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Sample records for small intestinal strictures

  1. Intestinal Radiation-Induced Stricture Favours Small Bowel Obstruction by Phytobezoar: Report of a Case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandra Quercioli

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Bezoars represent the fifth most frequent cause of acute small bowel obstruction. Phytobezoar is the most common type of bezoar. It is a concretion of undigestible fibers derived from ingested vegetables and fruits. We report a case of a woman with a 1-year history of recurrent epigastric and periumbilical abdominal pain with intermittent vomiting caused by phytobezoar of the terminal ileum. After careful investigation of the case and review of literature, we identified the factor involved in bezoar formation as radiation-induced ileal stenosis due to previous treatment for a pelvic tumour. This report provides evidence to consider phytobezoar as a possible cause of small bowel obstruction in patients previously treated with abdominal radiotherapy.

  2. Endometriotic stricture of the sigmoid colon presenting with intestinal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Endometriosis, a relatively common condition, rarely involves the bowel; even more rarely does it present as a large-bowel stricture with intestinal obstruction. We report the case of a young woman who presented to an emergency department with intestinal obstruction secondary to an endometriotic stricture of the sigmoid ...

  3. Intestinal and cloacal strictures in free-ranging and aquarium-maintained green sea turtles (Chelonia mydas).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erlacher-Reid, Claire D; Norton, Terry M; Harms, Craig A; Thompson, Rachel; Reese, David J; Walsh, Michael T; Stamper, M Andrew

    2013-06-01

    colonoscopy should be considered in green turtles when gastrointestinal obstructions are suspected. Although partial strictures of the cloacal opening may be identified on gross examination and might be managed with appropriate medical treatment, surgical intervention or humane euthanasia are likely the only options for sea turtles once small or large intestinal strictures have formed.

  4. Biomarkers of intestinal fibrosis – one step towards clinical trials for stricturing inflammatory bowel disease

    OpenAIRE

    Giuffrida, Paolo; Pinzani, Massimo; Corazza, Gino R; Di Sabatino, Antonio

    2016-01-01

    Intestinal fibrosis, caused by an excessive deposition of extracellular matrix components, and subsequent stricture development are a common complication of inflammatory bowel disease. However, currently there are no biomarkers which reliably predict the risk of developing intestinal strictures or identify early stages of fibrosis prior to clinical symptoms. Candidate biomarkers of intestinal fibrosis, including gene variants (i.e. nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain-2 gene), serum micr...

  5. Photoacoustic imaging of intestinal strictures: microscopic and macroscopic assessment in vivo (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Guan; Lei, Hao; Johnson, Laura A.; Moons, David S.; Ma, Teng; Zhou, Qifa; Rice, Michael D.; Ni, Jun; Wang, Xueding; Higgins, Peter D. R.

    2017-03-01

    The pathology of Crohn's disease (CD) is characterized by obstructing intestinal strictures because of inflammation (with high levels of hemoglobin), fibrosis (high levels of collagen), or a combination of both. Inflammatory strictures are medically treated. Fibrotic strictures have to be removed surgically. The accurate characterization of the strictures is therefore critical for the management of CD. Currently the comprehensive assessment of a stricture is difficult, as the standard diagnostic procedure, endoscopic biopsy, is superficial and with limited locations as well as depth. In our previous studies, photoacoustic imaging (PAI) has recovered the layered architectures and the relative content of the molecular components in human and animal tissues ex vivo. This study will investigate the capability of multispectral PAI in resolving the architecture and the molecular components of intestinal strictures in rats in vivo. PA images at 532, 1210 and 1310 nm targeting the strong optical absorption of hemoglobin, lipid and collagen were acquired using two approaches. A compact linear array, CL15-7, was used to transcutaneously acquire PA signals generated by the a fiber optics diffuser positioned within the inner lumen of the strictures. Another approach was to use an endoscopic capsule probe for acoustic resolution PA microscopy. The capsule probe is designed for human and therefore cannot fit into rat colon. The inner surface of the intestinal stricture was exposed and the probe was attached to the diseased location for imaging. The findings in PA images were confirmed by histology results.

  6. Use of balloon dilatation for management of postoperative intestinal strictures in children with short bowel syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belza, Christina; Fitzgerald, Kevin; Amaral, Joao; Steinberg, Karen; Avitzur, Yaron; Wales, Paul W

    2017-05-01

    Children with short bowel syndrome (SBS) often require numerous operations to optimize intestinal function. Postoperative intestinal strictures are a complication that inhibits enteral feeding advancement and prolongs parenteral nutrition dependency, often requiring reoperation. Our objective was to review our experience with fluoroscopic balloon dilatation to treat intestinal strictures. A retrospective cohort study of intestinal failure patients with SBS was completed. Patients who had radiologically diagnosed intestinal strictures and treated with fluoroscopic guided balloon dilatation were included [n=6]. Data related to demographics, anatomy, surgical procedures, and dilatation procedures were collected. Descriptive summary statistics were employed. 98 intestinal failure patients were recruited between 2011 and 2015. Five of 98 patients (5.1%) [2 males; median age 4.4months] underwent fluoroscopy guided balloon dilatation of 6 strictures. Balloon dilatation was successful in 4/6 (67%). The median number of dilatations was 2 per patient (range=1-3). Median time to feed initiation postdilatation was 3days. One patient developed an anastomotic leak after dilatation that required antibiotics, but no reoperation. Four of six (67%) postoperative bowel strictures in 5 patients with SBS were successfully treated with fluoroscopically guided balloon dilatation. Balloon dilatation is less invasive than reoperation, preserves bowel length and reduces time to reinitiation of enteral feeding. 3. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Double-balloon enteroscopy-assisted dilatation avoids surgery for small bowel strictures: A systematic review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baars, Judith E; Theyventhiran, Ruben; Aepli, Patrick; Saxena, Payal; Kaffes, Arthur J

    2017-01-01

    AIM To evaluate the therapeutic role of double-balloon enteroscopy (DBE) in small bowel strictures and to propose a standard approach to small bowel strictures. METHODS Systematic review of studies involving DBE in patients with small bowel strictures. Only studies limited to small bowel strictures were included and those with ileo-colonic strictures were excluded. RESULTS In total 13 studies were included, in which 310 patients were dilated. The average follow-up time was 31.8 mo per patient. The complication rate was 4.8% per patient and 2.6% per dilatation. Surgery was avoided in 80% of patients. After the first dilatation, 46% were treated with re-dilatation and only 17% required surgery. CONCLUSION DBE-assisted dilatation avoids surgery in 80% of patients with small bowel strictures and is safe and effective. We propose a standardized approach to small bowel strictures. PMID:29259383

  8. Special diaphragm-like strictures of small bowel unrelated to non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs.

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    Wang, Ming-Liang; Miao, Fei; Tang, Yong-Hua; Zhao, Xue-Song; Zhong, Jie; Yuan, Fei

    2011-08-21

    To summarize clinical, endoscopic, radiologic and pathologic features of special diaphragm-like strictures found in small bowel, with no patient use of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs). From January 2000 to December 2009, 5 cases (2 men and 3 women, with a mean age of 41.6 years) were diagnosed as having diaphragm-like strictures of small bowel on imaging, operation and pathology. All the patients denied the use of NSAIDs. The clinical, endoscopic, radiologic and pathologic findings in these 5 patients were retrospectively reviewed from the hospital database. Images of capsule endoscopy (CE) and small bowel follow-through (SBFT) obtained in 3 and 3 patients, respectively, and images of double-balloon enteroscopy and computed tomography enterography (CTE) obtained in all 5 patients were available for review. All patients presented with long-term (2-16 years) symptoms of gastrointestinal bleeding and varying degrees of anemia. There was only one stricture in four cases and three lesions in one case, and all the lesions were located in the middle or distal segment of ileum. Circumferential stricture was shown in the small bowel in three cases in the CE image, but the capsule was retained in the small bowel of 2 patients. Routine abdomen computed tomography scan showed no other abnormal results except gallstones in one patient. The lesions were shown as circumferential strictures accompanied by dilated small bowel loops in the small bowel on the images of CTE (in all 5 cases), SBFT (in 2 cases) and double-balloon enteroscopy (in all cases). On microscopy, a chronic inflammatory infiltrate and circumferential diaphragm were found in all lesions. Diaphragm-like strictures of small bowel might be a special consequence of unclear damaging insults to the intestine, having similar clinical, endoscopic, radiologic and pathologic features.

  9. Endometriotic stricture of the sigmoid colon presenting with intestinal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2014-02-01

    Feb 1, 2014 ... [6] The symptoms are usually chronic and cyclical;[1-6] acute presentations such as intestinal obstruction, appendicitis, appendicular intussusception, rectal bleeding and bowel perforation are relatively uncommon. We report the case of a young woman who presented with intestinal obstruction due to rectal ...

  10. MR enterography-histology comparison in resected pediatric small bowel Crohn disease strictures: can imaging predict fibrosis?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barkmeier, Daniel T; Dillman, Jonathan R; Al-Hawary, Mahmoud; Heider, Amer; Davenport, Matthew S; Smith, Ethan A; Adler, Jeremy

    2016-04-01

    Crohn disease is a chronic inflammatory condition that can lead to intestinal strictures. The presence of fibrosis within strictures alters optimal management but is not reliably detected by current imaging methods. To correlate the MRI features of surgically resected small-bowel strictures in pediatric Crohn disease with histological inflammation and fibrosis scoring. We included children with Crohn disease who had symptomatic small-bowel strictures requiring surgical resection and had preoperative MR enterography (MRE) within 3 months of surgery (n = 20). Two blinded radiologists reviewed MRE examinations to document stricture-related findings. A pediatric pathologist scored stricture histological specimens for fibrosis (0-4) and inflammation (0-4). MRE findings were correlated with histological data using Spearman correlation (ρ) and exact logistic regression analysis. There was significant positive correlation between histological bowel wall fibrosis and inflammation in resected strictures (ρ = 0.55; P = 0.01). Confluent transmural histological fibrosis was associated with pre-stricture upstream small-bowel dilatation >3 cm at univariate (odds ratio [OR] = 51.7; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 7.6- > 999.9; P = 0.0002) and multivariate (OR = 43.4; 95% CI: 6.1- > 999.9; P = 0.0006, adjusted for age) analysis. The degree of bowel wall T2-weighted signal intensity failed to correlate with histological bowel wall fibrosis or inflammation (P-values >0.05). There were significant negative correlations between histological fibrosis score and patient age at resection (ρ = -0.48, P = 0.03), and time from diagnosis to surgery (ρ = -0.73, P = 0.0002). Histological fibrosis and inflammation co-exist in symptomatic pediatric Crohn disease small-bowel strictures and are positively correlated. Pre-stenotic upstream small-bowel dilatation greater than 3 cm is significantly associated with confluent transmural fibrosis.

  11. Agile patency system eliminates risk of capsule retention in patients with known intestinal strictures who undergo capsule endoscopy.

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    Herrerias, Juan M; Leighton, Jonathan A; Costamagna, Guido; Infantolino, Anthony; Eliakim, Rami; Fischer, Doron; Rubin, David T; Manten, Howard D; Scapa, Eitan; Morgan, Douglas R; Bergwerk, Ari J; Koslowsky, Binyamin; Adler, Samuel N

    2008-05-01

    Capsule endoscopy (CE) of the small bowel has become a standard diagnostic tool, but there have been concerns regarding the risk of capsule retention in certain high-risk groups. The Agile patency system, an ingestible and dissolvable capsule with an external scanner, was developed to allow physicians to perform CE with greater confidence that the capsule will be safely excreted in patients at risk for capsule retention. Our purpose was to assess the ability of the device to help physicians identify which patients with known strictures may safely undergo CE. Patients with known strictures ingested the new patency capsule and underwent periodic scanning until it was excreted. The intestinal tract was considered to be sufficiently patent if the capsule was excreted intact or if the capsule was not detected by the scanner at 30 hours after ingestion. If patency was established, then standard CE was performed. International multicenter study. A total of 106 patients with known strictures. Agile patency system. Performance and safety of Agile patency system. A total of 106 patients ingested the patency capsule. Fifty-nine (56%) excreted it intact and subsequently underwent CE. There were no cases of capsule retention. Significant findings on CE were found in 24 (41%). There were 3 severe adverse events. These results suggest that the Agile patency system is a useful tool for physicians to use before CE in patients with strictures to avoid retention. This group of patients may have a high yield of clinically significant findings at CE. This capsule may determine whether patients who have a contraindication to CE may safely undergo CE and obtain useful diagnostic information.

  12. Small Bowel Obstruction due to Intestinal Xanthomatosis

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    L. E. Barrera-Herrera

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Vast majority of bowel obstruction is due to postoperative adhesions, malignancy, intestinal inflammatory disease, and hernias; however, knowledge of other uncommon causes is critical to establish a prompt treatment and decrease mortality. Xanthomatosis is produced by accumulation of cholesterol-rich foamy macrophages. Intestinal xanthomatosis is an uncommon nonneoplastic lesion that may cause small bowel obstruction and several cases have been reported in the English literature as obstruction in the jejunum. We report a case of small intestinal xanthomatosis occurring in a 51-year-old female who presented with one day of copious vomiting and intermittent abdominal pain. Radiologic images revealed jejunal loop thickening and inflammatory changes suggestive of foreign body obstruction, diagnostic laparoscopy found two strictures at the jejunum, and a pathologic examination confirmed a segmental small bowel xanthomatosis. This case illustrates that obstruction even without predisposing factors such as hyperlipidemia or lymphoproliferative disorders.

  13. Biomarkers of intestinal fibrosis - one step towards clinical trials for stricturing inflammatory bowel disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giuffrida, Paolo; Pinzani, Massimo; Corazza, Gino R; Di Sabatino, Antonio

    2016-08-01

    Intestinal fibrosis, caused by an excessive deposition of extracellular matrix components, and subsequent stricture development are a common complication of inflammatory bowel disease. However, currently there are no biomarkers which reliably predict the risk of developing intestinal strictures or identify early stages of fibrosis prior to clinical symptoms. Candidate biomarkers of intestinal fibrosis, including gene variants (i.e. nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain-2 gene), serum microRNAs (miR-19, miR-29), serum extracellular matrix proteins (i.e. collagen, fibronectin) or enzymes (i.e. tissue inhibitor of matrix metalloproteinase-1), serum growth factors (i.e. basic fibroblast growth factor, YKL-40), serum anti-microbial antibodies (i.e. anti-Saccharomyces cerevisiae) and circulating cells (i.e. fibrocytes) have shown conflicting results on relatively heterogeneous patients' cohorts, and none of them was proven to be strictly specific for fibrostenosis, but rather predictive of a disease disabling course. In this review we critically reassess the diagnostic and prognostic value of serum biomarkers of intestinal fibrosis in inflammatory bowel disease.

  14. N-cadherin is overexpressed in Crohn's stricture fibroblasts and promotes intestinal fibroblast migration.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Burke, John P

    2012-02-01

    BACKGROUND: Intestinal fibroblasts mediate stricture formation in Crohn\\'s disease (CD). Transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta) is important in fibroblast activation, while cell attachment and migration is regulated by the adhesion molecule N-cadherin. The aim of this study was to investigate the expression and function of N-cadherin in intestinal fibroblasts in patients with fibrostenosing CD. METHODS: Intestinal fibroblasts were cultured from seromuscular biopsies from patients undergoing resection for terminal ileal fibrostenosing CD (n = 14) or controls patients (n = 8). N-cadherin expression was assessed using Western blot and quantitative reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR). Fibroblasts were stimulated with TGF-beta and selective pathway inhibitors Y27632, PD98050, and LY294002 were used to examine the Rho\\/ROCK, ERK-1\\/2, and Akt signaling pathways, respectively. Cell migration was assessed using a scratch wound assay. N-cadherin was selectively overexpressed using a plasmid. RESULTS: Fibroblasts from fibrostenosing CD express increased constitutive N-cadherin mRNA and protein and exhibit enhanced basal cell migration relative to those from directly adjacent normal bowel. Control fibroblasts treated with TGF-beta induced N-cadherin in a dose-dependent manner which was inhibited by Rho\\/ROCK and Akt pathway modulation. Control fibroblasts exhibited enhanced cell migration in response to treatment with TGF-beta or transfection with an N-cadherin plasmid. CONCLUSIONS: Fibroblasts from strictures in CD express increased constitutive N-cadherin and exhibit enhanced basal cell migration. TGF-beta is a potent inducer of N-cadherin in intestinal fibroblasts resulting in enhanced cell migration. The TGF-beta-mediated induction of N-cadherin may potentiate Crohn\\'s stricture formation.

  15. Small intestine aspirate and culture

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    ... ency/article/003731.htm Small intestine aspirate and culture To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Small intestine aspirate and culture is a lab test to check for infection ...

  16. Small intestinal transplantation.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Quigley, E M

    2012-02-03

    The past few years have witnessed a considerable shift in the clinical status of intestinal transplantation. A great deal of experience has been gained at the most active centers, and results comparable with those reported at a similar stage in the development of other solid-organ graft programs are now being achieved by these highly proficient transplant teams. Rejection and its inevitable associate, sepsis, remain ubiquitous, and new immunosuppressant regimes are urgently needed; some may already be on the near horizon. The recent success of isolated intestinal grafts, together with the mortality and morbidity attendant upon the development of advanced liver disease related to total parenteral nutrition, has prompted the bold proposal that patients at risk for this complication should be identified and should receive isolated small bowel grafts before the onset of end-stage hepatic failure. The very fact that such a suggestion has begun to emerge reflects real progress in this challenging field.

  17. Serial intralesional injections of infliximab in small bowel Crohn’s strictures are feasible and might lower inflammation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hendel, Jakob; Karstensen, John Gásdal; Vilmann, Peter

    2014-01-01

    is feasible. OBJECTIVE: We wanted to assess whether serial intralesional injection of infliximab in small bowel strictures is feasible and reduces local inflammation. METHODS: We included six patients with Crohn's disease and inflammatory small bowel strictures. They were treated with endoscopic serial...... inflammation....

  18. Emprego da submucosa de intestino delgado na correção de estenose esofágica em cães Small intestinal submucosa for reconstruction of esophageal stricture in a dog model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zacarias Alves de Souza Filho

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Pesquisar a eficácia da Submucosa de lntestino Delgado (SID porcina na correção de estenoses esofágicas cervicais em cães. MÉTODOS: Para produzir estenose, 12 animais foram submetidos a ressecções de porção elíptica de 3,5X2,0 cm, na parede anterior do esôfago cervical, suturado por pontos de fio de algodão. O processo evolui por 90 dias, atingindo a estenose desejada e comprovada por esofagograma. Na seqüência, a lesão cicatricial produzida foi ressecada e substituída por enxerto de SID. Transcorridos 2 meses os animais foram submetidos a novo esofagograma. Aferiu-se então a largura esofágica (nas porções proximal e média do esôfago cervical após a realização da estenose e pós-correção. Os animais foram submetidos a eutanásia, ao 60º dia de pós-correção, e à necropsia os esôfagos foram retirados e enviados ao laboratório de Anatomia Patológica. RESULTADOS: Não houve fístula ou infecção. Ocorreram reepitelização completa da mucosa, discreta reação infamatória e neovascularização moderada. A luz esofágica foi ampliada em 70% dos animais (43% ± 13% em média (p = 0,2135. A medida da porção proximal, passou de 0,76cm para 0,95cm em média (p=0,02. Não houve alteração significativa em relação a porção medial. CONCLUSÃO: A SID demonstrou ser, no cão, enxerto eficaz para correção de estenoses esofágicas, integrando-se nitidamente à sua parede e substituindo-a de forma adequada.PURPOSE: The objective of the present study is evaluating the efficiency of porcine Small Intestinal Submucosa (SIS as graft in the managemant of stenotic cervical esophagus lesions in dogs. METHODS: Twelve dogs were submitted to resection of an eliptic (3,5X2,0 cm portion of the anterior esophagus wall followed by cotton suture repair. Three months later stenosis were confirmed by esophagogram. Next, scar tissue formed was ressected followed by SIS patch placement. Two months after the procedure new

  19. Measurement of small intestinal damage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeuchi, Koji; Satoh, Hiroshi

    2010-08-01

    Many animal models have been devised for investigating the pathogenesis of intestinal lesions and for screening drugs for the treatment of intestinal ulcers in humans. Recently, particular attention has been focused on NSAID-induced intestinal lesions as a result of the development of the capsule endoscope and double-balloon endoscope. Ischemic enteritis, one of the most dramatic abdominal emergencies, is known to cause severe damage to the small intestine by a significant decrease of arterial blood flow in the small intestine. In this unit, two animal models for small intestinal damage induced by NSAIDs or intestinal ischemia are described. Also included are methods for lesion induction and evaluation of the damage as well as the measurement of pathogenic functional and biochemical changes.

  20. Tissue engineering the small intestine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spurrier, Ryan G; Grikscheit, Tracy C

    2013-04-01

    Short bowel syndrome (SBS) results from the loss of a highly specialized organ, the small intestine. SBS and its current treatments are associated with high morbidity and mortality. Production of tissue-engineered small intestine (TESI) from the patient's own cells could restore normal intestinal function via autologous transplantation. Improved understanding of intestinal stem cells and their niche have been coupled with advances in tissue engineering techniques. Originally described by Vacanti et al of Massachusetts General Hospital, TESI has been produced by in vivo implantation of organoid units. Organoid units are multicellular clusters of epithelium and mesenchyme that may be harvested from native intestine. These clusters are loaded onto a scaffold and implanted into the host omentum. The scaffold provides physical support that permits angiogenesis and vasculogenesis of the developing tissue. After a period of 4 weeks, histologic analyses confirm the similarity of TESI to native intestine. TESI contains a differentiated epithelium, mesenchyme, blood vessels, muscle, and nerve components. To date, similar experiments have proved successful in rat, mouse, and pig models. Additional experiments have shown clinical improvement and rescue of SBS rats after implantation of TESI. In comparison with the group that underwent massive enterectomy alone, rats that had surgical anastomosis of TESI to their shortened intestine showed improvement in postoperative weight gain and serum B12 values. Recently, organoid units have been harvested from human intestinal samples and successfully grown into TESI by using an immunodeficient mouse host. Current TESI production yields approximately 3 times the number of cells initially implanted, but improvements in the scaffold and blood supply are being developed in efforts to increase TESI size. Exciting new techniques in stem cell biology and directed cellular differentiation may generate additional sources of autologous intestinal

  1. Alkaline Phosphatases From Camel Small Intestine | Fahmy ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... activity of camel intestinal IAP2 and IAP5 was studied. The camel intestinal alkaline phosphatase isoenzymes IAP2 and IAP5 were inhibited by EDTA and phenylalanine. Keywords: Camel; Small intestine; Alkaline phosphatase ; Purification; Characterization Egyptian Journal of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology Vol.

  2. Disorders of the Small Intestine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of Medicine, Division of Digestive Diseases Professor of Psychology University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC. Digestive ... Intestine Large Intestine Anorectal and Pelvic Floor Area Personal Stories Resources We provide a wide range of ...

  3. Gut microbiota - architects of small intestinal capillaries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khandagale, Avinash; Reinhardt, Christoph

    2018-01-01

    The commensal gut microbiota is an environmental factor that exerts manifold effects on host physiology. One obvious trait is the impact of this densely colonized ecosystem on small intestinal mucosal vascularization. At present, the microbiota-triggered signaling pathways influencing small intestinal renewal, angiogenesis, and vascular remodeling are largely unexplored. While the interplay of gut microbial communities with pattern recognition receptors, such as Toll-like receptors, in intestinal homeostasis is increasingly understood, it is unresolved how commensal microbiota affect the signaling pathways responsible for the formation of capillary networks in the intestinal mucosa. It is evident that intestinal vascular remodeling and renewal is disturbed in case of dysbiosis of this densely colonized microbial ecosystem, in particular under conditions of intestinal inflammation, but the effects of individual components of the gut microbiota are elusive. This review article provides an overview on the revealed microbiota-host interactions, influencing angiogenesis and vascular remodeling processes in the small intestine.

  4. Non-Meckel Small Intestine Diverticulitis

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    Shamim Ejaz

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Non-Meckel small intestine diverticulitis can have many manifestations and its management is not well-defined. We report 4 unselect cases of small intestine diverticulitis; all patients were seen by the same physician at the Emergency Center at The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center between 1999 and 2014. The median age at diagnosis of these patients was 82 years (range, 76–87 years. All 4 patients presented with acute onset of abdominal pain, and computed tomography scans showed characteristics of small intestine diverticulitis unrelated to cancer. Most of the diverticula were found in the region of the duodenum and jejuno-ileal segments of the small intestine. The patients, even those with peripancreatic inflammation and localized perforation, were treated conservatively. Non-Meckel diverticulitis can be overlooked in the initial diagnosis because of the location of the diverticulosis, the age of the patient, and the rarity of the disease. Because patients with non-Meckel small intestine diverticulitis can present with acute abdominal pain, non-Meckel small intestine diverticulitis should be considered in the differential diagnosis of patients with acute abdominal pain, and computed tomography scans can help identify the condition. Because of the rarity of non-Meckel small intestine diverticulitis, few studies have been published, and the data are inconclusive about how best to approach these patients. Our experience with these 4 elderly patients indicates that non-Meckel small intestine diverticulitis can be treated conservatively, which avoids the potential morbidity and mortality of a surgical approach.

  5. Endoscopic Evaluation of the Small Intestine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven J Shields

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Technological achievements in the area of endoscope design and development have resulted in instruments capable of advancing beyond the reach of simple gastroscopes. Such instruments, known as enteroscopes, form the bases of small bowel endoscopy. Recent widespread use of enteroscopes have contributed significantly to the understanding of small intestinal pathology and improved the ability to diagnose and treat patients with intestinal bleeding sources.

  6. Lynch syndrome-related small intestinal adenocarcinomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jun, Sun-Young; Lee, Eui-Jin; Kim, Mi-Ju; Chun, Sung Min; Bae, Young Kyung; Hong, Soon Uk; Choi, Jene; Kim, Joon Mee; Jang, Kee-Taek; Kim, Jung Yeon; Kim, Gwang Il; Jung, Soo Jin; Yoon, Ghilsuk; Hong, Seung-Mo

    2017-03-28

    Lynch syndrome is an autosomal-dominant disorder caused by defective DNA mismatch repair (MMR) genes and is associated with increased risk of malignancies in multiple organs. Small-intestinal adenocarcinomas are common initial manifestations of Lynch syndrome. To define the incidence and characteristics of Lynch syndrome-related small-intestinal adenocarcinomas, meticulous familial and clinical histories were obtained from 195 patients with small-intestinal adenocarcinoma, and MMR protein immunohistochemistry, microsatellite instability, MLH1 methylation, and germline mutational analyses were performed. Lynch syndrome was confirmed in eight patients (4%), all of whom had synchronous/metachronous malignancies without noticeable familial histories. Small-intestinal adenocarcinomas were the first clinical manifestation in 37% (3/8) of Lynch syndrome patients, and second malignancies developed within 5 years in 63% (5/8). The patients with accompanying Lynch syndrome were younger (≤50 years; P=0.04) and more likely to have mucinous adenocarcinomas (P=0.003), and tended to survive longer (P=0.11) than those with sporadic cases. A meticulous patient history taking, MMR protein immunolabeling, and germline MMR gene mutational analysis are important for the diagnosis of Lynch syndrome-related small-intestinal adenocarcinomas. Identifying Lynch syndrome in patients with small-intestinal adenocarcinoma can be beneficial for the early detection and treatment of additional Lynch syndrome-related cancers, especially in patients who are young or have mucinous adenocarcinomas.

  7. Application of Mitomycin C after dilation of an anastomotic stricture in a newborn with necrotizing enterocolitis

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    Jonathan Green

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC is a common life-threatening condition in premature infants. Bacterial translocation, localized inflammation and subsequent perforation often require surgery for source control and definitive treatment. Small and large intestinal strictures may result from either creation of a surgical anastomosis or the disease process itself. Current methods to treat strictures include, balloon dilation and surgical resection with or without anastomosis. We report the diagnosis and surgical management of a premature infant treated for NEC, who developed an anastomotic stricture and was successfully treated with topical Mitomycin C after balloon stricturoplasty.

  8. [Multiple diverticulosis of the small intestine].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varola, F; Oliaro, A; Beccaria, E; Formento, E; Marcellino, A; Villata, E

    1979-06-23

    A case of jejunum-ileum multiple diverticulosis observed during a cholecystectomy due to cholelithiasis, is reported. Stress is laid on this unusual localization of diverticulosis in the small intestine. The clinical picture can be silent or present an acute or chronic symptomatology and radical surgical treatment can performed or not. When the disease involves all the intestine, without presenting serious inflammatory phenomena and without clinical symptoms (as in the case observed), medical and not surgical treatment can be envisaged.

  9. Small Intestinal Obstruction Caused by Anisakiasis

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    Yuichi Takano

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Small intestinal anisakiasis is a rare disease that is very difficult to diagnose, and its initial diagnosis is often surgical. However, it is typically a benign disease that resolves with conservative treatment, and unnecessary surgery can be avoided if it is appropriately diagnosed. This case report is an example of small intestinal obstruction caused by anisakiasis that resolved with conservative treatment. A 63-year-old man admitted to our department with acute abdominal pain. A history of raw fish (sushi ingestion was recorded. Abdominal CT demonstrated small intestinal dilatation with wall thickening and contrast enhancement. Ascitic fluid was found on the liver surface and in the Douglas pouch. His IgE (RIST was elevated, and he tested positive for the anti-Anisakis antibodies IgG and IgA. Small intestinal obstruction by anisakiasis was highly suspected and conservative treatment was performed, ileus tube, fasting, and fluid replacement. Symptoms quickly resolved, and he was discharged on the seventh day of admission. Small intestinal anisakiasis is a relatively uncommon disease, the diagnosis of which may be difficult. Because it is a self-limiting disease that usually resolves in 1-2 weeks, a conservative approach is advisable to avoid unnecessary surgery.

  10. Small intestinal ganglioneuromatosis in a dog.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paris, J K; McCandlish, I A P; Schwarz, T; Simpson, J W; Smith, S H

    2013-05-01

    A 9-year-old female neutered collie-cross dog was presented with a 2-month history of persistent diarrhoea, weight loss and intermittent vomiting. Abdominal ultrasonography revealed one loop of jejunum with a markedly thickened and multifocally hyperechoic wall, without loss of wall layering. Laparotomies were performed for biopsy and resection of affected intestine. Histopathological examination revealed small intestinal ganglioneuromatosis (GN). The dog recovered well from surgery and the diarrhoea resolved. Eleven months later the dog has gained weight and remains asymptomatic. This is the first report of small intestinal GN affecting a mature dog, in which pathology was localized to the mucosal lamina propria and surgical treatment resulted in a successful outcome. Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  11. Angiosarcoma of the small intestine

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    shobha

    You need a software (e.g. RSSReader, Feed Demon, FeedReader, My Yahoo!, NewsGator and. NewzCrawler) to get advantage of this tool. RSS feeds can also be read through FireFox or Microsoft Outlook 2007. Once any of these small (and mostly free) software is installed, add www.annalsafrmed.org/rssfeed.asp as one.

  12. Small intestinal permeability in dermatological disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton, I; Fairris, G M; Rothwell, J; Cunliffe, W J; Dixon, M F; Axon, A T

    1985-09-01

    Passive small intestinal permeability was investigated in 62 patients with atopic eczema, 29 with psoriasis and 18 with dermatitis herpetiformis, using the cellobiose/mannitol differential sugar absorption test. Urinary recovery of cellobiose and mannitol in patients with both psoriasis and eczema were similar to values in a control population, and were not affected by the extent or activity of skin disease. The cellobiose/mannitol recovery ratio was abnormally high in seven patients with eczema, six of whom underwent jejunal biopsy. Jejunal mucosal morphology was normal in five, and one patient was found to have coeliac disease. Cellobiose/mannitol recovery ratio was also abnormal in seven patients with psoriasis, and in 11 with dermatitis herpetiformis, seven of whom had a normal jejunal biopsy. These findings demonstrate that the passive permeability of the small intestine is normal in the majority of patients with atopic eczema and psoriasis. Increased absorption of macromolecules from the gut lumen cannot be ascribed to defective intestinal integrity, and is unlikely to be relevant to the pathogenesis of eczema. Abnormal intestinal permeability may be a more sensitive manifestation of gluten-sensitive enteropathy than jejunal biopsy in dermatitis herpetiformis.

  13. Transplante de intestino delgado Small intestine transplantation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flávio Henrique Ferreira Galvão

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available RACIONAL: Avanços da biotecnologia e o desenvolvimento de novas drogas imunossupressoras melhoraram os resultados do transplante de intestino delgado. Esse transplante é atualmente indicado para casos especiais da falência intestinal. OBJETIVO: A presente revisão realça os recentes desenvolvimentos na área do transplante de intestino delgado. MATERIAL E MÉTODO: Mais de 600 publicações de transplante de intestino delgado foram revisadas. O desenvolvimento da pesquisa, novas estratégias de imunossupressão, monitorização do enxerto e do receptor, e avanços na técnica cirúrgica são discutidos. RESULTADOS: Realizaram-se cerca de 700 transplante de intestino delgado em 55 centros: 44% intestino-fígado, 41% enxerto intestinal isolado e 15% transplante multivisceral. Rejeição e infecção são as principais limitações desse transplante. Sobrevida de 5 anos na experiência internacional é de 46% para o transplante de intestino isolado, 43% para o intestino-fígado e de cerca de 30% para o transplante multivisceral. Sobrevidas prolongadas são mais freqüentes nos centros com maior experiência. Em série de 165 transplantes intestinais na Universidade de Pittsburgh, PA, EUA, foi relatada sobrevida do paciente maior do que 75% no primeiro ano, 54% em 5 anos e 42% em 10 anos. Mais de 90% desses pacientes assumem dieta oral irrestrita. CONCLUSÃO: O transplante de intestino delgado evoluiu de estratégia experimental para uma alternativa viável no tratamento da falência intestinal permanente. Promover o refinamento da terapia imunossupressora, do manejo e prevenção de infecções, da técnica cirúrgica e da indicação e seleção adequada dos pacientes é crucial para melhorar a sobrevida desse transplante.BACKGROUND: Significant progress has been made in clinical small bowel transplantation over the last decade mainly due advances in biotechnology and new immunosuppressive regiments. This transplantation has now been indicated

  14. Diversity of human small intestinal Streptococcus and Veillonella populations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bogert, B. van den; Erkus, O.; Boekhorst, J.; Goffau, M. de; Smid, E.J.; Zoetendal, E.G.; Kleerebezem, M.

    2013-01-01

    Molecular and cultivation approaches were employed to study the phylogenetic richness and temporal dynamics of Streptococcus and Veillonella populations in the small intestine. Microbial profiling of human small intestinal samples collected from four ileostomy subjects at four time points displayed

  15. Diversity of human small intestinal Streptococcus and Veillonella populations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Bogert, Bartholomeus; Erkus, Oylum; Boekhorst, Jos; de Goffau, Marcus; Smid, Eddy J.; Zoetendal, Erwin G.; Kleerebezem, Michiel

    Molecular and cultivation approaches were employed to study the phylogenetic richness and temporal dynamics of Streptococcus and Veillonella populations in the small intestine. Microbial profiling of human small intestinal samples collected from four ileostomy subjects at four time points displayed

  16. Measurement of Fibrosis in Crohn's Disease Strictures with Imaging and Blood Biomarkers to Inform Clinical Decisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higgins, Peter D R

    2017-01-01

    Distinguishing fibrosis from inflammation in an intestinal stricture in Crohn's disease is quite difficult. The absence of signs of inflammation on CT or MRI does not prove the absence of inflammation, as most strictures have a mix of fibrosis and inflammation. Identifying refractory fibrosis and distinguishing the patients who will respond to anti-inflammatory therapy from those who will require surgery are important clinical requirements, and several new technologies in imaging and serum biomarkers are being applied to this problem. Key Messages: Delayed gadolinium enhancement of a Crohn's disease stricture on MRI can reliably identify severe fibrosis, and may be helpful in deciding which patients will require surgery. However, this approach does not appear to be able to identify patients with mild or moderate fibrosis. New imaging technologies, including T2/magnetization transfer MRI, shear wave velocity ultrasound, and photoacoustic imaging, offer promising animal data that could prove to accurately assist clinical decision making. Glyoproteomics has identified hepatic growth factor alpha and cartilage oligomeric matrix protein as possible serum biomarkers to detect and measure intestinal fibrosis. The presence of upstream small bowel dilation >3.5 cm or a platelet/albumin ratio >150 helps in identifying Crohn's disease patients at high risk of stricture resection in the next 2 years. Imaging and biomarker technologies to measure intestinal fibrosis are rapidly evolving, and could soon provide valuable information for clinical decision making for patients with intestinal strictures from Crohn's disease. © 2017 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  17. Esophageal Strictures in Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Bazrafshan

    2014-07-01

    Conclusion: Anastomotic stricture after surgical repair of esophageal atresia comprised the most common cause of esophageal stricture. Proximal esophagus was the most common site of stricture. Most of the patients recovered with dilatation, surgery, or a combination of the two.

  18. Capsule enteroscopy and radiology of the small intestine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fork, Frans-Thomas [Malmoe University Hospital, Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Malmoe (Sweden); Aabakken, Lars [Rikshospitalet University Hospital, Department of Gastroenterology, Oslo (Norway)

    2007-12-15

    In a very few years, the video capsule for small bowel enteroscopy has gained widespread clinical acceptance. It is readily ingested, disposable, and allows for a complete, low-invasive endoscopic examination of the entire mucosa of the small bowel. It is a patient-friendly method and a first-line procedure in the difficult evaluation of obscure gastrointestinal bleeding. It has the highest proven figure of diagnostic sensitivity for detecting lesions of the mucosa, irrespective of aetiology. The limitations of capsule endoscopy include difficulty in localising mucosal lesions anatomically and its restricted use in patients with dysphagia, strictures or motor dysfunction. Strictures, transmural and extra-mural lesions in patients with small bowel Crohn's disease are evaluated by MRI- enterography and CT-enterography. (orig.)

  19. Lubiprostone stimulates small intestinal mucin release

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    De Lisle Robert C

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Lubiprostone is a synthetic bicyclic fatty acid derivative of prostaglandin E1 (PGE1 used for chronic constipation. The best known action of lubiprostone is simulation of Cl- dependent fluid secretion. In a mouse model of the genetic disease cystic fibrosis, we previously showed that in vivo administration of lubiprostone resulted in greater mucus accumulation in the small intestine. The aim of this study was to directly test whether lubiprostone stimulates intestinal mucin release. Methods Mucin release was measured by mounting segments (4-5 cm of mouse proximal-mid small intestine in an organ bath, allowing access to the perfusate (luminal and the bath (serosal solutions. Nifedipine (10-6 M and indomethacin (10-5 M were included in all solutions to inhibit smooth muscle activity and endogenous prostaglandin production, respectively. The tissue was equilibrated under flow for 30 min, using the perfusate collected during the final 10 min of the equilibration period to measure unstimulated release rate. Stimulus was then added to either the perfusate or the bath and the perfusate was collected for another 30 min to measure the stimulated mucin release rate. Mucin in perfusates was quantified by periodic acid-Schiff's base dot-blot assay, using purified pig gastric mucin as a standard. Results When applied luminally at 1 μM lubiprostone was ineffective at stimulating mucin release. When added to the serosal solution, 1 μM lubiprostone stimulated mucin release to ~300% of the unstimulated rate. As a positive control, serosal 1 μM prostaglandin E2 increased mucin release to ~400% of the unstimulated rate. Conclusions These results support the idea that lubiprostone has prostaglandin-like actions on the intestine, which includes stimulation of mucin release. Stimulation of mucin release by lubiprostone may be protective in gastrointestinal conditions where loss of mucus is believed to contribute to pathogenesis. Thus, in

  20. Lubiprostone stimulates small intestinal mucin release.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Lisle, Robert C

    2012-11-06

    Lubiprostone is a synthetic bicyclic fatty acid derivative of prostaglandin E1 (PGE1) used for chronic constipation. The best known action of lubiprostone is simulation of Cl- dependent fluid secretion. In a mouse model of the genetic disease cystic fibrosis, we previously showed that in vivo administration of lubiprostone resulted in greater mucus accumulation in the small intestine. The aim of this study was to directly test whether lubiprostone stimulates intestinal mucin release. Mucin release was measured by mounting segments (4-5 cm) of mouse proximal-mid small intestine in an organ bath, allowing access to the perfusate (luminal) and the bath (serosal) solutions. Nifedipine (10-6 M) and indomethacin (10-5 M) were included in all solutions to inhibit smooth muscle activity and endogenous prostaglandin production, respectively. The tissue was equilibrated under flow for 30 min, using the perfusate collected during the final 10 min of the equilibration period to measure unstimulated release rate. Stimulus was then added to either the perfusate or the bath and the perfusate was collected for another 30 min to measure the stimulated mucin release rate. Mucin in perfusates was quantified by periodic acid-Schiff's base dot-blot assay, using purified pig gastric mucin as a standard. When applied luminally at 1 μM lubiprostone was ineffective at stimulating mucin release. When added to the serosal solution, 1 μM lubiprostone stimulated mucin release to ~300% of the unstimulated rate. As a positive control, serosal 1 μM prostaglandin E2 increased mucin release to ~400% of the unstimulated rate. These results support the idea that lubiprostone has prostaglandin-like actions on the intestine, which includes stimulation of mucin release. Stimulation of mucin release by lubiprostone may be protective in gastrointestinal conditions where loss of mucus is believed to contribute to pathogenesis. Thus, in addition to chronic constipation, there is greater potential for the

  1. Small Intestinal Bacterial Overgrowth is Associated with Intestinal Inflammation in the Irritable Bowel Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    David, Liliana; Babin, Alexandru; Picos, Alina; Dumitrascu, Dan Lucian

    2014-01-01

    Small intestinal bacterial overgrowth is encountered in bowel disorders, including irritable bowel symptoms. Low degrees of inflammation have been recently reported in the irritable bowel syndrome. We looked for the association between intestinal inflammation and small intestinal bacterial overgrowth in irritable bowel syndrome. Small intestinal bacterial overgrowth was assessed by the H2 glucose breath test in 90 consecutive patients with irritable bowel syndrome. A check-up of the oral cavity was carried out before the breath testing. Further on, the patients were classified into two groups, positive and negative, at the breath test. Then they were tested for intestinal inflammation with a fecal test for calprotectin. We used a semiquantitative test for this study. Both groups were compared for the association of intestinal inflammation with small intestinal bacterial overgrowth. A number of 24/90 (26.7%) patients with irritable bowel syndrome had small intestinal bacterial overgrowth. A positive test for intestinal inflammation was significantly more frequent in patients with irritable bowel syndrome and small intestinal bacterial overgrowth (chi(2): p<0.05). Small intestinal bacterial overgrowth is present in almost one quarter of patients with irritable bowel syndrome. It is significantly associated with intestinal inflammation.

  2. Small intestinal submucosa for reconstruction of esophageal stricture in a dog model

    OpenAIRE

    Zacarias Alves de Souza Filho; Fernando Hintz Greca; João Ricardo Duda; Guilherme Zicarelli Cravo; Sérgio Ossamu Ioshii

    2004-01-01

    OBJETIVO: Pesquisar a eficácia da Submucosa de lntestino Delgado (SID) porcina na correção de estenoses esofágicas cervicais em cães. MÉTODOS: Para produzir estenose, 12 animais foram submetidos a ressecções de porção elíptica de 3,5X2,0 cm, na parede anterior do esôfago cervical, suturado por pontos de fio de algodão. O processo evolui por 90 dias, atingindo a estenose desejada e comprovada por esofagograma. Na seqüência, a lesão cicatricial produzida foi ressecada e substituída por enxerto ...

  3. The small intestine microbiota, nutritional modulation and relevance for health

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    El Aidy, Sahar; van den Bogert, Bartholomeus; Kleerebezem, Michiel

    The intestinal microbiota plays a profound role in human health and extensive research has been dedicated to identify microbiota aberrations that are associated with disease. Most of this work has been targeting the large intestine and fecal microbiota, while the small intestine microbiota may also

  4. The small intestine microbiota, nutritional modulation and relevance for health

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aidy, El S.F.; Bogert, van den B.; Kleerebezem, M.

    2015-01-01

    The intestinal microbiota plays a profound role in human health and extensive research has been dedicated to identify microbiota aberrations that are associated with disease. Most of this work has been targeting the large intestine and fecal microbiota, while the small intestine microbiota may also

  5. Analysis of Small Intestinal Microbiome in Children with Autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    overgrowth of specific populations of bacteria and analyze the relationship between the intestinal flora and behavior. Our current sub-contractor...determine if there is an overgrowth of specific populations of bacteria and analyze the relationship between the intestinal flora and behavior. In aim 1, we...AD_________________ Award Number: W81XWH-10-1-0477 TITLE: Analysis of Small Intestinal Microbiome

  6. Small Intestinal Bacterial Overgrowth: A Case-Based Review

    OpenAIRE

    Kristen H. Reynolds

    2015-01-01

    Small intestinal bacterial overgrowth (SIBO) is a condition of increased microbial load in the small intestine. The microbes feed on dietary carbohydrates and starches via fermentation, leading to gas production, inflammation and damage to the lining of the small intestine. Clinical presentation is varied, including abdominal pain, bloating, malabsorption and systemic symptoms. SIBO is associated with many challenging and chronic conditions such as fibromyalgia, chronic fatigue and chronic pa...

  7. Small intestinal absorption during endotoxemia in swine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanno, S; Emil, S; Kosi, M; Monforte-Munoz, H; Atkinson, J

    1996-10-01

    We studied the effects of systemic endotoxemia on small intestinal absorption in an in vivo animal model. Seven adolescent Yorkshire swine underwent creation of 25 cm distal ileal Thiry-Vella fistulae. After 1 week recovery, the fistulae were perfused with a solution of glucose and electrolytes labeled with 14C-PEG, and net absorption of water, Na+, Cl-, and glucose was calculated. Animals were studied under three different conditions: (1) Basal fasting state, (2) immediately after intravenous injection of E. coli lipopolysaccharide (LPS; 250 micrograms/kg), and (3) 24 hours after LPS. Water, Na+, and Cl- absorption was significantly reduced 2 hours after LPS, but recovered to baseline values by the third hour after LPS. Twenty-four hours after LPS water, Na+, and Cl- absorption was significantly decreased below baseline values. Glucose absorption after LPS paralleled that of water and electrolytes, except that the transient early recovery was not observed. Histological studies of the ileum after LPS showed marked epithelial inflammation at 6 hours, villous atrophy at 24 hours, and signs of recovery at 7 days. Intestinal absorption of water, electrolytes, and glucose is adversely affected in the immediate and early periods after an endotoxemic episode, but the histological epithelial injury secondary to endotoxemia is reversible.

  8. Seasonal variation of primary small intestinal volvulus in North ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Key words: Primary small bowel, intestinal, volvulus and obstruction. Primary small bowel volvulus is one of the ... seasons, that is, through June to October. Table 1 Total emergency and primary small intestinal admissions at Gondar Hospital ... down their fields using animals, broadcast sowing, and cover the seeds with a ...

  9. Developmental morphology of the small intestine in Yangzhou ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The objective of this study was to investigate the development of the weight and the morphological development of the small intestine in Yangzhou geese. The weight, length and perimeter of the small intestine, height and width of the villi, depth of the crypts were measured when geese were 1, 14, 28, 42, 56 and 70 days of ...

  10. Familial bulbar urethral strictures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jindal, Tarun; Pal, Partha; Sinha, Rajan Kumar; Karmakar, Dilip

    2014-01-01

    Strictures are commonly encountered in the urological practice. The most common aetiologies are infection, trauma and iatrogenic events. Familial occurrence of urethral stricture is exceptionally rare. We present a case in which bulbar urethral strictures developed in a father and his two sons. PMID:24591388

  11. Colonic stricture secondary to torsion of an ovarian cyst

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karmazyn, Boaz; Ziv, Nitza; Horev, Gadi [Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Schneider Children' s Medical Center of Israel, Petah Tiqva (Israel); Steinberg, Ran; Zer, Michael [Pediatric Surgery, Sackler Faculty of Medicine, Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv (Israel)

    2002-01-01

    Intestinal obstruction in the newborn is a potentially life-threatening complication. The most common causes are meconium plug, meconium ileus, intestinal atresia, intestinal malrotation, and Hirschprung's disease. We present an unusual case of intestinal obstruction caused by torsion of an ovarian cyst. The left fimbria and ovary swirled around the sigmoid colon, causing colonic stricture. (orig.)

  12. Primary mouse small intestinal epithelial cell cultures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sato, T.; Clevers, H.

    2013-01-01

    The intestinal epithelium is the most rapidly self-renewing tissue in adult mammals. We have recently shown that Lgr5 (Leucine-rich repeat-containing G protein-coupled receptor) is expressed in intestinal stem cells by an in vivo genetic lineage tracing strategy. In the past, extensive efforts have

  13. Melatonin reduces changes to small intestinal microvasculature during systemic inflammation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lansink, Maren Oude; Patyk, Vivien; de Groot, Herbert; Effenberger-Neidnicht, Katharina

    2017-05-01

    Systemic inflammation is known to impair the microcirculation in intestine and other organs as a result of multifactorial events. Here, we show that melatonin selectively reduces changes to the small intestinal microvasculature during systemic inflammation. Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) was infused at a rate of 0.5 mg/kg × h to induce systemic inflammation in male Wistar rats. Melatonin (single dose: 3 mg/kg × 15 min) was intravenously administered before as well as 120 and 240 min after the beginning of the LPS infusion. Systemic parameters were determined in regular intervals. Small intestine, liver, and kidney were histologically (structure of the microvessels, intravascular blood accumulation, and hemorrhages) and immunohistochemically (mast cells, granulocytes, and macrophages) analyzed. Continuous infusion of LPS resulted in dilated microvessels with intravascular blood accumulation (congestion) in liver and small intestine, the latter being particularly pronounced. Blood vessel walls remained intact, there were no hemorrhages. Melatonin significantly reduced these changes to the microvasculature in small intestine, but not in liver. It further reduced mast cell and granulocytes count in small intestine enhanced by LPS. However, except for the systemic blood pressure, melatonin neither improved LPS-dependent changes to systemic parameters nor mortality. Changes to the microvasculature during systemic inflammation are most pronounced in small intestine. Melatonin selectively diminishes these changes to small intestinal microvasculature, probably by reducing the local immune cells recruitment. However, changes to the small intestine are not decisive for the survival. We assume that the therapeutic benefit of melatonin is more likely in local intestinal inflammation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. A Revised Model for Dosimetry in the Human Small Intestine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    John Poston; Nasir U. Bhuiyan; R. Alex Redd; Neil Parham; Jennifer Watson

    2005-02-28

    A new model for an adult human gastrointestinal tract (GIT) has been developed for use in internal dose estimations to the wall of the GIT and to the other organs and tissues of the body from radionuclides deposited in the lumenal contents of the five sections of the GIT. These sections were the esophasgus, stomach, small intestine, upper large intestine, and the lower large intestine. The wall of each section was separated from its lumenal contents.

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  11. Histomorphometric evaluation of small intestinal mucosa of red ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Histomorphometry of the small intestinal mucosa of the red jungle fowl (RJF) and commercial broiler breed (CBC) from day one to four months post-hatch were investigated. For the sake of comparison between these two breeds, the following parameters were included: the number of villi, villus surface area and the intestinal ...

  12. Morphological development of the small intestine in white Roman ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The small intestinal segments were sampled from six goslings for intestinal structure observation by light microscopy and from two male goslings for scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The villus height, width, perimeter, area, crypt depth, muscle thickness and height/width ratio significantly (P < 0.05) increased during the ...

  13. The effect of glutamine supplement on small intestinal morphology ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Jane

    2010-10-11

    Oct 11, 2010 ... The purpose of this study is to demonstrate the effects of glutamine (Gln) supplement on small intestinal morphology, xylose ... diet was formulated to contain 20.3% protein and 3450 kcal DE/kg diet. Glutamine was supplemented to .... P < 0.05, and P < 0.10 was considered as a trend. RESULTS. Intestinal ...

  14. Small intestine contrast ultrasonography for the detection and assessment of Crohn disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Chenjing; Ma, Xuelei; Xue, Luqi; Xu, Jing; Li, Qingfang; Wang, Yun; Zhang, Jing

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background: Crohn disease (CD) is a chronic relapsing disease. Imaging modalities are essential for the diagnosis and assessment of CD. Small intestine contrast ultrasonography (SICUS) is a well-tolerated, noninvasive and radiation-free modality and has shown potential in CD assessment. We aimed at evaluating the diagnostic accuracy of SICUS in the detection and assessment of small-bowel lesions and complications in CD. Methods: We searched PubMed database for relevant studies published before April 24, 2016. We integrated the true positive, false positive, false negative, and true negative into the pooled estimates of sensitivity, specificity, positive likelihood ratio, negative likelihood ratio, and diagnostic odds ratio. Forest plots were to represent the pooled results of all studies. Results: Thirteen articles were finally considered eligible. The pooled sensitivity and specificity of SICUS in detecting small-bowel lesions were 0.883 (95% confidence interval (CI) 0.847–0.913) and 0.861 (95% CI 0.828–0.890), respectively. The pooled diagnostic odds ratio was 39.123 (95% CI 20.014–76.476) and the area under the curve of summary receiver operating characteristic was 0.9273 (standard error: 0.0152). In subgroup analyses, SICUS represented fine sensitivity and specificity in proximal and distal small intestine lesion, as well as in CD-related complications such as stricture, dilation, abscess, and fistula. Conclusion: SICUS is accurate enough to make a complete assessment about the location, extent, number, and almost all kinds of complications in CD small-bowel lesions. PMID:27495028

  15. Benign Post-Radiation Rectal Stricture Treated with Endoscopic Balloon Dilation and Intralesional Triamcinolone Injection

    OpenAIRE

    Michael Karanikas; Panagiotis Touzopoulos; Alexandros Mitrakas; Petros Zezos; Paul Zarogoulidis; Nikolaos Machairiotis; Eleni Efremidou; Nikolaos Liratzopoulos; Alexandros Polychronidis; George Kouklakis

    2012-01-01

    Post-radiation stricture is a rare complication after pelvis irradiation, but must be in the mind of the clinician evaluating a lower gastrointestinal obstruction. Endoscopy has gained an important role in chronic radiation proctitis with several therapeutic options for management of intestinal strictures. The treatment of rectal strictures has been limited to surgery with high morbidity and mortality. Therefore, a less invasive therapeutic approach for benign rectal strictures, endoscopic ba...

  16. Small intestinal bacterial overgrowth mimicking acute flare as a pitfall in patients with Crohn's Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reinshagen Max

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Small intestinal bacterial overgrowth (SIBO is characterized by excessive proliferation of colonic bacterial species in the small bowel. Potential causes of SIBO include fistulae, strictures or motility disturbances. Hence, patients with Crohn's Disease (CD are especially predisposed to develop SIBO. As result, CD patients may experience malabsorption and report symptoms such as weight loss, watery diarrhea, meteorism, flatulence and abdominal pain, mimicking acute flare in these patients. Methods One-hundred-fifty patients with CD reporting increased stool frequency, meteorism and/or abdominal pain were prospectively evaluated for SIBO with the Hydrogen Glucose Breath Test (HGBT. Results Thirty-eight patients (25.3% were diagnosed with SIBO based on positive findings at HGBT. SIBO patients reported a higher rate of abdominal complaints and exhibited increased stool frequency (5.9 vs. 3.7 bowel movements/day, p = 0.003 and lower body weight (63.6 vs 70.4 kg, p = 0.014. There was no correlation with the Crohn's Disease Activity Index. SIBO was significantly more frequent in patients with partial resection of the colon or multiple intestinal surgeries; there was also a clear trend in patients with ileocecal resection that did not reach statistical significance. SIBO rate was also higher in patients with affection of both the colon and small bowel, while inflammation of the (neoterminal ileum again showed only tendential association with the development of SIBO. Conclusion SIBO represents a frequently ignored yet clinically relevant complication in CD, often mimicking acute flare. Because symptoms of SIBO are often difficult to differentiate from those caused by the underlying disease, targeted work-up is recommended in patients with corresponding clinical signs and predisposing factors.

  17. Digestion Modelling in the Small Intestine : Impact of Dietary Fibre

    OpenAIRE

    Taghipoor, Masoomeh; Barles, Guy; Georgelin, Christine; Licois, J.R.; Lescoat, Philippe

    2014-01-01

    International audience; In this work, we continue the modelling of the digestion in the small intestine, started in a previous article, by investigating the effects of dietary fibre. We recall that this model aims at taking into account the three main phenomena of the digestion, namely the transit of the bolus, the degradation of feedstuffs and the absorption through the intestinal wall. In order to study the role of dietary fibre on digestion, we model their two principal physiochemical char...

  18. Developmental changes in distribution of the mucous gel layer and intestinal permeability in rat small intestine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iiboshi, Y; Nezu, R; Khan, J; Chen, K; Cui, L; Yoshida, H; Wasa, M; Fukuzawa, M; Kamata, S; Takagi, Y; Okada, A

    1996-01-01

    From the developmental aspects, the distribution of fluorescein isothiocyanate dextran 70,000 (FTTC-dextran) and mucous gel across the lumen of small intestine was observed as an investigation into the role of mucous gel on intestinal permeability. Furthermore, the effect of N-acetyl cysteine (NAC), a mucolytic agent, on intestinal permeability was examined. In suckling and weaned rats, FTTC-dextran (750 mg/kg body wt) was gavage-fed. After 3 hours, blood samples were taken by cardiac puncture to analyze plasma FTTC-dextran by fluorescence spectrometry. Samples of small intestine with luminal contents were frozen and sectioned in a cryostat for fluorescence microscopy; the same sections were placed in a 0.2% celloidin solution to preserve mucous gel and were stained by periodic acid-Schiff reaction for light microscopy. In weaned rats, intestinal permeability was examined with different concentrations of intraluminally instilled NAC. The plasma level of FTTC-dextran showed a significant increase (p mucus but filled with FTTC-dextran in suckling rats, whereas the spaces were filled with mucus and not filled with FTTC-dextran in weaned rats. Intestinal permeability in groups with NAC were significantly higher (p NAC. These results suggest that an increase in the mucous gel layer that coats the epithelial lining according to the maturation of the gastrointestinal tract is one of the most important factors for a restriction in intestinal permeability.

  19. Esophagitis and esophageal strictures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glazer, Alan; Walters, Patricia

    2008-05-01

    Esophagitis and esophageal strictures are relatively uncommon but significant diseases in companion animals. Often, an esophageal disorder is suspected on the animal's medical history and clinical signs. Esophagitis and acquired esophageal strictures are caused by prolonged contact of caustic substances or foreign bodies with the esophageal lining, leading to mucosal injury. In cases of stricture, damage extends into the submucosal and muscular layers. Timely detection and appropriate management of esophagitis and esophageal strictures significantly improve nutritional status, dysphagia, and pain and often return the animal to a normal quality of life. This article reviews the current literature and focuses on the diagnosis and treatment of esophagitis and esophageal strictures caused by fibrosis secondary to esophageal inflammation.

  20. Heterogeneity across the murine small and large intestine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowcutt, Rowann; Forman, Ruth; Glymenaki, Maria; Carding, Simon Richard; Else, Kathryn Jane; Cruickshank, Sheena Margaret

    2014-11-07

    The small and large intestine of the gastrointestinal tract (GIT) have evolved to have discrete functions with distinct anatomies and immune cell composition. The importance of these differences is underlined when considering that different pathogens have uniquely adapted to live in each region of the gut. Furthermore, different regions of the GIT are also associated with differences in susceptibility to diseases such as cancer and chronic inflammation. The large and small intestine, given their anatomical and functional differences, should be seen as two separate immunological sites. However, this distinction is often ignored with findings from one area of the GIT being inappropriately extrapolated to the other. Focussing largely on the murine small and large intestine, this review addresses the literature relating to the immunology and biology of the two sites, drawing comparisons between them and clarifying similarities and differences. We also highlight the gaps in our understanding and where further research is needed.

  1. Absorption sites of orally administered drugs in the small intestine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murakami, Teruo

    2017-12-01

    In pharmacotherapy, drugs are mostly taken orally to be absorbed systemically from the small intestine, and some drugs are known to have preferential absorption sites in the small intestine. It would therefore be valuable to know the absorption sites of orally administered drugs and the influencing factors. Areas covered:In this review, the author summarizes the reported absorption sites of orally administered drugs, as well as, influencing factors and experimental techniques. Information on the main absorption sites and influencing factors can help to develop ideal drug delivery systems and more effective pharmacotherapies. Expert opinion: Various factors including: the solubility, lipophilicity, luminal concentration, pKa value, transporter substrate specificity, transporter expression, luminal fluid pH, gastrointestinal transit time, and intestinal metabolism determine the site-dependent intestinal absorption. However, most of the dissolved fraction of orally administered drugs including substrates for ABC and SLC transporters, except for some weakly basic drugs with higher pKa values, are considered to be absorbed sequentially from the proximal small intestine. Securing the solubility and stability of drugs prior to reaching to the main absorption sites and appropriate delivery rates of drugs at absorption sites are important goals for achieving effective pharmacotherapy.

  2. [Intraoperative placement of transnasal small intestinal feeding tube during the surgery in 5 cases with high position intestinal obstruction and postoperative feeding].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, Guang-qi; Zhang, Min; Guan, Xiao-hao; Yin, Zhi-qing

    2012-09-01

    gastrointestine did not show anastomomotic stricture or fistula, or intestinal obstruction. After pulling out the tube, the symptoms disappeared and then the patient was discharged. One child was found to have diarrhea with no lactose nutrition liquid and given compound lactic bacteria preparations for oral administration, the symptom disappeared. In the 5 cases, the shortest hospital stay was 10 days and the longest was 22 days, the average stay was 16 days. Three to 5 days after operation the weight restored to birth weight, the weight had increased, when discharged, to an average of 5.5 g (kg·d). The small intestinal feeding tube was very effective for the postoperative nutrition maintenance of high position intestinal obstruction in newborn infants.

  3. Small intestine histomorphometry of beef cattle with divergent feed efficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background The provision of feed is a major cost in beef production. Therefore, the improvement of feed efficiency is warranted. The direct assessment of feed efficiency has limitations and alternatives are needed. Small intestine micro-architecture is associated with function and may be related to feed efficiency. The objective was to verify the potential histomorphological differences in the small intestine of animals with divergent feed efficiency. Methods From a population of 45 feedlot steers, 12 were selected with low-RFI (superior feed efficiency) and 12 with high-RFI (inferior feed efficiency) at the end of the finishing period. The animals were processed at 13.79 ± 1.21 months of age. Within 1.5 h of slaughter the gastrointestinal tract was collected and segments from duodenum and ileum were harvested. Tissue fragments were processed, sectioned and stained with hematoxylin and eosin. Photomicroscopy images were taken under 1000x magnification. For each animal 100 intestinal crypts were imaged, in a cross section view, from each of the two intestinal segments. Images were analyzed using the software ImageJ®. The measurements taken were: crypt area, crypt perimeter, crypt lumen area, nuclei number and the cell size was indirectly calculated. Data were analyzed using general linear model and correlation procedures of SAS®. Results Efficient beef steers (low-RFI) have a greater cellularity (indicated by nuclei number) in the small intestinal crypts, both in duodenum and ileum, than less efficient beef steers (high-RFI) (P bovine. These observations are likely to lead to an increase in the energy demand by the small intestine regardless of the more desirable feed efficiency. PMID:23379622

  4. STUDYING OF FUNCTIONAL CONDITION OF THE SMALL INTESTINE IN CHOLELITHIASIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ya. M. Vakhrushev

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. Complex research of the functional condition of the small intestine in different stages of cholelithiasis.Materials and methods. 47 patients with different stages of cholelithiasis were examined. There were 29 patients with the first (prestone stage and 18 — with the second (stone stage of cholelithiasis. In an assessment of the functional condition of the small intestine were used clinical data and results of the load tests by sugars. Cavitary digestion was studied by load test with polysaccharide (soluble starch, membrane digestion — with disaccharide (sucrose, absorption — with monosaccharide (glucose. Glucose level in blood was determined on an empty stomach, then after oral reception of 50g of glucose, sucrose or starch in 30, 60 and 120 minutes.Results. Researchers showed that in the most of patients with cholelithiasis there were disturbances in clinical and functional condition of the small intestine. In an assessment of the cavitary digestion the level of glycemia was authentically lowered by 43% in prestone stage and by 66% in stone stage of cholelithiasis in comparison with control. In an assessment of membrane digestion in patients with the stone stage of cholelithiasis the level of glycemia was lowered in comparison with group of control and with the prestone stage by 30% and 19% respectively.Conclusion. In prestone stage of cholelithiasis there were decrease of the cavitary digestion primary, and in stone stage of cholelithiasis — all stages of hydrolysis-resorptive process in the small intestine were disturbed.

  5. Small intestinal MUC2 synthesis in human preterm infants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schaart, Maaike W.; de Bruijn, Adrianus C. J. M.; Schierbeek, Henk; Tibboel, Dick; Renes, Ingrid B.; van Goudoever, Johannes B.

    Schaart MW, de Bruijn ACJM, Schierbeek H, Tibboel D, Renes IB, van Goudoever JB. Small intestinal MUC2 synthesis in human preterm infants. Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol 296: G1085-G1090, 2009. First published February 26, 2009; doi:10.1152/ajpgi.90444.2008.-Mucin2 (MUC2) is the structural

  6. Paneth cells: maestros of the small intestinal crypts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Clevers, H.C.; Bevins, C.L.

    2013-01-01

    Paneth cells are highly specialized epithelial cells of the small intestine, where they coordinate many physiological functions. First identified more than a century ago on the basis of their readily discernible secretory granules by routine histology, these cells are located at the base of the

  7. Plasma serotonin in horses undergoing surgery for small intestinal colic

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Torfs, Sara C; Maes, An A; Delesalle, Catherine J; Pardon, Bart; Croubels, Siska M; Deprez, Piet

    This study compared serotonin concentrations in platelet poor plasma (PPP) from healthy horses and horses with surgical small intestinal (SI) colic, and evaluated their association with postoperative ileus, strangulation and non-survival. Plasma samples (with EDTA) from 33 horses with surgical SI

  8. Histomorphometric evaluation of small intestinal mucosa of red ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Yomi

    2012-01-24

    Jan 24, 2012 ... Histomorphometry of the small intestinal mucosa of the red jungle fowl (RJF) and commercial broiler breed (CBC) from day one to four months post-hatch were investigated. For the sake of comparison between these two breeds, the following parameters were included: the number of villi, villus surface.

  9. Rates of gastric emptying and small intestinal motility in pregnant ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Groups I and II served as the control (non-pregnant rats)fed normal rat chow and essentially carbohydrate diet respectively, while Groups III and IV served as test animals(pregnant rats) fed essentially carbohydrate diet in early and late gestation periods respectively. Gastric emptying and small intestinal motility rates were ...

  10. The effect of glutamine supplement on small intestinal morphology ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The purpose of this study is to demonstrate the effects of glutamine (Gln) supplement on small intestinal morphology, xylose absorptive and growth performance of weaned piglets. Forty eight piglets weaned at 28 ± 2 days of age were randomly allotted to three treatment groups. A basal corn-soybean diet was formulated to ...

  11. Latest concepts on the association between nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug-induced small intestinal injury and intestinal bacterial flora.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujimori, Shunji; Sakamoto, Choitsu

    2013-10-01

    Luminal bacteria, one of the main aggressive factors of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), induce small intestinal mucosal injury. Because most bacteria invading from the mouth are eliminated by the highly acidic gastric environment, the upper small intestine contains relatively low numbers of microorganisms. With decreased peristalsis, decreased acidity, and lower oxidation-reduction potential, the ileum maintains a more diverse microflora and a higher bacterial population. As NSAID-induced small intestinal ulcerations tend to localize in the small intestinal distal part, as viewed by capsule endoscopy, the ulcers are in contact with a large amount of luminal bacteria. Recently, it was reported that proton-pump inhibitors (PPIs) exacerbate NSAID-induced small intestinal injury in rats. The study showed that PPIs impair the ability to disinfect due to the PPI-induced low acidic gastric environment, and this resulted in transubstantiation of intestinal flora which exacerbated NSAID-induced small intestinal injury. If it is true that PPIs exacerbate small intestinal injury, the methods of preventing NSAID-induced gastroduodenal injury to defend PPI-induced small intestinal injury should be reconsidered. Following several studies, there may be a possibility that probiotics and prebiotics are useful treatments for the prevention of NSAID-induced small intestinal injury. A method of determining bacterial flora maintenance including alteration of the environment and the administration of various drugs is required.

  12. Intestinal growth adaptation and glucagon-like peptide 2 in rats with ileal-jejunal transposition or small bowel resection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thulesen, Jesper; Hartmann, B.; Kissow, H.

    2001-01-01

    Anatomy, glucagon-like peptide 2, small intestine, short bowel, intestinal adaptation, growth factors, rat......Anatomy, glucagon-like peptide 2, small intestine, short bowel, intestinal adaptation, growth factors, rat...

  13. Fermentation in the Small Intestine Contributes Substantially to Intestinal Starch Disappearance in Calves

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gilbert, Myrthe S.; Pantophlet, Andre J.; Berends, Harma; Pluschke, Anton M.; van den Borne, Joost J. G. C.; Hendriks, Wouter H.; Schols, Henk A.; Gerrits, Walter J. J.

    Background: The proportion of starch disappearing from the small intestinal lumen is generally lower in ruminants than in monogastric animals, and there are indications that the starch digestion capacity in ruminants is limited. Objectives: Milk-fed calves were used to study the rate-limiting enzyme

  14. Fermentation in the small intestine contributes substantially to intestinal starch disappearance in calves

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gilbert, M.S.; Pantophlet, A.J.; Berends, H.; Pluschke, A.M.; Borne, van den J.J.G.C.; Hendriks, W.H.; Schols, H.A.; Gerrits, W.J.J.

    2015-01-01

    Background: The proportion of starch disappearing from the small intestinal lumen is generally lower in ruminants than in monogastric animals, and there are indications that the starch digestion capacity in ruminants is limited. Objectives: Milk-fed calves were used to study the rate-limiting enzyme

  15. Isolated Superior Mesenteric Artery Dissection with Small Intestine Ischemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masahito Aimi

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Superior mesenteric artery (SMA dissection without aortic dissection is a rare condition, and its diagnosis is considered to be difficult. Intestinal infarction is a severe complication of the disease, which may require resection of the intestine. We present a case of isolated SMA dissection. A 53-year-old man experienced sudden pain in the abdomen while playing Japanese pinball and was admitted to our hospital due to acute abdominal symptoms of uncertain cause. Enhanced CT revealed a defect of the root of the SMA, while angiography and intravascular ultrasound findings showed dissection of the SMA wall. Conservative treatment was chosen at the time, while a part of the small intestine was eventually resected because of progressive ischemia. Although SMA dissection is a rare occurrence in cases with acute abdominal symptoms, awareness of the condition is important for differential diagnosis.

  16. Small intestine histomorphometry of beef cattle with divergent feed efficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montanholi, Yuri; Fontoura, Ananda; Swanson, Kendall; Coomber, Brenda; Yamashiro, Shigeto; Miller, Stephen

    2013-02-05

    The provision of feed is a major cost in beef production. Therefore, the improvement of feed efficiency is warranted. The direct assessment of feed efficiency has limitations and alternatives are needed. Small intestine micro-architecture is associated with function and may be related to feed efficiency. The objective was to verify the potential histomorphological differences in the small intestine of animals with divergent feed efficiency. From a population of 45 feedlot steers, 12 were selected with low-RFI (superior feed efficiency) and 12 with high-RFI (inferior feed efficiency) at the end of the finishing period. The animals were processed at 13.79 ± 1.21 months of age. Within 1.5 h of slaughter the gastrointestinal tract was collected and segments from duodenum and ileum were harvested. Tissue fragments were processed, sectioned and stained with hematoxylin and eosin. Photomicroscopy images were taken under 1000x magnification. For each animal 100 intestinal crypts were imaged, in a cross section view, from each of the two intestinal segments. Images were analyzed using the software ImageJ(®). The measurements taken were: crypt area, crypt perimeter, crypt lumen area, nuclei number and the cell size was indirectly calculated. Data were analyzed using general linear model and correlation procedures of SAS(®). Efficient beef steers (low-RFI) have a greater cellularity (indicated by nuclei number) in the small intestinal crypts, both in duodenum and ileum, than less efficient beef steers (high-RFI) (P feed efficiency groups in both segments (P ≥ 0.10). A trend was observed (P ≤ 0.10) for greater crypt area and crypt perimeter in the ileum for cattle with improved feed efficiency. Improved feed efficiency is associated with greater cellularity and no differences on average cell size in the crypts of the small intestine in the bovine. These observations are likely to lead to an increase in the energy demand by the small intestine regardless of the more

  17. Ultrasound of selected pathologies of the small intestine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrzej Smereczyński

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Intestines, especially the small bowel, are rarely subject to US assessment due to the presence of gases and chyme. The aim of this paper was to analyze ultrasound images in selected pathologies of the small intestine in adults, including the aspects of differential diagnosis. Material and methods: In 2001–2012, abdominal ultrasound examinations were conducted in 176 patients with the following small bowel diseases: Crohn’s disease (n=35, small bowel obstruction (n=35, yersiniosis (n=28, infectious diarrhea (n=26, bacterial overgrowth syndrome (n=25, coeliac disease (n=15 and small bowel ischemia (n=12. During examinations patients were fasting and no other particular preparations were needed. Convex transducers of 3.5–6 MHz and linear ones of 7–12 MHz were used. The assessment of the small intestine in four abdominal quadrants constituted an integral element of the examination. The following features of the small bowel ultrasound presentation were subject to analysis: thickness and perfusion of the walls, presence of thickened folds in the jejunum, reduction of their number, presence of fluid and gas contents in the intestine, its peristaltic activity, jejunization of the ileum and enteroenteric intussusception. Furthermore, the size of the mesenteric lymph nodes and the width of the superior mesenteric artery were determined and the peritoneal cavity was evaluated in terms of the presence of free fluid. Results: Statistically significant differences were obtained between the thickness of the small intestine in Crohn’s disease or in ischemic conditions and the thickness in the remaining analyzed pathological entities. Small bowel obstruction was manifested by the presence of distended loops due to gas and fluid as well as by severe peristaltic contractions occurring periodically. In the course of ischemic disease, the intestinal walls were thickened without the signs of increased perfusion and

  18. Digestion modeling in the small intestine: impact of dietary fiber.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taghipoor, M; Barles, G; Georgelin, C; Licois, J R; Lescoat, P

    2014-12-01

    In this work, the modeling of the digestion in the small intestine is developed by investigating specifically the effects of dietary fiber. As our previous model, this new version takes into account the three main phenomena of digestion: transit of the bolus, degradation of feedstuffs and absorption through the intestinal wall. However the two main physiochemical characteristics of dietary fiber, namely viscosity and water holding capacity, lead us to substantially modify our initial model by emphasizing the role of water and its intricated dynamics with dry matter in the bolus. Various numerical simulations given by this new model are qualitatively in agreement with the positive effect of insoluble dietary fiber on the velocity of bolus and on its degradation all along the small intestine. These simulations reproduce the negative effect of soluble dietary fiber on digestion as it has been experimentally observed. Although, this model is generic and contains a large number of parameters but, to the best of our knowledge, it is among the first qualitative dynamical models of fiber influence on intestinal digestion. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Lubiprostone Accelerates Intestinal Transit and Alleviates Small Intestinal Bacterial Overgrowth in Patients With Chronic Constipation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarosiek, Irene; Bashashati, Mohammad; Alvarez, Alicia; Hall, Mark; Shankar, Nagasri; Gomez, Yvette; McCallum, Richard W; Sarosiek, Jerzy

    2016-09-01

    Lubiprostone is an effective treatment for chronic constipation (CC). The mechanism of action of lubiprostone is through increasing fluid secretion and lubrication of the intestinal lumen. The effects of lubiprostone on gastrointestinal transit and small intestinal bacterial overgrowth (SIBO) have not been adequately explored. The current study was designed to investigate whether lubiprostone (1) alters gastrointestinal transit and (2) affects SIBO in patients with constipation. A total of 29 female patients (mean age = 39 years; range: 19-64) with CC received 2 weeks of lubiprostone (24mcg b.i.d., P.O.). Stool consistency based on Bristol stool scale and the frequency of bowel movements (BMs) were recorded. Gastric emptying time, small bowel transit time, colon transit time (CTT), combined small and large bowel transit time (SLBTT) and whole gut transit time were measured using wireless motility capsule. The SIBO status was assessed by the lactulose breath test. Data were analyzed using Wilcoxon rank, Mann-Whitney U, Spearman׳s rank correlation and Chi-square tests. Lubiprostone significantly softened the stool and increased the frequency of BM from median of 2 to 4times per week. The CTT and SLBTT were significantly shorter in responders to lubiprostone (i.e., those with ≥ 2 times increase in the number of their weekly BM) compared with nonresponders. The higher frequency of BM after treatment was significantly correlated with the acceleration of CTT, SLBTT and whole gut transit time. In all, 17 out of 25 (68%) patients, who were tested for SIBO at baseline, were positive. In addition, 7 out of 17 (41%) SIBO-positive patients became SIBO-negative after lubiprostone treatment (P lubiprostone improves the frequency of BMs, softens the stool, accelerates intestinal transit and decreases accompanying SIBO. The improvement of SIBO could be explained by the cleansing effect of increased intestinal fluid and mucus combined with enhanced intestinal motility with

  20. Small intestinal permeability to sugars in patients with atopic eczema.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ukabam, S O; Mann, R J; Cooper, B T

    1984-06-01

    Absorption of lactulose and mannitol was measured in eleven patients with atopic eczema and lactulose/mannitol excretion ratios were calculated. Mean lactulose absorption was increased in the patients with exzema and their excretion ratios were higher than those of controls. There was no correlation between either eczema extent or severity and the excretion ratio. We conclude that small intestinal passive permeability is increased in some patients with atopic eczema.

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  5. Small Intestinal Bacterial Overgrowth: A Case-Based Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristen H. Reynolds

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Small intestinal bacterial overgrowth (SIBO is a condition of increased microbial load in the small intestine. The microbes feed on dietary carbohydrates and starches via fermentation, leading to gas production, inflammation and damage to the lining of the small intestine. Clinical presentation is varied, including abdominal pain, bloating, malabsorption and systemic symptoms. SIBO is associated with many challenging and chronic conditions such as fibromyalgia, chronic fatigue and chronic pain syndromes, and has been shown to be a causative factor in two out of three cases of irritable bowel syndrome. Symptoms improve with antimicrobial treatment, but recurrence is common. Many providers may not be aware of SIBO. This narrative review highlights a clinical case and the most recent literature regarding SIBO, including history, clinical presentation, prevalence, pathophysiology, diagnostic workup, treatment and prevention. Integrative medicine approaches, including diet, supplements and manual therapies, are also reviewed. SIBO can be a challenging condition and requires an integrative, patient-centered approach. Further studies are needed to guide clinicians in the workup and treatment of SIBO.

  6. Diversity of human small intestinal Streptococcus and Veillonella populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Bogert, Bartholomeus; Erkus, Oylum; Boekhorst, Jos; de Goffau, Marcus; Smid, Eddy J; Zoetendal, Erwin G; Kleerebezem, Michiel

    2013-08-01

    Molecular and cultivation approaches were employed to study the phylogenetic richness and temporal dynamics of Streptococcus and Veillonella populations in the small intestine. Microbial profiling of human small intestinal samples collected from four ileostomy subjects at four time points displayed abundant populations of Streptococcus spp. most affiliated with S. salivarius, S. thermophilus, and S. parasanguinis, as well as Veillonella spp. affiliated with V. atypica, V. parvula, V. dispar, and V. rogosae. Relative abundances varied per subject and time of sampling. Streptococcus and Veillonella isolates were cultured using selective media from ileostoma effluent samples collected at two time points from a single subject. The richness of the Streptococcus and Veillonella isolates was assessed at species and strain level by 16S rRNA gene sequencing and genetic fingerprinting, respectively. A total of 160 Streptococcus and 37 Veillonella isolates were obtained. Genetic fingerprinting differentiated seven Streptococcus lineages from ileostoma effluent, illustrating the strain richness within this ecosystem. The Veillonella isolates were represented by a single phylotype. Our study demonstrated that the small intestinal Streptococcus populations displayed considerable changes over time at the genetic lineage level because only representative strains of a single Streptococcus lineage could be cultivated from ileostoma effluent at both time points. © 2013 Federation of European Microbiological Societies. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Experimental studies on small intestinal pouch motility and evacuation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willis, S; Riesener, K P; Anurow, M; Titkova, S; Ottinger, A; Arlt, G; Schumpelick, V

    1999-01-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate pouch motility and evacuation under standardised conditions with a minimum of external influence. Ileal J-pouches had been constructed 30 cm proximal to the ileocecal valve in 10 dogs (6 pelvic/4 gastric configuration). After 8 weeks the following examinations were performed: (1) measurement of pouch compliance by balloon distension, (2) measurement of pouch contractions by strain gauge transducers, (3) radiological imaging of pouch contractions and evacuation, (4) evacuation scintigraphy and (5) radiological determination of small intestinal transit time. Compliance (2.3 +/- 1.1 mmHg/ml) and small intestinal transit time (31.6 +/- 7.5 h) were significantly higher in the pouch group than in controls (0.5 +/- 0.2 mmHg/ml, 8.0 +/- 2.8 h; p evacuation (t(1/2) = 109 +/- 52 min). Strain gauge measurements revealed irregular pouch contractions without detectable propagation. Contraction amplitudes (40.4 +/- 22.9 g) and frequencies (10.4 +/- 1.0/min) were equal all over the pouch. There were no functional differences between gastric and pelvic pouch configuration. Small intestinal pouches act as reservoirs. Uncoordinated motility patterns contribute to this function. Other factors than pouch motility are responsible for evacuation.

  8. Stricture of the sigmoid colon after pelvic irradiation. Report of two cases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koga, Yutaka; Nakamura, Katsuya; Tasaki, Akira; Tsutsumi, Nobuo; Terasaka, Reiji [Shin Kokura Hospital, Kitakyushu, Fukuoka (Japan); Taguchi, Kenichi [Kyushu Univ., Fukuoka (Japan). Graduate School of Medical Sciences

    2002-07-01

    Disorders of the large and small intestines after pelvic irradiation are classified into early and late complications. Common late complications are stricture and perforation. Some cases with such complications are indicated for surgical therapy. Moreover, it is suggested that radiation induced cancer can occur in patients surviving more than 5 years after radiotherapy. Patient 1, a 78-year-old woman, had been treated by surgery and pelvic irradiation for uterine cancer 20 years earlier. She had been suffered from constipation for a long time after the treatment. This time, examinations revealed a whole- circumference stricture and cancer of the sigmoid colon. Sigmoidectomy was performed. Pathological diagnosis was carcinoma in radiation colitis. Patient 2, a 73-year-old woman, had been treated by surgery and pelvic irradiation for uterine cancer 15 years earlier. This time, she admitted to the hospital because of intestinal bleeding. Angiography showed hemorrhage in the ileum. Arterial injection of vasopressin succeeded in hemostasis. However, the procedure caused marked stricture of the sigmoid colon unexpectedly. A sigmoidectomy and a partial resection of the ileum were performed. Pathological diagnosis was radiation colitis and ileitis without malignant findings. Patients with long interval after pelvic irradiation must be carefully followed from the standpoint of late complications and cancer. (author)

  9. Hyperosmolarity in the small intestine contributes to postprandial ghrelin suppression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Overduin, Joost; Tylee, Tracy S; Frayo, R Scott; Cummings, David E

    2014-06-15

    Plasma levels of the orexigenic hormone ghrelin are suppressed by meals with an efficacy dependent on their macronutrient composition. We hypothesized that heterogeneity in osmolarity among macronutrient classes contributes to these differences. In three studies, the impact of small intestinal hyperosmolarity was examined in Sprague-Dawley rats. In study 1, isotonic, 2.5×, and 5× hypertonic solutions of several agents with diverse absorption and metabolism properties were infused duodenally at a physiological rate (3 ml/10 min). Jugular vein blood was sampled before and at 30, 60, 90, 120, 180, 240, and 300 min after infusion. Plasma ghrelin was suppressed dose dependently and most strongly by glucose. Hyperosmolar infusions of lactulose, which transits the small intestine unabsorbed, and 3-O-methylglucose (3-O-MG), which is absorbed like glucose but remains unmetabolized, also suppressed ghrelin. Glucose, but not lactulose or 3-O-MG, infusions increased plasma insulin. In study 2, intestinal infusions of hyperosmolar NaCl suppressed ghrelin, a response that was not attenuated by coinfusion with the neural blocker lidocaine. In study 3, we reconfirmed that the low-osmolar lipid emulsion Intralipid suppresses ghrelin more weakly than isocaloric (but hypertonic) glucose. Importantly, raising Intralipid's osmolarity to that of the glucose solution by nonabsorbable lactulose supplementation enhanced ghrelin suppression to that seen after glucose. Hyperosmolar ghrelin occurred particularly during the initial 3 postinfusion hours. We conclude that small intestinal hyperosmolarity 1) is sufficient to suppress ghrelin, 2) may combine with other postprandial mechanisms to suppress ghrelin, 3) might contribute to altered ghrelin regulation after gastric bypass surgery, and 4) may inform dietary modifications for metabolic health.

  10. Small Intestinal Tumours: An Overview on Classification, Diagnosis, and Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chiara Notaristefano

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The small intestinal neoplasia group includes different types of lesions and are a relatively rare event, accounting for only 3-6% of all gastrointestinal (GI neoplasms and 1-3% of all GI malignancies. These lesions can be classified as epithelial and mesenchymal, either benign or malignant. Mesenchymal tumours include stromal tumours (GIST and other neoplasms that might arise from soft tissue throughout the rest of the body (lipomas, leiomyomas and leiomyosarcomas, fibromas, desmoid tumours, and schwannomas. Other lesions occurring in the small bowel are carcinoids, lymphomas, and melanomas. To date, carcinoids and GIST are reported as the most frequent malignant lesions occurring in the small bowel. Factors that predispose to the development of malignant lesions are different, and they may be hereditary (Peutz-Jeghers syndrome, familial adenomatous polyposis, hereditary non-polyposis colorectal cancer, neuroendocrine neoplasia Type 1, von Hippel-Lindau disease, and neurofibromatosis Type 1, acquired (sporadic colorectal cancer and small intestine adenomas, coeliac disease, Crohn’s disease, or environmental (diet, tobacco, and obesity. Small bowel tumours present with different and sometimes nonspecific symptoms, and a prompt diagnosis is not always so easily performed. Diagnostic tools, that may be both radiological and endoscopic, possess specificity and sensitivity, as well as different roles depending on the type of lesion. Treatment of these lesions may be different and, in recent years, new therapies have enabled an improvement in life expectancy.

  11. Interstitial cells of Cajal in human small intestine. Ultrastructural identification and organization between the main smooth muscle layers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rumessen, Jüri Johannes; Thuneberg, Lars

    1991-01-01

    Anatomy, interstitial cells of Cajal, small intestine, gut motility, pacemaker cells, smooth muscle......Anatomy, interstitial cells of Cajal, small intestine, gut motility, pacemaker cells, smooth muscle...

  12. THE USE OF FK-506 FOR SMALL INTESTINE ALLOTRANSPLANTATION

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, A. L.; Makowka, L.; Banner, B.; Cai, X.; Cramer, D. V.; Pascualone, A.; Todo, S.; Starzl, T. E.

    2010-01-01

    Small intestine allotransplantation in humans is not yet feasible due to the failure of the current methods of immunosuppression. FK-506, a powerful new immunosuppressive agent that is synergistic with cyclosporine, allows long-term survival of recipients of cardiac, renal, and hepatic allografts. This study compares the effects of FK-506 and cyclosporine on host survival, graft rejection, and graft-versus-host-disease in a rat small intestine transplantation model. Transplants between strongly histoincompatible ACI and Lewis (LEW) strain rats, and their F1 progeny are performed so that graft rejection alone is genetically permitted (F1→LEW) or GVHD alone permitted (LEW→F1) or that both immunologic processes are allowed to occur simultaneously (ACI→LEW). Specific doses of FK-506 result in prolonged graft and host survival in all genetic combinations tested. Furthermore, graft rejection is prevented (ACI→LEW model) or inhibited (rejection only model) and lethal acute GVHD is eliminated. Even at very high doses, cyclosporine did not prevent graft rejection or lethal GVHD, nor did it allow long-term survival of the intestinal graft or the host. Animals receiving low doses of cyclosporine have outcomes similar to the untreated control groups. No toxicity specific to FK-506 is noted, but earlier studies by other investigators suggest otherwise. PMID:1690469

  13. Small intestinal bacterial overgrowth in patients with rheumatoid arthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henriksson, A E; Blomquist, L; Nord, C E; Midtvedt, T; Uribe, A

    1993-01-01

    OBJECTIVES--To examine the microflora of the upper small intestine in patients with seropositive rheumatoid arthritis (RA) using a combination of microbial cultivation and tests for microbial metabolic activity. METHODS--Twenty five patients with seropositive RA, 12 achlorhydric control subjects, and 11 control subjects with normal gastric acid secretion were investigated. Disease activity was evaluated in the patients with RA by three different indices. Eight (32%) of the patients with RA had hypochlorhydria or achlorhydria. The acid secretory capacity was determined with pentagastrin stimulation. A modified Crosby capsule was used to obtain biopsy specimens and samples of intestinal fluid from the proximal jejunum; aerobic and anaerobic microbial cultivation of mucosal specimens/intestinal fluid was carried out, and gas production and microflora associated characteristics in jejunal fluid were determined. Additionally, a bile acid deconjugation breath test was performed. RESULTS--Subjects with at least one of the following findings were considered to have bacterial overgrowth: positive bile acid deconjugation test; growth of Enterobacteriaceae; positive gas production; or low tryptic activity. By these criteria half of the patients with RA with hypochlorhydria or achlorhydria and half of the achlorhydric controls had bacterial overgrowth. Thirty five per cent of the patients with RA with normal gastric acid secretion had bacterial overgrowth compared with none of the normal controls. Disease activity indices and rheumatoid factor titres were significantly higher in patients with RA with bacterial overgrowth than in those without. CONCLUSIONS--A high frequency of small intestinal bacterial overgrowth was found in patients with RA; it was associated with a high disease activity and observed in patients with hypochlorhydria or achlorhydria and in those with normal acid secretion. PMID:8346978

  14. Small intestinal transit of spherical particles in the active rat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beall, P.T.; Sutton, S.C.; LeRoy-Wayne, S.

    1986-03-05

    Reproducible measurements of small intestine transit for spherical particles of 0.5 ..mu.. to 1 mm diameter, have been accomplished in the conscious rat. A short cannula of polyethylene is surgically implanted into the duodenum and exists through the abdominal wall. After recovery, a bolus of saline containing colored or isotopically labeled particulate material and an internal standard of NaCr/sup 51/O/sub 4/ is introduced with a modified pipette tip that snugly fills the cannula to prevent back flow. The rats eat and drink during the transit period and are maintained on a reversed light cycle so that transit is measured during their physically active period. Glass microspheres of 1mm, 500 ..mu.., and 50 ..mu.. were followed at 30 min, 1 hr, and 2 hr intervals by opening the intestine and photographing 1 cm segments along its length. Polymer beads of 500 ..mu.., 125 ..mu.., and 70 ..mu.. were labeled with /sup 125/I and located by freezing the exteriorized intestine and counting 1 cm segments in a gamma counter. Movement of the fluid bolus as detected by NaCr/sup 51/O/sub 4/ was reproducible with the fluid front moving through 59%, 73%, and 81% of the length at 30 min, 1 hr, and 2 hr. One millimeter to 125 ..mu.. glass and polymer beads moved with the fluid bolus. Evidence for separation of the fluid phase and particles under approx. 100 ..mu.. is accumulating. It is hypothesized that small particles under a critical size may become lodged in the mucus lining of the intestinal wall.

  15. [Restrictive artificial mechanisms in prevention of late complications after small intestine-colon anastomosis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baulin, A A

    1978-02-01

    The experiments on 30 dogs proved that reduplication and semi-invagination serve as restrictive mechanisms before small intestine-colon anastomosis. These procedures slow dowm the evacuation of intestinal contents, interfere with small intestine-colonic outflow, improve digestion and absorption, contribute to the shortening of the time needed for compensation, provide better late results of the right hemicolonectomy.

  16. Prenatal and postnatal differentiation of the small intestine in rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penkova, Nadya I; Baltadjiev, George A; Koeva, Yvetta A; Atanassova, Pepa K; Andonov, Vladimir N; Trichkova, Valentina A

    2010-01-01

    The gastrointestinal tract in the early prenatal development is an endoblastic mesenchyme-lined tube. The endoblast differentiates and gives origin to all epithelial structures (covering epithelium, glands). The mesenchyme develops into connective tissue, blood vessels, the smooth muscle cells of lamina muscularis mucosae and muscular tunic. Neuroectoblast cells participate in these processes--individual cells with future endocrine function, nerve cells and fibers that form nerve plexuses and vegetative ganglia. AIM OF THE PRESENT STUDY: To trace the changes in the small intestine development during the prenatal period in rat embryos and fetuses, and during the postnatal period in newborn rats. We specifically studied the beta-actin expression in the cytoskeletal structures of the covering epithelium and in the contractile elements of the differentiating smooth muscle cells. The presence and localization of the enteroendocrine EC cell was studied using the immunohistochemical expression of serotonin in them. Material from rat embryos and fetuses aged 8-11, 12-15, 16-20 days of gestation and small intestine fragments from newborn rats was studied using routine hematoxylin-eosin staining, enzymohistochemically for succinate dehydrogenase and immunohistochemically for beta-actin and serotonin. In the early embryogenesis (8-11 day of gestation), the primitive gut of rat embryos is an endoblastic tube of 2-3 layers of cuboidal cells covered with a thin layer of mesenchyme. In the subsequent stages of embryonic and fetal development the processes of differentiation run at different rates in the different tissues. The maturation process in the small intestine wall of one-day-old newborn rats is incomplete. The mucosa presents with shallow crypts and loosely set villi. Differentiated resorptive and enteroendocrine EC cells are found in the lining epithelium. The changes we found in the beta-actin expression in the contractile elements of the differentiating smooth muscle

  17. Plasma serotonin in horses undergoing surgery for small intestinal colic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torfs, Sara C.; Maes, An A.; Delesalle, Catherine J.; Pardon, Bart; Croubels, Siska M.; Deprez, Piet

    2015-01-01

    This study compared serotonin concentrations in platelet poor plasma (PPP) from healthy horses and horses with surgical small intestinal (SI) colic, and evaluated their association with postoperative ileus, strangulation and non-survival. Plasma samples (with EDTA) from 33 horses with surgical SI colic were collected at several pre- and post-operative time points. Serotonin concentrations were determined using liquid-chromatography tandem mass spectrometry. Results were compared with those for 24 healthy control animals. The serotonin concentrations in PPP were significantly lower (P serotonin was not a suitable prognostic factor in horses with SI surgical colic. PMID:25694668

  18. Galectin-4 and small intestinal brush border enzymes form clusters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Danielsen, E M; van Deurs, B

    1997-01-01

    to galectin-4 to coimmunoprecipitate aminopeptidase N and sucrase-isomaltase. Furthermore, galectin-4 was released from microvillar, right-side-out vesicles as well as from mucosal explants by a brief wash with 100 mM lactose, confirming its extracellular localization. Galectin-4 is therefore secreted...... that galectin-4 is indeed an intestinal brush border protein; we also localized galectin-4 throughout the cell, mainly associated with membraneous structures, including small vesicles, and to the rootlets of microvillar actin filaments. This was confirmed by subcellular fractionation, showing about half...

  19. Effect of serotonin on small intestinal contractility in healthy volunteers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, M.B.; Arif, F.; Gregersen, H.

    2008-01-01

    -duodeno-jejunal contractility in healthy human volunteers. Manometric recordings were obtained and the effects of either a standard meal, continuous intravenous infusion of serotonin (20 nmol/kg/min) or intraluminal bolus infusions of graded doses of serotonin (2.5, 25 or 250 nmol) were compared. In addition, platelet......-lived adverse effects following intraluminal serotonin stimulations. We conclude that exogenous serotonin in the lumen of the upper part of the small intestine does not seem to change antro-duodeno-jejunal contractility significantly in healthy adult volunteers Udgivelsesdato: 2008...

  20. Incidentally detected small intestine intussusception caused by primary small intenstine carcinoma on {sup 18}F-FDG PET/CT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Hyun Jong; Oh, So Won; Kim, Yu Kyeong [Dept. of Nuclear MedicineSeoul Metropolitan Government - Seoul National University Boramae Medical Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-09-15

    Small intestine intussusception in adults is a rare condition mainly caused by primary or metastatic small intestine malignancy. Here, we present a 72-year-old male patient who was diagnosed with small intestine cancer that was presented as small intestine intussusception on hybrid {sup 18}F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography/computed tomography (FDG PET/CT). The patient was initially referred for an abnormality on a chest radiography and severe anemia. FDG PET/CT showed the lung lesion in the right upper lobe of lung as a high FDG uptake mass. Accidentally, FDG PET demonstrated another intense hypermetabolic intraluminal lesion in the small intestine accompanied with intussusception shown as a circumferential hypermetabolic wall. By pathologic examination, the patient was diagnosed as primary small intestine cancer with lung metastasis. This case highlights usefulness of hybrid FDG PET/CT to identify unexpected malignancy.

  1. [Esophageal reconstruction for esophageal stricture after corrosive injury].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatta, C; Ogasawara, H; Tsuyu, M; Kakibuchi, M; Yamada, N; Nakai, Y; Yoshinaga, K; Sakagami, M

    1999-08-01

    Swallowing a corrosive agent (alkali or acid) often causes severe pharyngeal, laryngeal or esophageal stricture (caustic stenosis), which is usually very difficult to treat. This paper reports two cases of esophageal stricture treated by esophagoplasty. Both cases had attempted suicide by swallowing a sodium hydroxide solution or acid. Case 1 was a 66-year-old man found to have severe hypopharynx and thoracic esophagus stenosis with supraglottic stricture. The supraglottic stricture was reconstructed with an ileocolon graft and laryngectomy. The intestinal anastomosis was patent, but the peristaltic motion in the ileocolon was not good. The patient continues to have difficulty achieving sufficient oral feeding and to receive supplemental feeding via a jejunostomy. Case 2 was a 81-year-old woman with severe thoracic esophagus stenosis after gastrectomy. The lesion was reconstructed with a jejenum graft. The intestinal anastomosis was patent. She achieved oral alimentation of both liquids and solids without aspiration after surgery. Esophagectomy in these cases can be difficult and hazardous due to extensive fibrosis and many adhesions to adjacent structures. In both cases, the reconstructed intestine passed through the ante-sternal route, so there was severe scar formation in the mediastinum, and an esophago-skin fistula formed in the cervical skin. Cervical vessels and intestinal vessels were anastomosed for blood supply to the reconstructed intestinal tract. This method is useful because it is safe and results in good deglution.

  2. Small Intestine Bacterial Overgrowth and Environmental Enteropathy in Bangladeshi Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeffrey R. Donowitz

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Recent studies suggest small intestine bacterial overgrowth (SIBO is common among developing world children. SIBO’s pathogenesis and effect in the developing world are unclear. Our objective was to determine the prevalence of SIBO in Bangladeshi children and its association with malnutrition. Secondary objectives included determination of SIBO’s association with sanitation, diarrheal disease, and environmental enteropathy. We performed a cross-sectional analysis of 90 Bangladeshi 2-year-olds monitored since birth from an impoverished neighborhood. SIBO was diagnosed via glucose hydrogen breath testing, with a cutoff of a 12-ppm increase over baseline used for SIBO positivity. Multivariable logistic regression was performed to investigate SIBO predictors. Differences in concomitant inflammation and permeability between SIBO-positive and -negative children were compared with multiple comparison adjustment. A total of 16.7% (15/90 of the children had SIBO. The strongest predictors of SIBO were decreased length-for-age Z score since birth (odds ratio [OR], 0.13; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.03 to 0.60 and an open sewer outside the home (OR, 4.78; 95% CI, 1.06 to 21.62. Recent or frequent diarrheal disease did not predict SIBO. The markers of intestinal inflammation fecal Reg 1β (116.8 versus 65.6 µg/ml; P = 0.02 and fecal calprotectin (1,834.6 versus 766.7 µg/g; P = 0.004 were elevated in SIBO-positive children. Measures of intestinal permeability and systemic inflammation did not differ between the groups. These findings suggest linear growth faltering and poor sanitation are associated with SIBO independently of recent or frequent diarrheal disease. SIBO is associated with intestinal inflammation but not increased permeability or systemic inflammation.

  3. Small Intestine Bacterial Overgrowth and Environmental Enteropathy in Bangladeshi Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haque, Rashidul; Kirkpatrick, Beth D.; Alam, Masud; Lu, Miao; Kabir, Mamun; Kakon, Shahria Hafiz; Islam, Bushra Zarin; Afreen, Sajia; Musa, Abu; Khan, Shaila Sharmeen; Colgate, E. Ross; Carmolli, Marya P.; Ma, Jennie Z.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Recent studies suggest small intestine bacterial overgrowth (SIBO) is common among developing world children. SIBO’s pathogenesis and effect in the developing world are unclear. Our objective was to determine the prevalence of SIBO in Bangladeshi children and its association with malnutrition. Secondary objectives included determination of SIBO’s association with sanitation, diarrheal disease, and environmental enteropathy. We performed a cross-sectional analysis of 90 Bangladeshi 2-year-olds monitored since birth from an impoverished neighborhood. SIBO was diagnosed via glucose hydrogen breath testing, with a cutoff of a 12-ppm increase over baseline used for SIBO positivity. Multivariable logistic regression was performed to investigate SIBO predictors. Differences in concomitant inflammation and permeability between SIBO-positive and -negative children were compared with multiple comparison adjustment. A total of 16.7% (15/90) of the children had SIBO. The strongest predictors of SIBO were decreased length-for-age Z score since birth (odds ratio [OR], 0.13; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.03 to 0.60) and an open sewer outside the home (OR, 4.78; 95% CI, 1.06 to 21.62). Recent or frequent diarrheal disease did not predict SIBO. The markers of intestinal inflammation fecal Reg 1β (116.8 versus 65.6 µg/ml; P = 0.02) and fecal calprotectin (1,834.6 versus 766.7 µg/g; P = 0.004) were elevated in SIBO-positive children. Measures of intestinal permeability and systemic inflammation did not differ between the groups. These findings suggest linear growth faltering and poor sanitation are associated with SIBO independently of recent or frequent diarrheal disease. SIBO is associated with intestinal inflammation but not increased permeability or systemic inflammation. PMID:26758185

  4. Augmentation gastroplasty using a segment of transverse colon for corrosive gastric stricture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Anand; Ansari, Mumtaz; Shukla, Dinesh; Tripathi, Anuj Kumar; Shyam, Rohit

    2006-07-01

    Diffuse corrosive gastric stricture is a relatively rare entity, and gastric ablative procedures are traditionally recommended for it. We emphasize the importance of preservation of a cicatrized stomach and describe its augmentation using a segment of transverse colon. A young female with a history of corrosive acid ingestion presented to our surgical unit with nonbilious vomiting following meals, consistent weight loss and features of gastric outlet obstruction. A barium study revealed a small-capacity stomach with pyloric stricture. We planned to augment the stomach capacity by using a segment of transverse colon. After documentation of a normal colon by barium examination, a 15-cm segment of transverse colon was harvested based on middle colic artery. This vascularized patch of bowel was united with the stomach that was opened up by a longitudinal incision made along the body. A barium study on the tenth postoperative day revealed a good capacity and contour of the stomach and free entry of Barium into the small intestine. The patient is tolerating a normal meal and has no vomiting. At 3 months follow-up, the patient had a normal stomach radiologically and endoscopically, with a weight gain of 7 kg. Augmentation of corrosive gastric stricture by a segment of transverse colon is an innovative, practical, and useful procedure, although long-term results are awaited.

  5. HIV-associated non-hodgkins lymphoma of the small intestines ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Key words: HIV, Non-Hodghns, Lymphoma and small intestinal. Malignant tumors of the ... of HIV-associated non-Hodgkin's lymphoma involving the small ... In t h s review a case of HIV-associated NHL of the small intestine presenting with a pelvic mass and mis-diagnosed as a slow-lcalang ectopic pregnancy is presented.

  6. Fermentation in the small intestine contributes substantially to intestinal starch disappearance in calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbert, Myrthe S; Pantophlet, André J; Berends, Harma; Pluschke, Anton M; van den Borne, Joost J G C; Hendriks, Wouter H; Schols, Henk A; Gerrits, Walter J J

    2015-06-01

    The proportion of starch disappearing from the small intestinal lumen is generally lower in ruminants than in monogastric animals, and there are indications that the starch digestion capacity in ruminants is limited. Milk-fed calves were used to study the rate-limiting enzyme in starch hydrolysis and to quantify starch fermentation in ruminants. Forty male Holstein-Friesian calves were fed milk replacer containing either lactose (control) or 1 of 4 corn starch products. The following starch products differed in the enzyme ratios required for their complete hydrolysis to glucose: gelatinized starch [α-amylase and (iso)maltase], maltodextrin [(iso)maltase and α-amylase], maltodextrin with α-1,6-branching (isomaltase, maltase, and α-amylase), and maltose (maltase). In the adaptation period, calves were stepwise exposed to an increasing dose of the starch product for 14 wk to allow maximal adaptation of all enzyme systems involved. In the experimental period, apparent total tract and ileal starch product disappearance, total tract starch product fermentation, and α-amylase, maltase, and isomaltase activities were determined at 18% inclusion of the starch product. Maltase and isomaltase activities in the brush border did not increase for any of the starch product treatments. Luminal α-amylase activity was lower in the proximal (3.9 ± 3.2 and 2.7 ± 1.7 U/mg Co for control and starch product calves, respectively) but greater in the distal small intestine of starch-fed calves than in control calves (0.0 ± 0.0 and 6.4 ± 1.5 U/mg Co for control and starch product calves, respectively; means ± SEs for control and means ± pooled SEMs for starch product treatments). Apparent ileal (61.6% ± 6.3%) and total tract (99.1% ± 0.4%) starch product disappearance did not differ between starch product treatments, suggesting that maltase activity limits starch digestion in ruminants. Total tract starch product fermentation averaged 414 ± 43 g/d, corresponding to 89% of

  7. Lactoferrin targets T cells in the small intestine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Sanne Mie; Hansen, Gert Helge; Danielsen, E Michael

    2010-01-01

    in the enterocytes by 2 h incubation. However, in addition to enterocytes, a distinct subpopulation of cells in the lamina propria also took up Lf, most likely from the serosal side of the explants. None of these cells were apoptotic, nor did they belong to the predominant group of immunoglobulin-synthesizing plasma...... cells in the lamina propria. However, they were CD3(+), identifying them as T lymphocytes. Lf labeling of these cells was mainly seen in the cytosol, but occasionally nuclear staining was seen as well, suggesting a direct regulatory role of Lf. CONCLUSION: We propose that Lf functions in the immune...... defense of the small intestinal mucosa by targeting the population of T cells in the lamina propria....

  8. IgG trafficking in the adult pig small intestine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Möller, Rebecca; Hansen, Gert H; Danielsen, E Michael

    2017-01-01

    immunoglobulins, including IgG made by plasma cells in the lamina propria, are secreted via the brush border to the lumen as part of the mucosal defense. Here, IgG has been proposed to perform a luminal immune surveillance which eventually includes a reuptake through the brush border as pathogen-containing immune......Immunoglobulin G (IgG) transfer in opposite directions across the small intestinal brush border serves different purposes in early life and in adulthood. In the neonate, maternal IgG is taken up from the gut lumen into the blood, conferring passive immunity to the offspring, whereas in the adult...... complexes. In the present work, we studied luminal uptake of FITC-conjugated and gold-conjugated IgG in cultured pig jejunal mucosal explants. After 1 h, binding to the brush border was seen in upper crypts and lower parts of the villi. However, no endocytotic uptake into EEA-1-positive compartments...

  9. Community and genomic analysis of the human small intestine microbiota

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bogert, van den B.

    2013-01-01

      Our intestinal tract is densely populated by different microbes, collectively called microbiota, of which the majority are bacteria. Research focusing on the intestinal microbiota often use fecal samples as a representative of the bacteria that inhabit the end of the large intestine. These

  10. Human and mouse tissue-engineered small intestine both demonstrate digestive and absorptive function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grant, Christa N.; Mojica, Salvador Garcia; Sala, Frederic G.; Hill, J. Ryan; Levin, Daniel E.; Speer, Allison L.; Barthel, Erik R.; Shimada, Hiroyuki; Zachos, Nicholas C.

    2015-01-01

    Short bowel syndrome (SBS) is a devastating condition in which insufficient small intestinal surface area results in malnutrition and dependence on intravenous parenteral nutrition. There is an increasing incidence of SBS, particularly in premature babies and newborns with congenital intestinal anomalies. Tissue-engineered small intestine (TESI) offers a therapeutic alternative to the current standard treatment, intestinal transplantation, and has the potential to solve its biggest challenges, namely donor shortage and life-long immunosuppression. We have previously demonstrated that TESI can be generated from mouse and human small intestine and histologically replicates key components of native intestine. We hypothesized that TESI also recapitulates native small intestine function. Organoid units were generated from mouse or human donor intestine and implanted into genetically identical or immunodeficient host mice. After 4 wk, TESI was harvested and either fixed and paraffin embedded or immediately subjected to assays to illustrate function. We demonstrated that both mouse and human tissue-engineered small intestine grew into an appropriately polarized sphere of intact epithelium facing a lumen, contiguous with supporting mesenchyme, muscle, and stem/progenitor cells. The epithelium demonstrated major ultrastructural components, including tight junctions and microvilli, transporters, and functional brush-border and digestive enzymes. This study demonstrates that tissue-engineered small intestine possesses a well-differentiated epithelium with intact ion transporters/channels, functional brush-border enzymes, and similar ultrastructural components to native tissue, including progenitor cells, whether derived from mouse or human cells. PMID:25573173

  11. Colonic stricture as a complication of haemolytic uraemic syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Megan Grinlinton

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Haemolytic uraemic syndrome (HUS is an infectious disease that can rapidly become life-threatening in the paediatric population. A number of long-term complications may arise from HUS including the rare development of colonic strictures. In this case report, we present two cases with similar presentations of colonic strictures following HUS. Case 1 is a 17-month-old female who developed HUS and multiple complications including a sigmoid colonic stricture. Once the stricture was resected, her recovery was rapid and complete. Case 2 is a 3-year-old male who developed severe HUS requiring dialysis. After developing a small bowel obstruction, a laparotomy demonstrated caecal disease, pan-colonic inflammation, a calcified appendix and a strictured descending colon. A second operation revealed strictures at the transverse, descending and sigmoid colon. Once the diseased part of bowel had been removed his recovery was complete. This report demonstrates the diagnostic difficulty and patient morbidity that may arise from post-HUS colonic strictures. A contrast study is the recommended investigation of choice in patients presenting with ongoing gastrointestinal symptoms after an acute infection with HUS.

  12. Oxidative DNA damage after transplantation of the liver and small intestine in pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Loft, S; Larsen, P N; Rasmussen, A

    1995-01-01

    Oxidative damage is thought to play an important role in ischemia/reperfusion injury, including the outcome of transplantation of the liver and intestine. We have investigated oxidative DNA damage after combined transplantation of the liver and small intestine in 5 pigs. DNA damage was estimated...... to DNA results from reperfusion of transplanted small intestine and liver in pigs, as estimated from the readily excreted repair product 8-oxodG....

  13. Suppression of contractile activity in the small intestine by indomethacin and omeprazole.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lichtenberger, Lenard M; Bhattarai, Deepa; Phan, Tri M; Dial, Elizabeth J; Uray, Karen

    2015-05-01

    Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are widely used to treat a number of conditions, and proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) are often used to prevent NSAID-induced gastric mucosal damage; however, the effects of NSAIDs on intestinal motility are poorly understood. The purpose of the present study is to determine the effects of a prototypical NSAID, indomethacin, either alone or in conjunction with the PPI omeprazole, on intestinal motility. Rats were randomly divided into four groups treated with vehicle, omeprazole, indomethacin, or a combination of indomethacin and omeprazole. Intestinal motility and transit were measured along with inflammatory mediators in the intestinal smooth muscle, markers of mucosal damage, and bacterial counts in the intestinal wall. Indomethacin, but not omeprazole, caused mucosal injury indicated by lower gut bleeding; however, both omeprazole and indomethacin suppressed contractile activity and frequency in the distal part of the small intestine. Cotreatment with omeprazole did not reduce indomethacin-induced intestinal bleeding. Furthermore, although indomethacin caused increased inflammation as indicated by increased edema development and inflammatory mediators, cotreatment with omeprazole did not reduce inflammation in the intestinal smooth muscle or prevent the increased bacterial count in the intestinal wall induced by indomethacin. We conclude that both NSAID and PPI treatment suppressed contractile activity in the distal regions of the small intestine. The suppression of intestinal contractility was associated with increased inflammation in both cases; however, indomethacin and omeprazole appear to affect intestinal motility by different mechanisms. Copyright © 2015 the American Physiological Society.

  14. Benign post-radiation rectal stricture treated with endoscopic balloon dilation and intralesional triamcinolone injection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karanikas, Michael; Touzopoulos, Panagiotis; Mitrakas, Alexandros; Zezos, Petros; Zarogoulidis, Paul; Machairiotis, Nikolaos; Efremidou, Eleni; Liratzopoulos, Nikolaos; Polychronidis, Alexandros; Kouklakis, George

    2012-09-01

    Post-radiation stricture is a rare complication after pelvis irradiation, but must be in the mind of the clinician evaluating a lower gastrointestinal obstruction. Endoscopy has gained an important role in chronic radiation proctitis with several therapeutic options for management of intestinal strictures. The treatment of rectal strictures has been limited to surgery with high morbidity and mortality. Therefore, a less invasive therapeutic approach for benign rectal strictures, endoscopic balloon dilation with or without intralesional steroid injection, has become a common treatment modality. We present a case of benign post-radiation rectal stricture treated successfully with balloon dilation and adjuvant intralesional triamcinolone injection. A 70-year-old woman presented to the emergency room complaining for 2 weeks of diarrhea and meteorism, 11 years after radiation of the pelvis due to adenocarcinoma of the uterus. Colonoscopy revealed a stricture at the rectum and multiple endoscopic biopsies were obtained from the stricture. The stricture was treated with endoscopic balloon dilation and intralesional triamcinolone injection. The procedure appears to have a high success rate and a very low complication rate. Histologic examination of the biopsies revealed non-specific inflammatory changes of the rectal mucosa and no specific changes of the mucosa due to radiation. All biopsies were negative for malignancy. The patient is stricture-free 12 months post-treatment.

  15. Benign Post-Radiation Rectal Stricture Treated with Endoscopic Balloon Dilation and Intralesional Triamcinolone Injection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Karanikas

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Post-radiation stricture is a rare complication after pelvis irradiation, but must be in the mind of the clinician evaluating a lower gastrointestinal obstruction. Endoscopy has gained an important role in chronic radiation proctitis with several therapeutic options for management of intestinal strictures. The treatment of rectal strictures has been limited to surgery with high morbidity and mortality. Therefore, a less invasive therapeutic approach for benign rectal strictures, endoscopic balloon dilation with or without intralesional steroid injection, has become a common treatment modality. We present a case of benign post-radiation rectal stricture treated successfully with balloon dilation and adjuvant intralesional triamcinolone injection. A 70-year-old woman presented to the emergency room complaining for 2 weeks of diarrhea and meteorism, 11 years after radiation of the pelvis due to adenocarcinoma of the uterus. Colonoscopy revealed a stricture at the rectum and multiple endoscopic biopsies were obtained from the stricture. The stricture was treated with endoscopic balloon dilation and intralesional triamcinolone injection. The procedure appears to have a high success rate and a very low complication rate. Histologic examination of the biopsies revealed non-specific inflammatory changes of the rectal mucosa and no specific changes of the mucosa due to radiation. All biopsies were negative for malignancy. The patient is stricture-free 12 months post-treatment.

  16. A mechanistic model of small intestinal starch digestion and glucose uptake in the cow

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mills, J.A.N.; France, J.; Ellis, J.L.; Crompton, L.A.; Bannink, A.; Hanigan, M.D.; Dijkstra, Jan

    2017-01-01

    The high contribution of postruminal starch digestion (up to 50%) to total-tract starch digestion on energy-dense, starch-rich diets demands that limitations to small intestinal starch digestion be identified. A mechanistic model of the small intestine was described and evaluated with regard to

  17. HIV-associated non-hodgkins lymphoma of the small intestines ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Malignant tumors of the small intestines are uncommon. In this paper, an unusual case of HIV-associated non-Hodgkin's lymphoma involving the small intestine, which atypically presented both clinically and by ultrasonographic examination as a mass suspected to be a slow-leaking ectopic pregnancy, is discussed.

  18. Ultrastructure of interstitial cells of Cajal in circular muscle of human small intestine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rumessen, J J; Mikkelsen, H B; Qvortrup, Klaus

    1993-01-01

    Interstitial cells of Cajal (ICC) may be important regulatory cells in gut muscle layers. This study examined ICC within the circular muscle of human small intestine.......Interstitial cells of Cajal (ICC) may be important regulatory cells in gut muscle layers. This study examined ICC within the circular muscle of human small intestine....

  19. Detailed localisation of diet-induced changes in gene expression in the murine small intestine.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wit, de Nicole; Boekschoten, Mark; Hooiveld, Guido; Muller, Michael

    2017-01-01

    An increasing amount of evidence suggests that the small intestine may play an important role in the development of metabolic diseases, such as obesity and insulin resistance. The small intestine provides the first barrier between diet and the body. As a result, dysregulation of biological processes

  20. Cat eye syndrome associated with aganglionosis of the small and large intestine.

    OpenAIRE

    Ward, J; Sierra, I A; D'Croz, E

    1989-01-01

    A newborn male infant is presented with the characteristic phenotype of the cat eye syndrome and a small supernumerary chromosome shorter than a 22. He also had complete absence of parasympathetic ganglion cells throughout the small and large intestine.

  1. Application of laparoscopy in diagnosis and treatment of massive small intestinal bleeding: Report of 22 cases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ba, Ming-Chen; Qing, San-Hua; Huang, Xiang-Cheng; Wen, Ying; Li, Guo-Xin; Yu, Jiang

    2006-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the diagnostic and therapeutic value of laparoscopy in patients with massive small intestinal bleeding. METHODS: Twenty-two patients with massive small intestinal bleeding and hemodynamic alteration underwent laparoscopic laparotomy in our unit from December 2002 to April 2005. Post pathologic sites were found, laparoscopy- or laparoscopy-assisted part small intestinal resection including pathologic intestinal site and enteroanastomosis was performed in all these patients. RESULTS: The bleeding sites were successfully detected by laparoscopy in all these 22 patients. Massive small intestinal bleeding was caused by jejunum benign stromal tumor in 8 cases, by jejunum potential malignant stromal tumor in 5 cases, by jejunum malignant stromal tumor in 1 case, by Mechel’s diverticulum in 5 cases, by small intestinal vascular deformity in 2 cases, and by ectopic pancreas in 1 case. A total of 16 patients underwent laparoscopy-assisted enterectomy and enteroanastomosis of small intestine covering the diseased segment and 6 patients received enterectomy of the diseased segment under laparoscope. No surgical complications occurred and the outcome was satisfactory. CONCLUSION: Laparoscopy in diagnosis and treatment of massive small intestinal bleeding is noninvasive with less pain, short recovery time and definite therapeutic efficacy. PMID:17109505

  2. Management of intestinal failure in inflammatory bowel disease: Small intestinal transplantation or home parenteral nutrition?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, Elizabeth; Allan, Philip; Ramu, Amrutha; Vaidya, Anil; Travis, Simon; Lal, Simon

    2014-01-01

    Inflammatory bowel disease and Crohn’s disease in particular, is a common cause of intestinal failure. Current therapeutic options include home parenteral nutrition and intestinal transplantation. For most patients, home intravenous therapy including parenteral nutrition, with a good probability of long-term survival, is the favoured choice. However, in selected patients, with specific features that may shorten survival or complicate home parenteral nutrition, intestinal transplantation presents a viable alternative. We present survival, complications, quality of life and economic considerations that currently influence individualised decision-making between home parenteral nutrition and intestinal transplantation. PMID:24696601

  3. Digestion of starch in a dynamic small intestinal model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaime-Fonseca, M R; Gouseti, O; Fryer, P J; Wickham, M S J; Bakalis, S

    2016-12-01

    The rate and extent of starch digestion have been linked with important health aspects, such as control of obesity and type-2 diabetes. In vitro techniques are often used to study digestion and simulated nutrient absorption; however, the effect of gut motility is often disregarded. The present work aims at studying fundamentals of starch digestion, e.g. the effect of viscosity on digestibility, taking into account both biochemical and engineering (gut motility) parameters. New small intestinal model (SIM) that realistically mimics gut motility (segmentation) was used to study digestibility and simulated oligosaccharide bio accessibility of (a) model starch solutions; (b) bread formulations. First, the model was compared with the rigorously mixed stirred tank reactor (STR). Then the effects of enzyme concentration/flow rate, starch concentration, and digesta viscosity (addition of guar gum) were evaluated. Compared to the STR, the SIM showed presence of lag phase when no digestive processes could be detected. The effects of enzyme concentration and flow rate appeared to be marginal in the region of mass transfer limited reactions. Addition of guar gum reduced simulated glucose absorption by up to 45 % in model starch solutions and by 35 % in bread formulations, indicating the importance of chyme rheology on nutrient bioaccessibility. Overall, the work highlights the significance of gut motility in digestive processes and offers a powerful tool in nutritional studies that, additionally to biochemical, considers engineering aspects of digestion. The potential to modulate food digestibility and nutrient bioaccessibility by altering food formulation is indicated.

  4. Morphological development of the small intestine in White Roman ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Customer

    2013-02-06

    Feb 6, 2013 ... observation by light microscopy and from two male goslings for scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The villus height, width, perimeter, ... intestine using the light microscope and scanning electron microscope in order to establish the .... Higher magnification SEM of the intestinal villi (Figure 2, panel D-2, ...

  5. Small intestinal MUC2 synthesis in human preterm infants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schaart, Maaike W.; de Bruijn, Adrianus C. J. M.; Schierbeek, Henk; Tibboel, Dick; Renes, Ingrid B.; van Goudoever, Johannes B.

    2009-01-01

    Mucin 2 (MUC2) is the structural component of the intestinal protective mucus layer, which contains high amounts of threonine in its peptide backbone. MUC2 synthesis rate might be a potential parameter for intestinal barrier function. In this study, we aimed to determine whether systemic threonine

  6. Small bowel preservation for intestinal transplantation : a review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roskott, Anne Margot C.; Nieuwenhuijs, Vincent B.; Dijkstra, Gerard; Koudstaal, Lyan G.; Leuvenink, Henri G. D.; Ploeg, Rutger J.

    P>Intestinal transplantation has become the therapy of choice for patients with intestinal failure and life-threatening complications from total parenteral nutrition. Results, however, remain inferior as compared with other transplant types with the quality of the organ graft as the most important

  7. Small intestinal intussusceptions due to the placement of a percutaneous endoscopic jejunostomy tube

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satoh, Takayuki; Sawada, Kazue; Satoh, Miyuki; Yohko, Kikuchi; Yamada, Masataka; Zaitsu, Masaaki; Osada, Tadahiro; Sawaya, Reiji; Nata, Toshie; Ueno, Nobuhiro; Moriichi, Kentaro; Ikuta, Katsuya; Mizukami, Yusuke; Watari, Jiro; Fujiya, Mikihiro; Kohgo, Yutaka

    2011-01-01

    Percutaneous endoscopic jejunostomy (PEJ) has been developed and is considered to be a better method than percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy for preventing the occurrence of aspiration pneumonia. However, the incidence of other complications associated with this procedure is less clear. We herein report a rare case with a small intestinal intussusception due to a PEJ placement. In this case, a radiologic examination with gastrografin was useful to detect the typical findings of a small intestinal intussusception, a beak-like filling defect, and identify the location of the lesion. An endoscopic examination that was carefully performed with a thin scope was effective to observe the ischaemic change of the small intestine and immediately determine the indication for surgical treatment. This case highlights the necessity to carefully manage patients with a PEJ placement, considering the risk of small intestinal intussusceptions when the patient complains of symptoms that are suspicious for an intestinal obstruction. PMID:22715249

  8. Interstitial cells of Cajal and Auerbach's plexus. A scanning electron microscopical study of guinea-pig small intestine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jessen, Harry; Thuneberg, Lars

    1991-01-01

    Anatomy, interstitial cells of Cajal, myenteric plexus, small intestine, guinea-pig, scanning electron microscopy......Anatomy, interstitial cells of Cajal, myenteric plexus, small intestine, guinea-pig, scanning electron microscopy...

  9. Biliary Stricture Following Hepatic Resection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeffrey B. Matthews

    1991-01-01

    Full Text Available Anatomic distortion and displacement of hilar structures due to liver lobe atrophy and hypertrophy occasionally complicates the surgical approach for biliary stricture repair. Benign biliary stricture following hepatic resection deserves special consideration in this regard because the inevitable hypertrophy of the residual liver causes marked rotation and displacement of the hepatic hilum that if not anticipated may render exposure for repair difficult and dangerous. Three patients with biliary stricture after hepatectomy illustrate the influence of hepatic regeneration on attempts at subsequent stricture repair. Following left hepatectomy, hypertrophy of the right and caudate lobes causes an anteromedial rotation and displacement of the portal structures. After right hepatectomy, the rotation is posterolateral, and a thoracoabdominal approach may be necessary for adequate exposure. Radiographs obtained in the standard anteroposterior projection may be deceptive, and lateral views are recommended to aid in operative planning.

  10. Diagnosis and treatment of small intestinal bleeding: Retrospective analysis of 76 cases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ba, Ming-Chen; Qing, San-Hua; Huang, Xiang-Cheng; Wen, Ying; Li, Guo-Xin; Yu, Jiang

    2006-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the causes of small intestinal bleeding as well as its diagnosis and therapeutic approaches. METHODS: A retrospective analysis was conducted according to the clinical records of 76 patients with small intestinal bleeding admitted to our hospital in the past 5 years. RESULTS: In these patients, tumor was the most frequent cause of small intestinal bleeding (37/76), followed by Meckel’s diverticulum (21/76), angiopathy (15/76) and ectopic pancreas (3/76). Of the 76 patients, 21 were diagnosed by digital subtraction angiography, 13 by barium and air double contrast X-ray examination of the small intestine, 11 by 99mTc-sestamibi scintigraphy of the abdominal cavity, 6 by enteroscopy of the small intestine, 21 by laparoscopic laparotomy, and 4 by exploratory laparotomy. Although all the patients received surgical treatment, most of them (68/76) received part enterectomy covering the diseased segment and enteroanastomosis. The follow-up time ranged from 1 year to 5 years. No case had recurrent alimentary tract bleeding or other complications. CONCLUSION: Tumor is the major cause of small intestinal bleeding followed by Meckel’s diverticulum and angiopathy. The main approaches to definite diagnosis of small intestinal bleeding include digital subtraction angiography, 99mTc-sestamibi scintigraphy of the abdominal cavity, barium and air double contrast X-ray examination of the small intestine, laparoscopic laparotomy or exploratory laparotomy. Part enterectomy covering the diseased segment and enteroanastomosis are the most effective treatment modalities for small intestinal bleeding. PMID:17143959

  11. Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor (VEGF) Bioavailability Regulates Angiogenesis and Intestinal Stem and Progenitor Cell Proliferation during Postnatal Small Intestinal Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlieve, Christopher R; Mojica, Salvador Garcia; Holoyda, Kathleen A; Hou, Xiaogang; Fowler, Kathryn L; Grikscheit, Tracy C

    2016-01-01

    Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is a highly conserved, master regulatory molecule required for endothelial cell proliferation, organization, migration and branching morphogenesis. Podocoryne carnea and drosophila, which lack endothelial cells and a vascular system, express VEGF homologs, indicating potential roles beyond angiogenesis and vasculogenesis. The role of VEGF in the development and homeostasis of the postnatal small intestine is unknown. We hypothesized regulating VEGF bioavailability in the postnatal small intestine would exhibit effects beyond the vasculature and influence epithelial cell stem/progenitor populations. VEGF mutant mice were created that overexpressed VEGF in the brush border of epithelium via the villin promotor following doxycycline treatment. To decrease VEGF bioavailability, sFlt-1 mutant mice were generated that overexpressed the soluble VEGF receptor sFlt-1 upon doxycycline administration in the intestinal epithelium. Mice were analyzed after 21 days of doxycycline administration. Increased VEGF expression was confirmed by RT-qPCR and ELISA in the intestine of the VEGF mutants compared to littermates. The VEGF mutant duodenum demonstrated increased angiogenesis and vascular leak as compared to littermate controls. The VEGF mutant duodenum revealed taller villi and increased Ki-67-positive cells in the transit-amplifying zone with reduced Lgr5 expression. The duodenum of sFlt-1 mutants revealed shorter villi and longer crypts with reduced proliferation in the transit-amplifying zone, reduced expression of Dll1, Bmp4 and VE-cadherin, and increased expression of Sox9 and EphB2. Manipulating VEGF bioavailability leads to profound effects on not only the intestinal vasculature, but epithelial stem and progenitor cells in the intestinal crypt. Elucidation of the crosstalk between VEGF signaling in the vasculature, mesenchyme and epithelial stem/progenitor cell populations may direct future cell therapies for intestinal

  12. Radioprotective potential of histamine on rat small intestine and uterus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carabajal, E.; Massari, N.; Croci, M.; Martinel Lamas, D.; Prestifilippo, J.P.; Ciraolo, P.; Bergoc, R.M.; Rivera, E.S.; Medina, V.A.

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to improve knowledge about histamine radioprotective potential investigating its effect on reducing ionising radiation-induced injury and genotoxic damage on the rat small intestine and uterus. Forty 10-week-old male and 40 female Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into 4 groups. Histamine and histamine-5Gy groups received a daily subcutaneous histamine injection (0.1 mg/kg) starting 24 h before irradiation. Histamine-5Gy and untreated-5Gy groups were irradiated with a dose of whole-body Cesium-137 irradiation. Three days after irradiation animals were sacrificed and tissues were removed, fixed, and stained with haematoxylin and eosin, and histological characteristics were evaluated. Proliferation, apoptosis and oxidative DNA markers were studied by immunohistochemistry, while micronucleus assay was performed to evaluate chromosomal damage. Histamine treatment reduced radiation-induced mucosal atrophy, oedema and vascular damage produced by ionising radiation, increasing the number of crypts per circumference (239±12 vs 160±10; Phistamine decreased the frequency of micronuclei formation and also significantly attenuated 8-OHdG immunoreactivity, a marker of DNA oxidative damage. Furthermore, radiation induced flattening of the endometrial surface, depletion of deep glands and reduced mitosis, effects that were completely blocked by histamine treatment. The expression of a proliferation marker in uterine luminal and glandular cells was markedly stimulated in histamine treated and irradiated rats. The obtained evidences indicate that histamine is a potential candidate as a safe radio-protective agent that might increase the therapeutic index of radiotherapy for intra-abdominal and pelvic cancers. However, its efficacy needs to be carefully investigated in prospective clinical trials. PMID:23361244

  13. Double-balloon enteroscopy in detecting small intestinal bleeding

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHI Fa-chao; PAN De-shou; ZHOU Dian-yuan; XIAO Bing; JIANG Bo; WAN Tian-mo; GUO Yu; ZHOU Dan; WANG Li-hui; CHEN Jin-feng; XIE Lu

    2005-01-01

    @@ Digestive tract hemorrhage is a common disease of the digestive system, but about 0.4%-5% intestinal bleeding can not be detected with gastroscope or colonscope.1 Since the intestine is long, tortuous, far away from both ends of the digestive tract and unfixed in position, clinical diagnosis of the bleeding is relatively difficult. Yamamoto and Sugano2 reported the clinical application of double-balloon enteroscope at American DDW in 2003.

  14. Obscure Gastrointestinal Bleeding Due to a Small Intestinal Gastrointestinal Stromal Tumor in a Young Adult

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mami Yamamoto

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The source of most cases of gastrointestinal bleeding is the upper gastrointestinal tract. Since bleeding from the small intestine is very rare and difficult to diagnose, time is required to identify the source. Among small intestine bleeds, vascular abnormalities account for 70–80%, followed by small intestine tumors that account for 5–10%. The reported peak age of the onset of small intestinal tumors is about 50 years. Furthermore, rare small bowel tumors account for only 1–2% of all gastrointestinal tumors. We describe a 29-year-old man who presented with obscure anemia due to gastrointestinal bleeding and underwent laparotomy. Surgical findings revealed a well-circumscribed lesion measuring 45 × 40 mm in the jejunum that initially appeared similar to diverticulosis with an abscess. However, the postoperative pathological diagnosis was a gastrointestinal stromal tumor with extramural growth.

  15. Adult stem cells in the small intestine are intrinsically programmed with their location-specific function

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Middendorp, Sabine; Schneeberger, Kerstin; Wiegerinck, Caroline L; Mokry, Michal; Akkerman, Ronald D L; van Wijngaarden, Simone; Clevers, Hans; Nieuwenhuis, Edward E S

    Differentiation and specialization of epithelial cells in the small intestine are regulated in two ways. First, there is differentiation along the crypt-villus axis of the intestinal stem cells into absorptive enterocytes, Paneth, goblet, tuft, enteroendocrine, or M cells, which is mainly regulated

  16. Identification of stem cells in small intestine and colon by marker gene Lgr5

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Barker, Nick; Van Es, Johan H.; Kuipers, Jeroen; Kujala, Pekka; Van Den Born, Maaike; Cozijnsen, Miranda; Haegebarth, Andrea; Korving, Jeroen; Begthel, Harry; Peters, Peter J.; Clevers, Hans

    2007-01-01

    The intestinal epithelium is the most rapidly self-renewing tissue in adult mammals. It is currently believed that four to six crypt stem cells reside at the +4 position immediately above the Paneth cells in the small intestine; colon stem cells remain undefined. Lgr5 (leucine-rich-repeat-containing

  17. Robust cre-mediated recombination in small intestinal stem cells utilizing the olfm4 locus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schuijers, Jurian; van der Flier, Laurens G; van Es, Johan; Clevers, Hans

    2014-01-01

    The epithelium of the small intestine is the most rapidly self-renewing tissue in mammals. We previously demonstrated the existence of a long-lived pool of cycling stem cells defined by Lgr5 expression at the bottom of intestinal crypts. An Lgr5-eGFP-IRES-CreERT2 knockin allele has been instrumental

  18. [Cavernous haemangioma of the small bowel: an uncommon cause of intestinal obstruction].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calvo, A M; Erce, R; Montón, S; Martínez, A; Otero, A

    2003-01-01

    Cavernous haemangioma of the small bowel is a vascular, benign and infrequent tumour, similar in both sexes and more typical from the third decade onwards. Its most common clinical manifestation is a chronic anaemia secondary to intestinal bleeding, other causes are intestinal obstruction and perforation. Preoperational diagnosis is difficult and the treatment of choice is surgical resection.

  19. Comparison of radiography and ultrasonography for diagnosing small-intestinal mechanical obstruction in vomiting dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Ajay; Thompson, Margret S; Scrivani, Peter V; Dykes, Nathan L; Yeager, Amy E; Freer, Sean R; Erb, Hollis N

    2011-01-01

    A cross-sectional study was performed on acutely vomiting dogs to compare the accuracy of radiography and ultrasonography for the diagnosis of small-intestinal mechanical obstruction and to describe several radiographic and ultrasonographic signs to identify their contribution to the final diagnosis. The sample population consisted of 82 adult dogs and small-intestinal obstruction by foreign body was confirmed in 27/82 (33%) dogs by surgery or necropsy. Radiography produced a definitive result (obstructed or not obstructed) in 58/82 (70%) of dogs; ultrasonography produced a definitive result in 80/82 (97%) of dogs. On radiographs, a diagnosis of obstruction was based on detection of segmental small-intestinal dilatation, plication, or detection of a foreign body. Approximately 30% (8/27) of obstructed dogs did not have radiographic signs of segmental small-intestinal dilatation, of which 50% (4/8) were due to linear foreign bodies. The ultrasonographic diagnosis of small-intestinal obstruction was based on detection of an obstructive lesion, sonographic signs of plication or segmental, small-intestinal dilatation. The ultrasonographic presence or absence of moderate-to-severe intestinal diameter enlargement (due to lumen dilatation) of the jejunum (>1.5 cm) was a useful discriminatory finding and, when present, should prompt a thorough search for a cause of small-intestinal obstruction. In conclusion, both abdominal radiography and abdominal ultrasonography are accurate for diagnosing small-intestinal obstruction in vomiting dogs and either may be used depending on availability and examiner choice. Abdominal ultrasonography had greater accuracy, fewer equivocal results and provided greater diagnostic confidence compared with radiography. © 2010 Veterinary Radiology & Ultrasound.

  20. Effects of faba bean and faba bean hulls on expression of selected genes in the small intestine of piglets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jansman, A.J.M.; Baal, van J.; Meulen, van der J.; Smits, M.A.

    2012-01-01

    In a small intestinal segment perfusion (SISP) study in pigs, effects were studied of intestinal perfusion of ground faba beans (Vicia faba), faba bean hulls, or saline on intestinal net fluid absorption in intestinal segments either challenged or not with an enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC).

  1. Sexually dimorphic characteristics of the small intestine and colon of prepubescent C57BL/6 mice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steegenga, Wilma T; Mischke, Mona; Lute, Carolien; Boekschoten, Mark V; Pruis, Maurien Gm; Lendvai, Agnes; Verkade, Henkjan J; Boekhorst, Jos; Timmerman, Harro M; Plösch, Torsten; Müller, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Background: There is increasing appreciation for sexually dimorphic effects, but the molecular mechanisms underlying these effects are only partially understood. In the present study, we explored transcriptomics and epigenetic differences in the small intestine and colon of prepubescent male and

  2. Sexually dimorphic characteristics of the small intestine and colon of prepubescent C57BL/6 mice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steegenga, W.T.; Mischke, M.; Lute, C.; Boekschoten, M.V.; Pruis, M.G.; Lendvai, A.; Verkade, H.J.; Boekhorst, J.; Timmerman, H.M.; Plosch, T.; Muller, M

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: There is increasing appreciation for sexually dimorphic effects, but the molecular mechanisms underlying these effects are only partially understood. In the present study, we explored transcriptomics and epigenetic differences in the small intestine and colon of prepubescent male and

  3. Sexually dimorphic characteristics of the small intestine and colon of prepubescent C57BL/6 mice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steegenga, W.T.; Mischke, M.; Lute, C.; Boekschoten, M.V.; Pruis, M.G.M.; Lendvai, A.; Verkade, H.J.; Boekhorst, J.; Timmerman, H.M.; Plösch, T.; Müller, M.R.

    2014-01-01

    Background There is increasing appreciation for sexually dimorphic effects, but the molecular mechanisms underlying these effects are only partially understood. In the present study, we explored transcriptomics and epigenetic differences in the small intestine and colon of prepubescent male and

  4. Epidemiology of small intestinal atresia in Europe: a register-based study.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Best, Kate E

    2012-09-01

    The epidemiology of congenital small intestinal atresia (SIA) has not been well studied. This study describes the presence of additional anomalies, pregnancy outcomes, total prevalence and association with maternal age in SIA cases in Europe.

  5. A mechanistic model of small intestinal starch digestion and glucose uptake in the cow

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Mills, J.A.N; France, J; Ellis, J.L; Crompton, L.A; Bannink, A; Hanigan, M.D; Dijkstra, Jan

    2017-01-01

    The high contribution of postruminal starch digestion (up to 50%) to total-tract starch digestion on energy-dense, starch-rich diets demands that limitations to small intestinal starch digestion be identified...

  6. GLP-1 and GIP are colocalized in a subset of endocrine cells in the small intestine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Kristine; Christensen, Louise Lundby; Holst, Jens Juul

    2003-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The incretin hormones GIP and GLP-1 are thought to be produced in separate endocrine cells located in the proximal and distal ends of the mammalian small intestine, respectively. METHODS AND RESULTS: Using double immunohistochemistry and in situ hybridization, we found that GLP-1...... was colocalized with either GIP or PYY in endocrine cells of the porcine, rat, and human small intestines, whereas GIP and PYY were rarely colocalized. Thus, of all the cells staining positively for either GLP-1, GIP, or both, 55-75% were GLP-1 and GIP double-stained in the mid-small intestine. Concentrations...... of extractable GIP and PYY were highest in the midjejunum [154 (95-167) and 141 (67-158) pmol/g, median and range, respectively], whereas GLP-1 concentrations were highest in the ileum [92 (80-207) pmol/l], but GLP-1, GIP, and PYY immunoreactive cells were found throughout the porcine small intestine...

  7. rates of gastric emptying and small intestinal motility in pregnant rats

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2016-09-30

    pregnant rats) fed essentially carbohydrate diet in early and late gestation periods respectively. Gastric emptying and small intestinal motility rates were determined in early and late gestation periods using standard laboratory ...

  8. Diagnostic accuracy of small intestine ultrasonography using an oral contrast agent in Crohn's disease: Comparative study from the UK

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chatu, S., E-mail: schatu@hotmail.com [Department of Gastroenterology, St George' s Hospital NHS Trust, London (United Kingdom); Pilcher, J. [Department of Radiology, St George' s Hospital NHS Trust, London (United Kingdom); Saxena, S.K. [Department of Primary Care and Public Health Imperial College, London (United Kingdom); Fry, D.H. [P.N. Lee Statistics and Computing Ltd, Sutton (United Kingdom); Pollok, R.C.G. [Department of Gastroenterology, St George' s Hospital NHS Trust, London (United Kingdom)

    2012-06-15

    Aim: To evaluate the usefulness of small intestine contrast-enhanced ultrasonography (SICUS) using an oral contrast agent in routine clinical practice by assessing the level of agreement with the established techniques, small bowel follow-through (SBFT) and computed tomography (CT), and diagnostic accuracy compared with the final diagnosis in the detection of small bowel Crohn's disease (CD) and luminal complications in a regional centre. Materials and methods: All symptomatic known or suspected cases of CD who underwent SICUS were retrospectively reviewed. The level of agreement between SICUS and SBFT, CT, histological findings, and C-reactive protein (CRP) level was assessed using kappa ({kappa}) coefficient. Sensitivity was demonstrated using the final diagnosis as the reference standard defined by the outcome of clinical assessment, follow-up, and results of investigations other than SICUS. Results: One hundred and forty-three patients underwent SICUS of these 79 (55%) were female. Eighty-six (60%) were known to have CD and 57 (40%) had symptoms suggestive of intestinal disease with no previous diagnosis. Forty-six (55%) of the known CD patients had had at least one previous surgical resection. The sensitivity of SICUS in detecting active small bowel CD in known CD and undiagnosed cases was 93%. The kappa coefficient was 0.88 and 0.91 with SBFT and CT, respectively. SICUS detected nine patients who had one or more small bowel strictures and six patients with a fistula all detected by SBFT or CT. Conclusion: SICUS is not only comparable to SBFT and CT but avoids radiation exposure and should be more widely adopted in the UK as a primary diagnostic procedure and to monitor disease complications in patients with CD.

  9. Artificial sphincters as surgical treatment for experimental massive resection of small intestine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stacchini, A; DiDio, L J; Primo, M L; Borelli, V; Andretto, R

    1982-06-01

    A modification of the technique of Schiller, DiDio, and Anderson was adopted by extending removal of the longitudinal layer of the muscular coat to the entire perimeter of a segment of the small intestine in dogs, resulting in the construction of artificial sphincters, to assist animals undergoing enterectomy. The creation of one or two artificial sphincters prolonged the survival of dogs undergoing massive resection of the small intestine (87.5 percent of the total length).

  10. Multiple small intestinal perforations in a patient with Hepatitis B Virus-associated Polyarteritis Nodosa

    OpenAIRE

    Isaia, Maria; Christou, Demetris; Kallis, Panayiotis; Georgiou, Panayiotis; Nikolaou, Nikolaos; Hadjicostas, Panayiotis

    2017-01-01

    Abstract We present the case of a 38-year-old patient with a history of Hepatitis B Virus-associated Polyarteritis Nodosa, who presented with acute abdomen and septic shock. The patient initially had three perforations of the small intestine that were treated with segmental enterectomy and anastomosis at two sites. During his postoperative course he continued to develop new perforations and necrotic lesions along the whole length of the small intestine, that mandated repetitive laparotomies a...

  11. Dietary protein absorption of the small intestine in human neonates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schaart, Maaike W.; de Bruijn, Adrianus C. J. M.; Tibboel, Dick; Renes, Ingrid B.; van Goudoever, Johannes B.

    2007-01-01

    The intestine plays a key role in the absorption of dietary proteins, which determines growth of human neonates. Bowel resection in the neonatal period brings loss of absorptive and protective surface and may consequently lead to malabsorption of dietary nutrients. However, there are no data on net

  12. Myc deletion rescues Apc deficiency in the small intestine

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sansom, O.J.; Meniel, V.S.; Muncan, V.; Phesse, T.J.; Wilkins, J.A.; Reed, K.R.; Vass, J.K.; Athineos, D.; Clevers, J.C.; Clarke, A.R.

    2007-01-01

    The APC gene encodes the adenomatous polyposis coli tumour suppressor protein, germline mutation of which characterizes familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP), an autosomal intestinal cancer syndrome. Inactivation of APC is also recognized as the key early event in the development of sporadic

  13. Responses of mRNA expression of PepT1 in small intestine to ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2009-05-04

    May 4, 2009 ... To study the effect of circulation small peptides concentration on mRNA expression in small intestine, graded amount of soybean small peptides (SSP) were infused into lactating goats through duodenal fistulas. Peptide-bound amino acid (PBAA) concentration in arterial plasma and the mRNA expression.

  14. Responses of mRNA expression of PepT1 in small intestine to ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    To study the effect of circulation small peptides concentration on mRNA expression in small intestine, graded amount of soybean small peptides (SSP) were infused into lactating goats through duodenal fistulas. Peptide-bound amino acid (PBAA) concentration in arterial plasma and the mRNA expression of PepT1 was ...

  15. RHOA GTPase Controls YAP-Mediated EREG Signaling in Small Intestinal Stem Cell Maintenance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming Liu

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Summary: RHOA, a founding member of the Rho GTPase family, is critical for actomyosin dynamics, polarity, and morphogenesis in response to developmental cues, mechanical stress, and inflammation. In murine small intestinal epithelium, inducible RHOA deletion causes a loss of epithelial polarity, with disrupted villi and crypt organization. In the intestinal crypts, RHOA deficiency results in reduced cell proliferation, increased apoptosis, and a loss of intestinal stem cells (ISCs that mimic effects of radiation damage. Mechanistically, RHOA loss reduces YAP signaling of the Hippo pathway and affects YAP effector epiregulin (EREG expression in the crypts. Expression of an active YAP (S112A mutant rescues ISC marker expression, ISC regeneration, and ISC-associated Wnt signaling, but not defective epithelial polarity, in RhoA knockout mice, implicating YAP in RHOA-regulated ISC function. EREG treatment or active β-catenin Catnblox(ex3 mutant expression rescues the RhoA KO ISC phenotypes. Thus, RHOA controls YAP-EREG signaling to regulate intestinal homeostasis and ISC regeneration. : In this article, Zheng and colleagues show that inducible RHOA deletion in mice causes defects in intestine epithelial polarity and deficiencies in intestinal stem cell proliferation, survival, and regeneration. They further demonstrate by genetic rescues that RHOA controls a YAP-EREG axis to mediate canonical Wnt signaling, intestinal stem cell function, and intestinal homeostasis. Keywords: mouse model, intestinal stem cell, regeneration, Rho GTPase, RhoA, Hippo signaling, YAP, Wnt signaling

  16. Morphometrics of the avian small intestine compared with that of nonflying mammals: a phylogenetic approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavin, Shana R; Karasov, William H; Ives, Anthony R; Middleton, Kevin M; Garland, Theodore

    2008-01-01

    Flying animals may experience a selective constraint on gut volume because the energetic cost of flight increases and maneuverability decreases with greater digesta load. The small intestine is the primary site of absorption of most nutrients (e.g., carbohydrates, proteins, fat) in both birds and mammals. Therefore, we used a phylogenetically informed approach to compare small intestine morphometric measurements of birds with those of nonflying mammals and to test for effects of diet within each clade. We also compared the fit of nonphylogenetic and phylogenetic models to test for phylogenetic signal after accounting for effects of body mass, clade, and/or diet. We provide a new MATLAB program (Regressionv2.m) that facilitates a flexible model-fitting approach in comparative studies. As compared with nonflying mammals, birds had 51% less nominal small intestine surface area (area of a smooth bore tube) and 32% less volume. For animals body mass, birds also had significantly shorter small intestines (20%-33% shorter, depending on body mass). Diet was also a significant factor explaining variation in small intestine nominal surface area of both birds and nonflying mammals, small intestine mass of mammals, and small intestine volume of both birds and nonflying mammals. On the basis of the phylogenetic trees used in our analyses, small intestine length and nominal surface area exhibited statistically significant phylogenetic signal in birds but not in mammals. Thus, for birds, related species tended to be similar in small intestine length and nominal surface area, even after accounting for relations with body mass and diet. A reduced small intestine in birds may decrease the capacity for breakdown and active absorption of nutrients. Birds do not seem to compensate for reduced digestive and absorptive capacity via a longer gut retention time of food, but we found some evidence that birds have an increased mucosal surface area via a greater villus area, although not

  17. Endoglin negatively regulates transforming growth factor beta1-induced profibrotic responses in intestinal fibroblasts.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Burke, J P

    2012-02-01

    BACKGROUND: Fibroblasts isolated from strictures in Crohn\\'s disease (CD) exhibit reduced responsiveness to stimulation with transforming growth factor (TGF) beta1. TGF-beta1, acting through the smad pathway, is critical to fibroblast-mediated intestinal fibrosis. The membrane glycoprotein, endoglin, is a negative regulator of TGF-beta1. METHODS: Intestinal fibroblasts were cultured from seromuscular biopsies of patients undergoing intestinal resection for CD strictures or from control patients. Endoglin expression was assessed using confocal microscopy, flow cytometry and western blot. The effect of small interfering (si) RNA-mediated knockdown and plasmid-mediated overexpression of endoglin on fibroblast responsiveness to TGF-beta1 was assessed by examining smad phosphorylation, smad binding element (SBE) promoter activity, connective tissue growth factor (CTGF) expression and ability to contract collagen. RESULTS: Crohn\\'s stricture fibroblasts expressed increased constitutive cell-surface and whole-cell endoglin relative to control cells. Endoglin co-localized with filamentous actin. Fibroblasts treated with siRNA directed against endoglin exhibited enhanced TGF-beta1-mediated smad-3 phosphorylation, and collagen contraction. Cells transfected with an endoglin plasmid did not respond to TGF-beta1 by exhibiting SBE promoter activity or producing CTGF. CONCLUSION: Fibroblasts from strictures in CD express increased constitutive endoglin. Endoglin is a negative regulator of TGF-beta1 signalling in the intestinal fibroblast, modulating smad-3 phosphorylation, SBE promoter activity, CTGF production and collagen contraction.

  18. A mechanistic model of small intestinal starch digestion and glucose uptake in the cow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mills, J A N; France, J; Ellis, J L; Crompton, L A; Bannink, A; Hanigan, M D; Dijkstra, J

    2017-06-01

    The high contribution of postruminal starch digestion (up to 50%) to total-tract starch digestion on energy-dense, starch-rich diets demands that limitations to small intestinal starch digestion be identified. A mechanistic model of the small intestine was described and evaluated with regard to its ability to simulate observations from abomasal carbohydrate infusions in the dairy cow. The 7 state variables represent starch, oligosaccharide, glucose, and pancreatic amylase in the intestinal lumen, oligosaccharide and glucose in the unstirred water layer at the intestinal wall, and intracellular glucose of the enterocyte. Enzymatic hydrolysis of starch was modeled as a 2-stage process involving the activity of pancreatic amylase in the lumen and of oligosaccharidase at the brush border of the enterocyte confined within the unstirred water layer. The Na(+)-dependent glucose transport into the enterocyte was represented along with a facilitative glucose transporter 2 transport system on the basolateral membrane. The small intestine is subdivided into 3 main sections, representing the duodenum, jejunum, and ileum for parameterization. Further subsections are defined between which continual digesta flow is represented. The model predicted nonstructural carbohydrate disappearance in the small intestine for cattle unadapted to duodenal infusion with a coefficient of determination of 0.92 and a root mean square prediction error of 25.4%. Simulation of glucose disappearance for mature Holstein heifers adapted to various levels of duodenal glucose infusion yielded a coefficient of determination of 0.81 and a root mean square prediction error of 38.6%. Analysis of model behavior identified limitations to the efficiency of small intestinal starch digestion with high levels of duodenal starch flow. Limitations to individual processes, particularly starch digestion in the proximal section of the intestine, can create asynchrony between starch hydrolysis and glucose uptake

  19. Human tissue-engineered small intestine forms from postnatal progenitor cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levin, Daniel E; Barthel, Erik R; Speer, Allison L; Sala, Frédéric G; Hou, Xiaogang; Torashima, Yasuhiro; Grikscheit, Tracy C

    2013-01-01

    Tissue-engineered small intestine (TESI) represents a potential cure for short bowel syndrome (SBS). We previously reported full-thickness intestine formation using an organoid units-on-scaffold approach in rodent and swine models. Transplanted intestinal xenografts have been documented to survive from human fetal tissue but not from postnatal tissue. We now present the first report of human TESI from postnatal tissue. Organoid units (OU) were prepared from human small bowel resection specimens, loaded onto biodegradable scaffolds and implanted into NOD/SCID gamma chain-deficient mice. After 4 weeks, TESI was harvested and immunostained for β2-microglobulin to identify human tissue, villin for enterocytes, lysozyme for Paneth cells, chromogranin-A for enteroendocrine cells, mucin-2 for goblet cells, smooth muscle actin and desmin to demonstrate muscularis, and S-100 for nerves. All TESI was of human origin. Immunofluorescence staining of human TESI reveals the presence of all four differentiated cell types of mature human small intestine, in addition to the muscularis and the supporting intestinal subepithelial myofibroblasts. Nerve tissue is also present. Our technique demonstrates survival, growth, and differentiation of postnatally derived human small intestinal OU into full thickness TESI in murine hosts. This regenerative medicine strategy may eventually assist in the treatment of SBS. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. A Multicellular Approach Forms a Significant Amount of Tissue-Engineered Small Intestine in the Mouse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sala, Frédéric G.; Matthews, Jamil A.; Speer, Allison L.; Torashima, Yasuhiro; Barthel, Erik R.

    2011-01-01

    Tissue-engineered small intestine (TESI) has successfully been used to rescue Lewis rats after massive small bowel resection. In this study, we transitioned the technique to a mouse model, allowing investigation of the processes involved during TESI formation through the transgenic tools available in this species. This is a necessary step toward applying the technique to human therapy. Multicellular organoid units were derived from small intestines of transgenic mice and transplanted within the abdomen on biodegradable polymers. Immunofluorescence staining was used to characterize the cellular processes during TESI formation. We demonstrate the preservation of Lgr5- and DcamKl1-positive cells, two putative intestinal stem cell populations, in proximity to their niche mesenchymal cells, the intestinal subepithelial myofibroblasts (ISEMFs), at the time of implantation. Maintenance of the relationship between ISEMF and crypt epithelium is observed during the growth of TESI. The engineered small intestine has an epithelium containing a differentiated epithelium next to an innervated muscularis. Lineage tracing demonstrates that all the essential components, including epithelium, muscularis, nerves, and some of the blood vessels, are of donor origin. This multicellular approach provides the necessary cell population to regenerate large amounts of intestinal tissue that could be used to treat short bowel syndrome. PMID:21395443

  1. Perforated small intestine in a patient with T-cell lymphoma; a rare cause of peritonitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petrişor Banu

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The nontraumatic perforations of the small intestine are pathological entities with particular aspects in respect to diagnosis and treatment. These peculiarities derive from the nonspecific clinical expression of the peritonitis syndrome, and from the multitude of causes that might be the primary sources of the perforation: foreign bodies, inflammatory diseases, tumors, infectious diseases, etc. Accordingly, in most cases intestinal perforation is discovered only by laparotomy and the definitive diagnosis is available only after histopathologic examination. Small bowel malignancies are rare; among them, lymphomas rank third in frequency, being mostly B-cell non Hodgkin lymphomas. Only 10% of non-Hodgkin lymphomas are with T-cell. We report the case of a 57 years’ old woman with intestinal T-cell lymphoma, whose first clinical symptomatology was related to a complication represented by perforation of the small intestine. Laparotomy performed in emergency identified an ulcerative lesion with perforation in the jejunum, which required segmental enterectomy with anastomosis. The nonspecific clinical manifestations of intestinal lymphomas make from diagnosis a difficult procedure. Due to the fact that surgery does not have a definite place in the treatment of the small intestinal lymphomas (for cases complicated with perforation, and beyond the morbidity associated with the surgery performed in emergency conditions, prognosis of these patients is finally given by the possibility to control the systemic disease through adjuvant therapy.

  2. Small intestinal submucosa: utilization as a wound dressing in full-thickness rodent wounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prevel, C D; Eppley, B L; Summerlin, D J; Sidner, R; Jackson, J R; McCarty, M; Badylak, S F

    1995-10-01

    Wound dressings are used as a temporary wound covering to promote wound healing, control wound exudate, and decrease wound contamination as well as evaporative water loss. A new material, porcine small intestinal submucosa, has been used successfully as an arterial and venous graft in both canine and primate animal models with graft patency and infection rates equal to autologous vein. Based on these studies, small intestinal submucosa was used as a biological wound dressing in 20 x 20 mm full-thickness wounds made on Sprague-Dawley rats. In the controls (group I, n = 12), an acrylic frame (20 x 20 mm) was sutured to the wound edges, followed by placement of a thin polyurethane film. In the small intestinal submucosa-treated animals (group II, n = 12), the wound was covered with small intestinal submucosa and then with the acrylic frame and polyurethane film. The wounds were examined both visually and histologically at postapplication days 3, 7, 14, 28, 42 and 56. In addition, the wound contraction rate of 6 animals in both groups were recorded at postapplication day 0 and then at 1 week, 1 month, 2 months, and 3 months. Histological analysis (hematoxylin-eosin and periodic acid-Schiff stains) of the small intestinal submucosa-treated wounds revealed no host-versus-graft rejection and a rate of epithelialization equal to that of the control group. The wound contraction rate was statistically significant (higher; p < .05) in the control group compared to the small intestinal submucosa-treated group. Porcine small intestinal submucosa merits further study as both a biological wound dressing and as a substrate for cultured cells.

  3. Gut microbial colonization orchestrates TLR2 expression, signaling and epithelial proliferation in the small intestinal mucosa.

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    Nives Hörmann

    Full Text Available The gut microbiota is an environmental factor that determines renewal of the intestinal epithelium and remodeling of the intestinal mucosa. At present, it is not resolved if components of the gut microbiota can augment innate immune sensing in the intestinal epithelium via the up-regulation of Toll-like receptors (TLRs. Here, we report that colonization of germ-free (GF Swiss Webster mice with a complex gut microbiota augments expression of TLR2. The microbiota-dependent up-regulation of components of the TLR2 signaling complex could be reversed by a 7 day broad-spectrum antibiotic treatment. TLR2 downstream signaling via the mitogen-activated protein kinase (ERK1/2 and protein-kinase B (AKT induced by bacterial TLR2 agonists resulted in increased proliferation of the small intestinal epithelial cell line MODE-K. Mice that were colonized from birth with a normal gut microbiota (conventionally-raised; CONV-R showed signs of increased small intestinal renewal and apoptosis compared with GF controls as indicated by elevated mRNA levels of the proliferation markers Ki67 and Cyclin D1, elevated transcripts of the apoptosis marker Caspase-3 and increased numbers of TUNEL-positive cells per intestinal villus structure. In accordance, TLR2-deficient mice showed reduced proliferation and reduced apoptosis. Our findings suggest that a tuned proliferation response of epithelial cells following microbial colonization could aid to protect the host from its microbial colonizers and increase intestinal surface area.

  4. Effects of Clostridium perfringens iota toxin in the small intestine of mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redondo, Leandro M; Redondo, Enzo A; Dailoff, Gabriela C; Leiva, Carlos L; Díaz-Carrasco, Juan M; Bruzzone, Octavio A; Cangelosi, Adriana; Geoghegan, Patricia; Fernandez-Miyakawa, Mariano E

    2017-12-01

    Iota toxin is a binary toxin solely produced by Clostridium perfringens type E strains, and is structurally related to CDT from C. difficile and CST from C. spiroforme. As type E causes hemorrhagic enteritis in cattle, it is usually assumed that associated diseases are mediated by iota toxin, although evidence in this regard has not been provided. In the present report, iota toxin intestinal effects were evaluated in vivo using a mouse model. Histological damage was observed in ileal loops treated with purified iota toxin after 4 h of incubation. Luminal iota toxin induced fluid accumulation in the small intestine in a dose dependent manner, as determined by the enteropooling and the intestinal loop assays. None of these changes were observed in the large intestine. These results suggest that C. perfringens iota toxin alters intestinal permeability, predominantly by inducing necrosis and degenerative changes in the mucosal epithelium of the small intestine, as well as changes in intestinal motility. The obtained results suggest a central role for iota toxin in the pathogenesis of C. perfringens type E hemorrhagic enteritis, and contribute to remark the importance of clostridial binary toxins in digestive diseases. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  5. Tumor Necrosis Factor Induces Developmental Stage-Dependent Structural Changes in the Immature Small Intestine

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    Kathryn S. Brown

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Premature infants are commonly subject to intestinal inflammation. Since the human small intestine does not reach maturity until term gestation, premature infants have a unique challenge, as either acute or chronic inflammation may alter the normal development of the intestinal tract. Tumor necrosis factor (TNF has been shown to acutely alter goblet cell numbers and villus length in adult mice. In this study we tested the effects of TNF on villus architecture and epithelial cells at different stages of development of the immature small intestine. Methods. To examine the effects of TNF-induced inflammation, we injected acute, brief, or chronic exposures of TNF in neonatal and juvenile mice. Results. TNF induced significant villus blunting through a TNF receptor-1 (TNFR1 mediated mechanism, leading to loss of villus area. This response to TNFR1 signaling was altered during intestinal development, despite constant TNFR1 protein expression. Acute TNF-mediated signaling also significantly decreased Paneth cells. Conclusions. Taken together, the morphologic changes caused by TNF provide insight as to the effects of inflammation on the developing intestinal tract. Additionally, they suggest a mechanism which, coupled with an immature immune system, may help to explain the unique susceptibility of the immature intestine to inflammatory diseases such as NEC.

  6. Intestinal growth adaptation and glucagon-like peptide 2 in rats with ileal--jejunal transposition or small bowel resection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thulesen, J; Hartmann, B; Kissow, Hannelouise

    2001-01-01

    GLP-2 levels in the intestinal segments were unchanged. In resected rats with reduced intestinal capacity, adaptive small bowel growth was more pronounced following proximal resection than distal small bowel resection. Circulating GLP-2 levels increased threefold in proximally resected animals......, and twofold in the distally resected group. Tissue GLP-2 levels were unchanged in resected rats. The data indicate that transposition of a distal part of the small intestine, and thereby exposure of L cells to a more nutrient-rich chyme, leads to intestinal growth. The adaptive intestinal growth is associated...

  7. Dunnione ameliorates cisplatin-induced small intestinal damage by modulating NAD{sup +} metabolism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pandit, Arpana; Kim, Hyung-Jin; Oh, Gi-Su; Shen, AiHua; Lee, Su-Bin; Khadka, Dipendra; Lee, SeungHoon [Center for Metabolic Function Regulation & Department of Microbiology, Wonkwang University, Iksan, Jeonbuk 570-749 (Korea, Republic of); Shim, Hyeok; Yang, Sei-Hoon; Cho, Eun-Young [Department of Internal Medicine, School of Medicine, Wonkwang University, Iksan, Jeonbuk 570-749 (Korea, Republic of); Kwon, Kang-Beom [Department of Oriental Medical Physiology, School of Oriental Medicine, Wonkwang University, Iksan, Jeonbuk 570-749 (Korea, Republic of); Kwak, Tae Hwan [PAEAN Biotechnology, 160 Techno-2 Street, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 305-500 (Korea, Republic of); Choe, Seong-Kyu; Park, Raekil [Center for Metabolic Function Regulation & Department of Microbiology, Wonkwang University, Iksan, Jeonbuk 570-749 (Korea, Republic of); So, Hong-Seob, E-mail: jeanso@wku.ac.kr [Center for Metabolic Function Regulation & Department of Microbiology, Wonkwang University, Iksan, Jeonbuk 570-749 (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-11-27

    Although cisplatin is a widely used anticancer drug for the treatment of a variety of tumors, its use is critically limited because of adverse effects such as ototoxicity, nephrotoxicity, neuropathy, and gastrointestinal damage. Cisplatin treatment increases oxidative stress biomarkers in the small intestine, which may induce apoptosis of epithelial cells and thereby elicit damage to the small intestine. Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD{sup +}) is a cofactor for various enzymes associated with cellular homeostasis. In the present study, we demonstrated that the hyper-activation of poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase-1 (PARP-1) is closely associated with the depletion of NAD{sup +} in the small intestine after cisplatin treatment, which results in downregulation of sirtuin1 (SIRT1) activity. Furthermore, a decrease in SIRT1 activity was found to play an important role in cisplatin-mediated small intestinal damage through nuclear factor (NF)-κB p65 activation, facilitated by its acetylation increase. However, use of dunnione as a strong substrate for the NADH:quinone oxidoreductase 1 (NQO1) enzyme led to an increase in intracellular NAD{sup +} levels and prevented the cisplatin-induced small intestinal damage correlating with the modulation of PARP-1, SIRT1, and NF-κB. These results suggest that direct modulation of cellular NAD{sup +} levels by pharmacological NQO1 substrates could be a promising therapeutic approach for protecting against cisplatin-induced small intestinal damage. - Highlights: • NAD{sup +} acts as a cofactor for numerous enzymes including Sirtuins and PARP. • Up-regulation of SIRT1 could attenuate the cisplatin-induced intestinal damage. • Modulation of the cellular NAD{sup +} could be a promising therapeutic approach.

  8. Distribution of immunoglobulin G antibody secretory cells in small intestine of Bactrian camels (Camelus bactrianus)

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Wang-Dong; WANG, Wen-hui; Jia, Shuai

    2015-01-01

    Background To explore the morphological evidence of immunoglobulin G (IgG) participating in intestinal mucosal immunity, 8 healthy adult Bactrian camels used. First, IgG was successfully isolated from their serum and rabbit antibody against Bactrian camels IgG was prepared. The IgG antibody secretory cells (ASCs) in small intestine were particularly observed through immumohistochemical staining, then after were analyzed by statistical methods. Results The results showed that the IgG ASCs were...

  9. COMPENSATORY OPPORTUNITIES OF THE SMALL INTESTINE AFTER EXTENSIVE DISTAL AND PROXIMAL RESECTION (EXPERIMENTAL STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. A. Yartsev

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Resection of certain parts of the small intestine is common in clinical practice for various diseases and traumatic injuries. The significant decrease in bowel functioning leads to the development of a specific “short bowel syndrome” (SBS. There is an opinion that the remaining parts of the intestine after resection perform a compensatory function as a result of the development of morphological changes in the intestinal wall. Histological examination of the intestinal wall with evolved compensatory changes is of undoubted interest from the scientific and clinical point of view.Material and Methods. To create the experimental model of SBS, 107 laboratory Wistar male rats were used, weighing 500–600 g, which underwent resection with removal of 1/2 or 2/3 of the small intestine length in proximal or distal parts. The observation period for the animals was 1, 2, 4 and 6 months. Upon expiration of indicated dates, samples of the small intestine and liver were taken from rats for autopsy to be used for histological examination. At the indicated terms, the animals had signs of SBS (diarrhea, weight loss, as well as morphological changes in the intestinal mucosa.Results and Conclusion. According to the results of the study, we concluded that the loss of 1/2 the length of the small intestine is overcome without consequences, and the loss of 2/3 of its length, especially of its proximal part, is accompanied by a longer period of adaptation and more significant morphological alteration of the mucosa, which has to perform not only digestion, but also absorption. 

  10. [Establishment of nude mice liver metastatic model of human primary malignant melanoma of the small intestine].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuo, Shuai; Zhang, Ning; Liu, Qiu-Zhen

    2008-07-01

    To provide ideal animal models for exploring pathogenesis and experimental therapy of primary malignant melanoma of the small intestine. The histologically intact primary and liver metastatic fragments derived from surgical specimens of one patient with metastatic malignant melanoma of the small intestine were orthotopically implanted in the small intestinal mucous layer of nude mice. The take rate, invasion and liver metastasis were observed. Morphology (light microscopy, electron microscopy), immunophenotype analysis, flow cytometry and karyotype analysis were applied for the original human tumors and the transplanted tumors. The primary and liver metastatic fragments of malignant melanoma of the small intestine were successfully implanted in nude mice. After continuous passages in nude mice,an orthotopic model of human primary malignant melanoma of the small intestine(from the primary focus)in nude mice (termed HSIM-0501) and a liver metastatic model of human primary malignant melanoma of the small intestine (from the liver metastatic focus) in nude mice (termed HSIM-0502) were established. Histological examination of transplanted tumors revealed high-grade melanoma. S-100 protein and HMB45 were positive. Massive melanin granules and melanin complex were seen in cytoplasm of tumor cells.Chromosomal modal number was between 55 and 59. DNA index (DI) was 1.49-1.61, representing heteroploid. HSIM-0501 and HSIM-0502 were maintained for 25 and 27 passages in nude mice respectively. Three hundred and seventeen nude mice were used for transplantation. Both the take rate after transplantation and resuscitation rate of liquid nitrogen cryopreservation were 100%. HSIM-0501 exhibited 46.2% liver metastasis and 36.7% lymph node metastases. In HSIM-0502, both liver and lymph node metastases were 100%.The transplanted tumors autonomically and invasively grew in the small intestines of nude mice and hematogenous metastasis, lymph node metastasis and celiac planting metastasis

  11. Antigen presentation by small intestinal epithelial cells uniquely enhances IFN-γ secretion from CD4{sup +} intestinal intraepithelial lymphocytes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hatano, Ryo; Yamada, Kiyoshi; Iwamoto, Taku; Maeda, Nana; Emoto, Tetsuro; Shimizu, Makoto; Totsuka, Mamoru, E-mail: atotuka@mail.ecc.u-tokyo.ac.jp

    2013-06-14

    Highlights: •Small intestinal epithelial cells (sIECs). •sIECs are able to induce antigen specific proliferation of CD4{sup +} IELs. •sIECs induce markedly enhanced IFN-γ secretion by CD4{sup +} IELs. •Induction of enhanced IFN-γ secretion by sIECs is uniquely observed in CD4{sup +} IELs. -- Abstract: Small intestinal epithelial cells (sIECs) express major histocompatibility complex class II molecules even in a normal condition, and are known to function as antigen presenting cells (APCs) at least in vitro. These findings raised the possibility that sIECs play an important role in inducing immune responses against luminal antigens, especially those of intestinal intraepithelial lymphocytes (IELs) and lamina propria lymphocytes (LPLs). We herein showed that antigenic stimulation with sIECs induced markedly greater secretion of interferon-gamma (IFN-γ) by CD4{sup +} IELs, but not interleukin (IL)-4, IL-10 and IL-17 although the proliferative response was prominently lower than that with T cell-depleted splenic APCs. In contrast, no enhanced IFN-γ secretion by CD4{sup +} LPLs and primed splenic CD4{sup +} T cells was observed when stimulated with sIECs. Taken together, these results suggest that sIECs uniquely activate CD4{sup +} IELs and induce remarkable IFN-γ secretion upon antigenic stimulation in vivo.

  12. Cat eye syndrome associated with aganglionosis of the small and large intestine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, J; Sierra, I A; D'Croz, E

    1989-01-01

    A newborn male infant is presented with the characteristic phenotype of the cat eye syndrome and a small supernumerary chromosome shorter than a 22. He also had complete absence of parasympathetic ganglion cells throughout the small and large intestine. Images PMID:2585462

  13. Digestion of so-called resistant starch sources in the human small intestine

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vonk, RJ; Hagedoorn, RE; de Graaff, R; Elzinga, H; Tabak, S; Yang, YX; Stellaard, F

    Background: Resistant starch sources, which are only partially digested in the small intestine, can be used to increase colonic availability of short-chain fatty acids. Objective: To study the characteristics of the fermentation of resistant starch, the digestion of resistant starch in the small

  14. GPR18 Controls Reconstitution of Mouse Small Intestine Intraepithelial Lymphocytes following Bone Marrow Transplantation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amy M Becker

    Full Text Available Specific G protein coupled receptors (GPRs regulate the proper positioning, function, and development of immune lineage subsets. Here, we demonstrate that GPR18 regulates the reconstitution of intraepithelial lymphocytes (IELs of the small intestine following bone marrow transplantation. Through analysis of transcriptional microarray data, we find that GPR18 is highly expressed in IELs, lymphoid progenitors, and mature follicular B cells. To establish the physiological role of this largely uncharacterized GPR, we generated Gpr18-/- mice. Despite high levels of GPR18 expression in specific hematopoietic progenitors, Gpr18-/- mice have no defects in lymphopoiesis or myelopoiesis. Moreover, antibody responses following immunization with hapten-protein conjugates or infection with West Nile virus are normal in Gpr18-/- mice. Steady-state numbers of IELs are also normal in Gpr18-/- mice. However, competitive bone marrow reconstitution experiments demonstrate that GPR18 is cell-intrinsically required for the optimal restoration of small intestine TCRγδ+ and TCRαβ+ CD8αα+ IELs. In contrast, GPR18 is dispensable for the reconstitution of large intestine IELs. Moreover, Gpr18-/- bone marrow reconstitutes small intestine IELs similarly to controls in athymic recipients. Gpr18-/- chimeras show no changes in susceptibility to intestinal insults such as Citrobacter rodentium infections or graft versus host disease. These data reveal highly specific requirements for GPR18 in the development and reconstitution of thymus-derived intestinal IEL subsets in the steady-state and after bone marrow transplantation.

  15. GPR18 Controls Reconstitution of Mouse Small Intestine Intraepithelial Lymphocytes following Bone Marrow Transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, Amy M; Callahan, Derrick J; Richner, Justin M; Choi, Jaebok; DiPersio, John F; Diamond, Michael S; Bhattacharya, Deepta

    2015-01-01

    Specific G protein coupled receptors (GPRs) regulate the proper positioning, function, and development of immune lineage subsets. Here, we demonstrate that GPR18 regulates the reconstitution of intraepithelial lymphocytes (IELs) of the small intestine following bone marrow transplantation. Through analysis of transcriptional microarray data, we find that GPR18 is highly expressed in IELs, lymphoid progenitors, and mature follicular B cells. To establish the physiological role of this largely uncharacterized GPR, we generated Gpr18-/- mice. Despite high levels of GPR18 expression in specific hematopoietic progenitors, Gpr18-/- mice have no defects in lymphopoiesis or myelopoiesis. Moreover, antibody responses following immunization with hapten-protein conjugates or infection with West Nile virus are normal in Gpr18-/- mice. Steady-state numbers of IELs are also normal in Gpr18-/- mice. However, competitive bone marrow reconstitution experiments demonstrate that GPR18 is cell-intrinsically required for the optimal restoration of small intestine TCRγδ+ and TCRαβ+ CD8αα+ IELs. In contrast, GPR18 is dispensable for the reconstitution of large intestine IELs. Moreover, Gpr18-/- bone marrow reconstitutes small intestine IELs similarly to controls in athymic recipients. Gpr18-/- chimeras show no changes in susceptibility to intestinal insults such as Citrobacter rodentium infections or graft versus host disease. These data reveal highly specific requirements for GPR18 in the development and reconstitution of thymus-derived intestinal IEL subsets in the steady-state and after bone marrow transplantation.

  16. The small intestinal mucosa and its stem cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rossano Ambu

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available In the first part of this review a brief summary of the embryology and histology of the gastrointestinal tract is provided. In the second part intestinal stem cells (ISCs are discussed. Several signaling pathways play a crucial role in the crypt base in the regulation of ISC proliferation and self-renewal; Wnt, Notch, BMP, Ephrin, JAK/STAT1, PTEN, AKT, PI3K and many more. Numerous investigators are involved in studying the location, number, and behavior of ISCs within the base of the intestinal crypts. Several markers are espressed by ISCs. Among these, Leucine-rich-repeat-containing G-protein-coupled receptor-5 (Lgr5, Sox9, Prominin-1, DCAMKL-1, EphB2, p-PTEN, p-AKT, Fgfr3, m-TER, and CD44. Stem cell therapy has shown promise for the treatment of some diseases characterized by tissue damage with ischemic and inflammatory lesions like inflammatory bowel disease (IBD and necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC.Proceedings of the 2nd International Course on Perinatal Pathology (part of the 11th International Workshop on Neonatology · October 26th-31st, 2015 · Cagliari (Italy · October 31st, 2015 · Stem cells: present and future Guest Editors: Gavino Faa, Vassilios Fanos, Antonio Giordano

  17. Small Intestine Early Innate Immunity Response during Intestinal Colonization by Escherichia coli Depends on Its Extra-Intestinal Virulence Status.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jérôme Tourret

    Full Text Available Uropathogenic Escherichia coli (UPEC strains live as commensals in the digestive tract of the host, but they can also initiate urinary tract infections. The aim of this work was to determine how a host detects the presence of a new UPEC strain in the digestive tract. Mice were orally challenged with UPEC strains 536 and CFT073, non-pathogenic strain K12 MG1655, and ΔPAI-536, an isogenic mutant of strain 536 lacking all 7 pathogenicity islands whose virulence is drastically attenuated. Intestinal colonization was measured, and cytokine expression was determined in various organs recovered from mice after oral challenge. UPEC strain 536 efficiently colonized the mouse digestive tract, and prior Enterobacteriaceae colonization was found to impact strain 536 colonization efficiency. An innate immune response, detected as the production of TNFα, IL-6 and IL-10 cytokines, was activated in the ileum 48 hours after oral challenge with strain 536, and returned to baseline within 8 days, without a drop in fecal pathogen load. Although inflammation was detected in the ileum, histology was normal at the time of cytokine peak. Comparison of cytokine secretion 48h after oral gavage with E. coli strain 536, CFT073, MG1655 or ΔPAI-536 showed that inflammation was more pronounced with UPECs than with non-pathogenic or attenuated strains. Pathogenicity islands also seemed to be involved in host detection, as IL-6 intestinal secretion was increased after administration of E. coli strain 536, but not after administration of ΔPAI-536. In conclusion, UPEC colonization of the mouse digestive tract activates acute phase inflammatory cytokine secretion but does not trigger any pathological changes, illustrating the opportunistic nature of UPECs. This digestive tract colonization model will be useful for studying the factors controlling the switch from commensalism to pathogenicity.

  18. Small Intestine Early Innate Immunity Response during Intestinal Colonization by Escherichia coli Depends on Its Extra-Intestinal Virulence Status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tourret, Jérôme; Willing, Benjamin P; Croxen, Matthew A; Dufour, Nicolas; Dion, Sara; Wachtel, Sarah; Denamur, Erick; Finlay, B Brett

    2016-01-01

    Uropathogenic Escherichia coli (UPEC) strains live as commensals in the digestive tract of the host, but they can also initiate urinary tract infections. The aim of this work was to determine how a host detects the presence of a new UPEC strain in the digestive tract. Mice were orally challenged with UPEC strains 536 and CFT073, non-pathogenic strain K12 MG1655, and ΔPAI-536, an isogenic mutant of strain 536 lacking all 7 pathogenicity islands whose virulence is drastically attenuated. Intestinal colonization was measured, and cytokine expression was determined in various organs recovered from mice after oral challenge. UPEC strain 536 efficiently colonized the mouse digestive tract, and prior Enterobacteriaceae colonization was found to impact strain 536 colonization efficiency. An innate immune response, detected as the production of TNFα, IL-6 and IL-10 cytokines, was activated in the ileum 48 hours after oral challenge with strain 536, and returned to baseline within 8 days, without a drop in fecal pathogen load. Although inflammation was detected in the ileum, histology was normal at the time of cytokine peak. Comparison of cytokine secretion 48h after oral gavage with E. coli strain 536, CFT073, MG1655 or ΔPAI-536 showed that inflammation was more pronounced with UPECs than with non-pathogenic or attenuated strains. Pathogenicity islands also seemed to be involved in host detection, as IL-6 intestinal secretion was increased after administration of E. coli strain 536, but not after administration of ΔPAI-536. In conclusion, UPEC colonization of the mouse digestive tract activates acute phase inflammatory cytokine secretion but does not trigger any pathological changes, illustrating the opportunistic nature of UPECs. This digestive tract colonization model will be useful for studying the factors controlling the switch from commensalism to pathogenicity.

  19. Preventative Effects of Sodium Alginate on Indomethacin-induced Small-intestinal Injury in Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horibe, Sayo; Tanahashi, Toshihito; Kawauchi, Shoji; Mizuno, Shigeto; Rikitake, Yoshiyuki

    2016-01-01

    Recent advances in diagnostic technologies have revealed that nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) can cause serious mucosal injury in the upper and lower gastrointestinal tract (including the small intestine). A drug to treat NSAID-induced small-intestinal injury (SII) is lacking. Sodium alginate is a soluble dietary fiber extracted from brown seaweed and its solution has been used as a hemostatic agent to treat gastrointestinal bleeding due to gastric ulcers. Whether sodium alginate has therapeutic effects on NSAID-induced SII and its mechanism of action are not known. Here, we investigated if administration of two forms (high-molecular-weight (HMW) and low-molecular-weight (LMW)) of sodium alginate could ameliorate indomethacin-induced SII. Pretreatment with HMW sodium alginate or LMW sodium alginate before indomethacin administration improved ulceration and the resultant intestinal shortening was associated with reduced histological severity of mucosal injury and ameliorated mRNA expression of inflammation-related molecules in the small intestine. We found that mRNAs of secretory Muc2 and membrane-associated Muc1, Muc3 and Muc4 were expressed in the small intestine. mRNA expression of Muc1-4 was increased in indomethacin-induced SII, and these increases were prevented by sodium alginate. Thus, administration of sodium alginate could be a therapeutic approach to prevent indomethacin-induced SII.

  20. Protective effect of geranylgeranylacetone against loxoprofen sodium-induced small intestinal lesions in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwai, Tomohisa; Ichikawa, Takafumi; Kida, Mitsuhiro; Goso, Yukinobu; Kurihara, Makoto; Koizumi, Wasaburo; Ishihara, Kazuhiko

    2011-02-10

    Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs induce small intestinal ulcers but the preventive measures against it remain unknown. So we evaluated the effect of geranylgeranylacetone (GGA), a mucosal protectant, on both the mucus content and loxoprofen sodium-induced lesions in the rat small intestine. Normal male Wistar rats were given GGA (200 or 400mg/kg p.o.) and euthanized 3h later for measurement of mucin content and immunoreactivity. Other Wistar rats were given loxoprofen sodium (30mg/kg s.c.) and euthanized 24h later. GGA (30-400mg/kg p.o.) was administered twice: 30min before and 6h after loxoprofen sodium. The total mucin content of the small intestinal mucosa increased, especially the ratio of sialomucin, which increased approximately 20% more than the control level after a single dose of GGA. Loxoprofen sodium provoked linear ulcers along the mesenteric margin of the distal jejunum, accompanied by an increase in enterobacterial translocation. Treatment of the animals with GGA dose-dependently prevented the development of intestinal lesions, and bacterial translocation following loxoprofen sodium was also significantly decreased. GGA protects the small intestine against loxoprofen sodium-induced lesions, probably by inhibiting enterobacterial invasion of the mucosa as a result of the increase in the mucosal barrier. 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Feed efficiency phenotypes in lambs involve changes in ruminal, colonic, and small-intestine-located microbiota.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perea, K; Perz, K; Olivo, S K; Williams, A; Lachman, M; Ishaq, S L; Thomson, J; Yeoman, C J

    2017-06-01

    Several studies have revealed differences in rumen-located microbes between greatly efficient and inefficient animals; however, how the microbiota vary in the hind gastrointestinal tract (GIT) has only been sparsely explored and how they vary in the small intestine remains to be determined. We therefore sampled the microbiota of the duodenum, jejunum, ileum, colon, and colorectally-obtained feces, in addition to the rumen of 12 lambs that, in a residual feed intake trial, were found to be at either extreme of feed efficiency phenotypes. The 16S rRNA gene (V3-V4 region) profiles of all samples were analyzed and revealed unique microbiota in all GIT locations except the jejunum and ileum (ANOSIM > 0.2, feed efficiency extends beyond the rumen, transcending these regions, and involves increases in both rumen- and colon-located fibrolytic taxa, increases in bifidobacterial species in the small intestine, and reductions in small intestine and distal GIT-located Proteobacteria.

  2. Distinct management issues with Crohn's disease of the small intestine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fong, Steven C M; Irving, Peter M

    2015-03-01

    Small bowel Crohn's disease can present with clinical challenges that are specific to its location. In this review, we address some of the areas that present particular problems in small bowel Crohn's disease. A key issue specific to small bowel Crohn's disease relates to its diagnosis given that access to the small bowel is limited. Radiological advances, particularly in small bowel ultrasonography and MRI, as well as the introduction of capsule endoscopy and balloon enteroscopy are helping to address this. In addition, our ability to differentiate small bowel Crohn's disease from other causes of inflammation, such as tuberculosis, is improving on the basis of better understanding of the features that differentiate these conditions. It is also becoming apparent that jejunal Crohn's disease represents a distinct disease phenotype with potentially worse clinical outcomes. Finally, because it is a rare complication, our understanding of small bowel cancer associated with Crohn's disease remains limited. Recent publications are, however, starting to improve our knowledge of this condition. Although small bowel Crohn's disease presents specific management issues not seen in patients with Crohn's disease elsewhere in the gastrointestinal tract, our knowledge of how to manage these is improving.

  3. Smoking, alcohol use, dietary factors and risk of small intestinal adenocarcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, A H; Yu, M C; Mack, T M

    1997-03-04

    To investigate the role of tobacco and alcohol use and dietary factors in the etiology of small intestinal adenocarcinoma, we analyzed data from a large population-based case-control study of multi-site cancers conducted in Los Angeles County between 1975 and 1984. The present analysis included interview information on 36 small intestinal adenocarcinoma patients and 998 population controls. After adjusting for age and ethnicity, men who smoked more than 100 cigarettes during their lifetimes were at a non-significantly 3-fold increased risk for small intestinal adenocarcinoma; this association was substantially weaker in women. In men and women combined, a significant 3-fold increased risk in heavy drinkers (80+ g ethanol/day) relative to more moderate drinkers and non-drinkers was observed. Although frequent (>6 times vs. less than 2 times of intake a week) intake of foods rich in heterocyclic aromatic amines (based on the combined intake of fried bacon and ham, barbecued and/or smoked meat and smoked fish) was associated with a significant 4.5-fold increased risk of small intestinal adenocarcinoma in men; this association was not present in women. Based on 2 questions that provided a crude assessment of sugar intake, risk of small intestinal adenocarcinoma in men and women appeared to be associated with adding sugar regularly in coffee or tea and daily intake of non-diet carbonated soft drinks. When we computed total sugar intake from tea, coffee and non-diet carbonated soft drinks, there was a consistent and significant trend of increasing sugar intake and risk of small intestinal adenocarcinomas. Compared with the lowest intake level a day (25 g) were associated with ORs of 2.5 and 3.8, respectively.

  4. The human small intestinal microbiota is driven by rapid uptake and conversion of simple carbohydrates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zoetendal, Erwin G; Raes, Jeroen; van den Bogert, Bartholomeus

    2012-01-01

    the microbiota at other parts of the GI tract, which is especially true for the small intestine because of its limited accessibility. Here we deduce an ecological model of the microbiota composition and function in the small intestine, using complementing culture-independent approaches. Phylogenetic microarray......The human gastrointestinal tract (GI tract) harbors a complex community of microbes. The microbiota composition varies between different locations in the GI tract, but most studies focus on the fecal microbiota, and that inhabiting the colonic mucosa. Consequently, little is known about...

  5. Effect of hypokinesia on invertase activity of the mucosa of the small intestine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdusattarov, A.

    1980-01-01

    The effect of prolonged hypokinesia on the enzyme activity of the middle portion of the small intestine was investigated. Eighty-four mongrel white male rats weighing 170-180 g were divided into two equal groups. The experimental group were maintained in single cages under 30 days of hypokinetic conditions and the control animals were maintained under ordinary laboratory conditions. It is concluded that rates of invertase formation and its inclusion in the composition if the cellular membrane, if judged by the enzyme activity studied in sections of the small intestine, are subject to phase changes in the course of prolonged hypokinesia.

  6. Increased zinc absorption but not secretion in the small intestine of metallothionein-null mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinskens, B; Philcox, J C; Coyle, P; Rofe, A M

    2000-01-01

    Metallothionein (MT) has been assigned a role in intestinal Zn absorption and secretion. The influence of MT was investigated in isolated segments of the small intestine from mice lacking the expression of MT I and II genes (MT-/-). To measure Zn absorption, washed 10- to 12-cm segments of the proximal and distal small intestine of MT-/- and control MT+/+ mice were filled with 65Zn as ZnSO4 (10 microg/mL), and the amount of 65Zn appearing in the external buffer was measured over 4 h. To measure Zn secretion, the same procedure was followed using everted gut segments. The 65Zn absorption from the small intestine was significantly greater in MT-/- mice, but only in the absence of albumin. In the proximal small intestine, the inclusion of 2% albumin in the external buffer significantly increased Zn absorption from 6.8% (no albumin) to 13.2% (with albumin) for MT-/-, and from 4.9% (no albumin) to 14.2% (with albumin) for MT+/+. In the distal segment, the respective values, with and without albumin respectively were 9.5% and 15.1% for MT-/- mice and 4.3% and 16.1% for MT+/+ mice. Regarding 65Zn secretion, there was no difference between MT+/+ and MT-/- in either segment. However, the rate of secretion was higher in the proximal small intestine for both genotypes. Although it can be demonstrated that MT limits Zn absorption under controlled conditions in vitro, the ability of albumin to overcome this effect emphasizes the importance of circulating ligands in Zn transport.

  7. Prevalence and pathological study of Paramphistomum infection in the small intestine of slaughtered ovine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tehrani, Aliasghar; Javanbakht, Javad; Khani, Farzaneh; Hassan, Mehdi Aghamohammad; Khadivar, Farshid; Dadashi, Fereshteh; Alimohammadi, Samad; Amani, Amir

    2015-03-01

    Paramphistomiasis, a trematode infectious disease in ruminants, has been neglected but has recently emerged as an important cause of productivity loss. The small intestine of slaughtered sheep was collected weekly from abattoirs (Kermanshah, Sanandaj, Tabriz and Urmia Slaughterhouses) to monitoring the seasonal occurrence of Paramphistomosis, 2,421 sheep carcasses (743 male (30.69 %) and 1,678 female (69.31 %)) were examined, out of which 0.041 % were positive for Paramphistomum infestation. Furthermore, upon evaluation Paramphistomum termatodes, Gastrothylax crumenifer and Cotylophoron detected as well. Overall, the small intestinal infestation by such parasite was 0.041 % which contained hyperemia, severe congestion and haemorrhage. The highest infection in the sheep infected with Paramphistomum spp. was found during the summer (July to August) (6.7, 2 %) and followed by the autumn seasons (November to October) (3.8, 2.3 %). Microscopic study of the small intestine revealed dilatation of intestinal glands, destruction of superficial glands, replacement of fibrin, diffuse infiltration of inflammatory cells and fibrinonecrotic enteritis. Other changes as congestion hemorrhage and nodules of Ostertagia were observed in total examination of small intestines. According to statistical analysis by SPSS software and Chi square test revealed that there is significant difference between pathologic changes, seasons and ecological situations of the region (p  0.05).According to the results of pathologic changes of sheep small intestines, preventive measurements in the area should be taken to decrease the damages, so applying a parasitic control program is recommended.

  8. Gene expression is altered in piglet small intestine by weaning and dietary glutamine supplementation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Junjun; Chen, Lixiang; Li, Peng; Li, Xilong; Zhou, Huaijun; Wang, Fenglai; Li, Defa; Yin, Yulong; Wu, Guoyao

    2008-06-01

    Dietary supplementation of glutamine prevents intestinal dysfunction and atrophy in weanling piglets, but the underlying mechanism(s) are largely unknown. This study was conducted to test the hypothesis that weaning or glutamine may modulate expression of genes that are crucial for intestinal metabolism and function. In Expt. 1, we obtained small intestine from 28-d-old pigs weaned at 21 d of age and from age-matched suckling piglets. In Expt. 2, piglets were weaned at 21 d of age and then had free access to diets supplemented with 1% L-glutamine (wt:wt) or isonitrogenous L-alanine (control). At d 28, we collected small intestine for biochemical and morphological measurements and microarray analysis of gene expression using the Operon Porcine Genome Oligo set. Early weaning resulted in increased (52-346%) expression of genes related to oxidative stress and immune activation but decreased (35-77%) expression of genes related to macronutrient metabolism and cell proliferation in the gut. Dietary glutamine supplementation increased intestinal expression (120-124%) of genes that are necessary for cell growth and removal of oxidants, while reducing (34-75%) expression of genes that promote oxidative stress and immune activation. Functionally, the glutamine treatment enhanced intestinal oxidative-defense capacity (indicated by a 29% increase in glutathione concentration), prevented jejunal atrophy, and promoted small intestine growth (+12%) and body weight gain (+19%) in weaned piglets. These findings reveal coordinate alterations of gene expression in response to weaning and aid in providing molecular mechanisms for the beneficial effect of dietary glutamine supplementation to improve nutrition status in young mammals.

  9. Development and function of secondary and tertiary lymphoid organs in the small intestine and the colon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuela Buettner

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The immune system of the gut has evolved a number of specific lymphoid structures that contribute to homeostasis in the face of microbial colonization and food-derived antigenic challenge. These lymphoid organs encompass Peyer’s patches (PP in the small intestine and their colonic counterparts that develop in a programmed fashion before birth. In addition, the gut harbors a network of lymphoid tissues that is commonly designated as solitary intestinal lymphoid tissues (SILT. In contrast to PP, SILT develop strictly after birth and consist of a dynamic continuum of structures ranging from small cryptopatches (CP to large, mature isolated lymphoid follicles (ILF. Although the development of PP and SILT follow similar principles, such as an early clustering of lymphoid tissue inducer (LTi cells and the requirement for lymphotoxin beta (LTβ receptor-mediated signaling, the formation of CP and their further maturation into ILF is associated with additional intrinsic and environmental signals. Moreover, recent data also indicate that specific differences exist in the regulation of ILF formation between the small intestine and the colon. Importantly, intestinal inflammation in both mice and humans is associated with a strong expansion of the lymphoid network in the gut. Recent experiments in mice suggest that these structures, although they resemble large, mature ILF in appearance, may represent de novo-induced tertiary lymphoid organs (TLO. While so far it is not clear whether intestinal TLO contribute to the exacerbation of inflammatory pathology, it has been shown that ILF provide the critical microenvironment necessary for the induction of an effective host response upon infection with enteric bacterial pathogens. Regarding the importance of ILF for intestinal immunity, interfering with the development and maturation of these lymphoid tissues may offer novel means for manipulating the immune response during intestinal infection or inflammation.

  10. Usefulness of MR imaging for diseases of the small intestine: comparison with CT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Ji Hoon; Ha, Hyun Kwon; Sohn, Min Jae; Shin, Byung Suck; Lee, Young Suk; Chung, Soo Yoon; Kim, Pyo Nyun; Lee, Moon Gyu; Auh, Yong Ho [Ulsan University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2000-03-01

    To evaluate the usefulness of MR imaging for diseases of the small intestine, emphasizing a comparison with CT. Thirty-four patients who underwent both CT and MR imaging using FLASH 2D and HASTE sequences were analyzed. All patients had various small bowel diseases with variable association of peritoneal lesions. We compared the detectabilities of CT and MR imaging using different MR pulse sequences. The capability for analyzing the characteristics of small intestinal disease was also compared. MR imaging was nearly equal to CT for detecting intraluminal or peritoneal masses, lesions in the bowel and mesentery, and small bowel obstruction, but was definitely inferior for detecting omental lesions. The most successful MR imaging sequence was HASTE for demonstrating bowel wall thickening, coronal FLASH 2D for mesenteric lesions, and axial FLASH 2D for omental lesions. MR imaging yielded greater information than CT in six of 12 inflammatory bowel diseases, while it was equal to CT in six of seven neoplasms and inferior in five of seven mesenteric ischemia. In determining the primary causes of 15 intestinal obstructions, MR imaging was correct in 11 (73%) and CT in nine (60%) patients. MR imaging can serve as an alternative diagnostic tool for patients with suspected inflammatory bowel disease, small intestinal neoplasm or obstruction.

  11. Expression and developmental regulation of Na+,K+ adenosine triphosphatase in the rat small intestine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zemelman, B V; Walker, W A; Chu, S H

    1992-09-01

    The Na+,K(+)-ATPase ion pump plays a critical role in fluid and electrolyte physiology of the small intestine. Here we show that, of the three known alpha isotypes (alpha 1, alpha 2, and alpha 3) of the sodium pump found in the rat, only alpha 1 is expressed in the small intestine. The expression of this isotype, considered at the level of mRNA, is under developmental control, with the adult intestine exhibiting approximately a threefold increase in alpha 1 message over the neonate. Cortisone treatment of the neonate results in near-adult levels of alpha 1 mRNA expression. An increase in the abundance of alpha 1 isotype parallels the changes in its mRNA expression. beta subunit mRNA is expressed coordinately with the alpha 1 subunit mRNA. A four- to five-fold rise in the Na+,K(+)-ATPase activity is also developmentally induced.

  12. Utility of contrast enema for detecting anastomotic strictures after total proctocolectomy and ileal pouch-anal anastomosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolinsky, David; Levine, Marc S; Rubesin, Stephen E; Laufer, Igor; Rombeau, John L

    2007-07-01

    The purpose of our study was to determine the utility of contrast enemas for detecting clinically relevant anastomotic strictures after total proctocolectomy and ileal pouch-anal anastomosis and to facilitate management by defining a critical anastomotic caliber at or below which obstruction is likely to develop after ileostomy closure. Our radiology database revealed 42 patients with contrast enemas after total proctocolectomy and ileal pouch-anal anastomosis who fulfilled our exclusion criteria. The initial postoperative contrast enemas were reviewed blindly to determine the diameter of the ileoanal anastomosis. The diagnosis of a stricture was made only if the patient had signs of intestinal obstruction after ileostomy closure with confirmation on follow-up contrast enema or sigmoidoscopy and clinical improvement after anastomotic dilatation. The data were then correlated to determine if there was a critical anastomotic caliber at or below which such strictures were likely to develop. Using this threshold value, the sensitivity and specificity of routine contrast enemas for detecting clinically relevant anastomotic strictures were then determined. Six (14%) of the 42 patients who underwent total proctocolectomy and ileal pouch-anal anastomosis had strictures at the ileoanal anastomosis on contrast enemas. The mean diameter of the anastomosis was 5.8 mm in the six patients with anastomotic strictures versus 15 mm in the 36 patients without strictures (p = 0.0002). If an anastomotic diameter of 8 mm is defined as the critical caliber at or below which clinically relevant strictures are present, the sensitivity of contrast enemas for detecting strictures at the ileoanal anastomosis was 100% (six of six patients) and the specificity was 92% (33 of 36 patients). Routine contrast enema after total proctocolectomy and ileal pouch-anal anastomosis is a sensitive test for detecting clinically relevant strictures at the ileoanal anastomosis when an anastomotic diameter of

  13. Diagnosis, treatment and prognosis of small bowel volvulus in adults: A monocentric summary of a rare small intestinal obstruction.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaohang Li

    Full Text Available Small bowel volvulus is a rare disease, which is also challenging to diagnose. The aims of this study were to characterize the clinical and radiological features associated with small bowel volvulus and treatment and to identify risk factors for associated small bowel necrosis.Patients with small bowel volvulus who underwent operations from January 2001 to December 2015 at the First Affiliated Hospital of China Medical University (Shenyang, China were reviewed. Clinical, surgical and postsurgical data were registered and analyzed.Thirty-one patients were included for analysis. Fifteen patients were female (48.4%, with an average age of 47.7 years (18-79 years. The clinical signs and symptoms were unspecific and resembled intestinal obstruction. Clinical examination revealed abdominal distension and/or diffuse tenderness with or without signs of peritonitis. The use of CT scans, X-rays or ultrasound did not differ significantly between patients. In 9 of 20 patients that received abdominal CT scans, "whirlpool sign" on the CT scan was present. Secondary small bowel volvulus was present in 58.1% of patients, and causes included bands (3, adhesion (7, congenital anomalies (7 and stromal tumor (1. Out of the 31 patients, 15 with gangrenous small bowel had to undergo intestinal resection. Intestinal gangrene was present with higher neutrophils count (p<0.0001 and the presence of bloody ascites (p = 0.004. Three patients died of septic shock (9.68%, and the recurrence rate was 3.23%.To complete an early and accurate diagnosis, a CT scan plus physical exam seems to be the best plan. After diagnosis, an urgent laparotomy must be performed to avoid intestinal necrosis and perforation. After surgery, more than 90% of the patients can expect to have a favorable prognosis.

  14. Depletion of enteric bacteria diminishes leukocyte infiltration following doxorubicin-induced small intestinal damage in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carr, Jacquelyn S; King, Stephanie; Dekaney, Christopher M

    2017-01-01

    While enteric bacteria have been shown to play a critical role in other forms of intestinal damage, their role in mediating the response to the chemotherapeutic drug Doxorubicin (Doxo) is unclear. In this study, we used a mouse model of intestinal bacterial depletion to evaluate the role enteric bacteria play in mediating Doxo-induced small intestinal damage and, more specifically, in mediating chemokine expression and leukocyte infiltration following Doxo treatment. An understanding of this pathway may allow for development of intervention strategies to reduce chemotherapy-induced small intestinal damage. Mice were treated with (Abx) or without (NoAbx) oral antibiotics in drinking water for four weeks and then with Doxo. Jejunal tissues were collected at various time points following Doxo treatment and stained and analyzed for apoptosis, crypt damage and restitution, and macrophage and neutrophil number. In addition, RNA expression of inflammatory markers (TNFα, IL1-β, IL-10) and cytokines (CCL2, CC7, KC) was assessed by qRT-PCR. In NoAbx mice Doxo-induced damage was associated with rapid induction of apoptosis in jejunal crypt epithelium and an increase weight loss and crypt loss. In addition, we observed an increase in immune-modulating chemokines CCL2, CCL7 and KC and infiltration of macrophages and neutrophils. In contrast, while still positive for induction of apoptosis following Doxo treatment, Abx mice showed neither the overall weight loss nor crypt loss seen in NoAbx mice nor the increased chemokine expression and leukocyte infiltration. Enteric bacteria play a critical role in Doxo-induced small intestinal damage and are associated with an increase in immune-modulating chemokines and cells. Manipulation of enteric bacteria or the damage pathway may allow for prevention or treatment of chemotherapy-induced small intestinal damage.

  15. Prolapse of the Small Intestine from the Uterine Perforation at Dilatation and Curettage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shigeki Matsubara

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Dilatation and curettage (D&C sometimes causes uterine perforation, which usually does not cause a serious problem. Here, we report uterine perforation caused by D&C, in which the small intestine prolapsed from the uterus, requiring intestinal resection. D&C was performed for missed abortion at 9 weeks. After dilating the cervix, forceps grasped tissue that, upon being pulled, resulted in the intestine being prolapsed into the vagina. Laparotomy revealed a perforation at the low anterior uterine wall, through which the ileum had prolapsed. The mesentery of the prolapsed ileum was completely detached and the ileum was necrotic, which was resected. The uterus and the intestine were reconstructed. Although intestinal prolapse is considered to be caused by “unsafe” D&C performed by inexperienced persons or even by nonphysicians in developing countries, this occurred in a tertiary center of a developed country. We must be aware that adverse events such as uterine perforation with intestinal prolapse can occur even during routine D&C.

  16. Immunological quantitation and localization of ACAT-1 and ACAT-2 in human liver and small intestine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, C C; Sakashita, N; Ornvold, K; Lee, O; Chang, E T; Dong, R; Lin, S; Lee, C Y; Strom, S C; Kashyap, R; Fung, J J; Farese, R V; Patoiseau, J F; Delhon, A; Chang, T Y

    2000-09-08

    By using specific anti-ACAT-1 antibodies in immunodepletion studies, we previously found that ACAT-1, a 50-kDa protein, plays a major catalytic role in the adult human liver, adrenal glands, macrophages, and kidneys but not in the intestine. Acyl-coenzyme A:cholesterol acyltransferase (ACAT) activity in the intestine may be largely derived from a different ACAT protein. To test this hypothesis, we produced specific polyclonal anti-ACAT-2 antibodies that quantitatively immunodepleted human ACAT-2, a 46-kDa protein expressed in Chinese hamster ovary cells. In hepatocyte-like HepG2 cells, ACAT-1 comprises 85-90% of the total ACAT activity, with the remainder attributed to ACAT-2. In adult intestines, most of the ACAT activity can be immunodepleted by anti-ACAT-2. ACAT-1 and ACAT-2 do not form hetero-oligomeric complexes. In differentiating intestinal enterocyte-like Caco-2 cells, ACAT-2 protein content increases by 5-10-fold in 6 days, whereas ACAT-1 protein content remains relatively constant. In the small intestine, ACAT-2 is concentrated at the apices of the villi, whereas ACAT-1 is uniformly distributed along the villus-crypt axis. In the human liver, ACAT-1 is present in both fetal and adult hepatocytes. In contrast, ACAT-2 is evident in fetal but not adult hepatocytes. Our results collectively suggest that in humans, ACAT-2 performs significant catalytic roles in the fetal liver and in intestinal enterocytes.

  17. Cinnamon polyphenols regulate multiple metabolic pathways involved in insulin signaling and intestinal lipoprotein metabolism of small intestinal enterocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Bolin; Dawson, Harry D; Schoene, Norberta W; Polansky, Marilyn M; Anderson, Richard A

    2012-01-01

    Increasing evidence suggests that dietary factors may affect the expression of multiple genes and signaling pathways, which regulate intestinal lipoprotein metabolism. The small intestine is actively involved in the regulation of dietary lipid absorption, intracellular transport, and metabolism and is closely linked to systemic lipid metabolism. Cinnamon polyphenols have been shown to improve glucose, insulin, and lipid metabolism and improve inflammation in cell culture, animal, and human studies. However, little is known of the effects of an aqueous cinnamon extract (CE) on the regulation of genes and signaling pathways related to intestinal metabolism. The aim of the study was to investigate the effects of a CE on the primary enterocytes of chow-fed rats. Freshly isolated intestinal enterocytes were used to investigate apolipoprotein-B48 secretion by immunoprecipitation; gene expressions by quantitative reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction and the protein and phosphorylation levels were evaluated by western blot and flow cytometric analyses. Ex vivo, the CE significantly decreased the amount of apolipoprotein-B48 secretion into the media, inhibited the mRNA expression of genes of the inflammatory cytokines, interleukin-1β, interleukin-6, and tumor necrosis factor-α, and induced the expression of the anti-inflammatory gene, Zfp36. CE also increased the mRNA expression of genes leading to increased insulin sensitivity, including Ir, Irs1, Irs2, Pi3k, and Akt1, and decreased Pten expression. CE also inhibited genes associated with increased cholesterol, triacylglycerols, and apolipoprotein-B48 levels, including Abcg5, Npc1l1, Cd36, Mttp, and Srebp1c, and facilitated Abca1 expression. CE also stimulated the phospho-p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase, c-Jun N-terminal kinase, and extracellular-signal-regulated kinase expressions determined by flow cytometry, with no changes in protein levels. These results demonstrate that the CE regulates genes

  18. Internal urethrotomy in patients with recurrent urethral stricture after buccal mucosa graft urethroplasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenbaum, Clemens M; Schmid, Marianne; Ludwig, Tim A; Kluth, Luis A; Reiss, Philip; Dahlem, Roland; Engel, Oliver; Chun, Felix K-H; Riechardt, Silke; Fisch, Margit; Ahyai, Sascha A

    2015-09-01

    To determine the success rate of direct vision internal urethrotomy (DVIU) in the treatment of short stricture recurrence after buccal mucosa graft urethroplasty (BMGU). Patients who underwent DVIU for the treatment of short, "veil-like" recurrent urethral strictures (<1 cm) after BMGU between October 2009 and 2013 were retrospectively identified within our urethroplasty database. Stricture recurrence was defined as maximum flow rate (Q max) <15 ml/s and a consecutively verified stricture in a combined retro- and antegrade voiding cystography or cystoscopy at a follow-up visit. The success rate of DVIU was assessed by Kaplan-Meier analysis. Univariable Cox regression analyses evaluated risk factors for stricture recurrence following DVIU. Forty-three patients underwent DVIU for short stricture recurrence after BMGU for bulbar (81.3 %), penile (14.0 %) and membranous (4.7 %) strictures. Relapse had occurred proximally to the buccal mucosa graft in 28 (65.1 %) and distally in 12 (27.9 %) patients, respectively. At a mean follow-up of 11.7 (±9.7) months, stricture recurrence was observed in 48.8 % of our patients. Stricture recurrence was significantly associated with weak urinary stream (9.3 ml/s vs. no recurrence 19.5 ml/s) and patient dissatisfaction (66.7 % vs. no recurrence 18.1 %; both p < 0.001). The overall success rate was 60.5 % 15 months after DVIU. The main limitations of this study are its retrospective design, the small sample size and the short follow-up. DVIU after BMGU showed a moderate success rate and therefore might be a viable treatment option in selected patients with very short strictures after BMGU. However, longer follow-up is warranted to prove long-term effectiveness.

  19. Serine protease immunohistochemistry and lectin histochemistry in the small intestine of weaned and unweaned pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brown, P J; Poulsen, Steen Seier; Wells, M

    1991-01-01

    The distribution of goblet cells containing serine protease and of those binding the lectin Ulex europaeus agglutinin-1 (UEA-1) in the pig small intestine is altered during the period after weaning. Goblet cells exhibiting binding of other lectins were not altered. These alterations and other cha...

  20. Glucose Transport into Everted Sacs of the Small Intestine of Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton, Kirk L.; Butt, A. Grant

    2013-01-01

    The Na[superscript +]-glucose cotransporter is a key transport protein that is responsible for absorbing Na[superscript +] and glucose from the luminal contents of the small intestine and reabsorption by the proximal straight tubule of the nephron. Robert K. Crane originally described the cellular model of absorption of Na[superscript +] and…

  1. Genomic and functional analysis of Romboutsia ilealis CRIBT reveals adaptation to the small intestine

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gerritsen, J.; Hornung, B.; Renckens, B.A.; Hijum, S.A.F.T. van; Santos, V.A. dos; Rijkers, G.T.; Schaap, P.J.; Vos, W.M. de; Smidt, H.

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The microbiota in the small intestine relies on their capacity to rapidly import and ferment available carbohydrates to survive in a complex and highly competitive ecosystem. Understanding how these communities function requires elucidating the role of its key players, the interactions

  2. Genome-wide analysis of PPARα activation in murine small intestine

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bunger, Meike; Vogel-van den Bosch, de Heleen; Meijde, van der J.; Kersten, Sander; Hooiveld, Guido; Muller, Michael

    2007-01-01

    The peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha (PPARα) is a fatty acid-activated transcription factor that governs a variety of biological processes. Little is known about the role of PPARα in the small intestine. Since this organ is frequently exposed to high levels of PPARα ligands via the

  3. Genome-wide analysis of PPAR Alpha activation in murine small intestine

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bünger, M.; Bosch, van den H.M.; Meijde, van der J.; Kersten, A.H.; Hooiveld, G.J.E.J.; Müller, M.R.

    2007-01-01

    The peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha (PPAR) is a fatty acid-activated transcription factor that governs a variety of biological processes. Little is known about the role of PPAR in the small intestine. Since this organ is frequently exposed to high levels of PPAR ligands via the

  4. Probing the role of PPAR alpha in the small intestine : a functional nutrigenomics approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bünger, M.

    2008-01-01

    Background The peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha (PPARα) is a ligand-activated transcription factor known for its control of metabolism in response to diet. Although functionally best characterized in liver, PPARα is also abundantly expressed in small intestine, the organ by which

  5. Creep feed intake during lactation enhances net absorption in the small intestine after weaning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuller, W.I.; Beers-Schreurs, van H.M.G.; Soede, N.M.; Langendijk, P.; Taverne, M.A.M.; Kemp, B.; Verheijden, J.H.M.

    2007-01-01

    The aim of the study was to measure the effect of creep feeding during lactation on net absorption in the small intestine at 4 days after weaning. Intermittent suckling was used to increase creep feed intake during lactation. Creep feed containing chromic oxide was provided. Based on the colour of

  6. Effect of dietary protein source on feed intake and small intestinal morphology in newly weaned piglets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vente-Spreeuwenberg, M.A.M.; Verdonk, J.M.A.J.; Bakker, G.C.M.; Beynen, A.C.; Verstegen, M.W.A.

    2004-01-01

    An experiment was designed to study the effect of dietary protein source on feed intake and on small intestinal morphology in newly weaned piglets. In total, 108 piglets were used, without access to creep feed during the suckling period. Piglets were weaned at 27 days of age. They were fed ad

  7. Sexually dimorphic characteristics of the small intestine and colon of prepubescent C57BL/6 mice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steegenga, Wilma; Mischke, Mona; Lute, Carolien; Muller, Michael; Plösch, T.

    2015-01-01

    There is increasing appreciation for sexually dimorphic effects, but the molecular mechanisms underlying these effects are only partially understood. In the present study, we explored transcriptomics and epigenetic differences in the small intestine and colon of prepubescent male and female mice. In

  8. Structural features of colloidal species in the human fasted upper small intestine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mullertz, Anette; Reppas, Christos; Psachoulias, Dimitrios

    2015-01-01

    Objectives This paper aims to study the features of colloidal species in the lumen of the upper small intestine of two healthy adults at fasted state by means of electron microscopy. Methods Samples were aspirated from a location near the ligament of Treitz 30 min (volunteer no. 1, Aspirate30min ...

  9. Semimacroscopic examinations of the surface pattern of small intestinal mucosa in Crohn's disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Steen Seier

    1975-01-01

    The mucosal surface pattern of surgical specimens from small intestine affected by Crohn's disease are studied using Alcian-green staining of whole mounts. The semimacroscopic appearance of the mucosa is described. Our findings include i.a. malformation and enlargement of villi-often to extreme...

  10. Crypt base columnar stem cells in small intestines of mice are radioresistant

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hua, G.; Thin, T.H.; Feldman, R.; Haimovitz-Friedman, A.; Clevers, H.; Fuks, Z.; Kolesnick, R.

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND & AIMS: Adult stem cells have been proposed to be quiescent and radiation resistant, repairing DNA double-strand breaks by nonhomologous end joining. However, the population of putative small intestinal stem cells (ISCs) at position +4 from the crypt base contradicts this model, in that

  11. Macrophage-like cells in the muscularis externa of mouse small intestine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mikkelsen, H B; Thuneberg, L; Rumessen, J J

    1985-01-01

    In muscularis externa of mouse small intestine, cells with ultrastructural features of macrophages were invariably observed in three layers: in the subserosal layer, between the circular and longitudinal muscle layers, and in association with the deep circular plexus. These macrophage-like cells...... muscle layers could be distinguished with respect to general appearance, pattern formation, and apparent dextran contents....

  12. The C-13/H-2-glucose test for determination of small intestinal lactase activity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vonk, RJ; Stellaard, F; Priebe, MG; Koetse, HA; Hagedoorn, RE; de Bruijn, S; Elzinga, H; Lenoir-Wijnkoop, [No Value; Antoine, JM

    Background To diagnose hypolactasia, determination of lactase enzyme activity in small intestinal biopsy material is considered to be the golden standard. Because of its strongly invasive character and the sampling problems, alternative methods have been looked for. Design We analysed the

  13. Tyrosine sulfation, a post-translational modification of microvillar enzymes in the small intestinal enterocyte

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Danielsen, E M

    1987-01-01

    Protein sulfation in small intestinal epithelial cells was studied by labelling of organ cultured mucosal explants with [35S]-sulfate. Six bands in SDS-PAGE became selectively labelled; four, of 250, 200, 166 and 130 kd, were membrane-bound and two, of 75 and 60 kd, were soluble. The sulfated mem...

  14. Hydrolyzed guar gum decreases postprandial blood glucose and glucose absorption in the rat small intestine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Toru; Yokawa, Takeo; Ishihara, Noriyuki; Okubo, Tsutomu; Chu, Djong-Chi; Nishigaki, Eri; Kawada, Yuka; Kato, Masako; Raj Juneja, Lekh

    2009-06-01

    We hypothesized that infusing partially hydrolyzed guar gum (PHGG) into the duodenum would reduce increases in postprandial plasma glucose by decreasing the rate of glucose diffusion from the small intestine luminal digesta of the rat. The postprandial plasma glucose and apparent glucose disappearance from the small intestine were measured after infusing artificial digesta containing 0 (control), 3.0, or 6.0 g/L PHGG into the duodenum via a cannula under anesthesia in experiments 1 and 2. The diffusion of glucose in the artificial digesta was estimated using dialysis tubing, filled with the same artificial digesta, soaked in a buffer in experiment 3. In experiment 1, the plasma glucose concentration was lower in the digesta containing 3.0 and 6.0 g/L PHGG than in the control digesta at 120 minutes (P glucose and insulin (experiment 1), apparent disappearance of glucose in the lumen of the small intestine (experiment 2), and net disappearance of glucose in the dialysis tube depended negatively on the viscosity of the artificial digesta (P postprandial blood glucose by lowering the rate of absorption from the small intestine in the rat by reducing the diffusion of glucose in the lumen.

  15. Changes in small intestinal homeostasis, morphology, and gene expression during rotavirus infection of infant mice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.A. Boshuizen; J.H. Reimerink; A.M. Korteland-van Male (Anita); V.J. van Ham; H.A. Büller (Hans); J. Dekker (Jan); A.W.C. Einerhand (Sandra); M.P.G. Koopmans D.V.M. (Marion)

    2003-01-01

    textabstractRotavirus is the most important cause of infantile gastroenteritis. Since in vivo mucosal responses to a rotavirus infection thus far have not been extensively studied, we related viral replication in the murine small intestine to alterations in mucosal structure,

  16. Small intestinal Crohn's disease with hepatic portal venous gas: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamadera, Masato; Kajiwara, Yoshiki; Shinto, Eiji; Hokari, Ryota; Shimazaki, Hideyuki; Yamamoto, Junji; Hase, Kazuo; Ueno, Hideki

    2016-12-01

    An 80-year-old man presented in another hospital with acute abdominal pain; computed tomography indicated hepatic portal venous gas (HPVG) and small intestinal thickening. He was then transferred to our hospital, where we diagnosed idiopathic inflammation and stenosis of the ileum. Because the patient's abdominal symptoms were mild and his general condition was good, we chose to administer conservative therapy. His condition improved and we discharged him from our hospital. However, he was hospitalized again 9 days later because his abdominal pain had recurred and was worse. We performed a laparoscopic partial resection of the ileum 3 weeks after the patients' initial presentation. Macroscopically, longitudinal ulcers were observed near the stenosis of the ileum; the segment of the small intestine that contained the ulcers was removed, and subsequent pathological findings indicated Crohn's disease of the small intestine. The post-operative course was favorable, and the patient was discharged on post-operative day 9. Such serendipitous diagnosis of small intestinal Crohn's disease in an elderly patient with hepatic portal venous gas is rare; to our knowledge, this is the first of such case in which laparoscopic surgery was performed.

  17. Prevalence of intestinal and haemoprotozoan parasites of small ruminants in Tamil Nadu, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velusamy, R; Rani, N; Ponnudurai, G; Anbarasi, P

    2015-10-01

    The aim of the present study is to assess the prevalence of intestinal and haemoprotozoan parasites of small ruminants (Sheep and Goats) in North Western part of Tamil Nadu, India. A total of 630 faecal samples (251-sheep, 379-goats) and 554 blood smears (242-sheep, 312-goats) were examined, for the presence of eggs of intestinal and haemoprotozoan parasites, respectively. The samples were received from the Veterinary college hospital and Veterinary dispensaries in North Western part of Tamil Nadu. Faecal samples were processed by sedimentation technique and examined under low power objective (×10), and blood smears were stained using Giemsa's technique and examined under oil immersion (×100). The analysis of data on the prevalence of intestinal and haemoprotozoan parasites of sheep and goats in North Western part of Tamil Nadu for the period from 2004 to 2013, showed an overall prevalence of intestinal parasites was found to be 67% and 35% in sheep and goats, respectively, whereas only 11% of sheep and 3% of goats had the haemoprotozoan parasitic infection. Highly, significant difference (pgoats. Intestinal parasites such as strongyles, Trichuris, Moniezia, amphistome, and coccidia were identified in which the highest prevalence was observed with coccidia, followed by strongyles, Monezia, Trichuris, and least with amphistome in both the sheep and goats. The haemoprotozoan parasites recorded were Theileria and Anaplasma species, of which, Anaplasma spp. being the highest and Theileria spp. the least prevalent in both the sheep and goats. The seasonal prevalence of intestinal parasites showed highest in rainy season, followed by moderate in winter and least with summer in both the sheep and goats, whereas the haemoprotozoan parasites recorded were the highest in summer followed by winter and least with rainy season. The present study suggests that North Western part of Tamil Nadu is highly endemic for intestinal parasites such as coccidia and strongyles and

  18. Effect of Small Intestine Strangulation Obstruction on Clinical and Histopathological Parameters An Experimental Study in Donkeys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heba Mohamed M. Kuraa

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available To study clinical and histopathological changes occur within the first 12 hours of strangulating obstruction of the small intestine in equine, twenty five adult donkeys were used in an experimental study. Strangulation obstruction of the small intestine was performed for 3, 6, 9 and 12 hours, respectively. Clinical examination was done before surgery and at 3 hours intervals postoperatively. After euthanasia, histopathological examination was made 10 cm, 1, 2 and 3 meters proximal to the strangulated part. Three hours postoperatively, the animals began to show signs of abdominal pain, they were looking around, stamping the hind feet, falling down suddenly. Nine hours postoperatively, animals showed signs of depression with intermittent nervous movements in the form of circle movement. After 12 hours, the animals were lying down; There were a significant reduction in the body temperature, respiratory rate, pulse rate, heart rate with significant increase in capillary refill time. Macroscopic changes of the strangulated part were congestion, edema, and dark red discoloration of the intestinal wall and mesentery. Distension of the intestine proximal to the strangulation extended more with increase the period of strangulation. Microscopic examination showed showed severe congestion, dark brown to blackish discoloration with fibrous shreds on the strangulated segment. Peticheal hemorrhages were observed in the intestinal wall and its mesentery for a distance up to 3 meters. The severity of signs varies according to the duration of obstruction which could give a remarkable justification of the prognosis of the patient and the availability of treatment.

  19. Progressive Depletion of Rough Endoplasmic Reticulum in Epithelial Cells of the Small Intestine in Monosodium Glutamate Mice Model of Obesity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazuhiko Nakadate

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Chronic obesity is a known risk factor for metabolic syndrome. However, little is known about pathological changes in the small intestine associated with chronic obesity. This study investigated cellular and subcellular level changes in the small intestine of obese mice. In this study, a mouse model of obesity was established by early postnatal administration of monosodium glutamate. Changes in body weight were monitored, and pathological changes in the small intestine were evaluated using hematoxylin-eosin and Nissl staining and light and electron microscopy. Consequently, obese mice were significantly heavier compared with controls from 9 weeks of age. Villi in the small intestine of obese mice were elongated and thinned. There was reduced hematoxylin staining in the epithelium of the small intestine of obese mice. Electron microscopy revealed a significant decrease in and shortening of rough endoplasmic reticulum in epithelial cells of the small intestine of obese mice compared with normal mice. The decrease in rough endoplasmic reticulum in the small intestine epithelial cells of obese mice indicates that obesity starting in childhood influences various functions of the small intestine, such as protein synthesis, and could impair both the defense mechanism against invasion of pathogenic microbes and nutritional absorption.

  20. Comparative Genomics Analysis of Streptococcus Isolates from the Human Small Intestine Reveals their Adaptation to a Highly Dynamic Ecosystem

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bogert, van den B.; Boekhorst, te J.; Herrmann, R.; Smid, E.J.; Zoetendal, E.G.; Kleerebezem, M.

    2013-01-01

    The human small-intestinal microbiota is characterised by relatively large and dynamic Streptococcus populations. In this study, genome sequences of small-intestinal streptococci from S. mitis, S. bovis, and S. salivarius species-groups were determined and compared with those from 58 Streptococcus

  1. Effect of osmolality on net fluid absorption in non-infected and ETEC-infected piglet small intestinal segments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kiers, J.L.; Hoogendoorn, A.; Nout, M.J.R.; Rombouts, F.M.; Nabuurs, M.J.A.; Meulen, van der J.

    2006-01-01

    In the small intestinal segment perfusion model the effect of osmolality on net fluid absorption in enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC)-infected and non-infected small intestinal segments of piglets was investigated. In ETEC-infected segments net fluid absorption was reduced. Lowering the

  2. Role of the Small Intestine in Developmental Programming: Impact of Maternal Nutrition on the Dam and Offspring123

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Allison M; Caton, Joel S

    2016-01-01

    Small-intestinal growth and function are critical for optimal animal growth and health and play a major role in nutrient digestion and absorption, energy and nutrient expenditure, and immunological competence. During fetal and perinatal development, the small intestine is affected by the maternal environment and nutrient intake. In ruminants, altered small-intestinal mass, villi morphology, hypertrophy, hyperplasia, vascularity, and gene expression have been observed as a result of poor gestational nutrition or intrauterine growth restriction. Although many of these data come from fetal stages, data have also demonstrated that nutrition during mid- and late gestation affects lamb small-intestinal growth, vascularity, digestive enzyme activity, and gene expression at 20 and 180 d of age as well. The small intestine is known to be a highly plastic tissue, changing with nutrient intake and physiological state even in adulthood, and the maternal small intestine adapts to pregnancy and advancing gestation. In ruminants, the growth, vascularity, and gene expression of the maternal small intestine also adapt to the nutritional plane and specific nutrient intake such as high selenium during pregnancy. These changes likely alter both pre- and postnatal nutrient delivery to offspring. More research is necessary to better understand the role of the offspring and maternal small intestines in whole-animal responses to developmental programming, but programming of this plastic tissue seems to play a dynamic role in gestational nutrition impacts on the whole animal. PMID:27180380

  3. Intestinal Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... connects your stomach to your large intestine. Intestinal cancer is rare, but eating a high-fat diet ... increase your risk. Possible signs of small intestine cancer include Abdominal pain Weight loss for no reason ...

  4. Developmental changes in glycolipids and synchronized expression of nutrient transporters in the mouse small intestine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoneshige, Azusa; Sasaki, Ayano; Miyazaki, Masao; Kojima, Naoya; Suzuki, Akemi; Matsuda, Junko

    2010-03-01

    Small intestinal epithelial cells are rich in characteristic glycosphingolipids (GSLs) that are composed of phytosphingosine and alpha-hydroxy fatty acid, but the physiological roles of GSLs in the small intestine remain unclear. Here, we report the developmental changes in GSL composition in the mouse small intestine (duodenum through ileum) and their relationship with the temporal mRNA expression of nutrient transporters. Up to 2 weeks after birth, the major GSLs were hexosylceramide (HexCer), GM3, GM1 and GD1a. After 2 weeks of age, HexCer and asialo GM1 became the major GSLs. The ceramide moiety of both HexCer and asialo GM1 was composed mainly of phytosphingosine and alpha-hydroxy fatty acid, from birth through adulthood. Immunohistochemically, GM1 localized in the cytoplasm, and asialo GM1 localized exclusively in the apical microvillous membrane of small intestinal epithelial cells. The shift from sialylated GSLs to asialo GM1 was achieved by the combinational and tissue-specific transcriptional down-regulation of GM3 synthase and GM1-beta-galactosidase at around 2 weeks of age. The temporal mRNA expression of various nutrient transporters also showed significant changes at around 2 weeks of age, including the up-regulation of the sodium/glucose cotransporter and the oligopeptide transporter, as well as the down-regulation of amino acid transporters. These synchronized changes in the mRNA expression of nutrient transporters with GSL composition during suckling-to-weanling transition suggest the contributions of GSLs to morphologic and functional development in the membrane of mouse small intestinal epithelial cells. 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. PREVALENCE OF SMALL INTESTINE BACTERIAL OVERGROWTH IN PATIENTS WITH GASTROINTESTINAL SYMPTOMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina Piedade MARTINS

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT BACKGROUND Small intestine bacterial overgrowth is a heterogeneous syndrome characterized by an increase in the number and/or the presence of atypical microbiota in the small intestine. The symptoms of small intestine bacterial overgrowth are unspecific, encompassing abdominal pain/distension, diarrhea and flatulence. Due to the increased cost and complexity for carrying out the jejunal aspirate, the gold standard for diagnosis of the syndrome, routinely the hydrogen (H 2 breath test has been used, utilizing glucose or lactulose as substrate, which is able to determine, in the exhaled air, the H 2 concentration produced from the intestinal bacterial metabolism. However, due to a number of individuals presenting a methanogenic microbiota, which does not produce H 2 , the testing on devices capable of detecting, concurrently, the concentration of exhaled H 2 and methane (CH 4 is justified. OBJECTIVE This study aimed to determine the prevalence of small intestine bacterial overgrowth in patients with digestive symptoms, through a comparative analysis of breath tests of H 2 or H 2 and CH 4 associated, using glucose as substrate . METHODS A total of 200 patients of both sexes without age limitation were evaluated, being directed to a Breath Test Laboratory for performing the H 2 test (100 patients and of exhaled H 2 and CH 4 (100 patients due to gastrointestinal complaints, most of them patients with gastrointestinal functional disorders. RESULTS The results indicated a significant prevalence of small intestine bacterial overgrowth in the H 2 test and in the test of exhaled H 2 and CH 4 (56% and 64% respectively in patients with gastrointestinal symptoms, and higher prevalence in females. It found further that methane gas was alone responsible for positivity in 18% of patients. CONCLUSION The data found in this study is consistent with the findings of the current literature and underscores the need for using devices capable of capturing the

  6. Compensatory hypertrophy of the residual small intestine after partial enterectomy. A neurohumoral feedback?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laplace, J P

    1980-01-01

    Experiments were designed to test, using 76 pigs, 1) whether a humoral factor inducing compensatory hypertrophy is released after partial enterectomy or not, and 2) whether visceral sensitivity conducted to the central nervous system by the route of the vagus plays a role in the compensatory hypertrophy or not. Vascular parabiosis was established between pigs paired for an identical blood group and histocompatibility. A continuous blood cross circulation was maintained for 410 h either between two normal pigs or between a normal and a jejunectomized (30 per cent) pig. Their growth and food intake, and the tissue weight of their small intestine were checked. Both the jejunectomized pigs and their unoperated partners showed a significant hypertrophy of the small intestine, whether residual or intact, as compared to intact pigs cross circulated between them. The hypertrophy observed in the unoperated partners of the jejunectomized pigs was not the result of any hyperphagia. There was thus a true humoral mediation of the compensatory hypertrophy. Vagal deafferentation, i.e. a selective surgical suppression of the vagal afferent (sensory) pathways originating below the diaphragm, was performed in jejunectomized pigs. Their performances and small intestine morphology (whole tissue weight and dry weight of the mucosa) were compared to those measured in jejunectomized but vagally intact pigs. The dry weight of the mucosa of the residual small intestine in resected pigs was restored (after 28 days) at a value similar to that measured for the intact small intestine in controls. Opposite to that, the dry weight of the mucosa of the residual intestine of resected + deafferented pigs was significantly lower, due to the absence of any compensatory hypertrophy. This difference did not result from any change in the food intake level. Therefore it was concluded that vagal afferences from the digestive tract are necessary in eliciting the compensatory hypertrophy. From these results

  7. The Evaluation of Small Intestinal Volvulus Caused by PathogenicMicroorganisms in a Thoroughbred Mare

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javad Javanbakht

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Small intestinal (SI volvulus is defined as a rotation of greater than 180 degrees about its mesentery of a segment of jejunum or ileum. Horses of all ages have been affected. There is typically an acute onset of signs of mild to severe pain. Objectives: The objective of this study was to evaluate the microbial pathogens of the duodenum, ileum, cecum, colon and rectum (feces in associated with volvulus horse, and to determine whether rectal (fecal samples are representative of proximal segments of the gastrointestinal tract. Materials and Methods: A brown 26 years old mare, BCS (body condition score 4 was found dead in stall in the morning. It was moved to a suitable area to conduct a post-mortem exam. The mare was examined in hanging position and then left lateral-recumbent. Advanced abdominal tympany was present. Clinical signs, laboratory data, surgical or necropsy findings, clinic-histopathological findings and outcome for horse with SI volvulus was obtained from medical records, and identified by manual review. Horsefeces and colon were collected in autopsy. Fecal material was scooped from the center of a freshly defecated bolus into sterile sample cups, which were placed into plastic anaerobe jars with PackAnaero sachets (Mitsubishi Gas Co. via Remel, Lenexa, KS and transported to the laboratory. Alternatively, colon contents were collected from horse at the autopsy by direct incision into the colon immediately after the horse was autopsied. The samples were transported anaerobically to the laboratory. Results: On opening the abdominal cavity; a large quantity of sanguineous, foul-smelling fluid with pus exited the perforated bowel wall (hemoperitoneum. Additionally, signs of an acute diffuse peritonitis were visible. The blood vessels of the stomach and intestines were distended. Small intestinal volvulus was observed in several segments (360 degree rotation involving the mesentery. This information may aid diagnosis and

  8. [Bacterial overgrowth in small intestine in patients with liver cirrhosis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chesta, J; Silva, M; Thompson, L; del Canto, E; Defilippi, C

    1991-06-01

    Hepatic encephalopathy, bacterial infections and endotoxemia in cirrhotic patients have been related to colonic flora. However, an abnormal small bowel bacterial content could also be implied. We investigated small bowel bacterial overgrowth (SIBO) by jejunal cultures in 14 cirrhotic patients and 5 control subjects, and indirectly by the lactulose H2 breath test in 22 patients with cirrhosis and 12 controls. SIBO was demonstrated by cultures in 64% of cirrhotic patients and 1 of 5 controls. The breath test was positive for SIBO in 45% of patients with cirrhosis and 8% of controls. No differences were noted between patients with alcoholic and non-alcoholic liver disease. According to fasting H2 breath levels, SIBO was significantly correlated with the Child-Pugh score for hepatic function (r = 0.45; p < 0.05). Also, patients with positive criteria for SIBO in jejunal cultures had worse hepatic function in comparison to cirrhotics with normal jejunal bacterial counts (p < 0.05). Thus SIBO is frequent in patients with hepatic cirrhosis and is associated with impairment in hepatic function.

  9. Small intestine follicular dendritic cell sarcoma with liver metastasis: A case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Yun-Chen; Chau, Ivy Yenwen; Yeh, Yi-Chen; Chau, Gar-Yang

    2017-08-01

    Follicular dendritic cell sarcoma (FDCS) is a rare neoplasia composed of spindle or oval cells with follicular dendritic cell differentiation, usually occurring in lymphoid tissue. In this report, we present a case of FDCS of the small intestine with liver metastasis. A 19-year-old female presented with recent onset of left upper abdominal pain. Abdominal computed tomography scan showed a large tumor mass in the liver lateral segment with compression to the pancreas upper part, and a smaller mass in the terminal ileum, respectively. High serum levels of amylase and lipase were noted. Resection of the tumors was performed. Microscopically, both tumors consisted of ovoid to spindle-shaped nuclei cells admixed with some lymphocytes arranged in fascicles, whorls, storiform arrays. Immunohistochemistry demonstrated that the tumor cells were positive for follicular dendritic cell markers, including CD21, CD23, and CD35. Epstein-Barr virus encoding small RNA (EBER; Inform EBER probe; Ventana Medical Systems, Tucson, AZ) in situ hybridization was negative. According to the clinicopathological features, diagnosis of FDCS of intestinal origin was made. Resection of tumors located in the liver and at the small intestine was performed. After the operation, patient received adjuvant vinblastin chemotherapy. There was no evidence of recurrence at 8-month follow-up. It was unusual for FDCS of intestinal origin with liver metastasis and expressing with high serum levels of pancreatic enzymes.

  10. Effect of fasting in the digestive system: histological study of the small intestine in house sparrows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Funes, Samanta Celeste; Filippa, Verónica Palmira; Cid, Fabricio Damián; Mohamed, Fabián; Caviedes-Vidal, Enrique; Chediack, Juan Gabriel

    2014-10-01

    In birds and mammals the metabolic response to fasting has been studied and can be characterized by three consecutive phases reflecting metabolic and physiological adjustments. An effective way to minimize energy expenditure during food scarcity is to decrease the mass of the organs. As the digestive system is metabolically expensive to maintain, the small intestine and the liver are the most affected organs. We evaluated the effects of phase III starvation on the mass of the different organs and histological parameters on house sparrows, a small non-migrant bird. In a short period of time (34 h) we observed a larger reduction in the digestive organ mass when compared to the mass of the body and non-alimentary tissues. Furthermore, the intestinal mass was proportionally more reduced than its length and nominal surface area. A reduction on the intestinal mucosal layer also resulted in a shortening of villus (length and thickness) and crypt depth. Moreover, the morphology of the enterocytes changed from cylindrical to cubical, suggesting that the surface exposed to the lumen was conserved. This may indicate an adaptive response to the moment of refeeding. The nominal surface area/body mass remained constant in both groups and several histological parameters were reduced, suggesting that starving induces the atrophy of the small intestine. However, the goblet cells were conserved after fasting indicating a protective tendency. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Endoscopic balloon dilation of Crohn’s disease strictures-safety, efficacy and clinical impact

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopes, Susana; Rodrigues-Pinto, Eduardo; Andrade, Patrícia; Afonso, Joana; Baron, Todd H; Magro, Fernando; Macedo, Guilherme

    2017-01-01

    AIM To evaluate the incidence of anastomotic strictures after intestinal resection in Crohn’s disease (CD), demonstrate long-term efficacy and safety of endoscopic balloon dilation (EBD) in CD strictures and its impact on the diagnosis of subclinical postoperative endoscopic recurrence. METHODS Retrospective single tertiary center study based on prospectively collected data between 2010 and 2015 including anastomotic and non-anastomotic strictures. RESULTS 29% of 162 CD patients included developed an anastomotic stricture. 43 patients with anastomotic strictures and 37 with non-anastomotic strictures underwent EBD; technical success was 97.7% and 100%, respectively, however, 63% and 41% needed repeat dilation during the 4.4-year follow-up. Longer periods between surgery and index colonoscopy and higher lactoferrin levels were associated with the presence of stricture after surgery. Calprotectin levels > 83.35 μg/g and current or past history of smoking were associated with a shorter time until need for dilation (HR = 3.877, 95%CI: 1.480-10.152 and HR = 3.041, 95%CI: 1.213-7.627). Anastomotic strictures had a greater need for repeat dilation (63% vs 41%, P = 0.047). No differences were found between asymptomatic and symptomatic cohorts. Disease recurrence diagnosis was only possible after EBD in a third of patients. CONCLUSION EBD is an effective and safe alternative to surgery, with a good short and long-term outcome, postponing or even avoiding further surgery. EBD may allow to diagnose disease recurrence in patients with no clinical signs/biomarkers of disease activity. PMID:29151693

  12. Comparative Genomics Analysis of Streptococcus Isolates from the Human Small Intestine Reveals their Adaptation to a Highly Dynamic Ecosystem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van den Bogert, Bartholomeus; Boekhorst, Jos; Herrmann, Ruth; Smid, Eddy J.; Zoetendal, Erwin G.; Kleerebezem, Michiel

    2013-01-01

    The human small-intestinal microbiota is characterised by relatively large and dynamic Streptococcus populations. In this study, genome sequences of small-intestinal streptococci from S. mitis, S. bovis, and S. salivarius species-groups were determined and compared with those from 58 Streptococcus strains in public databases. The Streptococcus pangenome consists of 12,403 orthologous groups of which 574 are shared among all sequenced streptococci and are defined as the Streptococcus core genome. Genome mining of the small-intestinal streptococci focused on functions playing an important role in the interaction of these streptococci in the small-intestinal ecosystem, including natural competence and nutrient-transport and metabolism. Analysis of the small-intestinal Streptococcus genomes predicts a high capacity to synthesize amino acids and various vitamins as well as substantial divergence in their carbohydrate transport and metabolic capacities, which is in agreement with observed physiological differences between these Streptococcus strains. Gene-specific PCR-strategies enabled evaluation of conservation of Streptococcus populations in intestinal samples from different human individuals, revealing that the S. salivarius strains were frequently detected in the small-intestine microbiota, supporting the representative value of the genomes provided in this study. Finally, the Streptococcus genomes allow prediction of the effect of dietary substances on Streptococcus population dynamics in the human small-intestine. PMID:24386196

  13. Comparative genomics analysis of Streptococcus isolates from the human small intestine reveals their adaptation to a highly dynamic ecosystem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van den Bogert, Bartholomeus; Boekhorst, Jos; Herrmann, Ruth; Smid, Eddy J; Zoetendal, Erwin G; Kleerebezem, Michiel

    2013-01-01

    The human small-intestinal microbiota is characterised by relatively large and dynamic Streptococcus populations. In this study, genome sequences of small-intestinal streptococci from S. mitis, S. bovis, and S. salivarius species-groups were determined and compared with those from 58 Streptococcus strains in public databases. The Streptococcus pangenome consists of 12,403 orthologous groups of which 574 are shared among all sequenced streptococci and are defined as the Streptococcus core genome. Genome mining of the small-intestinal streptococci focused on functions playing an important role in the interaction of these streptococci in the small-intestinal ecosystem, including natural competence and nutrient-transport and metabolism. Analysis of the small-intestinal Streptococcus genomes predicts a high capacity to synthesize amino acids and various vitamins as well as substantial divergence in their carbohydrate transport and metabolic capacities, which is in agreement with observed physiological differences between these Streptococcus strains. Gene-specific PCR-strategies enabled evaluation of conservation of Streptococcus populations in intestinal samples from different human individuals, revealing that the S. salivarius strains were frequently detected in the small-intestine microbiota, supporting the representative value of the genomes provided in this study. Finally, the Streptococcus genomes allow prediction of the effect of dietary substances on Streptococcus population dynamics in the human small-intestine.

  14. Ischemic small intestine-in vivo versus ex vivo bioimpedance measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strand-Amundsen, Runar J; Reims, Henrik M; Tronstad, Christian; Kalvøy, Håvard; Martinsen, Ørjan G; Høgetveit, Jan O; Ruud, Tom E; Tønnessen, Tor I

    2017-05-01

    Bioimpedance has been used to investigate changes in electrical parameters during ischemia in various tissues. The small intestine is a multi-layered structure, with several distinct tissue types, and ischemia related changes occur at different times in the different intestinal layers. When investigating how the electrical properties in the small intestine is affected by ischemia, some researchers have used ex vivo models while others have used in vivo models. In this study, we compare ischemic time development of electrical parameters in ischemic in vivo versus ex vivo small intestine. Measurements were performed using a two-electrode setup, with a Solartron 1260/1294 impedance gain-phase analyser. Electrodes were placed on the surface of ischemic pig jejunum, applying a voltage and measuring the resulting electrical admittance. In each pig, 4 segments of the jejunum were made ischemic by clamping the mesenteric arteries and veins, resulting in a 30 cm central zone of warm ischemia and edema. The in vivo part of the experiment lasted 10 h, after which 3 pieces of perfused small intestine were resected, stored in Ringer-acetat at 38 °C, and measured during a 10 h ex vivo experiment. Main results and significance: We found significant differences (p  vivo and ex vivo measurements as a function of ischemic time development. We also observed some similarities in the trends. In vivo, we measured an overall decrease in impedance during the duration of the experiment, probably as a result from the formation of edema. Ex vivo, the low frequency impedance increased initially for approximately 3 h before starting to decrease.

  15. Effect of weaning on small intestinal structure and function in the piglet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Xianhong; Li, Defa; She, Ruiping

    2002-08-01

    Fifty-four piglets were selected from 12 litters weaned at 17 (Treatment 1), 21 (Treatment 2), 28 (Treatment 3) and 35 (Treatment 4) days old, respectively, to determine the effect of weaning age on small intestinal villus morphology, immunology and histochemistry. From proximal duodenum, proximal jejunum, distal jejunum and middle ileum, intestinal samples with three replicates (piglets) in each treatment were taken at 18, 22, 28 and 36; 22, 28, 36 and 43; 28, 36, 43, and 50; and 18, 22, 28, 36, 43 and 50 d of age in Treatment 1, 2, 3 and 4, respectively. This was equivalent to 12 h, 3 d, 1 week, 2 week postweaning in Treatment 1; 12 h, 1 week, 2 week, 3 week postweaning in Treatment 2 and 3, and all the same age in Treatment 4 as in Treatment 1, 2, 3, respectively. The results showed that villous height of duodenum and proximal jejunum decreased significantly in Treatment 1 and 3. Crypt depth in the duodenum, proximal jejunum and ileum also decreased significantly in Treatment 1. Date had significant effect on villous height of the duodenum, distal jejunum and ileum with the shortest on day 29 and crypt depth of all positions increased with piglet age except the crypt depth in proximal jejunum decreased on day 50. Weaning age and day of age had significant effects on intraepithelial lymphocyte (IEL) number and goblet cell (GC) number at all positions of small intestinal mucosa in piglets. The number of IEL at all segments of small intestinal mucosa in Treatment 3 increased significantly compared to those in other treatments, but IEL number at all locations of small intestinal mucosa in Treatment 2 decreased significantly compared to those in other treatments. The number of GC in small intestinal mucosa increased significantly in early-weaned (piglets. It appears that providing fluid milk replacer for a few days postweaning could dramatically reduce the negative impact of weaning on villous morphology and digestive and absorptive function, especially in pigs

  16. Pancreatic digestive enzyme blockade in the small intestine prevents insulin resistance in hemorrhagic shock.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeLano, Frank A; Schmid-Schönbein, Geert W

    2014-01-01

    Hemorrhagic shock is associated with metabolic defects, including hyperglycemia and insulin resistance, but the mechanisms are unknown. We recently demonstrated that reduction of the extracellular domain of the insulin receptor by degrading proteases may lead to a reduced ability to maintain normal plasma glucose values. In shock, transfer of digestive enzymes from the lumen of the intestine into the systemic circulation after breakdown of the intestinal mucosal barrier causes inflammation and organ dysfunction. Suppression of the digestive enzymes in the lumen of the intestine with protease inhibitors is effective in reducing the level of the inflammatory reactions. To determine the degree to which blockade of digestive enzymes affects insulin resistance in shock, rats were exposed to acute hemorrhagic shock (mean arterial pressure of 30 mmHg for 2 h) at which time all shed blood volume was returned. Digestive proteases in the intestine were blocked with a serine protease inhibitor (tranexamic acid in polyethylene glycol and physiological electrolyte solution), and the density of the insulin receptor was measured with immunohistochemistry in the mesentery microcirculation. The untreated rat without enzyme blockade had significantly attenuated levels of insulin receptor density as compared with control and treated rats. Blockade of the digestive proteases after 60 min of hypotension in the lumen of the small intestine led to a lesser decrease in insulin receptor density compared with controls without protease blockade. Glucose tolerance test indicates a significant increase in plasma glucose levels 2 h after hemorrhagic shock, which are reduced to control values in the presence of protease inhibition in the lumen of the intestine. The transient reduction of the plasma glucose levels after an insulin bolus is significantly attenuated after shock but is restored when digestive enzymes in the lumen of the intestine are blocked. These results suggest that in

  17. The small intestine and colon: Scintigraphic quantitation of motility in health and disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kamm, M.A. (Saint Mark' s Hospital, London (United Kingdom). Medical Physiology Unit)

    1992-10-01

    Radioisotopes allow accurate quantitation of the pattern and effectiveness of the transit of chyme through the small and large intestines. Abnormalities of small bowel transit can be demonstrated in patients with the irritable bowel syndrome, and patients with chronic idiopathic intestinal pseudo-obstruction due to either a visceral myopathy or neuropathy. In the colon, radioisotopic studies of transit have demonstrated the site of delayed transit in some severely constipated patients. In patients with these disorders of transit, functional studies may influence the choice of medical or surgical therapy although there are few prospective studies which have established their worth in this context. Radioisotope studies can also be utilised to study the effectiveness of delivery of drugs to the small and large bowel, and to study the adequacy of rectal evacuation in patients with a defaecatory disturbance. The low radiation dose and possibility of frequent observations make radioisotope studies valuable for clinical and research studies in functional gastrointestinal disorders. (orig.).

  18. The strictured anastomosis: successful treatment by corticosteroid injections--report of three cases and review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucha, Paul A; Fticsar, James E; Francis, Michael J

    2005-04-01

    Clinically significant anastomotic strictures usually only occur with very low colorectal anastomoses below the level of the peritoneal reflection. The reported rate averages 8 percent and has been attributed to tissue ischemia, localized sepsis, anastomotic leak, proximal fecal diversion, radiation injury, inflammatory bowel disease, and recurrent rectal cancer. Most patients will have symptoms of obstipation, frequent small bowel movements, and bloating. Symptomatic strictures are often approached by dilation (balloon or Hegar) or less often repeat resection. Many of these patients have anastomoses that are too low to consider repeat resection. Strictureplasty with linear stapling devices, stricture resection by use of the circular stapling device, and repeat dilations have all been described. Steroid injections into the stricture have been described in strictured esophagogastric anastomoses but have not been commonly used for strictured coloproctostomies. We describe three cases of coloanal stricture following resections that were complicated by postoperative pelvic abcesses, anastomatic leaks, and pelvic fibrosis. Two cases had undergone low coloanal anastomosis that was protected by a loop ileostomy and developed as significant stricture in the early postoperative period. The third case was managed without a protective loop ileostomy. These were initially managed by repeated dilation of the anastomosis. Each episode was followed by rapid recurrence of the stricture. All patients underwent subsequent dilation with injection of 40 mg of triamcinolone acetate (divided dose in four quadrants) into the stricture and subsequent complete resolution of the stricture. Those patients with loop ileostomies had them taken down and all have been followed for up to 12 months without clinical or endoscopic evidence of recurrent stricture.

  19. Predictive factors of small bowel patency in Crohn's disease patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreia Albuquerque

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Patency capsule was developed to avoid small bowel video capsule endoscopy retention, namely in patients with Crohn's disease. Aims: To evaluate the predictive factors of small bowel patency in Crohn's disease patients. Patients and methods: Retrospective analysis including 151 Crohn's disease patients submitted to patency capsule (Agile® Patency Capsule from 2011 to 2012. Patients that excreted the intact patency capsule were classified as having a patent small bowel (without patency capsule retention, other patients were considered to have negative patency of the small bowel (patency capsule retention. Results: Patients had a mean age of 41±14 years, 54% were female and 25% had been previously submitted to surgery. Stricturing disease was seen in 20% of cases and penetrating disease in 16% of cases. Left-sided colonic lesions and ileal strictures were observed at colonoscopy in 13% and 9% of patients, respectively. In our sample, 28% of patients had negative patency of the small bowel (patency capsule retention. In multivariate analysis, independent factors that were associated with negative patency of the small bowel in Crohn's disease patients were stricturing (OR 10.16, p < 0.001 and penetrating phenotypes (OR 11.73, p = 0.001, left-sided colonic lesions (OR 3.77, p = 0.038, ileal stricture (OR 9.76, p = 0.003; previous intestinal surgery was found to be protective (OR 0.16, p = 0.006. Conclusions: Stricturing or penetrating disease, ileal strictures, no previous surgery and left-sided colonic lesions were the factors associated with negative small bowel patency in Crohn's disease patients.

  20. Effect of early weaning on the development of immune cells in the pig small intestine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vega-López, M A; Bailey, M; Telemo, E; Stokes, C R

    1995-02-01

    The controlled effects of age and weaning on the numbers of CD2+ T cells, subsets (CD4+, CD8+), accessory cells (macrophage/granulocyte) and cells expressing MHC class II (DQw) and IL-2R in the piglet intestine was investigated. At birth low numbers of CD2+CD4-CD8- cells were the only demonstrable T cells in the intestine. Monocyte/granulocyte and MHC class II+ cells were also detected in low numbers and IL-2R+ cells were proportionally quite numerous. All those cell populations, except the IL-2R+ cells, increased thereafter and peaked at Week 7 when the numbers of cells were comparable with those of adult animals. CD4+ cells increased dramatically after Week 1. In contrast, CD8+ remained scarce until after 5-7 weeks of age in unweaned animals. Four days after weaning at 3 weeks old, there were increases in CD2+ (P < 0.001) and macrophage/granulocyte (P < 0.01) cells in proximal small intestinal villi and in CD2+ cells only (P < 0.01) in crypts. No significant changes in cell numbers were demonstrated in the distal small intestine.

  1. [Space-time organization of systems of membrane hydrolysis and transport in rat small intestine].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loginov, G I

    1977-05-01

    Glucose transport by the concentration gradient with the incubation for 90 min in 0.2% glucose and soluble starch solutions was studied in Wistar rats in 5 segments of the small intestine by the "sac turned inside out" method. Serous fluid was completely replaced by a new portion of Ringer's solution every 15 or 30 min. Substrate load synchronized the enterocyte population and stabilized the transport systems. The changes of glucose absorption during the period of about an hour proved to differ in the 5 segments against the background of continuous and interrupted substrate load. These differences were due to the properties of the transported systems autocontrol and the reactivity level of the given enterocyte population. Areas with different reactivity were found to alternate along the intestine. Between the 8th and 16th hour (rats were sacrificed every 2 hours) starch glucose transport fell sharply in the proximal, and, to a lesser extent, in the middle segments. On the contrary, absorption between the 8th and the 12th hour was considerably intensified in the distal segments. The changes of the strach glucose transport during the period of about an hour along the intestine differed. The data obtained are discussed with consideration to the possible role of the undulating processes in the individual enterocyte population and in the small intestine as an integral system.

  2. The Dynamic Distribution of Small-Tail Han Sheep Microbiota across Different Intestinal Segments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hao Zhang

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The sheep intestinal tract is characterized by a diverse microbial ecosystem that is vital for the host to digest diet material. The importance of gut microbiota (GM of animals has also been widely acknowledged because of its pivotal roles in the health and well-being of animals. However, there are no relevant studies on GM of small-tail Han sheep, a superior mutton variety domestic in China. In this study, the structure and distribution of gut microflora were studied by high-throughput sequencing technology. Results showed a significant difference between jejunum and cecum, jejunum, and rectum. Meanwhile, the cecum and rectum not only display higher species richness but also exhibit higher similarity of the bacterial diversity than that of the jejunum based on the results of abundance-based coverage estimator (ACE, Chao1, and Shannon indexes. Firmicutes and Bacteroidetes were the predominant phyla in cecum and rectum, while higher relative abundances of Firmicutes and Cyanobacteria were observed in jejunum. At the genus level, Bacteroidetes, Ruminococcus, Lactobacillus, Flavonifractor, and Clostridium were the dominant genera in the cecum and rectum. An obvious dynamic distribution of Lactobacillus is continuously decreasing from the jejunum to the cecum, then to the rectum, whereas the result of Bacteroides is completely inverse. In addition, this study also found many kinds of bacteria associated with the production of volatile fatty acids (VFA colonized in the large intestine. This study is the first to investigate the distribution of intestinal flora in small-tail Han sheep. The findings provide an important indication for diagnosis and treatment of intestinal diseases in small-tail Han sheep, as well as offer a direction for the development of intestinal microecological preparations.

  3. [Small fugal enteritis manifestation with intestinal obstruction and hematochezia: a case report].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Chuancong; Guo, Qin; Liu, Rui

    2017-04-28

    Fungal enteritis was rarely reported. A case of fungal enteritis manifestation with jejunum multiple ulcers and obstruction was treated by Department of Gastroenterology, Third Xiangya Hospital, Central South University. After antifungal treatment, the clinical symptoms were relieved, and the ulcers in jejunal and upper gastrointestinal tract were healed completely. Clinical manifestation for small fungal enteritis is special, and the small intestine ulcer is easily to be misdiagnosed. It is helpful to prevent the misdiagnose for small fungal enteritis if we can tell the clinical features for this disease.

  4. Esophageal Stricture Post Endoscopic Injection Sclerotherapy ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Post endoscopic sclerotherapy esophageal stricture is usually not fatal but may requires several sessions of esophageal dilation as an effective palliative treatment yet has its own complications. Aim: The purpose of this study is to find out the predictors of sclerotherapy esophageal stricture. Methods: This is a ...

  5. Localized colonic inflammation increases cytokine levels in distant small intestinal segments in the rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barada, Kassem A; Mourad, Fadi H; Sawah, Sarah I; Khoury, Carmen; Safieh-Garabedian, Bared; Nassar, Camille F; Saadé, Nayef E

    2006-10-19

    Local inflammation in the colon has been associated with nutrient malabsorption and altered motility in the small bowel. These remote effects suggest the release of mediators which can act (or alter) the function of intestinal segments located far from the primary area of inflammation. This study describes the changes in the expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines in the colon and in various segments of the small intestine in two rat models of experimental colitis. Colitis was induced by the intracolonic administration of 100 microL of 6% iodoacetamide or 250 microL of 2, 4, 6-trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid. Levels of interleukin one beta, interleukin 6, and tumor necrosis factor alpha were measured by ELISA in tissue homogenate sampled from duodenum, jejunum, ileum and colon at different time intervals. In homogenates of strips isolated from duodenum, jejunum and ileum, tumor necrosis alpha and interleukin-6, increased significantly 3-6 h after iodoacetamide or TNBS administration and remained elevated until the colonic inflammation subsided. Interleukin one beta showed comparable but delayed increase. Similar, but more pronounced increase of the three cytokines was noticed in areas of the colon adjacent to the ulcer. Histologic examinations revealed important inflammatory changes in the colon; however, examination of sections from the small intestines did not reveal significant differences between controls and rats with colitis. In conclusion, expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines is increased in remote segments of the small intestines during colitis. The findings may provide a partial explanation or a molecular substrate for the associated small bowel dysfunction.

  6. The enantiomers of tramadol and its major metabolite inhibit peristalsis in the guinea pig small intestine via differential mechanisms

    OpenAIRE

    Herbert, Michael K; Weis, Rebecca; Holzer, Peter

    2007-01-01

    Background Inhibition of intestinal peristalsis is a major side effect of opioid analgesics. Although tramadol is an opioid-like analgesic, its effect on gut motility is little known. Therefore, the effect of (+)-tramadol, (-)-tramadol and the major metabolite O-desmethyltramadol on intestinal peristalsis in vitro and their mechanisms of action were examined. Distension-induced peristalsis was recorded in fluid-perfused segments of the guinea pig small intestine. The intraluminal peristaltic ...

  7. [A Case of Solitary Metastasis to the Small Intestine from Sigmoid Colon Cancer after Treatment of Seven Multiple Cancers].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasu, Keiichi; Maeshiro, Tsuyoshi; Yanai, Keiko; Fujita, Hanako; Machida, Masaki; Moriyama, Takafumi; Koseki, Takayoshi; Kudo, Hiroki; Inada, Kentaro; Takahama, Yukiko; Seyama, Yasuji; Wada, Ikuo; Miyamoto, Sachio; Umekita, Nobutaka; Tanizawa, Toru

    2016-11-01

    A 75-year-old woman who had undergone a Hartmann's operation for sigmoid colon cancer 2 years ago was hospitalized because she experienced small bowel obstruction several times. She had a treatment history of 6 other cancers, including 5 gastrointestinal tract cancers. However, the obstruction was relieved by conservative therapy each time. In September 2015, she was hospitalized for ileus. Abdominal computed tomography revealed that the lumen of intestine was partially dilated. Subsequently, a long tube was inserted, but the dilatation of the small intestine was not fully recovered. She was diagnosed with small intestinal obstruction due to adhesion, and she underwent an operation in October 2015. During the laparotomy, she was diagnosed with adhesion due to an intestinal tumor, and a partial intestinal resection, including the entire tumor, was performed. Because the tumor appearance and histological findings were very similar to those of sigmoid colon cancer, the tumor was diagnosed as a solitary metastasis of sigmoid colon cancer to the small intestine. Generally, peritoneal dissemination causes metastasis of colon cancer to the small intestine. However, this is a rare case because the lymphatic system or extra-wall invasion was the most likely cause of metastasis. Ileus repeating the improvement exacerbation, an examination must be performed while considering possible intestinal tumors, especially for a patient previously treated for multiple gastrointestinal cancers.

  8. Finishing pigs that are divergent in feed efficiency show small differences in intestinal functionality and structure.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara U Metzler-Zebeli

    Full Text Available Controversial information is available regarding the feed efficiency-related variation in intestinal size, structure and functionality in pigs. The present objective was therefore to investigate the differences in visceral organ size, intestinal morphology, mucosal enzyme activity, intestinal integrity and related gene expression in low and high RFI pigs which were reared at three different geographical locations (Austria, AT; Northern Ireland, NI; Republic of Ireland, ROI using similar protocols. Pigs (n = 369 were ranked for their RFI between days 42 and 91 postweaning and low and high RFI pigs (n = 16 from AT, n = 24 from NI, and n = 60 from ROI were selected. Pigs were sacrificed and sampled on ~day 110 of life. In general, RFI-related variation in intestinal size, structure and function was small. Some energy saving mechanisms and enhanced digestive and absorptive capacity were indicated in low versus high RFI pigs by shorter crypts, higher duodenal lactase and maltase activity and greater mucosal permeability (P < 0.05, but differences were mainly seen in pigs from AT and to a lesser degree in pigs from ROI. Additionally, low RFI pigs from AT had more goblet cells in duodenum but fewer in jejunum compared to high RFI pigs (P < 0.05. Together with the lower expression of TLR4 and TNFA in low versus high RFI pigs from AT and ROI (P < 0.05, these results might indicate differences in the innate immune response between low and high RFI pigs. Results demonstrated that the variation in the size of visceral organs and intestinal structure and functionality was greater between geographic location (local environmental factors than between RFI ranks of pigs. In conclusion, present results support previous findings that the intestinal size, structure and functionality do not significantly contribute to variation in RFI of pigs.

  9. Finishing pigs that are divergent in feed efficiency show small differences in intestinal functionality and structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metzler-Zebeli, Barbara U.; Lawlor, Peadar G.; Magowan, Elizabeth; McCormack, Ursula M.; Curião, Tânia; Hollmann, Manfred; Ertl, Reinhard; Aschenbach, Jörg R.; Zebeli, Qendrim

    2017-01-01

    Controversial information is available regarding the feed efficiency-related variation in intestinal size, structure and functionality in pigs. The present objective was therefore to investigate the differences in visceral organ size, intestinal morphology, mucosal enzyme activity, intestinal integrity and related gene expression in low and high RFI pigs which were reared at three different geographical locations (Austria, AT; Northern Ireland, NI; Republic of Ireland, ROI) using similar protocols. Pigs (n = 369) were ranked for their RFI between days 42 and 91 postweaning and low and high RFI pigs (n = 16 from AT, n = 24 from NI, and n = 60 from ROI) were selected. Pigs were sacrificed and sampled on ~day 110 of life. In general, RFI-related variation in intestinal size, structure and function was small. Some energy saving mechanisms and enhanced digestive and absorptive capacity were indicated in low versus high RFI pigs by shorter crypts, higher duodenal lactase and maltase activity and greater mucosal permeability (P < 0.05), but differences were mainly seen in pigs from AT and to a lesser degree in pigs from ROI. Additionally, low RFI pigs from AT had more goblet cells in duodenum but fewer in jejunum compared to high RFI pigs (P < 0.05). Together with the lower expression of TLR4 and TNFA in low versus high RFI pigs from AT and ROI (P < 0.05), these results might indicate differences in the innate immune response between low and high RFI pigs. Results demonstrated that the variation in the size of visceral organs and intestinal structure and functionality was greater between geographic location (local environmental factors) than between RFI ranks of pigs. In conclusion, present results support previous findings that the intestinal size, structure and functionality do not significantly contribute to variation in RFI of pigs. PMID:28380012

  10. [Proliferation of anaerobic flora in the small intestine of infants with acute and protracted diarrhea].

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Cruz, A S; Fagundes Neto, U

    1995-01-01

    Bacterial proliferation in the small intestine can induce the protraction of diarrhea due to malabsorption of the nutrients. We performed the culture of the small intestine juice for the aerobic and anaerobic flora in 40 infants with persistent and acute diarrhea. Bacterial proliferation was observed in 32 (80%) patients, being 30 (75%) due to the aerobic microflora and 17 (43%) due to the anaerobic microflora. There was no statistical difference in the bacterial growth between acute and persistent diarrhea. The aerobic bacteria most frequently isolated was E. coli in 23 patients, and Bacteroides sp was the most prevalent anaerobic bacteria, isolated in 9 cases. The transitory flora was significantly more abundant in patients with persistent diarrhea.

  11. Ultrastructure of interstitial cells of Cajal associated with deep muscular plexus of human small intestine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rumessen, J J; Mikkelsen, H B; Thuneberg, L

    1992-01-01

    Evidence showing that interstitial cells of Cajal have important regulatory functions in the gut musculature is accumulating. In the current study, the ultrastructure of the deep muscular plexus and associated interstial cells of Cajal in human small intestine were studied to provide a reference...... for identification and further physiological or pathological studies. The deep muscular plexus was sandwiched between a thin inner layer of smooth muscle (one to five cells thick) and the bulk of the circular muscle. Interstitial cells of Cajal in this region very much resembled smooth muscle cells (with......, and only few gap junctions with other interstitial cells of Cajal or with the musculature were observed. Compared with interstitial cells of Cajal from other mammals, those associated with the deep muscular plexus in the human small intestine more closely resemble smooth muscle cells...

  12. Lipopolysaccharide-binding protein: localization in secretory granules of Paneth cells in the mouse small intestine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Gert H; Rasmussen, Karina; Niels-Christiansen, Lise-Lotte

    2009-01-01

    in closer detail the synthesis and storage of LBP in the intestinal mucosal epithelium, we performed an immunolocalization of LBP in mouse small intestine. By immunofluorescence microscopy, an antibody recognizing the 58-60 kDa protein of LBP distinctly labeled a small population of cells located deep......Lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-binding protein (LBP) is an acute-phase protein involved in the host's response to endotoxin and mainly synthesized and secreted to the blood by the liver. But in addition, LBP is also made by extrahepatic cells, including the enterocyte-like cell line Caco-2. To study...... together with other proteins acting in the innate immune response of the gut, such as lysozyme, defensins and intelectin....

  13. Gastrointestinal complaints in runners are not due to small intestinal bacterial overgrowth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bärtsch Peter

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Gastrointestinal complaints are common among long distance runners. We hypothesised that small intestinal bacterial overgrowth (SIBO is present in long distance runners frequently afflicted with gastrointestinal complaints. Findings Seven long distance runners (5 female, mean age 29.1 years with gastrointestinal complaints during and immediately after exercise without known gastrointestinal diseases performed Glucose hydrogen breath tests for detection of SIBO one week after a lactose hydrogen breath test checking for lactose intolerance. The most frequent symptoms were diarrhea (5/7, 71% and flatulence (6/7, 86%. The study was conducted at a laboratory. In none of the subjects a pathological hydrogen production was observed after the intake of glucose. Only in one athlete a pathological hydrogen production was measured after the intake of lactose suggesting lactose intolerance. Conclusions Gastrointestinal disorders in the examined long distance runners were not associated with small intestinal bacterial overgrowth.

  14. Postprandial increase of oleoylethanolamide mobilization in small intestine of the Burmese python (Python molurus)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Astarita, Giuseppe; Rourke, Bryan C; Andersen, Johnnie Bremholm

    2006-01-01

    to the induction of between-meal satiety. Here we examined whether feeding-induced OEA mobilization also occurs in Burmese pythons (Python molurus), a species of ambush-hunting snakes that consumes huge meals after months of fasting and undergoes massive feeding-dependent changes in gastrointestinal hormonal...... release and gut morphology. Using liquid-chromatography/mass-spectrometry (LC/MS), we measured OEA levels in the gastrointestinal tract of fasted (28 days) and fed (48h after feeding) pythons. We observed a nearly 300-fold increase in OEA levels in the small intestine of fed compared to fasted animals......-unsaturated, but not polyunsaturated fatty-acid ethanolamides (FAE) in the small intestine of fed pythons. The identification of OEA and other FAEs in the gastrointestinal tract of Python molurus suggests that this class of lipid messengers may be widespread among vertebrate groups and may represent an evolutionarily ancient means...

  15. Characterization of macrophage-like cells in the external layers of human small and large intestine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mikkelsen, H B; Rumessen, J J

    1992-01-01

    vesicles and pits. However, very few secondary lysosomes were present. Birbeck granules were not observed. It is concluded that in the external muscle layer of human small and large intestine numerous macrophages of a special type are present. It is discussed whether this cell type plays a role......In the external layers of human small and large intestine macrophage-like cells were characterized by immunohistochemical, histochemical and electron-microscopical methods. Using immunohistochemistry and a number of monoclonal antibodies, the presence and distribution of phenotypic subpopulations...... of macrophages were evaluated. In all locations macrophage-like cells were identified with antibody EBM11, which recognizes CD68 antigen, C3bi which recognizes CD11b, and partly with an antibody which recognizes protein 150,95 (CD11c). Macrophage-like cells in the external muscle layer were HLA...

  16. Multiple small intestinal perforations in a patient with Hepatitis B Virus-associated Polyarteritis Nodosa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christou, Demetris; Kallis, Panayiotis; Georgiou, Panayiotis; Nikolaou, Nikolaos; Hadjicostas, Panayiotis

    2017-01-01

    Abstract We present the case of a 38-year-old patient with a history of Hepatitis B Virus-associated Polyarteritis Nodosa, who presented with acute abdomen and septic shock. The patient initially had three perforations of the small intestine that were treated with segmental enterectomy and anastomosis at two sites. During his postoperative course he continued to develop new perforations and necrotic lesions along the whole length of the small intestine, that mandated repetitive laparotomies and the technique of the open abdomen was employed. Despite the aggressive surgical treatment and the medical treatment with corticosteroids, cyclophosphamide and plasma exchanges, the patient died 15 days after the first operation due to septic shock and multiple organ failure. PMID:28878877

  17. Thromboembolism in Dogs with Protein-Losing Enteropathy with Non-Neoplastic Chronic Small Intestinal Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacinto, Ana M L; Ridyard, Alison E; Aroch, Itamar; Watson, Penny J; Morrison, Linda R; Chandler, Marge L; Kuzi, Sharon

    Dogs with protein-losing enteropathy (PLE) are suggested to be at increased risk of developing thromboembolic events. However, with some exceptions, there are very few reports of thromboembolism in such dogs. This multicentre retrospective observational study describes a case series of thromboembolism (TE) in eight dogs with PLE secondary to non-neoplastic, chronic small intestinal disease. Seven dogs had poorly controlled PLE when the thromboembolic event occurred. Pulmonary thromboembolism (PTE) occurred in six dogs, while one dog developed splenic vein thrombosis and another had concurrent splenic vein and aortic TE. Six dogs died, all with PTE. Antithrombin activity was decreased in one of two dogs in which it was measured. Serum cobalamin and folate concentrations were measured in three dogs and cobalamin was subnormal in all three. Serum magnesium, measured in two dogs, was low in both. Dogs with uncontrolled chronic small intestinal disease and PLE are at risk for developing serious life-threatening TE, mostly PTE.

  18. The early postnatal pattern of vesicle formation in different regions of the porcien small intestine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elbrønd, Vibeke Sødring; Weström, B.R.

    2007-01-01

    In the early postnatal period, the permeability of the piglet small intestine is high to compensate for the absence of trans-placental transfer of immunoglobulins during the fetal period. Vesicles, which mainly reflect the uptake of macromolecules and other colostral/milk components, were studied...... in three different regions of the small intestine - proximal, mid and distal - in a total of twelve piglets on day 0 (unsuckled and colostrums-fed), 2 and 6 (all suckled). Tissues were sampled and prepared for light microscopy (paraffin and cryo) and trans-electron microscopy. Different methods were...... present. They disappeared after 2 days (gut closure) and on day 6 adult-looking epithelial cells were present. In the distal region of day 0 pigs digestion vesicles/flocculent vesicles were observed in the cytoplasma. The vesicles appeared empty but with eosinophilic, PAS+ and electron dense...

  19. Multiple small intestinal perforations in a patient with Hepatitis B Virus-associated Polyarteritis Nodosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isaia, Maria; Christou, Demetris; Kallis, Panayiotis; Georgiou, Panayiotis; Nikolaou, Nikolaos; Hadjicostas, Panayiotis

    2017-03-01

    We present the case of a 38-year-old patient with a history of Hepatitis B Virus-associated Polyarteritis Nodosa, who presented with acute abdomen and septic shock. The patient initially had three perforations of the small intestine that were treated with segmental enterectomy and anastomosis at two sites. During his postoperative course he continued to develop new perforations and necrotic lesions along the whole length of the small intestine, that mandated repetitive laparotomies and the technique of the open abdomen was employed. Despite the aggressive surgical treatment and the medical treatment with corticosteroids, cyclophosphamide and plasma exchanges, the patient died 15 days after the first operation due to septic shock and multiple organ failure.

  20. [A case of MALT lymphoma of the colon, stomach, and small intestine].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahara, Kota; Tabata, Taku; Arakawa, Takeo; Fujiwara, Takashi; Egashira, Hideto; Fujiwara, Junko; Momma, Kumiko; Hishima, Tsunekazu; Koizumi, Koichi; Kamisawa, Terumi

    2015-02-01

    An 85-year-old man was diagnosed with mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) lymphoma of the colon in 20XX. Although Helicobacter pylori eradication was performed as part of the treatment, it was ineffective. He was followed-up by colonoscopy for 4 years without additional treatment and there was no interval change;however, he was lost to follow-up 6 years after the first visit. Nine years after the initial diagnosis, he presented with new MALT lymphoma lesions in the stomach and small intestine. Genetic analysis showed that a biopsy specimen was positive for API2/MALT1 fusion gene, and IgH rearrangement showed monoclonal banding between colon and stomach. This suggested disseminated monoclonal API2/MALT1-positive MALT lymphoma of the colon, stomach, and small intestine. Careful attention should be paid to the appearance of multiple lesions in MALT lymphoma.

  1. Profiling of metastatic small intestine neuroendocrine tumors reveals characteristic miRNAs detectable in plasma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowden, Michaela; Zhou, Chensheng W; Zhang, Sui; Brais, Lauren; Rossi, Ashley; Naudin, Laurent; Thiagalingam, Arunthi; Sicinska, Ewa; Kulke, Matthew H

    2017-08-15

    Current diagnostic and prognostic blood-based biomarkers for neuroendocrine tumors are limited. MiRNAs have tumor-specific expression patterns, are relatively stable, and can be measured in patient blood specimens. We performed a multi-stage study to identify and validate characteristic circulating miRNAs in patients with metastatic small intestine neuroendocrine tumors, and to assess associations between miRNA levels and survival. Using a 742-miRNA panel, we identified candidate miRNAs similarly expressed in 19 small intestine neuroendocrine tumors and matched plasma samples. We refined our panel in an independent cohort of plasma samples from 40 patients with metastatic small intestine NET and 40 controls, and then validated this panel in a second, large cohort of 120 patients with metastatic small intestine NET and 120 independent controls. miRNA profiling of 19 matched small intestine neuroendocrine tumors and matched plasma samples revealed 31 candidate miRNAs similarly expressed in both tissue and plasma. We evaluated expression of these 31 candidate miRNAs in 40 independent cases and 40 normal controls, and identified 4 miRNAs (miR-21-5p, miR-22-3p, miR-29b-3p, and miR-150-5p) that were differently expressed in cases and controls (p<0.05). We validated these 4 miRNAs in a separate, larger panel of 120 cases and 120 controls. We confirmed that high circulating levels of miR-22-3p (p<0.0001), high levels of miR 21-5p, and low levels of miR-150-5p (p=0.027) were associated with the presence of metastatic small intestine NET. While levels of 29b-3p were lower in cases than in controls in both the initial cohort and the validation cohort, the difference in the validation cohort did not reach statistical significance. We further found that high levels of circulating miR-21-5p, high levels of circulating miR-22-3p and low levels of circulating miR-150-5p were each independently associated with shorter overall survival. A combined analysis using all three markers

  2. Rebamipide Promotes the Regeneration of Aspirin-Induced Small-Intestine Mucosal Injury through Accumulation of β-Catenin.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Lai

    Full Text Available The effect of rebamipide on repairing intestinal mucosal damage induced by nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and its mechanism remain unclear. In this study, we sought to explore the mechanism whereby rebamipide could promote the regeneration of aspirin-induced intestinal mucosal damage.BALB/c mice were administered aspirin (200 mg/kg/d for 5 days to induce acute small intestinal injury (SII. Subsequently, SII mice were treated with rebamipide (320 mg/kg/d for 5 days. The structure of intestinal barrier was observed with transmission electron microscope, and Zo-1 and occludin expressions were detected. The proliferative index was indicated by the percentage of proliferating cell nuclear antigen positive cells. The prostaglandin E2 (PGE2 levels in the small intestine tissues were measured by an enzyme immunoassay. The mRNA and protein expression levels of cyclooxygenase (COX and β-catenin signal were detected in the small intestine using quantitative PCR and Western blot, respectively.COX expression was significantly down-regulated in aspirin induced SII (P < 0.05. In SII mice treated with rebamipide, histopathological findings of aspirin-induced intestinal inflammation were significantly milder and tight junctions between intestinal epithelial cells were improved significantly. The proliferative index increased after rebamipide treatment when compared with that in the control mice. The expressions of COX-2, β-catenin, and c-myc and the PGE2 concentrations in small intestinal tissues were significantly increased in mice with rebamipide treatments (P < 0.05.Rebamipide administration in aspirin-induced SII mice could improve the intestinal barrier structure and promote the regeneration of small intestinal epithelial injury through up-regulating COX-2 expression and the accumulation of β-catenin.

  3. Rebamipide Promotes the Regeneration of Aspirin-Induced Small-Intestine Mucosal Injury through Accumulation of β-Catenin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Yu; Zhong, Wa; Yu, Tao; Xia, Zhong-Sheng; Li, Jie-Yao; Ouyang, Hui; Shan, Ti-Dong; Yang, Hong-Sheng; Chen, Qi-Kui

    2015-01-01

    The effect of rebamipide on repairing intestinal mucosal damage induced by nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and its mechanism remain unclear. In this study, we sought to explore the mechanism whereby rebamipide could promote the regeneration of aspirin-induced intestinal mucosal damage. BALB/c mice were administered aspirin (200 mg/kg/d) for 5 days to induce acute small intestinal injury (SII). Subsequently, SII mice were treated with rebamipide (320 mg/kg/d) for 5 days. The structure of intestinal barrier was observed with transmission electron microscope, and Zo-1 and occludin expressions were detected. The proliferative index was indicated by the percentage of proliferating cell nuclear antigen positive cells. The prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) levels in the small intestine tissues were measured by an enzyme immunoassay. The mRNA and protein expression levels of cyclooxygenase (COX) and β-catenin signal were detected in the small intestine using quantitative PCR and Western blot, respectively. COX expression was significantly down-regulated in aspirin induced SII (P aspirin-induced intestinal inflammation were significantly milder and tight junctions between intestinal epithelial cells were improved significantly. The proliferative index increased after rebamipide treatment when compared with that in the control mice. The expressions of COX-2, β-catenin, and c-myc and the PGE2 concentrations in small intestinal tissues were significantly increased in mice with rebamipide treatments (P aspirin-induced SII mice could improve the intestinal barrier structure and promote the regeneration of small intestinal epithelial injury through up-regulating COX-2 expression and the accumulation of β-catenin.

  4. The Effects of Malathion Alkaline Phosphatase Activity in the Liver, Kidney and Small Intestine in Mice

    OpenAIRE

    Dere, Egemen

    1998-01-01

    The effects of malathion on alkaline phosphatase activity in the liver, kidney and small intestine was investigated. Malathion doses of 40 mg kg-1 were injected intreperitonally (I:P) into mice. At 0, 4, 8, 16 and 24 hours after treatment with malathion, mice were decapitated and tissues were removed. Homogenate of the tissues was centrifugated at 48000xg for 30 minutes. The supernatant was used as an enzyme source. It was found that the malathion increased alkaline phosphatase activity in th...

  5. The effect of nicorandil on small intestinal ischemia-reperfusion injury in a canine model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suto, Yujin; Oshima, Kiyohiro; Arakawa, Kazuhisa; Sato, Hiroaki; Yamazaki, Hodaka; Matsumoto, Koshi; Takeyoshi, Izumi

    2011-08-01

    It has been shown that nicorandil, which has both ATP-sensitive K+ (KATP) channel opener-like and nitrate-like properties, has an organ-protective effect in ischemia-reperfusion injury in several experimental animal models. We evaluate the effectiveness of nicorandil on warm ischemia-reperfusion injury of the small intestine in a canine model. Eighteen beagle dogs were divided into three groups: the control group (n=6); the nicorandil group (n=6), to which nicorandil was injected intravenously before the ischemia; and the glibenclamide group (n=6), to which glibenclamide, which closes the KATP channel and does not suppress the nitrate effect of nicorandil, was orally administered, and then nicorandil was injected in the same manner as in the nicorandil group. Both the superior mesenteric artery and vein were clamped for 2 h. Superior mesenteric artery blood flow, small intestinal mucosal tissue blood flow, intramucosal pH, and histopathological analyses were compared among the three groups. Superior mesenteric artery blood flow, mucosal tissue blood flow and pHi after reperfusion were significantly maintained in the nicorandil in comparison with the control and the glibenclamide groups. The histopathological findings showed less severe mucosal damage after reperfusion in the nicorandil group compared with the other two groups. Between the control group and the glibenclamide group, no significant differences were observed in all those parameters. This study suggests that nicorandil has a protective effect on small intestinal IR injury, and activation of KATP channels plays an important role in inhibiting small intestinal IR injury.

  6. Rumen Degradability and Small Intestinal Digestibility of the Amino Acids in Four Protein Supplements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Y.; Jin, L.; Wen, Q. N.; Kopparapu, N. K.; Liu, J.; Liu, X. L.; Zhang, Y. G.

    2016-01-01

    The supplementation of livestock feed with animal protein is a present cause for public concern, and plant protein shortages have become increasingly prominent in China. This conflict may be resolved by fully utilizing currently available sources of plant protein. We estimated the rumen degradability and the small intestinal digestibility of the amino acids (AA) in rapeseed meal (RSM), soybean meal (SBM), sunflower seed meal (SFM) and sesame meal (SSM) using the mobile nylon bag method to determine the absorbable AA content of these protein supplements as a guide towards dietary formulations for the dairy industry. Overall, this study aimed to utilize protein supplements effectively to guide dietary formulations to increase milk yield and save plant protein resources. To this end, we studied four cows with a permanent rumen fistula and duodenal T-shape fistula in a 4×4 Latin square experimental design. The results showed that the total small intestine absorbable amino acids and small intestine absorbable essential amino acids were higher in the SBM (26.34% and 13.11% dry matter [DM], respectively) than in the SFM (13.97% and 6.89% DM, respectively). The small intestine absorbable Lys contents of the SFM, SSM, RSM and SBM were 0.86%, 0.88%, 1.43%, and 2.12% (DM basis), respectively, and the absorbable Met contents of these meals were 0.28%, 1.03%, 0.52%, and 0.47% (DM basis), respectively. Among the examined food sources, the milk protein score of the SBM (0.181) was highest followed by those of the RSM (0.136), SSM (0.108) and SFM (0.106). The absorbable amino acid contents of the protein supplements accurately reflected protein availability, which is an important indicator of the balance of feed formulation. Therefore, a database detailing the absorbable AA should be established. PMID:26732449

  7. CONTROL AND CANCEROUS TISSUES OF HUMAN STOMACH, SMALL INTESTINE AND LARGE INTESTINE - THE AVERAGE CONTENT OF SODIUM AND POTASSIUM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Głogowska

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Sodium and potassium regulate the total amount of water in the body and the transmission of sodium into and out of individual cells also plays a role in critical body functions. The movement of sodium is critical in generation of these electrical signals. Research was conducted on samples taken from women and men aged 20-90 years, derived from the stomach, small intestine and large intestine. Samples were dried at 80ºC for 24 hours, and then increased temperature to 105ºC and dried for seven days until dry mass was obtained. All dry material of each sample was weighted and placed in a separate mineralization tubes and mixed with 1 cm3 of 65% HNO3 and heated at 105°C for 120 minutes in a thermostat-controlled digestion block, VELP Scientifica DK 20. Metals such as sodium and potassium were detected using FAAS method. The average content of sodium in patients diagnosed with stomach cancer is lower, than in healthy person. Indicate higher mean content of sodium in the control tissues of stomach (2151,730 μg•g-1d.m., compared to a sodium content in tissues adjacent to the tumor (1813,958 μg•g-1d.m. and tumor tissues (2029,442 μg•g-1d.m.. In the case of colon, control tissues have lower average content of sodium (2160,886 μg•g-1d.m., than the tissues surrounding the tumor (3325,963 μg•g-1d.m. and tumor tissues (3037,121 μg•g-1d.m.. The potassium level is higher in the control tissues of stomach (1428,993 μg•g-1d.m., than in the tissues adjacent to the tumor (1091,544 μg•g-1d.m. and tumor tissues (1220,471 μg•g-1d.m.. In the large intestine higher average content of potassium is characterized by tumor tissues (2307,234 μg•g-1d.m. and tissues adjacent to the tumor (1712,779 μg•g-1d.m., than control tissue (1389,703 μg•g-1d.m.. Comparing this relationship with data on potassium channels, it can be assumed that in the some case of malignant transformation in the colon, potassium channels also play a big role.

  8. Cellular cross talk in the small intestinal mucosa: postnatal lymphocytic immigration elicits a specific epithelial transcriptional response

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schjoldager, Katrine Ter-Borch Gram; Maltesen, Henrik R; Balmer, Sophie

    2008-01-01

    such physiological cross talk between the immune system and the epithelium in the postnatal small intestinal mucosa is lacking. We have investigated the transcriptome changes occurring in the postnatal mouse small intestine using DNA microarray technology, immunocytochemistry, and quantitative real-time RT-PCR...... analysis. The DNA microarray data were analyzed bioinformatically by using a combination of projections to latent structures analysis and functional annotation analysis. The results show that infiltrating lymphocytes appear in the mouse small intestine in the late postweaning period and give rise...

  9. Effects of taurine on plasma glucose concentration and active glucose transport in the small intestine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsuchiya, Yo; Kawamata, Koichi

    2017-11-01

    Taurine lowers blood glucose levels and improves hyperglycemia. However, its effects on glucose transport in the small intestine have not been investigated. Here, we elucidated the effect of taurine on glucose absorption in the small intestine. In the oral glucose tolerance test, addition of 10 mmol/L taurine suppressed the increase in hepatic portal glucose concentrations. To investigate whether the suppressive effect of taurine occurs via down-regulation of active glucose transport in the small intestine, we performed an assay using the everted sac of the rat jejunum. Addition of taurine to the mucosal side of the jejunum suppressed active glucose transport via sodium-glucose cotransporter 1 (SGLT1). After elimination of chloride ions from the mucosal solution, taurine did not show suppressive effects on active glucose transport. These results suggest that taurine suppressed the increase in hepatic portal glucose concentrations via suppression of SGLT1 activity in the rat jejunum, depending on chloride ions. © 2017 Japanese Society of Animal Science.

  10. Feasibility study of Tethered Capsule Endomicroscopy (TCE) deployment in the small intestine (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otuya, David O.; Verma, Yogesh; Dong, Jing; Gora, Michalina J.; Tearney, Guillermo J.

    2017-02-01

    Environmental enteric dysfunction (EED) is a poorly understood disease of the small intestine that causes nutrient malabsorption in children, predominantly from low and middle income countries. The clinical importance of EED is neurological and growth stunting that remains as the child grows into adulthood. Tethered capsule endomicroscopy (TCE) has the potential to improve the understanding of EED and could be used to determine the effectiveness of EED interventions. TCE in the adult esophagus and the duodenum has been demonstrated for Barrett`s esophagus and celiac disease diagnosis, respectively. While adult subjects can independently swallow these capsules, it is likely that infants will not, and, as a result, new strategies for introducing these devices in young children aged 0.5-2 years need to be investigated. Our first approach will be to introduce the TCE devices in infants under the aid of endoscopic guidance. To determine the most effective method, we have tested endoscopic approaches for introducing TCE devices into the small intestine of living swine. These methods will be compared and contrasted to discuss the most effective means for endoscopic tethered capsule introduction into the small intestine.

  11. Digestive enzyme expression and epithelial structure of small intestine in neonatal rats after 16 days spaceflight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyake, M.; Yamasaki, M.; Hazama, A.; Ijiri, K.; Shimizu, T.

    It is important to assure whether digestive system can develop normally in neonates during spaceflight. Because the small intestine changes its function and structure drastically around weaning known as redifferentiation. Lactase expression declines and sucrase increases in small intestine for digestion of solid food before weaning. In this paper, we compared this enzyme transition and structural development of small intestine in neonatal rats after spaceflight. To find digestive genes differentially expressed in fight rats, DNA membrane macroarray was also used. Eight-day old rats were loaded to Space Shuttle Columbia, and housed in the animal facility for 16 days in space (STS-90, Neurolab mission). Two control groups (AGC; asynchronous ground control and VIV; vivarium) against flight group (FLT) were prepared. There was no difference in structure (crypt depth) and cell differentiation of epithelium between FLT and AGC by immunohistochemical analysis. We found that the amount of sucrase mRNA compared to lactase was decreased in FLT by RT-PCR. It reflected the enzyme transition was inhibited. Increase of 5 genes (APO A-I, APO A-IV, ACE, aFABP and aminopeptidase M) and decrease of carboxypeptidase-D were detected in FLT using macroarray. We think nutrition differences (less nourishment and late weaning) during spaceflight may cause inhibition of enzyme transition at least partly. The weightlessness might contribute to the inhibition through behavioral change.

  12. Immunocytochemical evidence for a paracrine interaction between GIP and GLP-1-producing cells in canine small intestine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damholt, A B; Kofod, Hans; Buchan, A M

    1999-01-01

    -1- and GIP-secreting cells, we set out to determine the exact location and abundance of both cell types throughout the canine intestine. Canine small intestine was subdivided into 15-20 segments and investigated by immunocytochemistry with computer-assisted imaging. The abundance of GIP-, GLP-1...

  13. Effect of supplementary feeding during the sucking period on net absorption from the small intestine of weaned pigs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nabuurs, M.J.A.; Hoogendoorn, A.; Zijderveld-van Bemmel, van A.

    1996-01-01

    An intestinal perfusion technique was used to measure the effects of supplementary feeding (experiment 1) and temporary weaning (experiment 2) during the sucking period on the net absorption of fluid, sodium, chloride and potassium from the small intestine of pigs after weaning. The technique was

  14. Ecophysiology of the developing total bacterial and Lactobacillus communities in the terminal small intestine of weaning piglets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pieper, R.; Janzcyk, P.; Zeyner, A.; Smidt, H.; Guiard, V.; Souffrant, W.B.

    2008-01-01

    Weaning of the pig is generally regarded as a stressful event which could lead to clinical implications because of the changes in the intestinal ecosystem. The functional properties of microbiota inhabiting the pig's small intestine (SI), including lactobacilli which are assumed to exert

  15. Kaposiform hemangioendothelioma causing intestinal obstruction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bassel Salman

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available A previously healthy toddler with bilious vomiting and erythematous gluteal rash over 2 weeks had intermittent pain, constipation and decreased appetite. All labs were negative with the exception of fecal occult blood. Abdominal x-ray and ultrasound revealed dilated air-filled loops of bowel and partial small bowel obstruction. After persistent worsening abdominal pain and vomiting a CT scan with IV contrast (Fig. 1 suggested small bowel obstruction. Emergent surgery was performed and diagnostic laparoscopy revealed about 61 cm of necrotic bowel causing stricture formation and mesenteric shortening in the distal small bowel. 56 cm of inflamed bowel was resected with end-to-end anastomosis. Final pathology report indicated diffuse intestinal angiomatosis with transmural involvement and focal erosion consistent with KHE (Fig. 2. Presentation is varied, consists of cutaneous lesion, retroperitoneal mass, intestinal obstruction, jaundice, intussusception, or multifocal neoplasms. Complete surgical resection with wide margins is the best therapeutic option and has achieved the best outcomes. If not treated in sufficient time, KHE has a relatively high mortality rate of 30%, with most deaths occurring due to its locally invasive effects [5]. There are limited reports of identifying features of KHE on imaging. Of 165 cases of KHE none were presented in the small bowel [5]. We report the unique case of KHE presenting as a hypervascular mass causing obstruction in the distal small bowel. Although extremely rare, KHE should be considered as a reason for severe GI stricture or obstruction in infants and children in obscure cases and included in the differential.

  16. Protection of the small intestine against irradiation by means of a removable prosthesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sezeur, A.; Abbou, C.; Chopin, D.; Rey, P.; Leandri, J. (Service de Chirurgie Digestive et Generale, Paris (France))

    1990-07-01

    In radiation therapy of tumors, several techniques are used to prevent injury of the intestinal loops. Their purpose is to drive the intestine out of the external beam. Understanding the disadvantages they present, a temporary prosthesis which effectively protects the small bowel, and is easy to remove, has been developed. The device is a 600 to 1,000 ml, silicone rubber, expandable balloon. When implanted in the pelvis or retroperitoneal cavity, and filled, this balloon displaces the intestinal loops out of the pelvic irradiation field. It may remain either filled or empty between each irradiation session. Due to its particular elliptical shape, once empty, the balloon can be removed through a 3 cm incision under local or peridural anesthesia at the completion of radiotherapy. Eleven patients with recurrent (8) or primary (3) cancer have been implanted. The protective effect has been evaluated on successive biologic tests, performed during treatment. No problem related to the prosthesis, no alteration of the biologic tests, nor bowel injury have been observed after several months follow-up. This device is suitable for preventing intestinal complications during therapy, allowing a higher dose of radiations in some cases.

  17. A prospective randomized controlled study of erythromycin on gastric and small intestinal distention: Implications for MR enterography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bharucha, Adil E., E-mail: bharucha.adil@mayo.edu [Clinical Enteric Neuroscience Translational and Epidemiological Research (C.E.N.T.E.R.) Program, Division of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, College of Medicine, Mayo Clinic, 200 First St. S.W., Rochester, MN 55905 (United States); Fidler, Jeff L., E-mail: fidler.jeff@mayo.edu [Department of Radiology, College of Medicine, Mayo Clinic, 200 First St. S.W., Rochester, MN 55905 (United States); Huprich, James E., E-mail: huprich@mayo.edu [Department of Radiology, College of Medicine, Mayo Clinic, 200 First St. S.W., Rochester, MN 55905 (United States); Ratuapli, Shiva K., E-mail: ratuapli.shiva@mayo.edu [Clinical Enteric Neuroscience Translational and Epidemiological Research (C.E.N.T.E.R.) Program, Division of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, College of Medicine, Mayo Clinic, 200 First St. S.W., Rochester, MN 55905 (United States); Holmes, David R., E-mail: holmes.david3@mayo.edu [Biomedical Imaging Resource, College of Medicine, Mayo Clinic, 200 First St. S.W., Rochester, MN 55905 (United States); Riederer, Stephen J., E-mail: riederer@mayo.edu [MR Research Laboratory, College of Medicine, Mayo Clinic, 200 First St. S.W., Rochester, MN 55905 (United States); Zinsmeister, Alan R., E-mail: zinsmeis@mayo.edu [Division of Biomedical Statistics and Informatics, College of Medicine, Mayo Clinic, 200 First St. S.W., Rochester, MN 55905 (United States)

    2014-11-15

    Highlights: • Suboptimal small intestinal distention limits jejunal visualization during MRI. • In this controlled study, erythromycin increased gastric emptying measured with MRI. • However, effects on small intestinal dimensions were variable. - Abstract: Objectives: To assess if erythromycin increases gastric emptying and hence improves small intestinal distention during MR enterography. Methods: Gastric, small intestinal, and large intestinal volumes were assessed with MR after neutral oral contrast (1350 ml in 45 min) and balanced randomization to erythromycin (200 mg i.v., age 31 ± 3y, 13 females), or placebo (37 ± 3y, 13 females) in 40 healthy asymptomatic volunteers. Fat-suppressed T2-weighted MR images of the abdomen were acquired on a 1.5 T magnet at standard delay times for enterography. Gastric, small, and large intestinal volumes were measured by specialized software. In addition, two radiologists manually measured diameters and percentage distention of jejunal and ileal loops. Treatment effects were evaluated by an ITT analysis based on ANCOVA models. Results: All subjects tolerated erythromycin. MRI scans of the stomach and intestine were obtained at 62 ± 2 (mean ± SEM) and 74 ± 2 min respectively after starting oral contrast. Gastric volumes were lower (P < 0.0001) after erythromycin (260 ± 49 ml) than placebo (688 ± 63 ml) but jejunal, ileal, and colonic volumes were not significantly different. However, maximum (76–100%) jejunal distention was more frequently observed (P = 0.03) after erythromycin (8/20 subjects [40%]) than placebo (2/20 subjects [10%]). The diameter of a representative ileal loop was greater (P = 0.001) after erythromycin (18.8 ± 4.3 mm) than placebo (17.3 ± 2.8 mm) infusion. Conclusions: After ingestion of oral contrast, erythromycin accelerated gastric emptying but effects on small intestinal dimensions were variable. In balance, erythromycin did not substantially enhance small intestinal distention during

  18. Influence of the Gut Microflora and of Biliary Constituents on Morphological Changes in the Small Intestine in Obstructive Jaundice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Saeed Quraishy

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available Increased amounts of intestinal endotoxin are absorbed in obstructive jaundice. The precise mechanism is not known but the increased absorption may arise from alterations in the luminal contents, in the intestinal flora, in the gut wall or in interactions between all three. To examine the effects of the intestinal flora we have compared the morphological changes in the small intestine in obstructive jaundice in germ free and conventional rats while the effects of bile constituents have been examined by addition of bile constituents to the diet of bile duct ligated rats. Changes in the intestine were examined, histologically, by enzyme histochemistry, and by transmission and scanning electron microscopy. The results showed no differences in response between germ free and conventional rats. Feeding of diets containing bile salts exacerbated the lesion. Feeding of diets containing cholesterol, however, reduced the degree of intestinal changes produced by cholestasis and completely antagonised the increase in damage caused by feeding of bile salts.

  19. Commensal microbiota-induced microRNA modulates intestinal epithelial permeability through the small GTPase ARF4.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakata, Kazuaki; Sugi, Yutaka; Narabayashi, Hikari; Kobayakawa, Tetsuro; Nakanishi, Yusuke; Tsuda, Masato; Hosono, Akira; Kaminogawa, Shuichi; Hanazawa, Shigemasa; Takahashi, Kyoko

    2017-09-15

    The intestinal tract contains many commensal bacteria that modulate various physiological host functions. Dysbiosis of commensal bacteria triggers dysfunction of the intestinal epithelial barrier, leading to the induction or aggravation of intestinal inflammation. To elucidate whether microRNA plays a role in commensal microbiome-dependent intestinal epithelial barrier regulation, we compared transcripts in intestinal epithelial cells (IECs) from conventional and germ-free mice and found that commensal bacteria induced the expression of miR-21-5p in IECs. miR-21-5p increased intestinal epithelial permeability and up-regulated ADP ribosylation factor 4 (ARF4), a small GTPase, in the IEC line Caco-2. We also found that ARF4 expression was up-regulated upon suppression of phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN) and programmed cell death 4 (PDCD4), which are known miR-21-5p targets, by RNAi. Furthermore, ARF4 expression in epithelial cells of the large intestine was higher in conventional mice than in germ-free mice. ARF4 suppression in the IEC line increased the expression of tight junction proteins and decreased intestinal epithelial permeability. These results indicate that commensal microbiome-dependent miR-21-5p expression in IECs regulates intestinal epithelial permeability via ARF4, which may therefore represent a target for preventing or managing dysfunction of the intestinal epithelial barrier. © 2017 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  20. GATA4 Is Sufficient to Establish Jejunal Versus Ileal Identity in the Small Intestine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Cayla A; Wojta, Kevin; Pulakanti, Kirthi; Rao, Sridhar; Dawson, Paul; Battle, Michele A

    2017-05-01

    Patterning of the small intestinal epithelium along its cephalocaudal axis establishes three functionally distinct regions: duodenum, jejunum, and ileum. Efficient nutrient assimilation and growth depend on the proper spatial patterning of specialized digestive and absorptive functions performed by duodenal, jejunal, and ileal enterocytes. When enterocyte function is disrupted by disease or injury, intestinal failure can occur. One approach to alleviate intestinal failure would be to restore lost enterocyte functions. The molecular mechanisms determining regionally defined enterocyte functions, however, are poorly delineated. We previously showed that GATA binding protein 4 (GATA4) is essential to define jejunal enterocytes. The goal of this study was to test the hypothesis that GATA4 is sufficient to confer jejunal identity within the intestinal epithelium. To test this hypothesis, we generated a novel Gata4 conditional knock-in mouse line and expressed GATA4 in the ileum, where it is absent. We found that GATA4-expressing ileum lost ileal identity. The global gene expression profile of GATA4-expressing ileal epithelium aligned more closely with jejunum and duodenum rather than ileum. Focusing on jejunal vs ileal identity, we defined sets of jejunal and ileal genes likely to be regulated directly by GATA4 to suppress ileal identity and promote jejunal identity. Furthermore, our study implicates GATA4 as a transcriptional repressor of fibroblast growth factor 15 (Fgf15), which encodes an enterokine that has been implicated in an increasing number of human diseases. Overall, this study refines our understanding of an important GATA4-dependent molecular mechanism to pattern the intestinal epithelium along its cephalocaudal axis by elaborating on GATA4's function as a crucial dominant molecular determinant of jejunal enterocyte identity. Microarray data from this study have been deposited into NCBI Gene Expression Omnibus (http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/geo) and are

  1. Williamson Fluid Model for the Peristaltic Flow of Chyme in Small Intestine

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    Sohail Nadeem

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Mathematical model for the peristaltic flow of chyme in small intestine along with inserted endoscope is considered. Here, chyme is treated as Williamson fluid, and the flow is considered between the annular region formed by two concentric tubes (i.e., outer tube as small intestine and inner tube as endoscope. Flow is induced by two sinusoidal peristaltic waves of different wave lengths, traveling down the intestinal wall with the same speed. The governing equations of Williamson fluid in cylindrical coordinates have been modeled. The resulting nonlinear momentum equations are simplified using long wavelength and low Reynolds number approximations. The resulting problem is solved using regular perturbation method in terms of a variant of Weissenberg number We. The numerical solution of the problem is also computed by using shooting method, and comparison of results of both solutions for velocity field is presented. The expressions for axial velocity, frictional force, pressure rise, stream function, and axial pressure gradient are obtained, and the effects of various emerging parameters on the flow characteristics are illustrated graphically. Furthermore, the streamlines pattern is plotted, and it is observed that trapping occurs, and the size of the trapped bolus varies with varying embedded flow parameters.

  2. Successful small intestine colonization of adult mice by Vibrio cholerae requires ketamine anesthesia and accessory toxins.

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    Verena Olivier

    Full Text Available Vibrio cholerae colonizes the small intestine of adult C57BL/6 mice. In this study, the physical and genetic parameters that facilitate this colonization were investigated. Successful colonization was found to depend upon anesthesia with ketamine-xylazine and neutralization of stomach acid with sodium bicarbonate, but not streptomycin treatment. A variety of common mouse strains were colonized by O1, O139, and non-O1/non-O139 strains. All combinations of mutants in the genes for hemolysin, the multifunctional, autoprocessing RTX toxin (MARTX, and hemagglutinin/protease were assessed, and it was found that hemolysin and MARTX are each sufficient for colonization after a low dose infection. Overall, this study suggests that, after intragastric inoculation, V. cholerae encounters barriers to infection including an acidic environment and an immediate immune response that is circumvented by sodium bicarbonate and the anti-inflammatory effects of ketamine-xylazine. After initial adherence in the small intestine, the bacteria are subjected to additional clearance mechanisms that are evaded by the independent toxic action of hemolysin or MARTX. Once colonization is established, it is suggested that, in humans, these now persisting bacteria initiate synthesis of the major virulence factors to cause cholera disease. This adult mouse model of intestinal V. cholerae infection, now well-characterized and fully optimized, should serve as a valuable tool for studies of pathogenesis and testing vaccine efficacy.

  3. Management of Urethral Strictures After Hypospadias Repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snodgrass, Warren T; Bush, Nicol C

    2017-02-01

    Strictures of the neourethra after hypospadias surgery are more common after skin flap repairs than urethral plate or neo-plate tubularizations. The diagnosis of stricture after hypospadias repair is suspected based on symptoms of stranguria, urinary retention, and/or urinary tract infection. It is confirmed by urethroscopy during anticipated repair, without preoperative urethrography. The most common repairs for neourethra stricture after hypospadias surgery are single-stage dorsal inlay graft and 2-stage labial mucosa replacement urethroplasty. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. The PPARalpha agonist, fenofibrate decreases levels of anorectic N-acylethanolamines in the small intestine of mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Diep, Thi Ai; Golbas, Golfam; Hansen, Harald S.

    2014-01-01

    The anorectic N-acylethanolamines (NAEs), oleoylethanolamide (OEA), palmitoylethanolamide (PEA), and linoleoylethanolamide (LEA) are generated in the small intestine where they may function as a homeostatic signal, which contributes to regulating the amount and type of food ingested (1, 2...

  5. Gastric emptying and small intestinal transit in the piebald mouse model for Hirschsprung's disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cooke, H.J.; Pitman, K.; Starr, G.; Wood, J.D.

    1984-08-01

    Gastric emptying and small intestinal transit were investigated in the piebald mouse model for Hirschsprung's disease. These mice exhibited aganglionosis of the terminal segment of the large intestine. This condition was accompanied by fecal stasis and megacolon. Gastric emptying of saline or milk meals was slower in the mice with aganglionic or induced megacolon than in the normal mice, but the rate of emptying was faster than after administration of morphine (10 mg/kg). In the small intestine, the distribution of the radiolabeled marker and the advancing edge of the marker profile were abnormal in the mice with megacolon. There were small differences between the megacolonic and normal mice in the distance traversed by the advancing edge of the intraluminal profile of the marker. These results are evidence for disturbances of gastric and small intestinal motor function that occur in mice secondary to development of megacolon.

  6. Failure of Added Dietary Gluten to Induce Small Intestinal Histopathological Changes in Patients with Watery Diarrhea and Lymphocytic Colitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hugh James Freeman

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available Lymphocytic colitis is a form of microscopic colitis usually characterized by watery diarrhea and often associated with biopsy-defined celiac disease. Two patients with lymphocytic colitis and normal small intestinal biopsies who were administered 40 g of added dietary gluten for four consecutive weeks are presented. Small intestinal biopsies from multiple sites in the proximal small bowel were done after three and four weeks to determine whether pathological changes in latent celiac disease could be induced in these patients with a high gluten-containing diet. In addition, colorectal biopsies were done to determine whether the colitis was sensitive to oral gluten. No alterations in the small intestinal biopsies were detected in either patient and no changes occurred in colitis severity. Although microscopic forms of colitis have been linked to celiac disease, this study indicates that lymphocytic colitis is a heterogeneous clinicopathological disorder that, in some patients, is independent of any gluten-induced intestinal pathological changes.

  7. Effects of the components of breast milk on mucosal enzyme activity of the newborn small intestine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jonas, A; Oren, M; Diver-Haber, A; Kaplan, B; Passwell, J

    1987-02-01

    The effects of the aqueous phase of human breast milk on the disaccharidase activity of newborn rabbit small intestinal mucosal explants were studied in vitro culture. These explants continuously synthesized protein and normal morphology was maintained for the duration of the cultures. Addition of the aqueous phase resulted in significant increase of lactase (p less than 0.001) and maltase (p less than 0.01) concentrations in these organ cultures. This effect was dose dependent and was observed whether the organ biopsies were derived from fed or starved newborn rabbits. Further purification of the aqueous phase showed that the active ingredient exerting these effects was lactose. These studies suggest that lactose may have an important function in stabilization of newborn intestinal disaccharidase enzymes.

  8. Impact of high-fat diet on the intestinal microbiota and small intestinal physiology before and after the onset of obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araújo, João Ricardo; Tomas, Julie; Brenner, Christiane; Sansonetti, Philippe J

    2017-10-01

    The modulation of the intestinal microbiota by high-fat diet (HFD) has a major impact on both immunological and metabolic functions of the host. Taking this into consideration, the aim of this contribution is to review the impact of HFD on microbiota profile and small intestinal physiology before and after the onset of obesity and its metabolic complications. Evidence from animal studies suggest that before the onset of obesity and its metabolic complications, HFD induces intestinal dysbiosis - encompassing changes in composition balance and massive redistribution with bacteria occupying intervillous spaces and crypts - associated with early physiopathological changes, predominantly in the ileum, such as low-grade inflammation, decreased antimicrobial peptides expression, impaired mucus production, secretion and layer's thickness, and decreased expression of tight junction proteins. With time, major inflammatory signals (e.g. toll-like receptor-4 dependent) become activated, thereby stimulating proinflammatory cytokines secretion in the small intestine. This inflammatory state might subsequently exacerbate disruption of the mucus layer barrier and increase epithelial permeability of the small intestine, thereby creating an environment that facilitates the passage of bacterial components (e.g. lipopolysaccharide, peptidoglycan and flagellin) and metabolites from the intestinal lumen (e.g. secondary bile acids) to the circulation and peripheral tissues (i.e. leaky gut), eventually promoting the development of systemic inflammation, obesity, adiposity, insulin resistance and glucose intolerance preceding hyperglycemia. Although the mechanisms are still not completely understood, prebiotics, probiotics, polyphenols, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ agonists (such as rosiglitazone) and exercise have been shown to reverse HFD-induced intestinal phenotype and to attenuate the severity of obesity and its associated metabolic complications. Copyright © 2017

  9. Human Enteroids as a Model of Upper Small Intestinal Ion Transport Physiology and Pathophysiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foulke-Abel, Jennifer; In, Julie; Yin, Jianyi; Zachos, Nicholas C; Kovbasnjuk, Olga; Estes, Mary K; de Jonge, Hugo; Donowitz, Mark

    2016-03-01

    Human intestinal crypt-derived enteroids are a model of intestinal ion transport that require validation by comparison with cell culture and animal models. We used human small intestinal enteroids to study neutral Na(+) absorption and stimulated fluid and anion secretion under basal and regulated conditions in undifferentiated and differentiated cultures to show their functional relevance to ion transport physiology and pathophysiology. Human intestinal tissue specimens were obtained from an endoscopic biopsy or surgical resections performed at Johns Hopkins Hospital. Crypts were isolated, enteroids were propagated in culture, induced to undergo differentiation, and transduced with lentiviral vectors. Crypt markers, surface cell enzymes, and membrane ion transporters were characterized using quantitative reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction, immunoblot, or immunofluorescence analyses. We used multiphoton and time-lapse confocal microscopy to monitor intracellular pH and luminal dilatation in enteroids under basal and regulated conditions. Enteroids differentiated upon withdrawal of WNT3A, yielding decreased crypt markers and increased villus-like characteristics. Na(+)/H(+) exchanger 3 activity was similar in undifferentiated and differentiated enteroids, and was affected by known inhibitors, second messengers, and bacterial enterotoxins. Forskolin-induced swelling was completely dependent on cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator and partially dependent on Na(+)/H(+) exchanger 3 and Na(+)/K(+)/2Cl(-) cotransporter 1 inhibition in undifferentiated and differentiated enteroids. Increases in cyclic adenosine monophosphate with forskolin caused enteroid intracellular acidification in HCO3(-)-free buffer. Cyclic adenosine monophosphate-induced enteroid intracellular pH acidification as part of duodenal HCO3(-) secretion appears to require cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator and electrogenic Na(+)/HCO3(-) cotransporter 1

  10. The role of nutrition in the adaptation of the small intestine after massive resection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ireton-Jones, Carol

    2003-08-01

    The demonstration that weight gain, growth, and development can be achieved by supplying all essential nutrients exclusively by vein prompted the laboratory evaluation of this parenteral feeding technique in animals that had undergone enterectomy. This study was undertaken to determine the role of nutrition and anabolism in compensation of the small intestine after massive intestinal resection. Three or 4 littermate beagle puppies from 10 litters, obtained 8 weeks after weaning and weighing 2 to 3 kg, underwent enterectomy at 10 weeks of age. In the standardized operation, 90% or 95% of the small intestine was removed, as measured from the tail of the pancreas to the ileocecal junction. After enterectomy, the dogs were divided into 2 groups, 1 group being fed exclusively with a kennel diet and the other offered the orally administered diet, whereas all the required nutrients were by vein. After 1 month of continuous infusion, the puppies were weaned from the IV-administered nutrient solution and maintained solely on the standard, orally administered diet. Thirty-four puppies were evaluated for up to 1 year with their control littermates with no resection. Normal growth and development occurred in all puppies after enterectomy during the total IV administration of nutrition. After the parenteral feeding, the dogs with a 90% resection achieved near normal weight gain in contrast to the orally fed dogs with enterectomy that grew to only one-half normal size. In the 95% resected group, 5 of 6 dogs survived more than 4 months after parenteral feedings, whereas only 1 of 5 lived more than 1 month while receiving oral feedings alone. At 1 year, the intestine from the parenterally fed dogs that had undergone enterectomy demonstrated increased mucosal cellularity, marked villus hypertrophy, and increased intestinal weight gain per unit length when compared with the orally fed dogs that had undergone resection and the control littermates. By providing all essential nutrients

  11. The bacteriology of the small intestinal mucosa of free-living reindeer

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    Wenche Sørmo

    1994-12-01

    Full Text Available Bacteria in close associaton with the intestinal mucosa are thought to protect the mucosa from pathogenic microorganisms. The pH of the small intestinal mucosa and the viable populations of aerobic and anaerobic bacteria associated with the proximal and distal jejunal mucosa, were measured in four free-living reindeer in winter. The anaerobic bacterial populations were characterized. The median pH of the mucosa of the duodenum was 6.6 (n=4 at point 0.2 m from the pyloric sphincter. The mucosal pH increased along the length of the intestine to 8.3 at 14 m and then decreased to 7.9 at 19.8 m from the pyloric sphincter. Examination by transmission electron microscopy and cultivation techniques failed to reveal any bacteria on the mucosa of the proximal jejunum in two of the animals. In two other reindeer the median anaerobic bacterial densities in the proximal jejunum ranged from 25-2500 cells/g mucosa. The median anaerobic bacterial populations in the distal jejunum ranged from 80 to 20000 bacteria/g mucosa (n=4. The anaerobic population of bacteria in the proximal jejunum was dominated by streptococci and unidentified gram positive rods. Bacteroidaceae, streptococci and unidentified gram positive rods were common in the distal jejunum. The low density and the species diversity of bacteria in the small intestine suggests that these microorganisms are inhibited by components in the natural winter diet of reindeer. Bacteria evidently play a minor role in protection of the mucosa of reindeer in winter.

  12. Fasting induces a biphasic adaptive metabolic response in murine small intestine

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    Evelo Chris TA

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The gut is a major energy consumer, but a comprehensive overview of the adaptive response to fasting is lacking. Gene-expression profiling, pathway analysis, and immunohistochemistry were therefore carried out on mouse small intestine after 0, 12, 24, and 72 hours of fasting. Results Intestinal weight declined to 50% of control, but this loss of tissue mass was distributed proportionally among the gut's structural components, so that the microarrays' tissue base remained unaffected. Unsupervised hierarchical clustering of the microarrays revealed that the successive time points separated into distinct branches. Pathway analysis depicted a pronounced, but transient early response that peaked at 12 hours, and a late response that became progressively more pronounced with continued fasting. Early changes in gene expression were compatible with a cellular deficiency in glutamine, and metabolic adaptations directed at glutamine conservation, inhibition of pyruvate oxidation, stimulation of glutamate catabolism via aspartate and phosphoenolpyruvate to lactate, and enhanced fatty-acid oxidation and ketone-body synthesis. In addition, the expression of key genes involved in cell cycling and apoptosis was suppressed. At 24 hours of fasting, many of the early adaptive changes abated. Major changes upon continued fasting implied the production of glucose rather than lactate from carbohydrate backbones, a downregulation of fatty-acid oxidation and a very strong downregulation of the electron-transport chain. Cell cycling and apoptosis remained suppressed. Conclusion The changes in gene expression indicate that the small intestine rapidly looses mass during fasting to generate lactate or glucose and ketone bodies. Meanwhile, intestinal architecture is maintained by downregulation of cell turnover.

  13. Transesterification of a series of 12 parabens by liver and small-intestinal microsomes of rats and humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujino, Chieri; Watanabe, Yoko; Uramaru, Naoto; Kitamura, Shigeyuki

    2014-02-01

    Hydrolytic transformation of parabens (4-hydroxybenzoic acid esters; used as antibacterial agents) to 4-hydroxybenzoic acid and alcohols by tissue microsomes is well-known both in vitro and in vivo. Here, we investigated transesterification reactions of parabens catalyzed by rat and human microsomes, using a series of 12 parabens with C1-C12 alcohol side chains. Transesterification of parabens by rat liver and small-intestinal microsomes occurred in the presence of alcohols in the microsomal incubation mixture. Among the 12 parabens, propylparaben was most effectively transesterified by rat liver microsomes with methanol or ethanol, followed by butylparaben. Relatively low activity was observed with longer-side-chain parabens. In contrast, small-intestinal microsomes exhibited higher activity towards moderately long side-chain parabens, and showed the highest activity toward octylparaben. When parabens were incubated with liver or small-intestinal microsomes in the presence of C1-C12 alcohols, ethanol and decanol were most effectively transferred to parabens by rat liver microsomes and small-intestinal microsomes, respectively. Human liver and small-intestinal microsomes also exhibited significant transesterification activities with different substrate specificities, like rat microsomes. Carboxylesterase isoforms, CES1b and CES1c, and CES2, exhibited significant transesterification activity toward parabens, and showed similar substrate specificity to human liver and small-intestinal microsomes, respectively. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. The effects of Peroxiredoxin VI on the preservation of the small intestine in rats after ischemia/reperfusion damage

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    A. E. Gordeeva

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The intestine is an extremely sensitive organ with regard to ischemia/reperfusion damage (I/R because of its high oxygen reguirement. The aim of this study is to investigate the effects of Peroxiredoxin VI (Prx VI on preservation of the small intestine after the intestinal ischemia/reperfusion injury in strangulation ileum model. Intestinal ischemia/ reperfusion injury in strangulation model was produced by occlusion of the distal ileum loop and mesentery with its blood vessels for 60 min followed by a 120-min reperfusion period. A group of animals received intravenous injections of 10 mg/kg Prx VI 15 min prior to the intestinal ischemia/reperfusion in the strangulation model. After surgery, part of the intestine was collected for histological analysis. In I/R group a breakdown in the integrity of villi and crypts was revealed, as well as infiltration of lymphocytes, oxidative damage with serious mucosal loss. Prx VI pretreatment to rats with ischemia/reperfusion injury protected the intestine from ischemia/reperfusion injury by reducing oxidative damage and preserving intestinal mucosal composition. These results demonstrated that Prx VI possessed advantageous antioxidant effects as well as effectively attenuated ischemia-reperfusion trauma of the strangulated intestine segment. 

  15. Prophylactic Probiotics Reduce Cow's Milk Protein Intolerance in Neonates after Small Intestine Surgery and Antibiotic Treatment Presenting Symptoms That Mimics Postoperative Infection

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    Shoichi Ezaki

    2012-01-01

    Conclusions: CMPI was induced in newborns after surgery on their small intestines and antibiotics treatment with presentation of symptoms that mimic postoperative infection. Development of CMPI in this population possibly involves disruption of intestinal flora. Administration of probiotics can reduce the incidence of CMPI after small intestine surgery. The elevated CRP level may be useful in the diagnosis of CMPI.

  16. Congenital Midureteric Stricture: Challenges in Diagnosis and Management

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    Raashid Hamid

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Congenital midureteric stricture (MUS is a rare malformation. We report our experience with five cases seen over a period of 4 years from 2010 to 2014. Materials and Methods. The study was based on the retrospective analysis of five patients diagnosed as having MUS. Diagnosis was suspected after fetal ultrasonography (USG in one patient and magnetic resonance urography (MRU in four patients. Retrograde pyelography (RGP was performed on three patients. The final diagnosis was confirmed during surgical exploration in all the patients. Results. MRU was found to be a good investigation method. It showed the site of obstruction in the ureter in all instances. Intravenous urography detected proximal ureteric dilatation present in two of the patients. RGP delineates the level of stricture and the course of ureter, as shown in our cases. All patients had significant obstruction on the affected side. Four patients underwent ureteroureterostomy, all of whom had satisfactory results. In one patient, ureteric reimplantation was carried out due to distal small ureteric caliber. Conclusion. This rare entity is often misdiagnosed initially as pelviureteric junction obstruction. MRU is an excellent option for the anatomical location and functional assessment of the involved system. At the time of surgical correction of a ureteral obstruction, RGP is a useful adjunct for delineating the stricture level and morphology.

  17. Dietary Fatty Acids Directly Impact Central Nervous System Autoimmunity via the Small Intestine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haghikia, Aiden; Jörg, Stefanie; Duscha, Alexander; Berg, Johannes; Manzel, Arndt; Waschbisch, Anne; Hammer, Anna; Lee, De-Hyung; May, Caroline; Wilck, Nicola; Balogh, Andras; Ostermann, Annika I; Schebb, Nils Helge; Akkad, Denis A; Grohme, Diana A; Kleinewietfeld, Markus; Kempa, Stefan; Thöne, Jan; Demir, Seray; Müller, Dominik N; Gold, Ralf; Linker, Ralf A

    2015-10-20

    Growing empirical evidence suggests that nutrition and bacterial metabolites might impact the systemic immune response in the context of disease and autoimmunity. We report that long-chain fatty acids (LCFAs) enhanced differentiation and proliferation of T helper 1 (Th1) and/or Th17 cells and impaired their intestinal sequestration via p38-MAPK pathway. Alternatively, dietary short-chain FAs (SCFAs) expanded gut T regulatory (Treg) cells by suppression of the JNK1 and p38 pathway. We used experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) as a model of T cell-mediated autoimmunity to show that LCFAs consistently decreased SCFAs in the gut and exacerbated disease by expanding pathogenic Th1 and/or Th17 cell populations in the small intestine. Treatment with SCFAs ameliorated EAE and reduced axonal damage via long-lasting imprinting on lamina-propria-derived Treg cells. These data demonstrate a direct dietary impact on intestinal-specific, and subsequently central nervous system-specific, Th cell responses in autoimmunity, and thus might have therapeutic implications for autoimmune diseases such as multiple sclerosis. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Cell proliferation within small intestinal crypts is the principal driving force for cell migration on villi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Aimee; Maclaren, Oliver J; Fletcher, Alexander G; Muraro, Daniele; Kreuzaler, Peter A; Byrne, Helen M; Maini, Philip K; Watson, Alastair J M; Pin, Carmen

    2017-02-01

    The functional integrity of the intestinal epithelial barrier relies on tight coordination of cell proliferation and migration, with failure to regulate these processes resulting in disease. It is not known whether cell proliferation is sufficient to drive epithelial cell migration during homoeostatic turnover of the epithelium. Nor is it known precisely how villus cell migration is affected when proliferation is perturbed. Some reports suggest that proliferation and migration may not be related while other studies support a direct relationship. We used established cell-tracking methods based on thymine analog cell labeling and developed tailored mathematical models to quantify cell proliferation and migration under normal conditions and when proliferation is reduced and when it is temporarily halted. We found that epithelial cell migration velocities along the villi are coupled to cell proliferation rates within the crypts in all conditions. Furthermore, halting and resuming proliferation results in the synchronized response of cell migration on the villi. We conclude that cell proliferation within the crypt is the primary force that drives cell migration along the villus. This methodology can be applied to interrogate intestinal epithelial dynamics and characterize situations in which processes involved in cell turnover become uncoupled, including pharmacological treatments and disease models.-Parker, A., Maclaren, O. J., Fletcher, A. G., Muraro, D., Kreuzaler, P. A., Byrne, H. M., Maini, P. K., Watson, A. J. M., Pin, C. Cell proliferation within small intestinal crypts is the principal driving force for cell migration on villi. © The Author(s).

  19. Fatal Small Intestinal Ischemia Due to Methamphetamine Intoxication: Report of a Case With Autopsy Results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamid Attaran

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Methamphetamine is one of the most common abused drugs, so its various effects on different body organs should be familiar to all physicians. Regarding its gastrointestinal sequels, there are few reports of ischemic colitis induced by its vasoconstrictive effects. This is the first report of isolated small intestinal infarction resulting in death following methamphetamine toxicity. A 40-year-old woman with a past history of medical treatment for obesity referred to hospital with severe chest and back pain, perspiration, nausea, agitation, high blood pressure, bradycardia and subsequent lethargy and vasomotor instability. Cardiac evaluations were normal, and a toxicologic urinalysis revealed methamphetamine. Later, abdominal pain predominated, and ultrasonography revealed signs of bowel infarction. She did not consent to surgery and succumbed afterward. At autopsy gangrene and perforation of distal ileum were found. The cause of death was determined as intestinal gangrene following methamphetamine toxicity. Methamphetamine has anorectic effects and so is used in some "diet pills"; Consumers may not even know they are using methamphetamine. Hence in cases of either known MA abuse or those using unknown weight reduction drugs presenting with gastrointestinal complaints or abdominal pain, intestinal ischemia should be kept in mind and if plausible, intervened promptly.

  20. Transport of the biotin dietary derivative biocytin (N-biotinyl-L-lysine) in rat small intestine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Said, H M; Thuy, L P; Sweetman, L; Schatzman, B

    1993-01-01

    Biocytin is an important end product of intraluminal digestion of dietary protein-bound biotin. Limited studies are available regarding the ability of the small intestine to transport biocytin and about the mechanism involved. The aim of the present study was to delineate these issues. Transport of [3H]-biocytin was examined using everted sacs from rat intestine. Mucosal-to-serosal transport of low (0.022 mumol/L) and high (5 mumol/L) concentrations of biocytin were linear for up to 20 minutes of incubation. Transport of biocytin as a function of concentration (0.022-5 mumol/L) was linear (r = 0.99) and occurred at a rate of 22,062 fmol.g tissue (wet wt)-1.15 min-1. Addition of high concentrations of unlabeled biocytin, biotin, biotin methyl ester, and lysine did not cause a significant inhibition of the transport of [3H]-biocytin. Furthermore, transport of biocytin was independent of Na+ concentration, pH, energy, and temperature. Compared with transport of equimolar concentrations of free biotin, transport of biocytin (0.022 mumol/L) was significantly lower in both the jejunum and the ileum. (1) Biocytin transport in rat intestine is lower than that of free biotin and occurs via simple physical diffusion. (2) In the rat, efficient absorption and optimal bioavailability of dietary protein-bound biotin necessitates its conversion to free biotin.

  1. The scintigraphic determination of small intestinal transit time in patients with irritable bowel syndrome

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marano, A.R.; Caride, V.J.; Shah, R.V.; Prokop, E.K.; Troncale, F.J.; McCallum, R.W.

    1984-01-01

    Diffuse disturbance in gastrointestinal motility may be present in patients with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). To further investigate small intestinal motility in IBS patients small intestinal transit time (SITT) was determined and related to the symptom status. 11 female patients with IBS (mean age 29 years) were divided into those whose predominate symptom was diarrhea (N=6), and those with only constipation (N=5). All subjects ingested an isosmotic solution of lactulose (10 gm in 150cc of water) labeled with 99m-Tc-DTPA (Sn). The patient was studied supine under a 25 inch gamma camera with data collected at 1 frame per minute for 180 minutes or until activity appeared in the ascending colon. Regions of interest were selected over the cecum and ascending colon. The time of first appearance of radioactivity in the region of the cecum was taken as the small intestinal transit time. SITT in the 5 normal females was 98.7 +- 13 min (mean +- SEM). SITT in the IBS patients with diarrhea, 67.3 +- 7 min was significantly faster (p< 0.08). SITT in the constipated IBS patients, 126 +- 12 min, was slower than normals and significantly different from diarrhea patients (p< 0.001). These studies show that IBS patients with diarrhea have significantly faster SITT than normals while constipated IBS patients have significantly slower SITT than the diarrhea subgroup. Further, this study emphasizes the need to study the various symptomatic subgroups of IBs patients independently and indicates a possible role for abnormal SITT in the pathogenesis of IBS.

  2. Sulphydryl blocker induced small intestinal inflammation in rats: a new model mimicking Crohn's disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rachmilewitz, D; Okon, E; Karmeli, F

    1997-01-01

    Background—Sulphydryl compounds are essential for maintaining mucosal integrity in the gastrointestinal tract. 
Aim—To characterise a model of experimental inflammation in the small intestine induced by a sulphydryl blocker. 
Methods—Inflammation in the small intestine was induced in rats by intrajejunal administration of 0.1 ml 2% iodoacetamide. The possible amelioration of the damage induced was modulated by intragastric administration of TEMPOL (4-hydroxy-2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidine-1-oxyl; 50 mg/100 g body weight), ketotifen (200 µg/100 g body weight) or by addition of L-NAME (NG-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester; 0.1 mg/ml) or apocynin (120 µg/ml) to the drinking water. Rats were sacrificed at various time intervals, the small intestine resected, weighed, macroscopic lesions were assessed, and mucosal generation of inflammatory mediators and nitric oxide synthase activity were determined. 
Results—Intrajejunal administration of iodoacetamide induced, after one week, multifocal mucosal erosions, ulcerations with granulomas and giant Langhans cells. At two weeks, the mucosa was almost macroscopically intact but histologically epithelial granuloma and giant cells were present. Myeloperoxidase activity was increased in the first 24 hours, one week later mucosal nitric oxide synthase activity and generation of leukotriene B4, leukotriene C4 and thromboxane B2 were increased, whereas prostaglandin E2 generation was decreased notably. Ketotifen and apocynin significantly decreased the extent of injury which was not affected by TEMPOL or L-NAME. 
Conclusions—Jejunal inflammation induced by the sulphydryl blocker, iodoacetamide, resembles the pathological changes in Crohn's disease. The protective effect of ketotifen and apocynin indicates the contribution of O2 and pro-inflammatory mediators to the pathogenesis of the damage, and may be a novel approach to the treatment of inflammatory bowel disease. 

 Keywords: iodoacetamide; TEMPOL; ketotifen

  3. Diaphragmatic rupture with right colon and small intestine herniation after blunt trauma: a case report

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    Muroni Mirko

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Traumatic diaphragmatic hernias are an unusual presentation of trauma, and are observed in about 10% of diaphragmatic injuries. The diagnosis is often missed because of non-specific clinical signs, and the absence of additional intra-abdominal and thoracic injuries. Case presentation We report a case of a 59-year-old Italian man hospitalized for abdominal pain and vomiting. His medical history included a blunt trauma seven years previously. A chest X-ray showed right diaphragm elevation, and computed tomography revealed that the greater omentum, a portion of the colon and the small intestine had been transposed in the hemithorax through a diaphragm rupture. The patient underwent laparotomy, at which time the colon and small intestine were reduced back into the abdomen and the diaphragm was repaired. Conclusions This was a unusual case of traumatic right-sided diaphragmatic hernia. Diaphragmatic ruptures may be revealed many years after the initial trauma. The suspicion of diaphragmatic rupture in a patient with multiple traumas contributes to early diagnosis. Surgical repair remains the only curative treatment for diaphragmatic hernias. Prosthetic patches may be a good solution when the diaphragmatic defect is severe and too large for primary closure, whereas primary repair remains the gold standard for the closure of small to moderate sized diaphragmatic defects.

  4. Small intestinal bacterial overgrowth in nonalcoholic steatohepatitis: association with toll-like receptor 4 expression and plasma levels of interleukin 8.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Shanab, Ahmed Abu

    2011-05-01

    Experimental and clinical studies suggest an association between small intestinal bacterial overgrowth (SIBO) and nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). Liver injury and fibrosis could be related to exposure to bacterial products of intestinal origin and, most notably, endotoxin, including lipopolysaccharide (LPS).

  5. MicroRNA Transcriptome in Swine Small Intestine during Weaning Stress

    OpenAIRE

    Tao, Xin; Xu, Ziwei

    2013-01-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) play important roles in intestinal diseases; however, the role of miRNAs during weaning stress is unknown. In our study, six jejunal small RNA libraries constructed from weaning piglets at 1, 4 and 7 d after weaning (libraries W1, W4 and W7, respectively) and from suckling piglets on the same days as the weaning piglets (libraries S1, S4 and S7, respectively) were sequenced using Solexa high-throughput sequencing technology. Overall, 260 known swine miRNAs and 317 novel can...

  6. Age characteristics of changes in invertase activity of the mucous membrane of the small intestine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rakhimov, K. R.; Aleksandrova, N. V.

    1980-01-01

    Rats of varying ages were subjected to stress from heat, cold, and hydrocortisone injection. Invertase activity in homogenates of small intestine mucous membranes was studied following sacrifice. Invertase activity was low in young animals, but increased sharply in 30 day old ones, remaining at a relatively constant level until old age. The study concludes that the stress hormone (corticosteroids, etc.) levels in the blood, which affects the formation of enteric enzyme levels and activities, and that age related peculiarities in invertase activity are a consequence of altered hormone status and epitheliocyte sensitivity.

  7. A Rare Case of Mycosis Fungoides in the Oral Cavity and Small Intestine Complicated by Perforation

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    Drew Arthur Emge

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Extracutaneous involvement in mycosis fungoides (MF carries a poor prognosis. Oral and gastrointestinal (GI tract lesions are both rare locations of disease. We describe the clinical findings of one case with oral and GI MF complicated by perforation after systemic antineoplastic treatment, and review the relevant literature. The patient had a 1-year history of MF before development of tongue and palate tumors. He was treated with local electron beam radiation, but re-presented to the hospital after what was found to be small intestine perforation following systemic antineoplastic therapy. The case reveals key insights into the progression and complications of lymphomas with GI tract involvement.

  8. Traumatic rectourethral fistula repair: A potential application of porcine small intestinal submucosa

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    Shanmugasundaram Rajaian

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Rectourethral fistula is an uncommon but devastating condition. Traumatic rectourethral fistula is still uncommon and repair of traumatic rectourethral fistula involves a complex procedure. Most of the urologists would prefer to repair the fistula through perineal route especially when urethral reconstruction is also required. The repaired ends of the fistula are separated with various interposition flaps and grafts in order to prevent recurrence. Gracilis interposition muscle flap is commonly used. We describe the first case of traumatic rectourethral fistula repair in a 45-year-old man using interposition of a porcine small intestinal submucosal (Biodesign™ (Surgisis ® graft.

  9. Survival after Resection of a Primary Malignant Melanoma of the Small Intestine in a Young Patient: Report of a Case

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    T.K. Timmers

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The occurrence of primary melanoma of the small intestine is rare. We describe the case of a 25-year-old man found to have a primary melanoma of the ileum. The patient presented with gradual onset of abdominal pain, fever, diarrhea, weight loss and fatigue. A preoperative diagnosis of a small intestinal tumor was based on the findings of computed tomography scanning. This diagnosis was confirmed at laparotomy and a partial small bowel resection was performed. Histopathological examination of the resected specimen clarified the exact nature of the lesion, confirming the diagnosis of melanoma. Thorough postoperative investigation did not reveal a primary lesion in the skin, gastrointestinal tract, oculus or brain. Thus, we diagnosed this tumor as a primary lesion. One year after his operation, the patient remains well without any evidence of recurrence. Thus, we diagnosed this small bowel tumor as a primary melanoma of the small intestine.

  10. Survival after resection of a primary malignant melanoma of the small intestine in a young patient: report of a case.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timmers, T K; Schadd, E M; Monkelbaan, J F; Meij, V

    2013-05-01

    The occurrence of primary melanoma of the small intestine is rare. We describe the case of a 25-year-old man found to have a primary melanoma of the ileum. The patient presented with gradual onset of abdominal pain, fever, diarrhea, weight loss and fatigue. A preoperative diagnosis of a small intestinal tumor was based on the findings of computed tomography scanning. This diagnosis was confirmed at laparoto-my and a partial small bowel resection was performed. Histopathological examination of the resected specimen clarified the exact nature of the lesion, confirming the diagnosis of melanoma. Thorough postoperative investigation did not reveal a primary lesion in the skin, gastrointestinal tract, oculus or brain. Thus, we diagnosed this tumor as a primary lesion. One year after his operation, the patient remains well without any evidence of recurrence. Thus, we diagnosed this small bowel tumor as a primary melanoma of the small intestine.

  11. Type I collagen as an extracellular matrix for the in vitro growth of human small intestinal epithelium.

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    Ziyad Jabaji

    Full Text Available We previously reported in vitro maintenance and proliferation of human small intestinal epithelium using Matrigel, a proprietary basement membrane product. There are concerns over the applicability of Matrigel-based methods for future human therapies. We investigated type I collagen as an alternative for the culture of human intestinal epithelial cells.Human small intestine was procured from fresh surgical pathology specimens. Small intestinal crypts were isolated using EDTA chelation. Intestinal subepithelial myofibroblasts were isolated from a pediatric sample and expanded in vitro. After suspension in Matrigel or type I collagen gel, crypts were co-cultured above a confluent layer of myofibroblasts. Crypts were also grown in monoculture with exposure to myofibroblast conditioned media; these were subsequently sub-cultured in vitro and expanded with a 1∶2 split ratio. Cultures were assessed with light microscopy, RT-PCR, histology, and immunohistochemistry.Collagen supported viable human epithelium in vitro for at least one month in primary culture. Sub-cultured epithelium expanded through 12 passages over 60 days. Histologic sections revealed polarized columnar cells, with apical brush borders and basolaterally located nuclei. Collagen-based cultures gave rise to monolayer epithelial sheets at the gel-liquid interface, which were not observed with Matrigel. Immunohistochemical staining identified markers of differentiated intestinal epithelium and myofibroblasts. RT-PCR demonstrated expression of α-smooth muscle actin and vimentin in myofibroblasts and E-Cadherin, CDX2, villin 1, intestinal alkaline phosphatase, chromogranin A, lysozyme, and Lgr5 in epithelial cells. These markers were maintained through several passages.Type I collagen gel supports long-term in vitro maintenance and expansion of fully elaborated human intestinal epithelium. Collagen-based methods yield familiar enteroid structures as well as a new pattern of sheet

  12. Stimulation of mucosal secretion by lubiprostone (SPI-0211) in guinea pig small intestine and colon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fei, Guijun; Wang, Yu-Zhong; Liu, Sumei; Hu, Hong-Zhen; Wang, Guo-Du; Qu, Mei-Hua; Wang, Xi-Yu; Xia, Yun; Sun, Xiaohong; Bohn, Laura M; Cooke, Helen J; Wood, Jackie D

    2009-04-01

    Actions of lubiprostone, a selective type-2 chloride channel activator, on mucosal secretion were investigated in guinea pig small intestine and colon. Flat-sheet preparations were mounted in Ussing flux chambers for recording short-circuit current (Isc) as a marker for electrogenic chloride secretion. Lubiprostone, applied to the small intestinal mucosa in eight concentrations ranging from 1-3000 nM, evoked increases in Isc in a concentration-dependent manner with an EC50 of 42.5 nM. Lubiprostone applied to the mucosa of the colon in eight concentrations ranging from 1-3000 nM evoked increases in Isc in a concentration-dependent manner with an EC50 of 31.7 nM. Blockade of enteric nerves by tetrodotoxin did not influence stimulation of Isc by lubiprostone. Antagonists acting at prostaglandin (PG)E2, EP1-3, or EP4 receptors did not suppress stimulation of Isc by lubiprostone but suppressed or abolished PGE2-evoked responses. Substitution of gluconate for chloride abolished all responses to lubiprostone. The selective CFTR channel blocker, CFTR(inh)-172, did not suppress lubiprostone-evoked Isc. The broadly acting blocker, glibenclamide, suppressed (Plubiprostone-evoked Isc. Lubiprostone, in the presence of tetrodotoxin, enhanced carbachol-evoked Isc. The cholinergic component, but not the putative vasoactive intestinal peptide component, of neural responses to electrical field stimulation was enhanced by lubiprostone. Application of any of the prostaglandins, E2, F2, or I2, evoked depolarization of the resting membrane potential in enteric neurons. Unlike the prostaglandins, lubiprostone did not alter the electrical behavior of enteric neurons. Exposure to the histamine H2 receptor agonists increased basal Isc followed by persistent cyclical increases in Isc. Lubiprostone increased the peak amplitude of the dimaprit-evoked cycles.

  13. Ultrastructural and Molecular Changes in the Developing Small Intestine of the Toad Bufo regularis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakr, S. A.; Badawy, G. M.; El-Borm, H. T.

    2014-01-01

    The ontogenetic development of the small intestine of the toad Bufo regularis was investigated using twofold approaches, namely, ultrastructural and molecular. The former has been done using transmission electron microscope and utilizing the developmental stages 42, 50, 55, 60, 63, and 66. The most prominent ultrastructural changes were recorded at stage 60 and were more evident at stage 63. These included the appearance of apoptotic bodies/nuclei within the larval epithelium, the presence of macrophages, swollen mitochondria, distorted rough endoplasmic reticulum, chromatin condensation, and irregular nuclear envelop, and the presence of large vacuoles and lysosomes. The molecular investigation involved examining DNA content and fragmentation. The results showed that the DNA content decreased significantly during the metamorphic stages 60 and 63 compared with both larval (50 and 55) and postmetamorphic (66) stages. The metamorphic stages (60 and 63) displayed extensive DNA laddering compared with stages 50, 55, and 66. The percentage of DNA damage was 0.00%, 12.91%, 57.26%, 45.48%, and 4.43% for the developmental stages 50, 55, 60, 63, and 66, respectively. In conclusion, the recorded remodeling of the small intestine represents a model for clarifying the mechanism whereby cell death and proliferation are controlled. PMID:24715821

  14. Morphological criteria for comparing effects of X-rays and neon ions on mouse small intestine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carr, K.E.; Hayes, T.L.; Indran, M.; Bastacky, S.J.; McAlinden, G.; Ainsworth, E.J.; Ellis, S.

    1987-06-01

    Several techniques have been used to assess changes in different parts of mouse small intestine three days after a single dose of either 16.5 Gy X-rays or 11 Gy neon beam. The doses were chosen to be approximately equivalent in terms of their effect on the number of microcolonies present. In qualitative terms, villous damage was seen after both types of radiation exposure: collared crypts, similar to those seen in biopsies taken from patients suffering from coeliac disease, were conspicuous after neon irradiation. In semi quantitative terms the doses used, although estimated from previous work to give biologically equivalent damage, produced a greater drop in microcolony numbers after X-irradiation. This makes all the more important the fact that significantly greater changes were seen after neon irradiation-a greater drop was seen in the number of villous profiles and the number of goblet cells per villus. There was also greater breakdown in the integrity of the villous basement membrane. Different responses after the two types of irradiation are therefore seen in the cryptal and villous compartment. Progress is being made towards identifying and quantitating radiation induced changes in different populations of cells or tissues in the small intestine.

  15. THE METAL ION ACTIVATION OF THE ALKALINE BETA-GLYCEROPHOSPHATASE OF RABBIT SMALL INTESTINE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    CLARK, B; PORTEOUS, J W

    1965-05-01

    1. A fraction of intestinal epithelial cells from rabbit small intestine that contained nuclei and microvillus membranes served as a source of alkaline-beta-glycerophosphatase activity. 2. The greater part of the enzyme activity could be released from the subcellular particles by disintegration of the latter, followed by centrifugation at 40000g and butanol extraction of the resulting sediment. 3. Further purification of the enzyme was achieved by diethylaminoethylcellulose chromatography and by gel filtration. 4. Dialysis of the purified enzyme preparations against EDTA gave an essentially inactive enzyme. High activity could be restored by adding Zn(2+)+Mg(2+), Zn(2+)+Co(2+), Mg(2+)+Co(2+) or Co(2+) alone to these inactive preparations. Neither Zn(2+) nor Mg(2+) added singly to the assay system restored more than a small part of the enzyme activity. 5. The optimum Zn(2+) concentration was about 0.2-1m-equiv./l., whereas Mg(2+) and Co(2+) had optimum concentrations about 30-60m-equiv./l. 6. If added in excess of the optimum concentration, Zn(2+) strongly inhibited the enzyme under all conditions tested. 7. In the presence of an optimum concentration of Co(2+) (33m-equiv./l.) in tris buffer at the optimum pH (8.8 at 37 degrees ), K(m) for the beta-glycerophosphatase was 0.3mm.

  16. Genomic and functional analysis of Romboutsia ilealis CRIBT reveals adaptation to the small intestine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacoline Gerritsen

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Background The microbiota in the small intestine relies on their capacity to rapidly import and ferment available carbohydrates to survive in a complex and highly competitive ecosystem. Understanding how these communities function requires elucidating the role of its key players, the interactions among them and with their environment/host. Methods The genome of the gut bacterium Romboutsia ilealis CRIBT was sequenced with multiple technologies (Illumina paired-end, mate-pair and PacBio. The transcriptome was sequenced (Illumina HiSeq after growth on three different carbohydrate sources, and short chain fatty acids were measured via HPLC. Results We present the complete genome of Romboutsia ilealis CRIBT, a natural inhabitant and key player of the small intestine of rats. R. ilealis CRIBT possesses a circular chromosome of 2,581,778 bp and a plasmid of 6,145 bp, carrying 2,351 and eight predicted protein coding sequences, respectively. Analysis of the genome revealed limited capacity to synthesize amino acids and vitamins, whereas multiple and partially redundant pathways for the utilization of different relatively simple carbohydrates are present. Transcriptome analysis allowed identification of the key components in the degradation of glucose, L-fucose and fructo-oligosaccharides. Discussion This revealed that R. ilealis CRIBT is adapted to a nutrient-rich environment where carbohydrates, amino acids and vitamins are abundantly available.

  17. Ultrastructural and Molecular Changes in the Developing Small Intestine of the Toad Bufo regularis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. A. Sakr

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The ontogenetic development of the small intestine of the toad Bufo regularis was investigated using twofold approaches, namely, ultrastructural and molecular. The former has been done using transmission electron microscope and utilizing the developmental stages 42, 50, 55, 60, 63, and 66. The most prominent ultrastructural changes were recorded at stage 60 and were more evident at stage 63. These included the appearance of apoptotic bodies/nuclei within the larval epithelium, the presence of macrophages, swollen mitochondria, distorted rough endoplasmic reticulum, chromatin condensation, and irregular nuclear envelop, and the presence of large vacuoles and lysosomes. The molecular investigation involved examining DNA content and fragmentation. The results showed that the DNA content decreased significantly during the metamorphic stages 60 and 63 compared with both larval (50 and 55 and postmetamorphic (66 stages. The metamorphic stages (60 and 63 displayed extensive DNA laddering compared with stages 50, 55, and 66. The percentage of DNA damage was 0.00%, 12.91%, 57.26%, 45.48%, and 4.43% for the developmental stages 50, 55, 60, 63, and 66, respectively. In conclusion, the recorded remodeling of the small intestine represents a model for clarifying the mechanism whereby cell death and proliferation are controlled.

  18. The Secretion and Action of Brush Border Enzymes in the Mammalian Small Intestine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hooton, Diane; Lentle, Roger; Monro, John; Wickham, Martin; Simpson, Robert

    2015-01-01

    Microvilli are conventionally regarded as an extension of the small intestinal absorptive surface, but they are also, as latterly discovered, a launching pad for brush border digestive enzymes. Recent work has demonstrated that motor elements of the microvillus cytoskeleton operate to displace the apical membrane toward the apex of the microvillus, where it vesiculates and is shed into the periapical space. Catalytically active brush border digestive enzymes remain incorporated within the membranes of these vesicles, which shifts the site of BB digestion from the surface of the enterocyte to the periapical space. This process enables nutrient hydrolysis to occur adjacent to the membrane in a pre-absorptive step. The characterization of BB digestive enzymes is influenced by the way in which these enzymes are anchored to the apical membranes of microvilli, their subsequent shedding in membrane vesicles, and their differing susceptibilities to cleavage from the component membranes. In addition, the presence of active intracellular components of these enzymes complicates their quantitative assay and the elucidation of their dynamics. This review summarizes the ontogeny and regulation of BB digestive enzymes and what is known of their kinetics and their action in the peripheral and axial regions of the small intestinal lumen.

  19. Genomic and functional analysis of Romboutsia ilealis CRIBT reveals adaptation to the small intestine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerritsen, Jacoline; Hornung, Bastian; Renckens, Bernadette; van Hijum, Sacha A F T; Martins Dos Santos, Vitor A P; Rijkers, Ger T; Schaap, Peter J; de Vos, Willem M; Smidt, Hauke

    2017-01-01

    The microbiota in the small intestine relies on their capacity to rapidly import and ferment available carbohydrates to survive in a complex and highly competitive ecosystem. Understanding how these communities function requires elucidating the role of its key players, the interactions among them and with their environment/host. The genome of the gut bacterium Romboutsia ilealis CRIBT was sequenced with multiple technologies (Illumina paired-end, mate-pair and PacBio). The transcriptome was sequenced (Illumina HiSeq) after growth on three different carbohydrate sources, and short chain fatty acids were measured via HPLC. We present the complete genome of Romboutsia ilealis CRIBT, a natural inhabitant and key player of the small intestine of rats. R. ilealis CRIBT possesses a circular chromosome of 2,581,778 bp and a plasmid of 6,145 bp, carrying 2,351 and eight predicted protein coding sequences, respectively. Analysis of the genome revealed limited capacity to synthesize amino acids and vitamins, whereas multiple and partially redundant pathways for the utilization of different relatively simple carbohydrates are present. Transcriptome analysis allowed identification of the key components in the degradation of glucose, L-fucose and fructo-oligosaccharides. This revealed that R. ilealis CRIBT is adapted to a nutrient-rich environment where carbohydrates, amino acids and vitamins are abundantly available.

  20. The incorporation of poly(lactic-co-glycolic) acid nanoparticles into porcine small intestinal submucosa biomaterials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mondalek, Fadee G.; Lawrence, Benjamin J.; Kropp, Bradley P.; Grady, Brian P.; Fung, Kar-Ming; Madihally, Sundar V.; Lin, Hsueh-Kung

    2010-01-01

    Small intestinal submucosa (SIS) derived from porcine small intestine has been intensively studied for its capacity in repairing and regenerating wounded and dysfunctional tissues. However, SIS suffers from a large spectrum of heterogeneity in microarchitecture leading to inconsistent results. In this study, we introduced nanoparticles (NPs) to SIS with an intention of decreasing the heterogeneity and improving the consistency of this biomaterial. As determined by scanning electron microscopy and urea permeability, the optimum NP size was estimated to be between 200 nm and 500 nm using commercial monodisperse latex spheres. The concentration of NPs that is required to alter pore sizes of SIS as determined by urea permeability was estimated to be 1 mg/ml 260 nm poly(lactic-co-glycolic) acid (PLGA) NPs. The 1 mg/ml PLGA NPs loaded in the SIS did not change the tensile properties of the unmodified SIS or even alter pH values in a cell culture environment. More importantly, PLGA NP modified SIS did not affect human mammary endothelial cells (HMEC-1) morphology or adhesion, but actually enhanced HEMC-1 cell growth. PMID:18076986

  1. A rare case of retroperitoneal malignant triton tumor invading renal vein and small intestine

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    Mijović Žaklina

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Malignant Triton tumor is a very rare malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumor with rhabdomyosarcomatous differentiation. Most of those tumors occur in patients with von Recklinghausen’s disease or as a late complication of irradiation and commonly seen in the head, neck, extremities and trunk. Case report. We reported retroperitoneal malignant Triton tumor in a 57-year-old female patient. Skin lesions were not present, and there was no family history of neurofibromatosis or previous irradiation. The presented case is one of a few recorded in the specialized literature that occurs in the retroperitoneal space in sporadic form. In this case, tumor consisted of a multilobular mass was in close relation with the abdominal aorta and inferior vena cava and involved the renal vein with gross invasion of the small intestine. The patient underwent total resection of the tumor and left nefrectomy was performed. The small intestine 10 cm in length was also resected and end-to-end anastomosis was conducted. The postoperative course was uneventful and the patient was discharged from the hospital ten days after the surgery. Conclusion. Diagnostically, it is crucial to recognize this uncommon histological variant because malignant Triton tumor has a worse prognosis than classic malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumor does. The use of the immunohistochemistry is essential in making the correct diagnosis. Only appropriate pathological evaluation supported by immunostaining with S-100 protein and desmin confirmed the diagnosis. Aggressive surgical management treatment improves the prognosis of such cases with adjuvant radiotherapy.

  2. Myocardial regeneration after implantation of porcine small intestinal submucosa in the left ventricle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cassiana Maria Garcez Ramos

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Most cardiomyocytes do not regenerate after myocardial infarction. Porcine small intestinal submucosa has been shown to be effective in tissue repair. Objective: To evaluate myocardial tissue regeneration and functional effects of SIS implantation in pigs after left ventriculotomy. Methods: Fifteen pigs were assigned to two groups: porcine small intestinal submucosa (SIS (N=10 and control (N=5. The SIS group underwent a mini sternotomy, left ventriculotomy and placement of a SIS patch. The control group underwent a sham procedure. Echocardiography was performed before and 60 days after the surgical procedure. Histological analysis was performed with hematoxylin-eosin stain and markers for actin 1A4, anti sarcomeric actin, connexin43 and factor VIII. Results: Weight gain was similar in both groups. Echocardiography analysis revealed no difference between groups regarding end diastolic and systolic diameters and left ventricular ejection fraction, both pre (P=0.118, P=0.313, P=0.944 and post procedure (P=0.333, P=0.522, P=0.628. Both groups showed an increase in end diastolic (P<0,001 for both and systolic diameter 60 days after surgery (P=0.005, SIS group and P=0.004, control group. New cardiomyocytes, blood vessels and inflammatory reactions were histologically identified in the SIS group. Conclusion: SIS implantation in pigs after left ventriculotomy was associated with angiomuscular regeneration and no damage in cardiac function.

  3. The value of RI scintigraphy and angiography in small intestinal bleeding; Report of eight cases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kurosawa, Susumu; Kuwata, Hajime; Kushibiki, Kyoko; Akimoto, Kimihiko; Hashimoto, Toshiyuki; Kojima, Toshiya (Showa General Hospital, Kodaira, Tokyo (Japan))

    1991-07-01

    We retrospectively reviewed eight cases of small intestinal bleeding and assessed the value of RI scintigraphy and angiography in diagnosing the bleeding site. The patients' average age was 56.2 years. Chief complaint was melena of variable degree. In most cases neither upper endoscopy nor colonoscopy was diagnostic. RI scientigraphy (Tc-99 labeled human serum albumin) showed 75% of positive rate whereas angiography showed 66.7% (4/6) of positive rate. All four cases of leiomyosarcoma and leiomyoma demonstrated hypervascular stain and/or extra-vasation in angiography whereas RI scintigraphy failed to detect active gastrointestinal bleeding in 2 of the 4 cases. Therefore angiography was considered useful for the detection of bleeding from leiomyoma and leiomyosarcoma which are often hypervascular. Scintigraphy is thought of most value in the demonstration of small amount of bleeding with minimum vascular abnormality. (author).

  4. Low lactase activity in a small-bowel biopsy specimen : Should dietary lactose intake be restricted in children with small intestinal mucosal damage?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koetse, HA; Vonk, RJ; Gonera-de Jong, GBC; Priebe, MG; Antoine, JM; Stellaard, F; Sauer, PJJ

    Objective. Small intestinal mucosal damage can result in decreased lactase activity (LA). When LA is low in a small-bowel biopsy (SBB) specimen, a reduction of dietary lactose intake is usually advised. This is often done by reducing dietary dairy products, which also reduces the intake of calcium,

  5. Small intestinal cannabinoid receptor changes following a single colonic insult with oil of mustard in mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edward S Kimball

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Cannabinoids are known to be clinically beneficial for control of appetite disorders and nausea/vomiting, with emerging data that they can impact other GI disorders, such as inflammation. Post-inflammatory irritable bowel syndrome (PI-IBS is a condition of perturbed intestinal function that occurs subsequent to earlier periods of intestinal inflammation. Cannabinoid 1 receptor (CB1R and CB2R alterations in GI inflammation have been demonstrated in both animal models and clinically, but their continuing role in the post-inflammatory period has only been implicated to date. Therefore, to provide direct evidence for CBR involvement in altered GI functions in the absence of overt inflammation, we used a model of enhanced upper GI transit that persists for up to 4 weeks after a single insult by intracolonic 0.5% oil of mustard (OM in mice. In mice administered OM, CB1R immunostaining in the myenteric plexus was reduced at day 7, when colonic inflammation is subsiding, and then increased at 28 days, compared to tissue from age-matched vehicle-treated mice. In the lamina propria CB2R immunostaining density was also increased at day 28. In mice tested 28 day after OM, either a CB1R-selective agonist, ACEA (1 and 3 mg/kg, s.c. or a CB2R-selective agonist, JWH-133 (3 and 10 mg/kg, s.c. reduced the enhanced small intestinal transit in a dose-related manner. Doses of ACEA and JWH-133 (1 mg/kg, alone or combined, reduced small intestinal transit of OM-treated mice to a greater extent than control mice. Thus, in this post-colonic inflammation model, both CBR subtypes are up-regulated and there is increased efficacy of both CB1R and CB2R agonists. We conclude that CBR remodeling occurs not only during GI inflammation but continues during the recovery phase. Thus, either CB1R- or CB2-selective agonists could be efficacious for modulating GI motility in individuals experiencing diarrhea-predominant PI-IBS.

  6. Design of a Wireless Medical Capsule for Measuring the Contact Pressure Between a Capsule and the Small Intestine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Pengbo; Kreikemeier-Bower, Craig; Xie, Wanchuan; Kothari, Vishal; Terry, Benjamin S

    2017-05-01

    A wireless medical capsule for measuring the contact pressure between a mobile capsule and the small intestine lumen was developed. Two pressure sensors were used to measure and differentiate the contact pressure and the small intestine intraluminal pressure. After in vitro tests of the capsule, it was surgically placed and tested in the proximal small intestine of a pig model. The capsule successfully gathered and transmitted the pressure data to a receiver outside the body. The measured pressure signals in the animal test were analyzed in the time and frequency domains, and a mathematic model was presented to describe the different factors influencing the contact pressure. A novel signal processing method was applied to isolate the contraction information from the contact pressure. The result shows that the measured contact pressure was 1.08 ± 0.08 kPa, and the small intestine contraction pressure's amplitude and rate were 0.29 ± 0.046 kPa and 12 min-1. Moreover, the amplitudes and rates of pressure from respiration and heartbeat were also estimated. The successful preliminary evaluation of this capsule implies that it could be used in further systematic investigation of small intestine contact pressure on a mobile capsule-shaped bolus.

  7. A new method to measure intestinal secretion using fluorescein isothiocyanate-inulin in small bowel of rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munoz-Abraham, Armando Salim; Judeeba, Sami; Alkukhun, Abedalrazaq; Alfadda, Tariq; Patron-Lozano, Roger; Rodriguez-Davalos, Manuel I; Geibel, John P

    2015-08-01

    Small intestine ischemia can be seen in various conditions such as intestinal transplantation. To further understand the pathologic disruption in ischemia-reperfusion injury, we have developed a method to measure fluid changes in the intestinal lumen of rats. Two 10-cm rat intestine segments were procured, connected to the terminal apertures of a perfusion device, and continuously infused with 3 mL of HEPES solution (control solution) containing 50 μM of fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC)-inulin. The perfusion device consists of concentric chambers that contain the perfused bowel segments, which are maintained at 37°C via H₂O bath. The individual chamber has four apertures as follows: two fill and/or drain the surrounding HEPES solution on the blood side of the tissue. The others provide flow of HEPES solution containing FITC-inulin through the lumens. The experimental intestine was infused with the same solution with 100 μM of Forskolin. A pump continuously circulated solutions at 6 mL/min. Samples were collected at 15-min intervals until 150 min and were measured by the nanoflourospectrometer. A mean of 6-μM decrease in the FITC-inulin concentration in the Forskolin-treated experimental intestine was observed in comparison with that in the control intestine. The FITC-inulin count dilution in the experimental intestine is a result of an increase of fluid secretion produced by the effect of Forskolin, with P values inulin to allow real-time determinations of fluid and/or electrolyte movement along the small intestine. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Butter feeding enhances TNF-alpha production from macrophages and lymphocyte adherence in murine small intestinal microvessels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujiyama, Yoichi; Hokari, Ryota; Miura, Soichiro; Watanabe, Chikako; Komoto, Shunsuke; Oyama, Tokushige; Kurihara, Chie; Nagata, Hiroshi; Hibi, Toshifumi

    2007-11-01

    Dietary fat is known to modulate immune functions. Intake of an animal fat-rich diet has been linked to increased risk of inflammation; however, little is known about how animal fat ingestion directly affects intestinal immune function. The objective of this study was to assess the effect of butter feeding on lymphocyte migration in intestinal mucosa and the changes in adhesion molecules and cytokines involved in this effect. T-lymphocytes isolated from the spleen were fluorescence-labeled and injected into recipient mice. Butter was administered into the duodenum, and villus microvessels of the small intestinal mucosa were observed under an intravital microscope. mRNA expression of adhesion molecules and cytokines in the intestinal mucosa were determined by quantitative PCR. The effect of butter feeding on tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha mRNA expression of intestinal macrophages was also determined. Intraluminal butter administration significantly increased lymphocyte adherence to intestinal microvessels accompanied by increases in expression levels of adhesion molecules ICAM-1, MAdCAM-1 and VCAM-1. This accumulation was significantly attenuated by anti-MAdCAM-1 and anti-ICAM-1 antibodies. Butter administration significantly increased TNF-alpha in the lamina proprial macrophages but not interleukin-6. Anti-TNF-alpha treatment attenuated the enhanced expression of adhesion molecules induced by butter administration. T-lymphocyte adherence to microvessels of the small intestinal mucosa was significantly enhanced after butter ingestion. This enhancement is due to increase in expression levels of adhesion molecules of the intestinal mucosa, which is mediated by TNF-alpha from macrophages in the intestinal lamina propria.

  9. A prospective randomized controlled study of erythromycin on gastric and small intestinal distention: implications for MR enterography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bharucha, Adil E; Fidler, Jeff L; Huprich, James E; Ratuapli, Shiva K; Holmes, David R; Riederer, Stephen J; Zinsmeister, Alan R

    2014-11-01

    To assess if erythromycin increases gastric emptying and hence improves small intestinal distention during MR enterography. Gastric, small intestinal, and large intestinal volumes were assessed with MR after neutral oral contrast (1350ml in 45min) and balanced randomization to erythromycin (200mg i.v., age 31±3y, 13 females), or placebo (37±3y, 13 females) in 40 healthy asymptomatic volunteers. Fat-suppressed T2-weighted MR images of the abdomen were acquired on a 1.5T magnet at standard delay times for enterography. Gastric, small, and large intestinal volumes were measured by specialized software. In addition, two radiologists manually measured diameters and percentage distention of jejunal and ileal loops. Treatment effects were evaluated by an ITT analysis based on ANCOVA models. All subjects tolerated erythromycin. MRI scans of the stomach and intestine were obtained at 62±2 (mean±SEM) and 74±2min respectively after starting oral contrast. Gastric volumes were lower (Perythromycin (260±49ml) than placebo (688±63ml) but jejunal, ileal, and colonic volumes were not significantly different. However, maximum (76-100%) jejunal distention was more frequently observed (P=0.03) after erythromycin (8/20 subjects [40%]) than placebo (2/20 subjects [10%]). The diameter of a representative ileal loop was greater (P=0.001) after erythromycin (18.8±4.3mm) than placebo (17.3±2.8mm) infusion. After ingestion of oral contrast, erythromycin accelerated gastric emptying but effects on small intestinal dimensions were variable. In balance, erythromycin did not substantially enhance small intestinal distention during enterography using current standard delay times. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. An on-chip small intestine-liver model for pharmacokinetic studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimura, Hiroshi; Ikeda, Takashi; Nakayama, Hidenari; Sakai, Yasuyuki; Fujii, Teruo

    2015-06-01

    Testing of drug effects and cytotoxicity by using cultured cells has been widely performed as an alternative to animal testing. However, the estimation of pharmacokinetics by conventional cell-based assay methods is difficult because of the inability to evaluate multiorgan effects. An important challenge in the field is to mimic the organ-to-organ network in the human body by using a microfluidic network connecting small-scale tissues based on recently emerging MicroTAS (Micro Total Analysis Systems) technology for prediction of pharmacokinetics. Here, we describe an on-chip small intestine-liver coupled model for pharmacokinetic studies. To construct an in vitro pharmacokinetic model that appropriately models in vivo conditions, physiological parameters such as the structure of internal circulation, volume ratios of each organ, and blood flow ratio of the portal vein to the hepatic artery were mimicked using microfluidic networks. To demonstrate interactions between organs in vitro in pharmacokinetic studies, Caco-2, HepG2, and A549 cell cultures were used as organ models of the small intestine, liver, and lung, respectively, and connected to each other through a microporous membrane and microchannels to prepare a simple model of a physiological organ-to-organ network. The on-chip organ model assay using three types of substrate-epirubicine (EPI), irinotecan (CPT-11), and cyclophosphamide (CPA)-were conducted to model the effects of orally administered or biologically active anticancer drugs. The result suggested that the device can replicate physiological phenomena such as activity of the anticancer drugs on the target cells. This microfluidic device can thus be used as an in vitro organ model to predict the pharmacokinetics of drugs in the human body and may thus provide not only an alternative to animal testing but also a method of obtaining parameters for in silico models of physiologically based pharmacokinetics. © 2014 Society for Laboratory Automation and

  11. Onset of small intestinal atrophy is associated with reduced intestinal blood flow in TPN-fed neonatal piglets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Niinikoski, Harri; Stoll, Barbara; Guan, Xinfu

    2004-01-01

    Our aim was to determine the speed of onset of total parenteral nutrition (TPN)-induced mucosal atrophy, and whether this is associated with changes in intestinal blood flow and tissue metabolism in neonatal piglets. Piglets were implanted with jugular venous and duodenal catheters and either a p...

  12. The protective effect of N-acetylcysteine against acrylamide toxicity in liver and small and large intestine tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altinoz, E; Turkoz, Y; Vardi, N

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the protective effects of N-acetylcysteine against acrylamide toxicity in liver and small and large intestine tissues in rats.The rats were divided into four groups. Acrylamide administration increased MDA levels in all tissues significantly (p acrylamide+NAC administration decreased MDA levels significantly as compared to the acrylamide group, and lowered it to a level close to the control group values (p acrylamide group (p acrylamide+NAC administration increased GSH levels significantly in all tissues. Whereas GST activity decreased significantly in the acrylamide group in liver and small intestine tissues as compared to the other groups (p acrylamide+NAC group in all tissues as compared to the acrylamide group (p acrylamide group. Small intestine histopathology showed that the intestinal villous epithelial cells were damaged significantly in the acrylamide group.Our results indicate that a high level of acrylamide causes oxidative damage in liver and small and large intestine tissues, while N-acetylcysteine administration in a pharmacological dose shows to have an antioxidant effect in preventing this damage (Tab. 2, Fig. 2, Ref. 66).

  13. Effect of intravenous infusion of glyceryl trinitrate on gastric and small intestinal motor function in healthy humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Jan Lysgård; Fuglsang, Stefan; Graff, J

    2006-01-01

    : To examine the effect of intravenous infusion of glyceryl trinitrate on gastric and small intestinal motor function after a meal in healthy humans. METHODS: Nine healthy volunteers participated in a placebo-controlled, double-blind, crossover study. Each volunteer was examined during intravenous infusion......BACKGROUND: Glyceryl trinitrate is a donor of nitric oxide that relaxes smooth muscle cells of the gastrointestinal tract. Little is known about the effect of glyceryl trinitrate on gastric emptying and no data exist on the possible effect of glyceryl trinitrate on small intestinal transit. AIM...... of glyceryl trinitrate 1 microg/kg x min or saline. A gamma camera technique was used to measure gastric emptying and small intestinal transit after a 1600-kJ mixed liquid and solid meal. Furthermore, duodenal motility was assessed by manometry. RESULTS: Glyceryl trinitrate did not change gastric mean...

  14. Effect of intravenous infusion of glyceryl trinitrate on gastric and small intestinal motor function in healthy humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Jan Lysgård; Fuglsang, Stefan; Graff, J

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Glyceryl trinitrate is a donor of nitric oxide that relaxes smooth muscle cells of the gastrointestinal tract. Little is known about the effect of glyceryl trinitrate on gastric emptying and no data exist on the possible effect of glyceryl trinitrate on small intestinal transit. AIM......: To examine the effect of intravenous infusion of glyceryl trinitrate on gastric and small intestinal motor function after a meal in healthy humans. METHODS: Nine healthy volunteers participated in a placebo-controlled, double-blind, crossover study. Each volunteer was examined during intravenous infusion...... of glyceryl trinitrate 1 microg/kg x min or saline. A gamma camera technique was used to measure gastric emptying and small intestinal transit after a 1600-kJ mixed liquid and solid meal. Furthermore, duodenal motility was assessed by manometry. RESULTS: Glyceryl trinitrate did not change gastric mean...

  15. Effect of intravenous infusion of glyceryl trinitrate on gastric and small intestinal motor function in healthy humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Jan Lysgård; Fuglsang, Stefan; Graff, J

    2006-01-01

    : To examine the effect of intravenous infusion of glyceryl trinitrate on gastric and small intestinal motor function after a meal in healthy humans. METHODS: Nine healthy volunteers participated in a placebo-controlled, double-blind, crossover study. Each volunteer was examined during intravenous infusion...... of glyceryl trinitrate 1 microg/kg x min or saline. A gamma camera technique was used to measure gastric emptying and small intestinal transit after a 1600-kJ mixed liquid and solid meal. Furthermore, duodenal motility was assessed by manometry. RESULTS: Glyceryl trinitrate did not change gastric mean...... trinitrate 1 microg/kg x min does not induce major changes in gastric or small intestinal motor function after a 1600-kJ meal in healthy volunteers....

  16. Current endoscopic approach to indeterminate biliary strictures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Victor, David W; Sherman, Stuart; Karakan, Tarkan; Khashab, Mouen A

    2012-01-01

    Biliary strictures are considered indeterminate when basic work-up, including transabdominal imaging and endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography with routine cytologic brushing, are non-diagnostic. Indeterminate biliary strictures can easily be mischaracterized which may dramatically affect patient’s outcome. Early and accurate diagnosis of malignancy impacts not only a patient’s candidacy for surgery, but also potential timely targeted chemotherapies. A significant portion of patients with indeterminate biliary strictures have benign disease and accurate diagnosis is, thus, paramount to avoid unnecessary surgery. Current sampling strategies have suboptimal accuracy for the diagnosis of malignancy. Emerging data on other diagnostic modalities, such as ancillary cytology techniques, single operator cholangioscopy, and endoscopic ultrasonography-guided fine needle aspiration, revealed promising results with much improved sensitivity. PMID:23180939

  17. Giardia Colonizes and Encysts in High-Density Foci in the Murine Small Intestine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barash, N. R.; Nosala, C.; Pham, J. K.; McInally, S. G.; Gourguechon, S.; McCarthy-Sinclair, B.

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Giardia lamblia is a highly prevalent yet understudied protistan parasite causing significant diarrheal disease worldwide. Hosts ingest Giardia cysts from contaminated sources. In the gastrointestinal tract, cysts excyst to become motile trophozoites, colonizing and attaching to the gut epithelium. Trophozoites later differentiate into infectious cysts that are excreted and contaminate the environment. Due to the limited accessibility of the gut, the temporospatial dynamics of giardiasis in the host are largely inferred from laboratory culture and thus may not mirror Giardia physiology in the host. Here, we have developed bioluminescent imaging (BLI) to directly interrogate and quantify the in vivo temporospatial dynamics of Giardia infection, thereby providing an improved murine model to evaluate anti-Giardia drugs. Using BLI, we determined that parasites primarily colonize the proximal small intestine nonuniformly in high-density foci. By imaging encystation-specific bioreporters, we show that encystation initiates shortly after inoculation and continues throughout the duration of infection. Encystation also initiates in high-density foci in the proximal small intestine, and high density contributes to the initiation of encystation in laboratory culture. We suggest that these high-density in vivo foci of colonizing and encysting Giardia likely result in localized disruption to the epithelium. This more accurate visualization of giardiasis redefines the dynamics of the in vivo Giardia life cycle, paving the way for future mechanistic studies of density-dependent parasitic processes in the host. IMPORTANCE Giardia is a single-celled parasite causing significant diarrheal disease in several hundred million people worldwide. Due to limited access to the site of infection in the gastrointestinal tract, our understanding of the dynamics of Giardia infections in the host has remained limited and largely inferred from laboratory culture. To better understand

  18. [Studies on interdigestive intestinal motility of the orthotopic allotransplanted canine small bowel].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simizu, R; Matsui, T; Park, S; Kanaizumi, T; Nakano, H

    1993-06-01

    We evaluated interdigestive motor patterns in the allotransplanted small bowel, in comparison with orthotropic allotransplanted canine jejunoileum and orthotropicaly autotransplanted canine jejunoileum or intact ones by using strain gage force transducers which were sewn to the serosal surfaces of the duodenum, jejunum and ileum. Interdigestive intestinal motility of each conscious dogs was recorded at 2 weeks, 4 weeks and 8 weeks after each operation. 1. No significant differences were recognized on the mean durations of Interdigestive migrating contractions (IMC) of the duodenum among three groups. 2. Interdigestive migrating contractions (IMC) appeared at the autotransplanted jejunoileum with shorter duration than duodenum, and lacked of coordination between the intact duodenum and the transplanted jejunoileum for at least 8 weeks after the operation. 3. IMC also appeared at the allotransplanted jejunoileum with shorter duration than duodenum and lacked of coordination between the intact duodenum and the transplanted jejunoileum for at least 8 weeks after the operation. These characteristic motor patterns were similar to those of autotransplanted dogs. These observations suggest that intrinsic nervous system, believed to be important for initiation of the IMC of small bowel, were preserved even in the allotransplanted small bowel. Thereafter, effective immunosuppression must allow small bowel allotransplantation to become clinical reality.

  19. [Volvulus of the small intestine as a cause of primary acute abdomen].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tevaearai, H; Achtari, C; Suter, M

    1994-12-01

    As a cause of small intestine occlusion, volvulus is often a consequence of a band or adhesions. Except in infants, it is rarely the primary cause of symptomatology. Between January 1976 and December 1992, 13 patients (7 women and 6 men, mean age of 56.8 years) were admitted in our department for an acute abdomen due to a spontaneous primary volvulus of the small bowel. Clinical examination and laboratory tests did not help in preoperative diagnosis. All patients underwent an explorative laparotomy. Six patients had had prior abdominal surgery but none of them presented adhesion or band. In 8 patients (62%), detorsion was sufficient. Resection of a segment of small bowel was necessary in 4 patients. Gangrenous of the entire bowel was observed in one patient who rapidly died. Two patients presented minor complications. One patient with Down syndrome died of bronchoaspiration. One patient has been reoperated on one year later for recurrence of the volvulus, and underwent a Noble procedure. We conclude that volvulus of the small bowel is a rare cause of acute abdomen that must be remembered. Early surgery is mandatory to reduce the risk of gangrene, which is known to double the mortality. Laparoscopy will be helpful in early diagnosis and therapy.

  20. Small Intestinal Obstruction Caused by a Bezoar in an Elderly Patient

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ching-Hsueh Tseng

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Small bowel obstruction caused by phytobezoars is quite uncommon in patients suffering from acute abdomen. The most common causes of small bowel obstruction are adhesive bands, incarcerated hernia, and adjacent tumor. We present a rare case of phytobezoar-induced small bowel obstruction in a female elderly patient without a history of abdominal surgery. An 83-year-old female presented to our emergency department on 5 March 2008 with intermittent vomiting and abdominal pain. After failure of conservative treatment with nasogastric tube decompression and a prokinetic agent, abdominal computed tomography (CT with contrast was arranged on March 9, 2008. The CT scan showed marked dilatation of the jejunum with fluid retention and possibly a large calcified bezoar (2.7cm × 3.16cm causing obstruction at the ileum. Surgery was performed on March 13, 2008, and the pathologic report showed a fibrocalcified nodule. Based on this case, we have suggest that bezoar-induced small bowel obstruction remains possible even in patients with no history of gastric surgery, autonomic enteropathy, or recent intake of persimmons. Surgical intervention is the standard management for intestinal bezoars, and early diagnosis and intervention reduces morbidity and mortality.

  1. Metformin reduces the rate of small intestinal glucose absorption in type 2 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Tongzhi; Xie, Cong; Wu, Hang; Jones, Karen L; Horowitz, Michael; Rayner, Christopher K

    2017-02-01

    In rodents, metformin slows intestinal glucose absorption, potentially increasing exposure of the distal gut to glucose to enhance postprandial glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) secretion. We evaluated the effects of metformin on serum 3-O-methylglucose (3-OMG; a marker of glucose absorption) and plasma total GLP-1 concentrations during a standardized intraduodenal infusion of glucose and 3-OMG in patients with type 2 diabetes. A total of 12 patients, treated with metformin 850 mg twice daily or placebo for 7 days each in a double-blind, randomized, crossover design (14 days' washout between treatments), were evaluated on days 5 or 8 of each treatment (6 subjects each). On each study day, 30 minutes after ingesting 850 mg metformin or placebo, patients received an infusion of glucose (60 g + 5 g 3-OMG, dissolved in water to 240 mL) via an intraduodenal catheter over the course of 120 minutes. Compared with placebo, metformin was associated with lower serum 3-OMG ( P metformin vs placebo was related to the reduction in serum 3-OMG concentrations ( P = .019). Accordingly, metformin inhibits small intestinal glucose absorption, which may contribute to augmented GLP-1 secretion in type 2 diabetes. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Prevalence of Small Intestinal Bacterial Overgrowth among Chronic Pancreatitis Patients: A Case-Control Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amelie Therrien

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Patients with chronic pancreatitis (CP exhibit numerous risk factors for the development of small intestinal bacterial overgrowth (SIBO. Objective. To determine the prevalence of SIBO in patients with CP. Methods. Prospective, single-centre case-control study conducted between January and September 2013. Inclusion criteria were age 18 to 75 years and clinical and radiological diagnosis of CP. Exclusion criteria included history of gastric, pancreatic, or intestinal surgery or significant clinical gastroparesis. SIBO was detected using a standard lactulose breath test (LBT. A healthy control group also underwent LBT. Results. Thirty-one patients and 40 controls were included. The patient group was significantly older (53.8 versus 38.7 years; P < 0.01. The proportion of positive LBTs was significantly higher in CP patients (38.7 versus 2.5%: P < 0.01. A trend toward a higher proportion of positive LBTs in women compared with men was observed (66.6 versus 27.3%; P = 0.056. The subgroups with positive and negative LBTs were comparable in demographic and clinical characteristics, use of opiates, pancreatic enzymes replacement therapy (PERT, and severity of symptoms. Conclusion. The prevalence of SIBO detected using LBT was high among patients with CP. There was no association between clinical features and the risk for SIBO.

  3. Combination vitamin C and vitamin E prevents enteric diabetic neuropathy in the small intestine in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacqueline Nelisis Zanoni

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The present study evaluated the effects of supplementation with a combination of vitamin C and vitamin E on NADH-diaphorase-positive (NADH-d+ and neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS-immunoreactive myenteric neurons in the duodenum and ileum in diabetic rats. Forty rats were distributed into the following groups: normoglycemic (N, normoglycemic supplemented with vitamin C and vitamin E (NS, diabetic (D, and diabetic supplemented with vitamin C and vitamin E (DS. Vitamin C was added to the drinking water, and vitamin E was incorporated in the diet (1%. After 120 days, the animals were euthanized, and the duodenum and ileum were subjected to NADH-d and nNOS staining. Quantitative and morphometric analyses of myenteric neurons were performed. Diabetes reduced NADH-d+ neurons in the D group. The density of nitrergic neurons was not changed by diabetes or vitamin treatment. Hypertrophy of the cell body area of NADH-d+ and nNOS-immunoreactive neurons was observed in both intestinal segments. Combined supplementation with vitamin C and vitamin E prevented the reduction of the density of NADH-d+ neurons and hypertrophy, demonstratred by both techniques. Supplementation with a combination of vitamin C and vitamin E promoted myenteric neuroprotection in the small intestine in diabetic rats.

  4. Evaluation of small intestine grafts decellularization methods for corneal tissue engineering.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Celeste Oliveira

    Full Text Available Advances in the development of cornea substitutes by tissue engineering techniques have focused on the use of decellularized tissue scaffolds. In this work, we evaluated different chemical and physical decellularization methods on small intestine tissues to determine the most appropriate decellularization protocols for corneal applications. Our results revealed that the most efficient decellularization agents were the SDS and triton X-100 detergents, which were able to efficiently remove most cell nuclei and residual DNA. Histological and histochemical analyses revealed that collagen fibers were preserved upon decellularization with triton X-100, NaCl and sonication, whereas reticular fibers were properly preserved by decellularization with UV exposure. Extracellular matrix glycoproteins were preserved after decellularization with SDS, triton X-100 and sonication, whereas proteoglycans were not affected by any of the decellularization protocols. Tissue transparency was significantly higher than control non-decellularized tissues for all protocols, although the best light transmittance results were found in tissues decellularized with SDS and triton X-100. In conclusion, our results suggest that decellularized intestinal grafts could be used as biological scaffolds for cornea tissue engineering. Decellularization with triton X-100 was able to efficiently remove all cells from the tissues while preserving tissue structure and most fibrillar and non-fibrillar extracellular matrix components, suggesting that this specific decellularization agent could be safely used for efficient decellularization of SI tissues for cornea TE applications.

  5. Small Intestinal Obstruction with Intussusception due to Acute Myeloid Leukemia: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sangeeta Kini

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Myeloid sarcoma is known to precede the development of acute myeloid leukemia (AML and can be the only clinical manifestation. Gastrointestinal involvement by AML is rare with the commonest site being small intestine. Patients present with vague abdominal pain and/or obstruction. Prognosis is usually poor as most of them rapidly progress to AML. We report a case of 25-year-old man with complaints of abdominal pain and vomiting of one-year duration. OGD scopy revealed infiltration of lesser curvature of stomach. Subsequently patient came back within a week with signs and symptoms of acute intestinal obstruction for which an ileal resection was done. Although the histology of stomach biopsy and ileal segments showing similar features were thought to be non-Hodgkin's lymphoma, immunohistochemistry confirmed the diagnosis of myeloid sarcoma. Bone marrow investigations confirmed involvement by AML. Patient succumbed to the disease due to extensive involvement of AML. This case highlights the primary gastrointestinal manifestation of AML which can often prove to be a diagnostic difficulty clinically and histologically. Prompt diagnosis is essential to hasten the management.

  6. Microscopic colitis and small intestinal bacterial overgrowth--diagnosis behind the irritable bowel syndrome?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoicescu, Adriana; Andrei, M; Becheanu, G; Stoicescu, M; Nicolaie, T; Diculescu, M

    2012-01-01

    Some patients previously diagnosed with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) may develop microscopic colitis or small intestinal bacterial overgrowth (SIBO). To estimate the prevalence of microscopic colitis and SIBO in patients with IBS, to evaluate the symptoms and the efficacy of treatment. We examined patients with IBS admitted in our clinic during a three-year period. We identified patients with microscopic colitis by performing total colonoscopy with multiple biopsies from normal intestinal mucosa and those with SIBO by performing a H2-breath test with glucose. We compared the symptoms and the effectiveness of the treatment. Out of the 132 patients initially diagnosed with IBS 3% (n=4) had microscopic colitis and 43.9% (n=58) had SIBO. Diarrhea was the main symptom in patients with microscopic colitis and SIBO (p=0.041), while abdominal pain, abdominal bloating and flatulence were prominent in IBS patients (p=0.042; p=0.039; p=0.048). Specific treatment with rifaximin in SIBO patients negativated H2-breath test in 70.9% cases. Patients suspected to have irritable bowel syndrome should be evaluated for microscopic colitis and SIBO. The proper diagnosis and the specific treatment may cure some difficult cases of the so called "irritable bowel syndrome".

  7. Refractory esophageal strictures: what to do when dilation fails

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boeckel, P.G. van; Siersema, P.D.

    2015-01-01

    OPINION STATEMENT: Benign esophageal strictures arise from a diversity of causes, for example esophagogastric reflux, esophageal resection, radiation therapy, ablative therapy, or the ingestion of a corrosive substance. Most strictures can be treated successfully with endoscopic dilation using

  8. Percutaneous treatment of benign bile duct strictures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koecher, Martin [Department of Radiology, University Hospital, I.P.Pavlova 6, 775 20 Olomouc (Czech Republic)]. E-mail: martin.kocher@seznam.cz; Cerna, Marie [Department of Radiology, University Hospital, I.P.Pavlova 6, 775 20 Olomouc (Czech Republic); Havlik, Roman [Department of Surgery, University Hospital, I.P.Pavlova 6, 775 20 Olomouc (Czech Republic); Kral, Vladimir [Department of Surgery, University Hospital, I.P.Pavlova 6, 775 20 Olomouc (Czech Republic); Gryga, Adolf [Department of Surgery, University Hospital, I.P.Pavlova 6, 775 20 Olomouc (Czech Republic); Duda, Miloslav [Department of Surgery, University Hospital, I.P.Pavlova 6, 775 20 Olomouc (Czech Republic)

    2007-05-15

    Purpose: To evaluate long-term results of treatment of benign bile duct strictures. Materials and methods: From February 1994 to November 2005, 21 patients (9 men, 12 women) with median age of 50.6 years (range 27-77 years) were indicated to percutaneous treatment of benign bile duct stricture. Stricture of hepatic ducts junction resulting from thermic injury during laparoscopic cholecystectomy was indication for treatment in one patient, stricture of hepaticojejunostomy was indication for treatment in all other patients. Clinical symptoms (obstructive jaundice, anicteric cholestasis, cholangitis or biliary cirrhosis) have appeared from 3 months to 12 years after surgery. Results: Initial internal/external biliary drainage was successful in 20 patients out of 21. These 20 patients after successful initial drainage were treated by balloon dilatation and long-term internal/external drainage. Sixteen patients were symptoms free during the follow-up. The relapse of clinical symptoms has appeared in four patients 9, 12, 14 and 24 months after treatment. One year primary clinical success rate of treatment for benign bile duct stricture was 94%. Additional two patients are symptoms free after redilatation (15 and 45 months). One patient is still in treatment, one patient died during secondary treatment period without interrelation with biliary intervention. The secondary clinical success rate is 100%. Conclusion: Benign bile duct strictures of hepatic ducts junction or biliary-enteric anastomosis are difficult to treat surgically and endoscopically inaccessible. Percutaneous treatment by balloon dilatation and long-term internal/external drainage is feasible in the majority of these patients. It is minimally invasive, safe and effective.

  9. In vitro enteroid-derived three-dimensional tissue model of human small intestinal epithelium with innate immune responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ying; Zhou, Wenda; Roh, Terrence; Estes, Mary K; Kaplan, David L

    2017-01-01

    There is a need for functional in vitro 3D human intestine systems that can bridge the gap between conventional cell culture studies and human trials. The successful engineering in vitro of human intestinal tissues relies on the use of the appropriate cell sources, biomimetic scaffolds, and 3D culture conditions to support vital organ functions. We previously established a compartmentalized scaffold consisting of a hollow space within a porous bulk matrix, in which a functional and physiologically relevant intestinal epithelium system was generated using intestinal cell lines. In this study, we adopt the 3D scaffold system for the cultivation of stem cell-derived human small intestinal enteriods (HIEs) to engineer an in vitro 3D model of a nonstransformed human small intestinal epithelium. Characterization of tissue properties revealed a mature HIE-derived epithelium displaying four major terminally differentiated epithelial cell types (enterocytes, Goblet cells, Paneth cells, enteroendocrine cells), with tight junction formation, microvilli polarization, digestive enzyme secretion, and low oxygen tension in the lumen. Moreover, the tissue model demonstrates significant antibacterial responses to E. coli infection, as evidenced by the significant upregulation of genes involved in the innate immune response. Importantly, many of these genes are activated in human patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), implicating the potential application of the 3D stem-cell derived epithelium for the in vitro study of host-microbe-pathogen interplay and IBD pathogenesis.

  10. In vitro enteroid-derived three-dimensional tissue model of human small intestinal epithelium with innate immune responses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ying Chen

    Full Text Available There is a need for functional in vitro 3D human intestine systems that can bridge the gap between conventional cell culture studies and human trials. The successful engineering in vitro of human intestinal tissues relies on the use of the appropriate cell sources, biomimetic scaffolds, and 3D culture conditions to support vital organ functions. We previously established a compartmentalized scaffold consisting of a hollow space within a porous bulk matrix, in which a functional and physiologically relevant intestinal epithelium system was generated using intestinal cell lines. In this study, we adopt the 3D scaffold system for the cultivation of stem cell-derived human small intestinal enteriods (HIEs to engineer an in vitro 3D model of a nonstransformed human small intestinal epithelium. Characterization of tissue properties revealed a mature HIE-derived epithelium displaying four major terminally differentiated epithelial cell types (enterocytes, Goblet cells, Paneth cells, enteroendocrine cells, with tight junction formation, microvilli polarization, digestive enzyme secretion, and low oxygen tension in the lumen. Moreover, the tissue model demonstrates significant antibacterial responses to E. coli infection, as evidenced by the significant upregulation of genes involved in the innate immune response. Importantly, many of these genes are activated in human patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD, implicating the potential application of the 3D stem-cell derived epithelium for the in vitro study of host-microbe-pathogen interplay and IBD pathogenesis.

  11. Enteral Feeding as a Part of Combination Treatment in a Patient after Small Intestine Transplantation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Sh. Khubutia

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to describe the first experience with an enteral feeding regimen used as part of combination therapy in a patient after small intestine transplantation (SIT.Materials and methods. The results of treatment in a 48year-old male after heterotopic SIT for short bowel syndrome were given. The extent of the graft was 250 cm. The combination treatment aimed  to  restore  graft  functions  and  included  immunosuppressive,  infusion,  transfusion,  antibacterial,  antiviral,  and detoxification therapies and parenteral and enteral feeding (EF. Our elaborated EF regimen was divided into 3 steps: 1 early enteral therapy (on day 1 using a monomeric saline enteral solution and a specialized formula containing pharmaconutrients (glutamine, antioxidants, and tributyrine; 2 incorporation of a semielemental formula (on day 5; 3 use of polymeric  formulas  and  clinical  nutrition.  Laboratory,  ultrasound,  radiological,  and  endoscopic  monitoring  and  biopsy were performed.Results. The combination treatment using stepwise EF could satisfy a patient's protein-energy needs. Restoration of histological structures in the graft mucosa was observed during morphological examination on day 7. At enteroscopy, the intestinal mucosa was pink with prominent villi, motility, and bile-colored chyme. On day 7, there was a 150-ml self-colored stool. Data confirmed that the intestinal graft restored absorption and parietal digestion. On day 30, the patient was switched to polymeric formulas and curative diet. By the discharge from hospital, on day 86, his body mass index was 23.1 kg/m2.Conclusion. The positive treatment results in the patient became possible after SIT due to improvement of surgical techniques, current immunosuppression, and a comprehensive approach to treating him in the postoperative period. Our elaborated stepwise EF regiment is an important component of combination therapy after SIT and facilitates  the  restoration

  12. Methylene Blue injection via superior mesenteric artery microcatheter for focused enterectomy in the treatment of a bleeding small intestinal arteriovenous malformation

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Frydman, James; Bahouth, Hany; Leiderman, Maxim; Ofer, Amos; Kluger, Yoram

    2014-01-01

    .... When a small intestinal arteriovenous malformation is the responsible lesion, a technique combining super-selective angiography with intra-operative methylene blue injection and focused enterectomy...

  13. Urethral Strictures and Artificial Urinary Sphincter Placement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myers, Jeremy B; Brant, William O; Hotaling, James N; Lenherr, Sara M

    2017-02-01

    Patients undergoing artificial urinary sphincter (AUS) placement often have complex medical and surgical histories, such as radical prostatectomy, endoscopic treatment of urethral strictures, previous AUS placement, and prior open urethral surgery. Urethral strictures at the bladder neck, membranous urethra, or site of a previous AUS erosion are problems that profoundly affect the timing and treatment success of AUS placement. Understanding the complexities and outcomes in this subset of patients is the only way to inform shared decision making about treatment of urinary incontinence. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Expression of acyl-CoA synthetase 5 reflects the state of villus architecture in human small intestine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gassler, Nikolaus; Kopitz, Jürgen; Tehrani, Arman

    2004-01-01

    . Screening of antibodies from a hybridoma library led to the identification of an acyl-CoA synthetase 5-specific monoclonal antibody. Protein synthesis, mRNA expression, and the enzyme activity of acyl-CoA synthetase 5 were studied by several methods in human small intestinal tissues with Crohn's disease...... or coeliac disease, respectively. Acyl-CoA synthetase 5 mRNA and protein levels were substantially reduced in injured small intestinal mucosa. Moreover, impaired synthesis of the acyl-CoA synthetase 5 protein was reflected by a decrease in intramucosal enzyme activity. Subtle changes of the acyl...

  15. Alternative polyadenylation of tumor suppressor genes in small intestinal neuroendocrine tumors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rehfeld, Anders Aagaard; Plass, Mireya; Døssing, Kristina

    2014-01-01

    The tumorigenesis of small intestinal neuroendocrine tumors (SI-NETs) is poorly understood. Recent studies have associated alternative polyadenylation (APA) with proliferation, cell transformation, and cancer. Polyadenylation is the process in which the pre-messenger RNA is cleaved at a polyA site...... and a polyA tail is added. Genes with two or more polyA sites can undergo APA. This produces two or more distinct mRNA isoforms with different 3' untranslated regions. Additionally, APA can also produce mRNAs containing different 3'-terminal coding regions. Therefore, APA alters both the repertoire...... and the expression level of proteins. Here, we used high-throughput sequencing data to map polyA sites and characterize polyadenylation genome-wide in three SI-NETs and a reference sample. In the tumors, 16 genes showed significant changes of APA pattern, which lead to either the 3' truncation of mRNA coding regions...

  16. Plexus muscularis profundus and associated interstitial cells. I. Light microscopical studies of mouse small intestine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rumessen, J J; Thuneberg, L

    1982-01-01

    interstitial cells (ICC-II) in the subserous layer. (2) Auerbach's plexus with an associated extensive plexus of interstitial cells (ICC-I) in close contact with tertiary fasciculi. (3) Nerve fasciculi of the outer division of the circular muscle layer. These formed a nerve plexus in a well-defined plane...... in the outermost cell layers (plexus muscularis superficialis), with few fasciculi located internal to this plexus. A few bipolar interstitial cells (ICC-IV) were associated with nerve fasciculi of this region. (4) A nerve plexus located in the region between the two subdivisions of the circular muscle, plexus...... muscularis profundus (PMP). PMP was revealed throughout the small intestine as a continuous network of elongated, circularly oriented meshes. The pattern of connections between PMP and the other enteric plexuses was studied stereoscopically. Ganglion cells intrinsic to PMP occurred widely scattered...

  17. Fasting protects mice from lethal DNA damage by promoting small intestinal epithelial stem cell survival.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tinkum, Kelsey L; Stemler, Kristina M; White, Lynn S; Loza, Andrew J; Jeter-Jones, Sabrina; Michalski, Basia M; Kuzmicki, Catherine; Pless, Robert; Stappenbeck, Thaddeus S; Piwnica-Worms, David; Piwnica-Worms, Helen

    2015-12-22

    Short-term fasting protects mice from lethal doses of chemotherapy through undetermined mechanisms. Herein, we demonstrate that fasting preserves small intestinal (SI) architecture by maintaining SI stem cell viability and SI barrier function following exposure to high-dose etoposide. Nearly all SI stem cells were lost in fed mice, whereas fasting promoted sufficient SI stem cell survival to preserve SI integrity after etoposide treatment. Lineage tracing demonstrated that multiple SI stem cell populations, marked by Lgr5, Bmi1, or HopX expression, contributed to fasting-induced survival. DNA repair and DNA damage response genes were elevated in SI stem/progenitor cells of fasted etoposide-treated mice, which importantly correlated with faster resolution of DNA double-strand breaks and less apoptosis. Thus, fasting preserved SI stem cell viability as well as SI architecture and barrier function suggesting that fasting may reduce host toxicity in patients undergoing dose intensive chemotherapy.

  18. [Establishment and comparison of stoma and stoma-free heterotopic small intestine transplantation models in mice].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Ning; Pan, Zhijian; Liu, Yadong; Xu, Xin; Shen, Jiliang; Shen, Bo

    2016-03-01

    To establish stoma and stoma-free murine models of heterotopic small intestine transplantation in order to choose a more effective and reliable model. A total of 140 male 8-10 weeks age C57BL/6(B6) mice weighted 25-30 g were enrolled in the experiment. Syngeneic heterotopic small intestine transplantation was performed between C57BL/6 mice, and recipient mice were divided into either stoma or stoma-free group. Heterotopic small intestine transplantation was performed in 70 mice, with 35 mice in each group. After closing the proximal end of the graft by ligation, the distal end of graft was exteriorized as a stoma then secured to the skin of the abdominal wall in stoma group. In stoma-free group, the distal end of graft was anastomosed end-to-side to the recipient ileum. Successful rate of operation, two-week survival rate, operation time, associated complications, postoperative care time and body weight change were recorded and compared between two groups. The successful rate of stoma group was 65.7%, while it was 80.0% of stoma-free group (χ(2)=1.806, P=0.179). The operation time of donor in stoma group was (48.1±6.6) minutes, while it was (47.2±5.9) minutes in stoma-free group (t=0.598, P=0.552). The operation time of recipient in stoma group was (77.9±9.1) minutes, while it was (76.4±8.3) minutes in stoma-free group (t=0.683, P=0.497). The cold ischemic time of graft in stoma group was (34.7±4.0) minutes, while it was (33.9±4.6) minutes in stoma-free group(t=0.667, P=0.507). The two-week survival rate of stoma group was 45.7%, and it was 77.1% of stoma-free group(χ(2)=7.295, P=0.007). The stoma group had more complications[54.3%(19/35) vs. 22.9%(8/35), χ(2)=7.295, P=0.007], which needed more postoperative care time(191 min vs. 35 min). The weight loss in stoma group in the third day after operation was more significant [(81.52±5.20)% vs. (85.46±4.65)%, t=2.856, P=0.006]. By 2 weeks after operation, the weight of mice in both groups retruned to 95% of

  19. Galectin-2 at the enterocyte brush border of the small intestine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Martha Kampp; Hansen, Gert H; Danielsen, E Michael

    2009-01-01

    The brush border of pig small intestine is a local hotspot for beta-galactoside-recognizing lectins, as evidenced by its prominent labeling with fluorescent lectin PNA. Previously, galectins 3-4, intelectin, and lectin-like anti-glycosyl antibodies have been localized to this important body...... boundary. Together with the membrane glycolipids these lectins form stable lipid raft microdomains that also harbour several of the major digestive microvillar enzymes. In the present work, we identified a lactose-sensitive 14-kDa protein enriched in a microvillar detergent resistant fraction as galectin-2....... Its release from closed, right-side-out microvillar membrane vesicles shows that at least some of the galectin-2 resides at the lumenal surface of the brush border, indicating that it plays a role in the organization/stabilization of the lipid raft domains. Galectin-2 was released more effectively...

  20. Small bowel disaccharidase activity in the rat as affected by intestinal resection and pectin feeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koruda, M J; Rolandelli, R H; Settle, R G; Rombeau, J L

    1988-03-01

    This study investigated the effects of small bowel resection (SBR) and a pectin-supplemented elemental diet (ED) on intestinal disaccharidase activity. Rats underwent placement of feeding gastrostomy and swivel apparatus. Control animals were returned to their cages while resected animals underwent an 80% SBR. Postoperatively, animals received either a pectin-free ED or the ED supplemented with 2% pectin. After 2 wk jejunal and ileal mucosal sucrase, maltase, and lactase activities and protein content were determined. Feeding the ED after SBR resulted in significant increases in all three ileal segmental disaccharidase activities but only maltase activity was significantly increased in the jejunum. The pectin-supplemented ED, however, significantly enhanced the adaptation of jejunal and ileal segmental sucrase, maltase, and lactase activity to SBR with the increase in all three jejunal disaccharidase activities being significantly greater than that of the resected animals fed the ED alone.

  1. FETAL METABOLIC PROGRAMMING OF THE SMALL INTESTINE IN A COPENHAGEN SHEEP MODEL

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Axel, Anne Marie Dixen; Khanal, Prabhat; Kongsted, Anna Hauntoft

    effects on gene-expression, however the results vary between genes. These observations suggest that small intestine function has been programmed by the late-gestation Low or High diet at gene expression level, whereas the physiological metabolic functions has mainly been affected by the HCHF diet......Fetal metabolic programming states that early life nutrition is implicated with the risk of later disease development and both under- and overnutrition during gestation might predispose individuals to develop obesity or diabetes later in life. Obesity operations called “gastric bypass” operations...... for diabetes development. Twin-pregnant ewes where fed a Normal, a Low or a High diet during the last 6 weeks of gestation and the twin lambs where fed either a Conventional or a High fat, High carbohydrate (HCHF) diet during the first 6 months of life. Feeding challenge tests were performed on all lambs...

  2. Small intestine obstruction with ascarididae in foal safter dehelmintisation with ivermectin: Case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lauš Saša

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available High intensity of infection with ascaridida Parascaris equorum can lead to intraluminal obstruction of the ileum in foals, especially during the first dehelmintisation (during and after weaning, more rarely in older ones. Bowel obstruction is followed by strong colic pain and shock, which inevitably leads to death, especially in cases when an adequate therapy is not taken on time. The paper describes four cases of small intestine obstruction with ascarididae in foals of American trotter race, provoked by an antiparasitic agent. The first symptoms appeared about twenty hours after the treatment with antiparasitic. Two of the foals have been cured with medicament therapy, one died, and in one case there was taken surgery in field conditions.

  3. Glutathione-S-transferase genotype and p53 mutations in adenocarcinoma of the small intestine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Lisbeth Nørum; Kærlev, Linda; Teglbjærg, Peter Stubbe

    2003-01-01

    investigated a possible interaction between the lack of GSTM1 enzyme activity and the carcinogenic compounds of tobacco smoke. Based on the theory that certain carcinogens cause specific point mutations in the p53 gene we analysed by single strand conformation polymorphism (SSCP) and sequencing, p53 exon 5...... an odds ratio of 4.8; 95% confidence interval (CI) (0.6-38.7) for ASI as compared to smokers who expressed GSTM1. No similar association between alcohol consumption and ASI was found. No p53 mutations in exon 5-8 were found in these samples, but the method may not be sensitive enough to identify smaller...... differences. Thus p53 does not seem to be the target of carcinogens acting in the small intestine....

  4. Effects of pharmaceutical excipients on membrane permeability in rat small intestine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takizawa, Yusuke; Kishimoto, Hisanao; Nakagawa, Minami; Sakamoto, Nasa; Tobe, Yoshifusa; Furuya, Takahito; Tomita, Mikio; Hayashi, Masahiro

    2013-09-10

    Pharmaceutical excipients should not disturb the effects of drug therapy. In recent years, however, it has been reported that excipients induce some changes to the tight junction (TJ) and P-glycoprotein (P-gp), which can affect drug disposition. In this study, we examined the effects of 20 common pharmaceutical excipients from different classes on mucosal membrane and the differences of such effects among regions of the small intestine. We used the in vitro sac method in rat jejunum and ileum to study the effects of excipients on the membrane permeation of 5(6)-carboxyfluorescein (5-CF). 5-CF was used as a model of water-soluble compounds. In some dosage conditions of methyl-β-cyclodextrin, the membrane permeability of 5-CF was significantly increased in the jejunum, but such change was not observed in the ileum. Similarly, in the cases of sodium carboxymethyl starch, low-substituted hydroxypropyl cellulose and croscarmellose sodium, the membrane permeability of 5-CF was significantly increased in the jejunum, but no change was observed in the ileum. On the other hand, in both the jejunum and the ileum, the membrane permeation of 5-CF was decreased with 0.02% (w/v) hydroxypropyl cellulose, but significantly increased with it at 0.20% (w/v). It was shown that excipients affected the membrane permeability of water-soluble compounds via the paracellular route, and these effects on absorption differed among regions of the small intestine. Moreover, in the case of 20 excipients, not only an increase in membrane permeability but also a decrease was observed. Therefore, it was suggested that a more effective formulation could be designed by changing the combination of excipients. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Effects of starter diet supplementation with arginine on broiler production performance and on small intestine morphometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alice E. Murakami

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The effects of starter diet (days 1 to 21 supplemented with arginine (Arg on the production performance and duodenum and jejunum mucosa morphometry of broilers were studied. Male Cobb broiler chickens (990 were randomly assigned to one of five treatments in a complete random design. Measurements of 33 chicks per treatment were made in six repetitions. The treatments consisted of a basal diet with 1.390% digestible Arg (no supplementation and four dietary levels (1.490%, 1.590%, 1.690%, and 1.790%, providing a relationship with lysine of 1.103; 1.183; 1.262; 1.341 and 1.421%, respectively. From the age of 22 days on, all birds received conventional grower diet. The data were submitted to regression analysis by polynomial decomposition of the degrees of freedom in relation to the levels of Arg. The Arg supplementation increased (P0.05 in the growth phase (days 22 to 42 in the absence of the Arg supplementation. The supplementation of Arg over of NRC recommendation during the starter phase may be necessary for the expression of the maximal weight gain potential in birds. No effect (P<0.05 of Arg dietary supplementation was observed either on small intestine weight and length at any age. However, the duodenum villus:crypt ratio increased and the crypt depth decreased in the first week in response to increasing dietary Arg. It is concluded that broiler Arg dietary supplementation in the starter diet improved production performance and small intestine morphometry, especially in the first week.

  6. Enteroendocrine cells are specifically marked by cell surface expression of claudin-4 in mouse small intestine.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takahiro Nagatake

    Full Text Available Enteroendocrine cells are solitary epithelial cells scattered throughout the gastrointestinal tract and produce various types of hormones, constituting one of the largest endocrine systems in the body. The study of these rare epithelial cells has been hampered by the difficulty in isolating them because of the lack of specific cell surface markers. Here, we report that enteroendocrine cells selectively express a tight junction membrane protein, claudin-4 (Cld4, and are efficiently isolated with the use of an antibody specific for the Cld4 extracellular domain and flow cytometry. Sorted Cld4+ epithelial cells in the small intestine exclusively expressed a chromogranin A gene (Chga and other enteroendocrine cell-related genes (Ffar1, Ffar4, Gpr119, and the population was divided into two subpopulations based on the activity of binding to Ulex europaeus agglutinin-1 (UEA-1. A Cld4+UEA-1- cell population almost exclusively expressed glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide gene (Gip, thus representing K cells, whereas a Cld4+UEA-1+ cell population expressed other gut hormone genes, including glucagon-like peptide 1 (Gcg, pancreatic polypeptide-like peptide with N-terminal tyrosine amide (Pyy, cholecystokinin (Cck, secretin (Sct, and tryptophan hydroxylase 1 (Tph1. In addition, we found that orally administered luminal antigens were taken up by the solitary Cld4+ cells in the small intestinal villi, raising the possibility that enteroendocrine cells might also play a role in initiation of mucosal immunity. Our results provide a useful tool for the cellular and functional characterization of enteroendocrine cells.

  7. Transport and uptake effects of marine complex lipid liposomes in small intestinal epithelial cell models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Lei; Yang, Yu-Hong; Xu, Jie; Wang, Yu-Ming; Xue, Chang-Hu; Kurihara, Hideyuki; Takahashi, Koretaro

    2016-04-01

    Nowadays, marine complex lipids, including starfish phospholipids (SFP) and cerebrosides (SFC) separated from Asterias amurensis as well as sea cucumber phospholipids (SCP) and cerebrosides (SCC) isolated from Cucumaria frondosa, have received much attention because of their potent biological activities. However, little information is known on the transport and uptake of these lipids in liposome forms in small intestinal cells. Therefore, this study was undertaken to investigate the effects of these complex lipid liposomes on transport and uptake in Caco-2 and M cell monolayer models. The results revealed that SFP and SCP contained 42% and 47.9% eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), respectively. The average particle sizes of liposomes prepared in this study were from 169 to 189 nm. We found that the transport of the liposomes across the M cell monolayer model was much higher than the Caco-2 cell monolayer model. The liposomes consisting of SFP or SCP showed significantly higher transport and uptake than soy phospholipid (soy-PL) liposomes in both Caco-2 and M cell monolayer models. Our results also exhibited that treatment with 1 mM liposomes composed of SFP or SCP for 3 h tended to increase the EPA content in phospholipid fractions of both differentiated Caco-2 and M cells. Moreover, it was also found that the hybrid liposomes consisting of SFP/SFC/cholesterol (Chol) revealed higher transport and uptake across the M cell monolayer in comparison with other liposomes. Furthermore, treatment with SFP/SFC/Chol liposomes could notably decrease the trans-epithelial electrical resistance (TEER) values of Caco-2 and M cell monolayers. The present data also showed that the cell viability of differentiated Caco-2 and M cells was not affected after the treatment with marine complex lipids or soy-PL liposomes. Based on the data in this study, it was suggested that marine complex lipid liposomes exhibit prominent transport and uptake in small intestinal epithelial cell models.

  8. In vivo and in vitro toxicological effects of titanium dioxide nanoparticles on small intestine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tassinari, Roberta; La Rocca, Cinzia; Stecca, Laura; Tait, Sabrina; De Berardis, Barbara; Ammendolia, Maria Grazia; Iosi, Francesca; Di Virgilio, Antonio; Martinelli, Andrea; Maranghi, Francesca

    2015-06-01

    In European Union, titanium dioxide (TiO2) as bulk material is a food additive (E171) and - as nanoparticle (NP) - is used as a white pigment in several products (e.g. food, cosmetics, drugs). E171 contains approximately 36% of particles less than 100 nm in at least one dimension and TiO2 NP exposure is estimated fairly below 2.5 mg/person/day. The gastrointestinal tract is a route of entry for NPs, thus representing a potential target of effects. In in vivo study, the effects of TiO2 NP in adult rat small intestine have been evaluated by oral administration of 0 (CTRL), 1 and 2 mg/kg body weight per day - relevant to human dietary intake. Detailed quali/quantitative histopathological analyses were performed on CTRL and treated rat samples. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) analysis was performed on small intestine. An in vitro study on Caco-2 cells was also used in order to evaluate the potential cytotoxic effects directly on enterocytes through the lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) assay. Suspensions of TiO2 NPs for in vitro and in vivo study were characterized by EM. Histomorphometrical data showed treatment-related changes of villus height and widths in male rats. Significantly different from CTRL decreased LDH levels in the medium were detected in vitro at 24h with 2.5, 5, 10 and 20 µg/cm2 levels of TiO2 NPs. SEM analysis showed no damaged areas. Overall the results showed that enterocytes may represent a target of TiO2 NP toxicity by direct exposure both in vivo and in vitro models.

  9. In vivo and in vitro toxicological effects of titanium dioxide nanoparticles on small intestine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tassinari, Roberta; La Rocca, Cinzia; Tait, Sabrina; De Berardis, Barbara; Ammendolia, Maria Grazia; Iosi, Francesca; Di Virgilio, Antonio; Martinelli, Andrea; Maranghi, Francesca, E-mail: francesca.maranghi@iss.it [Istituto Superiore di Sanità, Viale Regina Elena 299, 00161 Rome (Italy); Stecca, Laura [European Commission-Joint Research Centre, Institute for Health and Consumer Protection Chemical assessment and Testing Unit, Via E. Fermi, 2749I-21027 Ispra (Italy)

    2015-06-23

    In European Union, titanium dioxide (TiO{sub 2}) as bulk material is a food additive (E171) and - as nanoparticle (NP) - is used as a white pigment in several products (e.g. food, cosmetics, drugs). E171 contains approximately 36% of particles less than 100 nm in at least one dimension and TiO{sub 2} NP exposure is estimated fairly below 2.5 mg/person/day. The gastrointestinal tract is a route of entry for NPs, thus representing a potential target of effects. In in vivo study, the effects of TiO{sub 2} NP in adult rat small intestine have been evaluated by oral administration of 0 (CTRL), 1 and 2 mg/kg body weight per day - relevant to human dietary intake. Detailed quali/quantitative histopathological analyses were performed on CTRL and treated rat samples. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) analysis was performed on small intestine. An in vitro study on Caco-2 cells was also used in order to evaluate the potential cytotoxic effects directly on enterocytes through the lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) assay. Suspensions of TiO{sub 2} NPs for in vitro and in vivo study were characterized by EM. Histomorphometrical data showed treatment-related changes of villus height and widths in male rats. Significantly different from CTRL decreased LDH levels in the medium were detected in vitro at 24h with 2.5, 5, 10 and 20 µg/cm{sup 2} levels of TiO{sub 2} NPs. SEM analysis showed no damaged areas. Overall the results showed that enterocytes may represent a target of TiO{sub 2} NP toxicity by direct exposure both in vivo and in vitro models.

  10. Noninvasive monitoring of small intestinal oxygen in a rat model of chronic mesenteric ischemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, Elaine M.; Khan, Mahmood; Salisbury, Ronald; Kuppusamy, Periannan

    2013-01-01

    We noninvasively monitored the partial pressure of oxygen (pO2) in rat small intestine using a model of chronic mesenteric ischemia by electron paramagnetic resonance oximetry (EPR) over a 7-day period. The particulate probe lithium octa-n-butoxynaphthalocyanine (LiNc-BuO) was embedded into the oxygen permeable material polydimethyl siloxane (PDMS) by cast-molding and polymerization (Oxy-Chip). A one-time surgical procedure was performed to place the Oxy-Chip on the outer wall of the small intestine (SI). The superior mesenteric artery (SMA) was banded to approximately 30% blood flow for experimental rats. Noninvasive measurement of pO2 was performed at baseline for control rats or immediate post-banding and on days 1, 3, and 7. The SI pO2 for control rats remained stable over the 7-day period. The pO2 on day 7 was 54.5 ± 0.9 mmHg (mean ± SE). SMA banded rats were significantly different from controls with a noted reduction in pO2 post banding with a progressive decline to a final pO2 of 20.9 ± 4.5 mmHg (mean ± SE; p = 0.02). All SMA-banded rats developed adhesions around the Oxy-Chip yet remained asymptomatic. The hypoxia marker Hypoxyprobe™ was used to validate low tissue pO2. Brown cytoplasmic staining was consistent with hypoxia. Mild brown staining was noted predominantly on the villus tips in control animals. SMA-banded rats had an extended region of hypoxic involvement in the villus with a higher intensity of cytoplasmic staining. Deep brown staining of the enteric nervous system neurons and connective tissue both within layers and in the mesentery were noted. SMA banded rats with lower pO2 values had a higher intensity of staining. Thus, monitoring SI pO2 using the probe Oxy-Chip provides a valid measure of tissue oxygenation. Tracking pO2 in conditions that produce chronic mesenteric ischemia will contribute to our understanding of intestinal tissue oxygenation and how changes impact symptom evolution and the trajectory of chronic disease. PMID

  11. Clinical presentation and treatment of urethral stricture: Experience ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    O.N. Ekeke

    2016-08-23

    Aug 23, 2016 ... Acquired urethral strictures may arise from iatrogenic cases follow- ing catheterization, surgery or instrumentation; traumatic strictures from straddle injuries or pelvic fractures and infectious or inflam- matory strictures caused by gonorrhoea or lichen sclerosis [6–8]. A multitude of treatment modalities have ...

  12. Benign Strictures of the Esophagus and Gastric Outlet: Interventional Management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jin Hyoung; Shin, Ji Hoon; Song, Ho Young [University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Asan Medical Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-10-15

    Benign strictures of the esophagus and gastric outlet are difficult to manage conservatively and they usually require intervention to relieve dysphagia or to treat the stricture-related complications. In this article, authors review the non-surgical options that are used to treat benign strictures of the esophagus and gastric outlet, including balloon dilation, temporary stent placement, intralesional steroid injection and incisional therapy

  13. Identification of Mucosa-Invading and Intravascular Bacteria in Feline Small Intestinal Lymphoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoehne, S N; McDonough, S P; Rishniw, M; Simpson, K W

    2017-03-01

    Persistent bacterial infections of the gastrointestinal mucosa are causally linked to gastric carcinoma and mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) lymphoma in people and laboratory animals. We examined the relationship of mucosa-associated bacteria to alimentary lymphoma in cats. Intestinal biopsies from 50 cats with alimentary lymphoma (small cell, n = 33; large cell, n = 17) and 38 controls without lymphoma (normal to minimal change on histopathology, n = 18; lymphocytic-plasmacytic enteritis, n = 20) were evaluated. The number and spatial distribution of bacteria (ie, in luminal cellular debris, villus-associated mucus, adherent to epithelium, mucosal invasion, intravascular, or serosal) were determined by fluorescence in situ hybridization with the eubacterial probe EUB-338. Mucosa-invasive bacteria were more frequently observed in cats with large cell lymphoma (82%, P ≤ .001) than in cats with small cell lymphoma (18%), normal to minimal change on histopathology, and lymphocytic-plasmacytic enteritis (3%). Intravascular bacteria were observed solely in large cell lymphoma (29%), and serosal colonization was more common in cats with large cell lymphoma (57%) than with small cell lymphoma (11%, P ≤ .01), normal to minimal change (8%, P ≤ .01), and lymphocytic-plasmacytic enteritis (6%, P ≤ .001). The high frequency of invasive bacteria within blood vessels and serosa of cats with large cell lymphoma may account for the sepsis-related complications associated with large cell lymphoma and inform clinical management. Further studies are required to determine the role of intramucosal bacteria in the etiopathogenesis of feline alimentary lymphoma.

  14. Small intestinal digestion of raw cornstarch in cattle consuming a soybean hull-based diet is improved by duodenal casein infusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brake, D W; Titgemeyer, E C; Bailey, E A; Anderson, D E

    2014-09-01

    Six duodenally and ileally cannulated steers were used in 3 sequential studies to measure 1) basal nutrient flows from a soybean hull-based diet, 2) small intestinal digestibility of raw cornstarch continuously infused into the duodenum, and 3) responses of small intestinal starch digestion to duodenal infusion of 200 or 400 g/d casein. Our objective was to evaluate responses in small intestinal starch digestion in cattle over time and to measure responses in small intestinal starch digestion to increasing amounts of MP. On average, cattle consumed 3.7 kg/d DM, 68 g/d dietary N, and 70 g/d dietary starch. Starch flow to the duodenum was small (38 g/d), and N flow was 91 g/d. Small intestinal digestibility of duodenal N was 57%, and small intestinal digestion of duodenal starch flow was extensive (92%). Small intestinal starch digestibility was 34% when 1.5 kg/d raw cornstarch was continuously infused into the duodenum. Subsequently, cattle were placed in 1 of 2 replicated Latin squares that were balanced for carryover effects to determine response to casein infusions and time required for adaptation. Duodenal infusion of casein linearly increased (P ≤ 0.05) small intestinal starch digestibility, and small intestinal starch digestion adapted to infusion of casein in 6 d. Ethanol-soluble starch and unpolymerized glucose flowing to the ileum increased linearly (P ≤ 0.05) with increasing infusion of casein. Plasma cholecystokinin was not affected by casein infusion, but circulating levels of glucose were increased by casein supplementation (P ≤ 0.05). Responses in small intestinal starch digestion in cattle adapted to casein within 6 d, and increases in duodenal supply of casein up to 400 g/d increased small intestinal starch digestion in cattle.

  15. Studies of intestinal lymphoid tissue. VI--Proliferative response of small intestinal epithelial lymphocytes distinguishes gluten- from non-gluten-induced enteropathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marsh, M N; Haeney, M R

    1983-01-01

    Several diseases of the small intestine, including gluten-sensitivity, present with malabsorption and a "flat" mucosa. Determination of the mitotic index of epithelial lymphocytes provides a simple, objective method of assessing, and thus of predicting, whether a flat mucosa is due to gluten-sensitivity (index greater than 0.2%), or not (index less than 0.2%). The use of this index in circumstances especially likely to cause diagnostic confusion--for example, intestinal lymphoma; Crohn's jejunitis of immunodeficiency--is illustrated in this paper. Of seven cases, five (two primary lymphoma, three immunodeficiency) had been treated with a gluten-free diet without benefit; a mitotic index performed on the initial biopsy in each of these patients could have predicted from the outset that none was gluten-sensitive. Of the remaining two cases, determination of the mitotic index on the biopsy initially obtained from a man with severe hypogammaglobulinaemia would have indicated that he was also gluten-sensitive. Empirical use of a gluten-free diet was avoided in the other patient (with flat small intestinal mucosa and low mitotic index) in whom the diagnosis was ultimately shown to be due to Crohn's disease of jejunum. Images PMID:6826770

  16. Peptic oesophageal stricture in children: Management problems ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The clinical picture was dominated by dysphagia. Barium swallow showed hiatal hernia in nine cases (82%). Oesophageal strictures were located most commonly in the lower third of the oesophagus (91%). Three Children (27%) with PES had a neurologic impairment and patients had a mean duration of symptoms of 20 ...

  17. Percutaneous balloon dilatation for benign hepaticojejunostomy strictures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vos, P. M.; van Beek, E. J.; Smits, N. J.; Rauws, E. A.; Gouma, D. J.; Reeders, J. W.

    2000-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Percutaneous balloon dilatation of biliary tract strictures is generally accepted as a safe and inexpensive procedure. The effectiveness in selected groups of patients remains under discussion. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the results of percutaneous balloon dilatation in

  18. Stent placement for esophageal strictures : an update

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hirdes, Meike Madeleine Catharine; Vleggaar, Frank Paul; Siersema, Peter Derk

    2011-01-01

    The use of stents for esophageal strictures has evolved rapidly over the past 10 years, from rigid plastic tubes to flexible self-expanding metal (SEMS), plastic (SEPS) and biodegradable stents. For the palliative treatment of malignant dysphagia both SEMS and SEPS effectively provide a rapid relief

  19. Vitamin A Controls the Presence of RORγ+ Innate Lymphoid Cells and Lymphoid Tissue in the Small Intestine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goverse, Gera; Labao-Almeida, Carlos; Ferreira, Manuela; Molenaar, Rosalie; Wahlen, Sigrid; Konijn, Tanja; Koning, Jasper; Veiga-Fernandes, Henrique; Mebius, Reina E

    2016-06-15

    Changes in diet and microbiota have determining effects on the function of the mucosal immune system. For example, the active metabolite of vitamin A, retinoic acid (RA), has been described to maintain homeostasis in the intestine by its influence on both lymphocytes and myeloid cells. Additionally, innate lymphoid cells (ILCs), important producers of cytokines necessary for intestinal homeostasis, are also influenced by vitamin A in the small intestines. In this study, we show a reduction of both NCR(-) and NCR(+) ILC3 subsets in the small intestine of mice raised on a vitamin A-deficient diet. Additionally, the percentages of IL-22-producing ILCs were reduced in the absence of dietary vitamin A. Conversely, mice receiving additional RA had a specific increase in the NCR(-) ILC3 subset, which contains the lymphoid tissue inducer cells. The dependence of lymphoid tissue inducer cells on vitamin A was furthermore illustrated by impaired development of enteric lymphoid tissues in vitamin A-deficient mice. These effects were a direct consequence of ILC-intrinsic RA signaling, because retinoic acid-related orphan receptor γt-Cre × RARα-DN mice had reduced numbers of NCR(-) and NCR(+) ILC3 subsets within the small intestine. However, lymphoid tissue inducer cells were not affected in these mice nor was the formation of enteric lymphoid tissue, demonstrating that the onset of RA signaling might take place before retinoic acid-related orphan receptor γt is expressed on lymphoid tissue inducer cells. Taken together, our data show an important role for vitamin A in controlling innate lymphoid cells and, consequently, postnatal formed lymphoid tissues within the small intestines. Copyright © 2016 by The American Association of Immunologists, Inc.

  20. Primary rare anaplastic large cell lymphoma, ALK positive in small intestine: case report and review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Qinghua; Liu, Fang; Li, Shurong; Liu, Ni; Li, Lihui; Li, Changzhao; Peng, Tingsheng

    2016-09-09

    Primary anaplastic large cell lymphoma, ALK positive in small intestine is clinically rare and the clinical, radiological and pathological information are generally not available. Here, we report a case of 32-year-old male with ALK positive anaplastic large cell lymphoma at the junction of jejunum and ileum, and highlight the clinicopathological features and the differential diagnosis of this type lymphoma. The patient presented with right middle abdominal mass for 1 month with sporadic pain. Computed tomography (CT) showed a mass measured 8.5 × 7.4 × 4 cm at the junction of jejunum and ileum. The diagnosis was made after pathological examination of the excised tissue by enterectomy. Grossly, the mass was located predominately in intestinal wall with grayish appearance and blurry boundary. Microscopically, almost all layers of the intestinal wall were infiltrated by pleomorphic tumor cells with diffuse and cohesive growth pattern. The neoplastic cells were mainly medium to large size with moderate basophilic cytoplasm. Most of them had hyperchromatic nuclei and prominent nucleoli. "Hallmark" cells were easily detected. Immunohistochemically, tumor cells are characterized by CD30, ALK, CD5, TIA-1, Granzyme B, EMA positive staining, and CD2, CD3, CD7, CD4, CD8, CD20, CD79a negative staining. The Epstein-Barr virus encoded RNAs (EBERs) genome was also negative. A diagnosis as primary small intestinal ALK positive anaplastic large cell lymphoma was finally made. The patient received CHOP chemotherapy and is alive till now without recurrence 5 months after enterectomy. Primary small intestinal ALK positive anaplastic large cell lymphoma is rare. The accurate diagnosis should be based on combined consideration of clinical characteristics, CT image and pathological features, and should be distinguished from other lymphomas or solid tumors in small intestine.

  1. Immunohistochemical identification of intestinal glucose transporters and glucose uptake during development and maturation of the small intestine of baby alpacas

    OpenAIRE

    Rodríguez G., José; Laboratorio de Fisiología Animal, Facultad de Medicina Veterinaria, Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos, Lima. Perú; Cueva M., Sergio; Laboratorio de Fisiología Animal, Facultad de Medicina Veterinaria, Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos, Lima. Perú; Lira M., Boris; Laboratorio de Fisiología Animal, Facultad de Medicina Veterinaria, Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos, Lima; Espinoza B., Juan; Laboratorio de Farmacología y Toxicología Veterinaria, Facultad de Medicina Veterinaria, Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos, Lima-Perú.; Vásquez C., María; Laboratorio de Fisiología Animal, Facultad de Medicina Veterinaria, Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos, Lima, Perú

    2012-01-01

    Failures in the absorptive process of monosaccharides during the early postnatal phase at intestinal level, through SGLT-1 and GLUT-2 glucose transporters could lead to animal death. The objective of this study was to determine the hexose transporters SGLT- 1 and GLUT-2 distribution in the gut and its relation with blood glucose levels in baby alpacas. A total of 36 alpacas between 1 to 45 days of age were used. Blood glucose level was determined by enzymatic test and the presence of transpor...

  2. Comparison of abdominal adiposity and overall obesity in relation to risk of small intestinal cancer in a European Prospective Cohort

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lu, Yunxia; Cross, Amanda J.; Murphy, Neil; Freisling, Heinz; Travis, Ruth C.; Ferrari, Pietro; Katzke, Verena A.; Kaaks, Rudolf; Olsson, Åsa; Johansson, Ingegerd; Renström, Frida; Panico, Salvatore; Pala, Valeria; Palli, Domenico; Tumino, Rosario; Peeters, Petra H.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/074099655; Siersema, Peter D.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/110603826; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H. B.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/06929528X; Trichopoulou, Antonia; Klinaki, Eleni; Tsironis, Christos; Agudo, Antonio; Navarro, Carmen; Sánchez, María José; Barricarte, Aurelio; Boutron-Ruault, Marie Christine; Fagherazzi, Guy; Racine, Antoine; Weiderpass, Elisabete; Gunter, Marc J.; Riboli, Elio

    Background: The etiology of small intestinal cancer (SIC) is largely unknown, and there are very few epidemiological studies published to date. No studies have investigated abdominal adiposity in relation to SIC. Methods: We investigated overall obesity and abdominal adiposity in relation to SIC in

  3. Dietary amino acid levels and feed restriction affect small intestinal development, mortality, and weight gain of maile broilers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wijtten, P.J.A.; Hangoor, E.; Sparla, J.K.W.M.; Verstegen, M.W.A.

    2010-01-01

    This study investigated the effect of 2 different dietary amino acid treatments and feed restriction in early life versus a control treatment on development of the small intestine segments (weights), mortality, and broiler performance. Each treatment was applied to 6 cages with Ross 308 male

  4. Action potential generation in the small intestine of W mutant mice that lack interstitial cells of Cajal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Malysz, J; Thuneberg, L; Mikkelsen, Hanne Birte

    1996-01-01

    + channel blockade evoked the typical spikelike action potentials. Electron microscopy identified few methylene blue-positive cells in the W/Wv small intestine associated with Auerbach's plexus as individual ICC. Numbers of resident macrophage-like cells (MLC) and fibroblast-like cells (FLC) were...

  5. Effect of processed and fermented soyabeans on net absorption in enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli-infected piglet small intestine

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kiers, J.L.; Nout, M.J.R.; Rombouts, F.M.; Andel, van E.E.; Nabuurs, M.J.A.; Meulen, van der J.

    2006-01-01

    Infectious diarrhoea is a major problem in both children and piglets. Infection of enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) results in fluid secretion and electrolyte losses in the small intestine. In the present study the effect of processed and fermented soyabean products on net absorption during

  6. A high molecular weight soluble fraction of tempeh protects against fluid losses in Escherichia coli-infected piglet small intestine

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kiers, J.L.; Nout, M.J.R.; Rombouts, F.M.; Nabuurs, M.J.A.; Meulen, van der J.

    2007-01-01

    Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) is an important cause of diarrhoea in children and piglets. Infection of ETEC results in fluid secretion and electrolyte losses in the small intestine. In this study the effects of tempeh, a traditional fungal fermented soyabean product, on fluid losses

  7. Reconstruction of abdominal wall defects using small intestinal submucosa coated with gelatin hydrogel incorporating basic fibroblast growth factor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Liang; Lai, Dong-ming; Yang, Bin; Jiang, Zhi-peng; Zhang, Yu-chao; Zhou, Jun; Lai, Wei; Chen, Shuang

    2014-04-01

    To construct a new biomaterial-small intestinal submucosa coated with gelatin hydrogel incorporating basic fibroblast growth factor, and to evaluate the new biomaterials for the reconstruction of abdominal wall defects. Thirty six Sprague-Dawley rats were used in the animal experiments and randomly divided into three groups. The new biomaterial was constructed by combining small intestinal submucosa with gelatin hydrogel for basic fibroblast growth factor release. Abdominal wall defects were created in rats, and repaired using the new biomaterials (group B), compared with small intestinal submucosa (group S) and ULTRAPROTM mesh (group P). Six rats in each group were sacrificed at three and eight weeks postoperatively to examine the gross effects, inflammatory responses, collagen deposition and neovascularization. After implantation, mild adhesion was caused in groups B and S. Group B promoted more neovascularization than group S at three weeks after implantation, and induced significantly more amount of collagen deposition and better collagen organization than groups S and P at eight weeks after implantation. Small intestinal submucosa coated with gelatin hydrogel incorporating basic fibroblast growth factor could promote better regeneration and remodeling of host tissues for the reconstruction of abdominal wall defects.

  8. The influence of radiotherapy on IL-2 and IL-6 secretions of mucous membrane epithelial cells of wistar small intestine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Bin; Li, Xiaoling; Ai, Fulu; Wang, Tianlu; Chen, Yun; Zhang, Hao

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate the influence of radiotherapy on IL-2 and IL-6 secretions of mucous epithelial cells of small intestine and the inhibition effect of deproteinized calf blood extractive (DCBE, also known as Actovegin in trade name) on apoptosis of mucous epithelial cells of small intestine. 50 wistars were randomly divided into 5 groups with 10 in each including normal group (NG), radiation group (RG), low-dose Actovegin group (L-AG), middle-dose Actovegin group (M-AG), and high-dose Actovegin (H-AG). High-energy X-ray linear accelerator was used for abdominal irradiation of RG, L-AG, M-AG, and H-AG at the exposure dose of 9.0 Gy to establish the wistar radiation damage model. Modeling wistars were injected with medicine for successive 4 days, and their small intestinal mucosas were extracted as pathological sections; then fully automated analyzer was employed to detect their IL-2 and IL-6 levels. Immunohistochemical analysis was carried out to explore the effect of Actovegin on apoptosis of mucous membrane epithelial cells of small intestine. The IL-2 and IL-6 levels of RG are significantly higher than other groups and differences are statistically significant (P 0.05). Compared with RG, the villus height, membrane thickness, crypt depth, and whole layer thickness significantly improved (P membrane epithelial cells of radioactive enteritis.

  9. Innervation of enteric mast cells by primary spinal afferents in guinea pig and human small intestine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Guo-Du; Wang, Xi-Yu; Liu, Sumei; Qu, Meihua; Xia, Yun; Needleman, Bradley J; Mikami, Dean J; Wood, Jackie D

    2014-10-01

    Mast cells express the substance P (SP) neurokinin 1 receptor and the calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) receptor in guinea pig and human small intestine. Enzyme-linked immunoassay showed that activation of intramural afferents by antidromic electrical stimulation or by capsaicin released SP and CGRP from human and guinea pig intestinal segments. Electrical stimulation of the afferents evoked slow excitatory postsynaptic potentials (EPSPs) in the enteric nervous system. The slow EPSPs were mediated by tachykinin neurokinin 1 and CGRP receptors. Capsaicin evoked slow EPSP-like responses that were suppressed by antagonists for protease-activated receptor 2. Afferent stimulation evoked slow EPSP-like excitation that was suppressed by mast cell-stabilizing drugs. Histamine and mast cell protease II were released by 1) exposure to SP or CGRP, 2) capsaicin, 3) compound 48/80, 4) elevation of mast cell Ca²⁺ by ionophore A23187, and 5) antidromic electrical stimulation of afferents. The mast cell stabilizers cromolyn and doxantrazole suppressed release of protease II and histamine when evoked by SP, CGRP, capsaicin, A23187, electrical stimulation of afferents, or compound 48/80. Neural blockade by tetrodotoxin prevented mast cell protease II release in response to antidromic electrical stimulation of mesenteric afferents. The results support a hypothesis that afferent innervation of enteric mast cells releases histamine and mast cell protease II, both of which are known to act in a diffuse paracrine manner to influence the behavior of enteric nervous system neurons and to elevate the sensitivity of spinal afferent terminals. Copyright © 2014 the American Physiological Society.

  10. Histologic and functional outcomes of small intestine submucosa-regenerated bladder tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yiming; Liao, Limin

    2014-08-23

    Intestinal bladder augmentation has more disadvantages. One of the most promising alternative methods is tissue engineering in combination with surgical construction. Small intestine submucosa (SIS) is commonly used materials in tissue engineer. The aim of this study is determine the histologic and functional characteristics of SIS as bladder wall replacement in a rabbit augmentation model. 18 New Zealand adult male rabbits, weight 2.5 ± 0.5Kg, were used in this study. The rabbits were divided into 3 groups of 6 based on the number of days post-operative (A, 4 weeks; B, 12 weeks; C, 24 weeks). All of the animals underwent urodynamic testing under anesthesia before cystoplasty with SIS patch. The cystometrograms were repeated 4, 12, and 24 weeks after surgery with the same method. SIS-regenerated bladder strips (10 × 3 × 3 mm) and normal bladder strips (10 × 3 × 3 mm) from the same bladder were obtained at 4, 12, and 24 weeks for in vitro detrusor strip study. The frequency and amplitude of the strip over 15 min was recorded. The regenerated tissue and normal tissue underwent histologic and immunocytochemical analysis. The results were quantified as optical density (OD) values. Histologically, the SIS-regenerated bladders of group C (24 weeks post-operation) resembled normal bladder in that all 3 layers (mucosa with submucosa, smooth muscle, and serosa) were present. In the in vitro detrusor strip study, there were no significant differences in autorhythmicity and contractility between regenerated and normal tissues in group C (p > 0.05). Immunohistochemical analysis indicated that the quantity of A-actin grew to a normal level. Urodynamic testing showed that compliance remained stable in all groups post-operatively, and the volume increased 24 weeks post-operatively. Regenerated tissue has similar histologic and functional characteristics. SIS seems to be a viable material in the reconstruction of the rabbit urinary bladder.

  11. A functional study on small intestinal smooth muscles in jejunal atresia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Preeti Tyagi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The present study was aimed to assess the contractile status of neonatal small intestinal smooth muscle of dilated pre-atretic part of intestinal atresia to resolve debatable issues related to mechanisms of persistent dysmotility after surgical repair. Materials and Methods: A total of 34 longitudinally sectioned strips were prepared from pre-atretic dilated part of freshly excised 8 jejunal atresia type III a cases. Spontaneous as well as acetylcholine- and histamine-induced contractions were recorded in vitro by using organ bath preparations. Chemically evoked contractions were further evaluated after application of atropine (muscarinic blocker, pheniramine (H1 blocker, and lignocaine (neuronal blocker to ascertain receptors and neuronal involvement. Histological examinations of strips were made by using Masson trichrome stain to assess the fibrotic changes. Results: All 34 strips, except four showed spontaneous contractions with mean frequency and amplitude of 5.49 ± 0.26/min and 24.41 ± 5.26 g/g wet tissue respectively. The response to ACh was nearly twice as compared to histamine for equimolar concentrations (100 μM. ACh (100 μM induced contractions were attenuated (by 60% by atropine. Histamine (100 μM-induced contractions was blocked by pheniramine (0.32 μM and lignocaine (4 μM by 74% and 78%, respectively. Histopathological examination showed varying degree of fibrotic changes in muscle layers. Conclusions: Pre-atretic dilated part of jejunal atresia retains functional activity but with definitive histopathologic abnormalities. It is suggested that excision of a length of pre-atretic part and early stimulation of peristalsis by locally acting cholinomimetic or H1 agonist may help in reducing postoperative motility problems in atresia patients.

  12. [Effect of glutamine on small intestinal repair in weanling rats after chronic diarrhea].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Zu-xiong; Ye, Li-yan; Zheng, Zhi-yong; Chen, Xin-min; Ren, Rong-na; Tong, Guo-yuan

    2005-05-01

    To investigate the nutrient effect of glutamine on small intestinal repair in weanling rats after chronic diarrhea. Forty 21-day-old wistar rats were randomly divided into five groups (8 in each). Animal model of chronic diarrhea was induced by a lactose enriched diet in the weanling Wistar rat, normal control group was fed with a standard semipurified diet, and after 14 days the rats in both groups were killed to test the establishment of the model. After the establishment of the model, the other groups were fed with the standard semipurified diet to recover for 7 days, and were randomly divided into three groups: non-intervention group, glutamine (Gln)-intervention group and control group. Glutamine concentrations in blood was detected by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Morphological changes including villus height and villus surface area of the jejunum were measured under a light microscope and electron microscope, expression of proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) as an index of cell proliferation was observed using immunohistochemical staining and image analysis. The diarrhea rate in model group was 100 percent, average diarrhea index was 1.16 +/- 0.06, but both diarrhea rate and average diarrhea index in control group were 0 (P 0.05). And compared with non-intervened group, except for body weight (P > 0.05), plasma glutamine, villus height, villus surface area and expression of PCNA were all significantly increased in Gln-intervened group. Chronic diarrhea can induce malnutrition and reduce the villus height, villus surface area, expression of PCNA and plasm glutamine concentration. Oral glutamine could improve the proliferation of crypt cell and promote repair of intestinal mucosa after chronic diarrhea.

  13. Changes in small intestinal motility and related hormones by acupuncture stimulation at Zusanli (ST 36) in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Jung-Hee; Lee, Deuk-Joo; Bae, Chang-Hwan; Ha, Ki-Tae; Kwon, Sunoh; Park, Hi-Joon; Hahm, Dae-Hyun; Lee, Hyejung; Kim, Seungtae

    2017-03-01

    To clarify the effects of acupuncture stimulation at Zusanli (ST 36) on the hormonal changes. Eight-week-old male C57BL/6 mice received acupuncture stimulation at acupoint ST 36 or Quchi (LI 11) once a day for 3 or 5 days in the acupuncture-stimulated groups, but not received in the normal group (n=6 in each group). On day 3 or 5, animals were given 0.1 mL of charcoal orally with a bulbed steel needle, 30 min after the last acupuncture stimulation. Ten minutes later, mice were anesthetized, and the intestinal transit and the concentrations of vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP), motilin, ghrelin and gastrin in the serum were measured. Compared to no acupuncture stimulation, acupuncture stimulation at ST 36 for 5 days increased the intestinal transit and down-regulated the concentration of VIP and up-regulated the concentrations of motilin, ghrelin and gastrin (Pacupuncture stimulation at LI 11 did not change them signifificantly (P>0.05). Acupuncture stimulation at ST 36 for 5 days enhances the small intestinal motility and regulates the secretion of hormones related to small intestinal motility.

  14. Small intestine development in chicks after hatch and in pigs around the time of weaning and its relation with nutrition: A review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wijtten, P.J.A.; Langhout, D.J.; Verstegen, M.W.A.

    2012-01-01

    The period after hatch in broilers and around the time of weaning in pigs is critical for development and for adaptation of the small intestine to the nutritional changes. In broilers, the small-intestinal weight relative to body weight and villous height increase rapidly during the first week after

  15. Obstructive Bezoars of the Small Bowel Treated with Coca-Cola Zero through a Long Intestinal Tube and Endoscopic Manipulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Endo, Kei; Kakisaka, Keisuke; Suzuki, Yuji; Matsumoto, Takayuki; Takikawa, Yasuhiro

    2017-11-15

    An 82-year-old Japanese man visited our hospital with abdominal fullness accompanied by lower abdominal pain. He presented with small bowel obstruction due to multiple diospyrobezoars. The bezoars were successfully removed without any surgical intervention by the administration of Coca-Cola Zero through a long intestinal tube and subsequent endoscopic manipulation. Such a combination may be the treatment of choice for small bowel obstruction due to bezoars.

  16. The use of slaughterhouse-obtained small intestinal tissue as control material in histological studies should be applied with prudence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Ceulaer, K; Van Ginneken, C; Delesalle, C; Van Brantegem, L; Deprez, P; Weyns, A

    2011-04-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the reliability of slaughterhouse-obtained small intestinal tissue as control material in equine colic research where molecular stress responses in small intestinal tissue are investigated. For this purpose, small intestinal samples from colic horses were collected during surgery or immediately after euthanasia at the oral border of strangulation resection sites and routinely processed for histopathology (i.c. rinsed with 4°C Krebs' solution, fixated overnight with 4% neutral buffered formaldehyde (FH) at room temperature). Control samples consisted of pieces of mid-jejunum, collected at the slaughterhouse and routinely processed for histopathology under 4 different conditions. The 4 conditions differed with regard to incubation and fixation temperature and whether or not oxygenated Krebs' solution was used. Histological scoring revealed that slaughterhouse samples had a higher mean lesion score (Pslaughterhouse samples had a higher mean inflammation score than colic samples (P=0.001). The inflammatory cells in the small intestine consisted mostly of eosinophils and as such were very suggestive for parasitic infestation. Hypoxia-inducible factor-1α (HIF1α) nuclear immunoreactivity was more pronounced in slaughterhouse tissue, probably as a result of the delay between slaughter and sampling (P=0.034). The histopathological score (P=0.291), the inflammation score (P=0.248) and the HIF1α nuclear immunoreactivity (P=0.538) did not differ between the different collection protocols. It is concluded that slaughterhouse-obtained small intestinal tissue shows distinct alterations and that its use as control tissue when evaluating molecular stress responses should be applied with prudence.

  17. Optical properties of human normal small intestine tissue determined by Kubelka-Munk method in vitro

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Hua-Jiang; Xing, Da; Wu, Guo-Yong; Jin, Ying; Gu, Huai-Min

    2003-01-01

    AIM: To study the optical properties of human normal small intestine tissue at 476.5 nm, 488 nm, 496.5 nm, 514.5 nm, 532 nm, 808 nm wavelengths of laser irradiation. METHODS: A double-integrating-sphere system, the basic principle of measuring technology of light radiation, and an optical model of biological tissues were used in the study. RESULTS: The results of measurement showed that there were no significant differences in the absorption coefficients of human normal small intestine tissue at 476.5 nm, 488 nm, 496.5 nm laser in the Kubelka-Munk two-flux model (P > 0.05). The absorption coefficients of the tissue at 514.5 nm, 532 nm, 808 nm laser irradiation were obviously increased with the decrease of these wavelengths. The scattering coefficients of the tissue at 476.5 nm, 488 nm, 496.5 nm laser irradiation were increased with the decrease of these wavelengths. The scattering coefficients at 496.5 nm, 514.5 nm, 532 nm laser irradiation were obviously increased with the increase of these wavelengths. The scattering coefficient of the tissue at 532 nm laser irradiation was bigger than that at 808 nm. There were no significant differences in the total attenuation coefficient of the tissue at 476.5 nm and 488 nm laser irradiation (P > 0.05). The total attenuation coefficient of the tissue at 488 nm, 496.5 nm, 514.5 nm, 532 nm, 808 nm laser irradiation was obviously increased with the decrease of these wavelengths, and their effective attenuation coefficient revealed the same trend. There were no significant differences among the forward scattered photon fluxe, backward scattered photon fluxe, and total scattered photon fluxe of the tissue at 476.5 nm, 488 nm, 496.5 nm laser irradiation. They were all obviously increased with attenuation of tissue thickness. The attenuations of forward and backward scattered photon fluxes, and the total scattered photon fluxe of the tissue at 514.5 nm laser irradiation were slower than those at 476.5 nm, 488 nm, 496.5 nm laser

  18. Different populations of CD11b+ dendritic cells drive Th2 responses in the small intestine and colon

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mayer, Johannes U.; Demiri, Mimoza; Agace, William Winston

    2017-01-01

    prime S. mansoni-specific Th2 responses. Egg antigens do not induce the expression of IRF-4-related genes. Instead, IRF-4f/f CD11c-cre mice have fewer CD11b+ migrating DCs and fewer DCs carrying parasite antigens to the lymph nodes. Furthermore, CD11b+ CD103+ DCs induce Th2 responses in the small...... intestine, whereas CD11b+ CD103- DCs perform this role in the colon, revealing a specific functional heterogeneity among intestinal DCs in inducing Th2 responses....

  19. Endometriotic stricture of the sigmoid colon presenting with intestinal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2014-02-01

    Feb 1, 2014 ... other GIT pathology, since there are no pathognomic symptoms of the disease. Patients may sometimes be asymptomatic, but the majority present with nausea, constipation, diarrhoea, bloating, tenesmus, painful defaecation, lower abdominal or pelvic pain, bowel perforation or rectal bleeding.

  20. Protective Effect of Royal Jelly against Phenylhydrazine-induced Histological Injuries of Small Intestine of Mice: Morphometric Analyses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hojat Anbara

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: Phenylhydrazine (PHZ, as a known hemolytic agent, causes toxicity in different tissues at various levels. The aim of the current study was to examine the possible protective effects of royal jelly (RJ against PHZ-induced histological injuries of small intestine in mice.   Methods: In this experimental study, adult male mice were randomly divided into four groups of 8 mice each. PHZ was administered intraperitoneally to two groups of mice (at a dose of 60mg/kg every 48 hours for 35 days. One of the groups received RJ (100mg/kg orally 4 hours before PHZ administration. The third group only received RJ, and the forth group was considered as control. Twenty-four hours after the last treatment, different segments of small intestine were dissected out, then histological sections were prepared and quantitative morphometric assessments were performed. To compare the groups, one-way ANOVA and multiple comparative Tukey tests were used. The significance level was considered to be p<0.05.   Results: In this study, PHZ caused significant decreases in depth of duodenal crypts, distribution rate of the goblet cells in ileal villi, width of duodenal and jejunal villi, and height of villi in all three segments of small intestine. Co-administration of RJ partially improved the changes in the above parameters.   Conclusion: From results of this study, it seems that RJ as a free radical scavenger could reduce PHZ-induced intestinal toxicity in mouse.

  1. One stage functional end-to-end stapled intestinal anastomosis and resection performed by nonexpert surgeons for the treatment of small intestinal obstruction in 30 dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jardel, Nicolas; Hidalgo, Antoine; Leperlier, Dimitri; Manassero, Mathieu; Gomes, Aymeric; Bedu, Anne Sophie; Moissonnier, Pierre; Fayolle, Pascal; Begon, Dominique; Riquois, Elisabeth; Viateau, Véronique

    2011-02-01

    To describe stapled 1-stage functional end-to-end intestinal anastomosis for treatment of small intestinal obstruction in dogs and evaluate outcome when the technique is performed by nonexpert surgeons after limited training in the technique. Case series. Dogs (n=30) with intestinal lesions requiring an enterectomy. Stapled 1-stage functional end-to-end anastomosis and resection using a GIA-60 and a TA-55 stapling devices were performed under supervision of senior residents and faculty surgeons by junior surgeons previously trained in the technique on pigs. Procedure duration and technical problems were recorded. Short-term results were collected during hospitalization and at suture removal. Long-term outcome was established by clinical and ultrasonographic examinations at least 2 months after surgery and from written questionnaires, completed by owners. Mean±SD procedure duration was 15±12 minutes. Postoperative recovery was uneventful in 25 dogs. One dog had anastomotic leakage, 1 had a localized abscess at the transverse staple line, and 3 dogs developed an incisional abdominal wall abscess. No long-term complications occurred (follow-up, 2-32 months). Stapled 1-stage functional end-to-end anastomosis and resection is a fast and safe procedure in the hand of nonexpert but trained surgeons. © Copyright 2011 by The American College of Veterinary Surgeons.

  2. A microengineered collagen scaffold for generating a polarized crypt-villus architecture of human small intestinal epithelium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yuli; Gunasekara, Dulan B; Reed, Mark I; DiSalvo, Matthew; Bultman, Scott J; Sims, Christopher E; Magness, Scott T; Allbritton, Nancy L

    2017-06-01

    The human small intestinal epithelium possesses a distinct crypt-villus architecture and tissue polarity in which proliferative cells reside inside crypts while differentiated cells are localized to the villi. Indirect evidence has shown that the processes of differentiation and migration are driven in part by biochemical gradients of factors that specify the polarity of these cellular compartments; however, direct evidence for gradient-driven patterning of this in vivo architecture has been hampered by limitations of the in vitro systems available. Enteroid cultures are a powerful in vitro system; nevertheless, these spheroidal structures fail to replicate the architecture and lineage compartmentalization found in vivo, and are not easily subjected to gradients of growth factors. In the current work, we report the development of a micropatterned collagen scaffold with suitable extracellular matrix and stiffness to generate an in vitro self-renewing human small intestinal epithelium that replicates key features of the in vivo small intestine: a crypt-villus architecture with appropriate cell-lineage compartmentalization and an open and accessible luminal surface. Chemical gradients applied to the crypt-villus axis promoted the creation of a stem/progenitor-cell zone and supported cell migration along the crypt-villus axis. This new approach combining microengineered scaffolds, biophysical cues and chemical gradients to control the intestinal epithelium ex vivo can serve as a physiologically relevant mimic of the human small intestinal epithelium, and is broadly applicable to model other tissues that rely on gradients for physiological function. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Diet effects on glucose absorption in the small intestine of neonatal calves: importance of intestinal mucosal growth, lactase activity, and glucose transporters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinhoff-Wagner, Julia; Zitnan, Rudolf; Schönhusen, Ulrike; Pfannkuche, Helga; Hudakova, Monika; Metges, Cornelia C; Hammon, Harald M

    2014-10-01

    Colostrum (C) feeding in neonatal calves improves glucose status and stimulates intestinal absorptive capacity, leading to greater glucose absorption when compared with milk-based formula feeding. In this study, diet effects on gut growth, lactase activity, and glucose transporters were investigated in several gut segments of the small intestine. Fourteen male German Holstein calves received either C of milkings 1, 3, and 5 (d 1, 2, and 3 in milk) or respective formulas (F) twice daily from d 1 to d 3 after birth. Nutrient content, and especially lactose content, of C and respective F were the same. On d 4, calves were fed C of milking 5 or respective F and calves were slaughtered 2h after feeding. Tissue samples from duodenum and proximal, mid-, and distal jejunum were taken to measure villus size and crypt depth, mucosa and brush border membrane vesicles (BBMV) were taken to determine protein content, and mRNA expression and activity of lactase and mRNA expression of sodium-dependent glucose co-transporter-1 (SGLT1) and facilitative glucose transporter (GLUT2) were determined from mucosal tissue. Additionally, protein expression of SGLT1 in BBMV and GLUT2 in crude mucosal membranes and BBMV were determined, as well as immunochemically localized GLUT2 in the intestinal mucosa. Villus circumference, area, and height were greater, whereas crypt depth was smaller in C than in F. Lactase activity tended to be greater in C than in F. Protein expression of SGLT1 was greater in F than in C. Parameters of villus size, lactase activity, SGLT1 protein expression, as well as apical and basolateral GLUT2 localization in the enterocytes differed among gut segments. In conclusion, C feeding, when compared with F feeding, enhances glucose absorption in neonatal calves primarily by stimulating mucosal growth and increasing absorptive capacity in the small intestine, but not by stimulating abundance of intestinal glucose transporters. Copyright © 2014 American Dairy Science

  4. Acute but not chronic ethanol exposure impairs retinol oxidation in the small and large intestine of the rat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Parlesak, Alexandr; Ellendt, K.; Lindros, K.

    2005-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND AIM: Ethanol has been shown to inhibit retinol oxidation at the level of alcohol dehydrogenase in liver and colon but not previously in the small intestine. In the present study we investigated how chronic alcohol feeding and acute ethanol exposure affects retinol dehydrogenase...... activity in the colon and small intestine of the rat. METHODS: Rats were fed ethanol in a liquid diet for six weeks. Control rats received a similar diet but with ethanol isocalorically replaced by carbohydrates. Retinol dehydrogenase was analyzed from cell cytosol samples from the small and the large...... higher, respectively). While chronic alcohol feeding did not affect these parameters, acute ethanol exposure reduced V(max) and V(max)/K(m) dose-dependently (p

  5. Lubiprostone Increases Small Intestinal Smooth Muscle Contractions Through a Prostaglandin E Receptor 1 (EP1)-mediated Pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Walter W; Mashimo, Hiroshi

    2013-07-01

    Lubiprostone, a chloride channel type 2 (ClC-2) activator, was thought to treat constipation by enhancing intestinal secretion. It has been associated with increased intestinal transit and delayed gastric emptying. Structurally similar to prostones with up to 54% prostaglandin E2 activity on prostaglandin E receptor 1 (EP1), lubiprostone may also exert EP1-mediated procontractile effect on intestinal smooth muscles. We investigated lubiprostone's effects on intestinal smooth muscle contractions and pyloric sphincter tone. Isolated murine small intestinal (longitudinal and circular) and pyloric tissues were mounted in organ baths with modified Krebs solution for isometric recording. Basal muscle tension and response to electrical field stimulation (EFS; 2 ms pulses/10 V/6 Hz/30 sec train) were measured with lubiprostone (10(-10)-10(-5) M) ± EP1 antagonist. Significance was established using Student t test and P Lubiprostone had no effect on the basal tension or EFS-induced contractions of longitudinal muscles. With circular muscles, lubiprostone caused a dose-dependent increase in EFS-induced contractions (2.11 ± 0.88 to 4.43 ± 1.38 N/g, P = 0.020) that was inhibited by pretreatment with EP1 antagonist (1.69 ± 0.70 vs. 4.43 ± 1.38 N/g, P = 0.030). Lubiprostone had no effect on circular muscle basal tension, but it induced a dose-dependent increase in pyloric basal tone (1.07 ± 0.01 to 1.97 ± 0.86 fold increase, P lubiprostone caused a dose-dependent and EP1-mediated increase in contractility of circular but not longitudinal small intestinal smooth muscles, and in basal tone of the pylorus. These findings suggest another mechanism for lubiprostone's observed clinical effects on gastrointestinal motility.

  6. Small intestine bacterial overgrowth and irritable bowel syndrome-related symptoms: Experience with Rifaximin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peralta, Sergio; Cottone, Claudia; Doveri, Tiziana; Almasio, Piero Luigi; Craxi, Antonio

    2009-01-01

    AIM: To estimate the prevalence of small intestinal bacterial overgrowth (SIBO) in our geographical area (Western Sicily, Italy) by means of an observational study, and to gather information on the use of locally active, non-absorbable antibiotics for treatment of SIBO. METHODS: Our survey included 115 patients fulfilling the Rome II criteria for diagnosis of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS); a total of 97 patients accepted to perform a breath test with lactulose (BTLact), and those who had a positive test, received Rifaximin (Normix®, Alfa Wassermann) 1200 mg/d for 7 d; 3 wk after the end of treatment, the BTLact was repeated. RESULTS: Based on the BTLact results, SIBO was present in about 56% of IBS patients, and it was responsible for some IBS-related symptoms, such as abdominal bloating and discomfort, and diarrhoea. 1-wk treatment with Rifaximin turned the BTLact to negative in about 50% of patients and significantly reduced the symptoms, especially in those patients with an alternated constipation/diarrhoea-variant IBS. CONCLUSION: SIBO should be always suspected in patients with IBS, and a differential diagnosis is done by means of a “breath test”. Rifaximin may represent a valid approach to the treatment of SIBO. PMID:19496193

  7. Cytotoxic and apoptotic effect of mycotoxins in human small intestinal cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Tina Skau; Sørensen, Izel Fourie; Sørensen, Jens Laurids

    2016-01-01

    for consumers and for animal health and welfare. The aim of the present study was to determine the cytotoxicity of several mycotoxins potentially present in feed and food in a sensitive screening assay with normal human small intestinal cells (FHs 74 Int.). For cytotoxicity studies, cells were treated...... with mycotoxins for 72 h, and viability was measured by AlamarBlue reduction. For apoptosis studies, cells were treated with mycotoxins for 24 h, and apoptosis was measured by caspase 3/7 activation. The half maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50) of mycotoxins was calculated from sigmoidal dose-response plots....... T-2 toxin was the most cytotoxic mycotoxin (6.4 nM), followed by HT-2 toxin (24 nM), PR toxin (44 nM), gliotoxin (0.11 µM), NIV (0.32 µM), deoxynivalenol (DON; 0.34 µM), patulin (0.97 µM), and zearalenone (ZEA; 11 µM). Mycophenolic acid, roquefortine, citrinin, and moniformin did not cause...

  8. Identification of candidate serum proteins for classifying well-differentiated small intestinal neuroendocrine tumors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Spyros Darmanis

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Patients with well-differentiated small intestine neuroendocrine tumors (WD-SI-NETs are most often diagnosed at a metastatic stage of disease, which reduces possibilities for a curative treatment. Thus new approaches for earlier detection and improved monitoring of the disease are required. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Suspension bead arrays targeting 124 unique proteins with antibodies from the Human Protein Atlas were used to profile biotinylated serum samples. Discoveries from a cohort of 77 individuals were followed up in a cohort of 132 individuals both including healthy controls as well as patients with untreated primary WD-SI-NETs, lymph node metastases and liver metastases. RESULTS: A set of 20 antibodies suggested promising proteins for further verification based on technically verified statistical significance. Proceeding, we assessed the classification performance in an independent cohort of patient serum, achieving, classification accuracy of up to 85% with different subsets of antibodies in respective pairwise group comparisons. The protein profiles of nine targets, namely IGFBP2, IGF1, SHKBP1, ETS1, IL1α, STX2, MAML3, EGR3 and XIAP were verified as significant contributors to tumor classification. CONCLUSIONS: We propose new potential protein biomarker candidates for classifying WD-SI-NETs at different stage of disease. Further evaluation of these proteins in larger sample sets and with alternative approaches is needed in order to further improve our understanding of their functional relation to WD-SI-NETs and their eventual use in diagnostics.

  9. Permeation studies through porcine small intestine of furosemide solutions for personalised paediatric administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Provenza, N; Calpena, A C; Mallandrich, M; Sánchez, A; Egea, M A; Clares, B

    2014-11-20

    Personalized medicine is a challenging research area in paediatric drug design since no suitable pharmaceutical forms are currently available. Furosemide is an anthranilic acid derivative used in paediatric practice to treat cardiac and pulmonary disorders in premature infants and neonates. However, it is not commercialized in suitable dosage forms for paediatrics. Elaborating new paediatric formulations when no commercial forms are available is a common practice in pharmacy laboratories; amongst these, oral liquid formulations are the most common. We developed two extemporaneous paediatric oral solutions of furosemide (pure powder). The characterization and stability study were also performed. Parameters such as organoleptic characteristics, rheology, pH, content of active substance, and microbial stability were evaluated at three temperatures for two months. Evaluation of all these parameters showed that both solutions were stable for 60 days at 4 and 25 °C. Moreover, ex vivo studies were performed to evaluate the permeation behaviour of developed solutions through porcine small intestine to evaluate the potential paediatric biological parameters influencing the bioavailability and efficacy. A validated spectrofluorometric method was also used for this purpose. Our results guarantee a correct dosification, administration and potential efficacy of furosemide when is formulated in liquid oral forms for the treatment of cardiac and pulmonary disorders in children. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Clinical effects of transobturator tape procedure with porcine small intestine submucosa for female stress urinary incontinence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chiu-Lin Wang

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of the transobturator tape (TOT procedure using porcine small intestine submucosa (SIS for the treatment of female stress urinary incontinence (SUI. Forty-two consecutive patients with SUI who underwent the TOT procedure with porcine SIS were enrolled. The surgical outcomes, and data of urodynamic study and a questionnaire prior to and after surgery were collected and analyzed retrospectively. SUI was reported subjectively cured in 34 of the 42 patients (81.0% 1 year after surgery, and declined to the rate of 66.7% at 5 years postoperatively. The subjective symptoms of frequency and nocturia also improved significantly (p < 0.01. Graft-versus-host disease (GVHD developed in four patients, but without major complications. Despite the bladder volume at first desire to void increased significantly after surgery (p < 0.01, the remaining urodynamic parameters did not differ in a significant manner. In conclusion, the long-term cure rate of the TOT procedure with SIS is lower than with synthetic materials, but with relatively lower morbidity.

  11. Effect of the artificial sweetener, sucralose, on small intestinal glucose absorption in healthy human subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Jing; Chang, Jessica; Checklin, Helen L; Young, Richard L; Jones, Karen L; Horowitz, Michael; Rayner, Christopher K

    2010-09-01

    It has been reported that the artificial sweetener, sucralose, stimulates glucose absorption in rodents by enhancing apical availability of the transporter GLUT2. We evaluated whether exposure of the proximal small intestine to sucralose affects glucose absorption and/or the glycaemic response to an intraduodenal (ID) glucose infusion in healthy human subjects. Ten healthy subjects were studied on two separate occasions in a single-blind, randomised order. Each subject received an ID infusion of sucralose (4 mM in 0.9% saline) or control (0.9% saline) at 4 ml/min for 150 min (T = - 30 to 120 min). After 30 min (T = 0), glucose (25 %) and its non-metabolised analogue, 3-O-methylglucose (3-OMG; 2.5 %), were co-infused intraduodenally (T = 0-120 min; 4.2 kJ/min (1 kcal/min)). Blood was sampled at frequent intervals. Blood glucose, plasma glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) and serum 3-OMG concentrations increased during ID glucose/3-OMG infusion (P sucralose and control infusions. In conclusion, sucralose does not appear to modify the rate of glucose absorption or the glycaemic or incretin response to ID glucose infusion when given acutely in healthy human subjects.

  12. Small intestinal bacterial overgrowth in inactive Crohn’s disease: Influence of thiopurine and biological treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Montes, Cristina; Ortiz, Vicente; Bastida, Guillermo; Rodríguez, Ester; Yago, María; Beltrán, Belén; Aguas, Mariam; Iborra, Marisa; Garrigues, Vicente; Ponce, Julio; Nos, Pilar

    2014-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the influence of thiopurines and biological drugs on the presence of small intestinal bacterial overgrowth (SIBO) in patients with inactive Crohn’s disease (CD). METHODS: This was a prospective study in patients with CD in remission and without corticosteroid treatment, included consecutively from 2004 to 2010. SIBO was investigated using the hydrogen glucose breath test. RESULTS: One hundred and seven patients with CD in remission were included. Almost 58% of patients used maintenance immunosuppressant therapy and 19.6% used biological therapy. The prevalence of SIBO was 16.8%. No association was observed between SIBO and the use of thiopurine Immunosuppressant (12/62 patients), administration of biological drugs (2/21 patients), or with double treatment with an anti-tumor necrosis factor drugs plus thiopurine (1/13 patients). Half of the patients had symptoms that were suggestive of SIBO, though meteorism was the only symptom that was significantly associated with the presence of SIBO on univariate analysis (P meteorism and a fistulizing pattern were associated with the presence of SIBO (P meteorism are associated with SIBO. PMID:25320539

  13. Small intestinal bacterial overgrowth in inactive Crohn's disease: influence of thiopurine and biological treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Montes, Cristina; Ortiz, Vicente; Bastida, Guillermo; Rodríguez, Ester; Yago, María; Beltrán, Belén; Aguas, Mariam; Iborra, Marisa; Garrigues, Vicente; Ponce, Julio; Nos, Pilar

    2014-10-14

    To investigate the influence of thiopurines and biological drugs on the presence of small intestinal bacterial overgrowth (SIBO) in patients with inactive Crohn's disease (CD). This was a prospective study in patients with CD in remission and without corticosteroid treatment, included consecutively from 2004 to 2010. SIBO was investigated using the hydrogen glucose breath test. One hundred and seven patients with CD in remission were included. Almost 58% of patients used maintenance immunosuppressant therapy and 19.6% used biological therapy. The prevalence of SIBO was 16.8%. No association was observed between SIBO and the use of thiopurine Immunosuppressant (12/62 patients), administration of biological drugs (2/21 patients), or with double treatment with an anti-tumor necrosis factor drugs plus thiopurine (1/13 patients). Half of the patients had symptoms that were suggestive of SIBO, though meteorism was the only symptom that was significantly associated with the presence of SIBO on univariate analysis (P meteorism and a fistulizing pattern were associated with the presence of SIBO (P meteorism are associated with SIBO.

  14. Assessment of in Vitro Digestibility of Dietary Carbohydrates Using Rat Small Intestinal Extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira-Lazarte, Alvaro; Olano, Agustín; Villamiel, Mar; Moreno, F Javier

    2017-09-13

    There are few studies on the assessment of digestibility of nondigestible carbohydrates, despite their increasingly important role in human health. In vitro digestibility of a range of dietary carbohydrates classified as digestible (maltose, sucrose, and lactose), well-recognized (lactulose, fructooligosaccharides (FOS), and two types of galactooligosaccharides (GOS) differing in the predominant glycosidic linkage), and potential (lactosucrose and GOS from lactulose, OsLu) prebiotics using a rat small intestinal extract (RSIE) under physiological conditions of temperature and pH is described. Recognized and potential prebiotics were highly resistant to RSIE digestion although partial hydrolysis at different extents was observed. FOS and lactulose were the most resistant to digestion, followed closely by OsLu and more distantly by both types of GOS and lactosucrose. In GOS, β(1 → 6) linkages were more resistant to digestion than β(1 → 4) bonds. The reported in vitro digestion model is a useful, simple, and cost-effective tool to evaluate the digestibility of dietary oligosaccharides.

  15. Effect of probiotics on small intestinal bacterial overgrowth in patients with gastric and colorectal cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Sufang; Xu, Lin; Zhang, Dongsheng; Wu, Zhenjun

    2016-05-01

    Small intestinal bacterial overgrowth (SIBO) may be related to the presence of gastrointestinal cancer. The exact link, however, between SIBO and cancer prevalence as well as cancer symptoms remains unclear, especially in Asian populations. In addition, there is a paucity of data documenting the influence of probiotic treatment of SIBO on cancer symptoms. Here, the aims were to correlate the presence of SIBO with cancer prevalence and cancer symptoms, as well as to investigate the effect of probiotic intervention on SIBO and cancer symptoms. Employing a case-control design, 112 gastric and 88 colorectal cancer patients were evaluated. Questionnaires were used to assess gastrointestinal symptoms and a glucose-H2-breath test (GHBT) was used to determine SIBO status. Patients with SIBO were administered Bifidobacterium triple viable capsule therapy or placebo. Subsequently, SIBO status and gastrointestinal symptom scores were reanalyzed. In our study group, 63.0% of patients versus 16.3% of controls was tested positive for SIBO. In patients with cancer, SIBO was associated with proton pump inhibitor (PPI) use. Bifidobacterium triple viable capsule was effective in combating SIBO and was associated with a significant improvement in gastrointestinal cancer-related symptoms. In a Chinese cohort, SIBO is associated with gastrointestinal cancer. Based on the preliminary intervention study, we conclude that probiotic intervention combats SIBO in patients with gastrointestinal cancer and alleviates its symptoms.

  16. Growth of and valine production by a Bacillus subtilis mutant in the small intestine of pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Canibe, Nuria; Poulsen, Henrik Vestergaard; Nørgaard, Jan Værum

    2016-01-01

    :Lys of 0.63:1 (Neg), 2) the Neg diet with added Bacillus subtilis-valine (1.28 × 108 cfu/g feed) (+Bac), and 3) the Neg diet with added L-Val to a Val:Lys of 0.69:1 (+Val). Eighteen gilts (6 on each treatment) with initial weights of ∼15 kg were fed the diets for 23 d before the animals were euthanized...... and samples from the small intestine were obtained. The number of B. subtilis cfu in digesta was higher in the +Bac group than in the Neg group (P subtilis cfu were detected in the Neg group, whereas numbers between 3.4 and 4.4 log cfu/g and numerically higher Val and Lys...... concentrations were measured in the +Bac group. Short-term in vitro incubations of digesta showed a decrease (P ≤ 0.03) in the number of B. subtilis cfu over time for the +Bac group and no difference in the rate of Val production compared to that in the Neg group. In conclusion, more B. subtilis cfu were present...

  17. Phenoxy and picolinic acid herbicides and small-intestinal adenocarcinoma in sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newell, K W; Ross, A D; Renner, R M

    1984-12-08

    A study of age and sex matched groups of adult female sheep from 88 flat, hill, and high-country farms was conducted in the South Island of New Zealand to investigate the influence of breed and certain environmental factors on the prevalence rate of small-intestinal adenocarcinoma (SIA). 20 678 female sheep aged 5.5-7.5 years were examined at slaughter, 125 cases of SIA were found (6 per thousand) in animals from 61 farms (69%) and the prevalence rate for individual farm groups varied from 0 to 38 per thousand. Differences in tumour rate between breed groups were significant but differences between farm type were not. Exposure to phenoxy (Ph), picolinic acid (Pi) herbicides, or both (PhPi) was associated with significant increases in tumour rate. The increase in rate was significant for exposure to each of the 3 herbicide groups. Exposure to recently sprayed feed stuffs was associated with a significantly larger increase in tumour rate than exposure to less recently sprayed food. There was no difference between tumour rates of sheep exposed to Ph herbicides with or without 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD). Rates rose significantly with the total number of Ph, Pi, PhPi sprays used on the farm. The variation in rates associated with herbicides is sufficient to explain the breed differences recorded.

  18. [Method of preventive maintenance of a leakage stitch of a small intestine anastomosis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agaev, E K

    2013-01-01

    Dynamic follow-up of 110 patients (main group) and retrospective analysis of 59 patients (control group) with widespread peritonitis and acute intestinal obstruction was performed to assess the efficacy of permanent intramesenteric blockade and limphotropic therapy in the prevention of intestinal anastomosis insufficiency. Frequency of anastomotic insufficiency decreased from 15.5 to 3.4% (χ2=16.2, pprevention.

  19. Strictures of the sigmoid colon: barium enema evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blakeborough, A; Chapman, A H; Swift, S; Culpan, G; Wilson, D; Sheridan, M B

    2001-08-01

    To assess the accuracy of radiologic interpretation, in the absence of clinical information, in the differentiation of benign and malignant sigmoid strictures at barium enema examination. On two occasions, four independent observers retrospectively assessed examination findings in 78 patients with documented sigmoid strictures (43 benign, 35 malignant). Each stricture was graded by using a five-point scale (definitely malignant to definitely benign). No significant difference existed between the areas under the receiver operating characteristic curves for the two assessments with any observer. Consensus findings indicated agreement among at least three of the four observers in 68 (87%) and 66 (85%) cases at the first and second assessments, respectively. One benign stricture was called malignant at both assessments. When consensus existed, the positive predictive value for malignant strictures was 96% at both assessments (sensitivity, 63% and 66%). Nine malignant strictures were called benign, three at both assessments. When consensus existed, the positive predictive value for benign strictures was 84% and 88% at the first and second assessments, respectively (sensitivity, 88% and 86%, respectively). The differentiation between a benign and a malignant sigmoid stricture can be made in most cases at barium enema examination. When a stricture appears malignant, the diagnosis is usually correct, but caution is advised when a stricture appears benign.

  20. Usefulness of intestinal fatty acid-binding protein in predicting strangulated small bowel obstruction.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hirotada Kittaka

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The level of intestinal fatty acid-binding protein (I-FABP is considered to be useful diagnostic markers of small bowel ischemia. The purpose of this retrospective study was to investigate whether the serum I-FABP level is a predictive marker of strangulation in patients with small bowel obstruction (SBO. METHODS: A total of 37 patients diagnosed with SBO were included in this study. The serum I-FABP levels were retrospectively compared between the patients with strangulation and those with simple obstruction, and cut-off values for the diagnosis of strangulation were calculated using a receiver operating characteristic curve. In addition, the sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV and negative predictive value (NPV were calculated. RESULTS: Twenty-one patients were diagnosed with strangulated SBO. The serum I-FABP levels were significantly higher in the patients with strangulation compared with those observed in the patients with simple obstruction (18.5 vs. 1.6 ng/ml p<0.001. Using a cut-off value of 6.5 ng/ml, the sensitivity, specificity, PPV and NPV were 71.4%, 93.8%, 93.8% and 71.4%, respectively. An I-FABP level greater than 6.5 ng/ml was found to be the only independent significant factor for a higher likelihood of strangulated SBO (P =  0.02; odds ratio: 19.826; 95% confidence interval: 2.1560 - 488.300. CONCLUSIONS: The I-FABP level is a useful marker for discriminating between strangulated SBO and simple SBO in patients with SBO.

  1. Current management of urethral stricture disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas G Smith

    2016-01-01

    Conclusions: Progress is being made toward consistent terminology, and nomenclature which will, in turn, help to standardize treatment within the field of urology. Treatment for urethral stricture and stenosis remains inconsistent between reconstructive and nonreconstructive urologists due to varying treatment algorithms and approaches to disease management. Tissue engineering appears to be future for reconstructive urethral surgery with reports demonstrating feasibility in the use of different tissue substitutes and grafts.

  2. Herbal extracts modulate the amplitude and frequency of slow waves in circular smooth muscle of mouse small intestine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Storr, M; Sibaev, A; Weiser, D; Kelber, O; Schirra, J; Goke, B; Allescher, H D

    2004-01-01

    Herbal preparations like STW 5 (Iberogast) are widely used drugs in the treatment of dyspepsia and motility-related disorders of the gastrointestinal tract. STW 5 is a phytotherapeutic agent consisting of a fixed mixture of 9 individual plant extracts. The electrophysiological mechanisms of action of STW 5 remain obscure. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether herbal extracts influence electrophysiological parameters of the small intestine. For this purpose, the resting membrane potential (RMP) and the slow wave rhythmicity of smooth muscle cells of mouse small intestine were observed. Intracellular recordings of smooth muscle cells of the circular muscle layer of mouse small intestine were performed using standard microelectrode techniques. After dissection of the mucosa, the small intestine was placed in an organ bath and a microelectrode was applied on a circular smooth muscle cell. The RMP and the amplitude of slow waves were measured in millivolts. The RMP of smooth muscle cells was -59 +/- 1.3 mV. This RMP was significantly depolarized by STW 5 (9.6 +/- 1.6 mV); the depolarizing effects can be mainly attributed to the constituents of matricariae flos, angelicae radix and chelidonii herba. The basal frequency of small intestinal slow waves was 39.5 +/- 1.4 min(-1) and the amplitude was 23.1 +/- 0.9 mV. STW 5 significantly reduced the amplitude and frequency of the slow waves (11.7 +/- 0.8 mV; 33.5 +/- 3.4 min(-1)). This effect on slow waves represents the sum of the effects of the 9 phytoextracts. Whereas angelicae radix and matricariae flos completely blocked slow wave activity, Iberis amara increased the frequency and amplitude, chelidonii herba reduced the frequency and amplitude of the slow waves, mentae piperitae folium reduced the frequency and left amplitude unchanged and liquiritae radix, carvi fructus and melissae folium had no effects. Herbal extracts cause changes in smooth muscle RMP and slow wave rhythmicity, up to reversible

  3. Two-dimensional gel proteome reference map of human small intestine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Canzonieri Vincenzo

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The small intestine is an important human organ that plays a central role in many physiological functions including digestion, absorption, secretion and defense. Duodenal pathologies include, for instance, the ulcer associated to Helicobacter Pylori infection, adenoma and, in genetically predisposed individuals, celiac disease. Alterations in the bowel reduce its capability to absorb nutrients, minerals and fat-soluble vitamins. Anemia and osteopenia or osteoporosis may develop as a consequence of vitamins malabsorption. Adenoma is a benign tumor that has the potential to become cancerous. Adult celiac disease patients present an overall risk of cancer that is almost twice than that found in the general population. These disease processes are not completely known. To date, a two dimensional (2D reference map of proteins expressed in human duodenal tissue is not yet available: the aim of our study was to characterize the 2D protein map, and to identify proteins of duodenal mucosa of adult individuals without duodenal illness, to create a protein database. This approach, may be useful for comparing similar protein samples in different laboratories and for the molecular characterization of intestinal pathologies without recurring to the use of surgical material. Results The enrolled population comprised five selected samples (3 males and 2 females, aged 19 to 42, taken from 20 adult subjects, on their first visit at the gastroenterology unit for a suspected celiac disease, who did not turn to be affected by any duodenal pathology after gastrointestinal and histological evaluations. Proteins extracted from the five duodenal mucosal specimens were singly separated by 2D gel electrophoresis. After image analysis of each 2D gel, 179 protein spots, representing 145 unique proteins, from 218 spots tested, were successfully identified by MALDI-TOF ms analysis. Normalized volumes, for each protein, have been reported for every gel

  4. Prevotella jejuni sp. nov., isolated from the small intestine of a child with coeliac disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hedberg, Maria E; Israelsson, Anne; Moore, Edward R B; Svensson-Stadler, Liselott; Wai, Sun Nyunt; Pietz, Grzegorz; Sandström, Olof; Hernell, Olle; Hammarström, Marie-Louise; Hammarström, Sten

    2013-11-01

    Five obligately anaerobic, Gram-stain-negative, saccharolytic and proteolytic, non-spore-forming bacilli (strains CD3 : 27, CD3 : 28(T), CD3 : 33, CD3 : 32 and CD3 : 34) are described. All five strains were isolated from the small intestine of a female child with coeliac disease. Cells of the five strains were short rods or coccoid cells with longer filamentous forms seen sporadically. The organisms produced acetic acid and succinic acid as major metabolic end products. Phylogenetic analysis based on comparative 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis revealed close relationships between CD3 : 27, CD3 : 28(T) and CD3 : 33, between CD3 : 32 and Prevotella histicola CCUG 55407(T), and between CD3 : 34 and Prevotella melaninogenica CCUG 4944B(T). Strains CD3 : 27, CD3 : 28(T) and CD3 : 33 were clearly different from all recognized species within the genus Prevotella and related most closely to but distinct from P. melaninogenica. Based on 16S rRNA, RNA polymerase β-subunit (rpoB) and 60 kDa chaperonin protein subunit (cpn60) gene sequencing, and phenotypic, chemical and biochemical properties, strains CD3 : 27, CD3 : 28(T) and CD3 : 33 are considered to represent a novel species within the genus Prevotella, for which the name Prevotella jejuni sp. nov. is proposed. Strain CD3 : 28(T) ( = CCUG 60371(T) = DSM 26989(T)) is the type strain of the proposed novel species. All five strains were able to form homologous aggregates, in which tube-like structures were connecting individual bacteria cells. The five strains were able to bind to human intestinal carcinoma cell lines at 37 °C.

  5. Does Carbohydrate Challenge Testing Predict Clinical Response in Small Intestinal Bacterial Overgrowth?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Sara K; Di Palma, Jack A

    2016-05-01

    Small intestinal bacterial overgrowth (SIBO) is considered a frequent cause of abdominal symptoms in patients with surgically altered intestinal anatomy or dysmotility conditions and is recognized as a contributing factor in the exacerbation of irritable bowel syndrome symptoms. Diagnostic testing can be used to detect the condition. The study group comprised patients who had breath hydrogen and methane lactulose challenge testing. All of the patients were treated with antibiotic regimens that have shown benefit for SIBO. The lactulose challenge was administered orally at 15 g. Hydrogen and methane in expired air were measured and hydrogen values were recorded as the hydrogen plus twice the methane result. Breath tests were analyzed for positivity based on single and multiple criteria of fasting baseline elevation, early rise, and second peak hydrogen rise. Global improvement of gastrointestinal symptoms was assessed by telephone contact or record review. One hundred participants (78 women) were included in the analysis. The mean age was 51 years. A total of 15% of participants did not meet any criteria on breath testing for SIBO; 73% had a fasting baseline elevation >10 ppm; and 19% had an increase of >20 ppm above baseline in the first 20 minutes, 48% had a 20-ppm increase in the first 60 minutes, and 32% had a second increase, reflecting a colon peak. Overall, 74% responded to a course of antibiotics, determined by reported improvement in more than half of the symptoms within 3 months. In total, 67% (10/15) of the subjects who tested negative for SIBO, by all criteria, had a favorable response to antibiotics. Among those with positive hydrogen increases, 76.3% with 1 criterion responded, 66.7% with 2 criteria responded, 84.6% with 3 responded, and 76.9% with 4 responded. After antibiotic treatment, 88.7% (47/53) of those who had diarrhea reported improvement, 63.3% (19/30) with constipation reported improvement, and 74.3% (52/70) with baseline bloating

  6. Allium Stents: A Novel Solution for the Management of Upper and Lower Urinary Tract Strictures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zaher Bahouth

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Stents are widely use in endoscopic urological procedures. One of the most important indications is the treatment of urinary tract strictures. Allium™ Medical has introduced several types of stents for the treatment of different types of urinary tract strictures, based on anatomic location. All the stents are made of nitinol and coated with a co-polymer that reduces encrustations. These stents are self-expandable and have a large caliber and a high radial force. They have different shapes, designed especially for the treatment of each type of stricture. One of the most important features of Allium-manufactured stents is the ease of removal, due to their special unraveling feature. The company has introduced the Bulbar Urethral Stent (BUS for treatment of bulbar urethral strictures; a rounded stent available in different lengths. Initial data on 64 patients with bulbar urethral stricture treated with the BUS showed a significant improvement in symptoms, with minimal complications and few adverse events. For treatment of prostate obstruction in patients unfit for surgery or unwilling to undergo a classical prostatic surgery, the Triangular Prostatic Stent (TPS was introduced, which has a triangular shape that fits in the prostatic urethra. Its body has a high radial force attached to an anchor (which prevents migration through a trans-sphincteric wire (which reduces incontinence rate. Initial data on 51 patients showed significant improvement in symptoms and in urinary peak flow rate, with a relatively small number of complications. The Round Posterior Stent (RPS was designed for treatment of post radical prostatectomy bladder neck contracture. This short, round stent has an anchor, which is placed in the bladder neck. This stent being relatively new, the clinical data are still limited. Ureteral strictures can be treated with the Ureteral Stent (URS, which is round-shaped, available in different lengths, and has an anchor option (for very

  7. In Situ Perfusion Model in Rat Colon for Drug Absorption Studies: Comparison with Small Intestine and Caco-2 Cell Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lozoya-Agullo, Isabel; González-Álvarez, Isabel; González-Álvarez, Marta; Merino-Sanjuán, Matilde; Bermejo, Marival

    2015-09-01

    Our aim is to develop and to validate the in situ closed loop perfusion method in rat colon and to compare with small intestine and Caco-2 cell models. Correlations with human oral fraction absorbed (Fa) and human colon fraction absorbed (Fa_colon) were developed to check the applicability of the rat colon model for controlled release (CR) drug screening. Sixteen model drugs were selected and their permeabilities assessed in rat small intestine and colon, and in Caco-2 monolayers. Correlations between colon/intestine/Caco-2 permeabilities versus human Fa and human Fa_colon have been explored to check model predictability and to apply a BCS approach in order to propose a cut off value for CR screening. Rat intestine perfusion with Doluisio's method and single-pass technique provided a similar range of permeabilities demonstrating the possibility of combining data from different laboratories. Rat colon permeability was well correlated with Caco-2 cell-4 days model reflecting a higher paracellular permeability. Rat colon permeabilities were also higher than human colon ones. In spite of the magnitude differences, a good sigmoidal relationship has been shown between rat colon permeabilities and human colon fractions absorbed, indicating that rat colon perfusion can be used for compound classification and screening of CR candidates. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. and the American Pharmacists Association.

  8. Computed tomography enterography findings correlate with tissue inflammation, not fibrosis in resected small bowel Crohn's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adler, Jeremy; Punglia, Darashana R; Dillman, Jonathan R; Polydorides, Alexandros D; Dave, Maneesh; Al-Hawary, Mahmoud M; Platt, Joel F; McKenna, Barbara J; Zimmermann, Ellen M

    2012-05-01

    It has become commonplace to categorize small intestinal Crohn's disease (CD) as "active" vs. "inactive" or "inflammatory" vs. "fibrotic" based on computed tomography enterography (CTE) findings. Data on histologic correlates of CTE findings are lacking. We aimed to compare CTE findings with histology from surgically resected specimens. We tested the hypothesis that CTE findings can distinguish tissue inflammation from fibrosis. Patients who underwent CTE within 3 months before intestinal resection for CD were retrospectively studied. Radiologists blinded to history and histology scored findings on CTE. Pathologists blinded to history and imaging scored resected histology. We compared histology with CTE findings and radiologists assessment of whether the stricture was likely "active" or "inactive." In all, 22 patients met inclusion criteria. Inflammatory CTE findings correlated with histologic inflammation (rho = 0.52). Strictures believed to be "active" on CTE were more inflamed at histology (P = 0.0002). Strictures lacking inflammatory findings on CTE or considered "inactive" were not associated with greater histologic fibrosis or significant histologic inflammation. Upstream dilation was associated with greater tissue fibrosis in univariate (P = 0.014) but not in multivariate analysis (P = 0.53). Overall, histologic fibrosis correlated best with histologic inflammation (rho = 0.52). Strictures on CTE with the most active disease activity also had the most fibrosis on histology. CTE findings of mesenteric hypervascularity, mucosal hyperenhancement, and mesenteric fat stranding predict tissue inflammation. However, small bowel stricture without CTE findings of inflammation does not predict the presence of tissue fibrosis. Therefore, caution should be used when using CTE criteria to predict the presence of scar tissue. Copyright © 2011 Crohn's & Colitis Foundation of America, Inc.

  9. Suggestions for automatic quantitation of endoscopic image analysis to improve detection of small intestinal pathology in celiac disease patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciaccio, Edward J; Bhagat, Govind; Lewis, Suzanne K; Green, Peter H

    2015-10-01

    Although many groups have attempted to develop an automated computerized method to detect pathology of the small intestinal mucosa caused by celiac disease, the efforts have thus far failed. This is due in part to the occult presence of the disease. When pathological evidence of celiac disease exists in the small bowel it is visually often patchy and subtle. Due to presence of extraneous substances such as air bubbles and opaque fluids, the use of computerized automation methods have only been partially successful in detecting the hallmarks of the disease in the small intestine-villous atrophy, fissuring, and a mottled appearance. By using a variety of computerized techniques and assigning a weight or vote to each technique, it is possible to improve the detection of abnormal regions which are indicative of celiac disease, and of treatment progress in diagnosed patients. Herein a paradigm is suggested for improving the efficacy of automated methods for measuring celiac disease manifestation in the small intestinal mucosa. The suggestions are applicable to both standard and videocapsule endoscopic imaging, since both methods could potentially benefit from computerized quantitation to improve celiac disease diagnosis. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. A simple and inexpensive enteric-coated capsule for delivery of acid-labile macromolecules to the small intestine*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Darren S.; Parsons, Anne Michelle; Bresland, John; Herde, Paul; Pham, Duc Minh; Tan, Angel; Hsu, Hung-yao; Prestidge, Clive A.; Kuchel, Tim; Begg, Rezaul; Aziz, Syed Mahfuzul; Butler, Ross N.

    2015-01-01

    Understanding the ecology of the gastrointestinal tract and the impact of the contents on the host mucosa is emerging as an important area for defining both wellness and susceptibility to disease. Targeted delivery of drugs to treat specific small intestinal disorders such as small bowel bacterial overgrowth and targeting molecules to interrogate or to deliver vaccines to the remote regions of the small intestine has proven difficult. There is an unmet need for methodologies to release probes/drugs to remote regions of the gastrointestinal tract in furthering our understanding of gut health and pathogenesis. In order to address this concern, we need to know how the regional delivery of a surrogate labeled test compound is handled and in turn, if delivered locally as a liquid or powder, the dynamics of its subsequent handling and metabolism. In the studies we report on in this paper, we chose 13C sodium acetate (13C-acetate), which is a stable isotope probe that once absorbed in the small intestine can be readily measured non-invasively by collection and analysis of 13CO2 in the breath. This would provide information of gastric emptying rates and an indication of the site of release and absorptive capacity. In a series of in vitro and in vivo pig experiments, we assessed the enteric-protective properties of a commercially available polymer EUDRAGIT®L100-55 on gelatin capsules and also on DRcaps®. Test results demonstrated that DRcaps®coated with EUDRAGIT®L100-55 possessed enhanced enteric-protective properties, particularly in vivo. These studies add to the body of knowledge regarding gastric emptying in pigs and also begin the process of gathering specifications for the design of a simple and cost-effective enteric-coated capsule for delivery of acid-labile macromolecules to the small intestine. PMID:26160716

  11. A simple and inexpensive enteric-coated capsule for delivery of acid-labile macromolecules to the small intestine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Darren S; Parsons, Anne Michelle; Bresland, John; Herde, Paul; Pham, Duc Minh; Tan, Angel; Hsu, Hung-yao; Prestidge, Clive A; Kuchel, Tim; Begg, Rezaul; Aziz, Syed Mahfuzul; Butler, Ross N

    2015-07-01

    Understanding the ecology of the gastrointestinal tract and the impact of the contents on the host mucosa is emerging as an important area for defining both wellness and susceptibility to disease. Targeted delivery of drugs to treat specific small intestinal disorders such as small bowel bacterial overgrowth and targeting molecules to interrogate or to deliver vaccines to the remote regions of the small intestine has proven difficult. There is an unmet need for methodologies to release probes/drugs to remote regions of the gastrointestinal tract in furthering our understanding of gut health and pathogenesis. In order to address this concern, we need to know how the regional delivery of a surrogate labeled test compound is handled and in turn, if delivered locally as a liquid or powder, the dynamics of its subsequent handling and metabolism. In the studies we report on in this paper, we chose (13)C sodium acetate ((13)C-acetate), which is a stable isotope probe that once absorbed in the small intestine can be readily measured non-invasively by collection and analysis of (13)CO2 in the breath. This would provide information of gastric emptying rates and an indication of the site of release and absorptive capacity. In a series of in vitro and in vivo pig experiments, we assessed the enteric-protective properties of a commercially available polymer EUDRAGIT(®) L100-55 on gelatin capsules and also on DRcaps(®). Test results demonstrated that DRcaps(®) coated with EUDRAGIT(®) L100-55 possessed enhanced enteric-protective properties, particularly in vivo. These studies add to the body of knowledge regarding gastric emptying in pigs and also begin the process of gathering specifications for the design of a simple and cost-effective enteric-coated capsule for delivery of acid-labile macromolecules to the small intestine.

  12. Serum cobalamin concentrations and small intestinal ultrasound changes in 75 cats with clinical signs of gastrointestinal disease: a retrospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jugan, Maria C; August, John R

    2017-01-01

    Objectives The aim of the study was to evaluate ultrasonographic changes in the small intestine of cats with clinical signs of gastrointestinal disease and low or low-normal serum cobalamin concentrations. Methods Records for client-owned cats presenting to the small animal hospital with signs of gastrointestinal disease and in which serum cobalamin concentrations were measured from 2000-2013 were reviewed. Inclusion criteria were cobalamin concentrations cats, abdominal ultrasound was performed in 207 of those cats and a diagnosis was available for 75 of them. Small intestinal ultrasound changes were detected in 49/75 (65%) cats. Abnormalities included thickening, loss of wall layer definition, echogenicity alterations and discrete masses. Serum cobalamin concentrations disease, neoplasia, infectious disease and normal histopathology. Cobalamin concentration was significantly lower in cats with lymphoma or inflammatory bowel disease compared with other gastrointestinal neoplasia ( P = 0.031). No difference was found between cobalamin concentration and the presence of ultrasound abnormalities, specific ultrasound changes or albumin concentration. Conclusions and relevance One-third of symptomatic cats with hypocobalaminemia or low-normal cobalamin concentrations may have an ultrasonographically normal small intestine. For the majority of cats in this study, histopathologic abnormalities were observed in the small intestine, regardless of ultrasound changes. These findings suggest gastrointestinal disease should not be excluded based on low-normal cobalamin concentrations, even with a concurrent normal ultrasound examination. Additional studies are needed in cats with low-normal serum cobalamin concentrations, as a definitive diagnosis was not pursued consistently in those cats. However, data from this study suggest that careful monitoring, histopathologic evaluation and future cobalamin supplementation may be warranted.

  13. Role of luminal nutrients and endogenous GLP-2 in intestinal adaptation to mid-small bowel resection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahly, Elizabeth M; Gillingham, Melanie B; Guo, Ziwen

    2003-01-01

    To elucidate the role of luminal nutrients and glucagon-like peptide-2 (GLP-2) in intestinal adaptation, rats were subjected to 70% midjejunoileal resection or ileal transection and were maintained with total parenteral nutrition (TPN) or oral feeding. TPN rats showed small bowel mucosal hyperpla......To elucidate the role of luminal nutrients and glucagon-like peptide-2 (GLP-2) in intestinal adaptation, rats were subjected to 70% midjejunoileal resection or ileal transection and were maintained with total parenteral nutrition (TPN) or oral feeding. TPN rats showed small bowel mucosal...... hyperplasia at 8 h through 7 days after resection, demonstrating that exogenous luminal nutrients are not essential for resection-induced adaptation when residual ileum and colon are present. Increased enterocyte proliferation was a stronger determinant of resection-induced mucosal growth in orally fed...

  14. Review article: Small intestinal bacterial overgrowth, bile acid malabsorption and gluten intolerance as possible causes of chronic watery diarrhoea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, X; Sellin, J H

    2009-05-15

    Chronic watery diarrhoea is one of the most common symptoms prompting GI evaluation. Recently, new diagnostic considerations have emerged as possible factors in chronic diarrhoea. To review available data regarding diagnosis and treatment of chronic diarrhoea with an emphasis on bacterial overgrowth and bile acid malabsorption. A systematic search of the English language literature of chronic diarrhoea was performed focused on three possible aetiologies of diarrhoea: small intestinal bacterial overgrowth (SIBO), idiopathic bile salt malabsorption (IBAM), gluten responsive enteropathy. Recent studies suggest that SIBO and bile acid malabsorption may have been underestimated as possible causes of chronic watery diarrhoea. Gluten intolerance with negative coeliac serology is a contentious possible cause of watery diarrhoea, but requires further research before acceptance as an entity. In patients with otherwise unexplained chronic watery diarrhoea, small intestinal bacterial overgrowth and bile salt malabsorption should be considered and investigated.

  15. Glucagon-like peptide-2 (GLP-2) increases small intestinal blood flow and mucosal growth in ruminating calves

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Taylor-Edwards, C C; Burrin, D G; Holst, Jens Juul

    2011-01-01

    Glucagon-like peptide-2 (GLP-2) increases small intestinal mass and blood flow in nonruminants but its effect in ruminants is unknown. Eight Holstein calves with an ultrasonic flow probe around the superior mesenteric artery and catheters in the carotid artery and mesenteric vein were paired by age...... of BSA or 1,000 pmol of GLP-2/kg of body weight per h), and recovery (saline infusion). On d 11, calves were killed 2h after injection of 5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine (BrdU). Gastrointestinal tissues were weighed and epithelial samples were obtained to determine villus height, crypt depth, and BrdU staining....... Infusion of GLP-2 increased superior mesenteric artery blood flow to 175% of baseline on d 0 but to only 137% of baseline after chronic treatment. Compared with that of the control, GLP-2 increased small intestinal mass by 24% by increasing epithelial mass in the jejunum and ileum. Additionally, GLP-2...

  16. Mechanisms of Lower Bile Duct Stricture in Autoimmune Pancreatitis

    OpenAIRE

    Watanabe, Takayuki; Maruyama, Masahiro; Ito, Tetsuya; Maruyama, Masafumi; Muraki, Takashi; Hamano, Hideaki; Arakura, Norikazu; Hasebe, Osamu; Kawa, Shigeyuki

    2014-01-01

    Objectives We attempted to clarify the mechanism underlying lower bile duct stricture in autoimmune pancreatitis. Methods Imaging and histologic finding of the bile duct were assessed for 73 patients with autoimmune pancreatitis to clarify whether IgG4-related biliary inflammation or pancreatic head swelling is associated with lower bile duct stricture. Results Lower bile duct stricture was found in 59 (81%) patients. Pancreatic head swelling was significantly more frequent among patients wit...

  17. Comparison of abdominal adiposity and overall obesity in relation to risk of small intestinal cancer in a European Prospective Cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Yunxia; Cross, Amanda J; Murphy, Neil; Freisling, Heinz; Travis, Ruth C; Ferrari, Pietro; Katzke, Verena A; Kaaks, Rudolf; Olsson, Åsa; Johansson, Ingegerd; Renström, Frida; Panico, Salvatore; Pala, Valeria; Palli, Domenico; Tumino, Rosario; Peeters, Petra H; Siersema, Peter D; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H B; Trichopoulou, Antonia; Klinaki, Eleni; Tsironis, Christos; Agudo, Antonio; Navarro, Carmen; Sánchez, María-José; Barricarte, Aurelio; Boutron-Ruault, Marie-Christine; Fagherazzi, Guy; Racine, Antoine; Weiderpass, Elisabete; Gunter, Marc J; Riboli, Elio

    2016-07-01

    The etiology of small intestinal cancer (SIC) is largely unknown, and there are very few epidemiological studies published to date. No studies have investigated abdominal adiposity in relation to SIC. We investigated overall obesity and abdominal adiposity in relation to SIC in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC), a large prospective cohort of approximately half a million men and women from ten European countries. Overall obesity and abdominal obesity were assessed by body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC), hip circumference (HC), waist-to-hip ratio (WHR), and waist-to-height ratio (WHtR). Multivariate Cox proportional hazards regression modeling was performed to estimate hazard ratios (HRs) and 95 % confidence intervals (CIs). Stratified analyses were conducted by sex, BMI, and smoking status. During an average of 13.9 years of follow-up, 131 incident cases of SIC (including 41 adenocarcinomas, 44 malignant carcinoid tumors, 15 sarcomas and 10 lymphomas, and 21 unknown histology) were identified. WC was positively associated with SIC in a crude model that also included BMI (HR per 5-cm increase = 1.20, 95 % CI 1.04, 1.39), but this association attenuated in the multivariable model (HR 1.18, 95 % CI 0.98, 1.42). However, the association between WC and SIC was strengthened when the analysis was restricted to adenocarcinoma of the small intestine (multivariable HR adjusted for BMI = 1.56, 95 % CI 1.11, 2.17). There were no other significant associations. WC, rather than BMI, may be positively associated with adenocarcinomas but not carcinoid tumors of the small intestine. Abdominal obesity is a potential risk factor for adenocarcinoma in the small intestine.

  18. Surgical treatment and prognostic analysis for gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GISTs of the small intestine: before the era of imatinib mesylate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Yi-Yin

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GISTs, the most common type of mesenchymal tumors of the gastrointestinal (GI tract, demonstrate positive kit staining. We report our surgical experience with 100 small intestine GIST patients and identify predictors for long-term disease-free survival (DFS and overall survival (OS to clarify the difference between high- and low-risk patients. Methods The clinicopathologic and follow-up records of 100 small intestine GIST patients who were treated at Chung Gung Memorial Hospital between 1983 and 2002 were retrospectively reviewed. Clinical and pathological factors were assessed for long-term DFS and OS by using a univariate log-rank test and a multivariate Cox proportional hazard model. Results The patients included 52 men and 48 women. Their ages ranged from 27 to 82 years. Among the 85 patients who underwent curative resection, 44 (51.8% developed disease recurrence (liver metastasis was the most common form of recurrence. The follow-up period ranged from 5 to 202 months (median: 33.2 months. The 1-, 3-, and 5-year DFS and OS rates were 85.2%, 53.8%, and 43.7%, and 91.5%, 66.6%, and 50.5%, respectively. Using multivariate analysis, it was found that high tumor cellularity, mitotic count >5/50 high-power field, and a Ki-67 index ≧10% were three independent factors that were inversely associated with DFS. However, absence of tumor perforation, mitotic count Conclusion Tumors with low cellularity, low mitotic count, and low Ki-67 index, which indicate low risk, predict a more favorable DFS for small intestine GIST patients undergoing curative resection. Absence of tumor perforation with low mitotic count and low cellularity, which indicates low risk, can predict long-term OS for small intestine GIST patients who have undergone curative resection.

  19. Herbal extracts modulate the amplitude and frequency of slow waves in circular smooth muscle of mouse small intestine

    OpenAIRE

    Storr, Martin; Sibaev, A.; Weiser, D.; Kelber, O.; Schirra, J.; Göke, B.; Allescher, H. D.

    2004-01-01

    Background: Herbal preparations like STW 5 (Iberogast(R)) are widely used drugs in the treatment of dyspepsia and motility-related disorders of the gastrointestinal tract. STW 5 is a phytotherapeutic agent consisting of a fixed mixture of 9 individual plant extracts. The electrophysiological mechanisms of action of STW 5 remain obscure. Aim: The aim of the present study was to investigate whether herbal extracts influence electrophysiological parameters of the small intestine. For this purpos...

  20. Tumor del estroma gastrointestinal del intestino delgado Gastrointestinal stromal tumor of small intestine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magaly Marión Luna Gozá

    2011-12-01

    the low belly accompanied by vomiting, fatigue and weakness. She was operated on and is diagnosed with a stump acute appendicitis and of occlusive type en elderly without to rule out an adhesion occlusion. Carrying out the laparotomy it was found that this not-coagulating cavity was blood-free and also a stalked hemorrhagic tumor with movements towards the terminal ileum. Authors carried out its exeresis resecting approximately 5 cm of small intestine with a termino-terminal suture later. A significant cleaning of peritoneal cavity was carried out with the habitual closure achieving a satisfactory evolution with her discharge at 7 days. Patient remains asymptomatic at one a half year postoperative and biopsy yielded a 5 cm-small intestine tumor with a low grade of malignancy.