation. Data collection began during the chapter development process and will continue at the release of the 4th National Climate Assessment in 2018, with the aim of evaluating how stakeholder engagement affects the assessment's usefulness in assisting island communities to understand risks and vulnerabilities and review potential adaptation strategies.

  11. Whole-island carbon stocks in the tropical Pacific: implications for mangrove conservation and upland restoration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donato, D C; Kauffman, J B; Mackenzie, R A; Ainsworth, A; Pfleeger, A Z

    2012-04-30

    Management of forest carbon (C) stocks is an increasingly prominent land-use issue. Knowledge of carbon storage in tropical forests is improving, but regional variations are still poorly understood, and this constrains forest management and conservation efforts associated with carbon valuation mechanisms (e.g., carbon markets). This deficiency is especially pronounced in tropical islands and low-lying coastal areas where climate change impacts are expected to be among the most severe. This study presents the first field estimate of island-wide carbon storage in ecosystems of Oceania, with special attention to the regional role of coastal mangroves, which occur on islands and coastal zones throughout the tropics. On two island groups of Micronesia (Yap and Palau), we sampled all above- and belowground C pools, including soil and vegetation, in 24 sites distributed evenly among the three major vegetation structural types: mangroves, upland forests, and open savannas (generally on degraded lands formerly forested). Total C stocks were estimated to be 3.9 and 15.2 Tg C on Yap and Palau, respectively. Mangroves contained by far the largest per-hectare C pools (830-1218 Mg C ha(-1)), with deep organic-rich soils alone storing more C (631-754 Mg C ha(-1)) than all pools combined in upland systems. Despite covering just 12-13% of land area, mangroves accounted for 24-34% of total island C stocks. Savannas (156-203 Mg C ha(-1)) contained significantly lower C stocks than upland forests (375-437 Mg C ha(-1)), suggesting that reforesting savannas where appropriate has high potential for carbon-based funding to aid restoration objectives. For mangroves, these results demonstrate the key role of these systems within the broader context of C storage in island and coastal landscapes. Sustainable management of mangrove forests and their large C stocks is of high importance at the regional scale, and climate change mitigation programs such as REDD+ could play a large role in

  12. Macrophthalmus graeffei A. Milne Edwards, 1873 (Crustacea: Brachyura: Macrophthalmidae: a new Indo-Pacific guest off Rhodes Island (SE Aegean Sea, Greece

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.A. PANCUCCI-PAPADOPOULOU

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available A new alien crab, the macrophthalmid Macrophthalmus graeffei, is reported from the eastern coastline of Rhodes Island. The species, of Indo-West Pacific origin, is known from muddy sediments up to about 80 m depth. In the Mediterranean, its presence has been observed along Levantine coasts as well as along the Turkish coast of the Aegean Sea.Macrophthalmus graeffei increases to twelve the number of alien brachyurans present in the Hellenic SE Aegean Sea, ten of them having Indo-Pacific origin.

  13. Engineering Study for a Full Scale Demonstration of Steam Reforming Black Liquor Gasification at Georgia-Pacific's Mill in Big Island, Virginia; FINAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robert De Carrera; Mike Ohl

    2002-01-01

    Georgia-Pacific Corporation performed an engineering study to determine the feasibility of installing a full-scale demonstration project of steam reforming black liquor chemical recovery at Georgia-Pacific's mill in Big Island, Virginia. The technology considered was the Pulse Enhanced Steam Reforming technology that was developed and patented by Manufacturing and Technology Conversion, International (MTCI) and is currently licensed to StoneChem, Inc., for use in North America. Pilot studies of steam reforming have been carried out on a 25-ton per day reformer at Inland Container's Ontario, California mill and on a 50-ton per day unit at Weyerhaeuser's New Bern, North Carolina mill

  14. Changing politics, economics and relations on the small remote island of Fair Isle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard W. Butler

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The paper interprets changes which have taken place on Fair Isle, a small remote Scottish island, over the last half century, with a focus on how the interplay of external forces and local adjustments have produced a positive working relationship between local residents, visitors and those in authority over the island. The paper discusses the changes in the island’s governance and economy that the island residents have experienced and how life on the island has adjusted to major change over a fifty year period. The information and responses from resident surveys discussed were collected using identical household surveys conducted fifty years apart to provide a unique comparison on a longitudinal basis of changes in the economy and way of life on the island, including the emergence of tourism as the major driver of the economy This has taken place without the common antagonism or problems between residents and visitors in tourist destinations, reflecting the appropriate handling of mutual interests and concerns through political arrangements which have been supportive and sympathetic to residents and visitors.

  15. Evaluation of Factors Influencing the Groundwater Chemistry in a Small Tropical Island of Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nura Umar Kura

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Groundwater chemistry of small tropical islands is influenced by many factors, such as recharge, weathering and seawater intrusion, among others, which interact with each other in a very complex way. In this work, multivariate statistical analysis was used to evaluate the factors controlling the groundwater chemistry of Kapas Island (Malaysia. Principal component analysis (PCA was applied to 17 hydrochemical parameters from 108 groundwater samples obtained from 18 sampling sites. PCA extracted four PCs, namely seawater intrusion, redox reaction, anthropogenic pollution and weather factors, which collectively were responsible for more than 87% of the total variance of the island’s hydrochemistry. The cluster analysis indicated that three factors (weather, redox reaction and seawater intrusion controlled the hydrochemistry of the area, and the variables were allocated to three groups based on similarity. A Piper diagram classified the island’s water types into Ca-HCO3 water type, Na-HCO3 water type, Na-SO4-Cl water type and Na-Cl water type, indicating recharge, mixed, weathering and leached from sewage and seawater intrusion, respectively. This work will provide policy makers and land managers with knowledge of the precise water quality problems affecting the island and can also serve as a guide for hydrochemistry assessments of other islands that share similar characteristics with the island in question.

  16. A GIS Inventory of Critical Coastal Infrastructure Land Use in Caribbean Island Small Island Developing States: Classification and Criteria Methodology

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'aversa, N.; Becker, A.; Bove, G.

    2017-12-01

    Caribbean Small Island Developing States (SIDS) face significant natural hazard risks, as demonstrated by recent Hurricanes Jose, Irma, and Maria. Scientists project storms to become more intense and sea level rise to increase over the next century. As a result, the Inter-American Development Bank projections suggest that Caribbean nations could face climate-related losses in excess of $22 billion annually by 2050. Critical infrastructure that supports island economies, such as airports, seaports, cruise ports, and energy facilities, are typically located in the coastal zone with high exposure to natural hazards. Despite the increasing danger from climate driven natural hazards in coastal zones in the region, there is very little data available to identify how much land and associated infrastructure is at risk. This work focuses on the criteria and data standards developed for this new region-wide GIS database, which will then be used to formulate a risk assessment. Results will be integrated into a single, comprehensive source for data of lands identified as critical coastal infrastructure and used to address such questions as: How much of the Caribbean SIDS infrastructure lands are at risk from sea level rise? How might demand for such lands change in the future, based on historical trends? Answers to these questions will help decision makers understand how to prioritize resilience investment decisions in the coming decades.

  17. Evaluation of a Leadership in Mental Health course for Pacific Island Nation delegates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charlson, Fiona; Redman-MacLaren, Michelle; Hunter, Ernest

    2015-12-01

    We report the background to and preliminary evaluation of the Leadership in Mental Health: Island Nations course, run for the first time in Cairns in conjunction with Creating Futures 2015. The course was well attended and well received, with increased confidence in key areas demonstrated and concerns regarding local application identified. In addition to positive comments, content and delivery issues were raised. Future opportunities for expanding upon this initial course are discussed. © The Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Psychiatrists 2015.

  18. A report on the outbreak of Zika virus on Easter Island, South Pacific, 2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tognarelli, J; Ulloa, S; Villagra, E; Lagos, J; Aguayo, C; Fasce, R; Parra, B; Mora, J; Becerra, N; Lagos, N; Vera, L; Olivares, B; Vilches, M; Fernández, J

    2016-03-01

    Zika virus (ZIKV) is an emerging mosquito-borne flavivirus circulating in Asia and Africa. In 2013, a large outbreak was reported on the archipelago of French Polynesia. In this study, we report the detection and molecular characterization of Zika virus for the first time in Chile from an outbreak among the inhabitants of Easter Island. A total of 89 samples from patients suspected of having ZIKV infection were collected between the period from January to May, 2014. Molecular diagnosis of the virus was performed by RT-PCR followed by the sequencing of the region containing the NS5 gene. A comparison of the viral nucleic acid sequence with those of other strains of ZIKA virus was performed using the MEGA software. Fifty-one samples were found positive for ZIKV by RT-PCR analysis. Further analysis of the NS5 gene revealed that the ZIKV strains identified in Easter Island were most closely related to those found in French Polynesia (99.8 to 99.9% nt and 100% aa sequence identity). These results strongly suggest that the transmission pathway leading to the introduction of Zika virus on Easter Island has its origin in French Polynesia.

  19. 137Cs and 210Po in Pacific Walrus and Bearded Seal from St. Lawrence Island, Alaska

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamilton, T F; Seagars, D J; Jokela, T; Layton, D

    2005-01-01

    The activity concentration of Cesium-137 ( 137 Cs) and naturally-occurring Polonium-210 ( 210 Po) were measured in the muscle tissue, kidney and liver of Pacific walrus (Odobenus rosmarus divergens) and bearded seal (Erignathus barbatus) collected by native hunters from the Bering Sea. The mean 137 Cs concentrations in muscle, liver and kidney of Pacific walrus were 0.07, 0.09 and 0.07 Bq kg -1 (N= 5, wet weight), respectively, and 0.17, 0.10, and 0.17 Bq kg -1 (N=2, wet weight), respectively, in bearded seal. In general, 137 Cs tissue concentrations are significantly lower than those previously reported for mammals from other regions. By comparison, 210 Po activity concentrations appear to be higher than those reported elsewhere but a larger variation. The mean 210 Po concentration in the muscle tissue, liver and kidney of Pacific walrus (N=5, wet weight) were 28.7, 189, and 174 Bq kg -1 , respectively. This compares with 210 Po concentration values (N=2, wet weight) of 27, 207, and 68 Bq kg -1 measured in the muscle tissue, liver and kidney, of bearded seal, respectively. Estimated bioaccumulation factors--as defined by the radionuclide concentration ratio between the target tissue to that in sea water--were two to three orders of magnitude higher for 210 Po that those of 137 Cs. We conclude from radiological dose estimates that ingestion of 137 Cs in foods derived from walrus and seal will pose no threat to human health. This work has important implications for assessing health risks to Alaskan coastal communities concerned about the dumping of nuclear waste in the Russia Arctic

  20. 137Cs and 210Po in Pacific walrus and bearded seal from St. Lawrence Island, Alaska

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamilton, Terry; Seagars, Dana; Jokela, Terry; Layton, David

    2008-01-01

    The activity concentration of Cesium-137 ( 137 Cs) and naturally-occurring Polonium-210 ( 210 Po) were measured in the muscle tissue, kidney and liver of Pacific walrus (Odobenus rosmarus divergens) and bearded seal (Erignathus barbatus) collected by native hunters from the Bering Sea during May 1996. The mean 137 Cs concentrations in muscle, liver and kidney of Pacific walrus were 0.07, 0.09 and 0.07 Bq kg -1 (n = 5, wet weight), respectively, and 0.17, 0.10, and 0.17 Bq kg -1 (n = 2, wet weight), respectively, in bearded seal. In general, 137 Cs tissue concentrations are significantly lower than those previously reported for mammals from other regions. By comparison, 210 Po activity concentrations are more variable and appear to be higher level compared with mammal data from other regions. The mean 210 Po concentration in the muscle tissue, liver and kidney of Pacific walrus (n = 5, wet weight) were 28.7, 189, and 174 Bq kg -1 , respectively. This compares with 210 Po concentration values (n = 2, wet weight) of 27, 207 and 68 Bq kg -1 measured in the muscle tissue, liver and kidney, of bearded seal, respectively. Estimated concentration factors-as defined by the radionuclide concentration ratio between the target tissue to that in sea water-were two to three orders of magnitude higher for 210 Po that those of 137 Cs. We conclude from radiological dose estimates that ingestion of 137 Cs in foods derived from walrus and seal will pose no threat to human health. This work has important implications for assessment of risks of Alaskan coastal communities concerned about the dumping of nuclear waste in the Russia Arctic

  1. 137Cs and 210Po in Pacific walrus and bearded seal from St. Lawrence Island, Alaska.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton, Terry; Seagars, Dana; Jokela, Terry; Layton, David

    2008-06-01

    The activity concentration of Cesium-137 ((137)Cs) and naturally-occurring Polonium-210 ((210)Po) were measured in the muscle tissue, kidney and liver of Pacific walrus (Odobenus rosmarus divergens) and bearded seal (Erignathus barbatus) collected by native hunters from the Bering Sea during May 1996. The mean (137)Cs concentrations in muscle, liver and kidney of Pacific walrus were 0.07, 0.09 and 0.07 Bq kg(-1) (n=5, wet weight), respectively, and 0.17, 0.10, and 0.17 Bq kg(-1) (n=2, wet weight), respectively, in bearded seal. In general, (137)Cs tissue concentrations are significantly lower than those previously reported for mammals from other regions. By comparison, (210)Po activity concentrations are more variable and appear to be higher level compared with mammal data from other regions. The mean (210)Po concentration in the muscle tissue, liver and kidney of Pacific walrus (n=5, wet weight) were 28.7, 189, and 174 Bq kg(-1), respectively. This compares with (210)Po concentration values (n=2, wet weight) of 27, 207 and 68 Bq kg(-1) measured in the muscle tissue, liver and kidney, of bearded seal, respectively. Estimated concentration factors--as defined by the radionuclide concentration ratio between the target tissue to that in sea water--were two to three orders of magnitude higher for (210)Po that those of (137)Cs. We conclude from radiological dose estimates that ingestion of (137)Cs in foods derived from walrus and seal will pose no threat to human health. This work has important implications for assessment of risks of Alaskan coastal communities concerned about the dumping of nuclear waste in the Russia Arctic.

  2. CRED Temperature and Conductivity Recorders (SBE37); Wake Atoll, Pacific Remote Island Areas; Long: 166.62847, Lat: 19.28011 (WGS84); Sensor Depth: 20.42m; Data Date Range: 20090326-20091110.

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Data from Coral Reef Ecosystem Division (CRED), NOAA Pacific Islands Fisheries Science Center (PIFSC) conductivity and temperature recorders provide a time series of...

  3. CRED Subsurface Temperature Recorder (STR); Wake Atoll, Pacific Remote Island Areas; Long: 166.65704, Lat: 19.27666 (WGS84); Sensor Depth: 14.33m; Data Date Range: 20090404-20100915.

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Data from Coral Reef Ecosystem Division (CRED), NOAA Pacific Islands Fisheries Science Center (PIFSC) Subsurface Temperature Recorders (STR) provide a time series of...

  4. CRED Subsurface Temperature Recorder (STR); Palmyra Atoll, Pacific Remote Island Areas; Long: -162.12653, Lat: 05.86666 (WGS84); Sensor Depth: 10.40m; Data Date Range: 20100407-20110503.

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Data from Coral Reef Ecosystem Division (CRED), NOAA Pacific Islands Fisheries Science Center (PIFSC) Subsurface Temperature Recorders (STR) provide a time series of...

  5. CRED Temperature and Conductivity Recorders (SBE37); Wake Atoll, Pacific Remote Island Areas; Long: 166.59486, Lat: 19.30300 (WGS84); Sensor Depth: 18.90m; Data Date Range: 20090326-20091114.

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Data from Coral Reef Ecosystem Division (CRED), NOAA Pacific Islands Fisheries Science Center (PIFSC) conductivity and temperature recorders provide a time series of...

  6. CRED Temperature and Conductivity Recorders (SBE37); Wake Atoll, Pacific Remote Island Areas; Long: 166.62730, Lat: 19.31588 (WGS84); Sensor Depth: 20.12m; Data Date Range: 20090326-20091013.

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Data from Coral Reef Ecosystem Division (CRED), NOAA Pacific Islands Fisheries Science Center (PIFSC) conductivity and temperature recorders provide a time series of...

  7. CRED Subsurface Temperature Recorder (STR); Kingman Reef, Pacific Remote Island Areas; Long: -162.34221, Lat: 06.39242 (WGS84); Sensor Depth: 7.00m; Data Date Range: 20100414-20120512.

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Data from Coral Reef Ecosystem Division (CRED), NOAA Pacific Islands Fisheries Science Center (PIFSC) Subsurface Temperature Recorders (STR) provide a time series of...

  8. National Coral Reef Monitoring Program: Stratified Random Surveys (StRS) of Reef Fish, including Benthic Estimate Data of the Pacific Remote Island Areas from 2015-01-26 to 2015-04-28 (NCEI Accession 0157595)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The stationary point count (SPC) method is used to conduct reef fish surveys in the Hawaiian and Mariana Archipelagos, American Samoa, and the Pacific Remote Island...

  9. CRED Subsurface Temperature Recorder (STR); Palmyra Atoll, Pacific Remote Island Areas; Long: -162.03300, Lat: 05.88243 (WGS84); Sensor Depth: 10.40m; Data Date Range: 20100409-20110816.

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Data from Coral Reef Ecosystem Division (CRED), NOAA Pacific Islands Fisheries Science Center (PIFSC) Subsurface Temperature Recorders (STR) provide a time series of...

  10. CRED Temperature and Conductivity Recorders (SBE37); Wake Atoll, Pacific Remote Island Areas; Long: 166.60979, Lat: 19.32583 (WGS84); Sensor Depth: 17.98m; Data Date Range: 20090326-20100308.

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Data from Coral Reef Ecosystem Division (CRED), NOAA Pacific Islands Fisheries Science Center (PIFSC) conductivity and temperature recorders provide a time series of...

  11. National Coral Reef Monitoring Program: Stratified Random Surveys (StRS) of Coral Demography (Adult and Juvenile Corals) across the Pacific Remote Island Areas from 2015-0126 to 2015-04-28 (NCEI Accession 0159161)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The data described here result from benthic coral demographic surveys for two life stages (juveniles, adults) across the Pacific Remote Island Areas in 2015....

  12. National Coral Reef Monitoring Program: Benthic Cover Derived from Analysis of Benthic Images Collected during Stratified Random Surveys (StRS) across the Pacific Remote Island Areas from 2015-01-26 to 2015-04-28 (NCEI Accession 0159165)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The data described here result from benthic photo-quadrat surveys conducted along transects at stratified random sites across the Pacific Remote Island Areas since...

  13. CRED Subsurface Temperature Recorder (STR); Kingman Reef, Pacific Remote Island Areas; Long: -162.43914, Lat: 06.41887 (WGS84); Sensor Depth: 33.50m; Data Date Range: 20100417-20120509.

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Data from Coral Reef Ecosystem Division (CRED), NOAA Pacific Islands Fisheries Science Center (PIFSC) Subsurface Temperature Recorders (STR) provide a time series of...

  14. Climate Change and Caribbean Small Island States: The State of Play

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin, Lisa

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Studies have indicated that climate change is likely to have dramatic negative effects for Caribbean small island developing states. This article considers the main economic effects that climate change is anticipated to have in these vulnerable states, charts the progress of international negotiations at the 2009 Copenhagen conference, and provides a brief analysis of the impact of the Copenhagen Accord on Caribbean Small Island Developing States (SIDS.Although climate change has traditionally been seen solely as an environmental issue, its economic effects on vulnerable developing nations, such as Caribbean SIDS, forces a re-definition of climate change to that of a more complex union of environmental and developmental issues for these states. By highlighting some of the anticipated economic effects of climate change for Caribbean SIDS, the author aims to provide a broader context for the issue of climate change for Caribbean SIDS.

  15. Description and epizootiology of Babesia poelea n. sp. in brown boobies (Sula leucogaster (Boddaert)) on Sand Island, Johnston Atoll, Central Pacific

    Science.gov (United States)

    Work, Thierry M.; Rameyer, Robert

    1997-01-01

    We describe a new species of piroplasm from brown boobies (Sula leucogaster) on Sand Island, Johnston Atoll National Wildlife Refuge, central Pacific. Mean parasitemia in adults and chicks was less than 1%, with the parasitemia in chicks significantly greater than in adults. There was no significant relation between the age of chicks and the degree of parasitemia. Parasitized red cells and red cell nuclei were significantly smaller than those of unparasitized cells, and infected birds appeared clinically normal. Prevalence of the parasite in chicks (54%) was significantly greater than in adults (13%), and the geographic distribution of parasitized chicks was skewed toward the eastern end of Sand Island. On the basis of morphologic characteristics, we named it Babesia poelea. The specific name is a concatenation of the Hawaiian names for dark (po'ele) and booby ('a). This is the second documentation of an endemic avian hemoparasite in seabirds from the central Pacific.

  16. Feelings of Belonging: An Exploratory Analysis of the Sociopolitical Involvement of Black, Latina, and Asian/Pacific Islander Sexual Minority Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Angelique; Battle, Juan; Pastrana, Antonio; Daniels, Jessie

    2015-01-01

    This article compares and contrasts the sociopolitical involvement of Black, Latina, and Asian/Pacific Islander American sexual minority women within lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) communities of color. For the analysis, a sample of over 1,200 women from the Social Justice Sexuality project was analyzed. Findings indicate that, for all groups of women, feelings of connectedness to the LGBT community was the most significant predictor of sociopolitical involvement within LGBT communities of color.

  17. Use of habitats as surrogates of biodiversity for efficient coral reef conservation planning in Pacific Ocean islands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalleau, Mayeul; Andréfouët, Serge; Wabnitz, Colette C C; Payri, Claude; Wantiez, Laurent; Pichon, Michel; Friedman, Kim; Vigliola, Laurent; Benzoni, Francesca

    2010-04-01

    Marine protected areas (MPAs) have been highlighted as a means toward effective conservation of coral reefs. New strategies are required to more effectively select MPA locations and increase the pace of their implementation. Many criteria exist to design MPA networks, but generally, it is recommended that networks conserve a diversity of species selected for, among other attributes, their representativeness, rarity, or endemicity. Because knowledge of species' spatial distribution remains scarce, efficient surrogates are urgently needed. We used five different levels of habitat maps and six spatial scales of analysis to identify under which circumstances habitat data used to design MPA networks for Wallis Island provided better representation of species than random choice alone. Protected-area site selections were derived from a rarity-complementarity algorithm. Habitat surrogacy was tested for commercial fish species, all fish species, commercially harvested invertebrates, corals, and algae species. Efficiency of habitat surrogacy varied by species group, type of habitat map, and spatial scale of analysis. Maps with the highest habitat thematic complexity provided better surrogates than simpler maps and were more robust to changes in spatial scales. Surrogates were most efficient for commercial fishes, corals, and algae but not for commercial invertebrates. Conversely, other measurements of species-habitat associations, such as richness congruence and composition similarities provided weak results. We provide, in part, a habitat-mapping methodology for designation of MPAs for Pacific Ocean islands that are characterized by habitat zonations similar to Wallis. Given the increasing availability and affordability of space-borne imagery to map habitats, our approach could appreciably facilitate and improve current approaches to coral reef conservation and enhance MPA implementation.

  18. SMALL-SCALE MAGNETIC ISLANDS IN THE SOLAR WIND AND THEIR ROLE IN PARTICLE ACCELERATION. I. DYNAMICS OF MAGNETIC ISLANDS NEAR THE HELIOSPHERIC CURRENT SHEET

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khabarova, O. [Heliophysical Laboratory, Pushkov Institute of Terrestrial Magnetism, Ionosphere and Radiowave Propagation RAS (IZMIRAN), Troitsk, Moscow 142190 (Russian Federation); Zank, G. P.; Li, G.; Roux, J. A. le; Webb, G. M.; Dosch, A. [Center for Space Plasma and Aeronomic Research (CSPAR), University of Alabama in Huntsville, Huntsville, AL 35805 (United States); Malandraki, O. E. [IAASARS, National Observatory of Athens, GR-15236 Penteli (Greece)

    2015-08-01

    Increases of ion fluxes in the keV–MeV range are sometimes observed near the heliospheric current sheet (HCS) during periods when other sources are absent. These resemble solar energetic particle events, but the events are weaker and apparently local. Conventional explanations based on either shock acceleration of charged particles or particle acceleration due to magnetic reconnection at interplanetary current sheets (CSs) are not persuasive. We suggest instead that recurrent magnetic reconnection occurs at the HCS and smaller CSs in the solar wind, a consequence of which is particle energization by the dynamically evolving secondary CSs and magnetic islands. The effectiveness of the trapping and acceleration process associated with magnetic islands depends in part on the topology of the HCS. We show that the HCS possesses ripples superimposed on the large-scale flat or wavy structure. We conjecture that the ripples can efficiently confine plasma and provide tokamak-like conditions that are favorable for the appearance of small-scale magnetic islands that merge and/or contract. Particles trapped in the vicinity of merging islands and experiencing multiple small-scale reconnection events are accelerated by the induced electric field and experience first-order Fermi acceleration in contracting magnetic islands according to the transport theory of Zank et al. We present multi-spacecraft observations of magnetic island merging and particle energization in the absence of other sources, providing support for theory and simulations that show particle energization by reconnection related processes of magnetic island merging and contraction.

  19. Utilizing the NASA and NOAA Joint Ocean Surface Topography Mission to Assess Patterns and Trends in Sea-Surface Height in the U.S. Affiliated Pacific Islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzgerald, S. S.; Walker, K. A.; Courtright, A. B.; Young, I. J.

    2017-12-01

    The United States Affiliated Pacific Islands (USAPI) are home to a population of low-lying coral atolls which are extremely vulnerable to sea level rise. Coastal infrastructure like groundwater reservoirs, harbor operations, and sewage systems, as well as natural coastal features such as reefs and beach ecosystems, are most vulnerable during inundation events. These Pacific Islanders face increasing hazards as coastal flooding infiltrates freshwater resources and may even lead to displacement. The two main components of inundation include tidal fluctuations and sea level anomalies; however, low-lying atolls are also vulnerable to the additional influence of waves. This study created a climatology of significant wave height in the Republic of the Marshall Islands (RMI), and incorporated this dataset with tides and sea level anomalies to create a novel approach to assessing inundation flood risk in the RMI. The risk metric was applied to the RMI as a study site with the goal of assessing wider-scale applicability across the rest of the USAPI. The inclusion of wave height and wave direction as a crucial component of the risk metric will better inform USAPI coastal-managers for future inundation events and disaster preparedness. In addition to the risk metric, a wave-rose atlas was created for decision-makers in the RMI. This study highlights the often-overlooked region of the Pacific and demonstrates the application of the risk metric to specific examples in the RMI.

  20. 76 FR 25515 - Asian American and Pacific Islander Heritage Month, 2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-05

    ... life, thriving as athletes and public servants, entrepreneurs and artists. Whether as small business... Federal Government to promote increased access to and participation in Federal programs for Asian...

  1. How the Pacific Islands Climate Education Partnership (PCEP) Has Collaboratively Increased Regional Collective Impacts on Climate Literacy Via Networks of Diverse Stakeholders Engaging in Multiple Reinforcing Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sussman, A.

    2016-12-01

    The Pacific Islands Climate Education Partnership (PCEP) serves the U.S. Affiliated Pacific Island (USAPI) Region. The international entities served by PCEP are the state of Hawai`i (USA); three Freely Associated States (the Federated States of Micronesia, the Republic of the Marshall Islands, and the Republic of Palau), and three Territories (Guam, Commonwealth of Northern Mariana Islands, and American Samoa). Funded by NSF, the PCEP aims to educate the region's students and citizens in ways that exemplify modern science and indigenous environmental knowledge, address the urgency of climate change impacts, and focus on adaptation strategies that can increase resiliency with respect to climate change impacts. PCEP partners include universities, education nonprofits, state or country offices/ministries of education, local ecological nonprofits, and a variety of community organizations. Partners contribute and share expertise in climate science, local ecological knowledge, K-12 education in the Pacific island region, science and environmental education, community college education, learning science, indigenous navigation, and oceanography. Over the past six years, PCEP has engaged with regional school systems and communities in a wide variety of ways that complement and reinforce each other. Highlighted activities include improving country and state climate science education standards; focusing on place-based local ecological knowledge and skills in working with schools and communities; developing and disseminating formal education resources such as books and web resources that focus on local contexts and skills rather than contextually inappropriate mainland the textbooks; developing and implementing professional development for teachers; and supporting local ways of knowing by gathering and sharing local stories of climate change; and promoting an emphasis on climate adaptation strategies that increase resilience of natural environments and community systems.

  2. Disaster risk reduction and sustainable development for small island developing states.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shultz, James M; Cohen, Madeline A; Hermosilla, Sabrina; Espinel, Zelde; McLean, Andrew

    2016-01-01

    In contrast to continental nations, the world's 52 small island developing states (SIDS) are recognized as a collective of countries that experience disproportionate challenges for sustainable development related to their geography, small size, and physical isolation. These same states also face elevated risks for disaster incidence and consequences particularly in the realms of climate change, sea level rise, natural disasters (tropical cyclones, earthquakes, tsunamis, volcanoes), and marine hazardous materials spills. Cyclone Winston's direct impact on Fiji in 2016 and Cyclone Pam's landfall over Vanuatu in 2015 provide case examples illustrating the special vulnerabilities of the SIDS.

  3. 2006 EM300 Multibeam Sonar Data from Cruise Hi'ialakai HI-06-04 - Pacific Remote Island Areas

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — EM300 multibeam data were collected in 15 March to 8 April 2006 aboard NOAA Ship Hi'ialakai at Jarvis Island, Palmyra Island, and Kingman Island in the Central...

  4. Impacts of vegetation onset time on the net primary productivity in a mountainous island in Pacific Asia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, Chung-Te; Wang, Hsueh-Ching; Huang, Cho-ying

    2013-01-01

    Vegetation phenology reflects the response of a terrestrial ecosystem to climate change. In this study, we attempt to evaluate the El Niño/La Niña-Southern Oscillation (ENSO)-associated temporal dynamics of the vegetation onset and its influence on the net primary productivity (NPP) in a subtropical island (Taiwan) of Pacific Asia. We utilized a decade-long (2001–2010) time series of photosynthetically active vegetation cover (PV) data, which were derived from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) reflectance data, to delineate the vegetation phenology. These data served as inputs for the phenological analysis toolbox TIMESAT. The results indicated that the delayed vegetation onset time was directly influenced by a dry spring (February and March) in which less than 40 mm of rainfall was received. This seasonal drought impeded vegetation growth in the subsequent growing season, most likely due to delayed impacts of moisture stress related to the preceding ENSO events. The significant correlations obtained between the annual MODIS NPP and both the vegetation onset time and the length of the growing season may imply that the accumulated rainfall in the spring season governs the annual NPP. The model simulations revealed that the frequency and intensity of the ENSO-related spring droughts might increase, which would result in cascading effects on the ecosystem metabolism. (letter)

  5. Indo-Pacific humpback dolphin occurrence north of Lantau Island, Hong Kong, based on year-round passive acoustic monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munger, Lisa; Lammers, Marc O; Cifuentes, Mattie; Würsig, Bernd; Jefferson, Thomas A; Hung, Samuel K

    2016-10-01

    Long-term passive acoustic monitoring (PAM) was conducted to study Indo-Pacific humpback dolphins, Sousa chinensis, as part of environmental impact assessments for several major coastal development projects in Hong Kong waters north of Lantau Island. Ecological acoustic recorders obtained 2711 days of recording at 13 sites from December 2012 to December 2014. Humpback dolphin sounds were manually detected on more than half of days with recordings at 12 sites, 8 of which were within proposed reclamation areas. Dolphin detection rates were greatest at Lung Kwu Chau, with other high-occurrence locations northeast of the Hong Kong International Airport and within the Lung Kwu Tan and Siu Ho Wan regions. Dolphin detection rates were greatest in summer and autumn (June-November) and were significantly reduced in spring (March-May) compared to other times of year. Click detection rates were significantly higher at night than during daylight hours. These findings suggest high use of many of the proposed reclamation/development areas by humpback dolphins, particularly at night, and demonstrate the value of long-term PAM for documenting spatial and temporal patterns in dolphin occurrence to help inform management decisions.

  6. Dreams deferred: Contextualizing the health and psychosocial needs of undocumented Asian and Pacific Islander young adults in Northern California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sudhinaraset, May; Ling, Irving; To, Tu My; Melo, Jason; Quach, Thu

    2017-07-01

    There are currently 1.5 million undocumented Asians and Pacific Islanders (APIs) in the US. Undocumented API young adults, in particular, come of age in a challenging political and social climate, but little is known about their health outcomes. To our knowledge, this is the first study to assess the psychosocial needs and health status of API undocumented young adults. Guided by social capital theory, this qualitative study describes the social context of API undocumented young adults (ages 18-31), including community and government perceptions, and how social relationships influence health. This study was conducted in Northern California and included four focus group discussions (FGDs) and 24 in-depth interviews (IDIs), with 32 unique participants total. FGDs used purposeful sampling by gender (two male and two female discussions) and education status (in school and out-of-school). Findings suggest low bonding and bridging social capital. Results indicate that community distrust is high, even within the API community, due to high levels of exploitation, discrimination, and threats of deportation. Participants described how documentation status is a barrier in accessing health services, particularly mental health and sexual and reproductive health services. This study identifies trusted community groups and discusses recommendations for future research, programs, and policies. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  7. Neighborhood Social Cohesion and Sleep Outcomes in the Native Hawaiian and Pacific Islander National Health Interview Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Marielle C; Gerber, Monica W; Ash, Tayla; Horan, Christine M; Taveras, Elsie M

    2018-05-16

    Native Hawaiians and Pacific Islanders (NHPIs) have the lowest attainment of healthy sleep duration among all racial and ethnic groups in the United States. We examined associations of neighborhood social cohesion with sleep duration and quality. Cross-sectional analysis of 2,464 adults in the NHPI National Health Interview Survey (2014). Neighborhood social cohesion was categorized as a continuous and categorical variable into low (15) according to tertiles of the distribution of responses. We used multinomial logistic regression to examine the adjusted odds ratio of short and long sleep duration relative to intermediate sleep duration. We used binary logistic regression for dichotomous sleep quality outcomes. Sleep outcomes were modeled as categorical variables. 40% of the cohort reported short (9 hours) duration. Mean (SE, range) social cohesion score was 12.4 units (0.11, 4-16) and 23% reported low social cohesion. In multivariable models, each 1 SD decrease in neighborhood social cohesion score was associated with higher odds of short sleep duration (OR: 1.14, 95% CI: 1.02, 1.29). Additionally, low social cohesion was associated with increased odds of short sleep duration (OR: 1.53, 95% CI: 1.10, 2.13). No associations between neighborhood social cohesion and having trouble falling or staying asleep and feeling well rested were found. Low neighborhood social cohesion is associated with short sleep duration in NHPIs.

  8. Assessing the active living environment in three rural towns with a high proportion of Native Hawaiians and other Pacific Islanders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hafoka, Siosaia F

    2017-01-01

    Background: Existing literature on the built environment and physical activity in rural areas is very limited. Studies have shown that residents in rural areas are less likely to meet physical activity requirements than their counterparts living in urban and suburban areas. They are also less likely to have access to amenities and programs that promote physical activity. This study seeks to fill gaps in the literature by assessing the built environment in three rural towns in Hawai'i that have a high proportion of Native Hawaiians and other Pacific Islanders. Methods: The Rural Active Living Assessment (RALA) tools will be used to assess the built environment. The RALA has three components - Policy and Program Assessment (PPA), Town Wide Assessment (TWA), and Street Segment Assessment (SSA) which will be used to provide a comprehensive assessment of the active living environment. Assessments were completed in September and October 2016. Results: One assessment was completed in each town for the TWA and PPA. The SSA was completed with 60 segments (20 from each town). Conclusion: The RALA tools identified supports in these three rural towns. The assessment also identified barriers and gaps - especially with the town and school polices of each town.

  9. Validating Stages of Change for Obesogenic Behaviors Across Filipino and Other Asian-American and Pacific Islander Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleary, Sasha A; Tagorda, M; Kim, S; Rathke, M; Nigg, C R

    2018-06-01

    Filipino adolescents are underrepresented in obesity research, although Filipinos are the second largest Asian-American and Pacific Islander (AAPI) subpopulation in the USA. An understanding of how well the theories of behavior change apply to Filipino and other AAPI adolescents is critical to addressing obesogenic behaviors in these groups. This study aimed to validate the transtheoretical model of behavior change (TTM) for physical activity (PA) and fruit and vegetable intake (FV) among a majority Filipino adolescent population. Adolescents in grades 9-11 (N = 159, 82.4% female) completed measures of PA and FV behaviors and PA and FV stages of change. One-way ANOVAs and Tukey's HSD post hoc tests were computed to assess the validity of the PA and FV stages of change with the respective behaviors. There was a significant effect for fruit (action > contemplation, preparation) and vegetable (maintenance, action > contemplation) intakes across the FV stages of change. There was a significant effect of strenuous PA (precontemplation/contemplation, preparation Filipino and other AAPI adolescents. This validation, in turn, extends the generalizability of the stages of change construct to include this ethnic group and replicates other adolescent studies.

  10. Targeting of Asian Americans and Pacific Islanders by the tobacco industry: results from the Minnesota Tobacco Document Depository

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muggli, M; Pollay, R; Lew, R; Joseph, A

    2002-01-01

    Objective: The study objective was to review internal tobacco industry documents written between 1985 and 1995 regarding the Asian American and Pacific Islander (AAPI) population in the USA. These documents detail opportunities and barriers to promotion of tobacco products, as viewed by the tobacco industry and its market research firms. Data sources/methods: Researchers reviewed tobacco industry documents from the document depository in Minneapolis, Minnesota and the tobacco industry's website, The Tobacco Archive, in a systematic fashion. A combined technique was employed using title keywords, dates, and names to search the 4(b) index. Findings: A review of internal tobacco company documents reveal that during the late 1980s, the industry and its market research firms recognised the importance of the AAPI community as a potential business market. Documents describe the population growth in this community, the high prevalence of smoking in countries of origin, high purchasing power of AAPI immigrants, cultural predisposition to smoking, opportunities afforded by the high proportion of retail businesses under AAPI ownership, barriers to developing the AAPI market, comprehensive campaigns, and political and lobbying efforts. Comprehensive campaigns were designed to integrate promotion efforts in AAPI consumer, retail, and business communities. Conclusions: The documents show that the tobacco industry developed specific promotion strategies to target the AAPI population. Tobacco control initiatives in the AAPI group have been slower to develop than in other targeted ethnic groups, and may benefit by increased awareness of industry methods to promote tobacco use. PMID:12198269

  11. Higher percent body fat in young women with lower physical activity level and greater proportion Pacific Islander ancestry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black, Nate; Nabokov, Vanessa; Vijayadeva, Vinutha; Novotny, Rachel

    2011-11-01

    Samoan women exhibit high rates of obesity, which can possibly be attenuated through diet and physical activity. Obesity, and body fatness in particular, is associated with increased risk for chronic diseases. Ancestry, physical activity, and dietary patterns have been associated with body composition. Using a cross-sectional design, the relative importance of proportion of Pacific Islander (PI) ancestry, level of physical activity, and macronutrients among healthy women in Honolulu, Hawai'i, ages 18 to 28 years was examined. All data were collected between January 2003 and December 2004. Percent body fat (%BF) was determined by whole body dual energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA). Nutrient data were derived from a three-day food record. Means and standard deviations were computed for all variables of interest. Bivariate correlation analysis was used to determine correlates of %BF. Multiple regression analysis was used to determine relative contribution of variables significantly associated with %BF. Proportion of PI ancestry was significantly positively associated with %BF (P=0.0001). Physical activity level was significantly negatively associated with %BF (P=0.0006). Intervention to increase physical activity level of young Samoan women may be effective to decrease body fat and improve health. CRC-NIH grant: 0216.

  12. The brown tree snake, an introduced pest species in the central Pacific Islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fritts, Thomas H.; Rodda, Gordon H.

    1989-01-01

    The reproduction of endangered Mariana crows (Corvus kubaryi) is intensively monitored, nests are protected, and (when necessary) eggs or young are moved to the safety of lab conditions until they are less vulnerable to the threats in natural habitats. Barriers on tree trunks and judicious pruning of adjacent trees are used in attempts to exclude snakes from nest trees. Two birds unique to Guam--the Micronesian kingfisher (Halcyon cinnamomina cinnamomina) and Guam rail (Gallirallus owstoni)-- are maintained at captive propagation facilities on Guam and in mainland zoos. Studies of these and other species, in captivity and on nearby islands, are underway to bolster our biological understanding of their behavior, reproduction, habitat use, and population biology.

  13. Cost-Effectiveness Analysis of a PVGS on the Electrical Power Supply of a Small Island

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheng-Ting Hsu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a feasibility study of a large simulated stadium-scale photovoltaic generation system (PVGS on a small island. Both the PVGS contribution to the energy demand on the island and its financial analysis were analysed in this study. The maximum allowable PVGS installation capacity is obtained by executing load flow analysis without violating the voltage magnitude and voltage variation ratio limits. However, the estimated power generation of PVGS is applied to know its impact on the power system according to the hourly solar irradiation and temperature. After that, the cost-benefit analysis of payback years (PBY and net present value (NPV method is derived considering the cash flow from utilities annual fuel and loss saving, the operation and maintenance (O&M cost, and the capital investment cost. The power network in Kiribati (PUB DNST is selected for study in this paper. The simulation results are very valuable and can be applied to the other small islands for reducing the usage of fossil fuel and greenhouse gas emissions.

  14. PRELIMINARY ANALYSIS OF THE EARTHQUAKE (MW 8.1 AND TSUNAMI OF APRIL 1, 2007, IN THE SOLOMON ISLANDS, SOUTHWESTERN PACIFIC OCEAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael A. Fisher

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available On April 1, 2007, a destructive earthquake (Mw 8.1 and tsunami struck the central Solomon Islands arc in the southwestern Pacific Ocean. The earthquake had a thrust-fault focal mechanism and occurred at shallow depth (between 15 km and 25 km beneath the island arc. The combined effects of the earthquake and tsunami caused dozens of fatalities and thousands remain without shelter. We present a preliminary analysis of the Mw-8.1 earthquake and resulting tsunami. Multichannel seismic- reflection data collected during 1984 show the geologic structure of the arc’s frontal prism within the earthquake’s rupture zone. Modeling tsunami-wave propagation indicates that some of the islands are so close to the earthquake epicenter that they were hard hit by tsunami waves as soon as 5 min. after shaking began, allowing people scant time to react.

  15. Gill monogenean communities (Platyhelminthes, Monogenea, Dactylogyridae) of butterflyfishes from tropical Indo-West Pacific Islands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reverter, Miriam; Cutmore, Scott C; Bray, Rodney; Cribb, Thomas H; Sasal, Pierre

    2016-10-01

    We studied the monogenean communities of 34 species of butterflyfish from the tropical Indo-West Pacific, identifying 13 dactylogyrid species (including two species that are presently undescribed). Monogenean assemblages differed significantly between host species in terms of taxonomic structure, intensity and prevalence. Parasite richness ranged from 0 (Chaetodon lunulatus) to 11 (C. auriga, C. citrinellus and C. lunula). Host specificity varied between the dactylogyrids species, being found on 2-29 of the 34 chaetodontid species examined. Sympatric butterflyfish species were typically parasitized by different combinations of dactylogyrid species, suggesting the existence of complex host-parasite interactions. We identified six clusters of butterflyfish species based on the similarities of their dactylogyrid communities. Dactylogyrid richness and diversity were not related to host size, diet specialization, depth range or phylogeny of butterflyfish species. However, there was a weak positive correlation between monogenean richness and diversity and host geographical range. Most communities of dactylogyrids were dominated by Haliotrema aurigae and H. angelopterum, indicating the importance of the genus Haliotrema in shaping monogenean communities of butterflyfishes. This study casts light on the structure of the monogenean communities of butterflyfishes, suggesting that the diversity and complexity of community structures arises from a combination of host species-specific parameters.

  16. Detecting cardiometabolic syndrome using World Health Organization public health action points for Asians and Pacific Islanders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grandinetti, Andrew; Kaholokula, Joseph K; Mau, Marjorie K; Chow, Dominic C

    2010-01-01

    To assess the screening characteristics of World Health Organization (WHO) body mass index action points for cardiometabolic syndrome (CMS) in Native Hawaiians and people of Asian ancestry (ie, Filipino and Japanese). Cross-sectional data were collected from 1,452 residents of a rural community of Hawai'i between 1997 and 2000, of which 1,198 were analyzed in this study. Ethnic ancestry was determined by self-report. Metabolic status was assessed using National Cholesterol Education Program Adult Treatment Panel III (NCEP-ATPIII) criteria. Screening characteristics of WHO criteria for overweight and obesity were compared to WHO public health action points or to WHO West Pacific Regional Office (WPRO) cut-points. Among Asian-ancestry participants, WHO public health action points improved both sensitivity and specificity for detecting CMS. However, similar improvements were not observed for WPRO criteria for Native Hawaiians. Moreover, predictive values were high regardless of which criteria were utilized due to high CMS prevalence. WHO public health actions points for Asians provide a significant improvement in sensitivity in detection of CMS. However, predictive value, which varies greatly with disease prevalence, should be considered when deciding which criteria to apply.

  17. Cancer Mortality among Asians and Pacific Islanders in New York City, 2001–2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vivian Huang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Asians and Pacific Islanders’ (APIs leading cause of death is cancer. We compared APIs’ age-adjusted cancer mortality rates to other racial/ethnic groups and by API subgroup (i.e., Chinese, Koreans, Asian Indians, and Filipinos using New York City (NYC Mortality data and Census Bureau population estimates for 2001–2010. While other racial/ethnic groups’ overall cancer mortality rates declined in NYC during the last decade, APIs remained stable. APIs overall had the lowest mortality rates for more common cancer types (i.e., lung, colorectal, breast, and prostate, but the highest mortality rates for certain less common cancers (i.e., nasopharyngeal, stomach, and liver. Chinese New Yorkers’ lung cancer death rates were very high compared to other APIs and comparable to non-Hispanic whites (47.1/100,000 versus 49.5/100,000, resp.. Chinese men had much higher nasopharyngeal cancer mortality rates (4.5/100,000 versus 0.3/100,000 for non-Hispanic whites. Korean men had the highest liver and stomach cancer mortality rates (25.3/100,000 and 27.7/100,000, resp., versus 7.9/100,000 and 6.0/100,000 for non-Hispanic whites. Analysis of cancer rates by API subgroup provides the detailed information needed to plan cancer prevention efforts. These findings warrant consideration of targeted cancer mortality prevention efforts for affected subgroups, including hepatitis vaccination, screening, and treatment; smoking cessation; and cancer screening.

  18. Research Article Cancer Mortality among Asians and Pacific Islanders in New York City, 2001–2010

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, V.; Li, W.; Tsai, J.; Begier, E.

    2013-01-01

    Asians and Pacific Islanders’ (APIs) leading cause of death is cancer. We compared APIs’ age-adjusted cancer mortality rates to other racial/ethnic groups and by API subgroup (i.e., Chinese, Koreans, Asian Indians, and Filipinos) using New York City (NYC) Mortality data and Census Bureau population estimates for 2001-2010. While other racial/ethnic groups’ overall cancer mortality rates declined in NYC during the last decade, APIs remained stable. APIs overall had the lowest mortality rates for more common cancer types (i.e., lung, colorectal, breast, and prostate), but the highest mortality rates for certain less common cancers (i.e., nasopharyngeal, stomach, and liver). Chinese New Yorkers’ lung cancer death rates were very high compared to other APIs and comparable to non-Hispanic whites (47.1/100,000 versus 49.5/100,000, resp.). Chinese men had much higher nasopharyngeal cancer mortality rates (4.5/100,000 versus 0.3/100,000 for non-Hispanic whites). Korean men had the highest liver and stomach cancer mortality rates (25.3/100,000 and 27.7/100,000, resp., versus 7.9/100,000 and 6.0/100,000 for non-Hispanic whites). Analysis of cancer rates by API subgroup provides the detailed information needed to plan cancer prevention efforts. These findings warrant consideration of targeted cancer mortality prevention efforts for affected subgroups, including hepatitis vaccination, screening, and treatment; smoking cessation; and cancer screening.

  19. Governance of ecosystem services on small islands: three contrasting cases for St. Eustatius in the Dutch Caribbean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nico Polman

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Natural ecosystems provide an attractive focus for tourism on small islands. But at the same time tourism and other human actions can be detrimental to these ecosystems especially because governance of the ecosystem may be difficult due to the limited resilience of small island ecosystems. In this paper, we focus on which conditions self-governance will be the appropriate governance mechanism of ecosystem services on small islands. We apply the Ostrom (2009 framework for common-pool resources in a social-ecological system, and select the relevant indicators for small islands. We scored these indicators for three cases (environmental issues in St. Eustatius. These cases show that self-organization of ecosystem services is not an outcome easily achieved. The unevenly distributed benefits of potential measures are found to decrease community support of measures that could reinforce these ecosystem services.

  20. Competitive Advantages of Small Medium Industry on the Islands in Indonesian Context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muslim El Hakim Kurniawan

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Indonesian Law No.3/2014 regarding Industry requires both Central and Local Governments to realize the competitiveness of small and medium industries. However, the fact that the condition of each region is not similar becomes a main problem. It is because Indonesia is an archipelagic country. The competitiveness index of Asia Competitiveness Institute 2015 indicates that islands provinces, such as Kepulauan Bangka Belitung, Nusa Tenggara Barat, Nusa Tenggara Timur, Sulawesi Utara, Maluku, Maluku Utara, Sulawesi Tenggara, need specific development strategies. They cannot be equated with the mainlands, such as Java and Sumatera, because their competitiveness rank is very low. A review of literature on the competitiveness of islands entrepreneurs shows that from the 4 (four schools of thought in competitive advantage, only few researchers have pertained on the knowledge based on the schools of thought. Therefore, this could be a future research opportunity.