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Sample records for small mammal sampling

  1. Small Mammal Sampling in Mortandad and Los Alamos Canyons, 2005

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kathy Bennett; Sherri Sherwood; Rhonda Robinson

    2006-01-01

    As part of an ongoing ecological field investigation at Los Alamos National Laboratory, a study was conducted that compared measured contaminant concentrations in sediment to population parameters for small mammals in the Mortandad Canyon watershed. Mortandad Canyon and its tributary canyons have received contaminants from multiple solid waste management units and areas of concern since establishment of the Laboratory in the 1940s. The study included three reaches within Effluent and Mortandad canyons (E-1W, M-2W, and M-3) that had a spread in the concentrations of metals and radionuclides and included locations where polychlorinated biphenyls and perchlorate had been detected. A reference location, reach LA-BKG in upper Los Alamos Canyon, was also included in the study for comparison purposes. A small mammal study was initiated to assess whether potential adverse effects were evident in Mortandad Canyon due to the presence of contaminants, designated as contaminants of potential ecological concern, in the terrestrial media. Study sites, including the reference site, were sampled in late July/early August. Species diversity and the mean daily capture rate were the highest for E-1W reach and the lowest for the reference site. Species composition among the three reaches in Mortandad was similar with very little overlap with the reference canyon. Differences in species composition and diversity were most likely due to differences in habitat. Sex ratios, body weights, and reproductive status of small mammals were also evaluated. However, small sample sizes of some species within some sites affected the analysis. Ratios of males to females by species of each site (n = 5) were tested using a Chi-square analysis. No differences were detected. Where there was sufficient sample size, body weights of adult small mammals were compared between sites. No differences in body weights were found. Reproductive status of species appears to be similar across sites. However, sample

  2. Small Mammal Sampling in Mortandad and Los Alamos Canyons, 2005

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bennett, Kathy; Sherwood, Sherri; Robinson, Rhonda

    2006-08-15

    As part of an ongoing ecological field investigation at Los Alamos National Laboratory, a study was conducted that compared measured contaminant concentrations in sediment to population parameters for small mammals in the Mortandad Canyon watershed. Mortandad Canyon and its tributary canyons have received contaminants from multiple solid waste management units and areas of concern since establishment of the Laboratory in the 1940s. The study included three reaches within Effluent and Mortandad canyons (E-1W, M-2W, and M-3) that had a spread in the concentrations of metals and radionuclides and included locations where polychlorinated biphenyls and perchlorate had been detected. A reference location, reach LA-BKG in upper Los Alamos Canyon, was also included in the study for comparison purposes. A small mammal study was initiated to assess whether potential adverse effects were evident in Mortandad Canyon due to the presence of contaminants, designated as contaminants of potential ecological concern, in the terrestrial media. Study sites, including the reference site, were sampled in late July/early August. Species diversity and the mean daily capture rate were the highest for E-1W reach and the lowest for the reference site. Species composition among the three reaches in Mortandad was similar with very little overlap with the reference canyon. Differences in species composition and diversity were most likely due to differences in habitat. Sex ratios, body weights, and reproductive status of small mammals were also evaluated. However, small sample sizes of some species within some sites affected the analysis. Ratios of males to females by species of each site (n = 5) were tested using a Chi-square analysis. No differences were detected. Where there was sufficient sample size, body weights of adult small mammals were compared between sites. No differences in body weights were found. Reproductive status of species appears to be similar across sites. However, sample

  3. Rules of attraction: The role of bait in small mammal sampling at ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Baits or lures are commonly used for surveying small mammal communities, not only because they attract large numbers of these animals, but also because they provide sustenance for trapped individuals. In this study we used Sherman live traps with five bait treatments to sample small mammal populations at three ...

  4. Biota dose assessment of small mammals sampled near uranium mines in northern Arizona

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jannik, T. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Minter, K. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Kuhne, W. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Kubilius, W. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2018-01-09

    In 2015, the U. S. Geological Survey (USGS) collected approximately 50 small mammal carcasses from Northern Arizona uranium mines and other background locations. Based on the highest gross alpha results, 11 small mammal samples were selected for radioisotopic analyses. None of the background samples had significant gross alpha results. The 11 small mammals were identified relative to the three ‘indicator’ mines located south of Fredonia, AZ on the Kanab Plateau (Kanab North Mine, Pinenut Mine, and Arizona 1 Mine) (Figure 1-1) and are operated by Energy Fuels Resources Inc. (EFRI). EFRI annually reports soil analysis for uranium and radium-226 using Arizona Department of Environmental Quality (ADEQ)-approved Standard Operating Procedures for Soil Sampling (EFRI 2016a, 2016b, 2017). In combination with the USGS small mammal radioiosotopic tissue analyses, a biota dose assessment was completed by Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) using the RESidual RADioactivity-BIOTA (RESRAD-BIOTA, V. 1.8) dose assessment tool provided by the Argonne National Laboratory (ANL 2017).

  5. Small Mammals, Reptiles, and Amphibians

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryce Rickel

    2005-01-01

    This chapter focuses on small mammals, reptiles, and amphibians that inhabit the grasslands within the Southwestern Region of the USDA Forest Service. The chapter is not intended to be an all inclusive list of species, but rather to address the species that play important roles in grassland ecosystems and that often are associated with the management of grasslands....

  6. Road Zone Effects in Small-Mammal Communities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John A. Bissonette

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Our study focused on the putative effects of roads on small-mammal communities in a high desert region of southern Utah. Specifically, we tested whether or not roads create adjacent zones characterized by lower small- mammal densities, abundance, and diversity. We sampled abundance of small mammals at increasing distances from Interstate 15 during two summers. We recorded 11 genera and 13 species. We detected no clear abundance, density, or diversity effects relative to distance from the road. Only two of 13 species were never captured near roads. The abundance of the remaining 11 small mammal species was either similar at different distances from the road or higher closer to the road. We conclude that although roads may act as barriers and possible sources of mortality, adjacent zones of vegetation often provide favorable microhabitat in the desert landscape for many small mammals.

  7. traditional medicinal uses of small mammal products

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dr. Nelson Boniface

    hunted small mammals mainly by dogs for cultural and ornamental reasons. Products of African ... (WHO) defines traditional medicine as ''health practices ... particularly in Asian countries. ..... Ntiamoa- Baidu Y 1992 Local Perceptions and.

  8. Bartonella Prevalence and Genetic Diversity in Small Mammals from Ethiopia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meheretu, Yonas; Leirs, Herwig E.l.; Welegerima, Kiros

    2013-01-01

    More than 500 small mammals were trapped at 3 localities in northern Ethiopia to investigate Bartonella infection prevalence and the genetic diversity of the Bartonella spp. We extracted total DNA from liver samples and performed PCR using the primers 1400F and 2300R targeting 852 bp of the Barto......More than 500 small mammals were trapped at 3 localities in northern Ethiopia to investigate Bartonella infection prevalence and the genetic diversity of the Bartonella spp. We extracted total DNA from liver samples and performed PCR using the primers 1400F and 2300R targeting 852 bp...

  9. A system for gathering small mammal data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert D. Neely; Robert W. Campbell

    1973-01-01

    As an aid to studying vertebrate predators of the gypsy moth, a radio telemetry system was designed to detect the death of small mammals and facilitate recovery of the remains. An intraperitoneally implanted radio transmitter is triggered by the drop in body temperature when the animal dies. The device was tested in white-footed mice.

  10. Small mammal communities on cattle and game grazing areas in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Small mammal communities on cattle and game grazing areas in Namibia. ... small mammal communities on two differently managed farmlands (cattle and game farm) in Namibia over the course of one year. ... AJOL African Journals Online.

  11. Use of models in small mammal population studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Conley, W.; Nichols, J.D.

    1978-01-01

    The role of models as contributors to the understanding of natural populations of small mammals is reviewed. A philosophy of model use and projections for future work are also included. Categories of biological phenomena reviewed include models on population dynamics (demographic variables and population regulation, dispersal, sex-ratios, predation, population cycles), population responses to environmental conditions, genetics of small mammal populations, competitive interactions, ecosystems and small mammal functions, and control and management of small mammal populations

  12. Small mammals distribution and diversity in a plague endemic area ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Small mammals play a role in plague transmission as hosts in all plague endemic areas. Information on distribution and diversity of small mammals is therefore important for plague surveillance and control in such areas. The objective of this study was to investigate small mammals' diversity and their distribution in plague ...

  13. Role of small mammals in ecosystems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Golley, F.B.

    1978-01-01

    Small mammals are one of the groups commonly studied as an ecological unit in ecosystem analysis; the aggregation being justified on taxonomic or methodological grounds. Since small mammals include animals with habits of herbivory, omnivory, and carnivory, nocturnal and diurnal habits, living in a great variety of habitats, and adapted to conditions of life such as burrowing and flight, the collection is a diverse taxonomic aggregation and an unusually bad ecological grouping. For ecosystem analysis, groupings of organisms that have evolved in common with each other in the community seem more reasonable than aggregations based on taxonomic grounds. The depth of the problem is made clear when we examine the record and find that there are almost no studies of energy and material flow in terrestrial food chains. It is incredible that almost every study of a population considers that population as a receiver and donor of energy and materials acting independently. It would appear that aggregation of food chains into ecosystem components might be more fruitful than aggregation of independent populations

  14. Neurobehavioral endocrine regulation of small mammal populations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Christian, J.J.

    1978-01-01

    A brief review is given of the hypothesis that density-dependent behavioral-endocrine negative feedbacks can regulate and often limit the growth of populations of many species of small mammals. Recent laboratory studies are summarized that show how stress, particularly psychogenic, which results in increased adrenocortical secretion also alters gonadotropin secretion and inhibits reproduction. Chronic stress due to crowding, immobilization, et al. inhibits the release of LH and FSH, particularly by abolishing the pulsatile release of LH, and also causes a rise in prolactin (at least acutely). Stimulation of the hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenocortical system is accompanied by an inversely proportional inhibition of growth hormone secretion. Decreasing photoperiod enhances the sensitivity of the hypothalamus to inhibition of gonadotropin secretion by androgens and estrogens. Other endocrine responses to increased density or subordinate social rank also are summarized. How these facts fit into the negative feedback scheme is discussed, including the greatly prolonged effects of diminished lactation. The changed quality of the animals associated with changes in density discussed by Lidicker also can be explained by the above responses to density. Data on changes in growth and reproductive function which are consistent with the behavioral-endocrine feedback hypothesis are presented for several populations of small mammals, including some previously unpublished data for Microtus pennsylvanicus

  15. Optimising camera traps for monitoring small mammals.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alistair S Glen

    Full Text Available Practical techniques are required to monitor invasive animals, which are often cryptic and occur at low density. Camera traps have potential for this purpose, but may have problems detecting and identifying small species. A further challenge is how to standardise the size of each camera's field of view so capture rates are comparable between different places and times. We investigated the optimal specifications for a low-cost camera trap for small mammals. The factors tested were 1 trigger speed, 2 passive infrared vs. microwave sensor, 3 white vs. infrared flash, and 4 still photographs vs. video. We also tested a new approach to standardise each camera's field of view. We compared the success rates of four camera trap designs in detecting and taking recognisable photographs of captive stoats (Mustelaerminea, feral cats (Felis catus and hedgehogs (Erinaceuseuropaeus. Trigger speeds of 0.2-2.1 s captured photographs of all three target species unless the animal was running at high speed. The camera with a microwave sensor was prone to false triggers, and often failed to trigger when an animal moved in front of it. A white flash produced photographs that were more readily identified to species than those obtained under infrared light. However, a white flash may be more likely to frighten target animals, potentially affecting detection probabilities. Video footage achieved similar success rates to still cameras but required more processing time and computer memory. Placing two camera traps side by side achieved a higher success rate than using a single camera. Camera traps show considerable promise for monitoring invasive mammal control operations. Further research should address how best to standardise the size of each camera's field of view, maximise the probability that an animal encountering a camera trap will be detected, and eliminate visible or audible cues emitted by camera traps.

  16. Small mammals as monitors of environmental contaminants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Talmage, S.S.; Walton, B.T.

    1991-01-01

    The merit of using small mammals as monitors of environmental contaminants was assessed using data from the published literature. Information was located on 35 species of small mammals from 7 families used to monitor heavy metals, radionuclides, and organic chemicals at mine sites, industrial areas, hazardous and radioactive waste disposal sites, and agricultural and forested land. To document foodchain transfer of chemicals, concentrations in soil, vegetation, and invertebrates, where available, were included. The most commonly trapped North American species were Peromyscus leucopus, Blarina brevicauda, and Microtus pennsylvanicus. In these species, exposure to chemicals was determined from tissue residue analyses, biochemical assays, and cytogenetic assays. Where enough information was available, suitable target tissues, or biological assays for specific chemicals were noted. In general, there was a relationship between concentrations of contaminants in the soil or food, and concentrations in target tissues of several species. This relationship was most obvious for the nonessential heavy metals, cadmium, lead, and mercury and for fluoride. Kidney was the single best tissue for residue analyses of inorganic contaminants. However, bone should be the tissue of choice for both lead and fluorine. Exposure to lead was also successfully documented using biochemical and histopathological endpoints. Bone was the tissue of choice for exposure to 90Sr, whereas muscle was an appropriate tissue for 137Cs. For organic contaminants, exposure endpoints depended on the chemical(s) of concern. Liver and whole-body residue analyses, as well as enzyme changes, organ histology, genotoxicity, and, in one case, population dynamics, were successfully used to document exposure to these contaminants

  17. Habitat, food, and small mammal community structure in Namaqualand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. van Deventer

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available The effect of habitat differences and food availability on small mammal (rodent and elephant shrew species richness, diversity, density and biomass was investigated in Namaqualand, South Africa. Species richness in the three habitats sampled, namely Upland Succulent Karoo, Dry Riverine Shrub and North-western Mountain Renosterveld was low, with only 2–4 species per habitat. Rodents trapped were predominantly Gerbillurus paeba and Aethomys namaquensis, with fewer Mus minutoides and Petromyscus sp. The only non-rodent was the elephant shrew Elephantulus edwardii. Ten habitat features, the percentage of total plant cover, tree cover, shrub cover, grass cover, plant litter, total basal cover, sand, gravel or rock cover, and the dominant plant height were recorded at 30 randomly chosen points on five sampling grids in each habitat. Small mammal density and biomass was significantly correlated with food availability (green foliage cover, seeds, and relative density and biomass of insects. Species richness and diversity of small mammals were significantly correlated with shrub cover. Numbers and biomass of specific species correlated significantly with different habitat features in each case.

  18. Different methods for volatile sampling in mammals.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marlen Kücklich

    Full Text Available Previous studies showed that olfactory cues are important for mammalian communication. However, many specific compounds that convey information between conspecifics are still unknown. To understand mechanisms and functions of olfactory cues, olfactory signals such as volatile compounds emitted from individuals need to be assessed. Sampling of animals with and without scent glands was typically conducted using cotton swabs rubbed over the skin or fur and analysed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS. However, this method has various drawbacks, including a high level of contaminations. Thus, we adapted two methods of volatile sampling from other research fields and compared them to sampling with cotton swabs. To do so we assessed the body odor of common marmosets (Callithrix jacchus using cotton swabs, thermal desorption (TD tubes and, alternatively, a mobile GC-MS device containing a thermal desorption trap. Overall, TD tubes comprised most compounds (N = 113, with half of those compounds being volatile (N = 52. The mobile GC-MS captured the fewest compounds (N = 35, of which all were volatile. Cotton swabs contained an intermediate number of compounds (N = 55, but very few volatiles (N = 10. Almost all compounds found with the mobile GC-MS were also captured with TD tubes (94%. Hence, we recommend TD tubes for state of the art sampling of body odor of mammals or other vertebrates, particularly for field studies, as they can be easily transported, stored and analysed with high performance instruments in the lab. Nevertheless, cotton swabs capture compounds which still may contribute to the body odor, e.g. after bacterial fermentation, while profiles from mobile GC-MS include only the most abundant volatiles of the body odor.

  19. Small mammal populations in a restored stream corridor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wike, L.D.

    2000-01-01

    An opportunity to study the response of a small mammal community to restoration of a riparian wetland was provided by the Pen Branch project at the Savannah River Site (SRS). Live trapping of small mammals was conducted on six transects at Pen Branch in 1996 and 1998 and at three transects at Meyer's Branch, an unimpacted stream at SRS, in 1997 and 1998. Distributions of rates of capture of the four most common species were both spatially and temporally uneven. Kruskal-Wallis one-way analysis of variance found no significant differences in the relationship of capture rates between species and between treatment and both the within-stream control and Meyers Branch. Habitat use and movement within stream corridors appears to be dependent primarily on species, with age and sex perhaps contributing to preference and distance moved. The lack of differences in capture rates related to transect or treatment may be due to the close proximity of sample transects relative to the movement potential of the species sampled

  20. Taxonomic Report on Small Mammals from Two Coastal Wetland ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Fiifi Baidoo

    Abstract. Surveys of the small mammal populations of two coastal wetlands in Ghana, .... Captured animals were euthanized with chloroform, according to the American Society of. Mammalogy Animal Care and Use Committee guidelines.

  1. Small mammals as components of the consumer subsystem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    French, N.R.

    1978-01-01

    The trophic and species composition of small mammal populations in various environments are related to structural complexity of the plant community. The basis for these relationships is in energetics, abundance, and dependability of food resources determining the potential patterns of exploitation possible. There is evidence for resource partitioning by small mammals in grasslands, but development of suitable strategies are dependent upon demographic characteristics. Energetic efficiency of small mammals and invertebrates is examined as it affects their relative success as consumers in grasslands. The relative importance of small mammals, birds, and arthropods in relation to utilization of plant herbage, seeds, and invertebrate food resources is estimated for five grassland sites. Recommendations are made for topics meriting further investigation

  2. 1 Land use determinants of small mammal abundance and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    management practices associated with small mammal distribution and ... human activity diversity; (c) Landform characteristics (plain, escarpment, plateau dissected at .... distributions (Axelsson et al., 2011; SAS Resource on the web, 2012).

  3. Prevalence of Toxoplasma gondii in small mammals from the Ardennes region, France.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afonso, Eve; Poulle, Marie-Lazarine; Lemoine, Mélissa; Villena, Isabelle; Aubert, Dominique; Gilot-Fromont, Emmanuelle

    2007-11-01

    Serum samples from 218 small mammals trapped in forest and grassland in the Ardennes region (North-eastern France) were tested for antibodies to Toxoplasma gondii. Using the modified agglutination test, positive results were found in 4/92 Apodemus sp., 3/64 Clethrionomys glareolus, 0/26 Microtus agrestis, 0/4 Micromys minutus, 3/5 Sorex sp., 2/9 Arvicola terrestris, and 7/18 Talpa europaea. Toxoplasma gondii was not isolated from the heart of seropositive individuals after bioassay in mice. Seroprevalence was significantly higher in large fossorial mammals living in grassland than in small forest mammals, probably related to ecological factors.

  4. Habitats of small mammals at Whiteshell Nuclear Research Establishment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iverson, S L; Turner, B N

    1973-12-01

    The small mammals in the area around the Whiteshell Nuclear Research Establishment in southeastern Manitoba were sampled by approximately 110,000 snap- trap nights in a 5 year period. Habitats trapped were divided into major types on the basis of the tree species present, and occurrences of the different species of shrubs and herbs in each habitat type were noted. The major habitats were mixed deciduous, aspen, ash, mixed coniferous, The small mammal component of the mixed deciduous forest was dominated by Peromyscus maniculatus and Clethrionomys gapperi but all of the other species included in this study were also present. In both aspen and ash forests, Microtus pennsylvanicus and C. gapperi were the most numerous species, with Sorex arcticus reaching its greatest abundance in the latter. In the open field, M. pennsylvanicus was most abundant, followed by Zapus hudsonius, C. gapperi, M. pennsylvanicus and Sorex cinereus were the most numerous mammals in the black spruce bog community, and also extended into the black spruce forest. All of the species studied, except Napaeozapus insignis and S. arcticus, were present in the mixed coniferous forest. S. arcticus and S. cinereus, although captured in habitats ranging from heavy forest to open field, appeared to be most numerous in young forests and other intermediate habitats. Blarina brevicauda was most numerous in older forests. P. maniculatus and N. insignis were most common in the mixed deciduous forest, but P. maniculatus occurred more frequently than N. insignis in the younger forests. P. maniculatus showed a significant positive relationship with large tree diameter and low percentages of ground cover. C. gapperi was captured in highest numbers in the mixed deciduous and coniferous forests, but was also found in the other types of forest in greater numbers than P. maniculaius. M. pennsylvanicus and Zapus hudsonius were most common in the open field, but both species were present in the forests. Analysis of data

  5. Competition between species of small mammals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grant, P.R.

    1978-01-01

    Interspecific competition has often been inferred from its results. In evolutionary time it has been responsible for patterns of regularity in the structure of mammalian communities, and in the morphological and ecological characteristics of the constituent species. In contemporary time it gives rise to reciprocal (complementary) numbers and distributions of two or more species. These inferences are strengthened by recent experimental demonstrations of competition between species of North American rodents. Recent observations and experiments are reviewed. The most thoroughly studied competitors are two species of microtine rodents, Microtus pennsylvanicus and Clethrionomys gapperi. Species which compete for space have been studied experimentally more often than have food competitors. Overt aggression is frequently implicated, but its importance in nature in relation to other means of interaction (e.g. through vocal or scent communication) is not known. The definitive study of competition for food between mammal species has yet to be performed

  6. Mycobacteria in Terrestrial Small Mammals on Cattle Farms in Tanzania

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Durnez, Lies; Katakweba, Abdul; Sadiki, Harrison

    2011-01-01

    The control of bovine tuberculosis and atypical mycobacterioses in cattle in developing countries is important but difficult because of the existence of wildlife reservoirs. In cattle farms in Tanzania, mycobacteria were detected in 7.3% of 645 small mammals and in cow's milk. The cattle farms we....... However, because of the high prevalence of mycobacteria in some small mammal species, these infected animals can pose a risk to humans, especially in areas with a high HIV-prevalence as is the case in Tanzania.......The control of bovine tuberculosis and atypical mycobacterioses in cattle in developing countries is important but difficult because of the existence of wildlife reservoirs. In cattle farms in Tanzania, mycobacteria were detected in 7.3% of 645 small mammals and in cow's milk. The cattle farms were...... and PCR in the small mammals were atypical mycobacteria. Analysis of the presence of mycobacteria in relation to the reactor status of the cattle farms does not exclude transmission between small mammals and cattle but indicates that transmission to cattle from another source of infection is more likely...

  7. Prevalence and Genotype Allocation of Pathogenic Leptospira Species in Small Mammals from Various Habitat Types in Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obiegala, Anna; Woll, Dietlinde; Karnath, Carolin; Silaghi, Cornelia; Schex, Susanne; Eßbauer, Sandra; Pfeffer, Martin

    2016-03-01

    Small mammals serve as most important reservoirs for Leptospira spp., the causative agents of Leptospirosis, which is one of the most neglected and widespread zoonotic diseases worldwide. The knowledge about Leptospira spp. occurring in small mammals from Germany is scarce. Thus, this study's objectives were to investigate the occurrence of Leptospira spp. and the inherent sequence types in small mammals from three different study sites: a forest in southern Germany (site B1); a National Park in south-eastern Germany (site B2) and a renaturalised area, in eastern Germany (site S) where small mammals were captured. DNA was extracted from kidneys of small mammals and tested for Leptospira spp. by real-time PCR. Positive samples were further analysed by duplex and conventional PCRs. For 14 positive samples, multi locus sequence typing (MLST) was performed. Altogether, 1213 small mammals were captured: 216 at site B1, 456 at site B2 and 541 at site S belonging to following species: Sorex (S.) araneus, S. coronatus, Apodemus (A.) flavicollis, Myodes glareolus, Microtus (Mi.) arvalis, Crocidura russula, Arvicola terrestris, A. agrarius, Mustela nivalis, Talpa europaea, and Mi. agrestis. DNA of Leptospira spp. was detected in 6% of all small mammals. At site B1, 25 small mammals (11.6%), at site B2, 15 small mammals (3.3%) and at site S, 33 small mammals (6.1%) were positive for Leptospira spp. Overall, 54 of the positive samples were further determined as L. kirschneri, nine as L. interrogans and four as L. borgpetersenii while five real-time PCR-positive samples could not be further determined by conventional PCR. MLST results revealed focal occurrence of L. interrogans and L. kirschneri sequence type (ST) 117 while L. kirschneri ST 110 was present in small mammals at all three sites. Further, this study provides evidence for a particular host association of L. borgpetersenii to mice of the genus Apodemus.

  8. Radiocobalt cycling in a small mammal food web

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Willard, W.K.

    1975-01-01

    Cobalt-60 seeping from a nearby radioactive liquid waste trench on the Oak Ridge reservation into a temperate deciduous forest ecosystem provided a source of environmental contamination where its dispersion through a small mammal food web could be studied. Maximum radiocobalt concentrations in the soil were found in the upper 5 cm of 15 cm cores. Transient mammals such as the opossum and the raccoon had small amounts of 60 Co in their tissues (0.5 and 1.0 pCi/gm, respectively), while the permanent mammal residents including the short-tailed shrew (80 pCi/g), white-footed mouse (50 pCi/g), golden mouse (50 pCi/g) and the eastern chipmunk (20 pCi/g) had from 27 to more than 100 times that of the transient mammals. The persistent occurrence of 60 Co in the small mammals tissues indicated its importance in the food web. Of the potential mammalian food items present in the area, only earthworms (Lumbricus rubellus) contained high levels of 60 Co activity (greater than 56 nCi/gm dry wt.). Earthworms collected from the seepage channel eliminated 70 percent of their body burden (gut contents) of 60 Co during the first 24-hour period, but retained the remaining 30 percent (tissue accumulation) for more than 11 weeks. Tissue retention by earthworms and the utilization of numerous burrows by mammals along the seepage channel during the summer months suggested that earthworms constituted a major link in the small mammal food chain. (U.S.)

  9. Responses of populations of small mammals to ionizing radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kitchings, J.T.

    1978-01-01

    Studies on the responses of small mammals to ionizing radiation have, over the past 30 years, documented numerous effects on direct mortality, reproduction, the hemopoietic systems, and radionuclide metabolism. Three general findings have resulted from past efforts: (1) ionizing radiation is a factor in environmental stress, (2) the response of wild small mammals to ionizing radiation is a mosaic of varying radiosensitivities interacting with environmental variables, and (3) one of the most sensitive organismal processes to radiation is reproduction. While an excellent understanding of the biological effects resulting from high or intermediate-level radiation exposures has been developed, this is not the case for effects of low-level doses

  10. Small mammals of a bitterbrush-cheatgrass community

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gano, K.A.; Rickard, W.H.

    1982-01-01

    Small mammals were live-trapped in burned and unburned segments of a bitterbrush-cheatgrass community during the years 1974-1979. Results indicate that the shrub-dominated unburned area supports about three times as many small mammals as the cheatgrass-dominated burned area. Species composition was similar in both areas with the exception of one ground squirrel (Spermophilus townsendii) captured on the unburned area. Other species caught were the Great Basin pocket mouse (Perognathus parvus), deer mouse (Peromyscus maniculatus), northern grasshopper mouse (Onychomys leucogaster), and the western harvest mouse (Reithrodontomys megalotis)

  11. Wide Distribution and Genetic Diversity of Babesia microti in Small Mammals from Yunnan Province, Southwestern China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Zi-Hou; Huang, Tao-Hua; Jiang, Bao-Gui; Jia, Na; Liu, Zheng-Xiang; Shao, Zong-Ti; Jiang, Rui-Ruo; Liu, Hong-Bo; Wei, Ran; Li, Yu-Qiong; Yao, Hong-Wu; von Fricken, Michael E; Jiang, Jia-Fu; Du, Chun-Hong; Cao, Wu-Chun

    2017-10-01

    Babesia, usually found in wild and domestic mammals worldwide, have recently been responsible for emerging malaria-like zoonosis in infected patients. Human B. microti infection has been identified in China, primarily in the Southwest along the Myanmar border but little direct surveillance of B. microti infection in rodents has been carried out here (Yunnan province). In this region, a diverse topographic range combined with tropical moisture sustains a high biodiversity of small mammals, which might play important role on Babesia transmission. Small mammals were captured in 141 sample locations from 18 counties located Yunnan Province, and screened for B. microti-like parasites infection by a nested PCR to target 18S rRNA gene of Babesia, plus directly sequencing for positive samples. Univariate and multivariate forward stepwise logistic regression analysis was used to access the association between infections and some related risk factors. Infection with Babesia microti was confirmed in 2.4% (53/ 2204) of small mammals. Significant differences in prevalence rates of B. microti were observed based on variations in forest, agricultural, and residential landscapes. Furthermore, adult small mammals had higher prevalence rates than younger, pubertal mammals. The near full-length 18S rRNA gene revealed that there were two types of B. microti, Kobe and Otsu, which demonstrate the genetic diversity and regional distribution. There exists a wide distribution and genetic diversity of endemic B. microti in Southwestern China, warranting further investigations and monitoring of clinical disease in individuals presenting with Babesia like symptoms in these areas.

  12. Impact of small mammals in ecosystemm structure and function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chew, R.M.

    1978-01-01

    This article is concerned with the evaluation of the effects of small mammals on the characteristics of ecosystems, as a matter of basic scientific importance, and of necessity in a humanly managed biosphere. The review emphasizes literature in which there is experimental demonstration of effects of small mammals, strong circumstantial evidence for an effect, and indication of a possible effect in an unstudied relationship. Our knowledge of interactions is very incomplete. Studies are needed that emphasize the responses of vegetation (production, composition, population dynamics) to the measured actions of mammals. Attention needs to be given to ways in which mammals may regulate processes that are important to plants (nutrient cycling, seed dispersal, predation) as well as actions that may directly affect plant populations (feeding, cutting, trampling). More use is indicated for experimental methods in field studies, particularly the removal of mammalian populations, which may reveal unique mutualistic relationships of vegetation and small mammals. Studies need more integration of efforts of various kinds of biologists, and a longer time span, than has occurred in the past

  13. Small mammals of the Addo Elephant National Park

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Swanepoel

    1975-07-01

    Full Text Available A survey of the small mammals of the Addo Elephant National Park resulted in a checklist, as well as information on relative numbers, distribution within the Park, reproductive activity, sex ratios, and body measurements. Forty mammals species occur in the Park, while three re-introduced species probably do not occur any longer. Of the 40 species 28 are considered small mammals comprising 13 rodent, eight carnivore, two shrew, two bat, one primate and one lagomorph species, as well as the aardvark: Crociduraflavescens, C. cyanea infumata, Rousettus aegyptiacus, Eptesicus capensis, Cercopithecus pygerythrus, Canis mesomelas, Ictonyx striatus, Poecilogale albinucha, Genetta sp., Herpestes pulverulentus, Suricata suricatta, Proteles cristatus, Felis caracal, Orycteropus afer, Lepus saxatilis, Cryptomys hottentotus, Hystrix africae-australis, Pedetes capensis, Graphiurus murinus, Aethomys namaquensis, Praomys natalensis, Rhabdomys pumilio, Mus minutoides, Rattus rattus, Saccostomys campestris, Desmodillus auricularis, Otomys irroratus and 0. unisulcatus.

  14. Small mammals from Sima de los Huesos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuenca-Bescós, G; Laplana Conesa, C; Canudo, J I; Arsuaga, J L

    1997-01-01

    A small collection of rodents from Sima de los Huesos helps to clarify the stratigraphic position of this famous human locality. The presence of Allocricetus bursae and Pliomys lenki relictus and the size of A. bursae, Apodemus sylvaticus and Eliomys quercinus suggest a Middle Pleistocene age (Saalian) to the Clays where humans have been found.

  15. Vegetation patterns and abundances of amphibians and small mammals along small streams in a northwestern California watershed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeffrey R. Waters; Cynthia J. Zabel; Kevin S. McKelvey; Hartwell H. Welsh

    2001-01-01

    Our goal was to describe and evaluate patterns of association between stream size and abundances of amphibians and small mammals in a northwestern California watershed. We sampled populations at 42 stream sites and eight upland sites within a 100- watershed in 1995 and 1996. Stream reaches sampled ranged from poorly defined channels that rarely flowed to 10-m-wide...

  16. Big Data, Small Sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerlovina, Inna; van der Laan, Mark J; Hubbard, Alan

    2017-05-20

    Multiple comparisons and small sample size, common characteristics of many types of "Big Data" including those that are produced by genomic studies, present specific challenges that affect reliability of inference. Use of multiple testing procedures necessitates calculation of very small tail probabilities of a test statistic distribution. Results based on large deviation theory provide a formal condition that is necessary to guarantee error rate control given practical sample sizes, linking the number of tests and the sample size; this condition, however, is rarely satisfied. Using methods that are based on Edgeworth expansions (relying especially on the work of Peter Hall), we explore the impact of departures of sampling distributions from typical assumptions on actual error rates. Our investigation illustrates how far the actual error rates can be from the declared nominal levels, suggesting potentially wide-spread problems with error rate control, specifically excessive false positives. This is an important factor that contributes to "reproducibility crisis". We also review some other commonly used methods (such as permutation and methods based on finite sampling inequalities) in their application to multiple testing/small sample data. We point out that Edgeworth expansions, providing higher order approximations to the sampling distribution, offer a promising direction for data analysis that could improve reliability of studies relying on large numbers of comparisons with modest sample sizes.

  17. Predicting small mammal and flea abundance using landform and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Small mammals particularly rodents, are considered the primary natural hosts of plague. Literature suggests that plague persistence in natural foci has a root cause in soils. The objective of this study was to investigate the relationship between on the one hand landforms and associated soil properties, and on the other hand ...

  18. Land use determinants of small mammals abundance and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The objective of this study was to determine the relationship between land use types and practices and small mammal abundance and distribution. A field survey was used to collect data in three landscapes differing in plague incidences. Data collection was done both in the wet season (April-June 2012) and dry season ...

  19. Radionuclides in small mammals of the Saskatchewan prairie, including implications for the boreal forest and Arctic tundra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomas, P.A.

    1995-01-01

    The focus of the study reported was to collect and examine baseline data on radionuclides in small prairie mammal food chains and to assess the feasibility of using small mammals as radionuclide monitors in terrestrial ecosystems, in anticipation of possible future nuclear developments in northern Saskatchewan and the Northwest Territories. The study report begins with a literature review that summarizes existing data on radionuclides in small mammals, their food, the ambient environment in Canadian terrestrial ecosystems, principles of terrestrial radioecology, soil and vegetation studies, and food chain studies. It then describes a field study conducted to investigate small mammal food chains at three southwestern Saskatchewan prairie sites. Activities included collection and analysis of water, soil, grains, and foliage samples; trapping of small mammals such as mice and voles, and analysis of gastrointestinal tract samples; and determination of food chain transfer of selected radionuclides from soil to plants and to small mammals. Recommendations are made for future analyses and monitoring of small mammals. Appendices include information on radiochemical methods, soil/vegetation studies and small mammal studies conducted at northern Saskatchewan mine sites, and analyses of variance

  20. Cd and Zn concentrations in small mammals and willow leaves on disposal facilities for dredged material

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mertens, J.; Luyssaert, S.; Verbeeren, S.; Vervaeke, P; Lust, N

    2001-01-01

    Disposal sites for dredged material are often polluted with heavy metals. The uptake of Cd and Zn by small mammals and willow trees was assessed on three sites with a different pollution degree. Detailed soil sampling showed a huge variation in soil characteristics within the sites, typical for

  1. Lead contamination of small mammals from abandoned metalliferous mines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roberts, R D [Liverpool Univ.; Johnson, M S; Hutton, M

    1978-01-01

    Spoil tips associated with abandoned non-ferrous mines contain anomalously high levels of heavy metals compared with other contaminated environments. Little attention has been given to the impact of such contaminated environments on terrestrial ecosystems. In this study, lead in soil, vegetation, ground-living invertebrates and indigenous small mammal populations are reported for two derelict mines in Wales. Small mammal body and tissue lead concentrations were markedly elevated compared with control populations and with published data for other lead-contaminated areas. Oedema, intranuclear inclusion bodies and mitochondrial abnormalities--symptoms of clinical plumbism--were identified in kidney tissue in populations with highest tissue lead concentrations. The results and their relevance to other lead-contaminated areas, including roadside verges, are discussed.

  2. Small mammal radioecology: natural reproductive patterns of seven species

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iverson, S.L.; Turner, B.N.

    1976-07-01

    To provide basic information required to interpret subsequent radiation studies, autopsy results pertinent to litter size and reproductive season of 7 small-mammal species are presented. The data are from about 6400 individuals captured at Pinawa, Manitoba during a 6 year trapping period (1967-1972). Sex ratios, percentages of young in the population, and body weights of the sex and age classes are tabulated on monthly basis for each species. (author)

  3. Predicting small mammal and flea abundance using landform and soil properties in a plague endemic area in Lushoto District, Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meliyo, Joel L; Kimaro, Didas N; Msanya, Balthazar M; Mulungu, Loth S; Hieronimo, Proches; Kihupi, Nganga I; Gulinck, Hubert; Deckers, Jozef A

    2014-07-01

    Small mammals particularly rodents, are considered the primary natural hosts of plague. Literature suggests that plague persistence in natural foci has a root cause in soils. The objective of this study was to investigate the relationship between on the one hand landforms and associated soil properties, and on the other hand small mammals and fleas in West Usambara Mountains in Tanzania, a plague endemic area. Standard field survey methods coupled with Geographical Information System (GIS) technique were used to examine landform and soils characteristics. Soil samples were analysed in the laboratory for physico-chemical properties. Small mammals were trapped on pre-established landform positions and identified to genus/species level. Fleas were removed from the trapped small mammals and counted. Exploration of landform and soil data was done using ArcGIS Toolbox functions and descriptive statistical analysis. The relationships between landforms, soils, small mammals and fleas were established by generalised linear regression model (GLM) operated in R statistics software. Results show that landforms and soils influence the abundance of small mammals and fleas and their spatial distribution. The abundance of small mammals and fleas increased with increase in elevation. Small mammal species richness also increases with elevation. A landform-soil model shows that available phosphorus, slope aspect and elevation were statistically significant predictors explaining richness and abundance of small mammals. Fleas' abundance and spatial distribution were influenced by hill-shade, available phosphorus and base saturation. The study suggests that landforms and soils have a strong influence on the richness and evenness of small mammals and their fleas' abundance hence could be used to explain plague dynamics in the area.

  4. Clear as daylight: analysis of diurnal raptor pellets for small mammal studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matos, M.

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Non–invasive approaches are increasingly investigated and applied in studies of small mammal assemblages because they are more cost–effective and bypass conservation and animal welfare issues. However, pellets of diurnal raptors have rarely been used for these purposes. We evaluated the potential of marsh harrier pellets (Circus aeruginosus as a non–invasive method to sample small mammal assemblages, by comparing the results with those of sampling using Sherman live–traps and pitfalls. The three methods were applied simultaneously in an agricultural–wetland complex in NW Portugal. Estimates of species richness, diversity, evenness, abundance, and proportion of each species within the assemblage showed significant differences between the three methods. Our results suggest that the use of marsh harrier pellets is more effective in inventorying small mammal species than either of the two kinds of traps, while also avoiding any involuntary fatalities associated with the sampling of small non–volant mammals. Moreover, the analysis of pellets was the most cost–effective method. Comparison of the two trapping methodologies showed involuntary fatalities were higher in pitfalls than in Sherman traps. We discuss the advantages and flaws of the three methods, both from technical and conservational perspectives.

  5. Small mammal populations and ecology in the Kings River Sustainable Forest Ecosystems Project area

    Science.gov (United States)

    William F. Jr. Laudenslayer; Roberta J. Fargo

    2002-01-01

    Small mammals are important components of woodlands and forests. Since 1992, we have been studying several aspects of small mammal ecology in oak woodlands in western foothills of the southern Sierra Nevada. Assemblages of small, nocturnal mammal species are dominated by the brush mouse (Peromyscus boylii), California mouse (P. californicus...

  6. Small mammal distributions relative to corridor edges within intensively managed southern pine plantations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicole L. Constantine; Tyler A. Campbell; William M. Baughman; Timothy B. Harrington; Brian R. Chapman; Karl V. Miller

    2005-01-01

    We characterized small mammal communities in three loblolly pine (Pinus taeda) stands in the Lower Coastal Plain of South Carolina during June 1998-Aug. 2000 to investigate influence of corridor edges on small mammal distribution. We live-trapped small mammals in three regenerating stands following clearcutting. Harvested stands were bisected by...

  7. Cardiovascular Drugs in Avian, Small Mammal, and Reptile Medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzgerald, Brenna Colleen; Dias, Sara; Martorell, Jaume

    2018-05-01

    Cardiovascular disease, including congestive heart failure, pericardial disease, and atherosclerosis, is becoming increasingly better recognized in companion birds, small mammals, and reptiles. A wide range of medications is available to treat these conditions, including diuretics, vasodilators, positive and negative inotropes, antiarrhythmic agents, and pentoxifylline. This review systematically discusses each of these drug classes and their potential applications in exotic species. Although treatment approaches remain largely empirical and extrapolated from small animal and human medicine, the management strategies presented here have the potential to both maintain quality of life and extend survival time for the exotic cardiac patient. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Evolutionary origins of hepatitis A virus in small mammals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drexler, Jan Felix; Corman, Victor M; Lukashev, Alexander N; van den Brand, Judith M A; Gmyl, Anatoly P; Brünink, Sebastian; Rasche, Andrea; Seggewiβ, Nicole; Feng, Hui; Leijten, Lonneke M; Vallo, Peter; Kuiken, Thijs; Dotzauer, Andreas; Ulrich, Rainer G; Lemon, Stanley M; Drosten, Christian

    2015-12-08

    Hepatitis A virus (HAV) is an ancient and ubiquitous human pathogen recovered previously only from primates. The sole species of the genus Hepatovirus, existing in both enveloped and nonenveloped forms, and with a capsid structure intermediate between that of insect viruses and mammalian picornaviruses, HAV is enigmatic in its origins. We conducted a targeted search for hepatoviruses in 15,987 specimens collected from 209 small mammal species globally and discovered highly diversified viruses in bats, rodents, hedgehogs, and shrews, which by pairwise sequence distance comprise 13 novel Hepatovirus species. Near-complete genomes from nine of these species show conservation of unique hepatovirus features, including predicted internal ribosome entry site structure, a truncated VP4 capsid protein lacking N-terminal myristoylation, a carboxyl-terminal pX extension of VP1, VP2 late domains involved in membrane envelopment, and a cis-acting replication element within the 3D(pol) sequence. Antibodies in some bat sera immunoprecipitated and neutralized human HAV, suggesting conservation of critical antigenic determinants. Limited phylogenetic cosegregation among hepatoviruses and their hosts and recombination patterns are indicative of major hepatovirus host shifts in the past. Ancestral state reconstructions suggest a Hepatovirus origin in small insectivorous mammals and a rodent origin of human HAV. Patterns of infection in small mammals mimicked those of human HAV in hepatotropism, fecal shedding, acute nature, and extinction of the virus in a closed host population. The evolutionary conservation of hepatovirus structure and pathogenesis provide novel insight into the origins of HAV and highlight the utility of analyzing animal reservoirs for risk assessment of emerging viruses.

  9. Small exotic companion mammal wellness management and environmental enrichment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pilny, Anthony A

    2015-05-01

    Wellness management and environmental enrichment are important components of preventative veterinary medical care. Small exotic mammals represent a diverse group of pets with widely varying types of care, diet, and husbandry considerations; thus, environmental enrichment must go beyond the cage or tank design in order to provide proper mental fitness in meeting any pet's psychological needs. Addressing the pet's environmental, dietary, exercise, and social needs is vital to keeping these animals healthier and more disease resistant. The key to accomplishing this is largely impacted by the annual or biannual veterinary wellness visit and a commitment from the pet's owner. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Environmental variation and habitat separation among small mammals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vickery, W.L.; Iverson, S.L.; Mihok, S.; Schwartz, B.

    1989-01-01

    Habitat use and population density of five species of forest small mammals were monitored by annual spring snap-trap censuses at Pinawa, Manitoba, over 14 years. Population sizes were positively correlated among species and showed no evidence of density-dependent effects. Species were habitat selectors. Habitat use by species did not vary among years. Habitat separation between the dominant species was not correlated with environmental variables or with population size. We suggest that habitat selection and positive covariance among species abundances are the principal factors characterizing the dynamics of this community

  11. Measurements of uranium in soils and small mammals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miera, F.R. Jr.

    1980-12-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the bioavailability of uranium to a single species of small mammal, Peromyscus maniculatus rufinus (Merriam), white-footed deer mouse, from two different source terms: a Los Alamos National Laboratory dynamic weapons testing site in north central New Mexico, where an estimated 70,000 kg of uranium have been expended over a 31-y period; and an inactive uranium mill tailings pile located in west central New Mexico near Grants, which received wastes over a 5-y period from the milling of 2.7 x 10 9 kg of uranium ore

  12. Measurements of uranium in soils and small mammals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miera, F.R. Jr.

    1980-12-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the bioavailability of uranium to a single species of small mammal, Peromyscus maniculatus rufinus (Merriam), white-footed deer mouse, from two different source terms: a Los Alamos National Laboratory dynamic weapons testing site in north central New Mexico, where an estimated 70,000 kg of uranium have been expended over a 31-y period; and an inactive uranium mill tailings pile located in west central New Mexico near Grants, which received wastes over a 5-y period from the milling of 2.7 x 10/sup 9/ kg of uranium ore.

  13. Challenges to natural resource monitoring in a small border park: terrestrial mammals at Coronado National Memorial, Cochise County, Arizona

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swann, Don E.; Bucci, Melanie; Kuenzi, Amy J.; Alberti, Barbara N.; Schwalbe, Cecil R.; Halvorson, William L.; van Riper, Charles; Schwalbe, Cecil R.

    2010-01-01

    Long-term monitoring in national parks is essential to meet National Park Service and other important public goals. Terrestrial mammals are often proposed for monitoring because large mammals are of interest to visitors and small mammals are important as prey. However, traditional monitoring strategies for mammals are often too expensive and complex to sustain for long periods, particularly in small parks. To evaluate potential strategies for long-term monitoring in small parks, we conducted an intensive one-year inventory of terrestrial mammals at Coronado National Memorial, located in Arizona on the U.S.-Mexico international border, then continued less-intensive monitoring at the site for 7 additional years. During 1996-2003 we confirmed 44 species of terrestrial mammals. Most species (40) were detected in the intensive first year of the study, but we continued to detect new species in later years. Mark-recapture data on small mammals indicated large inter-annual fluctuations in population size, but no significant trend over the 7-year period. Issues associated with the international border affected monitoring efforts and increased sampling costs. Our study confirms that sustained annual monitoring of mammals is probably not feasible in small park units like Coronado. However, comparisons of our data with past studies provide insight into important changes in the mammal community since the 1970s, including an increase in abundance and diversity of grassland rodents. Our results suggest that intensive inventories every 10-20 years may be a valuable and cost-effective approach for detecting long-term trends in terrestrial mammal communities in small natural areas.

  14. PROTOCOL FOR GAS SAMPLING AND ANALYSIS IN STRANDED MARINE MAMMALS

    OpenAIRE

    sprotocols

    2015-01-01

    Authors: Yara Bernaldo de Quirós, Óscar González-Díaz, Manuel Arbelo, Marisa Andrada & Antonio Fernández ### Abstract Gas sampling in stranded marine mammals can now be performed in situ using the appropriate vacuum tubes, insulin syringes and an aspirometer. Glass vacuum tubes are used for extraction of gas from cavities such as the intestine, pterigoyd air sacs, pneumothorax or subcapsular emphysema as well as for storage of the gas sample at room temperature and pressure. Insulin s...

  15. An improved camera trap for amphibians, reptiles, small mammals, and large invertebrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hobbs, Michael T.; Brehme, Cheryl S.

    2017-01-01

    Camera traps are valuable sampling tools commonly used to inventory and monitor wildlife communities but are challenged to reliably sample small animals. We introduce a novel active camera trap system enabling the reliable and efficient use of wildlife cameras for sampling small animals, particularly reptiles, amphibians, small mammals and large invertebrates. It surpasses the detection ability of commonly used passive infrared (PIR) cameras for this application and eliminates problems such as high rates of false triggers and high variability in detection rates among cameras and study locations. Our system, which employs a HALT trigger, is capable of coupling to digital PIR cameras and is designed for detecting small animals traversing small tunnels, narrow trails, small clearings and along walls or drift fencing.

  16. An improved camera trap for amphibians, reptiles, small mammals, and large invertebrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hobbs, Michael T; Brehme, Cheryl S

    2017-01-01

    Camera traps are valuable sampling tools commonly used to inventory and monitor wildlife communities but are challenged to reliably sample small animals. We introduce a novel active camera trap system enabling the reliable and efficient use of wildlife cameras for sampling small animals, particularly reptiles, amphibians, small mammals and large invertebrates. It surpasses the detection ability of commonly used passive infrared (PIR) cameras for this application and eliminates problems such as high rates of false triggers and high variability in detection rates among cameras and study locations. Our system, which employs a HALT trigger, is capable of coupling to digital PIR cameras and is designed for detecting small animals traversing small tunnels, narrow trails, small clearings and along walls or drift fencing.

  17. Radionuclide contaminant analysis of small mammals at Area G, TA-54, Los Alamos National Laboratory, 1995

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bennett, K.; Biggs, J.; Fresquez, P.

    1997-01-01

    At Los Alamos National Laboratory, small mammals were sampled at two waste burial sites (Site 1-recently disturbed and Site 2-partially disturbed) at Area G, Technical Area 54 and a control site on Frijoles Mesa (Site 4) in 1995. Our objectives were (1) to identify radionuclides that are present within surface and subsurface soils at waste burial sites, (2) to compare the amount of radionuclide uptake by small mammals at waste burial sites to a control site, and (3) to identify if the primary mode of contamination to small mammals is by surface contact or ingestion/inhalation. Three composite samples of at least rive animals per sample were collected at each site. Pelts and carcasses of each animal were separated and analyzed independently. Samples were analyzed for 241 Am, 90 Sr , 238 Pu, 239 Pu, total U, 137 Cs, and 3 H. Significantly higher (parametric West at p=0.05) levels of total U, 241 Am, 238 Pu and 239 Pu were detected in pelts than in carcasses of small mammals at TA-54. Concentrations of other measured radionuclides in carcasses were nearly equal to or exceeded the mean concentrations in the pelts. Our results show higher concentrations in pelts compared to carcasses, which is similar to what has been found at waste burial/contaminated sites outside of Los Alamos National Laboratory. Site 1 had a significantly higher (alpha=0.05, P=0.0125) mean tritium concentration in carcasses than Site 2 or Site 4. In addition Site 1 also had a significantly higher (alpha=0.05, p=0.0024) mean tritium concentration in pelts than Site 2 or Site 4. Site 2 had a significantly higher (alpha=0.05, P=0.0499) mean 239 Pu concentration in carcasses than either Site 1 or Site 4

  18. Radionuclide contaminant analysis of small mammals at Area G, TA-54, 1994

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biggs, J.; Bennett, K.; Fresquez, P.

    1995-09-01

    Small mammals were sampled at two waste burial sites (1 and 2) at Area G, TA-54 and a control site outside Area G (Site 3) to identify radionuclides that are present within surface and subsurface soils at waste burial sites, to compare the amount of radionuclide uptake by small mammals at waste burial sites to a control site, and to identify the primary mode of contamination to small mammals, either through surface contact or ingestion/inhalation. Three composite samples of at least five animals per sample were collected at each site. Pelts and carcasses of each animal were separated and analyzed independently. Samples were analyzed for 241 Am, 90 Sr, 238 Pu, 239 Pu, total U, and gamma spectroscopy (including 137 Cs). Significantly higher (parametric t-test at p = 0.05) levels of total U, 241 Am, 238 Pu, 239 Pu, and 40 K were detected in pelts as compared to the carcasses of small mammals at TA-54. Concentrations of other measured radionuclides in carcasses were nearly equal to or exceeded the mean concentrations in the pelts. The authors results show higher concentrations in pelts compared to carcasses which is similar to what has been found at waste burial/contaminated sites outside of Los Alamos National Laboratory. Site 1 had significantly higher (alpha = 0.05, F = 0.0095) total U concentrations in carcasses than Sites 2 and 3. Site 2 had significantly higher (alpha = 0.05, F = 0.0195) 239 Pu concentrations in carcasses than either Site 1 or Site 3. A significant difference in 90 Sr concentration existed between Sites 1 and 2 (alpha = 0.05, F = 0.0681) and concentrations of 40 K at Site 1 were significantly different from Site 3

  19. Predation, Competition, and Abiotic Disturbance: Population Dynamics of Small Mammals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yunger, John A. [Northern Illinois U.

    1996-01-01

    Predation and food availability have been implicated in annual non-cyclic fluctuations of vertebrate prey at mid-latitudes. The timing and magnitude of these factors are unclear due to a lack of large-scale field experiments, little attention to interactions, and a failure to closely link vertebrate predators with their prey. From October 1992 to January 1996, small mammal populations were censused on eight 0.6 ha plots at monthly intervals in a 32-ha prairie restoration at Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory, Illinois. Terrestrial vertebrate predators were excluded after July 1993 from four of the eight plots and canid diets monitored. Both terrestrial and avian vertebrate predators were excluded in March 1994. During 1993 small mammal densities (i.e., Microtus pennsylvanicus, Peromyscus leucopus, and P. maniculatus) were relatively high. Following peak densities in late summer, Microtus numbers were 2-3x greater on exclusion plots relative to controls due to preferential selection of Microtus by canids, as reflected in diets. Following an ice-storm and crash in small mammal numbers (particularly Microtus), vertebrate predator exclusion had no detectable effect on P. leucopus numbers, probably due to an abundance of alternative prey (i.e., Sylvilagus floridanus). Meadow vole numbers began to increase in Fall 1995, and a numerical effect of predator exclusion, similar to that in 1993, was observed. Predator exclusion had no detectable effect on the movements and spatial patterns of Microtus during 1993. There was a significant decrease in home range and a significant increase in home range overlap for £.. leucopus on the predator exclusion plots. The change in spatial behavior may be due to interspecific competition with Microtus resulting from increased densities on exclusion plots. Thus, predators had an indirect effect on .f.. leucopus spatial patterns mediated through M. pennsylvanicus. The role of food limitation was studied using natural and manipulative

  20. Predation, Competition, and Abiotic Disturbance: Population Dynamics of Small Mammals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yunger, John A.; /Northern Illinois U. /Northern Illinois U.

    1996-01-01

    Predation and food availability have been implicated in annual non-cyclic fluctuations of vertebrate prey at mid-latitudes. The timing and magnitude of these factors are unclear due to a lack of large-scale field experiments, little attention to interactions, and a failure to closely link vertebrate predators with their prey. From October 1992 to January 1996, small mammal populations were censused on eight 0.6 ha plots at monthly intervals in a 32-ha prairie restoration at Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory, Illinois. Terrestrial vertebrate predators were excluded after July 1993 from four of the eight plots and canid diets monitored. Both terrestrial and avian vertebrate predators were excluded in March 1994. During 1993 small mammal densities (i.e., Microtus Pennsylvanicus, Peromyscus leucopus, and P. maniculatus) were relatively high. Following peak densities in late summer, Microtus numbers wer 2-3x greater on exclusion plots relative to controls due to preferential selection of Microtus by canids, as reflected in dits. Following an ice-storm and crash in small mammal numbers (particularly Microtus), vertebrate predator exclusion had no detectable effect on P. leucopus numbers, probably due to an abundance of alternative prey (i.e., Sylvilagus floridanus). Meadow vole numbers began to increase in Fall 1995, and a numerical effect of predator exclusion, similar to that in 1993, was observed. Predator exclusion had no detectable effect on the movements and spatial patterns of Microtus during 1993. There was a significant decrease in home range and a significant increase in home range overlap for P. leucopus on the predator exclusion plots. The change in spatial behavior may be due to interspecific competition with Microtus resulting from increased densities on exclusion plots. Thus, predators had an indirect effect on P. leucopus spatial patterns mediated through M. Pennsylvanicus. The role of food limitation was studied using natural and manipulative

  1. Small mammals as hosts of immature ixodid ticks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I.G. Horak

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available Two hundred and twenty-five small mammals belonging to 16 species were examined for ticks in Free State, Mpumalanga and Limpopo Provinces, South Africa, and 18 ixodid tick species, of which two could only be identified to genus level, were recovered. Scrub hares, Lepus saxatilis, and Cape hares, Lepus capensis, harboured the largest number of tick species. In Free State Province Namaqua rock mice, Aethomys namaquensis, and four-striped grass mice, Rhabdomys pumilio, were good hosts of the immature stages of Haemaphysalis leachi and Rhipicephalus gertrudae, while in Mpumalanga and Limpopo Provinces red veld rats, Aethomys chrysophilus, Namaqua rock mice and Natal multimammate mice, Mastomys natalensis were good hosts of H. leachi and Rhipicephalus simus. Haemaphysalis leachi was the only tick recovered from animals in all three provinces.

  2. Characterization of small mammal populations inhabiting the B-C cribs environs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hedlund, J.D.; Rogers, L.E.

    1976-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to document the current status of small mammal populations inhibiting the 200 Area plateau near the B-C Crib management area and to compare them with populations inhabiting a protected (control) area within the confines of the Hanford ALE Reserve. Sampling sessions were conducted over two field seasons (1974 and 1975). A total of five species was detected within intensive study areas. These included the Great Basin pocket mouse (Perognathus parvus), deer mouse (Peromyscus maniculatus), northern grasshopper mouse (Onychomys leucogaster), sagebrush vole (Lagurus curtatus), and western harvest mouse (Reithrodontomys megalotis). These species are probably representative of those found throughout the area at this particular elevation. Townsends ground squirrel (Spermophilus townsendii) also occurs in this area but did not occur on the sampling plots during the study duration. The pocket mouse was the only species present in sufficient numbers to permit a detailed analysis of population parameters. A discussion concerning the role small mammals play in mineral cycling and energy transfer processes is included along with a diagram depicting food web interrelationships for consumers inhabiting the 200 Area plateau region. Estimates of small mammal density and biomass provided in this document are needed for an overall understanding of the role biota play in the transfer of waste nuclides

  3. Population ecology of small mammals on the radioactive waste management complex, Idaho National Engineering Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Groves, C.R.; Keller, B.L.

    1983-01-01

    Species composition, diversity, biomass, population dynamics, absolute density, and movements of small mammal populations were examined on and adjacent to a solid radioactive waste disposal area in southeastern Idaho. The 15-month live-trapping study resulted in marking 2384 individuals representing 10 species of small mammals. Three vegetation types were sampled: crested wheatgrass (Agropyron cristatum) and Russian thistle (Salsola kali) habitats on the disposal area and native sagebrush (Artemisia tridentata) habitat surrounding the disposal area. The deer mouse (Peromyscus maniculatus) was the most common rodent in both disposal area habitats as well as the adjacent sagebrush habitat; Ord's kangaroo rat (Dipodomys ordii) was also an abundant rodent in all vegetation types. The montane vole (Microtus montanus) was common only in crested wheatgrass stands on the disposal area. The annual total small mammal biomass of 346 kg for the entire disposal area represents a potentially large vector for movement of radionuclides off the disposal area. However, the number of animals known to contact waste areas and traverse at least 50 m beyond the perimeter of the SDA appears to be small (8.7%)

  4. Microhabitat of small mammals at ground and understorey levels in a deciduous, southern Atlantic forest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melo, Geruza L; Miotto, Barbara; Peres, Brisa; Cáceres, Nilton C

    2013-01-01

    Each animal species selects specific microhabitats for protection, foraging, or micro-climate. To understand the distribution patterns of small mammals on the ground and in the understorey, we investigated the use of microhabitats by small mammals in a deciduous forest of southern Brazil. Ten trap stations with seven capture points were used to sample the following microhabitats: liana, fallen log, ground litter, terrestrial ferns, simple-trunk tree, forked tree, and Piper sp. shrubs. Seven field phases were conducted, each for eight consecutive days, from September 2006 through January 2008. Four species of rodents (Akodon montensis, Sooretamys angouya, Oligoryzomys nigripes and Mus musculus) and two species of marsupials (Didelphis albiventris and Gracilinanus microtarsus) were captured. Captured species presented significant differences on their microhabitat use (ANOVA, p = 0.003), particularly between ground and understorey sites. Akodon montensis selected positively terrestrial ferns and trunks, S. angouya selected lianas, D. albiventris selected fallen trunks and Piper sp., and G. microtarsus choose tree trunks and lianas. We demonstrated that the local small-mammal assemblage does select microhabitats, with different types of associations between species and habitats. Besides, there is a strong evidence of habitat selection in order to diminish predation.

  5. Does small mammal prey guild affect the exposure of predators to anticoagulant rodenticides?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tosh, D.G.; McDonald, R.A.; Bearhop, S.; Lllewellyn, N.R.; Fee, S.; Sharp, E.A.; Barnett, E.A.; Shore, R.F.

    2011-01-01

    Ireland has a restricted small mammal prey guild but still includes species most likely to consume anticoagulant rodenticide (AR) baits. This may enhance secondary exposure of predators to ARs. We compared liver AR residues in foxes (Vulpes vulpes) in Northern Ireland (NI) with those in foxes from Great Britain which has a more diverse prey guild but similar agricultural use of ARs. Liver ARs were detected in 84% of NI foxes, more than in a comparable sample of foxes from Scotland and similar to that of suspected AR poisoned animals from England and Wales. High exposure in NI foxes is probably due to greater predation of commensal rodents and non-target species most likely to take AR baits, and may also partly reflect greater exposure to highly persistent brodifacoum and flocoumafen. High exposure is likely to enhance risk and Ireland may be a sentinel for potential effects on predator populations. - Highlights: → Exposure of a predator to anticoagulant rodenticides was compared in Britain and Ireland. → Exposure was higher in Ireland. → Differences driven by small mammal prey guilds. → Ireland a potential sentinel for predator exposure to anticoagulants. - Restriction of the small mammal prey guild is associated with enhanced exposure of predators to anticoagulant rodenticides.

  6. Standard Deviation for Small Samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joarder, Anwar H.; Latif, Raja M.

    2006-01-01

    Neater representations for variance are given for small sample sizes, especially for 3 and 4. With these representations, variance can be calculated without a calculator if sample sizes are small and observations are integers, and an upper bound for the standard deviation is immediate. Accessible proofs of lower and upper bounds are presented for…

  7. Notes on two brief surveys of the small mammal fauna on the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Two brief (31~ days each) trapping surveys of the small mammal fauna in fynbos ... three shrew and one small carnivore species were captured. Estimates of .... related with the amount of grass cover. Table 6 shows that ..... population densities of mammals in fynbos and the results of ... to be close to their peak. Trapping in ...

  8. Effects of grazing intensity on small mammal population ecology in wet meadows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Niels Martin; Olsen, Henrik; Bildsøe, Mogens

    2005-01-01

    Livestock grazing is common management practice in wet grasslands. However, knowledge of its effects on small mammals is limited. We studied the influence of grazing intensity on small mammals in general and field voles Microtus agrestis in particular in two Danish wet meadows, 1998-2000. General...

  9. Trap-induced mass declines in small mammals: Mass as a population index

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dean E. Pearson; Yvette K. Ortega; Leonard F. Ruggiero

    2003-01-01

    Body mass is routinely used as an index of physical condition for comparing small-mammal populations. However, trapping effects on animals may undermine the effectiveness of body mass as an index of population health. We examined the effects of live-trapping on body mass of 3 small-mammal species: deer mice (Peromyscus maniculatus), southern red-...

  10. Radioactive marking in the study of locomotion in small mammals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rage, P.; Monnier, S.; Lanoir, J.; Joanny, P.

    1979-01-01

    A technique is described for continuous recording of locomotor activity in small mammals. A radioactive source (Ag 110sup(m)), enclosed in a drop of resin, is fixed to the animal's cranium. The experimental chamber is a Plexiglas cylinder in the center of which is a radiation detector, whose electrical signals are integrated and recorded on moving paper. Each displacement of the animal gives rise to a variation in the intensity of radiation and thus to a variation in recording amplitude. Locomotor activity is quantified by counting the number of significant displacements in unit time. The technique is sufficiently sensitive to bring out the differences in locomotor activity between two strains of mice. In the rat, the effects of tryptophan deprivation on locomotor activity and time spent feeding have been studied. The applicability of this method is very wide, because it allows the measurement of movement of any animal in air, water, or on dry land. It is at the moment even being applied to the study of the vertical migration of plankton. (author)

  11. Rickettsia species in fleas collected from small mammals in Slovakia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Špitalská, Eva; Boldiš, Vojtech; Mošanský, Ladislav; Sparagano, Olivier; Stanko, Michal

    2015-11-01

    Epidemiological and epizootiological studies of Rickettsia felis and other Rickettsia spp. are very important, because their natural cycle has not yet been established completely. In total, 315 fleas (Siphonaptera) of 11 species of Ceratophyllidae, Hystrichopsyllidae and Leptopsyllidae families were tested for the presence of Rickettsia species and Coxiella burnetii with conventional and specific quantitative real-time PCR assays. Fleas were collected from five rodent hosts (Myodes glareolus, Apodemus flavicollis, Apodemus agrarius, Microtus subterraneus, Microtus arvalis) and three shrew species (Sorex araneus, Neomys fodiens, Crocidura suaveolens) captured in Eastern and Southern Slovakia. Overall, Rickettsia spp. was found in 10.8% (34/315) of the tested fleas of Ctenophthalmus agyrtes, Ctenophthalmus solutus, Ctenophthalmus uncinatus and Nosopsyllus fasciatus species. Infected fleas were coming from A. flavicollis, A. agrarius, and M. glareolus captured in Eastern Slovakia. C. burnetii was not found in any fleas. R. felis, Rickettsia helvetica, unidentified Rickettsia, and rickettsial endosymbionts were identified in fleas infesting small mammals in the Košice region, Eastern Slovakia. This study is the first report of R. felis infection in C. solutus male flea collected from A. agrarius in Slovakia.

  12. Comparison of radionuclide levels in soil, sagebrush, plant litter, cryptogams, and small mammals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Landeen, D.S.

    1994-09-01

    Soil, sagebrush, plant litter, cryptogam, and small mammal samples were collected and analyzed for cesium-137, strontium-90, plutonium-238, plutonium 239/240, technetium-99, and iodine-129 from 1981 to 1986 at the US Department of Energy Hanford Site in southeastern Washington State as part of site characterization and environmental monitoring activities. Samples were collected on the 200 Areas Plateau, downwind from ongoing waste management activities. Plant litter, cryptogams, and small mammals are media that are not routinely utilized in monitoring or characterization efforts for determination of radionuclide concentrations. Studies at Hanford, other US Department of Energy sites, and in eastern Europe have indicated that plant litter and cryptogams may serve as effective ''natural'' monitors of air quality. Plant litter in this study consists of fallen leaves from sagebrush and ''cryptogams'' describes that portion of the soil crust composed of mosses, lichens, algae, and fungi. Comparisons of cesium-137 and strontium-90 concentrations in the soil, sagebrush, litter, and cryptogams revealed significantly higher (p<0.05) levels in plant litter and cryptogams. Technetium-99 values were the highest in sagebrush and litter. Plutonium-238 and 239/40 and iodine-129 concentrations never exceeded 0.8 pCi/gm in all media. No evidence of any significant amounts of any radionuclides being incorporated into the small mammal community was discovered. The data indicate that plant litter and cryptogams may be better, indicators of environmental quality than soil or vegetation samples. Augmenting a monitoring program with samples of litter and cryptogams may provide a more accurate representation of radionuclide environmental uptake and/or contamination levels in surrounding ecosystems. The results of this study may be applied directly to other radioecological monitoring conducted at other nuclear sites and to the monitoring of other pollutants

  13. Intrinsic and extrinsic factors related to pathogen infection in wild small mammals in intensive milk cattle and swine production systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lovera, Rosario; Fernández, María Soledad; Jacob, Jens; Lucero, Nidia; Morici, Gabriel; Brihuega, Bibiana; Farace, María Isabel; Caracostantogolo, Jorge; Cavia, Regino

    2017-06-01

    Understanding the ecological processes that are involved in the transmission of zoonotic pathogens by small mammals may aid adequate and effective management measures. Few attempts have been made to analyze the ecological aspects that influence pathogen infection in small mammals in livestock production systems. We describe the infection of small mammals with Leptospira spp., Brucella spp., Trichinella spp. and Cysticercus fasciolaris and assess the related intrinsic and extrinsic factors in livestock production systems in central Argentina at the small mammal community, population and individual levels. Ten pig farms and eight dairy farms were studied by removal trapping of small mammals from 2008 to 2011. Each farm was sampled seasonally over the course of one year with cage and Sherman live traps. The 505 small mammals captured (14,359 trap-nights) included three introduced murine rodents, four native rodents and two opossums. Leptospira spp., anti-Brucella spp. antibodies and Trichinella spp. were found in the three murine rodents and both opossums. Rattus norvegicus was also infected with C. fasciolaris; Akodon azarae and Oligoryzomys flavescens with Leptospira spp.; anti-Brucella spp. antibodies were found in A. azarae. Two or more pathogens occurred simultaneously on 89% of the farms, and each pathogen was found on at least 50% of the farms. Pathogen infections increased with host abundance. Infection by Leptospira spp. also increased with precipitation and during warm seasons. The occurrence of anti-Brucella spp. antibodies was higher on dairy farms and during the winter and summer. The host abundances limit values, from which farms are expected to be free of the studied pathogens, are reported. Murine rodents maintain pathogens within farms, whereas other native species are likely dispersing pathogens among farms. Hence, we recommend preventing and controlling murines in farm dwellings and isolating farms from their surroundings to avoid contact with other

  14. Intrinsic and extrinsic factors related to pathogen infection in wild small mammals in intensive milk cattle and swine production systems.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosario Lovera

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Understanding the ecological processes that are involved in the transmission of zoonotic pathogens by small mammals may aid adequate and effective management measures. Few attempts have been made to analyze the ecological aspects that influence pathogen infection in small mammals in livestock production systems. We describe the infection of small mammals with Leptospira spp., Brucella spp., Trichinella spp. and Cysticercus fasciolaris and assess the related intrinsic and extrinsic factors in livestock production systems in central Argentina at the small mammal community, population and individual levels.Ten pig farms and eight dairy farms were studied by removal trapping of small mammals from 2008 to 2011. Each farm was sampled seasonally over the course of one year with cage and Sherman live traps. The 505 small mammals captured (14,359 trap-nights included three introduced murine rodents, four native rodents and two opossums. Leptospira spp., anti-Brucella spp. antibodies and Trichinella spp. were found in the three murine rodents and both opossums. Rattus norvegicus was also infected with C. fasciolaris; Akodon azarae and Oligoryzomys flavescens with Leptospira spp.; anti-Brucella spp. antibodies were found in A. azarae. Two or more pathogens occurred simultaneously on 89% of the farms, and each pathogen was found on at least 50% of the farms. Pathogen infections increased with host abundance. Infection by Leptospira spp. also increased with precipitation and during warm seasons. The occurrence of anti-Brucella spp. antibodies was higher on dairy farms and during the winter and summer. The host abundances limit values, from which farms are expected to be free of the studied pathogens, are reported.Murine rodents maintain pathogens within farms, whereas other native species are likely dispersing pathogens among farms. Hence, we recommend preventing and controlling murines in farm dwellings and isolating farms from their surroundings to avoid

  15. Radionuclide contaminant analysis of small mammals at Area G, Technical Area 54, 1996 (with cumulative summary for 1994--1996)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biggs, J.R.; Bennett, K.D.; Fresquez, P.R.

    1997-07-01

    Small mammals were sampled at two waste burial sites at Area G, Technical Area (TA) 54 and a control site within the proposed Area G expansion area in 1996 to (1) identify radionuclides that are present within rodent tissues at waste burial sites, (2) to compare the amount of radionuclide uptake by small mammals at waste burial sites to a control site, and (3) to identify the primary mode of contamination to small mammals, either through surface contact or ingestion/inhalation. Three composite samples of approximately five animals per sample were collected at each site. Pelts and carcasses of each animal were separated and analyzed independently. Samples were analyzed for 241 Am, 90 Sr, 238 Pu, 239 Pu, total U, 137 Cs, and 3 H. Higher levels of total U, 241 Am, 238 Pu, and 239 Pu were detected in pelts as compared to the carcasses of small mammals at TA-54. Concentrations of other measured radionuclides in carcasses were nearly equal to or exceeded the mean concentrations in the pelts. Due to low sample sizes in total number of animals captured, statistical analysis to compare site to site could not be conducted. However, mean concentrations of total U, 238 Pu, 239 Pu, and 137 Cs in rodent carcasses were higher at Site 1 than site 2 or the Control Site and 241 Am was higher at Site 2 than Site 1 or the Control Site

  16. Attempted molecular detection of the thermally dimorphic human fungal pathogen Emergomyces africanus in terrestrial small mammals in South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cronjé, Nadine; Schwartz, Ilan S; Retief, Liezl; Bastos, Armanda D S; Matthee, Sonja; Preiser, Wolfgang; Bennett, Nigel C; Maphanga, Tsidiso; Govender, Nelesh P; Colebunders, Robert; Kenyon, Chris

    2018-06-01

    The ecological niche of Emergomyces africanus (formerly Emmonsia species), a dimorphic fungus that causes an AIDS-related mycosis in South Africa, is unknown. We hypothesized that natural infection with E. africanus occurs in wild small mammals. Using molecular detection with primers specific for E. africanus, we examined 1402 DNA samples from 26 species of mole-rats, rodents, and insectivores trapped in South Africa that included 1324 lung, 37 kidney, and 41 liver specimens. DNA of E. africanus was not detected in any animals. We conclude that natural infection of wild small mammals in South Africa with E. africanus has not been proven.

  17. A long-lasting wireless stimulator for small mammals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ian D Hentall

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The chronic effects of electrical stimulation in unrestrained awake rodents are best studied with a wireless neural stimulator that can operate unsupervised for several weeks or more. A robust, inexpensive, easily built, cranially implantable stimulator was developed to explore the restorative effects of brainstem stimulation after neurotrauma. Its connectorless electrodes directly protrude from a cuboid epoxy capsule containing all circuitry and power sources. This physical arrangement prevents fluid leaks or wire breakage and also simplifies and speeds implantation. Constant-current pulses of high compliance (34 volts are delivered from a step-up voltage regulator under microprocessor control. A slowly pulsed magnetic field controls activation state and stimulation parameters. Program status is signaled to a remote reader by interval-modulated infrared pulses. Capsule size is limited by the two batteries. Silver oxide batteries rated at 8 milliamp-hours were used routinely in 8 mm wide, 15 mm long and 4 mm high capsules. Devices of smaller contact area (5 by 12 mm but taller (6 mm were created for mice. Microstimulation of the rat’s raphe nuclei with intermittent 5-minute (50% duty cycle trains of 30 µA, 1 ms pulses at 8 or 24 Hz frequency during 12 daylight hours lasted 21.1 days ±0.8 (mean ± standard error, Kaplan-Meir censored estimate, n=128. Extended lifetimes (>6 weeks, no failures, n=16 were achieved with larger batteries (44 milliamp-hours in longer (18 mm, taller (6 mm capsules. The circuit and electrode design are versatile; simple modifications allowed durable constant-voltage stimulation of the rat’s sciatic nerve through a cylindrical cathode from a subcutaneous pelvic capsule. Devices with these general features can address in small mammals many of the biological and technical questions arising neurosurgically with prolonged peripheral or deep brain stimulation.

  18. Small terrestrial mammals of Albania: annotated list and distribution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ferdinand Bego

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: Abstract We report for Albania new records of small terrestrial mammals (Erinaceomorpha, Soricomorpha, Rodentia and outline previously published data. Twenty-four species (one hedgehog, six soricomorhps and 17 rodents have been collected in 161 localities surveyed throughout the country. Nine species (Neomys anomalus, Crocidura leucodon, Talpa stankovici, Dryomys nitedula, Muscardinus avellanarius, Micromys minutus, Mus macedonicus, Myodes glareolus, and Microtus thomasi are recorded for Albania for the first time. The present list is far from being complete and presence of a further 11 species has to be confirmed. Riassunto I Micromammiferi dell'Albania: status e distribuzione Viene presentato un quadro della distribuzione dei micromammiferi in Albania, evidenziando le specie di recente scoperta così come alcuni dati già pubblicati. L'esame di 161 località distribuite sull'intero territorio nazionale ha permesso di raccogliere informazioni sulla presenza di 24 specie di micromammiferi (1 Erinaceomorpha, 6 Soricomorpha e 17 Rodentia. Nove specie  (Neomys anomalus, Crocidura leucodon, Talpa stankovici, Dryomys nitedula, Muscardinus avellanarius, Micromys minutus, Mus macedonicus, Myodes glareolus, e Microtus thomasi vengono segnalate per la prima volta. L'elenco qui presentato non può essere considerato definitivo. Ulteriori ricerche potrebbero accertare la presenza di altre 11 specie.

  19. [Fleas on small mammals in the surrounding area of Erhai Lake].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Wen-Ge; Guo, Xian-Guo; Men, Xing-Yuan; Gong, Zheng-Da; Wu, Dian; Zhang, Zheng-Kun; Zhang, Li-Yun

    2009-12-01

    To investigate the distribution pattern, species diversity and community structure of fleas on small mammals in the surrounding area of Erhai Lake, and the relationship between fleas and their hosts. Different geographical areas surrounding the Erhai Lake in Yunnan were selected as investigated spots. Small mammals were captured with baited cages. The cage-traps were examined and re-baited each morning. All fleas on the hosts were collected and identified. The richness (S), evenness (J'), diversity index (H'), dominance index (C'), total ectoparasite infestation rate (Rpt), total ectoparasite infestation index (Ipt), and constituent ratio (Cr) were used to measure the community structure. Altogether, 3,303 small mammals and 3,243 fleas were collected. From the 21 species of small mammal hosts, 13 species of fleas were identified. In southern area of the Lake, the species richness (21 species of small mammals & 12 species of fleas) was highest among the three selected areas. Seventeen species of small mammals and 8 species of fleas were found in eastern area, and only 13 species of small mammals and 7 species of fleas found in the west. This implied the probable influences of ecological environments on the fleas and their corresponding hosts. The community structure of fleas on small mammals was complex. The species diversity, species composition, community structure and distribution pattern of fleas were simultaneously influenced by the hosts' body surface microenvironment and the macroenvironment (habitat). The fleas are commonly distributed in small mammals in the areas and their communities are related to host species and the habitats.

  20. Composition and abundance of small mammal communities in forest fragments and vegetation corridors in Southern Minas Gerais, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andréa O. Mesquita

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Habitat fragmentation leads to isolation and reduce habitat areas, in addition to a series of negative effects on natural populations, affecting richness, abundance and distribution of animal species. In such a text, habitat corridors serve as an alternative for connectivity in fragmented landscapes, minimizing the effects of structural isolation of different habitat areas. This study evaluated the richness, composition and abundance of small mammal communities in forest fragments and in the relevant vegetation corridors that connect these fragments, located in Southern Minas Gerais, Southeastern Brazil. Ten sites were sampled (five forest fragments and five vegetation corridors using the capture-mark-recapture method, from April 2007-March 2008. A total sampling effort of 6 300 trapnights resulted in 656 captures of 249 individuals. Across the 10 sites sampled, 11 small mammal species were recorded. Multidimensional scaling (MDS ordinations and ANOSIM based on the composition of small mammal communities within the corridor and fragment revealed a qualitative difference between the two environments. Regarding abundance, there was no significant difference between corridors and fragments. In comparing mean values of abundance per species in each environment, only Cerradomys subflavus showed a significant difference, being more abundant in the corridor environment. Results suggest that the presence of several small mammal species in the corridor environment, in relatively high abundances, could indicate corridors use as habitat, though they might also facilitate and/or allow the movement of individuals using different habitat patches (fragments.

  1. Candidatus Neoehrlichia mikurensis and Anaplasma phagocytophilum: prevalences and investigations on a new transmission path in small mammals and ixodid ticks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obiegala, Anna; Pfeffer, Martin; Pfister, Kurt; Tiedemann, Tim; Thiel, Claudia; Balling, Anneliese; Karnath, Carolin; Woll, Dietlinde; Silaghi, Cornelia

    2014-12-04

    Small mammals are crucial for the life history of ixodid ticks, but their role and importance in the transmission cycle of tick-borne pathogens is mostly unknown. Candidatus Neoehrlichia mikurensis (CNM) and Anaplasma phagocytophilum are both tick-borne pathogens, and rodents are discussed to serve as main reservoir hosts for CNM but not for the latter especially in Germany. Analysing the prevalence of both pathogens in small mammals and their ticks in endemic regions may help to elucidate possible transmission paths in small mammal populations and between small mammals and ticks. In 2012 and 2013, small mammals were trapped at three different sites in Germany. DNA was extracted from different small mammal tissues, from rodent neonates, foetuses and from questing and attached ticks. DNA samples were tested for CNM and A. phagocytophilum by real-time PCR. Samples positive for A. phagocytophilum were further characterized at the 16S rRNA gene locus. CNM was detected in 28.6% of small mammals and in 2.2% of questing and 3.8% of attached ticks. Altogether 33 positive ticks were attached to 17 different hosts, while positive ticks per host ranged between one and seven. The prevalences for this pathogen differed significantly within small mammal populations comparing sites (χ(2): 13.3987; p: 0.0004) and between sexes. Male rodents had an approximately two times higher chance of infection than females (OR: 1.9652; 95% CI: 1.32-2.92). The prevalence for CNM was 31.8% (95% CI: 22-44) in rodent foetuses and neonates (23 of 67) from positive dams, and 60% (95% CI: 35.7-80.25) of positive gravid or recently parturient rodents (9 out of 15) had at least one positive foetus or neonate. Anaplasma phagocytophilum was detected at a low percentage in rodents (0-5.6%) and host-attached ticks (0.5-2.9%) with no significant differences between rodent species. However, attached nymphs were significantly more often infected than attached larvae (χ(2): 25.091; p: <0.0001). This study

  2. Small-mammal responses to pine regeneration treatments in the Ouachita Mountains of Arkansas and Oklahoma, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roger W. Perry; Ronald E. Thill

    2005-01-01

    We compared the initial effects of four forest regeneration treatments (single-tree selection, group selection, shelterwood, and clearcut), and unharvested controls (mature, second-growth forest) on relative abundance of small mammals and small-mammal habitat throughout the Ouachita Mountains of western Arkansas and eastern Oklahoma. We compared small-mammal capture...

  3. Small mammal diversity loss in response to late-Pleistocene climatic change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blois, Jessica L; McGuire, Jenny L; Hadly, Elizabeth A

    2010-06-10

    Communities have been shaped in numerous ways by past climatic change; this process continues today. At the end of the Pleistocene epoch about 11,700 years ago, North American communities were substantially altered by the interplay of two events. The climate shifted from the cold, arid Last Glacial Maximum to the warm, mesic Holocene interglacial, causing many mammal species to shift their geographic distributions substantially. Populations were further stressed as humans arrived on the continent. The resulting megafaunal extinction event, in which 70 of the roughly 220 largest mammals in North America (32%) became extinct, has received much attention. However, responses of small mammals to events at the end of the Pleistocene have been much less studied, despite the sensitivity of these animals to current and future environmental change. Here we examine community changes in small mammals in northern California during the last 'natural' global warming event at the Pleistocene-Holocene transition and show that even though no small mammals in the local community became extinct, species losses and gains, combined with changes in abundance, caused declines in both the evenness and richness of communities. Modern mammalian communities are thus depauperate not only as a result of megafaunal extinctions at the end of the Pleistocene but also because of diversity loss among small mammals. Our results suggest that across future landscapes there will be some unanticipated effects of global change on diversity: restructuring of small mammal communities, significant loss of richness, and perhaps the rising dominance of native 'weedy' species.

  4. Effects of corridors on home range sizes and interpatch movements of three small mammal species.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mabry, Karen, E.; Barrett, Gary, W.

    2002-04-30

    Mabry, K.E., and G.W. Barrett. 2002. Effects of corridors on home range sizes and interpatch movements of three small mammal species. Landscape Ecol. 17:629-636. Corridors are predicted to benefit populations in patchy habitats by promoting movement, which should increase population densities, gene flow, and recolonization of extinct patch populations. However, few investigators have considered use of the total landscape, particularly the possibility of interpatch movement through matrix habitat, by small mammals. This study compares home range sizes of 3 species of small mammals, the cotton mouse, old field mouse and cotton rat between patches with and without corridors. Corridor presence did not have a statistically significant influence on average home range size. Habitat specialization and sex influenced the probability of an individual moving between 2 patches without corridors. The results of this study suggest that small mammals may be more capable of interpatch movement without corridors than is frequently assumed.

  5. 2002 Small Mammal Inventory at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Site 300

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    West, E; Woollett, J

    2004-11-16

    To assist the University of California in obtaining biological assessment information for the ''2004 Environmental Impact Statement for Continued Operation of Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL)'', Jones & Stokes conducted an inventory of small mammals in six major vegetation communities at Site 300. These communities were annual grassland, native grassland, oak savanna, riparian corridor, coastal scrub, and seep/spring wetlands. The principal objective of this study was to assess the diversity and abundance of small mammal species in these communities, as well as the current status of any special-status small mammal species found in these communities. Surveys in the native grassland community were conducted before and after a controlled fire management burn of the grasslands to qualitatively evaluate any potential effects of fire on small mammals in the area.

  6. Spatial distribution of an infectious disease in a small mammal community

    Science.gov (United States)

    Correa, Juana P.; Bacigalupo, Antonella; Fontúrbel, Francisco E.; Oda, Esteban; Cattan, Pedro E.; Solari, Aldo; Botto-Mahan, Carezza

    2015-10-01

    Chagas disease is a zoonosis caused by the parasite Trypanosoma cruzi and transmitted by insect vectors to several mammals, but little is known about its spatial epidemiology. We assessed the spatial distribution of T. cruzi infection in vectors and small mammals to test if mammal infection status is related to the proximity to vector colonies. During four consecutive years we captured and georeferenced the locations of mammal species and colonies of Mepraia spinolai, a restricted-movement vector. Infection status on mammals and vectors was evaluated by molecular techniques. To examine the effect of vector colonies on mammal infection status, we constructed an infection distance index using the distance between the location of each captured mammal to each vector colony and the average T. cruzi prevalence of each vector colony, weighted by the number of colonies assessed. We collected and evaluated T. cruzi infection in 944 mammals and 1976 M. spinolai. We found a significant effect of the infection distance index in explaining their infection status, when considering all mammal species together. By examining the most abundant species separately, we found this effect only for the diurnal and gregarious rodent Octodon degus. Spatially explicit models involving the prevalence and location of infected vectors and hosts had not been reported previously for a wild disease.

  7. System of small mammals holes as related to variation of expositional dose in forest litters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bykov, A.V.

    1991-01-01

    It is shown that small mammals play a sufficient role in radionuclide migration in natural biogeocenosis and agrocenosis. The system of underground communications of small mammals increases the rate of radionuclide migration deep in soil and promotes their accumulated around holes. Such migration is characterized by directivity-vertically down. The revealed regularities demostrate biogeocenotic role of voles in processes of directed migration of substances, contaminating soil surface

  8. SIMILARITY COMPARISON AND CLASSIFICATION OF SUCKING LOUSE COMMUNITIES ON SOME SMALL MAMMALS IN YUNNAN, CHINA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xian-guoGuo; Ti-junQian; Li-junGuo; Wen-geDong

    2004-01-01

    The similarity and classification of sucking louse communities on 24 species of small mammals were studied in Yunnan Province, China, through a hierarchical cluster analysis. All the louse species on the body surface of a certain species of small mammals are regarded as a louse community unit. The results reveal that the community structure of sucking lice on small mammals is simple with low species diversity. Most small mammals usually have certain louse species on their body surface; there exists a high degree of host specificity. Most louse communities on the same genus of small mammals show a high similarity and are classified into the same group based on hierarchical cluster analysis. When the hosts have a close affinity in taxonomy, the louse communities on their body surface would tend to be similar with the same or similar dominant louse species (as observed in genus Rattus, Niviventer, Apodemus and Eothenomys). The similarity of sucking louse communities is highly consistent with the affinity of small mammal hosts in taxonomy. The results suggest a close relationship of co-evolution between sucking lice and their hosts.

  9. Some concepts in the management and control of small mammal populations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wagner, F.H.

    1978-01-01

    This review discusses some broadly ecological aspects of small mammal management and some positive values of their populations. Although small mammals consume a minor fraction of the total primary production in terrestrial ecosystems, they may by preferential feeding on a few plant species suppress those species within a community. The overall lifeform of the vegetation may not be changed. In cases where severe disturbance (e.g., grazing) reduces climax vegetation (e.g., grasses), and these are replaced by seral species of a different life form (e.g., shrubs), the vegetation may be held in a seral stage by heavy, small mammal pressure on the now subdominant, climax species. They may thus maintain a different vegetation life form than would exist in the absence of their pressure, and restoration of a near-climax state may depend on intensive control. There is a large accumulation of information on small mammal species composition and densities in different vegetation types. Some of it discusses the mechanisms which relate these densities to the habitat. If this information were compiled and generalized, it would provide a basis for predicting the impact on small mammal populations of contemplated land-use programs and possible small mammal management, either control or enhancement, through vegetation manipulation. There is considerable evidence that prey abundance is an important determinant of predator densities. Concern for predator conservation needs to consider abundance of prey species and the factors which affect it

  10. Impacts of ungulates on the demography and diversity of small mammals in central Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keesing, Felicia

    1998-09-01

    The impacts of ungulates on small mammals in an East African savanna habitat were investigated by monitoring the population and community responses of small mammals on replicated 4-ha plots from which ungulates had been excluded. The dominant small mammal in this habitat is the pouched mouse, Saccostomusmearnsi, a medium-sized murid rodent. Eight other small mammal species, including Arvicanthis sp., Mus sp., Mastomys sp., Dendromus sp., Crocidura sp., and, rarely, Tatera sp., Aethomys sp., and Acomys sp., were also captured. The dominant ungulates are elephant (Loxodonta africana), giraffe (Giraffa camelopardalis), Grevy's and common zebra (Equus grevyi and E. burchelli), buffalo (Syncerus cafer), eland (Taurotragus oryx), Grant's gazelle (Gazella granti), and domestic cattle. Within 1 year, S. mearnsi populations had responded dramatically to the exclusion of large mammals by a two-fold increase in density, a difference that was maintained through pronounced seasonal fluctuations in the second year. Though individual pouched mice showed no significant differences in their use of space with and without ungulates, male S. mearnsi maintained significantly higher body weights in the absence of ungulates, indicating that habitat quality had increased. One other species, Mastomys sp., also increased in the absence of ungulates. Overall, the small mammal community maintained relatively constant species diversity on the plots to which ungulates did not have access. On the plots to which ungulates did have access, on the other hand, there was a rapid 75% decrease in diversity in the control plots during one trapping session. Ungulates are most likely affecting small mammals through their effects on food quality, since there were no detectable differences in their exposure to predators, as determined by vegetative cover, in the absence of ungulates. These results demonstrate that ungulates can have strong and rapid impacts on small mammal abundance and diversity in East

  11. Alignment between values of dryland pastoralists and conservation needs for small mammals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Addison, Jane; Pavey, Chris R

    2017-04-01

    Policies for conservation outside protected areas, such as those designed to address the decline in Australian mammals, will not result in net improvements unless they address barriers to proenvironmental behavior. We used a mixed-methods approach to explore potential value-action gaps (disconnects between values and subsequent action) for small mammal conservation behaviors among pastoralists in dryland Australia. Using semistructured surveys and open-ended interviews (n = 43), we explored values toward small mammals; uptake of a range of current and intended actions that may provide benefit to small mammals; and potential perceived barriers to their uptake. Pastoralists assigned great conservation value to small mammals; over 80% (n = 36) agreed to strongly agreed that small mammals on their property were important. These values did not translate into stated willingness to engage in voluntary cessation of wild-dog control (r 2 = 0.187, p = 0.142, n = 43). However, assigning great conservation value to small mammals was strongly related to stated voluntary willingness to engage in the proenvironmental behavior most likely to result in benefits to small mammals: cat and fox control (r 2 = 0.558, p = 0.000, n = 43). There was no significant difference between stated voluntarily and incentivized willingness to engage in cat and fox control (p = 0.862, n = 43). The high levels of willingness to engage in voluntary cat and fox control highlight a potential entry point for addressing Australia's mammal declines because the engagement of pastoralists in conservation programs targeting cat and fox control is unlikely to be prevented by attitudinal constraints. Qualitative data suggest there is likely a subpopulation of pastoralists who value small mammals but do not wish to engage in formal conservation programs due to relational barriers with potential implementers. A long-term commitment to engagement with pastoralists by implementers will thus be necessary for

  12. Anthropogenic water sources and the effects on Sonoran Desert small mammal communities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aaron B. Switalski

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Anthropogenic water sources (AWS are developed water sources used as a management tool for desert wildlife species. Studies documenting the effects of AWS are often focused on game species; whereas, the effects on non-target wildlife are less understood. We used live trapping techniques to investigate rodent abundance, biomass, and diversity metrics near AWS and paired control sites; we sampled vegetation to determine rodent-habitat associations in the Sauceda Mountains of the Sonoran Desert in Arizona. A total of 370 individual mammals representing three genera and eight species were captured in 4,800 trap nights from winter 2011 to spring 2012. A multi-response permutation procedure was used to identify differences in small mammal community abundance and biomass by season and treatment. Rodent abundance, biomass, and richness were greater at AWS compared to control sites. Patterns of abundance and biomass were driven by the desert pocket mouse (Chaetodipus penicillatus which was the most common capture and two times more numerous at AWS compared to controls. Vegetation characteristics, explored using principal components analysis, were similar between AWS and controls. Two species that prefer vegetation structure, Bailey’s pocket mouse (C. baileyi and white-throated woodrat (Neotoma albigula, had greater abundances and biomass near AWS and were associated with habitat having high cactus density. Although small mammals do not drink free-water, perhaps higher abundances of some species of desert rodents at AWS could be related to artificial structure associated with construction or other resources. Compared to the 30-year average of precipitation for the area, the period of our study occurred during a dry winter. During dry periods, perhaps AWS provide resources to rodents related to moisture.

  13. Anthropogenic water sources and the effects on Sonoran Desert small mammal communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Switalski, Aaron B; Bateman, Heather L

    2017-01-01

    Anthropogenic water sources (AWS) are developed water sources used as a management tool for desert wildlife species. Studies documenting the effects of AWS are often focused on game species; whereas, the effects on non-target wildlife are less understood. We used live trapping techniques to investigate rodent abundance, biomass, and diversity metrics near AWS and paired control sites; we sampled vegetation to determine rodent-habitat associations in the Sauceda Mountains of the Sonoran Desert in Arizona. A total of 370 individual mammals representing three genera and eight species were captured in 4,800 trap nights from winter 2011 to spring 2012. A multi-response permutation procedure was used to identify differences in small mammal community abundance and biomass by season and treatment. Rodent abundance, biomass, and richness were greater at AWS compared to control sites. Patterns of abundance and biomass were driven by the desert pocket mouse ( Chaetodipus penicillatus ) which was the most common capture and two times more numerous at AWS compared to controls. Vegetation characteristics, explored using principal components analysis, were similar between AWS and controls. Two species that prefer vegetation structure, Bailey's pocket mouse ( C. baileyi ) and white-throated woodrat ( Neotoma albigula) , had greater abundances and biomass near AWS and were associated with habitat having high cactus density. Although small mammals do not drink free-water, perhaps higher abundances of some species of desert rodents at AWS could be related to artificial structure associated with construction or other resources. Compared to the 30-year average of precipitation for the area, the period of our study occurred during a dry winter. During dry periods, perhaps AWS provide resources to rodents related to moisture.

  14. Implications of a conceptual model for the allocation of energy resources by small mammals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wunder, B.A.

    1978-01-01

    This paper presents a conceptual model describing the manner in which small mammals utilize energy and the ways in which the physical environment influences allocation of energy resources. It is suggested that for homeothermic mammals, thermoregulation is a first priority for energy utilization and feeding a second priority. Once these needs are met additional energy gathered may be allocated to production or other behaviors. Deductions from the model, coupled with conclusions from field studies of weather effects on small mammal reproduction and the effects of supplemental feeding experiments on reproduction, suggest that many difficulties in interpreting such studies may be due to inattention to the interactive effects of food and weather on reproduction. The paper then describes the manner in which three sorts of environments (subarctic-boreal, north temperate grassland, and deserts) vary seasonally in their productivity and level of cold stress for small mammals

  15. Lead concentrations: bats vs. terrestrial small mammals collected near a major highway

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clark, D.R.

    1979-03-01

    Lead concentrations in two species of bats and three species of terrestrial small mammals (meadow voles, short-tailed shrews, and white-footed mice) collected near a heavily travelled highway are compared. Roosting bats away from the parkway contained as much or more lead as the terrestrial mammals that were collected within 18 m of the road. Estimated doses of lead ingested by little brown bats, shrews, and voles equal or exceed doses that have caused mortality or reproductive impairment in domestic mammals. (24 references, 3 tables)

  16. Small mammal populations in zoonotic disease and toxicological studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muul, I.

    1978-01-01

    Examples of zoonotic diseases are discussed in relation to their distribution in mammalian hosts. Various ecological factors influence disease distribution patterns so that only a certain portion of the mammalian populations are subject to infections. Emphasis was placed on some of these ecological factors in studying the mainstream of infections in endemic hosts and vectors. This approach might be called medical ecology and would be supplemental to epidemiological studies which characteristically emphasize human involvement in zoonotic disease transmission. For example, occurrence in certain habitats and vertical distribution within forest habitats predisposed various mammalian species to infections. Arboreal species did not have scrub typhus infections while terrestrial species had high infection rates. Malaria parasites were common in arboreal mammals but uncommon in terrestrial species. Additionally, disease surveys in the absence of population data pertaining to potential host species sometimes yield misleading results, especially if age structure within populations changes through time. In field studies use of sentinel animals of known immunological history provide valuable supplemental information to surveys of free living animals which may have been infected at some unknown time in the past. As many different species should be studied as is practical since some species may not be susceptible to certain diseases under study. In laboratory studies, inclusion of non-standard mammals may provide opportunities to culture disease organisms which do not proliferate in standard laboratory species, or to replace diminishing resources of such species as primates

  17. Serologic evidence of the exposure of small mammals to spotted-fever Rickettsia and Rickettsia bellii in Minas Gerais, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coelho, Marcella Gonçalves; Ramos, Vanessa do Nascimento; Limongi, Jean Ezequiel; de Lemos, Elba Regina Sampaio; Guterres, Alexandro; da Costa Neto, Sócrates Fraga; Rozental, Tatiana; Bonvicino, Cibele Rodrigues; D'Andrea, Paulo Sérgio; Moraes-Filho, Jonas; Labruna, Marcelo Bahia; Szabó, Matias Pablo Juan

    2016-03-31

    Sources of pathogenic Rickettsia in wildlife are largely unknown in Brazil. In this work, potential tick vectors and seroreactivity of small mammals against four spotted-fever group Rickettsia (R. rickettsii, R. parkeri, R. amblyommii and R. rhipicephali) and Rickettsia bellii from peri-urban areas of Uberlândia, a major town in Brazil, are described for the first time. Small mammals were captured and blood samples collected. Ticks were collected from the surface of the host and the environment and posteriorly identified. Reactivity of small mammal sera to Rickettsia was tested by indirect immunofluorescence assay (IFA) using crude antigens from five Brazilian Rickettsia isolates. Information was obtained from 416 small mammals (48 Marsupialia and 368 Rodentia). Forty-eight animals were parasitized and two tick species, Ixodes loricatus and Amblyomma dubitatum, were found on several host species, with a few tick-host relationships described for the first time. From the 416 tested sera, 70 reacted to at least one Rickettsia antigen (prevalence of 16.8%) and from these, 19 (27.1%) reacted to two or more antigens. Seroprevalence was higher for marsupials (39.6%) than for rodents (13.8%). Marsupial and Rhipidomys spp. sera reacted mainly (highest seroprevalence and titers) to R. bellii, and that of Necromys lasiurus mainly to R. rickettsii. Although the serologic assays poorly discriminate between closely related spotted-fever group Rickettsia, the observed small mammal seroreactivity suggests the circulation of Rickettsia in the peri-urban area of Uberlândia, albeit at low levels.

  18. Long-term data set of small mammals from owl pellets in the Atlantic-Mediterranean transition area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escribano, Nora; Galicia, David; Ariño, Arturo H; Escala, Carmen

    2016-09-27

    We describe the pellet sampling data set from the Vertebrate Collection of the Museum of Zoology of the University of Navarra. This data set compiles all information about small mammals obtained from the analysis of owl pellets. The collection consists on skulls, mandibles, and some skeletons of 36 species of more than 72,000 georeferenced specimens. These specimens come from the Iberian Peninsula although most samples were collected in Navarra, a highly diverse transitional area of 10,000 kilometre square sitting across three biogeographical regions. The collection spans more than forty years and is still growing as a result of the establishment of a barn owl pellet monitoring network in 2015. The program will provide critical information about the evolution of the small mammals' community in this transition zone as it changes over time.

  19. Effect of downed woody debris on small mammal anti-predator behavior.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hinkleman, Travis, M.; Orrock, John, L.; Loeb, Susan, C.

    2011-10-01

    Anti-predator behavior can affect prey growth, reproduction, survival, and generate emergent effects in food webs. Small mammals often lower the cost of predation by altering their behavior in response to shrubs,but the importance of other microhabitat features, such as downed woody debris, for anti-predator behavior is unknown. We used givingup densities to quantify the degree to which downed woody debris alters perceived predation risk by small mammals in southeastern pineforests. We placed 14 foraging trays next to large downed woody debris,shrubs, and in open areas for 12 consecutive nights. Moon illumination, a common indicator of predation risk, led to a similar reduction in small mammal foraging in all three microhabitats (open, downed woody debris,and shrub). Small mammals perceived open microhabitats as riskier than shrub microhabitats, with downed woody debris habitats perceived as being of intermediate risk between shrub and open microhabitats. Despite the presumed benefits of the protective cover of downed woody debris, small mammals may perceive downed woody debris as a relatively risky foraging site in southeastern pine forests where the high diversity and abundance of rodent-eating snakes may provide a primary predatory threat.

  20. Woodland reserves within an urban agglomeration as important refuges for small mammals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gryz Jakub

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to determine the species richness (S, Chao- 1 index and diversity (Shannon-Wiener H’ index, diversity profiles of small mammal assemblages in woodland reserves in an urban agglomeration and to compare the similarity of assemblages (with the use of Ward’s method in terms of proportions of small mammals connected to the habitats of different level of naturalness. The work was conducted from 2004-2015 at 9 woodland reserves in Warsaw (Poland. On the basis of the analysis of pellets of tawny owls Strix aluco, 2792 individuals were identified (24 species. Reserves supported from 7 to 16 of the small mammal species, the highest overall number of species estimated (Chao-1 was 19. Species present in every reserve were Apodemus flavicollis, A. agrarius, Rattus norvegicus, Sorex araneus and Talpa europaea. Least frequent were Microtus agrestis and M. subterraneus. Seven species of bats were detected. Species diversity was lower in the biggest forest complexes, where forest rodents dominated small mammal assemblage. The heterogeneity of habitats within reserve and in the surroundings, in combination with limited human-interference, resulted in an increase in the species diversity. Overall, the reserves under study were an important refuge for small mammals within the Warsaw agglomeration. However, safeguarding of adjacent areas against excessive anthropogenic change is needed and ecological corridors that link different areas need to be retained.

  1. Environmental Survey Report for ORNL: Small Mammal Abundance and Distribution Survey Oak Ridge National Environmental Research Park 2009 - 2010

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Giffen, Neil R [ORNL; Reasor, R. Scott [Oak Ridge Institute for Science and Education (ORISE); Campbell, Claire L. [Oak Ridge Institute for Science and Education (ORISE)

    2009-12-01

    This report summarizes a 1-year small mammal biodiversity survey conducted on the Oak Ridge National Environmental Research Park (OR Research Park). The task was implemented through the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) Natural Resources Management Program and included researchers from the ORNL Environmental Sciences Division, interns in the Oak Ridge Institute for Science and Education Higher Education Research Experiences Program, and ORNL Environmental Protection Services staff. Eight sites were surveyed reservation wide. The survey was conducted in an effort to determine species abundance and diversity of small mammal populations throughout the reservation and to continue the historical inventory of small mammal presence for biodiversity records. This data collection effort was in support of the approved Wildlife Management Plan for the Oak Ridge Reservation, a major goal of which is to maintain and enhance wildlife biodiversity on the Reservation. Three of the sites (Poplar Creek, McNew Hollow, and Deer Check Station Field) were previously surveyed during a major natural resources inventory conducted in 1996. Five new sites were included in this study: Bearden Creek, Rainy Knob (Natural Area 21), Gum Hollow, White Oak Creek and Melton Branch. The 2009-2010 small mammal surveys were conducted from June 2009 to July 2010 on the Oak Ridge National Environmental Research Park (OR Research Park). The survey had two main goals: (1) to determine species abundance and diversity and (2) to update historical records on the OR Research Park. The park is located on the Department of Energy-owned Oak Ridge Reservation, which encompasses 13,580 ha. The primary focus of the study was riparian zones. In addition to small mammal sampling, vegetation and coarse woody debris samples were taken at certain sites to determine any correlations between habitat and species presence. During the survey all specimens were captured and released using live trapping techniques including

  2. Small mammal populations at hazardous waste disposal sites near Houston, Texas, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robbins, C.S.

    1990-01-01

    Small mammals were trapped, tagged and recaptured in 0?45 ha plots at six hazardous industrial waste disposal sites to determine if populations, body mass and age structures were different from paired control site plots. Low numbers of six species of small mammals were captured on industrial waste sites or control sites. Only populations of hispid cotton rats at industrial waste sites and control sites were large enough for comparisons. Overall population numbers, age structure, and body mass of adult male and female cotton rats were similar at industrial waste sites and control sites. Populations of small mammals (particularly hispid cotton rats) may not suffice as indicators of environments with hazardous industrial waste contamination.

  3. Bartonella species in small mammals and their potential vectors in Asia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tawisa Jiyipong

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available In this article, authors review the current knowledge of Bartonella infection in small mammals including rodents, insectivores, bats and exotic small mammal pets and their vectors in Asia. Species of Bartonella are Gram-negative intracellular bacteria that infect erythrocytes of various mammalian and non-mammalian animals and mainly transmitted by blood sucking arthropod vectors. The genus Bartonella includes several species of important human diseases with severe clinical signs. Several new Bartonella species were isolated from rodents and other small mammals, and from human patients in Asia. Bartonella species are identified using standard polymerase chain reaction amplification and a sequencing targeting two housekeeping genes (gltA and rpoB and the internal transcribed spacer fragment. Authors also discuss the implications in term of potential emerging zoonotic diseases.

  4. Relation between small-mammal species composition and anthropic variables in the Brazilian Atlantic Forest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Olifiers

    Full Text Available Anthropic activities are frequently related in many ways to forest fragmentation and alteration of natural communities. In this study, we correlate the presence of hunting, tourism activity, agriculture/pasturing, and the distance of the study sites to the nearest human residences with the species composition of small Atlantic forest mammals. To do this, we utilize a multiple regression analysis of similarity matrices. The presence of both agriculture/pasturing and human residences near the study sites proved to be determinant factors in species composition of small mammals of the studied areas. Working with socioeconomic variables related directly with the study site could be a reliable and a direct way to predict the influence of human presence and entailed activity on small mammal communities.

  5. Using of Synchrotron radiation for study of multielement composition of the small mammals diet and tissues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bezel, V S [Institute of Plant and Animal Ecology Ural Branch of Russian Academy of Sciences, 8 Marta str., 202, 620144, Ekaterinburg (Russian Federation); Koutzenogii, K P [Institute of Chemical Kinetics and Combustion of Siberian Branch of Russian Academy of Sciences, Institutskaya str., 3, 630090 Novosibirsk (Russian Federation); Mukhacheva, S V [Institute of Plant and Animal Ecology Ural Branch of Russian Academy of Sciences, 8 Marta str., 202, 620144, Ekaterinburg (Russian Federation); Chankina, O V [Institute of Chemical Kinetics and Combustion of Siberian Branch of Russian Academy of Sciences, Institutskaya str., 3, 630090 Novosibirsk (Russian Federation); Savchenko, T I [Institute of Chemical Kinetics and Combustion of Siberian Branch of Russian Academy of Sciences, Institutskaya str., 3, 630090 Novosibirsk (Russian Federation)

    2007-05-21

    The Synchrotron radiation X-ray Fluorescence analysis (SRXRF) was used for estimation of 'geochemical selection' of elements by small mammals, which belong to different trophic groups and inhabit polluted and background areas (the Middle Ural). The concentrations of K, Ca, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, As, Br, Rb, Sr, Y, Cd, Pb in the diet and into hepar of a herbivorous (bank vole) and carnivorous (Laxmann's shrew) small mammals were compared. Herbivores play a particular role in chemical elements translocation between trophic levels, limiting element transition to consumers of the consequent levels. Whereas, insectivores concentrate most elements in their tissues under the same conditions.

  6. Predicting effects of rainforest fragmentation from live trapping studies of small mammals in Sri Lanka

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.R. Wijesinghe

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the impact of forest fragmentation on small mammals inhabiting the rainforests of Sri Lanka. Fifteen forests ranging in size from 145 to 11000 ha were live-trapped for five to eight nights each in both interior and edge habitats, yielding a total of 18400 trap nights. A total of 444 individuals belonging to 10 species of small mammals were captured. Multiple-regression analysis incorporating three indicators of fragmentation: patch area, shape index (perimeter/area and degree of isolation, showed no significant effects on overall species richness of small mammals. This is likely because the decline of forest-adapted species from small forest fragments was accompanied by an increase in more tolerant and adaptive species. Patch size, however, had a significant positive effect on the abundance of small mammals. Of the two dominant species, the endemic Mus mayori was positively affected by patch area whilst Rattus rattus was not affected. Although no differences were evident between interior and edge habitats with respect to total species richness and abundance, endemics were more abundant in core areas while the reverse was true for the non-endemics. Core forest areas were significantly different from forest edges with respect to canopy cover, density of herbaceous vegetation, large trees and litter cover. These results suggest that forest fragmentation is detrimental to some forest specialists and beneficial to some generalists.

  7. THE subfossil occurrence and paleoecological significance of small mammals at ankilitelo cave, southwestern Madagascar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muldoon, K.M.; De Blieux, D. D.; Simons, E.L.; Chatrath, P.S.

    2009-01-01

    Small mammals are rarely reported from subfossil sites in Madagascar despite their importance for paleoenvironmental reconstruction, especially as it relates to recent ecological changes on the island. We describe the uniquely rich subfossil small mammal fauna from Ankilitelo Cave, southwestern Madagascar. The Ankilitelo fauna is dated to the late Holocene (???500 years ago), documenting the youngest appearances of the extinct giant lemur taxa Palaeopropithecus, Megaladapis, and Archaeolemur, in association with abundant remains of small vertebrates, including bats, tenrecs, carnivorans, rodents, and primates. The Ankilitelo fauna is composed of 34 mammalian species, making it one of the most diverse Holocene assemblages in Madagascar. The fauna comprises the 1 st report of the short-tailed shrew tenrec (Microgale brevicaudata) and the ring-tailed mongoose (Galidia elegans) in southwestern Madagascar. Further, Ankilitelo documents the presence of southwestern species that are rare or that have greatly restricted ranges today, such as Nasolo's shrew tenrec (M. nasoloi), Grandidier's mongoose (Galidictis grandidieri), the narrow-striped mongoose (Mungotictis decemlineata), and the giant jumping rat (Hypogeomys antimena). A simple cause for the unusual small mammal occurrences at Ankilitelo is not obvious. Synergistic interactions between climate change, recent fragmentation and human-initiated degradation of forested habitats, and community-level processes, such as predation, most likely explain the disjunct distributions of the small mammals documented at Ankilitelo. ?? 2009 American Society of Mammalogists.

  8. Overview of helminths in small mammals in the Zhiguli State Reserve

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadezhda Yu. Kirillova

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Helminths from a total of 24 species of small mammals, representing three orders (Insectivora, Chiroptera, Rodentia were examined in Zhiguli State Reserve (Russia. 90 species of helminthes were identified: Trematoda – 24, Cestoidea – 21, Nematoda – 43 and Acanthocephala – 2. For each helminth species the following traits are specified: systematic position, hosts, localization, host specificity, sites of findings and geographical distribution. Rodents, in which 33 helminth species were noted, were proven to have the richest parasite fauna. In chiropterans and insectivores 32 and 28 species of helminths were registered, respectively. Only one parasite species was common for all three orders of mammals – the acanthocephalan Moniliformis moniliformis. 14 species of parasites were discovered in mammals of Russia for the first time: Prosthodendrium hurkovaae, Rodentolepis erinacei, Staphylocystis syrdariensis, Aonchotheca erinacei, Crenosoma striatum, Tricholinstowia linstowi, T. talpae, Molinistrongylus alatus, M. spasskii, M. vespertilionis, Pterothominx neopulchra, Pterygodermatites bovieri, Syphacia nigeriana, Centrorhynchus aluconis, larvae, Moniliformis moniliformis, larvae. 21 species of parasitic worms were found for the first time in mammals of the Volga River basin. Nine helminth species, discovered in small mammals of the Zhiguli State Reserve, are of epidemiological and epizootiological importance.

  9. Preliminary results of a survey of small mammals in Ruaha National ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Identifications and natural history data are presented for each of the species encountered. Particular attention was paid to the Isunkaviola Plateau, a forest habitat at higher altitudes within the Park, which had no previous study of small mammals. The fauna of Isunkaviola Plateau bears little resemblance to that of the Eastern ...

  10. Structure of small mammal communities on clearings in managed Central European forests

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Krojerová-Prokešová, Jarmila; Homolka, Miloslav; Barančeková, Miroslava; Heroldová, Marta; Baňař, P.; Kamler, Jiří; Purchart, L.; Suchomel, J.; Zejda, Jan

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 367, 1 May 2016 (2016), s. 41-51 ISSN 0378-1127 R&D Projects: GA MZe QH72075 Institutional support: RVO:68081766 Keywords : Clear-cuts * Forestry practice * Insectivores * Rodents * Small mammals * Species diversity Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 3.064, year: 2016

  11. Heavy metals content in reproductive organs of small mammals inhabiting in condition of chronic chemical exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mukhacheva, S.V.; Davydova, Yu.A.

    2008-01-01

    In this research by example of bank vole the heavy metals concentrations (cadmium, copper and zinc) in reproductive organs of small mammals inhabiting in condition of environmental pollution with wastes from copper-smelting industry have been considered. The levels of radionuclides accumulation in testes, seminal vesicle and ovaries of voles with radionuclide concentration in others organs and tissues of animals have been compared.

  12. The riparian ecosystem management study: response of small mammals to streamside buffers in western Washington

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin G. Raphael; Randall J. Wilk

    2013-01-01

    One of the fundamental concepts behind the conservation strategy in the U.S. federal Northwest Forest Plan is the importance of habitat buff ers in providing functional stream and streamside ecosystems. To better understand the importance of riparian buff ers in providing habitat for associated organisms, we investigated responses of small mammals to various streamside...

  13. Small mammals in saltcedar (Tamarix ramosissima) - invaded and native riparian habitats of the western Great Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Invasive saltcedar species have replaced native riparian trees on numerous river systems throughout the western US, raising concerns about how this habitat conversion may affect wildlife. For periods ranging from 1-10 years, small mammal populations were monitored at six riparian sites impacted by s...

  14. Small mammal - heavy metal interactions in contaminated floodplains. Bioturbation and accumulation in periodically flooded ebvironments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wijnhoven, S.

    2007-01-01

    A better understanding of interactions between biota and contaminants in floodplains is needed as it is uncertain whether ecological rehabilitation of floodplains is possible at the current contaminant levels. This study investigates where and when contacts between small mammals (voles, mice, shrews

  15. Small mammal density and movement on the SL-1 disposal area, Idaho National Engineering Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Filipovich, M.A.; Keller, B.L.

    1983-01-01

    This study was initiated to examine the population composition, density and food habits of small mammals on a radioactive waste disposal area. Population parameters of small mammals were studied at 3-month intervals on and adjacent to the SL-1 radioactive waste disposal area (1.4 ha) and a 0.3 ha control area between August 1981 and February 1982 with mark-release methods. Both areas have crested wheatgrass (Agropyron cristatum) stands surrounded by sagebrush steppe. Species composition on the SL-1 and control area was similar to that found on the Subsurface Disposal Area at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. Considerable use by small mammals of the perimeter of the crested wheatgrass stands was found on both the SL-1 and control area. Additionally, deer mice (Peromyscus maniculatus) and Ord's kangaroo rats (Dipodomys ordii) that frequent the crested wheatgrass stands of the SL-1 and control area were often captured over 100 m from the crested wheatgrass stands. Thus, future research efforts will focus on examining the intensity of perimeter use and food habits of rodents residing on and adjacent to the SL-1. Results of this study will be used to evaluate ecological conditions that affect small mammal use of radioactive waste disposal areas

  16. Influence of heavy metals body burden on biochemical peculiarities of small mammals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. A. Zemlianyj

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The influence of technogenic pollution on the protein and lipid content in small mammals from different ecosystems is observed in the paper. It was defined that its content increased in organs, which take an active part in the metabolic processes.

  17. A pheasantry as the habitat of small terrestrial mammals (Rodentia, Insectivora) in southern Moravia (Czech Republic)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Suchomel, J.; Heroldová, Marta

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 53, č. 4 (2007), s. 185-191 ISSN 1212-4834 Grant - others:GA ČR(CZ) GP526/03/P051 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60930519 Keywords : pheasantry * diversity * small terrestrial mammals Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour http://journals.uzpi.cz:8050/uniqueFiles/00162.pdf/

  18. Effect of downed woody debris on small mammal anti-predator behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Travis M. Hinkelman; John L. Orrock; Susan C Loeb

    2011-01-01

    Anti-Predator behavior can affect prey growth, reproduction, survival, and generate emergent effects in food webs. Small mammals often lower the cost of predation by altering their behavior in response to shrubs, but the importance of other microhabitat features, such as downed woody debris, for anti-predator behavior is unknown. We used giving-up densities to quantify...

  19. Long-term changes of small mammal communities in heterogenous landscapes of Central Europe

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Zárybnická, M.; Riegert, J.; Bejček, V.; Sedláček, F.; Šťastný, K.; Šindelář, J.; Heroldová, M.; Vilímová, J.; Zima, Jan

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 63, č. 6 (2017), č. článku 89. ISSN 1612-4642 Institutional support: RVO:68081766 Keywords : Habitat diversity * Population dynamics * Community structure * Small mammal * Weather * Masting Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour OBOR OECD: Ecology Impact factor: 1.264, year: 2016

  20. Cadmium Accumulation in Small Mammals: Species Traits, Soil Properties, and Spatial Habitat Use

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brink, van den N.W.; Lammertsma, D.R.; Dimmers, W.J.; Boerwinkel, M.C.

    2011-01-01

    In this study, the impact of species-specific spatial habitat use, diet preferences, and soil concentrations and properties on the accumulation of cadmium in small mammals was investigated. The results show that for the wood mouse (Apodemus sylvaticus), a mobile species with a large range in diet

  1. Thinning effects on spotted owl prey and other forest-dwelling small mammals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Todd M. Willson; Eric D. Forsman

    2013-01-01

    Th inning has been promoted as a method for accelerating the development of late-seral habitat and improving the overall health and function of young forests in the Pacifi c Northwest. Population studies have shown early and positive responses to thinning by some small forest-floor mammals (primarily mice, terrestrial voles, and shrews). However, thinning reduces the...

  2. Assessing Monkeypox Virus Prevalence in Small Mammals at the Human–Animal Interface in the Democratic Republic of the Congo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeffrey B. Doty

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available During 2012, 2013 and 2015, we collected small mammals within 25 km of the town of Boende in Tshuapa Province, the Democratic Republic of the Congo. The prevalence of monkeypox virus (MPXV in this area is unknown; however, cases of human infection were previously confirmed near these collection sites. Samples were collected from 353 mammals (rodents, shrews, pangolins, elephant shrews, a potamogale, and a hyrax. Some rodents and shrews were captured from houses where human monkeypox cases have recently been identified, but most were trapped in forests and agricultural areas near villages. Real-time PCR and ELISA were used to assess evidence of MPXV infection and other Orthopoxvirus (OPXV infections in these small mammals. Seven (2.0% of these animal samples were found to be anti-orthopoxvirus immunoglobulin G (IgG antibody positive (six rodents: two Funisciurus spp.; one Graphiurus lorraineus; one Cricetomys emini; one Heliosciurus sp.; one Oenomys hypoxanthus, and one elephant shrew Petrodromus tetradactylus; no individuals were found positive in PCR-based assays. These results suggest that a variety of animals can be infected with OPXVs, and that epidemiology studies and educational campaigns should focus on animals that people are regularly contacting, including larger rodents used as protein sources.

  3. Assessing Monkeypox Virus Prevalence in Small Mammals at the Human-Animal Interface in the Democratic Republic of the Congo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doty, Jeffrey B; Malekani, Jean M; Kalemba, Lem's N; Stanley, William T; Monroe, Benjamin P; Nakazawa, Yoshinori U; Mauldin, Matthew R; Bakambana, Trésor L; Liyandja Dja Liyandja, Tobit; Braden, Zachary H; Wallace, Ryan M; Malekani, Divin V; McCollum, Andrea M; Gallardo-Romero, Nadia; Kondas, Ashley; Peterson, A Townsend; Osorio, Jorge E; Rocke, Tonie E; Karem, Kevin L; Emerson, Ginny L; Carroll, Darin S

    2017-10-03

    During 2012, 2013 and 2015, we collected small mammals within 25 km of the town of Boende in Tshuapa Province, the Democratic Republic of the Congo. The prevalence of monkeypox virus (MPXV) in this area is unknown; however, cases of human infection were previously confirmed near these collection sites. Samples were collected from 353 mammals (rodents, shrews, pangolins, elephant shrews, a potamogale, and a hyrax). Some rodents and shrews were captured from houses where human monkeypox cases have recently been identified, but most were trapped in forests and agricultural areas near villages. Real-time PCR and ELISA were used to assess evidence of MPXV infection and other Orthopoxvirus (OPXV) infections in these small mammals. Seven (2.0%) of these animal samples were found to be anti-orthopoxvirus immunoglobulin G (IgG) antibody positive (six rodents: two Funisciurus spp.; one Graphiurus lorraineus ; one Cricetomys emini ; one Heliosciurus sp.; one Oenomys hypoxanthus , and one elephant shrew Petrodromus tetradactylus ); no individuals were found positive in PCR-based assays. These results suggest that a variety of animals can be infected with OPXVs, and that epidemiology studies and educational campaigns should focus on animals that people are regularly contacting, including larger rodents used as protein sources.

  4. Assessment of the role of small mammals in the transmission cycle of tegumentary leishmaniasis and first report of natural infection with Leishmania braziliensis in two sigmodontines in northeastern Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández, María S; Fraschina, Jimena; Acardi, Soraya; Liotta, Domingo J; Lestani, Eduardo; Giuliani, Magalí; Busch, María; Salomón, O Daniel

    2018-02-01

    To contribute to the knowledge of the role of small mammals in the transmission cycle of tegumentary leishmaniasis caused by Leishmania braziliensis, we studied the small mammal community and its temporal and spatial association with phlebotominae, as well as small mammal infection by Leishmania spp. by PCR-RFLP analyses in an endemic area of northeastern Argentina. Ten small mammal samplings were conducted (2007-2009, 7506 Sherman trap nights and 422 cage trap nights). In two of these samplings, 16 capture stations each one consisting of a CDC light trap to capture phlebotominae, two to four Sherman traps and two cage traps were placed. We found co-occurrence of phlebotominae and small mammal captures in four stations, which were all the stations with small mammal captures and yielded 97% (2295 specimens, including 21 gravid females) of the total phlebotominae captures, suggesting that small mammals may provide a potential source of blood for phlebotominae females. One Didelphis albiventris and two Rattus rattus were associated with high captures of Nyssomyia whitmani, vector of L. braziliensis in the study area. The PCR-RFLP analyses confirm the presence of L. braziliensis in two sigmodontine small mammals (Akodon sp. and Euryoryzomys russatus) for the first time in Argentina, to our knowledge.

  5. Drivers of Echinococcus multilocularis transmission in China: small mammal diversity, landscape or climate?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick Giraudoux

    Full Text Available Human alveolar echinococcocosis (AE is a highly pathogenic zoonotic disease caused by the larval stage of the cestode E. multilocularis. Its life-cycle includes more than 40 species of small mammal intermediate hosts. Therefore, host biodiversity losses could be expected to alter transmission. Climate may also have possible impacts on E. multilocularis egg survival. We examined the distribution of human AE across two spatial scales, (i for continental China and (ii over the eastern edge of the Tibetan plateau. We tested the hypotheses that human disease distribution can be explained by either the biodiversity of small mammal intermediate host species, or by environmental factors such as climate or landscape characteristics.The distributions of 274 small mammal species were mapped to 967 point locations on a grid covering continental China. Land cover, elevation, monthly rainfall and temperature were mapped using remotely sensed imagery and compared to the distribution of human AE disease at continental scale and over the eastern Tibetan plateau. Infection status of 17,589 people screened by abdominal ultrasound in 2002-2008 in 94 villages of Tibetan areas of western Sichuan and Qinghai provinces was analyzed using generalized additive mixed models and related to epidemiological and environmental covariates. We found that human AE was not directly correlated with small mammal reservoir host species richness, but rather was spatially correlated with landscape features and climate which could confirm and predict human disease hotspots over a 200,000 km(2 region.E. multilocularis transmission and resultant human disease risk was better predicted from landscape features that could support increases of small mammal host species prone to population outbreaks, rather than host species richness. We anticipate that our study may be a starting point for further research wherein landscape management could be used to predict human disease risk and for

  6. Community occupancy responses of small mammals to restoration treatments in ponderosa pine forests, northern Arizona, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalies, E L; Dickson, B G; Chambers, C L; Covington, W W

    2012-01-01

    In western North American conifer forests, wildfires are increasing in frequency and severity due to heavy fuel loads that have accumulated after a century of fire suppression. Forest restoration treatments (e.g., thinning and/or burning) are being designed and implemented at large spatial and temporal scales in an effort to reduce fire risk and restore forest structure and function. In ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa) forests, predominantly open forest structure and a frequent, low-severity fire regime constituted the evolutionary environment for wildlife that persisted for thousands of years. Small mammals are important in forest ecosystems as prey and in affecting primary production and decomposition. During 2006-2009, we trapped eight species of small mammals at 294 sites in northern Arizona and used occupancy modeling to determine community responses to thinning and habitat features. The most important covariates in predicting small mammal occupancy were understory vegetation cover, large snags, and treatment. Our analysis identified two generalist species found at relatively high occupancy rates across all sites, four open-forest species that responded positively to treatment, and two dense-forest species that responded negatively to treatment unless specific habitat features were retained. Our results indicate that all eight small mammal species can benefit from restoration treatments, particularly if aspects of their evolutionary environment (e.g., large trees, snags, woody debris) are restored. The occupancy modeling approach we used resulted in precise species-level estimates of occupancy in response to habitat attributes for a greater number of small mammal species than in other comparable studies. We recommend our approach for other studies faced with high variability and broad spatial and temporal scales in assessing impacts of treatments or habitat alteration on wildlife species. Moreover, since forest planning efforts are increasingly focusing on

  7. Diversification of an emerging pathogen in a biodiversity hotspot: Leptospira in endemic small mammals of Madagascar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dietrich, Muriel; Wilkinson, David A; Soarimalala, Voahangy; Goodman, Steven M; Dellagi, Koussay; Tortosa, Pablo

    2014-06-01

    Biodiversity hotspots and associated endemism are ideal systems for the study of parasite diversity within host communities. Here, we investigated the ecological and evolutionary forces acting on the diversification of an emerging bacterial pathogen, Leptospira spp., in communities of endemic Malagasy small mammals. We determined the infection rate with pathogenic Leptospira in 20 species of sympatric rodents (subfamily Nesomyinae) and tenrecids (family Tenrecidae) at two eastern humid forest localities. A multilocus genotyping analysis allowed the characterization of bacterial diversity within small mammals and gave insights into their genetic relationships with Leptospira infecting endemic Malagasy bats (family Miniopteridae and Vespertilionidae). We report for the first time the presence of pathogenic Leptospira in Malagasy endemic small mammals, with an overall prevalence of 13%. In addition, these hosts harbour species of Leptospira (L. kirschneri, L. borgpetersenii and L. borgpetersenii group B) which are different from those reported in introduced rats (L. interrogans) on Madagascar. The diversification of Leptospira on Madagascar can be traced millions of years into evolutionary history, resulting in the divergence of endemic lineages and strong host specificity. These observations are discussed in relation to the relative roles of endemic vs. introduced mammal species in the evolution and epidemiology of Leptospira on Madagascar, specifically how biodiversity and biogeographical processes can shape community ecology of an emerging pathogen and lead to its diversification within native animal communities. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. High Prevalence of Rickettsia spp. Infections in Small Mammals in Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuo, Chi-Chien; Shu, Pei-Yun; Mu, Jung-Jung

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Surveillance for Rickettsia spp. is urgently needed due to the recent emergence of many novel rickettsioses around the globe, but previous studies in Taiwan have been limited to small areas and no investigation of infections in vertebrate hosts has ever been attempted. We surveyed rickettsial infections systematically in small-mammal hosts trapped between 2006 and 2010 throughout Taiwan. Fragments of ompB and gltA genes in the liver, spleen, and kidney of mammals were targeted by nested polymerase chain reaction. We trapped 1375 individuals of 10 species, among which Rattus losea was the most common (54.6%), followed by Suncus murinus (20.6%) and Mus caroli (10.6%). The overall rate of Rickettsia infections in the liver, spleen, or kidney of 309 assayed small mammals was 60.5%, with a rate of infection ≥50% for each mammal species. DNA nucleotide sequences of 184 successfully sequenced genes were most similar to nine Rickettsia species: Rickettsia conorii, R. felis, R. japonica, R. raoultii, R. rickettsii, Rickettsia sp. IG-1, Rickettsia sp. TwKM01, Rickettsia sp. TwKM02, and R. typhi. Our results suggest that several novel Rickettsia spp. are common and widespread across various habitats throughout Taiwan and suggest the need for further study of emerging rickettsioses in Taiwan. PMID:25629776

  9. Genetical pressures and social organization in small mammal populations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berry, R.J.

    1978-01-01

    Inherited variation is often useful for detecting and measuring ecological pressures in natural populations. For example, changes in allele and genotypic frequencies at the gene locus controlling the haemoglobin β chain in Mus musculus samples trapped on an isolated Welsh island have provided information about different mechanisms of death at different times of year and about the influence of social structure on genetical constitution. Notwithstanding, considerable caution has to be exercised in interpreting genetical changes, since detectable varients are often no more than linked markers of physiologically important gene loci, while habitat, deme, or ageing differences may be obscured in pooled data, such as are represented by concepts like overall allozymic heterozygosity. For these reasons, genetical studies on wild populations are likely to be most profitable when the contribution of individual genes to physiological or behavioral traits can be analyzed; it is at this level that genetics and ecology properly complement each other

  10. Cutaneous wound healing in aging small mammals: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Dong Joo; Mustoe, Thomas; Clark, Richard A F

    2015-01-01

    As the elderly population grows, so do the clinical and socioeconomic burdens of nonhealing cutaneous wounds, the majority of which are seen among persons over 60 years of age. Human studies on how aging effects wound healing will always be the gold standard, but studies have ethical and practical hurdles. Choosing an animal model is dictated by costs and animal lifespan that preclude large animal use. Here, we review the current literature on how aging effects cutaneous wound healing in small animal models and, when possible, compare healing across studies. Using a literature search of MEDLINE/PubMed databases, studies were limited to those that utilized full-thickness wounds and compared the wound-healing parameters of wound closure, reepithelialization, granulation tissue fill, and tensile strength between young and aged cohorts. Overall, wound closure, reepithelialization, and granulation tissue fill were delayed or decreased with aging across different strains of mice and rats. Aging in mice was associated with lower tensile strength early in the wound healing process, but greater tensile strength later in the wound healing process. Similarly, aging in rats was associated with lower tensile strength early in the wound healing process, but no significant tensile strength difference between young and old rats later in healing wounds. From studies in New Zealand White rabbits, we found that reepithelialization and granulation tissue fill were delayed or decreased overall with aging. While similarities and differences in key wound healing parameters were noted between different strains and species, the comparability across the studies was highly questionable, highlighted by wide variability in experimental design and reporting. In future studies, standardized experimental design and reporting would help to establish comparable study groups, and advance the overall knowledge base, facilitating the translatability of animal data to the human clinical condition.

  11. Life history dictates fluorosis risk in a small mammal community

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rafferty, D.P.; Faulkner, B.; Lochmiller, R.L.; Qualls, C.W. Jr.; McBee, K.

    1995-01-01

    Dental lesions, due to fluorosis, previously have been reported in wild, male cotton rats (Sigmodon hispidus) on an abandoned oil refinery located at the Oklahoma Refining Company in Cyril, Oklahoma. This study was expanded to include examinations of the fulvous harvest mouse (Reithrodontomys fulvescens), house mouse (Mus musculus), prairie vole (Microtus ochrogaster), plains pocket gopher (Geomys bursarius), least shrew (Cryptotis parva), shorttailed shrew (Blarina brevicauda), and deer mouse (Peromyscus spp.) at this same site. A sample of each species was collected form the contaminated refining site and a reference site with no known contamination. The authors grossly scored dentition of lower and upper incisors, microscopically examined cellular aberrations in ameloblasts and ondontoblasts, and quantified femur fluoride levels. Alterations in the lower and upper incisors were common in prairie voles, whose incisors possessed striations and erosion of the enamel and appeared chalky white. Incisors of animals taken from the reference site were normal. Patterns in occurrence of fluorosis and degree of enamel erosion was examined relative to the life history characteristics of the species

  12. Contribution to the distribution of terrestrial small mammals in the Sǎlaj county, Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gubányi A.

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available During the research period (2014-2015 287 small mammals, five species of shrews and eight species of rodents (Crocidura leucodon, C. suaveolens, Sorex araneus, S. minutus, Neomys anomalus, Microtus agrestis M. arvalis, M. subterraneus, Myodes glareolus. Apodemus agrarius, A. flavicollis, A. sylvaticus, A. uralensis were detected in the Sǎlaj County. The striped field mouse (Apodemus agrarius and the common vole (Microtus arvalis proved to be the characteristic dominant species of the small mammal communities investigated in this area. The number of terrestrial small mammalian species lagged behind our expectations. Micromys minutus was not collected during the research period in the habitats characterized by reed-bed and/or tall sedge vegetation.

  13. Use by small mammals of short-rotation plantations in relation to their structure and isolation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Giordano

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Over the last decades, dramatic changes in agricultural practices have led to important modifications of land-use, as well as landscape structure, and to a general biodiversity loss in agro-ecosystems. During 2008 we investigated the small mammal communities of Short Rotation Forestry (SRF stands in Northern Italy. We live-trapped small mammals, during summer and autumn, in different types of SRF stands and surrounding habitats and compared capture rates. We evaluated the influence on small mammals abundance of the distance between the stands and other habitats offering woody or bushy cover. Our results showed that SRF plantations are widely exploited by small mammals, especially in autumn and that capture rate is the highest in “double-row” stands. The distance from woods or other arboriculture stands was negatively correlated to small mammals abundance. We conclude that SRF plantations can be considered a suitable habitat for small mammals and may work as a “corridor habitat” between fragmented patches of suitable habitats.
    Riassunto Uso degli impianti a turno breve da parte dei micrommamiferi, in relazione alla loro struttura e isolamento Negli ultimi decenni profondi cambiamenti nelle pratiche agricole hanno causato modifiche nella tipologia di uso dei terreni, così come nella struttura del paesaggio, che hanno portato a una generale perdita di biodiversità negli agroecosistemi. Nel corso del 2008 abbiamo studiato le comunità di micromammiferi nelle piantagioni di pioppo per la produzione di biomassa (SRF nel Nord Italia. Con l’uso di live-traps abbiamo effettuato due sessioni di cattura, una estiva e una autunnale, nei diversi tipi di impianto delle SRF e negli ambienti circostanti, per comparare le frequenze di cattura. Abbiamo quindi analizzato l’influenza che la distanza tra i diversi ambienti con copertura arborea ha sull’abbondanza dei micromammiferi

  14. Microhabitat of small mammals at ground and understorey levels in a deciduous, southern Atlantic Forest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GERUZA L. MELO

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Each animal species selects specific microhabitats for protection, foraging, or micro-climate. To understand the distribution patterns of small mammals on the ground and in the understorey, we investigated the use of microhabitats by small mammals in a deciduous forest of southern Brazil. Ten trap stations with seven capture points were used to sample the following microhabitats: liana, fallen log, ground litter, terrestrial ferns, simple-trunk tree, forked tree, and Piper sp. shrubs. Seven field phases were conducted, each for eight consecutive days, from September 2006 through January 2008. Four species of rodents (Akodon montensis, Sooretamys angouya, Oligoryzomys nigripes and Mus musculus and two species of marsupials (Didelphis albiventris and Gracilinanus microtarsus were captured. Captured species presented significant differences on their microhabitat use (ANOVA, p = 0.003, particularly between ground and understorey sites. Akodon montensis selected positively terrestrial ferns and trunks, S. angouya selected lianas, D. albiventris selected fallen trunks and Piper sp., and G. microtarsus choose tree trunks and lianas. We demonstrated that the local small-mammal assemblage does select microhabitats, with different types of associations between species and habitats. Besides, there is a strong evidence of habitat selection in order to diminish predation.Cada espécie animal pode apresentar seletividade por micro-habitats priorizando proteção, forrageio ou microclima. Para compreender os padrões de distribuição de pequenos mamíferos ao nível do solo e de sub-bosque, nós analisamos o uso de micro-habitat por pequenos mamíferos em uma floresta estacional no sul do Brasil. Dez estações amostrais com sete pontos de captura foram usadas para amostragem dos seguintes microhabitats: liana, tronco caído, solo apenas coberto por folhiço, solo coberto por samambaias, árvore com tronco simples, árvore com bifurcações e arbustos do g

  15. Coprological prevalence of gastrointestinal parasites in carnivores and small mammals at Dhaka zoo, Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.M.R.U. Raja

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available A study on the coprological prevalence of gastrointestinal parasites using 94 faecal samples from different carnivores (n=32 and small mammals (n=15 was undertaken from January to May 2012 at Dhaka Zoo. The overall prevalence of parasitic infection was 78.72%, with a prevalence of 51.06% for helminths and 27.66% for protozoa. The identified parasites included—Toxascaris leonina (9.57%, Balantidium coli (25.53% Spirometra sp. (10.64%, Toxocara cati (12.76%, Hook worm (4.26%, unidentified strongyles (3.19%, Trichuris sp. (7.45%, Coccidia sp. (2.12%, Capillaria sp. (1.06%, Trichostrongylus sp. (1.06%, and Physaloptera sp. (1.06%. Mixed infection was observed in Indian Lion (Toxascaris leonina and Spirometra sp., Royal Bengal Tiger (Balantidium coli and Toxocara cati, Spotted Hyena (Balantidium coli and hook worm, Leopard (Balantidium coli and Spirometra/I> sp., Rhesus Macaque (Trichuris sp. and Coccidia sp., Pig-tailed Macaque (Balantidium coli and Trichuris sp., Hamadryas Baboon (Balantidium coli and Trichuris sp., Golden Mangabey (Trichuris sp., Balantidium coli and unidentified strongyles, Large Indian Civet (Balantidium coli and unidentified strongyles, Torior Dog (Balantidium coli and Physaloptera, Rabbit (Balantidium coli and Hook worm, Hanuman Langur (Balantidium coli and Capillaria sp.. Due to the high prevalence of gastrointestinal parasites, the present study suggests to apply control measures against these parasites in order to safeguard the health of housed wild animals, especially in case of threatened species.

  16. Small mammals as indicators of cryptic plant species diversity in the central Chilean plant endemicity hotspot

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meredith Root-Bernstein

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Indicator species could help to compensate for a shortfall of knowledge about the diversity and distributions of undersampled and cryptic species. This paper provides background knowledge about the ecological interactions that affect and are affected by herbaceous diversity in central Chile, as part of the indicator species selection process. We focus on the ecosystem engineering role of small mammals, primarily the degu Octodon degus. We also consider the interacting effects of shrubs, trees, avian activity, livestock, slope, and soil quality on herbaceous communities in central Chile. We sampled herbaceous diversity on a private landholding characterized by a mosaic of savanna, grassland and matorral, across a range of degu disturbance intensities. We find that the strongest factors affecting endemic herbaceous diversity are density of degu runways, shrub cover and avian activity. Our results show that the degu, a charismatic and easily identifiable and countable species, could be used as an indicator species to aid potential conservation actions such as private protected area uptake. We map areas in central Chile where degus may indicate endemic plant diversity. This area is larger than expected, and suggests that significant areas of endemic plant communities may still exist, and should be identified and protected. Keywords: Cryptic species, Diversity, Endemic, Indicator species, Octodon degus, Plant

  17. Cortisol and prolactin concentrations during repeated blood sample collection from freely moving, mouse-sized mammals (Phodopus spp.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reburn, C J; Wynne-Edwards, K E

    2000-04-01

    Validation of a method for obtaining blood samples that does not change cortisol or prolactin concentrations yet allows serial blood samples to be collected from animals under anesthesia, without prior handling, from freely interacting social groups of small mammals. Results from five experiments are reported. Male dwarf hamsters (Phodopus spp.) were housed in modified home cages under continuous flow of compressed air that could be switched to isoflurane in O2 vehicle without approaching the cages. Dwarf hamsters respond to manual restraint with behavioral distress and increase in the concentration of the dominant glucocorticoid, cortisol, and decrease in prolactin concentration. Both effects are evident within one minute. In contrast, when this new method was used, neither cortisol nor prolactin changed in response to repeated sample collection (up to 8 successive samples at 2 hour intervals), prolonged isoflurane exposure, or substantial blood volume reduction (30%). Prolactin concentration was suppressed and cortisol concentration was increased in response to stimuli from other hamsters tested without anesthesia. Suppression of prolactin concentration was graded in response to the degree of stress and equaled the pharmacologic reduction caused by bromocryptine mesylate (50 microg of CB154 x 3 days). The technique is superior to alternatives for studies of behavioral endocrinology of freely interacting small mammals.

  18. Fungi from interior organs of free-living small mammals in Czechoslovakia and Yugoslavia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hubálek, Z; Rosický, B; Otcenásek, M

    1980-01-01

    A total of 308 fungi was isolated from interior organs (lungs, spleen, liver) of 529 small mammals belonging to 21 species, 7 families and 3 orders (Insectivora, Chiroptera, Rodentia), some of these being potentially pathogenic to vertebrates (e.g. Aspergillus flavus, A. fumigatus, Geotrichum candidum, Mucor pusillus, Rhizopus arrhizus). In one vole (Microtus arvalis) captured in South Moravia, adiaspiromycosis (Emmonsia crescens) was demonstrated. Comparison of mycoflora of hair and that of interior organs of wild small mammals revealed that out of the total number of isolates the following fungi were represented in a higher proportion from visceral organs than from the hair: Aspergillus (A. amstelodami, A. flavus, A. repens), Aureobasidium (A. pullulans), Candida, Cladosporium (C. herbarum), Cryptococcus, Fusarium, Gliocladium (G. deliquescens), Helminthosporium, Kloeckera, Mucor (M. fragilis, M. hiemalis, M. pusillus), Paecilomyces marquandii, Penicillium (P. purpurogenum), Phoma, Rhizopus arrhizus, Scopulariopsis (S. candida, S. koningii) and Torulopsis.

  19. Competition and habitat selection in a forest-floor small mammal fauna

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dueser, R D [Univ. of Virginia, Charlottesville; Hallett, J G

    1980-01-01

    In a study of habitat exploitation in a forest-floor small mammal community, we have collected habitat and population data for Peromyscus leucopus, Ochrotomys nuttalli, and Tamias striatus. Using multiple regression analysis, researchers estimate the effects of habitat selection and competition on the local distributions of these species during three seasons. Each of the partial regression coefficients relating the density of an independent species to the density of the dependent species is negative. This result indicates that competition is pervasive among these species. Competitive ability and habitat selectivity both increase in the order Peromyscus-Tamias-Ochrotomys. Peromyscus is a poorly competitive habitat generalist, Ochrotomys is a strongly competitive habitat specialist, and Tamias is intermediate in both respects. The competitive hierarchy is stable between seasons. These results both confirm the conclusions reached in previous studies of this small mammal community and suggest the design of experiments to further clarify the mode and consequences of interaction between these species.

  20. Small mammal community succession on the beach of Dongting Lake, China after the Three Gorges Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Meiwen; Wang, Yong; Li, Bo; Guo, Cong; Huang, Guoxian; Shen, Guo; Zhou, Xunjun

    2014-06-01

    Although the Three Gorges Project (TGP) may have affected the population structure and distribution of plant and animal communities, few studies have analyzed the effect of this project on small mammal communities. Therefore, the present paper compares the small mammal communities inhabiting the beaches of Dongting Lake using field investigations spanning a 20-year period, both before and after the TGP was implemented. Snap traps were used throughout the census. The results indicate that the TGP caused major changes to the structure of the small mammal community at a lake downstream of the dam. First, species abundance on the beaches increased after the project commenced. The striped field mouse (Apodemus agrarius) and the Norway rat (Rattus norvegicus), which rarely inhabited the beach before the TGP, became abundant (with marked population growth) once water was impounded by the Three Gorges Reservoir. Second, dominant species concentration indices exhibited a stepwise decline, indicating that the community structure changed from a single dominant species to a more diverse species mix after TGP implementation. Third, the regulation of water discharge release by the TGP might have caused an increase in the species diversity of the animal community on the beaches. A significant difference in diversity indices was obtained before and after the TGP operation. Similarity indices also indicate a gradual increase in species numbers. Hence, a long-term project should be established to monitor the population fluctuations of the Yangtze vole (Microtus fortis), the striped field mouse and the Norway rat to safeguard against population outbreaks (similar to the Yangtze vole outbreak in 2007), which could cause crop damage to adjacent farmland, in addition to documenting the succession process of the small mammal community inhabiting the beaches of Dongting Lake. © 2013 International Society of Zoological Sciences, Institute of Zoology/Chinese Academy of Sciences and Wiley

  1. Temporal, spatial and ecological dynamics of speciation among amphi-Beringian small mammals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hope, Andrew G.; Takebayashi, Naoki; Galbreath, Kurt E.; Talbot, Sandra L.; Cook, Joseph A.

    2013-01-01

    Quaternary climate cycles played an important role in promoting diversification across the Northern Hemisphere, although details of the mechanisms driving evolutionary change are still poorly resolved. In a comparative phylogeographical framework, we investigate temporal, spatial and ecological components of evolution within a suite of Holarctic small mammals. We test a hypothesis of simultaneous divergence among multiple taxon pairs, investigating time to coalescence and demographic change for each taxon in response to a combination of climate and geography.

  2. Molecular identification of Echinococcus multilocularis infection in small mammals from Northeast, Iran.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Molouk Beiromvand

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Alveolar echinococcosis is a zoonotic disease caused by the metacestode of Echinococcus multilocularis. Many species of small mammals, including arvicolid rodents or Ochotona spp., are natural intermediate hosts of the cestode. The main aim of this study was to identify natural intermediate hosts of E. multilocularis in Chenaran County, Razavi Khorasan Province, northeastern Iran, where the prevalence of infected wild and domestic carnivores is high. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: A program of trapping was carried out in five villages in which this cestode was reported in carnivores. The livers of 85 small mammals were investigated for the presence of E. multilocularis infection using multiplex PCR of mitochondrial genes. Infections were identified in 30 specimens: 23 Microtus transcaspicus, three Ochotona rufescens, two Mus musculus, one Crocidura gmelini, and one Apodemus witherbyi. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: A range of small mammals therefore act as natural intermediate hosts for the transmission of E. multilocularis in Chenaran County, and the prevalence suggested that E. multilocularis infection is endemic in this region. The existence of the life cycle of this potentially lethal cestode in the vicinity of human habitats provides a significant risk of human infection.

  3. Small mammals from the Chelemhá Cloud Forest Reserve, Alta Verapaz, Guatemala

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matson, Jason O.; Ordóñez-Garza, Nicté; Woodman, Neal; Bulmer, Walter; Eckerlin, Ralph P.; Hanson, J. Delton

    2014-01-01

    We surveyed the small mammals of remnant mixed hardwood-coniferous cloud forest at elevations ranging from 2,100–2,300 m in the Chelemhá Cloud Forest Reserve, Alta Verapaz, Guatemala. Removal-trapping using a combination of live traps, snap traps, and pitfall traps for 6 days in January 2007 resulted in 175 captures of 15 species of marsupials, shrews, and rodents. This diversity of small mammals is the highest that we have recorded from a single locality of the 10 visited during eight field seasons in the highlands of Guatemala. Based on captures, the most abundant species in the community of small mammals is Peromyscus grandis (n = 50), followed by Handleyomys rhabdops (n = 27), Heteromys desmarestianus(n = 18), Reithrodontomys mexicanus (n = 17), Handleyomys saturatior (n = 16), Sorex veraepacis (n = 15), and Scotinomys teguina (n = 13). The remaining eight species were represented by one to five individuals.

  4. Population and community profiles of small mammals inhabiting an abandoned oil refinery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McMurry, S.T.; Lochmiller, R.L.; McBee, K.; Burks, S.L.; Quails, C.W. Jr.

    1993-01-01

    Mark-recapture techniques were used to assess population and community dynamics of resident small mammals on three contaminated and three reference sites located on or near an abandoned oil refinery in Oklahoma. Contaminated sites included areas adjacent to oil sludge containment and sedimentation pits and a land farm for treating oily sludges. Reference sites were selected based on their ecological similarity to contaminated sites. Small mammals were trapped from January 1991 to August 1992 at eight week intervals except during summer and winter during which traps were checked at 3 week intervals. Diversity was typically highest on toxic sites due primarily to the presence of house mice (Mus musculus). Similarity in small mammal community composition between sites differed most in summer. Cotton rats (Sigmodon hispidus) were the most abundant species on all sites. Reproductive activity of adult female cotton rats and survival of trappable cotton rats did not differ between sites. However, minimum number known alive and recruitment of juveniles was highest on references sites, indicating that in-utero and neonatal survival may differ between reference and contaminated sites

  5. Impact of mining and forest regeneration on small mammal biodiversity in the Western Region of Ghana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Attuquayefio, Daniel K; Owusu, Erasmus H; Ofori, Benjamin Y

    2017-05-01

    Much of the terrestrial biodiversity in sub-Saharan Africa is supported by tropical rainforest. Natural resource development, particularly surface mining in the rainforest, poses great risks to the region's rich and endemic biodiversity. Here, we assessed the impact of surface mining and the success of forest rehabilitation on small mammal diversity in the Western Region of Ghana. We surveyed small mammals in the project area and two adjoining forest reserves (control sites) before the mining operation and 10 years after mine closure and forest rehabilitation (topsoil replacement and revegetation). The forest reserves recorded higher species abundance than the mining areas. Majority of the species captured in the forest reserves, including Hylomyscus alleni, Praomys tullbergi, Malacomys cansdalei, and Hybomys trivirgatus, are forest obligate species. Only one individual each of H. alleni and P. tullbergi was captured in the naturally regenerated areas (core areas of mining activities that were allowed to revegetate naturally), while 32 individuals belonging to four species (Lophuromys sikapusi, Mus musculoides, Mastomys erythroleucus, and Crocidura olivieri) were recorded in the rehabilitated areas. Our data suggested negative effects of mining on small mammal diversity and the restoration of species diversity and important ecological processes after rehabilitation of altered habitats. We strongly encourage deliberate conservation efforts, particularly the development of management plans that require the restoration of degraded land resulting from mining activities.

  6. Land use determinants of small mammal abundance and distribution in a plague endemic area of Lushoto District, Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hieronimo, Proches; Kimaro, Didas N; Kihupi, Nganga I; Gulinck, Hubert; Mulungu, Loth S; Msanya, Balthazar M; Leirs, Herwig; Deckers, Jozef A

    2014-07-01

    Small mammals are considered to be involved in the transmission cycle of bubonic plague, still occurring in different parts of the world, including the Lushoto District in Tanzania. The objective of this study was to determine the relationship between land use types and practices and small mammal abundance and distribution. A field survey was used to collect data in three landscapes differing in plague incidences. Data collection was done both in the wet season (April-June 2012) and dry season (August-October 2012). Analysis of variance and Boosted Regression Trees (BRT) modelling technique were used to establish the relationship between land use and small mammal abundance and distribution. Significant variations (p ≤ 0.05) of small mammal abundance among land use types were identified. Plantation forest with farming, natural forest and fallow had higher populations of small mammals than the other aggregated land use types. The influence of individual land use types on small mammal abundance level showed that, in both dry and wet seasons, miraba and fallow tended to favour small mammals' habitation whereas land tillage practices had the opposite effect. In addition, during the wet season crop types such as potato and maize appeared to positively influence the distribution and abundance of small mammals which was attributed to both shelter and food availability. Based on the findings from this study it is recommended that future efforts to predict and map spatial and temporal human plague infection risk at fine scale should consider the role played by land use and associated human activities on small mammal abundance and distribution.

  7. Structure and function of the mammalian middle ear. I: Large middle ears in small desert mammals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mason, Matthew J

    2016-02-01

    Many species of small desert mammals are known to have expanded auditory bullae. The ears of gerbils and heteromyids have been well described, but much less is known about the middle ear anatomy of other desert mammals. In this study, the middle ears of three gerbils (Meriones, Desmodillus and Gerbillurus), two jerboas (Jaculus) and two sengis (elephant-shrews: Macroscelides and Elephantulus) were examined and compared, using micro-computed tomography and light microscopy. Middle ear cavity expansion has occurred in members of all three groups, apparently in association with an essentially 'freely mobile' ossicular morphology and the development of bony tubes for the middle ear arteries. Cavity expansion can occur in different ways, resulting in different subcavity patterns even between different species of gerbils. Having enlarged middle ear cavities aids low-frequency audition, and several adaptive advantages of low-frequency hearing to small desert mammals have been proposed. However, while Macroscelides was found here to have middle ear cavities so large that together they exceed brain volume, the bullae of Elephantulus are considerably smaller. Why middle ear cavities are enlarged in some desert species but not others remains unclear, but it may relate to microhabitat. © 2015 Anatomical Society.

  8. Absence of Hydrogen Sulfide-Induced Hypometabolism in Pigs: A Mechanistic Explanation in Relation to Small Nonhibernating Mammals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dirkes, Marcel C.; Milstein, Dan M. J.; Heger, Michal; van Gulik, Thomas M.

    2015-01-01

    Artificially induced hypometabolism in nonhibernating mammals may have considerable clinical implications. Numerous studies in small rodent models have demonstrated that hydrogen sulfide (H2S) induces hypometabolism, supposedly as a result of histotoxic hypoxia. However, the induction of

  9. Small mammals of the Mongolian mountain steppe region near Erdensant: insights from live-trapping and bird pellet remains.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanne L. Isaac

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Relatively little is known of the distribution, abundance and ecology of small mammals in Mongolia and as a result there is scant knowledge of the effects of environmental and anthropogenic factors on small mammal populations. The aim of this study was to assess the occurrence of small mammals in mountain steppe habitat from live-trapping and analysis of mammal remains from raptor pellets and below nests. During live-trapping, root voles ( Microtus oeconemus were the most commonly caught species accounting for 47.5 % of captures, striped hamsters ( Cricetulus barabensis and pika ( Ochotona hyperborea accounted for 30 % and 22.5 % of captures respectively. Temperature influenced trapping success, with small mammals appearing to avoid being active at temperatures over 20 ̊C. The three species caught on the trapping grid appeared to avoid competition for resources through both temporal and spatial differences in the use of available habitat. Mammals identified from raptor pellets and other remains included the grey hamster ( Cricatulus migratorius , Siberian marmot ( Marmota sibirica , red fox ( Vulpes vulpes , long-tailed souslik ( Citellus undulatus and the Daurian mole ( Myospalax aspalax. Results are discussed in terms of their relevance to the conservation of mammals in Mongolia and their co-existence with livestock and humans.

  10. Leptospira spp. in Small Mammals from Areas with Low and High Human Hantavirus Incidences in South-West Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obiegala, Anna; Albrecht, Christoph; Dafalla, Maysaa; Drewes, Stephan; Oltersdorf, Carolin; Turni, Hendrik; Imholt, Christian; Jacob, Jens; Wagner-Wiening, Christiane; Ulrich, Rainer G; Pfeffer, Martin

    2017-05-01

    Leptospirosis is caused by Leptospira spp. and is considered the most widespread zoonotic disease worldwide. It mimics nephropathia epidemica in humans, a disease mainly caused by Puumala hantavirus (PUUV). Small mammals are reservoirs for Leptospira spp. and PUUV. Seewis virus (SWSV) is a shrew-borne hantavirus with unknown pathogenicity. The objective of this study was to estimate the prevalence for Leptospira spp. and the frequency of Leptospira-hantavirus co-infections in small mammals collected at locations with high and low incidences in humans. In 2012 and 2013, 736 small mammals belonging to seven species (Apodemus flavicollis, Microtus agrestis, Microtus arvalis, Myodes glareolus, Sorex araneus, S. coronatus, and S. minutus) were collected at four high incidence sites (H1-H4) and four low (L1-L4) incidence sites for PUUV infection in humans. Kidney-derived DNA samples were tested for Leptospira spp. by real-time PCR targeting the lipl 32 gene and further analyzed by duplex PCR targeting the flaB and the secY genes. For the detection of Seewis virus, lung-derived DNA was tested via RT-PCR targeting the nucleocapsid gene. Altogether, 42 of the 736 small mammals including 27 of 660 bank voles and 11 of 66 shrews, were positive for Leptospira spp., while Sorex spp. (14.7%) showed significantly higher prevalences compared to bank voles (4.1%). Detected Leptospira spp. were pathogenic species other than L. kirschneri. Significantly more Leptospira-positive bank voles were found at H sites than at L sites. Altogether 22.2% of positive bank voles were infected with PUUV. Double infection of PUUV and Leptospira spp. occurrence in bank voles is 1.86 times (OR = 1.86; 95% CI: 0.72-4.73) more likely than infections with each pathogen separately. Leptospira- positive bank voles are focally positively associated with PUUV infection in bank voles and with human hantavirus cases. It should be considered that shrews may serve as Leptospira spp. reservoirs.

  11. The impact of small terrestrial mammals on beech (Fagus sylvatica plantations in spruce monoculture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luboš Purchart

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Little is known about the impact of small terrestrial mammals on forest regeneration as yet. In order to determine the level of small rodent impact on artificial forest regeneration, 508 saplings have been researched in a spruce monoculture in the Drahany Uplands. With the objective to hone the interpretation of the data, small terrestrial rodents were trapped to help determine species spectrum. The occurrence of Apodemus flavicollis, Clethrionomys glareolus and Sorex araneus was verified. In 52 cases damage to the trunk caused by small rodents was monitored (10.1% of all saplings. 8 specimens (1.6% had their branches nibbled and 9 saplings (1.8% had tips of branches or trunk tops browsed. Browsing by Lepus europaeus – 423 (83.3% of all damaged specimens was significant.

  12. A model to optimize trap systems used for small mammal (Rodentia, Insectivora density estimates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Damiano Preatoni

    1997-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The environment found in the upper and lower Padane Plain and the adjoining hills isn't very homogeneous. In fact it is impossible to find biotopes extended enough to satisfy the necessary criteria for density estimate of small mammals based on the Removal method. This limitation has been partially overcome by adopting a reduced grid, counting 39 traps whose spacing depends on the studied species. Aim of this work was to verify - and eventually measure - the efficiency of a sampling method based on a "reduced" number of catch points. The efficiency of 18 trapping cycles, realized from 1991 to 1993, was evaluated as percent bias. For each of the trapping cycles, 100 computer simulations were performed, so obtaining a Monte-Carlo estimate of bias in density values. Then later, the efficiency of different trap arrangements was examined by varying the criteria. The numbers of traps ranged from 9 to 49, with trap spacing varying from 5 to 15 m and a trapping period duration from 5 to 9 nights. In this way an optimal grid system was found both for dimensions and time duration. The simulation processes involved, as a whole, 1511 different grid types, for 11347 virtual trapping cycles. Our results indicate that density estimates based on "reduced" grids are affected by an average -16% bias, that is an underestimate, and that an optimally sized grid must consist of 6x6 traps square, with about 8.7 m spacing. and be in operation for 7 nights.

  13. The impacts of Cenozoic climate and habitat changes on small mammal diversity of North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samuels, Joshua X.; Hopkins, Samantha S. B.

    2017-02-01

    Through the Cenozoic, paleoclimate records show general trends of global cooling and increased aridity, and environments in North America shifted from predominantly forests to more open habitats. Paleobotanical records indicate grasses were present on the continent in the Eocene; however, paleosol and phytolith studies indicate that open habitats did not arise until the late Eocene or even later in the Oligocene. Studies of large mammalian herbivores have documented changes in ecomorphology and community structure through time, revealing that shifts in mammalian morphology occurred millions of years after the environmental changes thought to have triggered them. Smaller mammals, like rodents and lagomorphs, should more closely track climate and habitat changes due to their shorter generation times and smaller ranges, but these animals have received much less study. To examine changes in smaller mammals through time, we have assembled and analyzed an ecomorphological database of all North American rodent and lagomorph species. Analyses of these data found that rodent and lagomorph community structure changed dramatically through the Cenozoic, and shifts in diversity and ecology correspond closely with the timing of habitat changes. Cenozoic rodent and lagomorph species diversity is strongly biased by sampling of localities, but sampling-corrected diversity reveals diversity dynamics that, after an initial density-dependent diversification in the Eocene, track habitat changes and the appearance of new ecological adaptations. As habitats became more open and arid through time, rodent and lagomorph crown heights increased while burrowing, jumping, and cursorial adaptations became more prevalent. Through time, open-habitat specialists were added during periods of diversification, while closed-habitat taxa were disproportionately lost in subsequent diversity declines. While shifts among rodents and lagomorphs parallel changes in ungulate communities, they started

  14. Distribution of chromium in vegetation and small mammals adjacent to cooling towers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taylor, F.G. Jr.; Parr, P.D.; Dahlman, R.C.

    1975-01-01

    Surface contamination of vegetation by aerosol pollutants and subsequent ingestion by grazing vertebrates is a pathway for incorporation of toxic elements into food chains. Small mammals (herbivores) were live-trapped in a fescue-dominated field adjacent to large, mechanical draft cooling towers comparable to those utilized by power generation facilities. Cooling waters of the towers contain a chromate, zinc-phosphate compound to inhibit corrosion and fouling within the cooling system. A fraction of the cooling water becomes entrained within the exit air flow and is deposited as drift on the landscape. Resident mammals are chronically subjected to increased chromium exposures through both ingestion and inhalation pathways. Concentrations in vegetation ranged from 342 to 15 ppM at 15 and 130 meters down wind. Concentration levels in litter exceeded those of live plant materials by a factor of 5. Chromium distribution in mammals adjacent to the cooling towers is compared by organ analyses to corresponding organs and tissues of mammals collected remote from drift. Concentrations of chromium in pelt, hair, and bone of animals trapped near the cooling towers were significantly higher (P is less than 0.01) than tissues from control animals. Air concentrations ranged from 15 to 8 μg/m 3 at 15 and 100 meters, and thus provided a potential pathway for increased chromium levels through inhalation. Biological accumulation and retention following ingestion are discussed in a subsequent paper in this symposium (Van Hook et al.). Elevated levels of hexavalent chromium in air have been identified as a potential health hazard. Pathological studies of lung tissues were performed and were negative for lesions. (U.S.)

  15. Comparison of small mammal species diversity near wastewater outfalls, natural streams, and dry canyons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raymer, D.F.; Biggs, J.R.

    1994-03-01

    A wide range of plant and wildlife species utilizes water discharged from facilities at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). The purpose of this study was to compare nocturnal small mammal communities at wet areas created by wastewater outfalls with communities in naturally created wet and dry areas. Thirteen locations within LANL boundaries were selected for small mammal mark-recapture trapping. Three of these locations lacked surface water sources and were classified as open-quotes dry,close quotes while seven sites were associated with wastewater outfalls (open-quotes outfallclose quotes sites), and three were located near natural sources of surface water (open-quotes naturalclose quotes sites). Data was collected on site type (dry, outfall or natural), location, species trapped, and the tag number of each individual captured. This data was used to calculate mean number of species, percent capture rate, and species diversity at each type of site. When data from each type of site was pooled, there were no significant differences in these variables between dry, outfall, and natural types. However, when data from individual sites was compared, tests revealed significant differences. All sites in natural areas were significantly higher than dry areas in daily mean number of species, percent capture rate, and species diversity. Most outfall sites were significantly higher than dry areas in all three variables tested. When volume of water from each outfall site was considered, these data indicated that the number of species, percent capture rate, and species diversity of nocturnal small mammals were directly related to the volume of water at a given outfall

  16. Morphological and molecular analyses of larval taeniid species in small mammals from contrasting habitats in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Al-Sabi, Mohammad Nafi Solaiman; Jensen, P. M.; Chrestensen, M. U.

    2015-01-01

    according to habitat type, potentially identifying a ‘sylvatic’ transmission and an ‘urban’ transmission with marked variation among different taeniid species. Versteria mustelae and T. polyacantha were more prevalent in rural forests, while infections with H. taeniaeformis were dominant in urban parks......) for species determination. Small mammals (N=719) were trapped in three different types of habitats in north-east Zealand, Denmark. The sensitivity of the multiplex PCR (90.5%) exceeded that of morphological examination (57.9%) for identifying 95 taeniid infections. The use of the multiplex PCR resulted...

  17. Species’ traits help predict small mammal responses to habitat homogenization by an invasive grass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ceradini, Joseph P.; Chalfoun, Anna D.

    2017-01-01

    Invasive plants can negatively affect native species, however, the strength, direction, and shape of responses may vary depending on the type of habitat alteration and the natural history of native species. To prioritize conservation of vulnerable species, it is therefore critical to effectively predict species’ responses to invasive plants, which may be facilitated by a framework based on species’ traits. We studied the population and community responses of small mammals and changes in habitat heterogeneity across a gradient of cheatgrass (Bromus tectorum) cover, a widespread invasive plant in North America. We live-trapped small mammals over two summers and assessed the effect of cheatgrass on native small mammal abundance, richness, and species-specific and trait-based occupancy, while accounting for detection probability and other key habitat elements. Abundance was only estimated for the most common species, deer mice (Peromyscus maniculatus). All species were pooled for the trait-based occupancy analysis to quantify the ability of small mammal traits (habitat association, mode of locomotion, and diet) to predict responses to cheatgrass invasion. Habitat heterogeneity decreased with cheatgrass cover. Deer mouse abundance increased marginally with cheatgrass. Species richness did not vary with cheatgrass, however, pocket mouse (Perognathus spp.) and harvest mouse (Reithrodontomys spp.) occupancy tended to decrease and increase, respectively, with cheatgrass cover, suggesting a shift in community composition. Cheatgrass had little effect on occupancy for deer mice, 13-lined ground squirrels (Spermophilus tridecemlineatus), and Ord's kangaroo rat (Dipodomys ordii). Species’ responses to cheatgrass primarily corresponded with our a priori predictions based on species’ traits. The probability of occupancy varied significantly with a species’ habitat association but not with diet or mode of locomotion. When considered within the context of a rapid

  18. Records of seven small mammal species (Insectivora, Chiroptera new to the Kruger National Park

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. L Rautenbach

    1979-12-01

    Full Text Available On a recent collecting expedition in the Kruger National Park, the occurrence of seven species of small mammals (one shrew and six bats within the confines of this sanctuary was confirmed for the first time. One species (Pipistrellus rusticus is reported for the first time from within the borders of the Transvaal, whereas another species (Myotis bocagei is reported for the first time for the Republic of South Africa. The seven species are briefly discussed and the collections where the specimens have been accessioned are indicated.

  19. Towards biodiversity hotspots effective for conserving mammals with small geographic ranges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrara, Rodolfo; San Blas, Germán; Agrain, Federico; Roig-Juñent, Sergio

    2017-01-01

    The main goal of using global biodiversity hotspots for conservation purposes is to protect taxa with small geographic ranges because these are highly vulnerable to extinction. However, the extent to what different hotspots types are effective for meeting this goal remains controversial because hotspots have been previously defined as either the richest or most threatened and richest sites in terms of total, endemic or threatened species. In this regard, the use of species richness to set conservation priorities is widely discussed because strategies focused on this diversity measure tend to miss many of the taxa with small geographic ranges. Here we use data on global terrestrial mammal distributions to show that, hotspots of total species, endemism and threat defined in terms of species richness are effective in including 27%, 29% and 11% respectively, of the taxa with small geographic ranges. Whilst, the same hotspot types defined in terms of a simple diversity index, which is a function of species richness and range-size rarity, include 68%, 44% and 90% respectively, of these taxa. In addition, we demonstrate that index hotspot types are highly efficient because they conserve 79% of mammal species (21% more species than richness hotspot types), with 59% of species shared by three hotspot types (31% more than richness hotspot types). These results suggest that selection of different diversity measures to define hotspots may strongly affect the achievement of conservation goals.

  20. Toward reliable estimates of seed removal by small mammals and birds in the Neotropics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AV. Christianini

    Full Text Available Birds are often considered seed predators of less importance when compared to rodents or granivorous ants in studies of seed predation using selective exclosures. However, it is possible that the role of granivorous birds interacting with seeds on the floor of Neotropical forests is being underestimated, if the selective exclosures designed to allow exclusive access to small rodents do not work properly in the Neotropics. We used an experimental approach to evaluate whether birds could remove seeds from selective exclosures designed to allow exclusive access to rodents. We compared seed removal from two paired treatments in the field: an open treatment (control allowing the access to all vertebrates, and a selective exclosure treatment, where seeds were placed under a cage staked to the ground and covered on top and on the laterals by wire mesh of varying sizes. Treatments were placed in the center of a sand quadrat in order to record the visit of vertebrates from their footprints. Although the selective exclosures are used to tell apart the small mammal seed removal from that of other animals, birds could persistently remove seeds from selective exclosures. Thus, the role of birds interacting with seeds on the floor of tropical forests may be underestimated for some plant species, due to an artifact of the exclosure method employed. Exclosures of 40 x 40 x 40 cm should be efficient to deter the removal of seeds by birds, allowing the consumption of the seeds by small mammals at the same time.

  1. Decision Support on Small size Passive Samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir Popukaylo

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available A construction technique of adequate mathematical models for small size passive samples, in conditions when classical probabilistic-statis\\-tical methods do not allow obtaining valid conclusions was developed.

  2. The influence of small mammal burrowing activity on water storage at the Hanford Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Landeen, D.S.

    1994-09-01

    The amount and rate at which water may penetrate a protective barrier and come into contact with buried radioactive waste is a major concern. Because burrowing animals eventually will reside on the surface of any protective barrier, the effect these burrow systems may have on the loss or retention of water needs to be determined. The first section of this document summarizes the known literature relative to small mammals and the effects that burrowing activities have on water distribution, infiltration, and the overall impact of burrows on the ecosystem. Topics that are summarized include burrow air pressures, airflow, burrow humidity, microtopography, mounding, infiltration, climate, soil evaporation, and discussions of large pores relative to water distribution. The second section of this document provides the results of the study that was conducted at the Hanford Site to determine what effect small mammal burrows have on water storage. This Biointrusion task is identified in the Permanent Isolation Surface Barrier Development Plan in support of protective barriers. This particular animal intrusion task is one part of the overall animal intrusion task identified in Animal Intrusion Test Plan

  3. Responses of wild small mammals to a pollution gradient: Host factors influence metal and metallothionein levels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fritsch, Clementine; Cosson, Richard P.; Coeurdassier, Michael; Raoul, Francis; Giraudoux, Patrick; Crini, Nadia; Vaufleury, Annette de; Scheifler, Renaud

    2010-01-01

    We investigated how host factors (species, age, gender) modulated Cd, Pb, Zn, and Cu concentrations, metallothionein levels (MTs) and their relationships in 7 sympatric small mammal species along a pollution gradient. Cd concentrations in liver and kidneys increased with age in all species. Age effect on other metals and MTs differs among species. Gender did not influence metal and MT levels except in the bank vole. Three patterns linking internal metal concentrations and MTs were observed along the gradient: a low metal accumulation with a (i) high (wood mouse) or (ii) low (bank vole) level of MTs accompanied by a slight or no increase of MTs with Cd accumulation; (iii) an elevated metal accumulation with a sharp increase of MTs (common and pygmy shrews). In risk assessment and biomonitoring perspectives, we conclude that measurements of MTs and metals might be associated because they cannot be interpreted properly when considered separately. - Age more than gender and species more than trophic group influence metallic trace element and metallothionein levels and their relationships in wild small mammals exposed to metals.

  4. Leishmania (Viannia) braziliensis infection in wild small mammals in ecotourism area of Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tonelli, Gabriel Barbosa; Tanure, Aline; Rego, Felipe Dutra; Carvalho, Gustavo Mayr de Lima; Stumpp, Rodolfo; Ássimos, Gabriela Ribeiro; Campos, Aldenise Martins; Lima, Ana Cristina Viana Mariano da Rocha; Gontijo, Célia Maria Ferreira; Paz, Gustavo Fontes; Andrade Filho, José Dilermando

    2017-01-01

    Leishmaniases are parasitic diseases transmitted to mammalian hosts by sand fly vectors (Diptera: Psychodidae). Despite the increasing occurrence of visceral and cutaneous leishmaniasis cases in urban centers, their transmission still occur primarily in wild environments and may be associated with professional activities and recreation, such as ecotourism. The Reserva Particular do Patrimônio Natural Santuário do Caraça (RPPNSC) is one of the largest ecotourism attractions in the State of Minas Gerais, Brazil, and comprises an area of environmental preservation with 11,233 hectares presenting a transitional vegetation between Cerrado and Atlantic Forest. The present study describes the abundance of small mammals in RPPNSC, the isolation and identification of Leishmania in five wild animals. Small mammals were bimonthly trapped along 6 trails within the RPPNSC with 10 Tomahawk traps each. Two trails were located in peridomiciliary areas near tourist lodging facilities, and four trails were located at sites visited by tourists in forest areas. The most prevalent species were Akodon cursor, Cerradomys subflavus and Oligoryzomys nigripes. Six isolates of Leishmania were obtained from these animals and identified as Leishmania braziliensis through HSP70-PCR RFLP method. Leishmania spp. DNA was detected by kDNA-PCR method and isolated by biphasic culture. Studies point to some of the captured species as potential wild reservoirs of Leishmania, suggesting they may be involved in the transmission cycle in these wild environments.

  5. Small sample whole-genome amplification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hara, Christine; Nguyen, Christine; Wheeler, Elizabeth; Sorensen, Karen; Arroyo, Erin; Vrankovich, Greg; Christian, Allen

    2005-11-01

    Many challenges arise when trying to amplify and analyze human samples collected in the field due to limitations in sample quantity, and contamination of the starting material. Tests such as DNA fingerprinting and mitochondrial typing require a certain sample size and are carried out in large volume reactions; in cases where insufficient sample is present whole genome amplification (WGA) can be used. WGA allows very small quantities of DNA to be amplified in a way that enables subsequent DNA-based tests to be performed. A limiting step to WGA is sample preparation. To minimize the necessary sample size, we have developed two modifications of WGA: the first allows for an increase in amplified product from small, nanoscale, purified samples with the use of carrier DNA while the second is a single-step method for cleaning and amplifying samples all in one column. Conventional DNA cleanup involves binding the DNA to silica, washing away impurities, and then releasing the DNA for subsequent testing. We have eliminated losses associated with incomplete sample release, thereby decreasing the required amount of starting template for DNA testing. Both techniques address the limitations of sample size by providing ample copies of genomic samples. Carrier DNA, included in our WGA reactions, can be used when amplifying samples with the standard purification method, or can be used in conjunction with our single-step DNA purification technique to potentially further decrease the amount of starting sample necessary for future forensic DNA-based assays.

  6. Radiation exposure and dose to small mammals in radon-rich soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Macdonald, C.R.; Laverock, M.J.

    1998-01-01

    Protection of the environment from radionuclide releases requires knowledge of the normal background levels of radiation exposure in the exposed biotic community and an estimate of the detriment caused by additional exposure. This study modeled the background exposure and dose to the lungs of small burrowing mammals from 222 Rn in artificial burrows in radon-rich soils at a site in southeastern Manitoba. E-PERM chambers used to measure 222 Rn in soil showed good reproducibility of measurement, with an average coefficient of variance (CV) of about 10%. Geometric mean (GM) 222 Rn concentrations at nine randomly selected sites ranged from 5,490 Bq/m 3 (GSD = 1.57, n = 7) to 41,000 Bq/m 3 (GSD = 1.02, n = 5). Long-term monitoring of 222 Rn concentrations in artificial burrows showed large variation within and between burrows and did not show consistent variation with season, orientation of the burrow opening, or levels of 226 Ra in the soil. Annual GM concentrations in individual burrows ranged from 7,480 Bq/m 3 (GSD = 1.60) to 18,930 Bq/m 3 (GSD = 1.81) in burrows several meters apart. A grand GM of 9,990 Bq/m 3 (GSD = 1.81, n = 214) was measured over the site for the year. An exposure model was constructed for five small mammal species based on their respiration rates and the number of hours spent in the burrow, active or hibernating, exposed to soil gas 222 Rn, and the time spent out of the burrow exposed to atmospheric 222 Rn. A background dose of 0.9 mGy/a from atmospheric 222 Rn (40 Bq/m 3 ) was estimated for a large-bodied (80 kg), nonburrowing animal living on the soil surface. The highest exposures (mJ/a) in burrowing mammals occurred in those species with the highest respiration rates. Hibernation accounted for a small fraction of total annual exposure ( 22R n concentrations from the field studies and an equilibrium factor (F) of 0.5, doses to lung ranged from 90 mGy/a in the badger to 700 mGy/a in the pocket gopher. These doses closely correspond to those

  7. Small-sample-worth perturbation methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-01-01

    It has been assumed that the perturbed region, R/sub p/, is large enough so that: (1) even without a great deal of biasing there is a substantial probability that an average source-neutron will enter it; and (2) once having entered, the neutron is likely to make several collisions in R/sub p/ during its lifetime. Unfortunately neither assumption is valid for the typical configurations one encounters in small-sample-worth experiments. In such experiments one measures the reactivity change which is induced when a very small void in a critical assembly is filled with a sample of some test-material. Only a minute fraction of the fission-source neutrons ever gets into the sample and, of those neutrons that do, most emerge uncollided. Monte Carlo small-sample perturbations computations are described

  8. Borrelia burgdorferi in small mammal reservoirs in Kentucky, a traditionally non-endemic state for Lyme disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchholz, Matthew J; Davis, Cheryl; Rowland, Naomi S; Dick, Carl W

    2018-04-01

    The incidence of tick-borne zoonoses such as Lyme disease has steadily increased in the southeastern United States. Southeastern states accounted for 1500 of over 28,000 confirmed cases of Lyme disease reported in the United States during 2015. Borrelia burgdorferi, the etiologic agent of Lyme disease, is maintained in small mammal reservoirs and vectored to new hosts by ixodid ticks. This study examined ecological relationships of the B. burgdorferi/vector/reservoir system in order to understand the dynamics of Lyme disease risk in Kentucky. Small mammals were captured using live traps from November 2014 to October 2015. Ticks were removed and blood and tissue collected from small mammals were screened for B. burgdorferi DNA by PCR with primers specific to the OspA gene. Prevalence of B. burgdorferi (21.8%) in Kentucky small mammals was comparable to the lowest recorded prevalence in regions where Lyme disease is endemic. Moreover, infestation of small mammals by Ixodes scapularis, the primary vector of B. burgdorferi, was rare, while Dermacentor variabilis comprised the majority of ticks collected. These findings provide ecological insight into the relative paucity of Lyme disease in Kentucky.

  9. Gaseous radiocarbon measurements of small samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruff, M.; Szidat, S.; Gaeggeler, H.W.; Suter, M.; Synal, H.-A.; Wacker, L.

    2010-01-01

    Radiocarbon dating by means of accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) is a well-established method for samples containing carbon in the milligram range. However, the measurement of small samples containing less than 50 μg carbon often fails. It is difficult to graphitise these samples and the preparation is prone to contamination. To avoid graphitisation, a solution can be the direct measurement of carbon dioxide. The MICADAS, the smallest accelerator for radiocarbon dating in Zurich, is equipped with a hybrid Cs sputter ion source. It allows the measurement of both, graphite targets and gaseous CO 2 samples, without any rebuilding. This work presents experiences dealing with small samples containing 1-40 μg carbon. 500 unknown samples of different environmental research fields have been measured yet. Most of the samples were measured with the gas ion source. These data are compared with earlier measurements of small graphite samples. The performance of the two different techniques is discussed and main contributions to the blank determined. An analysis of blank and standard data measured within years allowed a quantification of the contamination, which was found to be of the order of 55 ng and 750 ng carbon (50 pMC) for the gaseous and the graphite samples, respectively. For quality control, a number of certified standards were measured using the gas ion source to demonstrate reliability of the data.

  10. Abundance of small mammals in the Atlantic Forest (ASMAF): a data set for analyzing tropical community patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Figueiredo, Marcos S L; Barros, Camila S; Delciellos, Ana C; Guerra, Edú B; Cordeiro-Estrela, Pedro; Kajin, Maja; Alvarez, Martin R; Asfora, Paulo H; Astúa, Diego; Bergallo, Helena G; Cerqueira, Rui; Geise, Lena; Gentile, Rosana; Grelle, Carlos Eduardo V; Iack-Ximenes, Gilson E; Oliveira, Leonardo C; Weksler, Marcelo; Vieira, Marcus V

    2017-11-01

    Local abundance results from the interaction between populational and environmental processes. The abundance of the species in a community is also one of the most basic descriptors of its structure. Despite its importance, information about species abundances is fragmentary, creating a knowledge gap about species abundances known as the Prestonian Shortfall. Here we present a comprehensive data set of small mammal abundance in the Atlantic Forest. Data were extracted from 114 published sources and from unpublished data collected by our research groups spanning from 1943 to 2017. The data set includes 1,902 records of at least 111 species in 155 localities, totaling 42,617 individuals represented. We selected studies that (1) were conducted in forested habitats of the Atlantic Forest, (2) had a minimum sampling effort of at least 500 trap-nights, and (3) contained species abundance data in detail. For each study, we recorded (1) latitude and longitude, (2) name of the locality, (3) employed sampling effort, (4) type of traps used, (5) study year, (6) country, and (7) species name with (8) its respective abundances. For every locality, we also obtained information regarding its (9) ecoregion, (10) predominant vegetation type, and (11) biogeographic subdivision. Whenever necessary, we also (12) updated the species names as new species were described and some genera suffered taxonomic revision since the publication. The localities are spread across the Atlantic Forest and most of the small mammal species known to occur in Atlantic Forest are present in the data set, making it representative of communities of the entire biome. This data set can be used to address various patterns in community ecology and geographical ecology, as the relation between local abundance and environmental suitability, hypothesis regarding local and regional factors on community structuring, species abundance distributions (SAD), functional and phylogenetic mechanisms on community assembling

  11. Skeletal injuries in small mammals: a multispecies assessment of prevalence and location

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephens, Ryan B.; Burke, Christopher B.; Woodman, Neal; Poland, Lily B.; Rowe, Rebecca J.

    2018-01-01

    Wild mammals are known to survive injuries that result in skeletal abnormalities. Quantifying and comparing skeletal injuries among species can provide insight into the factors that cause skeletal injuries and enable survival following an injury. We documented the prevalence and location of structural bone abnormalities in a community of 7 small mammal species inhabiting the White Mountains of New Hampshire. These species differ in locomotion type and levels of intraspecific aggression. Overall, the majority of injuries were to the ribs or caudal vertebrae. Incidence of skeletal injuries was highest in older animals, indicating that injuries accumulate over a lifetime. Compared to species with ambulatory locomotion, those with more specialized (semi-fossorial, saltatorial, and scansorial) locomotion exhibited fewer skeletal abnormalities in the arms and legs, which we hypothesize is a result of a lesser ability to survive limb injuries. Patterns of skeletal injuries in shrews (Soricidae) were consistent with intraspecific aggression, particularly in males, whereas skeletal injuries in rodents (Rodentia) were more likely accidental or resulting from interactions with predators. Our results demonstrate that both the incidence and pattern of skeletal injuries vary by species and suggest that the ability of an individual to survive a specific skeletal injury depends on its severity and location as well as the locomotor mode of the species involved.

  12. Morphometric variations of laelapine mite (Acari: Mesostigmata populations infesting small mammals (Mammalia in Brazil

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    F. Martins-Hatano

    Full Text Available The goal of this study was to evaluate the morphometric variation of laelapine populations (Acari, Mesostigmata associated with neotropical oryzomyine rodents at different geographic localities in Brazil. Three nominal mite species were selected for study, all infesting the pelage of small mammals at different localities in Rio de Janeiro, Espírito Santo, Bahia, and the Federal District, Brazil. To analyse morphometric characteristics, thirty-seven morphological characters distributed across the whole body of each specimen were measured. We use the Analysis of Principal Components, extracting the three first axes and projecting each mite in these axes. Major species level changes in the taxonomy of the host mammals allows an independent examination of morphometric variation of mites infesting a set of distinctly different host species at different geographic localities. Gigantolaelaps vitzthumi and Laelaps differens are associated with oryzomyine rodents of the genus Cerradomys, and consistently showed a tendency to cluster by host phylogeny. Laelaps manguinhosi associated with Nectomys rattus in central Brazil is morphometrically distinct from mites infesting N. squamipes in the coastal restingas of Rio de Janeiro and Espírito Santo. The results obtained here indicate that laelapine mite populations can vary among geographic areas and among phylogenetically related host species. Clearly, the study of these mites at the population level can be an important tool for clarifying the taxonomy of both mites and hosts.

  13. Morphometric variations of laelapine mite (Acari: Mesostigmata) populations infesting small mammals (Mammalia) in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins-Hatano, F; Gettinger, D; Manhães, M L; Bergallo, H G

    2012-08-01

    The goal of this study was to evaluate the morphometric variation of laelapine populations (Acari, Mesostigmata) associated with neotropical oryzomyine rodents at different geographic localities in Brazil. Three nominal mite species were selected for study, all infesting the pelage of small mammals at different localities in Rio de Janeiro, Espírito Santo, Bahia, and the Federal District, Brazil. To analyse morphometric characteristics, thirty-seven morphological characters distributed across the whole body of each specimen were measured. We use the Analysis of Principal Components, extracting the three first axes and projecting each mite in these axes. Major species level changes in the taxonomy of the host mammals allows an independent examination of morphometric variation of mites infesting a set of distinctly different host species at different geographic localities. Gigantolaelaps vitzthumi and Laelaps differens are associated with oryzomyine rodents of the genus Cerradomys, and consistently showed a tendency to cluster by host phylogeny. Laelaps manguinhosi associated with Nectomys rattus in central Brazil is morphometrically distinct from mites infesting N. squamipes in the coastal restingas of Rio de Janeiro and Espírito Santo. The results obtained here indicate that laelapine mite populations can vary among geographic areas and among phylogenetically related host species. Clearly, the study of these mites at the population level can be an important tool for clarifying the taxonomy of both mites and hosts.

  14. Spatial capture-recapture design and modelling for the study of small mammals.

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    Juan Romairone

    Full Text Available Spatial capture-recapture modelling (SCR is a powerful analytical tool to estimate density and derive information on space use and behaviour of elusive animals. Yet, SCR has been seldom applied to the study of ecologically keystone small mammals. Here we highlight its potential and requirements with a case study on common voles (Microtus arvalis. First, we address mortality associated with live-trapping, which can be high in small mammals, and must be kept minimal. We designed and tested a nest box coupled with a classic Sherman trap and show that it allows a 5-fold reduction of mortality in traps. Second, we address the need to adjust the trapping grid to the individual home range to maximize spatial recaptures. In May-June 2016, we captured and tagged with transponders 227 voles in a 1.2-ha area during two monthly sessions. Using a Bayesian SCR with a multinomial approach, we estimated: (1 the baseline detection rate and investigated variation according to sex, time or behaviour (aversion/attraction after a previous capture; (2 the parameter sigma that describes how detection probability declines as a function of the distance to an individual´s activity centre, and investigated variation according to sex; and (3 density and population sex-ratio. We show that reducing the maximum distance between traps from 12 to 9.6m doubled spatial recaptures and improved model predictions. Baseline detection rate increased over time (after overcoming a likely aversion to entering new odourless traps and was greater for females than males in June. The sigma parameter of males was twice that of females, indicating larger home ranges. Density estimates were of 142.92±38.50 and 168.25±15.79 voles/ha in May and June, respectively, with 2-3 times more females than males. We highlight the potential and broad applicability that SCR offers and provide specific recommendations for using it to study small mammals like voles.

  15. Composition and abundance of small mammal communities in forest fragments and vegetation corridors in Southern Minas Gerais, Brazil

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    Andréa O. Mesquita

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Habitat fragmentation leads to isolation and reduce habitat areas, in addition to a series of negative effects on natural populations, affecting richness, abundance and distribution of animal species. In such a text, habitat corridors serve as an alternative for connectivity in fragmented landscapes, minimizing the effects of structural isolation of different habitat areas. This study evaluated the richness, composition and abundance of small mammal communities in forest fragments and in the relevant vegetation corridors that connect these fragments, located in Southern Minas Gerais, Southeastern Brazil. Ten sites were sampled (five forest fragments and five vegetation corridors using the capture-mark-recapture method, from April 2007-March 2008. A total sampling effort of 6 300 trapnights resulted in 656 captures of 249 individuals. Across the 10 sites sampled, 11 small mammal species were recorded. Multidimensional scaling (MDS ordinations and ANOSIM based on the composition of small mammal communities within the corridor and fragment revealed a qualitative difference between the two environments. Regarding abundance, there was no significant difference between corridors and fragments. In comparing mean values of abundance per species in each environment, only Cerradomys subflavus showed a significant difference, being more abundant in the corridor environment. Results suggest that the presence of several small mammal species in the corridor environment, in relatively high abundances, could indicate corridors use as habitat, though they might also facilitate and/or allow the movement of individuals using different habitat patches (fragments.La fragmentación del hábitat conduce al aislamiento y la reducción de los hábitats, además provoca una serie de efectos negativos sobre las poblaciones naturales, afectando la riqueza, abundancia y distribución de las especies de animales. Dentro de este contexto, los corredores biológicos sirven

  16. Radiation exposure of the radiological staff caused by radiography of small mammals, reptiles and birds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eckert, Yvonne

    2015-01-01

    Radiography is often used as an advanced examination to ensure a diagnosis in avian, reptiles and small mammal's medicine. The aims of this thesis were: 1. To measure the radiation exposure of radiological staff caused by radiography of small mammals, reptiles and birds. The exposure of relevant body regions were measured during clinical routine. 2. To examine the differences of radiation exposures caused by radiography of different animal species and to determine the influence of dose-dependent parameters. 3. To present the radiation protection measures of the clinic and to discuss possible improvements. 4. To weigh the anaesthetic risk for small mammals, reptiles and birds against the radiation exposure of the radiological staff. The measurements took place during clinical routine of the Clinic for Exotic Pets, Reptiles, Pet and Feral Birds, University of Veterinary Medicine Hannover, Foundation. The radiation exposure of the radiological staff was measured. The radiological staff included veterinarians, veterinary-medical technical assistants, doctoral candidates and students during their practical year. Furthermore, the radiation exposure was measured at ten representative body regions using thermoluminescence dosimetry. The measuring positions included the eye-lenses, thyroid, thoracic region under the protective clothes, thoracic region above the protective clothes, gonads, fingers and the left foot. Except for one position that was measured under the protective clothes all positions measured above the protective clothes. Moreover at each examination the focus-film-distance, the kV-number, the mAs-product and the weight of the patient was recorded. Additionally the size of the examiner and the examiner's position regarding to the X-ray table were recorded as variable, dose-influencing parameters. Altogether, measurements were taken from 366 individual examiners. In all three divisions 792 X-ray images were made and 3660 dose values recorded. The

  17. Accumulation of Heavy Metals by Small Mammals the Background and Polluted Territories of the Urals

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    Kovalchuk L. A.

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Accumulation of heavy metals (Cu, Zn, Cd in hemopoietic-competent organs of ecologically contrast species of small mammals (Clethrionomys glareolus, Sorex araneus, Apodemus uralensis from natural populations of the Middle and South Urals were considered. The content of exogenous and essential trace elements in animal tissues (a liver, kidney, a spleen was determined by atomic absorption spectroscopy. It has been shown that bioaccumulation of heavy metals in organs of insectivores significantly differs from it of bank voles and wood mice. The smallest total content of heavy metals is shown in wood mice in technogenic territories of the Middle Urals. The submitted data demonstrate the competitive mechanism of the Cu, Zn, Cd. The increased concentrations of endogenous trace elements (copper, zinc in relation to a toxicant (cadmium, other things being equal, reduce cadmium accumulation level in the tissues Sorex araneus.

  18. Atlantic small-mammal: a dataset of communities of rodents and marsupials of the Atlantic forests of South America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bovendorp, Ricardo S; Villar, Nacho; de Abreu-Junior, Edson F; Bello, Carolina; Regolin, André L; Percequillo, Alexandre R; Galetti, Mauro

    2017-08-01

    The contribution of small mammal ecology to the understanding of macroecological patterns of biodiversity, population dynamics, and community assembly has been hindered by the absence of large datasets of small mammal communities from tropical regions. Here we compile the largest dataset of inventories of small mammal communities for the Neotropical region. The dataset reviews small mammal communities from the Atlantic forest of South America, one of the regions with the highest diversity of small mammals and a global biodiversity hotspot, though currently covering less than 12% of its original area due to anthropogenic pressures. The dataset comprises 136 references from 300 locations covering seven vegetation types of tropical and subtropical Atlantic forests of South America, and presents data on species composition, richness, and relative abundance (captures/trap-nights). One paper was published more than 70 yr ago, but 80% of them were published after 2000. The dataset comprises 53,518 individuals of 124 species of small mammals, including 30 species of marsupials and 94 species of rodents. Species richness averaged 8.2 species (1-21) per site. Only two species occurred in more than 50% of the sites (the common opossum, Didelphis aurita and black-footed pigmy rice rat Oligoryzomys nigripes). Mean species abundance varied 430-fold, from 4.3 to 0.01 individuals/trap-night. The dataset also revealed a hyper-dominance of 22 species that comprised 78.29% of all individuals captured, with only seven species representing 44% of all captures. The information contained on this dataset can be applied in the study of macroecological patterns of biodiversity, communities, and populations, but also to evaluate the ecological consequences of fragmentation and defaunation, and predict disease outbreaks, trophic interactions and community dynamics in this biodiversity hotspot. © 2017 by the Ecological Society of America.

  19. Spatial variation in keystone effects: Small mammal diversity associated with black-tailed prairie dog colonies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cully, J.F.; Collinge, S.K.; Van Nimwegen, R. E.; Ray, C.; Johnson, W.C.; Thiagarajan, Bala; Conlin, D.B.; Holmes, B.E.

    2010-01-01

    Species with extensive geographic ranges may interact with different species assemblages at distant locations, with the result that the nature of the interactions may vary spatially. Black-tailed prairie dogs Cynomys ludovicianus occur from Canada to Mexico in grasslands of the western Great Plains of North America. Black-tailed prairie dogs alter vegetation and dig extensive burrow systems that alter grassland habitats for plants and other animal species. These alterations of habitat justify the descriptor " ecological engineer," and the resulting changes in species composition have earned them status as a keystone species. We examined the impact of black-tailed prairie dogs on small mammal assemblages by trapping at on- and off-colony locations at eight study areas across the species' geographic range. We posed 2 nested hypotheses: 1) prairie dogs function as a keystone species for other rodent species; and 2) the keystone role varies spatially. Assuming that it does, we asked what are the sources of the variation? Black-tailed prairie dogs consistently functioned as a keystone species in that there were strong statistically significant differences in community composition on versus off prairie dog colonies across the species range in prairie grassland. Small mammal species composition varied along both latitudinal and longitudinal gradients, and species richness varied from 4 to 11. Assemblages closer together were more similar; such correlations approximately doubled when including only on- or off-colony grids. Black-tailed prairie dogs had a significant effect on associated rodent assemblages that varied regionally, dependent upon the composition of the local rodent species pool. Over the range of the black-tailed prairie dog, on-colony rodent richness and evenness were less variable, and species composition was more consistent than off-colony assemblages. ?? 2010 The Authors.

  20. Relating demographic characteristics of a small mammal to remotely sensed forest-stand condition.

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    Hania Lada

    Full Text Available Many ecological systems around the world are changing rapidly in response to direct (land-use change and indirect (climate change human actions. We need tools to assess dynamically, and over appropriate management scales, condition of ecosystems and their responses to potential mitigation of pressures. Using a validated model, we determined whether stand condition of floodplain forests is related to densities of a small mammal (a carnivorous marsupial, Antechinus flavipes in 60,000 ha of extant river red gum (Eucalyptus camaldulensis forests in south-eastern Australia in 2004, 2005 and 2011. Stand condition was assessed remotely using models built from ground assessments of stand condition and satellite-derived reflectance. Other covariates, such as volumes of fallen timber, distances to floods, rainfall and life stages were included in the model. Trapping of animals was conducted at 272 plots (0.25 ha across the region. Densities of second-year females (i.e. females that had survived to a second breeding year and of second-year females with suckled teats (i.e. inferred to have been successful mothers were higher in stands with the highest condition. There was no evidence of a relationship with stand condition for males or all females. These outcomes show that remotely-sensed estimates of stand condition (here floodplain forests are relatable to some demographic characteristics of a small mammal species, and may provide useful information about the capacity of ecosystems to support animal populations. Over-regulation of large, lowland rivers has led to declines in many facets of floodplain function. If management of water resources continues as it has in recent decades, then our results suggest that there will be further deterioration in stand condition and a decreased capacity for female yellow-footed antechinuses to breed multiple times.

  1. Diversity and Impacts of Mining on the Non-Volant Small Mammal Communities of Two Vegetation Types in the Brazilian Amazon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ardente, Natália Carneiro; Ferreguetti, Átilla Colombo; Gettinger, Donald; Leal, Pricila; Mendes-Oliveira, Ana Cristina; Martins-Hatano, Fernanda; Bergallo, Helena Godoy

    2016-01-01

    The Carajás National Forest contains some of the largest iron ore deposits in the world. The majority of the minerals are found below a plant community known as Savana Metalófila, or "Canga", which represents only 3% of the landscape within the Carajás National Forest (CNF). The aim of our study was to understand the diversity of community of non-volant small mammals in the two predominant vegetation types: Ombrophilous Forest and Canga, and to examine how mining impacts these communities. Sampling was conducted from January 2010 to August 2011 in 11 sampling sites divided by the total area of Canga and 12 sampling sites in the forest, totalizing 23 sites. Of these, 12 sites (Canga and Forest) were considered impacted areas located close to the mine (mine. We recorded 28 species, 11 from the Order Didelphimorphia and 17 from the Order Rodentia. The two forest types shared 68.42% of the species found in the CNF. A gradient analysis (Non-metric multidimensional scaling) revealed that the first axis clearly separated the non-flying small mammal communities by vegetation type. Occupancy models showed that the detectability of species was affected by the distance from the mining activities. Of all the small mammals analyzed, 10 species were positively affected by the distance from mining in areas impacted (e.g. more likely to be detected farther from mining areas) and detectability was lower in impacted areas. However, three species were negatively affected by the distance from mining, with higher detectability in the impacted areas, and seven species showed no effect of their proximity to mining operations. To date, there are no studies in Brazil about the impact of mining on mammals or other vertebrates. This study reveals that the effect of mining may go beyond the forest destruction caused by the opening of the mining pits, but also may negatively affect sensitive wildlife species.

  2. Comparing Microbiome Sampling Methods in a Wild Mammal: Fecal and Intestinal Samples Record Different Signals of Host Ecology, Evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingala, Melissa R; Simmons, Nancy B; Wultsch, Claudia; Krampis, Konstantinos; Speer, Kelly A; Perkins, Susan L

    2018-01-01

    The gut microbiome is a community of host-associated symbiotic microbes that fulfills multiple key roles in host metabolism, immune function, and tissue development. Given the ability of the microbiome to impact host fitness, there is increasing interest in studying the microbiome of wild animals to better understand these communities in the context of host ecology and evolution. Human microbiome research protocols are well established, but wildlife microbiome research is still a developing field. Currently, there is no standardized set of best practices guiding the collection of microbiome samples from wildlife. Gut microflora are typically sampled either by fecal collection, rectal swabbing, or by destructively sampling the intestinal contents of the host animal. Studies rarely include more than one sampling technique and no comparison of these methods currently exists for a wild mammal. Although some studies have hypothesized that the fecal microbiome is a nested subset of the intestinal microbiome, this hypothesis has not been formally tested. To address these issues, we examined guano (feces) and distal intestinal mucosa from 19 species of free-ranging bats from Lamanai, Belize, using 16S rRNA amplicon sequencing to compare microbial communities across sample types. We found that the diversity and composition of intestine and guano samples differed substantially. In addition, we conclude that signatures of host evolution are retained by studying gut microbiomes based on mucosal tissue samples, but not fecal samples. Conversely, fecal samples retained more signal of host diet than intestinal samples. These results suggest that fecal and intestinal sampling methods are not interchangeable, and that these two microbiotas record different information about the host from which they are isolated.

  3. Comparing Microbiome Sampling Methods in a Wild Mammal: Fecal and Intestinal Samples Record Different Signals of Host Ecology, Evolution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melissa R. Ingala

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available The gut microbiome is a community of host-associated symbiotic microbes that fulfills multiple key roles in host metabolism, immune function, and tissue development. Given the ability of the microbiome to impact host fitness, there is increasing interest in studying the microbiome of wild animals to better understand these communities in the context of host ecology and evolution. Human microbiome research protocols are well established, but wildlife microbiome research is still a developing field. Currently, there is no standardized set of best practices guiding the collection of microbiome samples from wildlife. Gut microflora are typically sampled either by fecal collection, rectal swabbing, or by destructively sampling the intestinal contents of the host animal. Studies rarely include more than one sampling technique and no comparison of these methods currently exists for a wild mammal. Although some studies have hypothesized that the fecal microbiome is a nested subset of the intestinal microbiome, this hypothesis has not been formally tested. To address these issues, we examined guano (feces and distal intestinal mucosa from 19 species of free-ranging bats from Lamanai, Belize, using 16S rRNA amplicon sequencing to compare microbial communities across sample types. We found that the diversity and composition of intestine and guano samples differed substantially. In addition, we conclude that signatures of host evolution are retained by studying gut microbiomes based on mucosal tissue samples, but not fecal samples. Conversely, fecal samples retained more signal of host diet than intestinal samples. These results suggest that fecal and intestinal sampling methods are not interchangeable, and that these two microbiotas record different information about the host from which they are isolated.

  4. A Geology Sampling System for Small Bodies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naids, Adam J.; Hood, Anthony D.; Abell, Paul; Graff, Trevor; Buffington, Jesse

    2016-01-01

    Human exploration of microgravity bodies is being investigated as a precursor to a Mars surface mission. Asteroids, comets, dwarf planets, and the moons of Mars all fall into this microgravity category and some are being discussed as potential mission targets. Obtaining geological samples for return to Earth will be a major objective for any mission to a small body. Currently, the knowledge base for geology sampling in microgravity is in its infancy. Humans interacting with non-engineered surfaces in microgravity environment pose unique challenges. In preparation for such missions a team at the NASA Johnson Space Center has been working to gain experience on how to safely obtain numerous sample types in such an environment. This paper describes the type of samples the science community is interested in, highlights notable prototype work, and discusses an integrated geology sampling solution.

  5. Status and challenges for conservation of small mammal assemblages in South America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelt, Douglas A; Meserve, Peter L

    2014-08-01

    South America spans about 44° latitude, covers almost 18 million km(2) , and is second only to Africa in continental mammal species richness. In spite of this richness, research on the status of this fauna and on the nature and magnitude of contemporary threats remains limited. Distilling threats to this diverse fauna at a continental scale is challenging, in part because of the limited availability of rigorous studies. Recognizing this constraint, we summarize key threats to small mammals in South America, emphasizing the roles of habitat loss and degradation, direct persecution, and the increasing threat of climate change. We focus on three regional 'case studies': the tropical Andes, Amazonia and adjacent lowland regions, and the southern temperate region. We close with a brief summary of recent findings at our long-term research site in north-central Chile as they pertain to projected threats to this fauna. Habitat alteration is a pervasive threat that has been magnified by market forces and globalization (e.g. extensive agricultural development in Amazonia), and threatens increasing numbers of populations and species. Climate change poses even greater threats, from changes in rainfall and runoff regimes and resulting changes in vegetative structure and composition to secondary influences on fire dynamics. It is likely that many changes have yet to be recognized, but existing threats suggest that the future may bring dramatic changes in the distribution of many mammal taxa, although it is not clear if key habitat elements (vegetation) will respond as rapidly as climatic factors, leading to substantial uncertainty. Climate change is likely to result in 'winners' and 'losers' but available information precludes detailed assessment of which species are likely to fall into which category. In the absence of long-term monitoring and applied research to characterize these threats more accurately, and to develop strategies to reduce their impacts, managers already are

  6. Effects of prescribed burning on small mammal, reptile, and tick populations on the Talladega National Forest, Alabama

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jonathan Adams; Chris Edmondson; Damien Willis; Robert Carter

    2013-01-01

    A study of the relationship between prescribed burning and tick populations was conducted in the Talladega National Forest, AL. The study area for mammal and tick sampling consisted of 12 plots ranging from the unburned control site to sites burned within the previous 5 years. The study area for reptile sampling consisted of four plots ranging from the unburned control...

  7. Evaluating small mammal response to natural disturbance and restoration in oak ecosystems in the Mississippi alluvial valley

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith Carl G; Hamel Paul B; Fuzaro Gullo, Manoelle

    2010-01-01

    Oak species form a conspicuous and often dominant component of bottom land forests of the Mississippi Alluvial Valley. The extent of these forests has been drastically reduced as a result of clearing for agriculture in the past two centuries. Patterns of clearing have reduced the distribution of remaining forest patches to a much more flood-prone subset of the landscape than was historically the case, reducing the diversity of oak species currently present on the landscape. Intensive harvesting has further changed the composition of the remaining stands. Small remnant patches of primary forest continue to exist as Research Natural Areas on the Delta National Forest in Sharkey County, Mississippi. In particular, the Over cup Oak (Quercus lyrata) and Redgum (Liquidambar styraciflua) Research Natural Areas pres ent substantial components of the trees for which the areas were named, as well as Quercus nuttallii and smaller components of other species. Recent interest in afforestation has produced a resurgence of interest in restoration of oak forest to abandoned farmland in the region. We have studied small mammal response to restoration on an extensive experiment near the Delta National Forest since 1995. We have also examined small mammal response to a tornado that disturbed approximately half of the Over cup Oak Research Natural Area in 2008. We use these studies to demonstrate how population estimates of small mammals can be obtained from capture-recapture studies, employing different designs, and utilizing Program Capture for population estimation. Small mammal communities in these stands are more species-rich in early succession than in primary forest. The study of response to tornado damage to the Over cup Oak Research Natural Area is complicated by the fact that this particular forest type is very flood-prone, creating obstacles to colonization by small mammals. Analysis of capture-recapture data with robust methods illustrated in this study permits extraction

  8. Accelerator mass spectrometry of small biological samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salehpour, Mehran; Forsgard, Niklas; Possnert, Göran

    2008-12-01

    Accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) is an ultra-sensitive technique for isotopic ratio measurements. In the biomedical field, AMS can be used to measure femtomolar concentrations of labeled drugs in body fluids, with direct applications in early drug development such as Microdosing. Likewise, the regenerative properties of cells which are of fundamental significance in stem-cell research can be determined with an accuracy of a few years by AMS analysis of human DNA. However, AMS nominally requires about 1 mg of carbon per sample which is not always available when dealing with specific body substances such as localized, organ-specific DNA samples. Consequently, it is of analytical interest to develop methods for the routine analysis of small samples in the range of a few tens of microg. We have used a 5 MV Pelletron tandem accelerator to study small biological samples using AMS. Different methods are presented and compared. A (12)C-carrier sample preparation method is described which is potentially more sensitive and less susceptible to contamination than the standard procedures.

  9. The influence of small-mammal burrowing activity on water storage at the Hanford Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Landeen, D.S.

    1994-01-01

    This paper summarizes the activities that were conducted in support of the long-term surface barrier development program by Westinghouse Hanford Company to determine the degree that small-mammal burrow systems affect the loss or retention of water in the soils at the Hanford Site in Washington state. An animal intrusion lysimeter facility was constructed, consisting of two outer boxes buried at grade, which served as receptacles for six animal intrusion lysimeters. Small burrowing animals common the Hanford Site were introduced over a 3- to 4-month period. Supplemental precipitation was added monthly to three of the lysimeters with a rainfall simulator (rainulator). Information collected from the five tests indicated that (1) during summer months, water was lost in all the lysimeters, including the supplemental precipitation added with the rainulator; and (2) during winter months, all lysimeters gained water. The data indicate little difference in the amount of water stored between control and animal lysimeters. The overall water loss was attributed to surface evaporation, a process that occurred equally in control and treatment lysimeters. Other causes of water loss are a result of (1) constant soil turnover and subsequent drying, and (2) burrow ventilation effects. This suggests that burrow systems will not contribute to any significant water storage at depth and, in fact, may enhance the removal of water from the soil

  10. Comparative evaluation of several small mammal species as monitors of heavy metals, radionuclides, and selected organic compounds in the environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Talmage, S.S.; Walton, B.T.

    1990-08-01

    The primary purpose of this study was to evaluate which small mammal species are the best monitors of specific environmental contaminants. The evaluation is based on the published literature and on an analysis of small mammals trapped at several sites on the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) Reservation in Oak Ridge, Tennessee. Studies on the uptake of heavy metals, radionuclides, and organic chemicals are reviewed in Chapter II to evaluate several small mammal species for their capacity to serve as sentinels for the presence, accumulation, and effects of various contaminants. Where several species were present at a site, a comparative evaluation was made and species are ranked for their capacity to serve as monitors of specific contaminants. Food chain accumulation and food habits of the species are used to establish a relationship with suitability as a biomonitor. Tissue-specific concentration factors were noted in order to establish target tissues. Life histories, habitat, and food habits are reviewed in order to make generalizations concerning the ability of similar taxa to serve as biomonitor. Finally, the usefulness of several small mammal species as monitors of three contaminants -- benzo[a]pyrene, mercury, and strontium-90 -- present on or near the ORNL facilities was investigated. 133 refs., 5 figs., 20 tabs

  11. Reptile, amphibian, and small mammal species associated with natural gas development in the Monongahela National Forest, West Virginia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurtis R. Moseley; W. Mark Ford; John W. Edwards; Mary B. Adams

    2010-01-01

    Burgeoning energy demand in the United States has led to increased natural gas exploration in the Appalachian Basin. Despite increasing natural gas development in the region, data about its impacts to wildlife are lacking. Our objective was to assess past and ongoing natural gas development impacts on reptiles, amphibians, and small mammals in the Monongahela National...

  12. Comparative evaluation of several small mammal species as monitors of heavy metals, radionuclides, and selected organic compounds in the environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Talmage, S.S. (Tennessee Univ., Knoxville, TN (USA) Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (USA)); Walton, B.T. (Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (USA))

    1990-08-01

    The primary purpose of this study was to evaluate which small mammal species are the best monitors of specific environmental contaminants. The evaluation is based on the published literature and on an analysis of small mammals trapped at several sites on the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) Reservation in Oak Ridge, Tennessee. Studies on the uptake of heavy metals, radionuclides, and organic chemicals are reviewed in Chapter II to evaluate several small mammal species for their capacity to serve as sentinels for the presence, accumulation, and effects of various contaminants. Where several species were present at a site, a comparative evaluation was made and species are ranked for their capacity to serve as monitors of specific contaminants. Food chain accumulation and food habits of the species are used to establish a relationship with suitability as a biomonitor. Tissue-specific concentration factors were noted in order to establish target tissues. Life histories, habitat, and food habits are reviewed in order to make generalizations concerning the ability of similar taxa to serve as biomonitor. Finally, the usefulness of several small mammal species as monitors of three contaminants -- benzo(a)pyrene, mercury, and strontium-90 -- present on or near the ORNL facilities was investigated. 133 refs., 5 figs., 20 tabs.

  13. Response of small mammal populations to fuel treatment and precipitation in a ponderosa pine forest, New Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karen E. Bagne; Deborah M. Finch

    2009-01-01

    Mechanical and fire treatments are commonly used to reduce fuels where land use practices have encouraged accumulation of woody debris and high densities of trees. Treatments focus on restoration of vegetation structure, but will also affect wildlife populations. Small mammal populations were monitored before and after dense tree stands were thinned on 2,800 ha in NM,...

  14. Lack of a distinct gradient in biomarker responses in small mammals collected at different distances from a highway

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hamers, T.; Smit, L.A.M.; Bosveld, A.T.C.; Berg, van den J.H.J.; Koeman, J.H.; Schooten, van F.J.; Murk, A.J.

    2002-01-01

    This study describes biomarker effects in small mammals exposed to traffic emissions. Animals were collected at 10-50 m (site 1), 150-200 m (site 2), and 5 km (site 3) from a very busy highway (A2). To distinguish between routes of exposure, strictly carnivorous common shrews (Sorex araneus) and

  15. An example of population-level risk assessments for small mammals using individual-based population models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmitt, Walter; Auteri, Domenica; Bastiansen, Finn

    2016-01-01

    effects, recovery periods, then determined by recolonization, were of any concern. Conclusions include recommendations for the most important input considerations, including the selection of exposure levels, duration of simulations, statistically robust number of replicates, and endpoints to report...... assessments for small mammals, including consistent and transparent direct links to specific protection goals, and the consideration of more realistic scenarios....

  16. Landscapes with different biodiversity influence distribution of small mammals and their ectoparasitic chigger mites: A comparative study from southwest China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Pei-Ying; Guo, Xian-Guo; Jin, Dao-Chao; Dong, Wen-Ge; Qian, Ti-Jun; Qin, Feng; Yang, Zhi-Hua; Fan, Rong

    2018-01-01

    From a previous field investigation in Yunnan, southwest China between 2001 and 2015, we selected two types of landscapes to make a retrospectively comparative study on the distribution of small mammals and their ectoparasitic chigger mites. One landscape is "mountainous uncultivated land (MUL)" with higher biodiversity, which is located in a famous "World Nature Heritage Site", the Three-Parallel-Rivers Region in the northwest of Yunnan. The other is "cultivated flatland landscape (CFL)" with lower biodiversity, which is located in the south of Yunnan. The landscapes with different biodiversity apparently influenced the distribution of small mammals and their ectoparasitic chigger mites. Much more species of small mammals and mites were found in MUL than in CFL. A total of 3,177 small mammals captured from MUL were identified as 55 species, 30 genera and 10 families in five orders. From these small mammal hosts, 5,882 chigger mites were collected and identified as 127 species, 15 genera and 3 subfamilies in two families. A total of 1,112 small mammals captured from CFL were identified as 19 species, 12 genera and 5 families in three orders. From these hosts, 17,742 chiggers were collected and identified as 86 species, 12 genera and 3 subfamilies in two families. Both the species diversity (S = 55) and community diversity (H = 2.673) of small mammals in MUL were much higher than those in CFL (S = 19; H = 0.926). There were also higher values of β diversity in MUL than in CFL. Different main reservoir rodent hosts of zoonoses (including tsutsugamushi disease) were found in two types of landscapes. Rattus tanezumi (one main reservoir host) was most abundant in CFL, which accounted for 80.22% of all the small mammals. Another two main reservoir hosts, Eothenomys miletus and Apodemus chevrieri were the dominant species in MUL, but they were not as abundant as R. tanezumi in CFL. Different vector species of chigger mites also existed in MUL and CFL. Leptotrombidium

  17. Effects of Precommercial Thinning and Midstory Control on Avian and Small Mammal Communities during Longleaf Pine Savanna Restoration.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lane, Vanessa R [Abraham Baldwin Agricultural College; Kilgo, John C [USDA Forest Service, Southern Research Station

    2015-01-01

    Abstract - Restoring longleaf pine (Pinus palustris Mill.) savanna is a goal of many southern land managers, and longleaf plantations may provide a mechanism for savanna restoration. However, the effects of silvicultural treatments used in the management of longleaf pine plantations on wildlife communities are relatively unknown. Beginning in 1994, we examined effects of longleaf pine restoration with plantation silviculture on avian and small mammal communities using four treatments in four 8- to 11- year-old plantations within the Savannah River Site in South Carolina. Treatments included prescribed burning every 3 to 5 years, plus: (1) no additional treatment (burn-only control); (2) precommercial thinning; (3) non-pine woody control with herbicides; and (4) combined thinning and woody control. We surveyed birds (1996-2003) using 50-m point counts and small mammals with removal trapping. Thinning and woody control alone had short-lived effects on avian communities, and the combination treatment increased avian parameters over the burn-only control in all years. Small mammal abundance showed similar trends as avian abundance for all three treatments when compared with the burn-only control, but only for 2 years post-treatment. Both avian and small mammal communities were temporarily enhanced by controlling woody vegetation with chemicals in addition to prescribed fire and thinning. Therefore, precommercial thinning in longleaf plantations, particularly when combined with woody control and prescribed fire, may benefit early-successional avian and small mammal communities by developing stand conditions more typical of natural longleaf stands maintained by periodic fire.

  18. Diurnality as an energy-saving strategy: energetic consequences of temporal niche switching in small mammals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Vinne, V.; Gorter, J.A.; Riede, S.J.; Hut, R.A.

    2015-01-01

    Endogenous daily (circadian) rhythms allow organisms to anticipate daily changes in the environment. Most mammals are specialized to be active during the night (nocturnal) or day (diurnal). However, typically nocturnal mammals become diurnal when energetically challenged by cold or hunger. The

  19. Diurnality as an energy-saving strategy : energetic consequences of temporal niche switching in small mammals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Vinne, Vincent; Gorter, Jenke A; Riede, Sjaak J; Hut, Roelof A

    Endogenous daily (circadian) rhythms allow organisms to anticipate daily changes in the environment. Most mammals are specialized to be active during the night (nocturnal) or day (diurnal). However, typically nocturnal mammals become diurnal when energetically challenged by cold or hunger. The

  20. Post-dam vegetation changes and small mammal populations in the Peace-Athabasca delta

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pfister, O.

    1993-01-01

    Research aimed at monitoring wildlife populations is a useful way to estimate the impact and consequences of hydroelectric projects on northern deltas. Such studies could provide valuable insights on the potential effect of the drying of deltas in the context of global climate change. The Peace-Athabasca River Delta, one of the most extensive northern inland deltas in the western hemisphere, represents a unique site to study such effects. Construction of the Bennett Dam in 1968 has had serious effects on the delta's ecological integrity; the resulting lower water levels and colonization of grass meadow communities by willows and the movement of shorelines has affected wildlife distribution and population levels. A study was conducted to estimate the impact of the invasion of grass meadows by willows on small rodent populations in the delta. Live trapping grids were established at three sites. Population estimates were obtained by the minimum number known method and used to calculate biomass of small mammals in willow and meadow grids. Mean trapping estimates (MTEs) of adult meadow voles ranged from under 1 per hectare on willow grids to 28 per hectare on meadow grids. On willow grids only, MTEs for adult populations of deer mice, red-backed voles, and meadow jumping mice reached 6, 6, and less than 1 per hectare respectively. It is estimated that the development of grass meadows into willow shrublands over the next 20-40 y could result in a loss of over 50% of the biomass of small rodents present in 1976. This should have a negative effect on the foraging efficiency and productivity of secondary consumers such as weasel and owl. 109 refs., 16 figs., 29 tabs

  1. Ticks (Acari: Ixodidae) infesting some small mammals from Northern Turkey with new tick-host associations and locality records.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keskin, Adem; Selçuk, Ahmet Yesari; Kefelioğlu, Haluk

    2017-12-01

    Ticks are obligate ectoparasites of a vast range of terrestrial vertebrates which may play an important role in the transmission of many zoonotic pathogens to humans and animals. In the current study, we performed an investigation on ticks infesting some small mammals captured from Samsun and Tokat provinces, Northern Turkey. One hundred forty-five mammalian samples belonging to four species, namely Cricetulus migratorius (n = 1), Apodemus flavicollis (n = 17), Crocidura suaveolens (n = 102) and Sorex volnuchini (n = 25), were examined for the presence of tick infestations. A total of 273 (74 larvae, 194 nymphs, 5 females) hard ticks were collected from 88 mammalian samples. Ticks were identified as Ixodes laguri (1 nymph), I. redikorzevi (22 larvae, 186 nymphs, 5 females), I. ricinus (52 larvae, 4 nymphs) and Rhipicephalus turanicus (3 nymphs). Here, we also provided new tick mammalian host associations for Turkey. In addition, I. laguri and I. redikorzevi ticks were recorded for the first time in Samsun province of Turkey.

  2. An assessment of non-volant terrestrial vertebrates response to wind farms--a study of small mammals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Łopucki, Rafał; Mróz, Iwona

    2016-02-01

    The majority of studies on the effects of wind energy development on wildlife have been focused on birds and bats, whereas knowledge of the response of terrestrial, non-flying vertebrates is very scarce. In this paper, the impact of three functioning wind farms on terrestrial small mammal communities (rodents and shrews) and the population parameters of the most abundant species were studied. The study was carried out in southeastern Poland within the foothills of the Outer Western Carpathians. Small mammals were captured at 12 sites around wind turbines and at 12 control sites. In total, from 1200 trap-days, 885 individuals of 14 studied mammal species were captured. There was no difference in the characteristics of communities of small mammals near wind turbines and within control sites; i.e. these types of sites were inhabited by a similar number of species of similar abundance, similar species composition, species diversity (H' index) and species evenness (J') (Pielou's index). For the two species with the highest proportion in the communities (Apodemus agrarius and Microtus arvalis), the parameters of their populations (mean body mass, sex ratio, the proportion of adult individuals and the proportion of reproductive female) were analysed. In both species, none of the analysed parameters differed significantly between sites in the vicinity of turbines and control sites. For future studies on the impact of wind turbines on small terrestrial mammals in different geographical areas and different species communities, we recommend the method of paired 'turbine-control sites' as appropriate for animal species with pronounced fluctuations in population numbers.

  3. Trophic cascades linking wolves (Canis lupus), coyotes (Canis latrans), and small mammals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, B.J.; Harlow, H.J.; Harlow, T.S.; Biggins, D.; Ripple, W.J.

    2012-01-01

    When large carnivores are extirpated from ecosystems that evolved with apex predators, these systems can change at the herbivore and plant trophic levels. Such changes across trophic levels are called cascading effects and they are very important to conservation. Studies on the effects of reintroduced wolves in Yellowstone National Park have examined the interaction pathway of wolves (Canis lupus L., 1758) to ungulates to plants. This study examines the interaction effects of wolves to coyotes to rodents (reversing mesopredator release in the absence of wolves). Coyotes (Canis latrans Say, 1823) generally avoided areas near a wolf den. However, when in the proximity of a den, they used woody habitats (pine or sage) compared with herbaceous habitats (grass or forb or sedge)- when they were away from the wolf den. Our data suggested a significant increase in rodent numbers, particularly voles (genus Microtus Schrank, 1798), during the 3-year study on plots that were within 3 km of the wolf den, but we did not detect a significant change in rodent numbers over time for more distant plots. Predation by coyotes may have depressed numbers of small mammals in areas away from the wolf den. These factors indicate a top-down effect by wolves on coyotes and subsequently on the rodents of the area. Restoration of wolves could be a powerful tool for regulating predation at lower trophic levels.

  4. Fluctuating Asymmetry of Craniological Features of Small Mammals as a Reflection of Heterogeneity of Natural Populations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Shadrina

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Fluctuating asymmetry (FA in nine species of small mammals (Insectivora and Rodentia was estimated using 10 cranial features (foramina for nerves and blood vessels. The main criterion was the occurrence of the fluctuating asymmetry manifestations (OFAM. A total of 2300 skulls collected in the taiga and forest-tundra of Yakutia (Northeast Asia were examined. The examined species are characterized by comparable OFAM values in the vast territories of the taiga zone; on the ecological periphery of the range an increased FA level is registered. Asymmetric manifestations in analyzed features are equally likely to occur in males and females. OFAM values in juveniles are higher than in adults; this difference is more pronounced on the periphery of the geographic range. Among juveniles, lower FA levels are observed in individuals that have bred. It can be surmised that the risk of elimination of individuals with high FA levels increases in stressful periods (active reproduction and winter. In conditions that are close to optimal, populations demonstrate relatively homogeneous FA levels, while on the periphery of the area an increase in occurrence of disturbances in developmental stability is observed, which leads, on one hand, to higher average FA for the population and, on the other hand, to heterogeneity of the population in this parameter.

  5. Molecular Survey of Zoonotic Agents in Rodents and Other Small Mammals in Croatia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tadin, Ante; Tokarz, Rafal; Markotić, Alemka; Margaletić, Josip; Turk, Nenad; Habuš, Josipa; Svoboda, Petra; Vucelja, Marko; Desai, Aaloki; Jain, Komal; Lipkin, W Ian

    2016-02-01

    Croatia is a focus for many rodent-borne zoonosis. Here, we report a survey of 242 rodents and small mammals, including 43 Myodes glareolus, 131 Apodemus flavicollis, 53 Apodemus agrarius, three Apodemus sylvaticus, six Sorex araneus, four Microtus arvalis, one Microtus agrestis, and one Muscardinus avellanarius, collected at eight sites in Croatia over an 8-year period. Multiplex MassTag polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was used for detection of Borrelia, Rickettsia, Bartonella, Babesia, Ehrlichia, Anaplasma, Francisella tularensis, and Coxiella burnetii. Individual PCR assays were used for detection of Leptospira, lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus, orthopoxviruses, flaviviruses, hantaviruses, and Toxoplasma gondii. Of the rodents, 52 (21.5%) were infected with Leptospira, 9 (3.7%) with Borrelia miyamotoi, 5 (2%) with Borrelia afzelii, 29 (12.0%) with Bartonella, 8 (3.3%) with Babesia microti, 2 (0.8%) with Ehrlichia, 4 (1.7%) with Anaplasma, 2 (0.8%) with F. tularensis, 43 (17.8%) with hantaviruses, and 1 (0.4%) with an orthopoxvirus. Other agents were not detected. Multiple infections were found in 32 rodents (13.2%): dual infections in 26 rodents (10.7%), triple infections in four rodents (2.9%), and quadruple infections in two rodents (0.8%). Our findings indicate that rodents in Croatia harbor a wide range of bacteria and viruses that are pathogenic to humans. © The American Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene.

  6. Small mammal populations of an agroecosystem in the Atlantic Forest domain, southeastern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PS. D’Andrea

    Full Text Available This study reports 2 years of the population dynamics and reproduction of a small mammal community using the removal method. The study was conducted in a rural area of the Atlantic Forest, in Sumidouro, Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil. The population sizes, age structure and reproduction were studied for the four most common species in the study area. The overall diversity was 1.67 and ranged between 0.8 to 1.67. The species richness was 13 considering the whole study. The most abundant species were the rodents Nectomys squamipes (n = 133, Akodon cursor (n = 74, Oligoryzomys nigripes (n = 25 and the marsupials Didelphis aurita (n = 58 and Philander frenatus (n = 50. Seven other rodents were captured once: Necromys lasiurus, Akodon montensis, Sooretamys angouya, Oecomys catherine, Oxymycterus judex, Euryzygomatomys spinosus and Trinomys iheringi. There were higher peaks for diversity and species richness during the winter (dry months, probably due to higher food availability. The marsupials had a seasonal reproduction with highest population sizes at the end of the rainy seasons. Nectomys squamipes reproduced mostly during rainy periods. Akodon cursor reproduced predominantly in the winter with the highest population peaks occurring during this season. The analysis of the population dynamics of the rodent species indicated that no species behaved as an agricultural pest, probably due to the heterogeneous landscape of high rotativity of vegetable cultivation. Rodent populations were more susceptible to the removal procedure than marsupial ones.

  7. Spatial and temporal dynamics of the genetic organization of small mammal populations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, M.H.; Manlove, M.N.; Joule, J.

    1978-01-01

    A functional population is a group of organisms and their offspring that contributes to a common gene pool within a certain area and time period. It is also the unit of evolution and should be viewed both in quantitative and qualitative terms. Selection, drift, dispersal, and mutation can alter the composition of populations. Spatial heterogeneity in allele frequencies argues for a conceptual model that has a series of relatively small populations semi-isolated from one another. Because of the relatively high levels of genetic variability characteristic of most mammalian species, significant amounts of gene flow between these spatially subdivided populations must occur when longer time periods are considered. Fluctuations in the genetic structure of populations seem to be important in altering the fitness of the individuals within the populations. The interaction of populations through gene flow is important in changing the levels of intrapopulational genetic variability. Populations can be characterized as existing on a continuum from relatively stable to unstable numbers and by other associated changes in their characteristics. Temporal changes in allele frequency occur in a variety of mammals. Conceptually, a species can be viewed as a series of dynamic populations that vary in numbers and quality in both a spatial and temporal context even over short distances and time periods. Short term changes in the quality of individuals in a population can be important in altering the short term dynamics of a population

  8. Role of edge effect on small mammal populations in a forest fragment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wike, L.D.

    2000-01-01

    In many cases, edge effect may determine the distribution and densities of small mammal populations. In 1995 and 1998, a mark and recapture study was conducted at the Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC, to evaluate the role of forest edge habitat. The area studied was an abandoned home site that had been recently isolated by a timber harvest. Harvest activities left a distinct edge of old field and planted pine contrasting with a relatively xeric, mixed hardwood stand. Trapping was conducted for 17 days in 1995 and 14 days in 1998. Three 30 m by 150 m grids were placed in the clear-cut, edge, and hardwood interior habitats. For both years the principal species captured were Peromyscus gossypinus, P. polionotus, and Neotoma floridana. The edge habitat accounted for approximately 55 percent of all captures and nearly four times as many recaptures as the interior and clear-cut habitats. In 1998, greater numbers of N. floridana were trapped than in 1995. The results indicate that the use of edge habitat can be pronounced even within simple communities. Stewards of managed or restored habitats need to carefully consider the role of edge in these systems. In managed areas such as waste sites, movement of material within the food chain could be reduced by minimizing edge habitat around the points of contamination

  9. Post-fire recovery of torpor and activity patterns of a small mammal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stawski, Clare; Hume, Taylor; Körtner, Gerhard; Currie, Shannon E; Nowack, Julia; Geiser, Fritz

    2017-05-01

    To cope with the post-fire challenges of decreased availability of food and shelter, brown antechinus ( Antechinus stuartii ), a small marsupial mammal, increase the use of energy-conserving torpor and reduce activity. However, it is not known how long it takes for animals to resume pre-fire torpor and activity patterns during the recovery of burnt habitat. Therefore, we tested the hypothesis that antechinus will adjust torpor use and activity after a fire depending on vegetation recovery. We simultaneously quantified torpor and activity patterns for female antechinus from three adjacent areas: (i) the area of a management burn 1 year post-fire, (ii) an area that was burned 2 years prior, and (iii) a control area. In comparison to shortly after the management burn, antechinus in all three groups displayed less frequent and less pronounced torpor while being more active. We provide the first evidence that only 1 year post-fire antechinus resume pre-fire torpor and activity patterns, probably in response to the return of herbaceous ground cover and foraging opportunities. © 2017 The Author(s).

  10. Privacy problems in the small sample selection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Loredana Cerbara

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The side of social research that uses small samples for the production of micro data, today finds some operating difficulties due to the privacy law. The privacy code is a really important and necessary law because it guarantees the Italian citizen’s rights, as already happens in other Countries of the world. However it does not seem appropriate to limit once more the possibilities of the data production of the national centres of research. That possibilities are already moreover compromised due to insufficient founds is a common problem becoming more and more frequent in the research field. It would be necessary, therefore, to include in the law the possibility to use telephonic lists to select samples useful for activities directly of interest and importance to the citizen, such as the collection of the data carried out on the basis of opinion polls by the centres of research of the Italian CNR and some universities.

  11. Climate change risks and conservation implications for a threatened small-range mammal species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morueta-Holme, Naia; Fløjgaard, Camilla; Svenning, Jens-Christian

    2010-04-29

    Climate change is already affecting the distributions of many species and may lead to numerous extinctions over the next century. Small-range species are likely to be a special concern, but the extent to which they are sensitive to climate is currently unclear. Species distribution modeling, if carefully implemented, can be used to assess climate sensitivity and potential climate change impacts, even for rare and cryptic species. We used species distribution modeling to assess the climate sensitivity, climate change risks and conservation implications for a threatened small-range mammal species, the Iberian desman (Galemys pyrenaicus), which is a phylogenetically isolated insectivore endemic to south-western Europe. Atlas data on the distribution of G. pyrenaicus was linked to data on climate, topography and human impact using two species distribution modeling algorithms to test hypotheses on the factors that determine the range for this species. Predictive models were developed and projected onto climate scenarios for 2070-2099 to assess climate change risks and conservation possibilities. Mean summer temperature and water balance appeared to be the main factors influencing the distribution of G. pyrenaicus. Climate change was predicted to result in significant reductions of the species' range. However, the severity of these reductions was highly dependent on which predictor was the most important limiting factor. Notably, if mean summer temperature is the main range determinant, G. pyrenaicus is at risk of near total extinction in Spain under the most severe climate change scenario. The range projections for Europe indicate that assisted migration may be a possible long-term conservation strategy for G. pyrenaicus in the face of global warming. Climate change clearly poses a severe threat to this illustrative endemic species. Our findings confirm that endemic species can be highly vulnerable to a warming climate and highlight the fact that assisted migration has

  12. Climate change risks and conservation implications for a threatened small-range mammal species.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naia Morueta-Holme

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Climate change is already affecting the distributions of many species and may lead to numerous extinctions over the next century. Small-range species are likely to be a special concern, but the extent to which they are sensitive to climate is currently unclear. Species distribution modeling, if carefully implemented, can be used to assess climate sensitivity and potential climate change impacts, even for rare and cryptic species. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We used species distribution modeling to assess the climate sensitivity, climate change risks and conservation implications for a threatened small-range mammal species, the Iberian desman (Galemys pyrenaicus, which is a phylogenetically isolated insectivore endemic to south-western Europe. Atlas data on the distribution of G. pyrenaicus was linked to data on climate, topography and human impact using two species distribution modeling algorithms to test hypotheses on the factors that determine the range for this species. Predictive models were developed and projected onto climate scenarios for 2070-2099 to assess climate change risks and conservation possibilities. Mean summer temperature and water balance appeared to be the main factors influencing the distribution of G. pyrenaicus. Climate change was predicted to result in significant reductions of the species' range. However, the severity of these reductions was highly dependent on which predictor was the most important limiting factor. Notably, if mean summer temperature is the main range determinant, G. pyrenaicus is at risk of near total extinction in Spain under the most severe climate change scenario. The range projections for Europe indicate that assisted migration may be a possible long-term conservation strategy for G. pyrenaicus in the face of global warming. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Climate change clearly poses a severe threat to this illustrative endemic species. Our findings confirm that endemic species can be

  13. The impact of Great Cormorants on biogenic pollution of land ecosystems: Stable isotope signatures in small mammals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balčiauskas, Linas; Skipitytė, Raminta; Jasiulionis, Marius; Trakimas, Giedrius; Balčiauskienė, Laima; Remeikis, Vidmantas

    2016-01-01

    Studying the isotopic composition of the hair of two rodent species trapped in the territories of Great Cormorant colonies, we aimed to show that Great Cormorants transfer biogens from aquatic ecosystems to terrestrial ecosystems, and that these substances reach small mammals through the trophic cascade, thus influencing the nutrient balance in the terrestrial ecosystem. Analysis of δ"1"3C and δ"1"5N was performed on two dominant species of small mammals, Apodemus flavicollis and Myodes glareolus, inhabiting the territories of the colonies. For both species, the values of δ"1"3C and δ"1"5N were higher in the animals trapped in the territories of the colonies than those in control territories. In the hair of A. flavicollis and M. glareolus, the highest values of δ"1"5N (16.31 ± 3.01‰ and 17.86 ± 2.76‰, respectively) were determined in those animals trapped in the biggest Great Cormorant colony. δ"1"5N values were age dependent, highest in adult A. flavicollis and M. glareolus and lowest in juvenile animals. For δ"1"3C values, age-dependent differences were not registered. δ"1"5N values in both small mammal species from the biggest Great Cormorant colony show direct dependence on the intensity of influence. Biogenic pollution is at its strongest in the territories of the colonies with nests, significantly diminishing in the ecotones of the colonies and further in the control zones, where the influence of birds is negligible. Thus, Great Cormorant colonies alter ecosystem functioning by enrichment with biogens, with stable isotope values in small mammals significantly higher in the affected territories. - Highlights: • Cormorants transport nutrients from water to land ecosystems and pollute biogenically. • We studied stable isotope composition of small mammal hair in 3 cormorant colonies. • δ"1"3C and δ"1"5N were measured using elemental analyzer–isotope ratio mass spectrometer. • δ"1"3C and δ"1"5N values were higher in rodents inhabiting

  14. The impact of Great Cormorants on biogenic pollution of land ecosystems: Stable isotope signatures in small mammals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Balčiauskas, Linas, E-mail: linasbal@ekoi.lt [Nature Research Centre, Akademijos 2, LT-08412 Vilnius (Lithuania); Skipitytė, Raminta, E-mail: raminta.skipityte@ftmc.lt [Nature Research Centre, Akademijos 2, LT-08412 Vilnius (Lithuania); Center for Physical Sciences and Technology, Savanorių 231, LT-02300 Vilnius (Lithuania); Jasiulionis, Marius, E-mail: mjasiulionis@ekoi.lt [Nature Research Centre, Akademijos 2, LT-08412 Vilnius (Lithuania); Trakimas, Giedrius, E-mail: giedrius.trakimas@gf.vu.lt [Center for Ecology and Environmental Research, Vilnius University, Vilnius (Lithuania); Institute of Life Sciences and Technology, Daugavpils University, Parades Str. 1a, Daugavpils, LV-5401 (Latvia); Balčiauskienė, Laima, E-mail: laiba@ekoi.lt [Nature Research Centre, Akademijos 2, LT-08412 Vilnius (Lithuania); Remeikis, Vidmantas, E-mail: vidrem@fi.lt [Center for Physical Sciences and Technology, Savanorių 231, LT-02300 Vilnius (Lithuania)

    2016-09-15

    Studying the isotopic composition of the hair of two rodent species trapped in the territories of Great Cormorant colonies, we aimed to show that Great Cormorants transfer biogens from aquatic ecosystems to terrestrial ecosystems, and that these substances reach small mammals through the trophic cascade, thus influencing the nutrient balance in the terrestrial ecosystem. Analysis of δ{sup 13}C and δ{sup 15}N was performed on two dominant species of small mammals, Apodemus flavicollis and Myodes glareolus, inhabiting the territories of the colonies. For both species, the values of δ{sup 13}C and δ{sup 15}N were higher in the animals trapped in the territories of the colonies than those in control territories. In the hair of A. flavicollis and M. glareolus, the highest values of δ{sup 15}N (16.31 ± 3.01‰ and 17.86 ± 2.76‰, respectively) were determined in those animals trapped in the biggest Great Cormorant colony. δ{sup 15}N values were age dependent, highest in adult A. flavicollis and M. glareolus and lowest in juvenile animals. For δ{sup 13}C values, age-dependent differences were not registered. δ{sup 15}N values in both small mammal species from the biggest Great Cormorant colony show direct dependence on the intensity of influence. Biogenic pollution is at its strongest in the territories of the colonies with nests, significantly diminishing in the ecotones of the colonies and further in the control zones, where the influence of birds is negligible. Thus, Great Cormorant colonies alter ecosystem functioning by enrichment with biogens, with stable isotope values in small mammals significantly higher in the affected territories. - Highlights: • Cormorants transport nutrients from water to land ecosystems and pollute biogenically. • We studied stable isotope composition of small mammal hair in 3 cormorant colonies. • δ{sup 13}C and δ{sup 15}N were measured using elemental analyzer–isotope ratio mass spectrometer. • δ{sup 13}C and

  15. Transportable high sensitivity small sample radiometric calorimeter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wetzel, J.R.; Biddle, R.S.; Cordova, B.S.; Sampson, T.E.; Dye, H.R.; McDow, J.G.

    1998-01-01

    A new small-sample, high-sensitivity transportable radiometric calorimeter, which can be operated in different modes, contains an electrical calibration method, and can be used to develop secondary standards, will be described in this presentation. The data taken from preliminary tests will be presented to indicate the precision and accuracy of the instrument. The calorimeter and temperature-controlled bath, at present, require only a 30-in. by 20-in. tabletop area. The calorimeter is operated from a laptop computer system using unique measurement module capable of monitoring all necessary calorimeter signals. The calorimeter can be operated in the normal calorimeter equilibration mode, as a comparison instrument, using twin chambers and an external electrical calibration method. The sample chamber is 0.75 in (1.9 cm) in diameter by 2.5 in. (6.35 cm) long. This size will accommodate most 238 Pu heat standards manufactured in the past. The power range runs from 0.001 W to <20 W. The high end is only limited by sample size

  16. UPPER PLEISTOCENE SMALL MAMMAL FAUNA FROM SALNOVA QUARRY (SALTRIO-VARESE-NORTHWESTERN LOMBARDY: PALEOENVIRONMENTAL RECONSTRUCTION AND CHIONOMYS NIVALIS POPULATION STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    FABIO BONA

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The small mammals collection described in the present paper has been collected during three field small excavation at the Upper Pleistocene site of Cava Salnova (Saltrio - VA -. The collection consists of 501 determined remains of small mammals coming from all 17 stratigraphical levels and belonging at least to 26 species. Two 14C datings (AMS has been made on small mammals bones belonging to the lev. 1b: 1- 34315 ± 200 yr BP; 2- 35101± 250 yr BP. The interpretation of faunal data enables us to propose the following palaeoenvironmental framework: lower levels, lev. b and liv. c, are characterized by a cool weather with a high degree of plant cover. The deposition of lev. e to the lev. g coincided with an important reforestation occurred at the same time of the hottest Wurmian interpleniglacial. In lev. m, n, o, the snow vole, although rare, reappears. This may indicate the beginning of the climatic cooling, which is the prelude to the Last Glacial Maximum. 

  17. Small-mammal density estimation: A field comparison of grid-based vs. web-based density estimators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parmenter, R.R.; Yates, Terry L.; Anderson, D.R.; Burnham, K.P.; Dunnum, J.L.; Franklin, A.B.; Friggens, M.T.; Lubow, B.C.; Miller, M.; Olson, G.S.; Parmenter, Cheryl A.; Pollard, J.; Rexstad, E.; Shenk, T.M.; Stanley, T.R.; White, Gary C.

    2003-01-01

    blind” test allowed us to evaluate the influence of expertise and experience in calculating density estimates in comparison to simply using default values in programs CAPTURE and DISTANCE. While the rodent sample sizes were considerably smaller than the recommended minimum for good model results, we found that several models performed well empirically, including the web-based uniform and half-normal models in program DISTANCE, and the grid-based models Mb and Mbh in program CAPTURE (with AÌ‚ adjusted by species-specific full mean maximum distance moved (MMDM) values). These models produced accurate DÌ‚ values (with 95% confidence intervals that included the true D values) and exhibited acceptable bias but poor precision. However, in linear regression analyses comparing each model's DÌ‚ values to the true D values over the range of observed test densities, only the web-based uniform model exhibited a regression slope near 1.0; all other models showed substantial slope deviations, indicating biased estimates at higher or lower density values. In addition, the grid-based DÌ‚ analyses using full MMDM values for WÌ‚ area adjustments required a number of theoretical assumptions of uncertain validity, and we therefore viewed their empirical successes with caution. Finally, density estimates from the independent analysts were highly variable, but estimates from web-based approaches had smaller mean square errors and better achieved confidence-interval coverage of D than did grid-based approaches. Our results support the contention that web-based approaches for density estimation of small-mammal populations are both theoretically and empirically superior to grid-based approaches, even when sample size is far less than often recommended. In view of the increasing need for standardized environmental measures for comparisons among ecosystems and through time, analytical models based on distance sampling appear to offer accurate density estimation approaches for research

  18. Ancient urban ecology reconstructed from archaeozoological remains of small mammals in the Near East.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weissbrod, Lior; Malkinson, Dan; Cucchi, Thomas; Gadot, Yuval; Finkelstein, Israel; Bar-Oz, Guy

    2014-01-01

    Modern rapidly expanding cities generate intricate patterns of species diversity owing to immense complexity in urban spatial structure and current growth trajectories. We propose to identify and uncouple the drivers that give rise to these patterns by looking at the effect of urbanism on species diversity over a previously unexplored long temporal frame that covers early developments in urbanism. To provide this historical perspective we analyzed archaeozoological remains of small mammals from ancient urban and rural sites in the Near East from the 2nd to the 1st millennium BCE, and compared them to observations from modern urban areas. Our data show that ancient urban assemblages consistently comprised two main taxa (Mus musculus domesticus and Crocidura sp.), whereas assemblages of contemporaneous rural sites were significantly richer. Low species diversity also characterizes high-density core areas of modern cities, suggesting that similar ecological drivers have continued to operate in urban areas despite the vast growth in their size and population densities, as well as in the complexity of their technologies and social organization. Research in urban ecology has tended to emphasize the relatively high species diversity observed in low-density areas located on the outskirts of cities, where open and vegetated patches are abundant. The fact that over several millennia urban evolution did not significantly alter species diversity suggests that low diversity is an attribute of densely-populated settlements. The possibility that high diversity in peripheral urban areas arose only recently as a short-term phenomenon in urban ecology merits further research based on long-term data.

  19. Ancient Urban Ecology Reconstructed from Archaeozoological Remains of Small Mammals in the Near East

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weissbrod, Lior; Malkinson, Dan; Cucchi, Thomas; Gadot, Yuval; Finkelstein, Israel; Bar-Oz, Guy

    2014-01-01

    Modern rapidly expanding cities generate intricate patterns of species diversity owing to immense complexity in urban spatial structure and current growth trajectories. We propose to identify and uncouple the drivers that give rise to these patterns by looking at the effect of urbanism on species diversity over a previously unexplored long temporal frame that covers early developments in urbanism. To provide this historical perspective we analyzed archaeozoological remains of small mammals from ancient urban and rural sites in the Near East from the 2nd to the 1st millennium BCE, and compared them to observations from modern urban areas. Our data show that ancient urban assemblages consistently comprised two main taxa (Mus musculus domesticus and Crocidura sp.), whereas assemblages of contemporaneous rural sites were significantly richer. Low species diversity also characterizes high-density core areas of modern cities, suggesting that similar ecological drivers have continued to operate in urban areas despite the vast growth in their size and population densities, as well as in the complexity of their technologies and social organization. Research in urban ecology has tended to emphasize the relatively high species diversity observed in low-density areas located on the outskirts of cities, where open and vegetated patches are abundant. The fact that over several millennia urban evolution did not significantly alter species diversity suggests that low diversity is an attribute of densely-populated settlements. The possibility that high diversity in peripheral urban areas arose only recently as a short-term phenomenon in urban ecology merits further research based on long-term data. PMID:24622726

  20. When perception reflects reality: Non-native grass invasion alters small mammal risk landscapes and survival

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ceradnini, Joseph P.; Chalfoun, Anna

    2017-01-01

    Modification of habitat structure due to invasive plants can alter the risk landscape for wildlife by, for example, changing the quality or availability of refuge habitat. Whether perceived risk corresponds with actual fitness outcomes, however, remains an important open question. We simultaneously measured how habitat changes due to a common invasive grass (cheatgrass, Bromus tectorum) affected the perceived risk, habitat selection, and apparent survival of a small mammal, enabling us to assess how well perceived risk influenced important behaviors and reflected actual risk. We measured perceived risk by nocturnal rodents using a giving-up density foraging experiment with paired shrub (safe) and open (risky) foraging trays in cheatgrass and native habitats. We also evaluated microhabitat selection across a cheatgrass gradient as an additional assay of perceived risk and behavioral responses for deer mice (Peromyscus maniculatus) at two spatial scales of habitat availability. Finally, we used mark-recapture analysis to quantify deer mouse apparent survival across a cheatgrass gradient while accounting for detection probability and other habitat features. In the foraging experiment, shrubs were more important as protective cover in cheatgrass-dominated habitats, suggesting that cheatgrass increased perceived predation risk. Additionally, deer mice avoided cheatgrass and selected shrubs, and marginally avoided native grass, at two spatial scales. Deer mouse apparent survival varied with a cheatgrass–shrub interaction, corresponding with our foraging experiment results, and providing a rare example of a native plant mediating the effects of an invasive plant on wildlife. By synthesizing the results of three individual lines of evidence (foraging behavior, habitat selection, and apparent survival), we provide a rare example of linkage between behavioral responses of animals indicative of perceived predation risk and actual fitness outcomes. Moreover, our results

  1. Effects of chronic radiation exposure on small mammals in the Chernobyl exclusion zone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jackson, D.; Stone, D.M.; Copplestone, D.

    2004-01-01

    The Chernobyl reactor accident in April 1986 caused the release to atmosphere of some 2 x 10 6 TBq, or more, of total fission/activation products. Estimates of deposition vary, although it is probable that about half the activity was deposited within 20 km of the release point, predominantly following two plume trajectories to the north and west. This resulted in the death of pine trees over 400 ha, the abandonment of up to 150 000 ha of agricultural land and the establishment of an exclusion zone extending to 30 km from the site. High levels of radionuclide contamination continue to prevail within the exclusion zone. Nonetheless, recolonisation has been widespread. Mixed deciduous woodlands, with a high proportion of birch (Betula spp.) and willow (Salix spp.), have become established in the forest areas, while agricultural land has succeeded to tall grassland and scrub. Field sites investigated in this study, during 2001-2003, exhibited external gamma dose rates varying from 0.1 μSv h-1 to 140 μSv h-1. Corresponding mean concentrations of 137 Cs in the top 20 cm of soil varied from about 6 x 10 2 to 3 x 10 6 Bq kg -1 dw (dry weight). Little impact is evident on populations of small mammals in these areas, either for species diversity or overall abundance, although there is a slight (not statistically significant) trend for increasing spleen weight in the bank vole with increasing levels of contamination. Previous suggestions that populations contain a preponderance of juveniles and sub-adults at the highest contaminated sites are not supported. (author)

  2. Conflictive management of small mammals considered as pests: A long way to evidence-based policy making

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Catarina FERREIRA; Miguel DELIBES-MATEOS

    2012-01-01

    This paper discusses the controversial management decisions made by policy-makers worldwide regarding poisoning campaigns aimed to control small mammal populations,often considered harmful economic pests.Aside from considerations regarding the biological consequences of these campaigns,we argue that when society rejects all values of science and expertise then only badly supported and negligent decisions will be made about conservation and management issues.The extermination of small mammal species,some of which play crucial ecological roles in several regions of the world,is just an example of such discredit and misinformation.Without a strong commitment towards evidence-based policy-making,economic investments in research and development could be entirely compromised [Current Zoology 58 (2):353-357,2012].

  3. Radionuclides in the terrestrial ecosystem near a Canadian uranium mill -- Part 2: Small mammal food chains and bioavailability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomas, P.A.

    2000-06-01

    Food chain transfer through the soil-vegetation-small mammal food chain was measured by concentration ratios (CRs) for uranium, {sup 226}Ra, {sup 210}Pb, and {sup 210}Po at three sites near the Key Lake uranium mill in northern Saskatchewan. Plant/soil CRs, animal carcass/GI tract CRs, and animal/soil CRs were depressed at sites impacted by mill and tailings dusts relative to a nearby control site. Thus, radionuclides associated with large particulates in tailings and/or ore dusts may be less bioavailable to terrestrial plants and animals than natural sources of radioactive dust. These results show that reliance on default food chain transfer parameters, obtained from uncontaminated terrestrial ecosystems, may overpredict impacts at uranium mine and mill sites. Given the omnivorous diet of small mammals and birds, animal/soil CRs are recommended as the most cost-effective and robust means of predicting animal concentrations from environmental monitoring data at uranium mill facilities.

  4. Radionuclides in the terrestrial ecosystem near a Canadian uranium mill -- Part 2: Small mammal food chains and bioavailability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomas, P.A.

    2000-01-01

    Food chain transfer through the soil-vegetation-small mammal food chain was measured by concentration ratios (CRs) for uranium, 226 Ra, 210 Pb, and 210 Po at three sites near the Key Lake uranium mill in northern Saskatchewan. Plant/soil CRs, animal carcass/GI tract CRs, and animal/soil CRs were depressed at sites impacted by mill and tailings dusts relative to a nearby control site. Thus, radionuclides associated with large particulates in tailings and/or ore dusts may be less bioavailable to terrestrial plants and animals than natural sources of radioactive dust. These results show that reliance on default food chain transfer parameters, obtained from uncontaminated terrestrial ecosystems, may overpredict impacts at uranium mine and mill sites. Given the omnivorous diet of small mammals and birds, animal/soil CRs are recommended as the most cost-effective and robust means of predicting animal concentrations from environmental monitoring data at uranium mill facilities

  5. Home range and local movement of small mammals on the Radioactive Waste Management Complex Idaho National Engineering Laboratory Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Groves, C.R.

    1978-01-01

    In April 1978, a study of local movement of small mammals on the Subsurface Disposal Area (SDA) of the Radioactive Waste Management Complex (RWMC) was undertaken in conjunction with a study of rodent dispersal. Live trapping in May and June revealed a strong potential for the detection of local movement of at least four species of rodents. Information on this movement is important as each species, during burrowing, may transport radioactive waste from the point of interment to the surface. The area over which contamination may be spread, as fecal deposits or as metabolically incorporated elements, is a function of the daily movement of each animal. At least eight factors may effect size and shape of home range. These factors are discussed, techniques employed in the calculation of home range are outlined, and problems associated with live trapping and studying local movement of small mammals are considered

  6. ASSESSING SMALL SAMPLE WAR-GAMING DATASETS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. J. HURLEY

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available One of the fundamental problems faced by military planners is the assessment of changes to force structure. An example is whether to replace an existing capability with an enhanced system. This can be done directly with a comparison of measures such as accuracy, lethality, survivability, etc. However this approach does not allow an assessment of the force multiplier effects of the proposed change. To gauge these effects, planners often turn to war-gaming. For many war-gaming experiments, it is expensive, both in terms of time and dollars, to generate a large number of sample observations. This puts a premium on the statistical methodology used to examine these small datasets. In this paper we compare the power of three tests to assess population differences: the Wald-Wolfowitz test, the Mann-Whitney U test, and re-sampling. We employ a series of Monte Carlo simulation experiments. Not unexpectedly, we find that the Mann-Whitney test performs better than the Wald-Wolfowitz test. Resampling is judged to perform slightly better than the Mann-Whitney test.

  7. Novel Babesia and Hepatozoon agents infecting non-volant small mammals in the Brazilian Pantanal, with the first record of the tick Ornithodoros guaporensis in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolf, Rafael William; Aragona, Mônica; Muñoz-Leal, Sebastián; Pinto, Leticia Borges; Melo, Andréia Lima Tomé; Braga, Isis Assis; Costa, Jackeliny dos Santos; Martins, Thiago Fernandes; Marcili, Arlei; Pacheco, Richard de Campos; Labruna, Marcelo B; Aguiar, Daniel Moura

    2016-04-01

    Taking into account the diversity of small terrestrial mammals of the Pantanal, the present study aimed to verify the occurrence of infection by Ehrlichia spp., Anaplasma spp., Rickettsia spp., Hepatozoon spp., Babesia spp. and parasitism by ticks in non-volant small mammals collected in the Brazilian Pantanal. Samples of blood, liver and spleen were collected from 64 captured animals, 22 marsupials and 42 rodents. Pathogen detection was performed by the use of genus-specific Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) assays. Ticks collected from the animals consisted of Amblyomma sculptum and Amblyomma triste nymphs, and Ornithodoros guaporensis larvae. None of the vertebrate samples (blood, liver, or spleen) yielded detectable DNA of Rickettsia spp. or Ehrlichia spp. The blood of the rodent Hylaeamys megacephalus yielded an Anaplasma sp. genotype (partial 16S rRNA gene) 99% similar to multiple Anaplasma spp. genotypes around the world. The blood of three rodents of the species Calomys callosus were positive for a novel Hepatozoon sp. agent, phylogenetically related (18S rDNA gene) to distinct Hepatozoon genotypes that have been detected in rodents from different parts of the world. One marsupial (Monodelphis domestica) and three rodents (Thrichomys pachyurus) were positive to novel piroplasmid genotypes, phylogenetically (18S rDNA gene) related to Theileria bicornis, Cytauxzoon manul, and Cytauxzoon felis. The present study provides the first molecular detection of Hepatozoon sp. and piroplasmids in small mammals in Brazil. Additionally, we expanded the distribution of O. guaporensis to Brazil, since this tick species was previously known to occur only in Bolivia. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  8. Density, movement, and transuranic tissue inventory of small mammals at a liquid-radioactive waste disposal area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Halford, D.K.

    1987-01-01

    Linear movement, density, and transuranic radionuclide inventory were estimated for small mammals residing at a liquid radioactive waste disposal area in southeastern Idaho. Deer mice (Peromyscus maniculatus), kangaroo rats (Dipodomys ordii), western harvest mice (Reithrodontomys megalotis), and Great Basin pocket mice (Perognathus parvus) were the predominant species. The total small mammal population within the 3.0-ha waste area was estimated to be 93. The distance between consecutive captures for all species combined averaged 41 m and ranged from 7 to 201 m. About 30% of the rodents captured inside the waste area were also captured outside its boundaries. The total population inventory of 238 Pu, /sup 239,240/Pu, 241 Am, 242 Cm, and 244 Cm was 44 pCi, 30 pCi, 19 pCi, 21 pCi, and <1 pCi, respectively. One-third, or about 35 pCi of transuranics, could be removed from the waste area by small mammals during the summer of 1981. 16 references, 3 figures, 3 tables

  9. Silvicolous on a small scale: possibilities and limitations of habitat suitability models for small, elusive mammals in conservation management and landscape planning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, Nina I; Encarnação, Jorge A

    2015-01-01

    Species distribution and endangerment can be assessed by habitat-suitability modelling. This study addresses methodical aspects of habitat suitability modelling and includes an application example in actual species conservation and landscape planning. Models using species presence-absence data are preferable to presence-only models. In contrast to species presence data, absences are rarely recorded. Therefore, many studies generate pseudo-absence data for modelling. However, in this study model quality was higher with null samples collected in the field. Next to species data the choice of landscape data is crucial for suitability modelling. Landscape data with high resolution and ecological relevance for the study species improve model reliability and quality for small elusive mammals like Muscardinus avellanarius. For large scale assessment of species distribution, models with low-detailed data are sufficient. For regional site-specific conservation issues like a conflict-free site for new wind turbines, high-detailed regional models are needed. Even though the overlap with optimally suitable habitat for M. avellanarius was low, the installation of wind plants can pose a threat due to habitat loss and fragmentation. To conclude, modellers should clearly state the purpose of their models and choose the according level of detail for species and environmental data.

  10. The uptake and effects of lead on small mammals and frogs at a trap and skeet range

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stansley, W.; Roscoe, D.E. [New Jersey Division of Fish, Game and Wildlife, Trenton, NJ (United States)

    1995-12-31

    This study was performed to evaluate the bioavailability and effects of lead in wildlife at a trap and skeet range. The total lead concentration in a composite soil sample (pellets removed) was 75,000 {micro}g/g dry weight. Mean tissue lead concentrations ({micro}g/g dry wt.) in while footed mice at the range (liver = 4.98, kidney = 34.9, femur = 245) were elevated (P < 0.01) 5 to 64-fold relative to concentrations in mice from a control area. Tissue lead concentrations in the only short tail shrew captured at the range (liver = 34.1, kidney = 1506, femur = 437) were elevated 35 to 1,038-fold. Femur lead concentrations in green frogs at the range (1,728 {micro}g/g) were elevated nearly 1,000-fold, and the lead concentration in a pooled kidney sample (96.2 {micro}g/g) was elevated 67-fold. There was significant depression of blood ALAD activity in mice (P = 0.0384) and depression of blood and liver ALAD activity in frogs (P<0.001). Hemoglobin concentrations were reduced 6.7% in mice (P = 0.0249), but hematocrit was not significantly affected in mice or frogs. Kidney:body weight ratios were similar in range and control mice. Intranuclear inclusions were present in the renal proximal tubular epithelium of two of the mice and the shrew that were captured at the range, and necrosis of the tubular epithelium was also evident in one of the mice, Soil ingestion may be a significant route of lead uptake in small mammals at the range. However, the tendency of lead to concentrate in the bones rather than in more digestible soft tissues may minimize food chain uptake of lead by predators, especially raptors that regurgitate undigestible material.

  11. Small terrestrial mammals in two types of forest complexes in intensively managed landscape of South Moravia (the Czech Republic)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Suchomel, J.; Heroldová, Marta

    2004-01-01

    Roč. 23, č. 4 (2004), s. 377-384 ISSN 1335-342X R&D Projects: GA ČR GP526/03/P051; GA AV ČR KSK6005114 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z6093917 Keywords : small mammal community * windbreaks * small woods Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 0.078, year: 2004 http://ecology.aepress.sk/01AV_absinfo.php?h@t=&v=084e0343a0486ff05530df6c705c8bb4&rok=2004&mesiac=04&fileinfo=2004_04_377&find=

  12. {sup 90}SR and {sup 137}CS distribution in organisms of wild small mammals (Chernobyl zone)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goryanaya, J.U.; Bondarkov, M.; Gaschak, S.; Maksimenko, A.; Barchuk, R.; Martynenko, V.; Shulga, A. [Chornobyl Center for Nuclear Safety, Radioactive Waste and Radioecology, International Radioecology Laboratory, Slavutych (Ukraine)

    2004-07-01

    The distribution of {sup 90}Sr and {sup 137}Cs content in tissues of small rodent mammals has been studied in detail. It was determined that for a vole Microtus the largest ratio values of {sup 137}Cs concentration in organs to one in muscles are in skin (2.02{+-}0.45) and kidneys (1.57{+-}0.29), in other tissues they are much lower. The comparison of {sup 137}Cs specific concentration in tissues with their size (mass index) has shown that the major portion of the total radionuclide concentration in the animal body is in the bone and muscle tissues aggregate (44.1 {+-} 2.8%) and in skin (24.8 {+-} 2.5%). The total content of {sup 137}Cs in a gastrointestinal tract is about 20-25%, but nevertheless, it may be assumed that it is strongly dependent on the radioactivity of food. Preliminary data show that other species of genus Microtus can have another pattern of distribution. A more detailed research was conducted for the bank vole (Clethrionomys glareolus), {sup 90}Sr and {sup 137}Cs contents in tissues were calculated. {sup 137}Cs distribution corresponds with the tissues portion in the animal's body mass (% of total content): the most in muscles 38.3, gastrointestinal tract 21.3, skin 16.7; the least in eyes 0.23, spleen 0.33, heart 0.74. The comparison of the activity concentration in each tissue with the average concentration of {sup 137}Cs in the whole body presented more evident differences between the tissues. The highest radionuclide concentration is in skin (1.48), in a slightly less degree in spleen (1.22) and eyes (1.20). The {sup 90}Sr distribution in the vole body is uneven up to 83.4% of the overall content is in bone tissues, in muscle -6.8, gastrointestinal tract - 4.2, skin - 3.9, in other tissues - 0.2-0.5%. In comparison with {sup 90}Sr average activity in the body: skeleton -10.9, eyes -1.3, spleen -1.02, and their values are much higher than in other tissues and organs. (author)

  13. Diets of two syntopic small mammals in the Inyanga National Park ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The feeding habits of two coexisting rodents, Rhabdomys pumilio and Otomys irroratus in relation to rainfall and reproduction. Acta Oecol. Oecol. Gener. 1: 71 - 89. RAUTENBACH, I.L. 1976. A survey of the mammals occurring in the Golden Gate Highlands National Park. Koedoe 19: 133 -143. RAUTENBACH, I.L. 1982.

  14. 78 FR 19217 - Small Takes of Marine Mammals Incidental to Specified Activities; Cape Wind's High Resolution...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-29

    ... or related to the activities authorized in the IHA (e.g., previously wounded animal, carcass with... marine mammal moves outside of the exclusion zone or if the animal has not been resighted for 60 minutes... animal has not been resighted for 60 minutes. Soft-start Procedures A ``soft-start'' technique will be...

  15. Seasonal and habitat dependence of fleas parasitic on small mammals in Tanzania

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laudisoit, Anne; Leirs, Herwig; Makundi, Rhodes

    2009-01-01

    in both host and flea species composition varied seasonally. Despite the relatively rich mammal and flea fauna of the study region, the major contribution to variation in species composition between seasons and among habitats was due to a few species only. Flea assemblages on Lophuromys kilonzoi Verheyen...

  16. Short-term response of small mammals following oak regeneration silviculture treatments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amy L. Raybuck; Christopher E. Moorman; Christopher S. DePerno; Kevin Gross; Dean M. Simon; Gordon S. Warburton

    2012-01-01

    Upland, mixed-oak forests in the eastern United States have experienced widespread oak regeneration failure, largely due to cessation of anthropogenic disturbance. Silvicultural practices used to promote advance oak regeneration may affect ground-dwelling mammals. From May to August 2008 (pre-treatment), 2010 (first year post-treatment), and 2011 (second year post-...

  17. Maybe Small Is Too Small a Term: Introduction to Advancing Small Sample Prevention Science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fok, Carlotta Ching Ting; Henry, David; Allen, James

    2015-10-01

    Prevention research addressing health disparities often involves work with small population groups experiencing such disparities. The goals of this special section are to (1) address the question of what constitutes a small sample; (2) identify some of the key research design and analytic issues that arise in prevention research with small samples; (3) develop applied, problem-oriented, and methodologically innovative solutions to these design and analytic issues; and (4) evaluate the potential role of these innovative solutions in describing phenomena, testing theory, and evaluating interventions in prevention research. Through these efforts, we hope to promote broader application of these methodological innovations. We also seek whenever possible, to explore their implications in more general problems that appear in research with small samples but concern all areas of prevention research. This special section includes two sections. The first section aims to provide input for researchers at the design phase, while the second focuses on analysis. Each article describes an innovative solution to one or more challenges posed by the analysis of small samples, with special emphasis on testing for intervention effects in prevention research. A concluding article summarizes some of their broader implications, along with conclusions regarding future directions in research with small samples in prevention science. Finally, a commentary provides the perspective of the federal agencies that sponsored the conference that gave rise to this special section.

  18. Wilderness ecology: the upland plant communities, woody browse production, and small mammals of two adjacent 33-year-old wildfire areas of northeastern Minnesota.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis F. Ohmann; Charles T. Cushwa; Roger E. Lake; James R. Beer; Robert B. Brander

    1973-01-01

    In three parts, classifies the upland vegetation into four community types; describes the measurements of browse and gives yields by different species; and describes the relation of small mammal populations to vegetative community types.

  19. Standardization of Radiographic and Ultrasonographic Features and Measurements in Two Small Mammal Pet-Species: Domestic Rat (Rattus norvegicus) and Mixed Breed Dwarf Rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus)

    OpenAIRE

    Balıkçı Dorotea, Sema

    2016-01-01

    Exotic animal practice is one of the fastest growing disciplines in veterinary medicine. The importance of small exotic mammals as veterinary patients has continued to grow and in some practices these animals form a significant percentage of the clientele. At the same time, knowledge regarding the anatomical, physiological, and pathophysiological characteristics of these species has rapidly increased. In addition, the demands by many small exotic mammal owners for quality medical care for the...

  20. Long-term data from a small mammal community reveal loss of diversity and potential effects of local climate change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santoro, Simone; Sanchez-Suarez, Cristina; Rouco, Carlos; Palomo, L Javier; Fernández, M Carmen; Kufner, Maura B; Moreno, Sacramento

    2017-10-01

    Climate change affects distribution and persistence of species. However, forecasting species' responses to these changes requires long-term data series that are often lacking in ecological studies. We used 15 years of small mammal trapping data collected between 1978 and 2015 in 3 areas at Doñana National Park (southwest Spain) to (i) describe changes in species composition and (ii) test the association between local climate conditions and size of small mammal populations. Overall, 5 species were captured: wood mouse Apodemus sylvaticus , algerian mouse Mus spretus , greater white-toothed shrew Crocidura russula , garden dormouse Eliomys quercinus , and black rat Rattus rattus . The temporal pattern in the proportion of captures of each species suggests that the small mammal diversity declined with time. Although the larger species (e.g., E. quercinus ), better adapted to colder climate, have disappeared from our trapping records, M. spretus , a small species inhabiting southwest Europe and the Mediterranean coast of Africa, currently is almost the only trapped species. We used 2-level hierarchical models to separate changes in abundance from changes in probability of capture using records of A. sylvaticus in all 3 areas and of M. spretus in 1. We found that heavy rainfall and low temperatures were positively related to abundance of A. sylvaticus , and that the number of extremely hot days was negatively related to abundance of M. spretus . Despite other mechanisms are likely to be involved, our findings support the importance of climate for the distribution and persistence of these species and raise conservation concerns about potential cascading effects in the Doñana ecosystem.

  1. Radiobiological effects in small mammals populations dwelled at radioactive waste disposal sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sypin, V.D.; Osipov, A.N.; Pol'skij, O.G.; Elakov, A.L.; Egorov, V.G.; Synsynys, B.I.

    2004-01-01

    A major issue in evaluating the ecological acceptability of a disposal system for radioactive waste is in preventing the ecological risk that may arise from exposures in the distant future. There is uncertainty surrounding any estimate of these doses or risks due to lack of knowledge about future conditions. Therefore, the adequate estimation of the ecological acceptability of a radioactive waste disposal system required a complex radioecological and radiobiological approach. Environmental surveillance at the Sergievo-Posadsky radioactive waste disposal system of the Scientific and Industrial Association Radon in additional to a standard complex radiological testing includes also the study of the radiobiological effects in different biological objects sampled from the contaminated areas. In present report the results obtained on small rodents (mice and voles) sampled from the strict mode and fence zones of this disposal system are displayed and discussed. (author)

  2. An example of population-level risk assessments for small mammals using individual-based population models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmitt, Walter; Auteri, Domenica; Bastiansen, Finn; Ebeling, Markus; Liu, Chun; Luttik, Robert; Mastitsky, Sergey; Nacci, Diane; Topping, Chris; Wang, Magnus

    2016-01-01

    This article presents a case study demonstrating the application of 3 individual-based, spatially explicit population models (IBMs, also known as agent-based models) in ecological risk assessments to predict long-term effects of a pesticide to populations of small mammals. The 3 IBMs each used a hypothetical fungicide (FungicideX) in different scenarios: spraying in cereals (common vole, Microtus arvalis), spraying in orchards (field vole, Microtus agrestis), and cereal seed treatment (wood mouse, Apodemus sylvaticus). Each scenario used existing model landscapes, which differed greatly in size and structural complexity. The toxicological profile of FungicideX was defined so that the deterministic long-term first tier risk assessment would result in high risk to small mammals, thus providing the opportunity to use the IBMs for risk assessment refinement (i.e., higher tier risk assessment). Despite differing internal model design and scenarios, results indicated in all 3 cases low population sensitivity unless FungicideX was applied at very high (×10) rates. Recovery from local population impacts was generally fast. Only when patch extinctions occured in simulations of intentionally high acute toxic effects, recovery periods, then determined by recolonization, were of any concern. Conclusions include recommendations for the most important input considerations, including the selection of exposure levels, duration of simulations, statistically robust number of replicates, and endpoints to report. However, further investigation and agreement are needed to develop recommendations for landscape attributes such as size, structure, and crop rotation to define appropriate regulatory risk assessment scenarios. Overall, the application of IBMs provides multiple advantages to higher tier ecological risk assessments for small mammals, including consistent and transparent direct links to specific protection goals, and the consideration of more realistic scenarios. © 2015 SETAC.

  3. Small mammal use of native warm-season and non-native cool-season grass forage fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan L Klimstra,; Christopher E Moorman,; Converse, Sarah J.; Royle, J. Andrew; Craig A Harper,

    2015-01-01

    Recent emphasis has been put on establishing native warm-season grasses for forage production because it is thought native warm-season grasses provide higher quality wildlife habitat than do non-native cool-season grasses. However, it is not clear whether native warm-season grass fields provide better resources for small mammals than currently are available in non-native cool-season grass forage production fields. We developed a hierarchical spatially explicit capture-recapture model to compare abundance of hispid cotton rats (Sigmodon hispidus), white-footed mice (Peromyscus leucopus), and house mice (Mus musculus) among 4 hayed non-native cool-season grass fields, 4 hayed native warm-season grass fields, and 4 native warm-season grass-forb ("wildlife") fields managed for wildlife during 2 summer trapping periods in 2009 and 2010 of the western piedmont of North Carolina, USA. Cotton rat abundance estimates were greater in wildlife fields than in native warm-season grass and non-native cool-season grass fields and greater in native warm-season grass fields than in non-native cool-season grass fields. Abundances of white-footed mouse and house mouse populations were lower in wildlife fields than in native warm-season grass and non-native cool-season grass fields, but the abundances were not different between the native warm-season grass and non-native cool-season grass fields. Lack of cover following haying in non-native cool-season grass and native warm-season grass fields likely was the key factor limiting small mammal abundance, especially cotton rats, in forage fields. Retention of vegetation structure in managed forage production systems, either by alternately resting cool-season and warm-season grass forage fields or by leaving unharvested field borders, should provide refugia for small mammals during haying events.

  4. A unique resource mutualism between the giant Bornean pitcher plant, Nepenthes rajah, and members of a small mammal community.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melinda Greenwood

    Full Text Available The carnivorous pitcher plant genus Nepenthes grows in nutrient-deficient substrates and produce jug-shaped leaf organs (pitchers that trap arthropods as a source of N and P. A number of Bornean Nepenthes demonstrate novel nutrient acquisition strategies. Notably, three giant montane species are engaged in a mutualistic association with the mountain treeshrew, Tupaia montana, in which the treeshrew defecates into the pitchers while visiting them to feed on nectar secretions on the pitchers' lids.Although the basis of this resource mutualism has been elucidated, many aspects are yet to be investigated. We sought to provide insights into the value of the mutualism to each participant. During initial observations we discovered that the summit rat, R. baluensis, also feeds on sugary exudates of N. rajah pitchers and defecates into them, and that this behavior appears to be habitual. The scope of the study was therefore expanded to assess to what degree N. rajah interacts with the small mammal community.We found that both T. montana and R. baluensis are engaged in a mutualistic interaction with N. rajah. T .montana visit pitchers more frequently than R. baluensis, but daily scat deposition rates within pitchers do not differ, suggesting that the mutualistic relationships are of a similar strength. This study is the first to demonstrate that a mutualism exists between a carnivorous plant species and multiple members of a small mammal community. Further, the newly discovered mutualism between R. baluensis and N. rajah represents only the second ever example of a multidirectional resource-based mutualism between a mammal and a carnivorous plant.

  5. Posture does not matter! Paw usage and grasping paw preference in a small-bodied rooting quadrupedal mammal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joly, Marine; Scheumann, Marina; Zimmermann, Elke

    2012-01-01

    Recent results in birds, marsupials, rodents and nonhuman primates suggest that phylogeny and ecological factors such as body size, diet and postural habit of a species influence limb usage and the direction and strength of limb laterality. To examine to which extent these findings can be generalised to small-bodied rooting quadrupedal mammals, we studied trees shrews (Tupaia belangeri). We established a behavioural test battery for examining paw usage comparable to small-bodied primates and tested 36 Tupaia belangeri. We studied paw usage in a natural foraging situation (simple food grasping task) and measured the influence of varying postural demands (triped, biped, cling, sit) on paw preferences by applying a forced-food grasping task similar to other small-bodied primates. Our findings suggest that rooting tree shrews prefer mouth over paw usage to catch food in a natural foraging situation. Moreover, we demonstrated that despite differences in postural demand, tree shrews show a strong and consistent individual paw preference for grasping across different tasks, but no paw preference at a population level. Tree shrews showed less paw usage than small-bodied quadrupedal and arboreal primates, but the same paw preference. Our results confirm that individual paw preferences remain constant irrespective of postural demand in some small-bodied quadrupedal non primate and primate mammals which do not require fine motoric control for manipulating food items. Our findings suggest that the lack of paw/hand preference for grasping food at a population level is a universal pattern among those species and that the influence of postural demand on manual lateralisation in quadrupeds may have evolved in large-bodied species specialised in fine manipulations of food items.

  6. Posture does not matter! Paw usage and grasping paw preference in a small-bodied rooting quadrupedal mammal.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marine Joly

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Recent results in birds, marsupials, rodents and nonhuman primates suggest that phylogeny and ecological factors such as body size, diet and postural habit of a species influence limb usage and the direction and strength of limb laterality. To examine to which extent these findings can be generalised to small-bodied rooting quadrupedal mammals, we studied trees shrews (Tupaia belangeri. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We established a behavioural test battery for examining paw usage comparable to small-bodied primates and tested 36 Tupaia belangeri. We studied paw usage in a natural foraging situation (simple food grasping task and measured the influence of varying postural demands (triped, biped, cling, sit on paw preferences by applying a forced-food grasping task similar to other small-bodied primates. Our findings suggest that rooting tree shrews prefer mouth over paw usage to catch food in a natural foraging situation. Moreover, we demonstrated that despite differences in postural demand, tree shrews show a strong and consistent individual paw preference for grasping across different tasks, but no paw preference at a population level. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Tree shrews showed less paw usage than small-bodied quadrupedal and arboreal primates, but the same paw preference. Our results confirm that individual paw preferences remain constant irrespective of postural demand in some small-bodied quadrupedal non primate and primate mammals which do not require fine motoric control for manipulating food items. Our findings suggest that the lack of paw/hand preference for grasping food at a population level is a universal pattern among those species and that the influence of postural demand on manual lateralisation in quadrupeds may have evolved in large-bodied species specialised in fine manipulations of food items.

  7. Responses of wild small mammals to arsenic pollution at a partially remediated mining site in Southern France.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drouhot, Séverine; Raoul, Francis; Crini, Nadia; Tougard, Christelle; Prudent, Anne-Sophie; Druart, Coline; Rieffel, Dominique; Lambert, Jean-Claude; Tête, Nicolas; Giraudoux, Patrick; Scheifler, Renaud

    2014-02-01

    Partial remediation actions at a former gold mine in Southern France led to a mosaic of contaminated and rehabilitated zones. In this study, the distribution of arsenic and its potential adverse effects on small mammals were investigated. The effectiveness of remediation for reducing the transfer of this element into wildlife was also discussed. Arsenic levels were measured in the soil and in the stomach contents, livers, kidneys, and lungs of four small mammal species (the wood mouse (Apodemus sylvaticus), the Algerian mouse (Mus spretus), the common vole (Microtus arvalis), and the greater white-toothed shrew (Crocidura russula)). The animals were caught at the former extraction site, in zones with three different levels of remediation treatments, and at a control site. Arsenic concentrations in the soil were highly spatially heterogeneous (ranging from 29 to 18,900 μg g(-1)). Despite the decrease in arsenic concentrations in the remediated soils, both wood mice and Algerian mice experienced higher oral exposure to arsenic in remediated zones than in the control area. The accumulated arsenic in their organs showed higher intra-zonal variability than the arsenic distribution in the soil, suggesting that, in addition to remediation processes, other variables can help explain arsenic transfer to wildlife, such as the habitat and diet preferences of the animals or their mobility. A weak but significant correlation between arsenic concentration and body condition was observed, and weak relationships between the liver/kidney/lung mass and arsenic levels were also detected, suggesting possible histological alterations. © 2013.

  8. Land fauna composition of small mammals of a fragment of Atlantic Forest in the State of Sao Paulo, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darci Moraes Barros-Battesti

    2000-03-01

    Full Text Available The Atlantic Forest small mammal land fauna, except bats, and the abiotic factors that might have an influence on its composition, were studied in the Itapevi County, State of Sao Paulo, a forested region, partly altered by antropic action, from January, 1995 to June, 1996. The trapping effort consisted of 2,888 trap-nights, resulting in a 4.6% trapping success and consisted of monthly trappings, for five consecutive days. During this period, 134 specimens were captured, of which 46.3% were Didelphimorphia and 53.7% were Rodentia. Eleven species were registered: two Didelphimorphia: Didelphis marsupialis (Linnaeus, 1758 and Marmosops incanus (Lund, 1841, and nine Rodentia: Akodon cursor (Winge, 1887, Bolomys lasiurus (Lund, 1841, Oxymycterus hispidus Pictet, 1843, Oxymycterus nasutus (Waterhouse, 1837, Oligoryzomys nigripes (Olfers, 1818, Oryzomys angouya (Fischer, 1814, Raltus norvegicus (Berkenhout, 1769, Euryzygomatomys spinosus (G. Fischer, 1814 and Cavia aperea Erxleben, 1777. The relative density indices were correlated with meteorological data by Spearman and Pearson coefficients. For marsupials these correlations were not significant. For rodents, the correlations were significant and directly related to lower temperature and rainfall indices (p<0.05. During the dry season the occurrence of small mammals was 50% greater than during the wet season, probably due to foraging strategies in the studied fragment of Atlantic Forest.

  9. Winter reduction in body mass in a very small, nonhibernating mammal: consequences for heat loss and metabolic rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Jan R E; Rychlik, Leszek; Churchfield, Sara

    2013-01-01

    Low temperatures in northern winters are energetically challenging for mammals, and a special energetic burden is expected for diminutive species like shrews, which are among the smallest of mammals. Surprisingly, shrews shrink their body size in winter and reduce body and brain mass, an effect known as Dehnel's phenomenon, which is suggested to lower absolute energy intake requirements and thereby enhance survival when food availability is low. Yet reduced body size coupled with higher body-surface-to-mass ratio in these tiny mammals may result in thermoregulatory heat production at a given temperature constituting a larger proportion of the total energy expenditure. To evaluate energetic consequences of reduced body size in winter, we investigated common shrews Sorex araneus in northeastern Poland. Average body mass decreased by 19.0% from summer to winter, and mean skull depth decreased by 13.1%. There was no difference in Dehnel's phenomenon between years despite different weather conditions. The whole-animal thermal conductance (proportional to absolute heat loss) in shrews was 19% lower in winter than in summer; the difference between the two seasons remained significant after correcting for body mass and was caused by improved fur insulation in winter. Thermogenic capacity of shrews, although much enhanced in winter, did not reach its full potential of increase, and this corresponded with relatively mild subnivean temperatures. These findings indicate that, despite their small body size, shrews effectively decrease their costs of thermoregulation. The recorded decrease in body mass from summer to winter resulted in a reduction of overall resting metabolic rate (in thermoneutrality) by 18%. This, combined with the reduced heat loss, should translate to food requirements that are substantially lower than would be the case if shrews did not undergo seasonal decrease in body mass.

  10. Serosurveillance of Scrub Typhus in Small Mammals Collected from Military Training Sites near the DMZ, Northern Gyeonggi-do, Korea, and Analysis of the Relative Abundance of Chiggers from Mammals Examined

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-01

    Korean J Paras/to/. Vol. 48, No. 3: 237-243, September 2010 DOl: JO.J3471kjp.2010.48.J.237 Serosurveillance of Scrub Typhus in Small Mammals...65th Medical BrigadeAJSAMEDDAC-Korea, Unit# 15281, APO AP 96205-5281, USA Abstract: Comprehensive quarterly serosurveillance on scrub typhus in small...rarely observed (prevalence < 1 0%). In contrast to previous surveys, higher chigger indices of the primary scrub typhus vectors, L. pallidum (165.4

  11. Habitat associations of small mammals in southern Brazil and use of regurgitated pellets of birds of prey for inventorying a local fauna

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DR. Scheibler

    Full Text Available We inventoried terrestrial small mammals in an agricultural area in southern Brazil by using trapping and prey consumed by Barn Owls (Tyto alba and White-tailed Kites (Elanus leucurus. Small mammals were trapped in three habitat types: corn fields, uncultivated fields ("capoeiras", and native forest fragments. A total of 1,975 small mammal specimens were trapped, another 2,062 identified from the diet of Barn Owls, and 2,066 from the diet of White-tailed Kites. Both trapping and prey in the predators' diet yielded 18 small mammal species: three marsupials (Didelphis albiventris, Gracilinanus agilis, and Monodelphis dimidiata and 15 rodents (Akodon paranaensis, Bruceppatersonius iheringi, Calomys sp., Cavia aperea, Euryzygomatomys spinosus, Holochilus brasiliensis, Mus musculus, Necromys lasiurus, Nectomys squamipes, Oligoryzomys nigripes, Oryzomys angouya, Oxymycterus sp.1, Oxymycterus sp.2, Rattus norvegicus, and Rattus rattus (Linnaeus, 1758. The greatest richness was found in the uncultivated habitat. We concluded that the three methods studied for inventorying small mammals (prey in the diet of Barn Owls, White-tailed Kites, and trapping were complementary, since together, rather than separately, they produced a better picture of local richness.

  12. Small non-flying mammals from conserved and altered areas of Atlantic Forest and Cerrado: comments on their potencial use for monitoring environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BONVICINO C. R.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Two Atlantic Forests and two Cerrado areas in Brazil were sampled for non-flying small mammal fauna. In each biome one area with altered and another with almost unaltered vegetation (national parks, were chosen to investigate these fauna. Species richness of Atlantic Forest and Cerrado was comparable in the conserved as well as in the altered areas. Data suggested that species could be divided into different ecological categories according to distribution, use of altered and/or relatively unaltered vegetation and habitat specificity. Within these ecological categories some species are appropriate indicators for monitoring environmental quality and degradation. Useful guidelines for wildlife management planning, including selecting areas for conservation units and their better boundary delimitation can ensue.

  13. Small non-flying mammals from conserved and altered areas of Atlantic Forest and Cerrado: comments on their potencial use for monitoring environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. R. BONVICINO

    Full Text Available Two Atlantic Forests and two Cerrado areas in Brazil were sampled for non-flying small mammal fauna. In each biome one area with altered and another with almost unaltered vegetation (national parks, were chosen to investigate these fauna. Species richness of Atlantic Forest and Cerrado was comparable in the conserved as well as in the altered areas. Data suggested that species could be divided into different ecological categories according to distribution, use of altered and/or relatively unaltered vegetation and habitat specificity. Within these ecological categories some species are appropriate indicators for monitoring environmental quality and degradation. Useful guidelines for wildlife management planning, including selecting areas for conservation units and their better boundary delimitation can ensue.

  14. Characteristics and Propagation of Airgun Pulses in Shallow Water with Implications for Effects on Small Marine Mammals.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Line Hermannsen

    Full Text Available Airguns used in seismic surveys are among the most prevalent and powerful anthropogenic noise sources in marine habitats. They are designed to produce most energy below 100 Hz, but the pulses have also been reported to contain medium-to-high frequency components with the potential to affect small marine mammals, which have their best hearing sensitivity at higher frequencies. In shallow water environments, inhabited by many of such species, the impact of airgun noise may be particularly challenging to assess due to complex propagation conditions. To alleviate the current lack of knowledge on the characteristics and propagation of airgun pulses in shallow water with implications for effects on small marine mammals, we recorded pulses from a single airgun with three operating volumes (10 in3, 25 in3 and 40 in3 at six ranges (6, 120, 200, 400, 800 and 1300 m in a uniform shallow water habitat using two calibrated Reson 4014 hydrophones and four DSG-Ocean acoustic data recorders. We show that airgun pulses in this shallow habitat propagated out to 1300 meters in a way that can be approximated by a 18log(r geometric transmission loss model, but with a high pass filter effect from the shallow water depth. Source levels were back-calculated to 192 dB re µPa2s (sound exposure level and 200 dB re 1 µPa dB Leq-fast (rms over 125 ms duration, and the pulses contained substantial energy up to 10 kHz, even at the furthest recording station at 1300 meters. We conclude that the risk of causing hearing damage when using single airguns in shallow waters is small for both pinnipeds and porpoises. However, there is substantial potential for significant behavioral responses out to several km from the airgun, well beyond the commonly used shut-down zone of 500 meters.

  15. Characteristics and Propagation of Airgun Pulses in Shallow Water with Implications for Effects on Small Marine Mammals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hermannsen, Line; Tougaard, Jakob; Beedholm, Kristian; Nabe-Nielsen, Jacob; Madsen, Peter Teglberg

    2015-01-01

    Airguns used in seismic surveys are among the most prevalent and powerful anthropogenic noise sources in marine habitats. They are designed to produce most energy below 100 Hz, but the pulses have also been reported to contain medium-to-high frequency components with the potential to affect small marine mammals, which have their best hearing sensitivity at higher frequencies. In shallow water environments, inhabited by many of such species, the impact of airgun noise may be particularly challenging to assess due to complex propagation conditions. To alleviate the current lack of knowledge on the characteristics and propagation of airgun pulses in shallow water with implications for effects on small marine mammals, we recorded pulses from a single airgun with three operating volumes (10 in3, 25 in3 and 40 in3) at six ranges (6, 120, 200, 400, 800 and 1300 m) in a uniform shallow water habitat using two calibrated Reson 4014 hydrophones and four DSG-Ocean acoustic data recorders. We show that airgun pulses in this shallow habitat propagated out to 1300 meters in a way that can be approximated by a 18log(r) geometric transmission loss model, but with a high pass filter effect from the shallow water depth. Source levels were back-calculated to 192 dB re µPa2s (sound exposure level) and 200 dB re 1 µPa dB Leq-fast (rms over 125 ms duration), and the pulses contained substantial energy up to 10 kHz, even at the furthest recording station at 1300 meters. We conclude that the risk of causing hearing damage when using single airguns in shallow waters is small for both pinnipeds and porpoises. However, there is substantial potential for significant behavioral responses out to several km from the airgun, well beyond the commonly used shut-down zone of 500 meters.

  16. Prevalence of Trypanosoma cruzi infection in dogs and small mammals in Nuevo León, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galaviz-Silva, Lucio; Mercado-Hernández, Roberto; Zárate-Ramos, José J; Molina-Garza, Zinnia J

    Chagas disease, caused by the protozoan Trypanosoma cruzi, is an important public health concern in areas extending from South America northward into the southern United States of America. Although this hemoflagellate has many wild and domestic mammalians reported as reservoir hosts, studies on this subject are scarce in Nuevo León state, a region located in northeastern Mexico. This cross-sectional study showed that the general prevalence of T. cruzi infection in Nuevo León state was 14.5% (35/241), this percentage matching the ones determined by PCR and traditional diagnostics. Localities and infected mammals did not significantly differ (χ 2 =6.098, p=0.192); however the number of infected animals was highly correlated with mammalian species (p=0.009). Striped skunks (Mephitis mephitis) were found to be the most infected overall (11/34, 32.3%), while dogs (Canis familiaris) had the lowest prevalence. In conclusion, although the prevalence of T. cruzi infection in small mammals was lower in Nuevo León than in other states of Mexico, our results provide new locality records, including striped skunks, opossums (Didelphis marsupialis) and dogs, and extend the recorded area to woodrats (Neotoma micropus). Copyright © 2017 Asociación Argentina de Microbiología. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  17. Sound localization in common vampire bats: Acuity and use of the binaural time cue by a small mammal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heffner, Rickye S.; Koay, Gimseong; Heffner, Henry E.

    2015-01-01

    Passive sound-localization acuity and the ability to use binaural time and intensity cues were determined for the common vampire bat (Desmodus rotundus). The bats were tested using a conditioned suppression/avoidance procedure in which they drank defibrinated blood from a spout in the presence of sounds from their right, but stopped drinking (i.e., broke contact with the spout) whenever a sound came from their left, thereby avoiding a mild shock. The mean minimum audible angle for three bats for a 100-ms noise burst was 13.1°—within the range of thresholds for other bats and near the mean for mammals. Common vampire bats readily localized pure tones of 20 kHz and higher, indicating they could use interaural intensity-differences. They could also localize pure tones of 5 kHz and lower, thereby demonstrating the use of interaural time-differences, despite their very small maximum interaural distance of 60 μs. A comparison of the use of locus cues among mammals suggests several implications for the evolution of sound localization and its underlying anatomical and physiological mechanisms. PMID:25618037

  18. An Improvement to Interval Estimation for Small Samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SUN Hui-Ling

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Because it is difficult and complex to determine the probability distribution of small samples,it is improper to use traditional probability theory to process parameter estimation for small samples. Bayes Bootstrap method is always used in the project. Although,the Bayes Bootstrap method has its own limitation,In this article an improvement is given to the Bayes Bootstrap method,This method extended the amount of samples by numerical simulation without changing the circumstances in a small sample of the original sample. And the new method can give the accurate interval estimation for the small samples. Finally,by using the Monte Carlo simulation to model simulation to the specific small sample problems. The effectiveness and practicability of the Improved-Bootstrap method was proved.

  19. An energy-based body temperature threshold between torpor and normothermia for small mammals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willis, Craig K R

    2007-01-01

    Field studies of use of torpor by heterothermic endotherms suffer from the lack of a standardized threshold differentiating torpid body temperatures (T(b)) from normothermic T(b)'s. This threshold can be more readily observed if metabolic rate (MR) is measured in the laboratory. I digitized figures from the literature that depicted simultaneous traces of MR and T(b) from 32 respirometry runs for 14 mammal species. For each graph, I quantified the T(b) measured when MR first began to drop at the onset of torpor (T(b-onset)). I used a general linear model to quantify the effect of ambient temperature (T(a)) and body mass (BM) on T(b-onset). For species lighter than 70 g, the model was highly significant and was described by the equation Tb-onset=(0.055+/-0.014)BM+(0.071+/-0.031)Ta+(31.823+/-0.740). To be conservative, I recommend use of these model parameters minus 1 standard error, which modifies the equation to Tb-onset-1 SE=(0.041)BM+(0.040)Ta+31.083. This approach provides a standardized threshold for differentiating torpor from normothermia that is based on use of energy, the actual currency of interest for studies of torpor in the wild. Few laboratory studies have presented the time-course data required to quantify T(b-onset), so more data are needed to validate this relationship.

  20. The effect of wildfire on population dynamics for two native small mammal species in a coastal heathland in Queensland, Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liedloff, Adam C.; Wilson, John C.; Engeman, Richard M.

    2018-04-01

    The influences of wildfire through population dynamics and life history for two species of small mammals in a south-east Queensland heathland on Bribie Island are presented. Trapping results provided information on breeding, immigration and movement of Melomys burtoni (Grassland melomys) and Rattus lutreolus (Swamp rat). We first investigated and optimized the design of trapping methodology for producing mark-recapture population estimates to compare two adjacent populations, one of which was subjected to an extensive wildfire during the two year study. We consider how well rodents survive wildfire and whether the immediate impacts of fire or altered habitat have the greatest impact on each species. We found the R. lutreolus population was far more influenced by the fire than the M. burtoni population both immediately after the fire and over 18 months of vegetation recovery.

  1. Using small mammals to understand the effects of urbanization in Southern California over the last 100 years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loza, E.; Cotton, J. M.; Smiley, T. M.; Terry, R. C.

    2017-12-01

    Environmental and climate change due to urbanization has been occurring for the last 100 years, but we do not yet know the full extent of these impacts on ecosystems at local to regional scales. To investigate these impacts, we leverage extensive historical collections of small mammals, which can serve as indicators of past and modern ecosystem change. Here, we use the stable isotopic composition of hair from Peromyscus maniculatus, a widespread generalist rodent, to better understand the influence of urbanization over the last 100 years. The stable isotopic composition of small-mammal diets are recorded in the hair of these historical specimens, thereby providing a long-term record of climate and environmental change. Carbon isotopes (δ13C) can inform about the vegetation composition of an animal's diet, while nitrogen isotopes (δ15N) offer a view into agriculture signatures and atmospheric deposition of nitrogen-based pollutants through time. We focus on Los Angeles and southern California, which has experienced a population increase of 15 million people and dramatic land-use change over the past century. We have collected hair from historical P. maniculatus specimens found in natural history museums across the county to investigate spatial and temporal changes in δ13C and δ15N in southern California. We also use specimens from nearby and relatively pristine Channel Islands as a comparison to assess the impacts of anthropogenic land-use change on the mainland. We will present `isoscapes', or isotope landscape models for the δ13C and δ15N of P. maniculatus, in southern California through time. Understanding the isotopic signatures of urbanization provides better insight to the ecosystem response to urbanization and climate change and is useful for guiding future conservation and management decisions.

  2. Estimation for small domains in double sampling for stratification ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this article, we investigate the effect of randomness of the size of a small domain on the precision of an estimator of mean for the domain under double sampling for stratification. The result shows that for a small domain that cuts across various strata with unknown weights, the sampling variance depends on the within ...

  3. Responses of small mammals to clear-cutting in temperate and boreal forests of Europe: a meta-analysis and review

    OpenAIRE

    Bogdziewicz, Michał; Zwolak, Rafał

    2013-01-01

    We analyzed the responses of small mammals to clear-cutting in temperate and boreal forests in Europe. We conducted a meta-analysis of published research on most often studied small mammal species (the striped field mouse, the yellow-necked mouse, the wood mouse, the field vole, the common vole, the bank vole, the Eurasian harvest mouse, the common shrew and the Eurasian pygmy shrew), comparing their abundance on clear-cuts and in unharvested stands. For four other species (the gray-sided vol...

  4. Development of electric discharge equipment for small specimen sampling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okamoto, Koji; Kitagawa, Hideaki; Kusumoto, Junichi; Kanaya, Akihiro; Kobayashi, Toshimi

    2009-01-01

    We have developed the on-site electric discharge sampling equipment that can effectively take samples such as small specimens from the surface portion of the plant components. Compared with the conventional sampling equipment, our sampling equipment can take samples that are thinner in depth and larger in area. In addition, the affection to the equipment can be held down to the minimum, and the thermally-affected zone of the material due to electric discharge is small, which is to be ignored. Therefore, our equipment is excellent in taking samples for various tests such as residual life evaluation.

  5. Biological control of saltcedar (Tamarix spp.) by saltcedar leaf beetles (Diorhabda spp.): effects on small mammals

    Science.gov (United States)

    The spread of introduced saltcedar (Tamarix spp.) throughout many riparian systems across the western United States motivated the introduction of biological control agents that are specific to saltcedar, saltcedar leaf beetles (Diorhabda carinulata, D. elongata; Chrysomelidae). I monitored small mam...

  6. The impact of industrial emissions of copper-nickel smelter complex on the status of populations and communities of small mammals in the Kola Peninsula

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gennadiy D. Kataev

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The population status of the small mammals, Micromammalia, was studied in the central mountain and taiga part of the Kola Peninsula in the Lapland Biosphere Reserve and its buffer zone. For this purpose, control groups of animals were selected at a different distance from the Severonikel' industrial complex which is considered as the largest metallurgical company in Europe. It produces nickel, copper and other non-ferrous metals. The study sites were located at 4–30 km from the local source of industrial pollution. The analysis of population dynamics, faunistic structure and biological parameters of mass species of Soricidae, Myomorpha has revealed the differences in habitats depending on the distance to the industrial complex. The results of the chemical analysis of organs and tissue samples of small rodents, their morpho-physiological and genetic characteristics within emission plume were analysed. The abundance of the studied Mammalia species was the lowest at 5 km north and 7 km south of the metallurgical industrial complex. According to our results, animals in a zone of increased industrial emission (sulfur dioxide, compounds of heavy metals concentrations had more deviations from the biological norms in comparison with the same species from less polluted areas. Long-term (1936–2014 abundance dynamics of Clethrionomys glareolus was presented due to the new ecological situation in the region and reduction of the volume of sulfur dioxide emission by the Severonikel' industrial complex. This biotesting method using mammals as study objects may be applied for the definition of ecologically safe level criteria of heavy metal production and it may be used in studies of similar ecological situations.

  7. ANL small-sample calorimeter system design and operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roche, C.T.; Perry, R.B.; Lewis, R.N.; Jung, E.A.; Haumann, J.R.

    1978-07-01

    The Small-Sample Calorimetric System is a portable instrument designed to measure the thermal power produced by radioactive decay of plutonium-containing fuels. The small-sample calorimeter is capable of measuring samples producing power up to 32 milliwatts at a rate of one sample every 20 min. The instrument is contained in two packages: a data-acquisition module consisting of a microprocessor with an 8K-byte nonvolatile memory, and a measurement module consisting of the calorimeter and a sample preheater. The total weight of the system is 18 kg

  8. Impacts of forest farm practice on small to medium-sized mammals at Kemasul forest reserve, Pahang, Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Razali, Nor Bazilah; Abdul-Rahim, Ahmad Rizal; Md-Nor, Shukor; Mohd-Taib, Farah Shafawati

    2018-04-01

    Exploitation of forest for commercial agriculture has taken toll on wildlife species worldwide. A forest farm project with the aim of compensating the forest loss has been implemented in Kemasul Forest Reserve, of Pahang State, Malaysia through plantation of fast growing and adaptable plant species. The objective of this study is to determine the impact of this practice on diversity. The study was conducted in a long strip of forest fragment, where two study sites with different landscape matrix types were chosen; oil palm plantation (JR) and Acacia mangium plantations (CM). A total of 75 individuals from 13 species and six families were collected at both sites. The result shows forest with A. mangium plantations matrix types yield higher species diversity. There are 10 shared species that can be found at both study sites including Callosciurus notatus, Hystrix brachyura, Macaca nemestrina, and Tupaia glis. However, some species only existed at selected sites such as Leopoldamys sabanus which can only be found at JR. On the other hand, Callosciurus nigrovittatus, Viverra tangalunga and Paradoxurus hermaphroditus were only recorded at CM. Out of all individuals collected, four of them are protected species as reported by IUCN. Callosciurus nigrovittatus is listed as Near Threatened while the other three species (Maxomys rajah, Maxomys whiteheadi, and Macaca nemestrina) are Vulnerable. If conservation efforts in Kemasul Forest Reserved are neglected, these four species would be exposed to critical threats that might cause them facing extinction in the future. Mann Whitney U test shows no significant difference of distribution and species richness of small to medium-sized mammals in both study sites (U=51.5, p=0.59). This study therefore reveals that although the compensatory forest plantation initiatives yield positive effect on diversity of mammal's species, it does not necessarily provide ample food resources to the wildlife, instead it serves as important buffer

  9. Use of aspiration method for collecting brain samples for rabies diagnosis in small wild animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iamamoto, K; Quadros, J; Queiroz, L H

    2011-02-01

    In developing countries such as Brazil, where canine rabies is still a considerable problem, samples from wildlife species are infrequently collected and submitted for screening for rabies. A collaborative study was established involving environmental biologists and veterinarians for rabies epidemiological research in a specific ecological area located at the Sao Paulo State, Brazil. The wild animals' brains are required to be collected without skull damage because the skull's measurements are important in the identification of the captured animal species. For this purpose, samples from bats and small mammals were collected using an aspiration method by inserting a plastic pipette into the brain through the magnum foramen. While there is a progressive increase in the use of the plastic pipette technique in various studies undertaken, it is also appreciated that this method could foster collaborative research between wildlife scientists and rabies epidemiologists thus improving rabies surveillance. © 2009 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  10. Aggregated Transfer Factors For Small Mammals Collected From the Exposed Sediments Of A 137 Cs Contaminated Reservoir

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paller, Michael H.; Jannika, G. Timothy; Wike, Lynn D

    2005-10-04

    {sup 137}Cs transfer factors were computed for small mammals collected from the dried sediment areas of a partially drained, contaminated reservoir. Soil {sup 137}Cs concentrations were heterogeneous on small and large spatial scales, with a geometric mean of 253.1 Bq/kg dry weight. About 50% of the variance in cotton rat Sigmodon hispidus tissue {sup 137}Cs levels was explained by variation in soil {sup 137}Cs levels. Soil to animal transfer factors (whole body dry weight) averaged 6.0 for cotton rats and 1.2 for cotton mice Peromyscus gossypinus. These values are similar to {sup 137}Cs transfer factors for herbivorous, homeothermic animals from other contaminated ecosystems. Site-specific transfer factors can significantly affect the estimation of dose. In the RESRAD-BIOTA dose model, the default transfer factor for {sup 137}Cs in terrestrial animals is 110 resulting in an estimate of radiation dose to terrestrial biota that is 16 times more than the dose calculated with the actual measured transfer factor.

  11. Initial response of small ground-dwelling mammals to forest alternative buffers along headwater streams in the Washington Coast Range, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Randall J. Wilk; Martin G. Raphael; Christopher S. Nations; Jeffrey D. Ricklefs

    2010-01-01

    We assessed the short-term effects of alternative designs of forested buffer treatments along headwater streams on small ground-dwelling mammals in managed forests in western Washington, USA. Over three summers (one pretreatment and two posttreatment), we trapped 19 mammalian species along 23 streams in the northern Coast Range. We compared faunal communities in...

  12. Radiography atlas of domestic animals. Small mammals, birds, reptilia, and amphibia. Atlas der Roentgendiagnostik bei Heimtieren. Kleinsaeuger, Voegel, Reptilien und Amphibien

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruebel, G.A.; Isenbuegel, E.; Wolvekamp, P. (eds.); Gabrisch, K.; Grimm, F.; Koblik, P.; Paul-Murphy, J.; Oschwald, C.P.; Schildger, B.J.

    1991-01-01

    The 370 radiographs presented in the atlas together with notes and explanations give information on normal roentgenographic findings, physiological variations, and important pathological findings observed in small mammals, birds, reptilia and amphibia. Introductory notes to each chapter explain the principles of exposure techniques and the handling of the animals. (VHE).

  13. A thermostat for precise measurements of thermoresistance of small samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rusinowski, Z.; Slowinski, B.; Winiewski, R.

    1996-01-01

    In the work a simple experimental set-up is described in which special attention is paid to the important problem of the thermal stability of thermoresistance measurements of small samples of manganin

  14. Permeability of roads to movement of scrubland lizards and small mammals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brehme, Cheryl S.; Tracey, Jeff A.; McClenaghan, Leroy R.; Fisher, Robert N.

    2013-01-01

    A primary objective of road ecology is to understand and predict how roads affect connectivity of wildlife populations. Road avoidance behavior can fragment populations, whereas lack of road avoidance can result in high mortality due to wildlife-vehicle collisions. Many small animal species focus their activities to particular microhabitats within their larger habitat. We sought to assess how different types of roads affect the movement of small vertebrates and to explore whether responses to roads may be predictable on the basis of animal life history or microhabitat preferences preferences. We tracked the movements of fluorescently marked animals at 24 sites distributed among 3 road types: low-use dirt, low-use secondary paved, and rural 2-lane highway. Most data we collected were on the San Diego pocket mouse (Chaetodipus fallax), cactus mouse (Peromyscus eremicus), western fence lizard (Sceloporus occidentalis), orange-throated whiptail (Aspidoscelis hyperythra), Dulzura kangaroo rat (Dipodomys simulans) (dirt, secondary paved), and deer mouse (Peromyscus maniculatus) (highway only). San Diego pocket mice and cactus mice moved onto dirt roads but not onto a low-use paved road of similar width or onto the highway, indicating they avoidpaved road substrate. Both lizard species moved onto the dirt and secondary paved roads but avoided the rural 2-lane rural highway, indicating they may avoid noise, vibration, or visual disturbance from a steady flow of traffic. Kangaroo rats did not avoid the dirt or secondary paved roads. Overall, dirt and secondary roads were more permeable to species that prefer to forage or bask in open areas of their habitat, rather than under the cover of rocks or shrubs. However, all study species avoided the rural 2-lane highway. Our results suggest that microhabitat use preferences and road substrate help predict species responses to low-use roads,but roads with heavy traffic may deter movement of a much wider range of small animal

  15. Permeability of roads to movement of scrubland lizards and small mammals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brehme, Cheryl S; Tracey, Jeff A; McClenaghan, Leroy R; Fisher, Robert N

    2013-08-01

    A primary objective of road ecology is to understand and predict how roads affect connectivity of wildlife populations. Road avoidance behavior can fragment populations, whereas lack of road avoidance can result in high mortality due to wildlife-vehicle collisions. Many small animal species focus their activities to particular microhabitats within their larger habitat. We sought to assess how different types of roads affect the movement of small vertebrates and to explore whether responses to roads may be predictable on the basis of animal life history or microhabitat preferences preferences. We tracked the movements of fluorescently marked animals at 24 sites distributed among 3 road types: low-use dirt, low-use secondary paved, and rural 2-lane highway. Most data we collected were on the San Diego pocket mouse (Chaetodipus fallax), cactus mouse (Peromyscus eremicus), western fence lizard (Sceloporus occidentalis), orange-throated whiptail (Aspidoscelis hyperythra), Dulzura kangaroo rat (Dipodomys simulans) (dirt, secondary paved), and deer mouse (Peromyscus maniculatus) (highway only). San Diego pocket mice and cactus mice moved onto dirt roads but not onto a low-use paved road of similar width or onto the highway, indicating they avoid paved road substrate. Both lizard species moved onto the dirt and secondary paved roads but avoided the rural 2-lane rural highway, indicating they may avoid noise, vibration, or visual disturbance from a steady flow of traffic. Kangaroo rats did not avoid the dirt or secondary paved roads. Overall, dirt and secondary roads were more permeable to species that prefer to forage or bask in open areas of their habitat, rather than under the cover of rocks or shrubs. However, all study species avoided the rural 2-lane highway. Our results suggest that microhabitat use preferences and road substrate help predict species responses to low-use roads, but roads with heavy traffic may deter movement of a much wider range of small animal

  16. Anthropogenic water sources and the effects on Sonoran Desert small mammal communities

    OpenAIRE

    Aaron B. Switalski; Heather L. Bateman

    2017-01-01

    Anthropogenic water sources (AWS) are developed water sources used as a management tool for desert wildlife species. Studies documenting the effects of AWS are often focused on game species; whereas, the effects on non-target wildlife are less understood. We used live trapping techniques to investigate rodent abundance, biomass, and diversity metrics near AWS and paired control sites; we sampled vegetation to determine rodent-habitat associations in the Sauceda Mountains of the Sonoran Desert...

  17. Assessment of mammal reproduction for hunting sustainability through community-based sampling of species in the wild.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayor, Pedro; El Bizri, Hani; Bodmer, Richard E; Bowler, Mark

    2017-08-01

    Wildlife subsistence hunting is a major source of protein for tropical rural populations and a prominent conservation issue. The intrinsic rate of natural increase. (r max ) of populations is a key reproductive parameter in the most used assessments of hunting sustainability. However, researchers face severe difficulties in obtaining reproductive data in the wild, so these assessments often rely on classic reproductive rates calculated mostly from studies of captive animals conducted 30 years ago. The result is a flaw in almost 50% of studies, which hampers management decision making. We conducted a 15-year study in the Amazon in which we used reproductive data from the genitalia of 950 hunted female mammals. Genitalia were collected by local hunters. We examined tissue from these samples to estimate birthrates for wild populations of the 10 most hunted mammals. We compared our estimates with classic measures and considered the utility of the use of r max in sustainability assessments. For woolly monkey (Lagothrix poeppigii) and tapir (Tapirus terrestris), wild birthrates were similar to those from captive populations, whereas birthrates for other ungulates and lowland-paca (Cuniculus paca) were significantly lower than previous estimates. Conversely, for capuchin monkeys (Sapajus macrocephalus), agoutis (Dasyprocta sp.), and coatis (Nasua nasua), our calculated reproductive rates greatly exceeded often-used values. Researchers could keep applying classic measures compatible with our estimates, but for other species previous estimates of r max may not be appropriate. We suggest that data from local studies be used to set hunting quotas. Our maximum rates of population growth in the wild correlated with body weight, which suggests that our method is consistent and reliable. Integration of this method into community-based wildlife management and the training of local hunters to record pregnancies in hunted animals could efficiently generate useful information of life

  18. Ecological studies of small mammals in a nuclear site on Nevada Test Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bradley, W.G.; Moor, K.S.

    1978-01-01

    Ecological studies of small vertebrates in nuclear event sites in NTS began in spring 1977 with the establishment of a permanent live-trapping grid in Little Feller II. These study areas are located in Area 18, a relatively homogeneous area vegetatively and topographically. Most of the flora and fauna are typical of the Great Basin desert found in southern Nevada. Dominant vegetation includes Artemesia spp. and to a lesser extent Atriplex. Salsola is an abundant weed in areas that have been mechanically disturbed such as the vicinity of GZ. A 400-station live-trapping grid was established in Little Feller II, April 1977. Sixteen lines of live traps (25 traps per line, each trap 50 feet apart) comprise the 8.4 hectare grid encompassing GZ. Nine trapping periods have been completed to date totaling over 10,000 trap nights. Over 400 small vertebrates have been marked for permanent identification in the grid. Over 60 known residents (animals marked 3 months previously and recaptured in the same vicinity) have been collected and prepared for shipping; however, radioanalytical results were not available to include in this report. Both census and field note observations were used to develop an inventory of the vertebrates found in the study areas. Sufficient data have been generated from Little Feller II to estimate density of rodents. These data and comparative data from Area 5 (Mohave Desert), Area 11 (Transition), and Area 13 (Great Basin) are presented. It was readily apparent that rodents in general were more numerous in Little Feller II. In addition, Dipodomys ordii, a Great Basin species, was an important new addition to the rodent fauna

  19. Feeding success of Lutzomyia evansi (Diptera: Psychodidae) experimentally exposed to small mammal hosts in an endemic focus of Leishmania chagasi in northern Colombia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adler, Gregory H; Becerra, María Teresa; Travi, Bruno L

    2003-12-01

    Lutzomyia evansi is the vector of Leishmania chagasi in northern Colombia. Differences in feeding success were revealed, when this phlebotomine sand fly was fed on five species of small mammal hosts from an endemic focus of visceral leishmaniasis. In each trial, 50 female sand flies were provided access to similar-sized depilated areas of the hind foot of each of 44 individual mammals and allowed to feed for 30 minutes. The number of engorged sand flies was counted at the end of each trial and compared among host species by analysis of variance and Tukey's multiple comparisons test. Sand flies fed least successfully on Sciurus granatensis, a common squirrel in the endemic area. It has not been found infected with L. chagasi. Intermediate numbers of sand flies engorged on Heteromys anomalus and Zygodontomys brevicauda, but these two mammals have not been found infected with L. chagasi and are not expected to be important in transmission. Sand flies fed most successfully on Didelphis marsupialis and Proechimys canicollis. These are the two most abundant mammals in the endemic area and frequently are infected. Results provided further evidence that these two species are the wild mammals with the greatest impact on transmission of L. chagasi in northern Colombia.

  20. Preservation of RNA and DNA from mammal samples under field conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camacho-Sanchez, Miguel; Burraco, Pablo; Gomez-Mestre, Ivan; Leonard, Jennifer A

    2013-07-01

    Ecological and conservation genetics require sampling of organisms in the wild. Appropriate preservation of the collected samples, usually by cryostorage, is key to the quality of the genetic data obtained. Nevertheless, cryopreservation in the field to ensure RNA and DNA stability is not always possible. We compared several nucleic acid preservation solutions appropriate for field sampling and tested them on rat (Rattus rattus) blood, ear and tail tip, liver, brain and muscle. We compared the efficacy of a nucleic acid preservation (NAP) buffer for DNA preservation against 95% ethanol and Longmire buffer, and for RNA preservation against RNAlater (Qiagen) and Longmire buffer, under simulated field conditions. For DNA, the NAP buffer was slightly better than cryopreservation or 95% ethanol, but high molecular weight DNA was preserved in all conditions. The NAP buffer preserved RNA as well as RNAlater. Liver yielded the best RNA and DNA quantity and quality; thus, liver should be the tissue preferentially collected from euthanized animals. We also show that DNA persists in nonpreserved muscle tissue for at least 1 week at ambient temperature, although degradation is noticeable in a matter of hours. When cryopreservation is not possible, the NAP buffer is an economical alternative for RNA preservation at ambient temperature for at least 2 months and DNA preservation for at least 10 months. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Radioenzymatic assay for trimethoprim in very small serum samples.

    OpenAIRE

    Yogev, R; Melick, C; Tan-Pong, L

    1985-01-01

    A modification of the methotrexate radioassay kit (supplied by New England Enzyme Center) enabled determination of trimethoprim levels in 5-microliter serum samples. An excellent correlation between this assay and high-pressure liquid chromatography assay was found. These preliminary results suggest that with this method rapid determination of trimethoprim levels in very small samples (5 to 10 microliters) can be achieved.

  2. Radioenzymatic assay for trimethoprim in very small serum samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yogev, R.; Melick, C.; Tan-Pong, L.

    1985-01-01

    A modification of the methotrexate radioassay kit (supplied by New England Enzyme Center) enabled determination of trimethoprim levels in 5-microliter serum samples. An excellent correlation between this assay and high-pressure liquid chromatography assay was found. These preliminary results suggest that with this method rapid determination of trimethoprim levels in very small samples (5 to 10 microliters) can be achieved

  3. Test of a sample container for shipment of small size plutonium samples with PAT-2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuhn, E.; Aigner, H.; Deron, S.

    1981-11-01

    A light-weight container for the air transport of plutonium, to be designated PAT-2, has been developed in the USA and is presently undergoing licensing. The very limited effective space for bearing plutonium required the design of small size sample canisters to meet the needs of international safeguards for the shipment of plutonium samples. The applicability of a small canister for the sampling of small size powder and solution samples has been tested in an intralaboratory experiment. The results of the experiment, based on the concept of pre-weighed samples, show that the tested canister can successfully be used for the sampling of small size PuO 2 -powder samples of homogeneous source material, as well as for dried aliquands of plutonium nitrate solutions. (author)

  4. Change in genetic size of small-closed populations: lessons from a domestic mammal population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farhad Ghafouri-Kesbi

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to monitor changes in genetic size of a small-closed population of Iranian Zandi sheep, by using pedigree information from animals born between 1991 and 2005. The genetic size was assessed by using measures based on the probability of identity-by-descend of genes (coancestry, f, and effective population size, Ne, as well as measures based on probability of gene origin (effective number of founders, f e, effective number of founder genomes, f g, and effective number of non-founder genomes, f ne. Average coancestry, or the degree of genetic similarity of individuals, increased from 0.81% to 1.44% during the period 1993 to 2005, at the same time that Ne decreased from 263 to 93. The observed trend for f e was irregular throughout the experiment in a way that f e was 68, 87, 77, 92, and 80 in 1993, 1996, 1999, 2002, and 2005, respectively. Simultaneously, f g, the most informative effective number, decreased from 61 to 35. The index of genetic diversity (GD which was obtained from estimates of f g,decreased about 2% throughout the period studied. In addition, a noticeable reduction was observed in the estimates of f ne from 595 in 1993 to 61 in 2005. The higher than 1 ratio of f e to f g indicated the presence of bottlenecks and genetic drift in the development of this population of Zandi sheep. From 1993 to 1999, f ne was much higher than f e, thereby indicating that with respect to loss of genetic diversity, the unequal contribution of founders was more important than the random genetic drift in non-founder generations. Subsequently, random genetic drift in non-founder generations was the major reason for f e> f ne. The minimization of average coancestry in new reproductive individuals was recommended as a means of preserving the population against a further loss in genetic diversity.

  5. Change in genetic size of small-closed populations: Lessons from a domestic mammal population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghafouri-Kesbi, Farhad

    2010-10-01

    The aim of this study was to monitor changes in genetic size of a small-closed population of Iranian Zandi sheep, by using pedigree information from animals born between 1991 and 2005. The genetic size was assessed by using measures based on the probability of identity-by-descend of genes (coancestry, f, and effective population size, N(e) ), as well as measures based on probability of gene origin (effective number of founders, f(e) , effective number of founder genomes, f(g) , and effective number of non-founder genomes, f(ne) ). Average coancestry, or the degree of genetic similarity of individuals, increased from 0.81% to 1.44% during the period 1993 to 2005, at the same time that N(e) decreased from 263 to 93. The observed trend for f(e) was irregular throughout the experiment in a way that f(e) was 68, 87, 77, 92, and 80 in 1993, 1996, 1999, 2002, and 2005, respectively. Simultaneously, f(g) , the most informative effective number, decreased from 61 to 35. The index of genetic diversity (GD) which was obtained from estimates of f(g) , decreased about 2% throughout the period studied. In addition, a noticeable reduction was observed in the estimates of f(ne) from 595 in 1993 to 61 in 2005. The higher than 1 ratio of f(e) to f(g) indicated the presence of bottlenecks and genetic drift in the development of this population of Zandi sheep. From 1993 to 1999, f(ne) was much higher than f(e) , thereby indicating that with respect to loss of genetic diversity, the unequal contribution of founders was more important than the random genetic drift in non-founder generations. Subsequently, random genetic drift in non-founder generations was the major reason for f(e) > f(ne) . The minimization of average coancestry in new reproductive individuals was recommended as a means of preserving the population against a further loss in genetic diversity.

  6. Accurate EPR radiosensitivity calibration using small sample masses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayes, R. B.; Haskell, E. H.; Barrus, J. K.; Kenner, G. H.; Romanyukha, A. A.

    2000-03-01

    We demonstrate a procedure in retrospective EPR dosimetry which allows for virtually nondestructive sample evaluation in terms of sample irradiations. For this procedure to work, it is shown that corrections must be made for cavity response characteristics when using variable mass samples. Likewise, methods are employed to correct for empty tube signals, sample anisotropy and frequency drift while considering the effects of dose distribution optimization. A demonstration of the method's utility is given by comparing sample portions evaluated using both the described methodology and standard full sample additive dose techniques. The samples used in this study are tooth enamel from teeth removed during routine dental care. We show that by making all the recommended corrections, very small masses can be both accurately measured and correlated with measurements of other samples. Some issues relating to dose distribution optimization are also addressed.

  7. Accurate EPR radiosensitivity calibration using small sample masses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayes, R.B.; Haskell, E.H.; Barrus, J.K.; Kenner, G.H.; Romanyukha, A.A.

    2000-01-01

    We demonstrate a procedure in retrospective EPR dosimetry which allows for virtually nondestructive sample evaluation in terms of sample irradiations. For this procedure to work, it is shown that corrections must be made for cavity response characteristics when using variable mass samples. Likewise, methods are employed to correct for empty tube signals, sample anisotropy and frequency drift while considering the effects of dose distribution optimization. A demonstration of the method's utility is given by comparing sample portions evaluated using both the described methodology and standard full sample additive dose techniques. The samples used in this study are tooth enamel from teeth removed during routine dental care. We show that by making all the recommended corrections, very small masses can be both accurately measured and correlated with measurements of other samples. Some issues relating to dose distribution optimization are also addressed

  8. Small sample GEE estimation of regression parameters for longitudinal data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul, Sudhir; Zhang, Xuemao

    2014-09-28

    Longitudinal (clustered) response data arise in many bio-statistical applications which, in general, cannot be assumed to be independent. Generalized estimating equation (GEE) is a widely used method to estimate marginal regression parameters for correlated responses. The advantage of the GEE is that the estimates of the regression parameters are asymptotically unbiased even if the correlation structure is misspecified, although their small sample properties are not known. In this paper, two bias adjusted GEE estimators of the regression parameters in longitudinal data are obtained when the number of subjects is small. One is based on a bias correction, and the other is based on a bias reduction. Simulations show that the performances of both the bias-corrected methods are similar in terms of bias, efficiency, coverage probability, average coverage length, impact of misspecification of correlation structure, and impact of cluster size on bias correction. Both these methods show superior properties over the GEE estimates for small samples. Further, analysis of data involving a small number of subjects also shows improvement in bias, MSE, standard error, and length of the confidence interval of the estimates by the two bias adjusted methods over the GEE estimates. For small to moderate sample sizes (N ≤50), either of the bias-corrected methods GEEBc and GEEBr can be used. However, the method GEEBc should be preferred over GEEBr, as the former is computationally easier. For large sample sizes, the GEE method can be used. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  9. An annotated check list of the land mammal fauna of the West Coast National Park

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.M. Avery

    1990-10-01

    Full Text Available Some 4 000 Barn Owl pellets with small mammal remains have been collected over a period of nine years from two locations at the south end of the Langebaan lagoon. Two small samples of bones from archaeological sites on the Churchhaven peninsula provide evidence for past mammal occurrences. The remains of small mammals from the owl pellet collections provide an initial list of 18 species that occur within theWest Coast National Park. Subsequent conventional censusing by means of trapping and observational techniques to assess the small and large mammal species diversity of the area were conducted during 1989. This study documents the definite occurrence of 63 mammal species in the park, seven of which are exotics. The presence of a further five species requires confirmation. Interesting insight is gained into how direct censusing and owl pellet analyses augment each other in establishing the presence of small mammal taxa of an area.

  10. Multi-element analysis of small biological samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rokita, E.; Cafmeyer, J.; Maenhaut, W.

    1983-01-01

    A method combining PIXE and INAA was developed to determine the elemental composition of small biological samples. The method needs virtually no sample preparation and less than 1 mg is sufficient for the analysis. The method was used for determining up to 18 elements in leaves taken from Cracow Herbaceous. The factors which influence the elemental composition of leaves and the possible use of leaves as an environmental pollution indicator are discussed

  11. Conversion of Small Algal Oil Sample to JP-8

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    cracking of Algal Oil to SPK Hydroprocessing Lab Plant uop Nitrogen Hydrogen Product ., __ Small Scale Lab Hydprocessing plant - Down flow trickle ... bed configuration - Capable of retaining 25 cc of catalyst bed Meter UOP ·CONFIDENTIAL File Number The catalytic deoxygenation stage of the...content which combined with the samples acidity, is a challenge to reactor metallurgy. None the less, an attempt was made to convert this sample to

  12. Climate and landscape in Italy during Late Epigravettian. The Late Glacial small mammal sequence of Riparo Tagliente (Stallavena di Grezzana, Verona, Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berto, Claudio; Luzi, Elisa; Canini, Guido Montanari; Guerreschi, Antonio; Fontana, Federica

    2018-03-01

    The site of Riparo Tagliente (north-eastern Italy) contains one of the main Upper Pleistocene archaeological sequences of south-western Europe. It also represents a key site for the study of human adaptation to Late Glacial environmental changes in the southern Alpine area. These climatic and environmental conditions are here reconstructed based on small mammal assemblages, using the Bioclimatic model and Habitat Weighting methods. Climate proxies indicate a rise in temperature during the transition between HE1 and the Bølling-Allerød interstadial, while the landscape surrounding the shelter was still dominated by open grasslands. By comparing the data obtained from Riparo Tagliente with other coeval small mammal faunas from the Italian Peninsula and Europe we contribute to the reconstruction of the processes of faunal renewal registered during the Late Glacial across the continent and of the climatic and environmental context in which the Late Epigravettian hunter-gatherer groups lived.

  13. Consensus of heterogeneous multi-agent systems based on sampled data with a small sampling delay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Na; Wu Zhi-Hai; Peng Li

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, consensus problems of heterogeneous multi-agent systems based on sampled data with a small sampling delay are considered. First, a consensus protocol based on sampled data with a small sampling delay for heterogeneous multi-agent systems is proposed. Then, the algebra graph theory, the matrix method, the stability theory of linear systems, and some other techniques are employed to derive the necessary and sufficient conditions guaranteeing heterogeneous multi-agent systems to asymptotically achieve the stationary consensus. Finally, simulations are performed to demonstrate the correctness of the theoretical results. (interdisciplinary physics and related areas of science and technology)

  14. inverse gaussian model for small area estimation via gibbs sampling

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ADMIN

    For example, MacGibbon and Tomberlin. (1989) have considered estimating small area rates and binomial parameters using empirical Bayes methods. Stroud (1991) used hierarchical Bayes approach for univariate natural exponential families with quadratic variance functions in sample survey applications, while Chaubey ...

  15. Small Sample Properties of Bayesian Multivariate Autoregressive Time Series Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, Larry R.

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the small sample (N = 1, 3, 5, 10, 15) performance of a Bayesian multivariate vector autoregressive (BVAR-SEM) time series model relative to frequentist power and parameter estimation bias. A multivariate autoregressive model was developed based on correlated autoregressive time series vectors of varying…

  16. Systematic studies of small scintillators for new sampling calorimeter

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    A new sampling calorimeter using very thin scintillators and the multi-pixel photon counter (MPPC) has been proposed to produce better position resolution for the international linear collider (ILC) experiment. As part of this R & D study, small plastic scintillators of different sizes, thickness and wrapping reflectors are ...

  17. A General Linear Method for Equating with Small Samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albano, Anthony D.

    2015-01-01

    Research on equating with small samples has shown that methods with stronger assumptions and fewer statistical estimates can lead to decreased error in the estimated equating function. This article introduces a new approach to linear observed-score equating, one which provides flexible control over how form difficulty is assumed versus estimated…

  18. Using stable isotopes to track the effects of deforestation on small-mammal ecology in the Pacific Northwest over the last 100 years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Packard, N. R.; Cotton, J. M.; Smiley, T. M.; Terry, R. C.

    2017-12-01

    Landscape, land-use, and climate change are important factors in determining ecosystem change over a range of spatio-temporal scales. For example, within small-mammal communities, the spread of agriculture, rapid urbanization, and deforestation have been shown to alter species composition and diet, thus potentially disrupting ecological interactions and reshaping ecosystems. Small mammals integrate the isotopic composition of their diet and drinking water into their hair and therefore serve as useful proxies for vegetation and water resources in their habitat. To better understand how forest loss and land-cover change influence small-mammal ecology in the Pacific Northwest (PNW), we analyzed the hydrogen (H) and oxygen (O) isotopic composition of hair from historical Peromyscus maniculatus (North American deer mouse) specimens housed in natural history museums across the country. While deforestation along the east coast occurred hundreds of years ago, the loss of forests on the west coast occurred more recently, beginning around 1930. We use early 20th century specimens of this widespread and abundant generalist species to better understand ecosystem changes that occurred over the past 100 years of local and regional deforestation. Changing forest composition and structure during deforestation can influence both broad-scale hydrological cycling and local ecosystems. Variation in O and H isotopic composition corresponds to changes in the hydrological cycle, such as changes in the source and amount of precipitation, and changes in the moisture conditions in local ecosystems. We will present this spatial and temporal variability in the form of isoscapes, or δ18O and δD isotope landscape models, of P. maniculatus hair in the western forests of the PNW through time. Investigating isotopic signatures in small mammals can help us better understand ecosystem response to anthropogenic land-use and climate change.

  19. Testing of Small Graphite Samples for Nuclear Qualification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Julie Chapman

    2010-11-01

    Accurately determining the mechanical properties of small irradiated samples is crucial to predicting the behavior of the overal irradiated graphite components within a Very High Temperature Reactor. The sample size allowed in a material test reactor, however, is limited, and this poses some difficulties with respect to mechanical testing. In the case of graphite with a larger grain size, a small sample may exhibit characteristics not representative of the bulk material, leading to inaccuracies in the data. A study to determine a potential size effect on the tensile strength was pursued under the Next Generation Nuclear Plant program. It focuses first on optimizing the tensile testing procedure identified in the American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) Standard C 781-08. Once the testing procedure was verified, a size effect was assessed by gradually reducing the diameter of the specimens. By monitoring the material response, a size effect was successfully identified.

  20. Artificial nests as an alternative to studies of arboreal small mammal populations: a five-year study in the Atlantic Forest, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diogo Loretto

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Despite the great diversity of Brazilian Atlantic forest small mammals, natural history of most species is unknown due to their cryptic and nocturnal habits, but also due to the inadequacy of methods to capture some species, especially those of arboreal habits. A new technique, based on the use of artificial nests (AN to record arboreal marsupials, is presented. Artificial nests were combined with traditional live traps to study the population ecology of four didelphid marsupial species. After 62 months of monitoring, 119 individuals were recorded 243 times (total success = 5.2%. Only 26 individuals (22% were recorded by both AN and live trap methods, and two of the four species were never captured by live traps, only by AN. Live traps alone would have provided biased data of the structure of small mammal assemblages, creating artificial tendencies in population dynamics of many species. Detectability estimates based on mark-recapture data could correct bias resulting from the use only live traps, but these estimates require that at least some individuals of each age class or stage are captured. Only the combination of AN and live traps can produce more accurate data on population dynamics and assemblage structure. This study demonstrates that artificial nests represent a new method that should be combined with live traps in studies of small mammal assemblages and populations.

  1. Risk assessment of metals and organic pollutants for herbivorous and carnivorous small mammal food chains in a polluted floodplain (Biesbosch, The Netherlands)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamers, Timo; Berg, Johannes H.J. van den; Gestel, Cornelis A.M. van; Schooten, Frederik-Jan van; Murk, Albertinka J.

    2006-01-01

    A risk assessment was made for a carnivorous and a herbivorous food chain in a heavily polluted natural estuary (Biesbosch), by determining the most critical pollutants and the food chain most at risk. Exposure of food chains to metals, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) was assessed by analyzing dietary concentrations, internal concentrations, and biomarkers of exposure. Common shrew (Sorex araneus) and bank vole (Clethrionomys glareolus) were selected as representative small mammal species for the carnivorous and herbivorous food chain, respectively, and earthworms (Lumbricus rubellus) and snails (Cepaea nemoralis) as representative prey species for the carnivorous food chain. Metals contributed most to the total risk for small mammals and earthworms. PCBs, but not PAHs, contributed to the overall risk for S. araneus at regularly flooded locations. The carnivorous food chain appeared most at risk given the higher exposure levels and bioaccumulating potency found for contaminants in S. araneus. - In polluted floodplain areas, dietary exposure to metals poses a larger risk for small mammals in a carnivorous than in a herbivorous food chain

  2. How Quaternary geologic and climatic events in the southeastern margin of the Tibetan Plateau influence the genetic structure of small mammals: inferences from phylogeography of two rodents, Neodon irene and Apodemus latronum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Zhenxin; Liu, Shaoying; Liu, Yang; Zhang, Xiuyue; Yue, Bisong

    2011-03-01

    Phylogeographical studies that focus on the southeastern margin of the Tibetan Plateau are limited. The complex terrain and unique geological history make it a particularly unusual region of the Tibetan Plateau. We carried out a phylogeographical study of two rodent species Neodon irene and Apodemus latronum using the mitochondrial cytochrome b gene sequences. High genetic diversities and deep phylogenetic splits were detected in both rodents. Some haplotypes from one sampling region fell into different evolutionary clades, but most haplotypes from the same sampling regions were clustered together with each other. The results of isolation by distance analysis further substantiated that their genetic diversities were structured along geography. Thus, there were high levels of geographical structure for both rodents. Demographic analyses implied a relatively constant population size for all samples of N. irene and A. latronum in history. However, clade B of N. irene and clade 3 of A. latronum experienced population expansions at 105-32 and 156-47 Kya, respectively. Through comparison with previous studies, we suggest the high mitochondrial DNA diversities in them are probably not a species-specific feature, but a common pattern for small mammals in this unique area. Details of the historical demography of these rodents revealed in this study could provide new insights into how rodents and possibly other small mammals in this region responded to the geological and climatic events.

  3. [Progress in sample preparation and analytical methods for trace polar small molecules in complex samples].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qianchun; Luo, Xialin; Li, Gongke; Xiao, Xiaohua

    2015-09-01

    Small polar molecules such as nucleosides, amines, amino acids are important analytes in biological, food, environmental, and other fields. It is necessary to develop efficient sample preparation and sensitive analytical methods for rapid analysis of these polar small molecules in complex matrices. Some typical materials in sample preparation, including silica, polymer, carbon, boric acid and so on, are introduced in this paper. Meanwhile, the applications and developments of analytical methods of polar small molecules, such as reversed-phase liquid chromatography, hydrophilic interaction chromatography, etc., are also reviewed.

  4. Exploratory Factor Analysis With Small Samples and Missing Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNeish, Daniel

    2017-01-01

    Exploratory factor analysis (EFA) is an extremely popular method for determining the underlying factor structure for a set of variables. Due to its exploratory nature, EFA is notorious for being conducted with small sample sizes, and recent reviews of psychological research have reported that between 40% and 60% of applied studies have 200 or fewer observations. Recent methodological studies have addressed small size requirements for EFA models; however, these models have only considered complete data, which are the exception rather than the rule in psychology. Furthermore, the extant literature on missing data techniques with small samples is scant, and nearly all existing studies focus on topics that are not of primary interest to EFA models. Therefore, this article presents a simulation to assess the performance of various missing data techniques for EFA models with both small samples and missing data. Results show that deletion methods do not extract the proper number of factors and estimate the factor loadings with severe bias, even when data are missing completely at random. Predictive mean matching is the best method overall when considering extracting the correct number of factors and estimating factor loadings without bias, although 2-stage estimation was a close second.

  5. Two decades of climate driving the dynamics of functional and taxonomic diversity of a tropical small mammal community in western Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mason-Romo, Edgard David; Farías, Ariel A; Ceballos, Gerardo

    2017-01-01

    Understanding the effects of global climate disruption on biodiversity is important to future conservation efforts. While taxonomic diversity is widely studied, functional diversity of plants, and recently animals, is receiving increasing attention. Most studies of mammals are short-term, focus on temperate habitats, and rely on traits described in the literature rather than generating traits from observations. Unlike previous studies, this long-term field study assessed the factors driving the functional and taxonomic diversity of small-mammal assemblages in dry tropical forests using both traits recorded from literature and a demographic database. We assessed the drivers (abundance and biomass, temperature and rainfall) of taxonomic richness and functional diversity for two rain-driven seasons in two adjacent but distinct forests-upland and lowland (arroyo or riparian) forests. Our analysis found that rainfall, both seasonal and atypical, was the primary factor driving functional and taxonomic diversity of small-mammal assemblages. Functional responses differed between the two types of forests, however, with effects being stronger in the harsher conditions of the upland forests than in the less severe conditions prevailing in the arroyo (riparian) forest. The latter also supports a richer, more diverse, and more stable small-mammal assemblage. These findings highlight the importance of climate to tropical biological diversity, as extreme climate events (hurricanes, droughts and floods) and disruption of rainfall patterns were shown to decrease biodiversity. They also support the need to preserve these habitats, as their high taxonomic diversity and functional redundancy makes them resilient against global climate disruption and local extreme events. Tropical dry forests constitute a potential reservoir for biodiversity and the ecosystem services they provide. Unfortunately, these forests are among the most endangered terrestrial ecosystems because of

  6. Two decades of climate driving the dynamics of functional and taxonomic diversity of a tropical small mammal community in western Mexico.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edgard David Mason-Romo

    Full Text Available Understanding the effects of global climate disruption on biodiversity is important to future conservation efforts. While taxonomic diversity is widely studied, functional diversity of plants, and recently animals, is receiving increasing attention. Most studies of mammals are short-term, focus on temperate habitats, and rely on traits described in the literature rather than generating traits from observations. Unlike previous studies, this long-term field study assessed the factors driving the functional and taxonomic diversity of small-mammal assemblages in dry tropical forests using both traits recorded from literature and a demographic database. We assessed the drivers (abundance and biomass, temperature and rainfall of taxonomic richness and functional diversity for two rain-driven seasons in two adjacent but distinct forests-upland and lowland (arroyo or riparian forests. Our analysis found that rainfall, both seasonal and atypical, was the primary factor driving functional and taxonomic diversity of small-mammal assemblages. Functional responses differed between the two types of forests, however, with effects being stronger in the harsher conditions of the upland forests than in the less severe conditions prevailing in the arroyo (riparian forest. The latter also supports a richer, more diverse, and more stable small-mammal assemblage. These findings highlight the importance of climate to tropical biological diversity, as extreme climate events (hurricanes, droughts and floods and disruption of rainfall patterns were shown to decrease biodiversity. They also support the need to preserve these habitats, as their high taxonomic diversity and functional redundancy makes them resilient against global climate disruption and local extreme events. Tropical dry forests constitute a potential reservoir for biodiversity and the ecosystem services they provide. Unfortunately, these forests are among the most endangered terrestrial ecosystems because

  7. Seasonal fluctuations of small mammal and flea communities in a Ugandan plague focus: evidence to implicate Arvicanthis niloticus and Crocidura spp. as key hosts in Yersinia pestis transmission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Sean M; Monaghan, Andrew; Borchert, Jeff N; Mpanga, Joseph T; Atiku, Linda A; Boegler, Karen A; Montenieri, John; MacMillan, Katherine; Gage, Kenneth L; Eisen, Rebecca J

    2015-01-08

    The distribution of human plague risk is strongly associated with rainfall in the tropical plague foci of East Africa, but little is known about how the plague bacterium is maintained during periods between outbreaks or whether environmental drivers trigger these outbreaks. We collected small mammals and fleas over a two year period in the West Nile region of Uganda to examine how the ecological community varies seasonally in a region with areas of both high and low risk of human plague cases. Seasonal changes in the small mammal and flea communities were examined along an elevation gradient to determine whether small mammal and flea populations exhibit differences in their response to seasonal fluctuations in precipitation, temperature, and crop harvests in areas within (above 1300 m) and outside (below 1300 m) of a model-defined plague focus. The abundance of two potential enzootic host species (Arvicanthis niloticus and Crocidura spp.) increased during the plague season within the plague focus, but did not show the same increase at lower elevations outside this focus. In contrast, the abundance of the domestic rat population (Rattus rattus) did not show significant seasonal fluctuations regardless of locality. Arvicanthis niloticus abundance was negatively associated with monthly precipitation at a six month lag and positively associated with current monthly temperatures, and Crocidura spp. abundance was positively associated with precipitation at a three month lag and negatively associated with current monthly temperatures. The abundance of A. niloticus and Crocidura spp. were both positively correlated with the harvest of millet and maize. The association between the abundance of several small mammal species and rainfall is consistent with previous models of the timing of human plague cases in relation to precipitation in the West Nile region. The seasonal increase in the abundance of key potential host species within the plague focus, but not outside of

  8. Radiocarbon measurements of small gaseous samples at CologneAMS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stolz, A.; Dewald, A.; Altenkirch, R.; Herb, S.; Heinze, S.; Schiffer, M.; Feuerstein, C.; Müller-Gatermann, C.; Wotte, A.; Rethemeyer, J.; Dunai, T.

    2017-09-01

    A second SO-110 B (Arnold et al., 2010) ion source was installed at the 6 MV CologneAMS for the measurement of gaseous samples. For the gas supply a dedicated device from Ionplus AG was connected to the ion source. Special effort was devoted to determine optimized operation parameters for the ion source, which give a high carbon current output and a high 14C- yield. The latter is essential in cases when only small samples are available. Additionally a modified immersion lens and modified target pieces were tested and the target position was optimized.

  9. A multi-dimensional sampling method for locating small scatterers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song, Rencheng; Zhong, Yu; Chen, Xudong

    2012-01-01

    A multiple signal classification (MUSIC)-like multi-dimensional sampling method (MDSM) is introduced to locate small three-dimensional scatterers using electromagnetic waves. The indicator is built with the most stable part of signal subspace of the multi-static response matrix on a set of combinatorial sampling nodes inside the domain of interest. It has two main advantages compared to the conventional MUSIC methods. First, the MDSM is more robust against noise. Second, it can work with a single incidence even for multi-scatterers. Numerical simulations are presented to show the good performance of the proposed method. (paper)

  10. Local heterogeneity effects on small-sample worths

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schaefer, R.W.

    1986-01-01

    One of the parameters usually measured in a fast reactor critical assembly is the reactivity associated with inserting a small sample of a material into the core (sample worth). Local heterogeneities introduced by the worth measurement techniques can have a significant effect on the sample worth. Unfortunately, the capability is lacking to model some of the heterogeneity effects associated with the experimental technique traditionally used at ANL (the radial tube technique). It has been suggested that these effects could account for a large portion of what remains of the longstanding central worth discrepancy. The purpose of this paper is to describe a large body of experimental data - most of which has never been reported - that shows the effect of radial tube-related local heterogeneities

  11. Research of pneumatic control transmission system for small irradiation samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bai Zhongxiong; Zhang Haibing; Rong Ru; Zhang Tao

    2008-01-01

    In order to reduce the absorbed dose damage for the operator, pneumatic control has been adopted to realize the rapid transmission of small irradiation samples. On/off of pneumatic circuit and directions for the rapid transmission system are controlled by the electrical control part. The main program initializes the system and detects the location of the manual/automatic change-over switch, and call for the corresponding subprogram to achieve the automatic or manual operation. Automatic subprogram achieves the automatic sample transmission; Manual subprogram completes the deflation, and back and forth movement of the radiation samples. This paper introduces in detail the implementation of the system, in terms of both hardware and software design. (authors)

  12. Comparing interval estimates for small sample ordinal CFA models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Natesan, Prathiba

    2015-01-01

    Robust maximum likelihood (RML) and asymptotically generalized least squares (AGLS) methods have been recommended for fitting ordinal structural equation models. Studies show that some of these methods underestimate standard errors. However, these studies have not investigated the coverage and bias of interval estimates. An estimate with a reasonable standard error could still be severely biased. This can only be known by systematically investigating the interval estimates. The present study compares Bayesian, RML, and AGLS interval estimates of factor correlations in ordinal confirmatory factor analysis models (CFA) for small sample data. Six sample sizes, 3 factor correlations, and 2 factor score distributions (multivariate normal and multivariate mildly skewed) were studied. Two Bayesian prior specifications, informative and relatively less informative were studied. Undercoverage of confidence intervals and underestimation of standard errors was common in non-Bayesian methods. Underestimated standard errors may lead to inflated Type-I error rates. Non-Bayesian intervals were more positive biased than negatively biased, that is, most intervals that did not contain the true value were greater than the true value. Some non-Bayesian methods had non-converging and inadmissible solutions for small samples and non-normal data. Bayesian empirical standard error estimates for informative and relatively less informative priors were closer to the average standard errors of the estimates. The coverage of Bayesian credibility intervals was closer to what was expected with overcoverage in a few cases. Although some Bayesian credibility intervals were wider, they reflected the nature of statistical uncertainty that comes with the data (e.g., small sample). Bayesian point estimates were also more accurate than non-Bayesian estimates. The results illustrate the importance of analyzing coverage and bias of interval estimates, and how ignoring interval estimates can be misleading

  13. Use of the small gas proportional counters for the carbon-14 measurement of very small samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sayre, E.V.; Harbottle, G.; Stoenner, R.W.; Otlet, R.L.; Evans, G.V.

    1981-01-01

    Two recent developments are: the first is the mass-spectrometric separation of 14 C and 12 C ions, followed by counting of the 14 C, while the second is the extension of conventional proportional counter operation, using CO 2 as counting gas, to very small counters and samples. Although the second method is slow (months of counting time are required for 10 mg of carbon) it does not require operator intervention and many samples may be counted simultaneously. Also, it costs only a fraction of the capital expense of an accelerator installation. The development, construction and operation of suitable small counters are described, and results of three actual dating studies involving milligram scale carbon samples will be given. None of these could have been carried out if conventional, gram-sized samples had been needed. New installations, based on the use of these counters, are under construction or in the planning stages. These are located at Brookhaven Laboratory, the National Bureau of Standards (USA) and Harwell (UK). The Harwell installation, which is in advanced stages of construction, will be described in outline. The main significance of the small-counter method is, that although it will not suffice to measure the smallest (much less than 10 mg) or oldest samples, it will permit existing radiocarbon laboratories to extend their capability considerably, in the direction of smaller samples, at modest expense

  14. The transfer of (137)Cs, Pu isotopes and (90)Sr to bird, bat and ground-dwelling small mammal species within the Chernobyl exclusion zone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beresford, N A; Gaschak, S; Maksimenko, Andrey; Wood, M D

    2016-03-01

    Protected species are the focus of many radiological environmental assessments. However, the lack of radioecological data for many protected species presents a significant international challenge. Furthermore, there are legislative restrictions on destructive sampling of protected species to obtain such data. Where data are not available, extrapolations are often made from 'similar' species but there has been little attempt to validate this approach. In this paper we present what, to our knowledge, is the first study purposefully designed to test the hypothesis that radioecological data for unprotected species can be used to estimate conservative radioecolgical parameters for protected species; conservatism being necessary to ensure that there is no significant impact. The study was conducted in the Chernobyl Exclusion Zone. Consequently, we are able to present data for Pu isotopes in terrestrial wildlife. There has been limited research on Pu transfer to terrestrial wildlife which contrasts with the need to assess radiation exposure of wildlife to Pu isotopes around many nuclear facilities internationally. Our results provide overall support for the hypothesis that data for unprotected species can be used to adequately assess the impacts for ionising radiation on protected species. This is demonstrated for a range of mammalian and avian species. However, we identify one case, the shrew, for which data from other ground-dwelling small mammals would not lead to an appropriately conservative assessment of radiation impact. This indicates the need to further test our hypothesis across a range of species and ecosystems, and/or ensure adequate conservatism within assessments. The data presented are of value to those trying to more accurately estimate the radiation dose to wildlife in the Chernobyl Exclusion Zone, helping to reduce the considerable uncertainty in studies reporting dose-effect relationships for wildlife. A video abstract for this paper is available from

  15. Prevalence, Genetic Characterization, and 18S Small Subunit Ribosomal RNA Diversity of Trypanosoma rangeli in Triatomine and Mammal Hosts in Endemic Areas for Chagas Disease in Ecuador.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ocaña-Mayorga, Sofia; Aguirre-Villacis, Fernanda; Pinto, C Miguel; Vallejo, Gustavo A; Grijalva, Mario J

    2015-12-01

    Trypanosoma rangeli is a nonpathogenic parasite for humans; however, its medical importance relies in its similarity and overlapping distribution with Trypanosoma cruzi, causal agent of Chagas disease in the Americas. The genetic diversity of T. rangeli and its association with host species (triatomines and mammals) has been identified along Central and the South America; however, it has not included data of isolates from Ecuador. This study reports infection with T. rangeli in 18 genera of mammal hosts and five species of triatomines in three environments (domestic, peridomestic, and sylvatic). Higher infection rates were found in the sylvatic environment, in close association with Rhodnius ecuadoriensis. The results of this study extend the range of hosts infected with this parasite and the geographic range of the T. rangeli genotype KP1(-)/lineage C in South America. It was not possible to detect variation on T. rangeli from the central coastal region and southern Ecuador with the analysis of the small subunit ribosomal RNA (SSU-rRNA) gene, even though these areas are ecologically different and a phenotypic subdivision of R. ecuadoriensis has been found. R. ecuadoriensis is considered one of the most important vectors for Chagas disease transmission in Ecuador due to its wide distribution and adaptability to diverse environments. An extensive knowledge of the trypanosomes circulating in this species of triatomine, and associated mammal hosts, is important for delineating transmission dynamics and preventive measures in the endemic areas of Ecuador and Northern Peru.

  16. Prevalence, Genetic Characterization, and 18S Small Subunit Ribosomal RNA Diversity of Trypanosoma rangeli in Triatomine and Mammal Hosts in Endemic Areas for Chagas Disease in Ecuador

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ocaña-Mayorga, Sofia; Aguirre-Villacis, Fernanda; Pinto, C. Miguel; Vallejo, Gustavo A.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Trypanosoma rangeli is a nonpathogenic parasite for humans; however, its medical importance relies in its similarity and overlapping distribution with Trypanosoma cruzi, causal agent of Chagas disease in the Americas. The genetic diversity of T. rangeli and its association with host species (triatomines and mammals) has been identified along Central and the South America; however, it has not included data of isolates from Ecuador. This study reports infection with T. rangeli in 18 genera of mammal hosts and five species of triatomines in three environments (domestic, peridomestic, and sylvatic). Higher infection rates were found in the sylvatic environment, in close association with Rhodnius ecuadoriensis. The results of this study extend the range of hosts infected with this parasite and the geographic range of the T. rangeli genotype KP1(−)/lineage C in South America. It was not possible to detect variation on T. rangeli from the central coastal region and southern Ecuador with the analysis of the small subunit ribosomal RNA (SSU-rRNA) gene, even though these areas are ecologically different and a phenotypic subdivision of R. ecuadoriensis has been found. R. ecuadoriensis is considered one of the most important vectors for Chagas disease transmission in Ecuador due to its wide distribution and adaptability to diverse environments. An extensive knowledge of the trypanosomes circulating in this species of triatomine, and associated mammal hosts, is important for delineating transmission dynamics and preventive measures in the endemic areas of Ecuador and Northern Peru. PMID:26645579

  17. Thermal neutron absorption cross section of small samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nghiep, T.D.; Vinh, T.T.; Son, N.N.; Vuong, T.V.; Hung, N.T.

    1989-01-01

    A modified steady method for determining the macroscopic thermal neutron absorption cross section of small samples 500 cm 3 in volume is described. The method uses a moderating block of paraffin, Pu-Be neutron source emitting 1.1x10 6 n.s. -1 , SNM-14 counter and ordinary counting equipment. The interval of cross section from 2.6 to 1.3x10 4 (10 -3 cm 2 g -1 ) was measured. The experimental data are described by calculation formulae. 7 refs.; 4 figs

  18. Pulsed Direct Current Electrospray: Enabling Systematic Analysis of Small Volume Sample by Boosting Sample Economy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Zhenwei; Xiong, Xingchuang; Guo, Chengan; Si, Xingyu; Zhao, Yaoyao; He, Muyi; Yang, Chengdui; Xu, Wei; Tang, Fei; Fang, Xiang; Zhang, Sichun; Zhang, Xinrong

    2015-11-17

    We had developed pulsed direct current electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (pulsed-dc-ESI-MS) for systematically profiling and determining components in small volume sample. Pulsed-dc-ESI utilized constant high voltage to induce the generation of single polarity pulsed electrospray remotely. This method had significantly boosted the sample economy, so as to obtain several minutes MS signal duration from merely picoliter volume sample. The elongated MS signal duration enable us to collect abundant MS(2) information on interested components in a small volume sample for systematical analysis. This method had been successfully applied for single cell metabolomics analysis. We had obtained 2-D profile of metabolites (including exact mass and MS(2) data) from single plant and mammalian cell, concerning 1034 components and 656 components for Allium cepa and HeLa cells, respectively. Further identification had found 162 compounds and 28 different modification groups of 141 saccharides in a single Allium cepa cell, indicating pulsed-dc-ESI a powerful tool for small volume sample systematical analysis.

  19. Ancient DNA from marine mammals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Foote, Andrew David; Hofreiter, Michael; Morin, Philip A.

    2012-01-01

    such as bone, tooth, baleen, skin, fur, whiskers and scrimshaw using ancient DNA (aDNA) approaches provide an oppor- tunity for investigating such changes over evolutionary and ecological timescales. Here, we review the application of aDNA techniques to the study of marine mammals. Most of the studies have...... focused on detecting changes in genetic diversity following periods of exploitation and environmental change. To date, these studies have shown that even small sample sizes can provide useful information on historical genetic diversity. Ancient DNA has also been used in investigations of changes...... in distribution and range of marine mammal species; we review these studies and discuss the limitations of such ‘presence only’ studies. Combining aDNA data with stable isotopes can provide further insights into changes in ecology and we review past studies and suggest future potential applications. We also...

  20. Soybean yield modeling using bootstrap methods for small samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dalposso, G.A.; Uribe-Opazo, M.A.; Johann, J.A.

    2016-11-01

    One of the problems that occur when working with regression models is regarding the sample size; once the statistical methods used in inferential analyzes are asymptotic if the sample is small the analysis may be compromised because the estimates will be biased. An alternative is to use the bootstrap methodology, which in its non-parametric version does not need to guess or know the probability distribution that generated the original sample. In this work we used a set of soybean yield data and physical and chemical soil properties formed with fewer samples to determine a multiple linear regression model. Bootstrap methods were used for variable selection, identification of influential points and for determination of confidence intervals of the model parameters. The results showed that the bootstrap methods enabled us to select the physical and chemical soil properties, which were significant in the construction of the soybean yield regression model, construct the confidence intervals of the parameters and identify the points that had great influence on the estimated parameters. (Author)

  1. Small mammals in the diet of barn owls, Tyto alba (Aves: Strigiformes along the mid-Araguaia river in central Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rita G. Rocha

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available We collected and analyzed 286 Barn owl, Tyto alba (Scopoli, 1769, pellets from two nests in different environments along the mid-Araguaia River in central Brazil. Our analyses revealed that these owls feed mainly on small mammals, especially rodents. Owls from the riverbanks at Fazenda Santa Fé had a more diverse diet, preying mainly on rodents that typically inhabit riparian grasslands - Holochilus sciureus Wagner, 1842 - and forests - Hylaeamys megacephalus (Fischer, 1814 and Oecomys spp., which probably also occur in forest borders or clearings. On the other hand, owls from an agroecosystem at Fazenda Lago Verde preyed mostly on rodent species common in these agrarian fields, Calomys tocantinsi Bonvicino, Lima & Almeida, 2003. Additionally, we compared small mammal richness estimates based on the analysis of owl pellets with estimates from live-trapping in the same areas. Owl pellets revealed two rodent species undetected by live traps - Euryoryzomys sp. and Rattus rattus (Linnaeus, 1758 - and four rodent species were trapped, but not found in owl pellets - Oecomys roberti Thomas, 1904, Pseudoryzomys simplex (Winge, 1887, Rhipidomys ipukensis Rocha, B.M.A. Costa & L.P. Costa, 2011, and Makalata didelphoides (Desmarest, 1817. Traps yielded higher species richness, but these two methods complement each other for surveying small rodents.

  2. Comparison of small mammal prevalence of Leishmania (Leishmania) mexicana in five foci of cutaneous leishmaniasis in the State of Campeche, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Wynsberghe, N R; Canto-Lara, S B; Sosa-Bibiano, E I; Rivero-Cárdenas, N A; Andrade-Narváez, F J

    2009-01-01

    In the Yucatan Peninsula of Mexico, 95% of the human cases of Cutaneous Leishmaniasis are caused by Leishmania (Leishmania) mexicana with an incidence rate of 5.08 per 100,000 inhabitants. Transmission is limited to the winter months (November to March). One study on wild rodents has incriminated Ototylomys phyllotis and Peromyscus yucatanicus as primary reservoirs of L. (L.) mexicana in the focus of La Libertad, Campeche. In the present study, the prevalence of both infection and disease caused by L. (L.) mexicana in small terrestrial mammals were documented during five transmission seasons (1994-2004) in five foci of Leishmaniasis in the state of Campeche. Foci separated by only 100 km, with similar relative abundances of small mammals, were found to differ significantly in their prevalence of both symptoms and infection. Transmission rates and reservoir species seemed to change in space as well as in time which limited the implementation of effective control measures of the disease even in a small endemic area such as the south of the Yucatan Peninsula.

  3. Lead concentrations in small mammals (Apodemus sylvaticus, A. flavicollis, Clethrionomys glareolus, Sorex araneus) in urban and rural regions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Demuth, M.; Streit, B.

    1989-01-01

    Lead concentrations in liver and femurs of 188 rodent and insectivorous mammals (Apodemus sylvaticus, A. flavicollis, Clethrionomys glareolus, Sorex araneus) were measured using a graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometer for the analysis of solid materials. The animals were caught in two separate habitats: I. a large suburban mixed forest, adjoining a heavily-used highway; and II. a rural habitat with a seasonally-used nearby automobile racetrack. Environmental influences such as lead emissions from automobiles are important in determining lead concentrations as well as species specific and organspecific differences in accumulating lead, resource differences among habitats, and differences in metabolic rate. (orig.)

  4. Measurement of phthalates in small samples of mammalian tissue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Acott, P.D.; Murphy, M.G.; Ogborn, M.R.; Crocker, J.F.S.

    1987-01-01

    Di-(2-ethylhexyl)-phthalate (DEHP) is a phthalic acid ester that is used as a plasticizer in polyvinyl chloride products, many of which have widespread medical application. DEHP has been shown to be leached from products used for storage and delivery of blood transfusions during procedures such as plasmaphoresis, hemodialysis and open heart surgery. Results of studies in this laboratory have suggested that there is an association between the absorption and deposition of DEHP (and/or related chemicals) in the kidney and the acquired renal cystic disease (ACD) frequently seen in patients who have undergone prolonged dialysis treatment. In order to determine the relationship between the two, it has been necessary to establish a method for extracting and accurately quantitating minute amounts of these chemicals in small tissue samples. The authors have now established such a method using kidneys from normal rats and from a rat model for ACD

  5. Evaluation of energy deposition by 153Sm in small samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cury, M.I.C.; Siqueira, P.T.D.; Yoriyaz, H.; Coelho, P.R.P.; Da Silva, M.A.; Okazaki, K.

    2002-01-01

    Aim: This work presents evaluations of the absorbed dose by 'in vitro' blood cultures when mixed with 153 Sm solutions of different concentrations. Although 153 Sm is used as radiopharmaceutical mainly due to its beta emission, which is short-range radiation, it also emits gamma radiation which has a longer-range penetration. Therefore it turns to be a difficult task to determine the absorbed dose by small samples where the infinite approximation is no longer valid. Materials and Methods: MCNP-4C (Monte Carlo N - Particle transport code) has been used to perform the evaluations. It is not a deterministic code that calculates the value of a specific quantity solving the physical equations involved in the problem, but a virtual experiment where the events related to the problems are simulated and the concerned quantities are tallied. MCNP also stands out by its possibilities to specify geometrically any problem. However, these features, among others, turns MCNP in a time consuming code. The simulated problem consists of a cylindrical plastic tube with 1.5 cm internal diameter and 0.1cm thickness. It also has 2.0 cm height conic bottom end, so that the represented sample has 4.0 ml ( consisted by 1 ml of blood and 3 ml culture medium). To evaluate the energy deposition in the blood culture in each 153 Sm decay, the problem has been divided in 3 steps to account to the β- emissions (which has a continuum spectrum), gammas and conversion and Auger electrons emissions. Afterwards each emission contribution was weighted and summed to present the final value. Besides this radiation 'fragmentation', simulations were performed for many different amounts of 153 Sm solution added to the sample. These amounts cover a range from 1μl to 0.5 ml. Results: The average energy per disintegration of 153 Sm is 331 keV [1]. Gammas account for 63 keV and β-, conversion and Auger electrons account for 268 keV. The simulations performed showed an average energy deposition of 260 ke

  6. Antimicrobial resistance in faecal Escherichia coli isolates from farmed red deer and wild small mammals. Detection of a multiresistant E. coli producing extended-spectrum beta-lactamase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alonso, C A; González-Barrio, D; Tenorio, Carmen; Ruiz-Fons, F; Torres, C

    2016-04-01

    Eighty-nine Escherichia coli isolates recovered from faeces of red deer and small mammals, cohabiting the same area, were analyzed to determine the prevalence and mechanisms of antimicrobial resistance and molecular typing. Antimicrobial resistance was detected in 6.7% of isolates, with resistances to tetracycline and quinolones being the most common. An E. coli strain carrying blaCTX-M-1 as well as other antibiotic resistant genes included in an unusual class 1 integron (Intl1-dfrA16-blaPSE-1-aadA2-cmlA1-aadA1-qacH-IS440-sul3-orf1-mef(B)Δ-IS26) was isolated from a deer. The blaCTX-M-1 gene was transferred by conjugation and transconjugants also acquired an IncN plasmid. This strain was typed as ST224, which seems to be well adapted to both clinical and environmental settings. The phylogenetic distribution of the 89 strains varied depending on the animal host. This work reveals low antimicrobial resistance levels among faecal E. coli from wild mammals, which reflects a lower selective pressure affecting these bacteria, compared to livestock. However, it is remarkable the detection of a multi-resistant ESBL-E. coli with an integron carrying clinically relevant antibiotic-resistance genes, which can contribute to the dissemination of resistance determinants among different ecosystems. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Influence of continental history on the ecological specialization and macroevolutionary processes in the mammalian assemblage of South America: Differences between small and large mammals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernández Manuel

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This paper tests Vrba's resource-use hypothesis, which predicts that generalist species have lower specialization and extinction rates than specialists, using the 879 species of South American mammals. We tested several predictions about this hypothesis using the biomic specialization index (BSI for each species, which is based on its geographical range within different climate-zones. The four predictions tested are: (1 there is a high frequency of species restricted to a single biome, which henceforth are referred to as stenobiomic species, (2 certain clades are more stenobiomic than others, (3 there is a higher proportion of biomic specialists in biomes that underwent through major expansion-contraction alternation due to the glacial-interglacial cycles, (4 certain combinations of inhabited biomes occur more frequently among species than do others. Results Our results are consistent with these predictions. (1 We found that 42 % of the species inhabit only one biome. (2 There are more generalists among species of Carnivora than in clades of herbivores. However, Artiodactyla, shows a distribution along the specialization gradient different from the one expected. (3 Biomic specialists are predominant in tropical rainforest and desert biomes. Nevertheless, we found some differences between small and large mammals in relation to these results. Stenobiomic species of micromammalian clades are more abundant in most biomes than expected by chance, while in the case of macromammalian clades stenobiomic species are more frequent than expected in tropical rainforest, tropical deciduous woodland and desert biomes only. (4 The most frequent combinations of inhabited biomes among the South American mammals are those with few biomes, i.e., the ones that suffered a higher rate of vicariance due to climatic cycles. Conclusion Our results agree with the resource-use hypothesis and, therefore, with a major role of the past climatic changes as

  8. Cerebral Small Vessel Disease: Cognition, Mood, Daily Functioning, and Imaging Findings from a Small Pilot Sample

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John G. Baker

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Cerebral small vessel disease, a leading cause of cognitive decline, is considered a relatively homogeneous disease process, and it can co-occur with Alzheimer’s disease. Clinical reports of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI/computed tomography and single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT imaging and neuropsychology testing for a small pilot sample of 14 patients are presented to illustrate disease characteristics through findings from structural and functional imaging and cognitive assessment. Participants showed some decreases in executive functioning, attention, processing speed, and memory retrieval, consistent with previous literature. An older subgroup showed lower age-corrected scores at a single time point compared to younger participants. Performance on a computer-administered cognitive measure showed a slight overall decline over a period of 8–28 months. For a case study with mild neuropsychology findings, the MRI report was normal while the SPECT report identified perfusion abnormalities. Future research can test whether advances in imaging analysis allow for identification of cerebral small vessel disease before changes are detected in cognition.

  9. Systematic studies of small scintillators for new sampling calorimeter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jacosalem, E.P.; Sanchez, A.L.C.; Bacala, A.M.; Iba, S.; Nakajima, N.; Ono, H.; Miyata, H.

    2007-01-01

    A new sampling calorimeter using very thin scintillators and the multi-pixel photon counter (MPPC) has been proposed to produce better position resolution for the international linear collider (ILC) experiment. As part of this R and D study, small plastic scintillators of different sizes, thickness and wrapping reflectors are systematically studied. The scintillation light due to beta rays from a collimated 90 Sr source are collected from the scintillator by wavelength-shifting (WLS) fiber and converted into electrical signals at the PMT. The wrapped scintillator that gives the best light yield is determined by comparing the measured pulse height of each 10 x 40 x 2 mm strip scintillator covered with 3M reflective mirror film, teflon, white paint, black tape, gold, aluminum and white paint+teflon. The pulse height dependence on position, length and thickness of the 3M reflective mirror film and teflon wrapped scintillators are measured. Results show that the 3M radiant mirror film-wrapped scintillator has the greatest light yield with an average of 9.2 photoelectrons. It is observed that light yield slightly increases with scintillator length, but increases to about 100% when WLS fiber diameter is increased from 1.0 mm to 1.6 mm. The position dependence measurement along the strip scintillator showed the uniformity of light transmission from the sensor to the PMT. A dip across the strip is observed which is 40% of the maximum pulse height. The block type scintillator pulse height, on the other hand, is found to be almost proportional to scintillator thickness. (author)

  10. Ecology, distribution, and predictive occurrence modeling of Palmers chipmunk (Tamias palmeri): a high-elevation small mammal endemic to the Spring Mountains in southern Nevada, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowrey, Chris E.; Longshore, Kathleen M.; Riddle, Brett R.; Mantooth, Stacy

    2016-01-01

    Although montane sky islands surrounded by desert scrub and shrub steppe comprise a large part of the biological diversity of the Basin and Range Province of southwestern North America, comprehensive ecological and population demographic studies for high-elevation small mammals within these areas are rare. Here, we examine the ecology and population parameters of the Palmer’s chipmunk (Tamias palmeri) in the Spring Mountains of southern Nevada, and present a predictive GIS-based distribution and probability of occurrence model at both home range and geographic spatial scales. Logistic regression analyses and Akaike Information Criterion model selection found variables of forest type, slope, and distance to water sources as predictive of chipmunk occurrence at the geographic scale. At the home range scale, increasing population density, decreasing overstory canopy cover, and decreasing understory canopy cover contributed to increased survival rates.

  11. Blood parasites, total plasma protein and packed cell volume of small wild mammals trapped in three mountain ranges of the Atlantic Forest in Southeastern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MAML. Silva

    Full Text Available A study of blood parasites in small wild non-flying mammals was undertaken in three areas of the Atlantic Forest in Southeastern Brazil: Serra de Itatiaia, RJ, Serra da Bocaina, SP and Serra da Fartura, SP, from June 1999 to May 2001. A total of 450 animals (15 species were captured in traps and it was observed in 15.5% of the blood smears the presence of Haemobartonella sp. and Babesia sp. in red blood cells. There was no statistically significant difference between parasited and non-parasited specimens regarding total plasma protein, packed cell volume and body weight, which strongly suggests that these specimens might be parasite reservoirs.

  12. Determinants of capture-recapture success: an evaluation of trapping methods to estimate population and community parameters for Atlantic forest small mammals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camila S. Barros

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Efficiently obtaining high-quality data on animal populations and communities is paramount for ecological and conservation studies. In many instances these data come from live-trapping, the success of which depends on various factors, such as the interaction between the trap's mechanisms and the morphological or ecological characteristics of the animals, and weather conditions that can affect both trap efficiency and animal behavior. Integrative approaches that address the simultaneous effects of these factors on capture-recapture success are rare. Here we contribute to close this knowledge gap by focusing on a large capture-recapture dataset from three 2-ha grids monitored for approximately two years (totaling 55.000 traps-night in the Morro Grande Forest Reserve, São Paulo, Brazil. The dataset contains data on 3608 captures of 1273 individuals from 24 species of Atlantic forest small mammals. We evaluated if mortality rates and the capture-recapture success of small mammals varied between two types of trap (Sherman and pitfall, and if the capture success of each type varied with age and sex of individuals, and with weather conditions. Our findings highlight that trap efficiency depends not only on the quantities considered (species, individuals or recaptures, but also on animal characteristics and weather conditions. Large pitfall traps should be used whenever the focus is on biodiversity and community parameters, since they captured more individuals and species. Studies focusing on demographic parameters require the combined use of pitfall and Sherman traps. While pitfall traps captured a larger number of individuals and a higher proportion of juveniles, Sherman traps provided higher recapture rates for most species.

  13. Predicting the effect of ionising radiation on biological populations: testing of a non-linear Leslie model applied to a small mammal population

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Monte, Luigi

    2013-01-01

    The present work describes the application of a non-linear Leslie model for predicting the effects of ionising radiation on wild populations. The model assumes that, for protracted chronic irradiation, the effect-dose relationship is linear. In particular, the effects of radiation are modelled by relating the increase in the mortality rates of the individuals to the dose rates through a proportionality factor C. The model was tested using independent data and information from a series of experiments that were aimed at assessing the response to radiation of wild populations of meadow voles and whose results were described in the international literature. The comparison of the model results with the data selected from the above mentioned experiments showed that the model overestimated the detrimental effects of radiation on the size of irradiated populations when the values of C were within the range derived from the median lethal dose (L 50 ) for small mammals. The described non-linear model suggests that the non-expressed biotic potential of the species whose growth is limited by processes of environmental resistance, such as the competition among the individuals of the same or of different species for the exploitation of the available resources, can be a factor that determines a more effective response of population to the radiation effects. -- Highlights: • A model to assess the radiation effects on wild population is described. • The model is based on non-linear Leslie matrix. • The model is applied to small mammals living in an irradiated meadow. • Model output is conservative if effect-dose factor estimated from L 50 is used. • Systemic response to stress of populations in competitive conditions may be more effective

  14. Phylogeography of the Asian lesser white-toothed shrew, Crocidura shantungensis, in East Asia: role of the Korean Peninsula as refugium for small mammals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Seo-Jin; Lee, Mu-Yeong; Lin, Liang-Kong; Lin, Y Kirk; Li, Yuchun; Shin, E-Hyun; Han, Sang-Hoon; Min, Mi-Sook; Lee, Hang; Kim, Kyung Seok

    2018-04-01

    Many peninsulas in the temperate zone played an important role as refugia of various flora and fauna, and the southern Korean Peninsula also served as a refugium for many small mammals in East Asia during the Pleistocene. The Asian lesser white-toothed shrew, Crocidura shantungensis, is a widely distributed species in East Asia, and is an appropriate model organism for exploring the role of the Korean Peninsula as a refugium of small mammals. Here, we investigated phylogenetic relationships and genetic diversity based on the entire sequence of the mitochondrial cytochrome b gene (1140 bp). A Bayesian tree for 98 haplotypes detected in 228 C. shantungensis specimens from East Asia revealed the presence of three major groups with at least 5 subgroups. Most haplotypes were distributed according to their geographic proximity. Pairwise F ST 's and analysis of molecular variance (AMOVA) revealed a high degree of genetic differentiation and variance among regions as well as among populations within region, implying little gene flow among local populations. Genetic evidence from South Korean islands, Jeju-do Island of South Korea, and Taiwan leads us to reject the hypothesis of recent population expansion. We observed unique island-type genetic characteristics consistent with geographic isolation and resultant genetic drift. Phylogeographic inference, together with estimates of genetic differentiation and diversity, suggest that the southern most part the Korean Peninsula, including offshore islands, played an important role as a refugium for C. shantungensis during the Pleistocene. However, the presence of several refugia on the mainland of northeast Asia is also proposed.

  15. Inverse Gaussian model for small area estimation via Gibbs sampling

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    We present a Bayesian method for estimating small area parameters under an inverse Gaussian model. The method is extended to estimate small area parameters for finite populations. The Gibbs sampler is proposed as a mechanism for implementing the Bayesian paradigm. We illustrate the method by application to ...

  16. Marine Mammals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meith, Nikki

    Marine mammals have not only fascinated and inspired human beings for thousands of years, but they also support a big business by providing flesh for sea-borne factories, sustaining Arctic lifestyles and traditions, and attracting tourists to ocean aquaria. While they are being harpooned, bludgeoned, shot, netted, and trained to jump through…

  17. Taphonomy and palaeoecology of the late Pleistocene to middle Holocene small mammal succession of El Harhoura 2 cave (Rabat-Témara, Morocco).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoetzel, Emmanuelle; Marion, Lucile; Nespoulet, Roland; El Hajraoui, Mohammed Abdeljalil; Denys, Christiane

    2011-01-01

    The relationship between local and global climatic variations and the origin and dispersal of Homo sapiens in Africa is complex, and North Africa may have played a major role in these events. In Morocco, very few studies are specifically dedicated to small fossil vertebrates, and neither taphonomic nor palaeoecological studies have been undertaken on these taxa, particularly in archaeological contexts. The late Pleistocene to middle Holocene succession of El Harhoura 2 cave, situated in the region of Témara, yields an exceptionally rich small vertebrate assemblage. We present the results of a first systematic, taphonomic, and palaeoecological study of the small mammals from Levels 1 to 8 of El Harhoura 2. The absence of bone sorting and polishing, as well as the presence of significant traces of digestion indicate that the small mammal bones were accumulated in the cave by predators and that no water transport occurred. Other traces observed on the surface of bones consist mainly of root marks and black traces (micro-organisms or more probably manganese) which affected the majority of the material. The percentage of fragmentation is very high in all stratigraphic levels, and the post-depositional breakage (geologic and anthropogenic phenomena) obscure the original breakage patterns of bones by predators. According to the ecology of the different species present in the levels of El Harhoura 2, and by taking into account possible biases highlighted by the taphonomic analysis, we reconstruct the palaeoenvironmental evolution in the region. For quantitative reconstructions we used two indices: the Taxonomic Habitat Index (THI) and the Gerbillinae/Murinae ratio. Late Pleistocene accumulations were characterised by a succession of humid (Levels 3, 4a, 6, and 8) and arid (Levels 2?, 5, and 7) periods, with more or less open landscapes, ending in an ultimate humid and wooded period during the middle Holocene (Level 1). We discuss particular limits of our results and

  18. Arthropod consumption by small mammals on prairie dog colonies and adjacent ungrazed mixed grass prairie in western South Dakota

    Science.gov (United States)

    W. Agnew; Daniel W. Uresk; R. M. Hansen

    1988-01-01

    The percentage of arthropods and plants in the diets of seven small rodents captured on prairie dog colonies and adjacent mixed grasslands were estimated by microhistological techniques. Arthropod composition over the two year study averaged 51% and 37% on prairie dog colonies and mixed grasslands, respectively. Composition of arthropods on prairie dog colonies was...

  19. Collateral Information for Equating in Small Samples: A Preliminary Investigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sooyeon; Livingston, Samuel A.; Lewis, Charles

    2011-01-01

    This article describes a preliminary investigation of an empirical Bayes (EB) procedure for using collateral information to improve equating of scores on test forms taken by small numbers of examinees. Resampling studies were done on two different forms of the same test. In each study, EB and non-EB versions of two equating methods--chained linear…

  20. Small mammal taxonomy, taphonomy, and the paleoenvironmental record during the Middle and Upper Paleolithic at Geißenklösterle Cave (Ach Valley, southwestern Germany)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhodes, Sara E.; Ziegler, Reinhard; Starkovich, Britt M.; Conard, Nicholas J.

    2018-04-01

    the proportion of cold tundra adapted species, suggesting that the tundra expanded leading up to the Neanderthal depopulation, but no period of drastic climatic change is recognizable. The Aurignacian was significantly colder and drier than the preceding period, with cold tundra expansion reaching its apex (for the time period studied). Based on these results the Swabian landscape first encountered by Aurignacian groups was significantly less hospitable than that known to the earlier Middle Paleolithic populations. These results correlate well with past paleoenvironmental reconstructions based on sedimentary, botanical, and faunal assemblages. There is no evidence in the small mammal record that climatic pressure drove Neanderthals from the Ach Valley, instead it seems likely they enjoyed a more temperate environment than later Aurignacian groups. Ongoing work focused on greater resolution of these climatic oscillations at similarly well-dated Swabian sites will shed further light on the timing and speed of this climatic shift and the response of the biological communities affected, including early human groups.

  1. Giardia survey in live-trapped small domestic and wild mammals in four regions in the southwest region of the State of São Paulo, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Inês L. Sogayar

    1995-12-01

    Full Text Available For the first time, a survey on Giardia in the live-trapped small domestic and wild mammals was perfomed in four regions of state of the São Paulo, Brazil, with special attention to the parasitism of Rattus rattus rattus by Giardia. This species was found infected in all studied sites: Botucatu (15.4%, Conchas (28.5%, Itaporanga (38.7% and São Roque (100 %. Two new hosts and their frequency of infection were described for Giardia in Nectomys squamipes, an aquatic rodent and in Bolomys lasiurus, a forest rodent (100 % and 14.3 %, respectively. Both G. muris and G. duodenalis groups were found in scrapings of intestinal mucosa of those rodents. Mixed infection was observed in some animals. It is important to emphasize the infection by G. duodenalis in the black rat as this species lives as a comensal with man and in N. squamipes as it may contaminate small streams used for domestic consumption. Therefore, further investigation will be necessary to elucidate the potential of these rodents to act as reservoirs of Giardia for man.

  2. Minimally invasive collection of adipose tissue facilitates the study of eco-physiology in small-bodied mammals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeff Clerc; Theodore J. Weller; Jeffrey B. Schineller; Joseph M. Szewczak; Diana Fisher

    2016-01-01

    Adipose tissue is the primary fuel storage for vertebrates and is an important component of energy budgets during periods of peak energetic demands. Investigating the composition of adipose tissue can provide information about energetics, migration, reproduction, and other life-history traits. Until now, most field methods for sampling the adipose tissue of...

  3. Safety evaluation of small samples for isotope production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharma, Archana; Singh, Tej; Varde, P.V.

    2015-09-01

    Radioactive isotopes are widely used in basic and applied science and engineering, most notably as environmental and industrial tracers, and for medical imaging procedures. Production of radioisotope constitutes important activity of Indian nuclear program. Since its initial criticality DHRUVA reactor has been facilitating the regular supply of most of the radioisotopes required in the country for application in the fields of medicine, industry and agriculture. In-pile irradiation of the samples requires a prior estimation of the sample reactivity load, heating rate, activity developed and shielding thickness required for post irradiation handling. This report is an attempt to highlight the contributions of DHRUVA reactor, as well as to explain in detail the methodologies used in safety evaluation of the in pile irradiation samples. (author)

  4. A high-efficiency neutron coincidence counter for small samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, M.C.; Menlove, H.O.; Russo, P.A.

    1991-01-01

    The inventory sample coincidence counter (INVS) has been modified to enhance its performance. The new design is suitable for use with a glove box sample-well (in-line application) as well as for use in the standard at-line mode. The counter has been redesigned to count more efficiently and be less sensitive to variations in sample position. These factors lead to a higher degree of precision and accuracy in a given counting period and allow for the practical use of the INVS counter with gamma-ray isotopics to obtain a plutonium assay independent of operator declarations and time-consuming chemicals analysis. A calculation study was performed using the Los Alamos transport code MCNP to optimize the design parameters. 5 refs., 7 figs., 8 tabs

  5. Reliability assessment based on small samples of normal distribution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ma Zhibo; Zhu Jianshi; Xu Naixin

    2003-01-01

    When the pertinent parameter involved in reliability definition complies with normal distribution, the conjugate prior of its distributing parameters (μ, h) is of normal-gamma distribution. With the help of maximum entropy and the moments-equivalence principles, the subjective information of the parameter and the sampling data of its independent variables are transformed to a Bayesian prior of (μ,h). The desired estimates are obtained from either the prior or the posterior which is formed by combining the prior and sampling data. Computing methods are described and examples are presented to give demonstrations

  6. Estimation of individual reference intervals in small sample sizes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Ase Marie; Garde, Anne Helene; Eller, Nanna Hurwitz

    2007-01-01

    In occupational health studies, the study groups most often comprise healthy subjects performing their work. Sampling is often planned in the most practical way, e.g., sampling of blood in the morning at the work site just after the work starts. Optimal use of reference intervals requires...... from various variables such as gender, age, BMI, alcohol, smoking, and menopause. The reference intervals were compared to reference intervals calculated using IFCC recommendations. Where comparable, the IFCC calculated reference intervals had a wider range compared to the variance component models...

  7. The small mammals of an upper piedmontese Po plain site (Leinì, Turin prov. / La micromammalofauna di una stazione planiziaria piemontese

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuseppe Osella

    1986-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The 24 small mammals listed as living in Leinì (Piedmontese Po plain, near Turin, 245 m on sea level (only the red fox, Vulpes vulpes is not sure, are briefly analysed (Chiroptera excepted. List and analysis are the results of studies pursued for about 35 years. However, in Verona's Museum of Natural History, the housed materials are related to the last eighteen years (1966-1984 (Tab. I. For a complete analysis, this fauna is compared with the Veronese Po plain one, especially with the Busatello one (Gazzo Veronese-Ostiglia. This site is a stretch of marshes named "Valli Grandi Veronesi and Ostigliesi" (Tab. II. In this analysis, if we don't consider the not native species (Myocastor coypus and Mustela vison, the estinguished species (Lutra lutra, the Mediterranean species (living only along the border of the Po plain basin (Suncus etruscus and the hunting species (Lepus europaeus and Oryctolagus cuniculus we have 23 taxa for Lein and only 17 and 13, respectively, for Veronese Po plain and Busatello. The richer small mammal fauna of the Piedmontese Po plain is, above all, supported by different ecological conditions but the preservation of some species (e.g. Glis glis and Muscardinus avellanarius in Leinì is surely related also to historical problems and to a land anthropization pushed forward to a lesser degree. Riassunto Vengono elencate e brevemente commentate tutte le specie di micromammiferi presenti a Leinì (Torino, Chirotteri esclusi. Si tratta di un complesso di 24 specie (solo la volpe non è del tutto sicura per ognuna delle quali gli autori, sinteticamente, espongono le osservazioni raccolte in circa 35 anni. A maggior chiarimento del significato faunistico del popolamento, viene presa in esame anche la micromammalofauna della pianura padano veneta, precisamente la pianura veronese ed in particolar modo la

  8. Mars ascent propulsion options for small sample return vehicles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whitehead, J. C.

    1997-01-01

    An unprecedented combination of high propellant fraction and small size is required for affordable-scale Mars return, regardless of the number of stages, or whether Mars orbit rendezvous or in-situ propellant options are used. Conventional space propulsion technology is too heavy, even without structure or other stage subsystems. The application of launch vehicle design principles to the development of new hardware on a tiny scale is therefore suggested. Miniature pump-fed rocket engines fed by low pressure tanks can help to meet this challenge. New concepts for engine cycles using piston pumps are described, and development issues are outlined

  9. Advanced path sampling of the kinetic network of small proteins

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Du, W.

    2014-01-01

    This thesis is focused on developing advanced path sampling simulation methods to study protein folding and unfolding, and to build kinetic equilibrium networks describing these processes. In Chapter 1 the basic knowledge of protein structure and folding theories were introduced and a brief overview

  10. Small sample approach, and statistical and epidemiological aspects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Offringa, Martin; van der Lee, Hanneke

    2011-01-01

    In this chapter, the design of pharmacokinetic studies and phase III trials in children is discussed. Classical approaches and relatively novel approaches, which may be more useful in the context of drug research in children, are discussed. The burden of repeated blood sampling in pediatric

  11. Standard Format for Chromatographic-polarimetric System small samples assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naranjo, S.; Fajer, V.; Fonfria, C.; Patinno, R.

    2012-01-01

    The treatment of samples containing optically active substances to be evaluated as part of quality control of raw material entering industrial process, and also during the modifications exerted on it to obtain the desired final composition is still and unsolved problem for many industries. That is the case of sugarcane industry. Sometimes the troubles implied are enlarged because samples to be evaluated are not bigger than one milliliter. Reduction of gel beds in G-10 and G-50 chromatographic columns having an inner diameter of 16 mm, instead of 25, and bed heights adjustable to requirements by means of sliding stoppers to increase analytical power were evaluated with glucose and sucrose standards in concentrations from 1 to 10 g/dL, using aliquots of 1 ml without undesirable dilutions that could affect either detection or chromatographic profile. Assays with seaweed extracts gave good results that are shown. It is established the advantage to know concentration of a separated substance by the height of its peak and the savings in time and reagents resulting . Sample expanded uncertainty in both systems is compared. It is also presented several programs for data acquisition, storing and processing. (Author)

  12. Landscape resistance and habitat combine to provide an optimal model of genetic structure and connectivity at the range margin of a small mammal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marrotte, R R; Gonzalez, A; Millien, V

    2014-08-01

    We evaluated the effect of habitat and landscape characteristics on the population genetic structure of the white-footed mouse. We develop a new approach that uses numerical optimization to define a model that combines site differences and landscape resistance to explain the genetic differentiation between mouse populations inhabiting forest patches in southern Québec. We used ecological distance computed from resistance surfaces with Circuitscape to infer the effect of the landscape matrix on gene flow. We calculated site differences using a site index of habitat characteristics. A model that combined site differences and resistance distances explained a high proportion of the variance in genetic differentiation and outperformed models that used geographical distance alone. Urban and agriculture-related land uses were, respectively, the most and the least resistant landscape features influencing gene flow. Our method detected the effect of rivers and highways as highly resistant linear barriers. The density of grass and shrubs on the ground best explained the variation in the site index of habitat characteristics. Our model indicates that movement of white-footed mouse in this region is constrained along routes of low resistance. Our approach can generate models that may improve predictions of future northward range expansion of this small mammal. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. Impact of multicollinearity on small sample hydrologic regression models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kroll, Charles N.; Song, Peter

    2013-06-01

    Often hydrologic regression models are developed with ordinary least squares (OLS) procedures. The use of OLS with highly correlated explanatory variables produces multicollinearity, which creates highly sensitive parameter estimators with inflated variances and improper model selection. It is not clear how to best address multicollinearity in hydrologic regression models. Here a Monte Carlo simulation is developed to compare four techniques to address multicollinearity: OLS, OLS with variance inflation factor screening (VIF), principal component regression (PCR), and partial least squares regression (PLS). The performance of these four techniques was observed for varying sample sizes, correlation coefficients between the explanatory variables, and model error variances consistent with hydrologic regional regression models. The negative effects of multicollinearity are magnified at smaller sample sizes, higher correlations between the variables, and larger model error variances (smaller R2). The Monte Carlo simulation indicates that if the true model is known, multicollinearity is present, and the estimation and statistical testing of regression parameters are of interest, then PCR or PLS should be employed. If the model is unknown, or if the interest is solely on model predictions, is it recommended that OLS be employed since using more complicated techniques did not produce any improvement in model performance. A leave-one-out cross-validation case study was also performed using low-streamflow data sets from the eastern United States. Results indicate that OLS with stepwise selection generally produces models across study regions with varying levels of multicollinearity that are as good as biased regression techniques such as PCR and PLS.

  14. Automated Sampling and Extraction of Krypton from Small Air Samples for Kr-85 Measurement Using Atom Trap Trace Analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hebel, S.; Hands, J.; Goering, F.; Kirchner, G.; Purtschert, R.

    2015-01-01

    Atom-Trap-Trace-Analysis (ATTA) provides the capability of measuring the Krypton-85 concentration in microlitre amounts of krypton extracted from air samples of about 1 litre. This sample size is sufficiently small to allow for a range of applications, including on-site spot sampling and continuous sampling over periods of several hours. All samples can be easily handled and transported to an off-site laboratory for ATTA measurement, or stored and analyzed on demand. Bayesian sampling methodologies can be applied by blending samples for bulk measurement and performing in-depth analysis as required. Prerequisite for measurement is the extraction of a pure krypton fraction from the sample. This paper introduces an extraction unit able to isolate the krypton in small ambient air samples with high speed, high efficiency and in a fully automated manner using a combination of cryogenic distillation and gas chromatography. Air samples are collected using an automated smart sampler developed in-house to achieve a constant sampling rate over adjustable time periods ranging from 5 minutes to 3 hours per sample. The smart sampler can be deployed in the field and operate on battery for one week to take up to 60 air samples. This high flexibility of sampling and the fast, robust sample preparation are a valuable tool for research and the application of Kr-85 measurements to novel Safeguards procedures. (author)

  15. A semiarid fruit agroecosystem as a conservation-friendly option for small mammals in an anthropized landscape in Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riojas-López, Mónica E; Mellink, Eric; Luévano, Jaime

    2018-03-01

    Many studies have addressed the potential of low-input agroecosystems for biological conservation. However, most have been carried out on annual agroecosystems in temperate, developed countries. As agricultural surface will increase and natural protected areas alone will not warrant the conservation of biodiversity, it is crucial to include different types of agroecosystems in research and conservation efforts. In Mexico, perennial, low-input, fruit-oriented nopal orchards (Opuntia spp.), one of the few crops suitable for semiarid areas, are the 10th out of 61 most important fruit crops grown in the country. We assessed their value for conservation in an anthropized landscape by comparing their rodent assemblages with those in adjacent habitats and determined the influence of the latter on the rodent communities inside them. We live-trapped rodents in 12 orchards and adjacent natural xeric shrubland, grassland, and cropland. We captured 19 different species, of which 17 used the orchards. Four are Mexican endemics. Orchards have higher α diversity, species richness, and abundance than cropland and grassland and are not different from shrubland. The dominant rodent species are the same in orchards and shrubland, and where these two meet they integrate into one habitat. Within-habitat quality is a critical driver of the composition and diversity of rodent communities in the orchards studied, and the neighboring habitats do not modify them substantially. Increasing within-patch heterogeneity beyond a certain level is at the expense of habitat integrity and produces small-scale fragmentation reducing habitat quality. At a landscape scale, orchards contribute importantly to regional rodent diversity compared with other land use types, and appear to increase habitat connectivity between patches of shrubland. Orchards' higher α diversity would give them higher ecological resilience and make them better suited than grassland and cropland to contribute to the conservation

  16. Predicting Drug-Target Interactions Based on Small Positive Samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Pengwei; Chan, Keith C C; Hu, Yanxing

    2018-01-01

    evaluation of ODT shows that it can be potentially useful. It confirms that predicting potential or missing DTIs based on the known interactions is a promising direction to solve problems related to the use of uncertain and unreliable negative samples and those related to the great demand in computational resources. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  17. Comparing Server Energy Use and Efficiency Using Small Sample Sizes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coles, Henry C.; Qin, Yong; Price, Phillip N.

    2014-11-01

    This report documents a demonstration that compared the energy consumption and efficiency of a limited sample size of server-type IT equipment from different manufacturers by measuring power at the server power supply power cords. The results are specific to the equipment and methods used. However, it is hoped that those responsible for IT equipment selection can used the methods described to choose models that optimize energy use efficiency. The demonstration was conducted in a data center at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory in Berkeley, California. It was performed with five servers of similar mechanical and electronic specifications; three from Intel and one each from Dell and Supermicro. Server IT equipment is constructed using commodity components, server manufacturer-designed assemblies, and control systems. Server compute efficiency is constrained by the commodity component specifications and integration requirements. The design freedom, outside of the commodity component constraints, provides room for the manufacturer to offer a product with competitive efficiency that meets market needs at a compelling price. A goal of the demonstration was to compare and quantify the server efficiency for three different brands. The efficiency is defined as the average compute rate (computations per unit of time) divided by the average energy consumption rate. The research team used an industry standard benchmark software package to provide a repeatable software load to obtain the compute rate and provide a variety of power consumption levels. Energy use when the servers were in an idle state (not providing computing work) were also measured. At high server compute loads, all brands, using the same key components (processors and memory), had similar results; therefore, from these results, it could not be concluded that one brand is more efficient than the other brands. The test results show that the power consumption variability caused by the key components as a

  18. Alaska Wilderness: A Bibliography for Secondary Students on Marine Vertebrates, Birds, Small or Fur Bearing Mammals and Game Animals of Alaska.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Symons, Ann

    This is an annotated bibliography for secondary school students. It contains fourteen entries on marine vertebrates, nine entries on birds, twenty-nine entries on mammals, and one on amphibians and reptiles. Some of the entries are fiction. (BB)

  19. (Proteaceae) seeds by small mammals

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1993-02-16

    Feb 16, 1993 ... numbers with changes in certian ecological conditions. M.Sc. dissertation, University of Stellenbosch, South Africa, 73 pp. .... One live trap was set at each station on four consecutive nights. Traps were baited with a mixture of peanut butter, lard and candle wax (1:1:1 by mass) melted together and.

  20. Exotic Small Mammals and Bartonella

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    In this podcast, Dr. Nina Marano discusses Bartonella, a bacterial agent that’s prevalent in many species, including cats, dogs, and cattle. Wild animals are normally thought to carry Bartonella, so when animals are caught in the wild for pet trade, the risk that humans can become infected with Bartonella increases. Bartonella is an identified risk associated with ownership of exotic animals and has serious health consequences.

  1. Exotic Small Mammals and Bartonella

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2009-04-09

    In this podcast, Dr. Nina Marano discusses Bartonella, a bacterial agent that’s prevalent in many species, including cats, dogs, and cattle. Wild animals are normally thought to carry Bartonella, so when animals are caught in the wild for pet trade, the risk that humans can become infected with Bartonella increases. Bartonella is an identified risk associated with ownership of exotic animals and has serious health consequences.  Created: 4/9/2009 by Emerging Infectious Diseases.   Date Released: 4/9/2009.

  2. Modern mammal origins: evolutionary grades in the Early Cretaceous of North America.

    OpenAIRE

    Jacobs, L L; Winkler, D A; Murry, P A

    1989-01-01

    Major groups of modern mammals have their origins in the Mesozoic Era, yet the mammalian fossil record is generally poor for that time interval. Fundamental morphological changes that led to modern mammals are often represented by small samples of isolated teeth. Fortunately, functional wear facets on teeth allow prediction of the morphology of occluding teeth that may be unrepresented by fossils. A major step in mammalian evolution occurred in the Early Cretaceous with the evolution of tribo...

  3. Optimizing the triple-axis spectrometer PANDA at the MLZ for small samples and complex sample environment conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Utschick, C.; Skoulatos, M.; Schneidewind, A.; Böni, P.

    2016-11-01

    The cold-neutron triple-axis spectrometer PANDA at the neutron source FRM II has been serving an international user community studying condensed matter physics problems. We report on a new setup, improving the signal-to-noise ratio for small samples and pressure cell setups. Analytical and numerical Monte Carlo methods are used for the optimization of elliptic and parabolic focusing guides. They are placed between the monochromator and sample positions, and the flux at the sample is compared to the one achieved by standard monochromator focusing techniques. A 25 times smaller spot size is achieved, associated with a factor of 2 increased intensity, within the same divergence limits, ± 2 ° . This optional neutron focusing guide shall establish a top-class spectrometer for studying novel exotic properties of matter in combination with more stringent sample environment conditions such as extreme pressures associated with small sample sizes.

  4. Multiple-locus variable-number tandem repeat analysis of Leptospira interrogans and Leptospira borgpetersenii isolated from small feral and wild mammals in East Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koizumi, Nobuo; Izumiya, Hidemasa; Mu, Jung-Jung; Arent, Zbigniew; Okano, Shou; Nakajima, Chie; Suzuki, Yasuhiko; Mizutani Muto, Maki; Tanikawa, Tsutomu; Taylor, Kyle R; Komatsu, Noriyuki; Yoshimatsu, Kumiko; Thi Thu Ha, Hoang; Ohnishi, Makoto

    2015-12-01

    Leptospira spp. are the causative agents of a worldwide zoonosis, leptospirosis, maintained by various mammals. Each Leptospira serovar is frequently associated with a particular maintenance host, and recently, Leptospira genotype-host association has also been suggested to limit serovars to restricted areas. We investigated the molecular characteristics of L. interrogans and L. borgpetersenii which were isolated from small feral and wild animals in four East Asian states using multiple-locus variable-number tandem repeat analysis (MLVA). MLVA using 11 loci was performed on 110 L. interrogans serogroups from Japan (79 strains of 5 serogroups from 3 animal species), Philippines (21; 3; 2), Taiwan (7; 2; 3), and Vietnam (3; 1; 1). A MLVA method using 4 loci for L. borgpetersenii was established and performed on 52 isolates from Japan (26; 3; 7), Philippines (13; 1; 2), and Taiwan (13; 1; 3). In L. interrogans, serogroups Autumnalis and Hebdomadis appeared more genetically diverse than serogroups Bataviae, Grippotyphosa, Icterohaemorrhagiae, Pomona, or Pyrogenes. The former serogroup strains with the exception of one Hebdomadis strain were isolated from Apodemus speciosus while all the latter serogroup strains with the exception of Grippotyphosa were isolated from Rattus norvegicus. L. borgpetersenii was isolated from at least 11 animal species while L. interrogans was isolated from five species, which might suggest a wider host range for L. borgpetersenii. Broad host preference in a single genotype was also observed, which colonized not only different species of the same genera but also multiple animal genera. This study demonstrates that there may be variability in the range of genetic diversity among different Leptospira serogroups, which may be attributed to maintenance host animals and environmental factors. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  5. This week?s Citation Classic: 'Stickel, L. F. A comparison of certain methods of measuring ranges of small mammals. J. Mammalogy 35: 1-15, 1954.'

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stickel, L.F.

    1986-01-01

    During my first employment as a junior biologist conducting food habits analyses at the Patuxent Research Refuge (now Patuxent Wildlife Research Center) of the US Fish and Wildlife Service, the first station director, Arnold L. Nelson, gave each staff biologist the opportunity to spend a little time conducting field studies on the 2,600-acre research area. These studies were to help in ecological evaluation of the area, but also, no doubt, functioned as a morale builder for biologists daily engaged in difficult, demanding and confining laboratory work. I undertook to measure the population density of small mammals in different habitats. The state-of-the-art methods recommended to me and prevalent in the literature worried me, especially after preliminary field work. Reading the classic, paper by W.H. Burt [Terrioriality and home range concepts as applied to mammals. J. Mammalogy 24:346-352, 1943] was a turning point for me in seeing that knowledge of home-range size was the key to measuring population density. My first papers employed these concepts in field evaluations. However, they could give-only limited attention to the question of how home ranges could be measured. Furthermore, the importance of knowledge of the home range to habitat evaluation and to understanding animal behavior was becoming increasingly apparent. Advocacy of many different methods of measuring home ranges appeared in the literature. It did not seem possible to evaluate them objectively. It occurred to me that artificial populations could be used to help in understanding the mechanisms of measuring home ranges. The effects of random trap-visiting, bias toward central traps, trap-spacing, range shape, and other factors could be considered. So grids of traps were inked onto oversize graph paper, and simulated ranges were cut from plastic to be tossed as randomly as possible on the trap-grids. It was a slow, laborious job. Analysis showed that random captures in artificial populations produced

  6. Mechanical characteristics of historic mortars from tests on small-sample non-standard on small-sample non-standard specimens

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Drdácký, Miloš; Slížková, Zuzana

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 17, č. 1 (2008), s. 20-29 ISSN 1407-7353 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA103/06/1609 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20710524 Keywords : small-sample non-standard testing * lime * historic mortar Subject RIV: AL - Art, Architecture, Cultural Heritage

  7. TableSim--A program for analysis of small-sample categorical data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    David J. Rugg

    2003-01-01

    Documents a computer program for calculating correct P-values of 1-way and 2-way tables when sample sizes are small. The program is written in Fortran 90; the executable code runs in 32-bit Microsoft-- command line environments.

  8. Small-vessel Survey and Auction Sampling to Estimate Growth and Maturity of Eteline Snappers

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Small-vessel Survey and Auction Sampling to Estimate Growth and Maturity of Eteline Snappers and Improve Data-Limited Stock Assessments. This biosampling project...

  9. Interval estimation methods of the mean in small sample situation and the results' comparison

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu Changli; Guo Chunying; Jiang Meng; Lin Yuangen

    2009-01-01

    The methods of the sample mean's interval estimation, namely the classical method, the Bootstrap method, the Bayesian Bootstrap method, the Jackknife method and the spread method of the Empirical Characteristic distribution function are described. Numerical calculation on the samples' mean intervals is carried out where the numbers of the samples are 4, 5, 6 respectively. The results indicate the Bootstrap method and the Bayesian Bootstrap method are much more appropriate than others in small sample situation. (authors)

  10. Lithuanian mammal fauna review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linas Balciauskas

    1996-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Data on Lithuania mammal fauna are presented. From 78 mammal species recorded in Lithuania, 7 were seen only in the 17-18th centuries, two species are extinct. Recent Lithuanian mammal fauna contains 68 species. Five of them are observed occasionally. 63 mammal species are permant inhabitants, 18 included in the Red Data Book, mostly bats and dormice. 8 mammal species were introduced or reintroduced. Population tendencies of game animals are also considered.

  11. Uncertainty budget in internal monostandard NAA for small and large size samples analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dasari, K.B.; Acharya, R.

    2014-01-01

    Total uncertainty budget evaluation on determined concentration value is important under quality assurance programme. Concentration calculation in NAA or carried out by relative NAA and k0 based internal monostandard NAA (IM-NAA) method. IM-NAA method has been used for small and large sample analysis of clay potteries. An attempt was made to identify the uncertainty components in IM-NAA and uncertainty budget for La in both small and large size samples has been evaluated and compared. (author)

  12. The Accuracy of Inference in Small Samples of Dynamic Panel Data Models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bun, M.J.G.; Kiviet, J.F.

    2001-01-01

    Through Monte Carlo experiments the small sample behavior is examined of various inference techniques for dynamic panel data models when both the time-series and cross-section dimensions of the data set are small. The LSDV technique and corrected versions of it are compared with IV and GMM

  13. Estimating sample size for a small-quadrat method of botanical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Reports the results of a study conducted to determine an appropriate sample size for a small-quadrat method of botanical survey for application in the Mixed Bushveld of South Africa. Species density and grass density were measured using a small-quadrat method in eight plant communities in the Nylsvley Nature Reserve.

  14. Integrating sphere based reflectance measurements for small-area semiconductor samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saylan, S.; Howells, C. T.; Dahlem, M. S.

    2018-05-01

    This article describes a method that enables reflectance spectroscopy of small semiconductor samples using an integrating sphere, without the use of additional optical elements. We employed an inexpensive sample holder to measure the reflectance of different samples through 2-, 3-, and 4.5-mm-diameter apertures and applied a mathematical formulation to remove the bias from the measured spectra caused by illumination of the holder. Using the proposed method, the reflectance of samples fabricated using expensive or rare materials and/or low-throughput processes can be measured. It can also be incorporated to infer the internal quantum efficiency of small-area, research-level solar cells. Moreover, small samples that reflect light at large angles and develop scattering may also be measured reliably, by virtue of an integrating sphere insensitive to directionalities.

  15. Speeding Up Non-Parametric Bootstrap Computations for Statistics Based on Sample Moments in Small/Moderate Sample Size Applications.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elias Chaibub Neto

    Full Text Available In this paper we propose a vectorized implementation of the non-parametric bootstrap for statistics based on sample moments. Basically, we adopt the multinomial sampling formulation of the non-parametric bootstrap, and compute bootstrap replications of sample moment statistics by simply weighting the observed data according to multinomial counts instead of evaluating the statistic on a resampled version of the observed data. Using this formulation we can generate a matrix of bootstrap weights and compute the entire vector of bootstrap replications with a few matrix multiplications. Vectorization is particularly important for matrix-oriented programming languages such as R, where matrix/vector calculations tend to be faster than scalar operations implemented in a loop. We illustrate the application of the vectorized implementation in real and simulated data sets, when bootstrapping Pearson's sample correlation coefficient, and compared its performance against two state-of-the-art R implementations of the non-parametric bootstrap, as well as a straightforward one based on a for loop. Our investigations spanned varying sample sizes and number of bootstrap replications. The vectorized bootstrap compared favorably against the state-of-the-art implementations in all cases tested, and was remarkably/considerably faster for small/moderate sample sizes. The same results were observed in the comparison with the straightforward implementation, except for large sample sizes, where the vectorized bootstrap was slightly slower than the straightforward implementation due to increased time expenditures in the generation of weight matrices via multinomial sampling.

  16. Transcriptome of the dead: characterisation of immune genes and marker development from necropsy samples in a free-ranging marine mammal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hoffman Joseph I

    2013-01-01

    samples collected post mortem may greatly facilitate genomic studies, not only of marine mammals but also more generally of species that are of conservation concern.

  17. SE Marine Mammal Histology/Tissue data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Tissue samples are collected from stranded marine mammals in the Southeastern United States. These tissue samples are examined histologically and evaluated to...

  18. Two decades of climate driving the dynamics of functional and taxonomic diversity of a tropical small mammal community in western Mexico

    OpenAIRE

    Mason-Romo, Edgard David; Farías, Ariel A.; Ceballos, Gerardo

    2017-01-01

    Understanding the effects of global climate disruption on biodiversity is important to future conservation efforts. While taxonomic diversity is widely studied, functional diversity of plants, and recently animals, is receiving increasing attention. Most studies of mammals are short-term, focus on temperate habitats, and rely on traits described in the literature rather than generating traits from observations. Unlike previous studies, this long-term field study assessed the factors driving t...

  19. Small Sample Properties of the Wilcoxon Signed Rank Test with Discontinuous and Dependent Observations

    OpenAIRE

    Nadine Chlass; Jens J. Krueger

    2007-01-01

    This Monte-Carlo study investigates sensitivity of the Wilcoxon signed rank test to certain assumption violations in small samples. Emphasis is put on within-sample-dependence, between-sample dependence, and the presence of ties. Our results show that both assumption violations induce severe size distortions and entail power losses. Surprisingly, these consequences do vary substantially with other properties the data may display. Results provided are particularly relevant for experimental set...

  20. Northern Gulf of Mexico Marine Mammal Unusual Mortality Event Database

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Tissues and samples collected from marine mammals during investigation of the Northern Gulf of Mexico Marine Mammal Unusual Mortality Event are tracked within this...

  1. Eye size and visual acuity influence vestibular anatomy in mammals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kemp, Addison D; Christopher Kirk, E

    2014-04-01

    The semicircular canals of the inner ear detect head rotations and trigger compensatory movements that stabilize gaze and help maintain visual fixation. Mammals with large eyes and high visual acuity require precise gaze stabilization mechanisms because they experience diminished visual functionality at low thresholds of uncompensated motion. Because semicircular canal radius of curvature is a primary determinant of canal sensitivity, species with large canal radii are expected to be capable of more precise gaze stabilization than species with small canal radii. Here, we examine the relationship between mean semicircular canal radius of curvature, eye size, and visual acuity in a large sample of mammals. Our results demonstrate that eye size and visual acuity both explain a significant proportion of the variance in mean canal radius of curvature after statistically controlling for the effects of body mass and phylogeny. These findings suggest that variation in mean semicircular canal radius of curvature among mammals is partly the result of selection for improved gaze stabilization in species with large eyes and acute vision. Our results also provide a possible functional explanation for the small semicircular canal radii of fossorial mammals and plesiadapiforms. Copyright © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Estimation of reference intervals from small samples: an example using canine plasma creatinine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geffré, A; Braun, J P; Trumel, C; Concordet, D

    2009-12-01

    According to international recommendations, reference intervals should be determined from at least 120 reference individuals, which often are impossible to achieve in veterinary clinical pathology, especially for wild animals. When only a small number of reference subjects is available, the possible bias cannot be known and the normality of the distribution cannot be evaluated. A comparison of reference intervals estimated by different methods could be helpful. The purpose of this study was to compare reference limits determined from a large set of canine plasma creatinine reference values, and large subsets of this data, with estimates obtained from small samples selected randomly. Twenty sets each of 120 and 27 samples were randomly selected from a set of 1439 plasma creatinine results obtained from healthy dogs in another study. Reference intervals for the whole sample and for the large samples were determined by a nonparametric method. The estimated reference limits for the small samples were minimum and maximum, mean +/- 2 SD of native and Box-Cox-transformed values, 2.5th and 97.5th percentiles by a robust method on native and Box-Cox-transformed values, and estimates from diagrams of cumulative distribution functions. The whole sample had a heavily skewed distribution, which approached Gaussian after Box-Cox transformation. The reference limits estimated from small samples were highly variable. The closest estimates to the 1439-result reference interval for 27-result subsamples were obtained by both parametric and robust methods after Box-Cox transformation but were grossly erroneous in some cases. For small samples, it is recommended that all values be reported graphically in a dot plot or histogram and that estimates of the reference limits be compared using different methods.

  3. Method to make accurate concentration and isotopic measurements for small gas samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmer, M. R.; Wahl, E.; Cunningham, K. L.

    2013-12-01

    Carbon isotopic ratio measurements of CO2 and CH4 provide valuable insight into carbon cycle processes. However, many of these studies, like soil gas, soil flux, and water head space experiments, provide very small gas sample volumes, too small for direct measurement by current constant-flow Cavity Ring-Down (CRDS) isotopic analyzers. Previously, we addressed this issue by developing a sample introduction module which enabled the isotopic ratio measurement of 40ml samples or smaller. However, the system, called the Small Sample Isotope Module (SSIM), does dilute the sample during the delivery with inert carrier gas which causes a ~5% reduction in concentration. The isotopic ratio measurements are not affected by this small dilution, but researchers are naturally interested accurate concentration measurements. We present the accuracy and precision of a new method of using this delivery module which we call 'double injection.' Two portions of the 40ml of the sample (20ml each) are introduced to the analyzer, the first injection of which flushes out the diluting gas and the second injection is measured. The accuracy of this new method is demonstrated by comparing the concentration and isotopic ratio measurements for a gas sampled directly and that same gas measured through the SSIM. The data show that the CO2 concentration measurements were the same within instrument precision. The isotopic ratio precision (1σ) of repeated measurements was 0.16 permil for CO2 and 1.15 permil for CH4 at ambient concentrations. This new method provides a significant enhancement in the information provided by small samples.

  4. Analysis of thyroid hormones in biological samples using stable isotope dilution liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    This poster presentation will describe analytical chemistry methods for measuring thyroid hormones and related precursors and metabolites in very small tissue or plasma samples. These methods are amenable to measure thyroid hormones in amphibian tadpoles or small mammals used as ...

  5. Accelerator mass spectrometry of ultra-small samples with applications in the biosciences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salehpour, Mehran; Håkansson, Karl; Possnert, Göran

    2013-01-01

    An overview is presented covering the biological accelerator mass spectrometry activities at Uppsala University. The research utilizes the Uppsala University Tandem laboratory facilities, including a 5 MV Pelletron tandem accelerator and two stable isotope ratio mass spectrometers. In addition, a dedicated sample preparation laboratory for biological samples with natural activity is in use, as well as another laboratory specifically for 14 C-labeled samples. A variety of ongoing projects are described and presented. Examples are: (1) Ultra-small sample AMS. We routinely analyze samples with masses in the 5–10 μg C range. Data is presented regarding the sample preparation method, (2) bomb peak biological dating of ultra-small samples. A long term project is presented where purified and cell-specific DNA from various part of the human body including the heart and the brain are analyzed with the aim of extracting regeneration rate of the various human cells, (3) biological dating of various human biopsies, including atherosclerosis related plaques is presented. The average built up time of the surgically removed human carotid plaques have been measured and correlated to various data including the level of insulin in the human blood, and (4) In addition to standard microdosing type measurements using small pharmaceutical drugs, pre-clinical pharmacokinetic data from a macromolecular drug candidate are discussed.

  6. Accelerator mass spectrometry of ultra-small samples with applications in the biosciences

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salehpour, Mehran, E-mail: mehran.salehpour@physics.uu.se [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Ion Physics, PO Box 516, SE-751 20 Uppsala (Sweden); Hakansson, Karl; Possnert, Goeran [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Ion Physics, PO Box 516, SE-751 20 Uppsala (Sweden)

    2013-01-15

    An overview is presented covering the biological accelerator mass spectrometry activities at Uppsala University. The research utilizes the Uppsala University Tandem laboratory facilities, including a 5 MV Pelletron tandem accelerator and two stable isotope ratio mass spectrometers. In addition, a dedicated sample preparation laboratory for biological samples with natural activity is in use, as well as another laboratory specifically for {sup 14}C-labeled samples. A variety of ongoing projects are described and presented. Examples are: (1) Ultra-small sample AMS. We routinely analyze samples with masses in the 5-10 {mu}g C range. Data is presented regarding the sample preparation method, (2) bomb peak biological dating of ultra-small samples. A long term project is presented where purified and cell-specific DNA from various part of the human body including the heart and the brain are analyzed with the aim of extracting regeneration rate of the various human cells, (3) biological dating of various human biopsies, including atherosclerosis related plaques is presented. The average built up time of the surgically removed human carotid plaques have been measured and correlated to various data including the level of insulin in the human blood, and (4) In addition to standard microdosing type measurements using small pharmaceutical drugs, pre-clinical pharmacokinetic data from a macromolecular drug candidate are discussed.

  7. Tuberculous and tuberculoid lesions in free living small terrestrial mammals and the risk of infection to humans and animals: a review

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Skorič, M.; Shitaye, E. J.; Halouzka, R.; Fictum, P.; Trčka, I.; Heroldová, Marta; Tkadlec, Emil; Pavlík, I.

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 52, č. 4 (2007), s. 144-161 ISSN 0375-8427 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA206/04/2003 Grant - others:MZE(CZ) 1B53009 Program:1B Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60930519 Keywords : bovine tuberculosis * paratuberculosis * avian tuberculosis * mycobacteriosis * terrestrial mammals * zoonoses Subject RIV: GJ - Animal Vermins ; Diseases, Veterinary Medicine Impact factor: 0.645, year: 2007 http://www.vri.cz/docs/vetmed/52-4-144.pdf

  8. Overestimation of test performance by ROC analysis: Effect of small sample size

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seeley, G.W.; Borgstrom, M.C.; Patton, D.D.; Myers, K.J.; Barrett, H.H.

    1984-01-01

    New imaging systems are often observer-rated by ROC techniques. For practical reasons the number of different images, or sample size (SS), is kept small. Any systematic bias due to small SS would bias system evaluation. The authors set about to determine whether the area under the ROC curve (AUC) would be systematically biased by small SS. Monte Carlo techniques were used to simulate observer performance in distinguishing signal (SN) from noise (N) on a 6-point scale; P(SN) = P(N) = .5. Four sample sizes (15, 25, 50 and 100 each of SN and N), three ROC slopes (0.8, 1.0 and 1.25), and three intercepts (0.8, 1.0 and 1.25) were considered. In each of the 36 combinations of SS, slope and intercept, 2000 runs were simulated. Results showed a systematic bias: the observed AUC exceeded the expected AUC in every one of the 36 combinations for all sample sizes, with the smallest sample sizes having the largest bias. This suggests that evaluations of imaging systems using ROC curves based on small sample size systematically overestimate system performance. The effect is consistent but subtle (maximum 10% of AUC standard deviation), and is probably masked by the s.d. in most practical settings. Although there is a statistically significant effect (F = 33.34, P<0.0001) due to sample size, none was found for either the ROC curve slope or intercept. Overestimation of test performance by small SS seems to be an inherent characteristic of the ROC technique that has not previously been described

  9. Rural and small-town attitudes about alcohol use during pregnancy: a community and provider sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Logan, T K; Walker, Robert; Nagle, Laura; Lewis, Jimmie; Wiesenhahn, Donna

    2003-01-01

    While there has been considerable research on prenatal alcohol use, there have been limited studies focused on women in rural and small-town environments. This 2-part study examines gender differences in attitudes and perceived barriers to intervention in large community sample of persons living in rural and small-town environments in Kentucky (n = 3,346). The study also examines rural/small-town prenatal service providers' perceptions of barriers to assessment and intervention with pregnant substance abusers (n = 138). Surveys were administered to a convenience sample of employees and customers from 16 rural and small-town community outlets. There were 1503 males (45%) and 1843 females (55%) ranging in age from under 18 years old to over 66 years old. Surveys also were mailed to prenatal providers in county health departments of the 13-county study area, with 138 of 149 responding. Overall results of the community sample suggest that neither males nor females were knowledgeable about the harmful effects of alcohol use during pregnancy. Results also indicate substantial gender differences in alcohol attitudes, knowledge, and perceived barriers. Further, prenatal care providers identified several barriers in assessment and treatment of pregnant women with alcohol use problems in rural and small-town communities, including lack of knowledge and comfort with assessment as well as a lack of available and accessible treatment for referrals.

  10. Correcting Model Fit Criteria for Small Sample Latent Growth Models with Incomplete Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNeish, Daniel; Harring, Jeffrey R.

    2017-01-01

    To date, small sample problems with latent growth models (LGMs) have not received the amount of attention in the literature as related mixed-effect models (MEMs). Although many models can be interchangeably framed as a LGM or a MEM, LGMs uniquely provide criteria to assess global data-model fit. However, previous studies have demonstrated poor…

  11. Baysian estimation of P(X > x) from a small sample of Gaussian data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ditlevsen, Ove Dalager

    2017-01-01

    The classical statistical uncertainty problem of estimation of upper tail probabilities on the basis of a small sample of observations of a Gaussian random variable is considered. Predictive posterior estimation is discussed, adopting the standard statistical model with diffuse priors of the two...

  12. Sensitivity study of micro four-point probe measurements on small samples

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Fei; Petersen, Dirch Hjorth; Hansen, Torben Mikael

    2010-01-01

    probes than near the outer ones. The sensitive area is defined for infinite film, circular, square, and rectangular test pads, and convergent sensitivities are observed for small samples. The simulations show that the Hall sheet resistance RH in micro Hall measurements with position error suppression...

  13. A scanning tunneling microscope capable of imaging specified micron-scale small samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Wei; Cao, Yufei; Wang, Huafeng; Wang, Kaiyou; Lu, Qingyou

    2012-12-01

    We present a home-built scanning tunneling microscope (STM) which allows us to precisely position the tip on any specified small sample or sample feature of micron scale. The core structure is a stand-alone soft junction mechanical loop (SJML), in which a small piezoelectric tube scanner is mounted on a sliding piece and a "U"-like soft spring strip has its one end fixed to the sliding piece and its opposite end holding the tip pointing to the sample on the scanner. Here, the tip can be precisely aligned to a specified small sample of micron scale by adjusting the position of the spring-clamped sample on the scanner in the field of view of an optical microscope. The aligned SJML can be transferred to a piezoelectric inertial motor for coarse approach, during which the U-spring is pushed towards the sample, causing the tip to approach the pre-aligned small sample. We have successfully approached a hand cut tip that was made from 0.1 mm thin Pt∕Ir wire to an isolated individual 32.5 × 32.5 μm(2) graphite flake. Good atomic resolution images and high quality tunneling current spectra for that specified tiny flake are obtained in ambient conditions with high repeatability within one month showing high and long term stability of the new STM structure. In addition, frequency spectra of the tunneling current signals do not show outstanding tip mount related resonant frequency (low frequency), which further confirms the stability of the STM structure.

  14. A scanning tunneling microscope capable of imaging specified micron-scale small samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Wei; Cao, Yufei; Wang, Huafeng; Wang, Kaiyou; Lu, Qingyou

    2012-12-01

    We present a home-built scanning tunneling microscope (STM) which allows us to precisely position the tip on any specified small sample or sample feature of micron scale. The core structure is a stand-alone soft junction mechanical loop (SJML), in which a small piezoelectric tube scanner is mounted on a sliding piece and a "U"-like soft spring strip has its one end fixed to the sliding piece and its opposite end holding the tip pointing to the sample on the scanner. Here, the tip can be precisely aligned to a specified small sample of micron scale by adjusting the position of the spring-clamped sample on the scanner in the field of view of an optical microscope. The aligned SJML can be transferred to a piezoelectric inertial motor for coarse approach, during which the U-spring is pushed towards the sample, causing the tip to approach the pre-aligned small sample. We have successfully approached a hand cut tip that was made from 0.1 mm thin Pt/Ir wire to an isolated individual 32.5 × 32.5 μm2 graphite flake. Good atomic resolution images and high quality tunneling current spectra for that specified tiny flake are obtained in ambient conditions with high repeatability within one month showing high and long term stability of the new STM structure. In addition, frequency spectra of the tunneling current signals do not show outstanding tip mount related resonant frequency (low frequency), which further confirms the stability of the STM structure.

  15. System for sampling liquids in small jugs obturated by screwed taps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Besnier, J.

    1995-01-01

    This invention describes a machine which samples automatically liquids in small jugs obturated by screwed taps. This device can be situated in an isolated room in order to work with radioactive liquids. The machine can be divided in three main parts: a module to catch the jug, in order to take and fix it, a module to open and to close it, and a module to sample. The later takes the liquid thanks to a suction device and puts it in a container, in order to analyse the sample. (TEC)

  16. Respondent-driven sampling and the recruitment of people with small injecting networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paquette, Dana; Bryant, Joanne; de Wit, John

    2012-05-01

    Respondent-driven sampling (RDS) is a form of chain-referral sampling, similar to snowball sampling, which was developed to reach hidden populations such as people who inject drugs (PWID). RDS is said to reach members of a hidden population that may not be accessible through other sampling methods. However, less attention has been paid as to whether there are segments of the population that are more likely to be missed by RDS. This study examined the ability of RDS to capture people with small injecting networks. A study of PWID, using RDS, was conducted in 2009 in Sydney, Australia. The size of participants' injecting networks was examined by recruitment chain and wave. Participants' injecting network characteristics were compared to those of participants from a separate pharmacy-based study. A logistic regression analysis was conducted to examine the characteristics independently associated with having small injecting networks, using the combined RDS and pharmacy-based samples. In comparison with the pharmacy-recruited participants, RDS participants were almost 80% less likely to have small injecting networks, after adjusting for other variables. RDS participants were also more likely to have their injecting networks form a larger proportion of those in their social networks, and to have acquaintances as part of their injecting networks. Compared to those with larger injecting networks, individuals with small injecting networks were equally likely to engage in receptive sharing of injecting equipment, but less likely to have had contact with prevention services. These findings suggest that those with small injecting networks are an important group to recruit, and that RDS is less likely to capture these individuals.

  17. Clustering Methods with Qualitative Data: a Mixed-Methods Approach for Prevention Research with Small Samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henry, David; Dymnicki, Allison B; Mohatt, Nathaniel; Allen, James; Kelly, James G

    2015-10-01

    Qualitative methods potentially add depth to prevention research but can produce large amounts of complex data even with small samples. Studies conducted with culturally distinct samples often produce voluminous qualitative data but may lack sufficient sample sizes for sophisticated quantitative analysis. Currently lacking in mixed-methods research are methods allowing for more fully integrating qualitative and quantitative analysis techniques. Cluster analysis can be applied to coded qualitative data to clarify the findings of prevention studies by aiding efforts to reveal such things as the motives of participants for their actions and the reasons behind counterintuitive findings. By clustering groups of participants with similar profiles of codes in a quantitative analysis, cluster analysis can serve as a key component in mixed-methods research. This article reports two studies. In the first study, we conduct simulations to test the accuracy of cluster assignment using three different clustering methods with binary data as produced when coding qualitative interviews. Results indicated that hierarchical clustering, K-means clustering, and latent class analysis produced similar levels of accuracy with binary data and that the accuracy of these methods did not decrease with samples as small as 50. Whereas the first study explores the feasibility of using common clustering methods with binary data, the second study provides a "real-world" example using data from a qualitative study of community leadership connected with a drug abuse prevention project. We discuss the implications of this approach for conducting prevention research, especially with small samples and culturally distinct communities.

  18. Clustering Methods with Qualitative Data: A Mixed Methods Approach for Prevention Research with Small Samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henry, David; Dymnicki, Allison B.; Mohatt, Nathaniel; Allen, James; Kelly, James G.

    2016-01-01

    Qualitative methods potentially add depth to prevention research, but can produce large amounts of complex data even with small samples. Studies conducted with culturally distinct samples often produce voluminous qualitative data, but may lack sufficient sample sizes for sophisticated quantitative analysis. Currently lacking in mixed methods research are methods allowing for more fully integrating qualitative and quantitative analysis techniques. Cluster analysis can be applied to coded qualitative data to clarify the findings of prevention studies by aiding efforts to reveal such things as the motives of participants for their actions and the reasons behind counterintuitive findings. By clustering groups of participants with similar profiles of codes in a quantitative analysis, cluster analysis can serve as a key component in mixed methods research. This article reports two studies. In the first study, we conduct simulations to test the accuracy of cluster assignment using three different clustering methods with binary data as produced when coding qualitative interviews. Results indicated that hierarchical clustering, K-Means clustering, and latent class analysis produced similar levels of accuracy with binary data, and that the accuracy of these methods did not decrease with samples as small as 50. Whereas the first study explores the feasibility of using common clustering methods with binary data, the second study provides a “real-world” example using data from a qualitative study of community leadership connected with a drug abuse prevention project. We discuss the implications of this approach for conducting prevention research, especially with small samples and culturally distinct communities. PMID:25946969

  19. EDXRF applied to the chemical element determination of small invertebrate samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Magalhaes, Marcelo L.R.; Santos, Mariana L.O.; Cantinha, Rebeca S.; Souza, Thomas Marques de; Franca, Elvis J. de

    2015-01-01

    Energy Dispersion X-Ray Fluorescence - EDXRF is a fast analytical technique of easy operation, however demanding reliable analytical curves due to the intrinsic matrix dependence and interference during the analysis. By using biological materials of diverse matrices, multielemental analytical protocols can be implemented and a group of chemical elements could be determined in diverse biological matrices depending on the chemical element concentration. Particularly for invertebrates, EDXRF presents some advantages associated to the possibility of the analysis of small size samples, in which a collimator can be used that directing the incidence of X-rays to a small surface of the analyzed samples. In this work, EDXRF was applied to determine Cl, Fe, P, S and Zn in invertebrate samples using the collimator of 3 mm and 10 mm. For the assessment of the analytical protocol, the SRM 2976 Trace Elements in Mollusk produced and SRM 8415 Whole Egg Powder by the National Institute of Standards and Technology - NIST were also analyzed. After sampling by using pitfall traps, invertebrate were lyophilized, milled and transferred to polyethylene vials covered by XRF polyethylene. Analyses were performed at atmosphere lower than 30 Pa, varying voltage and electric current according to the chemical element to be analyzed. For comparison, Zn in the invertebrate material was also quantified by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry after acid treatment (mixture of nitric acid and hydrogen peroxide) of samples have. Compared to the collimator of 10 mm, the SRM 2976 and SRM 8415 results obtained by the 3 mm collimator agreed well at the 95% confidence level since the E n Number were in the range of -1 and 1. Results from GFAAS were in accordance to the EDXRF values for composite samples. Therefore, determination of some chemical elements by EDXRF can be recommended for very small invertebrate samples (lower than 100 mg) with advantage of preserving the samples. (author)

  20. EDXRF applied to the chemical element determination of small invertebrate samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Magalhaes, Marcelo L.R.; Santos, Mariana L.O.; Cantinha, Rebeca S.; Souza, Thomas Marques de; Franca, Elvis J. de, E-mail: marcelo_rlm@hotmail.com, E-mail: marianasantos_ufpe@hotmail.com, E-mail: rebecanuclear@gmail.com, E-mail: thomasmarques@live.com.pt, E-mail: ejfranca@cnen.gov.br [Centro Regional de Ciencias Nucleares do Nordeste (CRCN-NE/CNEN-PE), Recife, PE (Brazil)

    2015-07-01

    Energy Dispersion X-Ray Fluorescence - EDXRF is a fast analytical technique of easy operation, however demanding reliable analytical curves due to the intrinsic matrix dependence and interference during the analysis. By using biological materials of diverse matrices, multielemental analytical protocols can be implemented and a group of chemical elements could be determined in diverse biological matrices depending on the chemical element concentration. Particularly for invertebrates, EDXRF presents some advantages associated to the possibility of the analysis of small size samples, in which a collimator can be used that directing the incidence of X-rays to a small surface of the analyzed samples. In this work, EDXRF was applied to determine Cl, Fe, P, S and Zn in invertebrate samples using the collimator of 3 mm and 10 mm. For the assessment of the analytical protocol, the SRM 2976 Trace Elements in Mollusk produced and SRM 8415 Whole Egg Powder by the National Institute of Standards and Technology - NIST were also analyzed. After sampling by using pitfall traps, invertebrate were lyophilized, milled and transferred to polyethylene vials covered by XRF polyethylene. Analyses were performed at atmosphere lower than 30 Pa, varying voltage and electric current according to the chemical element to be analyzed. For comparison, Zn in the invertebrate material was also quantified by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry after acid treatment (mixture of nitric acid and hydrogen peroxide) of samples have. Compared to the collimator of 10 mm, the SRM 2976 and SRM 8415 results obtained by the 3 mm collimator agreed well at the 95% confidence level since the E{sub n} Number were in the range of -1 and 1. Results from GFAAS were in accordance to the EDXRF values for composite samples. Therefore, determination of some chemical elements by EDXRF can be recommended for very small invertebrate samples (lower than 100 mg) with advantage of preserving the samples. (author)

  1. STATISTICAL EVALUATION OF SMALL SCALE MIXING DEMONSTRATION SAMPLING AND BATCH TRANSFER PERFORMANCE - 12093

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    GREER DA; THIEN MG

    2012-01-12

    The ability to effectively mix, sample, certify, and deliver consistent batches of High Level Waste (HLW) feed from the Hanford Double Shell Tanks (DST) to the Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) presents a significant mission risk with potential to impact mission length and the quantity of HLW glass produced. DOE's Tank Operations Contractor, Washington River Protection Solutions (WRPS) has previously presented the results of mixing performance in two different sizes of small scale DSTs to support scale up estimates of full scale DST mixing performance. Currently, sufficient sampling of DSTs is one of the largest programmatic risks that could prevent timely delivery of high level waste to the WTP. WRPS has performed small scale mixing and sampling demonstrations to study the ability to sufficiently sample the tanks. The statistical evaluation of the demonstration results which lead to the conclusion that the two scales of small DST are behaving similarly and that full scale performance is predictable will be presented. This work is essential to reduce the risk of requiring a new dedicated feed sampling facility and will guide future optimization work to ensure the waste feed delivery mission will be accomplished successfully. This paper will focus on the analytical data collected from mixing, sampling, and batch transfer testing from the small scale mixing demonstration tanks and how those data are being interpreted to begin to understand the relationship between samples taken prior to transfer and samples from the subsequent batches transferred. An overview of the types of data collected and examples of typical raw data will be provided. The paper will then discuss the processing and manipulation of the data which is necessary to begin evaluating sampling and batch transfer performance. This discussion will also include the evaluation of the analytical measurement capability with regard to the simulant material used in the demonstration tests. The

  2. Do Bird Friendly® Coffee Criteria Benefit Mammals? Assessment of Mammal Diversity in Chiapas, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caudill, S Amanda; Rice, Robert A

    2016-01-01

    Biodiversity-friendly coffee certifications offer a viable way to protect wildlife habitat while providing a financial incentive to farmers. Most studies related to these certifications focus on avian habitat requirements and it is not known whether these standards also apply to other wildlife, such as mammals, that inhabit the coffee landscapes. We assessed the non-volant mammalian fauna and their associated habitat requirements in 23 sites representing forest, Bird Friendly® shade, conventional shade, and sun coffee habitats. We used Sherman trap-grids to measure small mammal abundance and richness, while camera traps were set for medium-sized and large mammals. We detected 17 species of mammals, representing 11 families. This preliminary study indicates that coffee farms in this region provide an important refuge for mammalian wildlife. Mammal species density ranked significantly higher in Bird Friendly® coffee sites than other coffee habitats, although there was no significant difference for species richness (using Chao2 estimator) among the habitat types. No significant difference was found in small mammal abundance among the habitat types. We found a higher species density of medium and large mammals in sites with larger, more mature shade trees associated with, but not required by Bird Friendly® certification standards. However, lower strata vegetation (5 cm to 1 m tall), the only vegetation parameter found to increase abundance and density for small mammals, is not specified in the Bird Friendly® standards. Our findings suggest that although the standards devised for avian habitat do benefit mammals, further study is needed on the requirements specific for mammals that could be included to enhance the coffee habitat for mammals that inhabit these coffee landscapes.

  3. Analysis of environmental studies of the mammals in small hydroelectrics power in the Espirito Santo; Analise dos estudos ambientais da mastofauna em pequenas centrais hidreletricas do Espirito Santo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bonesi, Patricia Conde

    2011-10-15

    The hydroelectric projects have been the main form to supply the energy demand in Brazil. Although it has been considered a way of clean generation, it brings many environmental impacts. Due to the fact that inconsistencies in environmental impact studies often occur, this study aimed to evaluate the quality of environmental diagnosis of the mammals in SHP in the Espirito Santo. Therefore, was notice an insufficient data survey, because of the relevance given to the secondary data and the lack of seasonal investigations, bringing damages to the proposals submitted of environmental compensation. This way, manners ware proposed that aim to improve the quality of these studies, which include since environmental awareness programs at the penalizing of those involved in such studies. (author)

  4. A Third Moment Adjusted Test Statistic for Small Sample Factor Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Johnny; Bentler, Peter M

    2012-01-01

    Goodness of fit testing in factor analysis is based on the assumption that the test statistic is asymptotically chi-square; but this property may not hold in small samples even when the factors and errors are normally distributed in the population. Robust methods such as Browne's asymptotically distribution-free method and Satorra Bentler's mean scaling statistic were developed under the presumption of non-normality in the factors and errors. This paper finds new application to the case where factors and errors are normally distributed in the population but the skewness of the obtained test statistic is still high due to sampling error in the observed indicators. An extension of Satorra Bentler's statistic is proposed that not only scales the mean but also adjusts the degrees of freedom based on the skewness of the obtained test statistic in order to improve its robustness under small samples. A simple simulation study shows that this third moment adjusted statistic asymptotically performs on par with previously proposed methods, and at a very small sample size offers superior Type I error rates under a properly specified model. Data from Mardia, Kent and Bibby's study of students tested for their ability in five content areas that were either open or closed book were used to illustrate the real-world performance of this statistic.

  5. Statistical issues in reporting quality data: small samples and casemix variation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaslavsky, A M

    2001-12-01

    To present two key statistical issues that arise in analysis and reporting of quality data. Casemix variation is relevant to quality reporting when the units being measured have differing distributions of patient characteristics that also affect the quality outcome. When this is the case, adjustment using stratification or regression may be appropriate. Such adjustments may be controversial when the patient characteristic does not have an obvious relationship to the outcome. Stratified reporting poses problems for sample size and reporting format, but may be useful when casemix effects vary across units. Although there are no absolute standards of reliability, high reliabilities (interunit F > or = 10 or reliability > or = 0.9) are desirable for distinguishing above- and below-average units. When small or unequal sample sizes complicate reporting, precision may be improved using indirect estimation techniques that incorporate auxiliary information, and 'shrinkage' estimation can help to summarize the strength of evidence about units with small samples. With broader understanding of casemix adjustment and methods for analyzing small samples, quality data can be analysed and reported more accurately.

  6. Mammals of the Oak forest

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Otalora Ardila, Aida

    2003-01-01

    The high rate of deforestation over the Andean forests has generated a large proportion of fragmented landscapes in the country. The distribution of oak groves in the country was determined based on ecosystem maps. Charala and Encino oak groves patches are the largest ones found at the east Andes and like others, due to the unfair use of these resources, have suffered a fragmentation process. Fifty-five species of mammals included in 10 orders and 14 families were found in these forests. Chiroptera and Rodentia were the most representative groups. Anthropic processes had produced a 68.1% loss of the habitat and constitute the main threat for these forests. The sizes of the patches were evaluated for three mammal species categories. The patches' area are not favorable for large-size species, intermediately to favorable to medium-size species and are favorable for small-size species. It is suggested that patches' area effect over mammal species could relate to the decrease of species richness and of each fragment area. There are good connections between patches (only five isolated), allowing the presence of a greater species diversity. There is also a bleak plateau zone between connected patches increasing their connectivity and offering different habitats and resources for some mammal species

  7. An interlaboratory comparison exercise for organohalogens in marine mammal blubber

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kucklick, J.; Becker, P.; Pugh, R. [NIST, Hollings Marine Lab., Charleston (United States); Schantz, M.; Porter, B.; Wise, S. [NIST, Gaithersburg (United States); Rowles, T. [NOAA, Silversprings (United States)

    2004-09-15

    For analytical data generated on marine mammal tissues, such as blubber, harmonizing measurements of organohalogen compounds is very important. Often organohalogen data on marine mammal samples from different laboratories are combined to provide an indication of geographical trends or to help ascertain toxicological significance. In at least one study that combined data on organohalogen concentrations from marine mammal blubber to examine geographical trends, it was found that among laboratory variability contributed significantly to the observed data variability (Schwacke, personal communication). To help resolve such problems, NIST and the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) initiated an interlaboratory comparison exercise program patterned after the exercise described above but using marine mammal blubber as the exercise materials. The objective of this paper is to describe the exercises, summarize selected results, and discuss the value of these interterlaboratory comparison exercises. The exercises have been held on a small scale (<10 laboratories) starting in 1991 and on a larger scale (10 or more laboratories) starting in 1999. Twenty-four laboratories participated in the 2003 exercise.

  8. Rhode Island, Connecticut, New York, and New Jersey ESI: T_MAMMAL (Terrestrial Mammal Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive biological resource data for small mammal species in coastal Rhode Island, Connecticut, New York, and New Jersey. Vector polygons in...

  9. Microdochium nivale and Microdochium majus in seed samples of Danish small grain cereals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, L. K.; Justesen, A. F.; Jensen, J. D.

    2013-01-01

    Microdochium nivale and Microdochium majus are two of fungal species found in the Fusarium Head Blight (FHB) complex infecting small grain cereals. Quantitative real-time PCR assays were designed to separate the two Microdochium species based on the translation elongation factor 1a gene (TEF-1a......) and used to analyse a total of 374 seed samples of wheat, barley, triticale, rye and oat sampled from farmers’ fields across Denmark from 2003 to 2007. Both fungal species were detected in the five cereal species but M. majus showed a higher prevalence compared to M. nivale in most years in all cereal...... species except rye, in which M. nivale represented a larger proportion of the biomass and was more prevalent than M. majus in some samples. Historical samples of wheat and barley from 1957 to 2000 similarly showed a strong prevalence of M. majus over M. nivale indicating that M. majus has been the main...

  10. Basic distribution free identification tests for small size samples of environmental data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Federico, A.G.; Musmeci, F.

    1998-01-01

    Testing two or more data sets for the hypothesis that they are sampled form the same population is often required in environmental data analysis. Typically the available samples have a small number of data and often then assumption of normal distributions is not realistic. On the other hand the diffusion of the days powerful Personal Computers opens new possible opportunities based on a massive use of the CPU resources. The paper reviews the problem introducing the feasibility of two non parametric approaches based on intrinsic equi probability properties of the data samples. The first one is based on a full re sampling while the second is based on a bootstrap approach. A easy to use program is presented. A case study is given based on the Chernobyl children contamination data [it

  11. Quantifying predictability through information theory: small sample estimation in a non-Gaussian framework

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haven, Kyle; Majda, Andrew; Abramov, Rafail

    2005-01-01

    Many situations in complex systems require quantitative estimates of the lack of information in one probability distribution relative to another. In short term climate and weather prediction, examples of these issues might involve the lack of information in the historical climate record compared with an ensemble prediction, or the lack of information in a particular Gaussian ensemble prediction strategy involving the first and second moments compared with the non-Gaussian ensemble itself. The relative entropy is a natural way to quantify the predictive utility in this information, and recently a systematic computationally feasible hierarchical framework has been developed. In practical systems with many degrees of freedom, computational overhead limits ensemble predictions to relatively small sample sizes. Here the notion of predictive utility, in a relative entropy framework, is extended to small random samples by the definition of a sample utility, a measure of the unlikeliness that a random sample was produced by a given prediction strategy. The sample utility is the minimum predictability, with a statistical level of confidence, which is implied by the data. Two practical algorithms for measuring such a sample utility are developed here. The first technique is based on the statistical method of null-hypothesis testing, while the second is based upon a central limit theorem for the relative entropy of moment-based probability densities. These techniques are tested on known probability densities with parameterized bimodality and skewness, and then applied to the Lorenz '96 model, a recently developed 'toy' climate model with chaotic dynamics mimicking the atmosphere. The results show a detection of non-Gaussian tendencies of prediction densities at small ensemble sizes with between 50 and 100 members, with a 95% confidence level

  12. Suitability of small diagnostic peripheral-blood samples for cell-therapy studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephanou, Coralea; Papasavva, Panayiota; Zachariou, Myria; Patsali, Petros; Epitropou, Marilena; Ladas, Petros; Al-Abdulla, Ruba; Christou, Soteroulla; Antoniou, Michael N; Lederer, Carsten W; Kleanthous, Marina

    2017-02-01

    Primary hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells (HSPCs) are key components of cell-based therapies for blood disorders and are thus the authentic substrate for related research. We propose that ubiquitous small-volume diagnostic samples represent a readily available and as yet untapped resource of primary patient-derived cells for cell- and gene-therapy studies. In the present study we compare isolation and storage methods for HSPCs from normal and thalassemic small-volume blood samples, considering genotype, density-gradient versus lysis-based cell isolation and cryostorage media with different serum contents. Downstream analyses include viability, recovery, differentiation in semi-solid media and performance in liquid cultures and viral transductions. We demonstrate that HSPCs isolated either by ammonium-chloride potassium (ACK)-based lysis or by gradient isolation are suitable for functional analyses in clonogenic assays, high-level HSPC expansion and efficient lentiviral transduction. For cryostorage of cells, gradient isolation is superior to ACK lysis, and cryostorage in freezing media containing 50% fetal bovine serum demonstrated good results across all tested criteria. For assays on freshly isolated cells, ACK lysis performed similar to, and for thalassemic samples better than, gradient isolation, at a fraction of the cost and hands-on time. All isolation and storage methods show considerable variation within sample groups, but this is particularly acute for density gradient isolation of thalassemic samples. This study demonstrates the suitability of small-volume blood samples for storage and preclinical studies, opening up the research field of HSPC and gene therapy to any blood diagnostic laboratory with corresponding bioethics approval for experimental use of surplus material. Copyright © 2017 International Society for Cellular Therapy. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Taking sputum samples from small children with cystic fibrosis: a matter of cooperation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pehn, Mette; Bregnballe, Vibeke

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: An important part of the disease control in Danish guidelines for care of patients with cystic fibrosis (CF) is a monthly sputum sample by tracheal suchtion. Coping to this unpleasant procedure in small children depends heavily on the support from parents and nurse. The objective...... of this study was to develop a tool to help parents and children to cope with tracheal suctioning. Methods: Three short videos showing how nurses perform tracheal suctioning to get a sputum sample from small children with cystic fibrosis were made. The videos were shown to and discussed with parents...... and children to help them identify their own challenges in coping with the procedure. The study was carried out in the outpatient clinic at the CF centre, Aarhus Univeristy Hospital. Results: The videos are a useful tool to convince the parents, nurses and children from the age of about four years...

  14. Auto-validating von Neumann rejection sampling from small phylogenetic tree spaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    York Thomas

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In phylogenetic inference one is interested in obtaining samples from the posterior distribution over the tree space on the basis of some observed DNA sequence data. One of the simplest sampling methods is the rejection sampler due to von Neumann. Here we introduce an auto-validating version of the rejection sampler, via interval analysis, to rigorously draw samples from posterior distributions over small phylogenetic tree spaces. Results The posterior samples from the auto-validating sampler are used to rigorously (i estimate posterior probabilities for different rooted topologies based on mitochondrial DNA from human, chimpanzee and gorilla, (ii conduct a non-parametric test of rate variation between protein-coding and tRNA-coding sites from three primates and (iii obtain a posterior estimate of the human-neanderthal divergence time. Conclusion This solves the open problem of rigorously drawing independent and identically distributed samples from the posterior distribution over rooted and unrooted small tree spaces (3 or 4 taxa based on any multiply-aligned sequence data.

  15. Mass amplifying probe for sensitive fluorescence anisotropy detection of small molecules in complex biological samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Liang; Zou, Yuan; Lin, Ninghang; Zhu, Zhi; Jenkins, Gareth; Yang, Chaoyong James

    2012-07-03

    Fluorescence anisotropy (FA) is a reliable and excellent choice for fluorescence sensing. One of the key factors influencing the FA value for any molecule is the molar mass of the molecule being measured. As a result, the FA method with functional nucleic acid aptamers has been limited to macromolecules such as proteins and is generally not applicable for the analysis of small molecules because their molecular masses are relatively too small to produce observable FA value changes. We report here a molecular mass amplifying strategy to construct anisotropy aptamer probes for small molecules. The probe is designed in such a way that only when a target molecule binds to the probe does it activate its binding ability to an anisotropy amplifier (a high molecular mass molecule such as protein), thus significantly increasing the molecular mass and FA value of the probe/target complex. Specifically, a mass amplifying probe (MAP) consists of a targeting aptamer domain against a target molecule and molecular mass amplifying aptamer domain for the amplifier protein. The probe is initially rendered inactive by a small blocking strand partially complementary to both target aptamer and amplifier protein aptamer so that the mass amplifying aptamer domain would not bind to the amplifier protein unless the probe has been activated by the target. In this way, we prepared two probes that constitute a target (ATP and cocaine respectively) aptamer, a thrombin (as the mass amplifier) aptamer, and a fluorophore. Both probes worked well against their corresponding small molecule targets, and the detection limits for ATP and cocaine were 0.5 μM and 0.8 μM, respectively. More importantly, because FA is less affected by environmental interferences, ATP in cell media and cocaine in urine were directly detected without any tedious sample pretreatment. Our results established that our molecular mass amplifying strategy can be used to design aptamer probes for rapid, sensitive, and selective

  16. Analysis of small sample size studies using nonparametric bootstrap test with pooled resampling method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dwivedi, Alok Kumar; Mallawaarachchi, Indika; Alvarado, Luis A

    2017-06-30

    Experimental studies in biomedical research frequently pose analytical problems related to small sample size. In such studies, there are conflicting findings regarding the choice of parametric and nonparametric analysis, especially with non-normal data. In such instances, some methodologists questioned the validity of parametric tests and suggested nonparametric tests. In contrast, other methodologists found nonparametric tests to be too conservative and less powerful and thus preferred using parametric tests. Some researchers have recommended using a bootstrap test; however, this method also has small sample size limitation. We used a pooled method in nonparametric bootstrap test that may overcome the problem related with small samples in hypothesis testing. The present study compared nonparametric bootstrap test with pooled resampling method corresponding to parametric, nonparametric, and permutation tests through extensive simulations under various conditions and using real data examples. The nonparametric pooled bootstrap t-test provided equal or greater power for comparing two means as compared with unpaired t-test, Welch t-test, Wilcoxon rank sum test, and permutation test while maintaining type I error probability for any conditions except for Cauchy and extreme variable lognormal distributions. In such cases, we suggest using an exact Wilcoxon rank sum test. Nonparametric bootstrap paired t-test also provided better performance than other alternatives. Nonparametric bootstrap test provided benefit over exact Kruskal-Wallis test. We suggest using nonparametric bootstrap test with pooled resampling method for comparing paired or unpaired means and for validating the one way analysis of variance test results for non-normal data in small sample size studies. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  17. Report of the advisory group meeting on elemental analysis of extremely small samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    This publication contains summary of discussions held at the meeting with brief description and comparative characteristics of most common nuclear analytical techniques used for analysis of very small samples as well as the conclusions of the meeting. Some aspect of reference materials and quality control are also discussed. The publication also contains individual contributions made by the participants, each of these papers haven provided with an abstract and indexed separately

  18. Enrichment and determination of small amounts of 90Sr/90Y in water samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mundschenk, H.

    1979-01-01

    Small amounts of 90 Sr/ 90 Y can be concentrated from large volumes of surface water (100 l) by precipitation of the phosphates, using bentonite as adsorber matrix. In the case of samples containing no or nearly no suspended matter (tap water, ground water, sea water), the daughter 90 Y can be extracted directly by using filter beds impregnated with HDEHP. The applicability of both techniques is demonstrated under realistic conditions. (orig.) 891 HP/orig. 892 MKO [de

  19. A simple technique for measuring the superconducting critical temperature of small (>= 10 μg) samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pereira, R.F.R.; Meyer, E.; Silveira, M.F. da.

    1983-01-01

    A simple technique for measuring the superconducting critical temperature of small (>=10μg) samples is described. The apparatus is built in the form of a probe, which can be introduced directly into a liquid He storage dewar and permits the determination of the critical temperature, with an imprecision of +- 0.05 K above 4.2 K, in about 10 minutes. (Author) [pt

  20. On the Structure of Cortical Microcircuits Inferred from Small Sample Sizes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vegué, Marina; Perin, Rodrigo; Roxin, Alex

    2017-08-30

    The structure in cortical microcircuits deviates from what would be expected in a purely random network, which has been seen as evidence of clustering. To address this issue, we sought to reproduce the nonrandom features of cortical circuits by considering several distinct classes of network topology, including clustered networks, networks with distance-dependent connectivity, and those with broad degree distributions. To our surprise, we found that all of these qualitatively distinct topologies could account equally well for all reported nonrandom features despite being easily distinguishable from one another at the network level. This apparent paradox was a consequence of estimating network properties given only small sample sizes. In other words, networks that differ markedly in their global structure can look quite similar locally. This makes inferring network structure from small sample sizes, a necessity given the technical difficulty inherent in simultaneous intracellular recordings, problematic. We found that a network statistic called the sample degree correlation (SDC) overcomes this difficulty. The SDC depends only on parameters that can be estimated reliably given small sample sizes and is an accurate fingerprint of every topological family. We applied the SDC criterion to data from rat visual and somatosensory cortex and discovered that the connectivity was not consistent with any of these main topological classes. However, we were able to fit the experimental data with a more general network class, of which all previous topologies were special cases. The resulting network topology could be interpreted as a combination of physical spatial dependence and nonspatial, hierarchical clustering. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT The connectivity of cortical microcircuits exhibits features that are inconsistent with a simple random network. Here, we show that several classes of network models can account for this nonrandom structure despite qualitative differences in

  1. Method for Measuring Thermal Conductivity of Small Samples Having Very Low Thermal Conductivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Robert A.; Kuczmarski, Maria a.

    2009-01-01

    This paper describes the development of a hot plate method capable of using air as a standard reference material for the steady-state measurement of the thermal conductivity of very small test samples having thermal conductivity on the order of air. As with other approaches, care is taken to ensure that the heat flow through the test sample is essentially one-dimensional. However, unlike other approaches, no attempt is made to use heated guards to block the flow of heat from the hot plate to the surroundings. It is argued that since large correction factors must be applied to account for guard imperfections when sample dimensions are small, it may be preferable to simply measure and correct for the heat that flows from the heater disc to directions other than into the sample. Experimental measurements taken in a prototype apparatus, combined with extensive computational modeling of the heat transfer in the apparatus, show that sufficiently accurate measurements can be obtained to allow determination of the thermal conductivity of low thermal conductivity materials. Suggestions are made for further improvements in the method based on results from regression analyses of the generated data.

  2. Radiation exposure of the radiological staff caused by radiography of small mammals, reptiles and birds; Untersuchungen zur Strahlenexposition des radiologisch taetigen Personals bei der Radiographie von Heimtieren, Reptilien sowie Zier- und Wildvoegeln

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eckert, Yvonne

    2015-05-27

    Radiography is often used as an advanced examination to ensure a diagnosis in avian, reptiles and small mammal's medicine. The aims of this thesis were: 1. To measure the radiation exposure of radiological staff caused by radiography of small mammals, reptiles and birds. The exposure of relevant body regions were measured during clinical routine. 2. To examine the differences of radiation exposures caused by radiography of different animal species and to determine the influence of dose-dependent parameters. 3. To present the radiation protection measures of the clinic and to discuss possible improvements. 4. To weigh the anaesthetic risk for small mammals, reptiles and birds against the radiation exposure of the radiological staff. The measurements took place during clinical routine of the Clinic for Exotic Pets, Reptiles, Pet and Feral Birds, University of Veterinary Medicine Hannover, Foundation. The radiation exposure of the radiological staff was measured. The radiological staff included veterinarians, veterinary-medical technical assistants, doctoral candidates and students during their practical year. Furthermore, the radiation exposure was measured at ten representative body regions using thermoluminescence dosimetry. The measuring positions included the eye-lenses, thyroid, thoracic region under the protective clothes, thoracic region above the protective clothes, gonads, fingers and the left foot. Except for one position that was measured under the protective clothes all positions measured above the protective clothes. Moreover at each examination the focus-film-distance, the kV-number, the mAs-product and the weight of the patient was recorded. Additionally the size of the examiner and the examiner's position regarding to the X-ray table were recorded as variable, dose-influencing parameters. Altogether, measurements were taken from 366 individual examiners. In all three divisions 792 X-ray images were made and 3660 dose values recorded. The

  3. A novel approach for small sample size family-based association studies: sequential tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ilk, Ozlem; Rajabli, Farid; Dungul, Dilay Ciglidag; Ozdag, Hilal; Ilk, Hakki Gokhan

    2011-08-01

    In this paper, we propose a sequential probability ratio test (SPRT) to overcome the problem of limited samples in studies related to complex genetic diseases. The results of this novel approach are compared with the ones obtained from the traditional transmission disequilibrium test (TDT) on simulated data. Although TDT classifies single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) to only two groups (SNPs associated with the disease and the others), SPRT has the flexibility of assigning SNPs to a third group, that is, those for which we do not have enough evidence and should keep sampling. It is shown that SPRT results in smaller ratios of false positives and negatives, as well as better accuracy and sensitivity values for classifying SNPs when compared with TDT. By using SPRT, data with small sample size become usable for an accurate association analysis.

  4. Improvement of 137Cs analysis in small volume seawater samples using the Ogoya underground facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirose, K.; Komura, K.; Kanazawa University, Ishikawa; Aoyama, M.; Igarashi, Y.

    2008-01-01

    137 Cs in seawater is one of the most powerful tracers of water motion. Large volumes of samples have been required for determination of 137 Cs in seawater. This paper describes improvement of separation and purification processes of 137 Cs in seawater, which includes purification of 137 Cs using hexachloroplatinic acid in addition to ammonium phosphomolybdate (AMP) precipitation. As a result, we succeeded the 137 Cs determination in seawater with a smaller sample volume of 10 liter by using ultra-low background gamma-spectrometry in the Ogoya underground facility. 137 Cs detection limit was about 0.1 mBq (counting time: 10 6 s). This method is applied to determine 137 Cs in small samples of the South Pacific deep waters. (author)

  5. Determination of phosphorus in small amounts of protein samples by ICP-MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, J Sabine; Boulyga, Sergei F; Pickhardt, Carola; Becker, J; Buddrus, Stefan; Przybylski, Michael

    2003-02-01

    Inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) is used for phosphorus determination in protein samples. A small amount of solid protein sample (down to 1 micro g) or digest (1-10 micro L) protein solution was denatured in nitric acid and hydrogen peroxide by closed-microvessel microwave digestion. Phosphorus determination was performed with an optimized analytical method using a double-focusing sector field inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometer (ICP-SFMS) and quadrupole-based ICP-MS (ICP-QMS). For quality control of phosphorus determination a certified reference material (CRM), single cell proteins (BCR 273) with a high phosphorus content of 26.8+/-0.4 mg g(-1), was analyzed. For studies on phosphorus determination in proteins while reducing the sample amount as low as possible the homogeneity of CRM BCR 273 was investigated. Relative standard deviation and measurement accuracy in ICP-QMS was within 2%, 3.5%, 11% and 12% when using CRM BCR 273 sample weights of 40 mg, 5 mg, 1 mg and 0.3 mg, respectively. The lowest possible sample weight for an accurate phosphorus analysis in protein samples by ICP-MS is discussed. The analytical method developed was applied for the analysis of homogeneous protein samples in very low amounts [1-100 micro g of solid protein sample, e.g. beta-casein or down to 1 micro L of protein or digest in solution (e.g., tau protein)]. A further reduction of the diluted protein solution volume was achieved by the application of flow injection in ICP-SFMS, which is discussed with reference to real protein digests after protein separation using 2D gel electrophoresis.The detection limits for phosphorus in biological samples were determined by ICP-SFMS down to the ng g(-1) level. The present work discusses the figure of merit for the determination of phosphorus in a small amount of protein sample with ICP-SFMS in comparison to ICP-QMS.

  6. Sampling Error in Relation to Cyst Nematode Population Density Estimation in Small Field Plots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Župunski, Vesna; Jevtić, Radivoje; Jokić, Vesna Spasić; Župunski, Ljubica; Lalošević, Mirjana; Ćirić, Mihajlo; Ćurčić, Živko

    2017-06-01

    Cyst nematodes are serious plant-parasitic pests which could cause severe yield losses and extensive damage. Since there is still very little information about error of population density estimation in small field plots, this study contributes to the broad issue of population density assessment. It was shown that there was no significant difference between cyst counts of five or seven bulk samples taken per each 1-m 2 plot, if average cyst count per examined plot exceeds 75 cysts per 100 g of soil. Goodness of fit of data to probability distribution tested with χ 2 test confirmed a negative binomial distribution of cyst counts for 21 out of 23 plots. The recommended measure of sampling precision of 17% expressed through coefficient of variation ( cv ) was achieved if the plots of 1 m 2 contaminated with more than 90 cysts per 100 g of soil were sampled with 10-core bulk samples taken in five repetitions. If plots were contaminated with less than 75 cysts per 100 g of soil, 10-core bulk samples taken in seven repetitions gave cv higher than 23%. This study indicates that more attention should be paid on estimation of sampling error in experimental field plots to ensure more reliable estimation of population density of cyst nematodes.

  7. Technical Note: New methodology for measuring viscosities in small volumes characteristic of environmental chamber particle samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Renbaum-Wolff

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Herein, a method for the determination of viscosities of small sample volumes is introduced, with important implications for the viscosity determination of particle samples from environmental chambers (used to simulate atmospheric conditions. The amount of sample needed is < 1 μl, and the technique is capable of determining viscosities (η ranging between 10−3 and 103 Pascal seconds (Pa s in samples that cover a range of chemical properties and with real-time relative humidity and temperature control; hence, the technique should be well-suited for determining the viscosities, under atmospherically relevant conditions, of particles collected from environmental chambers. In this technique, supermicron particles are first deposited on an inert hydrophobic substrate. Then, insoluble beads (~1 μm in diameter are embedded in the particles. Next, a flow of gas is introduced over the particles, which generates a shear stress on the particle surfaces. The sample responds to this shear stress by generating internal circulations, which are quantified with an optical microscope by monitoring the movement of the beads. The rate of internal circulation is shown to be a function of particle viscosity but independent of the particle material for a wide range of organic and organic-water samples. A calibration curve is constructed from the experimental data that relates the rate of internal circulation to particle viscosity, and this calibration curve is successfully used to predict viscosities in multicomponent organic mixtures.

  8. Decoder calibration with ultra small current sample set for intracortical brain-machine interface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Peng; Ma, Xuan; Chen, Luyao; Zhou, Jin; Wang, Changyong; Li, Wei; He, Jiping

    2018-04-01

    Objective. Intracortical brain-machine interfaces (iBMIs) aim to restore efficient communication and movement ability for paralyzed patients. However, frequent recalibration is required for consistency and reliability, and every recalibration will require relatively large most current sample set. The aim in this study is to develop an effective decoder calibration method that can achieve good performance while minimizing recalibration time. Approach. Two rhesus macaques implanted with intracortical microelectrode arrays were trained separately on movement and sensory paradigm. Neural signals were recorded to decode reaching positions or grasping postures. A novel principal component analysis-based domain adaptation (PDA) method was proposed to recalibrate the decoder with only ultra small current sample set by taking advantage of large historical data, and the decoding performance was compared with other three calibration methods for evaluation. Main results. The PDA method closed the gap between historical and current data effectively, and made it possible to take advantage of large historical data for decoder recalibration in current data decoding. Using only ultra small current sample set (five trials of each category), the decoder calibrated using the PDA method could achieve much better and more robust performance in all sessions than using other three calibration methods in both monkeys. Significance. (1) By this study, transfer learning theory was brought into iBMIs decoder calibration for the first time. (2) Different from most transfer learning studies, the target data in this study were ultra small sample set and were transferred to the source data. (3) By taking advantage of historical data, the PDA method was demonstrated to be effective in reducing recalibration time for both movement paradigm and sensory paradigm, indicating a viable generalization. By reducing the demand for large current training data, this new method may facilitate the application

  9. Nano-Scale Sample Acquisition Systems for Small Class Exploration Spacecraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paulsen, G.

    2015-12-01

    The paradigm for space exploration is changing. Large and expensive missions are very rare and the space community is turning to smaller, lighter, and less expensive missions that could still perform great exploration. These missions are also within reach of commercial companies such as the Google Lunar X Prize teams that develop small scale lunar missions. Recent commercial endeavors such as "Planet Labs inc." and Sky Box Imaging, inc. show that there are new benefits and business models associated with miniaturization of space hardware. The Nano-Scale Sample Acquisition System includes NanoDrill for capture of small rock cores and PlanetVac for capture of surface regolith. These two systems are part of the ongoing effort to develop "Micro Sampling" systems for deployment by the small spacecraft with limited payload capacities. The ideal applications include prospecting missions to the Moon and Asteroids. The MicroDrill is a rotary-percussive coring drill that captures cores 7 mm in diameter and up to 2 cm long. The drill weighs less than 1 kg and can capture a core from a 40 MPa strength rock within a few minutes, with less than 10 Watt power and less than 10 Newton of preload. The PlanetVac is a pneumatic based regolith acquisition system that can capture surface sample in touch-and-go maneuver. These sampling systems were integrated within the footpads of commercial quadcopter for testing. As such, they could also be used by geologists on Earth to explore difficult to get to locations.

  10. Marine Mammal Protection Act

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Marine Mammal Protection Act (MMPA or Act) prohibits, with certain exceptions, the "take" of marine mammals in U.S. waters and by U.S. citizens on the high seas,...

  11. A passive guard for low thermal conductivity measurement of small samples by the hot plate method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jannot, Yves; Godefroy, Justine; Degiovanni, Alain; Grigorova-Moutiers, Veneta

    2017-01-01

    Hot plate methods under steady state conditions are based on a 1D model to estimate the thermal conductivity, using measurements of the temperatures T 0 and T 1 of the two sides of the sample and of the heat flux crossing it. To be consistent with the hypothesis of the 1D heat flux, either a hot plate guarded apparatus is used, or the temperature is measured at the centre of the sample. On one hand the latter method can be used only if the ratio thickness/width of the sample is sufficiently low and on the other hand the guarded hot plate method requires large width samples (typical cross section of 0.6  ×  0.6 m 2 ). That is why both methods cannot be used for low width samples. The method presented in this paper is based on an optimal choice of the temperatures T 0 and T 1 compared to the ambient temperature T a , enabling the estimation of the thermal conductivity with a centered hot plate method, by applying the 1D heat flux model. It will be shown that these optimal values do not depend on the size or on the thermal conductivity of samples (in the range 0.015–0.2 W m −1 K −1 ), but only on T a . The experimental results obtained validate the method for several reference samples for values of the ratio thickness/width up to 0.3, thus enabling the measurement of the thermal conductivity of samples having a small cross-section, down to 0.045  ×  0.045 m 2 . (paper)

  12. A simple Bayesian approach to quantifying confidence level of adverse event incidence proportion in small samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Fang

    2016-01-01

    In both clinical development and post-marketing of a new therapy or a new treatment, incidence of an adverse event (AE) is always a concern. When sample sizes are small, large sample-based inferential approaches on an AE incidence proportion in a certain time period no longer apply. In this brief discussion, we introduce a simple Bayesian framework to quantify, in small sample studies and the rare AE case, (1) the confidence level that the incidence proportion of a particular AE p is over or below a threshold, (2) the lower or upper bounds on p with a certain level of confidence, and (3) the minimum required number of patients with an AE before we can be certain that p surpasses a specific threshold, or the maximum allowable number of patients with an AE after which we can no longer be certain that p is below a certain threshold, given a certain confidence level. The method is easy to understand and implement; the interpretation of the results is intuitive. This article also demonstrates the usefulness of simple Bayesian concepts when it comes to answering practical questions.

  13. Tools for Inspecting and Sampling Waste in Underground Radioactive Storage Tanks with Small Access Riser Openings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nance, T.A.

    1998-01-01

    Underground storage tanks with 2 inches to 3 inches diameter access ports at the Department of Energy's Savannah River Site have been used to store radioactive solvents and sludge. In order to close these tanks, the contents of the tanks need to first be quantified in terms of volume and chemical and radioactive characteristics. To provide information on the volume of waste contained within the tanks, a small remote inspection system was needed. This inspection system was designed to provide lighting and provide pan and tilt capabilities in an inexpensive package with zoom abilities and color video. This system also needed to be utilized inside of a plastic tent built over the access port to contain any contamination exiting from the port. This system had to be build to travel into the small port opening, through the riser pipe, into the tank evacuated space, and out of the riser pipe and access port with no possibility of being caught and blocking the access riser. Long thin plates were found in many access riser pipes that blocked the inspection system from penetrating into the tank interiors. Retrieval tools to clear the plates from the tanks using developed sampling devices while providing safe containment for the samples. This paper will discuss the inspection systems, tools for clearing access pipes, and solvent sampling tools developed to evaluate the tank contents of the underground solvent storage tanks

  14. Gray bootstrap method for estimating frequency-varying random vibration signals with small samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Yanqing

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available During environment testing, the estimation of random vibration signals (RVS is an important technique for the airborne platform safety and reliability. However, the available methods including extreme value envelope method (EVEM, statistical tolerances method (STM and improved statistical tolerance method (ISTM require large samples and typical probability distribution. Moreover, the frequency-varying characteristic of RVS is usually not taken into account. Gray bootstrap method (GBM is proposed to solve the problem of estimating frequency-varying RVS with small samples. Firstly, the estimated indexes are obtained including the estimated interval, the estimated uncertainty, the estimated value, the estimated error and estimated reliability. In addition, GBM is applied to estimating the single flight testing of certain aircraft. At last, in order to evaluate the estimated performance, GBM is compared with bootstrap method (BM and gray method (GM in testing analysis. The result shows that GBM has superiority for estimating dynamic signals with small samples and estimated reliability is proved to be 100% at the given confidence level.

  15. Simultaneous small-sample comparisons in longitudinal or multi-endpoint trials using multiple marginal models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pallmann, Philip; Ritz, Christian; Hothorn, Ludwig A

    2018-01-01

    , however only asymptotically. In this paper, we show how to make the approach also applicable to small-sample data problems. Specifically, we discuss the computation of adjusted P values and simultaneous confidence bounds for comparisons of randomised treatment groups as well as for levels......Simultaneous inference in longitudinal, repeated-measures, and multi-endpoint designs can be onerous, especially when trying to find a reasonable joint model from which the interesting effects and covariances are estimated. A novel statistical approach known as multiple marginal models greatly...... simplifies the modelling process: the core idea is to "marginalise" the problem and fit multiple small models to different portions of the data, and then estimate the overall covariance matrix in a subsequent, separate step. Using these estimates guarantees strong control of the family-wise error rate...

  16. Small Sample Reactivity Measurements in the RRR/SEG Facility: Reanalysis using TRIPOLI-4

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hummel, Andrew [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Palmiotti, Guiseppe [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2016-08-01

    This work involved reanalyzing the RRR/SEG integral experiments performed at the Rossendorf facility in Germany throughout the 1970s and 80s. These small sample reactivity worth measurements were carried out using the pile oscillator technique for many different fission products, structural materials, and standards. The coupled fast-thermal system was designed such that the measurements would provide insight into elemental data, specifically the competing effects between neutron capture and scatter. Comparing the measured to calculated reactivity values can then provide adjustment criteria to ultimately improve nuclear data for fast reactor designs. Due to the extremely small reactivity effects measured (typically less than 1 pcm) and the specific heterogeneity of the core, the tool chosen for this analysis was TRIPOLI-4. This code allows for high fidelity 3-dimensional geometric modeling, and the most recent, unreleased version, is capable of exact perturbation theory.

  17. Evaluation of Approaches to Analyzing Continuous Correlated Eye Data When Sample Size Is Small.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jing; Huang, Jiayan; Chen, Yong; Ying, Gui-Shuang

    2018-02-01

    To evaluate the performance of commonly used statistical methods for analyzing continuous correlated eye data when sample size is small. We simulated correlated continuous data from two designs: (1) two eyes of a subject in two comparison groups; (2) two eyes of a subject in the same comparison group, under various sample size (5-50), inter-eye correlation (0-0.75) and effect size (0-0.8). Simulated data were analyzed using paired t-test, two sample t-test, Wald test and score test using the generalized estimating equations (GEE) and F-test using linear mixed effects model (LMM). We compared type I error rates and statistical powers, and demonstrated analysis approaches through analyzing two real datasets. In design 1, paired t-test and LMM perform better than GEE, with nominal type 1 error rate and higher statistical power. In design 2, no test performs uniformly well: two sample t-test (average of two eyes or a random eye) achieves better control of type I error but yields lower statistical power. In both designs, the GEE Wald test inflates type I error rate and GEE score test has lower power. When sample size is small, some commonly used statistical methods do not perform well. Paired t-test and LMM perform best when two eyes of a subject are in two different comparison groups, and t-test using the average of two eyes performs best when the two eyes are in the same comparison group. When selecting the appropriate analysis approach the study design should be considered.

  18. Calculation of coincidence summing corrections for a specific small soil sample geometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Helmer, R.G.; Gehrke, R.J.

    1996-10-01

    Previously, a system was developed at the INEL for measuring the {gamma}-ray emitting nuclides in small soil samples for the purpose of environmental monitoring. These samples were counted close to a {approx}20% Ge detector and, therefore, it was necessary to take into account the coincidence summing that occurs for some nuclides. In order to improve the technical basis for the coincidence summing corrections, the authors have carried out a study of the variation in the coincidence summing probability with position within the sample volume. A Monte Carlo electron and photon transport code (CYLTRAN) was used to compute peak and total efficiencies for various photon energies from 30 to 2,000 keV at 30 points throughout the sample volume. The geometry for these calculations included the various components of the detector and source along with the shielding. The associated coincidence summing corrections were computed at these 30 positions in the sample volume and then averaged for the whole source. The influence of the soil and the detector shielding on the efficiencies was investigated.

  19. Small Scale Mixing Demonstration Batch Transfer and Sampling Performance of Simulated HLW - 12307

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jensen, Jesse; Townson, Paul; Vanatta, Matt [EnergySolutions, Engineering and Technology Group, Richland, WA, 99354 (United States)

    2012-07-01

    The ability to effectively mix, sample, certify, and deliver consistent batches of High Level Waste (HLW) feed from the Hanford Double Shell Tanks (DST) to the Waste treatment Plant (WTP) has been recognized as a significant mission risk with potential to impact mission length and the quantity of HLW glass produced. At the end of 2009 DOE's Tank Operations Contractor, Washington River Protection Solutions (WRPS), awarded a contract to EnergySolutions to design, fabricate and operate a demonstration platform called the Small Scale Mixing Demonstration (SSMD) to establish pre-transfer sampling capacity, and batch transfer performance data at two different scales. This data will be used to examine the baseline capacity for a tank mixed via rotational jet mixers to transfer consistent or bounding batches, and provide scale up information to predict full scale operational performance. This information will then in turn be used to define the baseline capacity of such a system to transfer and sample batches sent to WTP. The Small Scale Mixing Demonstration (SSMD) platform consists of 43'' and 120'' diameter clear acrylic test vessels, each equipped with two scaled jet mixer pump assemblies, and all supporting vessels, controls, services, and simulant make up facilities. All tank internals have been modeled including the air lift circulators (ALCs), the steam heating coil, and the radius between the wall and floor. The test vessels are set up to simulate the transfer of HLW out of a mixed tank, and collect a pre-transfer sample in a manner similar to the proposed baseline configuration. The collected material is submitted to an NQA-1 laboratory for chemical analysis. Previous work has been done to assess tank mixing performance at both scales. This work involved a combination of unique instruments to understand the three dimensional distribution of solids using a combination of Coriolis meter measurements, in situ chord length distribution

  20. Static, Mixed-Array Total Evaporation for Improved Quantitation of Plutonium Minor Isotopes in Small Samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanley, F. E.; Byerly, Benjamin L.; Thomas, Mariam R.; Spencer, Khalil J.

    2016-06-01

    Actinide isotope measurements are a critical signature capability in the modern nuclear forensics "toolbox", especially when interrogating anthropogenic constituents in real-world scenarios. Unfortunately, established methodologies, such as traditional total evaporation via thermal ionization mass spectrometry, struggle to confidently measure low abundance isotope ratios (evaporation techniques as a straightforward means of improving plutonium minor isotope measurements, which have been resistant to enhancement in recent years because of elevated radiologic concerns. Results are presented for small sample (~20 ng) applications involving a well-known plutonium isotope reference material, CRM-126a, and compared with traditional total evaporation methods.

  1. Epigenetic memory in mammals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zoe eMigicovsky

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Epigenetic information can be passed on from one generation to another via DNA methylation, histone modifications and changes in small RNAs, a process called epigenetic memory. During a mammal’s lifecycle epigenetic reprogramming, or the resetting of most epigenetic marks, occurs twice. The first instance of reprogramming occurs in primordial germ cells and the second occurs following fertilization. These processes may be both passive and active. In order for epigenetic inheritance to occur the epigenetic modifications must be able to escape reprogramming. There are several examples supporting this non-Mendelian mechanism of inheritance including the prepacking of early developmental genes in histones instead of protamines in sperm, genomic imprinting via methylation marks, the retention of CenH3 in mammalian sperm and the inheritance of piwi-associated interfering RNAs. The ability of mammals to pass on epigenetic information to their progeny provides clear evidence that inheritance is not restricted to DNA sequence and epigenetics plays a key role in producing viable offspring.

  2. Investigation of Phase Transition-Based Tethered Systems for Small Body Sample Capture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quadrelli, Marco; Backes, Paul; Wilkie, Keats; Giersch, Lou; Quijano, Ubaldo; Scharf, Daniel; Mukherjee, Rudranarayan

    2009-01-01

    This paper summarizes the modeling, simulation, and testing work related to the development of technology to investigate the potential that shape memory actuation has to provide mechanically simple and affordable solutions for delivering assets to a surface and for sample capture and possible return to Earth. We investigate the structural dynamics and controllability aspects of an adaptive beam carrying an end-effector which, by changing equilibrium phases is able to actively decouple the end-effector dynamics from the spacecraft dynamics during the surface contact phase. Asset delivery and sample capture and return are at the heart of several emerging potential missions to small bodies, such as asteroids and comets, and to the surface of large bodies, such as Titan.

  3. Modeling and Testing of Phase Transition-Based Deployable Systems for Small Body Sample Capture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quadrelli, Marco; Backes, Paul; Wilkie, Keats; Giersch, Lou; Quijano, Ubaldo; Keim, Jason; Mukherjee, Rudranarayan

    2009-01-01

    This paper summarizes the modeling, simulation, and testing work related to the development of technology to investigate the potential that shape memory actuation has to provide mechanically simple and affordable solutions for delivering assets to a surface and for sample capture and return. We investigate the structural dynamics and controllability aspects of an adaptive beam carrying an end-effector which, by changing equilibrium phases is able to actively decouple the end-effector dynamics from the spacecraft dynamics during the surface contact phase. Asset delivery and sample capture and return are at the heart of several emerging potential missions to small bodies, such as asteroids and comets, and to the surface of large bodies, such as Titan.

  4. Monitoring, Modeling, and Diagnosis of Alkali-Silica Reaction in Small Concrete Samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Agarwal, Vivek [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Cai, Guowei [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Gribok, Andrei V. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Mahadevan, Sankaran [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2015-09-01

    Assessment and management of aging concrete structures in nuclear power plants require a more systematic approach than simple reliance on existing code margins of safety. Structural health monitoring of concrete structures aims to understand the current health condition of a structure based on heterogeneous measurements to produce high-confidence actionable information regarding structural integrity that supports operational and maintenance decisions. This report describes alkali-silica reaction (ASR) degradation mechanisms and factors influencing the ASR. A fully coupled thermo-hydro-mechanical-chemical model developed by Saouma and Perotti by taking into consideration the effects of stress on the reaction kinetics and anisotropic volumetric expansion is presented in this report. This model is implemented in the GRIZZLY code based on the Multiphysics Object Oriented Simulation Environment. The implemented model in the GRIZZLY code is randomly used to initiate ASR in a 2D and 3D lattice to study the percolation aspects of concrete. The percolation aspects help determine the transport properties of the material and therefore the durability and service life of concrete. This report summarizes the effort to develop small-size concrete samples with embedded glass to mimic ASR. The concrete samples were treated in water and sodium hydroxide solution at elevated temperature to study how ingress of sodium ions and hydroxide ions at elevated temperature impacts concrete samples embedded with glass. Thermal camera was used to monitor the changes in the concrete sample and results are summarized.

  5. Predicting Antitumor Activity of Peptides by Consensus of Regression Models Trained on a Small Data Sample

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivanka Jerić

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Predicting antitumor activity of compounds using regression models trained on a small number of compounds with measured biological activity is an ill-posed inverse problem. Yet, it occurs very often within the academic community. To counteract, up to some extent, overfitting problems caused by a small training data, we propose to use consensus of six regression models for prediction of biological activity of virtual library of compounds. The QSAR descriptors of 22 compounds related to the opioid growth factor (OGF, Tyr-Gly-Gly-Phe-Met with known antitumor activity were used to train regression models: the feed-forward artificial neural network, the k-nearest neighbor, sparseness constrained linear regression, the linear and nonlinear (with polynomial and Gaussian kernel support vector machine. Regression models were applied on a virtual library of 429 compounds that resulted in six lists with candidate compounds ranked by predicted antitumor activity. The highly ranked candidate compounds were synthesized, characterized and tested for an antiproliferative activity. Some of prepared peptides showed more pronounced activity compared with the native OGF; however, they were less active than highly ranked compounds selected previously by the radial basis function support vector machine (RBF SVM regression model. The ill-posedness of the related inverse problem causes unstable behavior of trained regression models on test data. These results point to high complexity of prediction based on the regression models trained on a small data sample.

  6. Shrinkage-based diagonal Hotelling’s tests for high-dimensional small sample size data

    KAUST Repository

    Dong, Kai

    2015-09-16

    DNA sequencing techniques bring novel tools and also statistical challenges to genetic research. In addition to detecting differentially expressed genes, testing the significance of gene sets or pathway analysis has been recognized as an equally important problem. Owing to the “large pp small nn” paradigm, the traditional Hotelling’s T2T2 test suffers from the singularity problem and therefore is not valid in this setting. In this paper, we propose a shrinkage-based diagonal Hotelling’s test for both one-sample and two-sample cases. We also suggest several different ways to derive the approximate null distribution under different scenarios of pp and nn for our proposed shrinkage-based test. Simulation studies show that the proposed method performs comparably to existing competitors when nn is moderate or large, but it is better when nn is small. In addition, we analyze four gene expression data sets and they demonstrate the advantage of our proposed shrinkage-based diagonal Hotelling’s test.

  7. Shrinkage-based diagonal Hotelling’s tests for high-dimensional small sample size data

    KAUST Repository

    Dong, Kai; Pang, Herbert; Tong, Tiejun; Genton, Marc G.

    2015-01-01

    DNA sequencing techniques bring novel tools and also statistical challenges to genetic research. In addition to detecting differentially expressed genes, testing the significance of gene sets or pathway analysis has been recognized as an equally important problem. Owing to the “large pp small nn” paradigm, the traditional Hotelling’s T2T2 test suffers from the singularity problem and therefore is not valid in this setting. In this paper, we propose a shrinkage-based diagonal Hotelling’s test for both one-sample and two-sample cases. We also suggest several different ways to derive the approximate null distribution under different scenarios of pp and nn for our proposed shrinkage-based test. Simulation studies show that the proposed method performs comparably to existing competitors when nn is moderate or large, but it is better when nn is small. In addition, we analyze four gene expression data sets and they demonstrate the advantage of our proposed shrinkage-based diagonal Hotelling’s test.

  8. Evaluation applications of instrument calibration research findings in psychology for very small samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, W. P., Jr.; Petry, P.

    2016-11-01

    Many published research studies document item calibration invariance across samples using Rasch's probabilistic models for measurement. A new approach to outcomes evaluation for very small samples was employed for two workshop series focused on stress reduction and joyful living conducted for health system employees and caregivers since 2012. Rasch-calibrated self-report instruments measuring depression, anxiety and stress, and the joyful living effects of mindfulness behaviors were identified in peer-reviewed journal articles. Items from one instrument were modified for use with a US population, other items were simplified, and some new items were written. Participants provided ratings of their depression, anxiety and stress, and the effects of their mindfulness behaviors before and after each workshop series. The numbers of participants providing both pre- and post-workshop data were low (16 and 14). Analysis of these small data sets produce results showing that, with some exceptions, the item hierarchies defining the constructs retained the same invariant profiles they had exhibited in the published research (correlations (not disattenuated) range from 0.85 to 0.96). In addition, comparisons of the pre- and post-workshop measures for the three constructs showed substantively and statistically significant changes. Implications for program evaluation comparisons, quality improvement efforts, and the organization of communications concerning outcomes in clinical fields are explored.

  9. Measurements of accurate x-ray scattering data of protein solutions using small stationary sample cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Xinguo; Hao, Quan

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, we report a method of precise in situ x-ray scattering measurements on protein solutions using small stationary sample cells. Although reduction in the radiation damage induced by intense synchrotron radiation sources is indispensable for the correct interpretation of scattering data, there is still a lack of effective methods to overcome radiation-induced aggregation and extract scattering profiles free from chemical or structural damage. It is found that radiation-induced aggregation mainly begins on the surface of the sample cell and grows along the beam path; the diameter of the damaged region is comparable to the x-ray beam size. Radiation-induced aggregation can be effectively avoided by using a two-dimensional scan (2D mode), with an interval as small as 1.5 times the beam size, at low temperature (e.g., 4 °C). A radiation sensitive protein, bovine hemoglobin, was used to test the method. A standard deviation of less than 5% in the small angle region was observed from a series of nine spectra recorded in 2D mode, in contrast to the intensity variation seen using the conventional stationary technique, which can exceed 100%. Wide-angle x-ray scattering data were collected at a standard macromolecular diffraction station using the same data collection protocol and showed a good signal/noise ratio (better than the reported data on the same protein using a flow cell). The results indicate that this method is an effective approach for obtaining precise measurements of protein solution scattering.

  10. Measurements of accurate x-ray scattering data of protein solutions using small stationary sample cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hong Xinguo; Hao Quan

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, we report a method of precise in situ x-ray scattering measurements on protein solutions using small stationary sample cells. Although reduction in the radiation damage induced by intense synchrotron radiation sources is indispensable for the correct interpretation of scattering data, there is still a lack of effective methods to overcome radiation-induced aggregation and extract scattering profiles free from chemical or structural damage. It is found that radiation-induced aggregation mainly begins on the surface of the sample cell and grows along the beam path; the diameter of the damaged region is comparable to the x-ray beam size. Radiation-induced aggregation can be effectively avoided by using a two-dimensional scan (2D mode), with an interval as small as 1.5 times the beam size, at low temperature (e.g., 4 deg. C). A radiation sensitive protein, bovine hemoglobin, was used to test the method. A standard deviation of less than 5% in the small angle region was observed from a series of nine spectra recorded in 2D mode, in contrast to the intensity variation seen using the conventional stationary technique, which can exceed 100%. Wide-angle x-ray scattering data were collected at a standard macromolecular diffraction station using the same data collection protocol and showed a good signal/noise ratio (better than the reported data on the same protein using a flow cell). The results indicate that this method is an effective approach for obtaining precise measurements of protein solution scattering.

  11. The use of secondary ion mass spectrometry in forensic analyses of ultra-small samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cliff, John

    2010-05-01

    It is becoming increasingly important in forensic science to perform chemical and isotopic analyses on very small sample sizes. Moreover, in some instances the signature of interest may be incorporated in a vast background making analyses impossible by bulk methods. Recent advances in instrumentation make secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) a powerful tool to apply to these problems. As an introduction, we present three types of forensic analyses in which SIMS may be useful. The causal organism of anthrax (Bacillus anthracis) chelates Ca and other metals during spore formation. Thus, the spores contain a trace element signature related to the growth medium that produced the organisms. Although other techniques have been shown to be useful in analyzing these signatures, the sample size requirements are generally relatively large. We have shown that time of flight SIMS (TOF-SIMS) combined with multivariate analysis, can clearly separate Bacillus sp. cultures prepared in different growth media using analytical spot sizes containing approximately one nanogram of spores. An important emerging field in forensic analysis is that of provenance of fecal pollution. The strategy of choice for these analyses-developing host-specific nucleic acid probes-has met with considerable difficulty due to lack of specificity of the probes. One potentially fruitful strategy is to combine in situ nucleic acid probing with high precision isotopic analyses. Bulk analyses of human and bovine fecal bacteria, for example, indicate a relative difference in d13C content of about 4 per mil. We have shown that sample sizes of several nanograms can be analyzed with the IMS 1280 with precisions capable of separating two per mil differences in d13C. The NanoSIMS 50 is capable of much better spatial resolution than the IMS 1280, albeit at a cost of analytical precision. Nevertheless we have documented precision capable of separating five per mil differences in d13C using analytical spots containing

  12. Vertical Sampling Scales for Atmospheric Boundary Layer Measurements from Small Unmanned Aircraft Systems (sUAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin L. Hemingway

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The lowest portion of the Earth’s atmosphere, known as the atmospheric boundary layer (ABL, plays an important role in the formation of weather events. Simple meteorological measurements collected from within the ABL, such as temperature, pressure, humidity, and wind velocity, are key to understanding the exchange of energy within this region, but conventional surveillance techniques such as towers, radar, weather balloons, and satellites do not provide adequate spatial and/or temporal coverage for monitoring weather events. Small unmanned aircraft, or aerial, systems (sUAS provide a versatile, dynamic platform for atmospheric sensing that can provide higher spatio-temporal sampling frequencies than available through most satellite sensing methods. They are also able to sense portions of the atmosphere that cannot be measured from ground-based radar, weather stations, or weather balloons and have the potential to fill gaps in atmospheric sampling. However, research on the vertical sampling scales for collecting atmospheric measurements from sUAS and the variabilities of these scales across atmospheric phenomena (e.g., temperature and humidity is needed. The objective of this study is to use variogram analysis, a common geostatistical technique, to determine optimal spatial sampling scales for two atmospheric variables (temperature and relative humidity captured from sUAS. Results show that vertical sampling scales of approximately 3 m for temperature and 1.5–2 m for relative humidity were sufficient to capture the spatial structure of these phenomena under the conditions tested. Future work is needed to model these scales across the entire ABL as well as under variable conditions.

  13. Characteristic Performance Evaluation of a new SAGe Well Detector for Small and Large Sample Geometries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adekola, A.S.; Colaresi, J.; Douwen, J.; Jaederstroem, H.; Mueller, W.F.; Yocum, K.M.; Carmichael, K.

    2015-01-01

    Environmental scientific research requires a detector that has sensitivity low enough to reveal the presence of any contaminant in the sample at a reasonable counting time. Canberra developed the germanium detector geometry called Small Anode Germanium (SAGe) Well detector, which is now available commercially. The SAGe Well detector is a new type of low capacitance germanium well detector manufactured using small anode technology capable of advancing many environmental scientific research applications. The performance of this detector has been evaluated for a range of sample sizes and geometries counted inside the well, and on the end cap of the detector. The detector has energy resolution performance similar to semi-planar detectors, and offers significant improvement over the existing coaxial and Well detectors. Energy resolution performance of 750 eV Full Width at Half Maximum (FWHM) at 122 keV γ-ray energy and resolution of 2.0 - 2.3 keV FWHM at 1332 keV γ-ray energy are guaranteed for detector volumes up to 425 cm 3 . The SAGe Well detector offers an optional 28 mm well diameter with the same energy resolution as the standard 16 mm well. Such outstanding resolution performance will benefit environmental applications in revealing the detailed radionuclide content of samples, particularly at low energy, and will enhance the detection sensitivity resulting in reduced counting time. The detector is compatible with electric coolers without any sacrifice in performance and supports the Canberra Mathematical efficiency calibration method (In situ Object Calibration Software or ISOCS, and Laboratory Source-less Calibration Software or LABSOCS). In addition, the SAGe Well detector supports true coincidence summing available in the ISOCS/LABSOCS framework. The improved resolution performance greatly enhances detection sensitivity of this new detector for a range of sample sizes and geometries counted inside the well. This results in lower minimum detectable

  14. Characteristic Performance Evaluation of a new SAGe Well Detector for Small and Large Sample Geometries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adekola, A.S.; Colaresi, J.; Douwen, J.; Jaederstroem, H.; Mueller, W.F.; Yocum, K.M.; Carmichael, K. [Canberra Industries Inc., 800 Research Parkway, Meriden, CT 06450 (United States)

    2015-07-01

    Environmental scientific research requires a detector that has sensitivity low enough to reveal the presence of any contaminant in the sample at a reasonable counting time. Canberra developed the germanium detector geometry called Small Anode Germanium (SAGe) Well detector, which is now available commercially. The SAGe Well detector is a new type of low capacitance germanium well detector manufactured using small anode technology capable of advancing many environmental scientific research applications. The performance of this detector has been evaluated for a range of sample sizes and geometries counted inside the well, and on the end cap of the detector. The detector has energy resolution performance similar to semi-planar detectors, and offers significant improvement over the existing coaxial and Well detectors. Energy resolution performance of 750 eV Full Width at Half Maximum (FWHM) at 122 keV γ-ray energy and resolution of 2.0 - 2.3 keV FWHM at 1332 keV γ-ray energy are guaranteed for detector volumes up to 425 cm{sup 3}. The SAGe Well detector offers an optional 28 mm well diameter with the same energy resolution as the standard 16 mm well. Such outstanding resolution performance will benefit environmental applications in revealing the detailed radionuclide content of samples, particularly at low energy, and will enhance the detection sensitivity resulting in reduced counting time. The detector is compatible with electric coolers without any sacrifice in performance and supports the Canberra Mathematical efficiency calibration method (In situ Object Calibration Software or ISOCS, and Laboratory Source-less Calibration Software or LABSOCS). In addition, the SAGe Well detector supports true coincidence summing available in the ISOCS/LABSOCS framework. The improved resolution performance greatly enhances detection sensitivity of this new detector for a range of sample sizes and geometries counted inside the well. This results in lower minimum detectable

  15. Marine Mammals :: NOAA Fisheries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Resources Habitat Conservation Science and Technology International Affairs Law Enforcement Aquaculture Application Types Apply Online (APPS) Endangered Species Permits Marine Mammal Permits Public Display of : NMFS Pacific Islands Fisheries Science Center North Atlantic right whales North Atlantic Right whales

  16. Measuring Blood Glucose Concentrations in Photometric Glucometers Requiring Very Small Sample Volumes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demitri, Nevine; Zoubir, Abdelhak M

    2017-01-01

    Glucometers present an important self-monitoring tool for diabetes patients and, therefore, must exhibit high accuracy as well as good usability features. Based on an invasive photometric measurement principle that drastically reduces the volume of the blood sample needed from the patient, we present a framework that is capable of dealing with small blood samples, while maintaining the required accuracy. The framework consists of two major parts: 1) image segmentation; and 2) convergence detection. Step 1 is based on iterative mode-seeking methods to estimate the intensity value of the region of interest. We present several variations of these methods and give theoretical proofs of their convergence. Our approach is able to deal with changes in the number and position of clusters without any prior knowledge. Furthermore, we propose a method based on sparse approximation to decrease the computational load, while maintaining accuracy. Step 2 is achieved by employing temporal tracking and prediction, herewith decreasing the measurement time, and, thus, improving usability. Our framework is tested on several real datasets with different characteristics. We show that we are able to estimate the underlying glucose concentration from much smaller blood samples than is currently state of the art with sufficient accuracy according to the most recent ISO standards and reduce measurement time significantly compared to state-of-the-art methods.

  17. Perspectives of an acoustic–electrostatic/electrodynamic hybrid levitator for small fluid and solid samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lierke, E G; Holitzner, L

    2008-01-01

    The feasibility of an acoustic–electrostatic hybrid levitator for small fluid and solid samples is evaluated. A proposed design and its theoretical assessment are based on the optional implementation of simple hardware components (ring electrodes) and standard laboratory equipment into typical commercial ultrasonic standing wave levitators. These levitators allow precise electrical charging of drops during syringe- or ink-jet-type deployment. The homogeneous electric 'Millikan field' between the grounded ultrasonic transducer and the electrically charged reflector provide an axial compensation of the sample weight in an indifferent equilibrium, which can be balanced by using commercial optical position sensors in combination with standard electronic PID position control. Radial electrostatic repulsion forces between the charged sample and concentric ring electrodes of the same polarity provide stable positioning at the centre of the levitator. The levitator can be used in a pure acoustic or electrostatic mode or in a hybrid combination of both subsystems. Analytical evaluations of the radial–axial force profiles are verified with detailed numerical finite element calculations under consideration of alternative boundary conditions. The simple hardware modification with implemented double-ring electrodes in ac/dc operation is also feasible for an electrodynamic/acoustic hybrid levitator

  18. Autoregressive Prediction with Rolling Mechanism for Time Series Forecasting with Small Sample Size

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhihua Wang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Reasonable prediction makes significant practical sense to stochastic and unstable time series analysis with small or limited sample size. Motivated by the rolling idea in grey theory and the practical relevance of very short-term forecasting or 1-step-ahead prediction, a novel autoregressive (AR prediction approach with rolling mechanism is proposed. In the modeling procedure, a new developed AR equation, which can be used to model nonstationary time series, is constructed in each prediction step. Meanwhile, the data window, for the next step ahead forecasting, rolls on by adding the most recent derived prediction result while deleting the first value of the former used sample data set. This rolling mechanism is an efficient technique for its advantages of improved forecasting accuracy, applicability in the case of limited and unstable data situations, and requirement of little computational effort. The general performance, influence of sample size, nonlinearity dynamic mechanism, and significance of the observed trends, as well as innovation variance, are illustrated and verified with Monte Carlo simulations. The proposed methodology is then applied to several practical data sets, including multiple building settlement sequences and two economic series.

  19. Sensitive power compensated scanning calorimeter for analysis of phase transformations in small samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lopeandia, A.F.; Cerdo, Ll.; Clavaguera-Mora, M.T.; Arana, Leonel R.; Jensen, K.F.; Munoz, F.J.; Rodriguez-Viejo, J.

    2005-01-01

    We have designed and developed a sensitive scanning calorimeter for use with microgram or submicrogram, thin film, or powder samples. Semiconductor processing techniques are used to fabricate membrane based microreactors with a small heat capacity of the addenda, 120 nJ/K at room temperature. At heating rates below 10 K/s the heat released or absorbed by the sample during a given transformation is compensated through a resistive Pt heater by a digital controller so that the calorimeter works as a power compensated device. Its use and dynamic sensitivity is demonstrated by analyzing the melting behavior of thin films of indium and high density polyethylene. Melting enthalpies in the range of 40-250 μJ for sample masses on the order of 1.5 μg have been measured with accuracy better than 5% at heating rates ∼0.2 K/s. The signal-to-noise ratio, limited by the electronic setup, is 200 nW

  20. Species longevity in North American fossil mammals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prothero, Donald R

    2014-08-01

    Species longevity in the fossil record is related to many paleoecological variables and is important to macroevolutionary studies, yet there are very few reliable data on average species durations in Cenozoic fossil mammals. Many of the online databases (such as the Paleobiology Database) use only genera of North American Cenozoic mammals and there are severe problems because key groups (e.g. camels, oreodonts, pronghorns and proboscideans) have no reliable updated taxonomy, with many invalid genera and species and/or many undescribed genera and species. Most of the published datasets yield species duration estimates of approximately 2.3-4.3 Myr for larger mammals, with small mammals tending to have shorter species durations. My own compilation of all the valid species durations in families with updated taxonomy (39 families, containing 431 genera and 998 species, averaging 2.3 species per genus) yields a mean duration of 3.21 Myr for larger mammals. This breaks down to 4.10-4.39 Myr for artiodactyls, 3.14-3.31 Myr for perissodactyls and 2.63-2.95 Myr for carnivorous mammals (carnivorans plus creodonts). These averages are based on a much larger, more robust dataset than most previous estimates, so they should be more reliable for any studies that need species longevity to be accurately estimated. © 2013 International Society of Zoological Sciences, Institute of Zoology/Chinese Academy of Sciences and Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  1. Transformational principles for NEON sampling of mammalian parasites and pathogens: a response to Springer et al. (2016)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The National Environmental Observatory Network (NEON) has recently released a series of protocols presented with apparently broad community support for studies of small mammals and parasites. Sampling designs were outlined outlined, collectively aimed at understanding how changing environmental cond...

  2. Recovery trends in marine mammal populations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna M Magera

    , increased study of populations with major data gaps, including offshore small cetaceans, cryptic species, and marine mammals in low latitudes and developing nations, is needed to better understand the status of marine mammal populations worldwide.

  3. The small sample uncertainty aspect in relation to bullwhip effect measurement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Erland Hejn

    2009-01-01

    The bullwhip effect as a concept has been known for almost half a century starting with the Forrester effect. The bullwhip effect is observed in many supply chains, and it is generally accepted as a potential malice. Despite of this fact, the bullwhip effect still seems to be first and foremost...... a conceptual phenomenon. This paper intends primarily to investigate why this might be so and thereby investigate the various aspects, possibilities and obstacles that must be taken into account, when considering the potential practical use and measure of the bullwhip effect in order to actually get the supply...... chain under control. This paper will put special emphasis on the unavoidable small-sample uncertainty aspects relating to the measurement or estimation of the bullwhip effect.  ...

  4. Determination of 35S-aminoacyl-transfer ribonucleic acid specific radioactivity in small tissue samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samarel, A.M.; Ogunro, E.A.; Ferguson, A.G.; Lesch, M.

    1981-01-01

    Rate determination of protein synthesis utilizing tracer amino acid incorporation requires accurate assessment of the specific radioactivity of the labeled precursor aminoacyl-tRNA pool. Previously published methods presumably useful for the measurement of any aminoacyl-tRNA were unsuccessful when applied to [ 35 S]methionine, due to the unique chemical properties of this amino acid. Herein we describe modifications of these methods necessary for the measurement of 35 S-aminoacyl-tRNA specific radioactivity from small tissue samples incubated in the presence of [ 35 S]methionine. The use of [ 35 S]methionine of high specific radioactivity enables analysis of the methionyl-tRNA from less than 100 mg of tissue. Conditions for optimal recovery of 35 S-labeled dansyl-amino acid derivatives are presented and possible applications of this method are discussed

  5. Determination of /sup 35/S-aminoacyl-transfer ribonucleic acid specific radioactivity in small tissue samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Samarel, A.M.; Ogunro, E.A.; Ferguson, A.G.; Lesch, M.

    1981-11-15

    Rate determination of protein synthesis utilizing tracer amino acid incorporation requires accurate assessment of the specific radioactivity of the labeled precursor aminoacyl-tRNA pool. Previously published methods presumably useful for the measurement of any aminoacyl-tRNA were unsuccessful when applied to (/sup 35/S)methionine, due to the unique chemical properties of this amino acid. Herein we describe modifications of these methods necessary for the measurement of /sup 35/S-aminoacyl-tRNA specific radioactivity from small tissue samples incubated in the presence of (/sup 35/S)methionine. The use of (/sup 35/S)methionine of high specific radioactivity enables analysis of the methionyl-tRNA from less than 100 mg of tissue. Conditions for optimal recovery of /sup 35/S-labeled dansyl-amino acid derivatives are presented and possible applications of this method are discussed.

  6. Basic distribution free identification tests for small size samples of environmental data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Federico, A.G.; Musmeci, F. [ENEA, Centro Ricerche Casaccia, Rome (Italy). Dipt. Ambiente

    1998-01-01

    Testing two or more data sets for the hypothesis that they are sampled form the same population is often required in environmental data analysis. Typically the available samples have a small number of data and often then assumption of normal distributions is not realistic. On the other hand the diffusion of the days powerful Personal Computers opens new possible opportunities based on a massive use of the CPU resources. The paper reviews the problem introducing the feasibility of two non parametric approaches based on intrinsic equi probability properties of the data samples. The first one is based on a full re sampling while the second is based on a bootstrap approach. A easy to use program is presented. A case study is given based on the Chernobyl children contamination data. [Italiano] Nell`analisi di dati ambientali ricorre spesso il caso di dover sottoporre a test l`ipotesi di provenienza di due, o piu`, insiemi di dati dalla stessa popolazione. Tipicamente i dati disponibili sono pochi e spesso l`ipotesi di provenienza da distribuzioni normali non e` sostenibile. D`altra aprte la diffusione odierna di Personal Computer fornisce nuove possibili soluzioni basate sull`uso intensivo delle risorse della CPU. Il rapporto analizza il problema e presenta la possibilita` di utilizzo di due test non parametrici basati sulle proprieta` intrinseche di equiprobabilita` dei campioni. Il primo e` basato su una tecnica di ricampionamento esaustivo mentre il secondo su un approccio di tipo bootstrap. E` presentato un programma di semplice utilizzo e un caso di studio basato su dati di contaminazione di bambini a Chernobyl.

  7. Sampling versus systematic full lymphatic dissection in surgical treatment of non-small cell lung cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koulaxouzidis, Georgios; Karagkiouzis, Grigorios; Konstantinou, Marios; Gkiozos, Ioannis; Syrigos, Konstantinos

    2013-04-22

    The extent of mediastinal lymph node assessment during surgery for non-small cell cancer remains controversial. Different techniques are used, ranging from simple visual inspection of the unopened mediastinum to an extended bilateral lymph node dissection. Furthermore, different terms are used to define these techniques. Sampling is the removal of one or more lymph nodes under the guidance of pre-operative findings. Systematic (full) nodal dissection is the removal of all mediastinal tissue containing the lymph nodes systematically within anatomical landmarks. A Medline search was conducted to identify articles in the English language that addressed the role of mediastinal lymph node resection in the treatment of non-small cell lung cancer. Opinions as to the reasons for favoring full lymphatic dissection include complete resection, improved nodal staging and better local control due to resection of undetected micrometastasis. Arguments against routine full lymphatic dissection are increased morbidity, increase in operative time, and lack of evidence of improved survival. For complete resection of non-small cell lung cancer, many authors recommend a systematic nodal dissection as the standard approach during surgery, and suggest that this provides both adequate nodal staging and guarantees complete resection. Whether extending the lymph node dissection influences survival or recurrence rate is still not known. There are valid arguments in favor in terms not only of an improved local control but also of an improved long-term survival. However, the impact of lymph node dissection on long-term survival should be further assessed by large-scale multicenter randomized trials.

  8. Small population size of Pribilof Rock Sandpipers confirmed through distance-sampling surveys in Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruthrauff, Daniel R.; Tibbitts, T. Lee; Gill, Robert E.; Dementyev, Maksim N.; Handel, Colleen M.

    2012-01-01

    The Rock Sandpiper (Calidris ptilocnemis) is endemic to the Bering Sea region and unique among shorebirds in the North Pacific for wintering at high latitudes. The nominate subspecies, the Pribilof Rock Sandpiper (C. p. ptilocnemis), breeds on four isolated islands in the Bering Sea and appears to spend the winter primarily in Cook Inlet, Alaska. We used a stratified systematic sampling design and line-transect method to survey the entire breeding range of this population during springs 2001-2003. Densities were up to four times higher on the uninhabited and more northerly St. Matthew and Hall islands than on St. Paul and St. George islands, which both have small human settlements and introduced reindeer herds. Differences in density, however, appeared to be more related to differences in vegetation than to anthropogenic factors, raising some concern for prospective effects of climate change. We estimated the total population at 19 832 birds (95% CI 17 853–21 930), ranking it among the smallest of North American shorebird populations. To determine the vulnerability of C. p. ptilocnemis to anthropogenic and stochastic environmental threats, future studies should focus on determining the amount of gene flow among island subpopulations, the full extent of the subspecies' winter range, and the current trajectory of this small population.

  9. A review of empirical research related to the use of small quantitative samples in clinical outcome scale development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houts, Carrie R; Edwards, Michael C; Wirth, R J; Deal, Linda S

    2016-11-01

    There has been a notable increase in the advocacy of using small-sample designs as an initial quantitative assessment of item and scale performance during the scale development process. This is particularly true in the development of clinical outcome assessments (COAs), where Rasch analysis has been advanced as an appropriate statistical tool for evaluating the developing COAs using a small sample. We review the benefits such methods are purported to offer from both a practical and statistical standpoint and detail several problematic areas, including both practical and statistical theory concerns, with respect to the use of quantitative methods, including Rasch-consistent methods, with small samples. The feasibility of obtaining accurate information and the potential negative impacts of misusing large-sample statistical methods with small samples during COA development are discussed.

  10. Can small wildlife conservancies maintain genetically stable populations of large mammals? Evidence for increased genetic drift in geographically restricted populations of Cape buffalo in East Africa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heller, R; Okello, J B A; Siegismund, H

    2010-01-01

    populations, the level of genetic differentiation found here is comparable to that among pan-African populations. Overall, correlations between conservancy area and indices of genetic diversity suggest buffalo populations inhabiting small parks are showing signs of genetic erosion, stressing the need for more......The Cape buffalo (Syncerus caffer caffer) is one of the dominant and most widespread herbivores in sub-Saharan Africa. High levels of genetic diversity and exceptionally low levels of population differentiation have been found in the Cape buffalo compared to other African savannah ungulates...... active management of such populations. Our findings raise concerns about the future of other African savannah ungulates with lower population sizes and inferior dispersal capabilities compared with the buffalo....

  11. Weighted piecewise LDA for solving the small sample size problem in face verification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kyperountas, Marios; Tefas, Anastasios; Pitas, Ioannis

    2007-03-01

    A novel algorithm that can be used to boost the performance of face-verification methods that utilize Fisher's criterion is presented and evaluated. The algorithm is applied to similarity, or matching error, data and provides a general solution for overcoming the "small sample size" (SSS) problem, where the lack of sufficient training samples causes improper estimation of a linear separation hyperplane between the classes. Two independent phases constitute the proposed method. Initially, a set of weighted piecewise discriminant hyperplanes are used in order to provide a more accurate discriminant decision than the one produced by the traditional linear discriminant analysis (LDA) methodology. The expected classification ability of this method is investigated throughout a series of simulations. The second phase defines proper combinations for person-specific similarity scores and describes an outlier removal process that further enhances the classification ability. The proposed technique has been tested on the M2VTS and XM2VTS frontal face databases. Experimental results indicate that the proposed framework greatly improves the face-verification performance.

  12. Identification of multiple mRNA and DNA sequences from small tissue samples isolated by laser-assisted microdissection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernsen, M R; Dijkman, H B; de Vries, E; Figdor, C G; Ruiter, D J; Adema, G J; van Muijen, G N

    1998-10-01

    Molecular analysis of small tissue samples has become increasingly important in biomedical studies. Using a laser dissection microscope and modified nucleic acid isolation protocols, we demonstrate that multiple mRNA as well as DNA sequences can be identified from a single-cell sample. In addition, we show that the specificity of procurement of tissue samples is not compromised by smear contamination resulting from scraping of the microtome knife during sectioning of lesions. The procedures described herein thus allow for efficient RT-PCR or PCR analysis of multiple nucleic acid sequences from small tissue samples obtained by laser-assisted microdissection.

  13. 40 CFR Appendix A to Subpart F of... - Sampling Plans for Selective Enforcement Auditing of Small Nonroad Engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Enforcement Auditing of Small Nonroad Engines A Appendix A to Subpart F of Part 90 Protection of Environment...-IGNITION ENGINES AT OR BELOW 19 KILOWATTS Selective Enforcement Auditing Pt. 90, Subpt. F, App. A Appendix A to Subpart F of Part 90—Sampling Plans for Selective Enforcement Auditing of Small Nonroad Engines...

  14. Evaluating the biological potential in samples returned from planetary satellites and small solar system bodies: framework for decision making

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    National Research Council Staff; Space Studies Board; Division on Engineering and Physical Sciences; National Research Council; National Academy of Sciences

    ... from Planetary Satellites and Small Solar System Bodies Framework for Decision Making Task Group on Sample Return from Small Solar System Bodies Space Studies Board Commission on Physical Sciences, Mathematics, and Applications National Research Council NATIONAL ACADEMY PRESS Washington, D.C. 1998 i Copyrightthe true use are Please breaks...

  15. Radioisotopic method for the measurement of lipolysis in small samples of human adipose tissue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leibel, R.L.; Hirsch, J.; Berry, E.M.; Gruen, R.K.

    1984-01-01

    To facilitate the study of adrenoreceptor response in small needle biopsy samples of human subcutaneous adipose tissue, we developed a dual radioisotopic technique for measuring lipolysis rate. Aliquots (20-75 mg) of adipose tissue fragments were incubated in a buffered albumin medium containing [ 3 H]palmitate and [ 14 C]glucose, each of high specific activity. In neutral glycerides synthesized in this system, [ 14 C]glucose is incorporated exclusively into the glyceride-glycerol moiety and 3 H appears solely in the esterified fatty acid. Alpha-2 and beta-1 adrenoreceptor activation of tissue incubated in this system does not alter rates of 14 C-labeled glyceride accumulation, but does produce a respective increase or decrease in the specific activity of fatty acids esterified into newly synthesized glycerides. This alteration in esterified fatty acid specific activity is reflected in the ratio of 14 C: 3 H in newly synthesized triglycerides extracted from the incubated adipose tissue. There is a high correlation (r . 0.90) between the 14 C: 3 H ratio in triglycerides and the rate of lipolysis as reflected in glycerol release into the incubation medium. The degree of adrenoreceptor activation by various concentrations of lipolytic and anti-lipolytic substances can be assessed by comparing this ratio in stimulated tissue to that characterizing unstimulated tissue or the incubation medium. This technique permits the study of very small, unweighed tissue biopsy fragments, the only limitation on sensitivity being the specific activity of the medium glucose and palmitate. It is, therefore, useful for serial examinations of adipose tissue adrenoreceptor dose-response characteristics under a variety of clinical circumstances

  16. Filter Bank Regularized Common Spatial Pattern Ensemble for Small Sample Motor Imagery Classification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Sang-Hoon; Lee, David; Lee, Sang-Goog

    2018-02-01

    For the last few years, many feature extraction methods have been proposed based on biological signals. Among these, the brain signals have the advantage that they can be obtained, even by people with peripheral nervous system damage. Motor imagery electroencephalograms (EEG) are inexpensive to measure, offer a high temporal resolution, and are intuitive. Therefore, these have received a significant amount of attention in various fields, including signal processing, cognitive science, and medicine. The common spatial pattern (CSP) algorithm is a useful method for feature extraction from motor imagery EEG. However, performance degradation occurs in a small-sample setting (SSS), because the CSP depends on sample-based covariance. Since the active frequency range is different for each subject, it is also inconvenient to set the frequency range to be different every time. In this paper, we propose the feature extraction method based on a filter bank to solve these problems. The proposed method consists of five steps. First, motor imagery EEG is divided by a using filter bank. Second, the regularized CSP (R-CSP) is applied to the divided EEG. Third, we select the features according to mutual information based on the individual feature algorithm. Fourth, parameter sets are selected for the ensemble. Finally, we classify using ensemble based on features. The brain-computer interface competition III data set IVa is used to evaluate the performance of the proposed method. The proposed method improves the mean classification accuracy by 12.34%, 11.57%, 9%, 4.95%, and 4.47% compared with CSP, SR-CSP, R-CSP, filter bank CSP (FBCSP), and SR-FBCSP. Compared with the filter bank R-CSP ( , ), which is a parameter selection version of the proposed method, the classification accuracy is improved by 3.49%. In particular, the proposed method shows a large improvement in performance in the SSS.

  17. Retrospective biodosimetry with small tooth enamel samples using K-Band and X-Band

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gomez, Jorge A.; Kinoshita, Angela; Leonor, Sergio J.; Belmonte, Gustavo C.; Baffa, Oswaldo

    2011-01-01

    In an attempt to make the in vitro electron spin resonance (ESR) retrospective dosimetry of the tooth enamel a lesser invasive method, experiments using X-Band and K-Band were performed, aiming to determine conditions that could be used in cases of accidental exposures. First, a small prism from the enamel was removed and ground with an agate mortar and pestle until particles reach a diameter of approximately less than 0.5 mm. This enamel extraction process resulted in lower signal artifact compared with the direct enamel extraction performed with a diamond burr abrasion. The manual grinding of the enamel does not lead to any induced ESR signal artifact, whereas the use of a diamond burr at low speed produces a signal artifact equivalent to the dosimetric signal induced by a dose of 500 mGy of gamma irradiation. A mass of 25 mg of enamel was removed from a sound molar tooth previously irradiated in vitro with a dose of 100 mGy. This amount of enamel was enough to detect the dosimetric signal in a standard X-Band spectrometer. However using a K-Band spectrometer, samples mass between 5 and 10 mg were sufficient to obtain the same sensitivity. An overall evaluation of the uncertainties involved in the process in this and other dosimetric assessments performed at our laboratory indicates that it is possible at K-Band to estimate a 100 mGy dose with 25% accuracy. In addition, the use of K-Band also presented higher sensitivity and allowed the use of smaller sample mass in comparison with X-Band. Finally, the restoration process performed on a tooth after extraction of the 25 mg of enamel is described. This was conducted by dental treatment using photopolymerizable resin which enabled complete recovery of the tooth from the functional and aesthetic viewpoint showing that this procedure can be minimally invasive.

  18. Retrospective biodosimetry with small tooth enamel samples using K-Band and X-Band

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gomez, Jorge A. [Departamento de Fisica, FFCLRP, Universidade de Sao Paulo, 14040-901 Ribeirao Preto, Sao Paulo (Brazil); Kinoshita, Angela [Departamento de Fisica, FFCLRP, Universidade de Sao Paulo, 14040-901 Ribeirao Preto, Sao Paulo (Brazil); Universidade Sagrado Coracao - USC, 17011-160 Bauru, Sao Paulo (Brazil); Leonor, Sergio J. [Departamento de Fisica, FFCLRP, Universidade de Sao Paulo, 14040-901 Ribeirao Preto, Sao Paulo (Brazil); Belmonte, Gustavo C. [Universidade Sagrado Coracao - USC, 17011-160 Bauru, Sao Paulo (Brazil); Baffa, Oswaldo, E-mail: baffa@usp.br [Departamento de Fisica, FFCLRP, Universidade de Sao Paulo, 14040-901 Ribeirao Preto, Sao Paulo (Brazil)

    2011-09-15

    In an attempt to make the in vitro electron spin resonance (ESR) retrospective dosimetry of the tooth enamel a lesser invasive method, experiments using X-Band and K-Band were performed, aiming to determine conditions that could be used in cases of accidental exposures. First, a small prism from the enamel was removed and ground with an agate mortar and pestle until particles reach a diameter of approximately less than 0.5 mm. This enamel extraction process resulted in lower signal artifact compared with the direct enamel extraction performed with a diamond burr abrasion. The manual grinding of the enamel does not lead to any induced ESR signal artifact, whereas the use of a diamond burr at low speed produces a signal artifact equivalent to the dosimetric signal induced by a dose of 500 mGy of gamma irradiation. A mass of 25 mg of enamel was removed from a sound molar tooth previously irradiated in vitro with a dose of 100 mGy. This amount of enamel was enough to detect the dosimetric signal in a standard X-Band spectrometer. However using a K-Band spectrometer, samples mass between 5 and 10 mg were sufficient to obtain the same sensitivity. An overall evaluation of the uncertainties involved in the process in this and other dosimetric assessments performed at our laboratory indicates that it is possible at K-Band to estimate a 100 mGy dose with 25% accuracy. In addition, the use of K-Band also presented higher sensitivity and allowed the use of smaller sample mass in comparison with X-Band. Finally, the restoration process performed on a tooth after extraction of the 25 mg of enamel is described. This was conducted by dental treatment using photopolymerizable resin which enabled complete recovery of the tooth from the functional and aesthetic viewpoint showing that this procedure can be minimally invasive.

  19. Small-kernel constrained-least-squares restoration of sampled image data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hazra, Rajeeb; Park, Stephen K.

    1992-10-01

    Constrained least-squares image restoration, first proposed by Hunt twenty years ago, is a linear image restoration technique in which the restoration filter is derived by maximizing the smoothness of the restored image while satisfying a fidelity constraint related to how well the restored image matches the actual data. The traditional derivation and implementation of the constrained least-squares restoration filter is based on an incomplete discrete/discrete system model which does not account for the effects of spatial sampling and image reconstruction. For many imaging systems, these effects are significant and should not be ignored. In a recent paper Park demonstrated that a derivation of the Wiener filter based on the incomplete discrete/discrete model can be extended to a more comprehensive end-to-end, continuous/discrete/continuous model. In a similar way, in this paper, we show that a derivation of the constrained least-squares filter based on the discrete/discrete model can also be extended to this more comprehensive continuous/discrete/continuous model and, by so doing, an improved restoration filter is derived. Building on previous work by Reichenbach and Park for the Wiener filter, we also show that this improved constrained least-squares restoration filter can be efficiently implemented as a small-kernel convolution in the spatial domain.

  20. Bootstrap-DEA analysis of BRICS’ energy efficiency based on small sample data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song, Ma-Lin; Zhang, Lin-Ling; Liu, Wei; Fisher, Ron

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► The BRICS’ economies have flourished with increasingly energy consumptions. ► The analyses and comparison of energy efficiency are conducted among the BRICS. ► As a whole, there is low energy efficiency but a growing trend of BRICS. ► The BRICS should adopt relevant energy policies based on their own conditions. - Abstract: As a representative of many emerging economies, BRICS’ economies have been greatly developed in recent years. Meanwhile, the proportion of energy consumption of BRICS to the whole world consumption has increased. Therefore, it is significant to analyze and compare the energy efficiency among them. This paper firstly utilizes a Super-SBM model to measure and calculate the energy efficiency of BRICS, then analyzes their present status and development trend. Further, Bootstrap is applied to modify the values based on DEA derived from small sample data, and finally the relationship between energy efficiency and carbon emissions is measured. Results show that energy efficiency of BRICS as a whole is low but has a quickly increasing trend. Also, the relationship between energy efficiency and carbon emissions vary from country to country because of their different energy structures. The governments of BRICS should make some relevant energy policies according to their own conditions

  1. Louisiana ESI: T_MAMMAL (Terrestrial Mammal Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive biological resource data for terrestrial mammals in Louisiana. Vector polygons in this data set represent terrestrial mammal...

  2. The use of commercially available PC-interface cards for elemental mapping in small samples using XRF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abu Bakar bin Ghazali; Hoyes Garnet

    1991-01-01

    This paper demonstrates the use of ADC and reed relay cards to scan a small sample for acquiring data of X-ray fluorescence. The result shows the distribution of an element such as zinc content in the sample by means of colours, signifying the concentration

  3. Carnitine biosynthesis in mammals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vaz, Frédéric M.; Wanders, Ronald J. A.

    2002-01-01

    Carnitine is indispensable for energy metabolism, since it enables activated fatty acids to enter the mitochondria, where they are broken down via beta-oxidation. Carnitine is probably present in all animal species, and in numerous micro-organisms and plants. In mammals, carnitine homoeostasis is

  4. The Mammals of Suriname

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Husson, A.M.

    1978-01-01

    The knowledge of the fauna of Suriname is of essential importance in the study of the neotropical Mammalia. The first publications containing information on mammals of Suriname appeared very early in the history of European exploration of South America. Such publications were relatively numerous in

  5. The Mammals of the

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1984, 19(4). Book Review. The Mammals of the. Southern Mrican. Subregiol1. Reay H.N. Smithers. University of Pretoria, Pretoria, 1983. 736 pp. Price RIOO. A major new work ... of wild horses with separate profIles of two subspecies of mountain ... broader problems of ecological adaptation and evolutionary history which ...

  6. Reliable calculation in probabilistic logic: Accounting for small sample size and model uncertainty

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferson, S. [Applied Biomathematics, Setauket, NY (United States)

    1996-12-31

    A variety of practical computational problems arise in risk and safety assessments, forensic statistics and decision analyses in which the probability of some event or proposition E is to be estimated from the probabilities of a finite list of related subevents or propositions F,G,H,.... In practice, the analyst`s knowledge may be incomplete in two ways. First, the probabilities of the subevents may be imprecisely known from statistical estimations, perhaps based on very small sample sizes. Second, relationships among the subevents may be known imprecisely. For instance, there may be only limited information about their stochastic dependencies. Representing probability estimates as interval ranges on has been suggested as a way to address the first source of imprecision. A suite of AND, OR and NOT operators defined with reference to the classical Frochet inequalities permit these probability intervals to be used in calculations that address the second source of imprecision, in many cases, in a best possible way. Using statistical confidence intervals as inputs unravels the closure properties of this approach however, requiring that probability estimates be characterized by a nested stack of intervals for all possible levels of statistical confidence, from a point estimate (0% confidence) to the entire unit interval (100% confidence). The corresponding logical operations implied by convolutive application of the logical operators for every possible pair of confidence intervals reduces by symmetry to a manageably simple level-wise iteration. The resulting calculus can be implemented in software that allows users to compute comprehensive and often level-wise best possible bounds on probabilities for logical functions of events.

  7. Sensitivity of Coastal Environments and Wildlife to Spilled Oil: Hudson River: T_MAMMAL (Terrestrial Mammal Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive biological resource data for small terrestrial mammals (woodrats, myotis, muskrat, mink) for the Hudson River. Vector polygons in...

  8. Pneumocystosis in wild small mammals from California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laakkonen, Juha; Fisher, Robert N.; Case, Ted J.

    2001-01-01

    Cyst forms of the opportunistic fungal parasite Pneumocystis carinii were found in the lungs of 34% of the desert shrew, Notiosorex crawfordi (n = 59), 13% of the ornate shrew, Sorex ornatus (n = 55), 6% of the dusky-footed wood rat, Neotoma fuscipes (n = 16), 2.5% of the California meadow vole,Microtus californicus (n = 40), and 50% of the California pocket mouse, Chaetodipus californicus (n= 2) caught from southern California between February 1998 and February 2000. Cysts were not found in any of the harvest mouse, Reithrodontomys megalotis (n = 21), California mouse,Peromyscus californicus (n = 20), brush mouse, Peromyscus boylii (n = 7) or deer mouse, Peromyscus maniculatus (n = 4) examined. All infections were mild; extrapulmonary infections were not observed. Other lung parasites detected were Hepatozoon sp./spp. from M. californicus andNotiosorex crawfordi, Chrysosporium sp. (Emmonsia) from M. californicus, and a nematode from S. ornatus.

  9. Addressing small sample size bias in multiple-biomarker trials: Inclusion of biomarker-negative patients and Firth correction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habermehl, Christina; Benner, Axel; Kopp-Schneider, Annette

    2018-03-01

    In recent years, numerous approaches for biomarker-based clinical trials have been developed. One of these developments are multiple-biomarker trials, which aim to investigate multiple biomarkers simultaneously in independent subtrials. For low-prevalence biomarkers, small sample sizes within the subtrials have to be expected, as well as many biomarker-negative patients at the screening stage. The small sample sizes may make it unfeasible to analyze the subtrials individually. This imposes the need to develop new approaches for the analysis of such trials. With an expected large group of biomarker-negative patients, it seems reasonable to explore options to benefit from including them in such trials. We consider advantages and disadvantages of the inclusion of biomarker-negative patients in a multiple-biomarker trial with a survival endpoint. We discuss design options that include biomarker-negative patients in the study and address the issue of small sample size bias in such trials. We carry out a simulation study for a design where biomarker-negative patients are kept in the study and are treated with standard of care. We compare three different analysis approaches based on the Cox model to examine if the inclusion of biomarker-negative patients can provide a benefit with respect to bias and variance of the treatment effect estimates. We apply the Firth correction to reduce the small sample size bias. The results of the simulation study suggest that for small sample situations, the Firth correction should be applied to adjust for the small sample size bias. Additional to the Firth penalty, the inclusion of biomarker-negative patients in the analysis can lead to further but small improvements in bias and standard deviation of the estimates. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  10. Quantum superposition of the state discrete spectrum of mathematical correlation molecule for small samples of biometric data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir I. Volchikhin

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The study promotes to decrease a number of errors of calculating the correlation coefficient in small test samples. Materials and Methods: We used simulation tool for the distribution functions of the density values of the correlation coefficient in small samples. A method for quantization of the data, allows obtaining a discrete spectrum states of one of the varieties of correlation functional. This allows us to consider the proposed structure as a mathematical correlation molecule, described by some analogue continuous-quantum Schrödinger equation. Results: The chi-squared Pearson’s molecule on small samples allows enhancing power of classical chi-squared test to 20 times. A mathematical correlation molecule described in the article has similar properties. It allows in the future reducing calculation errors of the classical correlation coefficients in small samples. Discussion and Conclusions: The authors suggest that there are infinitely many mathematical molecules are similar in their properties to the actual physical molecules. Schrödinger equations are not unique, their analogues can be constructed for each mathematical molecule. You can expect a mathematical synthesis of molecules for a large number of known statistical tests and statistical moments. All this should make it possible to reduce calculation errors due to quantum effects that occur in small test samples.

  11. Morphometric identification of small mammal footprints from ink tracking tunnels in the Brazilian Cerrado Identificação morfométrica de pequenos mamíferos usando tubos de pegadas no Cerrado

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre R. T. Palma

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available An alternative method for identifying and inventorying rodents and marsupials inhabiting forests and grasslands of Brazilian Cerrado is presented and discussed. Ink tracking tunnels were designed according to the size of target species and used to build a reference collection of small mammal footprints composed of 1408 footprints belonging to 251 individuals from 30 species (21 rodents and nine marsupials. Sherman traps and ink tracking tunnels were used to conduct inventories in gallery forests. Footprints obtained in ink tracking tunnels were digitalized and compared with those in reference collection using Discriminant Analysis (DFA. DFA allowed good footprint differentiation, even among congeneric species. In DFA analysis, the first two axis were related to size and arboreality. The efficiency of ink tracking tunnels was higher (track-success = 31% than conventional trapping (trap-success = 14% in inventories. Ink tracking tunnels gave a good description of the small mammal community of gallery forest by detecting rodents and marsupials of different habits, including trap-shy species. This paper also discusses advantages and limitations of ink tracking tunnels use in inventories and ecological studies, and concludes that this technique can be efficient in long-term studies and in rapid inventories as a complementary technique for trapping.Um método alternativo de identificação e inventário de roedores e marsupiais de florestas e áreas abertas do Cerrado é apresentado e discutido. Os tubos de pegadas foram projetados de acordo com o tamanho das espécies alvo e usados para construir uma coleção de referência de pegadas de pequenos mamíferos formada por 1408 pegadas pertencentes a 251 indivíduos de 30 espécies (21 roedores e nove marsupiais. Armadilhas Sherman e tubos de pegadas foram usados para conduzir inventários em matas de galeria. As pegadas obtidas nos tubos foram digitalizadas e comparadas com as da coleção de refer

  12. ANALYSIS OF MONTE CARLO SIMULATION SAMPLING TECHNIQUES ON SMALL SIGNAL STABILITY OF WIND GENERATOR- CONNECTED POWER SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    TEMITOPE RAPHAEL AYODELE

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Monte Carlo simulation using Simple Random Sampling (SRS technique is popularly known for its ability to handle complex uncertainty problems. However, to produce a reasonable result, it requires huge sample size. This makes it to be computationally expensive, time consuming and unfit for online power system applications. In this article, the performance of Latin Hypercube Sampling (LHS technique is explored and compared with SRS in term of accuracy, robustness and speed for small signal stability application in a wind generator-connected power system. The analysis is performed using probabilistic techniques via eigenvalue analysis on two standard networks (Single Machine Infinite Bus and IEEE 16–machine 68 bus test system. The accuracy of the two sampling techniques is determined by comparing their different sample sizes with the IDEAL (conventional. The robustness is determined based on a significant variance reduction when the experiment is repeated 100 times with different sample sizes using the two sampling techniques in turn. Some of the results show that sample sizes generated from LHS for small signal stability application produces the same result as that of the IDEAL values starting from 100 sample size. This shows that about 100 sample size of random variable generated using LHS method is good enough to produce reasonable results for practical purpose in small signal stability application. It is also revealed that LHS has the least variance when the experiment is repeated 100 times compared to SRS techniques. This signifies the robustness of LHS over that of SRS techniques. 100 sample size of LHS produces the same result as that of the conventional method consisting of 50000 sample size. The reduced sample size required by LHS gives it computational speed advantage (about six times over the conventional method.

  13. 76 FR 76949 - Marine Mammals

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-09

    ...-XR52 Marine Mammals AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National Oceanic and Atmospheric.... 14534 is requested under the authority of the Marine Mammal Protection Act of 1972, as amended (16 U.S.C. 1361 et seq.), the regulations governing the taking and importing of marine mammals (50 CFR part 216...

  14. 75 FR 68605 - Marine Mammals

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-08

    ...-XX23 Marine Mammals AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National Oceanic and Atmospheric... permit to conduct research on marine mammals. ADDRESSES: The permit and related documents are available... applicant. The requested permit has been issued under the authority of the Marine Mammal Protection Act of...

  15. 77 FR 2512 - Marine Mammals

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-18

    ...-XA905 Marine Mammals AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National Oceanic and Atmospheric... Dorian Houser, Ph.D., National Marine Mammal Foundation, 2240 Shelter Island Drive, 200, San Diego, CA... subject permit is requested under the authority of the Marine Mammal Protection Act of 1972, as amended...

  16. 77 FR 14352 - Marine Mammals

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-09

    ...-XB065 Marine Mammals AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National Oceanic and Atmospheric... Marine Mammal Protection Act of 1972, as amended (16 U.S.C. 1361 et seq.), the regulations governing the taking and importing of marine mammals (50 CFR part 216), the Endangered Species Act of 1973, as amended...

  17. 75 FR 77616 - Marine Mammals

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-13

    .... 14334] Marine Mammals AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National Oceanic and Atmospheric... Marine Mammal Protection Act of 1972, as amended (16 U.S.C. 1361 et seq.), the regulations governing the taking and importing of marine mammals (50 CFR part 216), the Endangered Species Act of 1973, as amended...

  18. Physiological Monitoring in Diving Mammals

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-30

    1 DISTRIBUTION STATEMENT A. Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. Physiological Monitoring in Diving Mammals Andreas...825-2025 email: andreas.fahlman@tamucc.edu Peter L. Tyack School of Biology Sea Mammal Research Unit Scottish Oceans Institute...OBJECTIVES This project is separated into three aims: Aim 1: Develop a new generation of tags/data logger for marine mammals that will

  19. A Rational Approach for Discovering and Validating Cancer Markers in Very Small Samples Using Mass Spectrometry and ELISA Microarrays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard C. Zangar

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Identifying useful markers of cancer can be problematic due to limited amounts of sample. Some samples such as nipple aspirate fluid (NAF or early-stage tumors are inherently small. Other samples such as serum are collected in larger volumes but archives of these samples are very valuable and only small amounts of each sample may be available for a single study. Also, given the diverse nature of cancer and the inherent variability in individual protein levels, it seems likely that the best approach to screen for cancer will be to determine the profile of a battery of proteins. As a result, a major challenge in identifying protein markers of disease is the ability to screen many proteins using very small amounts of sample. In this review, we outline some technological advances in proteomics that greatly advance this capability. Specifically, we propose a strategy for identifying markers of breast cancer in NAF that utilizes mass spectrometry (MS to simultaneously screen hundreds or thousands of proteins in each sample. The best potential markers identified by the MS analysis can then be extensively characterized using an ELISA microarray assay. Because the microarray analysis is quantitative and large numbers of samples can be efficiently analyzed, this approach offers the ability to rapidly assess a battery of selected proteins in a manner that is directly relevant to traditional clinical assays.

  20. 78 FR 52135 - Takes of Marine Mammals Incidental to Specified Activities; Taking Marine Mammals Incidental To...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-22

    ...--Marine Mammal Density Estimates Density Species (animals/km \\2\\) Bottlenose dolphin \\1\\ 0.455 Atlantic... criteria and thresholds in a final rule on the unintentional taking of marine animals occurring incidental... analysis assumed the marine species populations were 100 percent small animals. The criterion with the...