WorldWideScience

Sample records for small open economies

  1. Closing small open economy models

    OpenAIRE

    Schmitt-Grohe, Stephanie; Uribe, Martín

    2001-01-01

    The small open economy model with incomplete asset markets features a steady state that depends on initial conditions and equilibrium dynamics that possess a random walk component. A number of modifications to the standard model have been proposed to induce stationarity. This paper presents a quantitative comparison of these alternative approaches. Five different specifications are considered: (1) A model with an endogenous discount factor (Uzawa-type preferences); (2) A model with a debt-ela...

  2. Public Investment in a Small Open Economy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heijdra, B.J.; Meijdam, A.C.

    1997-01-01

    We study the effects of public investment in a dynamic overlapping-generations model of a small open economy. Boosting public investment stimulates private capital formation, output, employment, and wages in the long run. The impact effects depend critically on whether public capital is modeled as a

  3. Growth and the Current Account in a Small Open Economy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benge, Matt; Wells, Graeme

    2002-01-01

    Offers a framework with which to analyze growth in a small economy with perfect capital mobility. Produces a diagrammatic representation of steady states that differs from the usual closed-economy Solow-Swan diagram. Uses the diagrams to compare open economy steady states with closed ones. Illustrate the possibility of endogenous income growth.…

  4. The Political Economy of Capital Income and Profit Taxation in a Small Open Economy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huizinga, H.P.; Nielsen, S.B.

    1996-01-01

    This paper considers the political economy of the mix of profit, investment and saving taxation in a small open economy where agents generally differ in their shares of profit and other income.In this setting, capital income taxation can have the dual role of financing government spending and of

  5. Regional and international market integration of a small open economy

    OpenAIRE

    Sebastian Fossati; Fernando Lorenzo; Cesar M. Rodríguez

    2007-01-01

    This paper studies the relationship between a set of commodity prices in a small open economy like Uruguay and the corresponding international and regional prices. The empirical methodology used is the multivariate cointegration procedure based on maximum likelihood methods introduced by Johansen (1988) as well as estimations of half-life persistence indicators. In the case of cereals, the evidence suggests strong market integration between domestic and regional markets and, to some extent, a...

  6. Inflation, Growth and Exchange Rate Regimes in Small Open Economies

    OpenAIRE

    Hernandez-Verme, Paula

    2002-01-01

    Summary. This is an extended working paper version of the paper that appeared in Economic Theory. It paper compares the merits of alternative exchange rate regimes in small open economies where financial intermediaries perform a real allocative function, there are multiple reserve requirements, and credit market frictions may or may not cause credit rationing. Under floating exchange rates, raising domestic inflation can increase production if credit is rationed. However, there exist infla...

  7. Capital inflows, crisis and recovery in small open economies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raza, Hamid; Zoega, Gylfi; Kinsella, Stephen

    2018-01-01

    We compare two small open economics, Iceland and Ireland, that experienced a capital inflow through their banking systems in the period preceding the 2008 financial crises but differ in their currency arrangements. Both countries have mostly recovered from their respective crises, but the differe......We compare two small open economics, Iceland and Ireland, that experienced a capital inflow through their banking systems in the period preceding the 2008 financial crises but differ in their currency arrangements. Both countries have mostly recovered from their respective crises......, but the differences in the way their economies adjusted are interesting. The evidence suggests that changes in the real exchange rate served as the adjusting mechanism for Iceland's current account while in Ireland domestic demand compression served as the main adjustment mechanism. We also explore the adjustment...

  8. Intergenerational redistribution in a small open economy with endogenous fertility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolmar, M

    1997-08-01

    The literature comparing fully funded (FF) and pay-as-you-go (PAYG) financed public pension systems in small, open economies stresses the importance of the Aaron condition as an empirical measure to decide which system can be expected to lead to a higher long-run welfare. A country with a PAYG system has a higher level of utility than a country with a FF system if the growth rate of total wage income exceeds the interest rate. Endogenizing population growth makes one determinant of the growth rate of wage incomes endogenous. The author demonstrates why the Aaron condition ceases to be a good indicator in this case. For PAYG-financed pension systems, claims can be calculated according to individual contributions or the number of children in a family. Analysis determined that for both structural determinants there is no interior solution of the problem of intergenerational utility maximization. Pure systems are therefore always welfare maximizing. Moreover, children-related pension claims induce a fiscal externality which tends to be positive. The determination of the optimal contribution rate shows that the Aaron condition is generally a misleading indicator for the comparison of FF and PAYG-financed pension systems.

  9. The Optimal Taxation of Dividends in a Small Open Economy

    OpenAIRE

    Fuest, Clemens; Huber, Bernd

    2000-01-01

    This paper analyses the optimal taxation of dividends and other types of income from portfolio investment. We show that, in an open economy, it is not desirable to offer double taxation relief for dividends paid by domestic firms to domestic households. This result holds for fairly general utility functions. The reason is that the marginal shareholder in domestic firms is a foreign investor. This implies that the level of real investment is not affected by the taxation of domestic dividend in...

  10. Examining the Efforts of a Small, Open Economy to Reduce Carbon Emissions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Levitt, Clinton J.; Saaby Pedersen, Morten; Sørensen, Anders

    2015-01-01

    emissions by relatively small, open economies. Although, these economies are small players in international markets, international trade has an important influence on their economies. Investigating the outcome of efforts to curb emissions by these small, open economies provides insights into the situation...... faced by a large set of the world's economies. This paper has three objectives: (1) investigate the outcome of Denmark's efforts to reduce its carbon emissions by characterizing the relationship between Denmark's macroeconomic activity and carbon emissions; (2) determine the carbon content of Danish...... trade and document the important effects that growing trade with China has had on Danish consumption emissions; and (3), investigate the robustness of measures of consumption emissions under varying information requirements. Our analysis of the outcomes of Danish efforts to reduce carbon emissions...

  11. A Life-Cycle Overlapping-Generations Model of the Small Open Economy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heijdra, Ben J.; Romp, Ward E.

    2005-01-01

    In this paper we construct an overlapping generations model for the small open economy incorporating a realistic description of the mortality process. With agedependent mortality, the typical life-cycle pattern of consumption and saving results from the maximizing behaviour of individual households.

  12. THE IMPORTANCE OF ECONOMIC PROMOTION FOR A SMALL OPEN ECONOMY – THE CASE OF SLOVENIA

    OpenAIRE

    DEJAN ROMIH

    2014-01-01

    This paper discusses the importance of economic promotion for Slovenia and certain other European countries affected by the current economic crisis. For a small open economy like Slovenia, economic promotion is particularly important for several reasons. One of them is its contribution to Slovenia’s overall economic performance (in terms of achieving certain economic goals such as reducing unemployment).

  13. Intergenerational and international welfare leakages of a tariff in a small open economy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bettendorf, Leon J.H.; Heijdra, Ben J.

    1999-01-01

    A dynamic overlapping-generations model of a small open economy with imperfect competition in the goods market is constructed. A tariff increase reduces output and employment and leads to an appreciation of the real exchange rate both in the impact period and in the new steady state. The tariff

  14. Estimating the Value of Oil Capital in a Small Open Economy: the Venezuela's Example

    OpenAIRE

    Aniyar, Sara

    2003-01-01

    The paper focuses in the calculation of the oil capital value in a small open economy depending on oil rents. The Venezuelan case is used as an example. In valuing the oil capital, two issues are recalled and discussed: how should the exploration costs and the capital gains be treated? It is shown that the estimations vary significantly depending on which set of assumptions are made about the way to account for them and the assumptions made about how the economy functions. It is argued that d...

  15. Estimating DSGE model parameters in a small open economy: Do real-time data matter?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Capek Jan

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the differences between parameters estimated using real-time and those estimated with revised data. The models used are New Keynesian DSGE models of the Czech, Polish, Hungarian, Swiss, and Swedish small open economies in interaction with the euro area. The paper also offers an analysis of data revisions of GDP growth and inflation and trend revisions of interest rates.

  16. Effects of Fiscal Policy in a Small Open Economy: Evidence of Croatia

    OpenAIRE

    Deskar-Škrbić, Milan; Šimović, Hrvoje; Ćorić, Tomislav

    2013-01-01

    In this paper we use structural VAR model to analyze dynamic effects of fiscal shocks on economic activity in Croatia from 2000Q1-2012Q2. Due to the fact that Croatia is a small open economy we assume that shocks of foreign origination can have notable effects on its performance. Therefore, original Blanchard-Perotti (2002) model is extended by introducing variables that represent external (foreign) demand shocks. The results show that the government spending has a positive and statistically ...

  17. Monetary Policy in Small Open Economies: The Role of Exchange Rate Rules

    OpenAIRE

    Santacreu, Ana Maria

    2015-01-01

    Understanding the costs and benefits of alternative monetary policy rules is important for economic welfare. Within the context of a small open economy model and building on the work of Mihov and Santacreu (2013), the author analyzes the economic implications of two monetary policy rules. The first is a rule in which the central bank uses the nominal exchange rate as its policy instrument and adjusts the rate whenever there are changes in the economic environment. The second is a standard int...

  18. Small Open Economies with Frictions in Credit Markets: Target inflation or money growth when floating?

    OpenAIRE

    Paula Hernandez-Verme

    2009-01-01

    I compare the relative merits of a policy of inflation targeting for small open economies with frictions in financial markets with an alternative floating regime that has a constant rate of domestic money growth. The differences between these two policies appear only in the dynamic properties of equilibria with credit rationing. When the probability of loan repayment is low, inflation targeting eliminates endogenous volatility when compared with a constant money growth, but equilibria remain ...

  19. Monetary Policy, Incomplete Asset Markets, and Welfare in a Small Open Economy

    OpenAIRE

    Shigeto Kitano; Kenya Takaku

    2014-01-01

    We develop a small open economy model with capital, sticky prices, and a simple form of financial frictions. We compare welfare levels under three alternative rules: a domestic inflation-based Taylor rule, a CPI inflation-based Taylor rule, and an exchange rate peg. We show that the superiority of an exchange rate peg over a domestic inflation-based Taylor rule becomes more pronounced under incomplete financial asset markets and more severe financial frictions.

  20. Predictive performance of DSGE model for small open economy – the case study of Czech Republic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomáš Jeřábek

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Multivariate time series forecasting is applied in a wide range of economic activities related to regional competitiveness and is the basis of almost all macroeconomic analysis. From the point of view of political practice is appropriate to seek a model that reached a quality prediction performance for all the variables. As monitored variables were used GDP growth, inflation and interest rates. The paper focuses on performance prediction evaluation of the small open economy New Keynesian DSGE model for the Czech republic, where Bayesian method are used for their parameters estimation, against different types of Bayesian and naive random walk model. The performance of models is identified using historical dates including domestic economy and foreign economy, which is represented by countries of the Eurozone. The results indicate that the DSGE model generates estimates that are competitive with other models used in this paper.

  1. Alternative Monetary Policy Rules in a Small Open Economy with Financial Frictions: The Case of Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongseung Jung

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper first shows an empirical result of VAR that Korean economy has experienced a severe economic contraction to an exogenous country spread shock. To analyze the effect of alternative monetary policy on the economy, the paper sets up a multi-sector small open economy new Keynesian (NK hereafter model with financial frictions due to asymmetric information between firms and financial intermediaries along the line of Bernanke et al. (1999. It shows that the small economy with financial frictions is more vulnerable to the exogenous shocks such as the foreign exchange rate shock under the fixed exchange rate regime than under the flexible exchange regime. It also shows that the interest rate rule that responds to financial market conditions is better than any other interest rate rules only if it does not react to the exchange rate fluctuations. Moreover, an interest rate rule that responds to the exchange rate fluctuations, i.e. the monetary policy under the managed floating exchange rate regime is inferior to the monetary policy rules that do not respond to the exchange rate fluctuations. Finally, it shows that the monetary authority needs to stabilize a narrow price index such as domestic price index rather than a general price index such as consumer price index under the financial friction circumstances.

  2. The Globalization of the Business Sector in a Small Open Economy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thompson, Grahame; Kaspersen, Lars Bo

    2012-01-01

    The growth of multinational corporations (MNCs) is often taken as a quintessential indicator of ‘globalization’. But recent detailed empirical analysis has challenged the idea that most MNCs are global in terms of their business strategy and arena of operations. This article first clarifies...... the differences between globalization, internationalization and supranational-regionalization by examining the evidence on trade and investment patterns for Denmark. In particular, it presents a detailed analysis of the business strategies of the large corporate sector in Denmark. Denmark is an interesting case......, as it is a small open economy (SOE) that might be thought to be one uniquely vulnerable to the forces of globalization. Up until now examination of MNCs' internationalization strategies has concentrated upon large economies. We provide evidence for a SOE. In addition, we expand the range of dimensions used...

  3. Optimum Organization of the Labor Market in a Small Open Economy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blomgren-Hansen, Niels

    2012-01-01

    In Denmark labor has been organized in independent but cooperating craft unions for more than a century. Within an extremely simple model of a small open economy facing imperfect competition, we analyze four different ways of organizing the labor market and show that the Danish model (partial...... centralization of the wage setting process) may be accounted for as the outcome of a two-stage Nash bargaining game, being robust in relation to changes in market conditions, and likely close to optimum from the point of view of society as a whole....

  4. Government budget, public-sector wages and capital taxes in a small open economy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chao, C.C.; Yu, E. S. H.; Yu, Wusheng

    This paper examines the welfare implications of adjustments in public-sector wages and capital tax rates for a small open economy in a general equilibrium setting. The individually and jointly optimal wage and tax policies are derived and interpreted. Facing reductions in land sales and falls...... in foreign interest rates, a cut in public workers’ pay is needed for making their wage comparable to the private sector and a hike in capital taxes is recommended for a budgetary consideration. Using a computable general equilibrium model for Hong Kong, we numerically evaluate the various optimal policies...

  5. Monetary policy and inflation targeting in a small open-economy

    OpenAIRE

    Abdul Karim, Zulkefly; Md. Said, Fathin Faezah; Jusoh, Mansor; Md. Thahir, Md. Zyadi

    2009-01-01

    This paper investigates the transmission mechanism of monetary policy and inflation targeting in a small open-economy by using backward-looking of aggregate supply (AS) and aggregate demand (AD) framework. Since September 1998 until July 2005, Malaysia has implemented a currency pegged to the U.S dollar in responding to the Asian financial crisis. However, since the 21st of July 2005 until at present, the Central Bank of Malaysia (CBM) has eliminated pegging with the U.S dollar and moved to t...

  6. Energy taxation in a small, open economy: Social efficiency gains versus industrial concerns

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bjertnaes, Geir H.; Faehn, Taran

    2008-01-01

    Welfare analyses of energy taxes typically show that systems with uniform rates perform better than differentiated systems, especially if revenue can be recycled by cutting taxes that are more distortionary. However, in practical policy, efficiency gains must be traded off against industrial concerns. Presumably, energy-dependent industries of small, open economies will suffer relatively more if taxed. This computable general equilibrium (CGE) study examines the social costs of compensating the energy-intensive export industries in Norway for their profit losses from imposing the same electricity tax on all industries. The costs are surprisingly modest. This is explained by the role of the Nordic electricity market, which is still limited enough to respond to national energy tax reforms. Thus, an electricity price reduction partly neutralizes the direct impact of the tax on profits. In addition, we examine the effects of different compensation schemes and find significantly lower compensation costs when the scheme is designed to release productivity gains. (author)

  7. Optimal Monetary Policy and Exchange Rate in a Small Open Economy with Unemployment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyuk-Jae Rhee

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we consider a small open economy under the New Keynesian model with unemployment of Gali (2011a, b to discuss the design of the monetary policy. Our findings can be summarized in three parts. First, even with the existence of unemployment, the optimal policy is to minimize variance of domestic price inflation, wage inflation, and the output gap when both domestic price and wage are sticky. Second, stabilizing unemployment rate is important in reducing the welfare loss incurred by both technology and labor supply shocks. Therefore, introducing the unemployment rate as an another argument into the Taylor-rule type interest rate rule will be welfare-enhancing. Lastly, controlling CPI inflation is the best option when the policy is not allowed to respond to unemployment rate. Once the unemployment rate is controlled, however, stabilizing power of CPI inflation-based Taylor rule is diminished.

  8. Efficient, equitable and sustainable energy policy in a small open economy: Concepts and assessments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, Youngho; Fang, Zheng

    2017-01-01

    This study aims to develop three broadly defined concepts of designing and evaluating energy policy of a small open economy, namely, efficiency, equity, and sustainability which are applied to Singapore. By analysing the historical energy and economic data and examining energy policies and programs implemented, this study finds that (1) energy intensity improves over time and three strategies employed to improve energy efficiency - tariffs, deregulation and setting energy standards - are found to have some positive effects. (2) A utility rebate programme is implemented and revised continuously to achieve equity in energy consumption across Singapore households. (3) By the weak concept of sustainability, Singapore is considered marginally sustainable. Institutional, technological and market-based approaches are being implemented to increase energy efficiency, improve energy equity and secure sustainability. - Highlights: • Three concepts of designing and evaluating energy policy are developed. • Efficiency, equity and sustainability are the three concepts. • Three strategies are identified in improving energy efficiency. • A utility rebate programme is to achieve equity in energy consumption across households. • Institutional and market-based approaches are to secure sustainable energy supply.

  9. Technology learning in a small open economy-The systems, modelling and exploiting the learning effect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martinsen, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    This paper reviews the characteristics of technology learning and discusses its application in energy system modelling in a global-local perspective. Its influence on the national energy system, exemplified by Norway, is investigated using a global and national Markal model. The dynamic nature of the learning system boundary and coupling between the national energy system and the global development and manufacturing system is elaborated. Some criteria important for modelling of spillover are suggested. Particularly, to ensure balance in global energy demand and supply and accurately reflect alternative global pathways spillover for all technologies as well as energy carrier cost/prices should be estimated under the same global scenario. The technology composition, CO 2 emissions and system cost in Norway up to 2050 exhibit sensitivity to spillover. Moreover, spillover may reduce both CO 2 emissions and total system cost. National energy system analysis of low carbon society should therefore consider technology development paths in global policy scenarios. Without the spillover from international deployment a domestic technology relies only on endogenous national learning. However, with high but realistic learning rates offshore floating wind may become cost-efficient even if initially deployed only in Norwegian niche markets. - Research highlights: → Spillover for all technologies should emanate from the same global scenario. → A global model is called for to estimate spillover.→ Spillover may reduce CO 2 emissions and the total system cost in a small open economy. → Off-shore floating wind may become cost-efficient in a national niche market.

  10. Determinants of CO{sub 2} emissions in a small open economy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Friedl, Birgit; Getzner, Michael [Department of Economics, University of Klagenfurt, Universitaetsstrasse 65-67, A-9020 Klagenfurt (Austria)

    2003-04-01

    The aim of the paper is to explore the relationship between economic development and carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) emissions for a small open and industrialized country, Austria. We test whether an Environmental Kuznets Curve relationship also holds for a single country rather than concentrating on panel or cross-section data for a set of countries. A cubic (i.e. N-shaped) relationship between GDP and CO{sub 2} emissions is found to fit the data most appropriately for the period 1960-1999, and a structural break is identified in the mid-seventies due to the oil price shock. Furthermore, two variables are additionally significant: import shares reflecting the well-known pollution haven hypothesis, and the share of the tertiary (service) sector of total production (GDP) accounting for structural changes in the economy. Emission projections derived from this single country specification support the widely held opinion that significant policy changes are asked for when implementing the Kyoto Protocol in order to bring about a downturn in future carbon emissions.

  11. Ireland – industrial competitiveness in a small open economy (NIRSA) Working Paper Series. No. 44

    OpenAIRE

    Cassidy, John; Barry, Frank; Van Egeraat, Chris

    2009-01-01

    The Irish economy has boomed in recent years based on a strategy of attracting FDI, and has become a model economy particularly for EU accession countries. This chapter sets out to provide a deeper understanding of Ireland’s success in the context of Porter’s Diamond Model of national competitiveness. A number of analyses have been done in Ireland on the relevance of Porter’s Diamond theory to national competitiveness. O’Connell, van Egeraat and Enright (1997) adopted a Porter Diamond analysi...

  12. Population ageing and pension reform in a small open economy with non-traded goods

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bettendorf, Leon J. H.; Heijdra, Ben J.

    2006-01-01

    In this paper we study the implications of population ageing in an economy with a sizeable non-traded goods sector. To this effect a highly stylized micro-founded macro model is constructed in which the age structure of the population plays a non-trivial role. The model distinguishes separate birth

  13. Population Ageing and Pension Reform in a Small Open Economy with Non-Traded Goods

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L.J.H. Bettendorf (Leon); B.J. Heijdra (Ben)

    2004-01-01

    textabstractIn this paper we study the implications of population ageing in an economy with a sizeable non-traded goods sector. To this effect a highly stylized micro-founded macro model is constructed in which the age structure of the population plays a non-trivial role. The model distinguishes

  14. On the Determinants of Optimal Border Taxes for a Small Open Economy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munk, Knud Jørgen; Rasmussen, Bo Sandemann

    of the primary factor and domestic consumption of the export good cannot be taxed is nevertheless a constraint; this insight provides the key to understanding what determines the optimal tariff structure. The optimal border tax structure is derived for both exogenous and endogenous labour supply, and the results...... are interpreted in the spirit of the Corlett-Hague results for the optimal tax structure in a closed economy and compared with results from CGE models....

  15. Financial Fragility, Exchange-Rate Regimes, and Sudden Stops in a Small Open Economy

    OpenAIRE

    Wen-Yao Grace Wang; Paula Hernandez-Verme; Raymond A. K. Cox Author E-mail:

    2012-01-01

    We model a typical Asian economy in crisis using a dynamic general equilibrium technique and establishing exchange rates from nontrivial fiatcurrency demands. Sudden stops/bank panics are possible and are essential for evaluating the merits of alternative exchange-rate regimes. Strategic complementarities contribute to the severe indeterminacy of a continuum of equilibria. Social welfare and the scope of equilibria are also associated with the underlying policy regime and the built-in Sequent...

  16. Multiple Reserve Requirements, Exchange Rates, Sudden Stops and Equilibrium Dynamics in a Small Open Economy

    OpenAIRE

    Paula Hernandez-Verme; Wen-Yao Wang

    2009-01-01

    We model a typical Asian-crisis-economy using dynamic general equilibrium tech-niques. Exchange rates obtain from nontrivial fiat-currencies demands. Sudden stops/bank-panics are possible, and key for evaluating the merits of alternative ex-change rate regimes. Strategic complementarities contribute to the severe indetermi-nacy of the continuum of equilibria. The scope for existence and indeterminacy of equilibria and dynamic properties are associated with the underlying policy regime. Bindin...

  17. Oil price shocks: Sectoral and dynamic adjustments in a small-open developed and oil-exporting economy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dissou, Yazid

    2010-01-01

    The recent uptrend in oil prices represents both an opportunity and a challenge for small-open developed and oil-exporting countries. Using Canada as a study case and in contrast to most studies that use aggregate models, this paper employs a multi-sector, intertemporal general equilibrium model to provide perspectives on the sectoral, aggregate and dynamic adjustments of a sustained increase in oil prices. It highlights the transmission channels through which the rise in oil prices affects the domestic economy. The simulation results suggest that the shock would have positive aggregate impacts, but would also spur the reallocation of resources and would therefore induce disparities in sectoral adjustments. The suggested contraction in some industries could not however be attributed to a pure Dutch disease phenomenon because of, among other factors, the cost-push effect induced by the increase in oil prices.

  18. The impact of monetary policy on the economic growth of a small and open economy: The case of South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V Khabo

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluates the impact of monetary policy on the economic growth of a small and open economy like that of South Africa. Structuralists contend that changes in money supply (M3 and inflation (CPI are not significantly related to changes in economic growth (GDP, while orthodox economists argue that they are. Stucturalists also hold that monetary authorities cannot control M3, whereas orthodox economists believe they can. To structuralists, when monetary authorities pursue an expansionary policy, the opposite effect is achieved. Orthodox economists counter this argument. The ADT test statistic against the McKinnon critical values was used and it was found (i that money supply changes and inflation are significantly related to changes in economic growth, and (ii whereas monetary authorities can control M3 through the repo rate,  they cannot keep it within set targets.

  19. Business cycles in small, open economies: Evidence from panel data between 1900 and 2013

    OpenAIRE

    Miyamoto, Wataru; Nguyen, Thuy Lan

    2016-01-01

    Using a novel data set for 17 countries dating from 1900 to 2013, we characterize business cycles in both small developed and developing countries in a model with financial frictions and a common shock structure. We estimate the model jointly for these 17 countries using Bayesian methods. We find that financial frictions are an important feature for not only developing countries but also small developed countries. Furthermore, business cycles in both groups of countries are marked with trend ...

  20. Dutch Disease in a small open economy: The case of oil in Saudi Arabia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Mabrouk, S.A.

    1991-01-01

    The effects of 'Dutch Disease' come through two channels: real wage rate and real exchange rate. A sector export boom induces both resource movement and spending effects that reinforce each other in raising higher real wage and real exchange rates. In the case of an oil boom, only the spending effect is in operation because the oil sector does not employ domestic mobile factors. After a great deal of theoretical surveying and consolidation of 'Dutch Disease' on the Saudi Arabian economy throughout the period of 1970s and 1980s. The author was trying to see whether or not the oil boom was an obstacle to economic diversification. The empirical findings support the theoretical prediction. The real exchange rate of Saudi Arabia has appreciated throughout the period of the oil-boom and, in turn, it induced an expansion in the non-traded sector and a contraction in the non-oil traded sector. The indirect effect of the oil boom came through the use of oil wealth to import technology. This effect induced further expansion in the non-traded goods at a faster rate than the non-oil traded goods

  1. Rent taxation and its intertemporal effects in a small open economy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Köthenbürger, Marko; Poutvaara, Panu

    2009-01-01

    Previous literature concludes that replacing wage taxation by taxes on a fixed factor or its rents benefits future generations. However, the effects of such steady-state gains on the transition generations have been left open. In this paper, we show that taxation of rents may also increase utilit...... of the current generation provided tax revenues are earmarked to reduce wage taxes. In particular, a shift in the tax mix may yield an intergenerational Pareto-improvement when the initially prevailing tax mix is sufficiently skewed toward wage taxation....

  2. Macroeconomics in an open economy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, R N

    1986-09-12

    The customary treatment of national economies as closed and self-contained must be substantially modified to allow for those economies that typically trade goods, services, and securities with other countries in increasing volume. Open economy macroeconomics is essential to understanding the major events of the U.S. economy over the past half dozen years. Both the sharp rise in the dollar and the unprecedentedly large U.S. trade deficit are linked to the U.S. budget deficit, as is the drop in the rate of inflation.

  3. Innovation and Job Creation in a Small Open Economy Evidence from Norwegian Manufacturing Plants 1982-92

    OpenAIRE

    Tor Jakob Klette; Svein Erik Førre

    1995-01-01

    It is often claimed that the opportunities to create new manufacturing jobs in open, high-cost economies such as Norway, are concentrated in products which are technologically advanced and knowledge intensive. This paper examines the relationship between job creation and innovation, as measured by R&D investments, in Norwegian manufacturing. We compare job creation in plants belonging to R&D firms to plants belonging to firms without R&D. We also compare job creation in plants belonging to hi...

  4. Monetary regimes in open economies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Korpos, A.

    2006-01-01

    This thesis presents a two-country open economy framework for the analysis of strategic interactions among monetary authorities and wage bargaining institutions. From this perspective, the thesis investigates the economic consequences of replacing flexible and fixed exchange rate regimes with a

  5. How to Recover From the Great Recession: The Case of a Two-Sector Small Open Economy with Traded and Non-Traded Capital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jong-Kyou Jeon

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Since the global financial crisis in 2008, the world economy has been suffering from the Great Recession characterized by high and persistent unemployment as well as drastic fall in asset prices. Real business cycle theory or new-Keynesian economics which has been the dominant paradigm in macroeconomics for the last four decades is unable to explain the high and persistent unemployment during the Great Recession. This implies that the economics of Keynes should be taken seriously again as a tool to explain the Great Recession. Farmer (2012 proposes a new way of interpreting the economics of Keynes by providing it with a solid micro-foundation based on labor markets with search. According to Farmer (2012, aggregate economic activity independently depends on the long-term self-fulfilling expectations about the stock prices. As a consequence, the government or the central bank should implement a policy that influences the public's confidence about the stock market. For an open economy like the Korean economy, it is not only stock price but also the price of asset such as house that matters more for the aggregate economic activity. Households in the Korean economy hold more than 70 percent of their wealth in the form of real estate asset, especially housing asset. This makes the public's confidence about the future prices of houses even more important in explaining the business cycles of the Korean economy. Policymakers should implement policies to improve the confidence of households about the housing market to recover from the recession caused by a fall in house prices. Little theoretical work has been done in explaining fluctuations in the aggregate economic activity from the point of house prices. This paper develops a small open economy model with traded and non-traded capital based on Farmer (2012 and shows that the aggregate economic activity also independently depends on the households’ self-fulfilling expectations about the future prices

  6. Exchange rate and price dynamics in a small open economy - the role of the zero lower bound and monetary policy regimes

    OpenAIRE

    Gregor Bäurle; Daniel Kaufmann

    2014-01-01

    We analyse nominal exchange rate and price dynamics after risk premium shocks with short-term interest rates constrained by the zero lower bound (ZLB). In a small-open-economy DSGE model, temporary risk premium shocks lead to shifts of the exchange rate and the price level if a central bank implements an inflation target by means of a traditional Taylor rule. These shifts are strongly amplified and become more persistent once the ZLB is included in the model. We also provide empirical support...

  7. Open Education and the Open Science Economy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, Michael A.

    2009-01-01

    Openness as a complex code word for a variety of digital trends and movements has emerged as an alternative mode of "social production" based on the growing and overlapping complexities of open source, open access, open archiving, open publishing, and open science. This paper argues that the openness movement with its reinforcing structure of…

  8. An analysis of macroeconomic fluctuations for a small open oil-based economy: The case of Saudi Arabia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Abdulkarim, Bander B.

    The increasing fluctuations in the oil prices through the last decades have been transferred to the oil exporting countries. Thus, many oil exporting countries experienced significant changes in the economic activity due to changes in the oil markets. In light of this, oil exporting countries have attempted to implement a policy that would stabilize the fluctuations in the oil markets recognizing the adverse effects of such behavior on oil exporting countries, as well as oil importing countries. Saudi Arabia, as the largest oil-exporting country and a member of OPEC, takes the role of oil-markets stabilizer by behaving as the swing producer. This role has caused the global economic fluctuations to transfer into the domestic economy. In addition, Saudi Arabian government has adopted a fixed exchange rate currency regime. Although it has contributed to domestic price stabilizations, this policy has also exposed the country to global economic disturbances. The purpose of the study is to empirically investigate these aspects for Saudi Arabia. First, the effects of shocks originated in the international markets on the Saudi Arabian economy. Second, how the fixed exchange rate regimes influences the domestic macroeconomic variables. Third, to what extent the oil sector contributes to the non-oil domestic fluctuations. Finally, how the findings from the study can be explained by economic theory. In pursuing this, there are four economic theories that are considered to explain the causes of business cycles. These theories are Classical Theory, Keynesian Theory, Monetarist Theory, and the Real Business Cycles. In addition, a theoretical model is derived that is suitable for an oil-based economy. The model follows the set up of McCallum and Nelson (1999). Then, the empirical models of Structural Vector Autoregression (SVAR) and Error Correction Model (ECM) are implemented with three different specifications: Choleski Decomposition, Block Exogeneity and long-run Cointegration

  9. Foreign Shocks, Monetary Policy, and Macroeconomic Fluctuations in a Small Open Economy: A SVAR Study of Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zulkefly Abdul Karim

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the effect of foreign shocks upon domestic macroeconomic fluctuations and monetary policy, and examines the effectiveness of domestic monetary policy as a stabilization policy in Malaysia. Monetary policy variables (interest rate and money supply have been measured through a non-recursive structural VAR (SVAR identification scheme, which allows the monetary authority to set the interest rate and money supply after observing the current value of foreign variables, domestic output and inflation. The results show the important role of foreign shocks in influencing Malaysian monetary policy and macroeconomic variables. There is a real effect of monetary policy, that is, a positive shock in money supply increases domestic output. In contrast, a positive interest rates shock has a negative effect on domestic output growth and inflation. The effects of money supply and interest rate shocks on the exchange rate and stock prices are also consistent with standard economic theory. In addition, domestic monetary policy is able to mitigate the negative effect of external shocks upon domestic economy.

  10. La scuola svedese e la teoria macroeconomica: riflessioni su una piccola economia aperta operante in regime di cambi flessibiliThe Swedish School and macroeconomic theory: Reflections on a small open economy operating within a regime of flexible exchanges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. TROPEANO

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The Swedish School, with its representatives Ohlin, Hammarskjöld and Lindahl, madeimportant contributions to the economic theory of the open economy, even if such contributions have never been at the centre of attention of economists, probably due to their dark language style. In particular, it had a vision of the operating of an open economy that was completely different from post-war Keynesian orthodoxy. The exchange rate regime does not isolate a small economy from the repercussions of events that occur in financial markets and from goods at the international level. The other major assumption of open economy macroeconomics was the independence of monetary policy. The Keynesian models in the 1950s included only external money. On the contrary, the Swedes considered the credit system and the working of international banks.JEL: F41

  11. Mitigating Double Taxation in an Open Economy

    OpenAIRE

    Lindhe, Tobias

    2001-01-01

    The interaction of various methods of mitigating economic and international double taxation of corporate source income is studied within a standard neoclassical model of firm behavior. The main purpose is to determine to what extent methods effective in mitigating economic double taxation in a closed economy remain useful in an open economy where the firm's marginal investor is a foreigner. While a cut in the statutory corporate tax rate invariably reduces the cost of capital, the impact of t...

  12. Teaching New Keynesian Open Economy Macroeconomics at the Intermediate Level

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bofinger, Peter; Mayer, Eric; Wollmershauser, Timo

    2009-01-01

    For the open economy, the workhorse model in intermediate textbooks still is the Mundell-Fleming model, which basically extends the investment and savings, liquidity preference and money supply (IS-LM) model to open economy problems. The authors present a simple New Keynesian model of the open economy that introduces open economy considerations…

  13. The NNP and Sustainability in Open Economy: Highlights on Recent World Economy and on Open Economy of Bangladesh

    OpenAIRE

    Mohajan, Haradhan

    2011-01-01

    This paper discusses the theory of the net national product and, emphasizes on social welfare and sustainable accounting in open economy. It is observed that the world economy following an egalitarian path, the aggregate capital gains being positive is equivalent to the interest rate tending to decrease. This is important for the concept of net national product in open economies. Martin Weitzman gives a foundation for net national product as the stationary equivalent of a wealth maximizing pa...

  14. Three Forms of the Knowledge Economy: Learning, Creativity and Openness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, Michael A.

    2010-01-01

    This paper outlines and reviews three forms and associated discourses of the "knowledge economy": the "learning economy", based on the work of Bengt-Ake Lundvall; the "creative economy" based on the work of Charles Landry, John Howkins and Richard Florida; and the "open knowledge economy" based on the work of Yochai Benkler and others. Arguably,…

  15. Could small scale vegetable production contribute to a green economy in South Africa?

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Musvoto, Constansia D

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available and produces for sale. Some of the practices on these farms are compatible with a green economy, and with interventions that improve alignment with green economy principles, small scale vegetable production could contribute to a green economy and open up...

  16. Capital income taxation in a growing open economy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Søren Bo; Sørensen, Peter Birch

    1991-01-01

    The paper studies the dynamic macroeconomic effects of various forms of capital income taxation in a model of a small open economy with perfect mobility of financial capital and intertemporal optimization on the part of households and firms. One of the noteworthy results is that the introduction...... of a (low) corporate income tax will not affect consumption in the long run, but will simply lead to a replacement of shares by foreign financial assets in household portfolios. It is also found that an anticipated investment tax credit can have and that an anticipated dividend tax will have contractionary...... effects on investment before they are introduced. Moreover, it is shown that while an unanticipated dividend tax is neutral with respect to investment, it will have real effects on consumption and net foreign assets in a growing economy...

  17. The Political Economy of "Open Regionalism" and Education in Small (and Micro) States: The Construction of the Caribbean Educational Policy Space in CARICOM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jules, Tavis D.

    2014-01-01

    In this era of amplified regionalisation, the Economic Commission for Latin America and the Caribbean's (ECLAC) conceptualisation of 'open regionalism' is pertinent to examine the role of regional governance mechanisms in constructing what I call the "Caribbean Educational Policy Space." With the aid of a latent content analysis of…

  18. Essays in Open Economy Monetary Policy

    OpenAIRE

    Castro, Pedro

    2012-01-01

    International economic integration has risen during the last decades and the interdependence between each economy and the rest of the world has become central for policy decisions. My dissertation contributes to the debate about the conduct of monetary policy in a financially integrated world. In the first chapter of the dissertation I discuss the relationship between domestic policies and the currency denomination of foreign debt. Foreign debt is a double-edged sword. It allows countries to ...

  19. Openness and Legitimacy Building in the Sharing Economy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marton, Attila; Constantiou, Ioanna; Lagoudakos, Georgios

    2017-01-01

    Sharing economy start-ups are claiming legitimacy by drawing on notions of openness and, at the same time, by adapting to business institutions. We use the case of CouchSurfing to investigate how openness, which has been part of the organization’s raison-d’être, contributed in the legitimacy buil...

  20. Growth challenges in small manufacturing ventures from emerging economies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Turcan, Romeo V.

    2013-01-01

    This is a teaching case study that addresses the issues of emergence, legitimation, growth and internationalization of small manufacturing firms located in remote areas in an emerging economy.......This is a teaching case study that addresses the issues of emergence, legitimation, growth and internationalization of small manufacturing firms located in remote areas in an emerging economy....

  1. GLOBALIZATION AND SMALL BUSINESSES AND ECONOMIES – CHALLENGES AND OPPORTUNITIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    NINKO KOSTOVSKI

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we analyze the effect of globalization in general and from the viewpoint of the small and medium sized companies in the Republic of Macedonia, as a typical developing economy. Our survey of 100 managers and business owners from small and medium sized enterprises indicates that they tend to perceive the globalization with more conservative glasses as negative, or at the best, as a neutral phenomenon to their overall business prospects. However, to harvest the apparent opportunities of the globalization and to achieve the desired internationalization of their businesses, they call for intensive regional cooperation seeing it as a gateway to much harsher realms of the globalized market. The literature review and the examples from some other countries support these conservative standing of our managers and offer practical explanations why the approach towards the globalization is conservative and often even negative. Small business is important provider of new jobs, ideas and business concepts. However, with the opening of the global market it is a constant pursue for customers all around the world, having to meet their diverse and rapidly changing needs and facing extremely shortened delivery terms and product lifecycles. Many small companies, particularly from the developing countries are not adequately prepared to face the reality of this challenge. On the other hand, the big multinational companies receive more than hefty incentives to invest into the developing countries and that creates additional negative sentiments towards the globalization among the local companies.

  2. Open-Economy Macroeconomics, Developments in Theory and Policy

    OpenAIRE

    Maurice Obstfeld

    1999-01-01

    This paper surveys recent research in open-economy macroeconomics, using questions raised by European economic and monetary unification to guide the topics discussed. A striking empirical regularity is the tendency for changes in the nominal exchange rate regime systematically to affect the variability of nominal and real exchange rates alike. This regularity (which disappears in high-inflation conditions) can be explained by sticky-price theories or by models of asset-market liquidity effect...

  3. Environmental and energy issues in an open economy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Kyungsoo

    The environmental and energy consequences of globalization have become an important topic of debate. My dissertation examines the interaction between environmental and energy issues and international trade. Specifically, I investigate environmental regulations and policy in an open economy. In the first chapter, I analyze how an environmental tax on pollution from consumption affects trade flows and welfare in an open economy. In particular, I argue that the effect of an environmental tax on the direction of trade flows depends on who is directly burdened by the regulation (consumers or producers) regardless of who is the polluter. In the case of pollution generated by consumers, a tax on consumers who are the polluters tends to increase exports and reduce imports of dirty goods. This result is the opposite of the well-known effect arising from taxes on pollution-intensive industries. Stringent environmental regulations on pollution-intensive industries diminishes exports and increases imports of dirty industries. In terms of welfare, I show the importance of targeting the policy instrument to the correct source of pollution. Assuming pollution is caused by the consumption of a good, a production tax has a weak effect on increasing welfare through reducing pollution. Furthermore, welfare can fall if the production tax ratio is too high, leading to reduced national income. The second chapter is motivated by recent trends in the U.S. economy: increasing imports from China, decreasing energy consumption, and increasing output. There are two primary theoretical approaches related to the relationship between energy use in U.S. manufacturing and increasing imports from China: Heckscher-Ohlin (H-O) trade theory and the Pollution Haven Hypothesis (PHH). These two frameworks generate opposite predictions about the relationship between these trends. H-O theory suggests that with increased Chinese import penetration, U.S. manufacturing should move toward more energy

  4. Open Economy, Institutional Quality, and Environmental Performance: A Macroeconomic Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amaryllis Mavragani

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available As the subject of how economic development affects the quality of the natural environment has gained great momentum, this paper focuses on examining the extent to which the openness of a market economy and the quality of the institution affect environmental performance. The majority of the current studies focus on the Environmental Kuznets Curve and the level of economic growth. This paper addresses this question by relating environmental (“Environmental Performance Index” to macroeconomic (Gross Domestic Product per capita, “Open Markets Index” and governance indicators (“Worldwide Governance Indicators”. The sample consists of 75 countries, including all G20 and EU members, comprising “more than 90% of global trade and investment”. Findings show that the Environmental Performance Index is positively correlated to each of the (institutional indicators, so as to confirm that the selected indices are consistent with previous studies, suggesting that environmental performance increases in line with economic development and that good governance increases a country’s levels of environmental protection. By applying factor analysis, an empirical model of the Environmental Performance Index is estimated, suggesting that there is a significant positive correlation between a country’s economic growth, the openness of an economy, high levels of effective governance, and its environmental performance.

  5. The Management of Managers: Challenges in a Small Economy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbert, John; Boxall, Peter

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to discuss the findings of a study of the management of senior managers. The aim is to describe the ways in which firms in a small economy, such as New Zealand, manage their managers and analyse how they deal with the strategic challenges that are involved. Design/methodology/approach: The study applies the…

  6. Energy price increases, economic rents, and industrial structure in a small regional economy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Norrie, K.H.; Percy, M.B.

    1982-01-01

    The authors model the relationship between natural-resource revenues and regional economic diversification in the context of a general-equilibrium model of a small, open, natural-resource-based regional economy. The model is then used to stimulate the implications of various province-building strategies, and to draw policy implications from this. They find that the efforts to diversify the economy using the fiscal capacity of the region will, in general, impose real welfare losses on the residents of the province, although certain groups, such as land owners, are already better off.

  7. Demand for road-fuel in a small developing economy: The case of Sri Lanka

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chandrasiri, Sunil

    2006-01-01

    This paper estimates the demand for road fuel (petrol and auto-diesel) in the context of a small developing economy-Sri Lanka. The data set covers a period of 39 years from 1964 to 2002 representing both close economy and open economy policy regimes. The estimation procedure is based on seemingly unrelated regression equation (SURE) methodology mainly to capture substitutability of petrol and diesel in road transportation. The effect of auto-fuel prices on vehicle demand is also analyzed as a part of the analysis. In addition to confirming existing evidence on road-fuel demand, the findings reveal some interesting evidence with respect to own-price elasticity, cross-price elasticity, lag effects, income and vehicle mix variables

  8. Open Education and the Creative Economy: Global Perspectives and Comparative Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Tze-Chang

    2011-01-01

    This dissertation is to deal the issues of open education, creative economies, higher education. It also compares the performances in these aspects among different countries. The conception of the "creative economy" develops within the context of "global neoliberalism" and "knowledge economy." These three notions are…

  9. Statistical Physics of Economic Systems: a Survey for Open Economies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Yong; Chen, Xun

    2012-05-01

    We extend the theoretical framework of an independent economy developed by Tao [Phys. Rev. E 82 (2010) 036118] so as to include multiple economies. Since the starting point of our framework is on the basis of the theory of the competitive markets of traditional economics, this framework shall be suitable for any free market. Our study shows that integration of world economies can decrease trade friction among economic systems, but may also cause a global economic crisis whenever economy disequilibrium occurs in any one of these economic systems.

  10. A Preliminary Analysis of Adaptive Responding Under Open and Closed Economies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roane, Henry S.; Call, Nathan A.; Falcomata, Terry S.

    2005-01-01

    In the current investigation, we evaluated the effects of open and closed economies on the adaptive behavior of 2 individuals with developmental disabilities. Across both types of economy, progressive-ratio (PR) schedules were used in which the number of responses required to obtain reinforcement increased as the session progressed. In…

  11. Optimal environmental policy differentials in open economies under emissions constraints

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Withagen, C.A.A.M.; Florax, R.J.G.M.; Mulatu, A.

    2007-01-01

    Is there a case for preferential treatment of the exposed sector in an economy when compliance to an aggregate emissions constraint induced by an international environmental agreement is mandatory? This question is being debated in many countries in the context of the implementation of the Kyoto

  12. Foreign Direct Investment and Trade Openness: The Case of Developing Economies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liargovas, Panagiotis G.; Skandalis, Konstantinos S.

    2012-01-01

    This paper examines the importance of trade openness for attracting Foreign Direct Investment (FDI) inflows, using a sample of 36 developing economies for the period 1990-2008. It provides a direct test of causality between FDI inflows, trade openness and other key variables in developing regions of the world: Latin America, Asia, Africa, CIS…

  13. Oil price shocks and economy: an open question

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Di Marzio, G.

    2006-01-01

    During the 1970s and 1980s advanced oil importing economies faced the adverse effects of oil supply disruptions with abrupt energy price rise, followed by sensible business cycle inversions and stagflation. The negative effects of the sharp energy price increase were amplified by factors such the induced costly resources reallocation between labour and capital, and between sectors of activity; rising uncertainty discouraging investments, and income redistribution consequences on aggregate demands After a shock the economic system generally adjusts in favour of less energy intensive industries; this leads pauses in production as part of the existing capital stock become obsolete, and causes resources under utilization. Since the 1970s a number of economists have been sceptical about why even large price shocks in a resource that accounts for less than 3-4 pct. of global GDP could cause losses of magnitude as those experienced in most advanced economies. They believe that monetary policy has played a role in generating the observed negative correlation between oil prices and economic activity, and question whether the post-oil-shock recessions were attributable to the oil price shocks themselves or to the monetary policy responding to these shocks. Empirical research largely shows a primary responsibility of large price shocks and major oil-supply disruptions on recessionary movements of GDP. Energy prices have risen sharply since 2003, driven by strengthening global demand; market fundamentals suggest that a considerable fraction of recent hikes will be permanent and current price levels remain credible. With limited spare capacity, the medium term oil supply-demand balance is expected to remain tight, and the price probably near current levels. Today' s high oil prices reflect the effects of sustained energy demand trends and, jointly, oil industry under investment during and after the low price era of the 1990s. The apparent moderate macro economic effects of the

  14. Open and continuous fermentation: products, conditions and bioprocess economy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Teng; Chen, Xiang-bin; Chen, Jin-chun; Wu, Qiong; Chen, Guo-Qiang

    2014-12-01

    Microbial fermentation is the key to industrial biotechnology. Most fermentation processes are sensitive to microbial contamination and require an energy intensive sterilization process. The majority of microbial fermentations can only be conducted over a short period of time in a batch or fed-batch culture, further increasing energy consumption and process complexity, and these factors contribute to the high costs of bio-products. In an effort to make bio-products more economically competitive, increased attention has been paid to developing open (unsterile) and continuous processes. If well conducted, continuous fermentation processes will lead to the reduced cost of industrial bio-products. To achieve cost-efficient open and continuous fermentations, the feeding of raw materials and the removal of products must be conducted in a continuous manner without the risk of contamination, even under 'open' conditions. Factors such as the stability of the biological system as a whole during long cultivations, as well as the yield and productivity of the process, are also important. Microorganisms that grow under extreme conditions such as high or low pH, high osmotic pressure, and high or low temperature, as well as under conditions of mixed culturing, cell immobilization, and solid state cultivation, are of interest for developing open and continuous fermentation processes. Copyright © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  15. Alternative Financial Policy Rules in an Open Economy Under Rational and Adaptive Expectations

    OpenAIRE

    Blackburn, Keith; Currie, David; Whittaker, R; Wren-Lewis, Simon

    1985-01-01

    The potential instability of a fixed monetary rule combined with automatic fixed stabilisers is a well-established feature of closed economy IS/LM models with wealth effects and asset accumulation. This paper examines the stability issue in a general open economy macromodel with alternative expectations mechanisms (rational or adaptive) in both the labour market and the foreign exchange market. The fixed monetary rule is found to be stabilising only in special cases, notably when post-tax rea...

  16. Globalization: an open door for the knowledge economy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreea MARIN-PANTELESCU

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Globalization refers to an emphasized process of global integration and spreading a set of ideas related to the economical activity and goods’ production, the premises being the liberalization of international commerce and the capital flows, the speeding up of the technological progress and informational society. The cognitive society is more and more obvious and unanimously accepted, which actually proves its efficiency. If traditional, conservative communities, which are not open to change and reject from the start anything new on the horizon, still exist today, they are isolated cases that will eventually be "converted" by this wave of information that has become indispensable to any development because in its absence resources could not be used efficiently. Taking into consideration these elements, this paper wishes to give arguments to the fact that globalization can be seen as being an open door for the cognitive society.

  17. Financial Crisis, openness of the economy and the financial performance of Jordanian listed banks: analytical study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Mustafa Abdullah Al Qudah, Dr.

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This study examined the impact of the world financial crisis and openness of the economy on the financial performance of Jordanian listed banks through the period 2005-2008. Panel data analysis is employed to examine study hypotheses. The results showed that the world financial crisis has a negative and significant impact on the financial performance measured by return on assets, return on equity, earning per share, market share prices, and market value while it has a positive but not significant impact on dividend yields. The study also found that openness of the economy has a positive and significant impact on the financial performance of Jordanian listed banks.

  18. Small Open Economy Firms in International Trade

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eriksson, Tor Viking; Smeets, Valérie; Warzynski, Frederic

    In this paper, we use a rich dataset disaggregating imports and exports decisions by product and origin/destination of all Danish companies for the period 1993-2003 to provide key elements in characterizing Danish firms in international trade. Most evidence to date emanates from the U.S. or devel......In this paper, we use a rich dataset disaggregating imports and exports decisions by product and origin/destination of all Danish companies for the period 1993-2003 to provide key elements in characterizing Danish firms in international trade. Most evidence to date emanates from the U...... in Denmark than in the U.S. There are few traces of the European Union's Single Market Program and the adoption the Euro in 1998. We observe no impact of these changes on the number of exporters, but some signs of impacts on the number of products and export destination countries. Finally, we find that trade...

  19. Foreign Prices Shocks in a Small Open Economy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gestsson, Marias Halldór

    Countries specialize in producing goods that they have comparative advantages in producing. This results in a country exporting some goods while it imports other. Hence, there is a reason to expect that changes in the prices of these goods have consid- erable economic e¤ect and that demand manage...

  20. MONETARY POLICY AND INFLATION TARGETING IN A SMALL OPEN ECONOMY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antoni Antoni

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The danger of inflation has been the focus of many central banks. This paper analyzes the transmission mechanism of monetary policy and inflation targeting in Malaysia with a backward-looking aggregate supply and demand analysis. The manage floating regime applied in the country has an important role in achieving a stable exchange rate against its major trading partners. It also analyzes the policy of maintaining the soundness of interest rate to perceive inflation targeting to increase its economic growth. Using 1991-2004 data and a traditional structural econometric model, it shows that output gap is important in forecasting a domestic inflation rate by controlling the interest rate.  Keywords: Inflation targeting, monetary economics, structural econometric modelJEL classification numbers: E3, E52

  1. A small-open-economy model and endogeous money stock

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kodera, Jan; Sladký, Karel; Vošvrda, Miloslav

    2005-01-01

    Roč. 13, č. 1 (2005), s. 27-34 ISSN 0572-3043 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA402/03/1292; GA AV ČR IAA7075202 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10750506 Keywords : non-linear dynamic model * money market dynamics * uncovered interest rate parity Subject RIV: AH - Economics

  2. Domestic and foreign effects on prices in an open economy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juselius, Katarina

    1992-01-01

    Domestic price determination in Denmark is investigated using three kinds of macroeconomic explanations: (1) internal labor market theories describing the relation between price and wage inflation, (2) pure monetarist theories describing the effect of excess money on the inflation rate. and (3...... found to be the main determinants of the inflation rate. Among these, the domestic effects were small compared to the foreign effects. The empirical results strongly favored a backward-looking behavioral model in terms of structurally stable parameters as opposed to a forward-looking expectations model...

  3. Lean Internationalization: How to Globalize Early and Fast in a Small Economy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Neubert

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available This study examines the early market internationalization of 32 high-tech startups that operate internationally from small and open economies. It uses a comparative cross-national multiple case study research design to explore how such startups may differ in their speed of internationalization. Based on interviews with the founders, the speed of early market internationalization in these startups increases significantly due to the application of lean market development processes. The findings provide a basis for developing propositions for further comparative studies focusing on the early and fast internationalization of high-tech startups based in emerging and developed markets. The study contributes to the literature on networks, internationalization, and international entrepreneurship.

  4. Economies: An Open Access Journal for the Field of Development Macroeconomics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ralf Fendel

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Economies (ISSN 2227-7099 is a new international, peer-reviewed open access journal for the academic fields of development economics and macroeconomics. While the latter seems to be clearly defined, development economics is not, because it is related to nearly all traditional economic sub-disciplines such as macroeconomics, international trade and finance, as well as microeconomics and public finance. Typically, academic field journals of development economics cover all those economic sub-disciplines. Economies instead focuses mainly on the macroeconomic perspective of economic development and it intends to publish academic research that is of strong macroeconomic policy relevance. In general, contributions in Economies should foster understanding of the macroeconomic process of economic development, with the process of development not exclusively being reserved to what we typically call developing countries. Also, the group of developed economies is still developing in the sense of improving their living standards further.

  5. Domestic and Foreign Effects on Prices in an Open Economy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juselius, Katarina

    1994-01-01

    Domestic price determination in Denmark is investigated using three kinds of macro-economic explanations: (1) internal labor mar­ ket theories describing the relation between price and wage inflation, (2) pure monetarist theories describing the effect of excess money on the inflation rate, and (3...... model. The results stand up as quite strong evidence against the Lucas critiqueDomestic price determination in Denmark is investigated using three kinds of macro-economic explanations: (1) internal labor mar­ ket theories describing the relation between price and wage inflation, (2) pure monetarist...... found to be the main determinants of the inflation rate. Among these, the domestic effects were small compared to the foreign effects. The em­ pirical results strongly favored a backward-looking behavioral model in terms of structurally stable parameters as opposed to a forward- looking expectations...

  6. OER and the Value of Openness: Implications for the Knowledge Economy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernstein, Samantha

    2015-01-01

    The knowledge economy is marked by recent trends in technological advancement, globalisation and increasing knowledge intensity. Through new technologies like Open Educational Resources (OER), knowledge can be freely accessed by individuals around the world, blurring traditional notions of ownership and prompting a social transformation manifested…

  7. Asymmetric information, entrepreneurial activity, and the scope of fiscal policy in an open regional economy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Batabyal, A.A.; Nijkamp, P.

    2010-01-01

    The authors analyze two hitherto little studied but salient questions concerning the trinity of asymmetric information, entrepreneurial activity, and the scope of fiscal policy in an open regional economy. First, the authors use a two-period model to analyze the contractual relationship between

  8. Preços de commodities e nível de atividade em uma pequena economia aberta: evidências empíricas para o estado do Espírito Santo Commodity prices and activity level in a small open economy: empirical evidence for the State of Espírito Santo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matheus Albergaria de Magalhães

    2011-12-01

    's economy compared to the national economy and other Brazilian states will also be measured. The results obtained reveal five distinct empirical patterns: (i given the state's high degree of openness, the impacts of commodity price fluctuations tend to be stronger when compared to Brazil and other Brazilian States; (ii Granger-causality test results show that commodity prices precede output levels both in the case of the State and the country; (iii a similar result occurs when a broad set of economic variables related to the State of Espírito Santo are considered; (iv a positive shock to commodity prices causes output to initially rise , followed by a contraction, with this variable displaying a permanently higher level in the long run; (v variance decomposition results show that, on average, the quantitative impacts of commodity price shocks are larger in the case of the State than the country. The results obtained are robust with regards to several specification issues, such as different stationary transformations of data, as well as distinct number of lags employed in Granger-causality tests. These results are important in the sense of providing a better understanding of the effects of commodity price variations on a small, open economy, as seems to be the case for the State of Espírito Santo.

  9. Information and communication technologies within small and medium enterprises in developing economies

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Ndiege, JRA

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available With the realization of the benefits associated with the adoption of information and communication technologies (ICTs), many small and medium enterprises (SMEs) in developing economies are beginning to embrace the use of ICT. This process has...

  10. Small Scale Gasification Application and Perspectives in Circular Economy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klavins, Maris; Bisters, Valdis; Burlakovs, Juris

    2018-06-01

    Gasification is the process converting solid fuels as coal and organic plant matter, or biomass into combustible gas, called syngas. Gasification is a thermal conversion process using carbonaceous fuel, and it differs substantially from other thermal processes such as incineration or pyrolysis. The process can be used with virtually any carbonaceous fuel. It is an endothermic thermal conversion process, with partial oxidation being the dominant feature. Gasification converts various feedstock including waste to a syngas. Instead of producing only heat and electricity, synthesis gas produced by gasification may be transformed into commercial products with higher value as transport fuels, fertilizers, chemicals and even to substitute natural gas. Thermo-chemical conversion of biomass and solid municipal waste is developing as a tool to promote the idea of energy system without fossil fuels to a reality. In municipal solid waste management, gasification does not compete with recycling, moreover it enhances recycling programs. Pre-processing and after-processing must increase the amount of recyclables in the circular economy. Additionally, end of life plastics can serve as an energy feedstock for gasification as otherwise it cannot be sorted out and recycled. There is great potential for application of gasification technology within the biomass waste and solid waste management sector. Industrial self-consumption in the mode of combined heat and power can contribute to sustainable economic development within a circular economy.

  11. Economy

    OpenAIRE

    Haring, Ben

    2009-01-01

    The economy of ancient Egypt is a difficult area of study due to the lack of preservation of much data (especially quantitative data); it is also a controversial subject on which widely divergent views have been expressed. It is certain, however, that the principal production and revenues of Egyptian society as a whole and of its individual members was agrarian, and as such, dependent on the yearly rising and receding of the Nile. Most agricultural producers were probably self-sufficient tena...

  12. Effectiveness of Macroeconomic Policies in the Context of Closed and Open Economies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Kubendran

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Monetary policy and fiscal policy are the two important macroeconomic policies which are used to achieve certain major macroeconomic goals like economic growth, unemployment reduction, counteract inflation and overall economic development of the nation. The effect of macroeconomic variables may differ in terms of degree, duration, different economic systems and under different exchange rate regimes. This study analyses the effectiveness of monetary policy and fiscal policy on the economy in terms of economic integration and different exchange rate regimes. Regression analysis in this study found that the fiscal policy is more effective in a closed economy and monetary policy is more effective in an open economy. Also the study finds that the fiscal policy is more effective under managed float exchange rate regime and monetary policy is more effective under perfectly flexible exchange rate. So this study also validated Mundell- Fleming model.

  13. Some questions on small uranium open-pit mines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Junyi

    1992-01-01

    The experiences of the existing uranium open pits are summarized and the questions in design, erection and production are analyzed. It is important helpful to develop and to design such economical and reasonable small uranium open pits

  14. Selection of Mergers and Acquisitions by Foreign Capital in Open Economies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHENG Ying-fei; CHEN Hong-min; XU Li

    2007-01-01

    By a linear Cournot model, the factors associated with the integration of two firms are discussed in terms of their effects on the private surplus and the social welfare in economies with varying extent of openness. Meanwhile, the trade policy of the host government is taken into account. It is concluded that the more open the economy and the more intense the competition, the less profitable the integration; the most important determinant to the changes of the domestic social welfare is the industry strength of the host country. The host authority can enhance the domestic social welfare in two ways: to adjust the trade policy and to only approve the socially desirable cross-border mergers and acquisitions.

  15. Competitiveness of small-medium reactors. A probabilistic study on the economy of scale factor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trianni, A.; Locatelli, G.; Trucco, P.

    2009-01-01

    Smaller size reactors are able to play an important role in the worldwide nuclear renaissance. The major disadvantage of those new reactors - the unit size - would label the small-medium size reactors as not economically competitive with larger plants. But, the economy of scale law applies only if the designs are similar, which is not the case here, since the SMRs are designed with original and innovative solutions not accessible to large size reactors: the IRIS reactor is used as an example of small medium reactors (SMR), but the analyses and conclusions are applicable to the whole spectrum of SMRs. The aim of this paper is to present latest advances in the differential economical assessment of Generation Cost of SMRs compared to LRs. The international literature has started to present studies focused on the two major differential accounts of Levelized Unit Electricity Cost - Captial Costs ($/kWe) and Operation and Maintenance Costs ($/kWh) - providing deterministic values for the main cost drivers (i.e. economy of scale, multiple units, learning during construction, design characteristics and modular build, shorter construction time for CC, economy of scale location of the plant, number of units, capacity factor, learning by doing, plant obsolescence for O and M costs). Since the modern SMR market is in the early stages of development, it is necessary to consider also the uncertainties associated to current estimates of those cost drivers. When available, the uncertainty has been integrated in the Open Model assigning a probabilistic distribution to the input value of each cost driver. As Far as other cost drivers are concerned, parametric analyses are still under development and uncertainty analyses are not available: thus, conservative but realistic values for both of them have been assumed. Some reasonable future scenarios have been assumed, considering the private operator perspective for a single plant investment and postulating, among the others

  16. The MIRAB Model of Small Island Economies in the Pacific and their Security Issues: Revised Version

    OpenAIRE

    Tisdell, Clem

    2014-01-01

    The MIRAB model of Pacific island micro-economies was developed in the mid-1980s by the New Zealand economists, Bertram and Watters, and dominated the literature on the economics of small island nations and economies until alternative models were proposed two decades later. Nevertheless, it is still an influential theory. MIRAB is an acronym for migration (MI), remittance (R) and foreign aid (A) and the public bureaucracy (B); the main components of the MIRAB model. The nature of this model i...

  17. THE ROLE OF SMALL BUSINESS IN ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT OF EUROPEAN ECONOMY

    OpenAIRE

    Anca Stan

    2014-01-01

    Small businesses provide catalytic benefits to the economy. They contribute to national output, and to the society as a whole, beyond the spending and profit they generate. The role of SMEs is crucial for the European economic recovery – their number, employment capacity and value added constitute a large share of the European economy. Providing the right conditions in which SMEs can flourish is paramount for ensuring a sustained recovery and achieving prosperity for all EU citizens. There is...

  18. Foreign currency borrowing by small firms in the transition economies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brown, M.; Ongena, S.; Yesin, P.

    2011-01-01

    We examine the firm- and country-level determinants of foreign currency borrowing by small firms, using information on the most recent loan extended to 3101 firms in 25 transition countries between 2002 and 2005. Our results suggest that foreign currency borrowing is much stronger related to

  19. From Closed to Open Innovation in Emerging Economies: Evidence from the Chemical Industry in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisa Thomas

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available In this article, we examine how firms in an emerging economy perform research and development (R&D activities in regards to the concept of open innovation. Most literature on open innovation shows multinational knowledge-intensive firms with well-established R&D processes mainly in developed countries. Searching for management contributions for firms in emerging economies, we qualitatively analyzed two chemical firms in Southern Brazil that have different profiles and are representative samples of typical firms in the region. Our results show that firms did not fully exploit the potential benefits brought by open innovation, even when complete opening was not the main goal. The firms were similar concerning interactions with partners and stages where relationships occur. The generation of ideas was an open activity performed both by firms and by clients, and interactions with universities were getting stronger. On the other hand, intellectual property has not been used as means of profiting from innovation activities. Our main finding refers to the internal mediation of relationships with partners. R&D teams rarely contact external organizations directly; instead, they leave such interactions to other departments within their firms. Relationships with clients are mediated through technical and commercial departments, and interactions with suppliers are intermediated by the supply staff.

  20. Globalisation and the Small Economy: The Case of the Netherlands

    OpenAIRE

    Hogenbirk Annelies; Narula Rajneesh

    1999-01-01

    In this paper, we have examined the importance and implications of globalisation due to FDI for one particular small country: the Netherlands. Although it has limited resources and size, the Netherlands is home to the sixth largest outward FDI stock in the world, and also is one of the most important destinations for inward FDI activity. Its location advantages are, inter alia, a function of its de facto market size, given its central location within the EU, and its well developed infrastruct...

  1. Innovation systems in small catching-up economies new perspectives on practice and policy

    CERN Document Server

    Varblane, Urmas; Roolaht, Tõnu

    2012-01-01

    In several parts of the world, countries are undergoing economic, social, and political transitions, enhanced and accelerated by the forces of globalization. These transition economies can serve as laboratories for understanding the innovation process. This volume features original theoretical and empirical research. It offers the first comprehensive view of innovation system development in the context of small catching-up economies. Smallness, path dependency, and latecomer status of such economies create some inherent limitations for their innovation systems, but these special characteristics can offer advantages as well. For example, smallness is often related with increased flexibility and shorter reaction times, while latecomers can benefit from earlier experiences of their more advanced neighbors. Path-dependency highlights the fact that the innovation system development processes are considerably influenced by the past experience of a particular country or region. By incorporating these features into a...

  2. BENEFITS AND SUCCESS FACTORS OF OPEN-SOURCE WEB SERVICES DEVELOPMENT PLATFORMS FOR SMALL SOFTWARE HOUSES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valter de Assis Moreno Jr.

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available It is usually difficult for companies to keep up with the development of new information technologies and adapt to them in face of the opportunities and threats their advances may represent. This is especially true for small and medium enterprises (SME in emerging economies, where resources tend to be scarce and markets more volatile. This paper describes an action research conducted in a small Brazilian software house that adopted an open-source Web Services development platform in order to improve its software development process. Data analysis revealed critical success factors (CSF in the adoption process, as well as specific benefits and barriers prone to be faced by small software houses in their adoption efforts. In the process of overcoming such barriers, SME may acquire intellectual capital that represents an essential resource to ensure their competitiveness and survival in emerging economies.

  3. Interaction of carbon reduction and green energy promotion in a small fossil-fuel importing economy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pethig, Ruediger; Wittlich, Christian

    2009-01-01

    We study the incidence of carbon-reduction and green-energy promotion policies in an open fossil-fuel importing general equilibrium economy. The focus is on mixed price-based or quantity-based policies. Instruments directed toward promoting green energy are shown to reduce also carbon emissions and vice versa. Their direct effects are stronger than their side effects, the more so, the greater is the elasticity of substitution in consumption between energy and the consumption good. We calculate the effects of variations in individual policy parameters, especially on energy prices and welfare costs, and determine the impact of exogenous fossil-fuel price shocks on the economy. (orig.)

  4. Experimental study of a shear wall with numerous small openings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sotomura, K.; Murazumi, Y.; Yoshizaki, S.; Ezaki, T.

    1981-01-01

    Many small openings for piping and ducts are usually required in the shear walls for PWR nuclear power plant. It is generally believed that such openings oadversely affect the strength and stiffness of shear walls. However, little information is available concerning the behavior of walls with numerous small openings. Therefore, tests using wall specimens and an analysis using an FEM program were carried out to investigate this behavior. Main findings are as follows: 1) The ultimate strength of a shear wall with numerous small openings may be obtained by using the effective area at the critical cross section of the shear wall. 2) Shear walls with openings can be restored to the same shear strength and stiffness as shear walls without openings by diagonal reinforcement. (orig./HP)

  5. The impact of tourism on the economy and population of small islands : The case of Aruba

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Croes, R.H.

    2007-01-01

    Many small islands in the Caribbean depend on tourism as the dominant sector of their economy. This dependence leads to economic vulnerability, in particular if the sector is dominated by international hotel chains that cater for the North American market. Reliance on a single geographical market

  6. Endogenous Currency of Price Setting in a Dynamic Open Economy Model

    OpenAIRE

    Michael B. Devereux; Charles Engel

    2001-01-01

    Many papers in the recent literature in open economy macroeconomics make different assumptions about the currency in which firms set their export prices when nominal prices must be pre-set. But to date, all of these studies take the currency of price setting as exogenous. This paper sets up a simple two-country general equilibrium model in which exporting firms can choose the currency in which they set prices for sales to foreign markets. We make two alternative assumptions about the structur...

  7. Small business incubators: An emerging phenomenon in South Africa’s SMME economy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mukovhe Masutha

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available In South Africa much policy attention is focused on the potential of the small, medium and micro-enterprise (SMME economy for job creation. Nevertheless, despite government support for the SMME economy, high mortality rates are experienced by start-up enterprises. In common with international experience South Africa has adopted business incubation as a strategic tool for assisting the survival as well as building the competitiveness of SMMEs. This article analyses the state of business incubation in South Africa drawing attention to marked differences between the groups of public sector business incubators as opposed to those business incubators which have been initiated by the private sector.

  8. Carbon and energy taxes in a small and open country

    OpenAIRE

    S. Solaymani

    2017-01-01

    Malaysia, as a small and developing country, must reduce carbon emissions because the country is one of the top CO2-emitting countries in the ASEAN region. Therefore, the current study implements two environmental tax policies; carbon and energy taxes, in order to examine the impacts of these policies on the reduction of carbon emission in the whole of the economy by applying a computable general equilibrium model. Since the whole of the government revenue from these tax policies is transferr...

  9. Contribution of small and medium enterprises to economic development: Evidence from a transiting economy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James Obi

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available The focus of this research was to present a data article on the contribution of SMEs to economic development in a transiting economy. Descriptive research design was adopted in this study. Data were obtained from 600 respondents in 60 small-scale enterprises located in different parts of the country (20 small-scale enterprises located in Lagos State, 20 in Anambra State and 20 in Kano State of Nigeria respectively. Data analysis was carried out using tables and percentages and the null hypotheses of the study was tested using chi-square (X2 inferential statistical model at 5% level of significance. The findings revealed that there is a significant relationship between the operation of small and medium-scale enterprises and economic growth in developing nations. Keywords: Entrepreneurship, SMEs, Economic development, Transiting economy, Nigeria

  10. Characterization of the Small and Median Companies in the Textile Sector of the Ecuadorian Economy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jenny Lilián Basantes–Avalos

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The small and median companies perform a fundamental role in the economy of latinoamerican countries, and Ecuador is not the exception, because of its incidence in the generation of employment and economic development. Historically, Ecuador has been a textile country by excellence, and with the years has been consolidated like one of the manufactured industries most importants of the country. However, the sector has to deal with adverse condition in the last decade. For such reason, the manufacturers have the challenge of improve the production techniques to promote a better quality offer and recognition, capable of competing with foreign products of similar characteristics. In this context, this paper has the intent to characterize the small and median companies of Ecuador in general and the textile sector as a particularity, its current situation, the importance of the Ecuadorian economy, such as their problems and opportunities. 

  11. Open Model for the Evaluation of Economic Attractiveness of Small and Medium Sized Reactors. Annex VI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2013-12-15

    This annex describes the development of an open model for simulation and evaluation of the economic features of small and medium sized reactors (SMRs), being undertaken by the Politecnico di Milano in Italy. The model aims at establishing a comparative assessment of SMRs versus large reactors (LRs) as its final output. The model will allow assessment of the competitiveness of SMRs under different deployment and application conditions. The distinctive attributes of SMRs such as replication, scalability, reversibility and standardization are briefly described below. The features of SMRs impacting the domains of generation costs (co-siting economies, learning economies, technical economies, mass production and factory fabrication economies), deployment conditions (market matching, market suitability, reduced entry barriers) and financial costs (lower financial distress, reduced risk premium) are addressed before explaining the model architecture. Other state of the art models in this regard are also discussed, along with their respective attributes. The special features of the SMR model being developed are discussed. At the current stage of research, selected elements of the generation costs are modelled analytically. Provisions for adapting financial and external costs from other contemporary models and integrating the same into the main framework are being established. The model has been realized as a code, and the updated version of this code is used in the case studies of SMR competitiveness in different applications, carried out within the IAEA project Common Technology and Issues for SMRs.

  12. IMPORTANCE OF SMALL AND MEDIUM-SIZED ENTERPRISES IN ROMANIAN ECONOMY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BĂLĂNESCU MĂDĂLINA

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The market economy has reduced the number of large enterprises and has determinated the emergence ofa special class like small and medium-sized enterprises. Those companies play a special role in the nationaleconomy, especially through the fact that attract about 65% of employees in Romania, makes significantinvestments, takes approximately 30% of gross value added in the national economy, operates mainly in servicesactivity, are flexible, concerned with development and have the ability to adopt new technologies. The SMEsector has been affected by the crisis, but not in the same measure as large enterprises. This fact is demonstratedby the economic and financial indicators that I have analised, in 2011 SME beeing able to overcome the crisisand to achieve higher performance than in the years before crisis. The SME sector is considered the most activesector of the modern economy, plays a important role in the economic structure of our country, helping to ensureeconomic and social development as it is shown by the strong bond that exist between the GVA in SME sectorand total GVA added to the national economy, demonstrated in the calculations that I have made in this study.

  13. Fuel Economy and Emissions Effects of Low Tire Pressure, Open Windows, Roof Top and Hitch-Mounted Cargo, and Trailer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomas, John F [ORNL; Huff, Shean P [ORNL; West, Brian H [ORNL

    2014-01-01

    To quantify the fuel economy (FE) effect of some common vehicle accessories or alterations, a compact passenger sedan and a sport utility vehicle (SUV) were subjected to SAE J2263 coastdown procedures. Coastdowns were conducted with low tire pressure, all windows open, with a roof top or hitch-mounted cargo carrier, and with the SUV pulling an enclosed cargo trailer. From these coastdowns, vehicle dynamometer coefficients were developed which enabled the execution of vehicle dynamometer experiments to determine the effect of these changes on vehicle FE and emissions over standard drive cycles and at steady highway speeds. The FE penalty associated with the rooftop cargo box mounted on the compact sedan was as high as 25-27% at higher speeds, where the aerodynamic drag is most pronounced. For both vehicles, use of a hitch mounted cargo tray carrying a similar load resulted in very small FE penalties, unlike the rooftop cargo box. The results for the SUV pulling a 3500 pound enclosed cargo trailer were rather dramatic, resulting in FE penalties ranging from 30%, for the city cycle, to 50% at 80 mph, at which point significant CO generation indicated protective enrichment due to high load. Low tire pressure cases resulted in negligible to 10% FE penalty depending on the specific case and test point. Driving with all four windows open decreased FE by 4-8.5% for the compact sedan, and 1-4% for the SUV.

  14. Nuclear Power as an Option in Electrical Generation Planning for Small Economy and Electricity Grid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tomsic, Z.

    2012-01-01

    Implementing a NPP in countries with relatively small total GDP (small economy) and usually with small electricity grid face two major problems and constrains: the ability to obtain the considerable financial resources required on reasonable terms and to connect large NPP to small electricity grid. Nuclear generation financing in developing countries involves complex issues that need to be fully understood and dealt with by all the parties involved. The main topics covered by paper will be the: special circumstances related to the financing of NPP, costs and economic feasibility of NPP, conventional approaches for financing power generation projects in developing countries, alternative approaches for mobilizing financial resources. The safe and economic operation of a nuclear power plant (NPP) requires the plant to be connected to an electrical grid system that has adequate capacity for exporting the power from the NPP, and for providing a reliable electrical supply to the NPP for safe start-up, operation and normal or emergency shut-down of the plant. Connection of any large new power plant to the electrical grid system in a country may require significant modification and strengthening of the grid system, but for NPPs there may be added requirements to the structure of the grid system and the way it is controlled and maintained to ensure adequate reliability. Paper shows the comparative assesment of differrent base load technologies as an option in electrical generation planning for small economy and electricity grid.(author).

  15. Economic fluctuations in a small economy with two productive sectors under a floating exchange rate regime

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Ustorgio Mora Mora

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a theoretical model of aggregate supply and demand in a small economy with two productive sectors, under a flexible exchange regime and imperfect capital mobility. Only one of the production sectors is assumed to produce an exportable commodity sold at world market prices, while the production of the other sector is assumed to supply the domestic market. This model helps to explain how the impact of both domestic (economic policy, productivity, etc. and foreign (changes in exchange terms shocks is spread. In every case studied, results show that real output increases consistently with those cases postulated by economic theory. Conversely, the effects on the price level, the exchange rate and the real interest rate are ambiguous. In terms of domestic shocks, fiscal or monetary policy may be seen as a way to stabilize or stimulate the economy but the costs involved raise the price level.

  16. Openness of Economy, Foreign Investment Inflows and the Phenomenon of Rent Seeking Corruption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syed Toqueer Akhter

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Rent seeking behavior has been amongst noticeable obstacles in path of economic growth and development for developing communities. Due to this the study aims at testing the hypothesis that the Rent seeking behavior among bureaucracy is being influenced by the openness of economy as well as inflows of foreign investment significantly. Model estimations imply that reforms may have an insignificant impact upon impact upon curtailing the rent seeking behavior among bureaucracy in a time series setting therefore this research will use two statistical econometric models to show the effect of corruption on the foreign direct inflow received in Pakistan. In order to pretest the impact of all the mentioned variables on rent seeking behavior generalized least square was used because its results were unbiased, consistent and the problem of Serial correlation was solved by using it. In order to quantify rent seeking behavior among bureaucracy different aspects of misuse of public offices appearing in form of petty and grand corruption were used using the variables informal sector, tax evasion, judicial outlay, G.D.P and F.D.I as percentage of G.D.P. All of the variables had proper signs aligned with the theory and all of the variables appeared to be significant except judicial outlay proving that the judiciary has been incompetent and ineffective. The robust regression showed all the same signs except in it every variable was appearing to be significant. Rent seeking corruption has been highly affecting Pakistan in adverse ways and this paper will show how many factors like judiciary is not playing effective role in limiting corruption and also how the economy is being affected by rent seeking behavior.

  17. Contribution of small and medium enterprises to economic development: Evidence from a transiting economy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obi, James; Ibidunni, Ayodotun Stephen; Tolulope, Atolagbe; Olokundun, Maxwell Ayodele; Amaihian, Augusta Bosede; Borishade, Taiye Tairat; Fred, Peter

    2018-06-01

    The focus of this research was to present a data article on the contribution of SMEs to economic development in a transiting economy. Descriptive research design was adopted in this study. Data were obtained from 600 respondents in 60 small-scale enterprises located in different parts of the country (20 small-scale enterprises located in Lagos State, 20 in Anambra State and 20 in Kano State of Nigeria respectively). Data analysis was carried out using tables and percentages and the null hypotheses of the study was tested using chi-square ( X 2 ) inferential statistical model at 5% level of significance. The findings revealed that there is a significant relationship between the operation of small and medium-scale enterprises and economic growth in developing nations.

  18. Open Automated Demand Response for Small Commerical Buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dudley, June Han; Piette, Mary Ann; Koch, Ed; Hennage, Dan

    2009-05-01

    This report characterizes small commercial buildings by market segments, systems and end-uses; develops a framework for identifying demand response (DR) enabling technologies and communication means; and reports on the design and development of a low-cost OpenADR enabling technology that delivers demand reductions as a percentage of the total predicted building peak electric demand. The results show that small offices, restaurants and retail buildings are the major contributors making up over one third of the small commercial peak demand. The majority of the small commercial buildings in California are located in southern inland areas and the central valley. Single-zone packaged units with manual and programmable thermostat controls make up the majority of heating ventilation and air conditioning (HVAC) systems for small commercial buildings with less than 200 kW peak electric demand. Fluorescent tubes with magnetic ballast and manual controls dominate this customer group's lighting systems. There are various ways, each with its pros and cons for a particular application, to communicate with these systems and three methods to enable automated DR in small commercial buildings using the Open Automated Demand Response (or OpenADR) communications infrastructure. Development of DR strategies must consider building characteristics, such as weather sensitivity and load variability, as well as system design (i.e. under-sizing, under-lighting, over-sizing, etc). Finally, field tests show that requesting demand reductions as a percentage of the total building predicted peak electric demand is feasible using the OpenADR infrastructure.

  19. Role of Strong versus Weak Networks in Small Business Growth in an Emerging Economy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Kamil Kozan

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The study tests whether strong rather than weak ties account for small business growth in Turkey. Data were collected by means of a questionnaire filled out by the owners of small firms operating in four cities. Growth is comprised of two main areas, production expansion and knowledge acquisition. Results show that strong ties are positively related to both types of growth. In contrast, loose ties have no effect on small business growth in either area. This finding is attributed to the influence of the collectivistic nature of the mainstream Turkish culture, where owners of small businesses are likely to rely on in-groups rather than out-groups for advice and for financial support. Implications of relative absence of weak ties for small business growth and innovation in emerging economies are discussed. The findings suggest that culture should be included as a contingency variable in future studies of network strength and growth relationship. The paper also discusses the possible moderating role of affective and cognition-based trust in the relation of strong and weak ties to small business growth.

  20. THE ROLE OF SMALL BUSINESS IN ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT OF EUROPEAN ECONOMY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anca Stan

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Small businesses provide catalytic benefits to the economy. They contribute to national output, and to the society as a whole, beyond the spending and profit they generate. The role of SMEs is crucial for the European economic recovery – their number, employment capacity and value added constitute a large share of the European economy. Providing the right conditions in which SMEs can flourish is paramount for ensuring a sustained recovery and achieving prosperity for all EU citizens. There is no single agreed definition of an SME. Early definitions of ‘small’ businesses were largely qualitative. SMEs are generally considered to be non - subsidiary, independent firms which employ fewer than a given number of employees. For many small businesses, going global is no longer just an interesting to do – it is essential to the long – term health and performance of the company. Across the EU policies are being developed at regional, national and transnational government level that see SMEs as the only positive way of creating employment and generating increased local growth for the community.

  1. Cloud Computing: The Level of Awareness Amongst Small & Medium-sized Enterprises (SMEs) in Developing Economies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yeboah-Boateng, Ezer Osei; Essandoh, Kofi Asare

    2013-01-01

    Cloud computing services are being touted as a major enabler for small businesses lately. This new paradigm is seen to offer unique opportunities to small and medium enterprises (SMEs) worldwide and developing economies are no exception. It presents SMEs access to similar technologies available...... indicated that a slight majority of the respondents were familiar with cloud computing on the individual level but the level of awareness amongst the larger SME industry was low to medium. The finding therefore recommends education and sensitization on cloud computing in order to increase awareness...... to their larger counterparts and those in the developed world which inherently creates innovativeness, increases competitive advantage and impacts their operations and processes. This paper seeks to determine the level of awareness and familiarity with this emerging computing paradigm. The results of the study...

  2. Applications of Open Source 3-D Printing on Small Farms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joshua M. Pearce

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available There is growing evidence that low-cost open-source 3-D printers can reduce costs by enabling distributed manufacturing of substitutes for both specialty equipment and conventional mass-manufactured products. The rate of 3-D printable designs under open licenses is growing exponentially and there arealready hundreds of designs applicable to small-scale organic farming. It has also been hypothesized that this technology could assist sustainable development in rural communities that rely on small-scale organic agriculture. To gauge the present utility of open-source 3-D printers in this organic farm context both in the developed and developing world, this paper reviews the current open-source designs available and evaluates the ability of low-cost 3-D printers to be effective at reducing the economic costs of farming.This study limits the evaluation of open-source 3-D printers to only the most-developed fused filament fabrication of the bioplastic polylactic acid (PLA. PLA is a strong biodegradable and recyclable thermoplastic appropriate for a range of representative products, which are grouped into five categories of prints: handtools, food processing, animal management, water management and hydroponics. The advantages and shortcomings of applying 3-D printing to each technology are evaluated. The results show a general izabletechnical viability and economic benefit to adopting open-source 3-D printing for any of the technologies, although the individual economic impact is highly dependent on needs and frequency of use on a specific farm. Capital costs of a 3-D printer may be saved from on-farm printing of a single advanced analytical instrument in a day or replacing hundreds of inexpensive products over a year. In order for the full potential of open-source 3-D printing to be realized to assist organic farm economic resiliency and self-sufficiency, future work is outlined in five core areas: designs of 3-D printable objects, 3-D printing

  3. SMALL BUSINESS – ALTERNATIVE TO UNEMPLOYMENT REDUCTION IN ECONOMY UNDER RECESSION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trajković Svetlana

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The decade long trend of unemployment rate increase, reduction of national income and salaries of the employees and demand reduction implies the necessity for taking urgent measures and counteracting the high inflation rate in order to reduce the unemployment of both the younger population as well as the elderly population (older than 50 which is often considered to be unneeded. More active initiation of small business through entrepreneurship, even self-employment can be an impetus for healing the economy. Education, financial support in the form of favorable loans together with the fiscal policy of new entrepreneurs can initiate entering into business of people with the feeling, awareness and readiness for innovative work and uncertainty, and those who are ready to face the risk of anticipating future developments and market turbulences which are inevitable companions of modern business.

  4. Factors Influencing the Adoption of Cloud Computing by Small and Medium Enterprises (SMEs) in Developing Economies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yeboah-Boateng, Ezer Osei; Essandoh, Kofi Asare

    2014-01-01

    The key motivation of this paper is to assess the factors which influence small and medium enterprises (SMEs) in a developing economy to adopt cloud computing. Recently, service providers offering a wide range of cloud-based ICT solutions to businesses have emerged into prominence. However......, competence of cloud vendors, resistance to new technology, compatibility and existence of IT infrastructure are realized as key factors influencing cloud computing adoption. These findings will go a long way in helping service providers and technology policymakers to develop solutions and strategies...... communication, scalability and business continuity as the main drivers of cloud adoption, whereas lack of knowledge, poor internet connectivity, security of cloud services, lack of trust and interoperability with existing systems were identified as barriers to adoption. Top management support, trialability...

  5. Integrated spectral study of small angular diameter galactic open clusters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clariá, J. J.; Ahumada, A. V.; Bica, E.; Pavani, D. B.; Parisi, M. C.

    2017-10-01

    This paper presents flux-calibrated integrated spectra obtained at Complejo Astronómico El Leoncito (CASLEO, Argentina) for a sample of 9 Galactic open clusters of small angular diameter. The spectra cover the optical range (3800-6800 Å), with a resolution of ˜14 Å. With one exception (Ruprecht 158), the selected clusters are projected into the fourth Galactic quadrant (282o evaluate their membership status. The current cluster sample complements that of 46 open clusters previously studied by our group in an effort to gather a spectral library with several clusters per age bin. The cluster spectral library that we have been building is an important tool to tie studies of resolved and unresolved stellar content.

  6. Pulsed Direct Current Electrospray: Enabling Systematic Analysis of Small Volume Sample by Boosting Sample Economy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Zhenwei; Xiong, Xingchuang; Guo, Chengan; Si, Xingyu; Zhao, Yaoyao; He, Muyi; Yang, Chengdui; Xu, Wei; Tang, Fei; Fang, Xiang; Zhang, Sichun; Zhang, Xinrong

    2015-11-17

    We had developed pulsed direct current electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (pulsed-dc-ESI-MS) for systematically profiling and determining components in small volume sample. Pulsed-dc-ESI utilized constant high voltage to induce the generation of single polarity pulsed electrospray remotely. This method had significantly boosted the sample economy, so as to obtain several minutes MS signal duration from merely picoliter volume sample. The elongated MS signal duration enable us to collect abundant MS(2) information on interested components in a small volume sample for systematical analysis. This method had been successfully applied for single cell metabolomics analysis. We had obtained 2-D profile of metabolites (including exact mass and MS(2) data) from single plant and mammalian cell, concerning 1034 components and 656 components for Allium cepa and HeLa cells, respectively. Further identification had found 162 compounds and 28 different modification groups of 141 saccharides in a single Allium cepa cell, indicating pulsed-dc-ESI a powerful tool for small volume sample systematical analysis.

  7. The Danish Negotiated Economy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Ove K.

    2012-01-01

    Denmark is characterised by a number of distinct traits: a small and open economy, a stable democratic political system, a high proportion of organised wage earners covered by collective agreements, a political culture marked by social partnership, and a long tradition of institutionalised class...

  8. Carbon and energy taxes in a small and open country

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Solaymani

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Malaysia, as a small and developing country, must reduce carbon emissions because the country is one of the top CO2-emitting countries in the ASEAN region. Therefore, the current study implements two environmental tax policies; carbon and energy taxes, in order to examine the impacts of these policies on the reduction of carbon emission in the whole of the economy by applying a computable general equilibrium model. Since the whole of the government revenue from these tax policies is transferred to all household and labor types through two schemes, a lump sum tax, and a labor tax, respectively, it is assumed that there is revenue neutrality in the model for the government. The findings from simulated scenarios indicate that the carbon tax policy is the more efficient policy for reducing CO2 emission, in both transferring schemes, while its impact on macroeconomic variables is almost lower than the equivalent energy tax. The carbon tax is more effective than the energy tax for Malaysia to achieve 40% carbon reduction target in comparison with its 2005 level. The carbon tax, compared to the energy tax, also leads to more decrease in consumption of fossil fuels. The carbon tax policy, in comparison with the energy tax, due to revenue recycling causes much more increase in the welfare of rural and urban households in Malaysia, especially the welfare of rural (lower income households.

  9. Argentinean integrated small reactor design and scale economy analysis of integrated reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Florido, P. C.; Bergallo, J. E.; Ishida, M. V.

    2000-01-01

    This paper describes the design of CAREM, which is Argentinean integrated small reactor project and the scale economy analysis results of integrated reactor. CAREM project consists on the development, design and construction of a small nuclear power plant. CAREM is an advanced reactor conceived with new generation design solutions and standing on the large experience accumulated in the safe operation of Light Water Reactors. The CAREM is an indirect cycle reactor with some distinctive and characteristic features that greatly simplify the reactor and also contribute to a highly level of safety: integrated primary cooling system, self pressurized, primary cooling by natural circulation and safety system relying on passive features. For a fully doupled economic evaluation of integrated reactors done by IREP (Integrated Reactor Evaluation Program) code transferred to IAEA, CAREM have been used as a reference point. The results shows that integrated reactors become competitive with power larger than 200MWe with Argentinean cheapest electricity option. Due to reactor pressure vessel construction limit, low pressure drop steam generator are used to reach power output of 200MWe for natural circulation. For forced circulation, 300MWe can be achieved. (author)

  10. Does Public Investment Boost Economic Growth? Evidence from An Open-Economy Macro Model for India

    OpenAIRE

    Pal, Soubarna

    2008-01-01

    Using annual data for India for the period 1984-2003 and employing parametric technique (GMM), the present paper jointly determines GDP growth, real exchange rate and net foreign assets in Indian economy. There is evidence that public investment exerts a significant influence on real exchange rate and the growth rate and does so non-linearly. A comparison of the Indian estimates with those available for the UK and the USA economies is also revealing and highlights the role of governance on th...

  11. Trade Openness and Bank Risk-Taking Behavior: Evidence from Emerging Economies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Badar Nadeem Ashraf

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we examine the impact of trade openness on bank risk-taking behavior. Using a panel dataset of 291 banks from 37 emerging countries over the period from 1998 to 2012, we find that higher trade openness decreases bank risk-taking. The results are robust when we use alternative bank risk-taking proxies and alternative estimation methods. We argue that trade openness provides diversification opportunities to banks in lending activities, which decrease overall bank risk. Further to this end, we observe that higher trade openness helps domestic banks to smooth out income volatility and decreases the impact of a financial crisis on banks.

  12. A Mathematical Model of an Open Economy with Applications in Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catalin Angelo Ioan

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we first study the static equilibrium of a a closed economy model in terms of dependence on national income and interest rate from the main factors namely the marginal propensity to consume, tax rate, investment rate and the rate of currency demand. In the second part, we study the dynamic equilibrium solutions in terms of stability. We thus obtain the variation functions of national income and interest rate variation and their limit values. Finally, we propose two scenarios of economic development of Romania.

  13. Openness And Inflation: Evidence From The Seven Largest Latin American Economies

    OpenAIRE

    Rutilio Martinez; Vish Iyer

    2011-01-01

    The variables of Fishers Equation of Exchange were estimated as rates of growth for the economies of Argentina, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Mexico, Peru and Venezuela. These estimations suggest that between 1995 and 2007 for Brazil, and between 1991 and 2007 for the other nations, some inflation failed to materialize. In per-year terms, the missing inflation went from a minimum of 0.9 percentage points in Colombia and Chile, to a maximum of 7.5 percentage points in Venezuela. The missing inflati...

  14. Enabling frameworks for low-carbon technology transfer to small emerging economies: Analysis of ten case studies in Chile

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pueyo, Ana

    2013-01-01

    Technology transfer is crucial to reduce the carbon intensity of developing countries. Enabling frameworks need to be in place to allow foreign technologies to flow, to be absorbed and to bring about technological change in the recipient country. This paper contributes to identifying these enabling factors by analysing 10 case studies of low-carbon technology transfer processes based in Chile. Our findings show the importance of strong economic and institutional fundamentals, a sound knowledge base, a sizable and stable demand and a functioning local industry. Policy recommendations are derived to improve the penetration of foreign low-carbon technologies in developing countries, focusing on the particularities of small and medium emerging economies. - Highlights: ► We analyse 10 case studies of low carbon technology transfer to Chile. ► We identify enablers of technology transfer to developing countries. ► We provide policy recommendations focusing on small and medium economies.

  15. Teaching Applied Macro in Emergent Economies: Lessons from Bahrain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Michael S.; Epstein, Seth

    2013-01-01

    In this article we explore the challenges of adapting a standard introductory MBA course in applied macroeconomics to a student audience in a small open economy with a pegged currency. Our focus will be on the Kingdom of Bahrain, with reference to other countries in the Arabian Gulf region, where one would expect to use an open-economy theoretical…

  16. Android and the political economy of the mobile Internet: A renewal of open source critique

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spreeuwenberg, K.; Poell, T.

    2012-01-01

    This paper examines how and why Google in developing Android, the popular mobile operating system, has strategically adopted particular open source practices, but ignored others. It explores how through these practices, the corporation has been able to cultivate and control a vast mobile Internet

  17. Ecology and economy. Decentralisation, autonomy, small networks. Oekologie und Oekonomie. Dezentralisierung, Selbstverwaltung, kleine Netze

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Menard, M.; Bischoff, J.

    1980-01-01

    The green movement challenges workers' unions and socialists. Who are the 'Greens', and what do they want. Where do their theoretical fundamentals come from. Will an ecological economy be able to function. Are the 'Greens' leftists or dreamers fighting against progress. Arguments for trade unionists and socialists in the ecological controversy.

  18. Measuring Performance for Accountability of a Small Social Economy Organization: The Case of an Independent School

    OpenAIRE

    Steven M. Smith; Sonja Novkovic; John Maddocks

    2011-01-01

    This article is a result of a joint project in social economy research between a community partner-an independent school-and academic partners. The school is a democratic organization, run by teachers and parents. The goal of the project was to find ways to improve communication and reporting about general performance of the school as part of the school's accountability to its members. Starting from lessons of the balanced scorecard approach for non-profits, we describe the process of develop...

  19. New Economy And Global Challenge: Winning Model Of Successful Small Business Organizations

    OpenAIRE

    Mirjana Radovic Markovic

    2007-01-01

    The old principles no longer work in the age of Globalization. Businesses have reached the old model's limits with respect to complexity and speed. The real problem is a ruinously dysfunctional mismatch between today's business environment and the classic business model. Namely, the wrong model may transform a company into the vehicle of its own death. Great shifts - genuine and radical transformation- have been shaping the economy and business environment in recent decades. Technology, espec...

  20. Determinants of R&D Offshoring: Firm-level Evidence from a Small Open Economy

    OpenAIRE

    MURPHY GAVIN; SIEDSCHLAG IULIA

    2018-01-01

    We analyse determinants of an enterprise’s decision to offshore R&D activities using a novel dataset for enterprises in Ireland over the period 2001-2006. Our results suggest that, on average, other things equal, enterprises integrated in international production and innovation networks, and enterprises which used information and communication technologies (ICT) more intensively were more likely to offshore R&D. Furthermore, characteristics of the import source region had an important influen...

  1. Ancillary benefits of climate policy in a small open economy: The case of Sweden

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krook Riekkola, Anna; Ahlgren, Erik O.; Soederholm, Patrik

    2011-01-01

    It is increasingly recognised that GHG reduction policies can have important ancillary benefits in the form of positive local and regional environmental impacts. The purpose of this paper is to estimate the domestic ancillary pollution benefits of climate policy in Sweden, and investigate how these are affected by different climate policy designs. The latter differ primarily in terms of how the country chooses to meet a specific target and where the necessary emission reductions take place. The analysis relies on simulations within the energy system optimisation model TIMES-Sweden, and focuses on four non-GHG pollutants: Nitrogen Oxides (NO X ), Non Methane Volatile Organic Compounds (NMVOC), inhalable particles (PM 2.5 ), and Sulphur dioxide (SO 2 ). The simulations permit detailed assessments of the respective technology and fuel choices that underlie any net changes in the estimated ancillary effects. The results indicate that the ancillary benefits constitute a far from insignificant share of total system costs, and this share appears to be highest in the scenarios that entail the largest emission reductions domestically. This result reflects the fact that carbon dioxide emission reductions abroad also implies a lost opportunity of achieving substantial domestic welfare gain from the reductions of regional and local environmental pollutants. - Highlights: → We estimate the domestic ancillary pollution benefits of climate policy in Sweden. → These constitute a sizeable share of total system costs. → The ancillary benefits are highest in the policy scenarios that entail the largest emission reductions domestically.

  2. Macroeconomic variables and stock prices in a small open economy: The case of Pakistan

    OpenAIRE

    Jahangir, Abbas

    2010-01-01

    This paper is an attempt to determine empirically the relationship between the Karachi stock exchange and macroeconomic variables; discount rate (DR), inflation (CPI), industrial production (IPI), foreign exchange rate (FX Rate) and foreign exchange reserves (FX Res). The general objective of the study is to investigate the efficiency of the Karachi Stock Exchange as a semi strong market in light of the Efficient Market Hypothesis (EMH) over the period 1980 to 2007. Furthermore, we investigat...

  3. Welfare-based optimal monetary policy in a two-sector small open economy

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Rychalovska, Yuliya

    -, č. 16 (2007), s. 1-46 ISSN 1803-2397 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z70850503 Keywords : DSGE models * optimal monetary policy * non-traded goods Subject RIV: AH - Economics http://www.cnb.cz/m2export/sites/www.cnb.cz/en/research/research_publications/cnb_wp/download/cnbwp_2007_16.pdf

  4. The narrative approach for the identification of monetary policy shocks in small open economies

    OpenAIRE

    Eleni Angelopoulou

    2007-01-01

    This paper reviews 22 years of UK monetary policy (1971-1992) using official record from the Quarterly Bulletin of the Bank of England. A definition of policy shocks, which allows for the exclusion of cases of interest rate increases, which were unrelated to the monetary policy objectives, is used. The empirical analysis shows that output displays the usual hump-shaped response after a shock to the policy indicator but adjustment to pre-shock levels is slow. Other variables also display theor...

  5. The Narrative Approach for the Identification of Monetary Policy Shocks in a Small Open Economy

    OpenAIRE

    Eleni Angelopoulou

    2007-01-01

    This paper reviews 22 years of UK monetary policy in the pre-inflation targeting period (1971-1992) using official record from the Bank of England Quarterly Bulletin. A transparent definition of policy episodes is used. The empirical analysis shows that output displays the usual hump-shaped response after a shock to the policy indicator. All variables display theory-consistent behaviour. Monetary policy and exchange rate volatility are found to cause substantial output fluctuation in a four y...

  6. Assessment of the Introduction of Optimal Border Taxes in a Small Open Economy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munk, Knud Jørgen

    argues that an evaluation of the introduction of road pricing needs to take into account not only the effects on congestion and on the environment, but also the effects on the government’s budget and the income distributional consequences and therefore should be undertaken within a general equilibrium...

  7. Ten-year diameter and basal area growth of trees surrounding small group selection openings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Philip M. McDonald; Martin W. Ritchie; Celeste S. Abbott

    1996-01-01

    The effects of small openings in forest stands has interested silviculturists and ecologists for years. Interest generally has centered on the vegetation in the openings, not on that immediately outside of them. Quantitative information on the growth of trees adjacent to group-selection openings, although often mentioned in forestry textbooks as contributing to cost...

  8. The Impact of Sustainable Development Technology on a Small Economy-The Case of Energy-Saving Technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xiding; Huang, Qinghua; Huang, Weilun; Li, Xue

    2018-02-08

    We investigated the impact of a sustainable development technology on the macroeconomic variables in a small economy utilizing a case study with a stochastically improving energy saving technology and a stochastically increasing energy price. The results show the technological displacement effects of energy saving technology are stronger, but there are more ambiguous instantaneous returns to physical capital. However, the energy saving technology's displacement effects might not affect the conditions under which the Harberger-Laursen-Metzler (HLM) effect holds. The effects of rising energy prices on bonds are stronger, and there are more ambiguous instantaneous returns, but the conditions under which the HLM effect holds are different.

  9. Tiger, tiger, burning bright? industrial policy lessons from Ireland and East Asia for small African economies

    OpenAIRE

    Bailey, David; Lenihan, Helena; Singh, Ajit

    2008-01-01

    The African economies, particularly those in Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) stand today at an important crossroads. During the 1980s, for the average African country, GDP per capita fell at a rate of 0.5 percent per annum; in the 1990s it rose slightly at a rate of 0.3 percent per annum. However, in the last four years, the average growth rate of this variable has been a respectable 3 percent per annum. In 2007, GDP growth rate in Africa was estimated to be 6 percent per annum, one of the highest r...

  10. The EU’s Open Arms and Small States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thorvaldur Gylfason

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The EU has fostered lasting peace and prosperity in Europe since World War II and welcomed formerly autocratic countries back into the European fold. The paper describes the EU as a union of primarily small European states whose parallel emphasis on efficiency and fairness, including deep respect for human rights, holds the key to Europe´s economic and social advances. While expansion fatigue has temporarily slowed the momentum of the widening of European unification, the EU can expect to benefit from welcoming more small states as members, including Albania and Iceland as well as Catalonia and Scotland should they declare independence.

  11. Lateral patellar luxation in nine small breed dogs | Dona | Open ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The objective of this paper was to describe the clinical features, the management and the outcome of nine small breed dogs affected with lateral patella luxation referred during the period between January 2010 and December 2014. Patellar luxations were classified according to: breed, age, sex, weight, and grade of ...

  12. Improving the economy-of-scale of small organic rankine cycle systems through appropriate working fluid selection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    White, Martin; Sayma, Abdulnaser I.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Novel system model coupling turbine and ORC system performance. • Contour plots to characterise working fluid and turbine performance. • Changing working fluid can expand pump and turbine operating envelope. • Possible to improve the economy-of-scale through optimal working fluid selection. - Abstract: Organic Rankine cycles (ORC) are becoming a major research area within the field of sustainable energy systems. However, a major challenge facing the widespread implementation of small and mini-scale ORC systems is the economy-of-scale. To overcome this challenge requires single components that can be manufactured in large volumes and then implemented into a wide variety of different applications where the heat source conditions may vary. The aim of this paper is to investigate whether working fluid selection can improve the current economy-of-scale by enabling the same system components to be used in multiple ORC systems. This is done through coupling analysis and optimisation of the energy process, with a performance map for a small-scale ORC radial turbine. The performance map, obtained using CFD, is adapted to account for additional loss mechanisms not accounted for in the original CFD simulation before being non-dimensionalised using a modified similitude theory developed for subsonic ORC turbines. The updated performance map is then implemented into a thermodynamic model, enabling the construction of a single performance contour that displays the range of heat source conditions that can be accommodated by the existing turbine whilst using a particular working fluid. Constructing this performance map for a range of working fluids, this paper demonstrates that through selecting a suitable working fluid, the same turbine can efficiently utilise heat sources between 360 and 400 K, with mass flow rates ranging between 0.5 and 2.75 kg/s respectively. This corresponds to using the same turbine in ORC applications where the heat available ranges

  13. Open ERP Odoo guidebook for small and medium enterprises

    OpenAIRE

    Devkota, Arun

    2016-01-01

    ERP systems are vital part of any businesses, For SMEs managing accounting, sales, inventory control, manufacturing, customer relationship all at the same time is not a small task. To meet rising customer demand and market competition business must implement efficient ERP system. Implementing popular high end ERP systems like SAP Business One, Oracle ERP etc. are very costly for SMEs to implement as SMEs lack manpower and financial resources. The current ERP market is poised with various low ...

  14. Exploring the oil price and real GDP nexus for a small island economy, the Fiji Islands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prasad, Arti; Narayan, Paresh Kumar; Narayan, Jashwini

    2007-01-01

    The goal of this paper is to examine the relationship between real GDP and oil prices using time series data for the period 1970-2005. Our main finding is that an increase in oil has a positive, albeit inelastic, impact on real GDP, inconsistent with the bulk of the literature. We argue that this is not a surprising result for the Fiji Islands. Our central argument focuses on two aspects of the Fijian economy: (1) the fact that actual output in Fiji has been around 50 per cent less than potential output; thus, Fiji's actual output has not reached a threshold level at which oil prices can negatively impact output; and (2) a rise in oil prices filters through to value added, which in turn is reflected in a larger actual output

  15. Examining the ‘’Natural Resource Curse’’ and the Impact of Various Forms of Capital in Small Tourism and Natural Resource-Dependent Economies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petar Kurecic

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The problem of the relevance of human and natural capital, as well as the potential adverse effect of natural capital on economic growth, has gained increased attention in development economics. The aim of this paper is to assess, theoretically and empirically, the relevance of several forms of capital on economic growth in certain small economies that are dependent upon tourism or natural resources. The empirical framework is based on Impulse Response Functions obtained from Vector Autoregressive models in which we focus on the model where economic growth is the dependent variable for ten small economies that are dependent upon either tourism or natural resources. We find that there is evidence of the “natural resource curse”, especially in the economies that have a strong dependence on resources that are easily substitutable and whose prices constantly fluctuate. We further find that in the majority of observed cases, the type of capital these small economies are most dependent on for their economic growth causes negative impulses in the majority of the observed periods. Therefore, the main policy recommendation should be to assure that even these small economies should strive towards further diversification and avoid dependence on only one segment of their economy.

  16. Infrared small target detection technology based on OpenCV

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Lei; Huang, Zhijian

    2013-09-01

    Accurate and fast detection of infrared (IR) dim target has very important meaning for infrared precise guidance, early warning, video surveillance, etc. In this paper, some basic principles and the implementing flow charts of a series of algorithms for target detection are described. These algorithms are traditional two-frame difference method, improved three-frame difference method, background estimate and frame difference fusion method, and building background with neighborhood mean method. On the foundation of above works, an infrared target detection software platform which is developed by OpenCV and MFC is introduced. Three kinds of tracking algorithms are integrated in this software. In order to explain the software clearly, the framework and the function are described in this paper. At last, the experiments are performed for some real-life IR images. The whole algorithm implementing processes and results are analyzed, and those algorithms for detection targets are evaluated from the two aspects of subjective and objective. The results prove that the proposed method has satisfying detection effectiveness and robustness. Meanwhile, it has high detection efficiency and can be used for real-time detection.

  17. Emigrants’ Remittances and the “Dutch Disease” in Small Transition Economies: the Case Of Albania and Moldova

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christos Nikas

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available An exogenous inflow of foreign exchange can lead to an appreciation of the currency of the receiving country, a deterioration of its competitiveness and a fall in net exports. Economic theory identifies this as the “Dutch Disease” although it is more often observed in emerging economies. The origin of the real exchange rate appreciation can differ from country to country but the inflow of remittances, the main and clearer gain for the emigration countries, has been accused for such an outcome. This paper tests the applicability of the “Dutch Disease” for two small transition economies under a free floating exchange rate regime, namely Albania and Moldova. In recent years, these countries have experienced impressive outflows of emigrants and even more impressive inflows of remittances. However, the econometric results, based on the ordinary least squares fixed effects, show that the impact of the workers’ remittances on the real exchange rate varies among the countries examined. The results confirm that the macroeconomic implications of these large capital inflows have been actually different between the countries.

  18. The Relevance of Political Stability on FDI: A VAR Analysis and ARDL Models for Selected Small, Developed, and Instability Threatened Economies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petar Kurecic

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper studies the relevance of political stability on foreign direct investment (FDI and the relevance of FDI on economic growth, in three panels. The first panel contains 11 very small economies; the second contains five well-developed and politically stable economies with highly positive FDI net inflows, while the third is a panel with economies that are prone to political violence or targeted by the terrorist attacks. We employ a Granger causality test and implement a vector autoregressive (VAR framework within the panel setting. In order to test the sensitivity of the results and avoid robust errors, we employ an ARDL model for each of the countries within every panel. Based upon our results, we conclude that there is a long-term relationship between political stability and FDI for the panel of small economies, while we find no empiric evidence of such a relationship for both panels of larger and more developed economies. Similarly to the original hypothesis of Lucas (1990, we find that FDI outflows tend to go towards politically less stable countries. On the other hand, the empiric methodology employed did not find such conclusive evidence in the panels of politically more developed countries or in the small economies that this paper observes.

  19. Financial Policy to Small and Medium Enterprises to Recover Local Economy After Merapi Eruption

    OpenAIRE

    Andriansyah, Yuli; Wafa, M. Agus Khoirul

    2011-01-01

    This research is aimed to oversee best policy to be implemented to rebuild and recover economic activities among small and medium enterprises near Merapi Mountain after its eruption. The SMEs near Merapi Mountain can be characterized as family based industry with some problem in its marketing and technology development. These characteristics are close and similar to those SMEs in other disaster area in Indonesia which make some policy conducted by Bank Indonesia are still relevant to be imple...

  20. Multinational Enterprises from Small Economies: The Internationalization Pattern of Large Companies from Denmark, Finland and Norway

    OpenAIRE

    Benito, Gabriel R.G.; Larimo, Jorma; Narula, Rajneesh; Pedersen, Torben

    2001-01-01

    Analyzing the internationalization of large companies from small countries requires understanding the process of internationalization by examining the interface between micro (firm strategies) and macro (the forces of centripetal and centrifugal) level factors. We examine the growth and international expansion of the ten largest companies in Denmark, Finland, and Norway over the period 1990 to 1999. Most companies in the sample became more international during the last decade across basically...

  1. Measuring Performance for Accountability of a Small Social Economy Organization: The Case of an Independent School

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven M. Smith

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This article is a result of a joint project in social economy research between a community partner-an independent school-and academic partners. The school is a democratic organization, run by teachers and parents. The goal of the project was to find ways to improve communication and reporting about general performance of the school as part of the school's accountability to its members. Starting from lessons of the balanced scorecard approach for non-profits, we describe the process of development of survey-based measures for the particular organization. The direction of the tool development and subsequent organizational changes were carried out in a participatory process between the school's staff, the parents, and the board. We identify the limitations and challenges of this process, and outline its successes to draw lessons for other similar democratic organizations. / Cet article est le produit d'un projet conjoint de recherche sur l'économie sociale entre un partenaire communautaire-une école privée-et des partenaires académiques. L'école est une organisation démocratique dirigée par des enseignants et des parents. Le but de ce projet était de trouver des façons d'améliorer la communication et la reddition de compte en ce qui a trait au rendement général de l'école comme faisant partie de la responsabilité de l'école envers ses membres. En commençant par des leçons sur l'approche de tableau de bord équilibré pour les organismes sans but lucratif, nous abordons le processus de l'élaboration de mesures fondées sur des enquêtes pour l'organisation particulière. L'orientation du développement d'outils et des changements organisationnels subséquents ont été déterminés lors d'un processus participatif entre le personnel de l'école, les parents et la direction. Nous établissons les limites et les défis de cette façon de procéder et en soulignons les réussites pour tirer des leçons qui serviront à d

  2. Small Business Struggle in a Developing Economy:Does Organizational Culture Matter?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael STOICA

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available The paper examines the relationship between two important variables that define small and medium-sized enterprises:organizational culture and responsiveness. Firms operating in Romania were selected for the study. The country offers a business context with many changes over the last two decades, a challenge and an opportunity for researchers. Results show that the combination of entrepreneurial characteristics and planning and goal oriented managerial styles suits best successful companies. The market-driven type of culture has the best coordination and is best positioned to deliver customer-centered versatility, while adhocracy helps businesses respond fast to changes in the market environment.

  3. The influence of customer loyalty on small island economies: an empirical and exploratory study

    OpenAIRE

    Ozuem, Wilson; Thomas, Tara; Lancaster, Geoff

    2016-01-01

    There is growing consensus that companies’ long-term success is reliant on building\\ud and sustaining strong customer relationships. This study explores the antecedents of\\ud loyalty in business to business (B2Bs) using Guernsey’s telecommunication industry as\\ud a case study. It examines how these influence customer loyalty orientation and factors\\ud that help service providers improve loyalty rates. Extant literature pays little attention\\ud to the antecedents of loyalty in small island eco...

  4. Future Job Openings: Australia in the Knowledge Economy. Project 2000-02: Changing Skill Requirements in the Australian Labour Force in a Knowledge Economy. Working Paper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Chandra; Burke, Gerald

    Forecasts of Australian labor market growth, net replacement needs, and net job openings to 2006 are presented using the nine-way grouping of occupations described by (Maglen and Shah, 1999). Analysis is based on classifying occupations by whether they are advantaged by globalization and technological change, relatively insulated, or vulnerable.…

  5. Macroeconomic perspectives on the Danish economy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Torben M.; Hougaard Jensen, Svend E.; Risager, Ole

    A guide to major economic policy issues in Denmark. Leading Danish and international economists discuss, in comparative conte×t, the Danish economy's performance in the last 40 years, and assess the challenges which Denmark in common with other small, open economies faces in the global economy...... today. Major features include the continuing of academic analysis with policy making e×perience and e×pertise, and the e×amination of topical issues including the impact of EMU on "outsider" nations....

  6. Role of University-Industry-Government Linkages in the Innovation Processes of a Small Catching-Up Economy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varblane, Urmas; Mets, Tonis; Ukrainski, Kadri

    2008-01-01

    During the transformation process from a command economy, the extraordinary statist university-industry-government (UIG) linkages model was replaced by an extreme version of laissez-faire relationships. A more modern interaction-based UIG model could be implemented only by changing the whole national innovation system of catching-up economies. The…

  7. SmartFactory: The challenges of open and low cost ICT in the small manufacturing industry

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Bosscha, PA

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available planning (ERP) and customer relation- ship management (CRM) levels, are employed with varying degrees of success in complex plants and large corporations. The high costs associated with such systems, however, put them beyond the reach of small... ICT’ is defined as: ? open source software, such as Linux, FreeBSD,5 Mobile Mesh,6 PostgreSQL,7 Apache web server,8 and Compiere ERP+CRM;9 ? communications and computing equipment that comply with open standards such as 802.11b,10 Internet Protocol...

  8. Visualization study of helium-air counter flow through a small opening

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fumizawa, Motoo

    2007-01-01

    Buoyancy-driven counter flows of helium-air were investigated through horizontal and inclined small openings. Counter flows may occur following a window opening as ventilation, fire in the room as well as a pipe rupture accident in a high temperature gas-cooled nuclear reactor. The experiment has carried out by a test chamber filled with helium and flow was visualized by the smoke wire method. The flow behavior has recorded by a high-speed camera with a computer system. The image of the flow was transferred to the digital data, thus the flow velocity was measured by PTV software. The mass fraction in the test chamber was measured by electronic balance. The detected data was arranged by the densimetric Floude number of the counter flow rate that derived from the dimensional analysis. The method of mass increment was developed and applied to measure the counter flow rate. By removing the cover plate placed on the top of the opening, the counter flow initiated. Air enters the test chamber and the mass of the gas mixture in the test chamber increased. The volumetric counter flow rate was evaluated from the mass increment data. In the case of inclination openings, the results of both methods were compared. The inclination angle for maximum densimetric Floude number decreased with increasing length-to-diameter ratio of the opening. For a horizontal opening, the results from the method of mass increment agreed with those obtained by other authors for a water-brine system. (author)

  9. Flow visualization and velocity measurement in a small-scale open channel using an electron microscope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yasuda, K; Sogo, M; Iwamoto, Y

    2013-01-01

    The present note describes a method for use in conjunction with a scanning electron microscope (SEM) that has been developed to visualize a liquid flow under a high-level vacuum and to measure a velocity field in a small-scale flow through an open channel. In general, liquid cannot be observed via a SEM, because liquid evaporates under the high-vacuum environment of the SEM. As such, ionic liquid and room temperature molten salt having a vapor pressure of nearly zero is used in the present study. We use ionic liquid containing Au-coated tracer particles to visualize a small-scale flow under a SEM. Furthermore, the velocity distribution in the open channel is obtained by particle tracking velocimetry measurement and a parabolic profile is confirmed. (technical design note)

  10. Sustaining “Lilliputs” in the Global Knowledge-Based Economy: Prospects for Micro, Small, and Medium-Scale Enterprises in the Developing World

    OpenAIRE

    Maria Divina Gracia Z. Roldan

    2015-01-01

    Micro, small, and medium-scale enterprises (MSMEs) comprise bulk of business entities in the developing world. Their contribution is seen in terms of employment generation and capital formation. Seen as the engine of growth in present knowledge-based economies, MSMEs play a crucial role in the economic sustainability of Asian developing countries. This paper discusses the role of MSMEs in Asia, with the Philippines as a case in point. It examines issues and challenges these enterprises face, ...

  11. Open-Source Medical Devices (OSMD) Design of a Small Animal Radiotherapy System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prajapati, S.; Mackie, T. R.; Jeraj, R.

    2014-03-01

    Open-Source Medical Devices (OSMD) was initiated with the goal of facilitating medical research by developing medical technologies including both hardware and software on an open-source platform. Our first project was to develop an integrated imaging and radiotherapy device for small animals that includes computed tomography (CT), positron emission tomography (PET) and radiation therapy (RT) modalities for which technical specifications were defined in the first OSMD conference held in Madison, Wisconsin, USA in December 2011. This paper specifically focuses on the development of a small animal RT (micro-RT) system by designing a binary micro multileaf collimator (bmMLC) and a small animal treatment planning system (SATPS) to enable intensity modulated RT (IMRT). Both hardware and software projects are currently under development and their current progresses are described. After the development, both bmMLC and TPS will be validated and commissioned for a micro-RT system. Both hardware design and software development will be open-sourced after completion.

  12. Development of a small prototype for a proof-of-concept of OpenPET imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamaya, Taiga; Yoshida, Eiji; Wakizaka, Hidekatsu; Kokuryo, Daisuke; Tsuji, Atsushi; Mitsuhashi, Takayuki; Tashima, Hideaki; Nishikido, Fumihiko; Inadama, Naoko; Murayama, Hideo; Kinouchi, Shoko; Inaniwa, Taku; Sato, Shinji; Nakajima, Yasunori; Kawai, Hideyuki; Haneishi, Hideaki; Suga, Mikio

    2011-01-01

    The OpenPET geometry is our new idea to visualize a physically opened space between two detector rings. In this paper, we developed the first small prototype to show a proof-of-concept of OpenPET imaging. Two detector rings of 110 mm diameter and 42 mm axial length were placed with a gap of 42 mm. The basic imaging performance was confirmed through phantom studies; the open imaging was realized at the cost of slight loss of axial resolution and 24% loss of sensitivity. For a proof-of-concept of PET image-guided radiation therapy, we carried out the in-beam tests with 11 C radioactive beam irradiation in the heavy ion medical accelerator in Chiba to visualize in situ distribution of primary particles stopped in a phantom. We showed that PET images corresponding to dose distribution were obtained. For an initial proof-of-concept of real-time multimodal imaging, we measured a tumor-inoculated mouse with 18 F-FDG, and an optical image of the mouse body surface was taken during the PET measurement by inserting a digital camera in the ring gap. We confirmed that the tumor in the gap was clearly visualized. The result also showed the extension effect of an axial field-of-view (FOV); a large axial FOV of 126 mm was obtained with the detectors that originally covered only an 84 mm axial FOV. In conclusion, our initial imaging studies showed promising performance of the OpenPET.

  13. O modelo IS-LM-EE para economias abertas e distinções dos efeitos para as economias nacionais The IS-LM-EE model for open economies and particular effects on the national economies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo Inácio de Moraes

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available O meio ambiente tem-se tornado uma crescente fonte de preocupações e o debate acerca das incompatibilidades entre crescimento econômico e preservação ambiental está muito distante de findar. Dentro desse contexto, diversas propostas de incorporação das restrições ambientais na macroeconomia foram feitas, sendo o modelo IS-LM-EE um dos mais interessantes. Sua grande limitação, entretanto, provém do fato de ele ter sido construído para economias fechadas. Quando utilizado para economias abertas, os resultados são completamente distintos na medida em que os países em desenvolvimento e desenvolvidos estão em situação oposta à exploração dos recursos naturais. Nesse sentido, há uma acentuada diferença entre eles quanto à adoção de políticas e às respostas aos choques econômicos, diferença essa ampliada quando as restrições ambientais são levadas em consideração, principalmente, no caso dos choques exógenos derivados do comércio internacional.The environment is a growing source of concern and the debate on the incompatibilities between economic growth and environmental conservation is far from over. In this context, a number of proposals for introducing environmental restrictions into macroeconomics have been made, the IS-LM-EE model being the most interesting one. However, this model has a serious limitation insofar as it was built for closed economies. When this model is used for open economies, the outcome differs greatly, given that developing and developed economies show major differences with respect to the exploitation of natural resources. There are considerable differences between them with respect to policies to be adopted as well as solutions required to combat economic shocks. These differences intensify when environmental restrictions are taken into consideration, principally in the case of exogenous shocks resulting from international trade.

  14. Market-opening rules and potentialities of destabilization of hierarchical power industries in an open economy: institutional scenarios on the French power industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Finon, D.

    1999-08-01

    The purpose of the paper is to analyse the reform of the French power industry, the extreme integration of the industrial organisation of which is deeply rooted in the French institutional particularisms. After the presentation of the main features of the 1999 reform, different elements of instability of the new structure are pointed out: the over-dominant position of the incumbent company which dissuades entries, institutional isomorphism between economies integrated to a regional space (heterogeneity of structures between European Community countries generates problems of reciprocity and fairness), and the end of the traditional capture of the regulator by the incumbent company because of the autonomy of the function of regulation. Two institutional scenarios are defined, which give a different weight to two competition paradigms in conflicts: the traditional ''industrial economics'' which inclines to preserve hierarchy in the national area to gain competitive advantages in the European field, and the neo-classical paradigm. In the first one, in the name of strategic efficiency, the integration of the industrial organisation could be preserved in spite of the asymmetry of structures between countries, and the playing field is the continental Europe on which national champions compete. In the second one the French industrial organisation has to conform to the competitive model, with vertical and horizontal disintegration and creation of a power exchange market. This scenario necessitates to test the force of the institutional determinism of the nuclear legacy. (author)

  15. Organizational Culture and Open Innovation Performance in Small and Medium-sized Enterprises (SMEs in Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mazur Jolanta

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates the links between organizational culture, the use of open innovation sources and the performance of SMEs. The main hypothesis of the study is that a special type of organizational culture (termed innovative culture, which fosters creativity, learning and inter-employee cooperation – will correspond with a greater scope of open innovation sources and higher levels of innovative, operational and financial performance. The study was based on a representative CATI survey of 473 SMEs operating in manufacturing and services industries in Poland. Our statistical analysis relied on building and testing structural equation model with the AMOS software. The findings confirmed a positive association between innovative culture and the scope of open sources of innovation. However, innovative culture had no direct effect on the percentage of sales from new and modified products, which is often used as a metric of innovativeness, but did show a positive influence on an index of operational performance and ROI. Such statistical patterns suggest that fostering innovative culture is beneficial to a company, though probably not through an increased number of product innovations, but rather via process, administrative and marketing innovations, as well as other gains in efficiency attained due to more streamlined employee cooperation and knowledge exchange. The study adds to the existing body of knowledge in management science by providing a better understanding of mechanisms underlying innovative culture’s impacts on open innovation practices and metrics of operational and financial performance in the context of small and medium enterprises.

  16. The Political Economy, the Economic Policy and the Internal Control in the Development of Micro, Small and Medium Enterprises in Angola

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mendes Pedro−Ludi

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The Economic Policy includes the strategies of diversification and development of the country and has in Angola as the most important objective, the development of Micro, Small and Medium Enterprises (MPYMES. However, the effectiveness of policies aimed at promoting this type of business depends not only on the policy, but also on the organization, management and control of the process of allocation of financial resources. To achieve this, it is possible if it is based on the interrelationship between Political Economy, scientific basis of Economic Policy and Internal Control, guaranteeing the ordering and control of Economic Policy. The objective of this article is to demonstrate theoretically and empirically the dialectical relationship between Political Economy, Economic Policy and Internal Control, in favor of the development of Angolan MPYMES.

  17. Comparison of Endoscopic and Open Resection for Small Gastric Gastrointestinal Stromal Tumor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fan Feng

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The National Comprehensive Cancer Network recommends conservative follow-up for gastric gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GISTs less than 2 cm. We have previously reported that the mitotic index of 22.22% of small gastric GISTs exceeded 5 per 50 high-power fields and recommended that all small gastric GISTs should be resected once diagnosed. The aim of the present study is to compare the safety and outcomes of endoscopic and open resection of small gastric GISTs. From May 2010 to March 2014, a total of 90 small gastric GIST patients were enrolled in the present study, including 40 patients who underwent surgical resection and 50 patients who underwent endoscopic resection. The clinicopathological characteristics, resection-related factors, and clinical outcomes were recorded and analyzed. The clinicopathological characteristics were comparable between the two groups except for tumor location and DOG-1 expression. Compared with the surgical resection group, the operation time was shorter (P = .000, blood loss was less (P = .000, pain intensity was lower (P < .05, duration of first flatus and defecation was shorter (P < .05, and medical cost of hospitalization was lower (P = .027 in the endoscopic resection group. The complications and postoperative hospital stay were comparable between the two groups. No in situ recurrence or liver metastasis was observed during follow-up. Endoscopic resection of small gastric GISTs is safe and feasible compared with surgical resection, although perforation could not be totally avoided during and after resection. The clinical outcome of endoscopic resection is also favorable.

  18. 76 FR 46897 - Open Meeting of the Taxpayer Advocacy Panel Small Business/Self Employed Correspondence Exam Toll...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-03

    ... Small Business/Self Employed Correspondence Exam Toll Free Project Committee AGENCY: Internal Revenue... Panel Small Business/ Self Employed Correspondence Exam Toll Free Project Committee will be conducted....C. App. (1988) that an open meeting of the Taxpayer Advocacy Panel Small Business/Self Employed...

  19. 76 FR 6190 - Open Meeting of the Taxpayer Advocacy Panel Small Business/Self Employed Correspondence Exam Toll...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-03

    ... Small Business/Self Employed Correspondence Exam Toll Free Project Committee AGENCY: Internal Revenue... Panel Small Business/ Self Employed Correspondence Exam Toll Free Project Committee will be conducted....C. App. (1988) that an open meeting of the Taxpayer Advocacy Panel Small Business/Self Employed...

  20. 76 FR 37893 - Open Meeting of the Taxpayer Advocacy Panel Small Business/Self Employed Correspondence Exam Toll...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-28

    ... Small Business/Self Employed Correspondence Exam Toll Free Project Committee AGENCY: Internal Revenue... Panel Small Business/ Self Employed Correspondence Exam Toll Free Project Committee will be conducted....C. App. (1988) that an open meeting of the Taxpayer Advocacy Panel Small Business/Self Employed...

  1. 76 FR 56879 - Open Meeting of the Taxpayer Advocacy Panel Small Business/Self Employed Correspondence Exam...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-14

    ... Small Business/Self Employed Correspondence Exam Practitioner Engagement Project Committee AGENCY... Taxpayer Advocacy Panel Small Business/ Self Employed Correspondence Exam Practitioner Engagement Project... Advisory Committee Act, 5 U.S.C. App. (1988) that an open meeting of the Taxpayer Advocacy Panel Small...

  2. 76 FR 37200 - Open Meeting of the Taxpayer Advocacy Panel Small Business/Self Employed Correspondence Exam...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-24

    ... Small Business/Self Employed Correspondence Exam Practitioner Engagement Project Committee AGENCY... Taxpayer Advocacy Panel Small Business/ Self Employed Correspondence Exam Practitioner Engagement Project... Act, 5 U.S.C. App. (1988) that an open meeting of the Taxpayer Advocacy Panel Small Business/Self...

  3. 76 FR 22170 - Open Meeting of the Taxpayer Advocacy Panel Small Business/Self Employed Correspondence Exam...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-20

    ... Small Business/Self Employed Correspondence Exam Practitioner Engagement Project Committee AGENCY... Taxpayer Advocacy Panel Small Business/ Self Employed Correspondence Exam Practitioner Engagement Project... Act, 5 U.S.C. App. (1988) that an open meeting of the Taxpayer Advocacy Panel Small Business/Self...

  4. 76 FR 17996 - Open Meeting of the Taxpayer Advocacy Panel Small Business/Self Employed Correspondence Exam Toll...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-31

    ... Small Business/Self Employed Correspondence Exam Toll Free Project Committee AGENCY: Internal Revenue... Small Business/ Self Employed Correspondence Exam Toll Free Project Committee will be conducted. The... Act, 5 U.S.C. App. (1988) that an open meeting of the Taxpayer Advocacy Panel Small Business/Self...

  5. 76 FR 63715 - Open Meeting of the Taxpayer Advocacy Panel Small Business/Self Employed Correspondence Exam...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-13

    ... Small Business/Self Employed Correspondence Exam Practitioner Engagement Project Committee AGENCY... Taxpayer Advocacy Panel Small Business/ Self Employed Correspondence Exam Practitioner Engagement Project... Advisory Committee Act, 5 U.S.C. App. (1988) that an open meeting of the Taxpayer Advocacy Panel Small...

  6. 76 FR 10942 - Open Meeting of the Taxpayer Advocacy Panel Small Business/Self Employed Correspondence Exam Toll...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-28

    ... Small Business/Self Employed Correspondence Exam Toll Free Project Committee AGENCY: Internal Revenue... Panel Small Business/ Self Employed Correspondence Exam Toll Free Project Committee will be conducted....C. App. (1988) that an open meeting of the Taxpayer Advocacy Panel Small Business/Self Employed...

  7. 76 FR 46897 - Open Meeting of the Taxpayer Advocacy Panel Small Business/Self Employed Correspondence Exam...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-03

    ... Small Business/Self Employed Correspondence Exam Practitioner Engagement Project Committee AGENCY... Taxpayer Advocacy Panel Small Business/ Self Employed Correspondence Exam Practitioner Engagement Project... Advisory Committee Act, 5 U.S.C. App. (1988) that an open meeting of the Taxpayer Advocacy Panel Small...

  8. 76 FR 6189 - Open Meeting of the Taxpayer Advocacy Panel Small Business/Self Employed Correspondence Exam...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-03

    ... Small Business/Self Employed Correspondence Exam Practitioner Engagement Project Committee AGENCY... Taxpayer Advocacy Panel Small Business/ Self Employed Correspondence Exam Practitioner Engagement Project... Act, 5 U.S.C. App. (1988) that an open meeting of the Taxpayer Advocacy Panel Small Business/Self...

  9. 76 FR 10942 - Open Meeting of the Taxpayer Advocacy Panel Small Business/Self Employed Correspondence Exam...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-28

    ... Small Business/Self Employed Correspondence Exam Practitioner Engagement Project Committee AGENCY... Taxpayer Advocacy Panel Small Business/ Self Employed Correspondence Exam Practitioner Engagement Project... Act, 5 U.S.C. App. (1988) that an open meeting of the Taxpayer Advocacy Panel Small Business/Self...

  10. Heat Release Rate of an Open Kitchen Fire of Small Residential Units in Tall Buildings

    OpenAIRE

    Chow, W.K.

    2014-01-01

    Many small units of area less than 30 m2 in residential buildings over 200 m tall are equipped with open kitchens in Asia, including Hong Kong. Fire safety provisions of these kitchens are determined by performance-based design (PBD). In most PBD projects, only the spread of smoke from the kitchen on fire to the outside was commonly studied. However, a fire load survey in Hong Kong indicated large quantities of combustibles are stored in residential units. Cooking oil was found to be ignited ...

  11. Development of a small prototype for a proof-of-concept of OpenPET imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamaya, Taiga; Yoshida, Eiji; Wakizaka, Hidekatsu; Kokuryo, Daisuke; Tsuji, Atsushi; Mitsuhashi, Takayuki; Tashima, Hideaki; Nishikido, Fumihiko; Inadama, Naoko; Murayama, Hideo; Kinouchi, Shoko [Molecular Imaging Center, National Institute of Radiological Sciences, 4-9-1 Anagawa, Inage-ku, Chiba 263-8555 (Japan); Inaniwa, Taku; Sato, Shinji [Research Center for Charged Particle Therapy, National Institute of Radiological Sciences, 4-9-1 Anagawa, Inage-ku, Chiba 263-8555 (Japan); Nakajima, Yasunori [Interdisciplinary Graduate School of Science and Engineering, Tokyo Institute of Technology, 4259 Nagatsuta, Midori-ku, Yokohama, Kanagawa 226-8503 (Japan); Kawai, Hideyuki; Haneishi, Hideaki; Suga, Mikio, E-mail: taiga@nirs.go.jp [Chiba University, 1-33 Yayoicho, Inage-ku, Chiba 263-8522 (Japan)

    2011-02-21

    The OpenPET geometry is our new idea to visualize a physically opened space between two detector rings. In this paper, we developed the first small prototype to show a proof-of-concept of OpenPET imaging. Two detector rings of 110 mm diameter and 42 mm axial length were placed with a gap of 42 mm. The basic imaging performance was confirmed through phantom studies; the open imaging was realized at the cost of slight loss of axial resolution and 24% loss of sensitivity. For a proof-of-concept of PET image-guided radiation therapy, we carried out the in-beam tests with {sup 11}C radioactive beam irradiation in the heavy ion medical accelerator in Chiba to visualize in situ distribution of primary particles stopped in a phantom. We showed that PET images corresponding to dose distribution were obtained. For an initial proof-of-concept of real-time multimodal imaging, we measured a tumor-inoculated mouse with {sup 18}F-FDG, and an optical image of the mouse body surface was taken during the PET measurement by inserting a digital camera in the ring gap. We confirmed that the tumor in the gap was clearly visualized. The result also showed the extension effect of an axial field-of-view (FOV); a large axial FOV of 126 mm was obtained with the detectors that originally covered only an 84 mm axial FOV. In conclusion, our initial imaging studies showed promising performance of the OpenPET.

  12. Case study of open-source enterprise resource planning implementation in a small business

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olson, David L.; Staley, Jesse

    2012-02-01

    Enterprise resource planning (ERP) systems have been recognised as offering great benefit to some organisations, although they are expensive and problematic to implement. The cost and risk make well-developed proprietorial systems unaffordable to small businesses. Open-source software (OSS) has become a viable means of producing ERP system products. The question this paper addresses is the feasibility of OSS ERP systems for small businesses. A case is reported involving two efforts to implement freely distributed ERP software products in a small US make-to-order engineering firm. The case emphasises the potential of freely distributed ERP systems, as well as some of the hurdles involved in their implementation. The paper briefly reviews highlights of OSS ERP systems, with the primary focus on reporting the case experiences for efforts to implement ERPLite software and xTuple software. While both systems worked from a technical perspective, both failed due to economic factors. While these economic conditions led to imperfect results, the case demonstrates the feasibility of OSS ERP for small businesses. Both experiences are evaluated in terms of risk dimension.

  13. Numerical Research on Flow Characteristics around a Hydraulic Turbine Runner at Small Opening of Cylindrical Valve

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhenwei Mo

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We use the continuity equation and the Reynolds averaged Navier-Stokes equations to study the flow-pattern characteristics around a turbine runner for the small-opening cylindrical valve of a hydraulic turbine. For closure, we adopt the renormalization-group k-ε two-equation turbulence model and use the computational fluid dynamics (CFD software FLUENT to numerically simulate the three-dimensional unsteady turbulent flow through the entire passage of the hydraulic turbine. The results show that a low-pressure zone develops around the runner blades when the cylindrical valve is closed in a small opening; cavitation occurs at the blades, and a vortex appears at the outlet of the runner. As the cylindrical valve is gradually closed, the flow velocity over the runner area increases, and the pressure gradient becomes more significant as the discharge decreases. In addition, the fluid flow velocity is relatively high between the lower end of the cylindrical valve and the base, so that a high-velocity jet is easily induced. The calculation and analysis provide a theoretical basis for improving the performance of cylindrical-valve operating systems.

  14. Sediment depositions upstream of open check dams: new elements from small scale models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piton, Guillaume; Le Guern, Jules; Carbonari, Costanza; Recking, Alain

    2015-04-01

    Torrent hazard mitigation remains a big issue in mountainous regions. In steep slope streams and especially in their fan part, torrential floods mainly result from abrupt and massive sediment deposits. To curtail such phenomenon, soil conservation measures as well as torrent control works have been undertaken for decades. Since the 1950s, open check dams complete other structural and non-structural measures in watershed scale mitigation plans1. They are often built to trap sediments near the fan apexes. The development of earthmoving machinery after the WWII facilitated the dredging operations of open check dams. Hundreds of these structures have thus been built for 60 years. Their design evolved with the improving comprehension of torrential hydraulics and sediment transport; however this kind of structure has a general tendency to trap most of the sediments supplied by the headwaters. Secondary effects as channel incision downstream of the traps often followed an open check dam creation. This sediment starvation trend tends to propagate to the main valley rivers and to disrupt past geomorphic equilibriums. Taking it into account and to diminish useless dredging operation, a better selectivity of sediment trapping must be sought in open check dams, i.e. optimal open check dams would trap sediments during dangerous floods and flush them during normal small floods. An accurate description of the hydraulic and deposition processes that occur in sediment traps is needed to optimize existing structures and to design best-adjusted new structures. A literature review2 showed that if design criteria exist for the structure itself, little information is available on the dynamic of the sediment depositions upstream of open check dams, i.e. what are the geomorphic patterns that occur during the deposition?, what are the relevant friction laws and sediment transport formula that better describe massive depositions in sediment traps?, what are the range of Froude and Shields

  15. The effects of wastewater discharges on the functioning of a small temporarily open/closed estuary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawrie, Robynne A.; Stretch, Derek D.; Perissinotto, Renzo

    2010-04-01

    Wastewater discharges affect the functioning of small temporarily open/closed estuaries (TOCEs) through two main mechanisms: (1) they can significantly change the water balance by altering the quantity of water inflows, and (2) they can significantly change the nutrient balance and hence the water quality. This study investigated the bio-physical responses of a typical, small TOCE on the east coast of South Africa, the Mhlanga Estuary. This estuary receives significant inflows of treated effluent from upstream wastewater treatment works. Water and nutrient budgets were used together with biological sampling to investigate changes in the functioning of the system. The increase in inflows due to the effluent discharges has significantly increased the mouth breaching frequency. Furthermore, when the mouth closes, the accumulation of nutrients leads to eutrophication and algal blooms. A grey water index, namely the proportion of effluent in the estuary and an indicator of the additional nutrient inputs into the estuary, reached high values (≳50%) during low flow regimes and when the mouth was closed. In these hyper-eutrophic conditions (DIN and DIP concentrations up to 457 μM and 100 μM respectively), field measurements showed that algal blooms occurred within about 14 days following closure of the mouth (chlorophyll-a concentrations up to 375 mg chl-a m -3). Water and nutrient balance simulations for alternative scenarios suggest that further increases in wastewater discharges would result in more frequent breaching events and longer open mouth conditions, but the occurrence of hyper-eutrophic conditions would initially intensify despite more frequent openings. The study indicates how water and nutrient balance simulations can be used in the planning and impact assessment of wastewater treatment facilities.

  16. Small might be beautiful, but bigger performs better: Scale economies in “green” refurbishments of apartment housing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Michelsen, Claus; Rosenschon, Sebastian; Schulz, Christian

    2015-01-01

    The energy efficiency of the residential housing stock plays a key role in strategies to mitigate climate change and global warming. In this context, it is frequently argued that private investment and the quality of thermal upgrades are too low in the light of the challenges faced and the potential energy cost savings. While many authors address the potential barriers for investors to increase energy efficiency, studies on the capabilities of different investors to reduce energy requirements of their property are scarce. This study investigates potential advantages of housing company's size, i.e. economies of scale, economies of scope and institutional learning in thermal upgrades of residential housing. Based on unique data on energy consumption in 102,307 apartment buildings in Germany, we present new evidence for the advantages and disadvantages of a housing company's size in “green” retrofitting projects. Our estimations show, that large housing companies outperform private landlords by far in high effort refurbishment projects. In contrast, private landlords appear to have advantages in low effort, incremental refurbishment activities. We demonstrate that a substantial share of the advantages of larger firms can be associated with specialization (i.e. repeated projects). The results offer new options for policy makers to refine the support schemes toward a low carbon housing stock. - Highlights: • First study to analyze the effects of housing companies size on “green” refurbishment • Economies of scale, scope and learning all affect energy efficiency refurbishments. • Specialization on distinct refurbishments influences outcome of thermal upgrades. • Analysis based on a large and unique sample of apartment buildings in Germany

  17. Towards higher transparency and efficiency in energy taxation. Energy taxation and environmental policy in a small open economy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Normann, Goeran

    2002-01-01

    The accrual of energy taxation has led to a complex structure of taxes and charges that are characterized by instability and low efficiency. Other reasons for analyzing the system is the pressure from our contractual responsibilities within the European Union and the raised ambitions in the environmental policy. The report leads to the conclusion that it would be motivated to separate fiscal energy taxation from measures to internalize environmental costs that the market does not register. This separation would make it possible to create a more transparent and rational energy taxation. The fiscal energy taxation ought to be a broad, value-based tax, equal for all energy sources. Value-based means, besides the energy content in kWh, also properties such as conversion and distribution costs. Two alternatives are suggested for the fiscal energy taxation: A separate consumption tax on energy. Such a tax would amount to 48% to produce the same income as the fiscal elements of today's energy taxes. Another alternative would be to include the fiscal energy tax in the value added tax. This would raise the standard VAT level to 30%, if the lower VAT levels are kept unchanged. With this model, consumption of energy would be treated as any other consumption. The environmental policy measures against greenhouse gases should be delt with through a system with international trade with emission quotas for such gases. Measures against other external effects from energy use are not suggested in this report, except for the opinion that economic incentives are preferable to regulations. The initial allocation of quotas ought to be done through an auction, since this method would give lower national costs than the alternatives. The system should cover all greenhouse gases and (almost) all sources which indicates that an upstream solution would be best with low administrative costs. A safety vent should be considered, so that extreme costs for CO 2 -emissions are avoided, if e.g. the economic growth is higher than expected

  18. The implications of structural asymmetries for monetary policy and welfare in a small open economy: a linear quadratic framework

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Rychalovska, Yuliya

    -, č. 380 (2008), s. 1-56 ISSN 1211-3298 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LC542 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z70850503 Keywords : DSGE models * non-traded goods * optimal monetary policy Subject RIV: AH - Economics http://www.cerge-ei.cz/pdf/wp/Wp380.pdf

  19. How Do the Richest 1% Owns 50% of Wealth in a Small-Open Growth Model with Endogenous Wealth and Human Capital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei-Bin Zhang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper extends the growth model for a closed national economy by Zhang (2015 to a small-open economy. We attempt to explain some economic mechanisms of how the richest one per cent of the population own 50% of national wealth. We consider endogenous wealth and human capital accumulation by heterogeneous households with different preferences and learning abilities as the main determinants of growth and inequality. We describe the production technologies and economic structure on the basis of the Uzawa two-sector model. By applying Zhang’s concept of disposable income and approach to household behavior, we describe consumers’ wealth accumulation and consumption behavior. We model human capital accumulation on the basis of Arrow’s learning by doing and Zhang’s creativity with leisure. We simulate the model with three groups of the population, the rich 1 %, the middle 69%, and the poor 20%. We demonstrate the existence of an equilibrium point at which the rich 1% own more than half of the national wealth and the poor 20% less than 10% of the national wealth. We show how the system moves to the equilibrium from an initial state and confirm that the equilibrium point is stable. We also conduct comparative dynamic analysis.

  20. 2007 Winter meeting - opening Address: nuclear power in a relationship of tension between politics, society, and the economy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hohlefelder, Walter

    2007-01-01

    Even more so than last year, energy policy is at the very top of the political agenda. The European Commission presented its strategy paper on 'One Energy Policy for Europe', and another energy summit will be held in Germany to pave the way for an energy concept. As far as nuclear power is concerned, the EU Commission clearly and soberly emphasized today's contribution of nuclear power in the EU and, above all, the chances of further expanding the use of nuclear power in the interest of CO 2 avoidance, security of supply, and competitiveness. This makes a reassessment of nuclear power also a matter of national interest. The repository problem can be solved in Germany, provided there is the political will to do so. The sequence of steps leading to a solution is outlined precisely in the so-called Understanding on Nuclear Power of 2001. According to a ruling by the Lueneburg higher administrative court, Konrad, the repository for low-level radioactive waste, can now be expanded and commissioned. There are no objections to the further exploration of the Gorleben salt dome as a repository for high-level radioactive waste. In the course of the energy summit, an open, unbiased discussion about the reassessment of nuclear power must be started. No facts must be created prematurely, such as shutdowns of nuclear power plants. Applications for transfers of electricity quotas for older nuclear power plants are legitimate and correct. The German Atomic Energy Act contains express provisions for this possibility. There is no way past a basic reassessment of nuclear power. It has to be conducted now. (orig.)

  1. "I've Never Heard of It Before": Awareness of Open Access at a Small Liberal Arts University

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kocken, Gregory J.; Wical, Stephanie H.

    2013-01-01

    Small colleges and universities, often late adopters of institutional repositories and open access initiatives, face challenges that have not fully been explored in the professional literature. In an effort to gauge the level of awareness of open access and institutional repositories at the University of Wisconsin-Eau Claire (UWEC), the authors of…

  2. Collaborative Economy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    collaborative economy and tourism Dianne Dredge and Szilvia Gyimóthy PART I - Theoretical explorations 2.Definitions and mapping the landscape in the collaborative economy Szilvia Gyimóthy and Dianne Dredge 3.Business models of the collaborative economy Szilvia Gyimóthy 4.Responsibility and care...... in the collaborative economy Dianne Dredge 5.Networked cultures in the collaborative economy Szilvia Gyimóthy 6.Policy and regulatory perspectives in the collaborative economy Dianne Dredge PART II - Disruptions, innovations and transformations 7.Regulating innovation in the collaborative economy: An examination...... localities of tourism Greg Richards 11.Collaborative economy and destination marketing organizations: A systems approach Jonathan Day 12.Working within the Collaborative Tourist Economy: The complex crafting of work and meaning Jane Widtfeldt Meged and Mathilde Dissing Christensen PART - III Encounters...

  3. Open-source, small-animal magnetic resonance-guided focused ultrasound system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poorman, Megan E; Chaplin, Vandiver L; Wilkens, Ken; Dockery, Mary D; Giorgio, Todd D; Grissom, William A; Caskey, Charles F

    2016-01-01

    MR-guided focused ultrasound or high-intensity focused ultrasound (MRgFUS/MRgHIFU) is a non-invasive therapeutic modality with many potential applications in areas such as cancer therapy, drug delivery, and blood-brain barrier opening. However, the large financial costs involved in developing preclinical MRgFUS systems represent a barrier to research groups interested in developing new techniques and applications. We aim to mitigate these challenges by detailing a validated, open-source preclinical MRgFUS system capable of delivering thermal and mechanical FUS in a quantifiable and repeatable manner under real-time MRI guidance. A hardware and software package was developed that includes closed-loop feedback controlled thermometry code and CAD drawings for a therapy table designed for a preclinical MRI scanner. For thermal treatments, the modular software uses a proportional integral derivative controller to maintain a precise focal temperature rise in the target given input from MR phase images obtained concurrently. The software computes the required voltage output and transmits it to a FUS transducer that is embedded in the delivery table within the magnet bore. The delivery table holds the FUS transducer, a small animal and its monitoring equipment, and a transmit/receive RF coil. The transducer is coupled to the animal via a water bath and is translatable in two dimensions from outside the magnet. The transducer is driven by a waveform generator and amplifier controlled by real-time software in Matlab. MR acoustic radiation force imaging is also implemented to confirm the position of the focus for mechanical and thermal treatments. The system was validated in tissue-mimicking phantoms and in vivo during murine tumor hyperthermia treatments. Sonications were successfully controlled over a range of temperatures and thermal doses for up to 20 min with minimal temperature overshoot. MR thermometry was validated with an optical temperature probe, and focus

  4. Assessment of guide vane self-excitation stability at small openings in pump flow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nennemann, B; Sallaberger, M; Henggeler, U; Gentner, C; Parkinson, E

    2012-01-01

    A parameter study of self-excited pump turbine guide vane instability at small openings using a combined CFD-1DOF approach shows that clear tendencies are difficult to obtain. Two types of boundary conditions can be used in the simulations: prescribed mass flow and prescribed pressure. Simulations with both show results that - for one specific operating condition - are consistent with a self-excited guide vane incident at a prototype pump turbine. However, over a larger range of reduced velocities, the tendencies obtained with the two boundary condition types are not always consistent. Pressure boundary conditions may be the more realistic option. Results then show that with increasing reduced velocity, guide vanes will eventually reach static instability or divergence. This may not be problematic. In contrast, passing through a zone of dynamic instability during operation should and can be avoided.

  5. 75 FR 33893 - Open Meeting of the Taxpayer Advocacy Panel Small Business/Self Employed Project Committee

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-15

    ... Small Business/Self Employed Project Committee AGENCY: Internal Revenue Service (IRS) Treasury. ACTION: Notice of meeting. SUMMARY: An open meeting of the Taxpayer Advocacy Panel Small Business/ Self Employed Project Committee will be conducted. The Taxpayer Advocacy Panel is soliciting public comments, ideas, and...

  6. 75 FR 55405 - Open Meeting of the Taxpayer Advocacy Panel Small Business/Self Employed Project Committee

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-10

    ... Small Business/Self Employed Project Committee AGENCY: Internal Revenue Service (IRS) Treasury. ACTION: Notice of meeting. SUMMARY: An open meeting of the Taxpayer Advocacy Panel Small Business/ Self Employed Project Committee will be conducted. The Taxpayer Advocacy Panel is soliciting public comments, ideas, and...

  7. 75 FR 25317 - Open Meeting of the Taxpayer Advocacy Panel Small Business/Self Employed Issue Committee

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-07

    ... Small Business/Self Employed Issue Committee AGENCY: Internal Revenue Service (IRS), Treasury. ACTION: Notice of meeting. SUMMARY: An open meeting of the Taxpayer Advocacy Panel Small Business/ Self Employed Issue Committee will be conducted. The Taxpayer Advocacy Panel is soliciting public comments, ideas and...

  8. 75 FR 18957 - Open Meeting of the Taxpayer Advocacy Panel Small Business/Self Employed Project Committee

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-13

    ... Small Business/Self Employed Project Committee AGENCY: Internal Revenue Service (IRS), Treasury. ACTION: Notice of meeting. SUMMARY: An open meeting of the Taxpayer Advocacy Panel Small Business/ Self Employed Project Committee will be conducted. The Taxpayer Advocacy Panel is soliciting public comments, ideas, and...

  9. 75 FR 47348 - Open Meeting of the Taxpayer Advocacy Panel Small Business/Self Employed Project Committee

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-05

    ... Small Business/Self Employed Project Committee AGENCY: Internal Revenue Service (IRS), Treasury. ACTION: Notice of meeting. SUMMARY: An open meeting of the Taxpayer Advocacy Panel Small Business/ Self Employed Project Committee will be conducted. The Taxpayer Advocacy Panel is soliciting public comments, ideas, and...

  10. 75 FR 62630 - Open Meeting of the Taxpayer Advocacy Panel Small Business/Self Employed Project Committee

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-12

    ... Small Business/Self Employed Project Committee AGENCY: Internal Revenue Service (IRS), Treasury. ACTION: Notice of meeting. SUMMARY: An open meeting of the Taxpayer Advocacy Panel Small Business/ Self Employed Project Committee will be conducted. The Taxpayer Advocacy Panel is soliciting public comments, ideas, and...

  11. 75 FR 7539 - Open Meeting of the Taxpayer Advocacy Panel Small Business/Self Employed Project Committee

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-19

    ... Small Business/Self Employed Project Committee AGENCY: Internal Revenue Service (IRS) Treasury. ACTION: Notice of meeting. SUMMARY: An open meeting of the Taxpayer Advocacy Panel Small Business/ Self Employed Project Committee will be conducted. The Taxpayer Advocacy Panel is soliciting public comments, ideas, and...

  12. 75 FR 11999 - Open Meeting of the Taxpayer Advocacy Panel Small Business/Self Employed Project Committee

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-12

    ... Small Business/Self Employed Project Committee AGENCY: Internal Revenue Service (IRS), Treasury. ACTION: Notice of meeting. SUMMARY: An open meeting of the Taxpayer Advocacy Panel Small Business/ Self Employed Project Committee will be conducted. The Taxpayer Advocacy Panel is soliciting public comments, ideas, and...

  13. 75 FR 39331 - Open Meeting of the Taxpayer Advocacy Panel Small Business/Self Employed Project Committee

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-08

    ... Small Business/Self Employed Project Committee AGENCY: Internal Revenue Service (IRS), Treasury. ACTION: Notice of meeting. SUMMARY: An open meeting of the Taxpayer Advocacy Panel Small Business/ Self Employed Project Committee will be conducted. The Taxpayer Advocacy Panel is soliciting public comments, ideas, and...

  14. 75 FR 4140 - Open Meeting of the Taxpayer Advocacy Panel Small Business/Self Employed Project Committee

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-26

    ... Small Business/Self Employed Project Committee AGENCY: Internal Revenue Service (IRS) Treasury. ACTION: Notice of meeting. SUMMARY: An open meeting of the Taxpayer Advocacy Panel Small Business/ Self Employed Project Committee will be conducted. The Taxpayer Advocacy Panel is soliciting public comments, ideas, and...

  15. 76 FR 17995 - Open Meeting of the Taxpayer Advocacy Panel Small Business/Self Employed Correspondence Exam...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-31

    ... Small Business/Self Employed Correspondence Exam Practitioner Engagement Project Committee AGENCY... Taxpayer Advocacy Panel Small Business/ Self Employed Correspondence Exam Practitioner Engagement Project... Section 10(a)(2) of the Federal Advisory Committee Act, 5 U.S.C. App. (1988) that an open meeting of the...

  16. Tools for Inspecting and Sampling Waste in Underground Radioactive Storage Tanks with Small Access Riser Openings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nance, T.A.

    1998-01-01

    Underground storage tanks with 2 inches to 3 inches diameter access ports at the Department of Energy's Savannah River Site have been used to store radioactive solvents and sludge. In order to close these tanks, the contents of the tanks need to first be quantified in terms of volume and chemical and radioactive characteristics. To provide information on the volume of waste contained within the tanks, a small remote inspection system was needed. This inspection system was designed to provide lighting and provide pan and tilt capabilities in an inexpensive package with zoom abilities and color video. This system also needed to be utilized inside of a plastic tent built over the access port to contain any contamination exiting from the port. This system had to be build to travel into the small port opening, through the riser pipe, into the tank evacuated space, and out of the riser pipe and access port with no possibility of being caught and blocking the access riser. Long thin plates were found in many access riser pipes that blocked the inspection system from penetrating into the tank interiors. Retrieval tools to clear the plates from the tanks using developed sampling devices while providing safe containment for the samples. This paper will discuss the inspection systems, tools for clearing access pipes, and solvent sampling tools developed to evaluate the tank contents of the underground solvent storage tanks

  17. A perspective on open innovation in small- and medium-sized enterprises in South Africa, and design requirements for an open innovation approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krause, Willie

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper provides key results from an exploratory research study aimed at understanding the current landscape in small- and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs in South Africa with regard to their appetite for, and use of, open innovation. The survey, which was conducted within a contained group of SMEs that belong to business network groups on LinkedIn, explored the current use and perception of open innovation. It was found that collaboration is the approach most preferred by the SMEs surveyed, with customers and suppliers as their preferred innovation partners. Based on the findings of the survey, this paper proposes 25 design requirements, grouped into five functional categories, for an open innovation approach. The design requirements have been developed as a primer to a more complete open innovation approach for SMEs.

  18. Sovereign risk and macroeconomic fluctuations in an emerging market economy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kirchner, M.; Rieth, M.

    2010-01-01

    This paper assesses the role of sovereign risk in explaining macroeconomic fluctuations in Turkey. We estimate two versions of a simple New Keynesian small open economy model on quarterly data for the period 1994Q3-2008Q2: a basic version and a version augmented by a default premium on government

  19. Collaborative Economy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    that are emerging from them, and how governments are responding to these new challenges. In doing so, the book provides both theoretical and practical insights into the future of tourism in a world that is, paradoxically, becoming both increasingly collaborative and individualized. Table of Contents Preface 1.The...... collaborative economy and tourism Dianne Dredge and Szilvia Gyimóthy PART I - Theoretical explorations 2.Definitions and mapping the landscape in the collaborative economy Szilvia Gyimóthy and Dianne Dredge 3.Business models of the collaborative economy Szilvia Gyimóthy 4.Responsibility and care...... in the collaborative economy Dianne Dredge 5.Networked cultures in the collaborative economy Szilvia Gyimóthy 6.Policy and regulatory perspectives in the collaborative economy Dianne Dredge PART II - Disruptions, innovations and transformations 7.Regulating innovation in the collaborative economy: An examination...

  20. Collaborative Economy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    collaborative economy and tourism Dianne Dredge and Szilvia Gyimóthy PART I - Theoretical explorations 2.Definitions and mapping the landscape in the collaborative economy Szilvia Gyimóthy and Dianne Dredge 3.Business models of the collaborative economy Szilvia Gyimóthy 4.Responsibility and care...... and similar phenomena are among these collective innovations in tourism that are shaking the very bedrock of an industrial system that has been traditionally sustained along commercial value chains. To date there has been very little investigation of these trends, which have been inspired by, amongst other...... in the collaborative economy Dianne Dredge 5.Networked cultures in the collaborative economy Szilvia Gyimóthy 6.Policy and regulatory perspectives in the collaborative economy Dianne Dredge PART II - Disruptions, innovations and transformations 7.Regulating innovation in the collaborative economy: An examination...

  1. Immigration-dependent extensive growth in small island tourism economies : The cases of Aruba and Sint Maarten

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alberts, A.

    Aruba and Sint Maarten are two countries within the Kingdom of the Netherlands, situated in the Caribbean. Both have embarked on a dedicated tourism-driven and highly immigration-dependent development model starting in the 1970s and 1980s, making them typical examples of ‘Small Island Tourist

  2. Cash flow vs. collateral-based credit: performance of micro, small and medium-sized firms in transition economies

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Cassano, F.; Joeveer, K.; Švejnar, Jan

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 21, č. 2 (2013), s. 269-300 ISSN 0967-0750 Institutional support: RVO:67985998 Keywords : micro, small and medium-sized enterprises * bank credit * firm performance Subject RIV: AH - Economics Impact factor: 0.755, year: 2013

  3. Cash flow vs. collateral-based credit: performance of micro, small and medium-sized firms in transition economies

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Cassano, F.; Joeveer, K.; Švejnar, Jan

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 21, č. 2 (2013), s. 269-300 ISSN 0967-0750 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP402/10/2130 Institutional support: PRVOUK-P23 Keywords : micro, small and medium-sized enterprises * bank credit * firm performance Subject RIV: AH - Economics Impact factor: 0.755, year: 2013

  4. Tentative Study on Performance of Darriues-Type Hydroturbine Operated in Small Open Water Channel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsushita, D.; Moriyama, R.; Nakashima, K.; Watanabe, S.; Okuma, K.; Furukawa, A.

    2014-03-01

    The development of small hydropower is one of the realistic and preferable utilizations of renewable energy, but the extra-low head hydropower less than 2 m is almost undeveloped yet for some reasons. The authors have developed several types of Darrieus-type hydro-turbine system, and among them, the Darrieus-turbine with a wear and a nozzle installed upstream of turbine is so far in success to obtain more output power, i.e. more shaft torque, by gathering all water into the turbine. However, there can several cases exist, in which installing the wear covering all the flow channel width is unrealistic. Then, in the present study, the hydraulic performances of Darrieus-type hydro-turbine with the inlet nozzle is investigated, putting alone in a small open channel without upstream wear. In the experiment, the five-bladed Darrieus-type runner with the pitch-circle diameter of 300 mm and the blade span of 300 mm is vertically installed in the open channel with the width of 1,200 mm. The effectiveness of the shape of the inlet nozzle is also examined using two types of two-dimensional symmetric nozzle, the straight line nozzle (SL nozzle) with the converging angle of 45 degrees and the half diameter curved nozzle (HD nozzle) whose radius is a half diameter of runner pitch circle. Inlet and outlet nozzle widths are in common for the both nozzles, which are 540 mm and 240 mm respectively. All the experiments are carried out under the conditions with constant flow rate and downstream water level, and performances are evaluated by measured output torque and the measured head difference between the water levels upstream and downstream of the turbine. As a result, it is found that the output power is remarkably increased by installing the inlet nozzle, and the turbine with SL nozzle produces larger power than that with HD nozzle. However, the peak efficiency is deteriorated in both cases. The speed ratio defined by the rotor speed divided by the downstream water velocity at

  5. Tentative Study on Performance of Darriues-Type Hydroturbine Operated in Small Open Water Channel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsushita, D; Watanabe, S; Okuma, K; Moriyama, R; Nakashima, K; Furukawa, A

    2014-01-01

    The development of small hydropower is one of the realistic and preferable utilizations of renewable energy, but the extra-low head hydropower less than 2 m is almost undeveloped yet for some reasons. The authors have developed several types of Darrieus-type hydro-turbine system, and among them, the Darrieus-turbine with a wear and a nozzle installed upstream of turbine is so far in success to obtain more output power, i.e. more shaft torque, by gathering all water into the turbine. However, there can several cases exist, in which installing the wear covering all the flow channel width is unrealistic. Then, in the present study, the hydraulic performances of Darrieus-type hydro-turbine with the inlet nozzle is investigated, putting alone in a small open channel without upstream wear. In the experiment, the five-bladed Darrieus-type runner with the pitch-circle diameter of 300 mm and the blade span of 300 mm is vertically installed in the open channel with the width of 1,200 mm. The effectiveness of the shape of the inlet nozzle is also examined using two types of two-dimensional symmetric nozzle, the straight line nozzle (SL nozzle) with the converging angle of 45 degrees and the half diameter curved nozzle (HD nozzle) whose radius is a half diameter of runner pitch circle. Inlet and outlet nozzle widths are in common for the both nozzles, which are 540 mm and 240 mm respectively. All the experiments are carried out under the conditions with constant flow rate and downstream water level, and performances are evaluated by measured output torque and the measured head difference between the water levels upstream and downstream of the turbine. As a result, it is found that the output power is remarkably increased by installing the inlet nozzle, and the turbine with SL nozzle produces larger power than that with HD nozzle. However, the peak efficiency is deteriorated in both cases. The speed ratio defined by the rotor speed divided by the downstream water velocity at

  6. Cyberscience and the Knowledge-Based Economy. Open Access and Trade Publishing: From Contradiction to Compatibility with Non-Exclusive Copyright Licensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armbruster, Chris

    2008-01-01

    Open source, open content and open access are set to fundamentally alter the conditions of knowledge production and distribution. Open source, open content and open access are also the most tangible result of the shift towards e-science and digital networking. Yet, widespread misperceptions exist about the impact of this shift on knowledge…

  7. Design and deployment strategies for small and medium sized reactors (SMRs) to overcome loss of economies of scale and incorporate increased proliferation resistance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuznetsov, V.

    2007-01-01

    The designers of innovative small and medium sized reactors pursue new design and deployment strategies making use of certain advantages provided by smaller reactor size and capacity to achieve reduced design complexity and simplified operation and maintenance requirements, and to provide for incremental capacity increase through multi-module plant clustering. Competitiveness of SMRs (Small and Medium size Reactor) depends on the incorporated strategies to overcome loss of economies of scale but equally it depends on finding appropriate market niches for such reactors. For many less developed countries, these are the features of enhanced proliferation resistance and increased robustness of barriers for sabotage protection that may ensure the progress of nuclear power. For such countries, small reactors without on-site refuelling, designed for infrequent replacement of well-contained fuel cassette(s) in a manner that impedes clandestine diversion of nuclear fuel material, may provide a solution. Based on the outputs of recent IAEA activities for innovative SMRs, the paper provides a summary of the state-of-the-art in approaches to improve SMR competitiveness and incorporate enhanced proliferation resistance and energy security. (author)

  8. Spectroscopic determination of fundamental parameters of small angular diameter galactic open clusters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahumada, A. V.; Claria, J. J.; Bica, E.; Parisi, M. C.; Torres, M. C.; Pavani, D. B.

    We present integrated spectra obtained at CASLEO (Argentina) for 9 galactic open clusters of small angular diameter. Two of them (BH 55 and Rup 159) have not been the target of previous research. The flux-calibrated spectra cover the spectral range approx. 3600-6900 A. Using the equivalent widths (EWs) of the Balmer lines and comparing the cluster spectra with template spectra, we determined E(B-V) colour excesses and ages for the present cluster sample. The parameters obtained for 6 of the clusters show good agreement with previous determinations based mainly on photometric methods. This is not the case, however, for BH 90, a scarcely reddened cluster, for which Moffat and Vogt (1975, Astron. and Astroph. SS, 20, 125) derived E(B-V) = 0.51. We explain and justify the strong discrepancy found for this object. According to the present analysis, 3 clusters are very young (Bo 14, Tr 15 and Tr 27), 2 are moderately young (NGC 6268 and BH 205), 3 are Hyades-like clusters (Rup 164, BH 90 and BH 55) and only one is an intermediate-age cluster (Rup 159).

  9. The Dutch Economy 2009

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-09-01

    In the series 'The Dutch Economy' the Dutch Statistical Office describes and analyzes annual developments in enterprises, households and governments, and with respect to employment and the environment. One of the subjects is 'Economy and Environment' with the sub-topics 'Resources and Energy', 'Emissions' and 'Environmental Taxes'. Furthermore, in articles on specific themes current economic issues are discussed. One of those themes has the title 'Share of renewable energy in the Netherlands is still small'. [nl

  10. Knowledge Economy

    OpenAIRE

    Kerr, Aphra; O Riain, Sean

    2009-01-01

    We examine a number of key questions regarding this knowledge economy. First, we look at the origin of the concept as well as early attempts to define and map the knowledge economy empirically. Second, we examine a variety of perspectives on the socio-spatial organisation of the knowledge economy and approaches which link techno-economic change and social-spatial organisation. Building on a critique of these perspectives, we then go on to develop a view of a knowledge economy that is conteste...

  11. Innovation incubators – entities of support of small and medium-sized enterprises’ competitiveness in the Modern economy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maier Lidia

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Innovation incubators are entities of the infrastructure network of support of small and medium-sized enterprises. At the stage of SMEs’ maximum vulnerability, they improve the survival of innovative businesses through the range of services and facilities provided. They are designed to mitigate the problems faced by SMEs, which develop and implement innovations, ensuring sustainability and competitiveness. Along with promoting the entrepreneurial spirit, innovation incubators play an essential role in promoting knowledge and innovation transfer, introduction of the research results into economic circuit, creating links between businesses, universities, research institutions, etc., links between people, talents and resources.In this article, we will focus on innovation incubators, their role in the development of SMEs in the world and in the Republic of Moldova, making an accent in the creation and development of the country's first Innovation Incubator „Inovatorul”.

  12. 76 FR 2196 - Open Meeting of the Taxpayer Advocacy Panel Small Business/Self Employed Correspondence Exam Toll...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-12

    ... Small Business/Self Employed Correspondence Exam Toll Free AGENCY: Internal Revenue Service (IRS.../ Self Employed Correspondence Exam Toll Free will be conducted. The Taxpayer Advocacy Panel is... pursuant to Section 10(a)(2) of the Federal Advisory Committee Act, 5 U.S.C. App. (1988) that an open...

  13. Options for small and medium sized reactors (SMRs) to overcome loss of economies of scale and incorporate increased proliferation resistance and energy security

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuznetsov, Vladimir

    2008-01-01

    The designers of innovative small and medium sized reactors pursue new design and deployment strategies making use of certain advantages provided by smaller reactor size and capacity to achieve reduced design complexity and simplified operation and maintenance requirements, and to provide for incremental capacity increase through multi-module plant clustering. Competitiveness of SMRs depends on the incorporated strategies to overcome loss of economies of scale but equally it depends on finding appropriate market niches for such reactors. For many less developed countries, these are the features of enhanced proliferation resistance and increased robustness of barriers for sabotage protection that may ensure the progress of nuclear power. For such countries, small reactors without on-site refuelling, designed for infrequent replacement of well-contained fuel cassette(s) in a manner that impedes clandestine diversion of nuclear fuel material, may provide a solution. Based on the outputs of recent IAEA activities for innovative SMRs, the paper provides a summary of the state-of-the-art in approaches to improve SMR competitiveness and incorporate enhanced proliferation resistance and energy security. (author)

  14. The emerging threats of climate change on tropical coastal ecosystem services, public health, local economies and livelihood sustainability of small islands: Cumulative impacts and synergies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández-Delgado, E A

    2015-12-15

    Climate change has significantly impacted tropical ecosystems critical for sustaining local economies and community livelihoods at global scales. Coastal ecosystems have largely declined, threatening the principal source of protein, building materials, tourism-based revenue, and the first line of defense against storm swells and sea level rise (SLR) for small tropical islands. Climate change has also impacted public health (i.e., altered distribution and increased prevalence of allergies, water-borne, and vector-borne diseases). Rapid human population growth has exacerbated pressure over coupled social-ecological systems, with concomitant non-sustainable impacts on natural resources, water availability, food security and sovereignty, public health, and quality of life, which should increase vulnerability and erode adaptation and mitigation capacity. This paper examines cumulative and synergistic impacts of climate change in the challenging context of highly vulnerable small tropical islands. Multiple adaptive strategies of coupled social-ecological ecosystems are discussed. Multi-level, multi-sectorial responses are necessary for adaptation to be successful. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. The open prototype for educational NanoSats: Fixing the other side of the small satellite cost equation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berk, Josh; Straub, Jeremy; Whalen, David

    Government supported nano-satellite launch programs and emerging commercial small satellite launch services are reducing the cost of access to space for educational and other CubeSat projects. The cost and complexity of designing and building these satellites remains a vexing complication for many would be CubeSat aspirants. The Open Prototype for Educational NanoSats (OPEN), a proposed nano-satellite development platform, is described in this paper. OPEN endeavors to reduce the costs and risks associated with educational, government and commercial nano-satellite development. OPEN provides free and publicly available plans for building, testing and operating a versatile, low-cost satellite, based on the standardized CubeSat form-factor. OPEN consists of public-domain educational reference plans, complete with engineering schematics, CAD files, construction and test instructions as well as ancillary reference materials relevant to satellite building and operation. By making the plan, to produce a small but capable spacecraft freely available, OPEN seeks to lower the barriers to access on the other side (non-launch costs) of the satellite cost equation.

  16. Organisational culture as a part in the development of open innovation - the perspective of small and medium-sized enterprises

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Szymańska Katarzyna

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The ability to introduce various concepts and business models is nowadays a prerequisite of creating a competitive advantage. This is to a large extent closely linked to the ability of enterprises to create, implement and disseminate a variety of innovative solutions. Today the use of open innovation is a necessity. This applies not only to large organisations, but also to small and medium-sized enterprises. In order to implement open innovation, small and medium-sized enterprises need to effectively manage their own growth through the preparation of appropriate strategies and the development of a model that encompasses all changes, taking into account a number of factors related to the growth dynamics of this sector. It is understood that an appropriate organisational culture plays an important role in the implementation of innovation in the sector of small and medium-sized enterprises. There are many indications that a cultural mismatch and misunderstanding are the main reasons for major problems related to the low level of implementation of innovation by small and medium-sized enterprises. The aim of the paper is to outline the issue of the impact of organisational culture on the development of the concept of open innovation in the sector of small and medium-sized enterprises.

  17. The effectiveness of small scale Photovoltaic (PV) systems design and cost analysis simulation on Saudi Arabian Economy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almansour, Faris Abdullah

    -Tariff PV system using HOMER. The result of the simulation has been discussed, analyzed, and plotted. We also give evidence in the thesis how useful the small PV systems can be as oppose to the larger scale system that must deal with location issues.

  18. Networked Economies | IDRC - International Development ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Search. Two schoolgirls work on a computer at school in Colombia ... artificial intelligence, and digital technologies like sensors are increasingly automating economies. ... Similarly while innovations such as open government data could make ...

  19. Moneyless Economy

    OpenAIRE

    Das, Subhendu

    2012-01-01

    Moneyless economy (MLE) does not have any money in the economy. All products and services are free for all people. This means everybody must work, work for free, and get everything they want for free also. Any work that a society needs is considered legitimate. MLE is not socialism. MLE has the ability to provide a lifestyle that anyone wants. We show that it is possible to run the exact same economy that we have now, in the exact same way, and without money. Any government of any country can...

  20. A comparative study of open and closed heat-engines for small-scale CHP applications

    OpenAIRE

    Eames, Ian W.; Evans, Kieran; Pickering, Stephen

    2016-01-01

    In this paper the authors compare and contrast open and closed-cycle heat engines. First of all, by way of example and to aid discussion, the performance of proprietary externally heated closed-cycle Stirling engines is compared with that of internally heated open Otto cycle engines. Both types of engine have disadvantages and merits and this suggested that in order to accommodate the best of both engine types an externally-heated open-cycle engine might offer a more satisfactory solution for...

  1. A multidisciplinary study of a small, temporarily open/closed South ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In 2005/2006 a multidisciplinary research programme that included studies on the hydrodynamics, sediment dynamics, macronutrients, microalgae, macrophytes, zoobenthos, hyperbenthos, zooplankton, ichthyoplankton, fish and birds of the temporarily open/closed East Kleinemonde Estuary was conducted. Particular ...

  2. SOCIAL ECONOMY EFFICIENCY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florina Oana Virlanuta

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The social economy combines profitability with social inclusion. Social innovation is the first step in the creation of a social enterprise. Social economy development is a process underway, innovative in terms of relating the individual to the production processes, the concept of citizenship, production areas and modalities. The concern for sustainable development, analysis of economic and financial crisis, the issue of the relationship between the individual and the production process open up many opportunities for development that can influence public policies on employment and social cohesion.

  3. Iran's Economy

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ilias, Shayerah

    2008-01-01

    .... To the extent that U.S. sanctions and other efforts to change Iranian state policy target aspects of Iran ssssssss economy as a means of influence, it is important to evaluate Iran's economic structure, strengths, and vulnerabilities...

  4. Iran's Economy

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ilias, Shayerah

    2008-01-01

    .... To the extent that U.S. sanctions and other efforts to change Iranian state policy target aspects of Iran's economy as a means of influence, it is important to evaluate Iran's economic structure, strengths, and vulnerabilities...

  5. Cambodia's economy

    OpenAIRE

    Ear, Sophal

    2008-01-01

    "This presentation is adapted from a Harvard KSG workshop held earlier this year on the Political Economy of "Binding Constraints to Growth" Cambodia Pilot for which I served as an External Panelist/Resource Person."

  6. Mobile economy

    OpenAIRE

    Turowski, Klaus

    2004-01-01

    Mobile economy : Transaktionen, Prozesse, Anwendungen und Dienste ; 4. Workshop Mobile Commerce, 02.-03. Februar 2004, Univ. Augsburg / K. Turowski ... (Hrsg.). - Bonn : Ges. für Informatik, 2004. - 189 S. : Ill., graph. Darst. - (GI-Edition : Proceedings ; 42)

  7. Structural changes in the Czech, Slovak and euro area economies during the Great Recession

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tvrz Stanislav

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The goal of this paper is to identify and compare the most important changes in the structure of the Czech economy, as a small open economy with independent monetary policy, the Slovak economy, as a small open economy that entered monetary union, and the economy of the euro area, which has a common monetary policy, during the turbulent period of the Great Recession, the subsequent anaemic recovery and recent disinflationary period. Structural changes are identified with the help of nonlinear dynamic stochastic models of general equilibrium with time-varying parameters. The model parameters are estimated using Bayesian methods and a nonlinear particle filter. The results confirm the similarity of the Czech and Slovak economies and show that in certain respects the structure of the Czech economy might be closer to that of the euro area than that of Slovakia. The time-varying estimates reveal many similarities between the parameter changes in the Czech economy and those in the euro area. In Slovakia, the situation during the Great Recession was dominated by the country’s adoption of the euro, which caused large deviations in its Calvo parameters.

  8. Competition Policies in Emerging Economies: Lessons and ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    30 juil. 2008 ... Do small developing economies, or SDEs, need a specific competition policy to ... to promote competition and business creation, yet the economic and ... in Emerging Economies features in-depth analysis of two strategic ...

  9. Impact of Location of the Central Activities on Development of Open Public Space in the City Centers of Small Cities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Volgemut, Mateja

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Urban areas of the central activities with mixed land use are crucial for the development of city center, even in small cities. In the last decades or two the attention is drawn on the retail and service activities that are usually located outside of cities near main roads. Municipalities had already detected this problem, but they are not implementing any of the measures (Rebernik, 2010. The purpose of this paper is to demonstrate that the central activities in small cities in Slovenia are located in freestanding buildings, which is most appropriate in terms of forming the open public space in the city center. In this research we compared ten central activities (Vrišer, 1988, 1990, Kokole, 1971 in 34 small cities. We selected only those small cities (Prosen et al, 2008 which have among other activities a county court. The results showed the differences and commonalities of the central activities in selected small cities according to the indicators. Litija, Domžale and Sevnica are small cities, where activities that could articulate open public space are located in the larger building complexes. The phenomenon is similar to a modern machine, where action in it and indirectly the insight into the functioning of the society is invisible to the observer (Kos, 2008. We found out that in these tree cities the central activities are not forming the open public spaces in front of the public buildings (Vertelj Nared, 2014. The result is problematic image of the city and changed forces of the city life.

  10. The effect of fossil energy and other environmental taxes on profit incentives for change in an open economy: Evidence from the UK

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Webster, Allan; Ayatakshi, Sukanya

    2013-01-01

    This paper argues that the underlying supply and demand analysis of fossil energy and other environmental taxes needs further elaboration when a country (a) introduces national fossil energy or environmental taxes and (b) is open to international trade at given world prices. We provide evidence that such conditions are plausible for many sectors in the UK. A key implication is that the short run effects of such taxes should not be felt in final good prices, since these are determined in world markets, but in terms of underlying profitability. These changes in underlying profits provide two key incentives for producers—to change to more environmentally friendly production techniques and to switch resources to production of less environmentally harmful goods. Using input—output techniques we provide evidence for the UK to show how existing fossil energy and other “green” taxes have affected underlying profitability. The evidence shows quite strong profit incentives to shift resources from a small number of energy intensive industries to others. - Highlights: • Energy taxes affect profits more than prices for sectors trading at world prices. • This study suggests that many sectors in the UK satisfy these conditions. • Our evidence suggests that few sectors are strongly affected by energy taxes. • Energy taxes have a strong effect relative to other possible environmental taxes

  11. Origin of Reduced Open-Circuit Voltage in Highly Efficient Small-Molecule-Based Solar Cells upon Solvent Vapor Annealing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Wanyuan; Gao, Ke; Yan, Jun; Liang, Quanbin; Xie, Yuan; He, Zhicai; Wu, Hongbin; Peng, Xiaobin; Cao, Yong

    2018-03-07

    In this study, we demonstrate that remarkably reduced open-circuit voltage in highly efficient organic solar cells (OSCs) from a blend of phenyl-C 61 -butyric acid methyl ester and a recently developed conjugated small molecule (DPPEZnP-THD) upon solvent vapor annealing (SVA) is due to two independent sources: increased radiative recombination and increased nonradiative recombination. Through the measurements of electroluminescence due to the emission of the charge-transfer state and photovoltaic external quantum efficiency measurement, we can quantify that the open-circuit voltage losses in a device with SVA due to the radiative recombination and nonradiative recombination are 0.23 and 0.31 V, respectively, which are 0.04 and 0.07 V higher than those of the as-cast device. Despite of the reduced open-circuit voltage, the device with SVA exhibited enhanced dissociation of charge-transfer excitons, leading to an improved short-circuit current density and a remarkable power conversion efficiency (PCE) of 9.41%, one of the best for solution-processed OSCs based on small-molecule donor materials. Our study also clearly shows that removing the nonradiative recombination pathways and/or suppressing energetic disorder in the active layer would result in more long-lived charge carriers and enhanced open-circuit voltage, which are prerequisites for further improving the PCE.

  12. Impact of Top Management Team on Firm Performance in Small and Medium-Sized Enterprises Adopting Commercial Open-Source Enterprise Resource Planning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cereola, Sandra J.; Wier, Benson; Norman, Carolyn Strand

    2012-01-01

    Based on the large number of small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) in the United States, their increasing interest in enterprise-wide software systems and their impact on the US economy, it is important to understand the determinants that can facilitate the successful implementation and assimilation of such technology into these firms' daily…

  13. Smartfactory: challenges of open and low cost ICT in the small manufacturing industry

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Bosscha, P

    2006-02-27

    Full Text Available SQL • HTML based SCADA • Compiere ERP + CRM • Open Hardware • Commodity PC’s • Embedded SBC’s • Custom Interfacing Electronics Slide 14 © CSIR 2006 www.csir.co.za SmartFactory - Architecture Design Central Server Compiere ERP-CRM...

  14. Options open to a small country, like Slovenia, in relation to radioactive waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kontic, B.

    1996-01-01

    When a society of two million people, who live on scarcely 20500 km 2 , needs to plan, and afterwards to implement, a strategy for radioactive waste management, the first step in the process is to look round and ask its bigger, stronger and more experienced neighbours (neighbouring countries), how they performed that task. Unfortunately, it is usually found that only few of the numerous answers to these questions and sub-questions are suitable for questioner. So what is to be done when the society is a Mediterranean, Central European, relatively highly populated country, where the Gross Domestic Product (GDP) per capita in 1994 exceeded 7000 US dollars, where the territory is mainly intended for residence, tourism and agricultural purposes, and where there is only one nuclear power plant (NPP) and one uranium mill which are responsible for the greatest part of the highly undesired radioactive waste ? The producers of radioactive wastes, and the economy of the country as a whole, cannot afford the costs of seeking a unique way of disposing of those wastes, but nevertheless, answers to the two primary questions concerning radioactive waste management should be given in any case. First: What should be done with the radioactive wastes produced in one NPP (PWR, 632 MWe) during 35 years of operation (up to 8000 m 3 of low - and intermediate - level waste, about 600 tons of spent fuel), and a uranium mill closed after only six years of ore-processing operation (670000 tons of ore-processing wastes)? Second: Where should it be done? Both questions pose the problem of siting, environmental assessment and the appropriateness of (all kinds of) criteria. In this paper the situation in Slovenia is presented with emphasis on the possibility and feasibility of radioactive waste disposal. Methodology and criteria for site evaluation and site selection for low- and intermediate- level radioactive waste (LILW) disposal is described. Fifty-five criteria are included in a decision

  15. Hydrogen economy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pahwa, P.K.; Pahwa, Gulshan Kumar

    2013-10-01

    In the future, our energy systems will need to be renewable and sustainable, efficient and cost-effective, convenient and safe. Hydrogen has been proposed as the perfect fuel for this future energy system. The availability of a reliable and cost-effective supply, safe and efficient storage, and convenient end use of hydrogen will be essential for a transition to a hydrogen economy. Research is being conducted throughout the world for the development of safe, cost-effective hydrogen production, storage, and end-use technologies that support and foster this transition. This book discusses hydrogen economy vis-a-vis sustainable development. It examines the link between development and energy, prospects of sustainable development, significance of hydrogen energy economy, and provides an authoritative and up-to-date scientific account of hydrogen generation, storage, transportation, and safety.

  16. Report of the Economy, Sustainable Development and Land Planning Commission aiming at authorizing electricity final user and small companies to go back to the electricity regulated price

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-01-01

    This report first presents the French regulated price system by recalling the legal bases for electricity and natural gas pricing, and by describing the progressive process of the electricity and natural gas market opening in France. It outlines that a reversibility principle has been introduced along with regulated pricing in most of the European Union countries. It also comments the complexity created on this issue by successive laws in France, the consequences of the soon coming law on the new organization of the electricity market. Then, the report comments the proposition which aims at authorizing electricity household users and small companies to go back to the regulated electricity price, thereby perpetuating the reversibility principle, while maintaining a criterion of installed electricity power, including natural gas prices and new consumption sites. A table proposes a comparison between existing texts, the present law project and this Commission proposition

  17. Parametric analysis of blade configurations for a small-scale nitrogen axial expander with hybrid open-Rankine cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khalil, Khalil M.; Mahmoud, S.; Al- Dadah, R.K.; AL-Mousawi, Fadhel

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Develop cryogenic energy storage and efficient recovery technologies. • Integrate small scale closed and cryogenic open-Rankine cycles. • Investigate blade configuration on small-scale axial expander performance. • Use mean line and 3D CFD simulation for expander robust design procedure. • Predict effects of expander efficiency on hybrid open-Rankine cycle efficiency. - Abstract: During the last few decades, low-grade energy sources such as solar energy and wind energy have enhanced the efficiency of the advanced renewable technologies such as the combined Rankine. Furthermore, these heat sources have contributed to a reduction in CO2 emissions. To address the problem of the intermittent nature of such renewable sources, energy storage technologies have been used to balance the power demand and smooth out energy production. In this study, the direct expansion cycle (open Rankine cycle) is combined with a closed loop Rankine cycle to generate power more efficiently and address the problem of discontinuous renewable sources. The topping cycle of this system is a closed looped Rankine cycle and propane is used as a hydrocarbon fluid, while the direct expansion cycle is considered to be the bottoming cycle utilizing nitrogen as cryogen fluid. Small-scale expanders are the most important parts in many thermal power cycles, such as the Rankine cycle, due to the significant impact on the overall cycle’s efficiency. This work investigated the effect of using a number of blade configurations on the cycle’s performance using a small-scale axial expander. A three-dimensional Computational Fluid Dynamic (CFD) simulation was used to examine four proposed blade configurations (lean, sweep, twist, bowl) with three hub- tip ratios (0.83, 0.75, 0.66). In addition, a numerical simulation model of the hybrid open expansion- Rankine cycle was designed and modeled in order to estimate the cycle’s performance. The results show that when the expander

  18. Comparison of outcomes following laparoscopic and open treatment of emergent small bowel obstruction: an 11-year analysis of ACS NSQIP.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Richa; Borad, Neil P; Merchant, Aziz M

    2018-06-04

    Small bowel obstruction (SBO) continues to be a common indication for acute care surgery. While open procedures are still widely used for treatment, laparoscopic procedures may have important advantages in certain patient populations. We aim to analyze differences in outcomes between the two for treatment of bowel obstruction. The American College of Surgeons National Surgical Quality Improvement Program was used to find patients that underwent emergent or non-elective surgery for SBO. Propensity matching was used to create comparable groups. Logistic regression was used to assess differences in the primary outcome of interest, return to operating room, and morbidity and mortality outcomes. Logistic regression was also used to assess the contribution of various preoperative demographic and comorbidity characteristics to 30-day mortality. A total of 24,028 patients underwent surgery for SBO from 2005 to 2011. Of those, 3391 were laparoscopic. Propensity matching resulted in 6782 matched patients. Laparoscopic cases had significantly decreased odds of experiencing any morbidity and wound complications compared to open cases in bowel-resection and adhesiolysis-only cases. There was no significant difference found for odds of returning to operating room. Laparoscopic cases resulted in significantly shorter hospital stays than open cases (7.18 vs.10.84 days, p  25) decreased odds of mortality. Analysis of emergent SBO cases between 2005 and 2015 demonstrates that laparoscopy is not utilized as often as open approaches in surgical treatment. Laparoscopic surgery resulted in reduced postoperative morbidity and significantly shorter hospital stays compared to open intervention and was not associated with significant differences in odds of reoperation compared to open surgery.

  19. Human economy and natural economy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masullo Andrea

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The decline of economy is due to its dependency from a virtual value, the currency, the coin, that in the recent phase of consumerism is so far from real value: human capital and natural capital. If human economy wants to continue to produce wellbeing, it must accept to be a subset of natural economy, intercept flux of matter produced by its circular mechanisms, put constraints in it, i.e. machines and structures, to direct it temporarily for our advantage, and finally release it to the same original flux, in an still usable state. In this way it will assume a function no more parasitic but symbiotic. It will be connected to natural cycles without destroying it, recovering the co-evolutionary link between nature and culture, building an economic web suited to the ecological web; thus we will have a mosaic characterised by biodiversity, technological diversity, and cultural diversity, able to produce a durable prosperity.

  20. MetaLIMS, a simple open-source laboratory information management system for small metagenomic labs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinle, Cassie Elizabeth; Gaultier, Nicolas Paul Eugène; Miller, Dana; Purbojati, Rikky Wenang; Lauro, Federico M

    2017-06-01

    As the cost of sequencing continues to fall, smaller groups increasingly initiate and manage larger sequencing projects and take on the complexity of data storage for high volumes of samples. This has created a need for low-cost laboratory information management systems (LIMS) that contain flexible fields to accommodate the unique nature of individual labs. Many labs do not have a dedicated information technology position, so LIMS must also be easy to setup and maintain with minimal technical proficiency. MetaLIMS is a free and open-source web-based application available via GitHub. The focus of MetaLIMS is to store sample metadata prior to sequencing and analysis pipelines. Initially designed for environmental metagenomics labs, in addition to storing generic sample collection information and DNA/RNA processing information, the user can also add fields specific to the user's lab. MetaLIMS can also produce a basic sequencing submission form compatible with the proprietary Clarity LIMS system used by some sequencing facilities. To help ease the technical burden associated with web deployment, MetaLIMS options the use of commercial web hosting combined with MetaLIMS bash scripts for ease of setup. MetaLIMS overcomes key challenges common in LIMS by giving labs access to a low-cost and open-source tool that also has the flexibility to meet individual lab needs and an option for easy deployment. By making the web application open source and hosting it on GitHub, we hope to encourage the community to build upon MetaLIMS, making it more robust and tailored to the needs of more researchers. © The Authors 2017. Published by Oxford University Press.

  1. A survey of small RNA population during FR-induced apical hook opening

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ying eLi

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Photomorphogenesis is a mechanism employed by plants to regulate their architecture and developmental program in response to light conditions. As they emerge into light for the first time, dark-grown seedlings employ a rapid and finely-controlled photomorphogenic signaling network. Small RNAs have increasingly been revealed to play an important role in regulating multiple aspects of plant development, by modulating the stability of mRNAs. The rapid alteration of the mRNA transcriptome is a known hallmark of the de-etiolation response, thus we investigated the small RNA transcriptome during this process in specific seedling tissues. Here we describe a survey of the small RNA expression profile in four tissues of etiolated soybean seedlings, the cotyledons, hypocotyl and the convex and concave sides of the apical hook. We also investigate how this profile responds to a one-hour far-red light treatment. Our data suggests that miRNAs show a different global profile between these tissues and treatments, suggesting a possible role for tissue- and treatment-specific expression in the differential morphology of the seedling on de-etiolation. Further evidence for the role of miRNA in light-regulated development is given by the de-etiolation responses of a hypomorphic ago1 mutant, which displays reduced and delayed photomorphogenic responses in apical hook and cotyledon angle to far-red light.

  2. Pore water pressure response to small and large openings in argillaceous rocks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garitte, B.; Gens, A.; Vaunat, J.; Armand, G.; Conil, N.

    2012-01-01

    Document available in extended abstract form only. In the last decade an important amount of piezometers have been installed in the Bure Underground Rock Laboratory (URL) in the vicinity of ongoing works involving gallery excavations and drilling of boreholes and alveoles both in the major and minor stress directions. Relatively far field piezometers (placed one to four diameters from the excavation wall) showed a qualitatively consistent response at different scales. Here, we investigate whether the pore water pressure response around openings of different scales may be up-scaled. An attempt is made to find a common set of parameters that explains quantitatively the rock response at the different scales. The mechanisms underlying the pore water pressure response around an underground opening are twofold. The first class of mechanisms is usually associated with nearly undrained behaviour and the related pore water pressure changes are induced by the stress redistribution triggered by the creation of the tunnel opening causing a reorientation of the principal stresses and influenced by the initial stress anisotropy. These pore water pressure changes are closely linked to the mechanical constitutive law of the rock and to the damage zone around the opening. The second class of mechanisms is related to the drainage of excess pore water pressure relative to a state governed by the atmospheric water pressure condition prescribed at gallery wall and the water flow law, usually Darcy's. Strong anisotropy effects on the hydraulic response of Callovo-Oxfordian Clay can be observed with reference to Figure 1 that shows the pore pressure response to the drilling of a 150 mm-diameter borehole performed to install a heater for the TER thermal experiment. The borehole is aligned with the major horizontal principal stress. Therefore, in principle, the stress state should be approximately isotropic in a cross section of the borehole. As a matter of fact, however, a degree of

  3. High-resolution small field-of-view magnetic resonance image acquisition system using a small planar coil and a pneumatic manipulator in an open MRI scanner.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miki, Kohei; Masamune, Ken

    2015-10-01

    Low-field open magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is frequently used for performing image-guided neurosurgical procedures. Intraoperative magnetic resonance (MR) images are useful for tracking brain shifts and verifying residual tumors. However, it is difficult to precisely determine the boundary of the brain tumors and normal brain tissues because the MR image resolution is low, especially when using a low-field open MRI scanner. To overcome this problem, a high-resolution MR image acquisition system was developed and tested. An MR-compatible manipulator with pneumatic actuators containing an MR signal receiver with a small radiofrequency (RF) coil was developed. The manipulator had five degrees of freedom for position and orientation control of the RF coil. An 8-mm planar RF coil with resistance and inductance of 2.04 [Formula: see text] and 1.00 [Formula: see text] was attached to the MR signal receiver at the distal end of the probe. MR images of phantom test devices were acquired using the MR signal receiver and normal head coil for signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) testing. The SNR of MR images acquired using the MR signal receiver was 8.0 times greater than that of MR images acquired using the normal head coil. The RF coil was moved by the manipulator, and local MR images of a phantom with a 2-mm grid were acquired using the MR signal receiver. A wide field-of-view MR image was generated from a montage of local MR images. A small field-of-view RF system with a pneumatic manipulator was integrated in a low-field MRI scanner to allow acquisition of both wide field-of-view and high-resolution MR images. This system is promising for image-guided neurosurgery as it may allow brain tumors to be observed more clearly and removed precisely.

  4. Arthroscopic proximal versus open subpectoral biceps tenodesis with arthroscopic repair of small- or medium-sized rotator cuff tears.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Young; Lee, Jong-Myoung; Kwon, Seok Hyun; Kim, Jeong-Woo

    2016-12-01

    The study was aimed to compare arthroscopic proximal biceps tenodesis and open subpectoral biceps tenodesis in repair of small or medium rotator cuff tears. Eighty-five patients underwent biceps tenodesis with arthroscopic repair of a rotator cuff tear, and 66 patients were followed for median of 26.8 (18-42) months with ultrasonography were reviewed. The arthroscopic biceps tenodesis group included 34 cases, and the open subpectoral biceps group included 32 cases. Patients were evaluated using visual analogue scale (VAS), American Shoulder and Elbow Surgeons (ASES), and constant scores. Rotator cuff repair and fixation of the biceps tendon were assessed by ultrasonography. Fixation failure and degree of deformity were evaluated by the pain in the bicipital groove and biceps apex distance (BAD). VAS score and tenderness at the bicipital groove decreased significantly in the open subpectoral group at 3 months postoperative. In both groups, the range of motion, ASES score, and constant score increased significantly (P tendinitis and using intra-bicipital groove tenodesis technique. III.

  5. MODIS snow cover mapping accuracy in a small mountain catchment – comparison between open and forest sites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Blöschl

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Numerous global and regional validation studies have examined MODIS snow mapping accuracy by using measurements at climate stations, which are mainly at open sites. MODIS accuracy in alpine and forested regions is, however, still not well understood. The main objective of this study is to evaluate MODIS (MOD10A1 and MYD10A1 snow cover products in a small experimental catchment by using extensive snow course measurements at open and forest sites. The MODIS accuracy is tested in the Jalovecky creek catchment (northern Slovakia in the period 2000–2011. The results show that the combined Terra and Aqua images enable snow mapping at an overall accuracy of 91.5%. The accuracies at forested, open and mixed land uses at the Červenec sites are 92.7%, 98.3% and 81.8%, respectively. The use of a 2-day temporal filter enables a significant reduction in the number of days with cloud coverage and an increase in overall snow mapping accuracy. In total, the 2-day temporal filter decreases the number of cloudy days from 61% to 26% and increases the snow mapping accuracy to 94%. The results indicate three possible factors leading to misclassification of snow as land: patchy snow cover, limited MODIS geolocation accuracy and mapping algorithm errors. Out of a total of 27 misclassification cases, patchy snow cover, geolocation issues and mapping errors occur in 12, 12 and 3 cases, respectively.

  6. Small Heat Shock Proteins Can Release Light Dependence of Tobacco Seed during Germination1[OPEN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koo, Hyun Jo; Park, Soo Min; Kim, Keun Pill; Suh, Mi Chung; Lee, Mi Ok; Lee, Seong-Kon; Xinli, Xia

    2015-01-01

    Small heat shock proteins (sHSPs) function as ATP-independent molecular chaperones, and although the production and function of sHSPs have often been described under heat stress, the expression and function of sHSPs in fundamental developmental processes, such as pollen and seed development, have also been confirmed. Seed germination involves the breaking of dormancy and the resumption of embryo growth that accompany global changes in transcription, translation, and metabolism. In many plants, germination is triggered simply by imbibition of water; however, different seeds require different conditions in addition to water. For small-seeded plants, like Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana), lettuce (Lactuca sativa), tomato (Solanum lycopersicum), and tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum), light is an important regulator of seed germination. The facts that sHSPs accumulate during seed development, sHSPs interact with various client proteins, and seed germination accompanies synthesis and/or activation of diverse proteins led us to investigate the role of sHSPs in seed germination, especially in the context of light dependence. In this study, we have built transgenic tobacco plants that ectopically express sHSP, and the effect was germination of the seeds in the dark. Administering heat shock to the seeds also resulted in the alleviation of light dependence during seed germination. Subcellular localization of ectopically expressed sHSP was mainly observed in the cytoplasm, whereas heat shock-induced sHSPs were transported to the nucleus. We hypothesize that ectopically expressed sHSPs in the cytoplasm led the status of cytoplasmic proteins involved in seed germination to function during germination without additional stimulus and that heat shock can be another signal that induces seed germination. PMID:25604531

  7. Small-scale open ocean currents have large effects on wind wave heights

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ardhuin, Fabrice; Gille, Sarah T.; Menemenlis, Dimitris; Rocha, Cesar B.; Rascle, Nicolas; Chapron, Bertrand; Gula, Jonathan; Molemaker, Jeroen

    2017-06-01

    Tidal currents and large-scale oceanic currents are known to modify ocean wave properties, causing extreme sea states that are a hazard to navigation. Recent advances in the understanding and modeling capability of open ocean currents have revealed the ubiquitous presence of eddies, fronts, and filaments at scales 10-100 km. Based on realistic numerical models, we show that these structures can be the main source of variability in significant wave heights at scales less than 200 km, including important variations down to 10 km. Model results are consistent with wave height variations along satellite altimeter tracks, resolved at scales larger than 50 km. The spectrum of significant wave heights is found to be of the order of 70>>2/>(g2>>2>) times the current spectrum, where >> is the spatially averaged significant wave height, >> is the energy-averaged period, and g is the gravity acceleration. This variability induced by currents has been largely overlooked in spite of its relevance for extreme wave heights and remote sensing.Plain Language SummaryWe show that the variations in currents at scales 10 to 100 km are the main source of variations in wave heights at the same scales. Our work uses a combination of realistic numerical models for currents and waves and data from the Jason-3 and SARAL/AltiKa satellites. This finding will be of interest for the investigation of extreme wave heights, remote sensing, and air-sea interactions. As an immediate application, the present results will help constrain the error budget of the up-coming satellite missions, in particular the Surface Water and Ocean Topography (SWOT) mission, and decide how the data will have to be processed to arrive at accurate sea level and wave measurements. It will also help in the analysis of wave measurements by the CFOSAT satellite.

  8. Unraveling Dutch citizens' perceptions on the bio-based economy : The case of bioplastics, bio-jetfuels and small-scale bio-refineries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lynch, Durwin H J; Klaassen, Pim; Broerse, Jacqueline E W

    2017-01-01

    Little is known about how citizens perceive the transition towards a bio-based economy (BBE), despite the fact that they are one of the most important actors in this transition. Citizens' perceptions of bio-based innovations can support policy-makers to improve the quality of decision-making and the

  9. FIMTrack: An open source tracking and locomotion analysis software for small animals.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin Risse

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Imaging and analyzing the locomotion behavior of small animals such as Drosophila larvae or C. elegans worms has become an integral subject of biological research. In the past we have introduced FIM, a novel imaging system feasible to extract high contrast images. This system in combination with the associated tracking software FIMTrack is already used by many groups all over the world. However, so far there has not been an in-depth discussion of the technical aspects. Here we elaborate on the implementation details of FIMTrack and give an in-depth explanation of the used algorithms. Among others, the software offers several tracking strategies to cover a wide range of different model organisms, locomotion types, and camera properties. Furthermore, the software facilitates stimuli-based analysis in combination with built-in manual tracking and correction functionalities. All features are integrated in an easy-to-use graphical user interface. To demonstrate the potential of FIMTrack we provide an evaluation of its accuracy using manually labeled data. The source code is available under the GNU GPLv3 at https://github.com/i-git/FIMTrack and pre-compiled binaries for Windows and Mac are available at http://fim.uni-muenster.de.

  10. Does small equal predatory? Analysis of publication charges and transparency of editorial policies in Croatian open access journals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stojanovski, Jadranka; Marušić, Ana

    2017-06-15

    We approach the problem of "predatory" journals and publishers from the perspective of small scientific communities and small journals that may sometimes be perceived as "predatory". Among other characteristics of "predatory" journals two most relevant are their business model and the quality of the editorial work. We analysed 444 Croatian open access (OA) journals in the Hrčak (portal of Croatian scientific journals) digital journal repository for the presence of article processing charges as a business model and the transparency of editorial policies. The majority of journals do not charge authors or require submission or article processing charges, which clearly distinguishes them from "predatory" journals. Almost all Hrčak OA journals have publicly available information on editorial boards, including full names and affiliations, and detailed contact information for the editorial office at the Hrčak website. The journal names are unique and cannot be easily confused with another journal or intend to mislead about the journal's origin. While most journals provide information on peer review process, many do not provide guidelines for reviewers or other editorial and publication ethics standards. In order to clearly differentiate themselves from predatory journals, it is not enough for journals from small research communities to operate on non-commercial bases, but also to have transparent editorial policies.

  11. Use of 5-mm Laparoscopic Stapler to Perform Open Small Bowel Anastomosis in a Neonatal Animal Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glenn, Ian C; Bruns, Nicholas E; Ponsky, Todd A

    2016-10-01

    While adult bowel anastomoses are typically performed with staplers, neonatal small bowel anastomoses have traditionally been performed in a hand-sewn manner due to the large size of surgical staplers. The purpose of this study was to compare stapled anastomosis using a newly available, 5-mm laparoscopic stapler to a hand-sewn anastomosis in an open animal model. Twenty anastomoses were performed by two general surgery residents (10 stapled and 10 hand-sewn) in an adult New Zealand white rabbit. The small bowel was divided with a scalpel. Surgical technique was alternated between single-layer hand-sewn and stapled anastomoses. Each anastomosis was resected for ex vivo testing. Measurements collected were outer diameter of the bowel before division, time to perform the anastomosis, anastomosis inner diameter (ID), and leak test. IDs were measured by cutting the anastomosis in cross-section, taking a photograph, and measuring the diameter by computer software. In addition, the surgeons qualitatively evaluated the anastomoses for hemostasis and overall quality. Statistical significance was determined using the Student's t-test. There were statistically significant differences between stapled and hand-sewn anastomosis, respectively, for average operative time (4 minutes 2 seconds versus 16 minutes 6 seconds, P animal model, a 5-mm stapled anastomosis is an acceptable alternative to hand-sewn small bowel anastomosis. The stapler is faster and creates a larger diameter anastomosis, however, there was one leak when closing the enterotomy in the stapled group and overlapping staple lines should be avoided.

  12. Plutonium economy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Traube, K.

    1984-01-01

    The author expresses his opinion on the situation, describes the energy-economic setting, indicates the alternatives: fuel reprocessing or immediate long-term storage, and investigates the prospects for economic utilization of the breeder reactors. All the facts suggest that the breeder reactor will never be able to stand economic competition with light-water reactors. However, there is no way to prove the future. It is naive to think that every doubt could and must be removed before stopping the development of breeder reactors - and thus also the reprocessing of the fuel of light-water reactors. On the basis of the current state of knowledge an unbiased cost-benefit-analysis can only lead to the recommendation to stop construction immediately. But can 'experts', who for years or even decades have called for and supported the development of breeder reactors be expected to make an unbiased analysis. Klaus Traube strikes the balance of the state Germany's nuclear economy is in: although there is no chance of definitively abandoning that energy-political cul-de-sac, no new adventures must be embarked upon. Responsible handling of currently used nuclear technology means to give up breeder technology and waive plutonium economy. It is no supreme technology with the aid of which structural unemployment or any other economic problem could be solved. (orig.) [de

  13. Real Exchange Rates in Advanced Transition Economies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanja Grubacic

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The recent evidence from Eastern Europe suggests that one of the major obstacles towards the adoption of euro may lie in the impact that the recession of 2008 exerted on the trajectory of real exchange rates in new member countries (European Commission, 2015.  This paper aims to establish and explain the relationship between the external shocks derived from the global financial crisis and recession of 2008 and equilibrium real exchange rate in advanced transition economies of Eastern Europe. The interplay between the external and internal balances is explained by developing an inter-temporal optimizing model of the real exchange rate determination in a small open economy with structural distortions. The results of our model suggest that, in the aftermath of recession, if the Eastern European economies attempt to restore and maintain the balance between the consumption, saving, and investment, the equilibrium real exchange rate will tend to reverse its trajectory from appreciation to depreciation over time in order to encourage a greater production in the future. The equilibrium real exchange rate depreciation in the future may obtain either as a result of an increase in the direct subsidies on investment or as a result of reduced subsidies on the "net-of-investment" income.  The deprecation of countries’ real exchange rate, however, may continue to act as an effective constraint against the adoption of euro.

  14. Implementing ILDs and Assessment in Small-enrollment, Calculus-based Physics Classes -- Lessons, Observations and Open Questions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mason-McCaffrey, Deborah

    2011-04-01

    At Salem State, we offer a Physics minor, but most of our teaching load is support courses for other science majors and a lab sequence which satisfies the University's core education requirement. In three years of using assessments and ILDs in small-enrollment calculus-based Physics classes, there has been a significant implementation learning curve, there are encouraging results, a few cautions, and still some open questions to report. ILDs can be highly effective teaching tools. They do require significant advance preparation as well as a safe environment for student participation. Motivating students to do their best on assessment pre- and post-tests can also be difficult. Strategies for motivating assessment performance, experiments using clickers to encourage participation in ILDs, and modifying and developing home-grown ILDs are discussed.

  15. Small Open Reading Frames

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    enormous growth in whole genome sequencing. Hence today, genome sequence ... Similarly, during the embryo development of zebrafish, 58 aa long toddler polypeptide produced by a short ORF within a lncRNA, regulates cell migration ...

  16. Nuclides Economy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ivanov, Evgeny; Subbotin, Stanislav

    2007-01-01

    Traditionally the subject of discussion about the nuclear technology development is focused on the conditions that facilitate the nuclear power deployment. The main objective of this work is seeking of methodological basis for analysis of the coupling consequences of nuclear development. Nuclide economy is the term, which defines a new kind of society relations, dependent on nuclear technology development. It is rather closed to the setting of problems then to the solving of them. Last year Dr. Jonathan Tennenbaum published in Executive Intelligence Review Vol. 33 no 40 the article entitled as 'The Isotope Economy' where main interconnections for nuclear energy technologies and their infrastructure had been explained on the popular level. There he has given several answers and, therefore, just here we will try to expand this concept. We were interested by this publication because of similarity of our vision of resource base of technologies development. The main paradigm of 'Isotope economy' was expresses by Lyndon H. LaRouche: 'Instead of viewing the relevant resources of the planet as if they were a fixed totality, we must now assume responsibility of man's creating the new resources which will be more than adequate to sustain a growing world population at a constantly improved standard of physical per-capita output, and personal consumption'. We also consider the needed resources as a dynamic category. Nuclide economy and nuclide logistics both are needed for identifying of the future development of nuclear power as far we follow the holistic analysis approach 'from cave to grave'. Thus here we try to reasoning of decision making procedures and factors required for it in frame of innovative proposals development and deployment. The nuclear power development is needed in humanitarian scientific support with maximally deep consideration of all inter-disciplinary aspects of the nuclear power and nuclear technologies implementation. The main objectives for such

  17. Future Economy and Touristic Entrepreneurship

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viorica Jelev

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Specialists claim that Eco-Bio-economy or social economy is the economy of future, in the service of human life by the rational use of environmental resources. The concept brings together in an integrated manner, according to the researchers, economy, ecology, biodiversity, biotechnologies and focuses on integrated sustainable development of the world. The new social economy, together with the corporate social responsibility joins a new multipolar world to a healthy environment by creative and innovative concepts that will ensure the sustainability of living in a sustainable manner. Doctors have added to thisEco-Bio-Economy concept a new one called One Health - a new integrated approach for human, animals and environment health state to that they should emphasize the importance of human behavior upon the planet biodiversity. Economer agents have mostly understood the importance of alarm signals drawn up by researchers on the destruction of the resources of the planet and adapted their business sites to the requirements of the green economy. A responsible business is also ecotourism that promotes a favourable travel for the surrounding environment. It requires accommodation on farms, in peasant houses, small rural hotels. The educational environment contributes to the trend planetary tourism, with the formation of new specialists with new knowledge, behaviors and consumers use formation of new characters, sensitive to environmental issues. This educational model is also promoted by Spiru Haret University, by creating the Master degree in tourism but also in environmental protection.

  18. Energy and economy; Energia y Economia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diaz Fernandez, J. L.

    2010-07-01

    This article, which reflects the authors presentation at the opening of the Congress of the Spanish Nuclear Society, examines the relationship between the Spanish economy and energy consumption in our country compared with major industrialized countries. (Author)

  19. The efficiency of an open-cavity tubular solar receiver for a small-scale solar thermal Brayton cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Le Roux, W.G.; Bello-Ochende, T.; Meyer, J.P.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Results show efficiencies of a low-cost stainless steel tubular cavity receiver. • Optimum ratio of 0.0035 is found for receiver aperture area to concentrator area. • Smaller receiver tube and higher mass flow rate increase receiver efficiency. • Larger tube and smaller mass flow rate increase second law efficiency. • Large-tube receiver performs better in the small-scale solar thermal Brayton cycle. - Abstract: The first law and second law efficiencies are determined for a stainless steel closed-tube open rectangular cavity solar receiver. It is to be used in a small-scale solar thermal Brayton cycle using a micro-turbine with low compressor pressure ratios. There are many different variables at play to model the air temperature increase of the air running through such a receiver. These variables include concentrator shape, concentrator diameter, concentrator rim angle, concentrator reflectivity, concentrator optical error, solar tracking error, receiver aperture area, receiver material, effect of wind, receiver tube diameter, inlet temperature and mass flow rate through the receiver. All these variables are considered in this paper. The Brayton cycle requires very high receiver surface temperatures in order to be successful. These high temperatures, however, have many disadvantages in terms of heat loss from the receiver, especially radiation heat loss. With the help of ray-tracing software, SolTrace, and receiver modelling techniques, an optimum receiver-to-concentrator-area ratio of A′ ≈ 0.0035 was found for a concentrator with 45° rim angle, 10 mrad optical error and 1° tracking error. A method to determine the temperature profile and net heat transfer rate along the length of the receiver tube is presented. Receiver efficiencies are shown in terms of mass flow rate, receiver tube diameter, pressure drop, maximum receiver surface temperature and inlet temperature of the working fluid. For a 4.8 m diameter parabolic dish, the

  20. Antimatter Economy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Norm

    2004-05-01

    The Antimatter Economy will bring every country into the 21st century without destroying our environment and turn the Star Trek dream into reality by using antimatter from comets. At the April 2002 joint meeting of the American Physical Society and American Astronomical Society, I announced that comets were composed of antimatter, there were 109 antimatter elements, and the Periodic Table of Elements had been updated to include the antimatter elements. When matter and antimatter come together, energy is produce according to Einstein's equation of mass times the speed of light squared or E = mc2. Antimatter energy creates incredible opportunities for humanity. People in spacecraft will travel to the moon in hours, planets in days, and stars in weeks. Antimatter power will replace fossil plants and produce hydrogen from off-peak electrical power. Hydrogen will supplant gas in cars, trucks, and other vehicles. The billions of ton of coal, billions of barrels of oil, and trillions of cubic feet of natural gas will be used to make trillions of dollars of products to bring countries into the 21st century. Within this millennium, the Worlds Gross National Product will increase from 30 trillion to 3,000 trillion plus 1,500 trillion from space commercialization bringing the Total Gross National Product to 4,500 trillion. Millions of businesses and billions of jobs will be created. However, the real benefits will come from taking billions of people out of poverty and empowering them to pursue their dreams of life, liberty and pursuit of happiness. Please visit www.AntimatterEnergy.com.

  1. Improved Interference-Free Channel Allocation in Coordinated Multiuser Multi-Antenna Open-Access Small Cells

    KAUST Repository

    Radaydeh, Redha; Zafar, Ammar; Al-Qahtani, Fawaz; Alouini, Mohamed-Slim

    2016-01-01

    This paper investigates low-complexity joint interference avoidance and desired link improvement for single channel allocation in multiuser multi-antenna access points (APs) for open-access small cells. It is considered that an active user is equipped with an atenna array that can be used to suppress interference sources but not to provide spatial diversity. On the other hand, the operation of APs can be coordinated to meet design requirements, and each of which can unconditionally utilize assigned physical channels. Moreover, each AP is equipped with uncorrelated antennas that can be reused simultaneously to serve many active users. The analysis provides new approaches to exploit physical channels, transmit antennas, and APs to mitigate interference, while providing the best possible link gain to an active user through the most suitable interference-free channel. The event of concurrent service requests placed by active users on a specific interference-free channel is discussed for either interference avoidance through identifying unshared channels or desired link improvement via multiuser scheduling. The applicability of the approaches to balance downlink loads is explained, and practical scenarios due to imperfect identification of interference-free channels and/or scheduled user are thoroughly investigated. The developed results are applicable for any statistical and geometric models of the allocated channel to an active user as well as channel conditions of interference users. They can be used to study various performance measures. Numerical and simulation results are presented to explain some outcomes of this work.

  2. Improved Interference-Free Channel Allocation in Coordinated Multiuser Multi-Antenna Open-Access Small Cells

    KAUST Repository

    Radaydeh, Redha

    2016-02-16

    This paper investigates low-complexity joint interference avoidance and desired link improvement for single channel allocation in multiuser multi-antenna access points (APs) for open-access small cells. It is considered that an active user is equipped with an atenna array that can be used to suppress interference sources but not to provide spatial diversity. On the other hand, the operation of APs can be coordinated to meet design requirements, and each of which can unconditionally utilize assigned physical channels. Moreover, each AP is equipped with uncorrelated antennas that can be reused simultaneously to serve many active users. The analysis provides new approaches to exploit physical channels, transmit antennas, and APs to mitigate interference, while providing the best possible link gain to an active user through the most suitable interference-free channel. The event of concurrent service requests placed by active users on a specific interference-free channel is discussed for either interference avoidance through identifying unshared channels or desired link improvement via multiuser scheduling. The applicability of the approaches to balance downlink loads is explained, and practical scenarios due to imperfect identification of interference-free channels and/or scheduled user are thoroughly investigated. The developed results are applicable for any statistical and geometric models of the allocated channel to an active user as well as channel conditions of interference users. They can be used to study various performance measures. Numerical and simulation results are presented to explain some outcomes of this work.

  3. What Drives Bank Lending in Domestic and Foreign Currency Loans in a Small Open Transition Economy with Fixed Exchange Rate? The Case of Macedonia

    OpenAIRE

    Jane Bogoev

    2011-01-01

    This paper investigates two different bank loan supply functions and their determinants according to the currency of bank loans in the Republic of Macedonia. There is robust statistical evidence in favour of the existence of a bank lending channel through foreign currency loans and the foreign reference interest rate. This suggests that the impact of domestic monetary policy over the bank lending channel is limited. The most significant bank-specific characteristic for the foreign currency lo...

  4. Exploring National Concerted Practices in an Open Small Economy : What Does the Change in the Competition Law in the Netherlands Reveal?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ozbugday, F.C.

    2011-01-01

    The present study examines the impact of several industry characteristics on the propensity to collude using a dataset on the existence of collusion across Dutch industries during the late 1990s and early 2000s. The results of the Probit model with sample selection indicate that our sample of Dutch

  5. Differential Protein Expression Profiles in Glaucomatous Trabecular Meshwork: An Evaluation Study on a Small Primary Open Angle Glaucoma Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Micera, Alessandra; Quaranta, Luciano; Esposito, Graziana; Floriani, Irene; Pocobelli, Augusto; Saccà, Sergio Claudio; Riva, Ivano; Manni, Gianluca; Oddone, Francesco

    2016-02-01

    Primary open angle glaucoma (POAG) is a progressive optic neuropathy characterized by impaired aqueous outflow and extensive remodeling in the trabecular meshwork (TM). The aim of this study was to characterize and compare the expression patterns of selected proteins belonging to the tissue remodeling, inflammation and growth factor pathways in ex vivo glaucomatous and post-mortem TMs using protein-array analysis. TM specimens were collected from 63 white subjects, including 40 patients with glaucoma and 23 controls. Forty POAG TMs were collected at the time of surgery and 23 post-mortem specimens were from non-glaucomatous donor sclerocorneal tissues. Protein profiles were evaluated using a chip-based array consisting of 60 literature-selected antibodies. A different expression of some factors was observed in POAG TMs with respect to post-mortem specimens, either in abundance (interleukin [IL]10, IL6, IL5, IL7, IL12, IL3, macrophage inflammatory protein [MIP]1δ/α, vascular endothelial growth factor [VEGF], transforming growth factor beta 1 [TGFβ1], soluble tumor necrosis factor receptor I [sTNFRI]) or in scarcity (IL16, IL18, intercellular adhesion molecule 3 [ICAM3], matrix metalloproteinase-7 [MMP7], tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase 1 [TIMP1]). MMP2, MMP7, TGFβ1, and VEGF expressions were confirmed by Western blot, zymography, and polymerase chain reaction. No difference in protein profile expression was detected between glaucomatous subtypes. The analysis of this small TM population highlighted some proteins linked to POAG, some previously reported and others of new detection (IL7, MIPs, sTNFαRI). A larger POAG population is required to select promising disease-associated biomarker candidates. This study was partially supported by the Fondazione Roma, the Italian Ministry of Health and the "National 5xMille 2010 tax donation to IRCCS-G.B. Bietti Foundation".

  6. Empirical Analysis on Evolution and Small World Effect of Chinese Enterprise-Enterprise Patent Cooperation Network: From the Perspective of Open Innovation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Li

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The patent cooperation network which enterprises join is a very important network platform for enterprises’ open innovation. However, very limited work has been done to empirically investigate the dynamic change process of the network in China. To address this issue, this paper analyzes dynamic change process of cooperation network of enterprises and the small-world effect of the biggest subgroup according to the data of 36731 items of cooperative patents between enterprises from 1985 to 2010 published by the State Intellectual Property Office of China. A conclusion can be drawn from the analysis results that the biggest subgroup has the characteristics of small-world effect, but the overall network structure also has some defects, which limit the development of open innovation. For the first time, suggestions on open innovation strategies are put forward to provide theoretical reference for both the government and enterprises.

  7. Open heart surgery with deep hypothermic cardiopulmonary bypass and more than 90 minutes of aortic cross clamp time in 10 small dogs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kippei Mihara

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available No previous reports have described cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB techniques involving long aortic cross clamp (ACC times in small-breed dogs. We previously described open heart surgery under deep hypothermic CPB in small and toy dogs with an approximate ACC time limit of 1 hour, given the low success rate beyond 90 minutes of ACC time. Herein, we describe improvements in cardiac anesthesia, CPB, and cardioplegia that led to a high success rate of open heart surgery with a long ACC time in small dogs. Ten small-breed dogs with severe mitral regurgitation were subjected to mitral valve plasty that necessitated cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB beyond 90 minutes of ACC time. In the present study, all dogs survived surgery; 7 survived to discharge. In other words, we achieved a high success rate of 70% with mitral valve plasty beyond 90 minutes of ACC time (mean, 105.1 minutes: range, 90-117 minutes. For small dogs, successful open heart surgery with a long ACC time may require cardiac balanced anesthesia, CPB with increased drainage and, importantly, thorough cardioplegia without hemodilution.

  8. Market-opening rules and potentialities of destabilization of hierarchical power industries in an open economy: institutional scenarios on the French power industry; Cahier de recherche no.17. Regles d'ouverture de marche et potentialites de destabilisation d'une industrie electrique integree en economie ouverte. Scenarios institutionnels d'evolution de l'industrie electrique francaise

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Finon, D

    1999-08-01

    The purpose of the paper is to analyse the reform of the French power industry, the extreme integration of the industrial organisation of which is deeply rooted in the French institutional particularisms. After the presentation of the main features of the 1999 reform, different elements of instability of the new structure are pointed out: the over-dominant position of the incumbent company which dissuades entries, institutional isomorphism between economies integrated to a regional space (heterogeneity of structures between European Community countries generates problems of reciprocity and fairness), and the end of the traditional capture of the regulator by the incumbent company because of the autonomy of the function of regulation. Two institutional scenarios are defined, which give a different weight to two competition paradigms in conflicts: the traditional ''industrial economics'' which inclines to preserve hierarchy in the national area to gain competitive advantages in the European field, and the neo-classical paradigm. In the first one, in the name of strategic efficiency, the integration of the industrial organisation could be preserved in spite of the asymmetry of structures between countries, and the playing field is the continental Europe on which national champions compete. In the second one the French industrial organisation has to conform to the competitive model, with vertical and horizontal disintegration and creation of a power exchange market. This scenario necessitates to test the force of the institutional determinism of the nuclear legacy. (author)

  9. A Microfounded Sectoral Model for Open Economies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Plasmans, J.E.J.; Fornero, J.; Michalak, T.

    2007-01-01

    Numerical simulations of the two-country sectoral model are provided for a relatively large number of structural shocks as domestic and foreign productivity shocks in final tradables and non-tradables, money demand shocks and a shock in the exchange rate. Such a model is well suited for monetary

  10. Inflation adjustment in the open economy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Heino Bohn; Bowdler, Christopher

    2006-01-01

    This paper estimates a cointegrated vector autoregressive (VAR) model for UK data on consumer prices, unit labour costs, import prices and real consumption growth. The estimated VAR indicates that the nominal variables are characterised by I(2) trends, and that a linear combination of these proce......This paper estimates a cointegrated vector autoregressive (VAR) model for UK data on consumer prices, unit labour costs, import prices and real consumption growth. The estimated VAR indicates that the nominal variables are characterised by I(2) trends, and that a linear combination...

  11. NAFTA and the Mexican Economy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-11-04

    its loans. Then President Miguel de la Madrid took steps to open and liberalize the Mexican economy and initiated procedures to replace import...capita income in countries. 24 Lessons from NAFTA, 2005. 25 Economia , “NAFTA and Convergence in North America: High Expectations, Big Events, Little Time...Easterly, Norbert Fiess, and Daniel Lederman, Economia , “NAFTA and Convergence in North America: High Expectations, Big Events, Little Time,” Fall 2003. The

  12. A small, lightweight multipollutant sensor system for ground-mobile and aerial emission sampling from open area sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Characterizing highly dynamic, transient, and vertically lofted emissions from open area sources poses unique measurement challenges. This study developed and applied a multipollutant sensor and integrated sampler system for use on mobile applications including tethered balloons ...

  13. Study on flow rate measurement and visualization of helium-air exchange flow through a small opening

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fumizawa, Motoo

    1992-01-01

    This paper deals with an experimental investigation on buoyancy-driven exchange flows through horizontal and inclined openings. The method of the mass increment was developed to measure the flow rate in helium-air system and a displacement fringe technique was adopted in Mach-Zehnder interferometer to visualize the flow. As the result, the followings were obtained: Flow visualization results indicate that the upward and downward plumes of helium and air break through the opening intermittently, and they swing in the lateral direction through the horizontal opening. It is clearly visualized that the exchange flows through the inclined openings take place smoothly and stably in the separated passages. The inclination angle for the maximum Froude number decreases with increasing length-to-diameter ratio in the helium-air system, on the contrary to Mercer's experimental results in the water-brine system indicating that the angle remains almost constant. (author)

  14. MACROECONOMICS EFFECT OF FISCAL POLICY IN TRANSITION ECONOMIES: THE CASE REPUBLIC OF MACEDONIA

    OpenAIRE

    Besnik Fetai; Selajdin Abduli

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to investigate the effect of fiscal policy in small open transition economy. This paper employs, Granger- Causality test, Impulse Response Function and Forecast Error Decomposition, in order to assess the impact of fiscal policy on real GDP and prices. In this finding, all econometrics result do not show a conventional Keynesian effect of fiscal policy on real economic activity due to the counteracting effect of the monetary policy reaction. This causes a crowdi...

  15. The Implementation of Monetary Policy in an Emerging Economy: The Case of Chile

    OpenAIRE

    Christian A Johnson; Rodrigo Vergara

    2005-01-01

    Central bank authorities base implementation of monetary policy on an analysis of multiple variables known as monetary policy indicators. In a small open economy such as Chile, these indicators may include in-flation misalignments, unemployment, GDP growth, money growth, the current account balance, exchange rate volatility and international re-serves. A neural network approach is used to establish the correspond-ing weights considered by the Board of the Central Bank of Chile dur-ing the per...

  16. UNDERGROUND ECONOMY, INFLUENCES ON NATIONAL ECONOMIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CEAUȘESCU IONUT

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of research is to improve the understanding of nature underground economy by rational justification of the right to be enshrined a reality that, at least statistically, can no longer be neglected. So, we propose to find the answer to the question: has underground economy to stand-alone?

  17. Fuel economy handbook

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Short, W [ed.

    1979-01-01

    An overview of the UK's energy situation from 1950 to 2020 is presented. Problems are discussed and recommendations are made. A strong argument is presented for energy conservation, greater use of nuclear energy, and restrained production of North Sea oil. Specific recommendations are made for financial and operational considerations of (1) new or replacement boiler plants; (2) space heating of factories, offices and similar buildings; and (3) possible use of various fuels including duel-fuel economics and use of wastes. Tariffs and charges are discussed as well as services (e.g. compressed air, cooling water, sources of waste, etc.). Standby considerations (peak load lopping, turbines-engines, parallel or sectioned operation, etc.) and heat distribution (steam, condensate return and uses) are discussed. Throughout, the emphasis is on fuel economy. Savings in process such as recovering waste heat and the storage of heat are considered. For small industrial furnaces, intermittent heating, heat recovery, and the importance of furnace loading are discussed. (MJJ)

  18. [Economy class syndrome].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morio, Hiroshi

    2003-10-01

    Economy class syndrome is venous thromboembolism following air travel. This syndrome was firstly reported in 1946, and many cases have been reported since 1990s. Low air pressure and low humidity in the aircraft cabin may contribute to the mechanism of this syndrome. Risk factors for venous thrombosis in the plane were old age, small height, obesity, hormonal therapy, malignancy, smoking, pregnancy or recent parturition, recent trauma or operation, chronic disease and history of venous thrombosis. In Japan, the feminine gender is also risk factor though reason was not well known. For prophylaxis, adequate fluid intake and leg exercise are recommended to all passengers. For passengers with high risk, prophylactic measures such as compression stockings, aspirin or low molecular weight heparin should be considered.

  19. Understanding the New Economy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrell, Louis R.

    2001-01-01

    Asserts that while the Nasdaq bubble did burst, the new economy is real and that failure to understand the rules of the digital economy can lead to substandard investment portfolio performance. Offers guidelines for higher education institutional investors. (EV)

  20. 77 FR 8329 - Open Meeting of the Taxpayer Advocacy Panel Small Business/Self-Employed Decreasing Non-Filers...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-14

    ... Small Business/Self- Employed Decreasing Non-Filers Project Committee AGENCY: Internal Revenue Service... Small Business/ Self-Employed Decreasing Non-Filers Project Committee will be conducted. The Taxpayer Advocacy Panel is soliciting public comments, ideas, and suggestions on improving customer service at the...

  1. 76 FR 77893 - Open Meeting of the Taxpayer Advocacy Panel Small Business/Self-Employed Decreasing Non-Filers...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-14

    ... Small Business/Self- Employed Decreasing Non-Filers Project Committee AGENCY: Internal Revenue Service... Small Business/ Self-Employed Decreasing Non-Filers Project Committee will be conducted. The Taxpayer Advocacy Panel is soliciting public comments, ideas, and suggestions on improving customer service at the...

  2. 77 FR 61052 - Open Meeting of the Taxpayer Advocacy Panel Small Business/Self-Employed Decreasing Non-Filers...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-05

    ... Small Business/Self- Employed Decreasing Non-Filers Project Committee AGENCY: Internal Revenue Service... Small Business/ Self-Employed Decreasing Non-Filers Project Committee will be conducted. The Taxpayer Advocacy Panel is soliciting public comments, ideas, and suggestions on improving customer service at the...

  3. 77 FR 55527 - Open Meeting of the Taxpayer Advocacy Panel Small Business/Self-Employed Decreasing Non-Filers...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-10

    ... Small Business/Self- Employed Decreasing Non-Filers Project Committee AGENCY: Internal Revenue Service... Small Business/ Self-Employed Decreasing Non-Filers Project Committee will be conducted. The Taxpayer Advocacy Panel is soliciting public comments, ideas, and suggestions on improving customer service at the...

  4. 77 FR 47166 - Open Meeting of the Taxpayer Advocacy Panel Small Business/Self-Employed Decreasing Non-Filers...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-07

    ... Small Business/Self- Employed Decreasing Non-Filers Project Committee AGENCY: Internal Revenue Service... Small Business/ Self-Employed Decreasing Non-Filers Project Committee will be conducted. The Taxpayer Advocacy Panel is soliciting public comments, ideas, and suggestions on improving customer service at the...

  5. 77 FR 2610 - Open Meeting of the Taxpayer Advocacy Panel Small Business/Self-Employed Decreasing Non-Filers...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-18

    ... Small Business/Self- Employed Decreasing Non-Filers Project Committee AGENCY: Internal Revenue Service... Small Business/ Self-Employed Decreasing Non-Filers Project Committee will be conducted. The Taxpayer Advocacy Panel is soliciting public comments, ideas, and suggestions on improving customer service at the...

  6. 77 FR 20489 - Open Meeting of the Taxpayer Advocacy Panel Small Business/Self-Employed Decreasing Non-Filers...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-04

    ... Small Business/Self- Employed Decreasing Non-Filers Project Committee AGENCY: Internal Revenue Service... Small Business/ Self-Employed Decreasing Non-Filers Project Committee will be conducted. The Taxpayer Advocacy Panel is soliciting public comments, ideas, and suggestions on improving customer service at the...

  7. 77 FR 21157 - Open Meeting of the Taxpayer Advocacy Panel Small Business/Self-Employed Decreasing Non-Filers...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-09

    ... Small Business/Self- Employed Decreasing Non-Filers Project Committee AGENCY: Internal Revenue Service... Small Business/ Self-Employed Decreasing Non-Filers Project Committee will be conducted. The Taxpayer Advocacy Panel is soliciting public comments, ideas, and suggestions on improving customer service at the...

  8. 77 FR 20488 - Open Meeting of the Taxpayer Advocacy Panel Small Business/Self-Employed Decreasing Non-Filers...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-04

    ... Small Business/Self- Employed Decreasing Non-Filers Project Committee AGENCY: Internal Revenue Service... Small Business/ Self-Employed Decreasing Non-Filers Project Committee will be conducted. The Taxpayer Advocacy Panel is soliciting public comments, ideas, and suggestions on improving customer service at the...

  9. 77 FR 30591 - Open Meeting of the Taxpayer Advocacy Panel Small Business/Self-Employed Decreasing Non-Filers...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-23

    ... Small Business/Self- Employed Decreasing Non-Filers Project Committee AGENCY: Internal Revenue Service... Small Business/ Self-Employed Decreasing Non-Filers Project Committee will be conducted. The Taxpayer Advocacy Panel is soliciting public comments, ideas, and suggestions on improving customer service at the...

  10. 77 FR 37102 - Open Meeting of the Taxpayer Advocacy Panel Small Business/Self-Employed Decreasing Non-Filers...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-20

    ... Small Business/Self- Employed Decreasing Non-Filers Project Committee AGENCY: Internal Revenue Service... Small Business/ Self-Employed Decreasing Non-Filers Project Committee will be conducted. The Taxpayer Advocacy Panel is soliciting public comments, ideas, and suggestions on improving customer service at the...

  11. 76 FR 2193 - Open Meeting of the Taxpayer Advocacy Panel Small Business/Self Employed Correspondence Exam...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-12

    ... Small Business/Self Employed Correspondence Exam Practitioner Engagement AGENCY: Internal Revenue... Small Business/ Self Employed Correspondence Exam Practitioner Engagement will be conducted. The...: Notice is hereby given pursuant to Section 10(a)(2) of the Federal Advisory Committee Act, 5 U.S.C. App...

  12. 76 FR 56880 - Open Meeting of the Taxpayer Advocacy Panel Small Business/Self Employed Correspondence Exam Toll...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-14

    ... Small Business/Self Employed Correspondence Exam Toll Free Project Committee AGENCY: Internal Revenue... Small Business/ Self Employed Correspondence Exam Toll Free Project Committee will be conducted. The...: Notice is hereby given pursuant to Section 10(a)(2) of the Federal Advisory Committee Act, 5 U.S.C. App...

  13. 76 FR 63716 - Open Meeting of the Taxpayer Advocacy Panel Small Business/Self Employed Correspondence Exam Toll...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-13

    ... Small Business/Self Employed Correspondence Exam Toll Free Project Committee AGENCY: Internal Revenue... Small Business/ Self Employed Correspondence Exam Toll Free Project Committee will be conducted. The...: Notice is hereby given pursuant to Section 10(a)(2) of the Federal Advisory Committee Act, 5 U.S.C. App...

  14. 76 FR 22170 - Open Meeting of the Taxpayer Advocacy Panel Small Business/Self Employed Correspondence Exam Toll...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-20

    ... Small Business/Self Employed Correspondence Exam Toll Free Project Committee AGENCY: Internal Revenue... Small Business/ Self Employed Correspondence Exam Toll Free Project Committee will be conducted. The... hereby given pursuant to Section 10(a)(2) of the Federal Advisory Committee Act, 5 U.S.C. App. (1988...

  15. Knowledge Based Economy Assessment

    OpenAIRE

    Madalina Cristina Tocan

    2012-01-01

    The importance of knowledge-based economy (KBE) in the XXI century is evident. In the article the reflection of knowledge on economy is analyzed. The main point is targeted to the analysis of characteristics of knowledge expression in economy and to the construction of structure of KBE expression. This allows understanding the mechanism of functioning of knowledge economy. The authors highlight the possibility to assess the penetration level of KBE which could manifest itself trough the exist...

  16. Swiss economy and the future energy policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leuenberger, A.F.

    1997-01-01

    Lecture of the president of the Swiss Trade and Industry Association at their premises on the occasion of the Annual General meeting of the SVA. The lecture dealt with the subject of economic growth and the difficulties faced by this growth in Switzerland. He formulated energy-political theories in respect of provision security, market economy, free choice between suppliers, economy-friendly energy laws, keeping the nuclear energy option open

  17. FROM CIRCULAR ECONOMY TO BLUE ECONOMY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iustin-Emanuel, ALEXANDRU

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Addressing the subject of this essay is based on the background ideas generated by a new branch of science - Biomimicry. According to European Commissioner for the Environment, "Nature is the perfect model of circular economy". Therefore, by imitating nature, we are witnessing a process of cycle redesign: production-consumption-recycling. The authors present some reflections on the European Commission's decision to adopt after July 1, 2014 new measures concerning the development of more circular economies. Starting from the principles of Ecolonomy, which is based on the whole living paradigm, this paper argues for the development within each economy of entrepreneurial policies related to the Blue economy. In its turn, Blue economy is based on scientific analyses that identify the best solutions in a business. Thus, formation of social capital will lead to healthier and cheaper products, which will stimulate entrepreneurship. Blue economy is another way of thinking economic practice and is a new model of business design. It is a healthy, sustainable business, designed for people. In fact, it is the core of the whole living paradigm through which, towards 2020, circular economy will grow more and more.

  18. The Sharing Economy

    OpenAIRE

    Reinhold, Stephan; Dolnicar, Sara

    2017-01-01

    Peer-to-peer accommodation networks in general, and Airbnb in specific, are frequently referred to as part of the sharing economy. This chapter provides an overview of key characteristics of the sharing economy, discusses how these characteristics relate to peer-to-peer accommodation, and positions peer-to-peer accommodation networks within the sharing economy.

  19. Modeling of similar economies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergey B. Kuznetsov

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective to obtain dimensionless criteria ndash economic indices characterizing the national economy and not depending on its size. Methods mathematical modeling theory of dimensions processing statistical data. Results basing on differential equations describing the national economy with the account of economical environment resistance two dimensionless criteria are obtained which allow to compare economies regardless of their sizes. With the theory of dimensions we show that the obtained indices are not accidental. We demonstrate the implementation of the obtained dimensionless criteria for the analysis of behavior of certain countriesrsquo economies. Scientific novelty the dimensionless criteria are obtained ndash economic indices which allow to compare economies regardless of their sizes and to analyze the dynamic changes in the economies with time. nbsp Practical significance the obtained results can be used for dynamic and comparative analysis of different countriesrsquo economies regardless of their sizes.

  20. Small Data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S. Pemberton (Steven)

    2014-01-01

    htmlabstractThe term “Open Data” often goes hand in hand with the term “Big Data”, where large data sets get released allowing for analysis, but the Cinderella of the Open Data ball is Small Data, small amounts of data, nonetheless possibly essential, that are too small to be put in some database or

  1. RIVM open data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Loenen, B.; Welle Donker, F.M.; Ploeger, H.D.

    2016-01-01

    Onderzoek uitgevoerd in opdracth van RIVM.
    Open data is een van de pijlers van onze informatie-economie en van een transparante overheid. Ook de minister van de minister van Volksgezondheid, Welzijn en Sport (VWS) heeft in 2015 aangekondigd werk te gaan maken van open data in de zorg. Naast het

  2. Open table-top device positioning technique to reduce small bowel obstruction. Positioning accuracy and impact on conformal radiation therapy techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rudat, V.; Flentje, M.; Engenhart, R.; Metzger, M.; Wannenmacher, M.

    1995-01-01

    The immobilization error of patients positioned on the opern table-top device in prone prosition as well as the movement of the small bowel out of the pelvis by this positioning technique was determined. The positioning error is of special importance for the 3-dimensional treatment planning for conformal radiotherapy. The positioning error was determined by superposing 106 portal films with the corresponding simultor films from 21 patients with carcinoma of the rectum who received 3D-planned conformal radiotherapy (o-field technique with irregular blocks). The movement of the small bowel out of the pelvis was studied by comparing simulator films after barium swallow in supine and open table-top position as well with 3D-treatment plans of the same patient in both positions in 3 cases. The positioning error along the medio-lateral, dorso-ventral und cranio-caudal axis was 1.4/-0.6/1.8 mm and the standard deviation 4.4/6.8/6.3 mm, respectively. In comparison to the supine position more rotation errors in the sagittal view were observed (37% and 9% respectively) with a media of 5.1 . Six out of 22 patients showed no adhesions of the small bowel and a complete movement out of the tratment field was achieved. 14 out of 16 Patients with adhesions revealed a partial movement of the small bowel out of the treatment field. Comparing 3D-treatment plans in both positions again demonstrated a marked reduction of the irradiated small bowel volume with the use of the open table-top decive. (orig.) [de

  3. Growing a market economy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Basu, N.; Pryor, R.J.

    1997-09-01

    This report presents a microsimulation model of a transition economy. Transition is defined as the process of moving from a state-enterprise economy to a market economy. The emphasis is on growing a market economy starting from basic microprinciples. The model described in this report extends and modifies the capabilities of Aspen, a new agent-based model that is being developed at Sandia National Laboratories on a massively parallel Paragon computer. Aspen is significantly different from traditional models of the economy. Aspen`s emphasis on disequilibrium growth paths, its analysis based on evolution and emergent behavior rather than on a mechanistic view of society, and its use of learning algorithms to simulate the behavior of some agents rather than an assumption of perfect rationality make this model well-suited for analyzing economic variables of interest from transition economies. Preliminary results from several runs of the model are included.

  4. The Sharing Economy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Avital, Michel; Carroll, John M.; Hjalmarsson, Anders

    2015-01-01

    The sharing economy is spreading rapidly worldwide in a number of industries and markets. The disruptive nature of this phenomenon has drawn mixed responses ranging from active conflict to adoption and assimilation. Yet, in spite of the growing attention to the sharing economy, we still do not know...... much about it. With the abundant enthusiasm about the benefits that the sharing economy can unleash and the weekly reminders about its dark side, further examination is required to determine the potential of the sharing economy while mitigating its undesirable side effects. The panel will join...... the ongoing debate about the sharing economy and contribute to the discourse with insights about how digital technologies are critical in shaping this turbulent ecosystem. Furthermore, we will define an agenda for future research on the sharing economy as it becomes part of the mainstream society as well...

  5. Economy and Grace

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Else Marie Wiberg

    2015-01-01

    Luther develops his idea the grace of God in tandem with his idea of economy, and a society characterized by ethical and social values such as love of neighbour and caring for the poor. Hence, the reformer's search for a gracious God is developed along with his criticism of the current indulgence...... doctrine and the emerging 'oeconomia moderna'. Thus, building on a simul gratia et oeconomia, grace and economy simultaneously, Luther's reformation theology can be perceived as te intersection of an economy of grace and a horizontal social economy (works of love) in quotidian life that together constitute...

  6. Networked Cultures in the Collaborative Economy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gyimóthy, Szilvia

    2017-01-01

    , and together open up for multidimensional interpretations of social exchange in the collaborative economy. The chapter concludes with a critical reflection on the challenges of understanding the collaborative economy in tourism, particularly when discourses are dominated by a communitarian logic......This chapter charts diverse approaches to conceptualizing the cultures of connection characterizing the collaborative economy. To decode the “we-conomy”, we revisit classic notions of coexistence, collaboration and bonding in communities. Informed by a multidisciplinary review (touching upon human...... ecology, sociology, anthropology and cultural theory), the chapter identifies distinct theoretical frameworks to describe the constitution of communities and discusses their relevance to the collaborative economy. These frameworks explain the drivers of communitarian behavior and resource circulation...

  7. Optimization models in a transition economy

    CERN Document Server

    Sergienko, Ivan V; Koshlai, Ludmilla

    2014-01-01

    This book opens new avenues in understanding mathematical models within the context of a  transition economy. The exposition lays out the methods for combining different mathematical structures and tools to effectively build the next model that will accurately reflect real world economic processes. Mathematical modeling of weather phenomena allows us to forecast certain essential weather parameters without any possibility of changing them. By contrast, modeling of transition economies gives us the freedom to not only predict changes in important indexes of all types of economies, but also to influence them more effectively in the desired direction. Simply put: any economy, including a transitional one, can be controlled. This book is useful to anyone who wants to increase profits within their business, or improve the quality of their family life and the economic area they live in. It is beneficial for undergraduate and graduate students specializing in the fields of Economic Informatics, Economic Cybernetic...

  8. Real economy versus virtual economy - New challenges for nowadays society

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Associates Professon Dr. Veronica Adriana Popescu

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available In the paper Real Economy versus Virtual Economy – New Challenges for Nowadays Society our goal is to present the importance of both real economy and virtual economy.At the begging of our research, we have presented the main views of some specialists concerning both virtual and real economy. After that we have compared the two types of economies and we have stressed the most important aspects connected to them. The main reason why we have decided to approach this complex subject is due to the increasing interest in the virtual economy matters and the relation that this particular type of economy develops with the real economy.

  9. Economies Evolve by Energy Dispersal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanley Salthe

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Economic activity can be regarded as an evolutionary process governed by the 2nd law of thermodynamics. The universal law, when formulated locally as an equation of motion, reveals that a growing economy develops functional machinery and organizes hierarchically in such a way as to tend to equalize energy density differences within the economy and in respect to the surroundings it is open to. Diverse economic activities result in flows of energy that will preferentially channel along the most steeply descending paths, leveling a non-Euclidean free energy landscape. This principle of 'maximal energy dispersal‘, equivalent to the maximal rate of entropy production, gives rise to economic laws and regularities. The law of diminishing returns follows from the diminishing free energy while the relation between supply and demand displays a quest for a balance among interdependent energy densities. Economic evolution is dissipative motion where the driving forces and energy flows are inseparable from each other. When there are multiple degrees of freedom, economic growth and decline are inherently impossible to forecast in detail. Namely, trajectories of an evolving economy are non-integrable, i.e. unpredictable in detail because a decision by a player will affect also future decisions of other players. We propose that decision making is ultimately about choosing from various actions those that would reduce most effectively subjectively perceived energy gradients.

  10. Economy Profile of Argentina

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank Group

    2017-01-01

    Doing Business 2018 is the 15th in a series of annual reports investigating the regulations that enhance business activity and those that constrain it. This economy profile presents the Doing Business indicators for Argentina. Doing Business presents quantitative indicators on business regulation and the protection of property rights that can be compared across 190 economies; for 2018 Arge...

  11. Economy Profile of Estonia

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank Group

    2017-01-01

    Doing Business 2018 is the 15th in a series of annual reports investigating the regulations that enhance business activity and those that constrain it. This economy profile presents the Doing Business indicators for Estonia. Doing Business presents quantitative indicators on business regulation and the protection of property rights that can be compared across 190 economies; for 2018 Estonia ...

  12. Economy Profile of Australia

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank Group

    2017-01-01

    Doing Business 2018 is the 15th in a series of annual reports investigating the regulations that enhance business activity and those that constrain it. This economy profile presents the Doing Business indicators for Australia. Doing Business presents quantitative indicators on business regulation and the protection of property rights that can be compared across 190 economies; for 2018 Aust...

  13. Economy Profile of Bolivia

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank Group

    2017-01-01

    Doing Business 2018 is the 15th in a series of annual reports investigating the regulations that enhance business activity and those that constrain it. This economy profile presents the Doing Business indicators for Bolivia. Doing Business presents quantitative indicators on business regulation and the protection of property rights that can be compared across 190 economies; for 2018 Bolivia ...

  14. Free variable economy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roelofsen, F.

    2009-01-01

    Several authors have recently argued that semantic interpretation is subject to economy constraints. In particular, Fox (1999) argued that the interpretation of pronouns is subject to BINDING ECONOMY, which favors local binding over non-local binding. The present paper points out a problem for

  15. Small Engines as Bottoming Cycle Steam Expanders for Internal Combustion Engines

    OpenAIRE

    Weerasinghe, Rohitha; Hounsham, Sandra

    2017-01-01

    Heat recovery bottoming cycles for internal combustion engines have opened new avenues for research into small steam expanders [1]. Dependable data for small steam expanders will allow us to predict on their suitability as bottoming cycle engines and the fuel economy achieved by using them as bottoming cycles. Wankel Engines, with its lower resistance properties at small scale provide excellent contenders for bottoming cycle expanders. Present paper is based on results of experiments carried ...

  16. Credit policy, inflation and growth in a financially repressed economy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Wijnbergen, S.J.G.

    1983-01-01

    This paper analyzes credit policy in an open economy macro-model incorporating stylized facts about the financial sector of less developed countries. The Keynes-Wicksell growth model is applied in view of the transmission channel of monetary policy into the supply side of the economy via the cost of

  17. ECONOMY AND SOCIAL ENVIRONMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oleg BOGOMOLOV

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Market reforms in the post-socialist countries have brought into sharp focus the problem of interconnection and interaction between the economy and the social environment. The economy is inseparable from politics and the operation of the political system, from the state of the social consciousness, the moral and cultural level of the population and from many other aspects of human life and behavior, in short, from everything that can be described by the concept of social environment. Society in every country is a single organism with closely interconnected and interacting parts and systems. Their conjugation and mutual influence are not always apparent and are often overlooked. It is quite easy to see how changes in policy affect the economy and then trace the feedback effect of the economy on policy. It is more difficult to discern the direct and feedback relationship of the economy with administrative relations, with the state of culture, science, morals and public opinion. Meanwhile, an underestimation of these mutual influences is a frequent cause of failures in socio-economic transformation. It is to be regretted that the reforms in Russia were accompanied by a dangerous disruption not only of the economy, but also of the entire system of social relations. What was primary here and what was secondary? In order to answer this question the paper takes a theoretical look at the problem of interaction between the economy and the social environment.

  18. Signs of political economy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernard Lamizet

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Like any political system, economy is a system of signs and representations. The Semiotics of economy elaborates its analytical methods to interpret such signs, which give meaning to the economy by representing its performances in public debate and in the media. Four major features distinguish the Semiotics of political economy from other semiotic forms or other systems of information and political representation. First of all, the relationship between the signification of the economy and the real or the imaginary phenomena to which they refer always pertains to the order of values. The second characteristic of economic signs is the significance of the state of lack they express. The third characteristic of signs of the economy is the form of sign production, which can be designated by the concept of emission of signs and their diffusion. Finally, as all signs, the economic sign is arbitrary. In the field of Economics, such arbitrariness does not imply that the Subject is free to superimpose whatever value to the signs themselves, but refers to the rupture between the world and its possible transformation. The very meaning of the word economy is here at stake. Oikos, in Greek (the term from which the word economy is derived refers to a known, familiar space. Economy transforms the real, natural world into a symbolic social world, into a world of relations with others whom we recognise and whose actions are relatively predictable. It might be useful to consider the contemporary issue of debt, its implications and its multiple meanings, which includes both the ethical and moral dimension of the condemnation of debt as well as the imaginary political dimension based on the expression of an idea of independence.

  19. www.FuelEconomy.gov

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — FuelEconomy.gov provides comprehensive information about vehicles' fuel economy. The official U.S. government site for fuel economy information, it is operated by...

  20. Fusion power economy of scale

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dolan, T.J.

    1993-01-01

    In the next 50 yr, the world will need to develop hundreds of gigawatts of non-fossil-fuel energy sources for production of electricity and fuels. Nuclear fusion can probably provide much of the required energy economically, if large single-unit power plants are acceptable. Large power plants are more common than most people realize: There are already many multiple-unit power plants producing 2 to 5 GW(electric) at a single site. The cost of electricity (COE) from fusion energy is predicted to scale as COE ∼ COE 0 (P/P 0 ) -n , where P is the electrical power, the subscript zero denotes reference values, and the exponent n ∼ 0.36 to 0.7 in various designs. The validity ranges of these scalings are limited and need to be extended by future work. The fusion power economy of scale derives from four interrelated effects: improved operations and maintenance costs; scaling of equipment unit costs; a geometric effect that increases the mass power density; and reduction of the recirculating power fraction. Increased plasma size also relaxes the required confinement parameters: For the same neutron wall loading, larger tokamaks can use lower magnetic fields. Fossil-fuel power plants have a weaker economy of scale than fusion because the fuel costs constitute much of their COE. Solar and wind power plants consist of many small units, so they have little economy of scale. Fission power plants have a strong economy of scale but are unable to exploit it because the maximum unit size is limited by safety concerns. Large, steady-state fusion reactors generating 3 to 6 GW(electric) may be able to produce electricity for 4 to 5 cents/kW·h, which would be competitive with other future energy sources. 38 refs., 6 figs., 6 tabs

  1. Economic impact of oil price shocks on the Turkish economy in the coming decades: A dynamic CGE analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aydin, Levent; Acar, Mustafa

    2011-01-01

    As a small open economy, Turkey depends on both imported oil and natural gas, importing almost two-thirds of its primary energy demand. This paper analyzes the economic effects of oil price shocks for Turkey as a small, open oil- and gas-importing country. To analyze the potential long-term effects of oil price shocks on macroeconomic variables of interest, including GDP, consumer price inflation, indirect tax revenues, trade balance, and carbon emissions, we developed TurGEM-D, a dynamic multisectoral general equilibrium model for the Turkish economy. Using TurGEM-D, we analyzed the impact of oil price shocks under three distinct scenarios: reference, high and low oil prices. The simulation results show that these oil prices have very significant effects on macro indicators and carbon emissions in the Turkish economy. - Research highlights: → World oil prices are projected to rise in coming decade, to around $185 per barrel in 2020. → If this occurs in Turkey, how to quantitatively evaluate the impacts on Turkish economy? → Cumulative output loss resulting from world oil prices increased by 121% can be as large as 14%. → Cumulative inflation as measured by CPI index can be nearly 5% under a fixed exchange rate regime. → Cumulative carbon emissions fall by around 51.7% without using any tools for climate change policy.

  2. Major economies Forum on energy and climate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-01-01

    The Major Economies Forum is intended to facilitate an open dialogue among major developed and developing economies, help generate the political leadership necessary to achieve a successful outcome at the United Nations climatic change conference in Copenhagen, and advance the exploration of concrete initiatives and joint ventures that increase the supply of clean energy while cutting greenhouse gas emissions. The Forum's second preparatory meeting was held in Paris in May 2009, mainly focused on greenhouse gas emissions reduction actions and objectives, the diffusion of clean technologies, the financing of activities for climate protection and adaptation to climatic change impacts

  3. Small Data

    OpenAIRE

    Pemberton, Steven

    2014-01-01

    htmlabstractThe term “Open Data” often goes hand in hand with the term “Big Data”, where large data sets get released allowing for analysis, but the Cinderella of the Open Data ball is Small Data, small amounts of data, nonetheless possibly essential, that are too small to be put in some database or online dataset to be put to use. RDFa is a technology that allows Cinderella to go to the ball.

  4. Exploring the Sharing Economy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Netter, Sarah

    Despite the growing interest on the part of proponents and opponents - ranging from business, civil society, media, to policy-makers alike - there is still limited knowledge about the working mechanisms of the sharing economy. The thesis is dedicated to explore this understudied phenomenon...... and to provide a more nuanced understanding of the micro- and macro-level tensions that characterize the sharing economy. This thesis consists of four research papers, each using different literature, methodology, and data sets. The first paper investigates how the sharing economy is diffused and is ‘talked......-level tensions experience by sharing platforms by looking at the case of mobile fashion reselling and swapping markets. The final paper combines the perspectives of different sharing economy stakeholders and outlines some of the micro and macro tensions arising in and influencing the organization of these multi...

  5. Research Award: Networked Economies

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Office 2004 Test Drive User

    2015-08-06

    year, paid, ... the areas of democracy, human rights and economic growth. ... Networked Economies is seeking a Research Award Recipient to explore research questions ... such as engineering or computer/information science;.

  6. Livelihoods and the economy

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    better lives. IDRC's support for economic research has helped governments steer national eco-nomies toward growth, level the playing field for busi- ... special treatment and accounting stan- dards were ... part alongside men in all activities,.

  7. Political Economy of Finance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Perotti, E.

    2013-01-01

    This survey reviews how a recent political economy literature helps explaining variation in governance, competition, funding composition and access to credit. Evolution in political institutions can account for financial evolution, and appear critical to explain rapid changes in financial structure,

  8. Collaborative Economy and Tourism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dredge, Dianne; Gyimóthy, Szilvia

    2017-01-01

    The digital collaborative economy is one of the most fascinating developments to have claimed our attention in the last decade. Not only does it defy clear definition, but its historical links back to non-monetised sharing and gift economies and its contemporary foundations in monetising idling...... or spare capacity make it difficult to theorise. In this chapter, we lay the foundation for a social science approach to the exploration of the collaborative economy and its relationship with tourism. We argue that “collaborative” and “economy” should be conceptualised in a broad and inclusive manner...... in order to avoid narrow theorisations and blinkered accounts that focus only on digitally-mediated, monetised transactions. A balance between individual and collective dimensions of the collaborative economy is also necessary if we are to understand its societal implications....

  9. The Effects: Economy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nutrient pollution has diverse and far-reaching effects on the U.S. economy, impacting tourism, property values, commercial fishing, recreational businesses and many other sectors that depend on clean water.

  10. The Collaborative Economy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Avital, Michel; Andersson, Magnus; Nickerson, Jeffrey

    2014-01-01

    An economy based on the exchange of capital, assets and services between individuals has grown significantly, spurred by proliferation of internet-based platforms that allow people to share underutilized resources and trade with reasonably low transaction costs. The movement toward this economy...... of “sharing” translates into market efficiencies that bear new products, reframe established services, have positive environmental effects, and may generate overall economic growth. This emerging paradigm, entitled the collaborative economy, is disruptive to the conventional company-driven economic paradigm...... as evidenced by the large number of peer-to-peer based services that have captured impressive market shares sectors ranging from transportation and hospitality to banking and risk capital. The panel explores economic, social, and technological implications of the collaborative economy, how digital technologies...

  11. Identification of very small open reading frames in the genomes of Holmes Jungle virus, Ord River virus, and Wongabel virus of the genus Hapavirus, family Rhabdoviridae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gubala, Aneta; Walsh, Susan; McAllister, Jane; Weir, Richard; Davis, Steven; Melville, Lorna; Mitchell, Ian; Bulach, Dieter; Gauci, Penny; Skvortsov, Alex; Boyle, David

    2017-01-01

    Viruses of the family Rhabdoviridae infect a broad range of hosts from a variety of ecological and geographical niches, including vertebrates, arthropods, and plants. The arthropod-transmitted members of this family display considerable genetic diversity and remarkable genomic flexibility that enable coding for various accessory proteins in different locations of the genome. Here, we describe the genome of Holmes Jungle virus, isolated from Culex annulirostris mosquitoes collected in northern Australia, and make detailed comparisons with the closely related Ord River and Wongabel viruses, with a focus on identifying very small open reading frames (smORFs) in their genomes. This is the first systematic prediction of smORFs in rhabdoviruses, emphasising the intricacy of the rhabdovirus genome and the knowledge gaps. We speculate that these smORFs may be of importance to the life cycle of the virus in the arthropod vector.

  12. Identification of very small open reading frames in the genomes of Holmes Jungle virus, Ord River virus, and Wongabel virus of the genus Hapavirus, family Rhabdoviridae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gubala, Aneta; Walsh, Susan; McAllister, Jane; Weir, Richard; Davis, Steven; Melville, Lorna; Mitchell, Ian; Bulach, Dieter; Gauci, Penny; Skvortsov, Alex; Boyle, David

    2017-01-01

    Viruses of the family Rhabdoviridae infect a broad range of hosts from a variety of ecological and geographical niches, including vertebrates, arthropods, and plants. The arthropod-transmitted members of this family display considerable genetic diversity and remarkable genomic flexibility that enable coding for various accessory proteins in different locations of the genome. Here, we describe the genome of Holmes Jungle virus, isolated from Culex annulirostris mosquitoes collected in northern Australia, and make detailed comparisons with the closely related Ord River and Wongabel viruses, with a focus on identifying very small open reading frames (smORFs) in their genomes. This is the first systematic prediction of smORFs in rhabdoviruses, emphasising the intricacy of the rhabdovirus genome and the knowledge gaps. We speculate that these smORFs may be of importance to the life cycle of the virus in the arthropod vector. PMID:28747815

  13. Identification of very small open reading frames in the genomes of Holmes Jungle virus, Ord River virus, and Wongabel virus of the genus , family

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aneta Gubala

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Viruses of the family Rhabdoviridae infect a broad range of hosts from a variety of ecological and geographical niches, including vertebrates, arthropods, and plants. The arthropod-transmitted members of this family display considerable genetic diversity and remarkable genomic flexibility that enable coding for various accessory proteins in different locations of the genome. Here, we describe the genome of Holmes Jungle virus, isolated from Culex annulirostris mosquitoes collected in northern Australia, and make detailed comparisons with the closely related Ord River and Wongabel viruses, with a focus on identifying very small open reading frames (smORFs in their genomes. This is the first systematic prediction of smORFs in rhabdoviruses, emphasising the intricacy of the rhabdovirus genome and the knowledge gaps. We speculate that these smORFs may be of importance to the life cycle of the virus in the arthropod vector.

  14. Shadow Economy and Poverty

    OpenAIRE

    Nikopour, Hesam; Shah Habibullah, Muzafar

    2010-01-01

    This study attempts to investigate the relationship between shadow economy and poverty by explaining the mechanism through which shadow economy affects poverty via its impact on government size and economic growth, and using the human poverty index (HPI) for developing and developed countries. In order to achieve this objective, the three-way interaction model is utilized using data of 139 developing and 23 developed countries separately during 1999-2007. For developing countries the dynamic ...

  15. Observing the economy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenbaum, Stan

    2009-07-01

    In "The (unfortunate) complexity of the economy" (April pp28-32) Jean-Philippe Bouchaud presents clear evidence that traditional assumptions of rational markets have to be abandoned. The old investor slogan "buy on promise, sell on rumour" quickly magnifies a downturn into a crisis, which triggers two questions. If physics-based models are applied (beyond understanding and prediction) to actual market decisions, does this make the economy more or less stable? And, is this cause for stronger regulation?

  16. Corruption and the economy

    OpenAIRE

    Tanzi Vito

    2013-01-01

    This paper focuses on the economic and not on the political impact of corruption. Corruption delegitimizes the working of a market economy, as well as the outcomes of political processes. This paper highlights ways in which corruption, by distorting economic decisions and the working of the market economy, inevitably reduces a country’s rate of growth. The paper also discusses some of the channels through which corruption distorts various economic decisions. Finally, the paper reports o...

  17. The Placenta Economy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kroløkke, Charlotte; Dickinson, Elizabeth; Foss, Karen A.

    2018-01-01

    This article examines the human placenta not only as a scientific, medical and biological entity but as a consumer bio-product. In the emergent placenta economy, the human placenta is exchanged and gains potentiality as food, medicine and cosmetics. Drawing on empirical research from the United......, in the emergent bio-economy, the dichotomy between the inner and the outer body is deconstructed, while the placenta gains clinical and industrial as well as affective value....

  18. Token economy for schizophrenia.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    McMonagle, T

    2000-01-01

    A token economy is a behavioural therapy technique in which the desired change is achieved by means of tokens administered for the performance of predefined behaviours according to a program. Though token economy programmes were widespread in the 1970s they became largely restricted to wards where long-stay patients from institutions are prepared for transfer into the community and were particularly aimed at changing negative symptoms of schizophrenia - poor motivation, poor attention and social withdrawal.

  19. Regulating the sharing economy

    OpenAIRE

    Erickson, Kristofer; Sorensen, Inge

    2016-01-01

    In this introductory essay, we explore definitions of the ‘sharing economy’, a concept indicating both social (relational, communitarian) and economic (allocative, profit-seeking) aspects which appear to be in tension. We suggest combining the social and economic logics of the sharing economy to focus on the central features of network enabled, aggregated membership in a pool of offers and demands (for goods, services, creative expressions). This definition of the sharing economy distinguishe...

  20. SU-F-T-667: Development and Validation of Dose Calculation for An Open-Source KV Treatment Planning System for Small Animal Radiotherapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prajapati, S [M D Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX (United States); Mo, X; Bednarz, B; Lawless, M; Hammer, C; Jeraj, R; Mackie, T [University of Wisconsin- Madison, Madison, WI (United States); Flynn, R [University of Iowa Hospitals and Clinics, Iowa City, IA (United States); Westerly, D [University of Colorado Denver, Aurora, CO (United States)

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: An open-source, convolution/superposition based kV-treatment planning system(TPS) was developed for small animal radiotherapy from previously existed in-house MV-TPS. It is flexible and applicable to both step and shoot and helical tomotherapy treatment delivery. For initial commissioning process, the dose calculation from kV-TPS was compared with measurements and Monte Carlo(MC) simulations. Methods: High resolution, low energy kernels were simulated using EGSnrc user code EDKnrc, which was used as an input in kV-TPS together with MC-simulated x-ray beam spectrum. The Blue Water™ homogeneous phantom (with film inserts) and heterogeneous phantom (with film and TLD inserts) were fabricated. Phantom was placed at 100cm SSD, and was irradiated with 250 kVp beam for 10mins with 1.1cm × 1.1cm open field (at 100cm) created by newly designed binary micro-MLC assembly positioned at 90cm SSD. Gafchromic™ EBT3 film was calibrated in-phantom following AAPM TG-61 guidelines, and were used for measurement at 5 different depths in phantom. Calibrated TLD-100s were obtained from ADCL. EGS and MNCP5 simulation were used to model experimental irradiation set up calculation of dose in phantom. Results: Using the homogeneous phantom, dose difference between film and kV-TPS was calculated: mean(x)=0.9%; maximum difference(MD)=3.1%; standard deviation(σ)=1.1%. Dose difference between MCNP5 and kV-TPS was: x=1.5%; MD=4.6%; σ=1.9%. Dose difference between EGS and kV-TPS was: x=0.8%; MD=1.9%; σ=0.8%. Using the heterogeneous phantom, dose difference between film and kV-TPS was: x=2.6%; MD=3%; σ=1.1%; and dose difference between TLD and kV-TPS was: x=2.9%; MD=6.4%; σ=2.5%. Conclusion: The inhouse, open-source kV-TPS dose calculation system was comparable within 5% of measurements and MC simulations in both homogeneous and heterogeneous phantoms. The dose calculation system of the kV-TPS is validated as a part of initial commissioning process for small animal radiotherapy

  1. Regulating the sharing economy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristofer Erickson

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In this introductory essay, we explore definitions of the ‘sharing economy’, a concept indicating both social (relational, communitarian and economic (allocative, profit-seeking aspects which appear to be in tension. We suggest combining the social and economic logics of the sharing economy to focus on the central features of network enabled, aggregated membership in a pool of offers and demands (for goods, services, creative expressions. This definition of the sharing economy distinguishes it from other related peer-to-peer and collaborative forms of production. Understanding the social and economic motivations for and implications of participating in the sharing economy is important to its regulation. Each of the papers in this special issue contributes to knowledge by linking the social and economic aspects of sharing economy practices to regulatory norms and mechanisms. We conclude this essay by suggesting future research to further clarify and render intelligible the sharing economy, not as a contradiction in terms but as an empirically observable realm of socio-economic activity.

  2. Environmental issues elimination through circular economy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Špirková, M.; Pokorná, E.; Šujanová, J.; Samáková, J.

    2016-01-01

    Environmental efforts of European Union are currently going towards circular economy. Tools like Extended Producer Responsibility and Eco-design were established. The circular economy deals with resources availability issue on one hand and waste management on the other hand. There are few pioneering companies all over the world with some kind of circular economy practice. Generally the concept is not very wide-spread. The paper aims to evaluate possibility of transition towards circular economy in Slovak industrial companies. They need to have an active approach to material treatment of their products after usage stage. Innovation is another important pre-condition for the transition. Main problem of current cradle to grave system is landfilling of valuable materials after one cycle of usage. Their potential value for next manufacturing cycles is lost. Companies may do not see connection between waste management and material resource prices and volatility of supplies. Municipalities are responsible for municipal waste collection and treatment in Slovakia. The circular economy operates by cradle to cradle principle. Company manages material flow until the material comes back to the beginning of manufacturing process by itself or by another partners. Stable material supplies with quite low costs are provided this way. It is necessary to deal with environmental problems in phase of product design. Questionnaire survey results show on one hand low involvement of industrial companies in waste management area, however on the other hand they are open to environmental innovations in future.

  3. Environmental issues elimination through circular economy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Špirková, M., E-mail: marta.spirkova@stuba.sk; Pokorná, E.; Šujanová, J.; Samáková, J. [Paulínska 16, 917 24 Trnava, Slovakia, Slovak University of Technology in Bratislava, Faculty of Materials Science and Technology in Trnava (Slovakia)

    2016-04-21

    Environmental efforts of European Union are currently going towards circular economy. Tools like Extended Producer Responsibility and Eco-design were established. The circular economy deals with resources availability issue on one hand and waste management on the other hand. There are few pioneering companies all over the world with some kind of circular economy practice. Generally the concept is not very wide-spread. The paper aims to evaluate possibility of transition towards circular economy in Slovak industrial companies. They need to have an active approach to material treatment of their products after usage stage. Innovation is another important pre-condition for the transition. Main problem of current cradle to grave system is landfilling of valuable materials after one cycle of usage. Their potential value for next manufacturing cycles is lost. Companies may do not see connection between waste management and material resource prices and volatility of supplies. Municipalities are responsible for municipal waste collection and treatment in Slovakia. The circular economy operates by cradle to cradle principle. Company manages material flow until the material comes back to the beginning of manufacturing process by itself or by another partners. Stable material supplies with quite low costs are provided this way. It is necessary to deal with environmental problems in phase of product design. Questionnaire survey results show on one hand low involvement of industrial companies in waste management area, however on the other hand they are open to environmental innovations in future.

  4. Environmental issues elimination through circular economy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Špirková, M.; Pokorná, E.; Šujanová, J.; Samáková, J.

    2016-04-01

    Environmental efforts of European Union are currently going towards circular economy. Tools like Extended Producer Responsibility and Eco-design were established. The circular economy deals with resources availability issue on one hand and waste management on the other hand. There are few pioneering companies all over the world with some kind of circular economy practice. Generally the concept is not very wide-spread. The paper aims to evaluate possibility of transition towards circular economy in Slovak industrial companies. They need to have an active approach to material treatment of their products after usage stage. Innovation is another important pre-condition for the transition. Main problem of current cradle to grave system is landfilling of valuable materials after one cycle of usage. Their potential value for next manufacturing cycles is lost. Companies may do not see connection between waste management and material resource prices and volatility of supplies. Municipalities are responsible for municipal waste collection and treatment in Slovakia. The circular economy operates by cradle to cradle principle. Company manages material flow until the material comes back to the beginning of manufacturing process by itself or by another partners. Stable material supplies with quite low costs are provided this way. It is necessary to deal with environmental problems in phase of product design. Questionnaire survey results show on one hand low involvement of industrial companies in waste management area, however on the other hand they are open to environmental innovations in future.

  5. Petroleum and the economy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bohi, D.R.

    1992-01-01

    In re-examining the effect of energy price shocks on the economy, this article applies several tests to show that the apparent coincidence between price shocks and poor economic performance may be misleading. For example, whereas macroeconomic analysis graphs of employment and GNP clearly indicate an apparent correlation between the 1979 petroleum price hike and economic downturn in the USA, Great Britain and Germany, Japan's performance stayed fairly constant during that period. Additional sectoral analyses of the performances of the western economies show that the impacts of the '74 and '79 oil price shocks were not equally distributed across the different industrial sectors of the various nations. The paper argues that a deeper understanding of the energy-economy relationship is required to reduce these ambiguities

  6. Oil price fluctuations and Singapore economy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Youngho Chang; Joonfong Wong

    2003-01-01

    This study finds that the impact of an oil price shock on the Singapore economy is marginal. Both impulse response and variance decomposition analysis provide reasonable grounds to believe that the impact only had an insignificant adverse effect on Singapore's gross domestic product (GDP), inflation and unemployment rates. Further analysis on two oil vulnerability measures supports the finding: the declining trend of oil intensity in Singapore since 1989 and the declining shares of the Singapore's expenditure on oil consumption as a percentage of its nominal GDP. This study identifies, however, that the impact of an oil price shock on the Singapore economy should not be considered negligible even though it is small. (Author)

  7. Oil price fluctuations and Singapore economy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang Youngho; Wong, Joon Fong

    2003-01-01

    This study finds that the impact of an oil price shock on the Singapore economy is marginal. Both impulse response and variance decomposition analysis provide reasonable grounds to believe that the impact only had an insignificant adverse effect on Singapore's gross domestic product (GDP), inflation and unemployment rates. Further analysis on two oil vulnerability measures supports the finding: the declining trend of oil intensity in Singapore since 1989 and the declining shares of the Singapore's expenditure on oil consumption as a percentage of its nominal GDP. This study identifies, however, that the impact of an oil price shock on the Singapore economy should not be considered negligible even though it is small

  8. Successes and Challenges of Emerging Economy Multinationals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Successes and Challenges of Emerging Economy Multinationals investigates a broad variety of cases presenting clear evidence of fast successful internationalization of emerging economy multinationals originating not only from big economic players such as China, India and Russia but also from other...... successfully internationalizing emerging countries, namely South Africa and Poland. In terms of size, the firms vary from huge multinational firms such as Huawei, Tata and Gazprom, to really small high technology firms. The in-depth analysis conducted in this book leads to the indication of numerous novel...

  9. Experimenting with alternative economies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Longhurst, Noel; Avelino, Flor; Wittmayer, Julia

    2016-01-01

    Neoliberalism is a powerful narrative that has shaped processes of urban economic development across the globe. This paper reports on four nascent ‘new economic’ narratives which represent fundamentally different imaginaries of the urban economy. Experiments informed by these narratives challenge...... the dominant neoliberal logic in four key dimensions: What is the purpose of economic development? What are the preferred distributive mechanisms? Who governs the economy? What is the preferred form of economic organisation? The emergence of these experiments illustrates that cities are spaces where counter...

  10. Inverting the moral economy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olwig, Mette Fog; Noe, Christine; Kangalawe, Richard

    2017-01-01

    Governments, donors and investors often promote land acquisitions for forest plantations as global climate change mitigation via carbon sequestration. Investors’ forestry thereby becomes part of a global moral economy imaginary. Using examples from Tanzania we critically examine the global moral...... economy’s narrative foundation, which presents trees as axiomatically ‘green’, ‘idle’ land as waste and economic investments as benefiting the relevant communities. In this way the traditional supposition of the moral economy as invoked by the economic underclass to maintain the basis of their subsistence...

  11. Inverting the moral economy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olwig, Mette Fog; Noe, Christine; Kangalawe, Richard

    2015-01-01

    Governments, donors and investors often promote land acquisitions for forest plantations as global climate change mitigation via carbon sequestration. Investors’ forestry thereby becomes part of a global moral economy imaginary. Using examples from Tanzania we critically examine the global moral...... economy’s narrative foundation, which presents trees as axiomatically ‘green’, ‘idle’ land as waste and economic investments as benefiting the relevant communities. In this way the traditional supposition of the moral economy as invoked by the economic underclass to maintain the basis of their subsistence...

  12. Understanding responsible innovation in small producers’ clusters in Northern Vietnam : A grounded theory approach to globalization and poverty alleviation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Voeten, J.J.

    2012-01-01

    The PhD thesis explores new economic dynamics within poor small producers’ clusters in craft villages in northern Vietnam; a country in full economic swing after market economy reforms and opening up to the world. The central research question of the thesis - positioned in current debates about

  13. GLOBALIZATION AND ITS IMPACT ON INDIAN ECONOMY

    OpenAIRE

    Raghunath

    2017-01-01

    Globalization means different things to different people. It can be defined simply as an expansion of economic activities across political boundaries of nation states. More importantly it refers to a process of deepening economic integration, increasing economic openness and growing economic interdependence between countries in the world economy. It is associated not only with a phenomenal spread and volume of cross-border economic transactions but also with an organization of economic activi...

  14. Ecology and economy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Menard, M.; Bischoff, J.

    1980-01-01

    The green movement challenges workers' unions and socialists. Who are the 'Greens', and what do they want. Where do their theoretical fundamentals come from. Will an ecological economy be able to function. Are the 'Greens' leftists or dreamers fighting against progress. Arguments for trade unionists and socialists in the ecological controversy. (orig.) [de

  15. Operant Conditioning - Token Economy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montgomery, Jacqueline; McBurney, Raymond D.

    Described is an Operant Conditioning-Token Economy Program, teaching patients to be responsible for their own behavior, to make choices, and to be motivated to change. The program was instigated with mentally ill patients in a state hospital and was later used with institutionalized mentally handicapped groups. After two years, only four of the…

  16. Japan's plutonium economy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hecht, M.M.

    1994-01-01

    Japan's plutonium economy is based on the most efficient use of nuclear energy, as envisioned under the Atoms for Peace program of the 1950s and 1960s. The nuclear pioneers assumed that all nations would want to take full advantage of atomic energy, recycling waste into new fuel to derive as much energy as possible from this resource

  17. Airline Safety and Economy

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-01-01

    This video documents efforts at NASA Langley Research Center to improve safety and economy in aircraft. Featured are the cockpit weather information needs computer system, which relays real time weather information to the pilot, and efforts to improve techniques to detect structural flaws and corrosion, such as the thermal bond inspection system.

  18. Radical Circular Economy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Prins, M.; Mohammadi, S.; Slob, N.

    2015-01-01

    Recently the Circular Economy (CE) concept has gained momentum in the Netherlands, propounding that environmental impact reduction can provide a significant positive economical impulse. The government, larger parts of the industry as a whole, as well as the construction industry, has warmly received

  19. The Hidden STEM Economy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rothwell, Jonathan

    2013-01-01

    Workers in STEM (science, technology, engineering, and math) fields play a direct role in driving economic growth. Yet, because of how the STEM economy has been defined, policymakers have mainly focused on supporting workers with at least a bachelor's (BA) degree, overlooking a strong potential workforce of those with less than a BA. This report…

  20. BioXTAS RAW: improvements to a free open-source program for small-angle X-ray scattering data reduction and analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopkins, Jesse Bennett; Gillilan, Richard E; Skou, Soren

    2017-10-01

    BioXTAS RAW is a graphical-user-interface-based free open-source Python program for reduction and analysis of small-angle X-ray solution scattering (SAXS) data. The software is designed for biological SAXS data and enables creation and plotting of one-dimensional scattering profiles from two-dimensional detector images, standard data operations such as averaging and subtraction and analysis of radius of gyration and molecular weight, and advanced analysis such as calculation of inverse Fourier transforms and envelopes. It also allows easy processing of inline size-exclusion chromatography coupled SAXS data and data deconvolution using the evolving factor analysis method. It provides an alternative to closed-source programs such as Primus and ScÅtter for primary data analysis. Because it can calibrate, mask and integrate images it also provides an alternative to synchrotron beamline pipelines that scientists can install on their own computers and use both at home and at the beamline.

  1. Ibrutinib as initial therapy for elderly patients with chronic lymphocytic leukaemia or small lymphocytic lymphoma: an open-label, multicentre, phase 1b/2 trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Brien, Susan; Furman, Richard R; Coutre, Steven E; Sharman, Jeff P; Burger, Jan A; Blum, Kristie A; Grant, Barbara; Richards, Donald A; Coleman, Morton; Wierda, William G; Jones, Jeffrey A; Zhao, Weiqiang; Heerema, Nyla A; Johnson, Amy J; Izumi, Raquel; Hamdy, Ahmed; Chang, Betty Y; Graef, Thorsten; Clow, Fong; Buggy, Joseph J; James, Danelle F; Byrd, John C

    2014-01-01

    Chemoimmunotherapy has led to improved numbers of patients achieving disease response, and longer overall survival in young patients with chronic lymphocytic leukaemia; however, its application in elderly patients has been restricted by substantial myelosuppression and infection. We aimed to assess safety and activity of ibrutinib, an orally administered covalent inhibitor of Bruton tyrosine kinase (BTK), in treatment-naive patients aged 65 years and older with chronic lymphocytic leukaemia. In our open-label phase 1b/2 trial, we enrolled previously untreated patients at clinical sites in the USA. Eligible patients were aged at least 65 years, and had symptomatic chronic lymphocytic leukaemia or small lymphocytic lymphoma requiring therapy. Patients received 28 day cycles of once-daily ibrutinib 420 mg or ibrutinib 840 mg. The 840 mg dose was discontinued after enrolment had begun because comparable activity of the doses has been shown. The primary endpoint was the safety of the dose-fixed regimen in terms of frequency and severity of adverse events for all patients who received treatment. This study is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT01105247. Between May 20, 2010, and Dec 18, 2012, we enrolled 29 patients with chronic lymphocytic leukaemia and two patients with small lymphocytic lymphoma. Median age was 71 years (range 65-84), and 23 (74%) patients were at least 70 years old. Toxicity was mainly of mild-to-moderate severity (grade 1-2). 21 (68%) patients had diarrhoea (grade 1 in 14 [45%] patients, grade 2 in three [10%] patients, and grade 3 in four [13%] patients). 15 (48%) patients developed nausea (grade 1 in 12 [39%] patients and grade 2 in three [10%] patients). Ten (32%) patients developed fatigue (grade 1 in five [16%] patients, grade 2 in four [13%] patients, and grade 3 in one [3%] patient). Three (10%) patients developed grade 3 infections, although no grade 4 or 5 infections occurred. One patient developed grade 3 neutropenia, and one

  2. Nimotuzumab plus chemotherapy versus chemotherapy alone in advanced non-small-cell lung cancer: a multicenter, randomized, open-label Phase II study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Babu KG

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available K Govind Babu,1 Kumar Prabhash,2 Ashok K Vaid,3 Bhawna Sirohi,3 Ravi B Diwakar,4 Raghunadha Rao,5 Madhuchanda Kar,6 Hemant Malhotra,7 Shona Nag,8 Chanchal Goswami,9 Vinod Raina,10 Ravi Mohan111Kidwai Memorial Institute of Oncology, Bangalore, 2Tata Memorial Hospital, Mumbai, 3Artemis Health Institute, Delhi, 4Bangalore Institute of Oncology, Bangalore, 5Nizam Institute of Medical Sciences, Hyderabad, 6B R Singh Hospital, Kolkata, 7Birla Cancer Centre, Jaipur, 8Jehangir Hospital, Pune, 9B P Poddar Hospital and Medical Research Ltd, Kolkata, 10Institute Rotary Cancer Hospital, New Delhi, 11King George Hospital, Visakhapatnam, IndiaBackground: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the safety and efficacy of nimotuzumab in combination with chemotherapy (docetaxel and carboplatin versus chemotherapy alone in patients with stage IIIB/IV non-small-cell lung cancer.Methods: This multicenter, open-label, Phase II study randomized 110 patients to receive nimotuzumab plus chemotherapy (nimotuzumab group or chemotherapy alone (control group, and comprised concomitant, maintenance, and follow-up phases. Nimotuzumab 200 mg was administered once weekly for 13 weeks during the first two phases with four cycles of chemotherapy and docetaxel 75 mg/m2 and carboplatin (area under the curve 5 mg/mL*min every 3 weeks for a maximum of four cycles during the concomitant phase. The primary endpoint was objective response rate (sum of complete response and partial response. Secondary endpoints, ie, overall survival and progression-free survival, were estimated using the Kaplan–Meier method. Efficacy was evaluated on the intent-to-treat and efficacy-evaluable sets. Safety was assessed from adverse event and serious adverse event data.Results: The objective response rate was significantly higher in the nimotuzumab group than in the control group in the intent-to-treat population (54% versus 34.5%; P=0.04. A complete response and partial response were achieved in 3

  3. Open innovation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    West, Joel; Bogers, Marcel

    2017-01-01

    Interest in open innovation (OI) as a field of research has grown exponentially since the phrase was coined by Chesbrough in his 2003 book, with numerous articles, special issues, books, and conference sessions. Various reviews of the literature have summarized prior work, offered new frameworks......, and identified opportunities for future research. Here we summarize these opportunities, which include more research on outbound OI, the role of open innovation in services, and network forms of collaboration such as consortia, communities, ecosystems, and platforms. Research should also examine the use of OI...... by small, new, and not-for-profit organizations, as well as the linkage of individual actions and motivations to open innovation. Other opportunities include better measuring the costs, benefits, antecedents, mediators and moderators of the effects of OI on performance, and understanding why and how OI...

  4. Millennials and the Sharing Economy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ranzini, Giulia; Newlands, Gemma; Anselmi, Guido

    Report from the EU H2020 Research Project Ps2Share: Participation, Privacy, and Power in the Sharing Economy......Report from the EU H2020 Research Project Ps2Share: Participation, Privacy, and Power in the Sharing Economy...

  5. The collaborative Economy and Tourism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dredge, Dianne; Gyimóthy, Szilvia

    2015-01-01

    House swapping, ridesharing, voluntourism, couchsurfing, dinner hosting and similar innovations epitomize the collaborative economy. The rise of the collaborative economy, also known as collaborative consumption, the sharing economy and peer-to-peer consumption, has been fuelled by a range of soc...... for a balanced assessment of such claims. Highlighting these claims allows us to pursue a more reflective research agenda and leads to a more informed, evidence-based assessment of the collaborative economy and tourism.......House swapping, ridesharing, voluntourism, couchsurfing, dinner hosting and similar innovations epitomize the collaborative economy. The rise of the collaborative economy, also known as collaborative consumption, the sharing economy and peer-to-peer consumption, has been fuelled by a range...... experiences; and higher levels of consumer risk-taking balanced against mechanisms such as peer-to-peer feedback designed to engender trust between producers and consumers. This paper explores and critically assesses the collaborative economy and its implications for tourism industrial systems. It achieves...

  6. Privatization Framework: Political Economy Perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Bastian, Indra

    2009-01-01

    Privatization has been recognized as a worldwide phenomenon. In this pa-per, a political economy approach is developed to analyze privatization. The ap-proach assumes that political economy and privatization overlap in people’s need. So, the framework of political economy in privatization is based on the ‘need’ phi-losophy. Government and private sectors are contrasted in this respect, leading to a conclusion on privatization as a method to manage the economy. Keywords: privatization, politic...

  7. Are transition economy workers underpaid?

    OpenAIRE

    Adamchik, Vera A.; Brada, Josef C.; King, Arthur E.

    2009-01-01

    We examine the extent to which workers in transition and developed market economies are able to obtain wages that fully reflect their skills and labor force characteristics. We find that workers in two transition economies, the Czech Republic and Poland, are able to better attain the maximum wage available than are workers in a sample of developed market economies. This greater wage-setting efficiency in the transition economies ap-pears to be more the result of social and demographic charact...

  8. Introduction Of Techno-Economy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Woo Hui

    2001-08-01

    This book gives descriptions of science, technology and techno-economy, invention and science and technology in the Twenty-First century, theory and model of technological innovation, technology and economy technology and industry, technology and business, spread and transfer of technique, technology and international economy, science, technique and culture, science, technology and government, development of technology in Korea and developing countries, and conclusion on the past and the future of techno-economy.

  9. Integration & Impact of Information Technology on Indian Economy

    OpenAIRE

    Dr. Gulrukh Salim

    2014-01-01

    India occupies a major place in list of developing countries and is expected to have basic capabilities to compete with world economies. Before 1991, India adopted policy of self-reliance but in this era of LPG, India’s industrial and agricultural structure is being transformed into open and mixed economy. On the basis of various surveys and fact conducted by National and International Agencies, India is still lacking in the basic needs of livelihood, despite having occupied the position of t...

  10. Trade, Development, and the Political Economy of Public Standards

    OpenAIRE

    Swinnen, Johan F.M.; Vandemoortele, Thijs

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents a political economy model of public standards in an open economy model. We use the model to derive the political optimum and to analyze different factors that have an influence on this political equilibrium. The paper discusses how the level of development influences the political equilibrium. We also analyze the relation between trade and the political equilibrium and compare this political outcome with the social optimum to identify under which cases ‘under-standardizati...

  11. COMPETITIVENESS FOR SUSTAINABLE ECONOMIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nelu Eugen POPESCU

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The current economic environment puts pressure on all national economies which struggle to improve their competitiveness and innovativeness in a sustainable way. This article aims to present the current state of the competitiveness by reviewing the main literature and worldwide researches, in order to provide a brief overview of the determinants that drive productivity and economic success at global and national level, taking into consideration the entrepreneurial activity for a country’s competitiveness and economic growth. The paper identifies the ways in which efficiency driven countries can improve their policies and get a better return on their investments, underlining a set of competitiveness enhancing policies (measures that can be implemented by public and private institutions in order to strengthen the economic fundamentals of the economies.

  12. Corruption and the economy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tanzi Vito

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper focuses on the economic and not on the political impact of corruption. Corruption delegitimizes the working of a market economy, as well as the outcomes of political processes. This paper highlights ways in which corruption, by distorting economic decisions and the working of the market economy, inevitably reduces a country’s rate of growth. The paper also discusses some of the channels through which corruption distorts various economic decisions. Finally, the paper reports on some actions that have been taken by countries in their attempt to reduce corruption stressing that the fight against corruption cannot rely on a magic bullet but has to be fought on many fronts.

  13. In situ preparation of multilayer coated capillary column with HKUST-1 for separation of neutral small organic molecules by open tubular capillary electrochromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Yin-Yin; Lv, Wen-Juan; Ren, Cui-Ling; Niu, Xiao-Ying; Chen, Hong-Li; Chen, Xing-Guo

    2018-01-12

    The popularity of novel nanoparticles coated capillary column has aroused widespread attention of researchers. Metal organic frameworks (MOFs) with special structure and chemical properties have received great interest in separation sciences. This work presents the investigation of HKUST-1 (Hong Kong University of Science and Technology-1, called Cu 3 (BTC) 2 or MOF-199) nanoparticles as a new type of coating material for capillary electrochromatography. For the first time, three layers coating (3-LC), five layers coating (5-LC), ten layers coating (10-LC), fifteen layers coating (15-LC), twenty layers coating(20-LC) and twenty-five layers coating (25-LC) capillary columns coated with HKUST-1 nanoparticles were synthesized by covalent bond with in situ, layer-by-layer self-assembly approach. The results of scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and plasma atomic emission spectrometry (ICP-AES) indicated that HKUST-1 was successfully grafted on the inner wall of the capillary. The separating performances of 3-LC, 5-LC, 10-LC, 15-LC, 20-LC and 25-LC open tubular (OT) capillary columns were studied with some neutral small organic molecules. The results indicated that the neutral small organic molecules were separated successfully with 10-LC, 15-LC and 20-LC OT capillary columns because of the size selectivity of lattice aperture and hydrophobicity of organic ligands. In addition, 10-LC and 15-LC OT capillary columns showed better performance for the separation of certain phenolic compounds. Furthermore, 10-LC, 15-LC and 20-LC OT capillary columns exhibited good intra-day repeatability with the relative standard deviations (RSDs; %) of migration time and peak areas lying in the range of 0.3-1.2% and 0.5-4.2%, respectively. For inter-day reproducibility, the RSDs of the three OT capillary columns were found to be lying in the range of 0.3-5.5% and 0.3-4.5% for migration time and peak area, respectively. The RSDs of retention times for column

  14. Green economy and related concepts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Loiseau, Eleonore; Saikku, Laura; Antikainen, Riina; Droste, Nils; Hansjürgens, Bernd; Pitkänen, Kati; Leskinen, Pekka; Kuikman, Peter; Thomsen, Marianne

    2016-01-01

    For the last ten years, the notion of a green economy has become increasingly attractive to policy makers. However, green economy covers a lot of diverse concepts and its links with sustainability are not always clear. In this article, we focus on definitions of green economy and related concepts

  15. Knowledge Economy and Research Innovation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bastalich, Wendy

    2010-01-01

    The "knowledge economy" has been received with considerable scepticism by scholars within the fields of political economy, social and political philosophy, and higher education. Key arguments within this literature are reviewed in this article to suggest that, despite policy claims, "knowledge economy" does not describe a "new" mode of economic…

  16. Popular Education in Solidarity Economy

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Melo Neto, José Francisco; da Costa, Francisco Xavier Pereira

    2015-01-01

    This article seeks to show the relation between popular education and solidarity economy in experiences of solidarity economy enterprises in Brazil. It is based on diverse experiences which have occurred in various sectors of this economy, highlighting those experiences which took place in João Pessoa with the creation of a Cooperative of Workers…

  17. Do international economic developments affect the South African economy?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JA Swanepoel

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Globalisation has opened economies more, exposing them to more international shocks and increasing the challenges to which domestic economic policies must respond. This paper provides a starting point for the analysis of the impact of international economic developments on the South African economy by means of graphical illustrations, correlations coefficients and in some cases a VAR analysis. Although this paper has shed some light on the importance of international economic developments on the South African economy, more rigorous econometric investigation is needed to validate the arguments and to address many of the unresolved questions.

  18. Health care economy II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beer, G.; Slovak, K.

    2008-01-01

    In Slovakia a strange approach to the purchase of health care equipment has not been limited to ophthalmology. Suspicious procurements are symptomatic. This applies also to specialisation where the correct spending of money can make the difference between life and death and can greatly effect the quality of life. More than a year ago, the Ministry of Health started the procurement of linear accelerators for oncology units in three hospitals. This plan placed on the market a potential order worth more than 11 million EUR without VAT. Three companies produce this complex equipment. The US company, Varian, the German company, Siemens, and the Swedish company, Elekta. Three suppliers, three hospitals. What a coincidence that each hospital - in Presov, Banska Bystrica and Bratislava - received only one envelope with an offer. Each from a different supplier. If anyone wanted to prove that the suppliers did not agree on a common approach, he would soon get into trouble. Each tender was organized by Pro-Tender, Kosice. The tender for the purchase of linear accelerators observed all the legal regulations. For each hospital there was only one offer and so it won. No-one complained, because each company got an order. Amedis Piestany will deliver a Varian product to Bystrica. In Narodny onkologicky ustav in Bratislava the winner was Transkontakt with Elekta products. And in Presov it was Ad Rem from Dunajska Streda that succeeded. The small company owned by a local vet joined up with Siemens and is now opening the doors of state-owned and regional hospitals to the company. (authors)

  19. A green hydrogen economy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clark, W.W. II [Clark Communications, Beverly Hills, CA (United States). Green Hydrogen Scientific Advisory Committee; Rifkin, J. [The Foundation on Economic Trends (United States)

    2006-11-15

    This paper is the result of over a dozen scholars and practitioners who strongly felt that a hydrogen economy and hence the future is closer than some American politicians and bureaucrats state. Moreover, when seen internationally, there is strong evidence, the most recent and obvious ones are the proliferation of hybrid vehicles, that for any nation-state to be energy independent it must seek a renewable or green hydrogen future in the near term. The State of California has once again taken the lead in this effort for both an energy-independent future and one linked strongly to the hydrogen economy. Then why a hydrogen economy in the first instance? The fact is that hydrogen most likely will not be used for refueling of vehicles in the near term. The number of vehicles to make hydrogen commercially viable will not be in the mass market by almost all estimates until 2010. However, it is less than a decade away. The time frame is NOT 30-40 years as some argue. The hydrogen economy needs trained people, new ventures and public-private partnerships now. The paper points out how the concerns of today, including higher costs and technologies under development, can be turned into opportunities for both the public and private sectors. It was not too long ago that the size of a mobile phone was that of a briefcase, and then almost 10 years ago, the size of a shoe box. Today, they are not only the size of a man's wallet but also often given away free to consumers who subscribe or contract for wireless services. While hydrogen may not follow this technological commercialization exactly, it certainly will be on a parallel path. International events and local or regional security dictate that the time for a hydrogen must be close at hand. (author)

  20. A green hydrogen economy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clark, Woodrow W.; Rifkin, Jeremy

    2006-01-01

    This paper is the result of over a dozen scholars and practitioners who strongly felt that a hydrogen economy and hence the future is closer than some American politicians and bureaucrats state. Moreover, when seen internationally, there is strong evidence, the most recent and obvious ones are the proliferation of hybrid vehicles, that for any nation-state to be energy independent it must seek a renewable or green hydrogen future in the near term. The State of California has once again taken the lead in this effort for both an energy-independent future and one linked strongly to the hydrogen economy. Then why a hydrogen economy in the first instance? The fact is that hydrogen most likely will not be used for refueling of vehicles in the near term. The number of vehicles to make hydrogen commercially viable will not be in the mass market by almost all estimates until 2010. However, it is less than a decade away. The time frame is NOT 30-40 years as some argue. The hydrogen economy needs trained people, new ventures and public-private partnerships now. The paper points out how the concerns of today, including higher costs and technologies under development, can be turned into opportunities for both the public and private sectors. It was not too long ago that the size of a mobile phone was that of a briefcase, and then almost 10 years ago, the size of a shoe box. Today, they are not only the size of a man's wallet but also often given away free to consumers who subscribe or contract for wireless services. While hydrogen may not follow this technological commercialization exactly, it certainly will be on a parallel path. International events and local or regional security dictate that the time for a hydrogen must be close at hand

  1. Social Economy and Responsibility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva Abramuszkinová Pavlíková

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Given the importance of entrepreneurial activities as an engine of economic growth and poverty alleviation, the issue of business development and entrepreneurial activities, has received increasing attention from a number of interested parties worldwide and also in the Czech Republic. The focus of this paper is on a social economy, a social responsibility and social enterprises. The development of the social economy framework will be introduced in the European context and specifically in the Czech Republic. A case study of a Czech social entrepreneur will be introduced based on qualitative research, namely the biographical narrative method.Social enterprises can support activities of various target groups, such as economic activities of mentally and physically handicapped people, which often operate in economically and socially marginalized situations, including stereotyped images. They give them a chance to become active members of society. In this way they can help to reduce the poverty on a local level. The aim of this paper is to introduce a social entrepreneurship as important part of social economy development in the Czech Republic.

  2. Multicentric evaluation of the impact of central tumour location when comparing rates of N1 upstaging in patients undergoing video-assisted and open surgery for clinical Stage I non-small-cell lung cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Decaluwé, Herbert; Petersen, René Horsleben; Brunelli, Alex

    2018-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Large retrospective series have indicated lower rates of cN0 to pN1 nodal upstaging after video-assisted thoracic surgery (VATS) compared with open resections for Stage I non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). The objective of our multicentre study was to investigate whether the presumed...

  3. An Open-Label, Multicenter, Randomized, Phase II Study of Pazopanib in Combination with Pemetrexed in First-Line Treatment of Patients with Advanced-Stage Non-Small-Cell Lung Cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scagliotti, Giorgio V; Felip, Enriqueta; Besse, Benjamin

    2013-01-01

    This randomized open-label phase II study evaluated the efficacy, safety, and tolerability of pazopanib in combination with pemetrexed compared with the standard cisplatin/pemetrexed doublet in patients with previously untreated, advanced, nonsquamous non-small-cell lung cancer....

  4. The Knowledge Economy and Higher Education: Rankings and Classifications, Research Metrics and Learning Outcomes Measures as a System for Regulating the Value of Knowledge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marginson, Simon

    2009-01-01

    This paper describes the global knowledge economy (the k-economy), comprised by (1) open source knowledge flows and (2) commercial markets in intellectual property and knowledge-intensive goods. Like all economy the global knowledge economy is a site of production. It is also social and cultural, taking the form of a one-world community mediated…

  5. Status rent in new developing economy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksandrova Natal'ja

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The status rent and conditions of its appearance are characterized in new developing economy by the position of new political economy. The bases of the general theory of rent were laid by classicists of political economy (F. Cene, A. Smith, J. Anderson, J. Mill, T. Maltus, D. Ricardo, K. Marx. They differentiated the rare rent (natural, absolute rent and differential land rent. Neoclassicists widened the definition of rent understanding it as income from any productive factor not only from land. Mostly, investigators of rent keep to two main postulates. Firstly, it is over profit, the income of special kind connected with using of exclusive, limited or rare goods for some time. Secondly, the rent is owned by the owners of these goods. These statements belonging to the natural rent can be used for the analysis of others, unnatural kinds of rent. The status rent belongs here. Let us analyze the status rent from the position of new political economy. As old political economy the new one also has its object - economic relations in the society and it call for the opening of deep, important processes of economic life. But by contrast with old political economy the new one, firstly, is based on other methodology (institutional economy, the theory of social choice, system approach; secondly, it studies economic relations not as static (the position of different classes, but as dynamic in economic behavior; thirdly, it is not confrontational: economic relations are understood not as antagonistic with non-avoidance of social cataclysm but as conflict-compromising; fourthly, it operates not only with social aggregates (class, country, social group, but it is also directed to a person, his/her freedom of choice in economic behavior; and, finally, fifthly, it overcomes the past careful marking out of other sciences, and, on the contrary, strives for an interdisciplinary approach in the stream of modern institutionalism including the problems of sociology

  6. Comparison between response dynamics in transition economies and developed economies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tenenbaum, Joel; Horvatić, Davor; Bajić, Slavica Cosović; Pehlivanović, Bećo; Podobnik, Boris; Stanley, H. Eugene

    2010-10-01

    In developed economies, the sign of the price increment influences the volatility in an asymmetric fashion—negative increments tend to result in larger volatility (increments with larger magnitudes), while positive increments result in smaller volatility. We explore whether this asymmetry extends from developed economies to European transition economies and, if so, how such asymmetry changes over time as these transition economies develop and mature. We analyze eleven European transition economies and compare the results with those obtained by analyzing U.S. market indices. Specifically, we calculate parameters that quantify both the volatility asymmetry and the strength of its dependence on prior increments. We find that, like their developed economy counterparts, almost all transition economy indices exhibit a significant volatility asymmetry, and the parameter γ characterizing asymmetry fluctuates more over time for transition economies. We also investigate how the association between volatility and volatility asymmetry varies by type of market. We test the hypothesis of a negative correlation between volatility and volatility asymmetry. We find that, for developed economies, γ experiences local minima during (i) “Black Monday” on October 19, 1987, (ii) the dot-com bubble crash in 2002, and (iii) the 2007-2009 global crisis while for transition economies, γ experiences local maxima during times of economic crisis.

  7. Open innovation with an effective open innovation team.

    OpenAIRE

    Vanvoorden, Jonas

    2014-01-01

    This master's thesis explores how open innovation teams can successfully support open innovation inside of an organisation. Open innovation is a paradigm introduced by Henry Chesbrough (2003) a decade ago. It expands the innovation potential of organisations by opening them up to new ways of working with external partners. To implement open innovation, many companies rely on a small group of managers named open innovation teams. Although open innovation teams can potentially be vital for impl...

  8. SUSTAINABLE GROWTH: RECENT TRENDS ACROSS CENTRAL AND EASTERN EUROPEAN ECONOMIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihut Ioana

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available What is economic growth? Although the answer to this question may seems of real simplicity, developing an accurate definition of this concept may constitute a real challenge both from a theoretical but also empirical point of view. This constant debate upon the concept of economic growth as well as indentifying the optimum set of instruments for quantifying it, constituted the starting point of the current article. The concept of economic growth is used nowadays complementary to terms like economic development, economic welfare or economic progress with reference to this complex process that implies macro-scale structures. Moreover indentifying the main factors that generate a significant impact upon the dynamics of the economic growth process, constitute a useful approach taking into consideration the high degree of heterogeneity that characterize the architecture of the economies around the world. If we develop this analysis across the European Union member states this debate became even more challenging due to the high degree of diversity that characterize these economies. Moreover, the Central and Eastern European countries and especially the ones that joined EU in 2004 and 2007 embody a set of particularities that make them extremely different from the rest of the European Union member states, features related to the historical background, economic policies and common efforts to intensify the convergence process with the more developed EU members. This paper studies the impact of two main factors upon the economic growth process namely an endogenous-exogenous factor like the degree of openness and an endogenous factor like the human capital using a complex dynamic panel method. The arguments that were in favour of choosing this two factors are on one hand the multitude of theoretical studies that argued the importance of them in modelling the economic growth process and on the other hand the small number of studies that use panel methods in

  9. The real new economy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farrell, Diana

    2003-10-01

    During the soar-and-swoon days of the late 1990s, many people believed that information technology, and the Internet in particular, were "changing everything" in business. A fundamental change did happen in the 1990s, but it was less about technology than about competition. Under director Diana Farrell, the McKinsey Global Institute has conducted an extensive study of productivity and its connection to corporate IT spending and use during that period. The study revealed that information technology is important--but not central--to the fate of industries and individual companies. So if information technology was not the primary factor in the productivity surge, what was? The study points to competition and innovation. In those industries that saw increases in competitive intensity, managers were forced to innovate aggressively to protect their revenues and profits. Those innovations--in products, business practices, and technology--led to the gains in productivity. In fact, a critical dynamic of the new economy--the real new economy--is the virtuous cycle of competition, innovation, and productivity growth. Managers can innovate in many ways, but during the 1990s, information technology was a particularly powerful tool, for three reasons: First, IT enabled the development of attractive new products and efficient new business processes. Second, it facilitated the rapid industrywide diffusion of innovations. And third, it exhibited strong scale economies--its benefits multiplied rapidly as its use expanded. This article reveals surprising data on how various industries in the United States and Europe were affected by competition, innovation, and information technology in the 1990s and offers insights about how managers can get more from their IT investments.

  10. Domesticizing Financial Economies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Deville, Joe; Lazarus, Jeanne; Luzzi, Mariana

    show. Third, the “domestication of financial economies”: financial literacy programs developed by governmental bodies, international organizations, and banks have become a ubiquitous layer attached to the assemblage of financial economies in many countries. And last but not least, “domesticizing social...... practices as well as the precise way financial providers are evaluating, sorting and targeting their consumers. We believe these diverse trends are starting to converge, and the ambitions of this paper are both to organize scattered literature and to reflect upon the consequences of the new field...

  11. Economy and energy politic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, J.M.

    1992-01-01

    This book, divided into four parts, describes, first, energy consumption and national economy growth. In a second part, the irresistible ascent of coal, natural gas and petroleum international markets is studied. In the third part, energy politic is investigated: exchanges releasing, prices deregulation, contestation of power industry monopoly, energy national market and common energetic politic, single market concept. In the last part, global risks and world-wide regulations are given: demand, energy resources, technical changes, comparative evaluations between fossil, nuclear and renewable energies, environment, investments financing and international cooperation. 23 refs., 14 figs., 16 tabs

  12. The Methanol Economy Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olah, George [Univ. of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Prakash, G. K. [Univ. of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA (United States)

    2014-02-01

    The Methanol Economy Project is based on the concept of replacing fossil fuels with methanol generated either from renewable resources or abundant natural (shale) gas. The full methanol cycle was investigated in this project, from production of methanol through bromination of methane, bireforming of methane to syngas, CO2 capture using supported amines, co-electrolysis of CO2 and water to formate and syngas, decomposition of formate to CO2 and H2, and use of formic acid in a direct formic acid fuel cell. Each of these projects achieved milestones and provided new insights into their respective fields.

  13. Information model of economy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.S.Gonchar

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available A new stochastic model of economy is developed that takes into account the choice of consumers are the dependent random fields. Axioms of such a model are formulated. The existence of random fields of consumer's choice and decision making by firms are proved. New notions of conditionally independent random fields and random fields of evaluation of information by consumers are introduced. Using the above mentioned random fields the random fields of consumer choice and decision making by firms are constructed. The theory of economic equilibrium is developed.

  14. Dabrafenib plus trametinib in patients with previously untreated BRAFV600E-mutant metastatic non-small-cell lung cancer: an open-label, phase 2 trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Planchard, David; Smit, Egbert F; Groen, Harry J M; Mazieres, Julien; Besse, Benjamin; Helland, Åslaug; Giannone, Vanessa; D'Amelio, Anthony M; Zhang, Pingkuan; Mookerjee, Bijoyesh; Johnson, Bruce E

    2017-10-01

    BRAF V600E mutation occurs in 1-2% of lung adenocarcinomas and acts as an oncogenic driver. Dabrafenib, alone or combined with trametinib, has shown substantial antitumour activity in patients with previously treated BRAF V600E -mutant metastatic non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). We aimed to assess the activity and safety of dabrafenib plus trametinib treatment in previously untreated patients with BRAF V600E -mutant metastatic NSCLC. In this phase 2, sequentially enrolled, multicohort, multicentre, non-randomised, open-label study, adults (≥18 years of age) with previously untreated metastatic BRAF V600E -mutant NSCLC were enrolled into cohort C from 19 centres in eight countries within North America, Europe, and Asia. Patients received oral dabrafenib 150 mg twice per day plus oral trametinib 2 mg once per day until disease progression, unacceptable adverse events, consent withdrawal, or death. The primary endpoint was investigator-assessed overall response, defined as the percentage of patients who achieved a confirmed complete response or partial response per Response Evaluation Criteria In Solid Tumors version 1.1. The primary and safety analyses were by intention to treat in the protocol-defined population (previously untreated patients). The study is ongoing, but no longer recruiting patients. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT01336634. Between April 16, 2014, and Dec 28, 2015, 36 patients were enrolled and treated with first-line dabrafenib plus trametinib. Median follow-up was 15·9 months (IQR 7·8-22·0) at the data cutoff (April 28, 2017). The proportion of patients with investigator-assessed confirmed overall response was 23 (64%, 95% CI 46-79), with two (6%) patients achieving a complete response and 21 (58%) a partial response. All patients had one or more adverse event of any grade, and 25 (69%) had one or more grade 3 or 4 event. The most common (occurring in more than two patients) grade 3 or 4 adverse events were

  15. Opening keynote

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rae, B.

    1997-01-01

    In his opening address, the former premier of Ontario summarized the background of the Macdonald Committee which was appointed by his government after it became increasingly apparent that the infrastructure of Hydro Ontario was far bigger than the province and the economy could afford, and that the service that had once given Ontario tremendous competitive advantage, in the form of relatively cheap electric power, had become unsustainable in an era of economic downturn and zero inflation. He stated that the debate about Hydro is part of a broader issue, and it is no longer possible to manage our electricity system as if we were a self-enclosed universe. He predicted that the North American electricity grid will become increasingly interdependent, and that Hydro will have to develop competitive price structures, both to hold its domestic market share and to compete for export sales. He outlined the most pressing issues for Hydro as being debt reduction, while pursuing internal changes to make the organization more efficient. Organizational changes such as the creation of Ontario Hydro International, Ontario Hydro Research, separation of generation operations from the grid, and establishment of separate price and efficiency targets for the autonomous organizations within the utility family, were moves in the right direction. Equally important is to make sure that however Hydro might develop in the future, it is going to be fair to customers, and that the billions of dollars invested in Hydro by Ontario taxpayers over the years, are safeguarded

  16. The energy economy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meritet, Sophie; Vaujour, Jean-Baptiste

    2015-01-01

    This introduction to the economy of energy applies the main economic concepts to the energy sector (nature of the good, supply, demand), proposes an overview of existing actors, and analyses challenges and tools of economic policy like network regulation, competition policy, independence and energy transition. By using recent examples, statistics and international comparisons, it gives elements to highlight issues like the relationship between shale gas exploitation and economic recovery in the USA, the choice between monopole and competition for electricity or gas supply, reaching greenhouse gas emissions of the energy sector by incentives or taxes, secure energy supplies in a changing international environment, ways to supply energy to everyone at prices guaranteeing economy competitiveness, or ways to evolve towards energy systems which would be more environment- and climate-friendly. The successive chapters address fundamentals issues (nature of the good, historical and technical overview), the State intervention (definition of an energy policy, steering the energy mix, ensuring secure supply), the reorganisation of industries and the protection of consumers, the relationship between energy and climate (worrying perspectives, progressive emergence of solutions). The last chapter addresses the future challenges like innovation, and disruptive innovations (smart grids, big data, batteries, CO 2 capture and storage, nuclear waste processing and management, development of nuclear fusion), and the issue of energy poverty

  17. Network Transformations in Economy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bolychev O.

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available In the context of ever-increasing market competition, networked interactions play a special role in the economy. The network form of entrepreneurship is increasingly viewed as an effective organizational structure to create a market value embedded in innovative business solutions. The authors study the characteristics of a network as an economic category and emphasize certain similarities between Rus sian and international approaches to identifying interactions of economic systems based on the network principle. The paper focuses on the types of networks widely used in the economy. The authors analyze the transformation of business networks along two lines: from an intra- to an inter-firm network and from an inter-firm to an inter-organizational network. The possible forms of network formation are described depending on the strength of connections and the type of integration. The drivers and reasons behind process of transition from a hierarchical model of the organizational structure to a network type are identified. The authors analyze the advantages of creating inter-firm networks and discuss the features of inter-organizational networks as compares to inter-firm ones. The article summarizes the reasons for and advantages of participation in inter-rganizational networks and identifies the main barriers to the formation of inter-organizational network.

  18. A green economy?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petrus Simons

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Economic growth has become a fetish, as it is believed to yield many benefits to society. It has its origins in the Enlightenment ideal of progress through science, technology and a free market economy. J.W. Goethe anticipated the problems of such progress in his poem Faust, especially its second part. Binswanger interprets Goethe’s view on the modern economy as a form of alchemy, an attempt to master time through the invention of monetary capital. Keynes’s views on progress and liquidity are compatible with this analysis. The problems, evoked by the uncritical application of scientific technology so as to increase material welfare, have given rise to a dialectic between business seeking growth and those concerned about its effects, especially on ecology. Sustainable development is an outcome of this dialectic, without abandoning it. Others, particularly those advocating décroissance [de-growth], reject the concepts underlying growth. The ideology underlying this is a combination of technicism and economism. A spiritual revolution is called for to break the hold of this ideology on society, with a change from the metaphor of the world as a machine to that of a garden-city. It is suggested that working groups should analyse the various proposals for change from the perspective of the garden-city metaphor.

  19. DEVELOPING COUNTRIES. TRANSITION ECONOMIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dumitru FILIPEANU

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available According to the modern theories of economic development – the take-off, backwardness, convergence and balanced growth hypothesis - the new industrialized states from Asia seem to have noticed the advantages of backwardness from which low income countries benefited, namely the possibility to take advantage of the latest technological discoveries of advanced countries, thus achieving a faster growth than the latter which operated closer to the technological border. The assimilation of appropriate technologies, however, required the efficient mobilization and allocation of resources and the improvement of human and physical capital. While the Western countries were confronted with crises generated by inflationary shocks and movements of speculative capital, the relative isolation of countries whose economy was planned by the world economy sheltered them until 1990, unemployment being practically non-existent. Asia's exceptional economic success is not only due to borrowing Western practices, but also to the fact that Asian societies maintained certain traditional features of their own culture - such as a strong work ethic - and integrated them in the modern business environment.

  20. Whole System Carbon Exchange of Small Stands of Pinus Ponderosa Growing at Different CO(sub 2) concentrations in open top chambers; FINAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ball, J. Timothy; Ross, Peter D.; Picone, John B.; Eichelmann, Hillar Y.; Ross, Gregory N.

    1996-01-01

    Functional understanding of the carbon cycle from the molecular to the global level is a high scientific priority requiring explanation of the relationship between fluxes at different spatial and temporal scales. We describe methods used to convert an open top chamber into both closed and open flow gas exchange systems utilized to measure such fluxes. The systems described consist of temporary modifications to an open top chamber, and are put in place for several days on one or several open top chambers. In the closed system approach, a chamber is quickly sealed for a short, predetermined time interval, the change in gas concentrations is measured, then the chamber is unsealed and ventilated. In the open flow system approach, airflow into the open top chamber is measured by trace gas injection, and the air stream concentration of CO(sub 2) and water vapor is measured before and after injection into the chamber. The closed chamber approach can resolve smaller fluxes, but causes transient increases in chamber air temperature, and has a high labor requirement. The open flow approach reduces the deviation of measuring conditions from ambient, may be semi-automated (requiring less labor), allows a more frequent sampling interval, but cannot resolve low fluxes well. Data demonstrating the capabilities of these systems show that, in open canopies of ponderosa pine, scaling fluxes from leaves to whole canopies is well approximated from summation of leaf P(sub s) rates. Flux measurements obtained from these systems can be a valuable contribution to our understanding whole system material fluxes, and challenge our understanding of ecosystem carbon budgets

  1. The complex of measures on inclusion of small businesses in innovation clusters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. V. Kupchinsky

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Modern practice of managing and its display in scientific publications demonstrate that development of world economy with all evidence proves the major role and the importance of sector of small business structures in national economy. In the modern world the national economy in many respects began to be determined by the balanced and sustainable development of the small business structures recognized now as conductors and creators of new opening and technologies, moreover, as the strategic instrument of the structural transformations of a modern economic system of the country often directed to high-quality increase in efficiency of reproduction process of regional economy. Now in Russia the level of development of an innovative entrepreneurship is very low. It is possible to state lack of properly created institutional environment for development of a small entrepreneurship in the innovative sphere. Clasterisation represents process of consolidation of a number of the organizations of various industries for increase in competitiveness, implementation of innovations, effective development and receipt of other benefits. According to separation of economy on real and virtual, the possibility of creation of both real, and virtual clusters increases. Creation and development of regional clusters will help to create the necessary level of activity of small business structures in innovative activities that will favorably affect increase in competitiveness of both regional, and national economy. The package of measures including measures for involvement of small business structures in clusters is developed for development of a cluster initiative and increase in innovative development of the region. Application of this program will allow to reach synergy effect at the expense of high degree of concentration and cooperation of small business structures and increase in effectiveness of their activities.

  2. Barter Economies and Centralized Merchants

    OpenAIRE

    Jose Noguera

    2000-01-01

    The main goal of this essay is to analyze the emergence of a barter economy, and the rise of centralized merchants and a barter redistribution system out of a primitive barter system. The environment is a spatial general equilibrium model where exchange is costly. Since exchange becomes more complicated as the scope of the economy increases, we prove that, after the economy reaches a critical size, the cost of trade expansion surpasses its benefits. This imposes limitations on the scope of th...

  3. Social economy and social enterprise

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hulgård, Lars

    2011-01-01

    practice will be put under increasing pressure. There is a difference between a social economy approach to the third sector and an approach based upon the notion of a non-profit constraint. Social economy is well positioned as a third sector to play a core role in meeting this urgency. But how does...... the social economy fit with current strategies in the areas of welfare policies and social service? Is it as a certain type of social entrepreneurship an integral part of a social innovation of the mainstream market economy or is it part of an emerging counter discourse in the sense of a participatory non...

  4. Rethinking economy-wide rebound measures: An unbiased proposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guerra, Ana-Isabel; Sancho, Ferran

    2010-01-01

    In spite of having been first introduced in the last half of the ninetieth century, the debate about the possible rebound effects from energy efficiency improvements is still an open question in the economic literature. This paper contributes to the existing research on this issue proposing an unbiased measure for economy-wide rebound effects. The novelty of this economy-wide rebound measure stems from the fact that not only actual energy savings but also potential energy savings are quantified under general equilibrium conditions. Our findings indicate that the use of engineering savings instead of general equilibrium potential savings downward biases economy-wide rebound effects and upward-biases backfire effects. The discrepancies between the traditional indicator and our proposed measure are analysed in the context of the Spanish economy.

  5. Towards higher transparency and efficiency in energy taxation. Energy taxation and environmental policy in a small open economy; Foer oekad transparens och effektivitet i energibeskattningen. Energibeskattning och miljoepolitik i en liten oeppen ekonomi

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Normann, Goeran (and others)

    2002-11-01

    The accrual of energy taxation has led to a complex structure of taxes and charges that are characterized by instability and low efficiency. Other reasons for analyzing the system is the pressure from our contractual responsibilities within the European Union and the raised ambitions in the environmental policy. The report leads to the conclusion that it would be motivated to separate fiscal energy taxation from measures to internalize environmental costs that the market does not register. This separation would make it possible to create a more transparent and rational energy taxation. The fiscal energy taxation ought to be a broad, value-based tax, equal for all energy sources. Value-based means, besides the energy content in kWh, also properties such as conversion and distribution costs. Two alternatives are suggested for the fiscal energy taxation: A separate consumption tax on energy. Such a tax would amount to 48% to produce the same income as the fiscal elements of today's energy taxes. Another alternative would be to include the fiscal energy tax in the value added tax. This would raise the standard VAT level to 30%, if the lower VAT levels are kept unchanged. With this model, consumption of energy would be treated as any other consumption. The environmental policy measures against greenhouse gases should be delt with through a system with international trade with emission quotas for such gases. Measures against other external effects from energy use are not suggested in this report, except for the opinion that economic incentives are preferable to regulations. The initial allocation of quotas ought to be done through an auction, since this method would give lower national costs than the alternatives. The system should cover all greenhouse gases and (almost) all sources which indicates that an upstream solution would be best with low administrative costs. A safety vent should be considered, so that extreme costs for CO{sub 2}-emissions are avoided, if e.g. the economic growth is higher than expected.

  6. Thriving locally in the global economy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanter, Rosabeth Moss

    2003-08-01

    More and more small and midsize companies are joining corporate giants in striving to exploit international growth markets. At the same time, civic leaders worry about their communities' economic future in light of the impact of global forces on the operation and survival of business. How can communities retain local vitality yet still link their business to the global economy? Harvard professor Rosabeth Moss Kanter addresses that question in this classic HBR article, orginally published in 1995. To avoid a clash between international economic interests and local political interests, globalizing business must learn how to be responsive to the communities in which they operate, Kanter says. And communities must determine how to create a civic culture that will attract and retain footloose companies. The author surveyed five U.S. regions with direct connections to the global economy--Boston, Cleveland, Miami, Seattle, and the Spartanburg-Greenville region of South Carolina--to determine their business and civic leader's strategies for improving their constituent's quality of life. She identified ways in which the global economy can work locally by capitalizing on the resources that distinguish one place from another. Kanter argues that regions can invest in capabilities that connect their local populations to the global economy in one of three ways: as thinkers, makers, or traders. She points to the Spartanburg-Greenville region as a good example of a world-class makers, with its exceptional blue-collar workforce that has attracted more than 200 companies from 18 countries. The history of the economic development of this region is a lesson for those seeking to understand how to achieve world-class status and bring local residents into the world economy.

  7. Rethinking the Sharing Economy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kornberger, Martin; Leixnering, Stephan; Meyer, Renate

    2017-01-01

    Our paper focuses on a non-standard sharing example that harbors the potential to disrupt received wisdom on the sharing economy. While originally entering the field to analyze, broadly from a governance perspective, how the 2015 refugee crisis was handled in Vienna, Austria, we found that the no...... of sharing: economic and moral. Our paper contributes to this Special Issue of the Academy of Management Discoveries by highlighting and explaining the two-fold economic and moral nature of sharing and the organization of sharing between movement and platform....... sharing of resources (i.e., the economic dimension): the sharing of a distinct concern (i.e., the moral dimension of sharing). Our discovery exemplifies such a moral dimension that is rather different from the status quo materialistic treatments focusing on economic transactions and property rights...

  8. An Economy of Grace

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victor Tan Chen

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available This essay is adapted from a plenary talk the author gave at the “Growing Apart: The Implications of Economic Inequality” interdisciplinary conference at Boston College on 9 April 2016, as well as portions of his book Cut Loose: Jobless and Hopeless in an Unfair Economy, a sociological ethnography based on interviews and observations of unemployed autoworkers in Detroit, Michigan, and Windsor, Canada, during and after the Great Recession. The essay discusses four themes from this research. First, it provides a sociological understanding of how long-term unemployment and economic inequality are experienced by today’s less advantaged workers. Second, it illustrates how social policy can improve their circumstances. Third, it examines the limits of policy, and how dealing with inequality also requires changing the broader culture. Fourth, it makes the case for one possible approach to bring about that cultural change: a morality of grace.

  9. Securing the Digital Economy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentin P. MĂZĂREANU

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The Digital economy has naturally led to thereconfiguration of communication and information processes.These processes are depending on the computer, starting fromthe personal one and reaching to computer networks, whetherlocal, metropolitan or global. These led to the development ofsuch information systems able to communicate information,systems that must also ensure the security of communicationsbetween computers within the company, but also betweencomputers of different parties, outside the company. As thecommunication between computers in the network has evolvedto electronic funds transfer (EFT, digital money andcommunication of personal data, internet banking, etc., theimportance of security issues of data transmitted over thenetwork also has increased. Even more as the network hasevolved into a “wireless” one.

  10. From war economies to peace economies in Africa | Broodryk ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    One reason for the persistence and protracted nature of conflict on the. African continent is the phenomenon of war economies. These have transformed the nature of war itself where the object is not at neutralizing an enemy but to institutionalize violence at a profitable level of intensity. Transforming war economies into ...

  11. Political economies and environmental futures for the sharing economy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Frenken, Koen|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/207145253

    2017-01-01

    The sudden rise of the sharing economy has sparked an intense public debate about its definition, its effects and its future regulation. Here, I attempt to provide analytical guidance by defining the sharing economy as the practice that consumers grant each other temporary access to their

  12. Tourism's intimate economies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bill Maurer

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available [First paragraph] What’s Love Got To Do with It? Transnational Desires and Sex Tourism in the Dominican Republic. Denise Brennan. Durham NC: Duke University Press, 2004. ix + 280 pp. (Paper US$ 21.95 Behind the Smile: The Working Lives of Caribbean Tourism. George Gmelch. Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 2003. x + 212 pp. (Paper US$ 19.95 New research on Caribbean tourism solidly locates it within the regional shift from “incentive-induced exports” like bananas to “service-based exports” like data processing, offshore finance, and novel forms of mass tourism (Mullings 2004:294; Duval 2004. Earlier studies may have made mention of the similarities between plantation economies and tourism development, but new models like the all-inclusive resort demonstrate a near identity of form and structure with plantation systems: foreign dominance over ownership and profit leaves little multiplier effect for the Caribbean islands playing host to enclaved resorts. Agricultural exports have been in free fall since the end of preferential trade protocols, and export manufacturing after the North American Free Trade Agreement is in steep decline. If new service economies seemed to offer a solution to economic and social disorder, the reaction to the events of September 11, 2001 demonstrated the fragility of service-based exports and, in particular, of new kinds of tourism. It took four years for international tourism to rebound to pre-9/11 levels;1 with the perceived threat of SARS and avian flu, as well as the Iraq war and the weak U.S. dollar, official projections of the industry’s near future are “cautiously optimistic.”2

  13. Linear Economy Versus Circular Economy: A Comparative and Analyzer Study for Optimization of Economy for Sustainability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sariatli Furkan

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Upon visiting the existing literature on the subject of linear vs. circular economy, this paper finds that, the blueprint of the current economy is hardly sustainable by using the comparative benchmarking method that drained from literature. The intrinsic mechanics of the linear economy, by relying on the wasteful take - make - dispose flow, is detrimental to the environment, cannot supply the growing populace of our planet with essential services and it naturally leads to strained profitability. Elements of a plausible solution to the challenges have been around for decades, although they have only recently been compiled in to the conceptual framework of circular economy. The core ideas of Circular Economy are elimination of waste by design, respect for the social, economic and natural environment and resource-conscious business conduct. Built on the backbone of these principles, the circular economy has demonstrated to deliver tangible benefits and viability to address the economic, environmental and social challenges of our days.

  14. Interorganisational Management in Entrepreneurial Economies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Poul Rind; Piihl, Jesper

    2004-01-01

    In this article relationship management is defined and discussed in the context of an entrepreneurial society. Important aspects of trends in entrepreneurial economies to aspects of managerial economies. Based on a review of established management theories, it is concluded that there is a need...

  15. Entrepreneurship in the network economy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Velthuijsen, Hugo; de Graaf, Frank Jan; Zhang, Henry; Zhao, Ruimei

    2009-01-01

    The network economy typically signifies a notion from the information society where new products and services are developed by collaborating individuals and/or businesses organised in virtual networks. The network economy has important characteristics in common with Northern European governance

  16. Experience economy brimming with potential

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Flemming; Sundbo, Jon

    2014-01-01

    In these days of economic uncertainty, businesses ought to make better use of recent research into the experience economy. Perhaps co-creation and individualisation can save us from the crisis, argue the editors of a new book about the latest research into the experience economy....

  17. New Economy - New Policy Rules?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bullard, J.; Schaling, E.

    2000-01-01

    The U.S. economy appears to have experienced a pronounced shift toward higher productivity over the last five years or so. We wish to understand the implications of such shifts for the structure of optimal monetary policy rules in simple dynamic economies. Accordingly, we begin with a standard

  18. Fuel Economy Testing and Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA’s Fuel Economy pages provide information on current standards and how federal agencies work to enforce those laws, testing for national Corporate Average Fuel Economy or CAFE standards, and what you can do to reduce your own vehicle emissions.

  19. Water for greening the economy

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    De Lange, Willem J

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available ] for such an overview). The focus here falls on a discussion aimed to improve alignment between water resource management and the principles of a green economy. Previous chapters have made it clear that a green economy requires a holistic approach towards policy...

  20. Economic Structure and Development in an Emergent Asian Economy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tarp, Finn; Roland-Holst, David; Rand, John

    2003-01-01

    Vietnam started a wide-ranging process of economic reform in 1986 and is presently opening up its economy to regional and global economic forces. As a result, Vietnam faces significant challenges in the area of economic policy analysis in spite of a remarkable growth performance in recent years...

  1. The political economy of railway construction in Nigeria: the Bornu ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The political economy of railway construction in Nigeria: the Bornu railway extension. ... One key strategy employed was to side with the faction of the Nigerian petty bourgeoisie whose political, economic and class interests were in agreement with ... The 400-mile extension was eventually constructed and opened in 1964.

  2. Making the economy work for youth | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2013-08-06

    Aug 6, 2013 ... English · Français ... For economies to be more inclusive for youth, it's important to create training ... With IDRC support, Lemos and his team have led projects that demonstrated the value of using open models to ... This relative disadvantage is evident despite notable advances in educational levels and ...

  3. Harnessing the sharing economy in developing countries | IDRC ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Digital marketplace platforms like AirBnB and Uber, sometimes referred to as ... The project will support five in-depth case studies on the impact of the sharing economy in the developing world. The studies will be selected through an open call.

  4. The underground economy in Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Veronica LITRA

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The paper aims at covering issues related to the underground economy, activities that compound this phenomenon, its magnitude in Romania and reported to the European average. Underground economy in Romania consists of undeclared work (2/3 from the total and unreported income; it decreased from 33.6% of GDP in 2003 to 28% in 2014, but remained over EU-28 average with about 10 p.p. Among EU-28 countries, only Bulgaria exceeds the size of the underground economy of Romania. The underground economy is a challenge for the leadership of the state which must act simultaneously to stop illegal activities, and to discourage non-declaration of the legal activities. Corruption favours maintaining the underground economy, delays economic development, obstructs democratic processes and affects justice and the law state.

  5. ICT Innovation in Emerging Economies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xiao, Xiao; B. Califf, Christopher; Sarker, Saonee

    2013-01-01

    ICT innovation is known to significantly elevate a country’s growth and to enhance productivity. It is now well-acknowledged that emerging economies are beginning to innovate at a rapid rate despite some of the challenges they face. Given that these countries with such economies now comprise...... economies, what needs to be studied, and how they should be studied. We attempt to contribute in this area by: (1) providing a comprehensive framework of existing research on ICT innovation in emerging economies, (2) highlighting the gaps that have been left behind, and (3) providing specific guidelines...... to future researchers, including a research model summarizing the salient issues that need examination. We believe that our study makes an important contribution to research on ICT innovation in emerging economies, and can be a useful resource for future researchers interested in this topic....

  6. The Ilorin economy in the 19th century | Banwo | Nigerian Journal of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Ilorin economy in the 19th century. ... DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT Open Access DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT Subscription or Fee Access. The Ilorin economy in the 19th century. Adeyinko O Banwo. Abstract. No Abstract. The Nigerian Journal of Economic History Vol. 1, 1998: 129-146 ...

  7. The green economy mirage? Examining the environmental implications of low-carbon growth plans in Taiwan

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chao, C.-W.; Heijungs, R.; Ma, H.-W.

    2013-01-01

    Taiwan is attempting to implement the concept of a green economy through a Low Carbon Growth Plan (LCGP). However, the existing decision support tools for this measure have three key limitations: ignorance regarding the open economy; a lack of life cycle thinking; and limited categories of

  8. Fertility and the economy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, G S

    1992-08-01

    Fertility and the economy is examined in the context of the Malthusian question about the links between family choices and longterm economic growth. Micro level differences are not included not are a comprehensive range of economic or determinant variables. Specific attention is paid to income and price effects, the quality of children, overlapping generations, mortality effects, uncertainty, and economic growth. Fertility and the demand for children in linked to parental incomes and the cost of rearing children, which is affected by public policies that change the costs. Demand is also related to child and adult mortality, and uncertainty about sex of the child. Fertility in one generation affects fertility in the next. Malthusian and neoclassical models do not capture the current model of modern economies with rising income/capita and human and physical capital, extensive involvement of married women in the labor force, and declining fertility to very low levels. In spite of the present advances in firm knowledge about the relationships between fertility and economic and social variables, there is still much greater ignorance of the interactions. The Malthusian utility function that says fertility rises and falls with income did hold up to 2 centuries of scrutiny, and the Malthusian inclusion of the shifting tastes in his analysis could be translated in the modern context to include price of children. The inclusion of net cost has significant consequences, i.e., rural fertility can be higher because the cost of rearing when children contribute work to maintaining the farm is lower than in the city. An income tax deduction for children in the US reduces cost. Economic growth raises the cost of children due the time spent on child care becoming more valuable. The modern context has changed from Malthusian time, and the cost of education, training, and medical care is relevant. The implication is that a rise in income could reduce the demand for children when

  9. Open areas and open access

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thorndike, A.M.

    1978-01-01

    One objective of the two open areas in the present ISABELLE design is to provide flexibility with respect to the size and shape of experimental equipment that would eventually be installed there. No permanent building would be installed initially. A second objective of the design of open areas is to keep initial costs as low as practicable. Another objective is open access. This note explores this idea and some design concepts based on it. It would permit inserting large pieces of experimental equipment quickly and removing them with equal ease and speed. Entire experiments would be moved in a single piece (or a few) by building them on movable platforms with capacities of up to about 1000 tons per platform. Most experiments could be built on a single platform or on a few. The shielding must also be moved. It must also be organized into a small number of large units. A scheme using large tanks filled with water is described. It is important to make the equipment on a given platform as complete and self-contained as possible, with a minimum of interconnections for power, coolant, controls, data transmission, etc. 5 figures

  10. Resource Use in Small Island States: Material Flows in Iceland and Trinidad and Tobago, 1961-2008.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krausmann, Fridolin; Richter, Regina; Eisenmenger, Nina

    2014-04-01

    Iceland and Trinidad and Tobago are small open, high-income island economies with very specific resource-use patterns. This article presents a material flow analysis (MFA) for the two countries covering a time period of nearly five decades. Both countries have a narrow domestic resource base, their economy being largely based on the exploitation of one or two key resources for export production. In the case of Trinidad and Tobago, the physical economy is dominated by oil and natural gas extraction and petrochemical industries, whereas Iceland's economy for centuries has been based on fisheries. More recently, abundant hydropower and geothermal heat were the basis for the establishment of large export-oriented metal processing industries, which fully depend on imported raw materials and make use of domestic renewable electricity. Both countries are highly dependent on these natural resources and vulnerable to overexploitation and price developments. We show how the export-oriented industries lead to high and growing levels of per capita material and energy use and carbon dioxide emissions resulting from large amounts of processing wastes and energy consumption in production processes. The example of small open economies with an industrial production system focused on few, but abundant, key resources and of comparatively low complexity provides interesting insights of how resource endowment paired with availability or absence of infrastructure and specific institutional arrangements drives domestic resource-use patterns. This also contributes to a better understanding and interpretation of MFA indicators, such as domestic material consumption.

  11. Informal economy as an expression of the state failure

    OpenAIRE

    Agata Kubiczek

    2010-01-01

    The article deals with the phenomenon of second economy, underground or subterranean economy, unofficial economy, unrecorded economy, informal economy, cash economy etc., which has been assessed here as a function of a given mix of economic policies.

  12. Transitional phase for small steeply dipping ore bodies from open pit to underground mining:a case study from Scandinavian mining industry

    OpenAIRE

    Hassan, Syed Alley; Greberg, Jenny; Schunnesson, Håkan

    2012-01-01

    The transition from open pit to underground mining involves drastically changes in the production system. The equipment for underground mining will change as well as the logistics and the transportation system. Demands of rock stability and control will also change in nature and in equipment needed. At the same time the large investments in underground infrastructure and equipment require short lead times to maintain a high cash flow for the companies. Without proper planning many problems ca...

  13. FROM WAR ECONOMIES TO PEACE ECONOMIES IN AFRICA

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Abel

    temporary 'interruption' to an ongoing process of development”.4 The second ... indication of the changing nature of world political and economic trends .... (FDI), where war economies cannot, at least not in a positive or legal fashion.24 The.

  14. Perspectives on Eco Economics. Circular Economy and Smart Economy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Balaceanu

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The implementation of sustainable development principles in contemporary economic thinking has generated the conceptual remodeling that expresses the new mechanisms of the economy. Thus, the concept of circular economy meet the theoretical representation of an economic system oriented towards the re-use of waste as raw materials and limiting the production of waste that cannot come back into the economic circuit. Circular economy is one that involves even its concept of operation, recovery and regeneration, as much as possible of resources, aiming to preserve, at the highest level, the value and usefulness of products, components and raw materials, distinguishing between technical and biological cycles. In this way, we can find solutions for two major issues affecting today's economy: the limited nature of resources and the pollution generated by the waste resulting from economic activities.

  15. Why the New Economy is a Learning Economy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lundvall, Bengt-Åke

    In this paper it is shown that the intense focus on the new economy reflected real change as well as 'hype?. The basic reason why new economy-growth could not be seen as sustainable is that introducing advanced technologies can only take place successfully when it is accompanied by organizational...... change and competence-building among employees. Any strategy that gives technology an independent role as problem-solver is doomed to fail. Danish data of a unique character are used to demonstrate that the key to economic performance is to promote learning at different levels of the economy....... In the conclusion it is argued that there is a need for a new type of knowledge and learning oriented Keynesianism in order to get close to the kind of growth rates characterizing the high days of the new economy adventure in the US....

  16. Open-Source Colorimeter

    OpenAIRE

    Anzalone, Gerald C.; Glover, Alexandra G.; Pearce, Joshua M.

    2013-01-01

    The high cost of what have historically been sophisticated research-related sensors and tools has limited their adoption to a relatively small group of well-funded researchers. This paper provides a methodology for applying an open-source approach to design and development of a colorimeter. A 3-D printable, open-source colorimeter utilizing only open-source hardware and software solutions and readily available discrete components is discussed and its performance compared to a commercial porta...

  17. Experiences of Emerging Economy Firms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Experiences of Emerging Economy Firms investigates the different elements of the experiences of emerging economy firms and sheds essential light on a large variety of aspects associated with their functioning in both home and host contexts. For example, firms must be able to overcome the liability...... of foreign and emerging issues when they expand their activities in various contexts, enter, exit, and re-enter overseas markets; they have to overcome institutional barriers, adapt the cultural challenges in foreign markets, undergo the impact of large multinational firms from developed economies...

  18. Monetary Policy, Determinancy and Learnability in the Open Economy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bullard, J.; Schaling, E.

    2005-01-01

    We study how determinacy and learnability of global rational expectations equilibrium may be affected by monetary policy in a simple, two country, New Keynesian framework.The two blocks may be viewed as the U.S. and Europe, or as regions within the euro zone.We seek to understand how monetary policy

  19. Optimal commitment in an open economy : Credibility vs. flexibility

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eijffinger, S.C.W.; Schaling, E.

    1995-01-01

    Using a graphical method, a new way of determining the optimal degree of central bank conservativeness is developed in this paper. Unlike Lohmann (1992) and Rogoff (1985a), we are able to express the upper and lower bounds of the interval containing the optimal degree of conservativeness in terms of

  20. Inelastically scattering particles and wealth distribution in an open economy

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Slanina, František

    2004-01-01

    Roč. 69, č. 4 (2004), 046102/1-046102/7 ISSN 1539-3755 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA202/01/1091 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z1010914 Keywords : stochastic processes * econophysics Subject RIV: BE - Theoretical Physics Impact factor: 2.352, year: 2004

  1. Designing Corporate Training in Developing Economies Using Open Educational Resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geith, Chris; Vignare, Karen; Bourquin, Leslie D.; Thiagarajan, Deepa

    2010-01-01

    The Food Safety Knowledge Network (FSKN) is a collaboration between Michigan State University, the Global Food Safety Initiative of the Consumer Goods Forum, and other food industry and public sector partners. FSKN's goal is to help strengthen the food industry's response to the complex food safety knowledge and training challenges that affect…

  2. On Noncooperative Capital Income Taxation in Open Economies

    OpenAIRE

    Kenneth Kletzer

    1990-01-01

    This paper discusses the strategic use of capital income taxation and lump-sum fiscal policies for gaining national advantage in an integrated world capital market. Each fiscal authority seeks to maximize a social welfare function defined over the utilities of home country residents incorporating national redistributing objectives. A national optimum policy is to impose a non-discriminatory source-based capital income tax or subsidy along with an optimal lump-sum tax and transfer plan. Reside...

  3. For a Political Economy of Massive Open Online Courses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Richard

    2015-01-01

    In understanding the changes that are impacting the global higher education sector, developing a critique of the relationships between technology and technological innovation, new managerialism and financialisation, and the impact of the secular crisis of global capitalism is critical. Moreover, it is important to critique these changes…

  4. Equilibrium pollution taxes in a two-sector open economy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nannerup, N. [Faculty of Business Administration, Dept. of Economics (Denmark)

    1996-12-31

    This paper is concerned with trade strategic implications of environmental policy between two countries when there are two oligopolistic markets in each of which producers are located in a separate country. Differences in abatement cost structures between domestic firms are moreover introduced. This variant of the basic model of strategic trade makes possible an analysis of the design of optimal emission taxes across domestic sectors when countries have taken unilateral actions to reduce emission of a pollutant harming the global environment, such as CO{sub 2}. It turns out that by differentiating taxes across domestic firms governments can raise national net foreign rents in the two markets. This basic result arising between non-cooperative governments is related to recent results showing that tax-differentiation across sectors could, in fact, raise global welfare insofar as it prevents CO{sub 2} emission to relocate in countries that have no climate policy. (au) 16 refs.

  5. Monetary Policy and the Taylor Principle in Open Economies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Linnemann, L.; Schabert, A.

    2006-01-01

    Nowadays, central banks mostly conduct monetary policy by setting nominal interest rates. A widely held view is that central banks can stabilize inflation if they follow the Taylor principle, which requires raising the nominal interest rate more than one-for-one in response to higher inflation. Is

  6. Human trafficking: fighting the illicit economy with the legitimate economy

    OpenAIRE

    Shelley, Louise; Bain, Christina

    2015-01-01

    Since the beginning of research on human trafficking, there has been attention paid to the challenges surrounding the illicit economy. In creating new strategies and initiatives on combatting human trafficking, there needs to be more discussion surrounding the legitimate economy and how the business sector can make an impact in the fight against trafficking. Currently, there is a growing movement of businesses that are looking to address human trafficking through training, education, and lead...

  7. Digitalizing the Circular Economy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reuter, Markus A.

    2016-12-01

    Metallurgy is a key enabler of a circular economy (CE), its digitalization is the metallurgical Internet of Things (m-IoT). In short: Metallurgy is at the heart of a CE, as metals all have strong intrinsic recycling potentials. Process metallurgy, as a key enabler for a CE, will help much to deliver its goals. The first-principles models of process engineering help quantify the resource efficiency (RE) of the CE system, connecting all stakeholders via digitalization. This provides well-argued and first-principles environmental information to empower a tax paying consumer society, policy, legislators, and environmentalists. It provides the details of capital expenditure and operational expenditure estimates. Through this path, the opportunities and limits of a CE, recycling, and its technology can be estimated. The true boundaries of sustainability can be determined in addition to the techno-economic evaluation of RE. The integration of metallurgical reactor technology and systems digitally, not only on one site but linking different sites globally via hardware, is the basis for describing CE systems as dynamic feedback control loops, i.e., the m-IoT. It is the linkage of the global carrier metallurgical processing system infrastructure that maximizes the recovery of all minor and technology elements in its associated refining metallurgical infrastructure. This will be illustrated through the following: (1) System optimization models for multimetal metallurgical processing. These map large-scale m-IoT systems linked to computer-aided design tools of the original equipment manufacturers and then establish a recycling index through the quantification of RE. (2) Reactor optimization and industrial system solutions to realize the "CE (within a) Corporation—CEC," realizing the CE of society. (3) Real-time measurement of ore and scrap properties in intelligent plant structures, linked to the modeling, simulation, and optimization of industrial extractive process

  8. The Political Economy of Collective Labour Legislation in Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James W. Y. Wang

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This article provides a seminal analysis of collective labour legislation in Taiwan. A chronological review of Taiwan’s legislative process suggests that the context of incorporation, institutional framework, mechanisms for delivering reforms, and sequence of reforms together shape the legislative outcomes of labour reforms at the collective level. While most labour legislation was revised and passed after the preceding sequence of economic transition, the reform of collective labour rights was greatly constrained by the flexible labour-market structure. In order for politicians to form new alliances with labour organizations, legislation of collective labour rights was a strategy to cultivate support during electoral periods. Consequently, the industrial relations changed following the enactment of substantial reform-oriented labour legislation. Theore-tically, the historical analysis of legislative procedure unveils evolutionary reform paths for collective labour rights in new democracies. At the same time, empirically, Taiwan demonstrates an alternative reform path in combination with incremental steps and progressive agendas. For new democracies of small economy, a window of opportunity for the progress in collective labour legislation remains open today, albeit with limitations.

  9. CURRENT TRENDS IN THE KNOWLEDGE ECONOMY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ciprian Ionel HRETCANU

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we discuss various aspects of the current economy known as the knowledge economy. Also we will review two indicators of this new economy, because these indicators presents a general plan on access, use and degree of diffusion of knowledge. Then, based on these indicators and taking into account other aspects, we outline the structure relations between "new economy" and "digital economy". Finally we present the main types of business existing in the digital economy.

  10. Tourism, the Future of Economy in Albania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arjana Kadiu

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Tourism is one of the main pillars of economy for many countries in the world. It influences the economy and offers more employment possibilities every year. Mediterranean countries have a favorable, geographical position and climate to develop tourism. Most of these countries, have obtained higher incomes from this industry, and as a result, more prosperity and economic development. Today, about 30 % of the world’s tourists spend their vacations in the Mediterranean Region. Albania is one of these countries and it has great possibilities for the future.The nature of Albania, it’s geographical position and its panorama, the climatic and physical diversity of its territory, represent some of its rich resources and strengthness. Previously, Albania’s economy depended in agriculture and small industries. After the 90-s, when many citizens left the country, the situation changed and even that source of income became inconsiderable. Heavy or textile industry, were hardly developed. Tourism was hardly developed too. Only few investments were made in this sector. In October 2012, EU Commission recommended Albania to be granted the EU candidate status. Therefore, Albania’s economy has to be developed according to EU standards. In this paper we would like to assess, which may be some important and effective innovative management strategies for Albania’s tourism. What are some of the steps to follow in this direction? The article aims to make a comparison with Greece and Montenegro, as reference points, in order to understand these countries’ touristic strategies and try to adapt some of them or think about new effective ones. It aims to provide a profile that shows; strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats. The study will be based in official statistics and scientific literature. The study concludes that the economic benefits of tourism are considerable, immediate and there are many new ways to activate the natural sources of Albania.

  11. Domesticizing Financial Economies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ossandón, José; Deville, Joe; Lazarus, Jeanne

    , in order to illustrate what we mean by “domesticizing finance”, we seek to bring together diverse and often disconnected recent literature from research conducted across a wide range of national settings and from different disciplinary environments. One goal of this paper, therefore, is to help create....... The angle suggested here is not only open to the mundane, practices and materialities of finance, but also to learning from and connecting more or less distinct layers of finance that tend to remain analytically separated. Third, we suggest that the type of approach proposed here makes it possible to pose...

  12. Fuel Economy Label and CAFE Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Engine and Vehicle Compliance Certification and Fuel Economy Inventory contains measured emissions and fuel economy compliance information for light duty...

  13. Opening of small and intermediate calcium-activated potassium channels induces relaxation mainly mediated by nitric-oxide release in large arteries and endothelium-derived hyperpolarizing factor in small arteries from rat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stankevicius, Edgaras; Dalsgaard, Thomas; Kroigaard, Christel

    2011-01-01

    This study was designed to investigate whether calcium-activated potassium channels of small (SK(Ca) or K(Ca)2) and intermediate (IK(Ca) or K(Ca)3.1) conductance activated by 6,7-dichloro-1H-indole-2,3-dione 3-oxime (NS309) are involved in both nitric oxide (NO) and endothelium-derived hyperpolar......This study was designed to investigate whether calcium-activated potassium channels of small (SK(Ca) or K(Ca)2) and intermediate (IK(Ca) or K(Ca)3.1) conductance activated by 6,7-dichloro-1H-indole-2,3-dione 3-oxime (NS309) are involved in both nitric oxide (NO) and endothelium...... in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs), and calcium concentrations were investigated in both HUVECs and mesenteric arterial endothelial cells. In both superior (∼1093 μm) and small mesenteric (∼300 μm) arteries, NS309 evoked endothelium- and concentration-dependent relaxations. In superior....... In small mesenteric arteries, NS309 relaxations were reduced slightly by ADMA, whereas apamin plus an IK(Ca) channel blocker almost abolished relaxation. Iberiotoxin did not change NS309 relaxation. HUVECs expressed mRNA for SK(Ca) and IK(Ca) channels, and NS309 induced increases in calcium, outward...

  14. Handbook on the Experience Economy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    This illuminating Handbook presents the state-of-the-art in the scientific field of experience economy studies. It offers a rich and varied collection of contributions that discuss different issues of crucial importance for our understanding of the experience economy. Each chapter reflects diverse...... an insight into how receivers react to experiential elements of experience economy studies. An innovative presentation of experience economics, this is a remarkable collection of new theory and analyses. This book will prove an invaluable resource to researchers and students in management, marketing...... scientific viewpoints from disciplines including management, mainstream economics and sociology to provide a comprehensive overview. The Handbook is divided into three subsections to explore progression in the scientific field of experience economy studies. The first section focuses on fundamental debates...

  15. Iraq's Economy: Past, Present, Future

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Sanford, Jonathan E

    2003-01-01

    .... Iraq's industrial sector was created, in large part, as a result of government efforts to diversify the economy through economic development projects using the proceeds from Iraq's oil wealth and borrowed funds...

  16. MARKETING IMPLICATION IN WINE ECONOMY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ştefan MATEI

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The wine, a very complex product in viticulture, has proved its tremendous importance not only to the individual but rational nutrition and increasing national income of a country cultivators (evidenced by the upward trend of the share of crop production horticulture and viticulture in the global economy agricultural. More interesting is, given the continued growth in the number of scientific publications and their quality (at least since the 1980s - where "wine" is the centerpiece of these studies - we can not but be witnessing a growing interest more to this "potion" and found that the growing popularity of wine in the science reveals the emergence of a new academic field, ie "wine economy" (or wine-economy. This study aims to make a foray into "wine economy" and to outline some of the implications of marketing in this area.

  17. Inefficient equilibria in transition economy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergei Guriev

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper studies a general equilibrium in an economy where all market participants face a bid-ask spread. The spread may be caused by indirect business taxes, middlemen rent-seeking, delays in payments or liquidity constraints or price uncertainty. Wherever it comes from the spread causes inefficiency of the market equilibrium. We discuss some institutions that can decrease the inefficiency. One is second currency (barter exchange in the inter-firm transactions. It is shown that the general equilibrium in an economy with second currency is effective though is still different from Arrow–Debreu equilibrium. Another solution can be introduction of mutual trade credit. In the economy with trade credit there are multiple equilibria that are more efficient than original bid-ask spread but still not as efficient as Arrow–Debreu one, too. The implications for firms' integration and applicability to Russian economy are discussed.

  18. Iraq's Economy: Past, Present, Future

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Sanford, Jonathan E

    2003-01-01

    .... This pattern was most pronounced during the recent regime of Saddam Hussein, which was at root a centrally-directed command economy with some trappings of market economics and crony capitalism...

  19. Open Praxis, volumen 4 issue 1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Editor Open Praxis

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available - Correlation between Performance and Quality of Academic Staff in National Open University of Nigeria (NOUN Olubiyi Adeniyi Adewale, Timothy Olugbenga Ajadi & Juliet O.Inegbedion (1-7 - Benchmarking E-Learning in UK Universities: Lessons from and for the International Context Paul Bacsich (9-17 - Structural equation modelling of factors affecting success in student’s performance in ODL-Programs: Extending Quality Management concepts Per Bergamin, Simone Ziska & Rudolf Groner (18-25 - Quality Assurance in Open and Distance Learning in India S.K. Gandhe (26-32 - Leading innovative approaches to the financial crisis Sarah Guri-Rosenblit (33-38 - TOWARDS KNOWLEDGE BASED ECONOMIES - the contribution of open distance learning strategies in addressing equity and inclusiveness issues in small states like Mauritius Jheengut (39-63 - New Approaches to Quality Assurance in the Changing World of Higher Education Maria Jose Lemaitre (64-75 - Entrepreneurship: New Challenges for Higher Education Institutions Josep Lladós (76-87 - A Psychometric Study in the Performance of Distance learners Ravi K Mahajan (88-94 - Managing Quality Assurance for Distance Learning Programs in Malaysia Mohd Ismail Ramli (95-101 - Employability and lifelong learning Hazel Simmons-McDonald (102-113

  20. Assessment of density functional theory for bonds formed between rare gases and open-shell atoms: a computational study of small molecules containing He, Ar, Kr and Xe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bertolus, Marjorie; Major, Mohamed; Brenner, Valerie

    2012-01-01

    The validity of the description of the DFT approximations currently implemented in plane wave DFT codes (LDA, GGA, meta-GGA, hybrid, GGA + empirical dispersion correction) for interactions between rare gases and open-shell atoms which form materials is poorly known. We have performed a first assessment of the accuracy of these functionals for the description of the bonds formed by helium, argon, krypton and xenon with various open-shell atoms. This evaluation has been done on model molecular systems for which precise experimental data are available and reference post-Hartree-Fock calculations (CCSD(T) using large basis sets) are feasible. The results show that when the rare gas atom shares density with the neighbouring atoms, the GGA functionals yield good geometries and qualitatively correct binding energies, even if these are quite significantly overestimated. The use of hybrid functionals enables us to obtain good geometries and satisfactory binding energies. For compounds in which the rare gas atom forms weak dispersive-like bonding, the accuracy yielded by the various functionals is not as good. No functional gives satisfactory binding energies for all the compounds investigated. Several GGA and hybrid functionals yield correct geometries, even if some isomers are not obtained. One GGA functional (PBE) yields qualitatively correct results for the compounds of the three rare gases and several hybrid functionals give satisfactory energies for He compounds. The addition of an empirical dispersive correction improves the results on association compounds, but several isomers are not found. (authors)

  1. Assessment of density functional theory for bonds formed between rare gases and open-shell atoms: a computational study of small molecules containing He, Ar, Kr and Xe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertolus, Marjorie; Major, Mohamed; Brenner, Valérie

    2012-01-14

    The validity of the description of the DFT approximations currently implemented in plane wave DFT codes (LDA, GGA, meta-GGA, hybrid, GGA + empirical dispersion correction) for interactions between rare gases and open-shell atoms which form materials is poorly known. We have performed a first assessment of the accuracy of these functionals for the description of the bonds formed by helium, argon, krypton and xenon with various open-shell atoms. This evaluation has been done on model molecular systems for which precise experimental data are available and reference post-Hartree-Fock calculations (CCSD(T) using large basis sets) are feasible. The results show that when the rare gas atom shares density with the neighbouring atoms, the GGA functionals yield good geometries and qualitatively correct binding energies, even if these are quite significantly overestimated. The use of hybrid functionals enables us to obtain good geometries and satisfactory binding energies. For compounds in which the rare gas atom forms weak dispersive-like bonding, the accuracy yielded by the various functionals is not as good. No functional gives satisfactory binding energies for all the compounds investigated. Several GGA and hybrid functionals yield correct geometries, even if some isomers are not obtained. One GGA functional (PBE) yields qualitatively correct results for the compounds of the three rare gases and several hybrid functionals give satisfactory energies for He compounds. The addition of an empirical dispersive correction improves the results on association compounds, but several isomers are not found.

  2. The Underground Economy in Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cleopatra Sendroiu

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Underground economic activities exist in most countries around the world, and they usually have the same causes: inadequate tax systems, excessive state interference in the economy and the lack of coordination in establishing economic policies. Through this paper, we aim to offer certain recommendations, which, in our opinion, would lead to solving the issue of inadequate allocation of resources and would also contribute to restoration of the worldwide economy.

  3. Understanding the Drivers of an ‘Entrepreneurial’ Economy : Lessons from Japan and the Netherlands

    OpenAIRE

    Okamuro, Hiroyuki; Van Stel, André; Verheul, Ingrid

    2010-01-01

    Globalization and an increasing importance of knowledge in the production process cause many developed countries to move from a more ‘managed’ to a more ‘entrepreneurial’ economy in recent decades. In the former type of economy, large and incumbent firms play a dominant role, exploiting economies of scale in a relatively certain economic environment. In the latter type, small and new firms play an increasingly important role, introducing new products and services in highly uncertain economic ...

  4. Social Economy: Challenges and Opportunities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioan HOSU

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The present article addresses a topic of interest for both the public sector and the nonprofit sector, namely that of the innovative practices of social economy. Diverse practices and models of social economy are increasingly present in the Romanian community, this being the reason why it is important to study the major coordinates of social economy and social entrepreneurship identified by means of an empirical research done in Romania. Social economy is considered one of the most important innovative strategy approaches as this sector may contribute to some efforts done for the elimination of poverty and the re-launching of local economies. The integration of the identified elements in regional programs and public policies is the starting point of the strategic approaches regarding reform in public administration. Social economy can be an example of joint action for public and private organizations and institutions interested in carrying out community projects based on inclusive, participative and innovative forms of community development.

  5. The Knowledge Economy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonçalves, Bruno; Perra, Nicola; Ciulla, Fabio; Zhang, Qian; Vespignani, Alessandro

    2013-03-01

    Although the study of scientific and citation networks is well developed, the way in which ideas and concepts flow between scientific groups scattered around the world is still an open problem. We take a first step in this direction by using the citation patterns over the course of decades to shed light on how areas and fields in the general area of physics have evolved both temporally and geographically. By geocoding the affiliations associated with each article published by the APS journals to the country level, and by borrowing concepts from the field of economics and international trade we can explore how ideas produced in one country are exported, through citations, to other countries. An objective way of ranking countries based on their contributions to the overall scientific effort is also proposed as well as a map of how the different subfields of Physics are related to each other.

  6. Finnish economy and alternatives available to the forest sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maeenpaeae, I.; Maennistoe, J.

    1993-01-01

    The effects of the development of the forest sector on the development trends of Finnish national economy are analysed in this report. The analysis extends to the year 2005. Factors taken as indicators of the economic development are gross national product, total exports, employment, energy and carbon dioxide emissions. The impact analyses were performed using the FMS model system which contains a multi-branch econometric simulation model which can be used to provide a long-term analysis of the national economy. A disaggregated forest economy sector was developed for use in the system. The most significant outcome of the forest economy sensitivity analyses was that any expansion in highly refined timber products will contribute more profoundly to the expansion of the entire economy than chemical wood processing could, as the capital investments required by the latter tend to absorb and replace other economic activities. As far as comprehensive development scenarios are concerned, only small-scale effects were observed in the case of the gross national product, due to the replacement effect. On the other hand, expansion was predicted to have a profound effect on energy consumption and carbon dioxide emissions in the country's total economy, particularly as regards the extreme scenarios (12 refs., 6 tabs., 1 fig.)

  7. An Open Door and a Leg Up: Increasing Service-Disabled Veteran-Owned Small Business (SDVOSB) Participation in Defense Contracting Through Simplified Acquisitions (Briefing Charts)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-05-01

    4/1999 Rejection of Access to 8(a) Program in HR 1460 Veterans Entrepreneurship and Benefits Improvement Act of 2003 6/5/2003 Unutilized...Edition of DOD 5 Year Strategic Plan 6/23/2007 GAO – MCS and IBV Ltd - SDVOSB "MAY" Set Aside but MUST Consider 1/1/2008 Final Edition of DOD... Strategic Plan 1/14/2009 Small Business Jobs Act 2010 – Discretion to Set Asides on MAC and IDIQ and "Program Parity" 9/27/2010 Task

  8. Market Economy under Rapid Globalization and Rising Productivity

    OpenAIRE

    Konov, Joshua Ioji

    2012-01-01

    Market economy of enhancing business laws in contracting, bonding, insuring, legal corporate structures , e.g. will marginalize the economic agents and tools that make market competition unfair, empower small and medium businesses and investors, and boost business activities, fiscal strength, employment, and capital transmission. Keynesian capital infusion will extend its market effect in such higher security marketplace.

  9. Feature economy vs. logical complexity in phonological pattern learning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Seinhorst, K.T.

    Complexity has been linked to ease of learning. This article explores the roles of two measures of complexity – feature economy and logical complexity – in the acquisition of sets of signs, taken from a small sign language that serves as an analogue of plosive inventories in spoken language. In a

  10. Knowledge Externalities, Agglomeration Economies, and Employment Growth in Dutch Cities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Soest, D.P.; Gerking, S.D.; van Oort, F.G.

    2002-01-01

    This paper extends the work of Glaeser et al.(1992) by looking at effects of agglomeration economies on employment growth in Dutch city-industries and in very small (postal) zip code-industries in the Dutch province of South-Holland. At both levels of geographic detail, findings are broadly

  11. Towards a solidarity economy zakat Decrease poverty vs economic growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mébarek BOUBLAL

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Historically, inequalities in the distribution of goods between men existed. Different economic policies have been developed in order to solve not only the problem of inequality, but also that of unemployment. The statistics speak for themselves; despite efforts provided, no solution has been able to solve this twofold problem. Indeed, we must understand that today's economy is primarily responsible for capital growth; support social policy is the responsibility of the welfare state. Policies such as the single tax , or flat tax and the social economy, or non profit sector, have emerged but not able to reconcile the dilemma posed by the management of the social side with economic growth and to help grow the capital. Consideration of zakat as a social economic system, or zakat solidarity economy, provides an opening to a third way. This pathway is ale to support the reduction of inequalities in redistribution and unemployment, without jeopardizing economic growth.

  12. Evaluating Energy Efficiency Policies with Energy-Economy Models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mundaca, Luis; Neij, Lena; Worrell, Ernst; McNeil, Michael A.

    2010-08-01

    The growing complexities of energy systems, environmental problems and technology markets are driving and testing most energy-economy models to their limits. To further advance bottom-up models from a multidisciplinary energy efficiency policy evaluation perspective, we review and critically analyse bottom-up energy-economy models and corresponding evaluation studies on energy efficiency policies to induce technological change. We use the household sector as a case study. Our analysis focuses on decision frameworks for technology choice, type of evaluation being carried out, treatment of market and behavioural failures, evaluated policy instruments, and key determinants used to mimic policy instruments. Although the review confirms criticism related to energy-economy models (e.g. unrealistic representation of decision-making by consumers when choosing technologies), they provide valuable guidance for policy evaluation related to energy efficiency. Different areas to further advance models remain open, particularly related to modelling issues, techno-economic and environmental aspects, behavioural determinants, and policy considerations.

  13. Political Economy, the Internet and FL/OSS Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansell, Robin; Berdou, Evangelia

    Despite the growing amount of research on Free/Libre/Open Source Software (FL/OSS) development, there is little insight into how structural factors associated with institutions influence the patterns of software developer activity in this area. This article examines some of the dynamics of the development of this type of software and the extent to which these dynamics are associated with features of the gift economy as is frequently suggested in the literature. Drawing on an empirical analysis of contributors to the GNOME FL/OSS project, we suggest that greater attention should be given to the emergence of a mixed economy in which features of the exchange economy come to the fore with implications for the power relationships among those contributing to FL/OSS.

  14. Multicentric evaluation of the impact of central tumour location when comparing rates of N1 upstaging in patients undergoing video-assisted and open surgery for clinical Stage I non-small-cell lung cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Decaluwé, Herbert; Petersen, René Horsleben; Brunelli, Alex; Pompili, Cecilia; Seguin-Givelet, Agathe; Gust, Lucile; Aigner, Clemens; Falcoz, Pierre-Emmanuel; Rinieri, Philippe; Augustin, Florian; Sokolow, Youri; Verhagen, Ad; Depypere, Lieven; Papagiannopoulos, Kostas; Gossot, Dominique; D'Journo, Xavier Benoit; Guerrera, Francesco; Baste, Jean-Marc; Schmid, Thomas; Stanzi, Alessia; Van Raemdonck, Dirk; Bardet, Jeremy; Thomas, Pascal-Alexandre; Massard, Gilbert; Fieuws, Steffen; Moons, Johnny; Dooms, Christophe; De Leyn, Paul; Hansen, Henrik Jessen

    2017-09-27

    Large retrospective series have indicated lower rates of cN0 to pN1 nodal upstaging after video-assisted thoracic surgery (VATS) compared with open resections for Stage I non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). The objective of our multicentre study was to investigate whether the presumed lower rate of N1 upstaging after VATS disappears after correction for central tumour location in a multivariable analysis. Consecutive patients operated for PET-CT based clinical Stage I NSCLC were selected from prospectively managed surgical databases in 11 European centres. Central tumour location was defined as contact with bronchovascular structures on computer tomography and/or visibility on standard bronchoscopy. Eight hundred and ninety-five patients underwent pulmonary resection by VATS (n = 699, 9% conversions) or an open technique (n = 196) in 2014. Incidence of nodal pN1 and pN2 upstaging was 8% and 7% after VATS and 15% and 6% after open surgery, respectively. pN1 was found in 27% of patients with central tumours. Less central tumours were operated on by VATS compared with the open technique (12% vs 28%, P < 0.001). Logistic regression analysis showed that only tumour location had a significant impact on N1 upstaging (OR 6.2, confidence interval 3.6-10.8; P < 0.001) and that the effect of surgical technique (VATS versus open surgery) was no longer significant when accounting for tumour location. A quarter of patients with central clinical Stage I NSCLC was upstaged to pN1 at resection. Central tumour location was the only independent factor associated with N1 upstaging, undermining the evidence for lower N1 upstaging after VATS resections. Studies investigating N1 upstaging after VATS compared with open surgery should be interpreted with caution due to possible selection bias, i.e. relatively more central tumours in the open group with a higher chance of N1 upstaging. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European

  15. Doing Business Economy Profile 2012 : Uruguay

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank; International Finance Corporation

    2012-01-01

    Doing business sheds light on how easy or difficult it is for a local entrepreneur to open and run a small to medium-size business when complying with relevant regulations. It measures and tracks changes in regulations affecting 10 areas in the life cycle of a business: starting a business, dealing with construction permits, getting electricity, registering property, getting credit, protec...

  16. Doing Business Economy Profile 2013 : Uruguay

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank; International Finance Corporation

    2012-01-01

    This tenth edition of Doing Business sheds light on how easy or difficult it is for a local entrepreneur to open and run a small to medium-size business when complying with relevant regulations. It measures and tracks changes in regulations affecting eleven areas in the life cycle of a business: starting a business, dealing with construction permits, getting electricity, registering proper...

  17. Doing Business Economy Profile 2017 : Australia

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank Group

    2016-01-01

    This economy profile presents the Doing Business indicators for Australia. To allow useful comparison, it also provides data for other selected economies (comparator economies) for each indicator. Doing Business 2017 is the 14th in a series of annual reports investigating the regulations that enhance business activity and those that constrain it. Economies are ranked on their ease of doing...

  18. Competitiveness of chinese socialist market economy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henry Ernesto Turner Barragán

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The article analyzes the dynamics held by the Chinese economy becomes, since it happened to be a communist to a capitalist economy and social market economy. Being in the latter, in which the country achieved high rates of economic growth, and improve their competitiveness pillars, generating higher growth prospects in the economy and the income of the society.

  19. Doing Business Economy Profile 2017 : Uruguay

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank Group

    2016-01-01

    This economy profile presents the Doing Business indicators for Uruguay. To allow useful comparison, it also provides data for other selected economies (comparator economies) for each indicator. Doing Business 2017 is the 14th in a series of annual reports investigating the regulations that enhance business activity and those that constrain it. Economies are ranked on their ease of doing b...

  20. The association between the transfusion of small volumes of leucocyte-depleted red blood cells and outcomes in patients undergoing open-heart valve surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zittermann, Armin; Koster, Andreas; Faraoni, David; Börgermann, Jochen; Schirmer, Uwe; Gummert, Jan F

    2017-02-01

    The relationship between the transfusion of red blood cell (RBC) units and outcomes in patients undergoing cardiac surgery is the subject of intense debates. In this study, we investigated the relationship between the transfusion of 1-2 leucocyte-depleted (LD) RBC units and outcomes in patients undergoing open-heart valve surgery. The investigation encompassed consecutive patients undergoing open-heart valve surgery at our institution between July 2009 and March 2015 who received no (RBC- group) or 1-2 units of LD RBC (RBC+ group). End-points were 30-day mortality (primary), the incidence of in-hospital major organ dysfunctions and 1-year mortality (secondary). Propensity score (PS)-adjusted statistical analysis was used to assess the effect of RBC transfusion on end-points. Thirty-day mortality rate was 0.2% (3/1485) in the RBC- group and 0.4% (6/1672) in the RBC+ group, with a PS-adjusted odds ratio (OR) for 30-day mortality of 1.00 (95% CI: 0.21-4.83;P = 0.99). The two groups showed no significant differences in PS-adjusted ORs for major complications, such as stroke, low cardiac output syndrome, thoracic wound infection and prolonged mechanical ventilation (>24 h). The PS-adjusted ORs for prolonged intensive care unit stay (>48 h) were, however, significantly higher in the RBC+ group (OR = 1.34 [95%CI: 1.04-1.72; P = 0.02]) than in the RBC- group. One-year mortality was comparable between groups (PS-adjusted hazard ratio for the RBC+ group: 0.85 [95% CI: 0.42-1.72; P = 0.65]). Our data do not provide evidence that in patients undergoing valve surgery with cardiopulmonary bypass, transfusion of 1-2 units of LD RBC increases operative mortality, the incidence of postoperative complications or 1-year mortality. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Association for Cardio-Thoracic Surgery. All rights reserved.