WorldWideScience

Sample records for small island nations

  1. Global warming and small island nations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lechte, R.E.

    1994-01-01

    Climate change has the potential to raise sea levels, and this could be catastrophic for many small island nations. The threats of climate change are reviewed with emphasis on the impacts on women of these nations. Considerations include land and resource inheritance traditionally held by women, traditional gardening and fishing practices for which women are responsible, deterioration of ground water and consequent health problems, increased incidence of hurricanes, and the potential for large scale resettlement programs. The small, rich European states threatened by sea level rise, such as the Netherlands and Denmark, have been proactive in proposing CO 2 reduction targets that go well beyond the Montreal Protocol. However, the Danes and the Dutch have far greater resources than small Pacific island states, or Bangladesh or the Maldives. These countries' very survivial may depend on the political will of the wealthier nations to reduce their emissions and assist the less developed countries in dealing with the threat of sea level rise

  2. Planning for climate change in small islands: insights from national hurricane preparedness in the Cayman Islands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tompkins, E.L.

    2005-01-01

    This paper examines contemporary national scale responses to tropical storm risk in a small island in the Caribbean to derive lessons for adapting to climate change. There is little empirical evidence to guide national planners on how to adapt to climate change, and less still on how to build on past adaptation experiences. The paper investigates the construction of institutional resilience and the process of adaptation to tropical storm risk by the Cayman Islands' Government from 1988 to 2002. It explains the roles of persuasion, exposure and collective action as key components in developing the ability to buffer external disturbance using models of institutional economics and social resilience concepts. The study finds that self-efficacy, strong local and international support networks, combined with a willingness to act collectively and to learn from mistakes appear to have increased the resilience of the Cayman Islands' Government to tropical storm risk. The lessons learned from building resilience to storm risk can contribute to the creation of national level adaptive capacity to climate change, but climate change has to be prioritised before these lessons can be transferred. (author)

  3. Planning for climate change in small islands: insights from national hurricane preparedness in the Cayman Islands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tompkins, E.L. [University of East Anglia, Norwich (United Kingdom). School of Environmental Sciences

    2005-07-01

    This paper examines contemporary national scale responses to tropical storm risk in a small island in the Caribbean to derive lessons for adapting to climate change. There is little empirical evidence to guide national planners on how to adapt to climate change, and less still on how to build on past adaptation experiences. The paper investigates the construction of institutional resilience and the process of adaptation to tropical storm risk by the Cayman Islands' Government from 1988 to 2002. It explains the roles of persuasion, exposure and collective action as key components in developing the ability to buffer external disturbance using models of institutional economics and social resilience concepts. The study finds that self-efficacy, strong local and international support networks, combined with a willingness to act collectively and to learn from mistakes appear to have increased the resilience of the Cayman Islands' Government to tropical storm risk. The lessons learned from building resilience to storm risk can contribute to the creation of national level adaptive capacity to climate change, but climate change has to be prioritised before these lessons can be transferred. (author)

  4. Establishing national noncommunicable disease surveillance in a developing country: a model for small island nations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela M. Rose

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objective To describe the surveillance model used to develop the first national, population-based, multiple noncommunicable disease (NCD registry in the Caribbean (one of the first of its kind worldwide; registry implementation; lessons learned; and incidence and mortality rates from the first years of operation. Methods Driven by limited national resources, this initiative of the Barbados Ministry of Health (MoH, in collaboration with The University of the West Indies, was designed to collect prospective data on incident stroke and acute myocardial infarction (MI (heart attack cases from all health care facilities in this small island developing state (SIDS in the Eastern Caribbean. Emphasis is on tertiary and emergency health care data sources. Incident cancer cases are obtained retrospectively, primarily from laboratories. Deaths are collected from the national death register. Results Phased introduction of the Barbados National Registry for Chronic NCDs (“the BNR” began with the stroke component (“BNR–Stroke,” 2008, followed by the acute MI component (“BNR–Heart,” 2009 and the cancer component (“BNR–Cancer,” 2010. Expected case numbers projected from prior studies estimated an average of 378 first-ever stroke, 900 stroke, and 372 acute MI patients annually, and registry data showed an annual average of about 238, 593, and 349 patients respectively. There were 1 204 tumors registered in 2008, versus the expected 1 395. Registry data were used to identify public health training themes. Success required building support from local health care professionals and creating island-wide registry awareness. With spending of approximately US$ 148 per event for 2 200 events per year, the program costs the MoH about US$ 1 per capita annually. Conclusions Given the limited absolute health resources available to SIDS, combined surveillance should be considered for building a national NCD evidence base. With prevalence

  5. Can small island mountains provide relief from the Subtropical Precipitation Decline? Simulating future precipitation regimes for small island nations using high resolution Regional Climate Models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowden, J.; Terando, A. J.; Misra, V.; Wootten, A.

    2017-12-01

    Small island nations are vulnerable to changes in the hydrologic cycle because of their limited water resources. This risk to water security is likely even higher in sub-tropical regions where anthropogenic forcing of the climate system is expected to lead to a drier future (the so-called `dry-get-drier' pattern). However, high-resolution numerical modeling experiments have also shown an enhancement of existing orographically-influenced precipitation patterns on islands with steep topography, potentially mitigating subtropical drying on windward mountain sides. Here we explore the robustness of the near-term (25-45 years) subtropical precipitation decline (SPD) across two island groupings in the Caribbean, Puerto Rico and the U.S. Virgin Islands. These islands, forming the boundary between the Greater and Lesser Antilles, significantly differ in size, topographic relief, and orientation to prevailing winds. Two 2-km horizontal resolution regional climate model simulations are used to downscale a total of three different GCMs under the RCP8.5 emissions scenario. Results indicate some possibility for modest increases in precipitation at the leading edge of the Luquillo Mountains in Puerto Rico, but consistent declines elsewhere. We conclude with a discussion of potential explanations for these patterns and the attendant risks to water security that subtropical small island nations could face as the climate warms.

  6. Small Island Visitor Attractions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haven Allahar

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This article proposes a process framework for developing and managing visitor attractions (VA in small island developing states with Trinidad and Tobago, a two-island state in the Caribbean, as the case study. An extensive literature review was conducted, supported by field observations, individual depth interviews, and small and large focus group meetings. The process framework identified four sets of processes: national policy formulation and legislation; inventory, classification, evaluation, and ranking of VA; general operations management involving project management activities; and site specific activities of development, operations, and maintenance. The value of the framework lies in the fact that no similar framework applicable to small islands was covered in the literature and validation was obtained from a panel of experts and a cross section of tourism stakeholders in Tobago.

  7. Rising sea levels and small island states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leatherman, S.P.

    1994-01-01

    A review is given of the problems small island nations face with respect to sea level rise caused by global warming. Many small island nations are very vulnerable to sea level rise. Particularly at risk are coral reef atolls, which are generally quite small, lie within three metres of current sea levels, and have no land at higher elevations to relocate populations and economic activity. Volcanic islands in the Pacific have high ground, but it is largely rugged, high relief and soil-poor. The most vulnerable islands are those that consist entirely of atolls and reef islands, such as Kirabai, Maldives, Tokelau and Tuvalu. Small island states, which by themselves have little power or influence in world affairs, have banded together to form the Strategic Alliance of Small Island States (AOSIS). This alliance had grown to include 42 states by the time of the 1992 U.N. Earth Summit. Although the greenhouse effect is mainly caused by industrial nations, developing countries will suffer the most from it. Choices of response strategy will depend on environmental, economic and social factors. Most small island nations do not have the resources to fight sea level rise in the way that the Dutch have. Retreat can occur as a gradual process or as catastrophic abandonment. Prohibiting construction close to the water's edge is a good approach. Sea level histories for each island state should be compiled and updated, island geomorphology and settlement patterns should be surveyed to determine risk areas, storm regimes should be determined, and information on coastal impacts of sea level rise should be disseminated to the public

  8. Model of Ecotourism Management in Small Islands of Bunaken National Park, North Sulawesi

    OpenAIRE

    Munandar, Aris; Kholil, Kholil; Djokosetiyanto, Daniel; Tangian, Diane

    2015-01-01

    The Bunaken National Park is one of the famous national park for tourism in North Sulawesi, Indonesia. The abundance natural resources is one of the crucial natural attraction for tourism in Bunaken. Tourism in Bunaken contributes significantly in local economic development. In the same situation, however, tourism contributes negatively to environment. Tourist activities contributes significantly in coral reef covers. Utilization of natural resources as an object and attraction needs to be do...

  9. Model of Ecotourism Management in Small Islands of Bunaken National Park, North Sulawesi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diane Tangian

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The Bunaken National Park is one of the famous national park for tourism in North Sulawesi, Indonesia. The abundance natural resources is one of the crucial natural attraction for tourism in Bunaken. Tourism in Bunaken contributes significantly in local economic development. In the same situation, however, tourism contributes negatively to environment. Tourist activities contributes significantly in coral reef covers. Utilization of natural resources as an object and attraction needs to be done carefully, taking into account the balance of ecological, socio-economic and socio-cultural. The concept of ecotourism with three aspects of development were important in aspect in Bunaken National Park tourism development. The management of the park tour needs to be done based on the concept and principles of ecotourism. The Bunaken National Park tourist management model simulated by the dynamic system with the Powersim Constructor software show the number of tourist 2035 reached 27,152.98, extensive coral cover 447.87ha, the local community incomes Rp 15,834,861,419.63 and government revenues Rp 1,751,770,691.04. Keywords: conservation area, ecotourism, powersim model, sustainable management.

  10. Editorial : entrepreneurship and small business development in small islands

    OpenAIRE

    Baldacchino, Godfrey; Fairbairn, Te’o I. J.;

    2006-01-01

    This paper reviews the limited literature on successful small business and entrepreneurship in small islands, with a focus on Pacific and European research. It argues that the notable specific contribution of this collection is its focus on tangible examples of successful island entrepreneurship, and the specific challenges towards entrepreneurship faced by island people. This approach is micro-oriented and very close to the actual human entrepreneurs that lead and shine by exampl...

  11. Coastal flood implications of 1.5°C, 2°C and 2.5°C global mean temperature stabilization targets for small island nations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasmussen, D.; Buchanan, M. K.; Kopp, R. E.; Oppenheimer, M.

    2017-12-01

    Sea-level rise (SLR) is magnifying the frequency and severity of flooding in coastal regions. The rate and amount of global-mean SLR is a function of the trajectory of the global mean surface temperature (GMST). Therefore, temperature stabilization targets (e.g., 1.5°C or 2°C, as from the Paris Agreement) have important implications for regulating coastal flood risk. Quantifying the differences in the impact from SLR between these and other GMST stabilization targets is necessary for assessing the benefits and harms of mitigation goals. Low-lying small island nations are particularly vulnerable to inundation and coastal flooding from SLR because building protective and resilient infrastructure may not be physically or economically feasible. For small island nations, keeping GMST below a specified threshold may be the only option for maintaining habitability. Here, we assess differences in the return levels of coastal floods for small island nations between 1.5°C, 2.0°C, and 2.5°C GMST stabilization. We employ probabilistic, localized SLR projections and long-term hourly tide gauge records to construct estimates of local flood risk. We then estimate the number of small island nations' inhabitants at risk for permanent inundation under different GMST stabilization targets.

  12. Different shades of green on small islands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teresa Tiago

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Many small islands exist as tourism destinations worldwide. In the 1990s, the growth of environmental consciousness led some small islands to question their mass tourism offers and to refocus on more sustainable propositions. However, it remains unclear whether hospitality firms see these sustainability related efforts as drivers of success and whether tourists value this dimension when choosing or recommending a destination. This study chose a small island destination to address these questions using data covering firm and tourism perceptions of green products. The results show that tourists tend to value green efforts with different intensities, corresponding to three segments: Light Green, Green, and Super Green. These findings should help hotels adjust their communication strategies and develop new services. Further, destination marketing organizations can devise a consistent destination strategy, integrating all stakeholders by including their most valued concepts.

  13. Agricultural diversification strategies in small island states

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Drori, I.; Gayle, D. J.

    1991-01-01

    Across the small island states of the Caribbean, the need for greater agricultural diversification is a constant policy concern, as exemplified by the case of Barbados. Although the cane sugar industry in Barbados remains one of the more cost-efficient in the world, the structures of both the

  14. Renewable energy projects in small island countries funded under the United Nation trust found for new and renewable source of energy (NRSE)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gururaja, J.

    1999-01-01

    The NRSE trust fund established with financial support from the Italian Government has succeeded in catalyzing a number of energy projects in small island developing countries. These projects have elicited a great deal of interest by local communities and opened up prospects for further utilization of locally available energy resources. The projects have created a positive impact on the quality of life of people in dispersed locations in small island developing countries by focusing on provision of renewable energy based electricity services such as solar PV lighting for homes, schools, and hospitals; radio, TV, VCR as well as medicine refrigerators. Thus it has become evident that renewable energy technologies such as solar and wind systems can have an important role to play in improving the quality of life of people in these small island countries. Market potential for these technologies is indeed substantial. However constraints and barriers still exist. One of the principal barriers is still the high initial cost of solar devices. Innovative financing including microcredit facilities needs to be explored. Efforts are also needed to strengthen local capacity to undertake assembly of components and systems, and also in the installation, maintenance, and service of renewable energy devices. Entrepreneurial activities need to be fostered through further strengthening of skills in this area. (EHS)

  15. Renewable energy projects in small island countries funded under the United Nation trust found for new and renewable source of energy (NRSE)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gururaja, J. [Energy and Transport Branch, Division for Sustainabel Development, Department of Economic and Social Affairs, United Nations, NY (United States)

    1999-11-01

    The NRSE trust fund established with financial support from the Italian Government has succeeded in catalyzing a number of energy projects in small island developing countries. These projects have elicited a great deal of interest by local communities and opened up prospects for further utilization of locally available energy resources. The projects have created a positive impact on the quality of life of people in dispersed locations in small island developing countries by focusing on provision of renewable energy based electricity services such as solar PV lighting for homes, schools, and hospitals; radio, TV, VCR as well as medicine refrigerators. Thus it has become evident that renewable energy technologies such as solar and wind systems can have an important role to play in improving the quality of life of people in these small island countries. Market potential for these technologies is indeed substantial. However constraints and barriers still exist. One of the principal barriers is still the high initial cost of solar devices. Innovative financing including microcredit facilities needs to be explored. Efforts are also needed to strengthen local capacity to undertake assembly of components and systems, and also in the installation, maintenance, and service of renewable energy devices. Entrepreneurial activities need to be fostered through further strengthening of skills in this area. (EHS)

  16. The demographic dynamics of small island societies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruz, M; D'ayala, P G; Marcus, E; Mcelroy, J L; Rossi, O

    1987-01-01

    Small islands and microstates have demonstrated a unique demographic pattern, including cycles of swift population increases or decreases well beyond natural birth and death rate balances. These demographic fluctuations have been produced largely by rises or declines in market opportunities. The process of taking advantage of favorable opportunities is always followed by a specialization in the given activity, without regard to environmental protection issues or a longterm strategy for economic development and resource diversification. The population growth phase is associated with increasing fragility of the economic base, whether because of the external dangers of overspecialization or induced internal dysfunctions such as disease and resource depletion. Eventually complete collapse results, causing chronic outmigration or even depopulation. Case histories of maritime basins in the Mediterranean, Caribbean, and Pacific show that the demographic structure of small islands has been particularly sensitive to changing economic opportunities, the vagaries of market forces, and cataclysmic natural events. Experience in these areas suggests that balanced economic development of small islands should be based on diversification of activities, thus ensuring a relatively stable pattern of growth, sound environmental management, and control of dangerous demographic fluctuations. Special attention should be given to the development of broad-based research and cooperation to integrate specific island opportunities within a regional network.

  17. Environmental Impact of Tourism and Air Transport on the Sustainable Development of Small Island Developing States

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-01-01

    The United Nations General Assembly recognized that many small island developing countries were confronted with compelling factors such as their smallness in size, susceptibility and vulnerability to natural disasters, remoteness of access and geogra...

  18. Environmental Displacements: The Case of Small Island States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina R. Martins Mattar

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The human displacement caused by adverse weather conditions is, and has been for a long time, a natural strategy to adapt to environmental changes. However, the frequency of natural disasters and the negative impact of climate change have increased significantly affecting a growing number of people. Internal and external tensions caused by large-scale displacements, conflicts generated by resource scarcity, increased spread of diseases and geopolitical reordering are among the consequences linked to this phenomenon. The case of the small island nations that will be submerged by the sea level rise is an extreme example that raises fascinating questions. This article aims at analyzing the links of climate change on the dynamics of migration and exploring legal and political implications and possible solutions, in particular, for the populations from small island nations.

  19. Risk to Water Security on Small Islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holding, S. T.; Allen, D. M.

    2013-12-01

    The majority of fresh water available on small islands is shallow groundwater that forms a freshwater lens. Freshwater lenses are generally limited in extent and as such are vulnerable to many stressors that impact water security. These include stressors related to climate change, such as sea level rise, as well as those related to human impacts, such as contamination. Traditionally, water security assessments have focussed on indicators that provide a snapshot of the current condition. However, recent work suggests that in order to effectively manage the water system, it is also important to consider uncertain future impacts to the system by evaluating how different stressors might impact water security. In this study, a framework for assessing risk to water security was developed and tested on Andros Island in The Bahamas. The assessment comprises two main components that characterise the water system: numerical modelling studies and a hazard survey. A baseline numerical model of the freshwater lens throughout Andros Island was developed to simulate the morphology of the freshwater lens and estimate the freshwater resources currently available. The model was prepared using SEAWAT, a density-dependent flow and solute transport code. Various stressors were simulated in the model to evaluate the response of the freshwater lens to predicted future shifts in climate patterns, sea level rise, and changes in water use. A hazard survey was also conducted on the island to collect information related to the storage of contaminants, sanitation infrastructure, waste disposal practices and groundwater abstraction rates. The results of the survey form a geo-spatial database of the location and associated hazards to the freshwater lens. The resulting risk framework provides a ranking of overall risk to water security based on information from the numerical modelling and hazard survey. The risk framework is implemented in a Geographic Information System (GIS) and provides a map

  20. The research management profession within universities in small island states

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Bonnici

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The past fifty years have witnessed a widespread increase in the study of small states, including island studies; and the rise of the research management profession and its associated literature. Within a small island state context, the profession cannot be taken for granted, owing to smallness and other inherent characteristics of small island states. These characteristics may potentially re-shape the profession in a unique fashion and may influence the manner in which the roles of university research managers and administrators evolve in a small island state. So far, studies investigating the profession in the context of islands and small states have been lacking. This paper aims to instigate a discussion that hopefully inspires further studies about how the research manager’s role and profession may be re-shaped within small island states.

  1. [Trauma surgery in Pacific Small Island Developing States (SIDS)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oberli, H; Martin, C

    2017-10-01

    The small developing countries in the Pacific are grouped together as Small Island Development States (SIDS) because they face similar problems which they cannot cope with nationally. They are developing countries, so-called low and lower middle income countries (LMIC), are economically weak and the islands of the different nations are widely scattered. Approximately 80% of the 10 million inhabitants live in rural regions. Over 40% of patients in the surgical departments of hospitals are hospitalized for injuries, and this tendency is increasing. Fractures of the upper extremities are relatively more frequent in the Pacific than in the countries of the North. Long distances, lack of possibilities for treatment and lack of transport often cause complications, such as infected open fractures, pseudarthrosis and posttraumatic malformations. There are too few hospitals with sufficiently competent surgeons, anesthetists and obstetricians (SAO) and appropriate equipment. The PIOA was founded in Honiara, Solomon Islands, and offers surgeons of the Pacific SIDS a comprehensive, structured trauma and orthopedic surgery training in their own countries. It lasts 4 years and leads to an M‑Med (orthopaedic surgery) diploma and to a Fellowship of the International College of Surgeons (FICS), which are both recognized by the participating hospitals. It is free for participants. The AOAF is an independent organization with the only aim to enhance trauma surgery capacity in LMICs. The AOAF supports the PIOA program together with the Wyss Medical Foundation. Currently, 18 trainees from 8 Pacific SIDS are participating in the PIOA training program.

  2. 36 CFR 7.75 - Padre Island National Seashore.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Padre Island National... INTERIOR SPECIAL REGULATIONS, AREAS OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 7.75 Padre Island National Seashore. (a... surface of the land or waters within the Padre Island National Seashore—for all purposes reasonably...

  3. Croatian small islands – residential and/or leisure area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josip Faričić

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper discusses modern geographic processes on Croatian small inhabited islands. For centuries, Croatian small islands have been continuously inhabited area characterized by different social and economic activities. However, in the last several decades, the islands have experienced a severe depopulation, and on the other hand, the interest for occasional use of that attractive insular space for recreational purposes increased. Consequently, the basic insular functions have changed, which, among other things, contributes to changes of insular landscape and to the changed role of small islands in regional socio-economic systems.

  4. Storm impacts on small barrier islands

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kroon, Aart; Fruergaard, Mikkel

    The shorelines of the Baltic Sea and the inner coastal waters in Denmark consist of many barrier islands. These sandy barrier islands were mainly formed in the Holocene and are still very dynamic. The present day changes in the morphology are dominantly governed by storm waves and associated high...

  5. 36 CFR 7.84 - Channel Islands National Park.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... commercial purposes is prohibited in the following areas: (i) Anacapa Island. Northside to exterior boundary of the monument between east end of Arch Rock 119°21′-34°01′ and west end of island, 119°27′-34°01... INTERIOR SPECIAL REGULATIONS, AREAS OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 7.84 Channel Islands National Park. (a...

  6. Coastal management strategy for small island: ecotourism potency development in Karimata Island, West Kalimantan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudiastuti, A. W.; Munawaroh; Setyawan, I. E.; Pramono, G. H.

    2018-04-01

    Sustainable coastal management is playing an important role in coastal resources conservation, particularly on small islands. Karimata archipelago has unique characteristics and great potential to be developed as a tourism object, one of which is Karimata Island as the largest island and also reserve area. The concept of ecotourism focuses on the ecology conservation, economic benefits, and social life. Ecotourism aims to build sustainable tourism that provides economically viable and social benefits to the community. This study aims to develop coastal management strategy based on ecotourism at Karimata Island. Spatial approaching through coastal type was done. Qualitative descriptive analysis and SWOT are used to develop sustainable management strategies for the coast of Karimata Island, where the opportunities and challenges to the development of coastal ecotourism Karimata Island also included. If this potential is optimally utilized, it can be relied as an economic opportunity for local communities. Structurally shaped coast, marine depositional coast and coast build by organism are several of coastal types found at Karimata Island. Coastal ecosystems inhabited Karimata Island are mangroves, coral reefs, and macro-algae. Karimata Island have not been optimally utilized for tourist destinations. The biggest obstacle encountered is the accessibility from Kalimantan or other island at Karimata islands. Several problems related to the utilization of coastal resources were found such as mangrove and coral reef damage, also regulation that less supportive. The results of this study are expected to provide an overview of solutions for the development of coastal tourism potentials in Karimata Island.

  7. Adult Continuing Education in Small States and Islands: Concept Paper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, Alan

    1996-01-01

    Small states and islands have strengths and weaknesses that affect adult continuing education: marginalization and threats to their legitimacy from economic globalization; educational globalization, with increasing credentialism and sectoralization; and limited resources for technology and teacher development. (SK)

  8. Economic Vulnerability and Resilience of Small Island States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Te’o I. J. Fairbairn

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available This essay assesses the principles of economic vulnerability and resilience and their contribution to the study and development of small island developing states (SIDS. It is based on a detailed critical account of the contents of a recent publication - Briguglio & Kisanga (2004 - that addresses this issue. It is thus an extended book review that examines arguments central to many current mainstream considerations of small island economies.

  9. The MIRAB Model of Small Island Economies in the Pacific and their Security Issues: Revised Version

    OpenAIRE

    Tisdell, Clem

    2014-01-01

    The MIRAB model of Pacific island micro-economies was developed in the mid-1980s by the New Zealand economists, Bertram and Watters, and dominated the literature on the economics of small island nations and economies until alternative models were proposed two decades later. Nevertheless, it is still an influential theory. MIRAB is an acronym for migration (MI), remittance (R) and foreign aid (A) and the public bureaucracy (B); the main components of the MIRAB model. The nature of this model i...

  10. Strategic Environmental Assessment practices in European small islands: Insights from Azores and Orkney islands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Polido, Alexandra, E-mail: a.polido@campus.fct.unl.pt [CENSE, Center for Environmental and Sustainability Research, Departamento de Ciências e Engenharia do Ambiente, Faculdade de Ciências e Tecnologia, Universidade NOVA de Lisboa, Campus da Caparica, 2829-516 Caparica (Portugal); João, Elsa, E-mail: elsa.joao@strath.ac.uk [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of Strathclyde, Level 5, James Weir Building, 75 Montrose Street, Glasgow G1 1XJ, Scotland (United Kingdom); Ramos, Tomás B., E-mail: tabr@fct.unl.pt [CENSE, Center for Environmental and Sustainability Research, Departamento de Ciências e Engenharia do Ambiente, Faculdade de Ciências e Tecnologia, Universidade NOVA de Lisboa, Campus da Caparica, 2829-516 Caparica (Portugal)

    2016-02-15

    The literature concerning Strategic Environmental Assessment (SEA) often refers to the importance of context-specific approaches. However, there is a lack of systematised and consistent studies that enhance tailor-made SEA practices and procedures. Small islands are bounded units of study which may help explore SEA theory and practice in special territories. Small islands present particular features and unique values, such as, small size and population, geographic isolation, limited resources and vulnerable ecosystems. Hence, the main goal of this research was to profile SEA practices and procedures in European small islands and provide a background for future research aiming to improve context-specific SEA applications. To achieve this goal, an exploratory case study was developed using Azores (Portugal) and Orkney (Scotland) archipelagos. An analysis of the corresponding mainland was also carried out to contextualise both case studies. The data collection was achieved through a qualitative content analysis of 43 Environmental Reports. The research found that there is not an SEA context-specific approach used within these European small islands, including guidelines, assessment topics, assessment techniques, follow-up and stakeholders engagement. The debate concerning specific approaches to small islands must be re-focused on the enhancement of SEA capacity-building amongst different stakeholders (including decision-makers), on the development and implementation of collaborative approaches, and on the exchange of knowledge and experiences between small islands networks. - Highlights: • Reviewed the differences between the Portuguese and Scottish SEA system • Showed a low integration of SEA specific features in reports of European small islands • Provides background for future SEA research for small islands approaches.

  11. Strategic Environmental Assessment practices in European small islands: Insights from Azores and Orkney islands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Polido, Alexandra; João, Elsa; Ramos, Tomás B.

    2016-01-01

    The literature concerning Strategic Environmental Assessment (SEA) often refers to the importance of context-specific approaches. However, there is a lack of systematised and consistent studies that enhance tailor-made SEA practices and procedures. Small islands are bounded units of study which may help explore SEA theory and practice in special territories. Small islands present particular features and unique values, such as, small size and population, geographic isolation, limited resources and vulnerable ecosystems. Hence, the main goal of this research was to profile SEA practices and procedures in European small islands and provide a background for future research aiming to improve context-specific SEA applications. To achieve this goal, an exploratory case study was developed using Azores (Portugal) and Orkney (Scotland) archipelagos. An analysis of the corresponding mainland was also carried out to contextualise both case studies. The data collection was achieved through a qualitative content analysis of 43 Environmental Reports. The research found that there is not an SEA context-specific approach used within these European small islands, including guidelines, assessment topics, assessment techniques, follow-up and stakeholders engagement. The debate concerning specific approaches to small islands must be re-focused on the enhancement of SEA capacity-building amongst different stakeholders (including decision-makers), on the development and implementation of collaborative approaches, and on the exchange of knowledge and experiences between small islands networks. - Highlights: • Reviewed the differences between the Portuguese and Scottish SEA system • Showed a low integration of SEA specific features in reports of European small islands • Provides background for future SEA research for small islands approaches

  12. Sustainable Energy Portfolios for Small Island States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sándor Szabó

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The study presents a cost effective electricity generation portfolio for six island states for a 20-year period (2015–2035. The underlying concept investigates whether adding sizeable power capacities of renewable energy sources (RES options could decrease the overall costs and contribute to a more sustainable, indigenous electricity generation at the same time. Often, island states rely on fossil fuels which, apart from dependence on foreign resources, also includes an additional, significant transport cost. This is an extra motive to study the extent in which island states represent primary locations for RES technologies. For the aims of the present study an optimization model has been developed and following numerous runs the obtained results show that installing PV and battery capacities can delay-reduce the huge investments in fossil options in early periods. Thus, investment on RES can have a positive, long-term effect on the overall energy mix. This prompt development can happen without adding new subsidies but there is a need to address the existing socio-economic barriers with intelligent design of financing and economic instruments and capacity building as discussed in the conclusions.

  13. Changes in shifting cultivation systems on small Pacific islands

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mertz, Ole; Birch-Thomsen, Torben; Elberling, Bo

    2012-01-01

    The limited information on change in shifting cultivation systems of small islands of the Pacific stands in contrast to increasing evidence of this farming system's demise in other parts of the tropics. Here, we assess changes in agricultural activities during the past 40 years of Bellona Island......, Solomon Islands, where shifting cultivation is still maintained in the traditional way. Fallow length has increased despite population growth due to redistribution of the cultivated area, migration-induced extensification and changes in crops. Productivity of the farming system remains high although...

  14. Quantifying anthropogenically driven morphologic changes on a barrier island: Fire Island National Seashore, New York

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kratzmann, Meredith G.; Hapke, Cheryl J.

    2012-01-01

    Beach scraping, beach replenishment, and the presence of moderate development have altered the morphology of the dune–beach system at Fire Island National Seashore, located on a barrier island on the south coast of Long Island, New York. Seventeen communities are interspersed with sections of natural, nonmodified land within the park boundary. Beach width, dune elevation change, volume change, and shoreline change were calculated from light detection and ranging (LIDAR), real-time kinematic global positioning system (RTK GPS), and beach profile data sets at two ∼4 km long study sites. Each site contains both modified (developed, replenished, and/or scraped) and nonmodified (natural) areas. The analysis spans 9 years, from 1998 to 2007, which encompasses both scraping and replenishment events at Fire Island. The objectives of this study were to quantify and compare morphological changes in modified and nonmodified zones, and to identify erosional areas within the study sites.Areas of increased volume and shoreline accretion were observed at both sites and at the western site are consistent with sand replenishment activities. The results indicate that from 1998 to 2007 locations backed by development and that employed beach scraping and/or replenishment as erosion control measures experienced more loss of volume, width, and dune elevation as compared with adjacent nonmodified areas. A detailed analysis of one specific modification, beach scraping, shows distinct morphological differences in scraped areas relative to nonscraped areas of the beach. In general, scraped areas where there is development on the dunes showed decreases in all measured parameters and are more likely to experience overwash during storm events. Furthermore, the rapid mobilization of material from the anthropogenic (scraped) dune results in increased beach accretion downcoast.National park lands are immediately adjacent to developed areas on Fire Island, and even relatively small human

  15. TOURISM MULTIPLIERS FOR A SMALL CARIBBEAN ISLAND STATE; THE CASE OF ARUBA

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steenge, Albert E.; Van De Steeg, Annemieke M.

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, we study the importance of tourism for Aruba, a small Caribbean island state within the Kingdom of The Netherlands. We present an input-output table based on the National Accounts and the Tourism Satellite Account for Aruba, with inbound tourism explicitly included, for the year 1999.

  16. Coastal groundwater exchange on a small Pacific atoll island: Roi Namur, Republic of the Marshall Islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oberle, Ferdinand K. J.; Swarzenski, Peter W.; Storlazzi, Curt

    2017-04-01

    Atoll islands, most of which only average 1-2 meters above today's sea level, provide a tremendous natural laboratory in which to study and better understand the intensifying impacts of high rates of sea-level rise on tropical reef-lined islands globally due to their unique geologic structure and limited water supply. Groundwater resources of atolls are typically minimal due to the low elevation and small surface area of the islands and are also subject to recurring droughts, and more frequent, storm-driven seawater overwash events. Although groundwater is the principal means of freshwater storage on atoll islands and is a major factor in determining the overall sustainability of island communities, hydrological data on how an aquifer will response to changes in sea-level rise or storm-driven overwash remain limited. We here present high-resolution time series hydrogeological and geochemical data to determine the role of the atoll's carbonate geology, land use, and atmospheric and oceanographic forcing in driving coastal groundwater exchange on the island of Roi Namur on Kwajalein Atoll in the Republic of the Marshall Islands. This information can provide new estimates on the recovery and resilience of coastal groundwater resources on such islands to expected climate change-driven perturbations.

  17. Disaster risk reduction and sustainable development for small island developing states

    OpenAIRE

    Shultz, James M.; Cohen, Madeline A.; Hermosilla, Sabrina; Espinel, Zelde; McLean, Andrew

    2016-01-01

    In contrast to continental nations, the world's 52 small island developing states (SIDS) are recognized as a collective of countries that experience disproportionate challenges for sustainable development related to their geography, small size, and physical isolation. These same states also face elevated risks for disaster incidence and consequences particularly in the realms of climate change, sea level rise, natural disasters (tropical cyclones, earthquakes, tsunamis, volcanoes), and marine...

  18. Small Island States Green Energy Initiative. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khattak, Nasir [Climate Inst., Washington, DC (United States)

    1999-10-15

    This report covers the activities carried out during a one year period from 7/15/99 to 7/15/00 as part of the Small Islands Green Energy Initiative. The three activities were: 1) Energy Ministerial conference in the Caribbean; 2) Training session on renewable energy for utility engineers; and 3) Case studies compilation on renewable energy in the Caribbean.

  19. Caribbean small-island tourism styles and sustainable strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Albuquerque, Klaus; McElroy, Jerome L.

    1992-09-01

    This article focuses on developing a sustainable tourism in small Caribbean islands, defined here as those that have populations of fewer than 500,000. Such islands share a very fragile ecology and a high dependence on tourism. They differ in their degree of tourist penetration and visitor density and the related degree of environmental degradation. To explain the link between tourism intensity and ecological vulnerability, the so-called “destination life-cycle model” is presented. This suggests that islands pass through three primary stages of tourist development low-density exploration, rapid growth and consolidation, and high-density maturation involving the substitution of man-made for natural attractions. A broad empirical test of the model is performed through a quantitative examination of the tourism characteristics and visitor densities of a cross section of 23 small Caribbean islands. The three basic stages or tourism styles are identified: low-impact emerging areas, high-density mass-market mature destinations, and rapidly growing intermediate islands in between. Some broad strategies consistent with the systems framework for a sustainable tourism with moderate densitites are briefly explored.

  20. Vulnerability assessment of small islands to tourism: The case of the Marine Tourism Park of the Gili Matra Islands, Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fery Kurniawan

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The Indonesian government is currently directing its focus of development on the optimum uses of marine and coastal ecosystem services including the marine and coastal tourism. One of the main locus of coastal and marine tourism is the small islands tourism such as Gili Matra Islands among others. Small islands tourism is one of the favourite touristic activities because the destination provides beauty, exotism, aesthetic and a diversity of natural habitats including the warm, clear and attractive water. Tourism is being considered as a development instrument in order to boost a country’s economy and has become part of the global industry. However, tourism is also one of the actors that is responsible for environmental depletion, due to the constructions of buildings and tourism activities. This paper aims to study the level of vulnerability in small islands to tourism as a basis of integrated small islands management in Indonesian conservation area. The group of islands in this study consists of three islands namely Gili Ayer Island, Gili Meno Island and Gili Trawangan Island (known as Gili Matra Islands that were observed using Small Islands Vulnerability Index (SIVI. The results indicate that Gili Matra Islands have a vulnerability status from low into moderate, ranging from 2.25 to 2.75. Gili Ayer Island has the highest vulnerability with SIVI of 2.75 (Moderate, followed by Gili Meno Island with SIVI of 2.50 (Low and Gili Trawangan Island with SIVI of 2.25 (Low. The driving factor of vulnerability is the intensive utilization of marine tourism activities. Tourism is the sole stress to Gili Matra Island’s ecosystem due to its direct damaging impact and reducing its environmental quality. The vulnerability index which was built from the coastline, coral reef, live coral reef, and development area was applicable to assess the small island’s vulnerability in Indonesia, especially for coral island.

  1. Water resources of the Apostle Islands National Lakeshore, northern Wisconsin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose, W.J.

    1988-01-01

    The Apostle Islands National Lakeshore consists of 21 islands, part of the Bayfield Peninsula, and the adjacent waters of Lake Superior. Selected water resources of the Apostle Islands National Lakeshore were assessed to aid the National Park Service in developing and managing the Lakeshore and to provide a data base against which future changes can be compared. This summary of water-resources data, collected by the U.S. Geological Survey during 1979-84, provides a qualitative description of selected hydrologic components of the Lakeshore.

  2. Amchitka Island Environmental Analysis at Idaho National Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gracy Elias; W. F. Bauer; J.G. Eisenmenger; C.C. Jensen; B.K. Schuetz; T. C. Sorensen; B.M. White; A. L. Freeman; M. E. McIlwain

    2005-01-01

    The Idaho National Laboratory (INL) provided support to Consortium for Risk Evaluation with Stakeholder Participation (CRESP) in their activities which is supported by the Department of Energy (DOE) to assess the impact of past nuclear testing at Amchitka Island on the ecosystem of the island and surrounding ocean. INL participated in this project in three phases, Phase 1, Phase 2 and Phase 3

  3. 75 FR 81224 - Availability of Seats for the Channel Islands National Marine Sanctuary Advisory Council

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-27

    ... the Channel Islands National Marine Sanctuary Advisory Council AGENCY: Office of National Marine Sanctuaries (ONMS), National Ocean Service (NOS), National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA... applications for the following vacant seats on the Channel Islands National Marine Sanctuary Advisory Council...

  4. 77 FR 66073 - Availability of Seats for the Channel Islands National Marine Sanctuary Advisory Council

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-01

    ... the Channel Islands National Marine Sanctuary Advisory Council AGENCY: Office of National Marine Sanctuaries (ONMS), National Ocean Service (NOS), National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA... applications for the following vacant seats on the Channel Islands National Marine Sanctuary Advisory Council...

  5. Seafloor Backscatter Image of North of Santa Rosa Island, Channel Islands National Marine Sanctuary (8m resolution tif)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This image represents an 8 meter resolution backscatter of the seafloor south of Santa Rosa Island in Channel Islands National Marine Sanctuary. It was acquired...

  6. Seafloor Backscatter Image of South of Santa Rosa Island, Channel Islands National Marine Sanctuary (8m resolution tif)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This image represents an 8 meter resolution backscatter of the seafloor south of Santa Rosa Island in Channel Islands National Marine Sanctuary. It was acquired...

  7. Seafloor Bathymetry Image of South of Santa Rosa Island, Channel Islands National Marine Sanctuary (8m resolution tif)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This image represents an 8 meter resolution bathymetry of the seafloor south of Santa Rosa Island in Channel Islands National Marine Sanctuary. It was acquired using...

  8. Seafloor Bathymetry Image of North of Santa Rosa Island, Channel Islands National Marine Sanctuary (8m resolution tif)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This image represents an 8 meter resolution bathymetry of the seafloor north of Santa Rosa Island in Channel Islands National Marine Sanctuary. It was acquired using...

  9. Apostle Islands National Lakeshore: alternatives analysis for LCM replacement

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-10-01

    This report documents a study which analyzed various transportation options for Apostle Islands National Lakeshore (APIS) to pump toilet systems and perform construction support activities. The report presents the background of the study; describes t...

  10. Transportation and access for sub-national island jurisdictions

    OpenAIRE

    Stuart, Kathleen

    2008-01-01

    The overall aim of this paper is to discern lessons from the category of sub-national island jurisdictions (SNIJs) which have in some way exploited and capitalized upon their airspace, territorial waters, seaports and harbours to solve their transportation problems as well as enhance their global economic competitiveness and development. The focus here is on sub-national island territories (larger than municipalities) which have and use, to varying degrees, their formal and ...

  11. 33 CFR 334.1420 - Pacific Ocean off Orote Point, Apra Harbor, Island of Guam, Marianas Islands; small arms firing...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Pacific Ocean off Orote Point, Apra Harbor, Island of Guam, Marianas Islands; small arms firing range. 334.1420 Section 334.1420... AND RESTRICTED AREA REGULATIONS § 334.1420 Pacific Ocean off Orote Point, Apra Harbor, Island of Guam...

  12. Strategies for International Cooperation in Support of Energy Development in Pacific Island Nations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, M.; Voss, P.; Warren, A.; Baring-Gould, I.; Conrad, M.

    2012-05-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy's National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) has been partnering with island communities around the world to address the technical, policy, social, and economic hurdles to deploying energy efficiency and renewable energy technologies (RETs) on small, islanded systems. The lessons learned from these partnerships are briefly summarized in this document with the goal of supporting the International Renewable Energy Agency (IRENA) in the development of specific near-term and longer-term strategies for island RET deployment.

  13. Topography changes monitoring of small islands using camera drone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bang, E.

    2017-12-01

    Drone aerial photogrammetry was conducted for monitoring topography changes of small islands in the east sea of Korea. Severe weather and sea wave is eroding the islands and sometimes cause landslide and falling rock. Due to rugged cliffs in all direction and bad accessibility, ground based survey methods are less efficient in monitoring topography changes of the whole area. Camera drones can provide digital images and movie in every corner of the islands, and drone aerial photogrammetry is powerful to get precise digital surface model (DSM) for a limited area. We have got a set of digital images to construct a textured 3D model of the project area every year since 2014. Flight height is in less than 100m from the top of those islands to get enough ground sampling distance (GSD). Most images were vertically captured with automatic flights, but we also flied drones around the islands with about 30°-45° camera angle for constructing 3D model better. Every digital image has geo-reference, but we set several ground control points (GCPs) on the islands and their coordinates were measured with RTK surveying methods to increase the absolute accuracy of the project. We constructed 3D textured model using photogrammetry tool, which generates 3D spatial information from digital images. From the polygonal model, we could get DSM with contour lines. Thematic maps such as hill shade relief map, aspect map and slope map were also processed. Those maps make us understand topography condition of the project area better. The purpose of this project is monitoring topography change of these small islands. Elevation difference map between DSMs of each year is constructed. There are two regions showing big negative difference value. By comparing constructed textured models and captured digital images around these regions, it is checked that a region have experienced real topography change. It is due to huge rock fall near the center of the east island. The size of fallen rock can be

  14. A small cohort of Island Southeast Asian women founded Madagascar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cox, Murray P; Nelson, Michael G; Tumonggor, Meryanne K; Ricaut, François-X; Sudoyo, Herawati

    2012-07-22

    The settlement of Madagascar is one of the most unusual, and least understood, episodes in human prehistory. Madagascar was one of the last landmasses to be reached by people, and despite the island's location just off the east coast of Africa, evidence from genetics, language and culture all attests that it was settled jointly by Africans, and more surprisingly, Indonesians. Nevertheless, extremely little is known about the settlement process itself. Here, we report broad geographical screening of Malagasy and Indonesian genetic variation, from which we infer a statistically robust coalescent model of the island's initial settlement. Maximum-likelihood estimates favour a scenario in which Madagascar was settled approximately 1200 years ago by a very small group of women (approx. 30), most of Indonesian descent (approx. 93%). This highly restricted founding population raises the possibility that Madagascar was settled not as a large-scale planned colonization event from Indonesia, but rather through a small, perhaps even unintended, transoceanic crossing.

  15. Solid waste management on small islands. The case of Green Island, Taiwan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, M.C.; Ruijs, A.; Wesseler, J. [Environmental Economics and Natural Resources Group, Wageningen University, P.O. Box 8130, 6700 EW Wageningen (Netherlands)

    2005-09-01

    Municipalities of small islands have limited capacities for waste disposal. In the case of Green Island, Taiwan, continuing with business as usual would only allow the disposal of waste on the island for another 8 years. Three alternatives for solid waste management (SWM) are compared. The cost-effective solution is the one, which is the most expensive in the short run: continuing business as usual and introducing an incineration plant in the year 2010. The results indicate furthermore that deviations from optimal timing of investment only slightly change average annual costs. In the long run, the municipality can hardly avoid transporting waste to the mainland. By investing in an incineration plant, they can buy additional time to investigate alternative SWM strategies.

  16. Sustainable energy planning for 27 small Danish Islands. Summary report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-06-01

    A methodology has been developed and implemented, whereby detailed assessment of a few model or archetype islands may be used as basis for subsequent estimation of possibilities for other islands of similar kind, provided certain key data for present day energy consumption are available. A consistent interaction with the population on the model islands has been important in that process. The technical-economical results of the study show, that a number of measures seem cost-effective with the aim of contributing to a sustainable energy supply for the small Danish islands. Most prominent are energy savings for both heat and electricity, grid connected wind turbines for electricity production and collective heat supply, in decreasing order of cost-effectiveness. It has become clear, that an organisational structure based on the cooperative idea is essential for realising this potential. In Denmark this is a strong tradition, recently manifesting itself in the fact, that a majority of Danish wind turbines have been installed in the fram work of cooperative idea is essential for realising this potential. In Denmark this is a strong tradition, recently manifesting itself in the fact, that a majority of Danish wind turbines have been installed in the framework of cooperatives. This means that it is a well proven concept, in Denmark well established in the legal and financial structure including the tax laws. Consequently such energy cooperatives represent the organisational structure recommended by the project also for other sustainable energy initiatives on the small Danish islands. The implication on a European level is that the methodology developed in the project, as well as the concrete recommendations of the project including organisational structures, seem well suited to be applied on a European level in the context of local communities with a strong identity. (LN)

  17. Improving communication during volcanic crises on small, vulnerable islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGuire, W. J.; Solana, M. C.; Kilburn, C. R. J.; Sanderson, D.

    2009-05-01

    Increased exposure to volcanic hazard, particularly at vulnerable small islands, is driving an urgent and growing need for improved communication between monitoring scientists, emergency managers and the media, in advance of and during volcanic crises. Information gathering exercises undertaken on volcanic islands (Guadeloupe, St. Vincent and Montserrat) in the Lesser Antilles (eastern Caribbean), which have recently experienced - or are currently experiencing - volcanic action, have provided the basis for the compilation and publication of a handbook on Communication During Volcanic Emergencies, aimed at the principal stakeholder groups. The findings of the on-island surveys point up the critical importance of (1) bringing together monitoring scientists, emergency managers, and representatives of the media, well in advance of a volcanic crisis, and (2), ensuring that procedures and protocols are in place that will allow, as far as possible, effective and seamless cooperation and coordination when and if a crisis situation develops. Communication During Volcanic Emergencies is designed to promote and encourage both of these priorities through providing the first source-book addressing working relationships and inter-linkages between the stakeholder groups, and providing examples of good and bad practice. While targeting the volcanic islands of the eastern Caribbean, the source-book and its content are largely generic, and the advice and guidelines contained therein have equal validity in respect of improving communication before and during crises at any volcano, and have application to the communication issue in respect of a range of other geophysical hazards.

  18. Draft Mauritius Strategy for the further Implementation of the Programme of Action for the Sustainable Development of Small Island Developing States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-01-01

    The Programme of Action for the Sustainable Development of Small Island Developing States remains the blueprint for small island developing States and the international community to address national and regional sustainable development in small island developing States that takes into account the economic, social and environmental aspects that are the pillars of the holistic and integrated approach to sustainable development. The Programme of Action sets out basic principles as well as specific actions that are required at the national, regional and international levels to support sustainable development in small island developing States. Along with the Barbados Programme of Action, the Rio Principles, the full implementation of Agenda 21, the Johannesburg Plan of Implementation and the outcomes of other relevant major United Nations conferences and summits, including the Monterrey Consensus, all contribute to the sustainable development of small island developing States

  19. A Method for Recruiting Participants from Isolated Islands of Small Island Developing States (SIDS) for Survey Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moosa, Sheena; Koopman-Boyden, Peggy

    2016-01-01

    Representing isolated small island communities through social survey research continues to be challenging. We examine a locally developed method to reach and recruit older people (65+ years) for a survey on well-being in the small island developing state of Maldives. The use of messengers to recruit participants is examined in the context of these…

  20. Primary care in Caribbean Small Island Developing States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.D. Kranenburg

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Caribbean Small Island Developing States (SIDS made good process on improving the health of their populations; but concerns exist when it comes to meeting changing health needs. Due to remoteness and limited resources it is difficult to respond to high rates of non-communicable diseases (NCDs. Furthermore, little is known about how primary care (PC is organised and how this responds to current health issues. This study focused on gaining insights in the organisation of PC of Caribbean SIDS based on currently available literature. This literature review was an explorative multiple case study, where structure of PC and health status of 16 Caribbean SIDS were reviewed using available scientific and grey literature between the years 1997 and 2014. Thirty documents were used to analyse 20 indicators for the dimensions “Structure of Primary Care” and “Health Status”. Results were mapped in order to identify if there is a possible relation between structures of PC to the health of the populations. When reviewing the structure of PC, the majority of information was available for “Economic conditions of PC” (78% and the least information was available for “Governance of PC” (40%. With regards to health status, all islands show improvements on “Life expectancy at birth” since 2007. In contrast, on average, the mortality due to NCDs did not improve. Saint Lucia performs best on “Structure of PC”. The British Virgin Islands have the best health status. When both dimensions were analysed, Saint Lucia performs best. There is still little known on the responsiveness of PC of Caribbean SIDS to NCDs. There is a need for elaborate research on: (1 If and how the functioning of these health systems relate to the health status; (2 What islands can learn from an analysis over time and what they can learn from cross-island analysis; and (3 Filling the gaps of knowledge which currently exist within this field of research.

  1. Channel Islands National Marine Sanctuary Boundary (polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Office of National Marine Sanctuaries manages a system of sanctuaries and other managed areas around the country. The legal boundaries of these sanctuaries are...

  2. Integration of Small Solar tower Systems into Distributed Power Islands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Romero, M.; Marcos, M. J.; Tellez, F. M.; Blanco, M.; Fernandez, V.; Baonza, F.; Berger, S. [Ciemat, Madrid (Spain)

    2000-07-01

    One of the short-term priorities for renewable energies in Europe is their integration for local power supply into communities and energy islands (blocks of buildings, new neighborhoods in residential areas, shopping centers, hospitals, recreational areas, eco-paks, small rural areas or isolated ones such as islands or mountain communities). Following this strategy, the integration of small tower fields into so-called MIUS (Modular Integrated Utility Systems) is proposed. This application strongly influences field concepts leadings to modular multi-tower systems able to more closely track demand, meet reliability requirements with fewer megawatts of installed power and spread construction costs over time after output has begum. In addition, integration into single-cycle high-efficiency gas turbines plus waste-heat applications clearly increments the solar share. The chief questions are whether solar towers can be redesigned for such distributed markets and the keys to their feasibility. This paper includes the design and performance analysis of a 1.36-MW plant and integration in the MIUS system, as well as the expected cost of electricity and a sensitivity analysis of the small tower plant's performance with design parameters like heliostat configuration and tower height. A practical application is analyzed for a shopping center with 85% power demand during day-time by using a hybrid solar tower and a gas turbine producing electricity and waste heat for hot water and heating and cooling of spaces. The operation mode proposed is covering night demand with power from the grid and solar-gas power island mode during 14 hours daytime with a maximum power production of 1.36 MW. (Author) 26 refs.

  3. Integration of Small Solar Tower Systems Into Distributed Power Islands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Romero, M.; Marcos, M. J.; Tellez, F. M.; Blanco, M.; Fernandez, V.; Baonza, F.; Berger, S.

    1999-01-01

    One of the short-term priorities for renewable energies in Europe is their integration for local power supply into communities and energy islands (blocks of buildings, new neighborhoods in residential areas, shopping centers, hospitals, recreational areas, eco-parks, small rural areas or isolated ones such as islands or mountain communities). Following this strategy, the integration of small tower fields into so-called MIUS (Modular Integrated Utility Systems) is proposed. This application strongly influences field concepts leading to modular multi-tower systems able to more closely track demand, meet reliability requirements with fewer megawatts of installed power and spread construction costs over time after output has begun. In addition, integration into single-cycle high-efficiency gas turbines plus waste-heat applications clearly increments the solar share. The chief questions are whether solar towers can be redesigned for such distributed markets and the keys to their feasibility. This paper includes the design and performance analysis of a 1.36-MW plant and integration in the MIUS system, as well as the expected cost of electricity and a sensitivity analysis of the small tower plant's performance with design parameters like heliostats configuration and tower height. A practical application is analyzed for a shopping center with 85% power demand during day-time by using a hybrid solar tower and a gas turbine producing electricity and waste heat for hot water and heating and cooling of spaces. The operation mode proposed is covering night demand with power from the grid and solar-gas power island mode during 14 hours daytime with a maximum power production of 1.36 MW. (Author) 26 refs

  4. Increase Economic Valuation of Marine Ecotourism Spots In Small Islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahakbauw, Siska D.; Teniwut, Wellem A.; Renjaan, Meiskyana R.; Hungan, Marselus

    2017-10-01

    Ecotourism is one of the fast-growing sectors especially in the developing country as a source of revenue. To get a sustainable development of ecotourism, it needs broad and comprehensive effort from central government and local government, perfect example in that regards in Indonesia is Bali and Lombok. For another area in Indonesia like Kei Islands which located in two administrative governments have a major problem to build a sustainable nature-based tourism because of the location of this area to the major cities in the country makes the travel cost is high. This situation makes the role of local community as the backbone of the growth and development of nature-based tourism is critical. By using structural equation modeling (SEM), we constructed a model to enhance local community perception on economic valuation of ecotourism spots in the area. Results showed that perceived quality as the mediation driven by the intensity of appearance on national television and the internet could increase community attachment to increase willingness to pay from the local community on ecotourism in Kei islands. Also, the result also indicated that WTP value for the local community on ecotourism in Kei Islands was 10.81 per trip, with average trip per month was 1 to 4 times.

  5. Disaster risk reduction and sustainable development for small island developing states.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shultz, James M; Cohen, Madeline A; Hermosilla, Sabrina; Espinel, Zelde; McLean, Andrew

    2016-01-01

    In contrast to continental nations, the world's 52 small island developing states (SIDS) are recognized as a collective of countries that experience disproportionate challenges for sustainable development related to their geography, small size, and physical isolation. These same states also face elevated risks for disaster incidence and consequences particularly in the realms of climate change, sea level rise, natural disasters (tropical cyclones, earthquakes, tsunamis, volcanoes), and marine hazardous materials spills. Cyclone Winston's direct impact on Fiji in 2016 and Cyclone Pam's landfall over Vanuatu in 2015 provide case examples illustrating the special vulnerabilities of the SIDS.

  6. Climate Change and Caribbean Small Island States: The State of Play

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin, Lisa

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Studies have indicated that climate change is likely to have dramatic negative effects for Caribbean small island developing states. This article considers the main economic effects that climate change is anticipated to have in these vulnerable states, charts the progress of international negotiations at the 2009 Copenhagen conference, and provides a brief analysis of the impact of the Copenhagen Accord on Caribbean Small Island Developing States (SIDS.Although climate change has traditionally been seen solely as an environmental issue, its economic effects on vulnerable developing nations, such as Caribbean SIDS, forces a re-definition of climate change to that of a more complex union of environmental and developmental issues for these states. By highlighting some of the anticipated economic effects of climate change for Caribbean SIDS, the author aims to provide a broader context for the issue of climate change for Caribbean SIDS.

  7. Surviving climate change in small islands. A guidebook

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tompkins, E.L.; Nicholson-Cole, S.A.; Boyd, E.; Hurlston, L.A.; Brooks Hodge, G.; Clarke, J.; Trotz, N.; Gray, G.; Varlack, L.

    2005-10-01

    This guidebook contains information about the risks associated with climate change. It explains how existing social, economic and environmental vulnerability can magnify the risks associated with climate change and it describes actions that can be undertaken to prepare for climate change. Key terms and concepts are defined for those unfamiliar with climate change terminology. Chapter 2 outlines what small islands might be able to expect from climate change. It outlines why small islands are vulnerable to climate change, introducing the risks that climate changes pose and the hazards that they might expect. Methods of assessing vulnerability and climate impacts are presented in Chapter 3 and the process of managing the consequences of climate change through the development of an adaptation strategy is introduced. Chapter 4 outlines how you might go about starting the adaptation process, how to make risk management plans and how to link these with other planning processes. Chapter 5 guides you through a process of implementing an adaptation strategy outlining a number of important components including legislation and enforcement, and how to finance adaptation. The importance of continuing the adaptation process is also explained. Chapter 6 includes a glossary containing definitions of the key words and scientific or unusual terms used throughout this guidebook. It also contains information about and links to further sources of information such as useful organisations and publications as well as a list of references to specific documents referenced in the text

  8. Benthic substrate classification map: Gulf Islands National Seashore

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavoie, Dawn; Flocks, James; Twichell, Dave; Rose, Kate

    2013-01-01

    The 2005 hurricane season was devastating for the Mississippi Gulf Coast. Hurricane Katrina caused significant degradation of the barrier islands that compose the Gulf Islands National Seashore (GUIS). Because of the ability of coastal barrier islands to help mitigate hurricane damage to the mainland, restoring these habitats prior to the onset of future storms will help protect the islands themselves and the surrounding habitats. During Hurricane Katrina, coastal barrier islands reduced storm surge by approximately 10 percent and moderated wave heights (Wamsley and others, 2009). Islands protected the mainland by preventing ocean waves from maintaining their size as they approached the mainland. In addition to storm protection, it is advantageous to restore these islands to preserve the cultural heritage present there (for example, Fort Massachusetts) and because of the influence that these islands have on marine ecology. For example, these islands help maintain a salinity regime favorable to oysters in the Mississippi Sound and provide critical habitats for many migratory birds and endangered species such as sea turtles (Chelonia mydas, Caretta caretta, and Dermochelys coriacea), Gulf sturgeon (Acipenser oxyrinchus desotoi), and piping plovers (Charadrius melodus) (U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, 2009a). As land manager for the GUIS, the National Park Service (NPS) has been working with the State of Mississippi and the Mobile District of the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers to provide a set of recommendations to the Mississippi Coastal Improvements Program (MsCIP) that will guide restoration planning. The final set of recommendations includes directly renourishing both West Ship Island (to protect Fort Massachusetts) and East Ship Island (to restore the French Warehouse archaeological site); filling Camille Cut to recreate a continuous Ship Island; and restoring natural regional sediment transport processes by placing sand in the littoral zone just east of Petit Bois

  9. 36 CFR 7.20 - Fire Island National Seashore.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... the Superintendent or by the posting of signs where appropriate: (i) Along the Atlantic Ocean on the... be operated on the waters of the Great South Bay and the Atlantic Ocean within the boundaries of Fire... the Great South Bay and the Atlantic Ocean within the boundaries of Fire Island National Seashore are...

  10. Mercury in Aquatic Systems of the Gulf Islands National Seashore ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study reports on levels and speciation of mercury (Hg) in different environmental compartments of selected park units in the Gulf Islands National Seashore (USA), and on potential rates of methyl-Hg (MMHg) formation and degradation in sediments. In the aqueous phase, total (THg) and MMHg concentrations ranged ...

  11. Geomorphology and depositional subenvironments of Gulf Islands National Seashore, Perdido Key and Santa Rosa Island, Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morton, Robert A.; Montgomery, Marilyn C.

    2010-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) is studying coastal hazards and coastal change to improve our understanding of coastal ecosystems and to develop better capabilities of predicting future coastal change. One approach to understanding the dynamics of coastal systems is to monitor changes in barrier-island subenvironments through time. This involves examining morphologic and topographic change at temporal scales ranging from millennia to years and spatial scales ranging from tens of kilometers to meters. Of particular interest are the processes that produce those changes and the determination of whether or not those processes are likely to persist into the future. In these analyses of hazards and change, both natural and anthropogenic influences are considered. Quantifying past magnitudes and rates of coastal change and knowing the principal factors that govern those changes are critical to predicting what changes are likely to occur under different scenarios, such as short-term impacts of extreme storms or long-term impacts of sea-level rise. Gulf Islands National Seashore was selected for detailed mapping of barrier-island morphology and topography because the islands offer a diversity of depositional subenvironments and because island areas and positions have changed substantially in historical time. The geomorphologic and subenvironmental maps emphasize the processes that formed the surficial features and also serve as a basis for documenting which subenvironments are relatively stable, such as the vegetated barrier core, and those which are highly dynamic, such as the beach and inactive overwash zones.

  12. A GIS Inventory of Critical Coastal Infrastructure Land Use in Caribbean Island Small Island Developing States: Classification and Criteria Methodology

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'aversa, N.; Becker, A.; Bove, G.

    2017-12-01

    Caribbean Small Island Developing States (SIDS) face significant natural hazard risks, as demonstrated by recent Hurricanes Jose, Irma, and Maria. Scientists project storms to become more intense and sea level rise to increase over the next century. As a result, the Inter-American Development Bank projections suggest that Caribbean nations could face climate-related losses in excess of $22 billion annually by 2050. Critical infrastructure that supports island economies, such as airports, seaports, cruise ports, and energy facilities, are typically located in the coastal zone with high exposure to natural hazards. Despite the increasing danger from climate driven natural hazards in coastal zones in the region, there is very little data available to identify how much land and associated infrastructure is at risk. This work focuses on the criteria and data standards developed for this new region-wide GIS database, which will then be used to formulate a risk assessment. Results will be integrated into a single, comprehensive source for data of lands identified as critical coastal infrastructure and used to address such questions as: How much of the Caribbean SIDS infrastructure lands are at risk from sea level rise? How might demand for such lands change in the future, based on historical trends? Answers to these questions will help decision makers understand how to prioritize resilience investment decisions in the coming decades.

  13. 75 FR 970 - Availability of Seats for the Hawaiian Islands Humpback Whale National Marine Sanctuary Advisory...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-07

    ... the Hawaiian Islands Humpback Whale National Marine Sanctuary Advisory Council AGENCY: Office of National Marine Sanctuaries (ONMS), National Ocean Service (NOS), National Oceanic and Atmospheric... Humpback Whale National Marine Sanctuary Advisory Council (council): Native Hawaiians, Fishing, Education...

  14. Energy access and security strategies in Small Island Developing States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wolf, Franziska; Surroop, Dinesh; Singh, Anirudh; Leal, Walter

    2016-01-01

    Small Islands Developing States (SIDS) are isolated and surrounded by ocean. The generation and use of energy resources are two very important aspects for the development of SIDS. Unfortunately, most of SIDS do not use their potential in respect of energy resources, and they as a result have to depend on the import of fossil fuels in order to meet their energy needs. This increases the overall vulnerability of SIDS as they have to depend on the rising or fluctuating fossil fuels prices. Some SIDS, especially in the geographically dispersed Pacific region, do not have proper access to energy whereas other SIDS struggle more with energy security issue. At the same time, SIDS are most vulnerable to the impacts and effects of climate change, as they are among the ones to be most severely affected in case of natural calamities and sea-level rise. Drawing on experiences from Fiji and Mauritius, this paper explains core elements related to energy access and security in SIDS, contextualizes and discusses barriers and list some of the strategies that may be used to ensure access to and a continuous supply of energy in SIDS. A situational analysis of two SIDS outlines their current energy situation and compares their energy policies to globally accepted criteria for SIDS policies as well as with each other. It is claimed that the diverging energy performances of Fiji and Mauritius cannot be explained by policies differences. The reasons for the varying energy performances may therefore lie in the administrative and institutional mechanisms used by the two countries in implementing their energy policies. Finally, to enable SIDS to reduce their overall vulnerability and become truly sustainable islands, it is recommended to undertake careful assessments of the particular local contexts under which island energy regimes operate. - Highlights: • Core elements related to energy access/security in SIDS, barriers and strategies. • Situational analysis of two SIDS: Fiji and

  15. Dive tourism, communities and small islands: lessons from Malaysia and Indonesia

    OpenAIRE

    Hampton, Mark P.; Jeyacheya, Julia

    2014-01-01

    Coastal tourism is growing rapidly across South-East Asia, especially in small islands. Islands and coastal areas face significant issues of how to manage the rapid growth of tourism whilst retaining economic benefits for the local host community. First, the paper sets the context and charts the scale and significance of international dive tourism, especially in less developed countries. The paper draws upon extensive fieldwork in small island destinations in Malaysia and Indonesia and explor...

  16. Nearshore coastal bathymetry data collected in 2016 from West Ship Island to Horn Island, Gulf Islands National Seashore, Mississippi

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeWitt, Nancy T.; Stalk, Chelsea A.; Fredericks, Jake J.; Flocks, James G.; Kelso, Kyle W.; Farmer, Andrew S.; Tuten, Thomas M.; Buster, Noreen A.

    2018-04-13

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) St. Petersburg Coastal and Marine Science Center, in cooperation with the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, Mobile District, conducted bathymetric surveys of the nearshore waters surrounding Ship and Horn Islands, Gulf Islands National Seashore, Mississippi. The objective of this study was to establish base-level elevation conditions around West Ship, East Ship, and Horn Islands and their associated active littoral system prior to restoration activities. These activities include the closure of Camille Cut and the placement of sediment in the littoral zone of East Ship Island. These surveys can be compared with future surveys to monitor sediment migration patterns post-restoration and can also be measured against historic bathymetric datasets to further our understanding of island evolution.The USGS collected 667 line-kilometers (km) of single-beam bathymetry data and 844 line-km of interferometric swath bathymetry data in July 2016 under Field Activity Number 2016-347-FA. Data are provided in three datums: (1) the International Terrestrial Reference Frame of 2000 (ellipsoid height); (2) the North American Datum of 1983 (NAD83) CORS96 realization and the North American Vertical Datum of 1988 with respect to the GEOID12B model (orthometric height); and (3) NAD83 (CORS96) and Mean Lower Low Water (tidal datum). Data products, including x,y,zpoint datasets, trackline shapefiles, digital and handwritten Field Activity Collection Systems logs, 50-meter digital elevation model, and formal Federal Geographic Data Committee metadata, are available for download.

  17. Reimaanlok: A National Framework for Conservation Area Planning in the Marshall Islands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicole Baker

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The development of Reimaanlok, a national framework for the planning and establishment of community-based conservation areas in the Marshall Islands, is outlined. A team composed of international experts and local resource management professionals selected and modified an ecoregional planning approach, defined key concepts, selected conservation features and targets, compiled biogeographical information from scientific and local knowledge and carried out a national-level ecological gap assessment. Past development of community-based fisheries and conservation plans was reviewed and the lessons learned informed the development of a robust community-based planning process for the design and establishment of conservation areas on individual atolls, integrating ecosystem based management (EBM theory, traditional knowledge and management, and the particular socio-economic needs of island communities. While specific geographic, historical, cultural and economic characteristics of the Marshall Islands have created a framework that is unique, several aspects of this process offer ideas for national strategic conservation planning in other Small Island Developing States where there is a paucity of scientific data, significant and increasing threats, and where decision-making about the use of natural resources occurs primarily at the local level.

  18. 77 FR 27188 - Extension of Application Period for Seats for the Channel Islands National Marine Sanctuary...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-09

    ... Period for Seats for the Channel Islands National Marine Sanctuary Advisory Council AGENCY: Office of National Marine Sanctuaries (ONMS), National Ocean Service (NOS), National Oceanic and Atmospheric... following vacant seats on the Channel Islands National Marine Sanctuary Advisory Council: Chumash Community...

  19. 78 FR 5779 - Extension of Application Period for Seats for the Channel Islands National Marine Sanctuary...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-28

    ... Period for Seats for the Channel Islands National Marine Sanctuary Advisory Council AGENCY: Office of National Marine Sanctuaries (ONMS), National Ocean Service (NOS), National Oceanic and Atmospheric... following vacant seats on the Channel Islands National Marine Sanctuary Advisory Council: Business Alternate...

  20. Contaminants assessment in the coral reefs of Virgin Islands National Park and Virgin Islands Coral Reef National Monument

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bargar, Timothy A.; Garrison, Virginia H.; Alvarez, David A.; Echols, Kathy

    2013-01-01

    Coral, fish, plankton, and detritus samples were collected from coral reefs in Virgin Islands National Park (VIIS) and Virgin Islands Coral Reef National Monument (VICR) to assess existing contamination levels. Passive water sampling using polar organic chemical integrative samplers (POCIS) and semi-permeable membrane devices found a few emerging pollutants of concern (DEET and galaxolide) and polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons. Very little persistent organic chemical contamination was detected in the tissue or detritus samples. Detected contaminants were at concentrations below those reported to be harmful to aquatic organisms. Extracts from the POCIS were subjected to the yeast estrogen screen (YES) to assess potential estrogenicity of the contaminant mixture. Results of the YES (estrogen equivalency of 0.17–0.31 ng/L 17-β-estradiol) indicated a low estrogenicity likelihood for contaminants extracted from water. Findings point to low levels of polar and non-polar organic contaminants in the bays sampled within VICR and VIIS.

  1. 75 FR 57056 - Chincoteague National Wildlife Refuge and Wallops Island National Wildlife Refuge, Accomack...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-17

    ... designated a World Biosphere Reserve by the United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization... the National Park Service and the FWS, Assateague Island supports a growing tourism economy in the... Herbert H. Bateman Educational and Administrative Center, a green facility that opened in 2003, is the...

  2. Political determinants of electricity provision in small island developing states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boräng, Frida; Jagers, Sverker C.; Povitkina, Marina

    2016-01-01

    This paper approaches provision of affordable and reliable electricity in Small Island Developing States (SIDS) as a case of public good provision. It aims to contribute to our understanding of how regime type and the quality of implementing institutions within political systems affect the prerequisites for successful electrification in SIDS. More specifically, we analyse the independent and interdependent effects of level of democracy and control of corruption on per capita household electricity consumption in SIDS, using data from 34 SIDS over the period 1996–2009. The results show that although the independent effects of level of democracy and control of corruption are sensitive to model specification, these two factors do have an interdependent impact on per capita household electricity consumption: democratization has positive effects on provision of electricity to the general population only when there is a certain level of corruption control in place. The results imply a) that it is important for policy actors to acknowledge the interaction between regime type and the quality of implementing institutions, and b) when planning electrification projects in SIDS, it is necessary to have information about the social and political context in order to design the most effective projects. - Highlights: • Effects of political institutions on household electricity consumption in SIDS. • Electrification is seen as an example of public good provision. • Democracy has a positive impact on electricity consumption when corruption is low. • Electrification projects can gain from being sensitive to institutional context.

  3. 78 FR 64002 - South Farallon Islands Invasive House Mouse Eradication Project; Farallon National Wildlife...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-25

    ...-FF08RSFC00] South Farallon Islands Invasive House Mouse Eradication Project; Farallon National Wildlife... Statement (revised DEIS) for the South Farallon Islands Invasive House Mouse Eradication Project on the... non-native invasive house mice from the South Farallon Islands, part of the Farallon National Wildlife...

  4. Geomorphology and Depositional Subenvironments of Gulf Islands National Seashore, Mississippi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morton, Robert A.; Rogers, Bryan E.

    2010-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) is studying coastal hazards and coastal change to improve our understanding of coastal ecosystems and to develop better capabilities of predicting future coastal change. One approach to understanding the dynamics of coastal systems is to monitor changes in barrier-island subenvironments through time. This involves examining morphological and topographic change at temporal scales ranging from millennia to years and spatial scales ranging from tens of kilometers to meters. Of particular interest are the processes that produce those changes and the determination of whether or not those processes are likely to persist into the future. In these analyses of hazards and change, both natural and anthropogenic influences are considered. Quantifying past magnitudes and rates of coastal change and knowing the principal factors that govern those changes are critical to predicting what changes are likely to occur under different scenarios, such as short-term impacts of extreme storms or long-term impacts of sea-level rise. Gulf Islands National Seashore was selected for detailed mapping of barrier-island morphology and topography because the islands offer a diversity of depositional subenvironments and the islands' areas and positions have changed substantially in historical time. The geomorphologic and subenvironmental maps emphasize the processes that formed the surficial features and also serve as a basis for documenting which subenvironments are relatively stable, such as the beach ridge complex, and those which are highly dynamic, such as the beach and active overwash zones. The primary mapping procedures used supervised functions within a Geographic Information System (GIS) that classified depositional subenvironments and features (map units) and delineated boundaries of the features (shapefiles). The GIS classified units on the basis of tonal patterns of a feature in contrast to adjacent features observed on georeferenced aerial

  5. Non-deposit system option for waste management on small islands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vilms, Monica; Voronova, Viktoria

    2016-08-01

    This paper analyses waste management on small islands (on a global scale these are micro-islands). In the context of the paper, small islands are islands that have an area less than 50 km(2) The study presents an overview of the problems connected with waste transport from islands to the mainland. Waste generation on islands is very much related to tourists. If tourists do not handle waste properly, it will cause problems. Four small Estonian islands in the range of 3-19 km(2) are studied in detail. For these and other small islands, the main problem is the waste produced by tourists, or related to tourists and waste transport to the mainland. Currently, the local municipality has to arrange and finance waste transport. In fact, and based on the polluter-pays principle, the tourists should bear the cost of waste management. There are different tax options available in order to collect the money from tourists - waste tax, harbour tax, tourist tax, donations, environmental tax and others. The study results revealed that the best possible solution for Estonian islands may be a non-deposit system - including an additional charge on ferry ticket prices. The extra money should cover the costs of waste management and waste shipping. The tourists arriving in their own boats should pay a harbour tax, which includes a waste tax to compensate for the cost of waste management. © The Author(s) 2016.

  6. 75 FR 57441 - Availability of Seats for the Hawaiian Islands Humpback Whale National Marine Sanctuary Advisory...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-21

    ... National Marine Sanctuary Advisory Council: Commercial Shipping, Whale Watching, Ocean Recreation, Business/Commerce, Citizen-at-Large, Conservation, Tourism, Lana`i Island Representative, and Moloka`i Island...

  7. Mapping process and age of Quaternary deposits on Santa Rosa Island, Channel Islands National Park, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, K. M.; Minor, S. A.; Bedford, D.

    2016-12-01

    Employing a geomorphic process-age classification scheme, we mapped the Quaternary surficial geology of Santa Rosa (SRI) within the Channel Islands National Park. This detailed (1:12,000 scale) map represents upland erosional transport processes and alluvial, fluvial, eolian, beach, marine terrace, mass wasting, and mixed depositional processes. Mapping was motivated through an agreement with the National Park Service and is intended to aid natural resource assessments, including post-grazing disturbance recovery and identification of mass wasting and tectonic hazards. We obtained numerous detailed geologic field observations, fossils for faunal identification as age control, and materials for numeric dating. This GPS-located field information provides ground truth for delineating map units and faults using GIS-based datasets- high-resolution (sub-meter) aerial imagery, LiDAR-based DEMs and derivative raster products. Mapped geologic units denote surface processes and Quaternary faults constrain deformation kinematics and rates, which inform models of landscape change. Significant findings include: 1) Flights of older Pleistocene (>120 ka) and possibly Pliocene marine terraces were identified beneath younger alluvial and eolian deposits at elevations as much as 275 m above modern sea level. Such elevated terraces suggest that SRI was a smaller, more submerged island in the late Neogene and (or) early Pleistocene prior to tectonic uplift. 2) Structural and geomorphic observations made along the potentially seismogenic SRI fault indicate a protracted slip history during the late Neogene and Quaternary involving early normal slip, later strike slip, and recent reverse slip. These changes in slip mode explain a marked contrast in island physiography across the fault. 3) Many of the steeper slopes are dramatically stripped of regolith, with exposed bedrock and deeply incised gullies, presumably due effects related to past grazing practices. 4) Surface water presence is

  8. CReefs Biodiversity Census at French Frigate Shoals, Northwestern Hawaiian Islands Marine National Monument, 2006

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Personnel from the Coral Reef Ecosystem Division (CRED), Pacific Islands Fisheries Science Center (PIFSC), National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National Oceanic...

  9. Start-up Success in a Small Island State: A Study among Entrepreneurs in Malta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonie Baldacchino

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available This study focuses on entrepreneurs in the small island state of Malta and investigates whether starting up and running an enterprise is facilitated or hindered by being in a small island environment. Specifically it asks (1 whether being on a small island, on the periphery of a major market facilitates or hinders entrepreneurship and start-up success; (2 whether Malta’s cultural context and enterprise environment affect entrepreneurship and start-up success; (3 what the key success factors among Maltese start-ups are; and (4 how are creativity and innovation reflected in Maltese start-ups. Qualitative research among 13 start-ups is supported by telephone-based research among a sample of 90 respondents. Findings contribute to the pool of business expertise and context-specific information from small island states that is often missing from the international literature.

  10. 78 FR 70318 - Cat Island National Wildlife Refuge; West Feliciana Parish, Louisiana; Notice of Intent To...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-25

    ...-FF04R02000] Cat Island National Wildlife Refuge; West Feliciana Parish, Louisiana; Notice of Intent To... comprehensive conservation plan (CCP) and associated National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) documents for Cat... NEPA documents for Cat Island National Wildlife Refuge NWR, West Feliciana Parish, Louisiana, in a...

  11. Dengue transmission in the small-island setting: investigations from the Caribbean island of Grenada

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schiøler, Karin Linda; Macpherson, Calum N

    2009-01-01

    The Caribbean region has experienced a major surge in dengue activity in recent decades. Yet, for many, and especially the smaller islands, the true extent and general epidemiology of dengue transmission remains unclear because of inadequate systems of surveillance and reporting. We established...... benign dengue fever. A shift in serotype activity and modal age was evident during the noted transition, with the more densely populated south end of the island presenting the focus of transmission....

  12. 76 FR 20706 - South Farallon Islands Nonnative Mouse Eradication Project; Farallon National Wildlife Refuge...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-13

    ... Noonday Rock. In 1969 the Refuge was expanded to include the South Farallon Islands and is still managed... eradicate nonnative mice from the South Farallon Islands, part of the Farallon National Wildlife Refuge off... eradicate nonnative house mice (Mus musculus) from the South Farallon Islands. The purpose of this project...

  13. Home range and habitat use of reintroduced Javan Deer in Panaitan Island, Ujung Kulon National Park

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pairah

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The Javan deer which inhabit Panaitan Island (± 175 Km2 were reintroduced from Peucang Island (± 4.5 Km2 during 1978–1982 (3 males: 13 females. The information of home range and habitat use of these animals were needed for wildlife habitat management especially in the small island habitat. We measured the home range size and habitat use of Javan deer in Peucang Island and Panaitan Island and compared them. The home range size was measured using Minimum Convex Polygon and then the polygon of home ranges were used to measure the habitat use. The results showed that in general the home range size in all age class of Javan deer between both islands did not differ significantly, only subadult males in Peucang Island which have a larger home range size than subadult males in Panaitan Island. Javan deer in Panaitan Island have found suitable conditions.

  14. Climate change vulnerability to agrarian ecosystem of small Island: evidence from Sagar Island, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandal, S.; Satpati, L. N.; Choudhury, B. U.; Sadhu, S.

    2018-04-01

    The present study assessed climate change vulnerability in agricultural sector of low-lying Sagar Island of Bay of Bengal. Vulnerability indices were estimated using spatially aggregated biophysical and socio-economic parameters by applying principal component analysis and equal weight method. The similarities and differences of outputs of these two methods were analysed across the island. From the integration of outputs and based on the severity of vulnerability, explicit vulnerable zones were demarcated spatially. Results revealed that life subsistence agriculture in 11.8% geographical area (2829 ha) of the island along the western coast falls under very high vulnerable zone (VHVZ VI of 84-99%) to climate change. Comparatively higher values of exposure (0.53 ± 0.26) and sensitivity (0.78 ± 0.14) subindices affirmed that the VHV zone is highly exposed to climate stressor with very low adaptive capacity (ADI= 0.24 ± 0.16) to combat vulnerability to climate change. Hence, food security for a population of >22 thousands comprising >3.7 thousand agrarian households are highly exposed to climate change. Another 17% area comprising 17.5% population covering 20% villages in north-western and eastern parts of the island also falls under high vulnerable (VI= 61%-77%) zone. Findings revealed large spatial heterogeneity in the degree of vulnerability across the island and thus, demands devising area specific planning (adaptation and mitigation strategies) to address the climate change impact implications both at macro and micro levels.

  15. Ecology of juvenile hawksbills (Eretmochelys imbricata) at Buck Island Reef National Monument, US Virgin Islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hart, Kristen M.; Sartain-Iverson, Autumn R.; Hillis-Starr, Zandy; Phillips, Brendalee; Mayor, Philippe A.; Roberson, Kimberly; Pemberton, Roy A.; Allen, Jason B.; Lundgren, Ian; Musick, Susanna

    2013-01-01

    Surveys of juvenile hawksbills around Buck Island Reef National Monument, US Virgin Islands from 1994 to 1999 revealed distributional patterns and resulted in a total of 75 individual hawksbill captures from all years; turtles ranged from 23.2 to 77.7 cm curved carapace length (CCL; mean 42.1 ± 12.3 cm SD). Juveniles concentrated where Zoanthid cover was highest. Length of time between recaptures, or presumed minimum site residency, ranged from 59 to 1,396 days (mean 620.8 ± 402.4 days SD). Growth rates for 23 juveniles ranged from 0.0 to 9.5 cm year−1 (mean 4.1 ± 2.4 cm year−1SD). Annual mean growth rates were non-monotonic, with the largest mean growth rate occurring in the 30–39 cm CCL size class. Gastric lavages indicated that Zoanthids were the primary food source for hawksbills. These results contribute to our understanding of juvenile hawksbill ecology and serve as a baseline for future studies or inventories of hawksbills in the Caribbean.

  16. Sustainable tourism and natural resources management in small islands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cappucci, Sergio; Morabito, Roberto

    2015-01-01

    The present issue reports the results obtained through the activities dedicated to the Management of Natural Resources of Sicily Eco-innovation Project, focused on sustainable tourism. Both studies and interventions were carried out between 2012 and 2015 in collaboration with the City Council and the Marine Protected Area of Egadi Islands, within the islets of Egadi Archipelago (few kilometres offshore of the Sicilian west coast). The study area is characterised by many ecological and naturalistic assets, particularly in the underwater environment, where a very high biodiversity is present thanks to the location and its particular hydrologic conditions. Here, the seabed has an irregular morphology with many cliffs, outcrops, sand banks and submarine valleys. It is a natural laboratory where the seasonal anthropic pressure is strongly related to tourism, leisure and professional/illegal fishing, pollution related to urbanisation (more intense in the Island of Favignana); all activities highly impacting the marine ecosystem and main threat for biological resources [it

  17. A large foodborne outbreak on a small Pacific island.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thein, C C; Trinidad, R M; Pavlin, B I

    2010-04-01

    On March 25, 2009, the Ebeye Leroj Kitlang Memorial Health Center on the island of Ebeye in the Republic of the Marshall Islands was overwhelmed with over 100 patients presenting for vomiting and diarrhea. Epidemiologic investigation revealed that there were 174 cases among 187 attendees at a local funeral earlier in the day. Most cases had eaten served sandwiches containing egg products that had undergone severe time-temperature abuse. While no causal agents were identified, the epidemiology and clinical presentation is compatible with foodborne toxins, most likely enterotoxins of either Staphylococcus aureus or Bacillus cereus. Mitigation measures undertaken by public health centered on education of food preparers and the general public regarding safe food preparation practices. This large outbreak serves to remind us that, while there are simple and highly effective measures to prevent such foodborne disease outbreaks, we in the public health sector have a duty to improve the community's knowledge and understanding of these measures.

  18. Beyond electricity: The potential of ocean thermal energy and ocean technology ecoparks in small tropical islands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Osorio, Andrés F.; Arias-Gaviria, Jessica; Devis-Morales, Andrea; Acevedo, Diego; Velasquez, Héctor Iván; Arango-Aramburo, Santiago

    2016-01-01

    Small islands face difficult challenges to guarantee energy, freshwater and food supply, and sustainable development. The urge to meet their needs, together with the mitigation and adaptation plans to address climate change, have led them to develop renewable energy systems, with a special interest in Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion (OTEC) in tropical islands. Deep Ocean Water (DOW) is a resource that can provide electricity (through OTEC in combination with warm surface water), low temperatures for refrigeration, and nutrients for food production. In this paper we propose an Ocean Technology Ecopark (OTEP) as an integral solution for small islands that consists of an OTEC plant, other alternative uses of DOW, and a Research and Development (R&D) center. We present an application of OTEP to San Andres, a Colombian island that meets all the necessary conditions for the implementation of OTEC technology, water desalinization, and a business model for DOW. We present the main entrance barriers and a four-stage roadmap for the consolidation and sustainability of the OTEP. - Highlights: • Small islands face problems such as development, energy, freshwater and food supply. • Tropical islands with access to deep ocean water can use OTEC all year round. • An Ocean Ecopark is proposed as an integral solution for San Andrés Island, Colombia. • The Ecopark consists of OTEC, desalinization, SWAC, greenhouses, and R&D activities. • This article discusses entrance barriers and presents a four-stage roadmap

  19. Small States, Nationalism and Institutional Capacities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Campbell, John L.; Hall, John A.

    2015-01-01

    This paper uses theories of small states (e.g. Katzenstein) and nationalism (e.g. Gellner) to explain why Denmark and Ireland responded to the 2008 financial crisis in different ways. In Denmark, a coordinated market economy with considerable corporatism and state intervention, the private sector...... shouldered much of the financial burden for rescuing the banking sector. In Ireland, a liberal market economy without much corporatism or state intervention, the state shouldered the burden. The difference stems in large part from the fact that Denmark had comparatively thick institutions and a strong sense...

  20. 75 FR 3981 - National Angel Island Day, 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-26

    ...--from Chinese, Japanese, and Korean to Russian, German, and Urdu. These etchings remain on Angel Island... learn more about the history of Angel Island and to observe this anniversary with appropriate ceremonies...

  1. Adapting environmental function analysis for management of protected areas in small islands--case of Pico Island (the Azores).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calado, Helena; Bragagnolo, Chiara; Silva, Susana; Vergílio, Marta

    2016-04-15

    Protected areas (PAs) are considered key priorities for ensuring long-term sustainability of small islands. The traditional approach of conservation versus development is currently being replaced by an approach of "win-win" relationships. During the last decades PAs have been increasingly requested to simultaneously ensure biodiversity conservation, mainstream ecosystem services into main development policies, and accounting for leisure-related revenues to sustain local and regional economies. Following this new paradigm, the Smartparks project (Planning and Management System for Small Islands Protected Areas), encompassing this study, aimed at an innovative approach for supporting the management of PAs in small islands. In this study, we propose a methodology based on Environmental Functional Analyses (EFA) to compare the potential for conservation and the potential for use of PAs that can be used not only on small islands but also in other territories. For this purpose, a set of environmental and socio-economic components was defined and selected indicators describing each component to calculate conservation and use/development functions of PAs were established. Pico Island, in the Azores archipelago (Portugal), was selected as the case study for testing the methodology. The EFA for all PAs of Pico Island was performed identifying those with more potential for conservation or for development of human activities, and also those with high levels of conflict. A total of 34 indicators was applied (assigning a value from 1 to 3) to the 22 PAs composing the INP of Pico Island: 44% were scored with a value of 1, in both ecological and social components; 22% and 29% were scored 3 in ecological and social components respectively. Social indicators were generally considered less important than environmental ones. In general, PAs presented higher values for conservation. The results further show that the potential for conservation and/or development was consistent with the

  2. National Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Education Strategy 2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    Education Council, 2015

    2015-01-01

    Despite determined effort much more needs to be done to close the gap in Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander education outcomes. Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people are the first Australians with the oldest continuing cultures in human history. Governments across Australia affirm the right of Aboriginal and Torres Islander people to…

  3. 78 FR 62648 - Cat Island National Wildlife Refuge; West Feliciana Parish, Louisiana

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-22

    ...-FF04R02000] Cat Island National Wildlife Refuge; West Feliciana Parish, Louisiana AGENCY: Fish and Wildlife... comprehensive conservation plan (CCP) and associated National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) documents for Cat... our process for developing a CCP for Cat Island NWR, West Feliciana Parish, Louisiana. This notice...

  4. National Coastal Condition Assessment (NCCA) Sampling Areas Polygons, Hawaiian Islands Shoreline, 2015, US EPA Region 9

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This is a polygon feature dataset with areas along the shoreline of the Hawaiian islands. The National Coastal Condition Assessment (NCCA) is a national coastal...

  5. 2008 USGS/NPS/NASA Experimental Advanced Airborne Research Lidar (EAARL): Assateague Island National Seashore

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This is a bare earth data set that was collected 24-25 March 2008 along the shoreline of the Assateague Island National Seashore in Maryland and Virginia. The data...

  6. Modeling the Response of Human Altered Natural Barrier Island Dynamics Along Assateague Island National Seashore to Climate Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carroll, A.; McNamara, D.; Schupp, C.

    2009-12-01

    Assateague Island National Seashore comprises a long barrier island located off the coasts of Maryland and Virginia. Geological evidence suggests that over recent centuries Assateague Island has steadily transgressed up the continental shelf in response to rising sea level. More recently, the natural barrier island dynamics governing Assateague’s evolution have been altered by human activity in three ways: the construction of a jetty and the subsequent interruption of alongshore sediment transport on the north end of Assateague and both the ongoing and abandoned maintenance of a continuous dune system along portions of Assateague with the concomitant modification to overwash dynamics. It is unclear how these varied human alterations to the natural barrier island dynamics will influence the response of Assateague to climate change induced shifts in forcing such as increased rates of sea level rise and changing storm patterns. We use LIDAR detected morphological data of Assateague Island as initial conditions in an alongshore extended model for barrier island dynamics including beach erosion, island overwash and inlet cutting during storms, and beach accretion, tidal delta growth and dune and vegetation growth between storms to explore the response of the various human altered segments of Assateague Island to forcing changes. Traditional models exploring barrier island evolution contain only cross-shore dynamics therefore lacking important alongshore-spatial dynamics in aeolian and surf zone sediment transport. Results show that including alongshore dynamics alter the steady state of Assateague relative to simulations that only include cross-shore dynamics. Results will also be presented exploring the potential for regime shifts in steady state behavior under various scenarios for the rate of sea level rise and storm climate and varying management strategies.

  7. Transportation Limitation Access to the Small Islands (Case Study: Banggai Laut Regency)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sunarti, S.

    2018-02-01

    Indonesia is as an archipelago and maritime country, the large number of Islands owned and scattered in all directions makes a challenge for the Government in equitable development. Development in Indonesia has not been spread evenly and tends to focus on the big island, while the smaller islands are still far behind and lack of government attention. One of them is the lack of infrastructure especially the access to the small islands. Among the small islands in Indonesia with minimal maritime infrastructure or transportation is Banggai Laut Regency, Central Sulawesi Province. This Regency is a new regency that separate itself from its previous regency that is Banggai Kepulauan Regency in about 4 years ago. For the development of the Banggai Laut Regency, access to reach that regency is quite difficult. Therefore, the aim of this research is to find infrastructure development strategy to support the development of Banggai Laut Regency. The research method used was the concurrent model mixed method. Data collection method was done with primary data through field observation and interview, secondary data through literature and document review. Analytical techniques used are qualitative descriptive and Map Overlay techniques using GIS to describe the characteristics of study areas and spatial relationships between islands. The results of this research conclude that the Banggai Laut Regency requires infrastructure development particularly maritime transportation to enhance accessibility of the community headed to Banggi Laut Regency or headed to another island from the Banggai Laut Regency.

  8. Challenges to Plastic Up-Cycling in Small Island Communities: A Palauan Tale

    OpenAIRE

    Starkey, Lark

    2017-01-01

    Plastics in the marine environment are a growing environmental threat with mounting research on impacts, sources and management strategies. Small island communities are subject to greater threats because of dual inputs of marine plastics via ocean currents and locally used plastics, with a heavy reliance on imported packaged goods. The resulting plastic buildup on islands is often combined with a lack of infrastructure and remoteness, leaving few options for management. However, a number of e...

  9. Tidal Effects on Groundwater in a Very Small Tropical Island: A Study on the Groundwater Resources of Pag-asa Island, Kalayaan Island Group

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Ong

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available The Pag-asa Island, with its very small land area and low relief, has a very limited fresh water supply occurring as a thin freshwater lens. Climate, topography, vegetation, lithology, human abstractions, and tides affect the volume of the freshwater lens. Topographic and hydrogeologic surveys, coupled with a 72-hour groundwater-monitoring program were done to assess the effects of tides on the freshwater lens.Groundwater parameters measured in wells during the monitoring program include variations in water table depths, specific electrical conductivity (SEC, and temperature. Changes in these parameters were then correlated with the observed variations of the tides.The groundwater levels oscillate with the tides at varying amplitudes. The hydraulic properties of the lithologies making up the island's aquifer influence the amplitude of the oscillations. Groundwater level oscillations are least in the reef materials and greatest in the sandy materials where it is nearly simultaneous with the tidal variations. High electrical conductivity values are marked in wells built near the coasts and in sandy materials.The average annual precipitation is approximately 2,020 mm. Based on empirical studies, the estimated sustainable yield for small tropical islands is 6% of the lowest annual rainfall or about 20,300 m3/yr for Pag-asa Island.

  10. Energy Transition Initiative, Island Energy Snapshot - Grenada (Fact Sheet)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2015-03-01

    This profile provides a snapshot of the energy landscape of Grenada - a small island nation consisting of the island of Grenada and six smaller islands in the southeastern Caribbean Sea - three of which are inhabited: Grenada, Carriacou, and Petite Martinique.

  11. A brief geological history of Cockspur Island at Fort Pulaski National Monument, Chatham County, Georgia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swezey, Christopher S.; Seefelt, Ellen L.; Parker, Mercer

    2018-03-09

    Fort Pulaski National Monument is located on Cockspur Island in Chatham County, Georgia, within the Atlantic Coastal Plain province. The island lies near the mouth of the Savannah River, and consists of small mounds (hummocks), salt marshes, and sediment dredged from the river. A 1,017-foot (ft) (310-meter [m])-deep core drilled at Cockspur Island in 2010 by the U.S. Geological Survey revealed several sedimentary units ranging in age from 43 million years old to present. Sand and mud are present at drilling depths from 0 to 182 ft (56 m), limestone is present at depths from 182 ft (56 m) to 965 ft (295 m), and glauconitic sand is present at depths from 965 ft (295 m) to 1,017 ft (310 m). The limestone and the water within the limestone are referred to collectively as the Floridan aquifer system, which is the primary source of drinking water for the City of Savannah and surrounding communities. In addition to details of the subsurface geology, this fact sheet identifies the following geologic materials used in the construction of Fort Pulaski: (1) granite, (2) bricks, (3) sandstone, and (4) lime mud with oyster shells.

  12. U.S. Virgin Islands National Park Coral Transplant Study, St. John, 1999-2009 (NODC Accession 0112724)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — In a pilot project in the Caribbean (Virgin Islands National Park, St. John, U.S. Virgin Islands), storm-produced fragments of Acropora palmata, Acropora...

  13. Sustainability of rainwater catchment systems for small island communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, Ryan T.; Beikmann, Alise; Kottermair, Maria; Taboroši, Danko; Jenson, John W.

    2018-02-01

    Communities living on atolls and similar low-lying islands in the tropical Pacific rely on rainwater and shallow groundwater to meet domestic water needs. Rainwater, generally captured and stored using rooftop rainwater catchment systems, is the preferred water source due to higher quality and convenience of access. This study assesses the performance of rainwater catchment systems (RWCS) on Ifalik Atoll, located in Yap State, Federated States of Micronesia in the western Pacific. A field survey was conducted in August 2015 to evaluate RWCS features (guttered roof area, storage tank size, gutter leakage conditions), determine numbers of users, and estimate daily water use via household surveys. All 152 RWCS were surveyed. Water balance modeling was applied to the RWCS to estimate end-of-day stored rainwater volumes for each day of the 1997-1999 time period, during which an El Niño-induced drought occurred. Results indicate that the community is resilient to drought, although the majority of RWCS were depleted of rainwater and hence community sharing was required. Scenario testing indicates that increasing guttered roof area is the optimal strategy for enhancing system reliability. For example, the volume of water maintained at the peak of a drought can be tripled if the available roof areas for the RWCS are guttered. Design curves, which provide a set of roof area - tank volume combinations that achieve specified levels of reliability, were created and can be used to plan new RWCS. Besides offering insights into community-wide water storage and usage patterns and resiliency for Ifalik Atoll, this study presents methods that can be applied to other atoll island communities throughout the Indo-Pacific region.

  14. Ecosystems Potency of Small and Outer Islands of Indonesia for Beef Cattle Farming Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ismeth Inounu

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Indonesian archipelago consists of five main islands and more than seventeen thousand of small islands. These small islands are very effective as natural barrier to the spread of contagious animal diseases. This situation is very advantageous to develop many programs such as beef cattle farming to support beef self sufficient program in 2010. However, there are some constraints in developing of these small islands, namely human resources, natural resources, infrastructure, mean of communications and transportations and lack of intra sector integrated coordination. In taking the advantageous of developing small islands as a screening base and quarantine area, animal production technologies and veterinary science are much needed. The development can be done in integration with transmigration development program so that the beef cattle development could become source of income and job opportunity for the transmigran and local inhabitant as well. Beef cattle farming scheme are recommended by doing cow-calf operation or fattening. Political support from government and legislative are needed in establishment of infrastructure in the area chosen as beef cattle farming location. Besides, it need facilitations in land procurement for beef cattle farming, legal aspect, supports of law enforcement, simple regulation in land used and zone management planning, regulation in controlling beef importation, and credit with minimum interest rate.

  15. Global analysis of the techno-economic potential of renewable energy hybrid systems on small islands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blechinger, P.; Cader, C.; Bertheau, P.; Huyskens, H.; Seguin, R.; Breyer, C.

    2016-01-01

    Globally, small islands below 100,000 inhabitants represent a large number of diesel based mini-grids. With volatile fossil fuel costs which are most likely to increase in the long-run and competitive renewable energy technologies the introduction of such sustainable power generation system seems a viable and environmental friendly option. Nevertheless the implementation of renewable energies on small islands is quite low based on high transaction costs and missing knowledge according to the market potential. Our work provides a global overview on the small island landscape showing the respective population, economic activity, energy demand, and fuel costs for almost 1800 islands with approximately 20 million inhabitants currently supplied by 15 GW of diesel plants. Based on these parameters a detailed techno-economic assessment of the potential integration of solar PV, wind power, and battery storage into the power supply system was performed for each island. The focus on solar and wind was set due to the lack of data on hydro and geothermal potential for a global island study. It revealed that almost 7.5 GW of photovoltaic and 14 GW of wind power could be economically installed and operated on these islands reducing the GHG-emissions and fuel consumption by approximately 50%. In total numbers more than 20 million tons of GHG emissions can be reduced by avoiding the burning of 7.8 billion liters of diesel per year. Cost savings of around 9 USDct/kWh occur on average by implementing these capacities combined with 5.8 GWh of battery storage. This detailed techno-economic evaluation of renewable energies enables policy makers and investors to facilitate the implementation of clean energy supply systems on small islands. To accelerate the implementation of this enormous potential we give specific policy recommendations such as the introduction of proper regulations. - Highlights: • GIS analysis has identified approximately 1800 small island energy systems with

  16. A Framework for Disaster Vulnerability in a Small Island in the Southwest Pacific: A Case Study of Emae Island, Vanuatu

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Guy Jackson; Karen McNamara; Bradd Witt

    2017-01-01

    The societal costs of disasters around the world are continuing to increase and Pacific Island countries are considered some of the most vulnerable.This is primarily due to a combination of high hazard exposure coupled with a range of social,economic,physical,and political vulnerabilities.This article contributes to the growing body of work that aims to understand the causal factors of disaster vulnerability,but with a specific focus on small island developing states.The article first develops a framework for understanding disaster vulnerability,drawing on extensive literature and the well-established Methods for the Improvement of Vulnerability in Europe (MOVE) framework,and second,applies this adapted framework using empirically-derived data from fieldwork on Emae Island,Vanuatu to provide a working understanding of the causal elements of disaster vulnerability.Drawn from a significant body of scholarship at the time,the MOVE framework was primarily developed as a heuristic tool in which disaster vulnerability is considered to be a function of exposure,susceptibility (socially,economically,physically,culturally,environmentally,institutionally),and a lack of resilience.We posit that this adapted framework for small islands should also include historical susceptibility,and we prefer livelihood resilience (as capabilities,social capital,knowledge,participation,and human rights) over lack of resilience.We maintain that understanding disaster vulnerability holistically,which is inclusive of both strengths and drawbacks,is crucial to ensure that limited resources can target the causal factors that produce vulnerability and help safeguard and improve livelihoods in both the short and long term.

  17. Comparison of diffusion from a small island and an undisturbed ocean site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raynor, G.S.; Brown, R.M.; SethuRaman, S.

    1978-01-01

    Experiments were conducted to investigate the differences in diffusion from an obstacle to free air flow in the ocean and from an undisturbed ocean site. A small island was used as the obstacle and simultaneous releases of oil-fog smoke were made from the island and from a nearby boat. The widths of the plumes and their concentrations distributions were measured quantitatively during traverses across the plumes by a second boat. Extensive series of photographs were taken of the plumes from the surface and from the air. Meteorological measurements were made at two locations on the island, from the boats and from an aircraft. One test series was conducted during unstable conditions and a second series with neutral and stable conditions.Width of the island plume over short periods was from 1.5 to 4 times that of the boat plume with the greatest difference during stable periods. Over longer periods, the differences were somewhat greater and much of the dispersion was caused by plume meander. Height of the island plume averaged about twice that of the boat plume. Normalized maximum centerline concentrations from the boat plume were 1.4 times those of the island plume during unstable periods but about twice during stable and neutral conditions. Averaged over all tests, dispersion from the island was about twice as great as from the boat

  18. Evaluation of factors influencing the groundwater chemistry in a small tropical island of Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kura, Nura Umar; Ramli, Mohammad Firuz; Sulaiman, Wan Nur Azmin; Ibrahim, Shaharin; Aris, Ahmad Zaharin; Mustapha, Adamu

    2013-05-06

    Groundwater chemistry of small tropical islands is influenced by many factors, such as recharge, weathering and seawater intrusion, among others, which interact with each other in a very complex way. In this work, multivariate statistical analysis was used to evaluate the factors controlling the groundwater chemistry of Kapas Island (Malaysia). Principal component analysis (PCA) was applied to 17 hydrochemical parameters from 108 groundwater samples obtained from 18 sampling sites. PCA extracted four PCs, namely seawater intrusion, redox reaction, anthropogenic pollution and weather factors, which collectively were responsible for more than 87% of the total variance of the island's hydrochemistry. The cluster analysis indicated that three factors (weather, redox reaction and seawater intrusion) controlled the hydrochemistry of the area, and the variables were allocated to three groups based on similarity. A Piper diagram classified the island's water types into Ca-HCO3 water type, Na-HCO3 water type, Na-SO4-Cl water type and Na-Cl water type, indicating recharge, mixed, weathering and leached from sewage and seawater intrusion, respectively. This work will provide policy makers and land managers with knowledge of the precise water quality problems affecting the island and can also serve as a guide for hydrochemistry assessments of other islands that share similar characteristics with the island in question.

  19. Satisfaction with the quality of life on Croatian small islands: Zlarin, Kaprije and Žirje

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satisfaction with the quality of life on Croatian small islands: Zlarin, Kaprije and Žirje

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to determine the levels of satisfaction with various life domains that constitute objective conditions of the quality of island life, and which influence the perception of islanders’ personal well-being among the inhabitants of three small islands (Zlarin, Kaprije and Žirje in Croatia. The obtained results are based on a resident survey (N=141. A quality of life assessment was carried out by recognizing the specificity of an island’s surface area and its population (small communities, mostly elderly people, as well as by evaluating choices that respondents perceive to be important for their well-being. Based on applied multivariate analyses, the research suggests that life satisfaction, besides a significant correlation with material status (income, is also greatly affected by the extent of preserved social values, common to the rural communities to which the observed islands belong, such as the closeness of personal relationships (level of acceptance in the local community, solidarity and the social order maintained through informal control (which provides a sense of security. Both islanders who have never lived off their island, as well as returnees and in-migrants, positively value the way of life in island communities.

  20. Island operation - modelling of a small hydro power system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skarp, Stefan

    2000-02-01

    Simulation is a useful tool for investigating a system behaviour. It is a way to examine operating situations without having to perform them in reality. If someone for example wants to test an operating situation where the system possibly will demolish, a computer simulation could be a both cheaper and safer way than to do the test in reality. This master thesis performs and analyses a simulation, modelling an electronic power system. The system consists of a minor hydro power station, a wood refining industry, and interconnecting power system components. In the simulation situation the system works in a so called island operation. The thesis aims at making a capacity analysis of the current system. Above all, the goal is to find restrictions in load power profile of the consumer, under given circumstances. The computer software used in simulations is Matlab and its additional program PSB (Power System Blockset). The work has been carried out in co-operation with the power supplier Skellefteaa Kraft, where the problem formulation of this master thesis was founded.

  1. Encountering Urbanization on Jersey: Development, Sustainability, and Spatiality in a Small Island Setting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henry

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available On the island of Jersey, the success of local industries including agriculture, tourism, and financial services has helped grow the population of permanent residents, contract workers, seasonal workers, and short-term tourists. As a result, between 1950 and 2015 the island’s population nearly doubled from about 55,000 to 100,000, and, consequently, the landscape has undergone much urban development, not only in and around the parish capital of St Helier, but also in varying degrees in each of the island’s other parishes. During this period of population growth, the island’s urbanization has been framed within a context of developing the island’s industries on the one hand, yet sustaining the island’s unique environment on the other. After all, one of the main qualities of Jersey that has helped its tourism industry has been its ability to maintain characteristics of the island in a context of population growth and increased resource restraints. Using a method of critical inquiry of primary and secondary sources, this article foregrounds how the geographically small island of Jersey has encountered urbanization, particularly in the decades following the Second World War. The discussion illustrates some of the consequences for islanders and how development and sustainability as an assemblage of interconnected practices and perceptions have helped craft a distinct environment for the island that contributes to its local character. The article shows that inward migration flows have led to a locally-defined urbanization, which has resulted in a continually growing population and a type of urban island lure. For the field of Island Studies, a study of Jersey’s locally-defined urbanization sheds light on how urban development and sustainability consciousness is characterized and practised on this particular small island in an era that sees it especially dependent on the finance and tourism industries.

  2. The Dilemmas of Risk-Sensitive Development on a Small Volcanic Island

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emily Wilkinson

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In the Small Islands Developing State (SIDS of St Vincent and the Grenadines in the Caribbean, the most destructive disasters in terms of human casualties have been the multiple eruptions of La Soufrière volcano situated in the north of St Vincent. Despite this major threat, people continue to live close to the volcano and national development plans do not include risk reduction measures for volcanic hazards. This paper examines the development options in volcanic SIDS and presents a number of conundrums for disaster risk management on the island of St Vincent. Improvements in monitoring of volcanic hazards and ongoing programmes to enhance communications systems and encourage community preparedness planning have increased awareness of the risks associated with volcanic hazards, yet this has not translated into more risk-informed development planning decisions. The current physical development plan in fact promotes investment in infrastructure in settlements located within the zone designated very high-hazard. However, this is not an anomaly or an irrational decision: severe space constraints in SIDS, as well as other historical social and economic factors, limit growth and options for low-risk development. Greater attention needs to be placed on developing measures to reduce risk, particularly from low-intensity hazards like ash, limiting where possible exposure to volcanic hazards and building the resilience of communities living in high-risk areas. This requires planning for both short- and longer-term impacts from renewed activity. Volcanic SIDS face multiple hazards because of their geography and topography, so development plans should identify these interconnected risks and options for their reduction, alongside measures aimed at improving personal preparedness plans so communities can learn to live with risk.

  3. Exploring experts' views and perspectives on the enhancement of Strategic Environmental Assessment in European small islands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Polido, Alexandra; João, Elsa; Ramos, Tomás B.

    2016-01-01

    Small islands have the attention of the international community because they are territories with unique features, and a pressing need for the enhancement of sustainability. Strategic Environmental Assessment (SEA) has characteristics that may promote the development and improvement of sustainability in these territories: (i) changing the mind-set, and the decision-making and institutional paradigm, (ii) facilitating cooperation and coordination between different stakeholders, and (iii) providing a framework for good governance and community empowerment. The scientific literature suggests that there may be a need for context-specific SEA in these territories. However, SEA studies often do not incorporate local contextual information, including intuitive knowledge and sense of place. Therefore, there is a possible gap between what is found in the literature and what local communities think, including different stakeholders and experts. Hence, the main goal of this research was to gain an insight into the views and perspectives of small islands SEA experts about issues related to SEA in European small islands, including context-specific approaches, as well as the contribution of SEA for sustainability in these territories. To achieve the research aim, exploratory research using a questionnaire-based survey was designed, aimed at experts on SEA in European small islands. Findings showed regional cooperation networks may have a fundamental role when developing SEA-specific approaches in these territories. This is because SEA-specific approaches encourage a joint effort among islands within one region to improve SEA capacity-building, develop and share a baseline information system, and to share and exchange resources, overall. Also, guidelines are preferred among experts over more legal frameworks and regulations. Finally, the research showed that experts view SEA as a way to enhance sustainability in small islands. This study highlights the importance of integrating

  4. Exploring the oil price and real GDP nexus for a small island economy, the Fiji Islands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prasad, Arti; Narayan, Paresh Kumar; Narayan, Jashwini

    2007-01-01

    The goal of this paper is to examine the relationship between real GDP and oil prices using time series data for the period 1970-2005. Our main finding is that an increase in oil has a positive, albeit inelastic, impact on real GDP, inconsistent with the bulk of the literature. We argue that this is not a surprising result for the Fiji Islands. Our central argument focuses on two aspects of the Fijian economy: (1) the fact that actual output in Fiji has been around 50 per cent less than potential output; thus, Fiji's actual output has not reached a threshold level at which oil prices can negatively impact output; and (2) a rise in oil prices filters through to value added, which in turn is reflected in a larger actual output

  5. International Uranium Resources Evaluation Project (IUREP) national favourability studies: Fiji Islands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1977-12-01

    The Fiji Islands, comprising over 300 islands, with a total area of 18,700 square kilometers are basically either volcanic or coral. A small mining industry exists, however, and on the basis of that fact, and without geologic support of any kind a Category 1 (0 to 1,000 tonnes U) uranium potential has been assigned. (author)

  6. Small Business Programs - The National Guard

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshal Office of the Joint Surgeon PARC Small Business Programs Chaplain Diversity NGB-GOMO Resources Legislative Liaison Small Business Programs Social Media State Websites Videos Featured Videos On Every Front ARNG Readiness Home : Leadership : Joint Staff : Special Staff : Small Business Programs Small Business

  7. The impact of tourism on the economy and population of small islands : The case of Aruba

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Croes, R.H.

    2007-01-01

    Many small islands in the Caribbean depend on tourism as the dominant sector of their economy. This dependence leads to economic vulnerability, in particular if the sector is dominated by international hotel chains that cater for the North American market. Reliance on a single geographical market

  8. Master Learning: A Way to Manage Tertiary Education in Small Island Jurisdictions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hovgaard, Gestur

    2016-01-01

    As a consequence of globalisation, there is now a general trend among hesitant small island jurisdictions to focus on educational planning in the tertiary sector. The question therefore is how smart solutions adapted to the specific contexts can be developed. This article argues for the need to innovate the societal role of the smaller state…

  9. ‘Genuine Jersey’: Branding and Authenticity in a Small Island Culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henry Johnson

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Jersey has attained a recognized international reputation especially in agriculture, tourism and finance. Over the past century, this small island has developed rapidly as a tourist destination and, since the 1960s, as a leading international finance centre. This paper discusses how a public-private organization uses a notion of islandness in order to help add value to local produce and products, and at the same time offering a sense of authenticity in terms of provenance. As an organization and brand, “Genuine Jersey” was launched in 2001 and is now a particularly visible island-based brand that does much to support local businesses and promote selected island produce and products more broadly to locals and visitors alike, as well as within a wider export industry. Drawing on discourses mainly from island studies and marketing, the article discusses how and why this brand exists on Jersey. While including a critical discussion of the brand itself, the paper shows how Genuine Jersey operates on and as a result of this particular island context.

  10. 36 CFR 7.74 - Virgin Islands National Park.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... shall anchors or any other mooring device be cast or dragged or placed, so as to strike or otherwise... of the Virgin Islands. (e) Fishing. (1) Taking of fishes or any other marine life in any way except...

  11. 78 FR 4872 - Minor Boundary Revision at Governors Island National Monument

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-23

    ... revision and subsequent acquisition of Tract 01-106 will enable the National Park Service to manage and maintain a floating dock that has been installed to provide safe access to the island for ferry passengers...

  12. International Uranium Resources Evaluation Project (IUREP) national favourability studies: Solomon Islands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1977-12-01

    The Solomon Islands have an area of about 30,000 square kilometers. The larger islands are volcanic and contain a small variety of minerals, some of which may eventually be economically recoverable. A large phosphate deposit may also be mined at some future date. Specific geologic information is very difficult to find, but on the basis of what little is available a small potential is deduced to be in Category 2 (l,000 - 10,000 tonnes U). (author

  13. A comparison of controls on freshwater lens morphology of small carbonate and siliciclastic islands: examples from barrier islands in Florida, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, James C.; Kruse, Sarah E.

    2003-12-01

    The freshwater lens on small islands may easily be overexploited or polluted due to dense development combined with improper management. On small carbonate islands complexities in fresh groundwater distribution are most commonly driven by geologic heterogeneities and their attendant impact on permeability and effective recharge patterns. Siliciclastic islands (composed primarily of quartz sand and other silica-based minerals) have been less well studied, and fewer common patterns of lens development have emerged. On some siliciclastic islands correlations between geology and lens geometries are weak; on these islands the freshwater lens geometry may be largely determined by how vegetation and terrain elevation affect recharge. Other factors such as unequal sea level on opposite sides of an island and transient variability (natural island migration and climate variability) may also be locally significant. Two barrier islands in the northeast Gulf of Mexico fall into this category of siliciclastic islands. Relationships between lens morphology, geology, vegetation, terrain, and sea level and transient effects are documented on St George Island and Dog Island, FL. Patterns of fresh groundwater occurrence are deduced with electrical and electromagnetic geophysical methods. Although isolated cores show geologic layering that could potentially control freshwater lens development, ground penetrating radar and seismic surveys show no evidence of semi-continuous subhorizontal layering. Inferred lens thickness and geometry suggests that site geology plays a relatively minor role as a cause of complexity in lens formation. Lens geometry does appear to be related to terrain and vegetation variability, and further complicated by the continuous reforming of these islands by coastal processes and human development.

  14. Small island developing states and global climate change: overcoming the constraints

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ashe, J.W.

    1999-01-01

    In the context of the debate on climate change, and related impacts such as sea-level rise, one fact that has generally been recognized is that small island developing states (SIDS) and low-lying coastal states are especially at risk. The drafters of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change identified these two categories of countries as 'particularly vulnerable to the adverse effects of climate change'. Thus sea-level rise, as one of the more nefarious manifestations of the so-called 'adverse impacts' of human-induced climate change, presents particular challenges for SIDS. These include increased erosion, flooding, loss of wetlands, and increased salinity of surface and groundwater caused by saltwater intrusion. While precise and exact answers to the questions of impacts are not yet known, climatologists, using various tools such as computer generated global circulation models, have been able to define the causes and the likely impacts of global climate change. For example, using results from the computer models, climatologists have estimated that a doubling of carbon dioxide concentrations from pre-industrial levels will cause global temperatures to rise between 1.0-3.5 deg. C. They have also been able to predict that with such an increase in temperature and consequent sea-level rise, severe impacts are likely to be experienced by coastal and low-lying States. These will lead directly to saltwater intrusion into groundwater aquifers, endangerment of wetlands and inundation of especially low-lying areas. The IPCC report also states (Watson et al., 1996) that coastal zones and small islands contain some of the world's most diverse and productive resources, and their global importance in terms of both ecological and socio-economic values is widely recognized. Their complex and specialized ecosystems such as mangroves, coral reefs and seagrasses, are highly sensitive to human intervention and support a variety of economic activities, including

  15. 76 FR 20008 - Notice of Temporary Concession Contract for Assateague Island National Seashore, MD

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-11

    ... pre-packaged food and beverage. This action is necessary to avoid interruption of visitor services... DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR National Park Service [NPS-WASO-CONC-0111-6544; 2410-OYC] Notice of Temporary Concession Contract for Assateague Island National Seashore, MD AGENCY: National Park Service...

  16. Small-Island Perceptions of Scholarships: Perspectives from Jamaica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyman, T. A.

    2017-12-01

    The Caribbean has the lowest tertiary enrolment in the Western Hemisphere. This figure currently stands at 10% of the population, instead of a desired 30%. [1] Jamaica specifically, has seen a decline in tertiary education enrolment at major institutions such as the University of Technology, Northern Caribbean University, with the only exception being the University of the West Indies showing a marginal increase of 3.6% in 2016. The inability to cover the cost of tertiary education by citizens is a deterrent - despite government subsidies of up to 80%. Scholarship resources exist in Jamaica, but the challenge is the small number of scholarships granted, in proportion to a large applicant pool. Consequently, only the highest performing students are selected at the expense of other higher performing students. Interestingly though, scholarship resources exist internationally for tertiary studies. In the United States for example, US$100 million funds go unclaimed each year due to a lack of awareness. The European Union (EU) will also invest 80 million Euros in research and innovation from 2014 to 2020, with these funds air marked for partnerships between the EU and the rest of the world. The overall aim of this research is to assess the awareness of Jamaicans ages 17 to 45 years, in terms of their knowledge of these international funds, their perceptions of scholarships as a source of tertiary education financing, and preferences for physical locations of study. [1] UWI Professor Archibald McDonald

  17. Optimization of coastal protection measures on small islands in the northfrisian part of the North Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wöffler, T.; Jensen, J.; Schüttrumpf, H.

    2017-12-01

    Low lying small islands are among the most vulnerable regions worldwide due to the consequences of climate change. The reasons for this are the concentration of infrastructure, geographical features and their small size. Worldwide special forms and adaptations of coastal protection strategies and measures can be found on small islands. In the northfrisian part of the North Sea worldwide unique strategies and measures have been developed in the last centuries due to the geographic location and the isolation during extreme events. One special feature of their coastal protection strategy is the lack of dikes. For this reason, the houses are built on artificial dwelling mounds in order to protect the inhabitants and their goods against frequently occurring inundations during storm surge seasons (up to 30 times a year). The Hallig islands themselves benefit by these inundations due to sediments, which are accumulated on the island's surfaces. This sedimentation has enabled a natural adaption to sea level rise in the past. Nevertheless, the construction methods of the coastal protection measures are mainly based on tradition and the knowledge of the inhabitants. No resilient design approaches and safety standards for these special structures like dwelling mounds and elevated revetments exist today. For this reason, neither a cost efficient construction nor a prioritization of measures is possible. Main part of this paper is the scientific investigation of the existing coastal protection measures with the objective of the development of design approaches and safety standards. The results will optimize the construction of the existing coastal protection measures and can be transferred to other small islands and low lying areas worldwide.

  18. Report of the DHS National Small Vessel Security Summit

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Brownstein, Charles; Baker, John; Hull, Peter; Minogue, Nicholas; Murphy, George; Winston, Phyllis

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of the National Small Vessel Security Summit (NSVSS) was to engage private, commercial and government stakeholders in discussions on a range of issues involving the security risks posed by small vessels in the U.S...

  19. Bathymetry of NPS's Virgin Islands Coral Reef National Monument (Inshore), St. John, US Virgin Islands 2005, 1M Grid, UTM 20 NAD83

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset contains an ESRI Grid with 1 meter cell size representing the bathymetry of an inshore portion of the NPS's Virgin Islands Coral Reef National Monument,...

  20. Demographic factors and land-use planning in the small islands of Southern Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soliani, Lamberto; Rossi, Orazio

    1992-09-01

    Since the end of the 1970s, the southern European countries have shown an exceptional reduction in fertility rate. From the highest levels among the developed nations, these countries dropped beneath the substitution rate level: in Greece there is an average of about 1.5 children per woman, and Italy (starting three to four years ago), with 1.3 children per woman, is now the country with the lowest fecundity rate in the world. Land-use planning in southern European small islands therefore requires substantial revision. In the areas where western civilization began, which are highly populated and have a long history, cultural and ethnic aspects of tradition are fundamental to environmental management and to the defense of historical heritage. They also place a strong value on sustaining tourism, the most relevant economic activity, that allows them to survive and maintain a high welfare level. For some decades they have had populations with a marked presence of young people and high emigration rates, but now they are fast becoming dominated by the elderly and must prepare for a period of fast reduction in youth of the workforce, while the peripheral areas of Asia and Africa are entering a sudden demographic growth phase. The demographic structure has also been deeply altered both by previous migrations and by random variations, as usually happens in all small communities. Social services for younger and older people have had to be adapted rapidly, reorganizing high-school management, hospital and health-care structures, in-house assistance, and so on. There is a need to rethink the job market and favor the immigration of highly specialized workers, which is a necessity for technical evolution. Sustainable development is constrained nowadays not only by the scarcity of natural resources, but also by the quality and quantity of human resources. Proper policies for population and land-use planning are highly correlated factors; they have to be considered with respect

  1. Recommendations for a barrier island breach management plan for Fire Island National Seashore, including the Otis Pike High Dune Wilderness Area, Long Island, New York

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, S. Jeffress; Foley, Mary K.

    2007-01-01

    The U.S Army Corps of Engineers, New York District is developing engineering plans, including economic costs and benefits, for storm damage reduction along an 83 mile stretch of the coastal barrier islands and beaches on the south shore of Long Island, NY from Fire Island Inlet east to the Montauk Point headland. The plan, expected to include various alternatives for storm protection and erosion mitigation, is referred to as the Fire Island to Montauk Point Reformulation Plan (FIMP). These plans are expected to follow the Corps of Engineers’ Environmental Operating Principles striving for long term environmental sustainability and balance between environmental protection and protection of human health and property. Fire Island National Seashore (FIIS), a 19,579 acre unit of the National Park System includes a 32 mile long coastal barrier island located within the FIMP project area. A seven-mile section of the park, Otis Pike Fire Island High Dune Wilderness Area, is also a designated Federal Wilderness Area. The FIIS includes not only the barrier island and sand dunes, but also several islands, sand flats and wetlands landward of the barrier, submerged parts of Great South Bay shoreface, extending approximately 4,000 feet into the bay with the inner shelf region extending approximately 1,000 feet seaward of the Fire Island shoreline. The Fire Island barrier islands, a sand-starved system dominated by highly dynamic processes, are struggling to maintain their integrity in the face of sea-level rise and storms. Adding to the dilemma is that development on the barriers and the mainland has increased greatly during the past 50 years. As such, managers and decision makers in federal agencies, state agencies and local governments are challenged to balance tradeoffs between protection of lives and property, public access and long term conservation of natural habitats and processes and the plants and animals that depend on these habitats. National Park Service (NPS

  2. Changing politics, economics and relations on the small remote island of Fair Isle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard W. Butler

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The paper interprets changes which have taken place on Fair Isle, a small remote Scottish island, over the last half century, with a focus on how the interplay of external forces and local adjustments have produced a positive working relationship between local residents, visitors and those in authority over the island. The paper discusses the changes in the island’s governance and economy that the island residents have experienced and how life on the island has adjusted to major change over a fifty year period. The information and responses from resident surveys discussed were collected using identical household surveys conducted fifty years apart to provide a unique comparison on a longitudinal basis of changes in the economy and way of life on the island, including the emergence of tourism as the major driver of the economy This has taken place without the common antagonism or problems between residents and visitors in tourist destinations, reflecting the appropriate handling of mutual interests and concerns through political arrangements which have been supportive and sympathetic to residents and visitors.

  3. Evaluation of Factors Influencing the Groundwater Chemistry in a Small Tropical Island of Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nura Umar Kura

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Groundwater chemistry of small tropical islands is influenced by many factors, such as recharge, weathering and seawater intrusion, among others, which interact with each other in a very complex way. In this work, multivariate statistical analysis was used to evaluate the factors controlling the groundwater chemistry of Kapas Island (Malaysia. Principal component analysis (PCA was applied to 17 hydrochemical parameters from 108 groundwater samples obtained from 18 sampling sites. PCA extracted four PCs, namely seawater intrusion, redox reaction, anthropogenic pollution and weather factors, which collectively were responsible for more than 87% of the total variance of the island’s hydrochemistry. The cluster analysis indicated that three factors (weather, redox reaction and seawater intrusion controlled the hydrochemistry of the area, and the variables were allocated to three groups based on similarity. A Piper diagram classified the island’s water types into Ca-HCO3 water type, Na-HCO3 water type, Na-SO4-Cl water type and Na-Cl water type, indicating recharge, mixed, weathering and leached from sewage and seawater intrusion, respectively. This work will provide policy makers and land managers with knowledge of the precise water quality problems affecting the island and can also serve as a guide for hydrochemistry assessments of other islands that share similar characteristics with the island in question.

  4. 36 CFR 7.12 - Gulf Islands National Seashore.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Seashore except in the following closed areas: (i) The lakes, ponds, lagoons and inlets of Cat Island, East... within Big Lagoon; (iii) The areas within 200 feet from the remnants of the old fishing pier and within 200 feet from the new fishing pier at Fort Pickens; and (iv) Within 200 feet of non-motorized vessels...

  5. 36 CFR 7.73 - Buck Island Reef National Monument.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... be cast or dragged or placed, so as to strike or otherwise cause damage to any underwater features... Islands. (e) Fishing. (1) All forms of fishing are prohibited including, but not limited to, spearfishing..., seine, and long-line. (2) The use or possession of any type of fishing equipment or any of the items...

  6. Labour market institutions in small Pacific island countries: Main guidelines for labour market reforms

    OpenAIRE

    Malo, Miguel Á.

    2017-01-01

    This report consists of a comprehensive overview of labour market institutions in the small Pacific island countries in order to propose recommendations to improve the performance of their labour markets. We pay particular attention to three countries: Fiji, Palau and Papua New Guinea. We focus on the main pillars of labour market institutions, as employment protection legislation, minimum wage, and labour organization. The analysis considers the possibilities for institutional change in the ...

  7. SMALL-SCALE MAGNETIC ISLANDS IN THE SOLAR WIND AND THEIR ROLE IN PARTICLE ACCELERATION. I. DYNAMICS OF MAGNETIC ISLANDS NEAR THE HELIOSPHERIC CURRENT SHEET

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khabarova, O. [Heliophysical Laboratory, Pushkov Institute of Terrestrial Magnetism, Ionosphere and Radiowave Propagation RAS (IZMIRAN), Troitsk, Moscow 142190 (Russian Federation); Zank, G. P.; Li, G.; Roux, J. A. le; Webb, G. M.; Dosch, A. [Center for Space Plasma and Aeronomic Research (CSPAR), University of Alabama in Huntsville, Huntsville, AL 35805 (United States); Malandraki, O. E. [IAASARS, National Observatory of Athens, GR-15236 Penteli (Greece)

    2015-08-01

    Increases of ion fluxes in the keV–MeV range are sometimes observed near the heliospheric current sheet (HCS) during periods when other sources are absent. These resemble solar energetic particle events, but the events are weaker and apparently local. Conventional explanations based on either shock acceleration of charged particles or particle acceleration due to magnetic reconnection at interplanetary current sheets (CSs) are not persuasive. We suggest instead that recurrent magnetic reconnection occurs at the HCS and smaller CSs in the solar wind, a consequence of which is particle energization by the dynamically evolving secondary CSs and magnetic islands. The effectiveness of the trapping and acceleration process associated with magnetic islands depends in part on the topology of the HCS. We show that the HCS possesses ripples superimposed on the large-scale flat or wavy structure. We conjecture that the ripples can efficiently confine plasma and provide tokamak-like conditions that are favorable for the appearance of small-scale magnetic islands that merge and/or contract. Particles trapped in the vicinity of merging islands and experiencing multiple small-scale reconnection events are accelerated by the induced electric field and experience first-order Fermi acceleration in contracting magnetic islands according to the transport theory of Zank et al. We present multi-spacecraft observations of magnetic island merging and particle energization in the absence of other sources, providing support for theory and simulations that show particle energization by reconnection related processes of magnetic island merging and contraction.

  8. 15 CFR Appendix A to Subpart G of... - Channel Islands National Marine Sanctuary Boundary Coordinates

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Sanctuary Boundary Coordinates A Appendix A to Subpart G of Part 922 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations..., DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE OCEAN AND COASTAL RESOURCE MANAGEMENT NATIONAL MARINE SANCTUARY PROGRAM REGULATIONS Channel Islands National Marine Sanctuary Pt. 922, Subpt. G, App. A Appendix A to Subpart G of Part 922...

  9. Federal collaboration in science for invasive mammal management in U.S. National Parks and Wildlife Refuges of the Pacific Islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hess, Steven C.; Hu, Darcy; Loh, Rhonda; Banko, Paul C.; Conner, L.M.; Smith, M.D.

    2016-01-01

    Some of the most isolated islands in the Pacific Ocean are home to US National Parks and Wildlife Refuges. These islands are known for flora and fauna that occur nowhere else, but also for invasive species and other factors which have resulted in the disproportionate extinction of native species. The control of invasive mammals is the single most expensive natural resource management activity essential for restoring ecological integrity to parks in the Hawaiian Islands, American Samoa, and the islands of Guam and Saipan. Science-based applications supporting management efforts have been shaped by longstanding collaborative federal research programs over the past four decades. Consequently, feral goats (Capra hircus) have been removed from >690 km2 in National Parks, and feral pigs (Sus scrofa) have been removed from >367 km2 of federal lands of Hawai‘i, bringing about the gradual recovery of forest ecosystems. The exclusion of other non-native ungulates and invasive mammals is now being undertaken with more sophisticated control techniques and fences. New fence designs are now capable of excluding feral cats (Felis catus) from large areas to protect endangered native waterfowl and nesting seabirds. Rodenticides which have been tested and registered for hand and aerial broadcast in Hawai‘i have been used to eradicate rats from small offshore islands to protect nesting seabirds and are now being applied to montane environments of larger islands to protect forest birds. Forward-looking infrared radar (FLIR) is also being applied to locate wild ungulates which were more recently introduced to some islands. All invasive mammals have been eradicated from some remote small islands, and it may soon be possible to manage areas on larger islands to be free of invasive mammals at least during seasonally important periods for native species.

  10. Current status of solid waste management in small island developing states: A review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohee, Romeela; Mauthoor, Sumayya; Bundhoo, Zumar M.A.; Somaroo, Geeta; Soobhany, Nuhaa; Gunasee, Sanjana

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Waste management is a matter of great concern for small island developing states. • On average, waste generation rate in these islands amounts to 1.29 kg/capita/day. • Illegal dumping and landfilling prevail in most small island developing states. • Sustainable waste management practices, previously absent, are now emerging. • However, many challenges still hinder the implementation of these practices. - Abstract: This article reviews the current status of waste management in Small Island Developing States (SIDS) and the challenges that are faced in solid waste management. The waste generation rates of SIDS were compared within the three geographic regions namely Caribbean SIDS, Pacific SIDS and Atlantic, Indian Ocean, Mediterranean and South China (AIMS) SIDS and with countries of the Organisation for Economic Co-Operation and Development (OECD). Only Pacific SIDS had a waste generation rate less than 1 kg/capita/day. The waste generation rates for the three SIDS regions averaged 1.29 kg/capita/day while that for OECD countries was at a mean value of 1.35 kg/capita/day. The waste compositions in the different SIDS regions were almost similar owing to comparable consumption patterns while these differed to a large extent with wastes generated in OECD countries. In SIDS, the major fraction of MSW comprised of organics (44%) followed by recyclables namely paper, plastics, glass and metals (total: 43%). In contrast, MSW in OECD countries consisted mainly of recyclables (43%) followed by organics (37%). This article also reviewed the other functional elements of the waste management systems in SIDS. Several shortcomings were noted in the process of waste collection, transfer and transport namely the fact of having outdated collection vehicles and narrow roads which are inaccessible. Among the waste management practices in SIDS, waste disposal via landfilling, illegal dumping and backyard burning were favoured most of the time at the expense of

  11. Current status of solid waste management in small island developing states: A review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mohee, Romeela [University of Mauritius, Réduit (Mauritius); Mauthoor, Sumayya, E-mail: sumayya.mauthoor@umail.uom.ac.mu [Department of Chemical & Environmental Engineering, University of Mauritius, Réduit (Mauritius); Bundhoo, Zumar M.A.; Somaroo, Geeta; Soobhany, Nuhaa; Gunasee, Sanjana [Department of Chemical & Environmental Engineering, University of Mauritius, Réduit (Mauritius)

    2015-09-15

    Highlights: • Waste management is a matter of great concern for small island developing states. • On average, waste generation rate in these islands amounts to 1.29 kg/capita/day. • Illegal dumping and landfilling prevail in most small island developing states. • Sustainable waste management practices, previously absent, are now emerging. • However, many challenges still hinder the implementation of these practices. - Abstract: This article reviews the current status of waste management in Small Island Developing States (SIDS) and the challenges that are faced in solid waste management. The waste generation rates of SIDS were compared within the three geographic regions namely Caribbean SIDS, Pacific SIDS and Atlantic, Indian Ocean, Mediterranean and South China (AIMS) SIDS and with countries of the Organisation for Economic Co-Operation and Development (OECD). Only Pacific SIDS had a waste generation rate less than 1 kg/capita/day. The waste generation rates for the three SIDS regions averaged 1.29 kg/capita/day while that for OECD countries was at a mean value of 1.35 kg/capita/day. The waste compositions in the different SIDS regions were almost similar owing to comparable consumption patterns while these differed to a large extent with wastes generated in OECD countries. In SIDS, the major fraction of MSW comprised of organics (44%) followed by recyclables namely paper, plastics, glass and metals (total: 43%). In contrast, MSW in OECD countries consisted mainly of recyclables (43%) followed by organics (37%). This article also reviewed the other functional elements of the waste management systems in SIDS. Several shortcomings were noted in the process of waste collection, transfer and transport namely the fact of having outdated collection vehicles and narrow roads which are inaccessible. Among the waste management practices in SIDS, waste disposal via landfilling, illegal dumping and backyard burning were favoured most of the time at the expense of

  12. Hawaiian Islands Humpback Whale National Marine Sanctuary Boundary (polygon)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Office of National Marine Sanctuaries manages a system of sanctuaries and other managed areas around the country. The legal boundaries of These sanctuaries are...

  13. EDIN-USVI Clean Energy Quarterly: Volume 1, Issue 2, March 2011, Energy Development in Island Nations, U.S. Virgin Islands (Newsletter)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2011-03-01

    This quarterly newsletter provides timely news and information about the plans and progress of the Energy Development in Island Nations U.S. Virgin Islands pilot project, including significant events and milestones, work undertaken by each of the five working groups, and project-related renewable energy and energy efficiency projects.

  14. Cost-Effectiveness Analysis of a PVGS on the Electrical Power Supply of a Small Island

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheng-Ting Hsu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a feasibility study of a large simulated stadium-scale photovoltaic generation system (PVGS on a small island. Both the PVGS contribution to the energy demand on the island and its financial analysis were analysed in this study. The maximum allowable PVGS installation capacity is obtained by executing load flow analysis without violating the voltage magnitude and voltage variation ratio limits. However, the estimated power generation of PVGS is applied to know its impact on the power system according to the hourly solar irradiation and temperature. After that, the cost-benefit analysis of payback years (PBY and net present value (NPV method is derived considering the cash flow from utilities annual fuel and loss saving, the operation and maintenance (O&M cost, and the capital investment cost. The power network in Kiribati (PUB DNST is selected for study in this paper. The simulation results are very valuable and can be applied to the other small islands for reducing the usage of fossil fuel and greenhouse gas emissions.

  15. Natural gas to improve energy security in Small Island Developing States: A techno-economic analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pravesh Raghoo

    Full Text Available There is a paucity of studies on natural gas-based energy production in Small Island Developing States (SIDS even though technological improvements today are likely to make the application of natural gas more and more feasible. The development of natural gas in some of the regions of the Pacific, Africa, Indian Ocean and Caribbean attracts nearby countries and the coming up of the compressed natural gas (CNG technology which can serve regional markets are two motivations for SIDS to develop natural gas-based energy provision. A third factor concerns long-term energy security. Due to continued reliance on fossil fuels and slow uptake of renewable energy, there is a need to diversify SIDS’ energy mix for a sustainable electricity industry. Comparing the opportunities and constraints of liquefied natural gas (LNG and compressed natural gas (CNG in a SIDS-specific context, this paper discusses how to improve the integration of natural gas in prevailing energy regimes in SIDS as an alternative fuel to oil and complementary to renewable energy sources. To illustrate feasibility in practice, a techno-economic analysis is carried out using the island of Mauritius as an example. Keywords: Energy security, Natural gas, Small Island Developing States

  16. Governance of ecosystem services on small islands: three contrasting cases for St. Eustatius in the Dutch Caribbean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nico Polman

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Natural ecosystems provide an attractive focus for tourism on small islands. But at the same time tourism and other human actions can be detrimental to these ecosystems especially because governance of the ecosystem may be difficult due to the limited resilience of small island ecosystems. In this paper, we focus on which conditions self-governance will be the appropriate governance mechanism of ecosystem services on small islands. We apply the Ostrom (2009 framework for common-pool resources in a social-ecological system, and select the relevant indicators for small islands. We scored these indicators for three cases (environmental issues in St. Eustatius. These cases show that self-organization of ecosystem services is not an outcome easily achieved. The unevenly distributed benefits of potential measures are found to decrease community support of measures that could reinforce these ecosystem services.

  17. Competitive Advantages of Small Medium Industry on the Islands in Indonesian Context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muslim El Hakim Kurniawan

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Indonesian Law No.3/2014 regarding Industry requires both Central and Local Governments to realize the competitiveness of small and medium industries. However, the fact that the condition of each region is not similar becomes a main problem. It is because Indonesia is an archipelagic country. The competitiveness index of Asia Competitiveness Institute 2015 indicates that islands provinces, such as Kepulauan Bangka Belitung, Nusa Tenggara Barat, Nusa Tenggara Timur, Sulawesi Utara, Maluku, Maluku Utara, Sulawesi Tenggara, need specific development strategies. They cannot be equated with the mainlands, such as Java and Sumatera, because their competitiveness rank is very low. A review of literature on the competitiveness of islands entrepreneurs shows that from the 4 (four schools of thought in competitive advantage, only few researchers have pertained on the knowledge based on the schools of thought. Therefore, this could be a future research opportunity.

  18. Climate change economics on a small island: new approaches for Tobago

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simpson, Murray [University of Oxford (United Kingdom); Birch, Tom

    2011-01-15

    For small islands like Tobago — that depend heavily on tourism driven by their natural 'beauty' — climate change poses a double-edged threat on supply and demand. Rising sea levels, increasing temperatures and more frequent and intense storms will damage the island's natural assets, such as coral reefs and beaches. This could have a heavy impact on tourism, which will also be affected by climate policy in 'source' countries. But what exactly will that impact be? How much will it cost? And what can be done about it? Traditional economic analysis is ill-equipped to answer these questions because it offers static and highly uncertain models and assessments of damage and loss, rather than flexible response options that consider system dynamics. We urgently need to use and expand new forms of economic analysis to better support the difficult decisions that Caribbean policymakers face as a result of climate change.

  19. Not Too Small To Care: Small Businesses and Child Care. National Advisory Panel Exchange #2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eichman, Caroline; Reisman, Barbara

    This report of the Child Care Action Committee's National Advisory Panel profiles 29 small businesses employing under 250 workers in 15 states which offer child care benefits to their employees. These businesses do not constitute a representative sample of small businesses. A series of factors for small businesses to consider when planning a child…

  20. The Impact of State Intervention on Social Capital of Fishermen Community in Small Islands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sakaria J Anwar

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to discuss the impact of state intervention on social capital of fishermen community in small islands. The research was conducted in Barrang Lompo Island, Makassar. The data was collected through in-depth interview and limited observation from twelve informants determined by snowball sampling. Questionnaires were also spread to about 40 respondents. The data was then analyzed qualitatively to explain research’s data and facts. The results of the research show that state intervention for the last ten years on small islands communities has impact on various aspects such as the diminishing loyalty and trust among locals to the government. Therefore, the intervention reduce the community’s participation, individually and collectively, in development activities. The situation, in turn, could affect the diminishing political capacity of the locals and government in the implementation of development in the islands. The state intervention, however, strengthened social solidarity, local value practices and the enthusiasm to understand religious values which in turn could tighten the internal bond of a community. This bond can become a potential strength to build communities in small islands. Tulisan ini bertujuan untuk mendiskusikan dampak intervensi negara pada kapital sosial komunitas nelayan di pulau-pulau kecil. Penelitian ini dilakukan di Pulau Barrang Lompo, Makassar. Pengumpulan data dilakukan melalui wawancara mendalam dan observasi terbatas dari dua belas informan ditentukan oleh snowball sampling. Kuesioner juga menyebar ke 40 responden. Data tersebut kemudian dianalisis secara kualitatif untuk menjelaskan data penelitian dan fakta. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa intervensi negara selama sepuluh tahun terakhir pada masyarakat pulau-pulau kecil memiliki dampak pada berbagai aspek seperti, mengurangi loyalitas dan kepercayaan di antara penduduk setempat kepada pemerintah. Oleh karena itu, partisipasi mereka, secara

  1. Mental health in the island nations of the Western Pacific: a rapid review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunter, Ernest; Thusanth, Sneha; McCalman, Janya; Gopalkrishnan, Narayan

    2015-12-01

    The aim of the study was to identify mental-health-relevant literature accessible to policy makers and healthcare workers in the island nations of the Western Pacific. Material collated to support the inaugural Leadership in Mental Health: Island Nations course held in Cairns in May 2015 was used as the basis of a "rapid review". The rapid review considered 303 documents identified by a search carried out using James Cook University's OneSearch, Google Scholar, and the authors' knowledge. Search terms included mental health and the like, and terms with Pacific and current Pacific island country names. Findings were classified by region/country, year of release/publication, mental health issue addressed, peer-reviewed or grey literature, and type of study. Almost half of the findings had been released in the previous five years. However, only 36% were peer-reviewed publications and only 3.6% of the findings were intervention studies. There is limited easily accessible documentation to confidently direct practice or policies regarding which strategies are likely to be effective in responding to the high rates of mental ill-health experienced in the Pacific island nations, or to plan for increases as a consequence of rapid social and demographic changes that are transforming Pacific island societies. © The Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Psychiatrists 2015.

  2. National priorities list sites: Puerto Rico and Virgin Islands, 1992

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-12-01

    The publication provides general Superfund background information and descriptions of activities at each State National Priorities List (NPL) site. It clearly describes what the problems are, what EPA and others participating in site cleanups are doing, and how the nation can move ahead in solving these serious problems. Compiles site summary fact sheets on each State site being cleaned up under the Superfund Program

  3. Natural disaster vulnerability and human-induced pressure assessment in small islands developing states: A case study in the Union of the Comoros

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burak, S.; Meddeb, R.

    2012-04-01

    The Comoros Islands are part of the Small Island Developing States (SIDS) located in the Indian Ocean. SIDS are islands and low-lying coastal nations that face common barriers to sustainable development, including limited resources, poor economic resilience, and vulnerability to sea level rise and natural disasters. The Comoros Archipelago is made up of four islands but the present study was conducted on three islands, namely Mwali (Mohéli), Ngazidja (Grande Comore) and Dzwani (Anjouan) that are aligned in the Mozambique Channel and spread over a surface area of 1862 km2. These islands are exposed to natural disaster coupled with human-induced pressure on natural resources. The major natural disaster vulnerability has been identified by the National AdaptationProgramme of Action (NAPA, 2006) as climate change, whose likely adverse impacts on the Comoros Islands are: i) changes in rainfall patterns; ii) increases in temperature; iii) salinization of coastal aquifers as a result of salt water intrusion due to sea level rise; and iv) increased frequency of severe weather conditions (such as tropical cyclones, droughts, heavy rainfall and flooding). In addition, existing practices related to natural resources management (primarily land, forest and water management) are very poor and this failure is increasingly threatening water and food security, resulting in a decline of economic growth and standards of living within the Comoros. Human-induced pressure combined with climate change impact is the inherent vulnerabilities of these islands. The government of the Union of the Comoros is aware of the alarming nature of climate change impact and has put in place several projects aiming at implementing adaptation measures in order to help increase the resilience of the vulnerable population in the face of this threat. These projects involve strengthening institutions, policy and regulations so as to improve the management of natural resources, among other measures. The

  4. The influence of customer loyalty on small island economies: an empirical and exploratory study

    OpenAIRE

    Ozuem, Wilson; Thomas, Tara; Lancaster, Geoff

    2016-01-01

    There is growing consensus that companies’ long-term success is reliant on building\\ud and sustaining strong customer relationships. This study explores the antecedents of\\ud loyalty in business to business (B2Bs) using Guernsey’s telecommunication industry as\\ud a case study. It examines how these influence customer loyalty orientation and factors\\ud that help service providers improve loyalty rates. Extant literature pays little attention\\ud to the antecedents of loyalty in small island eco...

  5. Risk factors for small airway obstruction among Chinese island residents: a case-control study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-sheng Chen

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: We investigated the prevalence of and risk factors for small airway obstruction (SAO among Chinese island residents to establish means to prevent and treat SAO. METHODS: From October 17, 2011 to November 1, 2011, a total of 2,873 residents aged >20 years who lived on the Huangqi Peninsula of Fujian were recruited by random cluster sampling. They were asked to complete a Burden of Obstructive Lung Disease (BOLD questionnaire and underwent physical examinations and lung function evaluations. SAO was defined as a forced expiratory flow at 50% of vital capacity, Vmax50%, of less than 70% of predicted. Risk factors for SAO were assessed from among demographic and anthropometric variables, blood chemistry results, and questionnaire response items. RESULTS: A total of 216 (7.52% Chinese island residents were identified as having SAO (95 males; 121 females. Their survey and test results were compared with 432 age and sex-matched healthy controls (192 males; 240 females for SAO risk factors. Among numerous factors investigated, only diabetes mellitus (p = 0.039, smoking index (SI, p600, second hand smoke (p = 0.002, and lack of regular exercise (p<0.001 were significant risk factors for SAO. CONCLUSIONS: The risk factors for SAO among Chinese island residents appeared to be similar to those among people who live in high-density urban environments and impoverished rural areas. Public health policies and medical practices directed toward improving respiratory health for island residents should be comparable to those used for urban and rural dwellers.

  6. Energy Transition Initiative: Island Energy Snapshot - Antigua and Barbuda; NREL (National Renewable Energy Laboratory)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2015-05-20

    This profile provides a snapshot of the energy landscape of Antigua and Barbuda, an independent nation in the Leeward Islands in the eastern Caribbean Sea. Antigua and Barbuda’s utility rates are approximately $0.37 U.S. dollars (USD) per kilowatt-hour (kWh), which is above the Caribbean regional average of $0.33 USD/kWh.

  7. Energy Transition Initiative: Island Energy Snapshot - Trinidad and Tobago; NREL (National Renewable Energy Laboratory)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2015-05-20

    This profile provides a snapshot of the energy landscape of Trinidad and Tobago, a two-island nation located off the coast of Venezuela. Trinidad and Tobago’s electricity rates are some of the lowest in the Caribbean at approximately $0.04 per kilowatt-hour (kWh), well below the regional average of $0.33/kWh.

  8. The butterflies and land snails of Ndere Island National Park, Kenya ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    After a survey of Ndere Island National Park between October and November 2004, we recorded 18 species of butterflies and 3 species of land snails. Eurema brigitta brigitta was the most abundant butterfly whereas Thapsia karamwegasensis was the most abundant land snail. Majority of the butterfly species are found in ...

  9. National Coral Reef Monitoring Program: Assessment of coral reef fish communities in the U.S. Virgin Islands

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Data provided in this data set were collected around the U.S. Virgin Islands (USVI) as part of NOAA National Centers for Coastal Ocean Science (NCCOS)-led missions...

  10. National Coral Reef Monitoring Program: Assessment of coral reef benthic communities in the U.S. Virgin Islands

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Data provided in this data set were collected around the U.S. Virgin Islands (USVI) as part of NOAA National Centers for Coastal Ocean Science (NCCOS)-led missions...

  11. National Status and Trends: Bioeffects Program - Biological Effects of Toxic Contaminants in Sediments from Long Island Sound and Environs

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — A survey of sediment toxicity was carried out by NOAA's National Status and Trends Program in the coastal bays that surround Long Island Sound in New York and...

  12. A white pelican and egrets in the Merritt Island National Wildlife Refuge

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-01-01

    A white pelican and several small egrets rest on the bank of a pond in in the waters of the Merritt Island National Wildlife Refuge, which shares a boundary with Kennedy Space Center. White pelicans inhabit marshy lakes and along the Pacific and Texas coasts. They winter from Florida and southern California south to Panama, chiefly in coastal lagoons. They are frequently seen flying in long lines, flapping and sailing in unison, but also ride rising air currents to soar gracefully in circles. The range of the egret includes southern and eastern states, Mexico, Central and South America, and the West Indies. The Refuge encompasses 92,000 acres that are a habitat for more than 331 species of birds, 31 mammals, 117 fishes, and 65 amphibians and reptiles. The marshes and open water of the refuge provide wintering areas for 23 species of migratory waterfowl, as well as a year-round home for great blue herons, great egrets, wood storks, cormorants, brown pelicans and other species of marsh and shore birds, as well as a variety of insects.

  13. Evaluating the impact of agritourism on local development in small islands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sofia Karampela

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Tourism is an activity encompassing economy, society and nature. Besides mass tourism, many different forms of tourism activities and products have developed and are gaining ground in terms of demand. Debates on the definition of such typically small scale activities have brought forward a number of different types, including ‘agrotourism’, ‘agri-tourism’ and ‘rural tourism’. This paper contributes to the conceptual analysis of agritourism with a focus on its effects on local development. After a brief historical sketch of agritourism development, the effects on local development found in the literature are presented. Then, a typology of different forms of agritourism is discussed, including aspects of supply and demand, the scale of operation of the enterprises and networks of enterprises related to agritourism. Finally, we explore the case of small islands, a special type of space, and their local development with these types of ‘alternative’ tourism activities alongside ‘conventional’ tourism. The conceptual framework that results suggests the need for a case and area specific mapping of type, scale and network of enterprises in order to determine impacts and provide important information for managing and planning agritourism, especially on islands.

  14. “The Lost Princess (putri duyung” of the Small Islands: Dugongs around Sulawesi in the Anthropocene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abigail M. Moore

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available In the Spermonde as in the other main island groups around Sulawesi, seagrass and coral ecosystems are intimately linked ecologically and overlap extensively on the shallow water shelves surrounding most islands. One keystone species living in these shallow waters is the dugong (Dugong dugon. Officially fully protected under Indonesian Law (PP7/1999, published data on dugongs in the islands around Sulawesi are extremely limited. In this research, we collected, compiled and evaluated data and information (mostly unpublished on the distribution, exploitation and community perceptions of dugongs around Sulawesi, including the Togean, Banggai, Spermonde, Taka Bone Rate/Selayar, and Tanakeke Islands. Opportunities for dugong conservation, and potential benefits for coral reef ecosystems in a small island socio-ecological context, were considered. Once common within living memory, socio-economic data indicate that Sulawesi dugongs are now rare and under severe threat. Many fishing communities consider dugong meat superior to beef, and see it as a welcome change from fish, while certain body parts fetch a high price, as do dugong tears. In the Spermonde Islands, dugongs may already have been extirpated; the most recent reported sighting was in 1993 when the capture of an adult dugong by fishermen of Barranglompo Island resulted in an impromptu festival. All these Sulawesi small islands communities have dugong princess (putri duyung legends with potential as an entry-point to hearts and minds. Preventing further extirpations and striving to bring back the “lost princess” could be an iconic component of moving toward sustainability in small-island socio-ecological systems.

  15. Self-learning kinetic Monte Carlo simulations of self-diffusion of small Ag islands on the Ag(111) surface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shah, Syed Islamuddin; Nandipati, Giridhar; Rahman, Talat S; Karim, Altaf

    2016-01-01

    We studied self-diffusion of small two-dimensional Ag islands, containing up to ten atoms, on the Ag(111) surface using self-learning kinetic Monte Carlo (SLKMC) simulations. Activation barriers are calculated using the semi-empirical embedded atom method (EAM) potential. We find that two- to seven-atom islands primarily diffuse via concerted translation processes with small contributions from multi-atom and single-atom processes, while eight- to ten-atom islands diffuse via single-atom processes, especially edge diffusion, corner rounding and kink detachment, along with a minimal contribution from concerted processes. For each island size, we give a detailed description of the important processes, and their activation barriers, responsible for its diffusion. (paper)

  16. Effect of Gravity Waves from Small Islands in the Southern Ocean on the Southern Hemisphere Atmospheric Circulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garfinkel, C. I.; Oman, L. D.

    2018-01-01

    The effect of small islands in the Southern Ocean on the atmospheric circulation in the Southern Hemisphere is considered with a series of simulations using the NASA Goddard Earth Observing System Chemistry-Climate Model in which the gravity wave stress generated by these islands is increased to resemble observed values. The enhanced gravity wave drag leads to a 2 K warming of the springtime polar stratosphere, partially ameliorating biases in this region. Resolved wave drag declines in the stratospheric region in which the added orographic gravity waves deposit their momentum, such that changes in gravity waves are partially compensated by changes in resolved waves, though resolved wave drag increases further poleward. The orographic drag from these islands has impacts for surface climate, as biases in tropospheric jet position are also partially ameliorated. These results suggest that these small islands are likely contributing to the missing drag near 60 degrees S in the upper stratosphere evident in many data assimilation products.

  17. Future Freshwater Stress on Small Islands: Population, Aridity and Global Warming Targets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karnauskas, K. B.; Schleussner, C. F.; Donnelly, J. P.; Anchukaitis, K. J.

    2017-12-01

    Small island developing states (SIDS) face multiple threats from anthropogenic climate change, including potential changes in freshwater resource availability. Future freshwater stress, including geographic and seasonal variability, has important implications for climate change adaptation scenarios for vulnerable human populations living on islands across the world ocean. Due to a mismatch in spatial scale between SIDS landforms and the horizontal resolution of global climate models (GCMs), SIDS are mostly unaccounted for in GCMs that are used to make future projections of global climate change and its regional impacts. Specific approaches are required to address this gap between broad-scale model projections and regional, policy-relevant outcomes. Here we apply a recently developed methodology to project future changes in aridity in combination with population projections associated with different shared socioeconomic pathways (SSPs) to evaluate overall changes in freshwater stress in SIDS at warming levels of 1.5°C and 2°C above pre-industrial levels. By accounting for evaporative demand a posteriori, we reveal a robust yet spatially variable tendency towards increasing aridity for 16 million people living on islands by mid-century. Although about half of the islands are projected to experience increased rainfall—predominantly in the deep tropics—projected changes in evaporation are more uniform, shifting the global distribution of changes in island freshwater balance towards greater aridity. In many cases, the magnitude of projected drying is comparable to the amplitude of the estimated observed interannual variability, with important consequences for extreme events. While we find that future population growth will dominate changes in projected freshwater stress especially towards the end of the century, projected changes in aridity are found to compound freshwater stress for the vast majority of SIDS. Particularly across the Caribbean region, a

  18. Evolution and Impacts of a New Inlet Formed in Fire Island National Park by Superstorm Sandy (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flood, R. D.; Flagg, C. N.; Goff, J. A.; Austin, J. A.; Schwab, W. C.; Denny, J. F.; Christensen, B. A.; Browne, C. M.; Saustrup, S.

    2013-12-01

    Superstorm Sandy impacted the New York / New Jersey area on October 29, 2012 and brought a storm surge of 1.5 to 2.5 m and waves with a significant wave height of 9.5 m to the south shore of Long Island, New York. The storm cut three inlets across Fire Island barrier islands. Two of the inlets were closed mechanically, but the third inlet, cut through a wilderness area of the Fire Island National Seashore, remains open and provides a rare opportunity to study the evolution and dynamics of an unmanaged inlet. This new inlet formed where Fire Island is narrow and is near the site of an earlier inlet that closed in 1825. Great South Bay (GSB) is located between Fire Island and the Long Island mainland. The salinity in GSB increased by 5 salinity units following the breach and has remained high. GSB has had chronic water quality issues associated with a high population density that may be moderated by flow related to the new inlet. Water flow through the new inlet is controlled by the difference between offshore tide and GSB tide, but GSB tide does not appear to have been altered by flow through the inlet. This is different from the traditional view of inlet dynamics where a balance is sought between channel cross-sectional area, tidal prism (which together give channel velocity) and longshore sediment transport. At SoMAS we have been monitoring the evolution of the new inlet since its formation. We have conducted overflights at 1 to 3 week intervals to track the changing inlet geometry and the location of flood-tidal and ebb-tidal deltas. We have also done small-boat bathymetric surveys of the channel itself every 3 to 5 weeks to track the shape and cross-sectional area of the channel. The channel was quite small shortly after the breach with a depth of about 2 m. The channel grew fast as it cut into underlying fine-grain sediments, reaching a depth of over 6 m following several late winter storms. The inlet channel initially migrated quickly to the west, but its

  19. Growth and oil price: A study of causal relationships in small Pacific Island countries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jayaraman, T.K. [School of Economics, Faculty of Business and Economics, The University of the South Pacific, Laucala Bay Road, Suva (Fiji); Choong, Chee-Keong [Department of Economics and Finance, Faculty of Business and Finance, Universiti Tunku Abdul Rahman (Perak Campus), Jalan Universiti, Bandar Barat, 31900 Kampar, Perak Darul Ridzuan (Malaysia)], E-mail: choongck@utar.edu.my

    2009-06-15

    This paper investigates the nexus between economic growth and oil price in small Pacific Island countries (PICs). Except Papua New Guinea, none of the 14 PICs has fossil any fuel resources. Consequently, the other 13 PICs are totally dependent on oil imports for their economic activities. Since PICs have limited foreign exchange earning capacities, as they have a very narrow range of exports and are highly dependent on foreign aid, high oil prices in recent months have seriously tested their economic resilience. This paper applies the ARDL bounds testing methodology to four selected PICs, Samoa, Solomon Islands, Tonga and Vanuatu, which have consistent and reliable time series of data, with a view to assess the impact of oil price on economic growth. The findings are that oil price, gross domestic product and international reserve are cointegrated in all the four PICs. Further, both in the long and short runs, we observe that there is a uni-directional relationship as causality linkage runs only from oil price and international reserves to economic growth. The paper makes some policy recommendations.

  20. Growth and oil price. A study of causal relationships in small Pacific Island countries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jayaraman, T.K. [School of Economics, Faculty of Business and Economics, The University of the South Pacific, Laucala Bay Road, Suva (Fiji); Choong, Chee-Keong [Department of Economics and Finance, Faculty of Business and Finance, Universiti Tunku Abdul Rahman (Perak Campus), Jalan Universiti, Bandar Barat, 31900 Kampar, Perak Darul Ridzuan (Malaysia)

    2009-06-15

    This paper investigates the nexus between economic growth and oil price in small Pacific Island countries (PICs). Except Papua New Guinea, none of the 14 PICs has fossil any fuel resources. Consequently, the other 13 PICs are totally dependent on oil imports for their economic activities. Since PICs have limited foreign exchange earning capacities, as they have a very narrow range of exports and are highly dependent on foreign aid, high oil prices in recent months have seriously tested their economic resilience. This paper applies the ARDL bounds testing methodology to four selected PICs, Samoa, Solomon Islands, Tonga and Vanuatu, which have consistent and reliable time series of data, with a view to assess the impact of oil price on economic growth. The findings are that oil price, gross domestic product and international reserve are cointegrated in all the four PICs. Further, both in the long and short runs, we observe that there is a uni-directional relationship as causality linkage runs only from oil price and international reserves to economic growth. The paper makes some policy recommendations. (author)

  1. Growth and oil price: A study of causal relationships in small Pacific Island countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jayaraman, T.K.; Choong, Chee-Keong

    2009-01-01

    This paper investigates the nexus between economic growth and oil price in small Pacific Island countries (PICs). Except Papua New Guinea, none of the 14 PICs has fossil any fuel resources. Consequently, the other 13 PICs are totally dependent on oil imports for their economic activities. Since PICs have limited foreign exchange earning capacities, as they have a very narrow range of exports and are highly dependent on foreign aid, high oil prices in recent months have seriously tested their economic resilience. This paper applies the ARDL bounds testing methodology to four selected PICs, Samoa, Solomon Islands, Tonga and Vanuatu, which have consistent and reliable time series of data, with a view to assess the impact of oil price on economic growth. The findings are that oil price, gross domestic product and international reserve are cointegrated in all the four PICs. Further, both in the long and short runs, we observe that there is a uni-directional relationship as causality linkage runs only from oil price and international reserves to economic growth. The paper makes some policy recommendations.

  2. Vulnerability of National Park Service beaches to inundation during a direct hurricane landfall: Fire Island National Seashore

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stockdon, Hilary F.; Thompson, David M.

    2007-01-01

    Waves and storm surge associated with strong tropical storms are part of the natural process of barrier-island evolution and can cause extensive morphologic changes in coastal parks, leading to reduced visitor accessibility and enjoyment. Even at Fire Island National Seashore, a barrier-island coastal park in New York where extratropical storms (northeasters) dominate storm activity, the beaches are vulnerable to the powerful, sand-moving forces of hurricanes. The vulnerability of park beaches to inundation, and associated extreme coastal change, during a direct hurricane landfall can be assessed by comparing the elevations of storm-induced mean-water levels (storm surge) to the elevations of the crest of the sand dune that defines the beach system. Maps detailing the inundation potential for Category 1-4 hurricanes can be used by park managers to determine the relative vulnerability of various barrier-island parks and to assess which areas of a particular park are more susceptible to inundation and extreme coastal changes.

  3. Talent Development and Capacity Building in Small Nations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjort, Mette

    2016-01-01

    In a small-nation film and media ecology, cogent thinking about capacity building is of critical importance. In the context of Danish documentary filmmaking, twinning has emerged as a promising model. Twinning engages Danish filmmakers with a world beyond Denmark, thereby counteracting certain...

  4. Leadership Identity in a Small Island Developing State: The Jamaican Context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Floyd, Alan; Fuller, Carol

    2016-01-01

    While the role of leadership in improving schools is attracting more worldwide attention, there is a need for more research investigating leaders' experiences in different national contexts. Using focus-group and semi-structured interview data, this paper explores the background, identities and experiences of a small group of Jamaican school…

  5. Agricultural Incentives: Implications for Small-Scale and Subsistence Farming in the US Caribbean Islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez-Berrios, N.; Parés-Ramos, I.; Gould, W. A.

    2017-12-01

    The effects of climate change threaten the world's most sensitive agroecosystems and our potential to reach agricultural productivity levels needed to feed a projected global population of 9.7 billion people by 2050. The US Caribbean agriculture is especially vulnerable to the effects of climate change, due to the region's frequent exposure to extreme weather events, its geographic and economic scale, shortage of labor force, and rapid urban expansion. Currently, agriculture contributes less than 1% of the island's GDP, and over 80% of the food consumed in the region is imported. Despite low production levels, there is widespread interest in reinvigorating the agricultural sector's contribution to the economy. Local and federal institutions play a major role strengthening the agricultural sector by providing access to incentives, loans, and education for best management practices. However, many of these efforts conform to agricultural systems of larger scale of production and temperate environments. In this study, we explore agricultural incentives programs and their implication for highly diverse, small-scale, and subsistence operations that characterize agricultural systems in Puerto Rico and the US Virgin Islands. We analyze records and maps from the USDA Farm Service Agency, to typify participating farms, and to track changes in land cover, farm size, crop diversity, practices, and production levels resulting from their enrollment in such programs. Preliminary results indicate that many incentives programs are not tailored to agricultural tropical systems and prescribe alternatives that exclude traditional farming methods employed in small-scale and subsistence farms (e.g. crop insurance that benefit monoculture over intercropped systems). Moreover, many of the incentives are contradictory in their recommendations (e.g., crop insurance benefit sun-grown coffee production, while best agricultural practices recommend agroforestry with shade-grown coffee

  6. Research priorities for conservation and natural resource management in Oceania's small-island developing states.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weeks, R; Adams, V M

    2018-02-01

    For conservation science to effectively inform management, research must focus on creating the scientific knowledge required to solve conservation problems. We identified research questions that, if answered, would increase the effectiveness of conservation and natural resource management practice and policy in Oceania's small-island developing states. We asked conservation professionals from academia, governmental, and nongovernmental organizations across the region to propose such questions and then identify which were of high priority in an online survey. We compared the high-priority questions with research questions identified globally and for other regions. Of 270 questions proposed by respondents, 38 were considered high priority, including: What are the highest priority areas for conservation in the face of increasing resource demand and climate change? How should marine protected areas be networked to account for connectivity and climate change? What are the most effective fisheries management policies that contribute to sustainable coral reef fisheries? High-priority questions related to the particular challenges of undertaking conservation on small-island developing states and the need for a research agenda that is responsive to the sociocultural context of Oceania. Research priorities for Oceania relative to elsewhere were broadly similar but differed in specific issues relevant to particular conservation contexts. These differences emphasize the importance of involving local practitioners in the identification of research priorities. Priorities were reasonably well aligned among sectoral groups. Only a few questions were widely considered answered, which may indicate a smaller-than-expected knowledge-action gap. We believe these questions can be used to strengthen research collaborations between scientists and practitioners working to further conservation and natural resource management in this region. © 2017 The Authors. Conservation Biology

  7. High Spatial resolution remote sensing for salt marsh change detection on Fire Island National Seashore

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, A.; Wang, Y.

    2017-12-01

    Salt marshes are under increasing pressure due to anthropogenic stressors including sea level rise, nutrient enrichment, herbivory and disturbances. Salt marsh losses risk the important ecosystem services they provide including biodiversity, water filtration, wave attenuation, and carbon sequestration. This study determines salt marsh change on Fire Island National Seashore, a barrier island along the south shore of Long Island, New York. Object-based image analysis was used to classifying Worldview-2, high resolution satellite, and topobathymetric LiDAR. The site was impacted by Hurricane Sandy in October of 2012 causing a breach in the Barrier Island and extensive overwash. In situ training data from vegetation plots were used to train the Random Forest classifier. The object-based Worldview-2 classification achieved an overall classification accuracy of 92.75. Salt marsh change for the study site was determined by comparing the 2015 classification with a 1997 classification. The study found a shift from high marsh to low marsh and a reduction in Phragmites on Fire Island. Vegetation losses were observed along the edge of the marsh and in the marsh interior. The analysis agreed with many of the trends found throughout the region including the reduction of high marsh and decline of salt marsh. The reduction in Phragmites could be due to the species shrinking niche between rising seas and dune vegetation on barrier islands. The complex management issues facing salt marsh across the United States including sea level rise and eutrophication necessitate very high resolution classification and change detection of salt marsh to inform management decisions such as restoration, salt marsh migration, and nutrient inputs.

  8. Evaluation of a Leadership in Mental Health course for Pacific Island Nation delegates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charlson, Fiona; Redman-MacLaren, Michelle; Hunter, Ernest

    2015-12-01

    We report the background to and preliminary evaluation of the Leadership in Mental Health: Island Nations course, run for the first time in Cairns in conjunction with Creating Futures 2015. The course was well attended and well received, with increased confidence in key areas demonstrated and concerns regarding local application identified. In addition to positive comments, content and delivery issues were raised. Future opportunities for expanding upon this initial course are discussed. © The Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Psychiatrists 2015.

  9. Analysis of Causality Relationship of Components of Socio-ecological and Socio-economical System for Management of the Outermost Small Islands: A Case of Lingayan Island, Central Sulawesi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Saleh Lubis

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Indonesia has more than 17,506 islands and 92 islands of them are outermost small islands.  Lingayan is one of them located in Northwest of Sulawesi Island and it has geostrategic role to determine the sea boundaries of Indonesian State (NKRI including the territorial seas, the exclusive economic zone and the continental shelf.  Recently, the coastal ecosystems of Lingayan has degraded and the island’s economy is weak so they cannot support the life’s survival of inhabiting people. This condition could weaken the geostrategic role in accordance with article 121 Chapter VIII of the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea (UNCLOS. Based on the above reasons, the study aim to examine and assess the causal relation of components in the socio-ecological and socio-economical systems as a basis for management of the Lingayan Island with target on conservation of coastal ecosystems and growth of inhabitant’ business economic.  Causalities relations within components were built using Statistic Equation Model (SEM with AMOS method and 40 constructed indicators as well as determinate the suitability program using Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP.  The research showed that there is relationship between the components of socio-ecological systems as indicated by the fit model of causal relation path diagram that provides chi square value = 236.994, RMSEA = 0.083, GFI = 0.884.  Furthermore, there is relationship between the components of socio-economical that provides chi square value = 192.824, RMSEA = 0.081, GFI = 0.900. The most appropriate programs are seaweed cultivation (34.0% and restoration (23.4%.

  10. Barriers to reducing climate enhanced disaster risks in Least Developed Country-Small Islands through anticipatory adaptation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natasha Kuruppu

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Small Island Developing States (SIDS classified as Least Developed Countries (LDCs are particularly vulnerable to the projected impacts of climate change. Given their particular vulnerabilities, climate adaptation investments are being made through both national and international efforts to build the capacity of various sectors and communities to reduce climate risks and associated disasters. Despite these efforts, reducing climate risks is not free of various challenges and barriers. This paper aims to synthesise a set of critical socio-economic barriers present at various spatial scales that are specific to Least Developed Country SIDS. It also aims to identify the processes that give rise to these barriers. Drawing on theories from natural hazards, a systematic literature review method was adopted to identify and organise the set of barriers by focussing on both academic papers and grey literature. The data revealed a notable lack of studies on adaptation within African and Caribbean LDC-SIDS. In general, there was a paucity of academic as well as grey literature being produced by authors from LDC-SIDS to challenge existing discourses related to adaptation barriers. The most common barriers identified included those related to governance, technical, cognitive and cultural. Three key findings can be drawn from this study in relation to formal adaptation initiatives. Firstly, the lack of focus on the adaptive capacity needs of Local Government or Island Councils and communities was a key barrier to ensure success of adaptation interventions. Secondly, international adaptation funding modalities did little to address root causes of vulnerability or support system transformations. These funds were geared at supporting sectoral level adaptation initiatives for vulnerable natural resource sectors such as water, biodiversity and coastal zones. Thirdly, there is a need to recognise the significance of cultural knowledge and practices in shaping

  11. Barriers to reducing climate enhanced disaster risks in Least Developed Country-Small Islands through anticipatory adaptation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuruppu, N.; Willie, R.

    2015-12-01

    Small Island Developing States (SIDS) classified as Least Developed Countries (LDCs) are particularly vulnerable to the projected impacts of climate change. Given their particular vulnerabilities, climate adaptation investments are being made through both national and international efforts to build the capacity of various sectors and communities to reduce climate risks and associated disasters. Despite these efforts, reducing climate risks is not free of various challenges and barriers. This paper aims to synthesise a set of critical socio-economic barriers present at various spatial scales that are specific to Least Developed Country SIDS. It also aims to identify the processes that give rise to these barriers. Drawing on theories from natural hazards, a systematic literature review method was adopted to identify and organise the set of barriers by focussing both on academic papers and grey literature. The data revealed a notable lack of studies on adaptation within African and Caribbean LDC-SIDS. In general, there was a paucity of academic as well as grey literature being produced by authors from LDC-SIDS to challenge existing discourses related to adaptation barriers. The most common barriers identified included those related to governance, technical, cognitive and cultural. Three key findings can be drawn from this study in relation to formal adaptation initiatives. Firstly, the lack of focus on the adaptive capacity needs of Local Government or Island Councils and communities was a key barrier to ensuring success of adaptation interventions. Secondly, international adaptation funding modalities did little to address root causes of vulnerability or support system transformations. These funds were geared at supporting sectoral level adaptation initiatives for vulnerable natural resource sectors such as water, biodiversity and coastal zones. Thirdly, there is a need to recognise the significance of cultural knowledge and practices in shaping adaptive choices of

  12. Exploring experts' views and perspectives on the enhancement of Strategic Environmental Assessment in European small islands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Polido, Alexandra, E-mail: a.polido@campus.fct.unl.pt [CENSE, Center for Environmental and Sustainability Research, Departamento de Ciências e Engenharia do Ambiente, Faculdade de Ciências e Tecnologia, Universidade NOVA de Lisboa, Campus da Caparica, 2829-516 Caparica (Portugal); João, Elsa, E-mail: elsa.joao@strath.ac.uk [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of Strathclyde, Level 5, James Weir Building, 75 Montrose Street, Glasgow G1 1XJ, Scotland (United Kingdom); Ramos, Tomás B., E-mail: tabr@fct.unl.pt [CENSE, Center for Environmental and Sustainability Research, Departamento de Ciências e Engenharia do Ambiente, Faculdade de Ciências e Tecnologia, Universidade NOVA de Lisboa, Campus da Caparica, 2829-516 Caparica (Portugal)

    2016-04-15

    Small islands have the attention of the international community because they are territories with unique features, and a pressing need for the enhancement of sustainability. Strategic Environmental Assessment (SEA) has characteristics that may promote the development and improvement of sustainability in these territories: (i) changing the mind-set, and the decision-making and institutional paradigm, (ii) facilitating cooperation and coordination between different stakeholders, and (iii) providing a framework for good governance and community empowerment. The scientific literature suggests that there may be a need for context-specific SEA in these territories. However, SEA studies often do not incorporate local contextual information, including intuitive knowledge and sense of place. Therefore, there is a possible gap between what is found in the literature and what local communities think, including different stakeholders and experts. Hence, the main goal of this research was to gain an insight into the views and perspectives of small islands SEA experts about issues related to SEA in European small islands, including context-specific approaches, as well as the contribution of SEA for sustainability in these territories. To achieve the research aim, exploratory research using a questionnaire-based survey was designed, aimed at experts on SEA in European small islands. Findings showed regional cooperation networks may have a fundamental role when developing SEA-specific approaches in these territories. This is because SEA-specific approaches encourage a joint effort among islands within one region to improve SEA capacity-building, develop and share a baseline information system, and to share and exchange resources, overall. Also, guidelines are preferred among experts over more legal frameworks and regulations. Finally, the research showed that experts view SEA as a way to enhance sustainability in small islands. This study highlights the importance of integrating

  13. Assessment of groundwater vulnerability to anthropogenic pollution and seawater intrusion in a small tropical island using index-based methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kura, Nura Umar; Ramli, Mohammad Firuz; Ibrahim, Shaharin; Sulaiman, Wan Nor Azmin; Aris, Ahmad Zaharin; Tanko, Adamu Idris; Zaudi, Muhammad Amar

    2015-01-01

    In this work, the DRASTIC and GALDIT models were employed to determine the groundwater vulnerability to contamination from anthropogenic activities and seawater intrusion in Kapas Island. In addition, the work also utilized sensitivity analysis to evaluate the influence of each individual parameter used in developing the final models. Based on these effects and variation indices of the said parameters, new effective weights were determined and were used to create modified DRASTIC and GALDIT models. The final DRASTIC model classified the island into five vulnerability classes: no risk (110-140), low (140-160), moderate (160-180), high (180-200), and very high (>200), covering 4, 26, 59, 4, and 7 % of the island, respectively. Likewise, for seawater intrusion, the modified GALDIT model delineates the island into four vulnerability classes: very low (130) covering 39, 33, 18, and 9 % of the island, respectively. Both models show that the areas that are likely to be affected by anthropogenic pollution and seawater intrusion are within the alluvial deposit at the western part of the island. Pearson correlation was used to verify the reliability of the two models in predicting their respective contaminants. The correlation matrix showed a good relationship between DRASTIC model and nitrate (r = 0.58). In a similar development, the correlation also reveals a very strong negative relationship between GALDIT model and seawater contaminant indicator (resistivity Ωm) values (r = -0.86) suggesting that the model predicts more than 86 % of seawater intrusion. In order to facilitate management strategy, suitable areas for artificial recharge were identified through modeling. The result suggested some areas within the alluvial deposit at the western part of the island as suitable for artificial recharge. This work can serve as a guide for a full vulnerability assessment to anthropogenic pollution and seawater intrusion in small islands and will help policy maker and

  14. Peary caribou distribution within the Bathurst Island Complex relative to the boundary proposed for Qausuittuq National Park, Nunavut

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kim G. Poole

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available How caribou (Rangifer tarandus, including Peary caribou (R. t. pearyi, use their annual ranges varies with changes in abundance. While fidelity to some seasonal ranges is persistent, use of other areas changes. Consequently, understanding changes in seasonal distribution is useful for designing boundaries of protected areas for caribou conservation. A case in point is the proposed Qausuittuq (Northern Bathurst Island National Park for Bathurst Island and its satellite islands in the High Arctic of Canada. Since 1961, Peary caribou have been through three periods of high and low abundance. We examined caribou distribution and composition mapped during nine systematic aerial surveys (1961–2013, unsystematic helicopter surveys (1989–98, and limited radio-collaring from 1994–97 and 2003–06. While migration patterns changed and use of southern Bathurst Island decreased during lows in abundance, use of satellite islands, especially Cameron Island for winter range, persisted during both highs and lows in abundance. The northeast coast of Bathurst Island was used to a greater extent during the rut and during summer at low abundance. We suggest that Park boundaries which include Cameron Island and the northeast coast of Bathurst Island will be more effective in contributing to the persistence of Peary caribou on the Bathurst Island Complex.

  15. Synthesis of underreported small-scale fisheries catch in Pacific island waters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeller, D.; Harper, S.; Zylich, K.; Pauly, D.

    2015-03-01

    We synthesize fisheries catch reconstruction studies for 25 Pacific island countries, states and territories, which compare estimates of total domestic catches with officially reported catch data. We exclude data for the large-scale tuna fleets, which have largely foreign beneficial ownership, even when flying Pacific flags. However, we recognize the considerable financial contributions derived from foreign access or charter fees for Pacific host countries. The reconstructions for the 25 entities from 1950 to 2010 suggested that total domestic catches were 2.5 times the data reported to FAO. This discrepancy was largest in early periods (1950: 6.4 times), while for 2010, total catches were 1.7 times the reported data. There was a significant difference in trend between reported and reconstructed catches since 2000, with reconstructed catches declining strongly since their peak in 2000. Total catches increased from 110,000 t yr-1 in 1950 (of which 17,400 t were reported) to a peak of over 250,000 t yr-1 in 2000, before declining to around 200,000 t yr-1 by 2010. This decrease is driven by a declining artisanal (small-scale commercial) catch, which was not compensated for by increasing domestic industrial (large-scale commercial) catches. The artisanal fisheries appear to be declining from a peak of 97,000 t yr-1 in 1992 to less than 50,000 t yr-1 by 2010. However, total catches were dominated by subsistence (small-scale, non-commercial) fisheries, which accounted for 69 % of total catches, with the majority missing from the reported data. Artisanal catches accounted for 22 %, while truly domestic industrial fisheries accounted for only 6 % of total catches. The smallest component is the recreational (small-scale, non-commercial and largely for leisure) sector (2 %), which, although small in catch, is likely of economic importance in some areas due to its direct link to tourism income.

  16. Immigration-dependent extensive growth in small island tourism economies : The cases of Aruba and Sint Maarten

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alberts, A.

    Aruba and Sint Maarten are two countries within the Kingdom of the Netherlands, situated in the Caribbean. Both have embarked on a dedicated tourism-driven and highly immigration-dependent development model starting in the 1970s and 1980s, making them typical examples of ‘Small Island Tourist

  17. Small island developing states and international climate change negotiations: the power of moral ‘‘leadership’’

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Águeda Corneloup, de I.; Mol, A.P.J.

    2014-01-01

    Being at the frontline of climate change, small island developing states (SIDS) hold a serious stake in climate negotiations. However, these countries usually are marginalized in the international political arena, due to their lack of structural power. This paper explores the strategic influence of

  18. Alien Mink Predation and Colonisation Processes of Rodent Prey on Small Islands of the Baltic Sea: Does Prey Naivete Matter?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fey, K.; Korpimaki, E.; Banks, P.B.

    2010-01-01

    Colonisation, an important part of meta-population dynamics of fragmented populations, depends on both the dispersal ability and the ability to establish in the new habitat. Predation can hinder successful establishment of prey, and where the predation pressure comes from an alien predator, the effects on colonisation might be devastating. We studied the establishment of field voles (Microtus agrestis) inhabiting small islands of the archipelago of the Baltic Sea, SW Finland, under presence and absence of the alien American mink (Mustela vison). We translocated experienced voles from islands with mink, and inexperienced voles from islands from which mink had been removed, to other islands where mink was present or absent. By radio-tracking we studied survival, space and micro habitat use of voles within four weeks after translocation. Survival of voles on mink islands was significantly lower than on mink-free islands, but experienced voles did not survive better than inexperienced voles. Experienced voles were more often located in juniper habitats than inexperienced voles, but they appeared not to gain any survival benefit from altered micro habitat use. This study provides novel evidence, that alien mink predation inhibits establishment of colonising field voles and may thus ultimately induce extinction of voles from the outer archipelago.

  19. Diffusion of small Cu islands on the Ni(111) surface: A self-learning kinetic Monte Carlo study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acharya, Shree Ram; Shah, Syed Islamuddin; Rahman, Talat S.

    2017-08-01

    We elucidate the diffusion kinetics of a heteroepitaxial system consisting of two-dimensional small (1-8 atoms) Cu islands on the Ni(111) surface at (100-600) K using the Self-Learning Kinetic Monte Carlo (SLKMC-II) method. Study of the statics of the system shows that compact CuN (3≤N≤8) clusters made up of triangular units on fcc occupancy sites are the energetically most stable structures of those clusters. Interestingly, we find a correlation between the height of the activation energy barrier (Ea) and the location of the transition state (TS). The Ea of processes for Cu islands on the Ni(111) surface are in general smaller than those of their counterpart Ni islands on the same surface. We find this difference to correlate with the relative strength of the lateral interaction of the island atoms in the two systems. While our database consists of hundreds of possible processes, we identify and discuss the energetics of those that are the most dominant, or are rate-limiting, or most contributory to the diffusion of the islands. Since the Ea of single- and multi-atom processes that convert compact island shapes into non-compact ones are larger (with a significantly smaller Ea for their reverse processes) than that for the collective (concerted) motion of the island, the later dominate in the system kinetics - except for the cases of the dimer, pentamer and octamer. Short-jump involving one atom, long jump dimer-shearing, and long-jump corner shearing (via a single-atom) are, respectively, the dominating processes in the diffusion of the dimer, pentamer and octamer. Furthermore single-atom corner-rounding are the rate-limiting processes for the pentamer and octamer islands. Comparison of the energetics of selected processes and lateral interactions obtained from semi-empirical interatomic potentials with those from density functional theory show minor quantitative differences and overall qualitative agreement.

  20. National environmental/energy workforce assessment. national summary. Volume Four: South Dakota-Virgin Islands. Final report on phase 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1977-12-01

    This study is one of 70 volumes assessing the workforce needs (manpower needs) for pollution control and abatement in the United States for the five-year period of 1976 through 1981. Seven fields for pollution control -- air, noise, pesticides, potable water, radiation, solid waste, and wastewater -- are analyzed, together with energy-related programs currently accentuated by the national effort to solve energy supply problems. The report identifies existing workforce levels, training programs, career opportunities, and future staffing level projections (1976 to 1982) based on the information available for the states of South Dakota through Wyoming and also the District of Columbia, Puerto Rico, and the Virgin Islands

  1. Fossil fuel reform in developing states: The case of Trinidad and Tobago, a petroleum producing small Island developing State

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scobie, Michelle

    2017-01-01

    Trinidad and Tobago is an oil exporting small island developing state (SIDS) with a 0.12% contribution to global emissions and with important socio-economic challenges. It has producer, electricity and transport fuel subsidies. It is at an interesting juncture in subsidy reform: the government faces the embeddedness of distributive justice norms that are contested by fiscal prudence and environmental stewardship norms. The value of the paper is twofold. First it develops a subsidy intractability framework to explain reform global narratives that highlights: the power of agents, the nature of contested economic, justice and environmental norms and the availability of mechanisms for reform. Second, this framework is used to explain reform narratives and trajectories in Trinidad and Tobago using data from public documents and from a unique elite survey of former and present heads of state, politicians, policy makers and stakeholders. Even in conditions of falling oil prices and national revenue and pressures to reduce emissions, where redistributive justice arguments are heavily embedded in public discourses, those aspects of the subsidy that have developmental or distributive justice goals are more intractable. The results of the study have implications for carbon emission reduction strategies in developing states with fossil fuel reserves. - Highlights: • A subsidy intractability framework is used to analyse fuel subsidy reform. • A sense of entitlement to resources contributes to subsidy intractability. • Global environmental stewardship norms matter less for fuel subsidy reform in SIDS. • Policy space is most determined by international economic conditions in SIDS.

  2. Long-term planning in Small Islands Developing States under a changing climate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rozenberg, J.

    2017-12-01

    This paper presents an analytical framework and decision-making tool tailored to Small Islands Developing States (SIDS), to help them address future climate change challenges. SIDS are a diverse group of countries but all characterized by insularity, geographic remoteness, small economy and population size. SIDS are highly exposed and vulnerable to natural disasters, with average annual losses between 1 and 10% of GDP depending on the country. Vulnerability in SIDS is worsened by poor development planning and the countries' limited ability to respond and manage the risks. Infrastructure is a large share of the fixed capital stock in SIDS, most infrastructure assets are highly critical due to the lack of redundancy in networks and they are often highly vulnerable to natural hazards. Remoteness means that when infrastructure assets are damaged, reconstruction costs are larger than anywhere else, which narrows fiscal space, which in turn leads to deferred maintenance problems and raises the vulnerability to future events. In this context, and with climate change worsening the challenges SIDS face at an uncertain pace and intensity, decision-makers and international donors have to answer difficult questions. Does it make sense to spend increasing amounts of money in infrastructure given the level of debts SIDS face and the economic losses resulting from the regular disruption of infrastructure assets? How should sectors be prioritized? Should long-term plans consider "migration with dignity" as a potential option, especially for low-lying atolls? To help answer these questions, methods for decision-making under deep uncertainty, which rely on large numbers of model runs to identify the vulnerabilities of strategies, are particularly appropriate. The small population size of SIDS and simplicity of their infrastructure networks allows building system models coupled with household surveys and testing a range of different policy options, including unconventional policies

  3. Hydrologic measurements and implications for tree island formation within Everglades National Park

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bazante, Jose; Jacobi, Gary; Solo-Gabriele, Helena M.; Reed, David; Mitchell-Bruker, Sherry; Childers, Daniel L.; Leonard, Lynn; Ross, Michael

    2006-10-01

    SummaryTree islands in the Shark River Slough of the Everglades National Park (ENP), in the southern state of Florida in the United States, are part of a wetland system of densely vegetated ridges interspersed within relatively open sloughs. Human alteration of this system has had dramatic negative effects on the landscape of the region and restoration efforts will require adjusting the hydrology of the region to assure the preservation of these important ecologic features. The primary objectives of this study were to document the hydrology in the vicinity of tree islands in ENP by measuring velocities in time and space and by characterizing suspended sediments. The results of such measurements were interpreted with respect to factors that may limit tree island growth. The measurements were conducted in the vicinity of three tree islands known as Black Hammock (BH), Gumbo Limbo (GL), and an unnamed island that was named for this study as Satin Leaf (SL). Acoustical Doppler Velocity (ADV) meters were used for measuring the low velocities of the Everglades water flow. Properties of suspended sediments were characterized through measurements of particle size distribution, turbidity, concentration and particle density. Mean velocities observed at each of the tree islands varied from 0.9 to 1.4 cm/s. Slightly higher mean velocities were observed during the wet season (1.2-1.6 cm/s) versus the dry season (0.8-1.3 cm/s). Maximum velocities of more than 4 cm/s were measured in areas of Cladium jamaicense die-off and at the hardwood hammock (head) of the islands. At the island's head, water is channelized around obstructions such as tree trunks in relatively rapid flow, which may limit the lateral extent of tree island growth. Channelization is facilitated by shade from the tree canopy, which limits the growth of underwater vegetation thereby minimizing the resistance to flow and limiting sediment deposition. Suspended sediment concentrations were low (0.5-1.5 mg/L) at all

  4. The National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute Small Business Program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kurt W. Marek, PhD

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Small companies working to develop products in the cardiovascular space face numerous challenges, from regulatory, intellectual property, and reimbursement barriers to securing funds to keep the lights on and reach the next development milestone. Most small companies that spin out from universities have the scientific knowledge, but product development expertise and business acumen are also needed to be successful. Other challenges include reduced interest in early-stage technologies and limited deal flow for cardiovascular products. The National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute (NHLBI small business program is a comprehensive ecosystem designed to address these critical challenges and to provide resources and expertise to assist early-stage companies developing cardiovascular and other products within the institute’s mission. This article describes steps that NHLBI has taken to enhance our small business program to more effectively translate basic discoveries into commercial products to benefit patients and public health, including enhancing internal expertise and developing nonfinancial resources to assist small businesses as they develop their products and seek private sector investment and partnership.

  5. Surface-supported Ag islands stabilized by a quantum size effect: Their interaction with small molecules relevant to ethylene epoxidation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shao, Dahai [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)

    2013-05-15

    This dissertation focuses on how QSE-stabilized, surface-supported Ag nanoclusters will interact with ethylene or oxygen. Experiments are performed to determine whether the QSE-mediated Ag islands react differently toward adsorption of ethylene or oxygen, or whether the adsorption of these small molecules will affect the QSE-mediated stability of Ag islands. Studies of the interaction of oxygen with Ag/Si(111)-7×7 were previously reported, but these studies were performed at a low Ag coverage where 3D Ag islands were not formed. So the study of such a system at a higher Ag coverage will be a subject of this work. The interaction of ethylene with Ag/Si(111)-7×7, as well as the interaction of oxygen with Ag/NiAl(110) are also important parts of this study.

  6. The sustainable management of renewable energy sources installations: legal aspects of their environmental impact in small Greek islands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maria, Efpraxia; Tsoutsos, Theocharis

    2004-01-01

    Nowadays, an attractive legislative and financing framework has been established in Greece for the development of renewable energy sources. This has resulted in a strong increase of investors' interest, especially in the islands, mainly due to their high renewable energy potential all year round. However, the typical characteristics of the small Greek island, which constitute sensitive ecosystems with unique attributes of a natural and cultural heritage, impose a limitation on the development of energy generation plants using renewables. In order to adopt the principles of sustainable development of these island regions, the application of the proportionality principle in relation to other general principles of environmental law is proposed as a suitable legislative tool for resolution of the foreseeable conflicts

  7. Energy policy, aid, and the development of renewable energy resources in Small Island Developing States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dornan, Matthew; Shah, Kalim U.

    2016-01-01

    Small Island Developing States (SIDS) have established ambitious renewable energy targets. The promotion of renewable energy has been motivated by several factors: a desire to lessen dependence on fossil fuels, to attract development assistance in the energy sector, and to strengthen the position of SIDS in climate change negotiations. Here we explore the interplay between the role of aid and energy policy in the development of renewable energy resources in SIDS. We find that the importance of development assistance has implications for the sustainability of renewable energy development, given that funding is not always accompanied by necessary energy policy reforms. We also identify energy efficiency and access to modern energy services as having received insufficient attention in the establishment and structure of renewable energy targets in SIDS, and argue that this is problematic due to the strong economic case for such investments. - Highlights: • SIDS have established the world's most ambitious renewable energy targets. • These are motivated by fossil fuel dependence and climate change vulnerability. • Aid dependence has influenced the ambition of renewable energy targets. • Energy efficiency and energy access have received insufficient attention. • Domestic policy reforms necessary for the achievement of targets has been limited.

  8. E-Government Attempts in Small Island Developing States: The Rate of Corruption with Virtualization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sari, Arif

    2017-12-01

    In recent years, many Small Island Developing State (SIDS) governments have worked to increase openness and transparency of their transactions as a means to enhance efficiency and reduce corruption in their economies. In order to achieve a cost-effective and efficient strategy to implement a transparent government, Information Communication Technologies offer an opportunity of virtualization by deploying e-government services to promote transparency, accountability and consistency in the public sector and to minimize corruption. This paper explores the potential impact of government virtualization by SIDS and against corruption by comparing the corruption perception index (CPI) rates of 15 SIDS countries. The CPI relates to the degree by which corruption is perceived to exist among public officials and politicians by business people and country analysts. In order to reveal the long-term impact of virtual deployment and its consequences on corruption, an in-depth case analysis based on the CPI index rates was conducted on the deployment of the e-government system in Cyprus.

  9. Renewable Energy Development in Small Island Developing States of the Pacific

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew Dornan

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Small Island Developing States (SIDS of the Pacific over the last decade have established some of the most ambitious renewable energy targets in the world. The promotion of renewable energy has been motivated by a desire to lessen dependence on fossil fuels, given the adverse economic impacts of high oil prices on these countries. Efforts to attract development assistance and to strengthen the position of Pacific SIDS in climate change negotiations have likely also played a role. This paper explores the development of renewable energy resources in the Pacific through a public policy lens. The ambitious renewable energy targets established by Pacific SIDS are argued to be appropriate in some cases, but in other cases are criticised on economic grounds. A potential trade-off is identified between the risk mitigation benefits and poverty alleviation benefits of different renewable technology investments, with questions raised about whether support for the former rather than the latter by development partners is appropriate. A number of institutional and financial challenges to the development of renewable energy resources in Pacific SIDS are also discussed.

  10. Small Satellites and the Nigerian National Space Programme

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borroffice, Robert; Chizea, Francis; Sun, Wei; Sweeting, Martin, , Sir

    2002-01-01

    Space technology and access to space have been elusive to most developing countries over the last half of the 21st century, which is attributed to very low par capital income and the lack of awareness of policy/decision makers about the role of space technology in national development. Space technology was seen as very expensive and prestigious, meant only for the major industrialized countries, while the developing countries should focus on building their national economy and providing food, shelter and other social amenities for their ever-growing populations. In the last decade, the trend has changed with many developing countries embracing spaced technology as one of the major ways of achieving sustainable development. The present trend towards the use of small satellites in meeting national needs has aided this transition because, apart from the small size, they are cheaper to build and to launch, with shorter development time, lower complexity, improved effectiveness and reduced operating costs. This in turn has made them more affordable and has opened up new avenues for the acquisition of satellite technology. The collaborative work between National Space Research and Development Agency of Nigeria (NASRDA) and Surrey Satellite and Technology Limited (SSTL) is a programme aimed at building two small satellites as a way of kick- starting the national space programme. The first project, NigeriaSAT-1, is an enhanced microsatellite carrying Earth observation payloads able to provide 32 metre GSD 3 band multispectral images with a 600km swath width. NigeriaSAT-1 is one of six microsatellites forming the Disaster Monitoring Constellation (DMC) alongside microsatellites contributed by Algeria, China, Turkey, Thailand and UK. Through participation in this international constellation, Nigeria will be able to receive images with a daily revisit worldwide. The EO images generated by NigeriaSAT-1 and the partner microsatellites will be used for providing rapid coverage

  11. Hurricane Impacts on Small Island Communities: Case study of Hurricane Matthew on Great Exuma, The Bahamas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan Sealey, Kathleen; Bowleg, John

    2017-04-01

    Great Exuma has been a UNESCO Eco-hydrology Project Site with a focus on coastal restoration and flood management. Great Exuma and its largest settlement, George Town, support a population of just over 8.000 people on an island dominated by extensive coastal wetlands. The Victoria Pond Eco-Hydrology project restored flow and drainage to highly-altered coastal wetlands to reduce flooding of the built environment as well as regain ecological function. The project was designed to show the value of a protected wetland and coastal environment within a populated settlement; demonstrating that people can live alongside mangroves and value "green" infrastructure for flood protection. The restoration project was initiated after severe storm flooding in 2007 with Tropical Storm Noel. In 2016, the passing of Hurricane Matthew had unprecedented impacts on the coastal communities of Great Exuma, challenging past practices in restoration and flood prevention. This talk reviews the loss of natural capital (for example, fish populations, mangroves, salt water inundation) from Hurricane Matthew based on a rapid response survey of Great Exuma. The surprisingly find was the impact of storm surge on low-lying areas used primarily for personal farms and small-scale agriculture. Although women made up the overwhelming majority of people who attended Coastal Restoration workshops, women were most adversely impacted by the recent hurricane flooding with the loss of their small low-lying farms and gardens. Although increasing culverts in mangrove creeks in two areas did reduce building flood damage, the low-lying areas adjacent to mangroves, mostly ephemeral freshwater wetlands, were inundated with saltwater, and seasonal crops in these areas were destroyed. These ephemeral wetlands were designed as part of the wetland flooding system, it was not known how important these small areas were to artisanal farming on Great Exuma. The size and scope of Hurricane Matthew passing through the

  12. Kelp forest monitoring 1993 annual report. Channel Islands National Park. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kushner, D.; Walder, R.; Gorodezky, L.; Lerma, D.; Richards, D.

    1993-06-01

    The 1993 results of the Channel Islands National Park Kelp Forest Monitoring Project are described in this report. Population dynamics of 68 taxa or categories of algea, fish, and invertebrates were measured at 16 permanent sites around the five islands within the park. Survey techniques utilized SCUBA and surface-supplied-air, and included quadrats, band transects, random contacts, fish transects, video transects, size frequency measurements, artificial recruitment modules, and species list surveys. Temperature data was collected using Sea Data batheothermographs, and HOBOTEMP temperature loggers. Temperature loggers were installed at each of the sixteen sites. Size frequency measurements were taken from artifical recruitment modules at nine sites. In 1993, 13 sites had giant kelp, Macrocysts pyrifera, forests, one site was dominated by the aggregating red sea cucumber, pachythyone rubra, one site was dominated by red sea urchins, Strongylocentrotus franciscanus, and another by purple sea urchins, S. purpuratus. The 13 sites with kelp forests consisted of 10 mature and three young kelp forests. Wasting disease was observed in sea stars and wasting syndrome was apparent in sea urchins. Sea urchins wasting syndrome appears to have caused mass mortality of purple sea urchins, S. purpuratus, at two Santa Barbara Island sites.

  13. Create the conditions - renewable energy and energy storage policies choices for island nations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Timmins, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    This fast moving, detailed presentation offers an in-depth look at the development, launch and renewal of renewable energy procurement programs worldwide, with an eye to (a) educating renewable energy policy makers and procurement program designers with up-to-date information on issues, investor concerns and trends from island nations around the globe, (b) informing industry participants and industry advocates regarding divergent public policy choices facing policy makers, and (c) helping industry stakeholders to assist public policy choice makers in formulating effective and sustainable policy choices. (full text)

  14. Establishment of sustainable water supply system in small islands through rainwater harvesting (RWH): case study of Guja-do.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Mooyoung; Ki, Jaehong

    2010-01-01

    Many islands in Korea have problems related to water source security and supply. In particular, the water supply condition is worse in small islands which are remote from the mainland. A couple of alternatives are developed and suggested to supply water to islands including water hauling, groundwater extraction, and desalination. However, these alternatives require much energy, cost, and concern in installation and operation. Rainwater harvesting is a sustainable option that supplies water with low energy and cost. However, lack of practical or comprehensive studies on rainwater harvesting systems in these regions hinders the promotion of the system. Therefore, this research examines defects of current RWH systems on an existing island, Guja-do, and provides technical suggestions in quantitative and qualitative aspects. A simple system design modification and expansion of system capacity using empty space such as a wharf structure can satisfy both the qualitative and the quantitative water demand of the island. Since rainwater harvesting is estimated to be a feasible water supply option under the Korean climate, which is an unfavorable condition for rainwater harvesting, implies a high potential applicability of rainwater harvesting technology to other regions over the world suffering from water shortage.

  15. The Cape Verde Islands are home to a small and genetically distinct humpback whale breeding population

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bérubé, Martine; Ryan, Conor; Berrow, Simon D.; Suarez, Pedro Lopez; Monteiro, Vanda; Wenzel, Frederick; Robbins, Jooke; Mattila, David; Vikingsson, G.A.; Øien, Nils; Palsboll, Per

    2013-01-01

    The Cape Verde Islands appear to be winter breeding ground of the smallest humpback whale population yet known. However, it is unclear whether the humpback whales at the Cape Verde Islands interbreed with those in the West Indies. Here we present the results of the genetic analysis of 50 humpback

  16. Geochemical evidence for airborne dust additions to soils in Channel Islands National Park, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muhs, D.R.; Budahn, J.R.; Johnson, D.L.; Reheis, M.; Beann, J.; Skipp, G.; Fisher, E.; Jones, J.A.

    2008-01-01

    There is an increasing awareness that dust plays important roles in climate change, biogeochemical cycles, nutrient supply to ecosystems, and soil formation. In Channel Islands National Park, California, soils are clay-rich Vertisols or Alfisols and Mollisols with vertic properties. The soils are overlain by silt-rich mantles that contrast sharply with the underlying clay-rich horizons. Silt mantles contain minerals that are rare or absent in the volcanic rocks that dominate these islands. Immobile trace elements (Sc-Th-La and Ta-Nd-Cr) and rare-earth elements show that the basalt and andesite on the islands have a composition intermediate between upper-continental crust and oceanic crust. In contrast, the silt fractions and, to a lesser extent, clay fractions of the silt mantle have compositions closer to average upper-continental crust and very similar to Mojave Desert dust. Island shelves, exposed during the last glacial period, could have provided a source of eolian sediment for the silt mantles, but this is not supported by mineralogical data. We hypothesize that a more likely source for the silt-rich mantles is airborne dust from mainland California and Baja California, either from the Mojave Desert or from the continental shelf during glacial low stands of sea. Although average winds are from the northwest in coastal California, easterly winds occur numerous times of the year when "Santa Ana" conditions prevail, caused by a high-pressure cell centered over the Great Basin. The eolian silt mantles constitute an important medium of plant growth and provide evidence that abundant eolian silt and clay may be delivered to the eastern Pacific Ocean from inland desert sources. ?? 2007 Geological Society of America.

  17. Small mammals of the Addo Elephant National Park

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Swanepoel

    1975-07-01

    Full Text Available A survey of the small mammals of the Addo Elephant National Park resulted in a checklist, as well as information on relative numbers, distribution within the Park, reproductive activity, sex ratios, and body measurements. Forty mammals species occur in the Park, while three re-introduced species probably do not occur any longer. Of the 40 species 28 are considered small mammals comprising 13 rodent, eight carnivore, two shrew, two bat, one primate and one lagomorph species, as well as the aardvark: Crociduraflavescens, C. cyanea infumata, Rousettus aegyptiacus, Eptesicus capensis, Cercopithecus pygerythrus, Canis mesomelas, Ictonyx striatus, Poecilogale albinucha, Genetta sp., Herpestes pulverulentus, Suricata suricatta, Proteles cristatus, Felis caracal, Orycteropus afer, Lepus saxatilis, Cryptomys hottentotus, Hystrix africae-australis, Pedetes capensis, Graphiurus murinus, Aethomys namaquensis, Praomys natalensis, Rhabdomys pumilio, Mus minutoides, Rattus rattus, Saccostomys campestris, Desmodillus auricularis, Otomys irroratus and 0. unisulcatus.

  18. Chinese National Optical Education Small Private Online Course system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, XiaoJie; Lin, YuanFang; Liu, Xu; Liu, XiangDong; Cen, ZhaoFeng; Li, XiaoTong; Zheng, XiaoDong; Wang, XiaoPing

    2017-08-01

    In order to realize the sharing of high quality course resources and promote the deep integration of `Internet+' higher education and talent training, a new on-line to off-line specialized courses teaching mode was explored in Chinese colleges and universities, which emphasized different teaching places, being organized asynchronously and localized. The latest progress of the Chinese National Optical Education Small Private On-line Course (CNOESPOC) system set up by Zhejiang University and other colleges and universities having disciplines in the field of optics and photonics under the guidance of the Chinese National Steering Committee of Optics and Photonics (CNSCOP) was introduced in this paper. The On-line to Off-line (O2O) optical education teaching resource sharing practice offers a new good example for higher education in China under the background of Internet +.

  19. On the importance of stratigraphic control for vertebrate fossil sites in Channel Islands National Park, California, USA: Examples from new Mammuthus finds on San Miguel Island

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pigati, Jeffery S.; Muhs, Daniel R.; McGeehin, John P.

    2016-01-01

    Quaternary vertebrate fossils, most notably mammoth remains, are relatively common on the northern Channel Islands of California. Well-preserved cranial, dental, and appendicular elements of Mammuthus exilis (pygmy mammoth) and Mammuthus columbi (Columbian mammoth) have been recovered from hundreds of localities on the islands during the past half-century or more. Despite this paleontological wealth, the geologic context of the fossils is described in the published literature only briefly or not at all, which has hampered the interpretation of associated 14C ages and reconstruction of past environmental conditions. We recently discovered a partial tusk, several large bones, and a tooth enamel plate (all likely mammoth) at two sites on the northwest flank of San Miguel Island, California. At both localities, we documented the stratigraphic context of the fossils, described the host sediments in detail, and collected charcoal and terrestrial gastropod shells for radiocarbon dating. The resulting 14C ages indicate that the mammoths were present on San Miguel Island between ∼20 and 17 ka as well as between ∼14 and 13 ka (thousands of calibrated 14C years before present), similar to other mammoth sites on San Miguel, Santa Cruz, and Santa Rosa Islands. In addition to documenting the geologic context and ages of the fossils, we present a series of protocols for documenting and reporting geologic and stratigraphic information at fossil sites on the California Channel Islands in general, and in Channel Islands National Park in particular, so that pertinent information is collected prior to excavation of vertebrate materials, thus maximizing their scientific value.

  20. PV, Wind and Storage Integration on Small Islands for the Fulfilment of the 50-50 Renewable Electricity Generation Target

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier Mendoza-Vizcaino

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Decarbonisation in the generation of electricity is necessary to reduce fossil fuel consumption, the pollution emitted and to meet the Energy Technology Perspectives 2 ° C Scenario (2DS targets. Small islands are not exempt from this target, so this study’s emphasis is placed on a 50-50 target: to reduce the fossil fuel consumption through electricity generation from Renewable Energy Sources (RES to cover 50% of all electric demand by 2050 on small islands. Using Cozumel Island, Mexico, as a case study, this analysis will be based on three factors: economical, technical, and land-use possibilities of integrating Renewable Energy Technologies (RETs into the existing electrical grid. This analysis is made through long-term statistical models. A deterministic methodology is used to perform time-series simulations. The selection of the best system was made on the basis of a Dimensional Statistical Variable (DSV through primary and secondary category rankings. The presented methodology determines the best systems for capturing the initial capital cost and competitiveness of this new proposal compared with the current system of electricity generation on the Island, and can be applied to small islands as well. According to the results, all systems proposed are able to completely satisfy the renewable electricity needed by 2050 in all scenarios. From the 12 system proposals that were compared, two systems, System 2 and System 7, were chosen as eligible systems to be installed. The Levelized Cost of Energy (LCOE result for System 2 was 0.2518 US$/kWh and for System 7 was 0.2265 US$/kWh by 2018 in the Base Scenario. Meanwhile, the Internal Rate of Return (IRR value fluctuated from 17.2% for System 2 to 31% for System 7.

  1. Mapping outdoor recreationists' perceived social values for ecosystem services at Hinchinbrook Island National Park, Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Riper, Carena J.; Kyle, Gerard T.; Sutton, Stephen G.; Barnes, Melinda; Sherrouse, Benson C.

    2012-01-01

    Coastal ecosystems are increasingly faced with human impacts. To better understand these changing conditions, biophysical and economic values of nature have been used to prioritize spatial planning efforts and ecosystem-based management of human activities. Less is known, however, about how to characterize and represent non-material values in decision-making. We collected on-site and mailback survey data (n = 209), and analyzed these data using the Social Values for Ecosystem Services (SolVES) GIS application to incorporate measures of social value and natural resource conditions on Hinchinbrook Island National Park, Australia. Our objectives in this paper are to: 1) determine the spatial distribution and point density of social values for ecosystem services; 2) examine the relationship between social values and natural resource conditions; and 3) compare social value allocations between two subgroups of outdoor recreationists. Results suggest that high priority areas exist on Hinchinbrook's land and seascapes according to the multiple values assigned to places by outdoor recreationists engaged in consumptive (e.g., fishing) and non-consumptive (e.g., hiking) activities. We examine statistically significant spatial clustering across two subgroups of the survey population for three value types that reflect Recreation, Biological Diversity, and Aesthetic qualities. The relationship between the relative importance of social values for ecosystem services and spatially-defined ecological data is explored to guide management decision-making in the context of an island national park setting.

  2. Achieving universal health coverage in small island states: could importing health services provide a solution?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walls, Helen; Smith, Richard

    2018-01-01

    Background Universal health coverage (UHC) is difficult to achieve in settings short of medicines, health workers and health facilities. These characteristics define the majority of the small island developing states (SIDS), where population size negates the benefits of economies of scale. One option to alleviate this constraint is to import health services, rather than focus on domestic production. This paper provides empirical analysis of the potential impact of this option. Methods Analysis was based on publicly accessible data for 14 SIDS, covering health-related travel and health indicators for the period 2003–2013, together with in-depth review of medical travel schemes for the two highest importing SIDS—the Maldives and Tuvalu. Findings Medical travel from SIDS is accelerating. The SIDS studied generally lacked health infrastructure and technologies, and the majority of them had lower than the recommended number of physicians in a country, which limits their capacity for achieving UHC. Tuvalu and the Maldives were the highest importers of healthcare and notably have public schemes that facilitate medical travel and help lower the out-of-pocket expenditure on medical travel. Although different in approach, design and performance, the medical travel schemes in Tuvalu and the Maldives are both examples of measures used to increase access to health services that cannot feasibly be provided in SIDS. Interpretation Our findings suggest that importing health services (through schemes to facilitate medical travel) is a potential mechanism to help achieve universal healthcare for SIDS but requires due diligence over cost, equity and quality control. PMID:29527349

  3. Current status of solid waste management in small island developing states: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohee, Romeela; Mauthoor, Sumayya; Bundhoo, Zumar M A; Somaroo, Geeta; Soobhany, Nuhaa; Gunasee, Sanjana

    2015-09-01

    This article reviews the current status of waste management in Small Island Developing States (SIDS) and the challenges that are faced in solid waste management. The waste generation rates of SIDS were compared within the three geographic regions namely Caribbean SIDS, Pacific SIDS and Atlantic, Indian Ocean, Mediterranean and South China (AIMS) SIDS and with countries of the Organisation for Economic Co-Operation and Development (OECD). Only Pacific SIDS had a waste generation rate less than 1kg/capita/day. The waste generation rates for the three SIDS regions averaged 1.29kg/capita/day while that for OECD countries was at a mean value of 1.35kg/capita/day. The waste compositions in the different SIDS regions were almost similar owing to comparable consumption patterns while these differed to a large extent with wastes generated in OECD countries. In SIDS, the major fraction of MSW comprised of organics (44%) followed by recyclables namely paper, plastics, glass and metals (total: 43%). In contrast, MSW in OECD countries consisted mainly of recyclables (43%) followed by organics (37%). This article also reviewed the other functional elements of the waste management systems in SIDS. Several shortcomings were noted in the process of waste collection, transfer and transport namely the fact of having outdated collection vehicles and narrow roads which are inaccessible. Among the waste management practices in SIDS, waste disposal via landfilling, illegal dumping and backyard burning were favoured most of the time at the expense of sustainable waste treatment technologies such as composting, anaerobic digestion and recycling. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. NOAA TIFF Image - 1 m Backscatter Mosaic of an offshore portion of the NPS's Virgin Islands Coral Reef National Monument, south of St. John, US Virgin Islands, Project NF-05-05, 2005, UTM 20 WGS84

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This image represents a 1 meter resolution backscatter mosaic of an offshore portion of the NPS's Virgin Islands Coral Reef National Monument, south of St. John, US...

  5. NOAA ESRI Geotiff- 1m Multibeam Bathymetry of NPS's Virgin Islands Coral Reef National Monument (Inshore), St. John, US Virgin Islands, Project NF-05-05, 2005, UTM 20 NAD83 (NCEI Accession 0131860)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset contains an ESRI Geotiff with 1 meter cell size representing the bathymetry of an inshore portion of the NPS's Virgin Islands Coral Reef National...

  6. NOAA ESRI Geotiff- 1m Multibeam Bathymetry of NPS's Virgin Islands Coral Reef National Monument (Inshore), St. John, US Virgin Islands, Project NF-05-05, 2005, UTM 20 NAD83

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset contains an ESRI Geotiff with 1 meter cell size representing the bathymetry of an inshore portion of the NPS's Virgin Islands Coral Reef National...

  7. NOAA TIFF Image - 1 m Backscatter Mosaic of an inshore portion of the NPS's Virgin Islands Coral Reef National Monument, south of St. John, US Virgin Islands, Project NF-05-05, 2005, UTM 20 WGS84 (NCEI Accession 0131860)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This image represents a 1 meter resolution backscatter mosaic of the inshore portion of the NPS's Virgin Islands Coral Reef National Monument, south of St. John, US...

  8. NOAA TIFF Image - 1 m Backscatter Mosaic of an offshore portion of the NPS's Virgin Islands Coral Reef National Monument, south of St. John, US Virgin Islands, Project NF-05-05, 2005, UTM 20 WGS84 (NCEI Accession 0131860)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This image represents a 1 meter resolution backscatter mosaic of an offshore portion of the NPS's Virgin Islands Coral Reef National Monument, south of St. John, US...

  9. NOAA TIFF Image - 1 m Backscatter Mosaic of an inshore portion of the NPS's Virgin Islands Coral Reef National Monument, south of St. John, US Virgin Islands, Project NF-05-05, 2005, UTM 20 WGS84

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This image represents a 1 meter resolution backscatter mosaic of the inshore portion of the NPS's Virgin Islands Coral Reef National Monument, south of St. John, US...

  10. NOAA ESRI Geotiff- 2m Multibeam Bathymetry of NPS's Virgin Islands Coral Reef National Monument (Offshore), St. John, US Virgin Islands, Project NF-05-05, 2005, UTM 20 NAD83

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset contains an ESRI Geotiff with 2 meter cell size representing the bathymetry of an offshore portion of the NPS's Virgin Islands Coral Reef National...

  11. 78 FR 50082 - South Farallon Islands Invasive House Mouse Eradication Project; Farallon National Wildlife...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-16

    ... Farallon Islands and Noonday Rock. In 1969 the Refuge was expanded to include the South Farallon Islands... to eradicate non-native, invasive house mice from the South Farallon Islands, part of the Farallon... the problem of invasive house mice on the South Farallon Islands. DATES: We will accept comments...

  12. Molybdenum, vanadium, and uranium weathering in small mountainous rivers and rivers draining high-standing islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardner, Christopher B.; Carey, Anne E.; Lyons, W. Berry; Goldsmith, Steven T.; McAdams, Brandon C.; Trierweiler, Annette M.

    2017-12-01

    Rivers draining high standing islands (HSIs) and small mountainous rivers (SMRs) are known to have extremely high sediment fluxes, and can also have high chemical weathering yields, which makes them potentially important contributors to the global riverine elemental flux to the ocean. This work reports on the riverine concentrations, ocean flux, and weathering yields of Molybdenum (Mo), Vanadium (V), and Uranium (U) in a large number of small but geochemically important rivers using 338 river samples from ten lithologically-diverse regions. These redox-sensitive elements are used extensively to infer paleo-redox conditions in the ocean, and Mo and V are also important rock-derived micronutrients used by microorganisms in nitrogen fixation. Unlike in large river systems, in which dissolved Mo has been attributed predominately to pyrite dissolution, Mo concentrations in these rivers did not correlate with sulfate concentrations. V was found to correlate strongly with Si in terrains dominated by silicate rocks, but this trend was not observed in primarily sedimentary regions. Many rivers exhibited much higher V/Si ratios than larger rivers, and rivers draining young Quaternary volcanic rocks in Nicaragua had much higher dissolved V concentrations (mean = 1306 nM) than previously-studied rivers. U concentrations were generally well below the global average with the exception of rivers draining primarily sedimentary lithologies containing carbonates and shales. Fluxes of U and Mo from igneous terrains of intermediate composition are lower than the global average, while fluxes of V from these regions are higher, and up to two orders of magnitude higher in the Nicaragua rivers. Weathering yields of Mo and V in most regions are above the global mean, despite lower than average concentrations measured in some of those systems, indicating that the chemical weathering of these elements are higher in these SMR watersheds than larger drainages. In regions of active boundaries

  13. Co-existence of Coral Reef Conservation and Tourism at Pigeon Island National Park

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nishanthi Marian Perera

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available AbstractPigeon islands National Park (PINP is one of the three Marine National Parks in Sri Lanka with coral reefs being the major habitat protected. A study was undertaken at PINP with the objective of understanding the challenges encountered and opportunities available for managing the park addressing both coral reef conservation and increasing tourism potential. Field visits, formal and informal group discussions, expert opinions, web based information and literature surveys were the methodology utilized.  Despise the impose of an entrance fee in May 2011,  146,375 tourists visited the 471 ha park within 40 month period indicating that one hectare of coral reefs can earn more revenue than larger terrestrial parks with charismatic species such as elephants.  Foreign tourist arrivals had increased from 11.9% in 2011 to 25.13% by 2014.  Visitor reviews indicates that their experience was either excellent (46% or very good (30% due to abundance of marine life, while12% had either a poor or a terrible visitor experience at the site owing to overcrowding, reef damage and high price. With only 21% of live coral cover in 2013, it is evident that the reef is being degraded, indicating that a Protected Area which emphasizes on collecting user-fee revenues can lose sight of its primary conservation objectives and is not undertaking sustainable tourism.  Park management effectiveness is not at desirable level (43%, mainly due to non- implementation of a scientifically based management plan. A continuous monitoring programme to check the health of the reef is need, while the introduction of a multi-tiered user fee structures can enhance the economic reruns.  Incorporating PINP into wider Seascape/landscape management through utilizing Special Area Management approach needed to be promoted. Key Words: Coral Reefs; Pigeon Island National Park; Management Effectiveness; Sustainable Tourism; Stakeholders     

  14. Genetic diversity and population differentiation of small giant clam Tridacna maxima in Comoros islands assessed by microsatellite markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed Mohamed, Nadjim; Yu, Qian; Chanfi, Mohamed Ibrahim; Li, Yangping; Wang, Shi; Huang, Xiaoting; Bao, Zhenmin

    2016-01-01

    Small giant clam, Tridacna maxima , widely distributed from French Polynesia to East Africa, has faced population declines due to over-exploitation. Comoros islands are an important biogeographic region due to potential richness of marine species, but no relevant information is available. In order to facilitate devising effective conservation management plan for T. maxima , nine microsatellite markers were used to survey genetic diversity and population differentiation of 72 specimens collected from three Comoros islands, Grande Comore, Moheli and Anjouan. A total of 51 alleles were detected ranged from 2 to 8 per locus. Observed and expected heterozygosity varied from 0.260 to 0.790 and from 0.542 to 0.830, respectively. All populations have high genetic diversity, especially the population in Moheli, a protected area, has higher genetic diversity than the others. Significant heterozygote deficiencies were recorded, and null alleles were probably the main factor leading to these deficits. F ST value indicated medium genetic differentiation among the populations. Although significant, AMOVA revealed 48.9 % of genetic variation within individuals and only a small variation of 8.9 % was found between populations. Gene flow was high ( Nm  = 12.40) between Grande Comore and Moheli, while lower ( Nm  = 1.80) between Grande Comore and Anjouan, explaining geographic barriers to genetic exchanges might exist in these two islands. Global gene flow analysis ( Nm  = 5.50) showed that larval dispersal is enough to move between the islands. The high genetic diversity and medium population differentiation revealed in the present study offer useful information on genetic conservation of small giant clams.

  15. Carrying capacity of Peucang Island for ecotourism management in Ujung Kulon National Park

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiyono, K. H.; Muntasib, E. K. S. H.; Yulianda, F.

    2018-05-01

    Peucang Island is one of island in Ujung Kulon National Park (UKNP), appointed as priority area and welcome area for tourism. This research aimed to calculate the carrying capacity of Peucang Island for ecotourism development (Study sites of this research are Karang Copong jungle trail and 8 sites of Peucangs beach). This research used observation method (wildlife exploration, measure the lenght of jungle track, and measure 10 parameters of beach), literature study and and interview method to collect data. The data of jungle track analyzed use Cifuentes’s formula. The result showed that Karang Copong jungle trekking had 20,000 visitors/day for Physical Carrying Capacity (PCC), 4 838 visitors/day for Real Carrying Capacity (RCC), and 6 visitors/day for Efective Carrying Capacity (ECC). Observation of biological aspect showed that there were some damages of vegetation along the track, and the changes in animal behavior. The data of beach carrying capacity analyzed use Yulianda’s formula that measured with the suitability map approach. Based on the suitability map, two beaches were classified in suitable category, while six beaches) were classified in highly suitable category for tourism activities. All of the beaches had different number of carrying capacity, specifically there are 70 visitors/day in highly suitable beach and 27 visitors/day in suitable beach. The number of visitor nowadays still not exceed from carrying capacity number of PCC, RCC of jungle trails and carrying capacity of the beach area, but the number has exceeded from the ECC numbers.

  16. China as the Leader of the Small and Weak: The "Ruoxiao" Nations and Guomindang Nationalism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Craig A. Smith

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Frustrated with the “white imperialism” of the League of Nations and the “red imperialism” of the Third Communist International, a number of Chinese intellectuals began discussing possibilities for a third option during the interwar years. Turning away from liberalism and Marxism, they examined Sun Yat-sen’s Three Principles of the People and began working to promote his Principle of Nationalism as a concept that focused on the ruoxiao (weak and small nations and could liberate people around the world that were suffering under imperialism. This discourse often centered on the possibility of creating a new form of “International,” the International of Nations, which would unite the oppressed nations of the world in opposition to the imperialist nations, rather than divide nations along class lines, as Chinese critics perceived the Comintern to do. This article examines Chinese intellectual discussions of a China-centered “International” by a variety of writers, including Dai Jitao and Hu Hanmin, from 1925 to 1937. The author shows that, although this discourse on a China-centered “International of Nations” influenced intellectuals’ perceptions of China’s position and responsibility in the world, it was consumed and invalidated by Japanese imperialism, as the Japanese Empire employed a similar discourse of pan-Asianism to justify militarism in the 1930s and 1940s.

  17. How small nations fare in the global war on talent

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tung, Rosalie; Worm, Verner; Aagaard Petersen, Susan

    2008-01-01

    for the same talent pool by presenting the findings of two related studies on whether (a) Chinese students who are studying in Denmark choose to return to work in China; and (b) Danish students in Denmark are willing to work for Chinese companies in Denmark and/or China. Despite its population of 1.3 billion......, China has a critical shortage of managerial talent. The vast majority of Chinese students in Denmark do not plan to remain in Denmark upon completion of their education, while many Danish students are receptive to working for Chinese companies, albeit more so in Denmark than in China. The findings...... of this study have implications on the plight of smaller nations, such as Denmark, in attracting and retaining human talent. These findings also have implications for small-sized companies in their competition with large firms for human talent....

  18. Community Participation Of Coastal Area On Management Of National Park, Karimunjawa Island

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wibowo, Bambang A.; Aditomo, Aryo B.; Prihantoko, Kukuh E.

    2018-02-01

    Karimunjawa island located in Jepara Regacy, Central Java has potential marine and fishing resources. Since 1998, this area has been selected as conservation for its natural resources. National park of Karimunjawa is managed by Balai Taman Nasional Karimunjawa (Karimunjawa National Park Beuroue). Some activities involved community have been done in order to get effective management. Community participation is an important component for success in coastal area management. The level of community/people awareness anual on natural resource conservation can increate sustainable resource. However, it is necesssary to provide tools in resource utilization for the community, so that their economic life can be secured. This study observe the level of community participation in the effort of Karimunjawa National Park management. Descriptive method and purposive random sampling were used to carry out the study parameters observed in this study include community participation related to level of knowladge and obedience on the rule of area zonation, an its impact to community. The result show that community knowledge was quite high (40%) with obedience (56%) on the rule of area zonation. Impact area zonation rule was less significant to community. The level of community participation to Karimunjawa National Park management was performed will low to medium level.

  19. The migration of doctors and nurses from South Pacific Island Nations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Richard P C; Connell, John

    2004-06-01

    Little is known of the structure of the international migration of skilled health professionals. Accelerated migration of doctors and nurses from the Pacific island states of Fiji, Samoa and Tonga to the Pacific periphery is part of the globalization of health care. The findings from a recent survey of 251 doctors and nurses from the three island countries are reported here. Key determinants of both present migration status and future migration intentions were analyzed using econometric methods. Nurses' and doctors' propensities to migrate are influenced by both income and non-income factors, including ownership of businesses and houses. Migrants also tend to have more close relatives overseas, to have trained there, and so experienced superior working conditions. Migration propensities vary between countries, and between nurses and doctors within countries. Tongan nurses have a higher propensity to migrate, mainly because of greater relative earnings differentials, but are also more likely to return home. The role of kinship ties, relative income differentials and working conditions is evident in other developing country contexts. Remittances and return migration, alongside business investment, bring some benefits to compensate for the skill drain. National development policies should focus on encouraging return migration, alongside retention and recruitment, but are unlikely to prevent out migration.

  20. Towards an ecosystem approach to small island fisheries: A preliminary study of a balanced fishery in Kotania Bay (Seram Island, Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B.G. Hutubessy

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The Ecosystem Approach to Fisheries (EAF is a holistic one as EAF considers all species as important elements within the eco-system. An EAF requires that community and ecosystem structure should be maintained by harvesting fish communities in proportion to their natural productivity, thereby sustaining the balance of species and sizes in a community. This article draws from research on the reef fish community and catch in Kotania Bay on Seram Island in Maluku, Indonesia, an area of approximately 6000 ha. Based on the trophic guild (ie the aggregation of species utilizing similar food resources on the reef, the biomass of predator fish currently being captured now represents 40.4% of the total catch biomass. Members of the grouper family, the humphead wrasse (Cheilinus undulatus and trevally (Caranx melampygus in particular, have become targeted for sale in fish markets. If these predators are selectively targeted and exploited, the overall reef fishery and the human populations that depend on it may become imperilled, given these species’ significant roles in controlling those lower in the food chain. This study thereby emphasizes the need for balanced fisheries informed by the EAF model in small island fisheries management in order to sustain food security in such regions.

  1. Assessment of Urban Heat Islands in Small- and Mid-Sized Cities in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata dos Santos Cardoso

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Urban heat islands (UHIs in large cities and different climatic regions have been thoroughly studied; however, their effects are becoming a common concern in smaller cities as well. We assessed UHIs in three tropical cities, analyzing how synoptic conditions, urban morphology, and land cover affect the heat island magnitude. Data gathering involved mobile surveys across Paranavaí (Paraná, Rancharia (São Paulo, and Presidente Prudente (São Paulo, Brazil, during summer evenings (December 2013–January 2014. Temperature data collected over five days in each city point to heat islands with magnitudes up to 6 °C, under calm synoptic conditions, whereas summer average UHI magnitudes peak at 3.7 °C. In addition, UHI magnitudes were higher in areas with closely spaced buildings and few or no trees and building materials that are not appropriate for the region’s climate and thermal comfort.

  2. Water dynamics in a laurel montane cloud forest in the Garajonay National Park (Canary Islands, Spain)

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Santos, G.; Marzol, M. V.; Aschan, G.

    Field measurements from February 2003 to January 2004 in a humid (but dry in summer) crest heath wood-land (degraded laurel forest) in the National Park of Garajonay, Canary Islands (Spain), were combined to calculate water balance components. The water balance domain is at the surface of the catchment and is controlled by atmospheric processes and vegetation. This study found that annual water income (rainfall plus fog water) was 1440 mm year-1, half of which was occult (or fog) precipitation, while stand transpiration estimated from measurements of sap flow amounted, annually, to 40% of potential evapotranspiration calculated from measurements of meteorological variables. The positive role of crest laurel forests, which transpire less water than is incoming from rain and fog is emphasised.

  3. Comparisons of health expenditure in 3 Pacific Island Countries using National Health Accounts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopkins, Sandra; Irava, Wayne; Kei, Tin Yiu

    2010-09-01

    National Health Accounts (NHA) is an important monitoring tool for health policy and health systems strengthening. A pilot project amongst three Pacific Island Countries (PICs) to assist in developing their NHAs, allowed these countries to identify their sources of health funds, the health providers on which these funds are spent, and the types of health goods and services provided. In this paper we report some of the findings from the NHA exercises in FSM, Fiji and Vanuatu. The development of these NHA country reports have allowed these countries to better understand the flow of financial resources from financing agents, to health providers, and to health functions. The NHA findings across the three countries enabled a comparative analysis of health expenditures between the three countries as well as with countries in the Asia Pacific Region.

  4. Enhancing national data to align with policy objectives: Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander smoking prevalence at finer geographic levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Alyson; Lovett, Ray; Roe, Yvette; Richardson, Alice

    2017-06-05

    Objectives The aim of the study was to assess the utility of national Aboriginal survey data in a regional geospatial analysis of daily smoking prevalence for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Australians and discuss the appropriateness of this analysis for policy and program impact assessment. Methods Data from the last two Australian Bureau of Statistics (ABS) national surveys of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people, the National Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Social Survey 2014-15 (n=7022 adults) and the National Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Health Survey 2012-13 (n=10896 adults), were used to map the prevalence of smoking by Indigenous regions. Results Daily smoking prevalence in 2014-15 at Indigenous regions ranges from 27.1% (95%CI 18.9-35.3) in the Toowoomba region in Queensland to 68.0% (95%CI 58.1-77.9) in the Katherine region in the Northern Territory. The confidence intervals are wide and there is no significant difference in daily smoking prevalence between the two time periods for any region. Conclusion There are significant limitations with analysing national survey data at finer geographical scales. Given the national program for Indigenous tobacco control is a regional model, evaluation requires finer geographical analysis of smoking prevalence to inform public health progress, policy and program effects. Options to improve the data currently collected include increasing national survey sample sizes, implementing a smoking status question in census surveys, investing in current cohort studies focused on this population or implementing localised surveys. What is known about the topic? The last geospatial analysis of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander smoking prevalence was undertaken in 1997. Current national survey data have not been analysed geospatially. What does this paper add? This paper provides new insights into the use of national survey data for understanding regional patterns and prevalence levels of smoking

  5. Energy Transition Initiative: Island Energy Snapshot - Haiti; U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), NREL (National Renewable Energy Laboratory)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2015-06-01

    This profile provides a snapshot of the energy landscape of Haiti, an independent nation that occupies the western portion of the island of Hispaniola in the northern Caribbean Sea. Haiti’s utility rates are roughly $0.35 U.S. dollars (USD) per kilowatt-hour (kWh), above the Caribbean regional average of $0.33 USD/kWh.

  6. 76 FR 10621 - Palmyra Atoll National Wildlife Refuge, U.S. Pacific Island Territory; Nonnative Rat Eradication...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-25

    ... any of the following methods. For information on viewing or obtaining the documents, see ``Public... species in their natural setting on the Atoll. The Pacific Remote Islands Marine National Monument... eliminate black rats from Palmyra Atoll. Public Availability of the DEIS The DEIS is available for viewing...

  7. Energy Transition Initiative: Island Energy Snapshot - Palau; U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), NREL (National Renewable Energy Laboratory)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2015-06-01

    This profile provides a snapshot of the energy landscape of Palau, an independent island nation geographically located in the Micronesia region. Palau’s residential electricity rates are approximately $0.28 U.S. dollars (USD) per kilowatt-hour (kWh), more than twice the average U.S. residential rate of $0.13 USD/kWh.

  8. How to make a European integrated market in small and isolated electricity systems? The case of the Canary Islands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perez, Yannick; Ramos Real, Francisco Javier

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents a geographic dimension not often studied in the dynamics of creating an internal market for electricity within the European Union, namely the case of small European electricity systems like those found on the Greek islands of Cyprus and Crete. Our question, then, is how to achieve a suitable internal market for electricity in small and isolated systems. To address this issue, we identify the main problems to be overcome by introducing a methodology in which the Canary Islands experience is taken as a case study for understanding the challenges in creating an 'EU-like market for electricity'. Our results show that the design of the vertical industrial structure and the figure of the grid operator and its attributes are key features for the proper operation of any electrical system. We also stress the minor roles of other possible options to achieve this EU-compatible market by highlighting first, in the wholesale market, the call-for-tender solution to introduce more generation and the risk of using safety requirements as barriers to entry in these small markets, and second, in the supply activities, the potential problems of an improperly regulated tariff scheme. (author)

  9. Energy Transition Initiative: Island Energy Snapshot - Belize; U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), NREL (National Renewable Energy Laboratory)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2015-03-01

    This profile provides a snapshot of the energy landscape of Belize, a Central American country bordering Mexico to the north, Guatemala to the west and south, and the Caribbean Sea to the east. Although not an island nation, Belize is included in this energy snapshot series because it is a member of the Caribbean Community (CARICOM), an alliance of 15 Caribbean nations in the region.

  10. Using gravimetry to probe small to large scale lithospheric structure at Fogo Island (Cape Verde)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandes, R.; Bos, M. S.; Dumont, S.; Oliveira, C. S.; Miranda, E. H.; Almeida, P. G.

    2017-12-01

    The Fogo volcano is located on one of the Cape Verde islands in the Atlantic Ocean. Its last eruption was from November 2014 to February 2015 and destroyed two villages. To better understand its volcanic plumbing system, but also its eruptive dynamics that would contribute to hazard assessment and risk mitigation, the project "FIRE - Fogo Island volcano: multi-disciplinary Research on 2014/15 Eruption" was rapidly conceived in collaboration with local institutions. Despite a regular eruptive activity in the last centuries ( 20 years), no magmatic chamber has been evidenced yet and this is what we are investigating using gravimetry in the FIRE project. Approximately 70 relative new gravity observations were made by the C4G mission during the 2014 eruption, using a SCINTREX CG­3M gravimeter. The spacing between observation points was around 5 km for most of the island and around 2 km in Chã das Caldeiras, close to the 2014 eruption vent. In January 2017, 48 additional observations were made which densified the post-eruption observations in Chã das Caldeiras. The exact location of each observation point was determined with an accuracy of <10 cm from co­located GNSS receivers. The gravity residuals are fitted to the predicted gravity effect from modelled magma chambers with various diameters, depths and density contrasts in order to investigate if such a chamber can explain the measurements. A digital terrain model of the island, refined with a high-resolution terrain model of 10m resolution in the Chã das Caldeiras produced as part of the project, will be used to remove the gravitational effect of the topography. In addition, the new gravity observations can be used to improve global geopotential models such as EGM2008/EIGEN6C4 over the island and to compute a new elastic thickness of the crust underneath the island. Pim (2006) estimated that the elastic thickness Te is around 30 km in this region which is normal for the age of lithosphere, suggesting that it has

  11. Informal Settlements in Jamaica’s Tourism Space: Urban Spatial Development in a Small Island Developing State

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheere

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper reviews the compatibility of government programmes for regularising or relocating informal settlements situated in a growing tourism space in Jamaica, a small island developing state (SIDS. The case study of Ocho Rios involves mapping, charting, and defining this resort town’s island tourism space. The paper questions the effectiveness of broad government programmes aimed at addressing informal settlements at a time when governance actors and Jamaica’s tourism policy agenda prioritise land use that accommodates a diversified and spatially growing tourism industry. Findings show that government programmes have been insufficiently responsive to informal settlements located in the Ocho Rios tourism space for a number of reasons and that attempts to address the informal settlements are often beset by corruption and a lack of trust between residents and the government. Under the current tourism policy agenda, regularisation of existing informal settlements is not feasible in light of the high real estate value of lands surrounding tourist resort towns. A more targeted approach to addressing informal settlements based on the location of an informal settlement in the vicinity of island tourism regions is required.

  12. Understanding and mapping local conflicts related to protected areas in small islands: a case study of the Azores archipelago

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chiara Bragagnolo

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Establishing Protected Areas (PAs is considered one of the most appropriate ways to conserve nature and cultural landscapes. However, conservation constraints can generate social conflicts, especially at a local level. In small islands (SIs, local conflicts may escalate due to an increase in competition for limited space and resources. Pico island in the Azores Archipelago (Portugal, part of the Outermost European region, was considered a good case to study conservation-development conflicts due to the amount of designated protected land (> 35% of its surface and the approval of a new Azorean PA network in 2007. This paper presents a new approach to understanding and mapping local conflicts within PAs in SIs by integrating qualitative data and spatially explicit information. This research takes stock of the benefits, needs and constraints related to Pico Natural Park as perceived by local stakeholders through face-to-face semi-structured interviews; it subsequently identifies and transposes the conflicts distilled from stakeholder discourse into spatially representative visual maps via GIS. Research outcomes show that PAs are perceived mainly as constraints to local development, showing inconsistency between local expectations and regional conservation policy. This highlights the importance of including public participation processes prior to any implementation of conservation strategies. The proposed method provides a springboard towards effective conflict management for PAs on Pico island, showing a relatively low-cost and straightforward approach to minimising future local conflicts which could be adapted to other similar Outermost European regions and SIs.

  13. Morphodynamics of a mesotidal rocky beach: Palmeras beach, Gorgona Island National Natural Park, Colombia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-García, A. M.; Bernal, G. R.; Osorio, A. F.; Botero, V.

    2014-10-01

    The response of a rocky beach to different possible combinations of hydrodynamic conditions (tides, waves, oceanic currents) has been little studied. In this work, the morphodynamic response to different hydrodynamic forcing is evaluated from sedimentological and geomorphological analysis in seasonal and medium term (19 years) scale in Palmeras beach, located in the southwest of Gorgona Island National Natural Park (NNP), a mesotidal rocky island on the Colombian Pacific continental shelf. Palmeras is an important nesting area of two types of marine turtles, with no anthropogenic stress. In the last years, coastal erosion has reduced the beach width, restricting the safe areas for nesting and conservation of these species. Until now, the sinks, sources, reservoirs, rates, and paths of sediments were unknown, as well as their hydrodynamic forcing. The beach seasonal variability, from October 2010 to August 2012, was analyzed based on biweekly or monthly measurements of five beach profiles distributed every 200 m along the 1.2 km of beach length. The main paths for sediment transport were defined from the modeling of wave currents with the SMC model (Coastal Modeling System), as well as the oceanic currents, simulated for the dry and wet seasons of 2011 using the ELCOM model (Estuary and Lake COmputer Model). Extreme morphologic variations over a time span of 19 years were analyzed with the Hsu and Evans beach static equilibrium parabolic model, from one wave diffraction point which dominates the general beach plan shape. The beach lost 672 m3/m during the measuring period, and erosional processes were intensified during the wet season. The beach trends responded directly to a wave mean energy flux change, resulting in an increase of up to 14 m in the width northward and loss of sediments in the beach southward. This study showed that to obtain the integral morphodynamic behavior of a rocky beach it is necessary to combine information of hydrodynamic, sedimentology

  14. Sandia National Laboratories: Working with Sandia: Small Business

    Science.gov (United States)

    Does Sandia Buy? Opportunities Small Business Procurement Technical Assistance Program (PTAP) Current Technology Partnerships Business, Industry, & Non-Profits Government Universities Center for Mexico Small Business Assistance Program Sandia Science & Technology Park Careers Community

  15. 77 FR 31149 - National Small Business Week, 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-24

    ... Small Business Week, 2012 By the President of the United States of America A Proclamation For centuries..., and we renew our promise to help their businesses grow, hire, and succeed. Because small businesses... workers and our businesses. Since I took office, we have repeatedly cut taxes for small businesses and...

  16. Model Evidence of a Superconducting State with a Full Energy Gap in Small Cuprate Islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black-Schaffer, Annica M.; Golubev, Dmitri S.; Bauch, Thilo; Lombardi, Floriana; Fogelström, Mikael

    2013-05-01

    We investigate subdominant order parameters stabilizing at low temperatures in nanoscale high-Tc cuprate islands, motivated by the recent observation of a fully gapped state in nanosized YBa2Cu3O7-δ [D. Gustafsson et al., Nature Nanotech. 8, 25 (2013)]. Using complementary quasiclassical and tight-binding Bogoliubov-de Gennes methods, we show on distinctly different properties dependent on the symmetry being dx2-y2+is or dx2-y2+idxy. We find that a surface-induced dx2-y2+is phase creates a global spectroscopic gap which increases with an applied magnetic field, consistent with experimental observation.

  17. Viability of small seeds found in feces of the Central American tapir on Barro Colorado Island, Panama.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capece, Paula I; Aliaga-Rossel, Enzo; Jansen, Patrick A

    2013-03-01

    Tapirs are known as effective dispersers of large-seeded tree species, but their role in dispersing small-seeded plant species has yet to be established. Tapir feces have been reported to contain large numbers of small seeds, but whether these are viable has rarely been evaluated. We determined the abundance and viability of small seeds in feces of Central American tapir (Tapirus bairdii) on Barro Colorado Island, Panama. A total of 72 fecal samples were collected opportunistically from 4 tapir latrine sites. Seeds were manually extracted from feces and classified by size. Seed viability was estimated by opening each seed and examining for the presence of at least 1 intact firm white endosperm. In total, we obtained 8166 seeds of at least 16 plant species. Small-seeded species dominated, with 96% of all seeds found measuring tapirs potentially serve as effective dispersers of a wide range of small-seeded plant species. © 2012 Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd, ISZS and IOZ/CAS.

  18. National Uranium Resource Evaluation: Providence Quadrangle, Connecticut, Rhode Island, and Massachusetts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zollinger, R.C.; Blauvelt, R.P.; Chew, R.T. III.

    1982-09-01

    The Providence Quadrangle, Connecticut, Rhode Island, and Massachusetts, was evaluated to a depth of 1500 m to identify environments and delineate areas favorable for uranium deposits. Criteria for this evaluation were developed by the National Uranium Resource Evaluation program. Environments were recognized after literature research, surface and subsurface geologic reconnaissance, and examination of known uranium occurrences and aeroradioactivity anomalies. Environments favorable for authigenic uranium deposits were found in the Quincy and Cowesett Granites. An environment favorable for contact-metasomatic deposits is in and around the borders of the Narragansett Pier Granite where it intrudes the Pennsylvanian sediments of the Narragansett Basin. An environment favorable for authigenic deposits in metamorphic rocks is in a migmatite on the eastern edge of the Scituate Granite Gneiss batholith. Environments favorable for contact-metasomatic deposits occur at the contacts between many of the granitic rocks and metamorphic rocks of the Blackstone Series. Results of this study also indicate environments favorable for sandstone-type uranium deposits are present in the rocks of the Narragansett Basin. Environments unfavorable for uranium deposits in the quadrangle include all granites not classified as favorable and the metamorphic rocks of eastern Connecticut. Glacial deposits and Cretaceous-Tertiary sediments remain unevaluated

  19. Black-necked stilts share nesting in the Merritt Island National Wildlife Refuge

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-01-01

    A black-necked stilt waits near its nesting mate nest in the Merritt Island National Wildlife Refuge, which shares a boundary with Kennedy Space Center. Stilts usually produce three or four brown-spotted buff eggs in a shallow depression lined with grass or shell fragments. In the nesting season they are particularly agressive. Stilts are identified by a distinct head pattern of black and white, very long red legs, and straight, very thin bill. Their habitat is salt marshes and shallow coastal bays from Delaware and northern South America in the East, and freshwater marshes from Oregon and Saskatchewan to the Gulf Coast. The 92,000-acre wildlife refuge is a habitat for more than 310 species of birds, 25 mammals, 117 fishes and 65 amphibians and reptiles. The marshes and open water of the refuge also provide wintering areas for 23 species of migratory waterfowl, as well as a year-round home for great blue herons, great egrets, wood storks, cormorants, brown pelicans and other species of marsh and shore birds.

  20. International Uranium Resources Evaluation Project (IUREP) national favourability studies: Cook Islands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1977-11-01

    The Cook Islands total only 320 square kilometers in area are located in the central South Pacific, and are made up of either volcanic material or coral. Since neither rock type is considered a good host or source of uranium, the uranium potential of the Cook Islands is considered nil. (author)

  1. Characteristics of National Merit Scholars from Small Rural Schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peltier, Gary; And Others

    This study compares 1988 National Merit Scholars enrolled in rural public schools with a senior class smaller than 99 students to other merit scholars and the national sample of SAT takers. Rural scholars were more likely to be female (45.5%) and Caucasian (98%) than other scholars. Involvement in extracurricular activities was significantly…

  2. Impacts of Tropical Forest Disturbance Upon Avifauna on a Small Island with High Endemism: Implications for Conservation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Thomas

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Tropical forests are rapidly being lost across Southeast Asia and this is predicted to have severe implications for many of the region′s bird species. However, relationships between forest disturbance and avifaunal assemblages remain poorly understood, particularly on small island ecosystems such as those found in the biodiversity ′hotspot′ of Wallacea. This study examines how avifaunal richness varies across a disturbance gradient in a forest reserve on Buton Island, southeast Sulawesi. Particular emphasis is placed upon examining responses in endemic and red-listed species with high conservation importance. Results indicate that overall avian richness increases between primary and 30-year-old regenerating secondary forest and then decreases through disturbed secondary forest, but is highest in cleared farmland. However, high species richness in farmland does not signify high species distinctiveness; bird community composition here differs significantly from that found in forest sites, and is poor in supporting forest specialists and endemic species. Certain large-bodied endemics such as the Knobbed Hornbill (Rhyticeros cassidix appear to be sensitive to moderate disturbance, with populations occurring at greatest density within primary forest. However, overall endemic species richness, as well as that of endemic frugivores and insectivores, is similar in primary and secondary forest types. Results indicate that well-established secondary forest in particular has an important role in supporting species with high conservational importance, possessing community composition similar to that found in primary forest and supporting an equally high richness of endemic species.

  3. EAARL Coastal Topography and Imagery-Naval Live Oaks Area, Gulf Islands National Seashore, Florida, 2007

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagle, David B.; Nayegandhi, Amar; Yates, Xan; Brock, John C.; Wright, C. Wayne; Bonisteel, Jamie M.; Klipp, Emily S.; Segura, Martha

    2010-01-01

    These remotely sensed, geographically referenced color-infrared (CIR) imagery and elevation measurements of lidar-derived bare-earth (BE) topography, first-surface (FS) topography, and canopy-height (CH) datasets were produced collaboratively by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), St. Petersburg Science Center, St. Petersburg, FL; the National Park Service (NPS), Gulf Coast Network, Lafayette, LA; and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), Wallops Flight Facility, VA. This project provides highly detailed and accurate datasets of the Naval Live Oaks Area in Florida's Gulf Islands National Seashore, acquired June 30, 2007. The datasets are made available for use as a management tool to research scientists and natural-resource managers. An innovative airborne lidar instrument originally developed at the NASA Wallops Flight Facility, and known as the Experimental Advanced Airborne Research Lidar (EAARL), was used during data acquisition. The EAARL system is a raster-scanning, waveform-resolving, green-wavelength (532-nanometer) lidar designed to map near-shore bathymetry, topography, and vegetation structure simultaneously. The EAARL sensor suite includes the raster-scanning, water-penetrating full-waveform adaptive lidar, a down-looking red-green-blue (RGB) digital camera, a high-resolution multispectral CIR camera, two precision dual-frequency kinematic carrier-phase GPS receivers, and an integrated miniature digital inertial measurement unit, which provide for sub-meter georeferencing of each laser sample. The nominal EAARL platform is a twin-engine Cessna 310 aircraft, but the instrument may be deployed on a range of light aircraft. A single pilot, a lidar operator, and a data analyst constitute the crew for most survey operations. This sensor has the potential to make significant contributions in measuring sub-aerial and submarine coastal topography within cross-environmental surveys. Elevation measurements were collected over the survey area

  4. EAARL Coastal Topography-Assateague Island National Seashore, 2008: Bare Earth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonisteel, Jamie M.; Nayegandhi, Amar; Brock, John C.; Wright, C. Wayne; Stevens, Sara; Yates, Xan; Klipp, Emily S.

    2009-01-01

    These remotely sensed, geographically referenced elevation measurements of lidar-derived bare-earth (BE) topography were produced as a collaborative effort between the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), Florida Integrated Science Center (FISC), St. Petersburg, FL; the National Park Service (NPS), Northeast Coastal and Barrier Network, Kingston, RI; and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), Wallops Flight Facility, VA. This project provides highly detailed and accurate datasets of the Assateague Island National Seashore in Maryland and Virginia, acquired March 24-25, 2008. The datasets are made available for use as a management tool to research scientists and natural-resource managers. An innovative airborne lidar instrument originally developed at the NASA Wallops Flight Facility, and known as the Experimental Advanced Airborne Research Lidar (EAARL) was used during data acquisition. The EAARL system is a raster-scanning, waveform-resolving, green-wavelength (532-nanometer) lidar designed to map near-shore bathymetry, topography, and vegetation structure simultaneously. The EAARL sensor suite includes the raster-scanning, water-penetrating full-waveform adaptive lidar, a down-looking red-green-blue (RGB) digital camera, a high-resolution multi-spectral color infrared (CIR) camera, two precision dual-frequency kinematic carrier-phase GPS receivers, and an integrated miniature digital inertial measurement unit, which provide for sub-meter georeferencing of each laser sample. The nominal EAARL platform is a twin-engine Cessna 310 aircraft, but the instrument may be deployed on a range of light aircraft. A single pilot, a lidar operator, and a data analyst constitute the crew for most survey operations. This sensor has the potential to make significant contributions in measuring sub-aerial and submarine coastal topography within cross-environmental surveys. Elevation measurements were collected over the survey area using the EAARL system, and the

  5. EAARL Coastal Topography-Assateague Island National Seashore, 2008: First Surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonisteel, Jamie M.; Nayegandhi, Amar; Brock, John C.; Wright, C. Wayne; Stevens, Sara; Yates, Xan; Klipp, Emily S.

    2009-01-01

    These remotely sensed, geographically referenced elevation measurements of lidar-derived first-surface (FS) topography were produced as a collaborative effort between the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), Florida Integrated Science Center (FISC), St. Petersburg, FL; the National Park Service (NPS), Northeast Coastal and Barrier Network, Kingston, RI; and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), Wallops Flight Facility, VA. This project provides highly detailed and accurate datasets of the Assateague Island National Seashore in Maryland and Virginia, acquired March 24-25, 2008. The datasets are made available for use as a management tool to research scientists and natural-resource managers. An innovative airborne lidar instrument originally developed at the NASA Wallops Flight Facility, and known as the Experimental Advanced Airborne Research Lidar (EAARL), was used during data acquisition. The EAARL system is a raster-scanning, waveform-resolving, green-wavelength (532-nanometer) lidar designed to map near-shore bathymetry, topography, and vegetation structure simultaneously. The EAARL sensor suite includes the raster-scanning, water-penetrating full-waveform adaptive lidar, a down-looking red-green-blue (RGB) digital camera, a high-resolution multi-spectral color infrared (CIR) camera, two precision dual-frequency kinematic carrier-phase GPS receivers, and an integrated miniature digital inertial measurement unit, which provide for sub-meter georeferencing of each laser sample. The nominal EAARL platform is a twin-engine Cessna 310 aircraft, but the instrument may be deployed on a range of light aircraft. A single pilot, a lidar operator, and a data analyst constitute the crew for most survey operations. This sensor has the potential to make significant contributions in measuring sub-aerial and submarine coastal topography within cross-environmental surveys. Elevation measurements were collected over the survey area using the EAARL system, and the

  6. Identifying key demographic parameters of a small island-associated population of Indo-Pacific bottlenose dolphins (Reunion, Indian Ocean).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dulau, Violaine; Estrade, Vanessa; Fayan, Jacques

    2017-01-01

    Photo-identification surveys of Indo-Pacific bottlenose dolphins were conducted from 2009 to 2014 off Reunion Island (55°E33'/21°S07'), in the Indian Ocean. Robust Design models were applied to produce the most reliable estimate of population abundance and survival rate, while accounting for temporary emigration from the survey area (west coast). The sampling scheme consisted of a five-month (June-October) sampling period in each year of the study. The overall population size at Reunion was estimated to be 72 individuals (SE = 6.17, 95%CI = 61-85), based on a random temporary emigration (γ") of 0.096 and a proportion of 0.70 (SE = 0.03) distinct individuals. The annual survival rate was 0.93 (±0.018 SE, 95%CI = 0.886-0.958) and was constant over time and between sexes. Models considering gender groups indicated different movement patterns between males and females. Males showed null or quasi-null temporary emigration (γ" = γ' < 0.01), while females showed a random temporary emigration (γ") of 0.10, suggesting that a small proportion of females was outside the survey area during each primary sampling period. Sex-specific temporary migration patterns were consistent with movement and residency patterns observed in other areas. The Robust Design approach provided an appropriate sampling scheme for deriving island-associated population parameters, while allowing to restrict survey effort both spatially (i.e. west coast only) and temporally (five months per year). Although abundance and survival were stable over the six years, the small population size of fewer than 100 individuals suggested that this population is highly vulnerable. Priority should be given to reducing any potential impact of human activity on the population and its habitat.

  7. Identifying key demographic parameters of a small island-associated population of Indo-Pacific bottlenose dolphins (Reunion, Indian Ocean.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Violaine Dulau

    Full Text Available Photo-identification surveys of Indo-Pacific bottlenose dolphins were conducted from 2009 to 2014 off Reunion Island (55°E33'/21°S07', in the Indian Ocean. Robust Design models were applied to produce the most reliable estimate of population abundance and survival rate, while accounting for temporary emigration from the survey area (west coast. The sampling scheme consisted of a five-month (June-October sampling period in each year of the study. The overall population size at Reunion was estimated to be 72 individuals (SE = 6.17, 95%CI = 61-85, based on a random temporary emigration (γ" of 0.096 and a proportion of 0.70 (SE = 0.03 distinct individuals. The annual survival rate was 0.93 (±0.018 SE, 95%CI = 0.886-0.958 and was constant over time and between sexes. Models considering gender groups indicated different movement patterns between males and females. Males showed null or quasi-null temporary emigration (γ" = γ' < 0.01, while females showed a random temporary emigration (γ" of 0.10, suggesting that a small proportion of females was outside the survey area during each primary sampling period. Sex-specific temporary migration patterns were consistent with movement and residency patterns observed in other areas. The Robust Design approach provided an appropriate sampling scheme for deriving island-associated population parameters, while allowing to restrict survey effort both spatially (i.e. west coast only and temporally (five months per year. Although abundance and survival were stable over the six years, the small population size of fewer than 100 individuals suggested that this population is highly vulnerable. Priority should be given to reducing any potential impact of human activity on the population and its habitat.

  8. Accuracy assessment of a mobile terrestrial lidar survey at Padre Island National Seashore

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Samsung; Thatcher, Cindy A.; Brock, John C.; Kimbrow, Dustin R.; Danielson, Jeffrey J.; Reynolds, B.J.

    2013-01-01

    The higher point density and mobility of terrestrial laser scanning (light detection and ranging (lidar)) is desired when extremely detailed elevation data are needed for mapping vertically orientated complex features such as levees, dunes, and cliffs, or when highly accurate data are needed for monitoring geomorphic changes. Mobile terrestrial lidar scanners have the capability for rapid data collection on a larger spatial scale compared with tripod-based terrestrial lidar, but few studies have examined the accuracy of this relatively new mapping technology. For this reason, we conducted a field test at Padre Island National Seashore of a mobile lidar scanner mounted on a sport utility vehicle and integrated with a position and orientation system. The purpose of the study was to assess the vertical and horizontal accuracy of data collected by the mobile terrestrial lidar system, which is georeferenced to the Universal Transverse Mercator coordinate system and the North American Vertical Datum of 1988. To accomplish the study objectives, independent elevation data were collected by conducting a high-accuracy global positioning system survey to establish the coordinates and elevations of 12 targets spaced throughout the 12 km transect. These independent ground control data were compared to the lidar scanner-derived elevations to quantify the accuracy of the mobile lidar system. The performance of the mobile lidar system was also tested at various vehicle speeds and scan density settings (e.g. field of view and linear point spacing) to estimate the optimal parameters for desired point density. After adjustment of the lever arm parameters, the final point cloud accuracy was 0.060 m (east), 0.095 m (north), and 0.053 m (height). The very high density of the resulting point cloud was sufficient to map fine-scale topographic features, such as the complex shape of the sand dunes.

  9. Diversity and ecology of Varanus indicus in Pepaya Island at Teluk Cenderawasih National Park, West Irian Jaya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DENY ANJELIUS IYAI

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Monitor lizard (Varanidae has dispersed widely in Indonesia, even in Papua. Papua contents of six species. It’s distribution, abundance, both in land and island have been known yet, even carrying capacity of feeding relative limited. However, species extinction rates in nature were increasing both in it. This research was done in Papaya Island in Teluk Cenderawasih National Park, Nabire, Papua since 24th -25th October 2005. Descriptive method was done to answer this study. This research resulted that in Papaya island contents only one species that is Varanus indicus. The V. indicus chosen same habitat in southern part of Papaya island. This species dispersed on 0-4 m above sea level, humidity about 78.6%, and temperature about 23.90C. Vegetation was dominated by coconut (Cocos nucifera, bitangur (Calophyllum inophyllum and tikar (Pandanus sp., papaya (Carica papaya, and ketapang (Terminalia catappa. V. indicus chosen Megapodius reinwadt nest as nesting area. Population of V. indicus was estimated as much 36.3 ≈ 36 pieces by King Method. The nest of V. indicus placed in Cassuarina sp. tree where cutting down. The diet of V. indicus was found such as megapods, sea birds, lizard (sauria, butterflies and bats (Macrochyroptera. People were caused threatened both direct and indirect toward the V. indicus existence.

  10. Radwaste Management in Small Nuclear Country - National Policy and Strategy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zagar, Tomaz

    2014-01-01

    The lecture will briefly present the Slovene nuclear program and its legal framework focused on the radioactive waste management policy and strategy aspect. Slovenia is an example of small EU member state with small shared nuclear power program demonstrating safe, secure and efficient management of radioactive waste. Different principles of radioactive waste management will be discoursed; among others including: minimization of waste generation, the polluter pays principle, safe storage followed by final disposal and also new findings on research and development of storage, disposal and recycling of radioactive waste. (author)

  11. Dreams of Small Nations in a Polycentric Fashion World

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skov, Lise

    2011-01-01

    takes on national significance, in terms of staging events and displays, and engaging with cultural references outside the field of fashion. This article explores how such place-making abilities structure the polycentric world of fashion, taking the United Nations Security Council as a model......Fashion production has been split between a globalized clothing industry, which tends towards extreme centralization, and localized designer fashion sectors, acting as intermediaries between international suppliers and national events, media, and public. Under these conditions, designer fashion...... for the interaction between first- and second-tier fashion cities. The article analyzes the rhetoric of new fashion centers as a traveling discourse that detaches fashion design from the concerns of textile and clothing industries and links it with those of cultural institutions and governments. It also examines how...

  12. 76 FR 22140 - Parker River and Thacher Island National Wildlife Refuges, Essex County, MA; Comprehensive...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-20

    ..., particularly migratory birds and wintering American black ducks. A focus of management is to serve as a land... recent sea level rise study predicts that Plum Island's natural and cultural resources are imminently...

  13. Energy Transition Initiative: Island Energy Snapshot - Puerto Rico (Fact Sheet); NREL(National Renewable Energy Laboratory)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2015-03-01

    This profile provides a snapshot of the energy landscape of the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico - a U.S. territory located about 60 miles east of the Dominican Republic and directly west of the U.S. Virgin Islands.

  14. 75 FR 77615 - Availability of Seats for the Hawaiian Islands Humpback Whale National Marine Sanctuary Advisory...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-13

    ... Recreation, Business/ Commerce, Citizen-at-Large, Conservation, Tourism, Lanai Island Representative, and... Education Committee chaired by the Education Representative, and a Conservation Committee chaired by the Conservation Representative, each respectively dealing with matters concerning research, education and resource...

  15. Assateague Island National Seashore alternative transportation systems planning study and business plan for alternative transportation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-31

    The purpose of this study was to (1) study the potential expansion of existing alternative transportation systems (bicycle facilities) and development of new alternative transportation systems in and around the Maryland District of Assateague Island ...

  16. 76 FR 59159 - Record of Decision; Apostle Islands National Lakeshore, WI

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-23

    ... also can be picked-up in person at the park's headquarters at 415 Washington Avenue, Bayfield... current levels. If feasible, part of the Long Island light station will be rehabilitated for park staff...

  17. Annual Migration of Agrotis segetum (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae: Observed on a Small Isolated Island in Northern China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianglong Guo

    Full Text Available Migration behavior of the turnip moth, Agrotis segetum (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae, is not well known by far. Here, we present the data from an 11-year study on A. segetum by means of searchlight trapping and ovarian dissection on Beihuang (BH Island, which located in the center of the Bohai Strait in northern China. The data showed a large number of A. segetum flight across the strait each year, which provides direct evidence that A. segetum is a long-distance migrant, migrating at least 40-60 km to reach the trapping site. The migration period during 2003-2013 ranged from 115 to 172 d. Among the catches, the proportion of females was significantly higher than that of males in each month from May to September. Ovarian dissection showed that the proportion of mated females and the proportion of sexually mature females was significantly higher than that of unmated females and sexually immature females in early summer, respectively, but conversely in autumn. The early summer populations migrate in a south-north direction, which might undertake a long-distance flight on several successive nights. The autumn populations migrate in a north-south direction, which might originate not far from the trapping site. Based on these findings, the migratory physiology of A. segetum was discussed.

  18. Energy Recovery from Scrap Tires: A Sustainable Option for Small Islands like Puerto Rico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eddie N. Laboy-Nieves

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Puerto Rico generates and disposes nearly five million/year scrap tires (ST, of which 4.2% is recycled and 80% is exported. The Island has one of the world highest electrical service tariff ($0.28 kWh, because of its dependency on fossil fuels for power generation. The Government has not considered ST for electricity production, despite more than 13,000 ST are generated daily, and paradoxically exported for that purpose. Theoretically, if ST recycling increases to 10% and assuming that the caloric value of ST be 33 MJ/kg, it was estimated that scrap tires processed with pyrolysis can supply annually about 379 MWh, a potential value that shall not be unnoticed. This paper is a literature review to describe the legal, technical, and economic framework for the viability of ST for power generation in Puerto Rico using pyrolysis, the most recommended process for ST energy recovery. Data of ST from Puerto Rico was used to model the potential of ST for pyrolytic energy conversion. The herein article is intended to invite other insular countries and territories, to join efforts with the academic and scientific community, and with the energy generation sector, to validate ST as a sustainable option for energy generation.

  19. National Coral Reef Monitoring Program: Stratified Random Surveys (StRS) of Coral Demography (Adult and Juvenile Corals) across the Pacific Remote Island Areas since 2014

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The data described here result from benthic coral demographic surveys for two life stages (juveniles, adults) across the Pacific Remote Island Areas since 2014....

  20. A national facility for small angle neutron scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buyers, W.J.L.; Katsaras, J.; Mellors, W.; Potter, M.M.; Powell, B.M.; Rogge, R.B.; Root, J.H.; Tennant, D.C.; Tun, Z.

    1995-01-01

    A world-class small angle neutron scattering (SANS) facility is proposed for Canada. It will provide users from the fields of biology, chemistry, physics, materials science and engineering with a uniquely powerful tool for investigating microstructural properties whose length scales lie in the optical to atomic range. (author). 7 refs

  1. A national facility for small angle neutron scattering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buyers, W J.L.; Katsaras, J; Mellors, W; Potter, M M; Powell, B M; Rogge, R B; Root, J H; Tennant, D C; Tun, Z [Atomic Energy of Canada Ltd., Chalk River, ON (Canada). Chalk River Nuclear Labs.; Epand, R; Gaulin, B D [McMaster Univ., Hamilton, ON (Canada)

    1995-09-15

    A world-class small angle neutron scattering (SANS) facility is proposed for Canada. It will provide users from the fields of biology, chemistry, physics, materials science and engineering with a uniquely powerful tool for investigating microstructural properties whose length scales lie in the optical to atomic range. (author). 7 refs.

  2. Distribution and abundance of elkhorn coral, Acropora palmata, and prevalence of white-band disease at Buck Island Reef National Monument, St. Croix, US Virgin Islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayor, Philippe A.; Rogers, Caroline S.; Hillis-Starr, Zandy M.

    2006-05-01

    In the 1970s and 1980s elkhorn coral, Acropora palmata, declined dramatically throughout the Caribbean primarily due to white-band disease (WBD). In 2005, elkhorn coral was proposed for listing as threatened under the US Endangered Species Act. WBD was first documented at Buck Island Reef National Monument (BIRNM). Together with hurricanes WBD reduced live elkhorn coral coverage by probably over 90%. In the past decade some recovery has been observed at BIRNM. This study assessed the distribution and abundance of elkhorn coral and estimated the prevalence of WBD at the monument. Within an area of 795 ha, we estimated 97,232 134,371 (95% confidence limits) elkhorn coral colonies with any dimension of connected live tissue greater than one meter, about 3% of which were infected by WBD. Despite some recovery, the elkhorn coral density remains low and WBD may continue to present a threat to the elkhorn coral population.

  3. EAARL Coastal Topography-Fire Island National Seashore, New York, Post-Nor'Ida, 2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nayegandhi, Amar; Vivekanandan, Saisudha; Brock, J.C.; Wright, C.W.; Nagle, D.B.; Bonisteel-Cormier, J.M.; Fredericks, Xan; Stevens, Sara

    2010-01-01

    These remotely sensed, geographically referenced elevation measurements of lidar-derived bare-earth (BE) and first-surface (FS) topography datasets were produced collaboratively by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), St. Petersburg Coastal and Marine Science Center, St. Petersburg, FL, and the National Park Service (NPS), Northeast Coastal and Barrier Network, Kingston, RI. This project provides highly detailed and accurate datasets of a portion of the Fire Island National Seashore in New York, acquired post-Nor'Ida (November 2009 nor'easter) on December 4, 2009. The datasets are made available for use as a management tool to research scientists and natural-resource managers. An innovative airborne lidar instrument originally developed at the NASA Wallops Flight Facility, and known as the Experimental Advanced Airborne Research Lidar (EAARL), was used during data acquisition. The EAARL system is a raster-scanning, waveform-resolving, green-wavelength (532-nanometer) lidar designed to map near-shore bathymetry, topography, and vegetation structure simultaneously. The EAARL sensor suite includes the raster-scanning, water-penetrating full-waveform adaptive lidar, a down-looking red-green-blue (RGB) digital camera, a high-resolution multispectral color-infrared (CIR) camera, two precision dual-frequency kinematic carrier-phase GPS receivers, and an integrated miniature digital inertial measurement unit, which provide for sub-meter georeferencing of each laser sample. The nominal EAARL platform is a twin-engine aircraft, but the instrument was deployed on a Pilatus PC-6. A single pilot, a lidar operator, and a data analyst constitute the crew for most survey operations. This sensor has the potential to make significant contributions in measuring sub-aerial and submarine coastal topography within cross-environmental surveys. Elevation measurements were collected over the survey area using the EAARL system, and the resulting data were then processed using the Airborne

  4. Small Nations in Multinational Operations and Armenian Perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-12-12

    assigned in different positions gain experience in working in multinational and multicultural environments. 25 Megan Hart, “Kansas National Guard...comes from various internet publications and printed materials provided by the online Combined Arms Research Library . Although there were not many

  5. Spatial Characteristics of Small Green Spaces' Mitigating Effects on Microscopic Urban Heat Islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, J.; Lee, D. K.; Jeong, W.; Kim, J. H.; Huh, K. Y.

    2015-12-01

    The purpose of the study is to find small greens' disposition, types and sizes to reduce air temperature effectively in urban blocks. The research sites were six high developed blocks in Seoul, Korea. Air temperature was measured with mobile loggers in clear daytime during summer, from August to September, at screen level. Also the measurement repeated over three times a day during three days by walking and circulating around the experimental blocks and the control blocks at the same time. By analyzing spatial characteristics, the averaged air temperatures were classified with three spaces, sunny spaces, building-shaded spaces and small green spaces by using Kruskal-Wallis Test; and small green spaces in 6 blocks were classified into their outward forms, polygonal or linear and single or mixed. The polygonal and mixed types of small green spaces mitigated averaged air temperature of each block which they belonged with a simple linear regression model with adjusted R2 = 0.90**. As the area and volume of these types increased, the effect of air temperature reduction (ΔT; Air temperature difference between sunny space and green space in a block) also increased in a linear relationship. The experimental range of this research is 100m2 ~ 2,000m2 of area, and 1,000m3 ~ 10,000m3 of volume of small green space. As a result, more than 300m2 and 2,300m3 of polygonal green spaces with mixed vegetation is required to lower 1°C; 650m2 and 5,000m3 of them to lower 2°C; about 2,000m2 and about 10,000m3 of them to lower 4°C air temperature reduction in an urban block.

  6. Curriculum Renewal in a Small Island State: Stabilization and Early Recovery Phases of Reconstruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longhurst, Michael James

    2016-01-01

    In countries recovering from disaster or conflict, school curriculum renewal is submerged in a plethora of more immediate concerns of a nascent government. Yet, curriculum is the cornerstone of any education system. Using a case study for context, this paper describes a methodology to maximise the quality of the emergent national curriculum. In…

  7. Life cycle assessment of municipal solid waste management scenarios on the small island of Mauritius.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajcoomar, Avinash; Ramjeawon, Toolseeram

    2017-03-01

    The aim of this study was to use the life cycle assessment tool to assess, from an environmental point of view, the different possible municipal solid waste (MSW) management scenarios for the island of Mauritius. The scenarios include landfilling with energy recovery (S1), incineration with energy recovery (S2), composting, incineration and landfilling (S3) and finally composting, recycling, incineration and landfilling (S4). The MSW generated in 2010 was selected as the functional unit. Foreground data were collected through surveys and literature. Background data were obtained from ecoinvent data in SimaPro 8 libraries. The scenarios were compared both through the CML-IA baseline-midpoint method and the ReCiPe end-point method. From the midpoint method, the results obtained indicates that landfilling (S1) has the greatest impact in all the analyzed impact categories except ozone layer depletion and human toxicity, while incineration (S2) has the least impact on almost all the analyzed damage categories except in global warming potential and human toxicity. The collection and transportation of waste has a significant impact on the environment. From the end-point method, S4 reduces the damage impact categories on Human Health, Ecosystems and Resources due to the recycling process. S3 is not favorable due to the impact caused by the composting process. However, it is also very important to emphasize that for incineration, the best available technology with energy recovery shall be considered. It is recommended that S2 and S4 are considered for strategic planning.

  8. Report of the DHS National Small Vessel Security Summit

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-10-19

    Fetterman , Maine Department of Marine Resources Lt Bill Krul, Marine Patrol, St. Clair County, Michigan Sgt Jim Lambert, Marine Patrol, Alameda...Major John C. Fetterman – State of Maine Major Fetterman currently serves as Vice President of the National Association of State Boating Law...or seemingly out of place vessel enters a maritime community, it will attract the attention of his officers. Major Fetterman was concerned that

  9. Spatial and temporal assessment of back-barrier erosion on Cumberland Island National Seashore, Georgia, 2011–2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calhoun, Daniel L.; Riley, Jeffrey W.

    2016-07-15

    Much research has been conducted to better understand erosion and accretion processes for the seaward zones of coastal barrier islands; however, at Cumberland Island National Seashore, Georgia, the greater management concern is the effect that erosion is having on the resources of the island’s western shoreline, or the back barrier. Catastrophic slumping and regular rates of erosion greater than 1 meter per year threaten important habitat, historical and pre-historical resources, and modern infrastructure on the island. Prior research has helped National Park Service (NPS) staff identify the most severe and vulnerable areas, but in order to develop effective management actions, information is needed on what forces and conditions cause erosion. To this end, the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the NPS, conducted two longitudinal surveys, one each at the beginning and end of the approximately year-long monitoring period from late 2011 to early 2013, along five selected segments of the back barrier of the Cumberland Island National Seashore. Monitoring stations were constructed at four of these locations that had previously been identified as erosional hotspots. The magnitude of erosion at each location was quantified to determine the relative influence of causative agents. Results indicate that erosion is, in general, highly variable within and among these segments of the Cumberland Island National Seashore’s back barrier. Observed erosion ranged from a maximum of 2.5 meters of bluff-line retreat to some areas that exhibited no net erosion over the 1-year study period. In terms of timing of erosion, three of the four sites were primarily affected by punctuated erosional events that were coincident with above-average high tides and elevated wind speeds. The fourth site exhibited steady, low-magnitude retreat throughout the study period. While it is difficult to precisely subscribe certain amounts of erosion to specific agents, this study provides

  10. Prostate cancer screening by prostate-specific antigen (PSA); a relevant approach for the small population of the Cayman Islands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jyoti, Shravana Kumar; Blacke, Camille; Patil, Pallavi; Amblihalli, Vibha P; Nicholson, Amanda

    2018-01-01

    The common tool for diagnosing prostate cancer is prostate-specific antigen (PSA), but the high sensitivity and low specificity of PSA testing are the problems in clinical practice. There are no proper guidelines to investigate the suspected prostate cancer in the Cayman Islands. We correlated PSA levels with the incidence of prostate cancers by tissue diagnosis and proposed logical protocol for prostate screening by using PSA test in this small population. A total of 165 Afro Caribbean individuals who had prostate biopsy done after the investigations for PSA levels from year 2005 to 2015 were studied retrospectively. The patients were divided into subgroups by baseline PSA levels as follows: 100 ng/mL and were correlated to the age and presence of cancer. Benign lesions had lower PSA levels compared to cancer which generally had higher values. Only three cases that had less than 4 ng/mg were turned out to be malignant. When PSA value was more than 100 ng/mL, all the cases were malignant. Between PSA values of 4-100 ng/mL, the probability of cancer diagnosis was 56.71% (76 cancers out of 134 in this range). Limitation of PSA testing has the risk of over diagnosis and the resultant negative biopsies owing to poor specificity. Whereas the cutoff limit for cancer diagnosis still remains 4 ng/mL from our study, most of the patients can be assured of benign lesion below this level and thus morbidity associated with the biopsy can be prevented. When the PSA value is greater than 100 ng, biopsy procedure was mandatory as there were 100% cancers above this level. On the background of vast literature linking PSA to prostate cancer and its difficulty in implementing in clinical practice, we studied literature of this conflicting and complex topic and tried to bring relevant protocols to the small population of Cayman Islands for the screening of prostate cancer. In this study, a total of 165 Afro Caribbean individuals who had prostate biopsy done after the

  11. Resource Use in Small Island States: Material Flows in Iceland and Trinidad and Tobago, 1961-2008.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krausmann, Fridolin; Richter, Regina; Eisenmenger, Nina

    2014-04-01

    Iceland and Trinidad and Tobago are small open, high-income island economies with very specific resource-use patterns. This article presents a material flow analysis (MFA) for the two countries covering a time period of nearly five decades. Both countries have a narrow domestic resource base, their economy being largely based on the exploitation of one or two key resources for export production. In the case of Trinidad and Tobago, the physical economy is dominated by oil and natural gas extraction and petrochemical industries, whereas Iceland's economy for centuries has been based on fisheries. More recently, abundant hydropower and geothermal heat were the basis for the establishment of large export-oriented metal processing industries, which fully depend on imported raw materials and make use of domestic renewable electricity. Both countries are highly dependent on these natural resources and vulnerable to overexploitation and price developments. We show how the export-oriented industries lead to high and growing levels of per capita material and energy use and carbon dioxide emissions resulting from large amounts of processing wastes and energy consumption in production processes. The example of small open economies with an industrial production system focused on few, but abundant, key resources and of comparatively low complexity provides interesting insights of how resource endowment paired with availability or absence of infrastructure and specific institutional arrangements drives domestic resource-use patterns. This also contributes to a better understanding and interpretation of MFA indicators, such as domestic material consumption.

  12. Determinants of Visitor Pro-Environmental Intentions on Two Small Greek Islands: Is Ecotourism Possible at Coastal Protected Areas?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kafyri, Andriani; Hovardas, Tasos; Poirazidis, Konstantinos

    2012-07-01

    A relatively under-researched question is whether there is a possibility of influencing environmentally aware tourists regarding ecotourism at destinations that continue to develop under a pattern of mass `seaside' tourism. Our objective was to assess the pro-environmental intentions of visitors at two small Greek islands, which are within a Natura 2000 site, specifically Paxoi and Antipaxoi. Intentions involved willingness to receive information about the protected area, willingness to accept pro-environmental limitations on recreational experience, and willingness-to-pay a conditional environmental conservation value added tax. In addition, we aimed to identify determinants of visitor pro-environmental intentions among visitor and visit characteristics, visitor satisfaction, and self-reported environmental knowledge, as well as anticipated outcomes of tourism development and suggestions for protected area management. We randomly collected 324 usable questionnaires during the summer season; 242 (74.69 %) by Greek visitors and 82 (25.31 %) by foreign visitors. Visitor satisfaction was quite high; however, visitors reported low levels of environmental knowledge. Our findings showed that the unique characteristics of the destination were not salient among visitors and that there is a lack of effective outreach campaigns, interpretation, and on-site environmental education programs. However, our study revealed high levels of visitor pro-environmental intentions that might support the promotion of ecotourism on the two islands. We provide recommendations based on determinants of visitor pro-environmental intentions, which might assist towards advancing visitor participation in environmental education projects, environmentally responsible behavior among visitors, and financial contribution to environmental conservation by visitors.

  13. Determinants of visitor pro-environmental intentions on two small Greek islands: is ecotourism possible at coastal protected areas?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kafyri, Andriani; Hovardas, Tasos; Poirazidis, Konstantinos

    2012-07-01

    A relatively under-researched question is whether there is a possibility of influencing environmentally aware tourists regarding ecotourism at destinations that continue to develop under a pattern of mass 'seaside' tourism. Our objective was to assess the pro-environmental intentions of visitors at two small Greek islands, which are within a Natura 2000 site, specifically Paxoi and Antipaxoi. Intentions involved willingness to receive information about the protected area, willingness to accept pro-environmental limitations on recreational experience, and willingness-to-pay a conditional environmental conservation value added tax. In addition, we aimed to identify determinants of visitor pro-environmental intentions among visitor and visit characteristics, visitor satisfaction, and self-reported environmental knowledge, as well as anticipated outcomes of tourism development and suggestions for protected area management. We randomly collected 324 usable questionnaires during the summer season; 242 (74.69 %) by Greek visitors and 82 (25.31 %) by foreign visitors. Visitor satisfaction was quite high; however, visitors reported low levels of environmental knowledge. Our findings showed that the unique characteristics of the destination were not salient among visitors and that there is a lack of effective outreach campaigns, interpretation, and on-site environmental education programs. However, our study revealed high levels of visitor pro-environmental intentions that might support the promotion of ecotourism on the two islands. We provide recommendations based on determinants of visitor pro-environmental intentions, which might assist towards advancing visitor participation in environmental education projects, environmentally responsible behavior among visitors, and financial contribution to environmental conservation by visitors.

  14. Aeromagnetic and aerial photographic survey in the South Shetland Islands,Antarctica, conducted by a small unmanned aerial vehicle (Ant-Plane

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minoru Funaki

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Two small unmanned aerial vehicles, Ant-Plane 6 and Ant-Plane 3, were assembled using parts and technologies developed for model airplanes. The aerial vehicles were scheduled to conduct aero magnetic and photographic surveys of the Brans?eld Basin, from a takeoff runway at Marsh Air?eld on the South Shetland Islands, Antarctica, during January 2011. However, the scheduled surveys were not conducted on account of poor weather. Research was later conducted on a glacier, using a takeoff runway at St. Kliment Ohridski Base, Livingston Island, during December 2011. A ?ight from St. Kliment Ohridski Base to Deception Island yielded satisfactory results; the total distance of 302.4 km was traversed in 3 h 7 min (3:07. On this ?ight, aeromagnetic and aerial photographic data were obtained from an altitude of 780 m for a 9×18 km area on the northern half of Deception Island. Aerial photographs of Deception Island and South Bay showed the distributions of glaciers and their crevasses. The Ant-Plane ?ew over the Antarctic horizon and surveyed above Deception Island. That was the successful venture of this kind, demonstrating that airborne surveys by Ant-Planes are useful for Antarctic research investigations. Airborne surveys provide a safe and economical approach to data acquisition as compared with manned aerial operations.

  15. Operational research to inform a sub-national surveillance intervention for malaria elimination in Solomon Islands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atkinson Jo-An

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Successful reduction of malaria transmission to very low levels has made Isabel Province, Solomon Islands, a target for early elimination by 2014. High malaria transmission in neighbouring provinces and the potential for local asymptomatic infections to cause malaria resurgence highlights the need for sub-national tailoring of surveillance interventions. This study contributes to a situational analysis of malaria in Isabel Province to inform an appropriate surveillance intervention. Methods A mixed method study was carried out in Isabel Province in late 2009 and early 2010. The quantitative component was a population-based prevalence survey of 8,554 people from 129 villages, which were selected using a spatially stratified sampling approach to achieve uniform geographical coverage of populated areas. Diagnosis was initially based on Giemsa-stained blood slides followed by molecular analysis using polymerase chain reaction (PCR. Local perceptions and practices related to management of fever and treatment-seeking that would impact a surveillance intervention were also explored using qualitative research methods. Results Approximately 33% (8,554/26,221 of the population of Isabel Province participated in the survey. Only one subject was found to be infected with Plasmodium falciparum (Pf (96 parasites/μL using Giemsa-stained blood films, giving a prevalence of 0.01%. PCR analysis detected a further 13 cases, giving an estimated malaria prevalence of 0.51%. There was a wide geographical distribution of infected subjects. None reported having travelled outside Isabel Province in the previous three months suggesting low-level indigenous malaria transmission. The qualitative findings provide warning signs that the current community vigilance approach to surveillance will not be sufficient to achieve elimination. In addition, fever severity is being used by individuals as an indicator for malaria and a trigger for timely treatment

  16. Solid waste management of small island developing states-the case of the Seychelles: a systemic and collaborative study of Swiss and Seychellois students to support policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meylan, Grégoire; Lai, Adelene; Hensley, John; Stauffacher, Michael; Krütli, Pius

    2018-05-15

    Solid waste management (SWM) is a significant challenge for the Seychelles. Waste generation, fueled by economic development and tourism, increases steadily, while landfilling continues to be the main disposal path, thus exacerbating the island nation's specific weaknesses. Due to the small scale of the Seychelles economy, there is little capital available to stimulate innovations in SWM and generate the knowledge for setting priorities and guiding SWM action. Students from ETH Zurich and UniSey conducted a transdisciplinary case study (tdCS) to fill this knowledge gap and gain insights into the obstacles and opportunities related to sustainable SWM. The tdCS approach allowed students to gain comprehensive and in-depth knowledge about the SWM system required to set priorities for action and next steps. The government should streamline the different financial frameworks according to a clear principle (e.g., polluter pays principle). Specific biogenic waste streams represent a potential source of energy and fertilizers. Expanding the scope and densifying the network of collection points could help raise recycling rates of other waste fractions. Diverting biogenic waste and recycling more glass, metals, paper, and plastics would also significantly reduce landfilling rates. Regardless of future amounts of waste ending up on landfills, the latter must be reengineered before the surrounding environment suffers major adverse impacts. All these actions imply a government-driven approach which integrates the views of stakeholders and consumers alike.

  17. Evaluating Mitigation Effects of Urban Heat Islands in a Historical Small Center with the ENVI-Met® Climate Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dario Ambrosini

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Urban morphology and increasing building density play a key role in the overall use of energy and promotion of environmental sustainability. The urban environment causes a local increase of temperature, a phenomenon known as Urban Heat Island (UHI. The purpose of this work is the study of the possible formation of an UHI and the evaluation of its magnitude, in the context of a small city, carried out with the ENVI-met® software. For this purpose, a simulation was needed, and this simulation is preparatory for a monitoring campaign on site, which will be held in the immediate future. ENVI-met® simulates the temporal evolution of several thermodynamics parameters on a micro-scale range, creating a 3D, non-hydrostatic model of the interactions between building-atmosphere-vegetation. The weather conditions applied simulate a typical Italian summer heat wave. Three different case-studies have been analyzed: Base Case, Cool Case and Green Case. Analysis of the actual state in the Base Case shows how even in an area with average building density, such as the old town center of a small city, fully developed UHI may rise with strong thermal gradients between built areas and open zones with plenty of vegetation. These gradients arise in a really tiny space (few hundreds of meters, showing that the influence of urban geometry can be decisive in the characterization of local microclimate. Simulations, carried out considering the application of green or cool roofs, showed small relevant effects as they become evident only in large areas heavily built up (metropolis subject to more intense climate conditions.

  18. 78 FR 49722 - Tongass National Forest Wrangell Ranger District; Alaska; Wrangell Island Project Environmental...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-15

    ... on March 13, 2012 (77 FR 14727). This corrected NOI is being published because the project will now... not expected until after September 27, 2013, the Wrangell Island Project is now subject to these new... include 1) timber supply and timber sale economics, 2) old-growth reserve designs, and 3) road access and...

  19. Pijin at School in Solomon Islands: Language Ideologies and the Nation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jourdan, Christine

    2013-01-01

    In this article, I analyze the reasons that have excluded Pijin, the lingua franca of Solomon Islands, South West Pacific, from being used as a medium of instruction, and why this may now become possible. Following a short sociolinguistic sketch, I present the colonial and post-colonial linguistic ideologies that shaped sociolinguistic…

  20. Heron Island, Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    Heron Island is located at the sourthern end of Australia's 2,050 km-long Great Barrier Reef. Surrounded by coral reef and home to over 1000 species of fish, scuba divers and scientists alike are drawn to the island's resort and research station. The true-color image above was taken by Space Imaging's Ikonos satellite with a resolution of 4 meters per pixel-high enough to see individual boats tied up at the small marina. The narrow channel leading from the marina to the ocean was blasted and dredged decades ago, before the island became a national park. Since then the Australian government has implemented conservation measures, such as limiting the number of tourists and removing or recycling, instead of incinerating, all trash. One of the applications of remote sensing data from Ikonos is environmental monitoring, including studies of coral reef health. For more information about the island, read Heron Island. Image by Robert Simmon, based on data copyright Space Imaging

  1. Water quality and aquatic communities of upland wetlands, Cumberland Island National Seashore, Georgia, April 1999 to July 2000

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frick, Elizabeth A.; Gregory, M. Brian; Calhoun, Daniel L.; Hopkins, Evelyn H.

    2002-01-01

    Cumberland Island is the southernmost and largest barrier island along the coast of Georgia. The island contains about 2,500 acres of freshwater wetlands that are located in a variety of physical settings, have a wide range of hydroperiods, and are influenced to varying degrees by surface and ground water, rainwater, and seawater. In 1999-2000, the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the National Park Service, conducted a water-quality study of Cumberland Island National Seashore to document and interpret the quality of a representative subset of surface- and ground-water resources for management of the seashore's natural resources. As part of this study, historical ground-water, surface-water, and ecological studies conducted on Cumberland Island also were summarized. Surface-water samples from six wetland areas located in the upland area of Cumberland Island were collected quarterly from April 1999 to March 2000 and analyzed for major ions, nutrients, trace elements, and field water-quality constituents including specific conductance, pH, temperature, dissolved oxygen, alkalinity, tannin and lignin, and turbidity. In addition, water temperature and specific conductance were recorded continuously from two wetland areas located near the mean high-tide mark on the Atlantic Ocean beaches from April 1999 to July 2000. Fish and invertebrate communities from six wetlands were sampled during April and December 1999. The microbial quality of the near-shore Atlantic Ocean was assessed in seawater samples collected for 5 consecutive days in April 1999 at five beaches near campgrounds where most recreational water contact occurs. Ground-water samples were collected from the Upper Floridan aquifer in April 1999 and from the surficial aquifer in April 2000 at 11 permanent wells and 4 temporary wells (drive points), and were analyzed for major ions, nutrients, trace elements, and field water-quality constituents (conductivity, pH, temperature, dissolved oxygen, and

  2. Personal attitudes towards smoking in a national sample of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander smokers and recent quitters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicholson, Anna K; Borland, Ron; Bennet, Pele T; van der Sterren, Anke E; Stevens, Matthew; Thomas, David P

    2015-06-01

    To describe attitudes towards smoking in a national sample of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander smokers and recent quitters and assess how they are associated with quitting, and to compare these attitudes with those of smokers in the general Australian population. The Talking About The Smokes project used a quota sampling design to recruit participants from communities served by 34 Aboriginal community-controlled health services and one community in the Torres Strait. We surveyed 1392 daily smokers, 251 non-daily smokers and 78 recent quitters from April 2012 to October 2013. Personal attitudes towards smoking and quitting, wanting to quit, and attempting to quit in the past year. Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander daily smokers were less likely than daily smokers in the general Australian population to report enjoying smoking (65% v 81%) and more likely to disagree that smoking is an important part of their life (49% v 38%); other attitudes were similar between the two groups. In the Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander sample, non-daily smokers generally held less positive attitudes towards smoking compared with daily smokers, and ex-smokers who had quit within the past year reported positive views about quitting. Among the daily smokers, 78% reported regretting starting to smoke and 81% reported spending too much money on cigarettes, both of which were positively associated with wanting and attempting to quit; 32% perceived smoking to be an important part of their life, which was negatively associated with both quit outcomes; and 83% agreed that smoking calms them down when stressed, which was not associated with the quitting outcomes. Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander smokers were less likely than those in the general population to report positive reasons to smoke and held similar views about the negative aspects, suggesting that factors other than personal attitudes may be responsible for the high continuing smoking rate in this population.

  3. National Coastal Condition Assessment (NCCA) Sampling Areas Map, Hawaiian Islands Shoreline, 2015, US EPA Region 9

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The National Coastal Condition Assessment (NCCA) is a national coastal monitoring program with rigorous quality assurance protocols and standardized sampling...

  4. Value Chains of Public and Private Health-care Services in a Small EU Island State: A SWOT Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buttigieg, Sandra C.; Schuetz, Marcus; Bezzina, Frank

    2016-01-01

    The global financial and macroeconomic crisis of 2008/2009 and the ensuing recessions obliged policy makers to maximize use of resources and cut down on waste. Specifically, in health care, governments started to explore ways of establishing collaborations between the public and private health-care sectors. This is essential so as to ensure the best use of available resources, while securing quality of delivery of care as well as health systems sustainability and resilience. This qualitative study explores complementary and mutual attributes in the value creation process to patients by the public and private health-care systems in Malta, a small European Union island state. A workshop was conducted with 28 professionals from both sectors to generate two separate value chains, and this was followed by an analysis of strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats (SWOT). The latter revealed several strengths and opportunities, which can better equip health-policy makers in the quest to maximize provision of health-care services. Moreover, the analysis also highlighted areas of weaknesses in both sectors as well as current threats of the external environment that, unless addressed, may threaten the state’s health-care system sustainability and resilience to macroeconomic shocks. The study goes on to provide feasible recommendations aimed at maximizing provision of health-care services in Malta. PMID:27683658

  5. Value Chains of Public and Private Health-care Services in a Small EU Island State: A SWOT Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buttigieg, Sandra C; Schuetz, Marcus; Bezzina, Frank

    2016-01-01

    The global financial and macroeconomic crisis of 2008/2009 and the ensuing recessions obliged policy makers to maximize use of resources and cut down on waste. Specifically, in health care, governments started to explore ways of establishing collaborations between the public and private health-care sectors. This is essential so as to ensure the best use of available resources, while securing quality of delivery of care as well as health systems sustainability and resilience. This qualitative study explores complementary and mutual attributes in the value creation process to patients by the public and private health-care systems in Malta, a small European Union island state. A workshop was conducted with 28 professionals from both sectors to generate two separate value chains, and this was followed by an analysis of strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats (SWOT). The latter revealed several strengths and opportunities, which can better equip health-policy makers in the quest to maximize provision of health-care services. Moreover, the analysis also highlighted areas of weaknesses in both sectors as well as current threats of the external environment that, unless addressed, may threaten the state's health-care system sustainability and resilience to macroeconomic shocks. The study goes on to provide feasible recommendations aimed at maximizing provision of health-care services in Malta.

  6. Value chains of public and private health care services in a small EU Island State: A SWOT analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra C. Buttigieg

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The global financial and macro-economic crisis of 2008/2009 and the ensuing recessions obliged policy makers to maximize use of resources and cut down on waste. Specifically in health care, governments started to explore ways of establishing collaborations between the public and private healthcare sectors. This is essential so as to ensure the best use of available resources, while securing quality of delivery of care, as well as health systems sustainability and resilience. This qualitative study explores complementary and mutual attributes in the value creation process to patients by the public and private health care systems in Malta, a small EU island state. A workshop was conducted with 28 professionals from both sectors to generate two separate value chains and this was followed by an analysis of strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats (SWOT. The latter revealed several strengths and opportunities, which can better equip health policy makers in the quest to maximize provision of health care services. Moreover, the analysis also highlighted areas of weaknesses in both sectors as well as current threats of the external environment that unless addressed, may threaten the state’s health care system sustainability and resilience to macroeconomic shocks. The study goes on to provide feasible recommendations aimed at maximizing provision of health care services in Malta.

  7. Allocating the economic benefits of renewable energy between stakeholders on Small Island Developing States (SIDS): Arguments for a balanced approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spiegel-Feld, Danielle; Rudyk, Bryce; Philippidis, George

    2016-01-01

    For many Small Island Developing States (SIDS) the cost of producing electricity from imported fossil fuels is so high and the cost of renewable energy technology has fallen so significantly that transitioning towards renewable energy is likely to produce cost savings. A recent workshop at NYU School of Law, which brought together SIDS utility representatives with a leading renewable energy developer and other stakeholders, provided strong support for this prediction. Utilities are likely to own the majority of renewable energy assets in SIDS and will therefore be the initial custodians of any cost savings renewable energy provides. This raises a key policy question: to what extent should SIDS utilities pass on these savings to consumers by lowering electricity rates? We analyze this overlooked element of energy policy and highlight undesirable consequences that complete disbursement of the savings to consumers could cause. - Highlights: • Renewables will create savings in SIDS by lowering electricity production costs. • Utilities are likely to own the bulk of renewable energy assets in SIDS. • Policymakers will need to decide how to divide savings among stakeholders. • There are compelling reasons to allow utilities to retain part of the savings. • Creditors can play a role in ensuring a prudent distribution of savings.

  8. Ecosystem-Based Adaptation to Climate Change in Caribbean Small Island Developing States: Integrating Local and External Knowledge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiina Kurvits

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Caribbean Small Island Developing States (SIDS are vulnerable to climate change impacts including sea level rise, invasive species, ocean acidification, changes in rainfall patterns, increased temperatures, and changing hazard regimes including hurricanes, floods and drought. Given high dependencies in Caribbean SIDS on natural resources for livelihoods, a focus on ecosystems and their interaction with people is essential for climate change adaptation. Increasingly, ecosystem-based adaptation (EbA approaches are being highlighted as an approach to address climate change impacts. Specifically, EbA encourages the use of local and external knowledge about ecosystems to identify climate change adaptation approaches. This paper critically reviews EbA in Caribbean SIDS, focusing on the need to integrate local and external knowledge. An analysis of current EbA in the Caribbean is undertaken alongside a review of methodologies used to integrate local and external expertise for EbA. Finally key gaps, lessons learnt and suggested ways forward for EbA in Caribbean SIDS and potentially further afield are identified.

  9. Researching Pacific island livelihoods:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Egelund Christensen, Andreas; Mertz, Ole

    2010-01-01

    on contemporary theories of nissology and conceptual analytical frameworks for island research. Through a review of selected case-study-based island literature on changing livelihoods coming out of the South Pacific, we wish to illustrate and discuss advantages of finding common grounds for small island studies....... The focus is on two dimensions of island livelihood, migration and natural resource management, both of which are significant contributors in making island livelihoods and shaping Pacific seascapes. We argue that there is still a substantial lack of studies targeting small island dynamics that are empirical...

  10. Are vegetated areas of mangroves attractive to juvenile and small fish? The case of Dongzhaigang Bay, Hainan Island, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Mao; Huang, Zhenyuan; Shi, Fushan; Wang, Wenqing

    2009-11-01

    Well-developed aerial roots of mangroves make it difficult to study how fish utilize the mangrove forest as a habitat. In the present study, we compared the differences in fish assemblages in three major types of habitats of mangrove estuary (vegetated area, treeless mudflat, and creek) of a mangrove bay in Hainan Island, China, at different seasons during two consecutive years. Three types of gears, centipede net, gill net and cast net, were used in the different habitats of mangrove estuary and sampling efficiencies among gears were evaluated. Centipede nets were used in all the three types of habitats and cast nets and gill nets in treeless mudflats and creeks. Fish assemblages were dependent on gears used. Centipede net could efficiently catch fish occurring both inside and outside of vegetated areas efficiently. A total of 115 fish species in 51 families were collected. In terms of numbers of species per family, Gobiidae was the most diverse (17 species), followed by Mugilidae (5 species). Almost all of the fish were juvenile or small fish and few predators were recorded, implying low predation pressure in the bay. ANOVA analysis showed that significant seasonal and spatial variation existed in species richness, abundance, and biomass, which were less in the vegetated areas than those of treeless mudflats and creeks. The attraction of vegetated areas to fish was less than that of creeks and mudflats. Many species were specific to a particular habitat type, 4 species occurring exclusively in the creeks, 45 species occurring exclusively in the treeless mudflats, and 5 species occurring exclusively in the vegetated areas. The results indicated that mangrove estuaries were potentially attractive habitats for juvenile and small fish, but this attraction was accomplished by a connection of vegetated areas, treeless mudflats and creeks, not only by vegetated areas.

  11. 77 FR 6579 - Vendor Outreach Workshop for Small Information Technology (IT) Businesses in the National Capitol...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-08

    ... Technology (IT) Businesses in the National Capitol Region of the United States AGENCY: Office of the Secretary, Interior. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Office of Small and Disadvantaged Business Utilization of the Department of the Interior is hosting a Vendor Outreach Workshop for small IT businesses in the...

  12. Global environmental change and small island states and territories : economic and labour market implications of climate change on the tourism sector of the Maltese Islands

    OpenAIRE

    Jones, Andrew; Symposium on Global Environmental Change and Small Islands

    2014-01-01

    This presentation reviews threats to, and consequences of, current climate and environmental change on tourism destinations. The paper reviews recent published research on the impacts of climate and environmental change and consequences of such on the physical social and economic character of tourism operations using the Maltese Islands as a case. The validity and practicality of management options to tackle the complex nature and juxtaposition between tourism growth, climate and environment ...

  13. Sand Resources, Regional Geology, and Coastal Processes of the Chandeleur Islands Coastal System: an Evaluation of the Breton National Wildlife Refuge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavoie, Dawn

    2009-01-01

    Breton National Wildlife Refuge, the Chandeleur Islands chain in Louisiana, provides habitat and nesting areas for wildlife and is an initial barrier protecting New Orleans from storms. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) in partnership with the University of New Orleans Pontchartrain Institute for Environmental Sciences undertook an intensive study that included (1) an analysis of island change based on historical maps and remotely sensed shoreline and topographic data; (2) a series of lidar surveys at 3- to 4-month intervals after Hurricane Katrina to determine barrier island recovery potential; (3) a discussion of sea level rise and effects on the islands; (4) an analysis of sea floor evolution and sediment dynamics in the refuge over the past 150 years; (5) an assessment of the local sediment transport and sediment resource availability based on the bathymetric and subbottom data; (6) a carefully selected core collection effort to groundtruth the geophysical data and more fully characterize the sediments composing the islands and surrounds; (7) an additional survey of the St. Bernard Shoals to assess their potential as a sand resource; and (8) a modeling study to numerically simulate the potential response of the islands to the low-intensity, intermediate, and extreme events likely to affect the refuge over the next 50 years. Results indicate that the islands have become fragmented and greatly diminished in subaerial extent over time: the southern islands retreating landward as they reorganize into subaerial features, the northern islands remaining in place. Breton Island, because maintenance of the Mississippi River-Gulf Outlet (MRGO) outer bar channel requires dredging, is deprived of sand sufficient to sustain itself. Regional sediment transport trends indicate that large storms are extremely effective in transporting sand and controlling the shoreline development and barrier island geometry. Sand is transported north and south from a divergent zone near

  14. California sea cucumber habitat suitability model for Channel Islands National Marine Sanctuary Biogeographic Assessment

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Office of National Marine Sanctuary Program (ONMS) updates and revises the management plans for each of its 13 sanctuaries. This process, which is open to the...

  15. White abalone habitat suitability model for Channel Islands National Marine Sanctuary Biogeographic Assessment

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The National Marine Sanctuary Program (NMSP) updates and revises the management plans for each of its 13 sanctuaries. This process, which is open to the public,...

  16. California spiny lobster habitat suitability model for Channel Islands National Marine Sanctuary Biogeographic Assessment

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The National Marine Sanctuary Program (NMSP) updates and revises the management plans for each of its 13 sanctuaries. This process, which is open to the public,...

  17. Red sea urchin habitat suitability model for Channel Islands National Marine Sanctuary Biogeographic Assessment

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The National Marine Sanctuary Program (NMSP) updates and revises the management plans for each of its 13 sanctuaries. This process, which is open to the public,...

  18. Spot shrimp habitat suitability model for Channel Islands National Marine Sanctuary Biogeographic Assessment

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The National Marine Sanctuary Program (NMSP) updates and revises the management plans for each of its 13 sanctuaries. This process, which is open to the public,...

  19. Warty sea cucumber habitat suitability model for Channel Islands National Marine Sanctuary Biogeographic Assessment

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The National Marine Sanctuary Program (NMSP) updates and revises the management plans for each of its 13 sanctuaries. This process, which is open to the public,...

  20. Sheep crab habitat suitability model for Channel Islands National Marine Sanctuary Biogeographic Assessment

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The National Marine Sanctuary Program (NMSP) updates and revises the management plans for each of its 13 sanctuaries. This process, which is open to the public,...

  1. Ridgeback rock shrimp habitat suitability model for Channel Islands National Marine Sanctuary Biogeographic Assessment

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The National Marine Sanctuary Program (NMSP) updates and revises the management plans for each of its 13 sanctuaries. This process, which is open to the public,...

  2. Juvenile thresher shark habitat suitability model for Channel Islands National Marine Sanctuary Biogeographic Assessment

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The National Marine Sanctuary Program (NMSP) updates and revises the management plans for each of its 13 sanctuaries. This process, which is open to the public,...

  3. Pacific angel shark habitat suitability model for Channel Islands National Marine Sanctuary Biogeographic Assessment

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The National Marine Sanctuary Program (NMSP) updates and revises the management plans for each of its 13 sanctuaries. This process, which is open to the public,...

  4. Adult thresher shark habitat suitability model for Channel Islands National Marine Sanctuary Biogeographic Assessment

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The National Marine Sanctuary Program (NMSP) updates and revises the management plans for each of its 13 sanctuaries. This process, which is open to the public,...

  5. California market squid habitat suitability model for Channel Islands National Marine Sanctuary Biogeographic Assessment

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The National Marine Sanctuary Program (NMSP) updates and revises the management plans for each of its 13 sanctuaries. This process, which is open to the public,...

  6. Rockcrabs of the genus Cancer habitat suitability model for Channel Islands National Marine Sanctuary Biogeographic Assessment

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The National Marine Sanctuary Program (NMSP) updates and revises the management plans for each of its 13 sanctuaries. This process, which is open to the public,...

  7. Giant seabass habitat suitability model for Channel Islands National Marine Sanctuary Biogeographic Assessment

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The National Marine Sanctuary Program (NMSP) updates and revises the management plans for each of its 13 sanctuaries. This process, which is open to the public,...

  8. California sheephead habitat suitability model for Channel Islands National Marine Sanctuary Biogeographic Assessment

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The National Marine Sanctuary Program (NMSP) updates and revises the management plans for each of its 13 sanctuaries. This process, which is open to the public,...

  9. Red abalone habitat suitability model for Channel Islands National Marine Sanctuary Biogeographic Assessment

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The National Marine Sanctuary Program (NMSP) updates and revises the management plans for each of its 13 sanctuaries. This process, which is open to the public,...

  10. Black abalone habitat suitability model for Channel Islands National Marine Sanctuary Biogeographic Assessment

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Office of National Marine Sanctuaries (ONMS) updates and revises the management plans for each of its 13 sanctuaries. This process, which is open to the public,...

  11. The Tourism Carrying Capacity of Underwater Trails in Isabel Island National Park, Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ríos-Jara, Eduardo; Galván-Villa, Cristian Moisés; Rodríguez-Zaragoza, Fabián Alejandro; López-Uriarte, Ernesto; Muñoz-Fernández, Vicente Teófilo

    2013-08-01

    The popularity of ecotourism in the marine protected areas of Mexico has increased over the last 10 years; in particular there is a large development of a SCUBA diving industry in the Mexican Pacific including Isabel Island. Given the risks associated with human activity in the marine environments around this island, we propose two ecotourism management strategies: (1) the creation and use of underwater trails, and (2) the estimation of the specific tourism carrying capacity (TCC) for each trail. Six underwater trails were selected in sites that presented elements of biological, geological, and scenic interest, using information obtained during field observations. The methodology used to estimate the TCC was based upon the physical and biological conditions of each site, the infrastructure and equipment available, and the characteristics of the service providers and the administrators of the park. Correction factors of the TCC included elements of the quality of the visit and the threat and vulnerability of the marine environment of each trail (e.g., divers' expertise, size and distance between groups of divers, accessibility, wind, coral coverage). The TCC values ranged between 1,252 and 1,642 dives/year/trail, with a total of 8,597 dives/year for all six trails. Although these numbers are higher than the actual number of recreational visitors to the island (~1,000 dives per year), there is a need for adequate preventive management if the diving sites are to maintain their esthetic appeal and biological characteristics. Such management might be initially directed toward using only the sites and the TCC proposed here.

  12. The tourism carrying capacity of underwater trails in Isabel Island National Park, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ríos-Jara, Eduardo; Galván-Villa, Cristian Moisés; Rodríguez-Zaragoza, Fabián Alejandro; López-Uriarte, Ernesto; Muñoz-Fernández, Vicente Teófilo

    2013-08-01

    The popularity of ecotourism in the marine protected areas of Mexico has increased over the last 10 years; in particular there is a large development of a SCUBA diving industry in the Mexican Pacific including Isabel Island. Given the risks associated with human activity in the marine environments around this island, we propose two ecotourism management strategies: (1) the creation and use of underwater trails, and (2) the estimation of the specific tourism carrying capacity (TCC) for each trail. Six underwater trails were selected in sites that presented elements of biological, geological, and scenic interest, using information obtained during field observations. The methodology used to estimate the TCC was based upon the physical and biological conditions of each site, the infrastructure and equipment available, and the characteristics of the service providers and the administrators of the park. Correction factors of the TCC included elements of the quality of the visit and the threat and vulnerability of the marine environment of each trail (e.g., divers' expertise, size and distance between groups of divers, accessibility, wind, coral coverage). The TCC values ranged between 1,252 and 1,642 dives/year/trail, with a total of 8,597 dives/year for all six trails. Although these numbers are higher than the actual number of recreational visitors to the island (~1,000 dives per year), there is a need for adequate preventive management if the diving sites are to maintain their esthetic appeal and biological characteristics. Such management might be initially directed toward using only the sites and the TCC proposed here.

  13. Assessment of water consumptions in small mediterranean islands' primary schools by means of a long-term online monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferraris, Marco; De Gisi, Sabino; Farina, Roberto

    2017-10-01

    A key challenge of our society is improving schools through the sustainable use of resources especially in countries at risk of desertification. The estimation of water consumption is the starting point for the correct dimensioning of water recovery systems. To date, unlike the energy sector, there is a lack of scientific information regarding water consumption in school buildings. Available data refer roughly to indirect estimates by means of utility bills and therefore no information on the role of water leakage in the internal network of the school is provided. In this context, the aim of the work was to define and implement an on-line monitoring system for the assessment of water consumptions in a small Mediterranean island primary school to achieve the following sub-goals: (1) definition of water consumption profile considering teaching activities and secretarial work; (2) direct assessment of water consumptions and leakages and, (3) quantification of the behaviour parameters. The installed monitoring system consisted of 33 water metres (3.24 persons per water metre) equipped with sensors set on 1-L impulse signal and connected to a data logging system. Results showed consumptions in the range 13.6-14.2 L/student/day and leakage equal to 54.8 % of the total water consumptions. Considering the behavioural parameters, the consumptions related to toilet flushing, personal, and building cleaning were, respectively, 54, 43 and 3 % of the total water ones. Finally, the obtained results could be used for dimensioning the most suitable water recovery strategies at school level such as grey water or rainwater recovery systems.

  14. Extending REDD+ to mangroves and wetlands for small island states and a case study for the conservation of mangroves and inter-tidal mudflats in Singapore

    OpenAIRE

    LYE, Lin Heng; Dharmarajah, Vinayagan

    2013-01-01

    This paper briefly discusses the prospects of using coastal wetlands as REDD+ projects for small island states. The paper contends that the city-state of Singapore would do well to enhance existing laws to more specifically address the challenges and threats faced in conserving mangroves and inter-tidal mudflats, and support their conservation and rehabilitation, not just to facilitate the implementation of REDD+ projects but also to meet other goals like biodiversity conservation and climate...

  15. Archive of Sidescan Sonar and Swath Bathymetry Data Collected During USGS Cruise 13CCT04 Offshore of Petit Bois Island, Gulf Islands National Seashore, Mississippi, August 2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeWitt, Nancy T.; Flocks, James G.; Kindinger, Jack G.; Bernier, Julie C.; Kelso, Kyle W.; Wiese, Dana S.; Finlayson, David P.; Pfeiffer, William R.

    2015-01-01

    In August of 2013, the U.S. Geological Survey conducted a geophysical survey offshore of Petit Bois Island, Mississippi. This effort was part of the U.S. Geological Survey Gulf of Mexico Science Coordination partnership with the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers to assist the Mississippi Coastal Improvements Program and the Northern Gulf of Mexico Ecosystem Change and Hazards Susceptibility Project, by mapping the shallow geologic stratigraphic framework of the Mississippi Barrier Island Complex.

  16. A National Study of Deaf Entrepreneurs and Small Business Owners: Implications for Career Counseling

    OpenAIRE

    Pressman, Sue Ellen

    1999-01-01

    This national study was undertaken to learn about the characteristics and demographics of Deaf entrepreneurs and small business owners. Descriptive research methodology was to obtain data from a clearly defined population comprising Deaf entrepreneurs and small business owners. The researcher designed a questionnaire to answer six research questions. Study results were based on nationwide responses from 86 deaf men and women. Implications for career counseling were generated from participant ...

  17. Pacific Islands Regional Office — National Marine Fisheries Service -

    Science.gov (United States)

    ? Report Marine Animals State-Wide Hotline 888-256-9840 Report sea turtle, monk seal, dolphin and whales (ESA) Marine Mammal Response and Rescue Protected Resources Outreach and Education Volunteer PRGC Contacts Marine National Monument Program About the Marine National Monument Program Frequently

  18. Rhode Island unemployment

    OpenAIRE

    Leonard Lardaro

    2010-01-01

    How can a state like Rhode Island have such a high unemployment rate? This question has been asked often over the past year, especially since at one point, Rhode Island found itself with the dubious distinction of having the highest unemployment rate in the United States. Following that extreme, Rhode Island seemed to settle into a niche where its rank was third nationally.

  19. Corn content of French fry oil from national chain vs. small business restaurants

    OpenAIRE

    Jahren, A. Hope; Schubert, Brian A.

    2010-01-01

    Several issues, ranging from sustainability to health, may interest the consumers in the corn content of their food. However, because restaurants are excluded from the Nutrition Labeling and Education Act of 1990, national chain restaurants provide nonspecific ingredient information and small businesses supply none. We measured the carbon isotope composition of fry oil in French fries purchased from 68 (67%) of the 101 national chain fast food restaurants on Oahu (i.e., McDonald’s, Burger Kin...

  20. The geographic scale of diversification on islands: genetic and morphological divergence at a very small spatial scale in the Mascarene grey white-eye (Aves: Zosterops borbonicus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thébaud Christophe

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Oceanic islands provide unique scenarios for studying the roles of geography and ecology in driving population divergence and speciation. Assessing the relative importance of selective and neutral factors in driving population divergence is central to understanding how such divergence may lead to speciation in small oceanic islands, where opportunities for gene flow and population mixing are potentially high. Here we report a case of genetic and morphological structure in the Mascarene grey white-eye (Zosterops borbonicus a species that shows a striking, geographically structured plumage polymorphism on the topographically and ecologically complex island of Réunion, yet is monotypic on the relatively uniform neighbouring island of Mauritius. Results Analysis of 276 AFLP loci in 197 individuals revealed prolonged independent evolution of Réunion and Mauritius populations, which is congruent with previous mtDNA assessments. Furthermore, populations on Réunion showed significant differentiation into three main genetic groups separating lowland from highland areas despite the small geographic distances involved. Genetic differentiation along the altitudinal gradient is consistent with morphometric analysis of fitness-related traits. Birds in the highlands were larger, yet had relatively smaller beaks than in the lowlands, suggesting the role of selection in shaping morphology and restricting gene flow along the gradient. No genetic differentiation between plumage morphs was detected in neutral markers, suggesting that plumage differences are of recent origin. Conclusions Our results suggest a dual role of vicariance and natural selection in differentiating populations of a passerine bird in an oceanic island at very small spatial scales. We propose a combination of past microallopatry driven by volcanic activity and selection-constrained dispersal along steep ecological gradients to explain the striking levels of population

  1. Protecting an island nation from extreme pandemic threats: Proof-of-concept around border closure as an intervention.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matt Boyd

    Full Text Available Countries are well advised to prepare for future pandemic risks (e.g., pandemic influenza, novel emerging agents or synthetic bioweapons. These preparations do not typically include planning for complete border closure. Even though border closure may not be instituted in time, and can fail, there might still plausible chances of success for well organized island nations.To estimate costs and benefits of complete border closure in response to new pandemic threats, at an initial proof-of-concept level. New Zealand was used as a case-study for an island country.An Excel spreadsheet model was developed to estimate costs and benefits. Case-study specific epidemiological data was sourced from past influenza pandemics. Country-specific healthcare cost data, valuation of life, and lost tourism revenue were imputed (with lost trade also in scenario analyses.For a new pandemic equivalent to the 1918 influenza pandemic (albeit with half the mortality rate, "Scenario A", it was estimated that successful border closure for 26 weeks provided a net societal benefit (e.g., of NZ$11.0 billion, USD$7.3 billion. Even in the face of a complete end to trade, a net benefit was estimated for scenarios where the mortality rate was high (e.g., at 10 times the mortality impact of "Scenario A", or 2.75% of the country's population dying giving a net benefit of NZ$54 billion (USD$36 billion. But for some other pandemic scenarios where trade ceased, border closure resulted in a net negative societal value (e.g., for "Scenario A" times three for 26 weeks of border closure-but not for only 12 weeks of closure when it would still be beneficial.This "proof-of-concept" work indicates that more detailed cost-benefit analysis of border closure in very severe pandemic situations for some island nations is probably warranted, as this course of action might sometimes be worthwhile from a societal perspective.

  2. The Urban Heat Island Effect and the Role of Vegetation to Address the Negative Impacts of Local Climate Changes in a Small Brazilian City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elis Dener Lima Alves

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available This study analyzes the influence of urban-geographical variables on determining heat islands and proposes a model to estimate and spatialize the maximum intensity of urban heat islands (UHI. Simulations of the UHI based on the increase of normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI, using multiple linear regression, in Iporá (Brazil are also presented. The results showed that the UHI intensity of this small city tended to be lower than that of bigger cities. Urban geometry and vegetation (UI and NDVI were the variables that contributed the most to explain the variability of the maximum UHI intensity. It was observed that areas located in valleys had lower thermal values, suggesting a cool island effect. With the increase in NDVI in the central area of a maximum UHI, there was a significant decrease in its intensity and size (a 45% area reduction. It is noteworthy that it was possible to spatialize the UHI to the whole urban area by using multiple linear regression, providing an analysis of the urban set from urban-geographical variables and thus performing prognostic simulations that can be adapted to other small tropical cities.

  3. Environmental contaminants in shortnose sturgeon from Bears Bluff National Fish Hatchery, Wadmalaw Island, South Carolina

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of the Interior — The shortnose sturgeon (Acipenser brevirostrum) is a federally‐listed endangered species. In 2008, eleven shortnose sturgeon, reared at the Bears Bluff National Fish...

  4. 77 FR 27185 - Availability of Seats for the Hawaiian Islands Humpback Whale National Marine Sanctuary Advisory...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-09

    ... National Marine Sanctuary Advisory Council (council): Native Hawaiian, Fishing, Education, Research... and professional affiliations; philosophy regarding the protection and management of marine resources... Council Chair, a Research Committee chaired by the Research Representative, an Education Committee chaired...

  5. The impact of national policies on animal disease reporting within selected Pacific Island Countries and Territories (PICTs).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tukana, Andrew; Hedlefs, Robert; Gummow, Bruce

    2018-04-20

    A semi-systematic literature review of national policies was carried out in relation to surveillance and disease reporting in Pacific Island Countries and Territories (PICTs). It also analysed the animal disease reporting structures in Fiji, Papua New Guinea (PNG), Vanuatu and the Solomon Islands. The strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats (SWOT) of those reporting structures were examined in relation to how they impacted the detection and management of animal diseases in PICTs. Field missions collected information on animal disease reporting structures and these were discussed in detail with country officials and documented. The findings from the literature review indicated that there is very little policy to support work in surveillance and disease reporting within national government structures of the countries studied. This increases the potential for disease transmission and the introduction of exotic diseases as the efficiency of disease reporting is low. The findings from the SWOT analysis of the reporting structures indicated that there were commonalities across the countries studied, i.e. reporting structures were long with multiple legs that were not functioning properly and this was worsened when positions were vacant in the reporting structure. The hierarchical nature of the reporting structure also reduced reporting efficiency as reports took a longer time to reach decision makers at the top of the structure. High officer turnover and the shortage of veterinarians in the countries studied also affected the efficiency of disease reporting as most in-county officials were inexperienced and could not recognise disease signs and there were no veterinarians to supervise them. Existing reporting structures need to be reviewed to remove duplication and shorten the chain. However, this could override existing command structures and would need to be documented and awareness created with the officers involved. There also needs to be more collaboration

  6. CRED Benthic Habitat Towboard Still Photos from Jarvis Island in March and April, 2004

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data is in the form of JPEG still photos taken every 15 seconds from a benthic habitat towboard being towed by small boats at Jarvis Island between March 26 and...

  7. Rhode Island, Connecticut, New York, and New Jersey ESI: T_MAMMAL (Terrestrial Mammal Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive biological resource data for small mammal species in coastal Rhode Island, Connecticut, New York, and New Jersey. Vector polygons in...

  8. Building a National Security Program at a Small School: Identifying Opportunities and Overcoming Challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grossman, Michael; Schortgen, Francis

    2016-01-01

    This article offers insights into the overall program development process and--institutional obstacles and constraints notwithstanding--successful introduction of a new national security program at a small liberal arts university at a time of growing institutional prioritization of science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) programs.…

  9. Corn content of French fry oil from national chain vs. small business restaurants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jahren, A Hope; Schubert, Brian A

    2010-02-02

    Several issues, ranging from sustainability to health, may interest the consumers in the corn content of their food. However, because restaurants are excluded from the Nutrition Labeling and Education Act of 1990, national chain restaurants provide nonspecific ingredient information and small businesses supply none. We measured the carbon isotope composition of fry oil in French fries purchased from 68 (67%) of the 101 national chain fast food restaurants on Oahu (i.e., McDonald's, Burger King, Wendy's, Arby's, and Jack in the Box), and paired this with a similar number of small businesses (n = 66) to calculate minimum percent contribution of corn to total fry oil. We found that the majority (69%) of the national chain restaurants served fries containing corn oil, whereas this was true for only a minority (20%) of the small businesses. Corn oil is more expensive than soybean oil (for example) when purchased from a small business supplier, suggesting that large-scale corporate agreements are necessary to make corn oil frying cost-effective. When considering French fry oil along with corn-fed beef and chicken, as well as high-fructose corn syrup-sweetened soda, we see the pervasive influence of corn as an ingredient in national chain fast food.

  10. Late Quaternary sea-level history and the antiquity of mammoths (Mammuthus exilis and Mammuthus columbi), Channel Islands NationalPark, California, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muhs, Daniel R.; Simmons, Kathleen R.; Groves, Lindsey T.; McGeehin, John P.; Schumann, R. Randall; Agenbroad, Larry D.

    2015-01-01

    Fossils of Columbian mammoths (Mammuthus columbi) and pygmy mammoths (Mammuthus exilis) have been reported from Channel Islands National Park, California. Most date to the last glacial period (Marine Isotope Stage [MIS] 2), but a tusk of M. exilis (or immature M. columbi) was found in the lowest marine terrace of Santa Rosa Island. Uranium-series dating of corals yielded ages from 83.8 ± 0.6 ka to 78.6 ± 0.5 ka, correlating the terrace with MIS 5.1, a time of relatively high sea level. Mammoths likely immigrated to the islands by swimming during the glacial periods MIS 6 (~ 150 ka) or MIS 8 (~ 250 ka), when sea level was low and the island–mainland distance was minimal, as during MIS 2. Earliest mammoth immigration to the islands likely occurred late enough in the Quaternary that uplift of the islands and the mainland decreased the swimming distance to a range that could be accomplished by mammoths. Results challenge the hypothesis that climate change, vegetation change, and decreased land area from sea-level rise were the causes of mammoth extinction at the Pleistocene/Holocene boundary on the Channel Islands. Pre-MIS 2 mammoth populations would have experienced similar or even more dramatic changes at the MIS 6/5.5 transition.

  11. Fire Management in the Inter Galatic Interface or 30 Years of Fire Management at Merritt Island National Wildlife Refuge/Kennedy Space Center, Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frederic W. Adrian

    2006-01-01

    Prescribed burning is essential on Merritt Island National Wildlife Refuge. Not only is it needed to manage the volatile fuels, but also to manage the complex system of fire maintained habitats found here. Fire management on the Refuge presents unique challenges. In addition to the restraints to prescribed burning that are common to many prescribed burning programs,...

  12. Managing an invasive corallimorph at Palmyra Atoll National Wildlife Refuge, Line Islands, Central Pacific

    Science.gov (United States)

    Work, Thierry M.; Aeby, Greta S.; Neal, Benjamin P.; Price, Nichole N.; Conklin, Eric; Pollock, Amanda

    2018-01-01

    In 2007, a phase shift from corals to corallimorpharians (CM) centered around a shipwreck was documented at Palmyra Atoll, Line Islands. Subsequent surveys revealed CM to be overgrowing the reef benthos, including corals and coralline algae, potentially placing coral ecosystems in the atoll at risk. This prompted the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, the lead management agency of the atoll, to remove the shipwreck. Subsequent surveys showed reductions in CM around the ship impact site. We explain patterns of spread of the CM in terms of both life history and local currents and show with a pilot study that pulverized bleach may be an effective tool to eradicate CM on a local scale. If applied strategically, particularly in heavily infested (> 66% cover) areas, active intervention such as this could be an effective management tool to reduce CM impact on localized areas and decrease colonization rate of remaining reefs. This is the first documentation of the response of an invasive cnidarian to shipwreck removal. While this was a singular event in Palmyra, the spatial and temporal patterns of this invasion and the eradications lessons described herein, are useful for anticipating and controlling similar situations elsewhere.

  13. Particle-bound metal transport after removal of a small dam in the Pawtuxet River, Rhode Island, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Pawtuxet River in Rhode Island, USA, has a long history of industrial activity and pollutant discharges. Metal contamination of the river sediments is well documented and historically exceeded toxicity thresholds for a variety of organisms. The Pawtuxet River dam, a low-head ...

  14. Submarine groundwater discharge as an integral environmental "currency" limiting population and development within the ecosphere of small islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coffey, Ruth

    Submarine groundwater discharge (SGD) from oceanic islands has been estimated to contribute over a third of the global SGD due to orographic precipitation, short aquifer pathways and poorly developed surface drainage. This seepage of groundwater across the sea floor connects land and coastal ocean resources, and is hereby proposed as a parameter to evaluate the interconnections between coastal environmental quality and coastal populations and development. Relatively few islands have been studied, but SGD is typically found to be an important, and often the only, source of nutrients to coastal waters. Freshwater and its pollutant load are delivered to the coastal zone via SGD with consequent impacts on tourism and fisheries thus linking the land-based and marine economic sectors. The characteristics of SGD were investigated on Barbados, Guam and Bimini, islands all of, at least partly, carbonate origin, This study evaluates the similarities and differences between these islands and assesses the applicability of using SGD as a parameter within a population--development--environment model. Model scenarios can be used to explore the integrated coastal impacts of wastewater treatment practices and changes in seasonal rainfall due to climate change. This study also presents novel analytical methods for SGD field data.

  15. 77 FR 61632 - Final Environmental Impact Statement for Cattle Point Road Relocation, San Juan Island National...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-10

    ... Juan County, Washington AGENCY: National Park Service, Interior. ACTION: Notice of Availability of the... Service (NPS) and the Federal Highway Administration (FHWA), in cooperation with San Juan County... through the park for use by residents and visitors traveling to the east end of the Cattle Point peninsula...

  16. Integrating social marketing into sustainable resource management at Padre Island National Seashore: an attitude-based segmentation approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Po-Hsin; Sorice, Michael G; Nepal, Sanjay K; Cheng, Chia-Kuen

    2009-06-01

    High demand for outdoor recreation and increasing diversity in outdoor recreation participants have imposed a great challenge on the National Park Service (NPS), which is tasked with the mission to provide open access for quality outdoor recreation and maintain the ecological integrity of the park system. In addition to management practices of education and restrictions, building a sense of natural resource stewardship among visitors may also facilitate the NPS ability to react to this challenge. The purpose of our study is to suggest a segmentation approach that is built on the social marketing framework and aimed at influencing visitor behaviors to support conservation. Attitude toward natural resource management, an indicator of natural resource stewardship, is used as the basis for segmenting park visitors. This segmentation approach is examined based on a survey of 987 visitors to the Padre Island National Seashore (PAIS) in Texas in 2003. Results of the K-means cluster analysis identify three visitor segments: Conservation-Oriented, Development-Oriented, and Status Quo visitors. This segmentation solution is verified using respondents' socio-demographic backgrounds, use patterns, experience preferences, and attitudes toward a proposed regulation. Suggestions are provided to better target the three visitor segments and facilitate a sense of natural resource stewardship among them.

  17. Gastrointestinal parasites of the chimpanzee population introduced onto Rubondo Island National Park, Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrzelková, Klára J; Hasegawa, Hideo; Appleton, Chris C; Huffman, Michael A; Archer, Colleen E; Moscovice, Liza R; Mapua, Mwanahamissi Issa; Singh, Jatinder; Kaur, Taranjit

    2010-04-01

    The release of any species into a novel environment can evoke transmission of parasites that do not normally parasitize the host as well as potentially introducing new parasites into the environment. Species introductions potentially incur such risks, yet little is currently known about the parasite fauna of introduced primate species over the long term. We describe the results of long-term monitoring of the intestinal parasite fauna of an unprovisioned, reproducing population of chimpanzees introduced 40 years earlier (1966-1969) onto Rubondo Island in Lake Victoria, Tanzania, a non-native habitat for chimpanzees. Two parasitological surveys (March 1997-October 1998 and October 2002-December 2005) identified Entamoeba spp. including E. coli, Iodamoeba buetschlii, Troglodytella abrassarti, Chilomastix mesnili, Trichuris sp., Anatrichosoma sp., Strongyloides spp., Strongylida fam. gen. sp., Enterobius anthropopitheci, Subulura sp., Ascarididae gen. sp., and Protospirura muricola. The parasite fauna of the Rubondo chimpanzees is similar to wild chimpanzees living in their natural habitats, but Rubondo chimpanzees have a lower prevalence of strongylids (9%, 3.8%) and a higher prevalence of E. anthropopitheci (8.6%, 17.9%) than reported elsewhere. Species prevalence was similar between our two surveys, with the exception of Strongyloides spp. being higher in the first survey. None of these species are considered to pose a serious health risk to chimpanzees, but continued monitoring of the population and surveys of the parasitic fauna of the two coinhabitant primate species and other animals, natural reservoir hosts of some of the same parasites, is important to better understand the dynamics of host-parasite ecology and potential long-term implications for chimpanzees introduced into a new habitat. 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  18. 2002 Small Mammal Inventory at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Site 300

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    West, E; Woollett, J

    2004-11-16

    To assist the University of California in obtaining biological assessment information for the ''2004 Environmental Impact Statement for Continued Operation of Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL)'', Jones & Stokes conducted an inventory of small mammals in six major vegetation communities at Site 300. These communities were annual grassland, native grassland, oak savanna, riparian corridor, coastal scrub, and seep/spring wetlands. The principal objective of this study was to assess the diversity and abundance of small mammal species in these communities, as well as the current status of any special-status small mammal species found in these communities. Surveys in the native grassland community were conducted before and after a controlled fire management burn of the grasslands to qualitatively evaluate any potential effects of fire on small mammals in the area.

  19. 75 FR 71137 - Vendor Outreach Workshop for Women Owned Small Businesses in the National Capitol Region of the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-22

    ... the Interior is hosting a Vendor Outreach Workshop for women owned small businesses in the National... meeting its business goals for small, small disadvantaged, 8(a), woman-owned, HUBZone, and service... DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Office of the Secretary Vendor Outreach Workshop for Women Owned Small...

  20. Monitoring bank erosion at the Locke Island Archaeological National Register District: Summary of 1996/1997 field activities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nickens, P.R. [ed.; Bjornstad, B.N.; Nickens, P.R.; Cadoret, N.A.; Wright, M.K.

    1998-08-01

    Locke Island is located in the Columbia River in south-central Washington. The US Department of Energy (DOE) owns Locke Island as part of its Hanford Site. In the 1960s and 1970s, as a result of intensive irrigation developments on the inland shoreline to the east of the island, the White Bluffs, which form the eastern boundary of the Columbia River channel in this area, began to show geological failures as excess irrigation water seeped out along the bluffs. One of the largest such failures, known as the Locke Island Landslide, is located just east of Locke Island. By the early 1980s, this landslide mass had moved westward into the river channel toward the island and was diverting the current at the island`s eastern perimeter. Erosion of the bank in the center of the island accelerated, threatening the cultural resources. By the early 1990s, the erosion had exposed cultural features and artifacts along the bank, leading to the beginning of intermittent monitoring of the cutbank. In 1994, DOE initiated more scheduled, systematic monitoring of island erosion to better understand the physical processes involved as well as mitigate ongoing loss of the archaeological record.

  1. SMALL-SCALE MAGNETIC ISLANDS IN THE SOLAR WIND AND THEIR ROLE IN PARTICLE ACCELERATION. II. PARTICLE ENERGIZATION INSIDE MAGNETICALLY CONFINED CAVITIES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khabarova, Olga V.; Zank, Gary P.; Li, Gang; Le Roux, Jakobus A.; Webb, Gary M.; Malandraki, Olga E.

    2016-01-01

    We explore the role of heliospheric magnetic field configurations and conditions that favor the generation and confinement of small-scale magnetic islands associated with atypical energetic particle events (AEPEs) in the solar wind. Some AEPEs do not align with standard particle acceleration mechanisms, such as flare-related or simple diffusive shock acceleration processes related to interplanetary coronal mass ejections (ICMEs) and corotating interaction regions (CIRs). As we have shown recently, energetic particle flux enhancements may well originate locally and can be explained by particle acceleration in regions filled with small-scale magnetic islands with a typical width of ∼0.01 au or less, which is often observed near the heliospheric current sheet (HCS). The particle energization is a consequence of magnetic reconnection-related processes in islands experiencing either merging or contraction, observed, for example, in HCS ripples. Here we provide more observations that support the idea and the theory of particle energization produced by small-scale-flux-rope dynamics (Zank et al. and Le Roux et al.). If the particles are pre-accelerated to keV energies via classical mechanisms, they may be additionally accelerated up to 1–1.5 MeV inside magnetically confined cavities of various origins. The magnetic cavities, formed by current sheets, may occur at the interface of different streams such as CIRs and ICMEs or ICMEs and coronal hole flows. They may also form during the HCS interaction with interplanetary shocks (ISs) or CIRs/ICMEs. Particle acceleration inside magnetic cavities may explain puzzling AEPEs occurring far beyond ISs, within ICMEs, before approaching CIRs as well as between CIRs.

  2. National assessment of shoreline change: Historical shoreline change in the Hawaiian Islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fletcher, Charles H.; Romine, Bradley M.; Genz, Ayesha S.; Barbee, Matthew M.; Dyer, Matthew; Anderson, Tiffany R.; Lim, S. Chyn; Vitousek, Sean; Bochicchio, Christopher; Richmond, Bruce M.

    2012-01-01

    Sandy beaches of the United States are some of the most popular tourist and recreational destinations. Coastal property constitutes some of the most valuable real estate in the country. Beaches are an ephemeral environment between water and land with unique and fragile natural ecosystems that have evolved in equilibrium with the ever-changing winds, waves, and water levels. Beachfront lands are the site of intense residential and commercial development even though they are highly vulnerable to several natural hazards, including marine inundation, flooding and drainage problems, effects of storms, sea-level rise, and coastal erosion. Because the U.S. population continues to shift toward the coast where valuable coastal property is vulnerable to erosion, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) is conducting a national assessment of coastal change. One aspect of this effort, the National Assessment of Shoreline Change, uses shoreline position as a proxy for coastal change because shoreline position is one of the most commonly monitored indicators of environmental change (for example, Fletcher, 1992; Dolan and others, 1991; Douglas and others, 1998; Galgano and others, 1998). Additionally, the National Research Council (1990) recommended the use of historical shoreline analysis in the absence of a widely accepted model of shoreline change.

  3. Buck Island National Monument Accuracy Assessment Point Data for Benthic Habitats of Puerto Rico and the U.S. Virgin Islands

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This project is a cooperative effort among the National Ocean Service, National Centers for Coastal Ocean Science, Center for Coastal Monitoring and Assessment; the...

  4. Commercialization of Los Alamos National Laboratory technologies via small businesses. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brice, R.; Carton, D.; Rhyne, T. [and others

    1997-06-01

    Appendices are presented from a study performed on a concept model system for the commercialization of Los Alamos National Laboratory technologies via small businesses. Topics include a summary of information from the joint MCC/Los Alamos technology conference; a comparison of New Mexico infrastructure to other areas; a typical licensing agreement; technology screening guides; summaries of specific DOE/UC/Los Alamos documents; a bibliography; the Oak Ridge National Laboratory TCRD; The Ames Center for Advanced Technology Development; Los Alamos licensing procedures; presentation of slides from monthly MCC/Los Alamos review meetings; generalized entrepreneurship model; and a discussion on receiving equity for technology.

  5. Archive of side scan sonar and swath bathymetry data collected during USGS cruise 10CCT03 offshore of the Gulf Islands National Seashore, Mississippi, from East Ship Island, Mississippi, to Dauphin Island, Alabama, April 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeWitt, Nancy T.; Flocks, James G.; Pfeiffer, William R.; Gibson, James N.; Wiese, Dana S.

    2012-01-01

    In April of 2010, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) conducted a geophysical survey from the east end of East Ship Island, Miss., extending to the middle of Dauphin Island, Ala. (fig. 1). This survey had a dual purpose: (1) to interlink previously conducted nearshore geophysical surveys (shoreline to ~2 km) with those of offshore surveys (~2 to ~9 km) in the area, and (2) to extend the geophysical survey to include a portion of the Dauphin Island nearshore zone. The efforts were part of the USGS Gulf of Mexico Science Coordination partnership with the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (USACE) to assist the Mississippi Coastal Improvements Program (MsCIP) and the Northern Gulf of Mexico (NGOM) Ecosystem Change and Hazards Susceptibility Project by mapping the shallow geological stratigraphic framework of the Mississippi Barrier Island Complex. These geophysical surveys will provide the data necessary for scientists to define, interpret, and provide baseline bathymetry and seafloor habitat for this area and to aid scientists in predicting future geomorpholocial changes of the islands with respect to climate change, storm impact, and sea-level rise. Furthermore, these data will provide information for barrier island restoration feasibility, particularly in Camille Cut, and efforts for the preservation of historical Fort Massachusetts. For more information refer to http://ngom.usgs.gov/gomsc/mscip/.

  6. Changes in vegetation and biological soil crust communities on sand dunes stabilizing after a century of grazing on San Miguel Island, Channel Island National Park, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zellman, Kristine L.

    2014-01-01

    San Miguel Island is the westernmost of the California Channel Islands and one of the windiest areas on the west coast of North America. The majority of the island is covered by coastal sand dunes, which were stripped of vegetation and subsequently mobilized due to droughts and sheep ranching during the late 19th century and early 20th century. Since the removal of grazing animals, vegetation and biological soil crusts have once again stabilized many of the island's dunes. In this study, historical aerial photographs and field surveys were used to develop a chronosequence of the pattern of change in vegetation communities and biological soil crust levels of development (LOD) along a gradient of dune stabilization. Historical aerial photographs from 1929, 1954, 1977, and 2009 were georeferenced and used to delineate changes in vegetation canopy cover and active (unvegetated) dune extent among 5 historical periods (pre-1929, 1929–1954, 1954–1977, 1977–2009, and 2009–2011). During fieldwork, vegetation and biological soil crust communities were mapped along transects distributed throughout San Miguel Island's central dune field on land forms that had stabilized during the 5 time periods of interest. Analyses in a geographic information system (GIS) quantified the pattern of changes that vegetation and biological soil crust communities have exhibited on the San Miguel Island dunes over the past 80 years. Results revealed that a continuing increase in total vegetation cover and a complex pattern of change in vegetation communities have taken place on the San Miguel Island dunes since the removal of grazing animals. The highly specialized native vascular vegetation (sea rocket, dunedelion, beach-bur, and locoweed) are the pioneer stabilizers of the dunes. This pioneer community is replaced in later stages by communities that are dominated by native shrubs (coastal goldenbush, silver lupine, coyote-brush, and giant coreopsis), with apparently overlapping or

  7. Small Nations of Europe and the Modern Challenges: the Problem of Self-Identification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    М А Егорова

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to the actual problem of regional separatism in European countries. The author suggests that now we can witness the rise of regional movements for independence all over the world. The problem of separatism of small nations of Europe sharpens after recognition of Kosovo's independence. The author proposes that establishment of common «European home» can wither destructive potential of separatist movements.

  8. National machine guarding program: Part 2. Safety management in small metal fabrication enterprises

    OpenAIRE

    Parker, David L.; Yamin, Samuel C.; Brosseau, Lisa M.; Xi, Min; Gordon, Robert; Most, Ivan G.; Stanley, Rodney

    2015-01-01

    Background Small manufacturing businesses often lack important safety programs. Many reasons have been set forth on why this has remained a persistent problem. Methods The National Machine Guarding Program (NMGP) was a nationwide intervention conducted in partnership with two workers' compensation insurers. Insurance safety consultants collected baseline data in 221 business using a 33?question safety management audit. Audits were completed during an interview with the business owner or manag...

  9. Gastronomy and National Identity Construction in the Canary Islands. A Case Study through the Recipe Books from Conde de Siete Fuente’s Archives (1880-1930

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Judit Gutiérrez de Armas

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper follows recent discussions about the role of gastronomy in the construction of culinary national identities in the nineteenth and twentieth centuries, focusing on the construction of late gastronomic Canary nationalism. It examines national and regional cookbooks —aimed mainly at a female audience— and extends the study to the kitchen, analysing the effects of cookery bestsellers on the diet of the social elites of the Canary Islands and gauging the impact of other influences like British gastronomy, through research on handwritten recipes in family archives. Finally, the transmission cycle of this domestic knowledge within the female socialisation universe will also be analysed.

  10. Emerging Issues for Bokori Island Development in Konawe Southeast Sulawesi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maulidy Navastara, Ardy

    2017-07-01

    This article discusses about emerging issues for small island development especially Bokori Island in Konawe Southeast Sulawesi. Indonesia have been known as a big archipelago has more than ten thousand small islands scattered about 5.8 million km2 of oceanic area Sabang in the West end to Merauke at the end East. It is also known as the largest “megabiodiversity” marine nation. However, the weak national policy that handles the development and management of small islands is suspected because it is not accurate in identifying strategic issues that occur in the development and management of small islands. Therefore, this article aims to identify and classify strategic issues related to the development of small islands in Konawe Southeast Sulawesi. A normative and empirical approach is made to discuss this article. It resulted that typology of issues such as internal and external issues, urgent issues and its supporting issues. Then local governments should pay attention to the urgent issues and its supporting issues - it is policy, investment, institutional and technological issues and the endogenous issues such as entrepreneurship and leadership.

  11. Helminthes and Coccidia Infection of Wild Sheep (Ovis Ammon Orintalis in Kabodan Island of National Park of Urmia Lake, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Habib Khoshvaghti

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Forty-one wild sheep (Ovis ammon orintalis from Kabodan Island of National Park of UrmiaLake (North-West of Iran, were examined during a period of six months from October 2002 toMarch 2003, for helminthes and coccidian infection. The numbers of oocyst and eggs per gram offaeces (OPG & EPG were determined by the centrifuge flotation technique using saturated sugarsolution. The rate of infection for Strongylid form, Marshalagia, Trichuris eggs, and lung wormlarvae were 8 (19.5%, 12 (29.5%, 17 (41.5% and 14 (34.1%, respectively. Thirty-three(80.48% of the examined wild animals were infected to one or more Eimeria species including E.parva, E. ahsata, E. ovinoidalis and E. faurei. This study suggested that the rate of parasiticinfection in wild sheep were very low but it would seem that in unsuitable condition such asdrought and starvation, parasitic infection can be cause a serious problem in wild sheep population.

  12. Neighborhood Social Cohesion and Sleep Outcomes in the Native Hawaiian and Pacific Islander National Health Interview Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Marielle C; Gerber, Monica W; Ash, Tayla; Horan, Christine M; Taveras, Elsie M

    2018-05-16

    Native Hawaiians and Pacific Islanders (NHPIs) have the lowest attainment of healthy sleep duration among all racial and ethnic groups in the United States. We examined associations of neighborhood social cohesion with sleep duration and quality. Cross-sectional analysis of 2,464 adults in the NHPI National Health Interview Survey (2014). Neighborhood social cohesion was categorized as a continuous and categorical variable into low (15) according to tertiles of the distribution of responses. We used multinomial logistic regression to examine the adjusted odds ratio of short and long sleep duration relative to intermediate sleep duration. We used binary logistic regression for dichotomous sleep quality outcomes. Sleep outcomes were modeled as categorical variables. 40% of the cohort reported short (9 hours) duration. Mean (SE, range) social cohesion score was 12.4 units (0.11, 4-16) and 23% reported low social cohesion. In multivariable models, each 1 SD decrease in neighborhood social cohesion score was associated with higher odds of short sleep duration (OR: 1.14, 95% CI: 1.02, 1.29). Additionally, low social cohesion was associated with increased odds of short sleep duration (OR: 1.53, 95% CI: 1.10, 2.13). No associations between neighborhood social cohesion and having trouble falling or staying asleep and feeling well rested were found. Low neighborhood social cohesion is associated with short sleep duration in NHPIs.

  13. Using NASA Earth Observations to Assist the National Park Service in Assessing Snow Cover Distribution and Persistence Changes in the Sky Islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayat, F.; Barrow, C., III; Gonsoroski, E.; Dutta, S.; Lynn, T.; Harville, K.; Spruce, J.

    2017-12-01

    Saguaro National Park in southeastern Arizona occupies one of several unique mountain ranges known collectively as the Sky Islands or the Madrean Archipelago. The Sky Islands are biodiversity hotspots and host different ecosystems, ranging from arid deserts to temperate forests. Snowmelt provides a source of water during the dry season for various flora and fauna inhabiting the region. Climate change and its effect on snow cover is of growing concern by resource managers in this location. Currently, the National Park Service (NPS) monitors water presence via stream gauges, but a synoptic record of snow presence does not exist due to the remote and rugged topography of the region. As a result, it is difficult to study how climate change has affected water resources in the Sky Islands and what effect this has on wildlife and vegetation. This project used NASA Earth observations (e.g., Landsat data) and GIS technology to help the NPS in understanding the role of snow cover in the Sky Islands. Historical snow cover maps were compiled using a combination of snow detection indices to provide spatio-temporal information on snow presence and phenology. With a more complete understanding of snow cover trends in the park, the NPS can further analyze snow cover impacts to improve future land management decisions.

  14. Making every Australian count: challenges for the National Disability Insurance Scheme (NDIS) and the equal inclusion of homeless Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Peoples with neurocognitive disability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Townsend, Clare; White, Paul; Cullen, Jennifer; Wright, Courtney J; Zeeman, Heidi

    2017-03-30

    This article highlights the dearth of accurate evidence available to inform the National Disability Insurance Scheme (NDIS) regarding the extent and nature of neurocognitive disability amongst homeless Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people. Without accurate prevalence rates of neurocognitive disability, homeless Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people are in danger of not being counted by the NDIS and not receiving supports to which they are entitled. Addressing this knowledge gap is challenged by a range of factors, including: (1) the long-term effect of profound intergenerational disenfranchisement of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people; (2) Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander cultural perspectives around disability; (3) the generally unrecognised and poorly understood nature of neurocognitive disability; (4) the use of research methods that are not culturally safe; (5) research logistics; and (6) the absence of culturally appropriate assessment tools to identify prevalence. It is argued that an accurate evidence base that is informed by culturally safe research methods and assessment tools is needed to accurately guide the Commonwealth government and the National Disability Insurance Agency about the expected level of need for the NDIS. Research within this framework will contribute to the realisation of a truly inclusive NDIS.

  15. Identification of shallow volcanic structures in Timanfaya National Park (Lanzarote, Canary Islands) through combined geophysical prospecting techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomez-Ortiz, David; Montesinos, Fuensanta G.; Martin-Crespo, Tomas; Solla, Mercedes; Arnoso, Jose; Velez, Emilio

    2014-05-01

    The Timanfaya National Park is a volcanic area, which occupies a surface area of about 51 sq. km in the southwest of Lanzarote Island (Canary Archipelago, Spain). The 1730-1736 eruption gave rise to this volcanic landscape with more than 30 volcanic cones formed in different phases of basaltic type eruptions. It was one of the most important volcanic events occurred in the Canary Archipelago over the last 500 years. Several canyons ("jameos") are crossing this landscape in all directions, being created while the surface of the lava cooled off, and broke into pieces, falling down into the several tubes. Its location and identification is important to prevent hazards or to achieve a good exploitation from a visitor viewpoint in a restricted touristic area as the Timanfaya National Park. The use of prospective techniques to investigate the near subsurface structure of the park is very complicated, and only some regional study through gravity, magnetism and seismicity have been undertaken to attempt to model the deeper crustal structure of Lanzarote Island. This work presents a new study about the location of recent lava tubes at the volcanic area of Timanfaya National Park by the analysis and joint interpretation of high-resolution gravity, ground penetrating radar (GPR), and electromagnetic induction (EMI) data obtained over areas which had not been surveyed up to date. The studied lava flows are located at the Calderas Quemadas zone. The processed GPR radargram displays a complex pattern of reflections along the whole profile up to ~9 m depth. The strongest reflections can be grouped in four different areas defined by several hyperbolic reflections. Direct visual inspections carried out in the field allow confirming the occurrence of lava tubes at two of the locations where hyperbolic reflections are defined. Then, the strong reflections observed have been interpreted as the effect of the roof and bottom interfaces of several lava tubes. A microgravity survey along

  16. The emerging threats of climate change on tropical coastal ecosystem services, public health, local economies and livelihood sustainability of small islands: Cumulative impacts and synergies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández-Delgado, E A

    2015-12-15

    Climate change has significantly impacted tropical ecosystems critical for sustaining local economies and community livelihoods at global scales. Coastal ecosystems have largely declined, threatening the principal source of protein, building materials, tourism-based revenue, and the first line of defense against storm swells and sea level rise (SLR) for small tropical islands. Climate change has also impacted public health (i.e., altered distribution and increased prevalence of allergies, water-borne, and vector-borne diseases). Rapid human population growth has exacerbated pressure over coupled social-ecological systems, with concomitant non-sustainable impacts on natural resources, water availability, food security and sovereignty, public health, and quality of life, which should increase vulnerability and erode adaptation and mitigation capacity. This paper examines cumulative and synergistic impacts of climate change in the challenging context of highly vulnerable small tropical islands. Multiple adaptive strategies of coupled social-ecological ecosystems are discussed. Multi-level, multi-sectorial responses are necessary for adaptation to be successful. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. 75 FR 48986 - Vendor Outreach Workshop for Small Businesses in the National Capitol Region of the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-12

    ... DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Office of the Secretary Vendor Outreach Workshop for Small Businesses in the National Capitol Region of the United States AGENCY: Office of the Secretary, Interior. ACTION... Interior are hosting a Vendor Outreach Workshop for small businesses in the National Capitol region of the...

  18. Cost-related Nonadherence to Medication Treatment Plans: Native Hawaiian and Pacific Islander National Health Interview Survey, 2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McElfish, Pearl A; Long, Christopher R; Payakachat, Nalin; Felix, Holly; Bursac, Zoran; Rowland, Brett; Hudson, Jonell S; Narcisse, Marie-Rachelle

    2018-04-01

    Adherence to medication treatment plans is important for chronic disease (CD) management. Cost-related nonadherence (CRN) puts patients at risk for complications. Native Hawaiians and Pacific Islanders (NHPI) suffer from high rates of CD and socioeconomic disparities that could increase CRN behaviors. Examine factors related to CRN to medication treatment plans within an understudied population. Using 2014 NHPI-National Health Interview Survey data, we examined CRN among a nationally representative sample of NHPI adults. Bonferroni-adjusted Wald test and multivariable logistic regression were performed to examine associations among financial burden-related factors, CD status, and CRN. Across CD status, NHPI engaged in CRN behaviors had, on an average, increased levels of perceived financial stress, financial insecurity with health care, and food insecurity compared with adults in the total NHPI population. Regression analysis indicated perceived financial stress [adjusted odds ratio (AOR)=1.16; 95% confidence intervals (CI), 1.10-1.22], financial insecurity with health care (AOR=1.96; 95% CI, 1.32-2.90), and food insecurity (AOR=1.30; 95% CI, 1.06-1.61) all increase the odds of CRN among those with CD. We also found significant associations between perceived financial stress (AOR=1.15; 95% CI, 1.09-1.20), financial insecurity with health care (AOR=1.59; 95% CI, 1.19-2.12), and food insecurity (AOR=1.31; 95% CI, 1.04-1.65) and request for lower cost medication. This study demonstrated health-related and non-health-related financial burdens can influence CRN behaviors. It is important for health care providers to collect and use data about the social determinants of health to better inform their conversations about medication adherence and prevent CRN.

  19. Climate change effects on the biodiversity of the BES islands : assessment of the possible consequences for the marine and terrestrial ecosystems of the Dutch Antilles and the options for adaptation measures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Debrot, A.O.; Bugter, R.J.F.

    2010-01-01

    Due to their vulnerability and low capacity to adapt, the impact of climate change on small island nations will be far larger compared to larger countries. The Dutch BES islands (Bonaire, St. Eustatius and Saba) form part of the Caribbean global biodiversity hotspot area. The leeward Dutch islands

  20. Heat Islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA's Heat Island Effect Site provides information on heat islands, their impacts, mitigation strategies, related research, a directory of heat island reduction initiatives in U.S. communities, and EPA's Heat Island Reduction Program.

  1. Island biogeography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Whittaker, Robert James; Fernández-Palacios, José María; Matthews, Thomas J.

    2017-01-01

    Islands provide classic model biological systems. We review how growing appreciation of geoenvironmental dynamics of marine islands has led to advances in island biogeographic theory accommodating both evolutionary and ecological phenomena. Recognition of distinct island geodynamics permits gener...

  2. Australian Aboriginal people and Torres Strait Islanders have an atherogenic lipid profile that is characterised by low HDL-cholesterol level and small LDL particles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Neal, D N; Piers, L S; Iser, D M; Rowley, K G; Jenkins, A J; Best, J D; O'Dea, K

    2008-12-01

    To characterise lipid profiles for Australian Aboriginal people and Torres Strait Islanders. Community-based, cross-sectional surveys in 1995-1997 including: 407 female and 322 male Australian Aboriginal people and 207 female and 186 male Torres Strait Islanders over 15 years old. A comparator of 78 female (44 with diabetes) and 148 male (73 with diabetes) non-indigenous participants recruited to clinical epidemiological studies was used. Lipids were determined by standard assays and LDL diameter by gradient gel electrophoresis. Diabetes prevalence was 14.8% and 22.6% among Aboriginal people and Torres Strait Islanders, respectively. LDL size (mean [95% CI (confidence interval)]) was smaller (P<0.05) in non-diabetic Aboriginal (26.02 [25.96-26.07] nm) and Torres Strait Islander women (26.01 [25.92-26.09] nm) than in non-diabetic non-indigenous women (26.29 [26.13-26.44] nm). LDL size correlated (P<0.0005) inversely with triglyceride, WHR, and fasting insulin and positively with HDL-cholesterol. HDL-cholesterol (mean [95% CI] mmol/L) was lower (P<0.0005) in indigenous Australians than in non-indigenous subjects, independent of age, sex, diabetes, WHR, insulin, triglyceride, and LDL size: Aboriginal (non-diabetic women, 0.86 [0.84-0.88]; diabetic women, 0.76 [0.72-0.80]; non-diabetic men, 0.79 [0.76-0.81]; diabetic men, 0.76 [0.71-0.82]); Torres Strait Islander (non-diabetic women, 1.00 [0.95-1.04]; diabetic women, 0.89 [0.83-0.96]; non-diabetic men, 1.00 [0.95-1.04]; diabetic men, 0.87 [0.79-0.96]); non-indigenous (non-diabetic women, 1.49 [1.33-1.67]; diabetic women, 1.12 [1.03-1.21]; non-diabetic men, 1.18 [1.11-1.25]; diabetic men, 1.05 [0.98-1.12]). Indigenous Australians have a dyslipidaemia which includes small LDL and very low HDL-cholesterol levels. The dyslipidaemia was equally severe in both genders. Strategies aimed at increasing HDL-cholesterol and LDL size may reduce high CVD risk for indigenous populations.

  3. Endangered and Threatened Species at Kennedy Space Center Merritt Island National Wildlife Refuge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galdolfi, Catherine

    2010-01-01

    Throughout my internship, I assisted with the long-term monitoring of the Florida Scrub- Jay (Aphelocoma coerulescens), a threatened species endemic to Florida. The Florida Scrub Jay diet consists of insects and small vertebrates throughout most of the year; however, during the winter their primary diet is acorns because the insect population is low. Furthermore, the Florida Scrub-Jay is a habitat specialist that lives in a disappearing plant community called the scrub, which consists of sand live oak, myrtle oak and chapman oak. The Florida Scrub-Jay is considered threatened because its numbers are decreasing primarily due to the loss of habitat that it needs to survive. Scrub habitat is highly desirable for human development because it is high, dry, and sandy. Periodic controlled burns maintain the scrub in a low, open condition favored by Scrub-Jays. Florida Scrub-Jays build their nests approximately 3-5 feet (approximately 1.5 m) above the ground in shrubby oaks (Breininger 153), mate for life and are cooperative breeders; which means that the young jays remain in their natal territory for at least a year to help their parents defend their territory, feed the young, and mob predators. (Breininger 152). I assisted in conducting monthly censuses at long-term monitoring sites and a juvenile in July survey to determine reproductive success for the year. In addition, to Scrub-Jay monitoring, I also had the opportunity to assist with some long term monitoring of ecosystem recovery. Scrub is a fire maintained system. Fire maintains the structure of scrub necessary for many of the threatened species that reside in the scrub habitat.

  4. Identification of shallow geothermal anomalies in the Timanfaya National Park (Lanzarote, Canary Islands) through combined geophysical prospecting techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-Ortiz, David; Blanco-Montenegro, Isabel; Martín-Crespo, Tomás; Arnoso, José; Solla, Mercedes; Montesinos, Fuensanta G.; Vélez, Emilio; Calvo-Rathert, Manuel; Sánchez, Nieves; Lorenzo, Henrique; Soler, Vicente

    2017-04-01

    The Timanfaya National Park is a volcanic area in the southwest of Lanzarote Island (Canary Archipelago, Spain) resulting from the 1730-1736 eruption period. Several active geothermal anomalies have been identified from 1970's. Their location is important to prevent hazards in this restricted touristic area of the park. Presently, only some regional geophysical studies based on gravity, magnetic and seismic data have been undertaken to model the crustal structure of Lanzarote Island. This work presents a new study about the geothermal anomalies in the Timanfaya National Park by the analysis and joint interpretation of electrical resistivity tomography (ERT), magnetic anomalies and electromagnetic induction data (EMI). All analyzed data have been obtained over areas which had not been surveyed before. The studied geothermal field is located at the Islote de Hilario visitor's centre. One 50m-long GPR profile was carried out in May 2012 along the location of a known geothermal anomaly developed over pyroclastic deposits. The two main characteristics are: a) no continuous subhorizontal reflections are displayed up to 12 m depth and, b) the intensity of the reflections varies laterally in good agreement with the location of the geothermal anomalies (the higher the ground temperature, the greater the intensity of the GPR signal). Thus, an outline of the subsurface area with higher temperatures can be observed, indicating that the heat source is deeper at the beginning of the profile and extends laterally and progressively shallower towards the end. Temporal variation of the shallow temperature distribution was also investigated by repeating the same GPR profile in April 2015. Although both profiles look quite similar, subtle variations of the GPR signal intensity suggest a certain temporal variation of the ground temperature. In November 2012 a land magnetic survey was carried out in Timanfaya. In the Islote de Hilario area, total field magnetic data were acquired with

  5. Diomede Islands, Bering Straight

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    The Diomede Islands consisting of the western island Big Diomede (also known as Imaqliq, Nunarbuk or Ratmanov Island), and the eastern island Little Diomede (also known as Krusenstern Island or Inaliq), are two rocky islands located in the middle of the Bering Strait between Russia and Alaska. The islands are separated by an international border and the International Date Line which is approximately 1.5 km from each island; you can look from Alaska into tomorrow in Russia. At the closest land approach between the United States, which controls Little Diomede, and Russia, which controls Big Diomede, they are 3 km apart. Little Diomede Island constitutes the Alaskan City of Diomede, while Big Diomede Island is Russia's easternmost point. The first European to reach the islands was the Russian explorer Semyon Dezhnev in 1648. The text of the 1867 treaty finalizing the sale of Alaska uses the islands to designate the border between the two nations. The image was acquired July 8, 2000, covers an area of 13.5 x 10.8 km, and is located at 65.8 degrees north latitude, 169 degrees west longitude. The U.S. science team is located at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. The Terra mission is part of NASA's Science Mission Directorate.

  6. Patterns at Multi-Spatial Scales on Tropical Island Stream Insect Assemblages: Gorgona Island Natural National Park, Colombia, Tropical Eastern Pacific

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magnolia Longo

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Tropical Eastern Pacific island streams (TEPis differ from other neotropical streams in their rainy climate, mixed sedimentary-volcanic geology and faunal composition. Yet, their relationships between environmental characteristics and stream biota remain unexplored. We analyzed the environmental subject at three spatial scales using a fully nested sampling design (6 streams, 2 reaches within each stream, 2 habitats within each reach, and 4 replicates per habitat on Gorgona Island (Colombia. Sampling was carried out in two months with contrasting rainfall during early 2009. We studied the spatial variation of assemblage composition and density along with 27 independent variables within two contrasting rainfall conditions. Five stream-scale variables, two reach-scale variables, and five habitat-scale variables were selected using a Canonical Correspondence Analysis (CCA. A partial CCA showed that the total variance explained was 13.98%, while stream- and habitat-scale variables explained the highest proportion of the variance (5.74 and 5.01%, respectively. Dissolved oxygen (as affected by rainfall, high-density use zone (a management category, and sedimentary geology were the best descriptors of insect assemblages. The two latter descriptors affected fine-scale variables such as total benthic organic matter and gravel substratum, respectively. A Nested ANOVA showed significant differences in total density and richness among streams and habitats, and significant differences between the two sampling months regardless of the spatial scale. The evenness showed a significant stream- and habitat-dependent temporal variability. These results suggested that rainfall regime in Gorgona Island might be a driver of insect assemblage dynamics mediated by water chemistry and substratum properties. Spatial assemblage variability here is greater within habitats (among samples, and a minor fraction occurs at habitat- and stream-scales, while no longitudinal

  7. Seasonal and Spatial Variation of Surface Urban Heat Island Intensity in a Small Urban Agglomerate in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elis Dener Lima Alves

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, SUHIs (surface urban heat islands have been greatly emphasized in urban climate studies, since it is one of the climate phenomena most influenced by human action. In this study, temporal and spatial variations of SUHIs in the cities of Ceres and Rialma (Brazil were investigated; satellite Landsat 8 TIRS/OLI images from 2013 to 2016 were used for this purpose. The results showed that in all seasons, two relationships were observed, one positive and one negative. An N D V I (Normalized Difference Vegetation Index of 0.2 is the divider of this relationship: up to this value, the relationship is positive, that is, the higher the N D V I value, the higher the surface temperature, while the relationship is negative at an N D V I greater than 0.2. There was high seasonal variation in the SUHIs, with the highest intensities recorded in the spring and summer (±12 °C, and the lowest in the winter. These temporal variations were attributed to the annual cycle of precipitation, which directly involves the robustness of the Cerrado vegetation. SUHIs occupied, on average, an area three times larger than the area of SUCIs (surface urban cool islands. The highest values of SUCIs were observed in water bodies and in valley bottoms. Overall, SUHIs showed high intensities; however, a more intense core area, such as in large cities, was not observed.

  8. Numerical simulations of island effects on airflow and weather during the summer over the island of Oahu

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiep Van Nguyen; Yie-Leng Chen; Francis Fujioka

    2010-01-01

    The high-resolution (1.5 km) nonhydrostatic fifth-generation Pennsylvania StateUniversity–National Center for Atmospheric Research (PSU–NCAR) Mesoscale Model (MM5) and an advanced land surface model (LSM) are used to study the island-induced airflow and weather for the island of Oahu, Hawaii, under summer trade wind conditions. Despite Oahu’s relatively small...

  9. Pacific Island landbird monitoring annual report, Haleakalā National Park, 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Judge, Seth W.; Camp, Richard J.; Hart, Patrick J.

    2013-01-01

    Haleakalā National Park (HALE) was surveyed for landbirds and habitat characteristics from March 20 through July 26, 2012. This information provides data in the time-series of landbird monitoring for long-term trends in forest bird distribution, density, and abundance. The Kīpahulu District of eastern Haleakalā Volcano was surveyed using point-transect distance sampling to estimate bird abundance. We surveyed 160 stations and detected a total of 2,830 birds from 12 species. Half of the species were native and half were non-native. Numbers of detections per species ranged from 1 to 849. There were sufficient detections of seven species to allow density estimation. Āpapane (Himatione sanguinea) was the most widely distributed and abundant native species detected in the survey. ‘Alauahio (Paroreomyza montana newtoni), Maui ‘Amakihi (Hemignathus virens wilsoni), and I‘iwi (Vestiaria coccinea) were widespread and occurred in relatively modest densities. Only eight Kiwikiu (Pseudonestor xanthophrys) and 20 ‘Ākohekohe (Palmeria dolei) were detected and were restricted to high elevation wet forest. We estimated an abundance of 495 ± 261individuals of Kiwikiu in a 2,036 ha inference area which likely includes the entire suitable habitat for this species in HALE. For ‘Ākohekohe, we estimated an abundance of 1,150 ± 389 individuals in the 1,458 ha inference area. There was a strong representation of non-native landbirds in the survey area. The Japanese White-eye (Zosterops japonicus), Japanese Bush-warbler (Cettia diphone), and Red-billed Leiothrix (Leiothrix lutea) accounted for nearly half of all landbird detections. Each species was common in predominantly native forests. Vegetation and topographic characteristics were recorded on 160 landbird monitoring stations. HALE canopy and understory composition was predominantly native, especially at elevations above 1,100 m. Much of the forest canopy was comprised of `ohi`a (Metrosideros polymorpha) interspersed

  10. Commercialization of Los Alamos National Laboratory technologies via small businesses. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brice, R.; Cartron, D.; Rhyne, T.; Schulze, M.; Welty, L.

    1997-06-01

    Over the past decade, numerous companies have been formed to commercialize research results from leading U.S. academic and research institutions. Emerging small businesses in areas such as Silicon Valley, Boston`s Route 128 corridor, and North Carolina`s Research Triangle have been especially effective in moving promising technologies from the laboratory bench to the commercial marketplace--creating new jobs and economic expansion in the process. Unfortunately, many of the U.S. national laboratories have not been major participants in this technology/commercialization activity, a result of a wide variety of factors which, until recently, acted against successful commercialization. This {open_quotes}commercialization gap{close_quotes} exists partly due to a lack, within Los Alamos in particular and the DOE in general, of in-depth expertise and experience in such business areas as new business development, securities regulation, market research and the determination of commercial potential, the identification of entrepreneurial management, marketing and distribution, and venture capital sources. The immediate consequence of these factors is the disappointingly small number of start-up companies based on technologies from Los Alamos National Laboratory that have been attempted, the modest financial return Los Alamos has received from these start-ups, and the lack of significant national recognition that Los Alamos has received for creating and commercializing these technologies.

  11. Viability of small seeds found in feces of the Central American tapir on Barro Colorado Island, Panama

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Capece, P.I.; Aliaga-Rossel, E.; Jansen, P.A.

    2013-01-01

    Tapirs are known as effective dispersers of large-seeded tree species, but their role in dispersing small-seeded plant species has yet to be established. Tapir feces have been reported to contain large numbers of small seeds, but whether these are viable has rarely been evaluated. We determined the

  12. Partial pressure (or fugacity) of carbon dioxide, salinity and other variables collected from Surface underway observations using Barometric pressure sensor, Carbon dioxide (CO2) gas analyzer and other instruments from NOAA Ship DAVID STARR JORDAN in the Channel Islands National Marine Sanctuary, Cordell Bank National Marine Sanctuary and others from 2007-07-25 to 2007-10-28 (NCEI Accession 0144352)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0144352 includes Surface underway data collected from NOAA Ship DAVID STARR JORDAN in the Channel Islands National Marine Sanctuary, Cordell Bank...

  13. Influence of marine aerosols and aerotechnogenic load on chemical composition of rainwaters on small islands (ludas) of the White Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorbacheva, Tamara; Mazukhina, Svetlana; Isaeva, Ludmila; Shumilov, Oleg

    2013-04-01

    In June 2001 intensive monitoring plots were established on the island part of Kandalaksha Bay of the White Sea (the island Tonnaya Luda; 67o06'60"N; 32o24'12"E) with the installation of stationary rainwater collectors. The purpose was studying the chemical composition of rain waters in the zone of cumulative influence of marine aerosols and aerotechnogenic load. Water sampling was carried out monthly during the vegetative season of 2001 and 2002. pH of rain water was determined by potentiometric method without preliminary filtration. The samples were passed through the paper filter with the pore diameter of 1-2.5 microns, the analysis of filtrate carried out by methods of atomic emission spectrometry (K, Na) and atomic absorption spectrometry (Ca, Mg, Zn, Mn, Cu, Ni, Al, Fe), total P and P of phosphates, Si and NH4+ - by photocolorimetry, total carbon - by bichromate method, NO3-, SO42-, Cl--by ion exchange chromatography method. Balance method was chosen as a research basis to determine the interrelation of rain water organic matter and dynamics of its redistribution under the influence of natural and technogenic factors. The difference between the cations sum (including NH4+and H+) and mineral acids anions sum (SO42-, Cl-, NO3-) was identified as organic acids anions concentration (μeq l-1). The level of Na, Cl-, K, Ca, Mg, SO42-, Sr in rainwaters on the island and the remote areas is indicative of the possible influence of marine aerosols on the island part of the White Sea. The increase of Al, Cu, Ni, Cd, Co concentrations in rainwaters up to one order against the background values points to the cumulative influence of the emissions of industrial enterprises located in the region. The relative stability of pH values of rain waters during all seasons indicates to the buffer action of weak organic acids anions. The correlation analysis of ionic structure in normal concentrations has allowed us to estimate the distribution of the cationic part from the

  14. Development of small businesses in tourism in the Lake Skadar National Park

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Đurašević Silvana

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The subject of paper is a study of the possibilities for the development of small businesses and enterprise in the region of the Lake Skadar National Park, with an emphasis on a marketable tourism product. In a time of transition such as this, progress in the economy and therefore in tourism is highly dependent on the creation of a range of tourism products that are attractive both to the major consumer segments and to the niche market. Their successful promotion is intended to secure economic growth and a higher standard of living for the local population. The basic methodological approach has been secondary research, based on existing bibliographical sources. Primary research has included field visits, surveys of the local population, interviews with relevant representatives of small businesses and of the National Park and analysis of the results collected. The findings point to a need for change in the economic structure in favour of the development of small business and enterprise and for their networking with the objective of creating competitive products, facilitating employment and securing access to the market. In order to breathe life into this as yet underdeveloped region, potential sources of financing need to be secured and greater initiative on the part of the national and local government is needed. The cluster model is also considered herein as a way of halting economic and social decline in the local population, especially in terms of connecting the more developed southern region with the undeveloped north. Since the discussion concerns business development in an area that is under a special protection regime - which requires continual monitoring of carrying capacities - a priority in future development must be the sustainability of the natural and economic system in this region.

  15. Movement and habitat use of Sika and White-tailed Deer on Assateague Island national seashore, Maryland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diefenbach, Duane R.; Christensen, Sonja

    2009-01-01

    = 0.16–0.82) for male white-tailed deer, 0.74 (95% CI = 0.44–0.91) for female white-tailed deer, 0.56 (95% CI = 0.35–0.75) for male sika deer, and 0.86 (95% CI = 0.70–0.94) for female sika deer. The harvest rate was 0.12 (95% CI = 0.04–0.27) for female sika deer, 0.44 (95% CI = 0.25–0.65) for male sika deer, 0.18 (95% CI = 0.05–0.51) for female white-tailed deer, and 0.38 (95% CI = 0.10–0.78) for male white-tailed deer. Annual survival rates for both species were similar to what has been observed in other populations. Unfortunately, small sample sizes for male white-tailed deer limited inferences about harvest and survival rates, but harvest rates of females for both species were similar to other published studies. Hunting was the primary cause of mortality, and outside the hunting season survival was 0.98–1.00 for all species and sexes. We found that the home range area of sika deer was much greater than the home range area of white-tailed deer, but failed to detect any difference between sexes or among seasons. Sika deer also made long-distance movements and left the Maryland portion of Assateague Island. No sika deer left Assateague island during our study, but we did document the dispersal of a male whitetailed deer to the mainland. In their native range, sika deer have been able to readily expand populations and occupy vacant habitat (Kaji et al. 2000; Kaji et al. 2004). The long distance movements we observed on Assateague Island, especially relative to white-tailed deer, may reflect the ability of this species to exploit food resources that may be limited in quality or quantity, or both. However, we did not collect data to assess use of food resources by sika deer and whether this may have influenced long distance movements. We found both species of deer were less likely to use a habitat the further it was located from cover, which was defined as tall shrub or forest vegetation. For every 10 m (32 ft) from cover each species of deer was 1

  16. Seasonal Variation of Total Mercury Burden in the American Alligator (Alligator Mississippiensis) at Merritt Island National Wildlife Refuge (MINWR), Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nilsen, Frances M.; Dorsey, Jonathan E.; Long, Stephen E.; Schock, Tracey B.; Bowden, John A.; Lowers, Russell H.; Guillette, Louis J., Jr.

    2016-01-01

    Seasonal variation of mercury (Hg) is not well studied in free-ranging wildlife. Atmospheric deposition patterns of Hg have been studied in detail and have been modeled for both global and specific locations with great accuracy and correlates to environment impact. However, monitoring these trends in wildlife is complicated due to local environmental parameters (e.g., rainfall, humidity, pH, bacterial composition) that can affect the transformation of atmospheric Hg to the biologically available forms. Here, we utilized an abundant and healthy population of American alligators (Alligator mississippiensis) at Merritt Island National Wildlife Refuge (MINWR), FL, and assessed Hg burden in whole blood samples over a span of 7 years (2007 2014; n 174) in an effort to assess seasonal variation of total [Hg]. While the majority of this population is assumed healthy, 18 individuals with low body mass indices (BMI, defined in this study) were captured throughout the 7 year sampling period. These individual alligators exhibited [Hg] that were not consistent with the observed overall seasonal [Hg] variation, and were statistically different from the healthy population of alligators. The alligators with low BMI had elevated concentrations of Hg compared to their age/sex/season matched counterparts with normal BMI. Statistically significant differences were found between the winter and spring seasons for animals with normal BMI. The data in this report supports the conclusion that organismal total [Hg] do fluctuate directly with seasonal deposition rates as well as other seasonal environmental parameters, such as average rainfall and prevailing wind direction. This study highlights the unique environment of MINWR to permit annual assessment of apex predators, such as the American alligator, to determine detailed environmental impact of contaminants of concern.

  17. Small mammal density and movement on the SL-1 disposal area, Idaho National Engineering Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Filipovich, M.A.; Keller, B.L.

    1983-01-01

    This study was initiated to examine the population composition, density and food habits of small mammals on a radioactive waste disposal area. Population parameters of small mammals were studied at 3-month intervals on and adjacent to the SL-1 radioactive waste disposal area (1.4 ha) and a 0.3 ha control area between August 1981 and February 1982 with mark-release methods. Both areas have crested wheatgrass (Agropyron cristatum) stands surrounded by sagebrush steppe. Species composition on the SL-1 and control area was similar to that found on the Subsurface Disposal Area at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. Considerable use by small mammals of the perimeter of the crested wheatgrass stands was found on both the SL-1 and control area. Additionally, deer mice (Peromyscus maniculatus) and Ord's kangaroo rats (Dipodomys ordii) that frequent the crested wheatgrass stands of the SL-1 and control area were often captured over 100 m from the crested wheatgrass stands. Thus, future research efforts will focus on examining the intensity of perimeter use and food habits of rodents residing on and adjacent to the SL-1. Results of this study will be used to evaluate ecological conditions that affect small mammal use of radioactive waste disposal areas

  18. Explaining technical change in a small country the Finnish national innovation system

    CERN Document Server

    Vuorinen, Pentti

    1994-01-01

    Technical change is produced by the interaction of a large number of technical, economic, social and institutional factors. One of the starting points is the concept of national innovation systems. The aim of this book is to take Finland as an example illustrating the challenges faced by small countries. The characteristics and performance of the Finnish national innovation system of the last couple of decades are analyzed. The Finnish experience is put in a broader context by comparing it with a few other countries. The development paths possible in the near future are assessed. According to the results, many problems remain despite favourable developments in several technology indicators. The rigidities of the social institutions created during the 1970s and 1980s seem to have become obstacles for economic and technological development. There are fairly large differences between the countries studied, and even between the culturally and historically close Nordic countries. However,Finland and Sweden seem to...

  19. Records of seven small mammal species (Insectivora, Chiroptera new to the Kruger National Park

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. L Rautenbach

    1979-12-01

    Full Text Available On a recent collecting expedition in the Kruger National Park, the occurrence of seven species of small mammals (one shrew and six bats within the confines of this sanctuary was confirmed for the first time. One species (Pipistrellus rusticus is reported for the first time from within the borders of the Transvaal, whereas another species (Myotis bocagei is reported for the first time for the Republic of South Africa. The seven species are briefly discussed and the collections where the specimens have been accessioned are indicated.

  20. The University of New Mexico/Sandia National Laboratories small-angle scattering laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rieker, T.P.; Hubbard, P.F.

    1998-01-01

    The University of New Mexico/Sandia National Laboratories small-angle scattering laboratory provides a wide q-range, 3x10 -4 Angstrom -1 -1 , for the structural analysis of materials on length scales from a few angstrom to ∼0.1 μm. The wide q-range is accomplished by combining data from a Bonse-Hart spectrometer (3x10 -4 Angstrom -1 -2 Angstrom -1 ) and a 5 m pinhole (3x10 -3 Angstrom -1 -1 ) instrument. Automation of the data acquisition systems along with a variety of sample environments and sample changers yields flexible, high throughput instruments. copyright 1998 American Institute of Physics

  1. Radionuclide contaminant analysis of small mammals at Area G, TA-54, Los Alamos National Laboratory, 1995

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bennett, K.; Biggs, J.; Fresquez, P.

    1997-01-01

    At Los Alamos National Laboratory, small mammals were sampled at two waste burial sites (Site 1-recently disturbed and Site 2-partially disturbed) at Area G, Technical Area 54 and a control site on Frijoles Mesa (Site 4) in 1995. Our objectives were (1) to identify radionuclides that are present within surface and subsurface soils at waste burial sites, (2) to compare the amount of radionuclide uptake by small mammals at waste burial sites to a control site, and (3) to identify if the primary mode of contamination to small mammals is by surface contact or ingestion/inhalation. Three composite samples of at least rive animals per sample were collected at each site. Pelts and carcasses of each animal were separated and analyzed independently. Samples were analyzed for 241 Am, 90 Sr , 238 Pu, 239 Pu, total U, 137 Cs, and 3 H. Significantly higher (parametric West at p=0.05) levels of total U, 241 Am, 238 Pu and 239 Pu were detected in pelts than in carcasses of small mammals at TA-54. Concentrations of other measured radionuclides in carcasses were nearly equal to or exceeded the mean concentrations in the pelts. Our results show higher concentrations in pelts compared to carcasses, which is similar to what has been found at waste burial/contaminated sites outside of Los Alamos National Laboratory. Site 1 had a significantly higher (alpha=0.05, P=0.0125) mean tritium concentration in carcasses than Site 2 or Site 4. In addition Site 1 also had a significantly higher (alpha=0.05, p=0.0024) mean tritium concentration in pelts than Site 2 or Site 4. Site 2 had a significantly higher (alpha=0.05, P=0.0499) mean 239 Pu concentration in carcasses than either Site 1 or Site 4

  2. WATER TEMPERATURE, DISSOLVED OXYGEN, and others collected from NOAA Ship OSCAR ELTON SETTE in Hawaii EEZ, main Hawaiian Islands, and Papahanaumokuakea Marine National Monument from 2010-09-02 to 2010-10-26 (NCEI Accession 0156000)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — CTD data were collected during a Pacific Islands Fisheries Science Center's Cetacean Research Program's shipboard cetacean survey (Cruise ID: SE 10-08). During legs...

  3. National Coral Reef Monitoring Program: Stratified Random Surveys (StRS) of Reef Fish, including Benthic Estimate Data at Wake Island from 2014-03-16 to 2014-03-20 (NCEI Accession 0157572)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The stationary point count (SPC) method is used to conduct reef fish surveys in the Hawaiian and Mariana Archipelagos, American Samoa, and the Pacific Remote Island...

  4. NCCOS National Status and Trends Bioeffects Assessment: Chemical contaminant data in the St. Thomas East End Reserves, U.S. Virgin Islands, from 2010-05-04 to 2012-06-22 (NCEI Accession 0146168)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset provides valuable baseline data on sediment chemical contamination for the St. Thomas East End Reserve (STEER), U.S. Virgin Islands (USVI). From...

  5. National Coral Reef Monitoring Program: Stratified Random Surveys (StRS) of Coral Demography (Adult and Juvenile Corals) across the Main Hawaiian Islands from 2013-08-02 to 2013-10-29 (NCEI Accession 0159147)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The data described here result from benthic coral demographic surveys for two life stages (juveniles, adults) across the Main Hawaiian Islands in 2013. Juvenile...

  6. National Coral Reef Monitoring Program: Stratified Random Surveys (StRS) of Reef Fish, including Benthic Estimate Data at Jarvis Island from 2016-05-16 to 2016-05-22 (NCEI Accession 0157594)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Surveys were conducted in the course of a reef fish survey cruise conducted by the NOAA Coral Reef Ecosystem Program (CREP) at the NOAA Pacific Islands Fisheries...

  7. National Coral Reef Monitoring Program: Stratified Random Surveys (StRS) of Reef Fish, including Benthic Estimate Data of the Pacific Remote Island Areas from 2015-01-26 to 2015-04-28 (NCEI Accession 0157595)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The stationary point count (SPC) method is used to conduct reef fish surveys in the Hawaiian and Mariana Archipelagos, American Samoa, and the Pacific Remote Island...

  8. Survival and natality rate observations of California sea lions at San Miguel Island, California conducted by Alaska Fisheries Science Center, National Marine Mammal Laboratory from 1987-09-20 to 2014-09-25 (NCEI Accession 0145167)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The dataset contains initial capture and marking data for California sea lion (Zalophus californianus) pups at San Miguel Island, California and subsequent...

  9. National Coral Reef Monitoring Program: Stratified Random Surveys (StRS) of Coral Demography (Adult and Juvenile Corals) across Wake Island from 2014-03-16 to 2014-03-20 (NCEI Accession 0159162)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The data described here result from benthic coral demographic surveys for two life stages (juveniles, adults) across Wake Island in 2014. Juvenile colony surveys...

  10. Killer whale surveys conducted in the Aleutian Islands, Bering Sea, and western and central Gulf of Alaska by Alaska Fisheries Science Center, National Marine Mammal Laboratory from 2001-07-01 to 2010-07-12 (NCEI Accession 0137766)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset is a compilation of line-transect data collected on surveys in the Aleutian Islands, Bering Sea, and western and central Gulf of Alaska, 2001 - 2010....

  11. National Coral Reef Monitoring Program: Stratified Random Surveys (StRS) of Coral Demography (Adult and Juvenile Corals) across Jarvis Island from 2016-05-16 to 2016-05-22 (NCEI Accession 0159164)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The data described here result from benthic coral demographic surveys for two life stages (juveniles, adults) across Jarvis Island in 2016. Juvenile colony surveys...

  12. National Coral Reef Monitoring Program: Stratified Random Surveys (StRS) of Coral Demography (Adult and Juvenile Corals) across the Pacific Remote Island Areas from 2015-0126 to 2015-04-28 (NCEI Accession 0159161)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The data described here result from benthic coral demographic surveys for two life stages (juveniles, adults) across the Pacific Remote Island Areas in 2015....

  13. National Coral Reef Monitoring Program: Benthic Cover Derived from Analysis of Benthic Images Collected during Stratified Random Surveys (StRS) across the Pacific Remote Island Areas from 2015-01-26 to 2015-04-28 (NCEI Accession 0159165)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The data described here result from benthic photo-quadrat surveys conducted along transects at stratified random sites across the Pacific Remote Island Areas since...

  14. Archive of side scan sonar and swath bathymetry data collected during USGS cruise 10CCT01 offshore of Cat Island, Gulf Islands National Seashore, Mississippi, March 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeWitt, Nancy T.; Flocks, James G.; Pfeiffer, William R.; Wiese, Dana S.

    2010-01-01

    In March of 2010, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) conducted geophysical surveys east of Cat Island, Mississippi (fig. 1). The efforts were part of the USGS Gulf of Mexico Science Coordination partnership with the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (USACE) to assist the Mississippi Coastal Improvements Program (MsCIP) and the Northern Gulf of Mexico (NGOM) Ecosystem Change and Hazards Susceptibility Project by mapping the shallow geological stratigraphic framework of the Mississippi Barrier Island Complex. These geophysical surveys will provide the data necessary for scientists to define, interpret, and provide baseline bathymetry and seafloor habitat for this area and to aid scientists in predicting future geomorpholocial changes of the islands with respect to climate change, storm impact, and sea-level rise. Furthermore, these data will provide information for barrier island restoration, particularly in Camille Cut, and provide protection for the historical Fort Massachusetts. For more information refer to http://ngom.usgs.gov/gomsc/mscip/index.html. This report serves as an archive of the processed swath bathymetry and side scan sonar data (SSS). Data products herein include gridded and interpolated surfaces, surface images, and x,y,z data products for both swath bathymetry and side scan sonar imagery. Additional files include trackline maps, navigation files, GIS files, Field Activity Collection System (FACS) logs, and formal FGDC metadata. Scanned images of the handwritten FACS logs and digital FACS logs are also provided as PDF files. Refer to the Acronyms page for expansion of acronyms and abbreviations used in this report or hold the cursor over an acronym for a pop-up explanation. The USGS St. Petersburg Coastal and Marine Science Center assigns a unique identifier to each cruise or field activity. For example, 10CCT01 tells us the data were collected in 2010 for the Coastal Change and Transport (CCT) study and the data were collected during the first field

  15. Development of a National Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Cancer Framework: A Shared Process to Guide Effective Policy and Practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jenny Brands

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Indigenous Australians experience a substantially higher cancer mortality rate than non-Indigenous Australians. While cancer outcomes are improving for non-Indigenous Australians, they are worsening for Indigenous Australians. Reducing this disparity requires evidence-based and culturally-appropriate guidance. The purpose of this paper is to describe an initiative by Cancer Australia and Menzies School of Health Research (Menzies to develop Australia’s first National Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Cancer Framework using a process of co-design with relevant stakeholders. The initiative was guided by three core principles: achieving policy-relevant evidence-based outcomes; engaging and maintaining trust with Indigenous Australians at every phase; and employing best-practice and appropriate research methods. Four components of research comprised the Framework development: evidence review; multifaceted stakeholder consultation and input; triangulation of findings; and direct stakeholder input in drafting and refining the Framework. The evidence review confirmed the increasing burden of cancer on Indigenous Australians, while stakeholder consultations facilitated comprehensive input from those with lived experience. The consultations revealed issues not identified in existing literature, and gave different emphases of priority, thus reinforcing the value of including stakeholder perspectives. This paper focuses primarily on documenting the methods used; findings are presented only in order to illustrate the results of the process. The published Framework is available at www.canceraustralia.gov.au; further description and analyses of findings from the consultations will be published elsewhere. The logistics inherent in large-scale consultation are considerable. However, the quality of data and the foundation for sustained partnership with stakeholders and knowledge translation vastly outweighed the challenges. The process of wide

  16. Exploring the role of small-scale livestock keepers for national biosecurity-The pig case.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Correia-Gomes, Carla; Henry, Madeleine K; Auty, Harriet K; Gunn, George J

    2017-09-15

    Small-scale keepers are less likely to engage with production organisations and may therefore be less aware of legislation, rules and biosecurity practices which are implemented in the livestock sector. Their role in the transmission of endemic and exotic diseases is not well studied, but is believed to be important. The authors use small-scale pig keepers in Scotland as an example of how important small-scale livestock keepers might be for national biosecurity. In Scotland more than two thirds of pig producers report that they keep less than 10 pigs, meaning that biosecurity practices and pig health status on a substantial number of holdings are largely unknown; it is considered important to fill this knowledge gap. A questionnaire was designed and implemented in order to gather some of this information. The questionnaire comprised a total of 37 questions divided into seven sections (location of the enterprise, interest in pigs, details about the pig enterprise, marketing of pigs, transport of pigs, pig husbandry, and pig health/biosecurity). Over 610 questionnaires were sent through the post and the questionnaire was also available online. The questionnaire was implemented from June to October 2013 and 135 questionnaires were returned by target respondents. The responses for each question are discussed in detail in this paper. Overall, our results suggest that the level of disease identified by small-scale pig keepers is low but the majority of the small-scale pig keepers are mixed farms, with associated increased risk for disease transmission between species. Almost all respondents implemented at least one biosecurity measure, although the measures taken were not comprehensive in the majority of cases. Overall as interaction between small-scale keepers and commercial producers exists in Scotland the former can pose a risk for commercial production. This investigation fills gaps in knowledge which will allow industry stakeholders and policy makers to adapt their

  17. Financing Sustainable Small-Scale Forestry: Lessons from Developing National Forest Financing Strategies in Latin America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Herman Savenije

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The problems that hamper the financing of sustainable forest management (SFM are manifold and complex. However, forestry is also facing unprecedented opportunities. The multiple functions and values of forests are increasingly recognized as part of the solution to pressing global issues (e.g., climate change, energy scarcity, poverty, environmental degradation, biodiversity loss and raw material supply. Emerging initiatives to enhance forest carbon stocks and cut greenhouse gas emissions associated with forest clearing (known as REDD+, together with voluntary carbon markets, are offering additional funding options for SFM. Indigenous peoples, local communities and small scale farmers feature as key players in the discourse on implementing such initiatives. Based on the experience of countries developing national forest financing strategies and instruments, we suggest the following points be considered when financing such initiatives, particularly for small scale forestry: (1 Integrate financing of REDD+ and similar initiatives within broader national strategies for SFM financing; (2 Design REDD+ finance mechanisms that are ‘community ready’, i.e., tailored to local realities; (3 Consider existing livelihood strategies as the starting point; (4 Build on existing structures, but be mindful of their strengths and weaknesses; (5 Be strategic with your priority actions; and (6 Promote innovation, knowledge sharing and information exchange.

  18. Mass coral bleaching due to unprecedented marine heatwave in Papahānaumokuākea Marine National Monument (Northwestern Hawaiian Islands).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Couch, Courtney S; Burns, John H R; Liu, Gang; Steward, Kanoelani; Gutlay, Tiffany Nicole; Kenyon, Jean; Eakin, C Mark; Kosaki, Randall K

    2017-01-01

    2014 marked the sixth and most widespread mass bleaching event reported in the Northwestern Hawaiian Islands, home to the Papahānaumokuākea Marine National Monument (PMNM), the world's second largest marine reserve. This event was associated with an unusual basin-scale warming in the North Pacific Ocean, with an unprecedented peak intensity of around 20°C-weeks of cumulative heat stress at Lisianksi Island. In situ bleaching surveys and satellite data were used to evaluate the relative importance of potential drivers of bleaching patterns in 2014, assess the subsequent morality and its effects on coral communities and 3D complexity, test for signs of regional acclimation, and investigate long-term change in heat stress in PMNM. Surveys conducted at four island/atoll (French Frigate Shoals, Lisianski Island, Pearl and Hermes Atoll, and Midway Atoll) showed that in 2014, percent bleaching varied considerably between islands/atolls and habitats (back reef/fore reef and depth), and was up to 91% in shallow habitats at Lisianski. The percent bleaching during the 2014 event was best explained by a combination of duration of heat stress measured by Coral Reef Watch's satellite Degree Heating Week, relative community susceptibility (bleaching susceptibility score of each taxon * the taxon's abundance relative to the total number of colonies), depth and region. Mean coral cover at permanent Lisianski monitoring sites decreased by 68% due to severe losses of Montipora dilatata complex, resulting in rapid reductions in habitat complexity. Spatial distribution of the 2014 bleaching was significantly different from the 2002 and 2004 bleaching events likely due to a combination of differences in heat stress and local acclimatization. Historical satellite data demonstrated heat stress in 2014 was unlike any previous event and that the exposure of corals to the bleaching-level heat stress has increased significantly in the northern PMNM since 1982, highlighting the increasing

  19. Mass coral bleaching due to unprecedented marine heatwave in Papahānaumokuākea Marine National Monument (Northwestern Hawaiian Islands.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Courtney S Couch

    Full Text Available 2014 marked the sixth and most widespread mass bleaching event reported in the Northwestern Hawaiian Islands, home to the Papahānaumokuākea Marine National Monument (PMNM, the world's second largest marine reserve. This event was associated with an unusual basin-scale warming in the North Pacific Ocean, with an unprecedented peak intensity of around 20°C-weeks of cumulative heat stress at Lisianksi Island. In situ bleaching surveys and satellite data were used to evaluate the relative importance of potential drivers of bleaching patterns in 2014, assess the subsequent morality and its effects on coral communities and 3D complexity, test for signs of regional acclimation, and investigate long-term change in heat stress in PMNM. Surveys conducted at four island/atoll (French Frigate Shoals, Lisianski Island, Pearl and Hermes Atoll, and Midway Atoll showed that in 2014, percent bleaching varied considerably between islands/atolls and habitats (back reef/fore reef and depth, and was up to 91% in shallow habitats at Lisianski. The percent bleaching during the 2014 event was best explained by a combination of duration of heat stress measured by Coral Reef Watch's satellite Degree Heating Week, relative community susceptibility (bleaching susceptibility score of each taxon * the taxon's abundance relative to the total number of colonies, depth and region. Mean coral cover at permanent Lisianski monitoring sites decreased by 68% due to severe losses of Montipora dilatata complex, resulting in rapid reductions in habitat complexity. Spatial distribution of the 2014 bleaching was significantly different from the 2002 and 2004 bleaching events likely due to a combination of differences in heat stress and local acclimatization. Historical satellite data demonstrated heat stress in 2014 was unlike any previous event and that the exposure of corals to the bleaching-level heat stress has increased significantly in the northern PMNM since 1982, highlighting

  20. CRED Shallow CTD Profiles; Laysan Island, Northwestern Hawaiian Islands (Papahanaumokuakea Marine National Monument); Cruise: HI0809, Data Date Range: 20080920-20080920 (NODC Accession 0039382).

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — CRED shallow Conductivity-Temperature-Depth (CTD) casts are vertical profiles (max 30 meter depth, downcast only) of temperature, conductivity and pressure. Data are...

  1. CRED Shallow CTD Profiles; Laysan Island, Northwestern Hawaiian Islands (Papahanaumokuakea Marine National Monument); Cruise: HI0611, Data Date Range: 20060911-20060911 (NODC Accession 0039382).

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — CRED shallow Conductivity-Temperature-Depth (CTD) casts are vertical profiles (max 30 meter depth, downcast only) of temperature, conductivity and pressure. Data are...

  2. CRED Shallow CTD Profiles; Lisianski Island, Northwestern Hawaiian Islands (Papahanaumokuakea Marine National Monument); Cruise: HA1007, Data Date Range: 20100923-20100924 (NODC Accession 0039382).

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — CRED shallow Conductivity-Temperature-Depth (CTD) casts are vertical profiles (max 30 meter depth, downcast only) of temperature, conductivity and pressure. Data are...

  3. CRED Shallow CTD Profiles; Laysan Island, Northwestern Hawaiian Islands (Papahanaumokuakea Marine National Monument); Cruise: TC0207, Data Date Range: 20020916-20020916 (NODC Accession 0039382).

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — CRED shallow Conductivity-Temperature-Depth (CTD) casts are vertical profiles (max 30 meter depth, downcast only) of temperature, conductivity and pressure. Data are...

  4. CRED Shallow CTD Profiles; Lisianski Island, Northwestern Hawaiian Islands (Papahanaumokuakea Marine National Monument); Cruise: OES0306, Data Date Range: 20030726-20030726 (NODC Accession 0039382).

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — CRED shallow Conductivity-Temperature-Depth (CTD) casts are vertical profiles (max 30 meter depth, downcast only) of temperature, conductivity and pressure. Data are...

  5. CRED Shallow CTD Profiles; Lisianski Island, Northwestern Hawaiian Islands (Papahanaumokuakea Marine National Monument); Cruise: HI0401, Data Date Range: 20041009-20041011 (NODC Accession 0039382).

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — CRED shallow Conductivity-Temperature-Depth (CTD) casts are vertical profiles (max 30 meter depth, downcast only) of temperature, conductivity and pressure. Data are...

  6. CRED Shallow CTD Profiles; Necker Island, Northwestern Hawaiian Islands (Papahanaumokuakea Marine National Monument); Cruise: HI0501, Data Date Range: 20050410-20050410 (NODC Accession 0039382).

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — CRED shallow Conductivity-Temperature-Depth (CTD) casts are vertical profiles (max 30 meter depth, downcast only) of temperature, conductivity and pressure. Data are...

  7. CRED Shallow CTD Profiles; Laysan Island, Northwestern Hawaiian Islands (Papahanaumokuakea Marine National Monument); Cruise: OES0306, Data Date Range: 20030723-20030724 (NODC Accession 0039382).

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — CRED shallow Conductivity-Temperature-Depth (CTD) casts are vertical profiles (max 30 meter depth, downcast only) of temperature, conductivity and pressure. Data are...

  8. CRED Shallow CTD Profiles; Laysan Island, Northwestern Hawaiian Islands (Papahanaumokuakea Marine National Monument); Cruise: HI0401, Data Date Range: 20040924-20040924 (NODC Accession 0039382).

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — CRED shallow Conductivity-Temperature-Depth (CTD) casts are vertical profiles (max 30 meter depth, downcast only) of temperature, conductivity and pressure. Data are...

  9. CRED Shallow CTD Profiles; Lisianski Island, Northwestern Hawaiian Islands (Papahanaumokuakea Marine National Monument); Cruise: HI0809, Data Date Range: 20081005-20081006 (NODC Accession 0039382).

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — CRED shallow Conductivity-Temperature-Depth (CTD) casts are vertical profiles (max 30 meter depth, downcast only) of temperature, conductivity and pressure. Data are...

  10. CRED Shallow CTD Profiles; Lisianski Island, Northwestern Hawaiian Islands (Papahanaumokuakea Marine National Monument); Cruise: HI0611, Data Date Range: 20060926-20060926 (NODC Accession 0039382).

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — CRED shallow Conductivity-Temperature-Depth (CTD) casts are vertical profiles (max 30 meter depth, downcast only) of temperature, conductivity and pressure. Data are...

  11. Small molecules, big players: the National Cancer Institute's Initiative for Chemical Genetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tolliday, Nicola; Clemons, Paul A; Ferraiolo, Paul; Koehler, Angela N; Lewis, Timothy A; Li, Xiaohua; Schreiber, Stuart L; Gerhard, Daniela S; Eliasof, Scott

    2006-09-15

    In 2002, the National Cancer Institute created the Initiative for Chemical Genetics (ICG), to enable public research using small molecules to accelerate the discovery of cancer-relevant small-molecule probes. The ICG is a public-access research facility consisting of a tightly integrated team of synthetic and analytical chemists, assay developers, high-throughput screening and automation engineers, computational scientists, and software developers. The ICG seeks to facilitate the cross-fertilization of synthetic chemistry and cancer biology by creating a research environment in which new scientific collaborations are possible. To date, the ICG has interacted with 76 biology laboratories from 39 institutions and more than a dozen organic synthetic chemistry laboratories around the country and in Canada. All chemistry and screening data are deposited into the ChemBank web site (http://chembank.broad.harvard.edu/) and are available to the entire research community within a year of generation. ChemBank is both a data repository and a data analysis environment, facilitating the exploration of chemical and biological information across many different assays and small molecules. This report outlines how the ICG functions, how researchers can take advantage of its screening, chemistry and informatic capabilities, and provides a brief summary of some of the many important research findings.

  12. Why don't things fall apart? : a study of the survival of the Solomon Islands state

    OpenAIRE

    Tucker, Alexis Elizabeth

    2010-01-01

    In the "Fund for Peace Failed State Index of 2009" the Melanesian country of the Solomon Islands was named the "most failed state in Oceania". Since gaining independence from the British in 1978, the small island country has struggled to survive amid economic underdevelopment, political instability, violent civil conflicts, and social dissolution. The contemporary Solomon Islands, a product of European imperial expansion and British colonization, has neither a strong sense of national unity a...

  13. The virgin land of quality management: a first measure of patient safety climate at the National Hospital of the Faroe Islands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristensen S

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Solvejg Kristensen,1,2 Naina Túgvustein,3 Hjørdis Zachariassen,3 Svend Sabroe,4 Paul Bartels,1,5 Jan Mainz5,6 1The Danish Clinical Registries, Aarhus, 2Department of Health Science and Technology, Aalborg University, Denmark; 3National Hospital of the Faroe Islands, Torshavn, Faroe Islands; 4Department of Public Health, Aarhus University, Aarhus, 5Department of Clinical Medicine, Aalborg University, Aalborg, 6Aalborg University Hospital, Psychiatry, Aalborg, Denmark Purpose: The Faroe Islands are formally part of the Kingdom of Denmark, but the islands enjoy extensive autonomy as home ruled. In Denmark, extensive quality management initiatives have been implemented throughout hospitals, this was not the case in the Faroese Islands in 2013. The purpose of this study is to investigate the patient safety culture in the National Hospital of the Faroe Islands prior to implementation of quality management initiatives. Methods: The Danish version of the Safety Attitudes Questionnaire (SAQ-DK was distributed electronically to 557 staff members from five medical centers of the hospital, and one administrative unit. SAQ-DK has six cultural dimensions. The proportion of respondents with positive attitudes and mean scale scores were described, and comparison between medical specialties, and between clinical leaders and frontline staff was made using analysis of variance and chi-square test, respectively. Results: The response rate was 65.8% (N=367. Job satisfaction was rated most favorable, and the perceived culture of the top management least favorable. Safety climate was the dimension with the greatest variability across the 28 units. The diagnostic center had the most favorable culture of all centers. More leaders than frontline staff had positive attitudes toward teamwork and safety climate, and working conditions, respectively. Also, the leaders perceived these dimensions more positive than the frontline staff, P<0.05. Among three management levels

  14. Seafloor Mapping and Benthic Habitats off Assateague Island National Seashore: can we Resolve any Effects of Superstorm Sandy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, D.; Trembanis, A. C.; Kennedy, E.; Rusch, H.; Rothermel, E.

    2016-02-01

    The National Park Service has partnered with faculty and students at the University of Delaware to map the length of Assateague Island and sample benthic communities there for two purposes: (1) to provide a complete inventory of benthic habitats and their biota, and (2) to determine if any changes from a pre-storm survey can be ascribed to Superstorm Sandy in 2012. During the 2014 and 2015 field seasons over 75 km2 of high-resolution ( 50 cm/pixel) side-scan sonar and collocated bathymetry were collected with a surface vessel mounted bathy side-scan sonar (EdgeTech 6205), spanning the shore from depths of less than 2 m out to a distance of approximately 1 nautical mile and depths of 10-12 m. Furthermore, we have resampled using standard methodology (modified Young grab and 0.5-mm sieve) a subset of the previously sampled benthic stations that represent all sediment classes identified in prior studies. Additionally, we have obtained novel data with our ROV and AUV assets, including finer scale bottom video and multibeam bathymetry, at specifically chosen locations in order to enhance understanding of the benthic habitat and bottom type changes. In addition to providing a habitat and faunal inventory for resource management purposes, we will compare our side scan and benthic survey data to the pre-storm 2011 data products with comparable coverage. To date we have found that ArcGIS and ENVI sediment classifications agree well with those from the 2011 study, but spatially we note more areas of finer sediments and less of gravel. As was expected, 2014 benthic assemblages differ significantly among sediment classes (PRIMER ANOSIM), and sediment class is the best predictor of the benthic community (PERMANOVA+ distance-based RDA). Our goal here is to use consistent analytical approaches to characterize changes that occur over season and inter-annual time scales. This is a critical step toward attributing sediment, habitat and biological changes to Superstorm Sandy.

  15. National impacts of the Weatherization Assistance Program in single-family and small multifamily dwellings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, M.A.; Berry, L.G.; Balzer, R.A.; Faby, E.

    1993-05-01

    Since 1976, the US Department of Energy (DOE) has operated one of the largest energy conservation programs in the nation -- the low-income Weatherization Assistance Program. The program strives to increase the energy efficiency of dwellings occupied by low-income persons in order to reduce their energy consumption, lower their fuel bills, increase the comfort of their homes, and safeguard their health. It targets vulnerable groups including the elderly, people with disabilities, and families with children. The most recent national evaluation of the impacts of the Program was completed in 1984 based on energy consumption data for households weatherized in 1981. DOE Program regulations and operations have changed substantially since then: new funding sources, management principles, diagnostic procedures, and weatherization technologies have been incorporated. Many of these new features have been studied in isolation or at a local level; however, no recent evaluation has assessed their combined, nationwide impacts to date or their potential for the future. In 1990, DOE initiated such an evaluation. This evaluation is comprised of three ``impact`` studies (the Single-Family Study, High-Density Multifamily Study, and Fuel-Oil Study) and two ``policy`` studies. Altogether, these five studies will provide a comprehensive national assessment of the Weatherization Assistance Program as it existed in the 1989 Program Year (PY 1989). This report presents the results of the first phase of the Single-Family Study. It evaluates the energy savings and cost effectiveness of the Program as it has been applied to the largest portion of its client base -- low-income households that occupy single-family dwellings, mobile homes, and small (2- to 4-unit) multifamily dwellings. It is based upon a representative national sample that covers the full range of conditions under which the program was implemented in PY 1989.

  16. Nuclear desalination and electricity production for islands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tran Dai Nghiep

    2005-01-01

    Nuclear desalination is an established and commercially proven technology that is now available and has the potential of further improvement. The technology of a small-sized reactor for desalination and electricity production will be an economically viable option and will also be suitable for islands with geographic, climatic, ecological and hydrological specifics. The operating experiences and achieved safety should benefit the early stage of a national nuclear power programme in developing countries. (author)

  17. Impact assessment of climate change on tourism in the Pacific small islands based on the database of long-term high-resolution climate ensemble experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, S.; Utsumi, N.; Take, M.; Iida, A.

    2016-12-01

    This study aims to develop a new approach to assess the impact of climate change on the small oceanic islands in the Pacific. In the new approach, the change of the probabilities of various situations was projected with considering the spread of projection derived from ensemble simulations, instead of projecting the most probable situation. The database for Policy Decision making for Future climate change (d4PDF) is a database of long-term high-resolution climate ensemble experiments, which has the results of 100 ensemble simulations. We utilized the database for Policy Decision making for Future climate change (d4PDF), which was (a long-term and high-resolution database) composed of results of 100 ensemble experiments. A new methodology, Multi Threshold Ensemble Assessment (MTEA), was developed using the d4PDF in order to assess the impact of climate change. We focused on the impact of climate change on tourism because it has played an important role in the economy of the Pacific Islands. The Yaeyama Region, one of the tourist destinations in Okinawa, Japan, was selected as the case study site. Two kinds of impact were assessed: change in probability of extreme climate phenomena and tourist satisfaction associated with weather. The database of long-term high-resolution climate ensemble experiments and the questionnaire survey conducted by a local government were used for the assessment. The result indicated that the strength of extreme events would be increased, whereas the probability of occurrence would be decreased. This change should result in increase of the number of clear days and it could contribute to improve the tourist satisfaction.

  18. Diffusion of innovative agricultural production systems for sustainable development of small islands: A methodological approach based on the science of complexity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbera, Guiseppe; Butera, Federico M.

    1992-09-01

    In order to develop small islands, not only must a vital agricultural system be maintained, but the range of opportunities for tourism must be increased with respect to both the seaside and the environmental features of the rural landscape. As an alternative to the traditional and economically declining ones, many innovative production processes can be identified, but their success depends on their interaction with the physical, biological, economic and social environment. In order to identify the main nodes and the most critical interactions, so as to increase the probability of success of a new productive process, a methodological approach based on the science of complexity is proposed for the cultivation of capers ( Capparis spinosa L.) on the island of Pantelleria. The methodology encompasses the identification of actors and factors involved. the quantitative evaluation of their interactions with the different stages of the productive process, and a quasiquantitative evaluation of the probability that the particular action will be performed successfully. The study of “traditional,” “modernized,” and “modernized-sustainable” processes, shows that the modernized-sustainable process offers mutually reinforcing opportunities in terms of an integrated development of high-quality agricultural products and the enhancement of environmental features, in conjunction with high-efficiency production techniques, in conjunction with high-efficiency production techniques, in a way that suits the development of Pantelleria. There is a high probability of failure, however, as a result of the large number of critical factors. Nevertheless, the present study indicates which activities will enhance the probability of successful innovation in the production process.

  19. 3 CFR 8336 - Proclamation 8336 of January 6, 2009. Establishment of the Pacific Remote Islands Marine National...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Napoleon wrasse (Chelinus), sharks of several species, and large schools of the Bumphead parrotfish.... All three islands afford unique opportunities to conduct climate change research at the equator, far... international significance: Wedge-tailed Shearwaters, Christmas Shearwaters, Red-tailed Tropicbirds, Brown...

  20. Analysis of seafloor change at Breton Island, Gosier Shoals, and surrounding waters, 1869–2014, Breton National Wildlife Refuge, Louisiana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flocks, James G.; Terrano, Joseph F.

    2016-08-01

    Characterizing bathymetric change in coastal environments is an important component in understanding shoreline evolution, especially along barrier island platforms. Bathymetric change is a function of the regional sediment budget, long-term wave and current patterns, and episodic impact from high-energy events such as storms. Human modifications may also cause changes in seafloor elevation. This study, conducted by the U.S. Geological Survey in collaboration with the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, evaluates bathymetric and volumetric change and sediment characteristics around Breton Island and Gosier Shoals located offshore of the Mississippi River Delta in Louisiana. This area has been affected by significant storm events such as Hurricane Katrina in 2005. Sedimentation patterns at Breton Island and offshore have also been modified by the excavation of a shipping channel north of the island. Four time periods are considered that encompass these episodes and include long-term change and short-term storm recovery: 1869–2014, 1869–1920, 1920–2014, and 2007–2014. Finally, sediment characteristics are reported in the context of seafloor elevation.

  1. Higher climate warming sensitivity of Siberian larch in small than large forest islands in the fragmented Mongolian forest steppe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khansaritoreh, Elmira; Dulamsuren, Choimaa; Klinge, Michael; Ariunbaatar, Tumurbaatar; Bat-Enerel, Banzragch; Batsaikhan, Ganbaatar; Ganbaatar, Kherlenchimeg; Saindovdon, Davaadorj; Yeruult, Yolk; Tsogtbaatar, Jamsran; Tuya, Daramragchaa; Leuschner, Christoph; Hauck, Markus

    2017-09-01

    Forest fragmentation has been found to affect biodiversity and ecosystem functioning in multiple ways. We asked whether forest size and isolation in fragmented woodlands influences the climate warming sensitivity of tree growth in the southern boreal forest of the Mongolian Larix sibirica forest steppe, a naturally fragmented woodland embedded in grassland, which is highly affected by warming, drought, and increasing anthropogenic forest destruction in recent time. We examined the influence of stand size and stand isolation on the growth performance of larch in forests of four different size classes located in a woodland-dominated forest-steppe area and small forest patches in a grassland-dominated area. We found increasing climate sensitivity and decreasing first-order autocorrelation of annual stemwood increment with decreasing stand size. Stemwood increment increased with previous year's June and August precipitation in the three smallest forest size classes, but not in the largest forests. In the grassland-dominated area, the tree growth dependence on summer rainfall was highest. Missing ring frequency has strongly increased since the 1970s in small, but not in large forests. In the grassland-dominated area, the increase was much greater than in the forest-dominated landscape. Forest regeneration decreased with decreasing stand size and was scarce or absent in the smallest forests. Our results suggest that the larch trees in small and isolated forest patches are far more susceptible to climate warming than in large continuous forests pointing to a grim future for the forests in this strongly warming region of the boreal forest that is also under high land use pressure. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. The time-of-flight small-angle neutron diffractometer (SAD) at IPNS, Argonne National Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thiyagarajan, P.; Epperson, J.E.; Crawford, R.K.; Carpenter, J.M.; Klippert, T.E.; Wozniak, D.G.

    1997-01-01

    The design, development and performance of the time-of-flight (TOF) small-angle diffractometer (SAD) at the Intense Pulsed Neutron Source (IPNS) at Argonne National Laboratory are described. Similar TOF-SANS instruments are in operation at the pulsed neutron sources at Los Alamos National Laboratory, USA, at Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, England, and at KEK, Japan. These instruments have an advantage by comparison with their steady-state counterparts in that a relatively wide range of momentum transfer (q) can be monitored in a single experiment without the need to alter the collimation or the sample-to-detector distance. This feature makes SANS experiments easy and very effective for studying systems such as those undergoing phase transitions under different conditions, samples that cannot be easily reproduced for repetitive experiments, and systems under high temperature, pressure or shear. Three standard samples are used to demonstrate that the quality of the SANS data from SAD is comparable with those from other established steady-state SANS facilities. Two examples are given to illustrate that the wide q region accessible in a single measurement at SAD is very effective for following the time-dependent phase transitions in paraffins and temperature- and pressure-dependent phase transitions in model biomembranes. (orig.)

  3. Recall of anti-tobacco advertising and information, warning labels and news stories in a national sample of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicholson, Anna K; Borland, Ron; Sarin, Jasmine; Wallace, Sharon; van der Sterren, Anke E; Stevens, Matthew; Thomas, David P

    2015-06-01

    To describe recall of anti-tobacco advertising (mainstream and targeted), pack warning labels, and news stories among a national sample of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander smokers, and to assess the association of these messages with attitudes that support quitting, including wanting to quit. A quota sampling design was used to recruit participants from communities served by 34 Aboriginal community-controlled health services and one community in the Torres Strait. We surveyed 1643 Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander smokers from April 2012 to October 2013. Frequency of recall of advertising and information, warning labels and news stories; recall of targeted and local advertising; attitudes about smoking and wanting to quit. More smokers recalled often noticing warning labels in the past month (65%) than recalled advertising and information (45%) or news stories (24%) in the past 6 months. When prompted, most (82%) recalled seeing a television advertisement. Just under half (48%) recalled advertising that featured an Aboriginal or Torres Strait Islander person or artwork (targeted advertising), and 16% recalled targeted advertising from their community (local advertising). Frequent recall of warning labels, news stories and advertising was associated with worry about health and wanting to quit, but only frequent advertising recall was associated with believing that society disapproves of smoking. The magnitude of association with relevant attitudes and wanting to quit increased for targeted and local advertising. Strategies to tackle Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander smoking should sustain high levels of exposure to anti-tobacco advertising, news stories and warning labels. More targeted and local information may be particularly effective to influence relevant beliefs and subsequently increase quitting.

  4. Returning from the Horizon: Introducing Urban Island Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xavier Barceló Pinya

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Island studies tends to focus on peripheral, isolated, and marginal aspects of island communities, while urban studies has showed scant awareness of islandness: Although many people research cities on islands, there is little tradition of researching island cities or urban archipelagos per se. Island cities (densely populated small islands and population centres of larger islands and archipelagos nevertheless play import cultural, economic, political, and environmental roles on local, regional, and global scales. Many major cities and ports have developed on small islands, and even villages can fulfil important urban functions on lightly populated islands. Island concepts are also deployed to metaphorically describe developments in urban space. The journal Urban Island Studies explores island and urban processes around the world, taking an island approach to urban research and an urban approach to island research.

  5. The value of small habitat islands for the conservation of genetic variability in a steppe grass species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wódkiewicz, Maciej; Dembicz, Iwona; Moysiyenko, Ivan I.

    2016-10-01

    The habitat loss and fragmentation due to agricultural land-conversion affected the steppe throughout its range. In Ukraine, 95% of steppe was destroyed in the last two centuries. Remaining populations are confined to few refuges, like nature reserves, loess ravines, and kurgans (small burial mounds), the latter being often subject to destruction by archeological excavations. Stipa capillata L. is a typical grass species of Eurasian steppes and extrazonal dry grasslands, that was previously used as a model species in studies on steppe ecology. The aim of our research was to assess genetic diversity of S. capillata populations within different types of steppe refuges (loess ravines, biosphere reserve, kurgan) and to evaluate the value of the latter group for the preservation of genetic diversity in the study species. We assessed genetic diversity of 266 individuals from 15 populations (nine from kurgans, three from loess ravines and three from Askania-Nova Biosphere Reserve) with eight Universal Rice Primers (URPs). Studied populations showed high intra-population variability (I: 0.262-0.419, PPB: 52.08-82.64%). Populations from kurgans showed higher genetic differentiation (ΦST = 0.247) than those from loess ravines (ΦST = 0.120) and the biosphere reserve (ΦST = 0.142). Although the diversity metrics were to a small extent lower for populations from kurgans than from larger refugia we conclude that all studied populations of the species still preserve high genetic variability and are valuable for protection. To what extent this pattern holds true under continuous fragmentation in the future must be carefully monitored.

  6. Reduction of Islands in Full-pressure Stellarator Equilibria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hudson, S.R.; Monticello, D.A.; Reiman, A.H.

    2001-01-01

    The control of magnetic islands is a crucial issue in designing Stellarators. Islands are associated with resonant radial magnetic fields at rational rotational-transform surfaces and can lead to chaos and poor plasma confinement. In this article, we show that variations in the resonant fields of a full-pressure stellarator equilibrium can be related to variations in the boundary via a coupling matrix, and inversion of this matrix determines a boundary modification for which the island content is significantly reduced. The numerical procedure is described and the results of island optimization are presented. Equilibria with islands are computed using the Princeton Iterative Equilibrium Solver, and resonant radial fields are calculated via construction of quadratic-flux-minimizing surfaces. A design candidate for the National Compact Stellarator Experiment [Phys. Plasmas 8, 2001], which has a large island, is used to illustrate the technique. Small variations in the boundary shape are used to reduce island size and to reverse the phase of a major island chain

  7. Baseline element concentrations in soils and plants, Wattenmeer National Park, North and East Frisian Islands, Federal Republic of Germany

    Science.gov (United States)

    Severson, R.C.; Gough, L.P.; van den Boom, G.

    1992-01-01

    Baseline element concentrations are given for dune grass (Ammophilia arenaria), willow (Salix repens), moss (Hylocomium splendens) and associated surface soils. Baseline and variability data for pH, ash, Al, As, Ba, C, Ca, Cd, Ce, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Hg, K, La, Li, Mg, Mn, Na, Nb, Nd, Ni, P, Pb, S, Sc, Se, Sr, Th, Ti, V, Y, Yb, and Zn are reported; however, not all variables are reported for all media because, in some media, certain elements were below the analytical detection limit. Spatial variation in element concentration between five Frisian Islands are given for each of the sample media. In general, only a few elements in each media showed statistically significant differences between the islands sampled. The measured concentrations in all sample media exhibited ranges that cannot be attributed to anthropogenic additions of trace elements, with the possible exception of Hg and Pb in surface soils.Baseline element concentrations are given for dune grass (Ammophilia arenaria), willow (Salix repens), moss (Hylocomium splendens) and associated surface soils. Baseline and variability data for pH, ash, Al, As, Ba, C, Ca, Cd, Ce, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Hg, K, La, Li, Mg, Mn, Na, Nb, Nd, Ni, P, Pb, S, Sc, Se, Sr, Th, Ti, V, Y, Yb, and Zn are reported; however, not all variables are reported for all media because, in some media, certain elements were below the analytical detection limit. Spatial variation in element concentration between five Frisian Islands are given for each of the sample media. In general, only a few elements in each media showed statistically significant differences between the islands sampled. The measured concentrations in all sample media exhibited ranges that cannot be attributed to anthropogenic additions of trace elements, with the possible exception of Hg and Pb in surface soils.

  8. 15 CFR Appendix A to Subpart Q of... - Hawaiian Islands Humpback Whale, National Marine Sanctuary Boundary Description and Coordinates...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... digital geography data have been referenced to WGS84 (NAD83) and have been converted to geographic... Halawa, Molokai, south and westward to Ilio Point, Molokai; southwestward to include Penguin Banks... 12 Upolu Pt., Hawaii (Big Island) 2 20°16′5.3″20°17′59.9″ −155°51′0.5″−155°51′17.2″ 13 Keahole Pt...

  9. Canary Islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-01-01

    This easterly looking view shows the seven major volcanic islands of the Canary Island chain (28.0N, 16.5W) and offers a unique view of the islands that have become a frequent vacation spot for Europeans. The northwest coastline of Africa, (Morocco and Western Sahara), is visible in the background. Frequently, these islands create an impact on local weather (cloud formations) and ocean currents (island wakes) as seen in this photo.

  10. Filling the gaps: Policy supports and interventions for scaling up renewable energy development in Small Island Developing States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Timilsina, Govinda R.; Shah, Kalim U.

    2016-01-01

    SIDS have both opportunities and challenges – economic, social and environmental vulnerability – for low carbon development. Economically, they are highly dependent on international trade; they have limited domestic markets, too small to provide significant scale economies; their exports are constraint by their isolation and remote location. We provide an overview of current energy situation in SIDS, their goals to adopt low carbon economic development paths, policies already in place or required to achieve the goals and challenges to implement their plans and strategies. The focus is on energy policy landscape that needs to be addressed in order to scale-up renewable energy technologies needed to stimulate low carbon economic growth. We find that SIDS face four key barriers to renewable energy development: information to improve the energy information network by strengthening existing information systems and building awareness of renewable energy; financing mechanisms for renewable energy projects, including regional loan structures and technical assistance to banks; policy supports to implement regulatory frameworks that enable renewable energy development; and building technical capacity among players in the renewable energy field. We recommend “policy enablers” that underlie what could positively impact on renewable energy goals and more broadly energy efficiency and climate change. - Highlights: • Incentive based policies are required to stimulate investment and reduce transaction costs. • Sustained, consistent long term policy outlooks to support achieving targets are often absent. • Gaps in technical data, resource assessments and local capacity hinders strong policy decisions. • Coordination by public and private actors across the value chain increases renewables deployment.

  11. Non-Small-Cell Lung Cancer Clinico pathologic Features and Survival Outcomes in Asian Pacific Islanders Residing in the United States: A SEER Analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamid, M. S.; Shameem, R.; Gafoor, K.; George, J.; Mina, B.; Sullivan, K.

    2015-01-01

    The objective of our study was to ascertain racial/ethnic disparities in Asian/Pacific Islanders (API) for non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) clinico pathologic features and survival outcomes based on various tumor characteristics and treatment modalities. Method. SEER database identified invasive NSCLC cases from 2004 to 2010. Variables included American Joint Committee on Cancer (AJCC) stage 7, tumor grade, tumor size, histology, age, marital status, radiation, surgery, and reason for no surgery. The Kruskall-Wallis test and the Z test were used to examine differences between races/ethnicities and the referent, non-Hispanic white (NHW). Multivariate Cox proportional analyses were used to establish the weight of the prognostic significance contributing to disease-specific survival (DSS) in each AJCC stage. Result. Improved DSS was seen in API across stage I (HR: 0.78), stage II (HR: 0.79), and stage IV (HR: 0.86), respectively, compared to the referent NHW (P<0.01). being female gender, AIS histology, and birth outside the US (P<0.01). Conclusion. We have demonstrated improved survival among API in early stage and stage IV NSCLC. Further research is necessary to clarify the role of lifestyle and tumor biology for these differences.

  12. On the biology and food of small-sized fish from North and Baltic Sea areas. IV. Investigations on an eulittoral mud flat at Sylt Island

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zander, C. Dieter; Hartwig, Eike

    1982-03-01

    The fish fauna of an eulittoral mud flat was investigated at Sylt Island (North Sea) with special regard to its food uptake. During the course of a year the following species were caught: Pomatoschistus microps, Anguilla anguilla (elvers), Zoarces viviparus, and Gasterosteus aculeatus. Considering the potentially available food, the most abundant organisms of the benthos were harpacticoids and nematodes, whereas in the phytal layer gastropods and gammarids were dominant. The benthic biomass was found to be greatest in spring, while phytal organisms were most abundant in late summer. The greatest fish density was stated in September 1974 though only P. microps was present. The fish biomass was highest in spring when the elvers appeared. The main food of P. microps was epibenthos; in the diet of A. anguilla phytal organisms dominated over epibenthos, in G. aculeatus suprabenthic organisms were also present. The most prominent food component by biomass was gammarids in all investigated fish, whereas harpacticoids were only dominant in number. During the course of the year the biomass of ingested food yielded highest values in summer and autumn, but lowest in winter. A very great predatory activity was found in September 1974, which possibly caused a grazing effect on harpacticoids. An estimation of the turnover rate of small-sized fish in this month led to a value of 70 mg dry weight m-2 · d-1.

  13. Extending REDD+ to mangroves and wetlands for small island states and a case study for the conservation of mangroves and inter-tidal mudflats in Singapore

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin Heng LYE

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper briefly discusses the prospects of using coastal wetlands as REDD+ projects for small island states. The paper contends that the city-state of Singapore would do well to enhance existing laws to more specifically address the challenges and threats faced in conserving mangroves and inter-tidal mudflats, and support their conservation and rehabilitation, not just to facilitate the implementation of REDD+ projects but also to meet other goals like biodiversity conservation and climate change adaptation. The proposal is to expand Sungei Buloh to encompass the mudflats at Kranji which is home to the mangrove horseshoe crab (Carcinoscrorpius rotundicauda; aligned with inter-tidal and coastal management strategies advanced under the auspices of the Ramsar Convention, the Convention on Biological Diversity and the IUCN. However, there are considerable challenges in maintaining an intact eco-system in the face of rapid development, not only in Singapore itself but also in the neighbouring state of Johor, Malaysia. The paper examines the specific legal strategies that will be required to meet the various objectives of conservation in the context of Singapore's laws and the challenges posed by the development plans of both Singapore and Malaysia.

  14. Ground-water quality and discharge to Chincoteague and Sinepuxent Bays adjacent to Assateague Island National Seashore, Maryland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dillow, Jonathan J.A.; Banks, William S.L.; Smigaj, Michael J.

    2002-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Maryland Department of the Environment and the Wisconsin State Laboratory of Hygiene, conducted a study to characterize the occurrence and distribution of viral contamination in small (withdrawing less than 10,000 gallons per day) public water-supply wells screened in the shallow aquifer in the Piedmont Physiographic Province in Baltimore and Harford Counties, Maryland. Two hundred sixty-three small public water-supply wells were in operation in these counties during the spring of 2000. Ninety-one of these sites were selected for sampling using a methodology that distributed the samples evenly over the population and the spatial extent of the study area. Each site, and its potential susceptibility to microbiological contamination, was evaluated with regard to hole depth, casing interval, and open interval. Each site was evaluated using characteristics such as on-site geology and on-site land use.Samples were collected by pumping between 200 and 400 gallons of untreated well water through an electropositive cartridge filter. Water concentrates were subjected to cell-culture assay for the detection of culturable viruses and reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction/gene probe assays to detect viral ribonucleic acid; grab samples were analyzed for somatic and male-specific coliphages, Bacteroides fragilis, Clostridium perfringens, enterococci, Escherichia coli, total coliforms, total oxidized nitrogen, nitrite, organic nitrogen, total phosphate, ortho-phosphate, calcium, magnesium, sodium, potas-sium, chloride, sulfate, iron, acid-neutralizing capacity, pH, specific conductance, temperature, and dissolved oxygen.One sample tested positive for the presence of the ribonucleic acid of rotavirus through poly-merase chain-reaction analysis. Twenty-nine per-cent of the samples (26 of 90) had bacterial con-tamination. About 7 percent of the samples (6 of 90) were contaminated with either male-specific coliphage

  15. Free-boundary Full-pressure Island Healing in a Stellarator: Coil-healing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hudson, S.R.; Reiman, A.; Strickler, D.; Brooks, A.; Monticello, D.A.; Hirshman, S.P.

    2002-01-01

    The lack of axisymmetry in stellarators guarantees that in general magnetic islands and chaotic magnetic field lines will exist. As particle transport is strongly tied to the magnetic field lines, magnetic islands and chaotic field lines result in poor plasma confinement. For stellarators to be feasible candidates for fusion power stations it is essential that, to a good approximation, the magnetic field lines lie on nested flux-surfaces, and the suppression of magnetic islands is a critical issue for stellarator coil design, particularly for small aspect ratio devices. A procedure for modifying stellarator coil designs to eliminate magnetic islands in free-boundary full-pressure magnetohydrodynamic equilibria is presented. Islands may be removed from coil-plasma free-boundary equilibria by making small changes to the coil geometry and also by variation of trim coil currents. A plasma and coil design relevant to the National Compact Stellarator Experiment is used to illustrate the technique

  16. Seasonal variability in physicochemical characteristics of small water bodies across a High Arctic wetland, Polar Bear Pass, Bathurst Island, Nunavut, Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abnizova, A.; Miller, E.; Shakil, S.; Young, K. L.

    2012-12-01

    Small water bodies (lakes, ponds) in permafrost environments make up roughly half of the total area of surface water, but their relevance to nutrient and carbon fluxes on a landscape scale still remains largely unknown. Small variations in pond water balance as a result of seasonal changes in precipitation, evaporation, or drainage processes have the potential to produce considerable changes in the carbon and nutrient budgets as small changes in the water level can have a major effect on volumes and surface areas of ponds. The aims of this study were (1) to identify the main characteristics in pond hydrology both seasonally and between years; (2) to identify factors controlling variation in measured physicochemical variables; and (3) to detect seasonal trends in the hydrological and chemical characteristics of ponds located in an extensive low-gradient High Arctic wetland. We conducted detailed limnological surveys of 50 wetland ponds located at Polar Bear Pass (PBP), Bathurst Island, Nunavut, Canada during 2007-2010. The results indicate large seasonal variability in physicochemical parameters that is associated with pond water budget changes, especially for ponds with steady water levels vs. dynamic ponds (fluctuating water levels). Principal component analysis (PCA) of the datasets indicated that major ion content, specifically calcium (Ca2+), was responsible for much of the variability among the ponds in both 2008 and 2009. Additionally in 2009 most of the variability was also due to specific conductivity in the summer and magnesium (Mg2+) in the fall. These trends are typically identified as a result of dilution or evapo-concentration processes in small water bodies. In 2007, a warm and dry year, pH and potassium (K+) were responsible for much of variation between ponds. This is attributed to high vegetation growth in ponds and a longer growing season. While no trend was identified in 2010 (PCA analysis), calculations of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from 50

  17. National machine guarding program: Part 2. Safety management in small metal fabrication enterprises

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamin, Samuel C.; Brosseau, Lisa M.; Xi, Min; Gordon, Robert; Most, Ivan G.; Stanley, Rodney

    2015-01-01

    Background Small manufacturing businesses often lack important safety programs. Many reasons have been set forth on why this has remained a persistent problem. Methods The National Machine Guarding Program (NMGP) was a nationwide intervention conducted in partnership with two workers' compensation insurers. Insurance safety consultants collected baseline data in 221 business using a 33‐question safety management audit. Audits were completed during an interview with the business owner or manager. Results Most measures of safety management improved with an increasing number of employees. This trend was particularly strong for lockout/tagout. However, size was only significant for businesses without a safety committee. Establishments with a safety committee scored higher (55% vs. 36%) on the safety management audit compared with those lacking a committee (P management programs were frequently absent. A safety committee appears to be a more important factor than business size in accounting for differences in outcome measures. Am. J. Ind. Med. 58:1184–1193, 2015. © 2015 The Authors. American Journal of Industrial Medicine Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26345591

  18. National Machine Guarding Program: Part 2. Safety management in small metal fabrication enterprises.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, David L; Yamin, Samuel C; Brosseau, Lisa M; Xi, Min; Gordon, Robert; Most, Ivan G; Stanley, Rodney

    2015-11-01

    Small manufacturing businesses often lack important safety programs. Many reasons have been set forth on why this has remained a persistent problem. The National Machine Guarding Program (NMGP) was a nationwide intervention conducted in partnership with two workers' compensation insurers. Insurance safety consultants collected baseline data in 221 business using a 33-question safety management audit. Audits were completed during an interview with the business owner or manager. Most measures of safety management improved with an increasing number of employees. This trend was particularly strong for lockout/tagout. However, size was only significant for businesses without a safety committee. Establishments with a safety committee scored higher (55% vs. 36%) on the safety management audit compared with those lacking a committee (P < 0.0001). Critical safety management programs were frequently absent. A safety committee appears to be a more important factor than business size in accounting for differences in outcome measures. © 2015 The Authors. American Journal of Industrial Medicine Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. National Machine Guarding Program: Part 1. Machine safeguarding practices in small metal fabrication businesses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, David L; Yamin, Samuel C; Brosseau, Lisa M; Xi, Min; Gordon, Robert; Most, Ivan G; Stanley, Rodney

    2015-11-01

    Metal fabrication workers experience high rates of traumatic occupational injuries. Machine operators in particular face high risks, often stemming from the absence or improper use of machine safeguarding or the failure to implement lockout procedures. The National Machine Guarding Program (NMGP) was a translational research initiative implemented in conjunction with two workers' compensation insures. Insurance safety consultants trained in machine guarding used standardized checklists to conduct a baseline inspection of machine-related hazards in 221 business. Safeguards at the point of operation were missing or inadequate on 33% of machines. Safeguards for other mechanical hazards were missing on 28% of machines. Older machines were both widely used and less likely than newer machines to be properly guarded. Lockout/tagout procedures were posted at only 9% of machine workstations. The NMGP demonstrates a need for improvement in many aspects of machine safety and lockout in small metal fabrication businesses. © 2015 The Authors. American Journal of Industrial Medicine published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. National machine guarding program: Part 1. Machine safeguarding practices in small metal fabrication businesses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamin, Samuel C.; Brosseau, Lisa M.; Xi, Min; Gordon, Robert; Most, Ivan G.; Stanley, Rodney

    2015-01-01

    Background Metal fabrication workers experience high rates of traumatic occupational injuries. Machine operators in particular face high risks, often stemming from the absence or improper use of machine safeguarding or the failure to implement lockout procedures. Methods The National Machine Guarding Program (NMGP) was a translational research initiative implemented in conjunction with two workers' compensation insures. Insurance safety consultants trained in machine guarding used standardized checklists to conduct a baseline inspection of machine‐related hazards in 221 business. Results Safeguards at the point of operation were missing or inadequate on 33% of machines. Safeguards for other mechanical hazards were missing on 28% of machines. Older machines were both widely used and less likely than newer machines to be properly guarded. Lockout/tagout procedures were posted at only 9% of machine workstations. Conclusions The NMGP demonstrates a need for improvement in many aspects of machine safety and lockout in small metal fabrication businesses. Am. J. Ind. Med. 58:1174–1183, 2015. © 2015 The Authors. American Journal of Industrial Medicine published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26332060

  1. Phase II study of nab-paclitaxel in refractory small bowel adenocarcinoma and CpG island methylator phenotype (CIMP)-high colorectal cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Overman, M J; Adam, L; Raghav, K; Wang, J; Kee, B; Fogelman, D; Eng, C; Vilar, E; Shroff, R; Dasari, A; Wolff, R; Morris, J; Karunasena, E; Pisanic, R; Azad, N; Kopetz, S

    2018-01-01

    Hypermethylation of promoter CpG islands [CpG island methylator phenotype (CIMP)] represents a unique pathway for the development of colorectal cancer (CRC), characterized by lack of chromosomal instability and a low rate of adenomatous polyposis coli (APC) mutations, which have both been correlated with taxane resistance. Similarly, small bowel adenocarcinoma (SBA), a rare tumor, also has a low rate of APC mutations. This phase II study evaluated taxane sensitivity in SBA and CIMP-high CRC. The primary objective was Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumors version 1.1 response rate. Eligibility included Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status 0/1, refractory disease, and SBA or CIMP-high metastatic CRC. Nab-paclitaxel was initially administered at a dose of 260 mg/m2 every 3 weeks but was reduced to 220 mg/m2 owing to toxicity. A total of 21 patients with CIMP-high CRC and 13 with SBA were enrolled from November 2012 to October 2014. The efficacy-assessable population (patients who received at least three doses of the treatment) comprised 15 CIMP-high CRC patients and 10 SBA patients. Common grade 3 or 4 toxicities were fatigue (12%), neutropenia (9%), febrile neutropenia (9%), dehydration (6%), and thrombocytopenia (6%). No responses were seen in the CIMP-high CRC cohort and two partial responses were seen in the SBA cohort. Median progression-free survival was significantly greater in the SBA cohort than in the CIMP-high CRC cohort (3.2 months compared with 2.1 months, P = 0.03). Neither APC mutation status nor CHFR methylation status correlated with efficacy in the CIMP-high CRC cohort. In vivo testing of paclitaxel in an SBA patient-derived xenograft validated the activity of taxanes in this disease type. Although preclinical studies suggested taxane sensitivity was associated with chromosomal stability and wild-type APC, we found that nab-paclitaxel was inactive in CIMP-high metastatic CRC. Nab-paclitaxel may represent a novel

  2. Small Scale Biodiversity of an Alkaline Hot Spring in Yellowstone National Park

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walther, K.; Oiler, J.; Meyer-Dombard, D. R.

    2012-12-01

    To date, many phylogenetic diversity studies have been conducted in Yellowstone National Park (YNP) [1-7] focusing on the amplification of the 16S rRNA gene and "metagenomic" datasets. However, few reports focus on diversity at small scales. Here, we report on a small scale biodiversity study of sediment and biofilm communities within a confined area of a YNP hot spring, compare and contrast these communities to other sediment and biofilm communities from previous studies [1-7], and with other sediment and biofilm communities in the same system. Sediment and biofilm samples were collected, using a 30 x 50 cm sampling grid divided in 5 x 5 cm squares, which was placed in the outflow channel of "Bat Pool", an alkaline (pH 7.9) hot spring in YNP. Accompanying geochemical data included a full range of spectrophotometry measurements along with major ions, trace elements, and DIC/DOC. In addition, in situ temperature and conductivity arrays were placed within the grid location. The temperature array closest to the source varied between 83-88°C, while the temperature array 40 cm downstream varied between ~83.5-86.5°C. The two conductivity arrays yielded measurements of 5632 μS and 5710 μS showing little variation within the sampling area. Within the grid space, DO ranged from 0.5-1.33 mg/L, with relatively similar, but slightly lower values down the outflow channel. Sulfide values within the grid ranged from 1020-1671 μg/L, while sulfide values outside of the grid region fluctuated, but generally followed the trend of decreasing from source down the outflow. Despite the relative heterogeneity of chemical and physical parameters in the grid space, there was biological diversity in sediments and biofilms at the 5 cm scale. Small scale biodiversity was analyzed by selecting a representative number of samples from within the grid. DNA was extracted and variable regions V3 and V6 (Archaea and Bacteria, respectively) were sequenced with 454 pyrosequencing. The datasets

  3. Assessment of Gestational Diabetes and Associated Risk Factors and Outcomes in the Pacific Island Nation of Palau.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugiyama, Mindy S; Cash, Haley L; Roseveare, Christine; Reklai, Rumi; Basilius, Kliu; Madraisau, Sherilynn

    2017-10-01

    Objective Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) in Palau and across the Pacific Islands is a serious public health issue that is currently understudied. Methods This study was a retrospective cohort study that included 1730 women with a single live birth in Palau between January 2007 and December 2014. Results The overall prevalence of GDM among women in Palau was 5.5%. Women who were older (≥30 years) or obese (BMI ≥30) were more likely to have GDM than women who were younger (monitoring and treatment of women with GDM should be evaluated and strengthened in order to reduce neonatal mortality rates in Palau.

  4. Pacific Island landbird monitoring report, Hawaiʻi Volcanoes National Park, 2015-2016: Tract groups 1 and 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Judge, Seth; Camp, Richard J.; Sedgwick, Daniel; Squibb, Carine; Hart, Patrick J.

    2017-01-01

    Hawaiʻi Volcanoes National Park (HAVO) was surveyed for landbirds and landbird habitat from February through April 2015 and February through April 2016. This information provides the second datum in the time-series of Pacific Island Network (PACN) monitoring for long-term trends in landbird distribution, density, and abundance. Initial PACN surveys were conducted in 2010 and are repeated every five years. The entire survey area was comprised of eight tracts in forest, woodland, and shrub habitat, totaling 26,364 ha. Each tract was surveyed using point-transect distance sampling to calculate estimates of bird abundance and density. In addition to the permanent PACN survey transects, randomly generated point-transects were also surveyed, allowing for a split panel sampling design. A total of 14,061 bird detections of twenty-eight species were recorded during point counts; 8 species were native to Hawaiʻi and 20 species were non-native. ʻApapane (Himatione sanguinea) and Hawaiʻi ‘Amakihi (Chlorodrepanis virens virens) were the most abundant and widely distributed native species detected. ‘Ōma’o (Myadestes obscurus), ‘I‘iwi (Drepanis coccinea), and Hawaiʻi Elepaio (Chasiempis sandwichensis) occurred at fewer than 30% of the 757 stations surveyed, and were absent from some tracts. Three species of native birds detected during surveys were endangered—ʻIo (Buteo solitarius), Hawaiʻi Creeper (Loxops mana), and Hawaiʻi ʻAkepa (Loxops coccineus). Two additional endangered species were detected incidentally on transects—Nēnē (Branta sandwicensis) and ʻAkiapolaʻau (Hemignathus wilsoni). Non-native Japanese White-eye (Zosterops japonicus), Northern Cardinal (Cardinalis cardinalis), Japanese Bush Warbler (Horomis diphone), and Yellow-fronted Canary (Crithagra mozambica) were detected throughout most tracts and had the highest relative abundances among non-natives. The remaining species detected occurred at less than 10% of stations surveyed

  5. Obesity emergence in the Pacific islands: why understanding colonial history and social change is important.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLennan, Amy K; Ulijaszek, Stanley J

    2015-06-01

    Between 1980 and 2008, two Pacific island nations - Nauru and the Cook Islands - experienced the fastest rates of increasing BMI in the world. Rates were over four times higher than the mean global BMI increase. The aim of the present paper is to examine why these populations have been so prone to obesity increases in recent times. Three explanatory frames that apply to both countries are presented: (i) geographic isolation and genetic predisposition; (ii) small population and low food production capacity; and (iii) social change under colonial influence. These are compared with social changes documented by anthropologists during the colonial and post-colonial periods. Nauru and the Cook Islands. While islands are isolated, islanders are interconnected. Similarly, islands are small, but land use is socially determined. While obesity affects individuals, islanders are interdependent. New social values, which were rapidly propagated through institutions such as the colonial system of education and the cash economy, are today reflected in all aspects of islander life, including diet. Such historical social changes may predispose societies to obesity. Colonial processes may have put in place the conditions for subsequent rapidly escalating obesity. Of the three frameworks discussed, social change under colonial influence is not immutable to further change in the future and could take place rapidly. In theorising obesity emergence in the Pacific islands, there is a need to incorporate the idea of obesity being a product of interdependence and interconnectedness, rather than independence and individual choice.

  6. North Aegean island landscapes as ecomuseums: the case of Lesvos Island

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evangelos Pavlis

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The main advantage of the Aegean islands, in generating national, regional, or international competitiveness, compared to the areas on the continental mainland, is their natural and cultural assets, their cultural landscapes. Consequently, the organized utilization of cultural heritage, rich biodiversity, and the unique Aegean landscape, could make the islands attractive as places to live or work and help them fulfill their sustainability goals. Ecomuseums are ‘in situ’ museums, aimed at local communities and managed by them, aiming at the interpretation, protection, utilization, and promotion of natural and cultural assets of a place, and at the economic revival of marginal regions through the combinational development of small-scale tourism, local manufacturing, and primary production sectors. They could function as laboratories of sustainable development. The island of Lesvos has been selected as a case study for such a potential ecomuseum.

  7. Mapping Submerged Habitats and Mangroves of Lampi Island Marine National Park (Myanmar from in Situ and Satellite Observations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Giardino

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In this study we produced the first thematic maps of submerged and coastal habitats of Lampi Island (Myanmar from in situ and satellite data. To focus on key elements of bio-diversity typically existing in tropical islands the detection of corals, seagrass, and mangrove forests was addressed. Satellite data were acquired from Landsat-8; for the purpose of validation Rapid-Eye data were also used. In situ data supporting image processing were collected in a field campaign performed from 28 February to 4 March 2015 at the time of sensors overpasses. A hybrid approach based on bio-optical modeling and supervised classification techniques was applied to atmospherically-corrected Landsat-8 data. Bottom depth estimations, to be used in the classification process of shallow waters, were in good agreement with depth soundings (R2 = 0.87. Corals were classified with producer and user accuracies of 58% and 77%, while a lower accuracy (producer and user accuracies of 50% was found for the seagrass due to the patchy distribution of meadows; accuracies more than 88% were obtained for mangrove forests. The classification indicated the presence of 18 mangroves sites with extension larger than 5 km2; for 15 of those the coexistence of corals and seagrass were also found in the fronting bays, suggesting a significant rate of biodiversity for the study area.

  8. 76 FR 9630 - Federal Regulatory Enforcement Fairness Hearing; National Ombudsman and Region VI Regional Small...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-18

    ... Administration (SBA). ACTION: Notice of open hearing of the Regional (Region VI) Small Business Regulatory... location, date and time of the Regional Small Business Regulatory Fairness hearing. This hearing is open to... Chasse Room, New Orleans, LA 70140. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Pursuant to the Small Business Regulatory...

  9. The Condition of Farm Workers and Small Farmers in 1970. Report to the National Board of National Sharecroppers Fund.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierce, James M.

    In 1970, many Americans are examining anew the costs of achieving efficiency in agriculture through bigness. The exodus of small farmers continues--more than 2.7 million farmers have abandoned farming or sold out to bigger competitors since 1950--while Government agricultural policy remains attuned to the interests of large farmers. All small…

  10. Integrating national surveys to estimate small area variations in poor health and limiting long-term illness in Great Britain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moon, Graham; Aitken, Grant; Taylor, Joanna; Twigg, Liz

    2017-08-28

    This study aims to address, for the first time, the challenges of constructing small area estimates of health status using linked national surveys. The study also seeks to assess the concordance of these small area estimates with data from national censuses. Population level health status in England, Scotland and Wales. A linked integrated dataset of 23 374 survey respondents (16+ years) from the 2011 waves of the Health Survey for England (n=8603), the Scottish Health Survey (n=7537) and the Welsh Health Survey (n=7234). Population prevalence of poorer self-rated health and limiting long-term illness. A multilevel small area estimation modelling approach was used to estimate prevalence of these outcomes for middle super output areas in England and Wales and intermediate zones in Scotland. The estimates were then compared with matched measures from the contemporaneous 2011 UK Census. There was a strong positive association between the small area estimates and matched census measures for all three countries for both poorer self-rated health (r=0.828, 95% CI 0.821 to 0.834) and limiting long-term illness (r=0.831, 95% CI 0.824 to 0.837), although systematic differences were evident, and small area estimation tended to indicate higher prevalences than census data. Despite strong concordance, variations in the small area prevalences of poorer self-rated health and limiting long-term illness evident in census data cannot be replicated perfectly using small area estimation with linked national surveys. This reflects a lack of harmonisation between surveys over question wording and design. The nature of small area estimates as 'expected values' also needs to be better understood. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  11. Tuppiap Qeqertaa (Tobias Island): a newly discovered island off northeast Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bennike, O.; Mikkelsen, N.; Forsberg, René

    2006-01-01

    The small island of Tuppiap Qeqertaa, formerly known as Tobias circle divide or Tobias Island, is situated 80 km off the northeast Greenland coast. The island was discovered in 1993 and is approximately 2 km long and 1.5 km wide. Most of the island is covered by an ice cap that rises to 35 in abo...

  12. Reptile, amphibian, and small mammal species associated with natural gas development in the Monongahela National Forest, West Virginia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurtis R. Moseley; W. Mark Ford; John W. Edwards; Mary B. Adams

    2010-01-01

    Burgeoning energy demand in the United States has led to increased natural gas exploration in the Appalachian Basin. Despite increasing natural gas development in the region, data about its impacts to wildlife are lacking. Our objective was to assess past and ongoing natural gas development impacts on reptiles, amphibians, and small mammals in the Monongahela National...

  13. Grounding the nexus: Examining the integration of small-scale irrigators into a national food security programme in Burkina Faso

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian Dowd-Uribe

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available The water-food nexus literature examines the synergies and trade-offs of resource use but is dominated by large-scale analyses that do not sufficiently engage the local dimensions of resource management. The research presented here addresses this gap with a local-scale analysis of integrated water and food management in Burkina Faso. Specifically, we analyse the implementation of a national food security campaign (Opération Bondofa to boost maize production in a subbasin that exhibits two important trends in Africa: a large increase in small-scale irrigators and the decentralisation of water management. As surface water levels dropped in the region, entities at different scales asserted increased control over water allocation, exposing the contested nature of new decentralised institutions, and powerful actors’ preference for local control. These scalar power struggles intersected with a lack of knowledge of small-scale irrigators’ cultural practices to produce an implementation and water allocation schedule that did match small-scale irrigator needs, resulting in low initial enthusiasm for the project. Increased attention from national governments to strengthen decentralised water management committees and spur greater knowledge of, and engagement with, small-scale irrigators can result in improved programme design to better incorporate small-scale irrigators into national food security campaigns.

  14. Benthic Mapping in Long Island Sound

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — QTCView is used with an incorporated depthfinder to create a sonar map of the bottom to the west of the Charles Island, in Long Island Sound in Connecticut waters....

  15. Bartolome Island, Galapagos Stable Oxygen Calibration Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Galapagos Coral Stable Oxygen Calibration Data. Sites: Bartolome Island: 0 deg, 17'S, 90 deg 33' W. Champion Island: 1 deg, 15'S, 90 deg, 05' W. Urvina Bay (Isabela...

  16. Asthma and Native Hawaiians/Pacific Islanders

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Population Profiles > Native Hawaiian/Other Pacific Islander > Asthma Asthma and Native Hawaiians/Pacific Islanders National data for ... very limited. While all of the causes of asthma remain unclear, children exposed to secondhand tobacco smoke ...

  17. Estimating the Impact of Drought on Groundwater Resources of the Marshall Islands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brandon L. Barkey

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Groundwater resources of small coral islands are threatened due to short-term and long-term changes in climate. A significant short-term threat is El Niño events, which typically induce a severe months-long drought for many atoll nations in the western and central Pacific regions that exhausts rainwater supply and necessitates the use of groundwater. This study quantifies fresh groundwater resources under both average rainfall and drought conditions for the Republic of Marshall Islands (RMI, a nation composed solely of atolls and which is severely impacted by El Niño droughts. The atoll island algebraic model is used to estimate the thickness of the freshwater lens for 680 inhabited and uninhabited islands of the RMI, with a focus on the severe 1998 drought. The model accounts for precipitation, island width, hydraulic conductivity of the upper Holocene-age sand aquifer, the depth to the contact between the Holocene aquifer and the lower Pleistocene-age limestone aquifer, and the presence of a reef flat plate underlying the ocean side of the island. Model results are tested for islands that have fresh groundwater data. Results highlight the fragility of groundwater resources for the nation. Average lens thickness during typical seasonal rainfall is approximately 4 m, with only 30% of the islands maintaining a lens thicker than 4.5% and 55% of the islands with a lens less than 2.5 m thick. Thicker lenses typically occur for larger islands, islands located on the leeward side of an atoll due to lower hydraulic conductivity, and islands located in the southern region of the RMI due to higher rainfall rates. During drought, groundwater on small islands (<300 m in width is completely depleted. Over half (54% of the islands are classified as “Highly Vulnerable” to drought. Results provide valuable information for RMI water resources planners, particularly during the current 2016 El Niño drought, and similar methods can be used to quantify

  18. Researching Pacific island livelihoods: mobility, natural resource management and nissology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christensen, Andreas E; Mertz, Ole

    2010-01-01

    Small island literature is vast in focus and aim, and is rooted in many different disciplines. The challenge is to find common grounds for researching small islands conceptually and theoretically. The aim of this article is to comment on how to research small islands, including a discussion on contemporary theories of nissology and conceptual analytical frameworks for island research. Through a review of selected case-study-based island literature on changing livelihoods coming out of the South Pacific, we wish to illustrate and discuss advantages of finding common grounds for small island studies. The focus is on two dimensions of island livelihood, migration and natural resource management, both of which are significant contributors in making island livelihoods and shaping Pacific seascapes. We argue that there is still a substantial lack of studies targeting small island dynamics that are empirical and interdisciplinary in focus and link socio-economic and ecological processes of small island societies at temporal and analytical scales.

  19. Forest bird monitoring protocol for strategic habitat conservation and endangered species management on O'ahu Forest National Wildlife Refuge, Island of O'ahu, Hawai'i

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camp, Richard J.; Gorresen, P. Marcos; Banko, Paul C.

    2011-01-01

    This report describes the results of a pilot forest bird survey and a consequent forest bird monitoring protocol that was developed for the O'ahu Forest National Wildlife Refuge, O'ahu Island, Hawai'i. The pilot survey was conducted to inform aspects of the monitoring protocol and to provide a baseline with which to compare future surveys on the Refuge. The protocol was developed in an adaptive management framework to track bird distribution and abundance and to meet the strategic habitat conservation requirements of the Refuge. Funding for this research was provided through a Science Support Partnership grant sponsored jointly by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) and the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS).

  20. Green tree frog (Hyla cinerea) and ground squirrel (Xerospermophilus spilosoma) mortality attributed to inland brevetoxin transportation at Padre Island National Seashore, Texas, 2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buttke, Danielle E.; Walker, Alicia; Huang, I-Shuo; Flewelling, Leanne; Lankton, Julia S.; Ballmann, Anne E.; Clapp, Travis; Lindsay, James; Zimba, Paul V.

    2018-01-01

    On 16 September 2015, a red tide (Karenia brevis) bloom impacted coastal areas of Padre Island National Seashore Park. Two days later and about 0.9 km inland, 30–40 adult green tree frogs (Hyla cinerea) were found dead after displaying tremors, weakness, labored breathing, and other signs of neurologic impairment. A rainstorm, accompanied by high winds, rough surf, and high tides, which could have aerosolized brevetoxin, occurred on the morning of the mortality event. Frog carcasses were healthy but contained significant brevetoxin in tissues. Tissue brevetoxin was also found in two dead or dying spotted ground squirrels (Xerospermophilus spilosoma) and a coyote (Canis latrans). Rainwater collected from the location of the mortality event contained brevetoxin. Mortality of green tree frog and ground squirrel mortality has not been previously attributed to brevetoxin exposure and such mortality suggested that inland toxin transport, possibly through aerosols, rainfall, or insects, may have important implications for coastal species.

  1. Cervical cancer screening in the National Breast and Cervical Cancer Early Detection Program (NBCCEDP) in four US-Affiliated Pacific Islands between 2007 and 2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senkomago, Virginia; Royalty, Janet; Miller, Jacqueline W; Buenconsejo-Lum, Lee E; Benard, Vicki B; Saraiya, Mona

    2017-10-01

    Cervical cancer incidence in the US-Affiliated Pacific Islands (USAPIs) is double that of the US mainland. American Samoa, Commonwealth of Northern Mariana Islands (CNMI), Guam and the Republic of Palau receive funding from the Centers for Disease Control (CDC) National Breast and Cervical Cancer Early Detection Program (NBCCEDP) to implement cervical cancer screening to low-income, uninsured or under insured women. The USAPI grantees report data on screening and follow-up activities to the CDC. We examined cervical cancer screening and follow-up data from the NBCCEDP programs in the four USAPIs from 2007 to 2015. We summarized screening done by Papanicolaou (Pap) and oncogenic human papillomavirus (HPV) tests, follow-up and diagnostic tests provided, and histology results observed. A total of 22,249 Pap tests were conducted in 14,206 women in the four USAPIs programs from 2007-2015. The overall percentages of abnormal Pap results (low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions or worse) was 2.4% for first program screens and 1.8% for subsequent program screens. Histology results showed a high proportion of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grade 2 or worse (57%) among women with precancers and cancers. Roughly one-third (32%) of Pap test results warranting follow-up had no data recorded on diagnostic tests or follow-up done. This is the first report of cervical cancer screening and outcomes of women served in the USAPI through the NBCCEDP with similar results for abnormal Pap tests, but higher proportion of precancers and cancers, when compared to national NBCCEDP data. The USAPI face significant challenges in implementing cervical cancer screening, particularly in providing and recording data on diagnostic tests and follow-up. The screening programs in the USAPI should further examine specific barriers to follow-up of women with abnormal Pap results and possible solutions to address them. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  2. Technological Implementation of Renewable Energy in Rural-Isolated Areas and Small-Medium Islands in Indonesia: Problem Mapping And Preliminary Surveys of Total People Participation in a Local Wind Pump Water Supply

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taufik, Ahmad

    2007-10-01

    This article discusses a formulation of problem mapping and preliminary surveys of total people participation in a local wind pump (LWP) water supply in term of technological implementation of renewable energy (RE) in rural-isolated areas and small-medium islands in Indonesia. The formulation was constructed in order to enhance and to promote the local product of RE across Indonesia. It was also addressed to accommodate local potencies, barriers and opportunities into a priority map. Moreover, it was designed into five aspects such as (1) local technology of the RE: a case of pilot project of the LWP; (2) environmental-cultural aspects related to global issues of energy-renewable energy; (3) potencies and barriers corresponding to local, national, regional and international contents; (4) education and training and (5) gender participation. To focus the formulation, serial preliminary surveys were conducted in five major areas, namely: (1) survey on support and barrier factors of the aspects; (2) strategic planning model, a concept A-B-G which stands for Academician-Business people-Government; (3) survey on background based knowledge on energy conservation; (4) survey on gender participation in energy conservation and (5) survey on local stakeholder involvement. Throughout the surveys, it has been notified that the concept needs to be developed to any level of its component since its elements were identified in tolerance values such as high potency value of the LWP development (95%); a strong potency of rural area application (88%); a medium background of energy, energy conservation (EC) identified in a range of 56%-72%, sufficient support from local stakeholders and gender participation.

  3. 2007 USGS/NASA Experimental Advanced Airborne Research Lidar (EAARL): Fire Island National Seashore, NY and Sandy Hook, NJ

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — ASCII xyz point cloud data were produced from remotely sensed, geographically referenced elevation measurements cooperatively by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS)...

  4. By Their Very Presence: Rethinking Research and Partnering for Change with Educators and Artists from Long Island's Shinnecock Nation Cultural Center and Museum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caracciolo, Diane

    2009-01-01

    This paper recounts the non-Native author's journey toward understanding and enacting Indigenous research paradigms in her home region of Long Island, New York. Unknown to most Long Islanders, their region, which extends over 100 miles eastward from Manhattan, contains two state recognized Native reserves--Shinnecock and Poospatuck. Long Island is…

  5. The Finnish multisource national forest inventory: small-area estimation and map production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erkki Tomppo

    2009-01-01

    A driving force motivating development of the multisource national forest inventory (MS-NFI) in connection with the Finnish national forest inventory (NFI) was the desire to obtain forest resource information for smaller areas than is possible using field data only without significantly increasing the cost of the inventory. A basic requirement for the method was that...

  6. Challenges to natural resource monitoring in a small border park: terrestrial mammals at Coronado National Memorial, Cochise County, Arizona

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swann, Don E.; Bucci, Melanie; Kuenzi, Amy J.; Alberti, Barbara N.; Schwalbe, Cecil R.; Halvorson, William L.; van Riper, Charles; Schwalbe, Cecil R.

    2010-01-01

    Long-term monitoring in national parks is essential to meet National Park Service and other important public goals. Terrestrial mammals are often proposed for monitoring because large mammals are of interest to visitors and small mammals are important as prey. However, traditional monitoring strategies for mammals are often too expensive and complex to sustain for long periods, particularly in small parks. To evaluate potential strategies for long-term monitoring in small parks, we conducted an intensive one-year inventory of terrestrial mammals at Coronado National Memorial, located in Arizona on the U.S.-Mexico international border, then continued less-intensive monitoring at the site for 7 additional years. During 1996-2003 we confirmed 44 species of terrestrial mammals. Most species (40) were detected in the intensive first year of the study, but we continued to detect new species in later years. Mark-recapture data on small mammals indicated large inter-annual fluctuations in population size, but no significant trend over the 7-year period. Issues associated with the international border affected monitoring efforts and increased sampling costs. Our study confirms that sustained annual monitoring of mammals is probably not feasible in small park units like Coronado. However, comparisons of our data with past studies provide insight into important changes in the mammal community since the 1970s, including an increase in abundance and diversity of grassland rodents. Our results suggest that intensive inventories every 10-20 years may be a valuable and cost-effective approach for detecting long-term trends in terrestrial mammal communities in small natural areas.

  7. Importance and performance evaluation tools for small and medium companies: critical analysis of national versus international literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandro César Bortoluzzi

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The research aims to map the importance and performance evaluation tools for small and medium companies. This descriptive and qualitative study analyzed 33 national articles and 21 international ones. Regarding the importance of performance evaluation for small and medium companies, the literature highlights: (i it increases the success of the network; (ii it is useful for management; (iii it strengthens competitiveness; (iv it consolidates cooperation; and, (v it increases trust among partners. Comparing the national versus international literature on the importance of performance evaluation for small and medium companies, it can be noticed similar and complementary aspects, that is, there is not disagreement between the authors. The authors use tools consolidated in the literature, such as Balanced Scorecard; Benchmarking; Performance Prism and tools proposed specifically to evaluate small and medium networks. The main dimensions evaluated are: (i exchange of information; (ii value management in networks; (Iii level of network maturity; (iv benefits of collaboration; (v social capital; (vi collective efficiency; (vii network life cycle; (viii efficiency and inefficiency of the networks; and, (ix existence and intensity of the relationship between partners. The critical analysis regarding the performance evaluation concept adopted in the present study shows that the tools proposed or implemented to evaluate small and medium business networks have gaps in the process to identify criteria, measure ordinal and cardinally, integrate and generate actions of improvement.

  8. Hawaii Institute for Marine Biology and NOAA National Ocean Service, Marine Sanctuary Program Partnership, in affiliation with the Coral Reef Assessment and Monitoring Program, 2007 Survey of the Northwestern Hawaiian Islands Coral Reef Ecosystem Reserve: Digital Still Images (NODC Accession 0052882)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Rapid Assessment Transects were conducted in 2007 in the Papahanaumokuakea Marine National Monument of the Northwest Hawaiian Islands Coral Reef Ecosystem Reserve....

  9. Hawaii Institute for Marine Biology and NOAA National Ocean Service, Marine Sanctuary Program Partnership, in affiliation with the Coral Reef Assessment and Monitoring Program, 2007 Survey of the Northwestern Hawaiian Islands Coral Reef Ecosystem Reserve: Benthic Data from Digital Still Images (NODC Accession 0000881)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Rapid Assessment Transects were conducted in 2007 in the Papahanaumokuakea Marine National Monument of the Northwest Hawaiian Islands Coral Reef Ecosystem Reserve....

  10. National Weatherization Assistance Program Impact Evaluation: Energy Impacts for Small Multifamily Buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blasnik, Michael [Blasnik & Associates, Roslindale, MA (United States); Dalhoff, Greg [Dalhoff & Associates, Verona, WI (United States); Carroll, David [APPRISE, Inc., Princeton, NJ (United States); ucar, Ferit [APPRISE, Inc., Princeton, NJ (United States)

    2014-09-01

    This report estimates energy savings, energy cost savings, and cost effectiveness attributable to weatherizing small multifamily buildings under the auspices of the Department of Energy's Weatherization Assistance Program during Program Year 2008.

  11. Demographic Ageing on Croatian Islands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivo Nejašmić

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyses the changes in the population structure of the Croatian islands by age, warns of the degree of ageing, provides spatial differentiation of this process and presents perspective of ageing at the level of settlement. Typing of population ageing is based on scores and has seven types. The total island population in 2011 belongs to the type 5 – very old population. Almost a half of the settlements (out of 303 have been affected by the highest levels of ageing (types 6 and 7. It was found that a quarter of island settlements will become “dead villages” in a foreseeable future; most of them are on small islands but also in the interior of larger islands. These are villages decaying in every respect, in which the way of life, as we know it, veins and goes out. The present ageing villagers are their last residents in most cases. Eve¬rything suggests that demographic recovery of the islands is not possible with the forces in situ. It is important to strike a balance between the needs and opportunities in order to successfully organize life on the islands, both small and large ones, and the fact is that there is a continuing disparity, which is especially profound in small islands. A sensitive and selective approach is needed to overcome the unfavourable demographic trends. Therefore it is necessary to respect the particularities of indi¬vidual islands and island groups in devising development strategy. Solutions to the problems must come of the local and wider community in synergy with relevant professional and scientific institutions. However, if the solutions are not found or measures do not give results, if the islands are left to desorganisation and senilisation, a part of the islands will become a wasteland. With regard to the value of this area whose wealth are people in the first place, this would be an intolerable civilization decline.

  12. Gridded multibeam bathymetry of Baker Island, Pacific Remote Island Areas, Central Pacific

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Gridded bathymetry at 40m resolution surrounding Baker Island, within the Pacific Remote Island Areas - Central Pacific Ocean. Bottom coverage was achieved in depths...

  13. Gridded multibeam bathymetry of Howland Island, Pacific Remote Island Areas, Central Pacific

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Gridded bathymetry at 40m resolution surrounding Howland Island, within the Pacific Remote Island Areas - Central Pacific Ocean. Bottom coverage was achieved in...

  14. Backscatter 0.5m TIFF Mosaic of St. Croix (Buck Island), US Virgin Islands, 2004

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This image represents a 0.5 meter resolution backscatter mosaic of the north shore of Buck Island, St. Croix, US Virgin Islands. NOAA's NOS/NCCOS/CCMA Biogeography...

  15. Preliminary results of a survey of small mammals in Ruaha National ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Identifications and natural history data are presented for each of the species encountered. Particular attention was paid to the Isunkaviola Plateau, a forest habitat at higher altitudes within the Park, which had no previous study of small mammals. The fauna of Isunkaviola Plateau bears little resemblance to that of the Eastern ...

  16. Population ecology of small mammals on the radioactive waste management complex, Idaho National Engineering Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Groves, C.R.; Keller, B.L.

    1983-01-01

    Species composition, diversity, biomass, population dynamics, absolute density, and movements of small mammal populations were examined on and adjacent to a solid radioactive waste disposal area in southeastern Idaho. The 15-month live-trapping study resulted in marking 2384 individuals representing 10 species of small mammals. Three vegetation types were sampled: crested wheatgrass (Agropyron cristatum) and Russian thistle (Salsola kali) habitats on the disposal area and native sagebrush (Artemisia tridentata) habitat surrounding the disposal area. The deer mouse (Peromyscus maniculatus) was the most common rodent in both disposal area habitats as well as the adjacent sagebrush habitat; Ord's kangaroo rat (Dipodomys ordii) was also an abundant rodent in all vegetation types. The montane vole (Microtus montanus) was common only in crested wheatgrass stands on the disposal area. The annual total small mammal biomass of 346 kg for the entire disposal area represents a potentially large vector for movement of radionuclides off the disposal area. However, the number of animals known to contact waste areas and traverse at least 50 m beyond the perimeter of the SDA appears to be small (8.7%)

  17. National Spatial Development Perspective (NSDP) and assumptions on small town economic investment by government

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Oranje, M

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available What matters from the perspective of the NSDP is whether an area has the potential to grow economically in a sustainable way, create jobs and alleviate poverty. If small towns have such potential, there is nothing that precludes such investment...

  18. 78 FR 76121 - Applications for New Awards; National Institute on Disability and Rehabilitation Research-Small...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-16

    ..., including projects relating to the manufacture of such items as artificial intelligence and information... amount includes direct and indirect costs and fees. Estimated Number of Awards: 10. Note: The Department... performed by the small business concern grantee. 2. Cost Sharing or Matching: This program does not require...

  19. Metal exposure and effects in voles and small birds near a mining haul road in Cape Krusenstern National Monument, Alaska.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brumbaugh, William G; Mora, Miguel A; May, Thomas W; Phalen, David N

    2010-11-01

    Voles and small passerine birds were live-captured near the Delong Mountain Regional Transportation System (DMTS) haul road in Cape Krusenstern National Monument in northwest Alaska to assess metals exposure and sub-lethal biological effects. Similar numbers of animals were captured from a reference site in southern Cape Krusenstern National Monument for comparison. Histopathological examination of selected organs, and analysis of cadmium, lead, and zinc concentrations in liver and blood samples were performed. Voles and small birds captured from near the haul road had about 20 times greater blood and liver lead concentrations and about three times greater cadmium concentrations when compared to those from the reference site, but there were no differences in zinc tissue concentrations. One vole had moderate metastatic mineralization of kidney tissue, otherwise we observed no abnormalities in internal organs or DNA damage in the blood of any of the animals. The affected vole also had the greatest liver and blood Cd concentration, indicating that the lesion might have been caused by Cd exposure. Blood and liver lead concentrations in animals captured near the haul road were below concentrations that have been associated with adverse biological effects in other studies; however, subtle effects resulting from lead exposure, such as the suppression of the activity of certain enzymes, cannot be ruled out for some individual animals. Results from our 2006 reconnaissance-level study indicate that overall, voles and small birds obtained from near the DMTS road in Cape Krusenstern National Monument were not adversely affected by metals exposure; however, because of the small sample size and other uncertainties, continued monitoring of lead and cadmium in terrestrial habitats near the DMTS road is advised.

  20. Diets of two syntopic small mammals in the Inyanga National Park ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The feeding habits of two coexisting rodents, Rhabdomys pumilio and Otomys irroratus in relation to rainfall and reproduction. Acta Oecol. Oecol. Gener. 1: 71 - 89. RAUTENBACH, I.L. 1976. A survey of the mammals occurring in the Golden Gate Highlands National Park. Koedoe 19: 133 -143. RAUTENBACH, I.L. 1982.