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Sample records for small indigenous fish

  1. High vitamin A content in some small indigenous fish species in Bangladesh: perspectives for food-based strategies to reduce vitamin A deficiency

    Roos, N.; Leth, Torben; Jakobsen, Jette

    2002-01-01

    Recognising the importance of fish in the Bangladeshi diet, the objective of the present study was to screen commonly consumed fish species for vitamin A content to evaluate the potential of fish as a vitamin A source in food-based strategies to combat vitamin A deficiency. Samples of 26 commonly...... (Colisa lalia; an alternative scientific name is Colisa lalius). The vitamin A content in cultured species, silver carp (Hypophthalmichthys molitrix), rui (Labeo rohita), mrigal (Cirrhinus mrigala) and tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) was low,...

  2. An indigenous religious ritual selects for resistance to a toxicant in a livebearing fish.

    Tobler, M; Culumber, Z W; Plath, M; Winemiller, K O; Rosenthal, G G

    2011-04-23

    Human-induced environmental change can affect the evolutionary trajectory of populations. In Mexico, indigenous Zoque people annually introduce barbasco, a fish toxicant, into the Cueva del Azufre to harvest fish during a religious ceremony. Here, we investigated tolerance to barbasco in fish from sites exposed and unexposed to the ritual. We found that barbasco tolerance increases with body size and differs between the sexes. Furthermore, fish from sites exposed to the ceremony had a significantly higher tolerance. Consequently, the annual ceremony may not only affect population structure and gene flow among habitat types, but the increased tolerance in exposed fish may indicate adaptation to human cultural practices in a natural population on a very small spatial scale.

  3. Indigenous fish species in the modern ichthyofauna of the Balkhash basin

    Nadir Shamilevich Mamilov

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Indigenous fish fauna of the Balkhash basin was mostly formed in the postglacial period and consists of 10 species from Cyprinidae family, 5 from Balitoridae, and 1 from Percidae. More than 20 alien fish species were introduced here during XXth century that led to eradication of indigenous fishes from the Balkhash Lake and the Ili River. Our investigations of the fish fauna during last 25 years revealed permanent shortage of living area of indigenous fishes. Nowadays fish communities from only indigenous fish species exist in some remote and isolated water bodies. Areas of all indigenous fish species are become disconnected. Reduction of habitats goes relatively slow for naked osman Gymnodiptychus dybowskii (Kessler, 1874, spotted thicklip loach Triplophysa strauchii (Kessler, 1874, and gray loach Triplophysa dorsalis (Kessler, 1872. Drastic reductions of areas were revealed for Ili marinka Schizothorax pseudoaksaiensis Herzenstein 1889, Balkhash marinka Schizothorax argentatus Kessler 1874, Severtsov’s loach Triplophysa sewerzowii (G.Nikolskii, 1938, Seven River’s minnow Phoxinus brachyurus Berg 1912, Balkhsh minnow Rhynchocypris poljakowii Kessler 1879, and Balkhash perch Perca schrenkii Kessler 1874. Marinkas, osmans and perch often become victims of overfishing and poaching of local people. In that region water resources usually are used by wasteful way and loaded with pollutants. Many indigenous fish species are able to bear relatively high level of environment pollution. Hence, the main threats for indigenous fishes are introductions of trout and sander, habitats lose and unstable hydrological regimen.

  4. Experience in small hydropower indigenous manufacture of mini hydraulic turbines

    Luo Gao Rong [Organization of the United Nations, Beijing (China). International Centre of Small Hydropowers

    1995-07-01

    This document reports the China experience with fabrication of mini hydraulic turbines for small hydroelectric power plants. The document presents the necessity of indigenous manufacture for MHP equipment, the standardized and serialized production, the planning of the series of turbines, the manufacturing of turbine runners, and as a case study the basic conditions for manufacturing MHP turbines.

  5. Checklist of non-indigenous fish species of the River Danube

    Zorić Katarina

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Twenty non-indigenous fish species were recorded in the Danube River. The manner of their introduction, vectors, pathways, as well as invasive status are discussed. The major modes of introduction and translocation were found to be aquaculture and fish stocking. The main environmental consequences of the spread of alien fish are related to changes in the structure and functioning of the fish community and to the introduction of non-indigenous parasites. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. ON 173025, TR 37009 and III 43002 and European Commission 6th Framework Program: Integrated Project ALARM (contract GOCE-CT-2003-506675

  6. "We Like to Listen to Stories about Fish": Integrating Indigenous Ecological and Scientific Knowledge to Inform Environmental Flow Assessments

    Sue E. Jackson

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Studies that apply indigenous ecological knowledge to contemporary resource management problems are increasing globally; however, few of these studies have contributed to environmental water management. We interviewed three indigenous landowning groups in a tropical Australian catchment subject to increasing water resource development pressure and trialed tools to integrate indigenous and scientific knowledge of the biology and ecology of freshwater fish to assess their water requirements. The differences, similarities, and complementarities between the knowledge of fish held by indigenous people and scientists are discussed in the context of the changing socioeconomic circumstances experienced by indigenous communities of north Australia. In addition to eliciting indigenous knowledge that confirmed field fish survey results, the approach generated knowledge that was new to both science and indigenous participants, respectively. Indigenous knowledge influenced (1 the conceptual models developed by scientists to understand the flow ecology and (2 the structure of risk assessment tools designed to understand the vulnerability of particular fish to low-flow scenarios.

  7. A review of ecological interactions between crayfish and fish, indigenous and introduced

    Reynolds J.D.

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Crayfish (decapods and fish are both long-lived large members of freshwater communities, often functioning as keystone species. This paper reviews interactions between these, with emphasis on the European context. Native crayfish and fish are in ecological balance, which may involve mutual predation, competition and sometimes habitat disturbance. This balance is disrupted by range extensions and translocations of native fish or crayfish into exotic situations. Some fish and crayfish have been translocated globally, chiefly from North America to other continents. Non-indigenous crayfish species (NICS may impact on native fish, just as introduced fish impact on indigenous crayfish species (ICS. Competition between ICS and NICS may result in making the former susceptible to various mechanisms of interaction with fish, indigenous or introduced. In Europe, long-established NICS – signals, spiny-cheek and red swamp crayfish – may occur in greater densities than ICS; they are more tolerant and aggressive and show more interactions with fish. More recent introductions, still restricted in distribution, have not yet received enough study for their impacts to be assessed. Interactions between fish and crayfish in North and South America, Madagascar and Australasia are also explored. Mechanisms of interaction between fish and crayfish include mutual predation, competition for food and spatial resources, food-web alteration and habitat modification. Resultant changes in communities and ecosystems may be physical or biotal, and affect both ecosystem services and exploitation potential.

  8. Small Area Social Indicators for the Indigenous Population: Synthetic data methodology for creating small area estimates of Indigenous disadvantage’

    Yogi Vidyattama; Robert Tanton; Nicholas Biddle

    2013-01-01

    The lack of data on how the social condition of Indigenous people varies throughout Australia has created difficulties in allocating government and community programs across Indigenous communities. In the past, spatial microsimulation has been used to derive small area estimates to overcome such difficulties. However, for previous applications, a record unit file from a survey dataset has always been available on which to conduct the spatial microsimulation. For the case of indigenous disadva...

  9. Radiation preservation of dried fish indigenous to Asia

    Hussain, A.M.; Haz, I.; Chaudry, M.A.

    1989-01-01

    Commercially dried marine fish such as mackerel, shark, tuna and saram (Scomboromorus commersoni) contain 36-50% moisture and 10-12% salt. During preliminary studies, there was visible mould growth on sun or over dried freshwater rahu (Labeo sp.) fish containing moisture levels above 15.5%. Fusarium was present in samples containing a moisture level of 46% and above, while below this level Aspergillus sp. and Penicillium sp. were present. Dipping of fish fillets in 2% potassium sorbate checked the visible mould growth on irradiated (0.25-1 kGy) and non-irradiated rahu fish containing moisture levels of 20-40%. Radiation doses of 0.5-0.75 kGy were found suitable for keeping sun or oven dried samples in good and acceptable conditions for six months at room temperature. Polyethylene film about 0.1 mm thick was suitable for packing dried fish as far as insect penetration, bacterial permeability, water permeability, water vapour transfer rate and weight loss of dried fish during storage were concerned. An oxygen absorber was effective for six months in maintaining colour, odour and texture of irradiated dried fish packaged in an oxygen impermeable film. Dried fish was acceptable to consumers except to some extent for its texture. Bulk storage of dried fish fillets at an ambient temperature for 3 months produced no adverse changes in the fillets. About 5% of the fillets were badly shredded during transportation of irradiated dried fish over a distance of about 2,400 km. (author). 27 refs, 6 figs, 13 tabs

  10. Fish gut microbiota analysis differentiates physiology and behavior of invasive Asian carp and indigenous American fish

    Ye, Lin; Amberg, Jon J.; Chapman, Duane C.; Gaikowski, Mark P.; Liu, Wen-Tso

    2014-01-01

    Gut microbiota of invasive Asian silver carp (SVCP) and indigenous planktivorous gizzard shad (GZSD) in Mississippi river basin were compared using 16S rRNA gene pyrosequencing. Analysis of more than 440 000 quality-filtered sequences obtained from the foregut and hindgut of GZSD and SVCP revealed high microbial diversity in these samples. GZSD hindgut (GZSD_H) samples (n=23) with >7000 operational taxonomy units (OTUs) exhibited the highest alpha-diversity indices followed by SVCP foregut (n=15), GZSD foregut (n=9) and SVCP hindgut (SVCP_H) (n=24). UniFrac distance-based non-metric multidimensional scaling (NMDS) analysis showed that the microbiota of GZSD_H and SVCP_H were clearly separated into two clusters: samples in the GZSD cluster were observed to vary by sampling location and samples in the SVCP cluster by sampling date. NMDS further revealed distinct microbial community between foregut to hindgut for individual GZSD and SVCP. Cyanobacteria, Proteobacteria, Actinobacteria and Bacteroidetes were detected as the predominant phyla regardless of fish or gut type. The high abundance of Cyanobacteria observed was possibly supported by their role as the fish’s major food source. Furthermore, unique and shared OTUs and OTUs in each gut type were identified, three OTUs from the order Bacteroidales, the genus Bacillariophyta and the genus Clostridium were found significantly more abundant in GZSD_H (14.9–22.8%) than in SVCP_H (0.13–4.1%) samples. These differences were presumably caused by the differences in the type of food sources including bacteria ingested, the gut morphology and digestion, and the physiological behavior between GZSD and SVCP.

  11. Non-indigenous invertebrates, fish and macrophytes in Lake Garda (Italy

    Cristina CAPPELLETTI

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available As observed in many countries, lakes are involved in an important process of colonization by non-indigenous species (NIS. Since 1725, 37 species of non-indigenous fish, invertebrates and macrophytes have been recorded in Lake Garda, the largest Italian lake. This phenomenon is particularly important for invertebrates and macrophytes, as their pathways of introduction are accidental. Recently among the 100 Worst Invasive Alien Species in Europe, the invertebrates Corbicula fluminea, Dikerogammarus villosus and Procambarus clarkii, and the macrophytes Lagarosiphon major, Elodea nuttallii and Elodea canadensis have been recorded in Lake Garda. In order to define the present status of non-indigenous species in Lake Garda, published and unpublished data were reviewed.

  12. Determinants of Use of Indigenous Fish Processing Practices in ...

    Descriptive statistics was used to analyze the socio- economic features of the fish processors while the logit model was used to capture the socio-economic factors ... education (β=1.90), household size (β=2.48), FAI (β=2.80), consumers preference (β=3.37), processing tradition (β=3.74), VFP (β=0.02) and cosmopoliteness ...

  13. Modeling small angle scattering data using FISH

    Elliott, T.; Buckely, C.E.

    2002-01-01

    Full text: Small angle neutron scattering (SANS) and small angle x-ray scattering (SAXS) are important techniques for the characterisation of samples on the nanometer scale. From the scattered intensity pattern information about the sample such as particle size distribution, concentration and particle interaction can be determined. Since the experimental data is in reciprocal space and information is needed about real space, modeling of the scattering data to obtain parameters is extremely important and several paradigms are available. The use of computer programs to analyze the data is imperative for a robust description of the sample to be obtained. This presentation gives an overview of the SAS process and describes the data-modeling program FISH, written by R. Heenan 1983-2000. The results of using FISH to obtain the particle size distribution of bubbles in the aluminum hydrogen system and other systems of interest are described. Copyright (2002) Australian X-ray Analytical Association Inc

  14. Small Screen Technology Use among Indigenous Boarding School Adolescents from Remote Regions of Western Australia

    Johnson, Genevieve Marie; Oliver, Rhonda

    2014-01-01

    The uptake of small screen technology by adolescents is widespread, particularly in industrial nations. Whether the same is true for Australian Aboriginal youth is less clear as there is a dearth of research in this regard. Therefore, in this exploratory study the use of small screen technology by Indigenous students was examined. Twenty-four…

  15. Technical efficiency of small-scale fishing households in Tanzanian ...

    This paper examines the technical efficiency of Tanzanian small-scale fishing households, based on data from two coastal villages located near Bagamoyo and Zanzibar, using a stochastic frontier model with technical inefficiency. The estimated mean technical efficiency of small-scale fishing households was 52%, showing ...

  16. Optimizing sealed transports of small ornamental fish

    Rui Esteves da Silva

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This is a report on multiple simulated long-term transports of small ornamental fish inside plastic bags. The species involved were Diplodus sargus, Gobius paganellus, Gobiusculus flavescens, Lepadogaster lepadogaster and Lipophrys pholis. The objective of such simulations was moving the maximum bioload possible while ensuring 100% survivorship, ultimately resulting in savings for the end-receiver. Transports were simulated over 24, 48 and 72 hours, with increasing animal bioloads per bag. Half of the trials were performed with “regular” saltwater while the other half involved seawater buffered with Amquel ®, sodium carbonate and sodium bicarbonate, with the objective of keeping ammonia low and pH similar to initial baseline values. At the end of each trial, temperature, dissolved oxygen, pH and ammonia were analized and the survival rate calculated and recorded. L. lepadogaster endured the highest bioloads at 100% survivorship (i.e. up to 30 g / L, which is not surprising given the intertidal nature of this species. D. sargus exhibited mortalities with bioloads as low as 3,23 g / L, which echoes its predominantly pelagic nature and relatively lesser ability to endure confinement. The three remaining species showed varying degrees of tolerance to increasing bioloads in transport: L. pholis, also an intertidal species, handled up to 20 g/L over 72 hours, while G. paganellus handled up to 7 g/L over 72 hours, and G. flavescens (a predominantly pelagic species could deal with no more than 6 g/L up to 72 hours.

  17. Importance of woodlots to local communities, small scale entrepreneurs and indigenous forest conservation – A case study

    Ham, C

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available forestry, South Africa The Importance of Woodlots to Local Communities, Small-scale Entrepreneurs and Indigenous Forest Conservation A case study Cori Ham ii The Importance of Woodlots to Local Communities, Small Scale Entrepreneurs... by the financial support of the UK Department for International Development and the European Commission iii Citation: Ham, C. 2000. The importance of woodlots to local communities, small scale entrepreneurs and indigenous forest conservation– A case study...

  18. Small nonnative fishes as predators of larval razorback suckers

    Carpenter, J.; Mueller, G.A.

    2008-01-01

    The razorback sucker (Xyrauchen texanus), an endangered big-river fish of the Colorado River basin, has demonstrated no sustainable recruitment in 4 decades, despite presence of spawning adults and larvae. Lack of adequate recruitment has been attributed to several factors, including predation by nonnative fishes. Substantial funding and effort has been expended on mechanically removing nonnative game fishes, typically targeting large predators. As a result, abundance of larger predators has declined, but the abundance of small nonnative fishes has increased in some areas. We conducted laboratory experiments to determine if small nonnative fishes would consume larval razorback suckers. We tested adults of three small species (threadfin shad, Dorosoma petenense; red shiner, Cyprinella lutrensis; fathead minnow, Pimephales promelas) and juveniles of six larger species (common carp, Cyprinus carpio; yellow bullhead, Ameiurus natalis; channel catfish, Ictalurus punctatus; rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss; green sunfish, Lepomis cyanellus; bluegill, L. macrochirus). These nonnative fishes span a broad ecological range and are abundant within the historical range of the razorback sucker. All nine species fed on larval razorback suckers (total length, 9-16 mm). Our results suggest that predation by small nonnative fishes could be responsible for limiting recovery of this endangered species.

  19. Performance of Very Small Robotic Fish Equipped with CMOS Camera

    Yang Zhao

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Underwater robots are often used to investigate marine animals. Ideally, such robots should be in the shape of fish so that they can easily go unnoticed by aquatic animals. In addition, lacking a screw propeller, a robotic fish would be less likely to become entangled in algae and other plants. However, although such robots have been developed, their swimming speed is significantly lower than that of real fish. Since to carry out a survey of actual fish a robotic fish would be required to follow them, it is necessary to improve the performance of the propulsion system. In the present study, a small robotic fish (SAPPA was manufactured and its propulsive performance was evaluated. SAPPA was developed to swim in bodies of freshwater such as rivers, and was equipped with a small CMOS camera with a wide-angle lens in order to photograph live fish. The maximum swimming speed of the robot was determined to be 111 mm/s, and its turning radius was 125 mm. Its power consumption was as low as 1.82 W. During trials, SAPPA succeeded in recognizing a goldfish and capturing an image of it using its CMOS camera.

  20. Design and testing of small scale fish meat bone separator useful for fish processing.

    Ali Muhammed, M; Manjunatha, N; Murthy, K Venkatesh; Bhaskar, N

    2015-06-01

    The present study relates to the food processing machinery and, more specifically machine for producing boneless comminuted meat from raw fish fillet. This machine is of belt and drum type meat bone separator designed for small scale fish processing in a continuous mode. The basic principal involved in this machine is compression force. The electric geared motor consists of 1HP and the conveyor belt has a linear velocity of 19 to 22 m min(-1), which was sufficient to debone the fish effectively. During the meat bone separation trials an efficiency up to 75 % on dressed fish weight basis was observed and with a capacity to separate 70 kg h(-1) of meat from fish at the machine speed of 25 rpm. During the trials, it was demonstrated that there was no significant change in the proximate composition of comminuted fish meat when compared to unprocessed fish meat. This design has a greater emphasis on hygiene, provision for cleaning-in-place (CIP) and gives cost effective need and reliability for small scale industries to produce fish meat in turn used for their value added products.

  1. Fish community of a small, temperate, urban river in South Africa ...

    Catches were comprised of indigenous freshwater, marine migrant and alien fishes. Marine migrant fishes, including catadromous species dependent on freshwater for early life-history strategies, were significantly affected by instream barriers which prohibited upstream migration of all species except Anguilla mossambica.

  2. Effects of small hydropower plants on mercury concentrations in fish.

    Cebalho, Elaine C; Díez, Sergi; Dos Santos Filho, Manoel; Muniz, Claumir Cesar; Lázaro, Wilkinson; Malm, Olaf; Ignácio, Aurea R A

    2017-10-01

    Although the impacts of large dams on freshwater biota are relatively well known, the effects of small hydropower plants (SHP) are not well investigated. In this work, we studied if mercury (Hg) concentrations in fish rise in two tropical SHP reservoirs, and whether similar effects take place during impoundment. Total Hg concentrations in several fish species were determined at two SHP in the Upper Guaporé River basin floodplain, Brazil. In total, 185 specimens were analysed for Hg content in dorsal muscle and none of them reported levels above the safety limit (500 μg kg -1 ) for fish consumption recommended by the World Health Organisation (WHO). The highest levels of Hg (231 and 447 μg kg -1 ) were found in carnivorous species in both reservoirs. Mercury increased as a function of standard length in most of the fish populations in the reservoirs, and higher Hg concentrations were found in fish at the reservoir compared with fish downstream. The high dissolved oxygen concentrations and high transparency of the water column (i.e. oligotrophic reservoir) together with the absence of thermal stratification may explain low Hg methylation and low MeHg levels found in fish after flooding. Overall, according to limnological characteristics of water, we may hypothesise that reservoir conditions are not favourable to high net Hg methylation.

  3. Automatic feeder for small fish held in tanks

    Joeris, Leonard S.

    1965-01-01

    The Northville (Michigan) Biological Station has been a center for study of the developmental morphology of coregonid fishes. This work requires the production of numerous individual series of lake herring, lake whitefish, and several species of chubs from parent fish of positively known identity. The offspring of individual pairs or groups of fish must be held in individual tanks from the time they hatch until they reach maturity. One of the important problems in this project has been the poor growth of most fish. Though some have grown well, their growth has been less than that of the same species in nature, and a few fish from each hatch have grown very slowly. Irregularity of feeding may contribute to the slow growth of laboratory fish. The hatchery caretaker feeds them several times during his 8-hour workday, but they must go without food during the remaining 16 hours. The high metabolic rate of small fish, however, appears to make them strongly inclined toward almost continual feeding. Belief that greater, more regular food consumption would result from a mechanical feeder providing a continuous supply of food over a longer period of the day led to development of the equipment described in this paper.

  4. A Bioassay System Using Bioelectric Signals from Small Fish

    Terawaki, Mitsuru; Soh, Zu; Hirano, Akira; Tsuji, Toshio

    Although the quality of tap water is generally examined using chemical assay, this method cannot be used for examination in real time. Against such a background, the technique of fish bioassay has attracted attention as an approach that enables constant monitoring of aquatic contamination. The respiratory rhythms of fish are considered an efficient indicator for the ongoing assessment of water quality, since they are sensitive to chemicals and can be indirectly measured from bioelectric signals generated by breathing. In order to judge aquatic contamination accurately, it is necessary to measure bioelectric signals from fish swimming freely as well as to stably discriminate measured signals, which vary between individuals. However, no bioassay system meeting the above requirements has yet been established. This paper proposes a bioassay system using bioelectric signals generated from small fish in free-swimming conditions. The system records signals using multiple electrodes to cover the extensive measurement range required in a free-swimming environment, and automatically discriminates changes in water quality from signal frequency components. This discrimination is achieved through an ensemble classification method using probability neural networks to solve the problem of differences between individual fish. The paper also reports on the results of related validation experiments, which showed that the proposed system was able to stably discriminate between water conditions before and after bleach exposure.

  5. High temperature salting of mince of small sized fish

    Sorinmade, S.O.; Talabi, S.O.; Aliu, A.

    1982-01-01

    Freshly caught small sized fish species were transported to the laboratory gutted and washed before mechanical separation into bone and mince. Duplicate batches of the mince were then treated with seven different concentrations (wt/wt) of sodium chloride before cooking. The cooked mince was divided into two groups, pressed and unpressed. Percentage residual salt in the salted cooked mince, free and press water and salted cooked pressed mince were determined. Also, the moisture contents of...

  6. New record of monogenean parasites on non-indigenous fishes in the Ukrainian Danube Delta

    Kvach, Yuriy; Ondračková, Markéta; Kutsokon, Y.; Dzyziuk, N.

    2018-01-01

    Roč. 7, č. 1 (2018), s. 65-72 E-ISSN 2242-1300 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GBP505/12/G112 Institutional support: RVO:68081766 Keywords : Ancyrocephalidae * first finding * Gyrodactylidae * non-indigenous species * parasite spillover Subject RIV: EG - Zoology OBOR OECD: Biodiversity conservation Impact factor: 0.835, year: 2016

  7. Returning to Selective Fishing through Indigenous Fisheries Knowledge: The Example of K'moda, Gitxaala Territory

    Menzies, Charles R.; Butler, Caroline F.

    2007-01-01

    The historical abundance of salmon along the west coast of North America has been significantly reduced during the last two centuries of industrial harvest. The life histories of many twentieth-century fisheries have been depressingly similar: initial coexistence with indigenous fisheries; emergence of large-scale industrial expansion followed by…

  8. The potential use of indigenous nickel hyperaccumulators for small-scale mining in The Philippines

    E S Fernando

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Uptake of nickel and three other heavy metals (copper, cobalt, and chromium was examined in 33 species of the common and rare native vascular plants growing in an ultramafic area currently subjected to mining in Zambales Province, Luzon, Philippines. Leaf tissue samples were initially screened in the field using filter paper impregnated with dimethylglyoxime (1% solution in 70% ethyl alcohol and later analyzed by atomic absorption spectroscopy. One species was found to be a hypernickelophore (>10,000 µg/g, eight species were nickel hyperaccumulators (>1,000 µg/g, nineteen species were hemi-accumulators (>100-1,000 µg/g, and five species were non-accumulators (<100 µg/g. This paper significantly adds to the list of hyperaccumulator species first reported for the Philippines in 1992. The findings will be discussed in context of using indigenous species for post mining ecological restoration and nickel phytoextraction in small-scale mining in the Philippines

  9. Towards an understanding of marketing planning practices in indigenous small firms in the electronics sector in the republic of Ireland

    Ennis, Sean

    1997-01-01

    This thesis examines the role which marketing plays in the planning process of small indigenous companies in the electronics sector in the Republic of Ireland. In particular it attempts to identify the main influencing factors which shape the particular approach adopted by such firms. The research involved a comprehensive review of the literature on small business policy in Ireland, entrepreneurship, growth and the small firm, and also strategy and planning. A pluralistic approach to the ...

  10. A Method for Measuring Fishing Effort by Small-Scale Fish Aggregating Device (FAD) Fishers from the Commonwealth of Dominica

    Alvard, Michael; McGaffey, Ethan; Carlson, David

    2015-01-01

    We used global positioning system (GPS) technology and tracking analysis to measure fishing effort by marine, small-scale, fish aggregating device (FAD) fishers of the Commonwealth of Dominica. FADs are human-made structures designed to float on the surface of the water and attract fish. They are also prone to common pool resource problems. To…

  11. Acetylcholinesterase inhibition and gill lesions in Rasbora caverii, an indigenous fish inhabiting rice field associated waterbodies in Sri Lanka.

    Wijeyaratne, W M D N; Pathiratne, Asoka

    2006-10-01

    The present study was aimed at applying condition factor (CF), brain acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and gill histology as biomarkers for detecting possible exposure/effect induced by pesticides in fish residing rice field associated waterbodies in Sri Lanka. Biomarkers of an indigenous fish, Rasbora caverii collected from five sampling sites including canals near rice fields, a river and a reservoir (the reference site) were evaluated at four sampling stages covering pesticide application periods during rice cultivation season in 2004. Results indicated that CF of the fish did not show significant alterations regardless of the sampling sites or sampling stages. Site specific differences in AChE activities of the fish were not evident either prior to application of pesticides or at 7 days after Paraquat application to the rice fields. Two days after the application of a mixture of Fenthion and Phenthoate to the rice fields, AChE activity of the fish collected from canals near rice fields was significantly depressed (65-75%) compared to the fish in the reference site. The activities remain depressed to 50-56% even at 65 days after the insecticides application. Laboratory studies showed that prior exposure of R. caverii to Paraquat (2 microg l(-1), 7 days) enhanced the extent of inhibition of brain AChE activity induced by Fenthion (3 microg l(-1)) or a mixture of Fenthion (3 microg l(-1)) and Phenthoate (5 microg l(-1)). Gills of fish collected from canals near rice fields exhibited abnormal multiple divisions at the tips of some secondary lamellae in addition to hyperplasia, hypertrophy and club shaped deformities. Results indicate that application of pesticides in rice culture could manifest a threat to native fish populations residing rice field associated waterbodies. The response of brain AChE and histological changes in the gills of R. caverii allowed differentiating sampling sites after insecticide applications to the rice fields. Hence, R. caverii may be

  12. Effect of anaerobiosis on indigenous microorganisms in blackwater with fish offal as co-substrate

    Gunnarsdottir, Ragnhildur; Heiske, Stefan; Jensen, Pernille Erland

    2014-01-01

    resistant bacteria were reduced in the anaerobic samples in the beginning of the study but increased towards the end of it. The opposite pattern was observed in the aerobic samples, with a growth in the beginning followed by a reduction. During the anaerobic digestion tetracycline resistant bacteria showed......The aim of this study was to compare the effect of mesophilic anaerobic digestion with aerobic storage on the survival of selected indigenous microorganisms and microbial groups in blackwater, including the effect of addition of Greenlandic Halibut and shrimp offal. The methane yield...... of the different substrate mixtures was determined in batch experiments to study possible correlation between methanogenic activity in the anaerobic digesters and reduction of indigenous microorganisms in the blackwater. By the end of the experiments a recovery study was conducted to determine possible injury...

  13. Preliminary Insight into Winter Native Fish Assemblages in Guadiana Estuary Salt Marshes Coping with Environmental Variability and Non-Indigenous Fish Introduction

    Renata Gonçalves

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available This work aims to undertake a preliminary characterization of winter fish assemblages in the salt marsh areas of Guadiana lower estuary (South-East Portugal and discusses the potential risks of habitat dominance by a non-indigenous species (NIS. To this effect, six field campaigns were carried out in four sampling sites during winter season targeting the collection of fish species. A total of 48 samples were collected. Individuals from seven different taxa (marine and estuarine were collected, although the assemblage was dominated by two estuarine species—the native Pomatoschistus sp. (goby and the NIS Fundulus heteroclitus (mummichog. Goby was the most abundant taxa in the majority of salt marsh habitats, except for one specific, marsh pool, where extreme environmental conditions were registered, namely high temperature and salinity. Such conditions may have boosted the intrusion of mummichog in this area. This species is well adapted to a wide range of abiotic factors enabling them to colonize habitats where no predators inhabit. Impacts of mummichog introduction in the Guadiana salt marsh area are still unpredictable since this is the first time they have been recorded in such high density. Nevertheless, in scenarios of increased anthropogenic pressure and, consequently, habitat degradation, there is a potential risk of mummichog spreading to other habitats and therefore competing for space and food resources with native species.

  14. Effects of changing nutrient inputs on the ratio of small pelagic fish stock and phytoplankton biomass in the Black Sea

    Yunev, Oleg A.; Velikova, Violeta; Carstensen, Jacob

    2017-10-01

    Significant increases in nitrogen and phosphorus inputs to the Black Sea in the second half of the 20th century caused eutrophication and drastically decreasing Si:N and Si:P ratios. Combined with climate change, overfishing of top predators and a huge outbreak of the non-indigenous ctenophore Mnemiopsis, the pelagic food web was strongly modified and its efficiency for channeling primary production to higher trophic levels substantially reduced. We used the ratio between small pelagic fish stock and phytoplankton biomass on the Danube shelf and in the open Black Sea to investigate long-term changes in food web functioning. The ratio had 1) highest values for the pre-eutrophication period when diatoms and copepods dominated the pelagic food web ('muscle food chain'), 2) decreased during the eutrophication period with stronger prevalence of autotrophic pico- and nanophytoplankton, bacteria, heterotrophic nanoflagellates, microzooplankton, Noctiluca and jellyfish ('jelly food chain' with increased importance of the microbial loop), 3) lowest values during the ecological crisis (1989-1992), when small pelagic fish stocks collapsed, and 4) increased after 1993, indicating that the ecosystem went out of the crisis and exhibited a trend of recovery. However, in the last period (1993-2008) the ratio remained close to values observed in the middle eutrophication phase, suggesting that the ecosystem was far from fully recovered. Since early 2000s, fluctuating pelagic fish stocks, with a tendency to decreasing fish landing again, have been observed in the Black Sea. Additionally, the quality of food for the small pelagic fish has deteriorated due to warming trends and the legacy of eutrophication, giving support for the 'jelly food chain', exhibiting low energy transfer and prevalence of organisms with high respiration rate and low nutritional value.

  15. Small bowel perforation due to fish bone: A case report

    Huseyin Pulat

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Accidental ingestion of foreign bodies are a common condition in clinical practice. However, small bowel perforation which dues to ingestion foreign bodies has been rarely seen. In this article, we report a case of small bowel perforation which dues to ingestion foreign body. A 80-year-old female patient, presenting with complaints of acute abdomen, was admitted to the emergency department. She denied abdominal pain, nausea and vomiting. The patient had tenderness and defense on the right lower quadrant. Contrast enhanced abdominal computed tomography has been used on the patient's diagnosis. This revealed small bowel perforation due to the ingestion of foreign body. The patient was operated emergency. A microperforation due to fish bone was detected on the terminal ileum. The patient underwent debridement and primary repair. The patient was discharged postoperative 7th day without problem. Bowel perforation due to the ingestion of foreign bodies should be considered in the differential diagnosis of acute abdomen. Keywords: Foreign body, Small intestine, Perforation

  16. 1 Indigenous Approach to the Control of Soil Erosion among Small ...

    Choice-Academy

    Ethiopian Journal of Environmental Studies and Management Vol.1 No.1 March. 2008. * Department of ... KEY WORDS- Indigenous knowledge, Soil erosion, Asa, Kwara. Introduction rosion is ... recipients of these innovations. Local farmers.

  17. Indigenous Bali cattle is most suitable for sustainable small farming in Indonesia.

    Martojo, H

    2012-01-01

    Livestock husbandry is essential for Indonesia. This study reviews cattle characteristics and husbandry methods in the country with special interest in describing the importance of indigenous breeds of cattle. As a conclusion, the Bali cattle ought to be considered the most suitable indigenous cattle breed for the low-input, high stress production system still practised by millions of families in Indonesia. © 2012 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  18. Emerging supply chains of indigenous pork and their impacts on small-scale farmers in upland areas of Vietnam

    Huong, Pham Thi Mai; Hau, Nguyen Van; Kaufmann, Brigitte; Valle-Zarate, Anne; Mergenthaler, Marcus

    2009-01-01

    Rising incomes, urbanization and globalization have been leading to profound changes in the consumption habits of an increasing number of people in developing and transition countries, particularly in Asia. These changes are linked to increasing concerns that small-scale farmers are becoming marginalized in new market set-ups. On the back-ground of these developments we analyze how growing demand for indigenous pork – considered a specialty product among consumers in Vietnam – impacts through...

  19. Hankin and Reeves' approach to estimating fish abundance in small streams: limitations and alternatives

    William L. Thompson

    2003-01-01

    Hankin and Reeves' (1988) approach to estimating fish abundance in small streams has been applied in stream fish studies across North America. However, their population estimator relies on two key assumptions: (1) removal estimates are equal to the true numbers of fish, and (2) removal estimates are highly correlated with snorkel counts within a subset of sampled...

  20. 77 FR 55755 - Small Business Size Standards: Agriculture, Forestry, Fishing, and Hunting

    2012-09-11

    ... operation; and (3) within a specific small business definition or size standard established by SBA... SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION 13 CFR Part 121 RIN 3245-AG43 Small Business Size Standards: Agriculture, Forestry, Fishing, and Hunting AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Proposed rule...

  1. Local fish extinction in a small tropical lake in Brazil

    Paulo dos Santos Pompeu

    Full Text Available Lagoa Santa is a shallow permanent lake, located in Belo Horizonte metropolitan region, Brazil. In this study, the loss in fish diversity of the lake over the past 150 years is evaluated. Local extinction of almost 70% of the original fish fauna is described. Probably, the main causes of this richness loss were: obstruction of natural communication with rio das Velhas, non-native species introduction, change in the water level, organic pollution, and elimination of littoral and submerged vegetation.

  2. Tritium uptake by fish in a small stream

    Eaton, D.; Murphy, C.E. Jr.

    1992-01-01

    The tritium concentration in the water from freeze drying and the water from combustion of the dry tissue was measured in fish (largemouth bass), stream macrophytes, and streamside vegetation at five sampling locations in Four Mile Branch on the Savannah River Site (SRS). Four Mile Branch has elevated tritium concentration, largely from migration of water through the soil from adjacent seepage basins that received industrial wastewater containing tritium. The stream water and the vegetation, through the food chain, are thought to be the two sources of tritium reaching the fish. Comparision of the tritium activity of the freeze-dried water from fish flesh and of the sources of tritium, indicates that the fish flesh approaches a steady-state concentration with the stream water. The freeze-dry water from the vegetation is also at a lower specific activity than the stream water. The water of combustion from the vegetation is also at a lower specific activity than stream water. The water of combustion from the fish flesh is somewhat higher in specific activity than the stream water or the water in the fish. The distribution of tritium among the components of this system can be explain in terms of the turnover of water and organic hydrogen in the components

  3. Australian experience of providing for fish passage at small instream structures

    Lewis, B. [Forest Hill, Victoria (Australia)

    2006-07-01

    Various instream structures have been constructed in Australia as a result of increasing agricultural activities. However, even small structures such as culverts and stream gauging stations can restrict essential fish movements and result in the extinction of local fish species. This paper discussed methods of modifying and designing new structures to ensure adequate fish passage. It was suggested that instream structures can provide for fish passage through the provision of bridges, or through the use of low profile structures for small weirs. Recommendations for site-specific instream structures included an assessment of fish species, topography, flow characteristics and cost effectiveness. Solutions for reducing the impact of small instream barriers to fish movement were also discussed. Provision for fish passage is an important consideration for planners and designers of dams. Legislation is now in place to ensure a planning and approval process prior to the commencement of construction and operation. It was concluded that significant works are now being undertaken to restore fish migration pathways caused by barriers that restrict fish movement. However, monitoring is needed to ensure that designs operate effectively. 17 refs., 3 figs.

  4. Australian experience of providing for fish passage at small instream structures

    Lewis, B.

    2006-01-01

    Various instream structures have been constructed in Australia as a result of increasing agricultural activities. However, even small structures such as culverts and stream gauging stations can restrict essential fish movements and result in the extinction of local fish species. This paper discussed methods of modifying and designing new structures to ensure adequate fish passage. It was suggested that instream structures can provide for fish passage through the provision of bridges, or through the use of low profile structures for small weirs. Recommendations for site-specific instream structures included an assessment of fish species, topography, flow characteristics and cost effectiveness. Solutions for reducing the impact of small instream barriers to fish movement were also discussed. Provision for fish passage is an important consideration for planners and designers of dams. Legislation is now in place to ensure a planning and approval process prior to the commencement of construction and operation. It was concluded that significant works are now being undertaken to restore fish migration pathways caused by barriers that restrict fish movement. However, monitoring is needed to ensure that designs operate effectively. 17 refs., 3 figs

  5. [Species composition, diversity and density of small fishes in two different habitats in Niushan Lake].

    Ye, Shao-Wen; Li, Zhong-Jie; Cao, Wen-Xuan

    2007-07-01

    This paper studied the spatial distribution of small fishes in a shallow macrophytic lake, Niushan Lake in spring 2003, and its relations with habitat heterogeneity. Based on the macrophyte cover condition, distance from lake shore and water depth, two representative habitat types in the lake were selected. Habitat A was near the shore with dense submersed macrophyte, while habitat B was far from the shore with sparse submersed macrophyte. Small fishes were sampled quantitatively by block net (180 m2), and their densities within the net area were estimated by multiple mark-recapture or Zippin's removal method. The results showed that there were some differences in species composition, biodiversity measurement, and estimated density of small fishes between the two habitats: 1) the catches in habitat A consisted of 14 small fish species from 5 families, among which, benthopelagic species Rhodeus ocellatus, Paracheilognathus imberbis and Pseudorasbora parva were considered as dominant species, while those in habitat B consisted of 9 small fish species from 3 families, among which, bottom species Rhinogobius giurinus and Micropercops swinhonis were dominant; 2) the Bray-Curtis index between the two small fish communities was 0.222, reflecting their low structure similarity, and no significant difference was observed between their rank/ abundance distributions, both of which belonged to log series distribution; 3) the total density of 9 major species in habitat A was 8.71 ind x m(-2), while that of 5 major species in habitat B was only 3.54 ind x m(-2). The fact that the spatial distribution of the small fishes differed with habitats might be related to their habitat need for escaping predators, feeding, and breeding, and thus, aquatic macrophyte habitat should be of significance in the rational exploitation of small fish resources as well as the conservation of fish resource diversity.

  6. Effect of fishing effort on catch rate and catchability of largemouth bass in small impoundments

    Wegener, M. G.; Schramm, Harold; Neal, J. W.; Gerard, P.D.

    2018-01-01

    Largemouth bass Micropterus salmoides (Lacepède) catch rates decline with sustained fishing effort, even without harvest. It is unclear why declines in catch rate occur, and little research has been directed at how to improve catch rate. Learning has been proposed as a reason for declining catch rate, but has never been tested on largemouth bass. If catch rate declines because fish learn to avoid lures, periods of no fishing could be a management tool for increasing catch rate. In this study, six small impoundments with established fish populations were fished for two May to October fishing seasons to evaluate the effect of fishing effort on catch rate. Closed seasons were implemented to test whether a 2‐month period of no fishing improved catch rates and to determine whether conditioning from factors other than being captured reduced catch rate. Mixed‐model analysis indicated catch rate and catchability declined throughout the fishing season. Catch rate and catchability increased after a 2‐month closure but soon declined to the lowest levels of the fishing season. These changes in catch rate and catchability support the conclusion of learned angler avoidance, but sustained catchability of fish not previously caught does not support that associative or social learning affected catchability.

  7. Fishing Farmers or Farming Fishers? Fishing Typology of Inland Small-Scale Fishing Households and Fisheries Management in Singkarak Lake, West Sumatra, Indonesia

    Yuerlita; Perret, Sylvain Roger; Shivakoti, Ganesh P.

    2013-07-01

    Technical and socio-economic characteristics are known to determine different types of fishers and their livelihood strategies. Faced with declining fish and water resources, small-scale fisheries engage into transformations in livelihood and fishing practices. The paper is an attempt to understand these changes and their socio-economic patterns, in the case of Singkarak Lake in West Sumatra, Indonesia. Based upon the hypothesis that riparian communities have diverse, complex yet structured and dynamic livelihood systems, the paper's main objective is to study, document and model the actual diversity in livelihood, practices and performance of inland small-scale fisheries along the Singkarak Lake, to picture how households are adapted to the situation, and propose an updated, workable model (typology) of those for policy. Principal component analysis and cluster analysis were used to develop a typology of fishing households. The results show that small-scale fishers can be classified into different types characterized by distinct livelihood strategies. Three household types are identified, namely "farming fishers" households (type I, 30 %), "fishing farmers" households (type II, 30 %), and "mainly fishers" households (type III, 40 %). There are significant differences among these groups in the number of boats owned, annual fishing income, agriculture income and farming experience. Type I consists of farming fishers, well equipped, with high fishing costs and income, yet with the lowest return on fishing assets. They are also landowners with farming income, showing the lowest return on land capital. Type II includes poor fishing farmers, landowners with higher farming income; they show the highest return on land asset. They have less fishing equipment, costs and income. Type III (mainly fishers) consists of poorer, younger fishers, with highest return on fishing assets and on fishing costs. They have little land, low farming income, and diversified livelihood

  8. Do small fish mean no voucher? Using a flatbed desktop scanner to document larval and small specimens before destructive analyses

    Kalous, L.; Šlechtová, Věra; Petrtýl, M.; Kohout, Jan; Čech, Martin

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 26, č. 4 (2010), s. 614-617 ISSN 0175-8659 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA206/06/1371; GA ČR GP206/09/P266 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50450515; CEZ:AV0Z60170517 Keywords : small fish * voucher * desktop scanner Subject RIV: GL - Fishing Impact factor: 0.945, year: 2010

  9. Fish catch composition of selected small scale fishing gears used in the Bonny River, Rivers State, Nigeria

    Olaniyi Alaba Olopade

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Fish catch composition of some selected small scale fishing gears (gill net, cast net, beach seine and long line were investigated in Bonny River, Rivers State, Nigeria from August 2014 to January 2015. A total number of 25 fish species from 18 families were recorded during the study. The Mugilidae with only one species constituted the dominant family while Cichlidae, Lutjanidae, Clupeidae, had three species and Scianidae had two species of fish caught and the remaining families had one species each. Mugil cephalus constituted 28.48% of the total catches followed by C. nigrodigitatus (22.48%. In the dry season M. cephalus forms the major component landings (32.65%, followed by C. nigrodigitatus (26.53% and S. galilaeus (12.24% while in the wet season M. cephalus (31.06%, C. nigrodigitatus (18.63% and T. zillii (11.80% were the dominant fish species. Cast net was the most efficient fishing gear while gill net was the least efficient. The comparison analysis between the wet and dry seasons using t-test showed no significant difference between dry and wet seasons (t = 0.092, P > 0.05.

  10. Use of a parallel artificial membrane system to evaluate passive absorption and elimination in small fish.

    Kwon, Jung-Hwan; Katz, Lynn E; Liljestrand, Howard M

    2006-12-01

    A parallel artificial lipid membrane system was developed to mimic passive mass transfer of hydrophobic organic chemicals in fish. In this physical model system, a membrane filter-supported lipid bilayer separates two aqueous phases that represent the external and internal aqueous environments of fish. To predict bioconcentration kinetics in small fish with this system, literature absorption and elimination rates were analyzed with an allometric diffusion model to quantify the mass transfer resistances in the aqueous and lipid phases of fish. The effect of the aqueous phase mass transfer resistance was controlled by adjusting stirring intensity to mimic bioconcentration rates in small fish. Twenty-three simple aromatic hydrocarbons were chosen as model compounds for purposes of evaluation. For most of the selected chemicals, literature absorption/elimination rates fall into the range predicted from measured membrane permeabilities and elimination rates of the selected chemicals determined by the diffusion model system.

  11. A case study of life cycle impacts of small-scale fishing techniques in Thailand

    Verones, Francesca; Bolowich, Alya F.; Ebata, Keigo

    2017-01-01

    Fish provides an important source of protein, especially in developing countries, and the amounts of fish consumed are increasing worldwide (mostly from aquaculture). More than half of all marine fish are caught by small-scale fishery operations. However, no life cycle assessment (LCA) of small...... inventories for three different seasons (northeast monsoon, southwest monsoon and pre-monsoon), since the time spent on the water and catch varied significantly between the seasons. Our results showed the largest impacts from artisanal fishing operations affect climate change, human toxicity, and fossil...... and metal depletion. Our results are, in terms of global warming potential, comparable with other artisanal fisheries. Between different fishing operations, impacts vary between a factor of 2 (for land transformation impacts) and up to a factor of more than 20 (fossil fuel depletion and marine...

  12. Advancing Toxicology Research Using In Vivo High Throughput Toxicology with Small Fish Models

    Planchart, Antonio; Mattingly, Carolyn J.; Allen, David; Ceger, Patricia; Casey, Warren; Hinton, David; Kanungo, Jyotshna; Kullman, Seth W.; Tal, Tamara; Bondesson, Maria; Burgess, Shawn M.; Sullivan, Con; Kim, Carol; Behl, Mamta; Padilla, Stephanie; Reif, David M.; Tanguay, Robert L.; Hamm, Jon

    2017-01-01

    Summary Small freshwater fish models, especially zebrafish, offer advantages over traditional rodent models, including low maintenance and husbandry costs, high fecundity, genetic diversity, physiology similar to that of traditional biomedical models, and reduced animal welfare concerns. The Collaborative Workshop on Aquatic Models and 21st Century Toxicology was held at North Carolina State University on May 5-6, 2014, in Raleigh, North Carolina, USA. Participants discussed the ways in which small fish are being used as models to screen toxicants and understand mechanisms of toxicity. Workshop participants agreed that the lack of standardized protocols is an impediment to broader acceptance of these models, whereas development of standardized protocols, validation, and subsequent regulatory acceptance would facilitate greater usage. Given the advantages and increasing application of small fish models, there was widespread interest in follow-up workshops to review and discuss developments in their use. In this article, we summarize the recommendations formulated by workshop participants to enhance the utility of small fish species in toxicology studies, as well as many of the advances in the field of toxicology that resulted from using small fish species, including advances in developmental toxicology, cardiovascular toxicology, neurotoxicology, and immunotoxicology. We also review many emerging issues that will benefit from using small fish species, especially zebrafish, and new technologies that will enable using these organisms to yield results unprecedented in their information content to better understand how toxicants affect development and health. PMID:27328013

  13. Simulating mechanisms for dispersal, production and stranding of small forage fish in temporary wetland habitats

    Yurek, Simeon; DeAngelis, Donald L.; Trexler, Joel C.; Jopp, Fred; Donalson, Douglas D.

    2013-01-01

    Movement strategies of small forage fish (wetland habitats affect their overall population growth and biomass concentrations, i.e., availability to predators. These fish are often the key energy link between primary producers and top predators, such as wading birds, which require high concentrations of stranded fish in accessible depths. Expansion and contraction of seasonal wetlands induce a sequential alternation between rapid biomass growth and concentration, creating the conditions for local stranding of small fish as they move in response to varying water levels. To better understand how landscape topography, hydrology, and fish behavior interact to create high densities of stranded fish, we first simulated population dynamics of small fish, within a dynamic food web, with different traits for movement strategy and growth rate, across an artificial, spatially explicit, heterogeneous, two-dimensional marsh slough landscape, using hydrologic variability as the driver for movement. Model output showed that fish with the highest tendency to invade newly flooded marsh areas built up the largest populations over long time periods with stable hydrologic patterns. A higher probability to become stranded had negative effects on long-term population size, and offset the contribution of that species to stranded biomass. The model was next applied to the topography of a 10 km × 10 km area of Everglades landscape. The details of the topography were highly important in channeling fish movements and creating spatiotemporal patterns of fish movement and stranding. This output provides data that can be compared in the future with observed locations of fish biomass concentrations, or such surrogates as phosphorus ‘hotspots’ in the marsh.

  14. Environmental Health and Safety Hazards of Indigenous Small-Scale Gold Mining Using Cyanidation in the Philippines.

    Leung, Ana Marie R; Lu, Jinky Leilanie Dp

    2016-01-01

    This cross-sectional study aimed at the environmental health hazards at work and cyanide exposure of small-scale gold miners engaged in gold extraction from ores in a mining area in the Philippines. Methods consisted of structured questionnaire-guided interviews, work process observation tools, physical health assessment by medical doctors, and laboratory examination and blood cyanide determination in the blood samples of 34 indigenous small-scale gold miners from Benguet, Philippines. The small-scale gold miners worked for a mean of 10.3 years, had a mean age of 36 years, with mean lifetime mining work hours of 18,564. All were involved in tunneling work (100%) while a considerable number were involved in mixing cyanide with the ore (44%). A considerable number were injured (35%) during the mining activity, and an alarming number (35%) had elevated blood cyanide level. The most prevalent hazard was exposure to chemicals, particularly to cyanide and nitric acid, which were usually handled with bare hands. The small-scale gold miners were exposed to occupational and environmental hazards at work.

  15. Environmental Health and Safety Hazards of Indigenous Small-Scale Gold Mining Using Cyanidation in the Philippines

    Leung, Ana Marie R.; Lu, Jinky Leilanie DP.

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVES This cross-sectional study aimed at the environmental health hazards at work and cyanide exposure of small-scale gold miners engaged in gold extraction from ores in a mining area in the Philippines. METHODS Methods consisted of structured questionnaire-guided interviews, work process observation tools, physical health assessment by medical doctors, and laboratory examination and blood cyanide determination in the blood samples of 34 indigenous small-scale gold miners from Benguet, Philippines. RESULTS The small-scale gold miners worked for a mean of 10.3 years, had a mean age of 36 years, with mean lifetime mining work hours of 18,564. All were involved in tunneling work (100%) while a considerable number were involved in mixing cyanide with the ore (44%). A considerable number were injured (35%) during the mining activity, and an alarming number (35%) had elevated blood cyanide level. The most prevalent hazard was exposure to chemicals, particularly to cyanide and nitric acid, which were usually handled with bare hands. CONCLUSION The small-scale gold miners were exposed to occupational and environmental hazards at work. PMID:27547035

  16. Economic Analysis of Small Scale Fish Pond Production in Oguta ...

    What are the costs and returns of small-scale fishpond enterprises? What problems hinder the development of small-scale fishpond production? Data were collected with the aid of structured questionnaires and interviews. Descriptive statistics, gross margin and likert scale were employed in data analysis. Gross margin ...

  17. Effect of multiple electro-fishing on determining the structure of fish communities in small streams

    Humpl, Martin; Lusk, Stanislav

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 55, č. 3 (2006), s. 315-322 ISSN 0139-7893 R&D Projects: GA MŽP SM/6/3/05 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60930519 Keywords : electro- fishing efficacy * repeated sampling * probability of detection * species richness Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 0.529, year: 2006 http://www.ivb.cz/folia/55/3/315-322.pdf

  18. Relationships among catch, angler catisfaction, and fish assemblage characteristics of an urban small impoundment fishery

    Ivasauskas, Tomas J.; Xiong, Wilson N.; Engman, Augustin C.; Fischer, Jesse R.; Kwak, Thomas J.; Rundle, Kirk R.

    2017-01-01

    Urban fisheries provide unique angling opportunities for people from traditionally underrepresented demographics. Lake Raleigh is a 38-ha impoundment located on the North Carolina State University campus in Raleigh. Like many urban fisheries, little is known about angler use and satisfaction or how angling catch rate is related to fish availability in Lake Raleigh. We characterized the recreational fishery and fish assemblage with concurrent creel and boat electrofishing surveys over the course of one year. In total, 245 anglers were interviewed on 68 survey days. On average, anglers spent 1.7 h fishing per trip and caught 0.385 fish h –1. A large proportion of anglers (43.9%) targeted multiple species, whereas 36.5% targeted largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides), 10.0% targeted panfish (i.e., sunfishes [Lepomis spp.] and crappies [Pomoxis spp.]), and 9.6% targeted catfish (Ameiurus spp. and Ictalurus spp.). Most anglers (69.4%) were satisfied with their experience, and overall satisfaction was unrelated to catch rate. Pulsed-DC boat electrofishing was conducted on 25 dates, and 617 fish were sampled. Angler catch rate was unrelated to electrofishing catch rate, implying that anglers' catch rate was independent of fish density or availability. Our results demonstrate that even minimally managed urban fisheries can provide high angler satisfaction, with limited dedication of management resources. Relationships Among Catch, Angler Satisfaction, and Fish Assemblage Characteristics of an Urban Small Impoundment Fishery (PDF Download Available). Available from: https://www.researchgate.net/publication/316636550_Relationships_Among_Catch_Angler_Satisfaction_and_Fish_Assemblage_Characteristics_of_an_Urban_Small_Impoundment_Fishery [accessed Aug 11, 2017].

  19. Exploitation dynamics of small fish stocks like Arctic cisco

    Nielsen, Jennifer L.

    2004-01-01

    population within the Colville River other than only the Mackenzie River population. This needs further exploration. By examining otolith microchemistry, unique transitions from freshwater to sea can be identified for these stocks. This may shed light on why some fish arrive at the mouth of the Colville River, while others don’t.

  20. Few data but many fish: marine small-scale fisheries catches for ...

    ... substantially under-reported national data puts authorities under serious risk of over-licensing fishing access and mismanaging marine ecosystems and national food security. Keywords: catch rates, catch reconstructions, food security, Malthusian overfishing, small-scale fisheries, sub-Saharan Africa, subsistence fisheries

  1. Low-cost small action cameras in stereo generates accurate underwater measurements of fish

    Letessier, T. B.; Juhel, Jean-Baptiste; Vigliola, Laurent; Meeuwig, J. J.

    2015-01-01

    Small action cameras have received interest for use in underwater videography because of their low-cost, standardised housing, widespread availability and small size. Here, we assess the capacity of GoPro action cameras to provide accurate stereo-measurements of fish in comparison to the Sony handheld cameras that have traditionally been used for this purpose. Standardised stereo-GoPro and Sony systems were employed to capture measurements of known-length targets in a pool to explore the infl...

  2. Downstream passage of fish larvae and eggs through a small-sized reservoir, Mucuri river, Brazil

    Paulo S. Pompeu

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available In South America, one important symptom of the failure of fish passages to sustain fish migratory recruitment is the inability of eggs and larvae to reach the nurseries. This is especially so when the breeding areas are located upstream of a reservoir, and the floodplain is downstream of the dam. Therefore, the transport of fish larvae and eggs across reservoir barriers is a key factor in the development of effective conservation strategies. In this paper, we evaluate the potential for migratory fish larvae and egg transportation across a small size reservoir in eastern Brazil. We sampled fish daily between 15th October 2002 and 15th February 2003 (spawning period in the Mucuri River, immediately upstream of the reservoir and downstream of the Santa Clara Power Plant dam. Our study was the first to indicate the possibility of successful larval passage through the reservoir of a hydroelectric reservoir and dam in South America, and showed that the passage of migratory fish larvae was associated significantly with residence time of water in the reservoir. The relatively short water residence time and elevated turbidity of the Santa Clara's reservoir waters during the rainy season certainly contributed to the successful passage, and can be considered as key factors for a priori evaluations of the feasibility of a downstream larval passage.

  3. A prototype splitter apparatus for dividing large catches of small fish

    Stapanian, Martin A.; Edwards, William H.

    2012-01-01

    Due to financial and time constraints, it is often necessary in fisheries studies to divide large samples of fish and estimate total catch from the subsample. The subsampling procedure may involve potential human biases or may be difficult to perform in rough conditions. We present a prototype gravity-fed splitter apparatus for dividing large samples of small fish (30–100 mm TL). The apparatus features a tapered hopper with a sliding and removable shutter. The apparatus provides a comparatively stable platform for objectively obtaining subsamples, and it can be modified to accommodate different sizes of fish and different sample volumes. The apparatus is easy to build, inexpensive, and convenient to use in the field. To illustrate the performance of the apparatus, we divided three samples (total N = 2,000 fish) composed of four fish species. Our results indicated no significant bias in estimating either the number or proportion of each species from the subsample. Use of this apparatus or a similar apparatus can help to standardize subsampling procedures in large surveys of fish. The apparatus could be used for other applications that require dividing a large amount of material into one or more smaller subsamples.

  4. Global multi-decadal ocean climate and small-pelagic fish population

    Tourre, Yves M; Lluch-Cota, Salvador E; White, Warren B

    2007-01-01

    Ocean climate, environmental and biological conditions vary on several spatio-temporal scales. Besides climate change associated with anthropogenic activity, there is growing evidence of a natural global multi-decadal climate signal in the ocean-atmosphere-biosphere climate system. The spatio-temporal evolution of this signal is thus analyzed during the 20th century and compared to the variability of small-pelagic fish landings. It is argued that the low-frequency global ocean environment and plankton ecosystems must be modified such that small-pelagic populations vary accordingly. A small-pelagic global index or fishing 'regime indicator series' (RIS) (i.e. a small-pelagic abundance indicator) is used. RIS is derived from fish landings data in the four main fishing areas in the Pacific and Atlantic oceans. Global RIS changes phase (from positive to negative values) when SST multi-decadal anomalies are out-of-phase between the eastern Pacific and southern Atlantic. RIS also displays maxima during the mid-30s to early-40s and the late-70s to early-80s when the multi-decadal signal was approximately changing phases (Tourre and White 2006 Geophys. Res. Lett. 33 L06716). It is recognized that other factors may modulate fish stocks, including anthropogenic predation. Nevertheless it is proposed that variable climate and environment, and the low-frequency 'global synchrony' of small-pelagic landings (Schwartzlose et al 1999 S. Afr. J. Mar. Sci. 21 289-347), could be associated with the multi-decadal changes in global ocean climate conditions

  5. Application of a multistate model to estimate culvert effects on movement of small fishes

    Norman, J.R.; Hagler, M.M.; Freeman, Mary C.; Freeman, B.J.

    2009-01-01

    While it is widely acknowledged that culverted road-stream crossings may impede fish passage, effects of culverts on movement of nongame and small-bodied fishes have not been extensively studied and studies generally have not accounted for spatial variation in capture probabilities. We estimated probabilities for upstream and downstream movement of small (30-120 mm standard length) benthic and water column fishes across stream reaches with and without culverts at four road-stream crossings over a 4-6-week period. Movement and reach-specific capture probabilities were estimated using multistate capture-recapture models. Although none of the culverts were complete barriers to passage, only a bottomless-box culvert appeared to permit unrestricted upstream and downstream movements by benthic fishes based on model estimates of movement probabilities. At two box culverts that were perched above the water surface at base flow, observed movements were limited to water column fishes and to intervals when runoff from storm events raised water levels above the perched level. Only a single fish was observed to move through a partially embedded pipe culvert. Estimates for probabilities of movement over distances equal to at least the length of one culvert were low (e.g., generally ???0.03, estimated for 1-2-week intervals) and had wide 95% confidence intervals as a consequence of few observed movements to nonadjacent reaches. Estimates of capture probabilities varied among reaches by a factor of 2 to over 10, illustrating the importance of accounting for spatially variable capture rates when estimating movement probabilities with capture-recapture data. Longer-term studies are needed to evaluate temporal variability in stream fish passage at culverts (e.g., in relation to streamflow variability) and to thereby better quantify the degree of population fragmentation caused by road-stream crossings with culverts. ?? American Fisheries Society 2009.

  6. Small Marine Protected Areas in Fiji Provide Refuge for Reef Fish Assemblages, Feeding Groups, and Corals

    Pires, Mathias M.; Guimarães, Paulo Roberto; Hoey, Andrew S.; Hay, Mark E.

    2017-01-01

    The establishment of no-take marine protected areas (MPAs) on coral reefs is a common management strategy for conserving the diversity, abundance, and biomass of reef organisms. Generally, well-managed and enforced MPAs can increase or maintain the diversity and function of the enclosed coral reef, with some of the benefits extending to adjacent non-protected reefs. A fundamental question in coral reef conservation is whether these benefits arise within small MPAs (fish assemblages, composition of fish feeding groups, benthic cover, and key ecosystem processes (grazing, macroalgal browsing, and coral replenishment) in three small (0.5–0.8 km2) no-take MPAs and adjacent areas where fisheries are allowed (non-MPAs) on coral reefs in Fiji. The MPAs exhibited greater species richness, density, and biomass of fishes than non-MPAs. Furthermore, MPAs contained a greater abundance and biomass of grazing herbivores and piscivores as well as a greater abundance of cleaners than fished areas. We also found differences in fish associations when foraging, with feeding groups being generally more diverse and having greater biomass within MPAs than adjacent non-MPAs. Grazing by parrotfishes was 3–6 times greater, and macroalgal browsing was 3–5 times greater in MPAs than in non-MPAs. On average, MPAs had 260–280% as much coral cover and only 5–25% as much macroalgal cover as their paired non-MPA sites. Finally, two of the three MPAs had three-fold more coral recruits than adjacent non-MPAs. The results of this study indicate that small MPAs benefit not only populations of reef fishes, but also enhance ecosystem processes that are critical to reef resilience within the MPAs. PMID:28122006

  7. Risk assessment for fish passage through small, low-head turbines

    Turnpenny, A.W.H.; Clough, S.; Hanson, K.P.; Ramsay, R.; McEwan, D.

    2000-07-01

    This report summarises the findings of a study to improve the accuracy of prediction methods for fish fatalities for small-head Francis and Kaplan propeller turbine designs and gives details of computational fluid dynamic modelling to estimate pressure fluxes and shear stresses. Biological data is reviewed, and the STRIKER Excel spreadsheet model is used to predict death caused by pressure flux, shear turbulence, and blade strike. Field validation is discussed, and drawings of the Francis 1 and Kaplan 1 turbines, results of the fish passage trials, and STRIKER instructions and sample runs are presented in the appendices.

  8. Risk assessment for fish passage through small, low-head turbines

    Turnpenny, A.W.H.; Clough, S.; Hanson, K.P.; Ramsay, R.; McEwan, D.

    2000-01-01

    This report summarises the findings of a study to improve the accuracy of prediction methods for fish fatalities for small-head Francis and Kaplan propeller turbine designs and gives details of computational fluid dynamic modelling to estimate pressure fluxes and shear stresses. Biological data is reviewed, and the STRIKER Excel spreadsheet model is used to predict death caused by pressure flux, shear turbulence, and blade strike. Field validation is discussed, and drawings of the Francis 1 and Kaplan 1 turbines, results of the fish passage trials, and STRIKER instructions and sample runs are presented in the appendices

  9. Trophodynamics and diet overlap of small pelagic fish species in the Bay of Biscay

    Bachiller, E; Irigoien, Xabier

    2015-01-01

    Small pelagic fish are the link between planktonic production and higher trophic levels. Competition for resources may play a role in the population dynamics of species, some of them probably standing out from the others due to greater feeding success. It is therefore important to understand the trophic niche of species overlapping both spatially and temporally. In this study, we have investigated the diet, prey preference, trophic niche breadth and diet overlap of the 8 major small pelagic species (anchovy, sardine, sprat, Atlantic and Mediterranean horse mackerel, bogue, Atlantic mackerel and Atlantic chub mackerel) inhabiting the Bay of Biscay. Results indicate that all fish feed mainly on calanoid copepods, incorporating larger prey like euphausiids and decapods to complete their diet. Differences in ingested prey diversity seem to be more limited by the available zooplankton at sea than by a specific diet preference by fish species, resulting in an overall high diet overlap, especially within clupeids but also between clupeids and other (larger) predator species. Consumption estimations for different prey groups could therefore determine whether such a large diet overlap between small pelagic fish, together with spatial co-occurrence, results in competition or enhances the effects of intraguild predation, which is important in terms of an ecosystem approach to fisheries management.

  10. Trophodynamics and diet overlap of small pelagic fish species in the Bay of Biscay

    Bachiller, E

    2015-08-27

    Small pelagic fish are the link between planktonic production and higher trophic levels. Competition for resources may play a role in the population dynamics of species, some of them probably standing out from the others due to greater feeding success. It is therefore important to understand the trophic niche of species overlapping both spatially and temporally. In this study, we have investigated the diet, prey preference, trophic niche breadth and diet overlap of the 8 major small pelagic species (anchovy, sardine, sprat, Atlantic and Mediterranean horse mackerel, bogue, Atlantic mackerel and Atlantic chub mackerel) inhabiting the Bay of Biscay. Results indicate that all fish feed mainly on calanoid copepods, incorporating larger prey like euphausiids and decapods to complete their diet. Differences in ingested prey diversity seem to be more limited by the available zooplankton at sea than by a specific diet preference by fish species, resulting in an overall high diet overlap, especially within clupeids but also between clupeids and other (larger) predator species. Consumption estimations for different prey groups could therefore determine whether such a large diet overlap between small pelagic fish, together with spatial co-occurrence, results in competition or enhances the effects of intraguild predation, which is important in terms of an ecosystem approach to fisheries management.

  11. Farm-level risk factors for fish-borne zoonotic trematode infection in integrated small-scale fish farms in northern Vietnam.

    Van Thi Phan

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Northern Vietnam is an endemic region for fish-borne zoonotic trematodes (FZT, including liver and intestinal flukes. Humans acquire the FZT infection by eating raw or inadequately cooked fish. The production of FZT-free fish in aquaculture is a key component in establishing a sustainable program to prevent and control the FZT transmission to humans. Interventions in aquaculture should be based on knowledge of the main risk factors associated with FZT transmission. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: A longitudinal study was carried out from June 2006 to May 2007 in Nam Dinh province, Red River Delta to investigate the development and risk factors of FZT infections in freshwater cultured fish. A total of 3820 fish were sampled six times at two-month intervals from 96 fish farms. Logistic analysis with repeated measurements was used to evaluate potential risk factors based on information collected through questionnaire interviews with 61 fish farm owners. The results showed that the FZT infections significantly increased from first sampling in June to July 2006 (65% to sixth sampling in April to May, 2007 (76%. The liver fluke, Clonorchis sinensis and different zoonotic intestinal flukes including Haplochis pumilio, H. taichui, H. yokogawai, Centrocestus formosanus and Procerovum varium were found in sampled fish. Duration of fish cultured (sampling times, mebendazole drug self-medication of household members, presence of snails in the pond, and feeding fish with green vegetation collected outside fish farms all had a significant effect on the development of FZT prevalence in the fish. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The FZT prevalence in fish increased by 11 percentage points during a one-year culture period and the risk factors for the development of infection were identified. Results also highlight that the young fish are already highly infected when stocked into the grow-out systems. This knowledge should be incorporated into control

  12. Ethical perceptions of employees in small retailing firms: A case of indigenous-owned fast-food outlets in Zimbabwe

    Patient Rambe

    2017-07-01

    Aim: The overall aim of this study is to contribute to ethical theory and literature by demonstrating how employees’ ethical perceptions and behaviour shape the strategic orientations of the business. To achieve this aim, the study sought to: (1 establish the typical ethical dilemmas that employees of these retail firms faced in their daily tasks, (2 assess how they responded to these ethical challenges, (3 ascertain whether demographic factors such as age, level of education, gender and their position in the organisational hierarchy influence their reaction to ethical dilemmas; and (4 determine these employees’ overall perceptions of ethical issues within their organisations. Setting: The study was conducted on employees of an indigenous-owned fast-food firm operating in two cities in Zimbabwe. Methods: A survey was conducted on 108 employees working in two cities. A structured questionnaire was developed and administered to the employees. Results: The results suggested that a majority of the respondents were ethically conscious and could make ethical choices. In addition, most respondents deemed the ethical scenarios presented to them as morally wrong, suggesting that the surveyed employees wished to engage in ethical behaviour. However, while the respondents were deemed to be ethically astute in their individual capacities, they seemed to lack an in-depth knowledge of the ethical policies of their organisation. Conclusion: The study concludes that owners and managers of small firms should provide interventions to cascade ethical policy to the lower ranks of the organisation to enhance the ethical perception amongst employees of these firms. The study implication is that an institutional top-down approach is critical to embedding ethical sensitivity into employees without which employees may continue to speculate about the business ethics of their organisation.

  13. Born small, die young: Intrinsic, size-selective mortality in marine larval fish

    Garrido, S.

    2015-11-24

    Mortality during the early stages is a major cause of the natural variations in the size and recruitment strength of marine fish populations. In this study, the relation between the size-at-hatch and early survival was assessed using laboratory experiments and on field-caught larvae of the European sardine (Sardina pilchardus). Larval size-at-hatch was not related to the egg size but was significantly, positively related to the diameter of the otolith-at-hatch. Otolith diameter-at-hatch was also significantly correlated with survival-at-age in fed and unfed larvae in the laboratory. For sardine larvae collected in the Bay of Biscay during the spring of 2008, otolith radius-at-hatch was also significantly related to viability. Larval mortality has frequently been related to adverse environmental conditions and intrinsic factors affecting feeding ability and vulnerability to predators. Our study offers evidence indicating that a significant portion of fish mortality occurs during the endogenous (yolk) and mixed (yolk /prey) feeding period in the absence of predators, revealing that marine fish with high fecundity, such as small pelagics, can spawn a relatively large amount of eggs resulting in small larvae with no chances to survive. Our findings help to better understand the mass mortalities occurring at early stages of marine fish.

  14. Born small, die young: Intrinsic, size-selective mortality in marine larval fish

    Garrido, S.; Ben-Hamadou, R.; Santos, A.M.P.; Ferreira, S.; Teodó sio, M.A.; Cotano, U.; Irigoien, Xabier; Peck, M.A.; Saiz, E.; Ré , P.

    2015-01-01

    Mortality during the early stages is a major cause of the natural variations in the size and recruitment strength of marine fish populations. In this study, the relation between the size-at-hatch and early survival was assessed using laboratory experiments and on field-caught larvae of the European sardine (Sardina pilchardus). Larval size-at-hatch was not related to the egg size but was significantly, positively related to the diameter of the otolith-at-hatch. Otolith diameter-at-hatch was also significantly correlated with survival-at-age in fed and unfed larvae in the laboratory. For sardine larvae collected in the Bay of Biscay during the spring of 2008, otolith radius-at-hatch was also significantly related to viability. Larval mortality has frequently been related to adverse environmental conditions and intrinsic factors affecting feeding ability and vulnerability to predators. Our study offers evidence indicating that a significant portion of fish mortality occurs during the endogenous (yolk) and mixed (yolk /prey) feeding period in the absence of predators, revealing that marine fish with high fecundity, such as small pelagics, can spawn a relatively large amount of eggs resulting in small larvae with no chances to survive. Our findings help to better understand the mass mortalities occurring at early stages of marine fish.

  15. Trait-based prediction of extinction risk of small-bodied freshwater fishes.

    Kopf, R Keller; Shaw, Casey; Humphries, Paul

    2017-06-01

    Small body size is generally correlated with r-selected life-history traits, including early maturation, short-generation times, and rapid growth rates, that result in high population turnover and a reduced risk of extinction. Unlike other classes of vertebrates, however, small freshwater fishes appear to have an equal or greater risk of extinction than large fishes. We explored whether particular traits explain the International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN) Red List conservation status of small-bodied freshwater fishes from 4 temperate river basins: Murray-Darling, Australia; Danube, Europe; Mississippi-Missouri, North America; and the Rio Grande, North America. Twenty-three ecological and life-history traits were collated for all 171 freshwater fishes of ≤120 mm total length. We used generalized linear mixed-effects models to assess which combination of the 23 traits best explained whether a species was threatened or not threatened. We used the best models to predict the probability of 29 unclassified species being listed as threatened. With and without controlling for phylogeny at the family level, small body size-among small-bodied species-was the most influential trait correlated with threatened species listings. The k-folds cross-validation demonstrated that body size and a random effect structure that included family predicted the threat status with an accuracy of 78% (SE 0.5). We identified 10 species likely to be threatened that are not listed as such on the IUCN Red List. Small body size is not a trait that provides universal resistance to extinction, particularly for vertebrates inhabiting environments affected by extreme habitat loss and fragmentation. We hypothesize that this is because small-bodied species have smaller home ranges, lower dispersal capabilities, and heightened ecological specialization relative to larger vertebrates. Trait data and further model development are needed to predict the IUCN conservation status of the over 11

  16. Life cycle ecophysiology of small pelagic fish and climate-driven changes in populations

    Peck, Myron A.; Reglero, Patricia; Takahashi, Motomitsu; Catalán, Ignacio A.

    2013-09-01

    Due to their population characteristics and trophodynamic role, small pelagic fishes are excellent bio-indicators of climate-driven changes in marine systems world-wide. We argue that making robust projections of future changes in the productivity and distribution of small pelagics will require a cause-and-effect understanding of historical changes based upon physiological principles. Here, we reviewed the ecophysiology of small pelagic (clupeiform) fishes including a matrix of abiotic and biotic extrinsic factors (e.g., temperature, salinity, light, and prey characteristics) and stage-specific vital rates: (1) adult spawning, (2) survival and development of eggs and yolk sac larvae, and (3) feeding and growth of larvae, post-larvae and juveniles. Emphasis was placed on species inhabiting Northwest Pacific and Northeast Atlantic (European) waters for which summary papers are particularly scarce compared to anchovy and sardine in upwelling systems. Our review revealed that thermal niches (optimal and sub-optimal ranges in temperatures) were species- and stage-specific but that temperature effects only partly explained observed changes in the distribution and/or productivity of populations in the Northwest Pacific and Northeast Atlantic; changes in temperature may be necessary but not sufficient to induce population-level shifts. Prey availability during the late larval and early juvenile period was a common, density-dependent mechanism linked to fluctuations in populations but recruitment mechanisms were system-specific suggesting that generalizations of climate drivers across systems should be avoided. We identified gaps in knowledge regarding basic elements of the growth physiology of each life stage that will require additional field and laboratory study. Avenues of research are recommended that will aid the development of models that provide more robust, physiological-based projections of the population dynamics of these and other small pelagic fish. In our

  17. Metal balance shift induced in small fresh water fish by several environmental stresses

    Yukawa, Masae; Iso, Hiroyuki; Kodama, Kumiko; Imaseki, Hitoshi; Aoki, Kazuko; Ishikawa, Yuji

    2005-01-01

    Balance of essential elements in organisms might be changed by environmental stresses. Small fresh water fish, Medaka, was burdened with X-ray irradiation (total dose: 17 Gy), keeping in salty water (70% NaCl of sea water) and keeping in metal containing water (10 ppm of Cr and Co). These stresses are not lethal doses. Essential elements in liver, gall bladder, kidney, spleen, heart and brain in the stress-loaded fish were measured by PIXE method and compared with a control fish to determine the effect of the stresses. Various changes of the elemental contents were observed. Effect of X-ray irradiation was the smallest among the stresses. Relatively high content elements such as P, S, Cl and K were hardly affected with the stresses examined in this work. The effect of Cr on the metal balance seems to be larger than the other stresses. As PIXE method can analyze many elements in a small sample simultaneously, change of elemental distribution in small organisms induced by environmental stresses can be determined readily. (author)

  18. Workflow for the Targeted and Untargeted Detection of Small Metabolites in Fish Skin Mucus

    Lada Ivanova

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available The skin mucus of fish is in permanent contact with the aquatic environment. Data from the analysis of the chemical composition of skin mucus could potentially be used for monitoring the health status of the fish. Knowledge about mucus composition or change in composition over time could also contribute to understanding the aetiology of certain diseases. The objective of the present study was the development of a workflow for non-invasive sampling of skin mucus from farmed salmon (Salmo salar for the targeted and untargeted detection of small metabolites. Skin mucus was either scraped off, wiped off using medical wipes, or the mucus’ water phase was absorbed using the same type of medical wipes that was used for the wiping method. Following a simple filtration step, the obtained mucus samples were subjected to hydrophilic interaction chromatography coupled to high-resolution mass spectrometry. Post-acquisition processing included the targeted analysis of 86 small metabolites, of which up to 60 were detected in absorbed mucus. Untargeted analysis of the mucus samples from equally treated salmon revealed that the total variation of the metabolome was lowest in absorbed mucus and highest in the scraped mucus. Thus, future studies including small-molecule metabolomics of skin mucus in fish would benefit from a sampling regime employing absorption of the water phase in order to minimize the bias related to the sampling step. Furthermore, the absorption method is also a less invasive approach allowing for repetitive sampling within short time intervals.

  19. Indigenous homelessness

    Being homeless in one’s homeland is a colonial legacy for many Indigenous people in settler societies. The construction of Commonwealth nation-states from colonial settler societies depended on the dispossession of Indigenous peoples from their lands. The legacy of that dispossession and related...... attempts at assimilation that disrupted Indigenous practices, languages, and cultures—including patterns of housing and land use—can be seen today in the disproportionate number of Indigenous people affected by homelessness in both rural and urban settings. Essays in this collection explore the meaning...... and scope of Indigenous homelessness in the Canada, Australia, and New Zealand. They argue that effective policy and support programs aimed at relieving Indigenous homelessness must be rooted in Indigenous conceptions of home, land, and kinship, and cannot ignore the context of systemic inequality...

  20. Artificial barriers prevent genetic recovery of small isolated populations of a low-mobility freshwater fish.

    Coleman, R A; Gauffre, B; Pavlova, A; Beheregaray, L B; Kearns, J; Lyon, J; Sasaki, M; Leblois, R; Sgro, C; Sunnucks, P

    2018-01-12

    Habitat loss and fragmentation often result in small, isolated populations vulnerable to environmental disturbance and loss of genetic diversity. Low genetic diversity can increase extinction risk of small populations by elevating inbreeding and inbreeding depression, and reducing adaptive potential. Due to their linear nature and extensive use by humans, freshwater ecosystems are especially vulnerable to habitat loss and fragmentation. Although the effects of fragmentation on genetic structure have been extensively studied in migratory fishes, they are less understood in low-mobility species. We estimated impacts of instream barriers on genetic structure and diversity of the low-mobility river blackfish (Gadopsis marmoratus) within five streams separated by weirs or dams constructed 45-120 years ago. We found evidence of small-scale (barriers, as expected for a fish with low mobility. Genetic diversity was lower above barriers in small streams only, regardless of barrier age. In particular, one isolated population showed evidence of a recent bottleneck and inbreeding. Differentiation above and below the barrier (F ST  = 0.13) was greatest in this stream, but in other streams did not differ from background levels. Spatially explicit simulations suggest that short-term barrier effects would not be detected with our data set unless effective population sizes were very small (barriers is reduced and requires more genetic markers compared to panmictic populations. We also demonstrate the importance of accounting for natural population genetic structure in fragmentation studies.

  1. Analysis of Environmental Issues Related to Small-Scale Hydroelectric Development II: Design Consideration for Passing Fish Upstream Around Dams

    Hildebrandt, S. G. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Bell, M. C. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Anderson, J. J. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Richey, E. P. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Parkhurst, Z. E. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    1980-08-01

    The purpose of this report is to provide general information for use by potential developers of small scale hydroelectric projects that will include facilities to pass migrating fish upstream around dams. The document is not intended to be a textbook on design of fish passage facilities, but rather to be a general guide to some factors that are important when designing such facilities.

  2. Three new Species and six new Records of small Serranoid Fishes from Curaçao and Puerto Rico

    Randall, John E.

    1963-01-01

    Among the fishes taken during a recent collecting trip to Curaçao are three very colorful small serranoids which represent undescribed species. Two of the three new fishes are grammids of the previously monotypic genus Lipogramma, and their discovery necessitates a slight modification of the generic

  3. Collision recognition and direction changes for small scale fish robots by acceleration sensors

    Na, Seung Y.; Shin, Daejung; Kim, Jin Y.; Lee, Bae-Ho

    2005-05-01

    Typical obstacles are walls, rocks, water plants and other nearby robots for a group of small scale fish robots and submersibles that have been constructed in our lab. Sonar sensors are not employed to make the robot structure simple enough. All of circuits, sensors and processor cards are contained in a box of 9 x 7 x 4 cm dimension except motors, fins and external covers. Therefore, image processing results are applied to avoid collisions. However, it is useful only when the obstacles are located far enough to give images processing time for detecting them. Otherwise, acceleration sensors are used to detect collision immediately after it happens. Two of 2-axes acceleration sensors are employed to measure the three components of collision angles, collision magnitudes, and the angles of robot propulsion. These data are integrated to calculate the amount of propulsion direction change. The angle of a collision incident upon an obstacle is the fundamental value to obtain a direction change needed to design a following path. But there is a significant amount of noise due to a caudal fin motor. Because caudal fin provides the main propulsion for a fish robot, there is a periodic swinging noise at the head of a robot. This noise provides a random acceleration effect on the measured acceleration data at the collision. We propose an algorithm which shows that the MEMS-type accelerometers are very effective to provide information for direction changes in spite of the intrinsic noise after the small scale fish robots have made obstacle collision.

  4. Fishing activity in Northern Rio de Janeiro State (Brazil and its relation with small cetaceans

    Ana Paula Madeira Di Beneditto

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available Research on fishing activity at Atafona village, in Northern Rio de Janeiro, Brazil (21°35'S, was carried out between 1987-96 for the purpose of relating it to the accidental capture of small cetaceans and of estimating the relationship between fishing activity and the diet of small cetaceans. Data on fishing operations were obtained at the cold storage plants management, from interviews with fishermen and personal observations. The most representative fishing resources were Xyphopenaeus kroyeri, Micropogonias furnieri, Carcharhinus plumbeus, C. acronotus,and Rhizoprionodon porosus. Gillnets are responsible for the accidental capture of small cetaceans in the region, mainly Pontoporia blainvillei and Sotalia fluviatilis (marine form. Four types of gillnets that are used on the region ("minjuada", "sarda", "caçoá" and "pescadinha" were dangerous to these species because they are placed in their preferred habitat. There is no competition between fishermen and small cetaceans due to the selection in the capture of commercialized fishesInvestigação sobre a atividade pesqueira na localidade de Atafona, Norte do Rio de Janeiro, Brasil (21º25`S, foi conduzida entre 1987-96 com o objetivo de relacioná-la com a captura acidental e a dieta dos pequenos cetáceos. Dados sobre as operações pesqueiras foram obtidos na administração dos entrepostos de pesca, através de entrevistas com pescadores e observações pessoais. Os recursos pesqueiros mais representativos foram Xyphopenaeus kroyeri, Micropogonias furnieri, Carcharhinus plumbeus, C. acronotus, and Rhizoprionodon porosus. As redes de espera são responsáveis pela captura acidental de pequenos cetáceos na região, principalmente de Pontoporia blainvillei e Sotalia fluviatilis (forma marinha. Quatro tipos de redes de espera que são usadas na região ("minjuada", "sarda", "caçoá" and "pescadinha" foram mais perigosas para essas espécies pois são colocadas no seu hábitat preferencial

  5. Hankin and Reeves' approach to estimating fish abundance in small streams: limitations and potential options; TOPICAL

    Thompson, William L.

    2000-01-01

    Hankin and Reeves' (1988) approach to estimating fish abundance in small streams has been applied in stream-fish studies across North America. However, as with any method of population estimation, there are important assumptions that must be met for estimates to be minimally biased and reasonably precise. Consequently, I investigated effects of various levels of departure from these assumptions via simulation based on results from an example application in Hankin and Reeves (1988) and a spatially clustered population. Coverage of 95% confidence intervals averaged about 5% less than nominal when removal estimates equaled true numbers within sampling units, but averaged 62% - 86% less than nominal when they did not, with the exception where detection probabilities of individuals were and gt;0.85 and constant across sampling units (95% confidence interval coverage= 90%). True total abundances averaged far (20% - 41%) below the lower confidence limit when not included within intervals, which implies large negative bias. Further, average coefficient of variation was about 1.5 times higher when removal estimates did not equal true numbers within sampling units (C(bar V)0.27[SE= 0.0004]) than when they did (C(bar V)= 0.19[SE= 0.0002]). A potential modification to Hankin and Reeves' approach is to include environmental covariates that affect detection rates of fish into the removal model or other mark-recapture model. A potential alternative is to use snorkeling in combination with line transect sampling to estimate fish densities. Regardless of the method of population estimation, a pilot study should be conducted to validate the enumeration method, which requires a known (or nearly so) population of fish to serve as a benchmark to evaluate bias and precision of population estimates

  6. Complex small pelagic fish population patterns arising from individual behavioral responses to their environment

    Brochier, Timothée; Auger, Pierre-Amaël; Pecquerie, Laure; Machu, Eric; Capet, Xavier; Thiaw, Modou; Mbaye, Baye Cheikh; Braham, Cheikh-Baye; Ettahiri, Omar; Charouki, Najib; Sène, Ousseynou Ndaw; Werner, Francisco; Brehmer, Patrice

    2018-05-01

    Small pelagic fish (SPF) species are heavily exploited in eastern boundary upwelling systems (EBUS) as their transformation products are increasingly used in the world's food chain. Management relies on regular monitoring, but there is a lack of robust theories for the emergence of the populations' traits and their evolution in highly variable environments. This work aims to address existing knowledge gaps by combining physical and biogeochemical modelling with an individual life-cycle based model applied to round sardinella (Sardinella aurita) off northwest Africa, a key species for regional food security. Our approach focused on the processes responsible for seasonal migrations, spatio-temporal size-structure, and interannual biomass fluctuations. Emergence of preferred habitat resulted from interactions between natal homing behavior and environmental variability that impacts early life stages. Exploration of the environment by the fishes was determined by swimming capabilities, mesoscale to regional habitat structure, and horizontal currents. Fish spatio-temporal abundance variability emerged from a complex combination of distinct life-history traits. An alongshore gradient in fish size distributions is reported and validated by in situ measurements. New insights into population structure are provided, within an area where the species is abundant year-round (Mauritania) and with latitudinal migrations of variable (300-1200 km) amplitude. Interannual biomass fluctuations were linked to modulations of fish recruitment over the Sahara Bank driven by variability in alongshore current intensity. The identified processes constitute an analytical framework that can be implemented in other EBUS and used to explore impacts of regional climate change on SPF.

  7. Cryopreservation of sperm of an indigenous endangered fish species Nandus nandus (Hamilton, 1822) for ex-situ conservation.

    Sarder, M Rafiqul Islam; Sarker, M F Monowar; Saha, Shankar K

    2012-12-01

    This study dealt with the development of cryopreservation protocol for Nandus nandus, which entailed a number of experiments. Sperm was collected by sacrificing males. The collected sperm was suspended in extenders. Activation of sperm motility was evaluated in different osmolalities of NaCl. Motility of sperm decreased as the osmolality of the extender increased and was completely inhibited at almost 319 mOs mol/kg. To evaluate the toxicity of cryoprotectant, sperm was incubated with DMSO, methanol and ethanol at 5%, 10% and 15% concentrations, respectively, for 5-35 min. Five and ten percent of cryoprotectants produced better motility during 5 and 10 min incubation. Sperm incubated with 15% cryoprotectant seemed to be toxic and this concentration was excluded in the subsequent trials. Three extenders, namely, Alsever's solution, egg-yolk citrate and urea egg-yolk and three cryoprotectants, DMSO, methanol and ethanol were employed to preserve the sperm. Alsever's solution with 10% DMSO showed best performance producing 90.0±1.8% and 75.0±2.5% equilibration and post-thaw motility followed by that of 82.5±4.2% and 62.5±5.5% with Alsever's solution plus methanol, respectively. Between two diluents, sperm preserved with Alsever's solution plus DMSO produced highest fertilization (76.7±3.3%) and hatching (43.8±7.9%) while fresh sperm yielded 83.3±6.7% and 64.0±10.4% fertilization and hatching, respectively. The protocol developed through the study can be applied for long-term conservation of genetic materials of the endangered fish N. nandus and the cryopreserved sperm can be used in artificial breeding for generating new individuals. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Rapid changes in small fish mercury concentrations in estuarine wetlands: Implications for wildlife risk and monitoring programs

    Eagles-Smith, Collin A.; Ackerman, Joshua T.

    2009-01-01

    Small fish are commonly used to assess mercury (Hg) risk to wildlife and monitor Hg in wetlands. However, limited research has evaluated short-term Hg variability in small fish, which can have important implications for monitoring programs and risk assessment. We conducted a time-series study of Hg concentrations in two small fish species representing benthic (longjaw mudsuckers [Gillichthys mirabilis]) and pelagic (threespine sticklebacks [Gasterosteus aculeatus]) food-webs within three wetland habitats in San Francisco Bay Estuary. We simultaneously monitored prey deliveries, nest initiation, and chick hatching dates of breeding Forster's terns (Sterna forsteri), the most abundant nesting piscivore in the region. Mudsuckers and sticklebacks were the predominant prey fish, comprising 36% and 25% of tern diet, and Hg concentrations averaged (geometric mean ?? SE, ??g/g dw) 0.44 ?? 0.01 and 0.68 ?? 0.03, respectively. Fish Hg concentrations varied substantially over time following a quadratic form in both species, increasing 40% between March and May then decreasing 40% between May and July. Importantly, Forster's terns initiated 68% of nests and 31% of chicks hatched during the period of peak Hg concentrations in prey fish. These results illustrate the importance of short-term temporal variation in small fish Hg concentrations for both Hg monitoring programs and assessing wildlife risk.

  9. Allometric relations and consequences for feeding in small pelagic fish in the Bay of Biscay

    Bachiller, Eneko

    2012-11-21

    The body size of fish is an important factor in determining their biology and ecology, as predators eat prey smaller than themselves. Predator mouth size restricts the availability of possible prey. In this paper we provide the allometric relationships of eight common, small pelagic fish species in the Bay of Biscay. In addition, we describe the predator-prey size ratios for different species, and we determine changes in their ratio-based trophic-niche breadth with increasing body size. Results suggest that gape size does not totally determine the predator-prey size ratio distribution, but predators use the entire available prey size range, including the smallest. As they grow they simply incorporate larger prey as their increased gape size permits. Accordingly, a large degree of overlap was found in the diet composition in terms of size and predator-prey ratios, even between fish of different sizes. Of the species studied, only horse mackerels seem to be clearly specialized in relatively large prey. © 2012 International Council for the Exploration of the Sea.

  10. The Distribution of Capture Fisheries Based Small Pelagic - Mackerel Fish Species In Balikpapan Waters, East Kalimantan

    Said Abdusysyahid

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 false false false IN X-NONE X-NONE In the utilization of common property resource, long term balance in aquaculture is difficult to maintain as people trying to maximize their profit leading to considerable extensification. The objective of this research was to analyze the number of stock, production, and effort of Mackerel fish (Scomberomorus commersonii resource based on bio-economic approach. Primary data was collected based on purposive sampling method where the respondents in this research were Small Pelagic fishers which determined deliberately due to specific consideration. Secondary data used in this research was obtained from several sources. Data production and effort (input or effort was arranged in a time sequence according to the type of fishing gears and their targets of fishery resource being studied and then determined the value of CPUE (catch per unit effort. Mathematically, the input gear to be standardized is calculated from fishing power index multiplies with input (effort of standardized gear. The result shows that the renewable capacity begins to decrease leading to a condition of biologically over fishing. Aside from that, the Mackerel fish resource in this area also experiences economically over fishing condition which indicated by higher economic calculation value and lower capture yield. /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-fareast; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New

  11. Radio Tracking Fish with Small Unmanned Aircraft Systems (sUAS).

    Dahlgren, R. P.; Anderson, K. R.; Hanson, L.; Pinsker, E. A.; Jonsson, J.; Chapman, D. C.; Witten, D. M.; O'Connor, K. A.

    2017-12-01

    Tracking radio tagged fish by boat or on foot in riverine systems is difficult and time consuming, particularly in large braided island complexes, shallow wetlands, and rocky reaches. Invasive Asian carp are commonly found in these hard to reach areas, but their near-surface feeding behavior makes radio tracking possible. To identify new methods of fish tracking that could same time and money, this study tested the feasibility of tracking Asian carp with Small Unmanned Aerial Systems (sUAS) in areas generally inaccessible to traditional tracking equipment. The U.S. Geological Survey worked with NanoElectromagnetics LLC and WWR Development to create and integrate a lightweight custom radio receiver, directional antenna, and accompanying software into a sUAS platform. The receiver includes independent GPS, software defined radio, and compass. The NASA Ames Research Center (ARC) completed payload integration, electromagnetic-interference and airworthiness testing, and provided a DJI Matrice 600 sUAS for this study. Additionally, ARC provided subject matter experts, airworthiness and flight readiness evaluation, and flight test facilities during preparation; and a pilot, range safety officer, and aircraft engineer during field deployment. Results demonstrate that this custom sUAS and sensor combination can detect radio tags at 100m above ground level and at horizontal ranges of 100m and 300m, with operators in either onshore or offshore locations. With this combination of sUAS and radio receiver, fish can be tracked in areas previously inaccessible and during flooding, providing new insights into riverine fish movement and habitat utilization.

  12. Species-specific impacts of a small marine reserve on reef fish production and fishing productivity in the Turks and Caicos Islands

    Tupper, M.H.; Rudd, M.A.

    2002-01-01

    Marine reserves are widely considered to potentially benefit reef fisheries through emigration, yet the empirical basis for predicting the extent of this for small reserves is weak. The effects of fishing pressure and habitat on biomass and catch per unit effort (CPUE) of three species of exploited

  13. Design optimization of a vaneless ``fish-friendly'' swirl injector for small water turbines

    Airody, Ajith; Peterson, Sean D.

    2015-11-01

    Small-scale hydro-electric plants are attractive options for powering remote sites, as they draw energy from local bodies of water. However, the environmental impact on the aquatic life drawn into the water turbine is a concern. To mitigate adverse consequences on the local fauna, small-scale water turbine design efforts have focused on developing ``fish-friendly'' facilities. The components of these turbines tend to have wider passages between the blades when compared to traditional turbines, and the rotors are designed to spin at much lower angular velocities, thus allowing fish to pass through safely. Galt Green Energy has proposed a vaneless casing that provides the swirl component to the flow approaching the rotor, eliminating the need for inlet guide vanes. We numerically model the flow through the casing using ANSYS CFX to assess the evolution of the axial and circumferential velocity symmetry and uniformity in various cross-sections within and downstream of the injector. The velocity distributions, as well as the pressure loss through the injector, are functions of the pitch angle and number of revolutions of the casing. Optimization of the casing design is discussed via an objective function consisting of the velocity and pressure performance measures.

  14. Developing Techniques for Small Scale Indigenous Molybdenum-99 Production Using LEU Fission at Tajoura Research Center-Libya [Country report: Libya

    Alwaer, Sami M.

    2015-01-01

    The object of this work was to assist the IAEA by providing the Libyan country report about the Coordination Research Project (CRP), on the subject of “Developing techniques for small scale indigenous Mo-99 production using LEU-foil” which took place over five years and four RCMs. A CRP on this subject was approved in early 2005. The objectives of this CRP are to: transfer know-how in the area of 99 Mo production using LEU targets based on reference technologies from leading laboratories in the field to the participating laboratories in the CRP; develop national work plans based on various stages of technical development and objectives in this field; establish the procedures and protocols to be employed, including quality control and assurance procedures; establish the coordinated activities and programme for preparation, irradiation, and processing of LEU targets [a]; and to compare results obtained in the implementation of the technique in order to provide follow up advice and assistance. Technetium-99m ( 99m Tc), the daughter product of molybdenum-99 ( 99 Mo), is the most commonly utilized medical radioisotope in the world, used for approximately 20-25 million medical diagnostic procedures annually, comprising some 80% of all diagnostic nuclear medicine procedures. National and international efforts are underway to shift the production of medical isotopes from highly enriched uranium (HEU) to low enriched uranium (LEU) targets. A small but growing amount of the current global 99 Mo production is derived from the irradiation of LEU targets. The IAEA became aware of the interest of a number of developing Member States that are seeking to become small scale, indigenous producers of 99 Mo to meet local nuclear medicine requirements. The IAEA initiated Coordinated Research Project (CRP) T.1.20.18 “Developing techniques for small-scale indigenous production of Mo-99 using LEU or neutron activation” in order to assist countries in this field. The more

  15. Occupational Safety and Health Conditions Aboard Small- and Medium-Size Fishing Vessels: Differences among Age Groups.

    Zytoon, Mohamed A; Basahel, Abdulrahman M

    2017-02-24

    Although marine fishing is one of the most hazardous occupations, research on the occupational safety and health (OSH) conditions aboard marine fishing vessels is scarce. For instance, little is known about the working conditions of vulnerable groups such as young and aging fishermen. The objective of the current paper is to study the OSH conditions of young and aging fishermen compared to middle-aged fishermen in the small- and medium-size (SM) marine fishing sector. A cross-sectional study was designed, and 686 fishermen working aboard SM fishing vessels were interviewed to collect information about their safety and health. The associations of physical and psychosocial work conditions with safety and health outcomes, e.g., injuries, illnesses and job satisfaction, are presented. The results of the current study can be utilized in the design of effective accident prevention and OSH training programs for the three age groups and in the regulation of working conditions aboard fishing vessels.

  16. Importance of small fishes and invasive crayfish in otter Lutra lutra diet in an English chalk stream

    Britton, J.R.; Berry, M.; Sewell, S.; Lees, C.; Reading, P.

    2017-01-01

    The diet composition of the European otter Lutra lutra was assessed using spraint analysis in the Hampshire Avon, a lowland chalk stream in Southern England, over an 18-month period. Small cyprinid fishes were the main prey item taken in all seasons, with bullhead Cottus gobio and stone loach Barbatula barbatula also important; there were relatively few larger fishes of interest to fisheries found. There were significant seasonal differences in diet composition by season, with signal crayfish...

  17. Zebrafish response to robotic fish: preference experiments on isolated individuals and small shoals

    Polverino, G; Abaid, N; Kopman, V; Porfiri, M; Macrì, S

    2012-01-01

    Recently developed bioinspired robots imitate their live counterparts in both aspect and functionality. Nevertheless, whether these devices can be integrated within the ecological niche inspiring their design is seldom tested experimentally. An elemental research question concerns the feasibility of modulating spontaneous behaviour of animal systems through bioinspired robotics. The following study explores the possibility of engineering a robotic fish capable of influencing the behaviour of live zebrafish (Danio rerio) in a dichotomous preference test. While we observe that the preference for the robotic fish never exceeds the preference for a conspecific, our data show that the robot is successful in attracting both isolated individuals and small shoals and that such capability is influenced by its bioinspired features. In particular, we find that the robot's undulations enhance its degree of attractiveness, despite the noise inherent in the actuation system. This is the first experimental evidence that live zebrafish behaviour can be influenced by engineered robots. Such robotic platforms may constitute a valuable tool to investigate the bases of social behaviour and uncover the fundamental determinants of animal functions and dysfunctions. (paper)

  18. Are vegetated areas of mangroves attractive to juvenile and small fish? The case of Dongzhaigang Bay, Hainan Island, China

    Wang, Mao; Huang, Zhenyuan; Shi, Fushan; Wang, Wenqing

    2009-11-01

    Well-developed aerial roots of mangroves make it difficult to study how fish utilize the mangrove forest as a habitat. In the present study, we compared the differences in fish assemblages in three major types of habitats of mangrove estuary (vegetated area, treeless mudflat, and creek) of a mangrove bay in Hainan Island, China, at different seasons during two consecutive years. Three types of gears, centipede net, gill net and cast net, were used in the different habitats of mangrove estuary and sampling efficiencies among gears were evaluated. Centipede nets were used in all the three types of habitats and cast nets and gill nets in treeless mudflats and creeks. Fish assemblages were dependent on gears used. Centipede net could efficiently catch fish occurring both inside and outside of vegetated areas efficiently. A total of 115 fish species in 51 families were collected. In terms of numbers of species per family, Gobiidae was the most diverse (17 species), followed by Mugilidae (5 species). Almost all of the fish were juvenile or small fish and few predators were recorded, implying low predation pressure in the bay. ANOVA analysis showed that significant seasonal and spatial variation existed in species richness, abundance, and biomass, which were less in the vegetated areas than those of treeless mudflats and creeks. The attraction of vegetated areas to fish was less than that of creeks and mudflats. Many species were specific to a particular habitat type, 4 species occurring exclusively in the creeks, 45 species occurring exclusively in the treeless mudflats, and 5 species occurring exclusively in the vegetated areas. The results indicated that mangrove estuaries were potentially attractive habitats for juvenile and small fish, but this attraction was accomplished by a connection of vegetated areas, treeless mudflats and creeks, not only by vegetated areas.

  19. Variation in Assemblages of Small Fishes and Microcrustaceans After Inundation of Rarely Flooded Wetlands of the Lower Okavango Delta, Botswana

    Siziba, Nqobizitha; Chimbari, Moses J.; Masundire, Hillary; Mosepele, Ketlhatlogile; Ramberg, Lars

    2013-12-01

    Water extraction from floodplain river systems may alter patterns of inundation of adjacent wetlands and lead to loss of aquatic biodiversity. Water reaching the Okavango Delta (Delta), Botswana, may decrease due to excessive water extraction and climate change. However, due to poor understanding of the link between inundation of wetlands and biological responses, it is difficult to assess the impacts of these future water developments on aquatic biota. Large floods from 2009 to 2011 inundated both rarely and frequently flooded wetlands in the Delta, creating an opportunity to examine the ecological significance of flooding of wetlands with widely differing hydrological characteristics. We studied the assemblages of small fishes and microcrustaceans, together with their trophic relationships, in temporary wetlands of the lower Delta. Densities of microcrustaceans in temporary wetlands were generally lower than previously recorded in these habitats. Microcrustacean density varied with wetland types and hydrological phase of inundation. High densities of microcrustaceans were recorded in the 2009 to 2010 flooding season after inundation of rarely flooded sites. Large numbers of small fishes were observed during this study. Community structure of small fishes differed significantly across the studied wetlands, with poeciliids predominant in frequently flooded wetlands and juvenile cichlids most abundant in rarely flooded wetlands (analysis of similarity, P < 0.05). Small fishes of <20 mm fed largely on microcrustaceans and may have led to low microcrustacean densities within the wetlands. This result matched our prediction that rarely flooded wetlands would be more productive; hence, they supported greater populations of microcrustaceans and cichlids, which are aggressive feeders. However, the predominance of microcrustaceans in the guts of small fishes (<20 mm) suggests that predation by fishes may also be an important regulatory mechanism of microcrustacean

  20. The efficacy of clove oil as an anaesthetic and in euthanasia procedure for small-sized tropical fishes.

    Fernandes, I M; Bastos, Y F; Barreto, D S; Lourenço, L S; Penha, J M

    2017-01-01

    Clove oil is used as a fish anesthetic because it is a natural and inexpensive product with low toxicity risks. The goal of the present study was to determine the appropriate concentration of clove oil for small-sized tropical fish to be used in mark-recapture studies or when individuals are to be sacrificed. We applied three different clove oil concentrations (D1=0.05 mL, D2=0.10 mL and D3=0.20 mL per 500 mL of water) on three small-sized fish species. We found a negative relationship between induction time and treatment for two species (Hyphessobrycon sp.1 and Hemigrammus sp.), while concentration was unrelated to recovery time. Fish body length was positively related to induction time in the D2 treatment for Hemigrammus sp., and negatively for Hyphessobrycon sp.1 in the D1 treatment, but was unrelated to recovery time for three species and treatments. Mortality rates varied across treatments, but higher rates were observed with higher clove oil concentrations. We conclude that 0.05 mL of clove oil per 500 mL of water is the most efficient dose for studies where fish will be released back to their natural habitats, while 0.20 mL of clove oil is recommended for studies that require fish euthanization for further laboratory analyses.

  1. Analysis of habitat characteristics of small pelagic fish based on generalized additive models in Kepulauan Seribu Waters

    Rivai, A. A.; Siregar, V. P.; Agus, S. B.; Yasuma, H.

    2018-03-01

    One of the required information for sustainable fisheries management is about the habitat characteristics of a fish species. This information can be used to map the distribution of fish and map the potential fishing ground. This study aimed to analyze the habitat characteristics of small pelagic fishes (anchovy, squid, sardine and scads) which were mainly caught by lift net in Kepulauan Seribu waters. Research on habitat characteristics had been widely done, but the use of total suspended solid (TSS) parameters in this analysis is still lacking. TSS parameter which was extracted from Landsat 8 along with five other oceanographic parameters, CPUE data and location of fishing ground data from lift net fisheries in Kepulauan Seribu were included in this analysis. This analysis used Generalized Additive Models (GAMs) to evaluate the relationship between CPUE and oceanographic parameters. The results of the analysis showed that each fish species had different habitat characteristics. TSS and sea surface height had a great influence on the value of CPUE from each species. All the oceanographic parameters affected the CPUE of each species. This study demonstrated the effective use of GAMs to identify the essential habitat of a fish species.

  2. Ingestion and selection of suprabenthic crustaceans by small-sized fishes in a lower saltmarsh system

    Yoko Wakabara

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was performed in the lower saltmarsh system of the Arrozal, in the Cananéia lagoon estuarine region (25º02'S - 47º56'W, Brazil. Suprabenthic fauna was surveyed Wlth a small sledge and fishes were captured with casting and set nets to analyse: crustacean fauna as food for local fish species; difference in the diet at different times of the year; if there is diet overlap between species and the feeding behaviour of the species analysed. The fauna of Arrozal is poor in species, dominated mainly by Metamysidopsis alongata atlantica, Acartia lilljeborgi, Atylus minikoi, decapod larvae, and reveals a strong seasonal variation. The fishes were ali camivorous with suprabenthic crustacean as their main food resource. Seasonal changes in food supply are also reflected in the diet. Of the 12 flSh species collected six were opportunistlc feeders whereas six others were selective feeders. Food overlap value of 0.08 for ali of the fish community indicates an almost completely distinct food niches. The increased overlapping of summer food between Cathorops spixii and species of Group 11 and between Oligoplites sp and species of Group I seems to have two different explanations: 1 the mmIDishing of food supply for species feeding on benthic originated suprabenthic crustaceans and 2 overabundance of planktonic forms of suprabenthos as well as a period of high feeding activity of fishes with such diet.O presente estudo foi realizado no infralitoral contíguo à marisma, na Ponta do Arrozal, região estuarina lagunar de Cananéia (25º02'S - 47º56'W, Brasil. A fauna suprabêntica foi amostrada com uma pequena draga e os peixes capturados com tarrafa e rede de espera, com a finalidade de analisar: a composição de espécies dos crustáceos suprabênticos como itens alimentares dos peixes; diferenças na dieta em diferentes época do ano; se ocorre sobreposição alimentar entre as espécies e o comportamento alimentar: das espécies de peixes

  3. Challenges in Development of Sperm Repositories for Biomedical Fishes: Quality Control in Small-Bodied Species.

    Torres, Leticia; Liu, Yue; Guitreau, Amy; Yang, Huiping; Tiersch, Terrence R

    2017-12-01

    Quality control (QC) is essential for reproducible and efficient functioning of germplasm repositories. However, many biomedical fish models present significant QC challenges due to small body sizes (<5 cm) and miniscule sperm volumes (<5 μL). Using minimal volumes of sperm, we used Zebrafish to evaluate common QC endpoints as surrogates for fertilization success along sequential steps of cryopreservation. First, concentrations of calibration bead suspensions were evaluated with a Makler ® counting chamber by using different sample volumes and mixing methods. For sperm analysis, samples were initially diluted at a 1:30 ratio with Hanks' balanced salt solution (HBSS). Motility was evaluated by using different ratios of sperm and activation medium, and membrane integrity was analyzed with flow cytometry at different concentrations. Concentration and sperm motility could be confidently estimated by using volumes as small as 1 μL, whereas membrane integrity required a minimum of 2 μL (at 1 × 10 6 cells/mL). Thus, <5 μL of sperm suspension (after dilution to 30-150 μL with HBSS) was required to evaluate sperm quality by using three endpoints. Sperm quality assessment using a combination of complementary endpoints enhances QC efforts during cryopreservation, increasing reliability and reproducibility, and reducing waste of time and resources.

  4. Effects of barge traffic on distribution and survival of ichthyoplankton and small fishes in the upper Mississippi River

    Holland, L.E.

    1986-01-01

    Short-term impacts of commercial barge traffic on fish eggs, larvae, young-of-the-year (age-0) fishes, and small adults in the main channel of the upper Mississippi River were examined. Barge passages caused significant changes in the distribution of eggs and larvae in the study area. The mean catch of ichthyoplankton was reduced in both surface and bottom waters for 90 min after passage of vessels downstream. The effects of upstream traffic on catch ranged from nil in surface or bottom samples to short-term increases in surface samples immediately after passage. No consistent effect on the catch of age-0 or small adult fishes in surface or bottom trawls was evident.

  5. The effects of tertiary treated municipal wastewater on fish communities of a small river tributary in Southern Ontario, Canada

    Brown, Carolyn J.M.; Knight, Brendan W.; McMaster, Mark E.; Munkittrick, Kelly R.; Oakes, Ken D.; Tetreault, Grald R.; Servos, Mark R.

    2011-01-01

    Fish community changes associated with a tertiary treated municipal wastewater effluent outfall in the Speed River, Ontario, Canada, were evaluated at nine sites over two seasons (2008) using standardized electrofishing. Habitat evaluations were conducted to ensure that the riffle sites selected were physically similar. The fish community was dominated by several species of darters that differed in their response to the effluent outfall. There was a significant decrease in Greenside Darter (Etheostoma blennioides) but an increase in Rainbow Darter (E. caeruleum) abundance directly downstream of the outfall. Stable isotope signatures (δ 13 C and δ 15 N), which indicate shifts in energy utilization and flow, increased in Rainbow Darter downstream, but showed no change in Greenside Darter. Rainbow Darter may be exploiting a food source that is not as available at upstream sites giving them a competitive advantage over the Greenside Darter immediately downstream of the outfall. - Highlights: → Fish communities are altered by tertiary treated municipal wastewater exposure. → Relative abundance of the two dominant fish (darter) species changed downstream. → Differing stable isotope signatures in fish suggests shifting energy flow and diet. → The altered environment may allow resilient species a competitive advantage. → The system recovers quickly downstream. - Tertiary treated effluent altered fish community composition in a small receiving stream possibly as a result of altered availability of resources (diet) as indicated by stable isotopes.

  6. From "Duck Factory" to "Fish Factory": Climate induced changes in vertebrate communities of prairie pothole wetlands and small lakes

    McLean, Kyle I.; Mushet, David M.; Stockwell, Craig A.

    2016-01-01

    The Prairie Pothole Region’s myriad wetlands and small lakes contribute to its stature as the “duck factory” of North America. The fishless nature of the region’s aquatic habitats, a result of frequent drying, freezing, and high salinity, influences its importance to waterfowl. Recent precipitation increases have resulted in higher water levels and wetland/lake freshening. In 2012–13, we sampled chemical characteristics and vertebrates (fish and salamanders) of 162 Prairie Pothole wetlands and small lakes. We used non-metric multidimensional scaling, principal component analysis, and bootstrapping techniques to reveal relationships. We found fish present in a majority of sites (84 %). Fish responses to water chemistry varied by species. Fathead minnows (Pimephales promelas) and brook sticklebacks (Culaea inconstans) occurred across the broadest range of conditions. Yellow perch (Perca flavescens) occurred in a smaller, chemically defined, subset. Iowa darters (Etheostoma exile) were restricted to the narrowest range of conditions. Tiger salamanders (Ambystoma mavortium) rarely occurred in lakes with fish. We also compared our chemical data to similar data collected in 1966–1976 to explore factors contributing to the expansion of fish into previously fishless sites. Our work contributes to a better understanding of relationships between aquatic biota and climate-induced changes in this ecologically important area.

  7. Indigenous religions

    Geertz, Armin W.

    2009-01-01

    Dette essay diskuterer en publikation af James L. Cox med titlen From Primitive to Indigenous (2007). Bogen analyserer forskellige forfatteres holdninger til studiet af indfødte kulturers religioner. Cox's analyser tages op i dette essay og de problematiseres i forhold til mit eget arbejde....

  8. Spatial structure and distribution of small pelagic fish in the northwestern Mediterranean Sea.

    Saraux, Claire; Fromentin, Jean-Marc; Bigot, Jean-Louis; Bourdeix, Jean-Hervé; Morfin, Marie; Roos, David; Van Beveren, Elisabeth; Bez, Nicolas

    2014-01-01

    Understanding the ecological and anthropogenic drivers of population dynamics requires detailed studies on habitat selection and spatial distribution. Although small pelagic fish aggregate in large shoals and usually exhibit important spatial structure, their dynamics in time and space remain unpredictable and challenging. In the Gulf of Lions (north-western Mediterranean), sardine and anchovy biomasses have declined over the past 5 years causing an important fishery crisis while sprat abundance rose. Applying geostatistical tools on scientific acoustic surveys conducted in the Gulf of Lions, we investigated anchovy, sardine and sprat spatial distributions and structures over 10 years. Our results show that sardines and sprats were more coastal than anchovies. The spatial structure of the three species was fairly stable over time according to variogram outputs, while year-to-year variations in kriged maps highlighted substantial changes in their location. Support for the McCall's basin hypothesis (covariation of both population density and presence area with biomass) was found only in sprats, the most variable of the three species. An innovative method to investigate species collocation at different scales revealed that globally the three species strongly overlap. Although species often co-occurred in terms of presence/absence, their biomass density differed at local scale, suggesting potential interspecific avoidance or different sensitivity to local environmental characteristics. Persistent favourable areas were finally detected, but their environmental characteristics remain to be determined.

  9. Impact of Small Hydro-Power Plants on Salmonid Fishes Spawning Migrations

    Saulius Stakėnas

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available In 2000 and 2005, fish ladders were built in Vilnia and Siesartis rivers providing fish access to another 10 and 25 km of the rivers respectively. The analysis of redd distribution and abundance in both rivers revealed that the construction of fish ladders significantly increased the number and share of redds above dams, however, a significant increase in redds above the dam occurred 2-4 years after fish ladders construction supporting homing behaviour as one of the most important factors for the recolonization of the newly accessible habitats. The tracking of radio tagged salmon and sea trout revealed that statistically, significantly more time, fishes spent in the middle part of fish ladders. Assessed fish ladders efficiency for migrating salmonids made 66%. Minor construction defects and lack of protection were the main factors reducing fishway efficiency. Based on radio tracking data, recommendations are given for minor changes in fish ladders construction and operating schedule to increase the efficiency of fish ladders.Article in English

  10. Malignant lymphoma incidentally diagnosed due to the perforation of the small intestine caused by a fish bone: A case report

    Masatsugu Hiraki

    Full Text Available Introduction: The ingestion of a foreign body is relatively common. However, it rarely results in the perforation of gastrointestinal tract. We herein report an unusual case of malignant lymphoma incidentally diagnosed after the perforation of the small intestine by a fish bone. Presentation of case: A 90-year-old woman was admitted to our hospital because of abdominal pain and vomiting. Abdominal computed tomography demonstrated free air and ascites in the abdominal cavity. In the pelvic cavity, a radiopaque linear shadow about 35 mm in diameter was shown in the small intestine, and the stricture was exposed to the abdominal cavity. Therefore, a diagnosis of perforation of the small intestine due to ingestion of a foreign body and panperitonitis was made. Emergent laparotomy was performed. The intraoperative findings revealed perforation of the small intestine with a fish bone in the jejunum. Local inflammation at the perforation site was seen, and circulated wall thickness was observed at the distal side of the jejunum. Partial resection of the jejunum and anastomosis of jejuno-jejunostomy was performed. A pathological examination and immunohistochemical study of the resected specimen resulted in a diagnosis of malignant lymphoma of follicular lymphoma Grade 1. Discussion: It is very difficult to identify the existence malignancy accompanied with gastrointestinal perforation with ingestion of a foreign body. Conclusion: In cases suspected of involving malignancy, careful observation during surgery is needed in order to avoid missing the accompanying malignancy. Keywords: Fish bone, Perforation, Small intestine, Malignant lymphoma, Foreign body, Ingestion

  11. Importance of small fishes and invasive crayfish in otter Lutra lutra diet in an English chalk stream

    Britton J. Robert

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The diet composition of the European otter Lutra lutra was assessed using spraint analysis in the Hampshire Avon, a lowland chalk stream in Southern England, over an 18-month period. Small cyprinid fishes were the main prey item taken in all seasons, with bullhead Cottus gobio and stone loach Barbatula barbatula also important; there were relatively few larger fishes of interest to fisheries found. There were significant seasonal differences in diet composition by season, with signal crayfish Pacifastacus leniusculus only being prominent prey items in warmer months and amphibians in winter, revealing that non-fish resources were seasonally important dietary components. Reconstructed body lengths of prey revealed the only species present in diet >350 mm was pike Esox lucius. These dietary data thus provide important information for informing conservation conflicts between otters and fishery interests.

  12. ALK-FISH borderline cases in non-small cell lung cancer: Implications for diagnostics and clinical decision making.

    von Laffert, Maximilian; Stenzinger, Albrecht; Hummel, Michael; Weichert, Wilko; Lenze, Dido; Warth, Arne; Penzel, Roland; Herbst, Hermann; Kellner, Udo; Jurmeister, Philipp; Schirmacher, Peter; Dietel, Manfred; Klauschen, Frederick

    2015-12-01

    Fluorescence in-situ hybridization (FISH) for the detection of ALK-rearrangements in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) is based on at first sight clear cut-off criteria (≥15% of tumor cells) for split signals (SS) and single red signals (SRS). However, NSCLC with SS-counts around the cut-off may cause interpretation problems. Tissue microarrays containing 753 surgically resected NSCLCs were independently tested for ALK-alterations by FISH and immunohistochemistry (IHC). Our analysis focused on samples with SS/SRS in the range between 10% and 20% (ALK-FISH borderline group). To better understand the role of these samples in routine diagnostics, we performed statistical analyses to systematically estimate the probability of ALK-FISH-misclassification (false negative or positive) for different numbers of evaluated tumor cell nuclei (30, 50, 100, and 200). 94.3% (710/753) of the cases were classified as unequivocally (FISH-negative (93%; 700/753) or positive (1.3%; 10/753) and showed concordant IHC results. 5.7% (43/753) of the samples showed SS/SRS between 10% and 20% of the tumor cells. Out of these, 7% (3/43; ALK-FISH: 14%, 18% and 20%) were positive by ALK-IHC, while 93% (40/43) had no detectable expression of the ALK-protein. Statistical analysis showed that ALK-FISH misclassifications occur frequently for samples with rearrangements between 10% and 20% if ALK-characterization is based on a sharp cut-off point (15%). If results in this interval are defined as equivocal (borderline), statistical sampling-related ALK-FISH misclassifications will occur in less than 1% of the cases if 100 tumor cells are evaluated. While ALK status can be determined robustly for the majority of NSCLC by FISH our analysis showed that ∼6% of the cases belong to a borderline group for which ALK-FISH evaluation has only limited reliability due to statistical sampling effects. These cases should be considered equivocal and therapy decisions should include additional tests and clinical

  13. Biodiversity of indigenous staphylococci of naturally fermented dry sausages and manufacturing environments of small-scale processing units.

    Leroy, Sabine; Giammarinaro, Philippe; Chacornac, Jean-Paul; Lebert, Isabelle; Talon, Régine

    2010-04-01

    The staphylococcal community of the environments of nine French small-scale processing units and their naturally fermented meat products was identified by analyzing 676 isolates. Fifteen species were accurately identified using validated molecular methods. The three prevalent species were Staphylococcus equorum (58.4%), Staphylococcus saprophyticus (15.7%) and Staphylococcus xylosus (9.3%). S. equorum was isolated in all the processing units in similar proportion in meat and environmental samples. S. saprophyticus was also isolated in all the processing units with a higher percentage in environmental samples. S. xylosus was present sporadically in the processing units and its prevalence was higher in meat samples. The genetic diversity of the strains within the three species isolated from one processing unit was studied by PFGE and revealed a high diversity for S. equorum and S. saprophyticus both in the environment and the meat isolates. The genetic diversity remained high through the manufacturing steps. A small percentage of the strains of the two species share the two ecological niches. These results highlight that some strains, probably introduced by the meat, will persist in the manufacturing environment, while other strains are more adapted to the meat products.

  14. High-resolution 1H NMR spectroscopy of fish muscle, eggs and small whole fish via Hadamard-encoded intermolecular multiple-quantum coherence.

    Honghao Cai

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR spectroscopy has become an important technique for tissue studies. Since tissues are in semisolid-state, their high-resolution (HR spectra cannot be obtained by conventional NMR spectroscopy. Because of this restriction, extraction and high-resolution magic angle spinning (HR MAS are widely applied for HR NMR spectra of tissues. However, both of the methods are subject to limitations. In this study, the feasibility of HR (1H NMR spectroscopy based on intermolecular multiple-quantum coherence (iMQC technique is explored using fish muscle, fish eggs, and a whole fish as examples. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Intact salmon muscle tissues, intact eggs from shishamo smelt and a whole fish (Siamese algae eater are studied by using conventional 1D one-pulse sequence, Hadamard-encoded iMQC sequence, and HR MAS. RESULTS: When we use the conventional 1D one-pulse sequence, hardly any useful spectral information can be obtained due to the severe field inhomogeneity. By contrast, HR NMR spectra can be obtained in a short period of time by using the Hadamard-encoded iMQC method without shimming. Most signals from fatty acids and small metabolites can be observed. Compared to HR MAS, the iMQC method is non-invasive, but the resolution and the sensitivity of resulting spectra are not as high as those of HR MAS spectra. CONCLUSION: Due to the immunity to field inhomogeneity, the iMQC technique can be a proper supplement to HR MAS, and it provides an alternative for the investigation in cases with field distortions and with samples unsuitable for spinning. The acquisition time of the proposed method is greatly reduced by introduction of the Hadamard-encoded technique, in comparison with that of conventional iMQC method.

  15. Analysis of Environmental Issues Related to Small-Scale Hydroelectric Development IV: Fish Mortality Resulting From Turbine Passage

    Turbak, Susan C. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Reichle, Donna R. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Shriner, Carole R. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    1981-01-01

    The purpose of this report is to provide summary information for use by potential developers and regulators of small-scale hydroelectric projects (defined as existing dams that can be retrofitted to a total site capacity of ≤30 MW), where turbine-related mortality of fish is a potential issue affecting site-specific development. Mitigation techniques for turbine-related mortality are not covered in this report.

  16. Allometric relations and consequences for feeding in small pelagic fish in the Bay of Biscay

    Bachiller, Eneko; Irigoien, Xabier

    2012-01-01

    The body size of fish is an important factor in determining their biology and ecology, as predators eat prey smaller than themselves. Predator mouth size restricts the availability of possible prey. In this paper we provide the allometric

  17. Intraguild predation between small pelagic fish in the Bay of Biscay: impact on anchovy (Engraulis encrasicolus L.) egg mortality

    Bachiller, Eneko

    2015-05-12

    Small pelagic fish can play an important role in various ecosystems linking lower and upper trophic levels. Among the factor behind the observed inter-annual variations in small pelagic fish abundance, intra- and inter-specific trophic interactions could have a strong impact on the recruitment variability (e.g. anchovy). Egg cannibalism observed in anchovies has been postulated to be a mechanism that determines the upper limit of the population density and self-regulates the population abundance of the species. On the other hand, predation by other guild species is commonly considered as a regulation mechanism between competing species. This study provides empirical evidence of anchovy cannibalism and predation of the main small pelagic fish species on anchovy eggs and estimates the effect of intraguild predation on the anchovy egg mortality rate. Results show that, depending on the year (2008–2009), up to 33 % of the total anchovy egg mortality was the result of sardine predation and up to 4 % was the result of egg cannibalism together with predation by Atlantic and Atlantic Chub mackerel and sprat. Results also indicate that in the Bay of Biscay, fluctuations in the survival index of the early life stages of anchovy are likely to be attributable at least in part to egg cannibalism and especially to a high sardine predation on anchovy eggs. © 2015 Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg

  18. Physiological and biochemical responses of small fish exposed to Athabasca oil sands sediment

    Tetrault, G.R.; Environment Canada, Burlington, ON; McMaster, M.E.; Dixon, D.G.; Parrott, J.L.

    2002-01-01

    A study was conducted to determine the influence of naturally occurring oil sands related compounds on the reproductive function and hepatic responses of fish. Wild fish, both exposed and unexposed to the compounds in question, were collected along with sediments for laboratory testing. The study showed that in vitro gonadal incubation levels of steroid production were lower at the tributary sites within the oil sands deposits. One indicator of exposure to oil sands related compounds (hepatic 7-ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase activity) was shown to be 5 times higher at the same sites. In addition, slimy sculpin were exposed to sediment samples from the Steepbank River site for 4 to 8 days to evaluate the absorption of the indicator. The indicator in exposed fish was found to be comparable to that measured in fish native to the oil sands area. The study was not capable of predicting an altered ability of gonadal tissue of exposed fish to produce steroid hormones in vitro. It was concluded that future development could compromise the reproductive health of fish in the area

  19. Unconstrained and Noninvasive Measurement of Swimming Behavior of Small Fish Based on Ventilatory Signals

    Kitayama, Shigehisa; Soh, Zu; Hirano, Akira; Tsuji, Toshio; Takiguchi, Noboru; Ohtake, Hisao

    Ventilatory signal is a kind of bioelectric signals reflecting the ventilatory conditions of fish, and has received recent attention as an indicator for assessment of water quality, since breathing is adjusted by the respiratory center according to changes in the underwater environment surrounding the fish. The signals are thus beginning to be used in bioassay systems for water examination. Other than ventilatory conditions, swimming behavior also contains important information for water examination. The conventional bioassay systems, however, only measure either ventilatory signals or swimming behavior. This paper proposes a new unconstrained and noninvasive measurement method that is capable of conducting ventilatory signal measurement and behavioral analysis of fish at the same time. The proposed method estimates the position and the velocity of a fish in free-swimming conditions using power spectrum distribution of measured ventilatory signals from multiple electrodes. This allowed the system to avoid using a camera system which requires light sources. In order to validate estimation accuracy, the position and the velocity estimated by the proposed method were compared to those obtained from video analysis. The results confirmed that the estimated error of the fish positions was within the size of fish, and the correlation coefficient between the velocities was 0.906. The proposed method thus not only can measure the ventilatory signals, but also performs behavioral analysis as accurate as using a video camera.

  20. Radiation disinfestation of dried salted mackerel found on packaging, transporting and marketing. Part of a coordinated programme for radiation preservation of dried fish indigenous to Asia

    Pablo, I.S.

    1981-04-01

    Studies were made on different types of packaging materials used for packing dried fish in the Philippines with a view to finding a suitable packaging material for irradiated dried fish. Among these packaging materials (polyethylene, cello/polyethylene, polyester/polyethylene, Kraft paper, polypropylene and interwoven polypropylene sacks), polyester/polyethylene laminate was the most resistant material against penetration by Dermestes carnivorous. No insect damage occurred on the dried fish packed in interwoven polypropylene lined with polyester/polyethylene laminate. The cost per sack of such packaging material having a capacity of 50-80 kg is US$ 0.50. The sack lined with polyester/polyethylene proved to be durable for surface transportation from Bacolod City to Manila (approx. 360 miles). Radiation treatment at 225 krad was effective against bacterial contamination but not effective in inhibiting mould growth. Raw fish soaked in 25% salt for 2 hours before drying obtained the highest scores in most of the organoleptic attributes. Dried fish which contains approx. 50% moisture and residual salt content of 6% would spoil within 2 weeks at ambient conditions. Treatment with 2% potassium sorbate and 225 krad showed that samples can be stored under commercial practice and at ambient conditions for up to 62 days

  1. Spatio-temporal patterns and environmental controls of small pelagic fish body condition from contrasted Mediterranean areas

    Brosset, Pablo; Fromentin, Jean-Marc; Van Beveren, Elisabeth; Lloret, Josep; Marques, Virginie; Basilone, Gualtiero; Bonanno, Angelo; Carpi, Piera; Donato, Fortunata; Čikeš Keč, Vanja; De Felice, Andrea; Ferreri, Rosalia; Gašparević, Denis; Giráldez, Ana; Gücü, Ali; Iglesias, Magdalena; Leonori, Iole; Palomera, Isabel; Somarakis, Stylianos; Tičina, Vjekoslav; Torres, Pedro; Ventero, Ana; Zorica, Barbara; Ménard, Frédéric; Saraux, Claire

    2017-02-01

    Small pelagic fish are among the most ecologically and economically important marine fish species and are characterized by large fluctuations all over the world. In the Mediterranean Sea, low catches and biomass of anchovies and sardines have been described in some areas during the last decade, resulting in important fisheries crises. Therefore, we studied anchovy and sardine body condition variability, a key index of population health and its response to environmental and anthropogenic changes. Wide temporal and spatial patterns were investigated by analyzing separately data from scientific surveys and fisheries in eight Mediterranean areas between 1975 and 2015. Results showed that anchovy and sardine body condition as well as maximum size in some areas sharply decreased in most Mediterranean areas along years (except in the Northern Alboran Sea). Despite this general pattern, well-marked environmental differences between sub-regions were highlighted by several analyses and variations in body condition were not found to be homogeneous over all the Mediterranean Sea. Further, other analyses revealed that except for the Adriatic where major changes towards a lower body condition were concomitant with a decrease in river runoffs and chl-a concentration, no concomitant environmental regime shift was detected in other areas. Together, these analyses highlighted the current poor body condition of almost all small pelagic fish populations in the Mediterranean. Yet, global environmental indices could not explain the observed changes and the general decrease in condition might more likely come from regional environmental and/or anthropogenic (fishing) effects. A prolonged state of poor fish body condition, together with an observed reduced size and early age-at-maturity may have strong ecological, economic and social consequences all around the Mediterranean Sea.

  2. Improving the productivity of imported dairy cattle on small-holder farms in Morocco through supplementation with fish silage blocks

    Guerouali, A.

    1999-01-01

    The present study was designed to identify problems that lower the productivity of imported dairy cattle in Morocco. For this purpose, a comprehensive survey was carried out on 8 small-holder farms over a period of two years. Analysis of the data collected indicated that in most of the herds reproductive performance was adequate (calving intervals ranging from 338 ± 11 to 420 ± 31 and services to conception ranging from 1.14 ± 0.13 to 1.91 ± 0.3), but the animals had difficulty in meeting the nutrient requirements for milk production. Although some farmers provided supplements to their animals they were either expensive or not available at the required time. One possible way of alleviating the problem was the introduction of a fish by-product into the dairy cattle ration. Two experiments were conducted, one at the Institute experimental farm and the other at a private farm selected for the survey. In both experiments, fish silage blocks were incorporated into the ration of dairy cattle in replacement of an equal amount of the most commonly used supplements. The introduction of fish silage blocks in the ration did not affect their intake or body condition. In addition, the yield and quality of the milk were maintained. This substitution allowed the farmer to utilize by-products from the fish industry which are readily available and less costly than most conventional supplementary feeds. It is concluded, that the proposed utilization of fish silage blocks will reduce the production costs and improve the economic efficiency of the small-holder farms. (author)

  3. Development of Techniques for Small Scale Indigenous 99Mo Production Using LEU Targets at ICN Pitesti-Romania [Country report: Romania

    2015-01-01

    Initiation of the IAEA Coordinated Research Project (CRP) “Development Techniques for Small Scale Indigenous 99 Mo Production Using LEU Fission or Neutron Activation” during 2005 allowed Member States to participate through their research organization on contractor arrangement to accomplish the CRP objectives. Among these, the participating research organization Institute for Nuclear Research Pitesti Romania (ICN), was the beneficiary of financial support and Argonne National Laboratory assistance provided by US Department of Energy to the CRP for development of techniques for fission 99 Mo production based on LEU modified CINTICHEM process. The Agency’s role in this field was to assist in the transfer and adaptation of existing technology in order to disseminate a technique, which advances international non-proliferation objectives and promotes sustainable development needs, while also contributing to extend the production capacity for addressing supply shortages from the latest years. The Institute for Nuclear Research, considering the existing good conditions of infrastructure of the research reactor with suitable irradiation conditions for radioisotopes, a post irradiation laboratory with direct transfer of irradiated targets from the reactor and handling of high radioactive sources, and simultaneously the existence of an expanding internal market, decided to undertake the necessary steps in order to produce fission molybdenum. The Institute intends to develop the capability to respond to the domestic needs in cooperation with the IFINN–HH from Bucharest, which is able to perform the last step consisting in the loading of fission molybdenum on chromatography generators and dispensing to the final client. The primary scope of the project is the development of the necessary technological steps and chemical processing steps in order to be able to cover the entire process for fission molybdenum production at the required standard of purity

  4. Spatial distribution and species composition of small pelagic fishes in the Gulf of California

    Edgar Lanz

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Traditional regionalization methods in fisheries based on provinces or major fishing areas, includes large and arbitrary grids in which basic statistics or inferences on distribution or abundance are made. We describe a method for regionalization and analysis of fishing activities for small pelagic fisheries in the Gulf of California based on spatial patterns of landing and catch data in a Geographic Information System (GIS environment. A fisheries database from logbooks with spatial attributes from October 2002 to June 2007 was analyzed. Landings and catching data were transformed to a Weighted Region Index (WRI by using fuzzy logic operators. The WRI revealed fishing action centers characterized by areas with the highest WRI values, and a hierarchy for the relative importance of the regions was established. Guaymas, Desemboque de Caborca, Isla Patos, and Bahía San Rafael they were the most prominent ones. An analysis of the relative frequency of species composition showed that the Pacific sardine had an over 80 % abundance in the midriff islands, and remained as the most important in the upper gulf regions, while in the central part of the gulf, relative abundances of Pacific sardine and Northern anchovy were more balanced. Relative abundance of mackerel was significantly larger around Isla Patos than in any other place. Guaymas had the largest relative composition of Northern anchovy and the lowest values for Pacific sardine. Desemboque de Caborca showed the largest homogeneity in species relative composition. It is important to highlight that this results come from in situ data, while the results previously reported come from landing statistics by port. Therefore, the present method acknowledges the spatial differences of species by regions, additional to the traditional time series analysis. Rev. Biol. Trop. 56 (2: 575-590. Epub 2008 June 30.Los métodos tradicionales de regionalización en pesquerías, basados en provincias o grandes

  5. Fungal decay of traditional fishing craft

    Gupta, R.

    The artisanal fishermen land major portion of fish caught in India, employing traditional fishing craft and methods. These craft are built of indigenous wood and undergo rapid biodeterioration causing great economic loss. Soft-rot fungi...

  6. Mercury exposure in a high fish eating Bolivian Amazonian population with intense small-scale gold-mining activities.

    Barbieri, Flavia Laura; Cournil, Amandine; Gardon, Jacques

    2009-08-01

    Methylmercury exposure in Amazonian communities through fish consumption has been widely documented in Brazil. There is still a lack of data in other Amazonian countries, which is why we conducted this study in the Bolivian Amazon basin. Simple random sampling was used from a small village located in the lower Beni River, where there is intense gold mining and high fish consumption. All participants were interviewed and hair samples were taken to measure total mercury concentrations. The hair mercury geometric mean in the general population was 3.02 microg/g (CI: 2.69-3.37; range: 0.42-15.65). Age and gender were not directly associated with mercury levels. Fish consumption showed a positive relation and so did occupation, especially small-scale gold mining. Hair mercury levels were lower than those found in Brazilian studies, but still higher than in non-exposed populations. It is necessary to assess mercury exposure in the Amazonian regions where data is still lacking, using a standardized indicator.

  7. Hankin and Reeves' Approach to Estimating Fish Abundance in Small Streams : Limitations and Potential Options.

    Thompson, William L. [Bonneville Power Administration, Portland, OR (US). Environment, Fish and Wildlife

    2000-11-01

    Hankin and Reeves' (1988) approach to estimating fish abundance in small streams has been applied in stream-fish studies across North America. However, as with any method of population estimation, there are important assumptions that must be met for estimates to be minimally biased and reasonably precise. Consequently, I investigated effects of various levels of departure from these assumptions via simulation based on results from an example application in Hankin and Reeves (1988) and a spatially clustered population. Coverage of 95% confidence intervals averaged about 5% less than nominal when removal estimates equaled true numbers within sampling units, but averaged 62% - 86% less than nominal when they did not, with the exception where detection probabilities of individuals were >0.85 and constant across sampling units (95% confidence interval coverage = 90%). True total abundances averaged far (20% - 41%) below the lower confidence limit when not included within intervals, which implies large negative bias. Further, average coefficient of variation was about 1.5 times higher when removal estimates did not equal true numbers within sampling units (C{bar V} = 0.27 [SE = 0.0004]) than when they did (C{bar V} = 0.19 [SE = 0.0002]). A potential modification to Hankin and Reeves' approach is to include environmental covariates that affect detection rates of fish into the removal model or other mark-recapture model. A potential alternative is to use snorkeling in combination with line transect sampling to estimate fish densities. Regardless of the method of population estimation, a pilot study should be conducted to validate the enumeration method, which requires a known (or nearly so) population of fish to serve as a benchmark to evaluate bias and precision of population estimates.

  8. A simple non-invasive method for measuring gross brain size in small live fish with semi-transparent heads

    Joacim Näslund

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes a non-invasive method for estimating gross brain size in small fish with semi-transparent heads, using system camera equipment. Macro-photographs were taken from above on backlit free-swimming fish undergoing light anaesthesia. From the photographs, the width of the optic tectum was measured. This measure (TeO-measure correlates well with the width of the optic tectum as measured from out-dissected brains in both brown trout fry and zebrafish (Pearson r > 0.90. The TeO-measure also correlates well with overall brain wet weight in brown trout fry (r = 0.90, but less well for zebrafish (r = 0.79. A non-invasive measure makes it possible to quickly assess brain size from a large number of individuals, as well as repeatedly measuring brain size of live individuals allowing calculation of brain growth.

  9. Determination of metal balance shift induced in small fresh water fish by X-ray irradiation using PIXE analysis

    Yukawa, M.; Aoki, K.; Iso, H.; Kodama, K.; Imaseki, H.; Ishikawa, Y.

    2005-01-01

    In the environmental pollution studies, it is very important to detect not only pollutants but also changes induced in organisms in the environment with various environmental stresses such as heavy metal toxicity radiation and agricultural chemicals. In the latter, monitoring is carried out using biological indicators to find out the changes, which have wide spectra from visible like deformity of the body to invisible such as changes in some enzyme activities. Changes of the balance of essential elements could occur in organisms to deal with the stresses. If we detect an elemental balance shift, we may see the environmental pollution in its early stages. Moreover, in the actual environment, combined effects, additive or reductive with coexistent elements or other stresses, is an important subject for investigation. Therefore, measurement of many elements in the biological indicator's simultaneously and determination of the distribution in the organisms are useful in clarifying the action of pollutants at sublethal levels. A small fresh water fish, Medaka can be used as one of the biological-indicators for determination of water quality. In the National Institute of Radiological Sciences (NIRS), an inbred strain of Medaka Orizias laptipes was established and has been maintained for the research purposes. Since the genetic background of inbred animals is almost uniform, the individual deviation among animals is very small. This characteristic is very useful to investigate the physiological effects of environmental stresses. We have continued to investigate the balance shift of essential elements induced in the bodies of Medaka by several stresses. In this paper, elemental content in various organs of the X-ray irradiated fish determined by PIXE method are reported in comparison with that of the control fish to observe the effect of the X-rays. Body size of Medaka is about 3 cm long, and the internal organs are very small (about l mm on average). PIXE is the most

  10. Use of Chemical Mixtures to Differentiate Mechanisms of Endocrine Action in a Small Fish Model

    Various assays with adult fish have been developed to identify potential endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs) which may cause toxicity via alterations in the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal (HPG) axis via different mechanisms/modes of action (MOA). These assays can be sensitive ...

  11. PIT-tagging method for small fishes: A case study using sandeel ( Ammodytes tobianus )

    Jørgensen, Michelle Grace Pinto; Deurs, Mikael van; Butts, Ian

    2017-01-01

    Passive integrated transponder (PIT) tags are commonly used to assess fish movement for use in fisheries management. Here, we investigated physiological and behavioral effects of tagging on sandeels (Ammodytes tobianus) using PIT tags constituting 2.1 ± 0.9% of their body weight. Swimming stamina...

  12. Influence of geomorphology on fish fauna of a small Mississippi bluffline stream

    Fish were collected from 39 sites on the main channel and major tributaries of a highly erosive stream, Hotophia Creek, which cuts through the loess hills of northern Mississippi. Collections were part of a study to document ecological and environmental conditions of the creek before and during con...

  13. Environmental and occupational exposures to mercury among indigenous people in Dunkwa-On-Offin, a small scale gold mining area in the South-West of Ghana.

    Kwaansa-Ansah, E E; Basu, N; Nriagu, J O

    2010-11-01

    Total mercury concentrations in human hair and urine samples were determined to ascertain the extent of environmental and occupational mercury exposure in Dunkwa-On-Offin, a small scale gold mining area of the central-west region of Ghana. In all ninety-four (94) hair and urine samples comprising of forty (40) small scale miners and fifty-four (54) farmers were collected and analyzed for their total mercury levels using the cold vapour atomic absorption spectrometry. The hair total mercury concentrations ranged from 0.63 to 7.19 ug/g with a mean of 2.35 ± 1.58 ug/g for the farmers and 0.57-6.07 ug/g with a mean of 2.14 ± 1.53 ug/g for the small scale gold miners. There was no significant correlation between the total mercury concentration and the average weekly fish diet. The total mercury concentrations in urine of the miners were higher than those of the farmers and ranged from 0.32 to 3.62 ug/L with a mean of 1.23 ± 0.86 ug/L. The urine concentrations of farmers ranged from 0.075 to 2.31 ug/L with a mean of 0.69 ± 0.39 ug/L. Although the results indicate elevated internal dose of mercury the current levels of exposures do not appear to pose a significant health threat to the people.

  14. Climate variability and change scenarios for a marine commodity: Modelling small pelagic fish, fisheries and fishmeal in a globalized market

    Merino, Gorka; Barange, Manuel; Mullon, Christian

    2010-04-01

    The world's small pelagic fish populations, their fisheries, fishmeal and fish oil production industries and markets are part of a globalised production and consumption system. The potential for climate variability and change to alter the balance in this system is explored by means of bioeconomic models at two different temporal scales, with the objective of investigating the interactive nature of environmental and human-induced changes on this globalised system. Short-term (interannual) environmental impacts on fishmeal production are considered by including an annual variable production rate on individual small pelagic fish stocks over a 10-year simulation period. These impacts on the resources are perceived by the fishmeal markets, where they are confronted by two aquaculture expansion hypotheses. Long-term (2080) environmental impacts on the same stocks are estimated using long-term primary production predictions as proxies for the species' carrying capacities, rather than using variable production rates, and are confronted on the market side by two alternative fishmeal management scenarios consistent with IPCC-type storylines. The two scenarios, World Markets and Global Commons, are parameterized through classic equilibrium solutions for a global surplus production bioeconomic model, namely maximum sustainable yield and open access, respectively. The fisheries explicitly modelled in this paper represent 70% of total fishmeal production, thus encapsulating the expected dynamics of the global production and consumption system. Both short and long-term simulations suggest that the sustainability of the small pelagic resources, in the face of climate variability and change, depends more on how society responds to climate impacts than on the magnitude of climate alterations per se.

  15. An asset-based approach to vulnerability: the case of small-scale fishing areas in Cameroon and Nigeria.

    Chiwaula, Levison S; Witt, Rudolf; Waibel, Hermann

    2011-01-01

    This paper analyses vulnerability to poverty of rural small-scale fishing communities using cross-section data from 295 households in Cameroon and 267 in Nigeria. We propose a vulnerability measure that incorporates the idea of asset poverty into the concept of expected poverty, which allows decomposing expected poverty into expected structural-chronic, structural-transient, and stochastic-transient poverty. The findings show that most households in our study areas are expected to be structurally-chronic and structurally-transient poor. This underlines the importance of asset formation for long-term poverty reduction strategies. Further refinements are possible with longitudinal data and information about future states of nature.

  16. Population Structure and Adaptive Divergence in a High Gene Flow Marine Fish: The Small Yellow Croaker (Larimichthys polyactis.

    Bing-Jian Liu

    Full Text Available The spatial distribution of genetic diversity has been long considered as a key component of policy development for management and conservation of marine fishes. However, unraveling the population genetic structure of migratory fish species is challenging due to high potential for gene flow. Despite the shallow population differentiation revealed by putatively neutral loci, the higher genetic differentiation with panels of putatively adaptive loci could provide greater resolution for stock identification. Here, patterns of population differentiation of small yellow croaker (Larimichthys polyactis were investigated by genotyping 15 highly polymorphic microsatellites in 337 individuals of 15 geographic populations collected from both spawning and overwintering grounds. Outlier analyses indicated that the locus Lpol03 might be under directional selection, which showed a strong homology with Grid2 gene encoding the glutamate receptor δ2 protein (GluRδ2. Based on Lpol03, two distinct clusters were identified by both STRUCTURE and PCoA analyses, suggesting that there were two overwintering aggregations of L. polyactis. A novel migration pattern was suggested for L. polyactis, which was inconsistent with results of previous studies based on historical fishing yield statistics. These results provided new perspectives on the population genetic structure and migratory routes of L. polyactis, which could have significant implications for sustainable management and utilization of this important fishery resource.

  17. Small size today, aquarium dumping tomorrow: sales of juvenile non-native large fish as an important threat in Brazil

    André L. B. Magalhães

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Informal sales of large-bodied non-native aquarium fishes (known as “tankbusters” is increasing among Brazilian hobbyists. In this study, we surveyed this non-regulated trade on Facebook® from May 2012 to September 2016, systematically collecting information about the fishes available for trading: species, family, common/scientific names, native range, juvenile length, behavior, number of specimens available in five geographical regions from Brazil. We also assessed the invasion risk of the most frequently sold species using the Fish Invasiveness Screening Test (FIST. We found 93 taxa belonging to 35 families. Cichlidae was the dominant family, and most species were native to South America. All species are sold at very small sizes (< 10.0 cm, and most display aggressive behavior. The hybrid Amphilophus trimaculatus × Amphilophus citrinellus, Astronotus ocellatus, Uaru amphiacanthoides, Osteoglossum bicirrhosum, Cichla piquiti, Pangasianodon hypophthalmus, Datnioides microlepis and Cichla kelberi were the main species available. The southeast region showed the greatest trading activity. Based on biological traits, the FIST indicated that Arapaima gigas, C. kelberi and C. temensis are high-risk species in terms of biological invasions via aquarium dumping. We suggest management strategies such as trade regulations, monitoring, euthanasia and educational programs to prevent further introductions via aquarium dumping.

  18. Salinity as the main factor structuring small-bodied fish assemblages in hydrologically altered Mediterranean coastal lagoons

    Sílvia Rodríguez-Climent

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available In the Ebro Delta coastal lagoons, one of the main anthropogenic pressures is the artificial freshwater input. Each coastal lagoon has different water management schemes causing profound changes in its physicochemical characteristics. The main objective of this water management is to favour some bird species with interest either for conservation or hunting activities. The present study assesses the influence of hydrological alteration on the fish assemblages of three coastal lagoons in the Ebro Delta. The small-bodied fish fauna was mainly composed of five families: Gobiidae, Poecilidae, Cyprinodontidae, Atherinidae and Mugilidae. Salinity was found to be the main factor structuring fish community in the lagoons. The dominant species was the common goby (Pomatochistus microps when the lagoons reached higher salinity values, whereas the invasive eastern mosquitofish (Gambusia holbrooki dominated during the period of higher freshwater inputs. The juveniles of the family Mugilidae showed low catch per unit effort, especially during the period of lower salinity. This same pattern was found for the endangered Spanish toothcarp (Aphanius iberus. Overall, introduced species were favoured by low salinity, which highlights the importance of changing the present water management by reducing the freshwater inputs in order to maintain suitable levels of salinity to favour native species that are important for both commercial and conservation purposes.

  19. δ18O of apatite phosphate in small pelagic fish: insights from wild-caught and tank-grown specimens

    Lambert, T.; Javor, B.; Paytan, A.

    2011-12-01

    Oxygen isotope ratios of mineralized structures in fish reflect the temperature and isotopic composition of the water in which they grow. For bulk samples (e.g., whole scales, bones, and otoliths), understanding how this signal is integrated across time and space is critical, especially for organisms exposed to high variability in growth conditions. Here, we assess the response of fish scale δ18O (from apatite phosphate) to experimentally manipulated water conditions. Wild-caught sardines were grown at controlled temperatures (13°C, 17°C, and 21°C) for 11 months. Higher growth temperatures correlated to lower δ18O values, representing a combination of scale apatite deposited before and after the temperature manipulation. Models that account for both biomineral allometry and exposure to varying water properties (e.g., by overlaying migration routes, isoscapes, and temperature maps) have the potential to quantify the varying contributions of minerals grown under different conditions. We use this method to predict δ18O of apatite phosphate for small pelagic fish found in California coastal waters, then compare expected values to those obtained from collected samples. Since phosphate oxygen is relatively resistant to diagenesis, this modern calibration establishes a framework for paleo studies.

  20. A trait-based approach reveals the feeding selectivity of a small endangered Mediterranean fish

    Rodriguez-Lozano, Pablo; Verkaik, Iraima; Maceda Veiga, Alberto; Monroy, Mario; de Sostoa, Adolf; Rieradevall, Maria; Prat, Narcis

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Functional traits are growing in popularity in modern ecology, but feeding studies remain primarily rooted in a taxonomic?based perspective. However, consumers do not have any reason to select their prey using a taxonomic criterion, and prey assemblages are variable in space and time, which makes taxon?based studies assemblage?specific. To illustrate the benefits of the trait?based approach to assessing food choice, we studied the feeding ecology of the endangered freshwater fish Bar...

  1. 78 FR 37397 - Small Business Size Standards: Agriculture, Forestry, Fishing and Hunting

    2013-06-20

    ... responsibility for establishing small business size definitions (15 U.S.C. 632(a)). The Act also requires that small business size definitions vary to reflect industry differences. The Jobs Act requires the... definition, after consultation with the Office of Advocacy of the U.S. Small Business Administration (5 U.S.C...

  2. Small-sized euryhaline fish as intermediate hosts of the digenetic trematode Cryptocotyle concavum

    Zander, C. D.; Kollra, H.-G.; Antholz, B.; Meyer, W.; Westphal, D.

    1984-03-01

    Cercariae of the trematode Cryptocotyle concavum, which encyst in skin and/or kidney of sticklebacks and gobies, were studied in the Schlei Fjord (western Baltic Sea). Mean incidence of dermal cysts was 48 % in Gasterosteus aculeatus and 37 % in Pungitius pungitius. No cysts were found in the kidneys of sticklebacks. While 97 % of Pomatoschistus microps had encysted metacercariae in the kidneys, only 2 % had cysts in the skin. Pomatoschistus minutus, however, showed hardly any cyst infestation of either skin or kidney. In P. microps the intensity of infestation by metacercariae was frequently more than 50 cysts; in contrast, sticklebacks rarely exhibited more than 5 dermal cysts. Infested fish were larger than 10 mm in total length, the incidence rate increasing with growth. Parasitic infestation depends on ambient salinity: C. concavum was not found at salinities below 4 ‰. In contrast to the high incidence in fish, the first hosts — the snails Hydrobia stagnalis and H. neglecta — showed remarkably low infection rates (3 to 5 %). The findings reported are related to the distribution of C. concavum, the mode of life of infested fish, the feeding habits of the final hosts and the infestation of P. microps by other parasites. Evidently, P. microps represents an optimal second host for C. concavum.

  3. Documenting and disseminating agricultural indigenous knowledge ...

    Documenting and disseminating agricultural indigenous knowledge for sustainable food security in Uganda. ... University of Dar es Salaam Library Journal ... Moreover, small-scale farmers should be involved in agricultural extension services ...

  4. Estimating movement and survival rates of a small saltwater fish using autonomous antenna receiver arrays and passive integrated transponder tags

    Rudershausen, Paul J.; Buckel, Jeffery A.; Dubreuil, Todd; O'Donnell, Matthew J.; Hightower, Joseph E.; Poland, Steven J.; Letcher, Benjamin H.

    2014-01-01

    We evaluated the performance of small (12.5 mm long) passive integrated transponder (PIT) tags and custom detection antennas for obtaining fine-scale movement and demographic data of mummichog Fundulus heteroclitus in a salt marsh creek. Apparent survival and detection probability were estimated using a Cormack Jolly Seber (CJS) model fitted to detection data collected by an array of 3 vertical antennas from November 2010 to March 2011 and by a single horizontal antenna from April to August 2011. Movement of mummichogs was monitored during the period when the array of vertical antennas was used. Antenna performance was examined in situ using tags placed in wooden dowels (drones) and in live mummichogs. Of the 44 tagged fish, 42 were resighted over the 9 mo monitoring period. The in situ detection probabilities of the drone and live mummichogs were high (~80-100%) when the ambient water depth was less than ~0.8 m. Upstream and downstream movement of mummichogs was related to hourly water depth and direction of tidal current in a way that maximized time periods over which mummichogs utilized the intertidal vegetated marsh. Apparent survival was lower during periods of colder water temperatures in December 2010 and early January 2011 (median estimate of daily apparent survival = 0.979) than during other periods of the study (median estimate of daily apparent survival = 0.992). During late fall and winter, temperature had a positive effect on the CJS detection probability of a tagged mummichog, likely due to greater fish activity over warmer periods. During the spring and summer, this pattern reversed possibly due to mummichogs having reduced activity during the hottest periods. This study demonstrates the utility of PIT tags and continuously operating autonomous detection systems for tracking fish at fine temporal scales, and improving estimates of demographic parameters in salt marsh creeks that are difficult or impractical to sample with active fishing gear.

  5. Inhibition of Reporter Genes by Small Interfering RNAs in Cell Culture and Living Fish

    Larashati, Sekar; Schyth, Brian Dall; Lorenzen, Niels

    2011-01-01

    be used to observe the knock down effect by siRNAs designed to target these reporters. One aim of this project is to verify the specific knock down effect of siRNAs in cell culture and in living fish and to establish easy-read out models for testing the effect especially in vivo. Cell culture from human...... coinjection and the assay is important in order to detect knock down by siRNA. Our experiment reveal in vivo knock down at 72 hours post injection of reporter gene and siRNA, but further dose-response experiments are required to confirm specifity....

  6. Comparing distribution models for small samples of overdispersed counts of freshwater fish

    Vaudor, Lise; Lamouroux, Nicolas; Olivier, Jean-Michel

    2011-05-01

    The study of species abundance often relies on repeated abundance counts whose number is limited by logistic or financial constraints. The distribution of abundance counts is generally right-skewed (i.e. with many zeros and few high values) and needs to be modelled for statistical inference. We used an extensive dataset involving about 100,000 fish individuals of 12 freshwater fish species collected in electrofishing points (7 m 2) during 350 field surveys made in 25 stream sites, in order to compare the performance and the generality of four distribution models of counts (Poisson, negative binomial and their zero-inflated counterparts). The negative binomial distribution was the best model (Bayesian Information Criterion) for 58% of the samples (species-survey combinations) and was suitable for a variety of life histories, habitat, and sample characteristics. The performance of the models was closely related to samples' statistics such as total abundance and variance. Finally, we illustrated the consequences of a distribution assumption by calculating confidence intervals around the mean abundance, either based on the most suitable distribution assumption or on an asymptotical, distribution-free (Student's) method. Student's method generally corresponded to narrower confidence intervals, especially when there were few (≤3) non-null counts in the samples.

  7. Healing rate and autoimmune safety of full-thickness wounds treated with fish skin acellular dermal matrix versus porcine small-intestine submucosa: a noninferiority study.

    Baldursson, Baldur Tumi; Kjartansson, Hilmar; Konrádsdóttir, Fífa; Gudnason, Palmar; Sigurjonsson, Gudmundur F; Lund, Sigrún Helga

    2015-03-01

    A novel product, the fish skin acellular dermal matrix (ADM) has recently been introduced into the family of biological materials for the treatment of wounds. Hitherto, these products have been produced from the organs of livestock. A noninferiority test was used to compare the effect of fish skin ADM against porcine small-intestine submucosa extracellular matrix in the healing of 162 full-thickness 4-mm wounds on the forearm of 81 volunteers. The fish skin product was noninferior at the primary end point, healing at 28 days. Furthermore, the wounds treated with fish skin acellular matrix healed significantly faster. These results might give the fish skin ADM an advantage because of its environmental neutrality when compared with livestock-derived products. The study results on these acute full-thickness wounds might apply for diabetic foot ulcers and other chronic full-thickness wounds, and the shorter healing time for the fish skin-treated group could influence treatment decisions. To test the autoimmune reactivity of the fish skin, the participants were tested with the following ELISA (enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay) tests: RF, ANA, ENA, anti ds-DNA, ANCA, anti-CCP, and anticollagen I and II. These showed no reactivity. The results demonstrate the claims of safety and efficacy of fish skin ADM for wound care. © The Author(s) 2015.

  8. The expression and function of hsp30-like small heat shock protein genes in amphibians, birds, fish, and reptiles.

    Heikkila, John J

    2017-01-01

    Small heat shock proteins (sHSPs) are a superfamily of molecular chaperones with important roles in protein homeostasis and other cellular functions. Amphibians, reptiles, fish and birds have a shsp gene called hsp30, which was also referred to as hspb11 or hsp25 in some fish and bird species. Hsp30 genes, which are not found in mammals, are transcribed in response to heat shock or other stresses by means of the heat shock factor that is activated in response to an accumulation of unfolded protein. Amino acid sequence analysis revealed that representative HSP30s from different classes of non-mammalian vertebrates were distinct from other sHSPs including HSPB1/HSP27. Studies with amphibian and fish recombinant HSP30 determined that they were molecular chaperones since they inhibited heat- or chemically-induced aggregation of unfolded protein. During non-mammalian vertebrate development, hsp30 genes were differentially expressed in selected tissues. Also, heat shock-induced stage-specific expression of hsp30 genes in frog embryos was regulated at the level of chromatin structure. In adults and/or tissue culture cells, hsp30 gene expression was induced by heat shock, arsenite, cadmium or proteasomal inhibitors, all of which enhanced the production of unfolded/damaged protein. Finally, immunocytochemical analysis of frog and chicken tissue culture cells revealed that proteotoxic stress-induced HSP30 accumulation co-localized with aggresome-like inclusion bodies. The congregation of damaged protein in aggresomes minimizes the toxic effect of aggregated protein dispersed throughout the cell. The current availability of probes to detect the presence of hsp30 mRNA or encoded protein has resulted in the increased use of hsp30 gene expression as a marker of proteotoxic stress in non-mammalian vertebrates. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Indigenous Storytelling in Namibia

    Rodil, Kasper; Winschiers-Theophilus, Heike

    2016-01-01

    to understand indigenous youths’ own conception of storytelling the paper presents empirical data from a study with indigenous Khoisan children in Namibia. This is followed by a discussion of an effort of digitizing indigenous intangible cultural heritage in relation to technologies’ embodied bias...

  10. Why Indigenous Nations Studies?

    Porter, Robert; Yellow Bird, Michael

    2000-01-01

    The development of a new Indigenous Nations Studies program at the University of Kansas is described. Success depended on a critical mass of Indigenous and non-Indigenous faculty and students that had a sense of political and social justice and understood the need for institutional change. The biggest challenge was countering the entrenched…

  11. Urinary angiotensinogen excretion in Australian Indigenous and non-Indigenous pregnant women.

    Pringle, Kirsty G; de Meaultsart, Celine Corbisier; Sykes, Shane D; Weatherall, Loretta J; Keogh, Lyniece; Clausen, Don C; Dekker, Gus A; Smith, Roger; Roberts, Claire T; Rae, Kym M; Lumbers, Eugenie R

    2018-04-11

    The intrarenal renin-angiotensin system (iRAS) is implicated in the pathogenesis of hypertension, chronic kidney disease and diabetic nephropathy. Urinary angiotensinogen (uAGT) levels reflect the activity of the iRAS and are altered in women with preeclampsia. Since Indigenous Australians suffer high rates and early onset of renal disease, we hypothesised that Indigenous Australian pregnant women, like non-Indigenous women with pregnancy complications, would have altered uAGT levels. The excretion of RAS proteins was measured in non-Indigenous and Indigenous Australian women with uncomplicated or complicated pregnancies (preeclampsia, diabetes/gestational diabetes, proteinuria/albuminuria, hypertension, small/large for gestational age, preterm birth), and in non-pregnant non-Indigenous women. Non-Indigenous pregnant women with uncomplicated pregnancies, had higher uAGT/creatinine levels than non-Indigenous non-pregnant women (P pregnant women with pregnancy complications, uAGT/creatinine was suppressed in the third trimester (P pregnant women with uncomplicated pregnancies, there was no change in uAGT/creatinine with gestational age and uAGT/creatinine was lower in the 2nd and 3rd trimesters than in non-Indigenous pregnant women with uncomplicated pregnancies (P pregnant women may reflect subclinical renal dysfunction which limits the ability of the kidney to maintain sodium balance and could indicate an increased risk of pregnancy complications and/or future renal disease. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  12. The community structure of over-wintering larval and small juvenile fish in a large estuary

    Munk, Peter; Cardinale, Massimiliano; Casini, Michele; Rudolphi, Ann-Christin

    2014-02-01

    The Skagerrak and Kattegat are estuarine straits of high hydrographical and ecological diversity, situated between the saline waters of the North Sea and the brackish waters of the Baltic Sea. These sustain important nursery grounds of many fish species, of which several overwinter during the larval and early juvenile stages. In order to give more insight into the communities of the overwintering ichthyoplankton in estuarine areas, we examine an annual series of observations from a standard survey carried out 1992-2010. Species differences and annual variability in distributions and abundances are described, and linkages between ichthyoplankton abundances and corresponding hydrographical information are analysed by GAM methods. Communities were dominated by herring, gobies, butterfish, sprat, pipefishes, lemon sole and European eel (i.e. glass eel), and all the sampled species showed large annual fluctuations in abundances. The species showed quite specific patterns of distribution although species assemblages with common distributional characteristics were identified. Within these assemblages, the ichthyoplankton abundances showed linkage to environmental characteristics described by bottom-depth and surface temperature and salinity. Hence the study points to a significant structuring of overwintering ichthyoplankton communities in large estuaries, based on the species habitat choice and its response to physical gradients.

  13. The fish community of a small impoundment in upstate New York

    McCoy, C. Mead; Madenjian, Charles P.; Adams, Jean V.; Harman, Willard N.

    2001-01-01

    Moe Pond is a dimictic impoundment with surface area of 15.6 ha, a mean depth of 1.8 m, and an unexploited fish community of only two species: brown bullhead (Ameiurus nebulosus) and golden shiner (Notemigonus crysoleucas). The age-1 and older brown bullhead population was estimated to be 4,057 individuals, based on the Schnabel capture-recapture method of population estimation. Density and biomass were respectively estimated at 260 individuals/ha and 13 kg/ha. Annual survival rate of age-2 through age-5 brown bullheads was estimated at 48%. The golden shiner length-frequency distribution was unimodal with modal length of 80 mm and maximum total length of 115 m. The golden shiner population estimate was 7,154 individuals, based on seven beach seine haul replicate samples; the density and biomass were 686 shiners/ha and 5 kg/ha, respectively. This study provides an information baseline that may be useful in understanding food web interactions and whole-pond nutrient flux.

  14. Indigenous Art

    Hu, Helen

    2012-01-01

    Linda Lomahaftewa, a noted painter, has taught at much bigger places than the Institute of American Indian Arts (IAIA). But Lomahaftewa, who is Hopi-Choctaw, and others on the faculty of IAIA are intensely devoted to the mission of this small but unique school. IAIA--the nation's only four-year fine arts institution devoted to American Indian and…

  15. Predicting hunter behavior of indigenous communities in the Ecuadorian Amazon: insights from a household production model

    Enrique de la Montaña

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Many indigenous communities living in the Amazon rely on hunting and fishing to meet the majority of their protein needs. Despite the importance of these practices, few studies from the region have analyzed the socioeconomic drivers of hunting and fishing at the household level. We propose a household production model to assess the effect of key economic parameters on hunting and fishing in small indigenous communities located in the Ecuadorian Amazon, whose principal source of protein is derived from hunting and fishing. The model was validated using empirical data from two communities that reflect different levels of market integration and forest conservation. Demand and supply functions were generated from household data gathered over 19 months. Elasticities were derived to determine the sensitivity of the decision to engage in hunting to exogenous parameters such as off-farm wages, hunting costs, bushmeat price, penalties for the illegal sale of bushmeat, and biological characteristics of the game species. After calibrating the model, we simulated changes in the key economic parameters. The parameter that most directly affected hunting activity in both communities was off-farm wages. Simulating a 10% wage increase resulted in a 16-20% reduction in harvested biomass, while a 50% increase diminished harvested biomass by > 50%. Model simulations revealed that bushmeat price and penalties for illegal trade also had important effects on hunter behavior in terms of amount of bushmeat sold, but not in terms of total harvest. As a tool for understanding hunters' economic decision-making, the model provides a basis for developing strategies that promote sustainable hunting and wildlife conservation while protecting indigenous livelihoods.

  16. Conservation status and distribution of freshwater fishes in South ...

    Indigenous fishes include 43 species of the Zambezian faunal group (70% of the ... andrewi, Pseudobarbus afer) all of which are classified as Endangered. ... support only half of the freshwater fish species occurring in all national parks.

  17. Freshwater fishes of Tsitsikamma National Park

    I.A. Russell

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to determine the distribution and relative abundance of freshwater fishes in the Tsitsikamma National Park. Fish assemblages in six river systems were sampled in 2001, with a total of 323 fish from eight species recorded. Indigenous fish collected included four freshwater species (Pseudobarbus afer, Pseudobarbus tenuis, Sandelia capensis, Anguilla mossambica, three estuarine species (Monodactylus falciformis, Caffrogobius gilchristi, Myxus capensis, and one alien (Micropterus salmoides. One additional indigenous species (Galaxias zebratus and two aliens (Salmo trutta, Oncorhynchus mykiss could potentially occur within the park. The topography and locality of the park presents a unique opportunity to meaningfully conserve the endangered P. tenuis as well as other fish characteristic of the eastern reaches of the Cape Floristic Region. Management action is required to minimise opportunities for further establishment and spread of alien fish species and to conserve indigenous fish assemblages within the park.

  18. Fatty acids in six small pelagic fish species and their crustacean prey from the mindanao sea, southern Philippines.

    Metillo, Ephrime Bicoy; Aspiras-Eya, Anna Arlene

    2014-08-01

    Fatty acids are important in human health and useful in the analysis of the marine food web, however information on tropical pelagic organisms is scarce. Six zooplanktivorous small pelagic fish species (Decapterus kurroides, Decapterus macarellus, Selar crumenophthalmus, Sardinella lemuru, Spratilloides gracilis and Stolephorus insularis) and four of their zooplanktonic crustacean prey [three sergestoid species (Acetes erythraeus, Acetes intermedius and Lucifer penicillifer) and one calanoid copepod (Acartia erythraea)] were collected from the Mindanao Sea, and their fatty acids were profiled. The resulting profiles revealed 17 fatty acids that were specific to certain species and 9 {myristic acid [C14:0], palmitic acid [C16:0], stearic acid [C18:0]; palmitoleic acid [C16:1], oleic acid [C18:1n9c], linoleic acid [C18:2n6c], linolenic acid [C18:3n3], eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) [C20:5n3] and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) [C22:6n3]} that were common to all species. Cluster analysis and non-metric multidimensional scaling (NMDS) of fatty acids indicate a high similarity in profiles in all species, but separate fish and zooplankton clusters were obtained. Mackerel species (D. macarellus, D. kurroides and S. crumenophthalmus) had concentrations of total n-3 fatty acids that match those of their Acetes prey. The copepod A. erythraea and the sergestoid L. penicillifer exhibited the lowest values of the EPA:DHA ratio, which was most likely due to their phytoplanktivorous feeding habits, but the occurrence of the highest values of the ratio in Acetes suggests the inclusion of plant detritus in their diet. DHA values appear to affirm the trophic link among copepod, Lucifer, Acetes and mackerel species.

  19. Ecological position of 'small barbs' and their potential for fisheries: an option to reduce fishing pressure on 'large barbs' of Lake Tana (Ethiopia)?

    Dejen, E.; Osse, J.W.M.; Sibbing, F.A.

    2004-01-01

    The two barbs, Barbus humilis and Barbus tanapelagius are important pelagic fish in Lake Tana. These 'small barb' species (<10 cm fork length) play a key role in the Lake's ecosystem as a link between zooplankton and the top predators, mostly 'large barbs'. This paper presents an overview on the

  20. Analysis and comparison of fish growth from small samples of length-at-age data : Detection of sexual dimorphism in Eurasian perch as an example

    Mooij, WM; Van Rooij, JM; Wijnhoven, S

    A relatively simple approach is presented for statistical analysis and comparison of fish growth patterns inferred from size-at-age data. It can be used for any growth model and small sample sizes. Bootstrapping is used to generate confidence regions for the model parameters and for size and growth

  1. Big Fish in Small Ponds: massive stars in the low-mass clusters of M83

    Andrews, J. E.; Calzetti, D.; McElwee, Sean [Department of Astronomy, University of Massachusetts, Amherst, MA 01003 (United States); Chandar, R. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Toledo, Toledo, OH 43606 (United States); Elmegreen, B. G. [IBM T. J. Watson Research Center, Yorktown Heights, NY 10598 (United States); Kennicutt, R. C. [Institute of Astronomy, University of Cambridge, Madingley Road, Cambridge CB3 0HA (United Kingdom); Kim, Hwihyun [School of Earth and Space Exploration, Arizona State University, Tempe, AZ 85287-1404 (United States); Krumholz, Mark R. [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, University of California, 1156 High Street, Santa Cruz, CA 95064 (United States); Lee, J. C.; Whitmore, B. [Space Telescope Science Institute, 3700 San Martin Drive, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); O' Connell, R. W., E-mail: jandrews@astro.umass.edu, E-mail: callzetti@astro.umass.edu [Department of Astronomy, University of Virginia, P.O. Box 400325, Charlottesville, VA 22904-4325 (United States)

    2014-09-20

    We have used multi-wavelength Hubble Space Telescope WFC3 data of the starbursting spiral galaxy M83 in order to measure variations in the upper end of the stellar initial mass function (uIMF) using the production rate of ionizing photons in unresolved clusters with ages ≤ 8 Myr. As in earlier papers on M51 and NGC 4214, the uIMF in M83 is consistent with a universal IMF, and stochastic sampling of the stellar populations in the ∼<10{sup 3} M {sub ☉} clusters are responsible for any deviations in this universality. The ensemble cluster population, as well as individual clusters, also imply that the most massive star in a cluster does not depend on the cluster mass. In fact, we have found that these small clusters seem to have an over-abundance of ionizing photons when compared to an expected universal or truncated IMF. This also suggests that the presence of massive stars in these clusters does not affect the star formation in a destructive way.

  2. Indigeneity: global and local.

    Merlan, Francesca

    2009-06-01

    The term indigenous, long used to distinguish between those who are "native" and their "others" in specific locales, has also become a term for a geocultural category, presupposing a world collectivity of "indigenous peoples" in contrast to their various "others." Many observers have noted that the stimuli for internationalization of the indigenous category originated principally from particular nation-states-Anglo-American settler colonies and Scandinavia. All, I argue, are relevantly political cultures of liberal democracy and weighty (in different ways) in international institutional affairs. However, international indigeneity has not been supported in any unqualified way by actions taken in the name of several nation-states that were among its main points of origin. In fact, staunch resistance to the international indigenous project has recently come from four of them. In 2007, the only four voting countries to reject the main product of international indigenist activity over the past 30 years, the Declaration on the Rights of Indigenous Peoples, were Australia, the United States, Canada, and New Zealand. In these locations, forms of "indigenous relationship" emerged that launched international indigeneity and that strongly influenced international perceptions of what "indigeneity" is and who "indigenous peoples" may be. Some other countries say the model of indigenous relationship that they see represented by the "establishing" set is inapplicable to themselves (but have nonetheless had to take notice of expanding internationalist indigenism). The apparently paradoxical rejection of the draft declaration by the establishing countries is consistent with the combination of enabling and constraining forces that liberal democratic political cultures offer.

  3. A survey of ichthyofauna of Lake Kanyaboli and other small waterbodies in Kenya: alternative refugia for endangered fish species

    Maithya, J.

    1998-01-01

    In 1988, the World Conservation Union (WCU) Red Book of Endangered Species listed hundreds of endemic fishes of Lake Victoria under a single heading - "ENDANGERED". Most of the endemic native food fishes are either endangered or extinct. However, a survey of the fauna of Lake Kanyaboli, revealed that a few remaining samples of these native fishes are actually thriving. These include several unidentified Haplochromis spp., Oreochromis esculentus and Oreochromis variabilis. As a resul...

  4. Functional testing of a fish sluice, Buchholz small hydro plant - Final report; Funktionskontrolle Fischschleuse, KWKW Buchholz - Schlussbericht

    Ruhle, Ch. [Buero fuer Jagd- und Fischereifragen, Schmerikon (Switzerland); Scherrer, I. [Entegra Wasserkraft AG, St. Gallen (Switzerland)

    2009-01-15

    Since more than 100 years the diversion hydropower plant of Buchholz at the river Glatt (canton Saint Gall) has been out of operation. With its reactivation as run-of-river scheme, the river meadow, originated due to sedimentation in the former storage basin, with its beaver habitat, could be preserved. For the first time in Switzerland, a fish lock was implemented for the upstream passage way for fish. The fish lock was built directly into for stability reasons newly constructed secondary concrete at the downstream side of the old dam. At the upper lock opening a weir basked is installed, where the migrating fish are recorded. The examination proofed that the fish lock in principle is working for strong swimming fish species (qualitative proof of the performance control). In case of flood caused drift, the migrating fish seem to accept the fish passage. The attempt to quantify the proportion of the migrating willing fish which actually swim through the lock (quantitative proof of the performance control) did not produce satisfactory results. (authors)

  5. Zooplankton diversity and the predatory impact by larval and small juvenile fish at the Fisher Banks in the North Sea

    Nielsen, Torkel Gissel; Munk, Peter

    1998-01-01

    The biomass and diversity of the mesozooplankton and fish larvae community were investigated across a frontal zone in the central North Sea in the early summer, to investigate whether larval fish predation is a regulator of mesozooplankton production. Pronounced changes in the mesozooplankton com...

  6. Context-Specific Trophic and Functional Ecology of Fishes of Small Stream Ecosystems in the Ouachita National Forest

    William J. Matthews; A. Maria Miller-Lemke; Melvin L. Warren; Donna Cobb; Jeffery G. Stewart; Betty Crump; Frances P. Gelwick

    2004-01-01

    Abstract - Fish play diverse and important roles in stream ecosystems, but details about ecosystem effects are poorly known for many freshwater fish species. A requisite first step to understanding functional roles of individual species is information on their trophic ecology in the context of particular environmental settings. Stomach contents were...

  7. On the biology and food of small-sized fish from North and Baltic Sea areas. IV. Investigations on an eulittoral mud flat at Sylt Island

    Zander, C. Dieter; Hartwig, Eike

    1982-03-01

    The fish fauna of an eulittoral mud flat was investigated at Sylt Island (North Sea) with special regard to its food uptake. During the course of a year the following species were caught: Pomatoschistus microps, Anguilla anguilla (elvers), Zoarces viviparus, and Gasterosteus aculeatus. Considering the potentially available food, the most abundant organisms of the benthos were harpacticoids and nematodes, whereas in the phytal layer gastropods and gammarids were dominant. The benthic biomass was found to be greatest in spring, while phytal organisms were most abundant in late summer. The greatest fish density was stated in September 1974 though only P. microps was present. The fish biomass was highest in spring when the elvers appeared. The main food of P. microps was epibenthos; in the diet of A. anguilla phytal organisms dominated over epibenthos, in G. aculeatus suprabenthic organisms were also present. The most prominent food component by biomass was gammarids in all investigated fish, whereas harpacticoids were only dominant in number. During the course of the year the biomass of ingested food yielded highest values in summer and autumn, but lowest in winter. A very great predatory activity was found in September 1974, which possibly caused a grazing effect on harpacticoids. An estimation of the turnover rate of small-sized fish in this month led to a value of 70 mg dry weight m-2 · d-1.

  8. Coexistence of fish species in a large lowland river: food niche partitioning between small-sized percids, cyprinids and sticklebacks in submersed macrophytes.

    Dukowska, Małgorzata; Grzybkowska, Maria

    2014-01-01

    In the spring and summer of each year, large patches of submersed aquatic macrophytes overgrow the bottom of the alluvial Warta River downstream of a large dam reservoir owing to water management practices. Environmental variables, macroinvertebrates (zoobenthos and epiphytic fauna, zooplankton) and fish abundance and biomass were assessed at this biologically productive habitat to learn intraseasonal dynamics of food types, and their occurrence in the gut contents of small-sized roach, dace, perch, ruffe and three-spined stickleback. Gut fullness coefficient, niche breadth and niche overlap indicated how the fishes coexist in the macrophytes. Chironomidae dominated in the diet of the percids. However, ruffe consumed mostly benthic chironomids, while perch epiphytic chironomids and zooplankton. The diet of dace resembled that in fast flowing water although this rheophilic species occurred at unusual density there. The generalist roach displayed the lowest gut fullness coefficient values and widest niche breadth; consequently, intraspecific rather than interspecific competition decided the fate of roach. Three-spined stickleback differed from the other fishes by consuming epiphytic simuliids and fish eggs. The diet overlap between fishes reaching higher gut fullness coefficient values was rather low when the food associated with the submersed aquatic macrophytes was most abundant; this is congruent with the niche overlap hypothesis that maximal tolerable niche overlap can be higher in less intensely competitive conditions.

  9. Morphology and small subunit rDNA-based phylogeny of Ceratomyxa amazonensis n. sp. parasite of Symphysodon discus, an ornamental freshwater fish from Amazon.

    Mathews, Patrick D; Naldoni, Juliana; Maia, Antonio A; Adriano, Edson A

    2016-10-01

    The specious genus Ceratomyxa Thélodan, 1892, infect mainly gallbladder of marine fishes, with only five species reported infecting species from freshwater environment. This study performed morphological and phylogenetic analyses involving a new Ceratomyxa species (Ceratomyxa amazonensis n. sp.) found in gallbladder of Symphysodon discus Heckel, 1840 (Perciformes: Cichlidae), an important ornamental fish endemic to Amazon basin. Mature spores were strongly arcuate shaped and measured 7.0 ± 0.3 (6.2-7.6) μm in length, 15.8 ± 0.4 (15.0-16.7) μm in thickness, and polar capsules 3.22 ± 0.34 (2.4-3.6) μm in length and 2.63 ± 0.17 (2.4-2.9) μm in width. This was the first small subunit ribosomal DNA (SS rDNA) sequencing performed to Ceratomyxa species parasite of freshwater fish, and the phylogenetic analysis showed C. amazonensis n. sp. clustering in the early diverging subclade of the ceratomyxids, together with species of parasites of amphidromous/estuaries fishes, suggesting some role of the transition of the fishes between marine/freshwater environments in the evolutionary history of these parasites.

  10. Trophic relationships of small nonnative fishes in a natural creek and several agricultural drains flowing into the Salton Sea, and their potential, effects on the endangered desert pupfish

    Martin, Barbara A.; Saiki, Michael K.

    2009-01-01

    This study was conducted to characterize trophic relationships of small nonnative fishes and to determine if predation by these fishes contributes to the decline of desert pupfish (Cyprinodon macularius), an endangered cyprinodont on the verge of extinction. We sampled 403 hybrid Mozambique tilapias (Oreochromis mossambica by O. urolepis), 107 redbelly tilapias (Tilapia zillii), 32 longjaw mudsuckers (Gillkhthys mirabilis), 182 western mosquitofish (Gambusia affinis), 222 sailfin mollies (Poecilia latipinna), 63 shortfin mollies (Poecilia mexicana), and 235 porthole livebearers (Poecilurpsis gracilis) from a natural creek and four agricultural drains during September 1999- December 2001. Evidence of piscivory was in gastrointestinal contents of 14 hybrid Mozambique tilapias, 3 redbelly tilapias, 10 longjaw mudsuckers, 8 western mosquitofish, 2 sailfin mollies, and 8 porthole livebearers. Although digestion often was too advanced for identification of fishes consumed by nonnative fishes, remains of desert pupfish were in gastrointestinal contents of a longjaw mudsucker. Our findings, along with Field evidence from other studies that inverse relationships exist between abundances of desert pupfish and nonnative species, are consistent with the hypothesis that predation by nonnative species is contributing to decline of desert pupfish. We suspect that competitive interactions with nonnative fishes might also adversely affect abundance of desert pupfish.

  11. The Case for Indigenous Knowledge in Sustainable Development

    Nekky Umera

    conservation rather than exploitation. On this note, Ajibade .... money carelessly at the problems of local small holder agricultural farmers, it is pertinent to ... establishing the basis for the utility of indigenous knowledge in agricultural .... so that indigenous capabilities play only a marginal role in effecting technical change.

  12. Small Scale Farmers’ Indigenous Agricultural Adaptation Options in the Face of Declining or Stagnant Crop Yields in the Fako and Meme Divisions of Cameroon

    Terence Epule Epule

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Research has proven that, at a national scale in Cameroon, arable crop production is either declining or stagnant. In the face of these trends, governments, local and international organizations, communities and peasant farmers have developed adaptation options to sustain arable production and reduce poverty. Given this general context, and based on population perceptions and four study sites in the Southwest region of Cameroon, this study aims at verifying current trends in arable production and farmers’ adaptation options based on their indigenous knowledge. These analyses are based on the administration of 200 questionnaires and two focus group discussions (FGDs. The data were analysed using SPSS version 20 in which frequencies, percentages and means were calculated. In addition, the chi-squared statistical test of goodness of fit was calculated and the stated hypothesis was validated accordingly. The FGDs were analysed through verbatim transcriptions and with the aid of the context analysis software, Wordstat 7. The results show that current yields (2010–2014 in all the study sites are declining due to deforestation, poor governance, inadequate access to farm inputs such as fertilizers, increased economic opportunities elsewhere and a breakdown of cultural practices, while 10 years (2000–2010 previously, they had been increasing. It has also been found that the main adaptation options/coping mechanisms reported by the respondents in order of highest frquencies are: expansion of farm size, help from relatives and dependents that live on the farm, supplemental occupations or livelihood diversification and usage of organic fertilizers. From the chi-squared test, the alternate hypothesis that, “there is some difference between population proportions for different adaptation options or coping mechanisms” is validated.

  13. Small fishes crossed a large mountain range: Quaternary stream capture events and freshwater fishes on both sides of the Taebaek Mountains.

    Kim, Daemin; Hirt, M Vincent; Won, Yong-Jin; Simons, Andrew M

    2017-07-01

    The Taebaek Mountains in Korea serve as the most apparent biogeographic barrier for Korean freshwater fishes, resulting in 2 distinct ichthyofaunal assemblages on the eastern (East/Japan Sea slope) and western (Yellow Sea and Korea Strait slopes) sides of the mountain range. Of nearly 100 species of native primary freshwater fishes in Korea, only 18 species occur naturally on both sides of the mountain range. Interestingly, there are 5 rheophilic species (Phoxinus phoxinus, Coreoleuciscus splendidus, Ladislavia taczanowskii, Iksookimia koreensis and Koreocobitis rotundicaudata) found on both sides of the Taebaek Mountains that are geographically restricted to the Osip River (and several neighboring rivers, for L. taczanowskii and I. koreensis) on the eastern side of the mountain range. The Osip River and its neighboring rivers also shared a rheophilic freshwater fish, Liobagrus mediadiposalis, with the Nakdong River on the western side of the mountain range. We assessed historical biogeographic hypotheses on the presence of these rheophilic fishes, utilizing DNA sequence data from the mitochondrial cytochrome b gene. Results of our divergence time estimation indicate that ichthyofaunal transfers into the Osip River (and several neighboring rivers in East Sea slope) have occurred from the Han (Yellow Sea slope) and Nakdong (Korea Strait slope) Rivers since the Late Pleistocene. The inferred divergence times for the ichthyofaunal transfer across the Taebaek Mountains were consistent with the timing of hypothesized multiple reactivations of the Osip River Fault (Late Pleistocene), suggesting that the Osip River Fault reactivations may have caused stream capture events, followed by ichthyofaunal transfer, not only between the Osip and Nakdong Rivers, but also between the Osip and Han Rivers. © 2016 International Society of Zoological Sciences, Institute of Zoology/Chinese Academy of Sciences and John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  14. Attendance, Performance and the Acquisition of Early Literacy Skills: A Comparison of Indigenous and Non-Indigenous School Children

    Ehrich, John; Wolgemuth, Jennifer R.; Helmer, Janet; Oteng, Georges; Lea, Tess; Bartlett, Claire; Smith, Heather; Emmett, Sue

    2010-01-01

    As part of an evaluation of a web-based early literacy intervention, ABRACADABRA, a small exploratory study was conducted over one term in three primary schools in the Northern Territory. Of particular concern was the relationship between attendance and the acquisition of early literacy skills of Indigenous and non-Indigenous children. Using the…

  15. The future of grain science: the contribution of indigenous small grains to food security, nutrition and health in South Africa [AACCI Report

    Dlamini, N

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available slower release of glucose into the bloodstream, which is an important aspect for the management of diabetes. Despite their potential nutritional and health benefits, production of commercially grown small grain crops is not significant in South Africa...

  16. Diversification in indigenous and ethnic food culture.

    Wahlqvist, Mark L

    2005-01-01

    A diversified food supply is contingent on underlying biodiversity in the locality where one lives or at a distance from it, if trade routes are established. Indigenous people generally settled at the water's edge so that aquatic foods made up part of their diversified diet, with the rest of the diversity dependent on how much they hunted and gathered, on herded animals, engagement in subsistence agriculture, the ability to process and preserve food and/or food commodities traded. The rapid urbanization of much of the world's population distances people from the origin of their food, the understanding of the required commodities in the human diet (e.g., aquatic food, plant foods, lean animal foods, what animals are fed, basics of freshness). At the same time, adequacy of food intake may be more reliably achieved when the food supply can continue irrespective of season, climate or distant conflict. Urban gardens partly rectify this discord between urbanization and a genuinely varied diet, replaced by purported variety where the same basic commodity is presented in many different forms (e.g., wheat grains such as bread, breakfast cereal of various kinds, pasta and baked goods). However, diversified processing may 'dilute out' health adverse techniques. The health benefits of a diversified diet relate in part to the environmental integrity, which the required biodiversity provides, in part to minimizing adverse factors, which may exceed acceptable thresholds in a narrow diet, and to the need for the wide spectrum of food components, macronutrients, micronutrients and phytochemicals, which Homo sapiens' physiology requires. Whilst most food diversity is attributable to plant sources, animal sources often provide significant nutritional security (e.g., fish and eggs for vitamin D, fish for n-3 fatty acids, lean meat for iron and zinc and in readily assimilable forms). Food diversity assumes greater importance with aging populations as their physical activity usually (if

  17. Mercury Levels in Human Hair and Farmed Fish near Artisanal and Small-Scale Gold Mining Communities in the Madre de Dios River Basin, Peru

    Aubrey L. Langeland

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Artisanal and small-scale gold mining (ASGM has been an important source of income for communities in the Madre de Dios River Basin in Peru for hundreds of years. However, in recent decades, the scale of ASGM activities in the region has increased dramatically, and exposures to a variety of occupational and environmental hazards related to ASGM, including mercury, are becoming more widespread. The aims of our study were to: (1 examine patterns in the total hair mercury level of human participants in several communities in the region and compare these results to the 2.2 µg/g total hair mercury level equivalent to the World Health Organization (WHO Expert Committee of Food Additives (JECFA’s Provisional Tolerable Weekly Intake (PTWI; and (2, to measure the mercury levels of paco (Piaractus brachypomus fish raised in local aquaculture ponds, in order to compare these levels to the EPA Fish Tissue Residue Criterion of 0.3 µg Hg/g fish (wet weight. We collected hair samples from 80 participants in four communities (one control and three where ASGM activities occurred in the region, and collected 111 samples from fish raised in 24 local aquaculture farms. We then analyzed the samples for total mercury. Total mercury levels in hair were statistically significantly higher in the mining communities than in the control community, and increased with increasing geodesic distance from the Madre de Dios headwaters, did not differ by sex, and frequently exceeded the reference level. Regression analyses indicated that higher hair mercury levels were associated with residence in ASGM communities. The analysis of paco fish samples found no samples that exceeded the EPA tissue residue criterion. Collectively, these results align with other recent studies showing that ASGM activities are associated with elevated human mercury exposure. The fish farmed through the relatively new process of aquaculture in ASGM areas appeared to have little potential to contribute

  18. Mercury Levels in Human Hair and Farmed Fish near Artisanal and Small-Scale Gold Mining Communities in the Madre de Dios River Basin, Peru.

    Langeland, Aubrey L; Hardin, Rebecca D; Neitzel, Richard L

    2017-03-14

    Artisanal and small-scale gold mining (ASGM) has been an important source of income for communities in the Madre de Dios River Basin in Peru for hundreds of years. However, in recent decades, the scale of ASGM activities in the region has increased dramatically, and exposures to a variety of occupational and environmental hazards related to ASGM, including mercury, are becoming more widespread. The aims of our study were to: (1) examine patterns in the total hair mercury level of human participants in several communities in the region and compare these results to the 2.2 µg/g total hair mercury level equivalent to the World Health Organization (WHO) Expert Committee of Food Additives (JECFA)'s Provisional Tolerable Weekly Intake (PTWI); and (2), to measure the mercury levels of paco ( Piaractus brachypomus ) fish raised in local aquaculture ponds, in order to compare these levels to the EPA Fish Tissue Residue Criterion of 0.3 µg Hg/g fish (wet weight). We collected hair samples from 80 participants in four communities (one control and three where ASGM activities occurred) in the region, and collected 111 samples from fish raised in 24 local aquaculture farms. We then analyzed the samples for total mercury. Total mercury levels in hair were statistically significantly higher in the mining communities than in the control community, and increased with increasing geodesic distance from the Madre de Dios headwaters, did not differ by sex, and frequently exceeded the reference level. Regression analyses indicated that higher hair mercury levels were associated with residence in ASGM communities. The analysis of paco fish samples found no samples that exceeded the EPA tissue residue criterion. Collectively, these results align with other recent studies showing that ASGM activities are associated with elevated human mercury exposure. The fish farmed through the relatively new process of aquaculture in ASGM areas appeared to have little potential to contribute to human

  19. The Use of MS-based Metabolomics to Determine Markers Associated with Endocrine Disruption in Small Fish Species

    Endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) are exogenous substances that disrupt the physiological function of endogenous hormones. In fish, these xenobiotics are capable of interfering with the dynamic equilibrium of the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal (HPG) axis resulting in adverse ...

  20. Poisoning - fish and shellfish

    Fish poisoning; Dinoflagellate poisoning; Seafood contamination; Paralytic shellfish poisoning; Ciguatera poisoning ... algae and algae-like organisms called dinoflagellates. Small fish that eat the algae become contaminated. If larger ...

  1. Micronutrient Composition of 35 Food Fishes from India and Their Significance in Human Nutrition.

    Mohanty, Bimal P; Sankar, T V; Ganguly, Satabdi; Mahanty, Arabinda; Anandan, R; Chakraborty, Kajal; Paul, B N; Sarma, Debajit; Dayal, J Syama; Mathew, Suseela; Asha, K K; Mitra, Tandrima; Karunakaran, D; Chanda, Soumen; Shahi, Neetu; Das, Puspita; Das, Partha; Akhtar, Md Shahbaz; Vijayagopal, P; Sridhar, N

    2016-12-01

    The micronutrients (vitamins and minerals) are required in small amounts but are essential for health, development, and growth. Micronutrient deficiencies, which affect over two billion people around the globe, are the leading cause of many ailments including mental retardation, preventable blindness, and death during childbirth. Fish is an important dietary source of micronutrients and plays important role in human nutrition. In the present investigation, micronutrient composition of 35 food fishes (includes both finfishes and shellfishes) was investigated from varying aquatic habitats. Macrominerals (Na, K, Ca, Mg) and trace elements (Fe, Cu, Zn, Mn, Se) were determined by either atomic absorption spectroscopy (AAS) or inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS)/atomic emission spectrometry (ICP-AES). Phosphorus content was determined either spectrophotometrically or by ICP-AES. Fat-soluble vitamins (A, D, E, K) were analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The analysis showed that, in general, the marine fishes were rich in sodium and potassium; small indigenous fishes (SIFs) in calcium, iron, and manganese; coldwater fishes in selenium; and the brackishwater fishes in phosphorous. The marine fishes Sardinella longiceps and Epinephelus spp. and the SIFs were rich in all fat-soluble vitamins. All these recommendations were made according to the potential contribution (daily value %) of the species to the recommended daily allowance (RDA). Information on the micronutrients generated would enhance the utility of fish in both community and clinical nutrition.

  2. EGFR mutation is a better predictor of response to tyrosine kinase inhibitors in non-small cell lung carcinoma than FISH, CISH, and immunohistochemistry.

    Sholl, Lynette M; Xiao, Yun; Joshi, Victoria; Yeap, Beow Y; Cioffredi, Leigh-Anne; Jackman, David M; Lee, Charles; Jänne, Pasi A; Lindeman, Neal I

    2010-06-01

    About 10% of patients with non-small cell lung carcinoma (NSCLC) respond to epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR)-targeted tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs). More than 75% of "responders" have activating mutations in EGFR. However, mutation analysis is not widely available, and proposed alternatives (in situ hybridization and immunohistochemical analysis) have shown inconsistent associations with outcome. Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH), chromogenic in situ hybridization (CISH), immunohistochemical analysis, and DNA sequencing were compared in this study of 40 NSCLC samples from TKI-treated patients. Response rates were 12 of 19 in EGFR-mutant vs 1 of 20 EGFR wild-type tumors (P = .0001), 7 of 19 FISH+ vs 4 of 17 FISH- tumors (not significant [NS]), 5 of 16 CISH+ vs 6 of 21 CISH- tumors (NS), and 3 of 9 immunohistochemically positive vs 7 of 22 immunohistochemically negative tumors (NS). EGFR mutation was associated with improved progression-free survival (P = .0004). Increased copy number (FISH or CISH) and protein expression (immunohistochemical) did not independently predict outcome. Thus, EGFR sequence analysis was the only method useful for predicting response and progression-free survival following TKI therapy in NSCLC.

  3. Performance of a RT-PCR Assay in Comparison to FISH and Immunohistochemistry for the Detection of ALK in Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer.

    Hout, David R; Schweitzer, Brock L; Lawrence, Kasey; Morris, Stephan W; Tucker, Tracy; Mazzola, Rosetta; Skelton, Rachel; McMahon, Frank; Handshoe, John; Lesperance, Mary; Karsan, Aly; Saltman, David L

    2017-08-01

    Patients with lung cancers harboring an activating anaplastic lymphoma kinase ( ALK ) rearrangement respond favorably to ALK inhibitor therapy. Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) and immunohistochemistry (IHC) are validated and widely used screening tests for ALK rearrangements but both methods have limitations. The ALK RGQ RT-PCR Kit (RT-PCR) is a single tube quantitative real-time PCR assay for high throughput and automated interpretation of ALK expression. In this study, we performed a direct comparison of formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) lung cancer specimens using all three ALK detection methods. The RT-PCR test (diagnostic cut-off Δ C t of ≤8) was shown to be highly sensitive (100%) when compared to FISH and IHC. Sequencing of RNA detected full-length ALK transcripts or EML4-ALK and KIF5B-ALK fusion variants in discordant cases in which ALK expression was detected by the ALK RT-PCR test but negative by FISH and IHC. The overall specificity of the RT-PCR test for the detection of ALK in cases without full-length ALK expression was 94% in comparison to FISH and sequencing. These data support the ALK RT-PCR test as a highly efficient and reliable diagnostic screening approach to identify patients with non-small cell lung cancer whose tumors are driven by oncogenic ALK.

  4. Role of morphometry in determining the feeding success of small freshwater fish species: Multivariate analysis of Amblypharyngodon mola, Puntius ticto, and Esomus danricus

    Nandi Sudarshana

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Factor and multiple regression analysis were used to extract the morphometric variables that contributed to feeding success in three small freshwater fishes. Of the first two factors, factor 1, showed high loading of gut weight (GW, length of the upper (UJ, and lower jaws (LJ in mola, Amblypharyngodon mola (Hamilton, and GW and vertical mouth opening (VMO in punti, Puntius ticto (Hamilton. In darikana, Esomus danricus (Hamilton, GW, horizontal mouth opening (HMO, and VMO were highly loaded on factor 2. Gut length (GL was closely associated withGWof all three species. Subsequently, variables with high loading on factors 1 or 2 were subjected to multiple regression analysis to observe their effect on feeding success, consideringGWas the dependent variable and the extracted variables as the independent variable. In A. mola, HMO and GL influenced GW, whereas in P. ticto, only GL determined GW in the fish. In E. danricus, GL, VMO, and HMO exerted a low effect on GW. Exceptionally, the present study suggested that feeding success in small fishes is largely determined by UJ, LJ, and GL or mouth openings.

  5. Small Tails Tell Tall Tales--Intra-Individual Variation in the Stable Isotope Values of Fish Fin.

    Brian Hayden

    Full Text Available Fish fin is a widely used, non-lethal sample material in studies using stable isotopes to assess the ecology of fishes. However, fish fin is composed of two distinct tissues (ray and membrane which may have different stable isotope values and are not homogeneously distributed within a fin. As such, estimates of the stable isotope values of a fish may vary according to the section of fin sampled.To assess the magnitude of this variation, we analysed carbon (δ13C, nitrogen (δ15N, hydrogen (δ2H and oxygen (δ18O stable isotopes of caudal fin from juvenile, riverine stages of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar and brown trout (Salmo trutta. Individual fins were sub-sectioned into tip, mid and base, of which a further subset were divided into ray and membrane.Isotope variation between fin sections, evident in all four elements, was primarily related to differences between ray and membrane. Base sections were13C depleted relative to tip (~1‰ with equivalent variation evident between ray and membrane. A similar trend was evident in δ2H, though the degree of variation was far greater (~10‰. Base and ray sections were 18O enriched (~2‰ relative to tip and membrane, respectively. Ray and membrane sections displayed longitudinal variation in 15N mirroring that of composite fin (~1‰, indicating that variation in15N values was likely related to ontogenetic variation.To account for the effects of intra-fin variability in stable isotope analyses we suggest that researchers sampling fish fin, in increasing priority, 1 also analyse muscle (or liver tissue from a subsample of fish to calibrate their data, or 2 standardize sampling by selecting tissue only from the extreme tip of a fin, or 3 homogenize fins prior to analysis.

  6. Planktonic stages of small pelagic fishes (Sardinella aurita and Engraulis encrasicolus) in the central Mediterranean Sea: The key role of physical forcings and implications for fisheries management

    Torri, Marco; Corrado, Raffaele; Falcini, Federico; Cuttitta, Angela; Palatella, Luigi; Lacorata, Guglielmo; Patti, Bernardo; Arculeo, Marco; Mifsud, Roberta; Mazzola, Salvatore; Santoleri, Rosalia

    2018-03-01

    Multidisciplinary studies are recently aiming to define diagnostic tools for fishery sustainability by coupling ichthyoplanktonic datasets, physical and bio-geochemical oceanographic measurements, and ocean modelling. The main goal of these efforts is to understand those processes that control the dispersion and fate of fish larvae and eggs, and thus tuning the inter-annual variability of the biomass of small pelagic fish species. In this paper we analyse the distribution of eggs and larvae as well as the biological features of the two species of pelagic fish, Engraulis encrasicolus and Sardinella aurita in the north-eastern sector of the Sicily Channel (Mediterranean Sea) from ichthyoplanktonic data collected during the 2010 and 2011 summer cruises. We use Lagrangian simulations and satellite data (i.e., sea surface temperature, wind, and chlorophyll-a concentration) to recognize the main oceanographic patterns that mark eggs and larvae transport processes. We provide a mechanistic explanation of a cross-shore transport process by using a potential vorticity (PV) model that takes into account the role of wind stress in generating cold filaments. Our results show that the strong offshore transport towards Malta occurred in 2010 was likely due to a persistent Mistral wind forcing that generated high-PV cold filaments. This phenomenon was not found in the 2011 analysis, which indeed showed an along-shore transport towards the retention area of Capo Passero. Since, for the first time, we describe the spatial distribution of the early life stage of Sardinella aurita in the northern part of the Sicily Channel and we clarify the link between the ocean dynamics and the fate of small pelagic fish larvae, this work provides a useful, diagnostic tool for the sustainable management of fishery resources.

  7. Fishy Business: Response of Stream Fish Assemblages to Small Hydro-power Plant Induced Flow Alteration in the Western Ghats, Karnataka

    Rao, S. T.; Krishnaswamy, J.; Bhalla, R. S.

    2017-12-01

    Alteration of natural flow regimes is considered as a major threat to freshwater fish assemblages as it disturbs the water quality and micro-habitat features of rivers. Small hydro-power (SHP), which is being promoted as a clean and green substitute for large hydro-power generation, alters the natural flow regime of head-water streams by flow diversion and regulation. The effects of altered flow regime on tropical stream fish assemblages, driven by seasonality induced perturbations to water quality and microhabitat parameters are largely understudied. My study examined the potential consequences of flow alteration by SHPs on fish assemblages in two tributaries of the west-flowing Yettinahole River which flows through the reserved forests of Sakleshpur in the Western Ghats of Karnataka. The flow in one of the tributaries followed natural flow regime while the other comprised three regimes: a near-natural flow regime above the dam, rapidly varying discharge below the dam and a dewatered regime caused by flow diversion. The study found that the altered flow regime differed from natural flow regime in terms of water quality, microhabitat heterogeneity and fish assemblage response, each indicative of the type of flow alteration. Fish assemblage in the natural flow regime was characterized by a higher catch per site, a strong association of endemic and trophic specialist species. The flow regime above the dam was found to mimic some components of the natural flow regime, both ecological and environmental. Non endemic, generalist and pool tolerant species were associated with the dewatered regime. There was a lack of strong species-regime association and an overall low catch per site for the flow regulated regime below the dam. This study highlights the consequences of altered flows on the composition of freshwater fish assemblages and portrays the potential of freshwater fish as indicators of the degree and extent of flow alteration. The study recommends the need for

  8. Human exposure to mercury in artisanal small-scale gold mining areas of Kedougou region, Senegal, as a function of occupational activity and fish consumption.

    Niane, Birane; Guédron, Stéphane; Moritz, Robert; Cosio, Claudia; Ngom, Papa Malick; Deverajan, Naresh; Pfeifer, Hans Rudolf; Poté, John

    2015-05-01

    We investigated mercury (Hg) exposure of food web and humans in the region of Kedougou, Senegal, where Hg is used for gold amalgamation in artisanal small-scale gold mining (ASGM). For this purpose, total mercury (THg) concentration was determined in eight fish species and two shellfish species from Gambia River and in human hair from 111 volunteers of different age and sex, living in urban locations (Kedougou and Samekouta) or in ASGM areas (Tinkoto and Bantako). THg concentrations in fish samples range from 0.03 to 0.51 mg kg(-1) wet weight (ww) and 0.5 to 1.05 mg kg(-1) ww for shellfish. THg concentrations in fish are below the WHO guideline of 0.5 mg kg(-1) ww, whereas 100 % of shellfish are above this safety guideline. In the entire set of fish and shellfish samples, we documented a decrease of THg concentrations with increasing selenium to mercury (Se:Hg) ratio suggesting a protection of Se against Hg. However, local population consuming fish from the Gambia River in the two ASGM areas have higher THg concentrations (median = 1.45 and 1.5 mg kg(-1) at Bantako and Tinkoto) in hair than those from others localities (median = 0.42 and 0.32 mg kg(-1) at Kedougou town and Samekouta) who have diverse diets. At ASGM sites, about 30 % of the local population present Hg concentrations in hair exceeding 1 mg kg(-1), defined as the reference concentration of Hg in hair. We also evidence a higher exposure of women to Hg in the Tinkoto ASGM site due to the traditional distribution of daily tasks where women are more involved in the burning of amalgams. The discrepancy between the calculated moderate exposure through fish consumption and the high Hg concentrations measured in hair suggest that fish consumption is not the only source of Hg exposure and that further studies should focus on direct exposure to elemental Hg of population living at ASGM sites.

  9. Absence of disparities in anthropometric measures among Chilean indigenous and non-indigenous newborns

    2010-01-01

    Background Studies throughout North America and Europe have documented adverse perinatal outcomes for racial/ethnic minorities. Nonetheless, the contrast in newborn characteristics between indigenous and non-indigenous populations in Latin America has been poorly characterized. This is due to many challenges, including a lack of vital registration information on ethnicity. The objective of this study was to analyze trends in anthropometric measures at birth in Chilean indigenous (Mapuche) and non-indigenous children over a 5-year period. Methods We examined weight and length at birth using information available through a national data base of all birth records for the years 2000 through 2004 (n = 1,166.513). Newborns were classified ethnically according to the origins of the parents' last names. Result The average birthweight was stable over the 5 year period with variations of less than 20 g in each group, and with mean values trivially higher in indigenous newborns. The proportion weighing less than 2500 g at birth increased modestly from 5.2% to 5.6% in non-indigenous newborns whereas the indigenous births remained constant at 5.2%. In multiple regression analyses, adjusting flexibly for gestational age and maternal characteristics, the occurrence of an indigenous surname added only 14 g to an average infant's birthweight while holding other factors constant. Results for length at birth were similar, and adjusted time trend variation in both outcomes was trivially small after adjustment. Anthropometric indexes at birth in Chile are quite favorable by international standards. Conclusion There is only a trivial degree of ethnic disparity in these values, in contrast to conditions for ethnic minorities in other countries. Moreover, these values remained roughly constant over the 5 years of observation in this study. PMID:20598150

  10. Fish eye optics

    Hudec, R.; Michalova, S.

    2017-07-01

    We report on small student (high—school) project of the Czech Academy of Sciences dealing with animal (fish) eyes and possible application in science and technology. Albeit most fishes have refractive eyes, the recent discoveries confirm that some fishes have reflective eyes with strange arrangements as well.

  11. Spatial Scaling of Environmental Variables Improves Species-Habitat Models of Fishes in a Small, Sand-Bed Lowland River.

    Johannes Radinger

    Full Text Available Habitat suitability and the distinct mobility of species depict fundamental keys for explaining and understanding the distribution of river fishes. In recent years, comprehensive data on river hydromorphology has been mapped at spatial scales down to 100 m, potentially serving high resolution species-habitat models, e.g., for fish. However, the relative importance of specific hydromorphological and in-stream habitat variables and their spatial scales of influence is poorly understood. Applying boosted regression trees, we developed species-habitat models for 13 fish species in a sand-bed lowland river based on river morphological and in-stream habitat data. First, we calculated mean values for the predictor variables in five distance classes (from the sampling site up to 4000 m up- and downstream to identify the spatial scale that best predicts the presence of fish species. Second, we compared the suitability of measured variables and assessment scores related to natural reference conditions. Third, we identified variables which best explained the presence of fish species. The mean model quality (AUC = 0.78, area under the receiver operating characteristic curve significantly increased when information on the habitat conditions up- and downstream of a sampling site (maximum AUC at 2500 m distance class, +0.049 and topological variables (e.g., stream order were included (AUC = +0.014. Both measured and assessed variables were similarly well suited to predict species' presence. Stream order variables and measured cross section features (e.g., width, depth, velocity were best-suited predictors. In addition, measured channel-bed characteristics (e.g., substrate types and assessed longitudinal channel features (e.g., naturalness of river planform were also good predictors. These findings demonstrate (i the applicability of high resolution river morphological and instream-habitat data (measured and assessed variables to predict fish presence, (ii the

  12. The dynamics of fish populations in the Palancar stream, a small tributary of the river Guadalquivir, Spain

    Bravo, R.; Soriguer, M.C.; Villar, N.; Hernando, J.A.

    2000-01-01

    The relationship between flooding and changes in the size distribution of fish populations in the Palancar stream confirms observations in other rivers. On average, density decreased by 36.2 % and biomass increased by 14.5 %, passing from a period of severe drought to one of heavier than normal rains. Precipitation is the most important of the many factors affecting the populations of the Palancar stream; the most evident changes all occurred after the drought. During the drought per...

  13. Recruitment of juvenile fishes into a small temperate choked lagoon (Argentina and the influence of environmental factors during the process

    Daniel O. Bruno

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Juvenile fishes were sampled every 15 days from September 2009 to April 2010 along the marine-estuarine gradient (surf zone, estuary and a freshwater stream of the Mar Chiquita lagoon, Argentina. The temporal variations of juvenile assemblages in spring-summer and the environmental variables related to the spatial and temporal patterns were analysed. Four groups of sampling stations were defined, indicating differences in fish composition among zones during the spring–early summer period (Groups I to III, while the composition of juvenile fishes was homogeneous along the marine-estuarine gradient during the late summer–early autumn period (Group IV. Platanichthys platana and Ramnogaster arcuata (Group A and Odontesthes argentinensis and Brevoortia aureaz (Group B contributed most to the temporal differences observed. The three first species reached this estuarine system in spring, although with lower abundances than in early summer, while B. aurea was dominant in late summer–early autumn, showing different periods of recruitment of these species into the lagoon. After factoring out variation due to shared spatial-temporal-environmental factors (4.43%, canonical correspondence analysis (CCA showed that temporal factors had an almost five times greater contribution (15.15% than spatial factors (2.85% and almost twice as great as the pure environmental factors (8.11% to explaining the variation in abundance of the juvenile fishes. From the significant environmental variables incorporated in the CCA, wind direction contributed more than water temperature, salinity or transparency in explaining data variability. Indeed, most species were related to “onshore winds” and therefore the importance of wind in the successful recruitment of juveniles into this shallow and micro-tidal estuary is discussed.

  14. Dynamic estuarine plumes and fronts: importance to small fish and plankton in coastal waters of NSW, Australia

    Kingsford, M. J.; Suthers, I. M.

    1994-05-01

    In 1990, low density estuarine plumes in the vicinity of Botany Bay, Australia, extended up to 11 km across a narrow continental shelf ( ca 25 km) on ebb tides. The shape and seaward extent of plumes varied according to a combination of state of the tide, freshwater input and the direction and intensity of coastal currents. Offshore plumes dissipated on the flood tide and fronts reformed at the entrance of Botany Bay. Major differences in the abundance and composition of ichthyoplankton and other zooplankton were found over a 400-800 m stretch of water encompassing waters of the plume, front and ocean on seven occasions. For example, highest abundances of the fishes Gobiidae, Sillaginidae, Gerreidae and Sparidae as well as barnacle larvae and fish eggs were found in plumes. Cross-shelf distribution patterns of zooplankton, therefore, are influenced by plumes. Distinct assemblages of plankters accumulated in fronts, e.g. fishes of the Mugilidae and Gonorynchidae and other zooplankters (e.g. Jaxea sp.). Accumulation in fronts was variable and may relate to variable convergence according to the tide. We argue that plumes provide a significant cue to larvae in coastal waters that an estuary is nearby. Moreover, although many larvae may be retained in the turbid waters of plumes associated with riverine input, larvae are potentially exported in surface waters on ebb tides.

  15. Moving Toward Spatial Solutions in Marine Conservation with Indigenous Communities

    Natalie C. Ban

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Community and resource user support has often been declared as essential to achieving globally agreed targets for marine protection. Given that indigenous people in Canada have resource use rights, we engaged two indigenous communities in British Columbia for their views on marine planning and protected areas. We developed a three-phased approach for executing our research: building research partnerships, carrying out individual interviews, and holding community discussion sessions. Participants expressed a common goal of recovering depleted species and ensuring the sustainability of indigenous fishing. We found strong support for spatial protection measures, and significant overlaps amongst participants in the areas suggested for protection. The most common type of protection recommended by participants was the exclusion of commercial and recreational fisheries while allowing for indigenous fishing; this stands in contrast to the emphasis on strict no-take MPAs advocated in the literature. Similarities in the goal, and level and areas of protection point to a gap in conservation approaches: the conservation of important areas and resources to indigenous people, allowing the continued practice and adaptation of their culture.

  16. Fish fauna of the Brahmaputra River, Bangladesh: richness, threats and conservation needs

    Shams Muhammad Galib

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The Brahmaputra River is one of the largest rivers in the world as well as in Bangladesh. The present study was carried out for a period of one year from January to December 2013 with a view to assessing the availability of fishes in the river with species emphasis on species richness, existing threats and conservation issues. Daytime and night sampling were carried out in three sites located along the upstream to downstream course of the river on a monthly basis. Three fishing gears including cast net, seine net and drag net and one fishing trap were employed to collect fishes. A total of 67 finfish species including 63 indigenous and 4 exotic/alien species have been recorded belonging to 46 genera, 24 families and 8 orders. Cypriniformes and Cyprinidae were the most dominating order (21 species family (15 species of native fishes. A small portion (2% of native fishes was globally threatened. Over one third of total species (38% were considered threatened to extinct species in Bangladesh. Population trend of over two third of total fish species was Declining in the river. Major threats were alien/invasive species, banned fishing gears and loss of habitats.

  17. Techno-Economic analysis of solar photovoltaic power plant for small scale fish processing in Kota Langsa - a case study

    Widodo, S. B.; Hamdani; Rizal, T. A.; Pambudi, N. A.

    2018-02-01

    In Langsa, fisheries are the sector leaders by fulfilling a capacity of about 6,050 tons per year and on the other hand, fish-aquaculture reaches 1,200 tons per year on average. The fish processing is conducted through catches and aquaculture. The facilities on which this processing takes place are divided into an ice factory unit, a gutting and cutting unit, a drying unit and a curing unit. However, the energy and electricity costs during the production process has become major constraint because of the increase in the fishermen’s production and income. In this study, the potential and cost-effectiveness of photovoltaic solar power plant to meet the energy demands of fish processing units have been analysed. The energy requirements of fish processing units have reached an estimate of 130 kW, while the proposed design of solar photovoltaic electricity generation is of 200 kW in an area of 0,75 hectares. In this analysis, given the closeness between the location of the processing units and the fish supply auctions, the assumption is made that the photovoltaic plants (OTR) were installed on the roof of the building as compared to the solar power plants (OTL) installed on the outside of the location. The results shows that the levelized cost of OTR instalation is IDR 1.115 per kWh, considering 25 years of plant life-span at 10% of discount rate, with a simple payback period of 13.2 years. OTL levelized energy, on the other hand, is at IDR 997.5 per kWh with a simple payback period of 9.6 years. Blood is an essential component of living creatures in the vascular space. For possible disease identification, it can be tested through a blood test, one of which can be seen from the form of red blood cells. The normal and abnormal morphology of the red blood cells of a patient is very helpful to doctors in detecting a disease. With the advancement of digital image processing technology can be used to identify normal and abnormal blood cells of a patient. This research used

  18. Nutritional status of indigenous children younger than five years of age in Mexico: results of a national probabilistic survey

    Rivera Juan A

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To compare the prevalence of undernutrition and anemia in indigenous and non-indigenous children 0.05. The prevalence of anemia in indigenous children was one third greater than in non-indigenous children at the national level (p0.05 in rural areas. These differences were reduced to about half when adjusting for SES but remained significantly higher in indigenous children (p<0.05. CONCLUSIONS: Indigenous children have higher probabilities of stunting and underweight than non-indigenous children. The differences are larger in urban areas and in higher socioeconomic geographic regions and are explained mostly by socioeconomic factors. The overall difference in the probability of anemia is small, is higher only in urban relative to rural areas, and is explained to a lesser degree by socioeconomic factors. Policy and programs should be designed and implemented to reduce the dramatic differences in nutritional status between indigenous and non-indigenous children in Mexico.

  19. Níveis de mercúrio em peixes consumidos pela comunidade indígena de Sai Cinza na Reserva Munduruku, Município de Jacareacanga, Estado do Pará, Brasil Mercury levels in fish consumed by the Sai Cinza indigenous community, Munduruku Reservation, Jacareacanga County, State of Pará, Brazil

    Edilson da Silva Brabo

    1999-04-01

    Full Text Available O estudo consiste em avaliar os níveis de mercúrio no pescado consumido pela comunidade indígena de Sai Cinza (Reserva Munduruku no Estado do Pará, e associá-los com os hábitos de consumo da população. Um total de oitenta espécimes de peixes foram capturados. As determinações de Hg foram realizadas por absorção atômica. A concentração média de Hg nas espécies carnívoras foi de 0,293 µg/g (DP = 0,104 enquanto nas não carnívoras foi de 0,112 µg/g (DP = 0,036. As espécies referidas como de maior consumo ente os 330 indivíduos entrevistados foram: tucunaré, pacu, jaraqui, traíra, aracu, matrinchã e caratinga. As espécies com concentrações mais elevadas de Hg foram tucunaré e traíra, que estão entre os peixes mais consumidos. A freqüência de consumo constitui-se num fator importante na avaliação de risco de contaminação por mercúrio em comunidades que não têm outras alternativas de alimentação.This study evaluated fish consumption and mercury levels in fish consumed by an indigenous community in the State of Pará. Eighty fish samples were collected (barbado, surubim, traíra, tucunaré, piranha, aruanã, caratinga, aracu, mandiá, jandiá, and pacu. Mercury analysis was performed using a Mercury Analyzer HG-3500. Average mercury concentration in carnivorous species was 0.293 µg/g (SD = 0.104, while in non-carnivorous species it was 0.112 µg/g (SD = 0.036. Brazilian legislation establishes a maximum permissible limit of 0.5 µg/g for fish consumption. No significant correlation was found between fish length or weight and mercury concentration. Types of fish most frequently consumed by the community were tucunaré, pacu, jaraqui, traíra, aracu, matrinchã, and caratinga. Carnivorous species, especially tucunaré and traíra, amongst the most frequently eaten, had higher mercury levels than non-carnivorous species. Frequency of consumption is crucial to assess the risk of mercury contamination in

  20. Grassroots Innovation Using Drones for Indigenous Mapping and Monitoring

    Jaime Paneque-Gálvez

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Indigenous territories are facing increasing pressures from numerous legal and illegal activities that are pushing commodity frontiers within their limits, frequently causing severe environmental degradation and threatening indigenous territorial rights and livelihoods. In Central and South America, after nearly three decades of participatory mapping projects, interest is mounting among indigenous peoples in the use of new technologies for community mapping and monitoring as a means of defense against such threats. Since 2014, several innovative projects have been developed and implemented in the region to demonstrate and train indigenous communities in the use of small drones for territorial mapping and monitoring. In this paper, we report on five projects carried out in Peru, Guyana, and Panama. For each one we describe the context, main objectives, positive outcomes, challenges faced, and opportunities ahead. Preliminary results are promising and have gained the interest of many indigenous societies who envision this technology as a powerful tool to protect their territories and strengthen their claims regarding specific environmental liabilities and justice issues. Based on the results presented here and a review of previous similar studies, we offer a critical discussion of some of the main opportunities and challenges that we foresee regarding the use of small drones for indigenous territorial mapping and monitoring. In addition, we elaborate on why a careful, well thought-out, and progressive adoption of drones by indigenous peoples may trigger grassroots innovations in ways conducive to greater environmental justice and sustainability.

  1. Small-scale Fisheries Governance and Understanding the Snoek (Thyrsites atun Supply Chain in the Ocean View Fishing Community, Western Cape, South Africa

    Moenieba Isaacs

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Postapartheid fisheries reform in South Africa, through the Marine Living Resources Act (MLRA 18 of 1998, used individual transferable quotas (ITQs to broaden resource access through allocating quotas to new entrants, even though the system has been created to reduce capacity through a reduction in the number of active fishers. The formal action space created through fisheries reform in South Africa left many artisanal fishers to operate in the informal action spaces, selling Thyrsites atun (snoek to poor communities to sustain their livelihoods. Artisanal fishers were not recognized by MLRA of 1998 and through class action case brought against the ITQ system, and in out of court settlement with the claimants in 2007, 1000 interim relief permits will be allocated to artisanal fishes and the development of a new small-scale fisheries policy for South Africa. In this case study of a fishing community in Ocean View, Cape Town I examine a snoek fishery that operates differently, through a community supply chain and informal markets, than that of the high value ITQ regulated species, yet plays a significant role in the livelihoods of artisanal fishers and in the food security of poor households. The findings of this case study show the failures of existing policy frameworks and the implications for the implementation of the new small-scale fisheries policy in South Africa.

  2. Indigenous Methodology in Understanding Indigenous Nurse Graduate Transition to Practice

    Donna L. M. Kurtz

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Increasing Indigenous health care professional presence in health care aims to reduce health inequities of Indigenous Peoples in Canada. Nurses are the largest health professional group and nurse graduates the main source of recruitment. The quality of graduate transition to practice is evident in the literature; however, little is reported about Indigenous new graduates. We describe using Indigenous methodology and two-eyed seeing (Indigenous and Western perspectives in exploring Indigenous transition experiences. Talking circles provided a safe environment for nurses, nurse educators and students, health managers, and policy makers to discuss Indigenous new graduate case scenarios. The methodology was critical in identifying challenges faced, recommendations for change, and a new collective commitment for cultural safety education, and ethical and respectful relationships within education, practice, and policy.

  3. The effect of daily consumption of the small fish Amblypharyngodon mola or added vitamin A on iron status

    Andersen, Anna Birkmose; Schmidt, Lise K H; Faurholt-Jepsen, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    : Bangladeshi children (n=196), aged 3-7 years, with marginal vitamin A status were randomly allocated to one of three intervention groups served different fish curries: mola curry (experimental group); rui (Labeo rohita) curry with added retinyl palmitate (positive control group); or rui curry (negative...... control group). The intervention meals were served 6 days/week for 9 weeks. The experimental and positive control meals were designed to contain similar amounts of retinol activity equivalents per portion. The mola curry contained four times more iron compared to the rui curries due to different iron...

  4. indigenous cattle breeds

    Received 31 August 1996; accepted 20 March /998. Mitochondrial DNA cleavage patterns from representative animals of the Afrikaner and Nguni sanga cattle breeds, indigenous to Southern Africa, were compared to the mitochondrial DNA cleavage patterns of the Brahman (zebu) and the Jersey. (taurine) cattle breeds.

  5. Fish Allergy

    ... Cause Blog Vision Awards Common Allergens Fish Allergy Fish Allergy Learn about fish allergy, how to read ... that you must avoid both. Allergic Reactions to Fish Finned fish can cause severe and potentially life- ...

  6. Assessing predation risks for small fish in a large river ecosystem between contrasting habitats and turbidity conditions

    Dodrill, Michael J.; Yard, Mike; Pine, William E.

    2016-01-01

    This study examined predation risk for juvenile native fish between two riverine shoreline habitats, backwater and debris fan, across three discrete turbidity levels (low, intermediate, high) to understand environmental risks associated with habitat use in a section of the Colorado River in Grand Canyon, AZ. Inferences are particularly important to juvenile native fish, including the federally endangered humpback chub Gila cypha. This species uses a variety of habitats including backwaters which are often considered important rearing areas. Densities of two likely predators, adult rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss and adult humpback chub, were estimated between habitats using binomial mixture models to examine whether higher predator density was associated with patterns of predation risk. Tethering experiments were used to quantify relative predation risk between habitats and turbidity conditions. Under low and intermediate turbidity conditions, debris fan habitat showed higher relative predation risk compared to backwaters. In both habitats the highest predation risk was observed during intermediate turbidity conditions. Density of likely predators did not significantly differ between these habitats. This information can help managers in Grand Canyon weigh flow policy options designed to increase backwater availability or extant turbidity conditions.

  7. The dynamics of fish populations in the Palancar stream,a small tributary of the river Guadalquivir, Spain

    Bravo, Ramón; Soriguer, Mila C.; Villar, Noelia; Hernando, José A.

    2001-02-01

    The relationship between flooding and changes in the size distribution of fish populations in the Palancar stream confirms observations in other rivers. On average, density decreased by 36.2 % and biomass increased by 14.5 %, passing from a period of severe drought to one of heavier than normal rains. Precipitation is the most important of the many factors affecting the populations of the Palancar stream; the most evident changes all occurred after the drought. During the drought period, the marked seasonal fluctuation in flow was the most important factor regulating the population dynamics. Fish density and biomass varied in proportion to the water volume. During the rainy period, the studied section of the river was found to be an important reproduction and nursery area, with juveniles and individuals of reproduction age dominating. The presence of Micropterus salmoides, an introduced piscivorous species, is another factor affecting the population dynamics in the Palancar stream. The observed absence of age 0+ individuals of the dominant populations is considered a direct effect of predation.

  8. Biomechanical implications of walking with indigenous footwear.

    Willems, Catherine; Stassijns, Gaetane; Cornelis, Wim; D'Août, Kristiaan

    2017-04-01

    This study investigates biomechanical implications of walking with indigenous "Kolhapuri" footwear compared to barefoot walking among a population of South Indians. Ten healthy adults from South India walked barefoot and indigenously shod at voluntary speed on an artificial substrate. The experiment was repeated outside, on a natural substrate. Data were collected from (1) a heel-mounted 3D-accelerometer recording peak impact at heel contact, (2) an ankle-mounted 3D-goniometer (plantar/dorsiflexion and inversion/eversion), and (3) sEMG electrodes at the m. tibialis anterior and the m. gastrocnemius medialis. Data show that the effect of indigenous footwear on the measured variables, compared to barefoot walking, is relatively small and consistent between substrates (even though subjects walked faster on the natural substrate). Walking barefoot, compared to shod walking yields higher impact accelerations, but the differences are small and only significant for the artificial substrate. The main rotations of the ankle joint are mostly similar between conditions. Only the shod condition shows a faster ankle rotation over the rapid eversion motion on the natural substrate. Maximal dorsiflexion in late stance differs between the footwear conditions on an artificial substrate, with the shod condition involving a less dorsiflexed ankle, and the plantar flexion at toe-off is more extreme when shod. Overall the activity pattern of the external foot muscles is similar. The indigenous footwear studied (Kolhapuri) seems to alter foot biomechanics only in a subtle way. While offering some degree of protection, walking in this type of footwear resembles barefoot gait and this type of indigenous footwear might be considered "minimal". © 2017 The Authors American Journal of Physical Anthropology Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Status and prospects of fish farming in Goa

    Parulekar, A.H.; Verlecar, X.N.

    -cum-prawn culture. Relevant information on the indigenous methods of cultivating common species, their annual yield and economics of aquaculture are discussed in the paper with reference to future prospects of fish farming in Goa...

  10. Limnological evaluation of the fisheries potentials and productivity of a small shallow tropical African reservoir.

    Mustapha, Moshood K

    2009-12-01

    Morphometrics and physico-chemical parameters of Oyun reservoir, Offa, Nigeria (a small shallow tropical African Reservoir) were used to estimate the potential fish yield of the reservoir according to the morpho-edaphic index (MEI). Physico-chemical characteristics of the water body were sampled monthly from three stations between January 2002 and December 2003 with standard methods. Estimates of the potential fish yield were obtained using the physico-chemical characteristics of the reservoir and the relationship Y = 23.281 MEI(0.447), where Y is the potential fish yield in kg/ha, MEI is the morpho-edaphic index (given in microS/cm and estimated by dividing the mean conductivity by the mean depth). The reservoir mean depth and conductivity values were 2.6m and 113.10 microS/cm respectively, while its potential fish yield was estimated at 125.72 kg/ha. This estimate was higher than other small shallower and larger African reservoirs. The reservoir high ionic content, high nutrient and dissolved oxygen levels, good pH, low level of pollution and shallow depth were responsible for the high estimate of the fish yield. In order to realize this high potential fish yield and sustainable exploration of the fisheries, effective management of the reservoir to curb eutrophication should be adopted, while other management practices such as stocking and conservation of desirable and indigenous fish species, implementation of fishing regulations and adoption of best management practices should be implemented.

  11. Genetic population structure of European sprat (Sprattus sprattus L.): differentiation across a steep environmental gradient in a small pelagic fish

    Limborg, Morten; Pedersen, Jes S.; Hansen, Jakob Hemmer

    2009-01-01

    locations in and around the North- and Baltic Sea area and from a geographically distant population from the Adriatic Sea. Analyses of nine microsatellite loci revealed a sharp genetic division separating samples from the Northeastern Atlantic and the Baltic Sea (pairwise θ = 0.019–0.035), concurring...... with a steep salinity gradient. We found, at most, weak structure among samples within the Northeastern Atlantic region and within the Baltic Sea (pairwise θ = 0.001–0.009). The Adriatic Sea population was highly differentiated from all northern samples (pairwise θ = 0.071–0.092). Overall, the observed...... population structure resembles that of most other marine fishes studied in the North/Baltic Sea areas. Nevertheless, spatially explicit differences are observed among species, likely reflecting specific life-histories. Such fine-scale population structure should be taken into account, e.g. in ecosystem...

  12. Summer co-existence of small-sized cyprinid and percid individuals in natural and impounded stretches of a lowland river: food niche partitioning among fishes.

    Lik, J; Dukowska, M; Grzybkowska, M; Leszczyńska, J

    2017-04-01

    Due to changes of discharge regime downstream of a dam reservoir, an alluvial natural stretch of the Warta River changed to a macrophyte-dominated ecosystem. Large patches of submersed, aquatic macrophytes appeared in summer and their effect is analysed in this study. These patches contained enriched macroinvertebrate assemblages (epiphyton and benthos) and they were refuge for both zooplankton and young fishes released from the reservoir. Despite these altered conditions in this stretch, roach Rutilus rutilus, perch Perca fluviatilis and ruffe Gymnocephalus cernua dominated, as they did in the natural backwater. Fishes were sampled every 2 weeks from June to August, together with their food resources to assess the partitioning of the diet among small individuals of the three species in both stretches (the natural and affected ones). The aim of the analysis was to answer how animal food associated with water plants was partitioned between the species. In both stretches, G. cernua were primarily benthivorous, but epiphytic fauna, zooplankton and large-sized benthic chironomid larvae replaced lack of many large, benthic insects in the tailwater. Levins' food breath index decreased from 0·36 in the backwater to 0·29 in the tailwater. An opposite trend was observed for P. fluviatilis occurring among macrophytes. Perca fluviatilis were competitors of R. rutilus and took food not only in or on the river bed, but also in the water column. They ate zooplankton and epiphytic fauna and Levins' index increased from 0·32 to 0·44 in the tailwater. Rutilus rutilus fed on adult insects, algae and plant fragments in the natural stretch. In the tailwater, these food types were chiefly complemented by zooplankton. Despite this, the niche breadth of R. rutilus was similar at the two sites. Abundance of food associated with the macrophytes appeared to facilitate cohabitation in the abundant fish populations, but P. fluviatilis appeared to benefit the most in the altered river

  13. Measuring cancer in indigenous populations.

    Sarfati, Diana; Garvey, Gail; Robson, Bridget; Moore, Suzanne; Cunningham, Ruth; Withrow, Diana; Griffiths, Kalinda; Caron, Nadine R; Bray, Freddie

    2018-05-01

    It is estimated that there are 370 million indigenous peoples in 90 countries globally. Indigenous peoples generally face substantial disadvantage and poorer health status compared with nonindigenous peoples. Population-level cancer surveillance provides data to set priorities, inform policies, and monitor progress over time. Measuring the cancer burden of vulnerable subpopulations, particularly indigenous peoples, is problematic. There are a number of practical and methodological issues potentially resulting in substantial underestimation of cancer incidence and mortality rates, and biased survival rates, among indigenous peoples. This, in turn, may result in a deprioritization of cancer-related programs and policies among these populations. This commentary describes key issues relating to cancer surveillance among indigenous populations including 1) suboptimal identification of indigenous populations, 2) numerator-denominator bias, 3) problems with data linkage in survival analysis, and 4) statistical analytic considerations. We suggest solutions that can be implemented to strengthen the visibility of indigenous peoples around the world. These include acknowledgment of the central importance of full engagement of indigenous peoples with all data-related processes, encouraging the use of indigenous identifiers in national and regional data sets and mitigation and/or careful assessment of biases inherent in cancer surveillance methods for indigenous peoples. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Small regulatory RNAs of the RNA interference (RNAi) pathway as a prophylactic treatment against fish pathogenic viruses

    Schyth, Brian Dall; Hajiabadi, Seyed Amir Hossein Jalali; Kristensen, Lasse Bøgelund Juel

    2011-01-01

    Small RNAs acting in the recently discovered gene regulatory mechanism called RNA interference has a potential as diagnostic signatures of disease and immunological state and when produced synthetically as prophylactic treatment of such diseases. In the RNAi mechanism the cell produces different....... The mechanism can be programmed with several types of small double stranded RNAs - the type of which defines the destiny of the target. One such class of regulatory RNAs called microRNAs are upregulated due to various physiological responses of the cell and they suppress many genes simultaneously believed...... small RNAs which inhibit gene expression through more or less specific interaction with messenger RNAs resulting in repression of translation to protein. In this way cells can turn of genes of specific pathways thereby leading to altered physiological stages of tissues and possibly of whole organisms...

  15. Indigenous Australian Education and Globalisation

    Brady, Wendy

    1997-09-01

    This article focuses on the impact of colonisation and its associated impact on Indigenous teaching and learning. Western European institutions have dominated Indigenous ways of knowing and in Australia this has led to barriers which restrict the participation of Aboriginal people in education systems. Globally Indigenous people are attempting to bring into the introduced educational systems culturally appropriate teaching and learning practices so that a more holistic approach to education can become the norm rather than the exception. The relationship between Indigenous knowledge and western European concepts of knowledge and knowing need to placed in a framework of mutual interaction so that not only do Indigenous people benefit, but so do non-Indigenous educators and students.

  16. Overfishing of small pelagic fishes increases trophic overlap between immature and mature striped dolphins in the Mediterranean Sea.

    Gómez-Campos, Encarna; Borrell, Assumpció; Cardona, Luis; Forcada, Jaume; Aguilar, Alex

    2011-01-01

    The interactions among diet, ecology, physiology, and biochemistry affect N and C stable isotope signatures in animal tissues. Here, we examined if ecological segregation among animals in relation to sex and age existed by analyzing the signatures of δ(15)N and δ(13)C in the muscle of Western Mediterranean striped dolphins. Moreover, we used a Bayesian mixing model to study diet composition and investigated potential dietary changes over the last two decades in this population. For this, we compared isotope signatures in samples of stranded dolphins obtained during two epizootic events occurring in 1990 and 2007-2008. Mean δ(13)C values for females and males were not significantly different, but age-related variation indicated δ(13)C enrichment in both sexes, suggesting that females and males most likely fed in the same general areas, increasing their consumption of benthic prey with age. Enrichment of δ(15)N was only observed in females, suggesting a preference for larger or higher trophic level prey than males, which could reflect different nutritional requirements. δ(13)C values showed no temporal variation, although the mean δ(15)N signature decreased from 1990 to 2007-2008, which could indicate a dietary shift in the striped dolphin over the last two decades. The results of SIAR indicated that in 1990, hake and sardine together contributed to 60% on the diet of immature striped dolphins, and close to 90% for mature striped dolphins. Conversely, the diet of both groups in 2007-2008 was more diverse, as hake and sardine contributed to less than 40% of the entire diet. These results suggest a dietary change that was possibly related to changes in food availability, which is consistent with the depletion of sardine stocks by fishing.

  17. The Double Binds of Indigeneity and Indigenous Resistance

    Francis Ludlow

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available During the twentieth century, indigenous peoples have often embraced the category of indigenous while also having to face the ambiguities and limitations of this concept. Indigeneity, whether represented by indigenous people themselves or others, tends to face a “double bind”, as defined by Gregory Bateson, in which “no matter what a person does, he can’t win.” One exit strategy suggested by Bateson is meta-communication—communication about communication—in which new solutions emerge from a questioning of system-internal assumptions. We offer case studies from Ecuador, Peru and Alaska that chart some recent indigenous experiences and strategies for such scenarios.

  18. Homestead fish farmers' production profile in Osun state, Nigeria ...

    Homestead fish farming in the Nigeria is carried out by small scale operators in small fresh water ponds. ... fish farmers in Osun state is also characterized by a high level of use of improved fish farming techniques and improved technologies.

  19. Indigenous Empowerment through Collective Learning

    Enn, Rosa

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to draw attention to an indigenous community that lives in the periphery of Taiwan. The Dao on Orchid Island have had to face serious abuse of their human rights in terms of ecological exploitation and environmental injustice. The article highlights the empowerment of the indigenous group through collective…

  20. Indigenous rights, performativity and protest

    Hanna, Philippe; Langdon, Esther Jean; Vanclay, Frank

    Protests to claim rights are a common practice among Indigenous peoples of the world, especially when their interests conflict with those of nation states and/or multinational corporations regarding the use of their lands and resources. Drawing on a case study of the National Indigenous Mobilization

  1. Indigenous education and heritage revitalization

    Ke, Wen-Li

    2011-01-01

    The thesis (working title: 'Indigenous Education and Heritage Revitalization') focuses on the (possible) roles of tangible and intangible cultural heritage in the education of indigenous peoples in Taiwan, against the background of worldwide discussions and studies of the possibilities to create and

  2. Indigenous knowledges driving technological innovation

    Lilian Alessa; Carlos Andrade; Phil Cash Cash; Christian P. Giardina; Matt Hamabata; Craig Hammer; Kai Henifin; Lee Joachim; Jay T. Johnson; Kekuhi Kealiikanakaoleohaililani; Deanna Kingston; Andrew Kliskey; Renee Pualani Louis; Amanda Lynch; Daryn McKenny; Chels Marshall; Mere Roberts; Taupouri Tangaro; Jyl Wheaton-Abraham; Everett. Wingert

    2011-01-01

    This policy brief explores the use and expands the conversation on the ability of geospatial technologies to represent Indigenous cultural knowledge. Indigenous peoples' use of geospatial technologies has already proven to be a critical step for protecting tribal self-determination. However, the ontological frameworks and techniques of Western geospatial...

  3. The Indigenous Old World Passifloras

    Wilde, de W.J.J.O.

    1972-01-01

    A short revision of the indigenous Old World taxa in Passifiora in the form of a key, the enumeration of synonyms, descriptions, and an index accounting for all names proposed for the area. Examined specimens, distributional areas, and some notes are given. In the Old World 20 indigenous species are

  4. Protecting indigenous land from mining

    Borde, Radhika

    2017-01-01

    Support for indigenous peoples has been increasing over the last few decades. This can be seen internationally, as well as in several domestic contexts. The support for indigenous people has been linked to the increasingly prominent impetus to conserve the Earth’s biodiversity and environment.

  5. Opportunities and contradictions in maritime heritage and small-scale fishing--a case study of Catalonia.

    Carbonell, Eliseu

    2014-03-01

    Much has been written in recent years about the crisis in fisheries caused by the critical reduction in catches and about the strategies developed by local communities of fishers in response. The aim of this article is to demonstrate that the use of maritime heritage can also be considered part of these strategies. Like fishers elsewhere, Catalan small-scale fishers face severe threats to their professional survival. Recently some of them have became involved in activities related to maritime heritage as a strategy to draw the attention of policy makers and the general public to their problems, a strategy not without clear contradictions. But beyond these contradictions, the article points out the opportunities that use of maritime heritage offers to fishers in Catalonia as well as elsewhere.

  6. Indigenous Gambling Motivations, Behaviour and Consequences in Northern New South Wales, Australia

    Breen, Helen M.; Hing, Nerilee; Gordon, Ashley

    2011-01-01

    Against a background of public health, we sought to examine and explain gambling behaviours, motivations and consequences of Indigenous Australians in northern New South Wales. Adhering to national Aboriginal and ethical guidelines and using qualitative methods, 169 Indigenous Australians were interviewed individually and in small groups using…

  7. Supporting Self-Determined Indigenous Innovations: Rethinking the Digital Divide in Canada

    Jasmin Winter

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available This article seeks to revisit dominant narratives of digital technological development in Indigenous communities in Canada. By prioritizing Indigenous voices and drawing from concepts of self-determination and sovereignty, this analysis reorients discourse surrounding the “digital divide” towards a strength-based approach that positions Indigenous peoples as innovators and creators, not just consumers, of digital technologies. This article begins with a discussion of how dominant media has used technology and technological imagery to misrepresent Indigenous cultures and perpetuate colonial biases, and emphasizes the importance of making space for Indigenous future imagery. Following this is a discussion of digital storytelling and virtual landscapes, showcasing a small sample of Indigenous initiatives online, in video game and app development, and in augmented and virtual reality. Finally, this article considers the potential of “makerspaces” as a framework for future action to bridge theory and practice.

  8. Prior indigenous technological species

    Wright, Jason T.

    2018-01-01

    One of the primary open questions of astrobiology is whether there is extant or extinct life elsewhere the solar system. Implicit in much of this work is that we are looking for microbial or, at best, unintelligent life, even though technological artefacts might be much easier to find. Search for Extraterrestrial Intelligence (SETI) work on searches for alien artefacts in the solar system typically presumes that such artefacts would be of extrasolar origin, even though life is known to have existed in the solar system, on Earth, for eons. But if a prior technological, perhaps spacefaring, species ever arose in the solar system, it might have produced artefacts or other technosignatures that have survived to present day, meaning solar system artefact SETI provides a potential path to resolving astrobiology's question. Here, I discuss the origins and possible locations for technosignatures of such a prior indigenous technological species, which might have arisen on ancient Earth or another body, such as a pre-greenhouse Venus or a wet Mars. In the case of Venus, the arrival of its global greenhouse and potential resurfacing might have erased all evidence of its existence on the Venusian surface. In the case of Earth, erosion and, ultimately, plate tectonics may have erased most such evidence if the species lived Gyr ago. Remaining indigenous technosignatures might be expected to be extremely old, limiting the places they might still be found to beneath the surfaces of Mars and the Moon, or in the outer solar system.

  9. Genetic Structure in a Small Pelagic Fish Coincides with a Marine Protected Area: Seascape Genetics in Patagonian Fjords.

    Cristian B Canales-Aguirre

    Full Text Available Marine environmental variables can play an important role in promoting population genetic differentiation in marine organisms. Although fjord ecosystems have attracted much attention due to the great oscillation of environmental variables that produce heterogeneous habitats, species inhabiting this kind of ecosystem have received less attention. In this study, we used Sprattus fuegensis, a small pelagic species that populates the inner waters of the continental shelf, channels and fjords of Chilean Patagonia and Argentina, as a model species to test whether environmental variables of fjords relate to population genetic structure. A total of 282 individuals were analyzed from Chilean Patagonia with eight microsatellite loci. Bayesian and non-Bayesian analyses were conducted to describe the genetic variability of S. fuegensis and whether it shows spatial genetic structure. Results showed two well-differentiated genetic clusters along the Chilean Patagonia distribution (i.e. inside the embayment area called TicToc, and the rest of the fjords, but no spatial isolation by distance (IBD pattern was found with a Mantel test analysis. Temperature and nitrate were correlated to the expected heterozygosities and explained the allelic frequency variation of data in the redundancy analyses. These results suggest that the singular genetic differences found in S. fuegensis from inside TicToc Bay (East of the Corcovado Gulf are the result of larvae retention bya combination of oceanographic mesoscale processes (i.e. the west wind drift current reaches the continental shelf exactly in this zone, and the local geographical configuration (i.e. embayment area, islands, archipelagos. We propose that these features generated an isolated area in the Patagonian fjords that promoted genetic differentiation by drift and a singular biodiversity, adding support to the existence of the largest marine protected area (MPA of continental Chile, which is the Tic-Toc MPA.

  10. Genetic Structure in a Small Pelagic Fish Coincides with a Marine Protected Area: Seascape Genetics in Patagonian Fjords.

    Canales-Aguirre, Cristian B; Ferrada-Fuentes, Sandra; Galleguillos, Ricardo; Hernández, Cristián E

    2016-01-01

    Marine environmental variables can play an important role in promoting population genetic differentiation in marine organisms. Although fjord ecosystems have attracted much attention due to the great oscillation of environmental variables that produce heterogeneous habitats, species inhabiting this kind of ecosystem have received less attention. In this study, we used Sprattus fuegensis, a small pelagic species that populates the inner waters of the continental shelf, channels and fjords of Chilean Patagonia and Argentina, as a model species to test whether environmental variables of fjords relate to population genetic structure. A total of 282 individuals were analyzed from Chilean Patagonia with eight microsatellite loci. Bayesian and non-Bayesian analyses were conducted to describe the genetic variability of S. fuegensis and whether it shows spatial genetic structure. Results showed two well-differentiated genetic clusters along the Chilean Patagonia distribution (i.e. inside the embayment area called TicToc, and the rest of the fjords), but no spatial isolation by distance (IBD) pattern was found with a Mantel test analysis. Temperature and nitrate were correlated to the expected heterozygosities and explained the allelic frequency variation of data in the redundancy analyses. These results suggest that the singular genetic differences found in S. fuegensis from inside TicToc Bay (East of the Corcovado Gulf) are the result of larvae retention bya combination of oceanographic mesoscale processes (i.e. the west wind drift current reaches the continental shelf exactly in this zone), and the local geographical configuration (i.e. embayment area, islands, archipelagos). We propose that these features generated an isolated area in the Patagonian fjords that promoted genetic differentiation by drift and a singular biodiversity, adding support to the existence of the largest marine protected area (MPA) of continental Chile, which is the Tic-Toc MPA.

  11. Of Fish and Micrornas

    Bela-Ong, Dennis; Schyth, Brian Dall; Lorenzen, Niels

    Fish is an important small vertebrate multidisciplinary model for investigating various aspects of reproduction, development, disease (immunology, toxicology, carcinogenesis), and aging. It is also an important model for comparative and evolutionary studies because it represents the lower...... to the mechanisms of control of gene expression, impacting a broad range of biological processes. Thus far, >25, 000 miRNA sequences have been identified in 193 species, including fish. In fish, the interest on miRNAs started with the analysis of their expression and function during embryonic development. In our...... selection markers to identify disease-resistant fish....

  12. Human Rights and Indigenous Peoples

    Garth Nettheim

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper begins by noting the low level of reference to Indigenous Australians in the Commonwealth Constitution at the start of Federation, and goes on to discuss the limits to what was achieved by the 1967 amendments. The situation represents a marked contrast with the USA and Canada in terms of treaties and constitutional recognition. In Australia, particularly during the period of the ‘Reconciliation’ process in the 1990s, important steps were taken by Indigenous Australians to identify items of ‘unfinished business’ in a ‘Statement of Indigenous Rights’. But there has been limited progress to meet these aspirations. And Australian law still lacks a tradition of recognition of human rights generally, let alone Indigenous rights. International law, too, largely lacked recognition of human rights, generally prior to the adoption in 1945 of the Charter of the United Nations. The brief references in the Charter were subsequently developed in a range of declarations and of treaties. These applied to people generally, with scant reference to Indigenous peoples. But, since the 1970s, there has been growing international recognition of the rights of Indigenous peoples under existing declarations and treaties. Since the 1990s, in particular, the UN system has established specific mechanisms for addressing such issues. On 13 September 2007, the General Assembly finally adopted a Declaration on the Rights of Indigenous Peoples.

  13. Indigenous Educational Attainment in Canada

    Catherine E. Gordon

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available In this article, the educational attainment of Indigenous peoples of working age (25 to 64 years in Canada is examined. This diverse population has typically had lower educational levels than the general population in Canada. Results indicate that, while on the positive side there are a greater number of highly educated Indigenous peoples, there is also a continuing gap between Indigenous and non-Indigenous peoples. Data also indicate that the proportion with less than high school education declined, which corresponds with a rise of those with a PSE; the reverse was true in 1996. Despite these gains, however, the large and increasing absolute numbers of those without a high school education is alarming. There are intra-Indigenous differences: First Nations with Indian Status and the Inuit are not doing as well as non-Status and Métis peoples. Comparisons between the Indigenous and non-Indigenous populations reveal that the documented gap in post-secondary educational attainment is at best stagnant. Out of the data analysis, and based on the history of educational policy, we comment on the current reform proposed by the Government of Canada, announced in February of 2014, and propose several policy recommendations to move educational attainment forward.

  14. Development methodologies for the assessment of impacts of small scale hydroelectric power plant projects on migratory fish; Desenvolvimento metodologico para avaliacao de impactos de empreendimentos hidreletricos de pequeno porte sobre peixes migradores

    Silva, Lucas Goncalves da; Barradas, Jose Ricardo de Souza [Pontificia Universidade Catolica do Rio Grande do Sul (UFRGS), Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil). Dept. de Biodiversidade e Ecologia], E-mail: lucas.silva@pucrs.br

    2009-10-15

    Dams influence directly the process of fish migration. Assessing the impact of these infrastructure and direct research for that purpose minimize environmental impacts resulting from projects on biodiversity. Through computer models and probability logistic regressions of occurrence that take into account geomorphologic parameters (elevation and basin area) was obtained a standard distribution model of migratory fishes species in the upper Uruguay river basin (RS/SC) with high calibration (84.39% of adherence). The computational modelling significantly increases the knowledge about methodologies for evaluate environmental impacts caused by small and large dams and applicability in other basins. (author)

  15. Indigenous innovation in China

    Jin, Jun; Slepniov, Dmitrij

    2012-01-01

    champions. However, recently growing number of Chinese companies are seeking to create a foundation for growth and development based on innovation. As a result of this, many of them spread their operations to the countries of the traditional industrial ‘triad’ of North America, Europe and Japan to capture...... a foothold in these markets and to tap into the advanced technologies and concepts originating from this developed context. Another category of Chinese companies includes those who seek to move from routine transactional tasks to more innovation-intensive concepts while remaining in China and relying...... on their own in-house resources. The development and implementation of indigenous innovation solutions for these companies is an imperative which has not been adequately addressed in the literature. Therefore, by employing an explorative case of a Chinese company behind an innovative logistics concept...

  16. Vaccination in Fish

    Chettri, Jiwan Kumar

    vaccines have reduced the need for usage of antibiotics with more than 99 % since the 1980s. Fish can be vaccinated by three different administration routes: injection, immersion and oral vaccination. Injection vaccination (intraperitoneal injection of vaccine) is the most time consuming and labor...... intensive method, which however, provides the best protection of the fish. Immersion vaccination is used for immunization of a high number of small fish is cost-efficient and fast (30 sec immersion into vaccine). Oral vaccination (vaccine in feed) is the least efficient. As in higher vertebrates fish...... respond to vaccination by increasing the specific antibody titer and by activating the cellular responses. My talk will cover vaccination methods in fish, immune responses and some adverse effect of oil-adjuvanted vaccines in fish with reference to our work in rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss....

  17. Indigenous Research on Chinese Management

    Li, Peter Ping; Leung, Kwok; Chen, Chao C.

    2012-01-01

    We attempt to provide a definition and a typology of indigenous research on Chinese management as well as outline the general methodological approaches for this type of research. We also present an integrative summary of the four articles included in this special issue and show how they illustrate...... our definition and typology of indigenous research on Chinese management, as well as the various methodological approaches we advocate. Further, we introduce a commentary on the four articles from the perspective of engaged scholarship, and also three additional articles included in this issue....... Finally, we conclude with our suggestions for future indigenous research....

  18. Feeds and feeding strategies for Colossoma macropomum (Cuvier 1818) : fish growth as related to dietary protein

    Meer, van der M.B.

    1997-01-01

    Colossoma macropomum is an indigenous fish species from the Amazon region. The amino acid profile of its body protein proved to be similar to that of other fish species. Soya meal and fish meal have, based on their amino acid profiles, a comparable protein quality. This

  19. Productivity of Indigenous and Exotic Cattle on Kenya Ranches ...

    A comparison of productivity and adaptability of indigenous (Boran and Small East African Zebu) and the exotic (Sahiwal and Ayrshire) cattle on Kenyan ranches located in semi-arid areas of the Rift Valley Provinces was done. Data sets of the cattle breeds over the 1979-1993 period on Deloraine, Elkarama, Ilkerin, ...

  20. Influence of Prices on Market Participation Decisions of Indigenous ...

    Over 70% of the domesticated birds in Kenya are indigenous chicken (IC) providing meat and table eggs. They are frequently raised through the free range, backyard production system. Small flock sizes are characteristic of this production system and often, sales are mainly at the farmgate. Although IC production ...

  1. Gender Gaps in Indigenous Socioeconomic Outcomes: Australian Regional Comparisons and International Possibilities

    Nicholas Biddle

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available International literature clearly demonstrates the potential for gender-based inequalities to constrain development processes. In the United Nations Development Programme Gender-related Development Index, Australia ranks in the top five across 177 countries, suggesting that the loss of human development due to gender inequality is minor. However, such analysis has not been systematically applied to the Indigenous Australian population, at least in a quantitative sense. Using the 2006 Australian Census, this paper provides an analysis across three dimensions of socioeconomic disparity: Indigeneity, gender, and geography. This paper also explores the development of a similar gender-related index as a tool to enable a relative ranking of the performance of Indigenous males and females at the regional level across a set of socioeconomic outcomes.The initial findings suggest that although there is a substantial development gap between Indigenous and non-Indigenous Australians, the development loss from gender-related inequality for Indigenous Australians is relatively small. Higher life expectancy and education attainment for Indigenous females balances out their slightly lower earnings to a large extent. At the regional level, Indigenous females tend to fare better than Indigenous males for the set of indicators chosen; and, this is particularly true in capital cities.

  2. The gambling behavior of indigenous Australians.

    Hing, Nerilee; Breen, Helen; Gordon, Ashley; Russell, Alex

    2014-06-01

    The gambling activities of minority groups such as Indigenous peoples are usually culturally complex and poorly understood. To redress the scarcity of information and contribute to a better understanding of gambling by Indigenous people, this paper presents quantitative evidence gathered at three Australian Indigenous festivals, online and in several Indigenous communities. With support from Indigenous communities, the study collected and analyzed surveys from 1,259 self-selected Indigenous adults. Approximately 33 % of respondents gambled on card games while 80 % gambled on commercial gambling forms in the previous year. Gambling participation and involvement are high, particularly on electronic gaming machines (EGMs), the favorite and most regular form of gambling. Men are significantly more likely to participate in gambling and to gamble more frequently on EGMs, horse/dog races, sports betting and instant scratch tickets. This elevated participation and frequency of gambling on continuous forms would appear to heighten gambling risks for Indigenous men. This is particularly the case for younger Indigenous men, who are more likely than their older counterparts to gamble on EGMs, table games and poker. While distinct differences between the gambling behaviors of our Indigenous sample and non-Indigenous Australians are apparent, Australian Indigenous behavior appears similar to that of some Indigenous and First Nations populations in other countries. Although this study represents the largest survey of Indigenous Australian gambling ever conducted in New South Wales and Queensland, further research is needed to extend our knowledge of Indigenous gambling and to limit the risks from gambling for Indigenous peoples.

  3. Drug Policy and Indigenous Peoples.

    Burger, Julian; Kapron, Mary

    2017-06-01

    This paper identifies the principal concerns of indigenous peoples with regard to current international treaties on certain psychoactive substances and policies to control and eradicate their production, trafficking, and sale. Indigenous peoples have a specific interest in the issue since their traditional lands have become integrated over time into the large-scale production of coca, opium poppy, and cannabis crops, in response to high demand from the American and European markets, among others. As a consequence, indigenous peoples are persecuted because of their traditional use of these and other plant-based narcotics and hallucinogens. They are also victims of the drug producers who remove them from their lands or forcibly recruit them into the production process. As indigenous peoples are caught in the violent world of illicit drug production, law enforcement often targets them first, resulting in disproportionate rates of criminalization and incarceration.

  4. Indigenous Technological Innovation : Capability and ...

    Indigenous Technological Innovation : Capability and Competitiveness in China's ... IDRC and key partners will showcase critical work on adaptation and ... Call for new OWSD Fellowships for Early Career Women Scientists now open.

  5. Fishing down the largest coral reef fish species.

    Fenner, Douglas

    2014-07-15

    Studies on remote, uninhabited, near-pristine reefs have revealed surprisingly large populations of large reef fish. Locations such as the northwestern Hawaiian Islands, northern Marianas Islands, Line Islands, U.S. remote Pacific Islands, Cocos-Keeling Atoll and Chagos archipelago have much higher reef fish biomass than islands and reefs near people. Much of the high biomass of most remote reef fish communities lies in the largest species, such as sharks, bumphead parrots, giant trevally, and humphead wrasse. Some, such as sharks and giant trevally, are apex predators, but others such as bumphead parrots and humphead wrasse, are not. At many locations, decreases in large reef fish species have been attributed to fishing. Fishing is well known to remove the largest fish first, and a quantitative measure of vulnerability to fishing indicates that large reef fish species are much more vulnerable to fishing than small fish. The removal of large reef fish by fishing parallels the extinction of terrestrial megafauna by early humans. However large reef fish have great value for various ecological roles and for reef tourism. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Indigenous Rights in the Making: The United Nations Declaration on the Rights of Indigenous Peoples

    Gilbert, Jérémie

    2007-01-01

    This article examines to what extent the recently adopted United Nations Declarations on the Rights of Indigenous Peoples participate to the development of indigenous peoples' international human rights.

  7. Relative and combined effects of habitat and fishing on reef fish communities across a limited fishing gradient at Ningaloo.

    Wilson, Shaun K; Babcock, Russ C; Fisher, Rebecca; Holmes, Thomas H; Moore, James A Y; Thomson, Damian P

    2012-10-01

    Habitat degradation and fishing are major drivers of temporal and spatial changes in fish communities. The independent effects of these drivers are well documented, but the relative importance and interaction between fishing and habitat shifts is poorly understood, particularly in complex systems such as coral reefs. To assess the combined and relative effects of fishing and habitat we examined the composition of fish communities on patch reefs across a gradient of high to low structural complexity in fished and unfished areas of the Ningaloo Marine Park, Western Australia. Biomass and species richness of fish were positively correlated with structural complexity of reefs and negatively related to macroalgal cover. Total abundance of fish was also positively related to structural complexity, however this relationship was stronger on fished reefs than those where fishing is prohibited. The interaction between habitat condition and fishing pressure is primarily due to the high abundance of small bodied planktivorous fish on fished reefs. However, the influence of management zones on the abundance and biomass of predators and target species is small, implying spatial differences in fishing pressure are low and unlikely to be driving this interaction. Our results emphasise the importance of habitat in structuring reef fish communities on coral reefs especially when gradients in fishing pressure are low. The influence of fishing effort on this relationship may however become more important as fishing pressure increases. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Species richness and patterns of invasion in plants, birds, and fishes in the United States

    Thomas J. Stohlgren; David T. Barnett; Curtis H. Flather; Pam L. Fuller; Bruce G. Peterjohn; John T. Kartesz; Lawrence L. Master

    2006-01-01

    We quantified broad-scale patterns of species richness and species density (mean # species/km2) for native and non-indigenous plants, birds, and fishes in the continental USA and Hawaii. We hypothesized that the species density of native and non-indigenous taxa would generally decrease in northern latitudes and higher elevations following...

  9. Fish Allergy

    ... Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Fish Allergy KidsHealth / For Parents / Fish Allergy What's in this ... Print en español Alergia al pescado About Fish Allergy A fish allergy is not exactly the same ...

  10. The importance of aquaculture community group (ACG) in social media (Facebook) towards the aquaculture knowledge and financial improvement of small scale fish farmers (SSFF) in rural areas of Central Java

    Elfitasari, T.; Nugroho, R. A.; Nugroho, A. P.

    2018-04-01

    Internet is now widely used by people all over the world, including small scale fisheries communities such as fish farmers. Many applications are being created including social media Facebook which are used by small scale fish farmers (SSFF) for its ease and convenience. The objective of this research is to identify the impact of aquaculture community group (ACG) in social media Facebook towards the improvement of aquaculture knowledge and financial condition of small scale fish farmers in Central Java. This research used quantitative approach where questionnaires were distributed into two groups: SSFF who are member of ACG in social media Facebook and who are not. Sampling technique used random sampling, used 60 samples of SSFF in Central Java. Data obtained were tested using the test statistic Independent t-test using SPSS v.20. Result showed a significant effect of group who are member of ACG in social media Facebook and those who are not, towards the aquaculture knowledge (t count -7.424 and sig 0.000) and financial improvement (t -3.775 and sig 0.000). The results of the average value of the SSFF who are ACG member in Facebook are also higher than farmers who are not.

  11. A Visual Profile of Queensland Indigenous Children.

    Hopkins, Shelley; Sampson, Geoff P; Hendicott, Peter L; Wood, Joanne M

    2016-03-01

    Little is known about the prevalence of refractive error, binocular vision, and other visual conditions in Australian Indigenous children. This is important given the association of these visual conditions with reduced reading performance in the wider population, which may also contribute to the suboptimal reading performance reported in this population. The aim of this study was to develop a visual profile of Queensland Indigenous children. Vision testing was performed on 595 primary schoolchildren in Queensland, Australia. Vision parameters measured included visual acuity, refractive error, color vision, nearpoint of convergence, horizontal heterophoria, fusional vergence range, accommodative facility, AC/A ratio, visual motor integration, and rapid automatized naming. Near heterophoria, nearpoint of convergence, and near fusional vergence range were used to classify convergence insufficiency (CI). Although refractive error (Indigenous, 10%; non-Indigenous, 16%; p = 0.04) and strabismus (Indigenous, 0%; non-Indigenous, 3%; p = 0.03) were significantly less common in Indigenous children, CI was twice as prevalent (Indigenous, 10%; non-Indigenous, 5%; p = 0.04). Reduced visual information processing skills were more common in Indigenous children (reduced visual motor integration [Indigenous, 28%; non-Indigenous, 16%; p < 0.01] and slower rapid automatized naming [Indigenous, 67%; non-Indigenous, 59%; p = 0.04]). The prevalence of visual impairment (reduced visual acuity) and color vision deficiency was similar between groups. Indigenous children have less refractive error and strabismus than their non-Indigenous peers. However, CI and reduced visual information processing skills were more common in this group. Given that vision screenings primarily target visual acuity assessment and strabismus detection, this is an important finding as many Indigenous children with CI and reduced visual information processing may be missed. Emphasis should be placed on identifying

  12. Fish allergy and fish allergens

    Kuehn, A; Hilger, Christiane; Ollert, Markus

    2016-01-01

    Fish is one of the main elicitors for food allergies. For a long time, the clinical picture of fish allergy was reduced to the following features. First, fish-allergic patients suffer from a high IgE cross-reactivity among fishes so that they have to avoid all species. Second, clinically relevant...... symptoms are linked to the presence of IgE-antibodies recognizing parvalbumin, the fish panallergen. This view was challenged by results from recent studies as follows. 1. Allergic reactions which are limited to single or several fish species (mono-or oligosensitisations) apply not only to single cases...... but patients with this phenotype constitute an important sub-group among fish-allergic individuals. 2. Newly identified fish allergens, enolases, aldolases, and fish gelatin, are of high relevance as the majority of the fish-allergic individuals seem to develop specific IgE against these proteins. The present...

  13. Freshwater fishes of Golden Gate Highlands National Park

    I.A. Russell

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available The study aimed to determine the distribution and relative abundance of freshwater fishes in the Golden Gate Highlands National Park. A total of 1778 fish specimens from three species were collected during surveys carried out in the Little Caledon River during 2002. The chubbyhead barb Barbus anoplus was the only indigenous species recorded, and comprised 99.5 of the total catch. Two of the three recorded species were alien {Cypnnus carpio, Oncorhynchus mykiss}. A further nine indigenous species could potentially occur within the park, though are unlikely to be permanent residents. Barriers formed by instream impoundments may prevent temporary immigration of indigenous fishes, but also limit the further spread of alien species in the park's rivers.

  14. Reassembling the Indigenous Public Sphere

    Jack Latimore

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper seeks to provide an initial theoretical grounding to assess a practical project: a new software application that attempts to be a beneficial resource in the field of Indigenous representation. As a starting point, we are concerned to provide a theoretical ground for considering the inherited and shifting spaces of Indigenous media representation. To this end, this paper reconsiders the strengths and weaknesses of debates surrounding the ‘Indigenous public sphere’. This is used as grounds for critically understanding the relations that constitute this field. Following this, we consider how a more materialist approach to publics might enable a productive reconceptualization, and in particular how digital media initiatives and shifting news markets may be contributing to change. Finally, drawing on this model, we outline both the ‘Wakul app’ project, and how this framework might inform an assessment of its impact.

  15. Phenomenology, Hermeneutics and the study of indigenous ...

    Indilinga: African Journal of Indigenous Knowledge Systems ... Yet in Africa, where traditional religions and thought systems of the indigenous people of Africa were formerly ... and the active participation of respondents in the research process.

  16. Research methods in indigenous mathematical Knowledge: An ...

    Indigenous games are an integral component of indigenous knowledge systems. ... and national activities; mathematical concepts associated with the games; possibilities and implications for general classroom ... AJOL African Journals Online.

  17. Emancipatory Indigenous Knowledge Systems: implications for ...

    Erna Kinsey

    Faculty of Education, University of South Africa, P.O. Box 392, Unisa, 0003 South Africa ... Indigenous Knowledge also termed Traditional, Endogenous or Classical .... its civilisation, carries both its indigenous and modern knowledge systems.

  18. Adult Learning, Transformative Education, and Indigenous Epistemology

    McEachern, Diane

    2016-01-01

    This chapter describes an innovative program that weaves together adult learning, transformative education, and indigenous epistemology in order to prepare Alaskan rural indigenous social service providers to better serve their communities.

  19. Curriculum enrichment through indigenous Zulu games | Roux ...

    Curriculum enrichment through indigenous Zulu games. ... 1997). The aim of the study was to document and analyze indigenous Zulu games for possible curriculum enrichment of physical ... AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL.

  20. Traditional uses of indigenous tree species

    Mo

    Cordia millenii, Ficus spp, Markhamia lutea and Albizia spp are the most commonly used indigenous ... activities like construction of roads and expansion of ranches and ... impact of traditional uses of indigenous tress on the sustainability.

  1. The World Indigenous Research Alliance (WIRA): Mediating and Mobilizing Indigenous Peoples' Educational Knowledge and Aspirations

    Whitinui, Paul; McIvor, Onowa; Robertson, Boni; Morcom, Lindsay; Cashman, Kimo; Arbon, Veronica

    2015-01-01

    There is an Indigenous resurgence in education occurring globally. For more than a century Euro-western approaches have controlled the provision and quality of education to, and for Indigenous peoples. The World Indigenous Research Alliance (WIRA) established in 2012, is a grass-roots movement of Indigenous scholars passionate about making a…

  2. Toward an Integrative Framework of Indigenous Research

    Li, Peter Ping

    2012-01-01

    It has long been recognized that indigenous research should be helpful, if not essential, for an adequate understanding of local phenomena. The indigenous approach is consistent with, but extends beyond, the repeated calls for contextualizing management and organization research. However, the cha......It has long been recognized that indigenous research should be helpful, if not essential, for an adequate understanding of local phenomena. The indigenous approach is consistent with, but extends beyond, the repeated calls for contextualizing management and organization research. However...

  3. Indigenous lunar construction materials

    Rogers, Wayne P.; Sture, Stein

    1991-01-01

    The utilization of local resources for the construction and operation of a lunar base can significantly reduce the cost of transporting materials and supplies from Earth. The feasibility of processing lunar regolith to form construction materials and structural components is investigated. A preliminary review of potential processing methods such as sintering, hot-pressing, liquification, and cast basalt techniques, was completed. The processing method proposed is a variation on the cast basalt technique. It involves liquification of the regolith at 1200-1300 C, casting the liquid into a form, and controlled cooling. While the process temperature is higher than that for sintering or hot-pressing (1000-1100 C), this method is expected to yield a true engineering material with low variability in properties, high strength, and the potential to form large structural components. A scenario for this processing method was integrated with a design for a representative lunar base structure and potential construction techniques. The lunar shelter design is for a modular, segmented, pressurized, hemispherical dome which could serve as habitation and laboratory space. Based on this design, estimates of requirements for power, processing equipment, and construction equipment were made. This proposed combination of material processing method, structural design, and support requirements will help to establish the feasibility of lunar base construction using indigenous materials. Future work will refine the steps of the processing method. Specific areas where more information is needed are: furnace characteristics in vacuum; heat transfer during liquification; viscosity, pouring and forming behavior of molten regolith; design of high temperature forms; heat transfer during cooling; recrystallization of basalt; and refinement of estimates of elastic moduli, compressive and tensile strength, thermal expansion coefficient, thermal conductivity, and heat capacity. The preliminary

  4. More Like Ourselves: Indigenous Capitalism through Tourism

    Bunten, Alexis Celeste

    2010-01-01

    Through a comparison of Indigenous-owned cultural tourism businesses in southeastern Alaska and New Zealand as well as secondary data examining Indigenous tourism across the Pacific, this article introduces the concept of "Indigenous capitalism" as a distinct strategy to achieve ethical, culturally appropriate, and successful Indigenous…

  5. Indigenous healthcare worker involvement for Indigenous adults and children with asthma.

    Chang, Anne B; Taylor, Brett; Masters, I Brent; Laifoo, Yancy; Brown, Alexander Dh

    2010-05-12

    .23; 95% CI 0.59 to 1.87), parents' asthma skill score (SMD 0.67; 95% CI 0.28 to 1.06) and days absent from school (100% school-aged children in the intervention group missed children's asthma skill score; both were limited to one study only and the direction favoured IHW group. There were no studies in adults. The involvement of IHW in asthma programs targeted for their own ethnic group in 2 small trials was beneficial in improving most, but not all asthma outcomes in children with asthma. It is very likely that involvement of an IHW is beneficial. However as exacerbation frequency was not significantly different between groups, we cannot be confident of the results in all settings. Nevertheless, given the complexity of health outcomes and culture as well as the importance of self-determination for indigenous peoples, the practice of including IHW in asthma education programs for indigenous children and adults with asthma is justified, but should be subject to further randomised controlled trials.

  6. Screening for ROS1 gene rearrangements in non-small cell lung cancers using immunohistochemistry with FISH confirmation is an effective method to identify this rare target

    Selinger, Christina I; Li, Bob T; Pavlakis, Nick; Links, Matthew; Gill, Anthony J; Lee, Adrian; Clarke, Stephen; Tran, Thang N; Lum, Trina; Yip, Po Yee; Horvath, Lisa; Yu, Bing; Kohonen-Corish, Maija RJ; O’Toole, Sandra A; Cooper, Wendy A

    2016-01-01

    Aims To assess the prevalence of ROS1 rearrangements in a retrospective and prospective diagnostic Australian cohort and evaluate the effectiveness of immunohistochemical screening. Methods A retrospective cohort of 278 early stage lung adenocarcinomas and an additional 104 prospective NSCLC cases referred for routine molecular testing were evaluated. ROS1 immunohistochemistry (IHC) was performed (D4D6 clone, Cell Signaling Technology) on all cases as well as fluorescence in situ hybridisation (FISH) using the ZytoVision and Abbott Molecular ROS1 FISH probes, with ≥15% of cells with split signals considered positive for rearrangement. Results Eighty eight cases (32%) from the retrospective cohort showed staining by ROS1 IHC, and one case (0.4%) showed ROS1 rearrangement by FISH. Nineteen of the prospective diagnostic cases showed ROS1 IHC staining of which 12 (12%) cases were confirmed as ROS1 rearranged by FISH. There were no ROS1 rearranged cases that showed no expression of ROS1 with IHC. The ROS1 rearranged cases in the prospective cohort were all EGFR wildtype and ALK rearrangement negative. The sensitivity of ROS1 IHC in the retrospective cohort was 100% and specificity was 76%. Conclusions ROS1 rearrangements are rare events in lung adenocarcinomas. Selection of cases for ROS1 FISH testing, by excluding EGFR/ALK positive cases and use of IHC to screen for potentially positive cases can be used to enrich for the likelihood of a identifying a ROS1 rearranged lung cancer and prevent the need to undertake expensive and time consuming FISH testing in all cases. PMID:27599111

  7. The Making of Indigeneity: a Study of Indigenous Representation in Peru

    Gandrup, Tobias; Jespersgaard Jakobsen, Line

    2013-01-01

    This project is set out to analyse the negotiation of indigeneity. This will be done by unfolding the semiotic practices of two organisations that represents indigenous interests in contemporary Peruvian politics. It examines the rise of the term indigeneity in international politics through the emergence of an international framework and asks to how this has shaped political possibilities for the local indigenous organisations to represent the indigenous interests. The analysis shows that th...

  8. Indigenous actinorhizal plants of Australia

    Indigenous species of actinorhizal plants of Casuarinaceae, Elaeagnaceae and Rhamnaceae are found in specific regions of Australia. Most of these plants belong to Casuarinaceae, the dominant actinorhizal family in Australia. Many of them have significant environmental and economical value. The other two families with ...

  9. Indigenous Technological Innovation : Capability and ...

    ... as determined by a Steering Committee of experts drawn from government agencies, universities and research institutions all over the country. It is expected to generate a body of evidence that will aid Chinese policymakers to develop and implement effective policies for enhancing indigenous innovations in the west.

  10. Ethnopharmacology, indigenous collection and preservation ...

    An ethnomedicinal study was conducted in the remote Hindukush-Himalayan valleys of Utror and Gabral, during which 36 common folk medicinal recipes of the area were documented. The indigenous methods of medicinal plants collection and their further processing were also explored. It was also observed that huge ...

  11. A Digital Indigenous Knowledge Preservation Framework

    Maasz, Donovan; Winschiers-Theophilus, Heike; Stanley, Colin

    2018-01-01

    Indigenous Knowledge (IK) preservation and management has been taken up as a serious endeavor by various governments who have realized the value of IK as well as the opportunities given by emerging technologies. Considering the various phases and activities of indigenous knowledge management which...... the indigenous knowledge digitization process, namely, codesign, conceptualization, collection, correction, curation, circulation, and creation of knowledge. We exemplify the application of the model with technologies currently developed under an indigenous knowledge holder’s toolkit promoting the agency...... of digitalizing indigenous knowledge across the phases....

  12. In vivo screening of modified siRNAs for non-specific antiviral effect in a small fish model: number and localization in the strands are important

    Schyth, Brian Dall; Bramsen, Jesper Bertram; Pakula, Malgorzata Maria

    2012-01-01

    but often only examining the expression of specific immunologically relevant genes in selected cell populations typically blood cells from treated animals or humans. Assays using a relevant physiological state in biological models as read-out are not common. Here we use a fish model where the innate...

  13. Eradication of non-native fish from a small mountain lake: gill netting as a non-toxic alternative to the use of rotenone.

    R.A. Knapp; K.R. Matthews

    1998-01-01

    Nearly all mountain lakes in the western United States were historically fishless, but most now contain introduced trout populations. As a result of the impacts of these introductions on ecosystem structure and function, there is increasing interest in restoring some lakes to a fishless condition. To date, however, the only effective method of fish eradication is the...

  14. Towards a better understanding of small scale distribution of littoral age-0 fish in a deep-valley reservoir: day or night surveys?

    Kratochvíl, Michal; Vašek, Mojmír; Peterka, Jiří; Draštík, Vladislav; Čech, Martin; Jůza, Tomáš; Muška, Milan; Matěna, Josef; Kubečka, Jan

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 728, č. 1 (2014), s. 125-139 ISSN 0018-8158 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) EE2.3.20.0204 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : spatial distribution * habitat use * juvenile fish * littoral zone * deep reservoirs * electrofishing Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 2.275, year: 2014

  15. Indigenous strains of Lactobacillus isolated from the Istrian cheese as potential starter cultures

    Nataša Hulak; Ana Žgomba Maksimović; Ana Kaić; Andrea Skelin; Mirna Mrkonjić Fuka

    2016-01-01

    Istrian ewe’s milk cheese is an autochthonous product that is manufactured for generations on small family farms in the Croatian peninsula Istria. Traditional Istrian cheese is made from unpasteurized ewe’s milk, without the addition of starter cultures. Consequently, the specific flavour and texture of the Istrian cheese is owed to metabolic processes of indigenous microflora of which Lactobacillus species play pivotal role. Characterisation and selection of indigenous lactobacilli may resul...

  16. Variation in indigenous forest resource use in central Guyana.

    Claire M P Ozanne

    Full Text Available Sustainable forest conservation strategies should be based on local as well as landscape-scale forest resource use data. Using ecological and sociological techniques, we test the hypotheses that (1 forest resource use differs between ethnic and socioeconomic indigenous groups and (2 that this difference results in differing spatial patterns of resource use, with implications for forest diversity and for conservation planning. In the North Rupununi Guyana, three adjacent indigenous communities (differing in their indigenous/immigrant balance were recorded using 73 animal and 164 plant species (plus several unidentified ethno-species. Farm sites formed important foci for most forest based activities and ex-farm sites supported similar floristic diversity to surrounding forest. Resource usage differences between communities could be attributed to socio-cultural drivers, e.g. mammal meat consumption and the use of the fruits from the palm tree A. maripa were higher in more traditional households. When extracting household construction timber, lower income groups created small scattered felling sites akin to tree fall gaps whereas higher income groups created larger gaps. Lower income (indigenous households tended to clear larger but more contained sites for farming while mixed or non-Amerindian household tended to clear smaller but more widely dispersed farm sites. These variations resulted in different patterns of forest disturbance originating from agriculture and timber extraction.

  17. Future RSW system on fishing boat - RSW CO2 pilot; Fremtidens RSW anlegg p#Latin Small Letter A With Ring Above# fiskeb#Latin Small Letter A With Ring Above#t - CO2 RSW pilot

    Nordtvedt, Tom St#Latin Small Letter A With Ring Above#le [Sintef Energy, Trondheim(Norway); Ladam, Yves [Sintef Energy, Trondheim (Norway)

    2012-07-01

    The project has focused on spreading knowledge about CO2 refrigeration technology in Norwegian industry and to make Norwegian industry able to supply commercial plant with CO2 as refrigerant, especially adapted to the conditions on fishing boats. Through the project it has been built and installed an RSW CO2 plant in a fishing boat. This is the first RSW CO2 system for a boat, built in Norway. It has been tested under realistic hunting conditions and have shown good results. Approximately 900 tonnes of capelin has been chilled, and even under poor conditions such as strong weather conditions has worked without operational problems. The project and the technology has been presented to refrigation industry, and it was a great interest in the plant solution. The project is demonstrated and tested how a RSW CO2 systems can be developed for use aboard the boat. The technology has been tested and will be in regular commercial operation forward. For fisheries, this means that there is now an environmentally friendly alternative for cooling fish on board the boat. If more boats are installing such facilities ahead, it will result in lower environmental impact from the Norwegian fishing fleet.(eb)

  18. Building Disaster Resilience with Indigenous Knowledge in Rural Fiji

    Fujieda, Ayako; Kobayashi, Hirohide

    2013-01-01

    Pacific islands are widely recognized to be vulnerable to natural hazards due to its location and characteristics as small island states. Despite this, the communities have survived the recurrent natural hazards and have accumulated the extensive knowledge and experience to cope with them. Although the benefits of indigenous knowledge within disaster risk reduction are begun to be recognized, only a few researches is available. This paper takes up the issue of housings which are frequently...

  19. Fish Rhabdoviruses

    Kurath, G.; Winton, J.

    2008-01-01

    Many important viral pathogens of fish are members of the family Rhabdoviridae. The viruses in this large group cause significant losses in populations of wild fish as well as among fish reared in aquaculture. Fish rhabdoviruses often have a wide host and geographic range, and infect aquatic animals in both freshwater and seawater. The fish rhabdoviruses comprise a diverse collection of isolates that can be placed in one of two quite different groups: isolates that are members of the established genusNovirhabdovirus, and those that are most similar to members of the genus Vesiculovirus. Because the diseases caused by fish rhabdoviruses are important to aquaculture, diagnostic methods for their detection and identification are well established. In addition to regulations designed to reduce the spread of fish viruses, a significant body of research has addressed methods for the control or prevention of diseases caused by fish rhabdoviruses, including vaccination. The number of reported fish rhabdoviruses continues to grow as a result of the expansion of aquaculture, the increase in global trade, the development of improved diagnostic methods, and heightened surveillance activities. Fish rhabdoviruses serve as useful components of model systems to study vertebrate virus disease, epidemiology, and immunology.

  20. Why do fish school?

    Matz LARSSON

    2012-01-01

    Synchronized movements (schooling) emit complex and overlapping sound and pressure curves that might confuse the inner ear and lateral line organ (LLO) of a predator.Moreover,prey-fish moving close to each other may blur the electro-sensory perception of predators.The aim of this review is to explore mechanisms associated with synchronous swimming that may have contributed to increased adaptation and as a consequence may have influenced the evolution of schooling.The evolutionary development of the inner ear and the LLO increased the capacity to detect potential prey,possibly leading to an increased potential for cannibalism in the shoal,but also helped small fish to avoid joining larger fish,resulting in size homogeneity and,accordingly,an increased capacity for moving in synchrony.Water-movements and incidental sound produced as by-product of locomotion (ISOL) may provide fish with potentially useful information during swimming,such as neighbour body-size,speed,and location.When many fish move close to one another ISOL will be energetic and complex.Quiet intervals will be few.Fish moving in synchrony will have the capacity to discontinue movements simultaneously,providing relatively quiet intervals to allow the reception of potentially critical environmental signals.Besides,synchronized movements may facilitate auditory grouping of ISOL.Turning preference bias,well-functioning sense organs,good health,and skillful motor performance might be important to achieving an appropriate distance to school neighbors und aid the individual fish in reducing time spent in the comparatively less safe school periphery.Turning preferences in ancestral fish shoals might have helped fish to maintain groups and stay in formarion,reinforcing aforementioned predator confusion mechanisms,which possibly played a role in the lateralization of the vertebrate brain [Current Zoology 58 (1):116-128,2012].

  1. Comparison of IHC, FISH and RT-PCR methods for detection of ALK rearrangements in 312 non-small cell lung cancer patients in Taiwan.

    Wu, Yi-Cheng; Chang, Il-Chi; Wang, Chi-Liang; Chen, Tai-Di; Chen, Ya-Ting; Liu, Hui-Ping; Chu, Yen; Chiu, Yu-Ting; Wu, Tzu-Hua; Chou, Li-Hui; Chen, Yi-Rong; Huang, Shiu-Feng

    2013-01-01

    Recently Echinoderm microtubule-associated protein-like 4- anaplastic lymphoma kinase (EML4-ALK) fusion gene has become an important biomarker for ALK tyrosine kinase inhibitor (crizotinib) treatment in NSCLC. However, the best detection method and the significance of EML4-ALK variant types remain uncertain. Reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), fluorescence in Situ hybridization (FISH) and Immunohistochemical (IHC) stain were performed on tumor tissues of 312 NSCLC patients for detection of ALK rearrangements. Mutation analyses for EGFR and KRAS genes were also performed. Thirteen of the 312 patients (4.17%) had ALK rearrangements detected by RT-PCR. If RT-PCR data was used as the gold standard, FISH tests had a low sensitivity (58.33%), but very good specificity (99.32%). IHC stain had better sensitivity (91.67%) than FISH, but lower specificity (79.52%), when the cut off was IHC2+. All of the 8 patients with high abundance of EML4-ALK positive cells in tumor tissues (assessed by the signal intensities of the RT-PCR product), were also have high expression of ALK protein (IHC3+), and positive for FISH, except one failed in FISH. Variants 3a+3b (4/5, 80%) of EML4-ALK fusion gene were more common to have high abundance of EML4-ALK positive cells in tumor tissues than variant 1 (1/3, 33.3%). Meta-analysis of the published data of 2273 NSCLC patients revealed that variant 3 (23/44, 52.3%) was the most common type in Chinese population, while variant 1 (28/37, 75.7%) was most common in Caucasian. Among the three detection methods, RT-PCR could detect not only the presence of EML4-ALK fusion gene and their variant types, but also the abundance of EML4-ALK positive cells in NSCLC tumor tissues. The latter two factors might affect the treatment response to anti-ALK inhibitor. Including RT-PCR as a diagnostic test for ALK inhibitor treatment in the prospective clinical trials is recommended.

  2. Comparison of IHC, FISH and RT-PCR methods for detection of ALK rearrangements in 312 non-small cell lung cancer patients in Taiwan.

    Yi-Cheng Wu

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Recently Echinoderm microtubule-associated protein-like 4- anaplastic lymphoma kinase (EML4-ALK fusion gene has become an important biomarker for ALK tyrosine kinase inhibitor (crizotinib treatment in NSCLC. However, the best detection method and the significance of EML4-ALK variant types remain uncertain. METHODS: Reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR, fluorescence in Situ hybridization (FISH and Immunohistochemical (IHC stain were performed on tumor tissues of 312 NSCLC patients for detection of ALK rearrangements. Mutation analyses for EGFR and KRAS genes were also performed. RESULTS: Thirteen of the 312 patients (4.17% had ALK rearrangements detected by RT-PCR. If RT-PCR data was used as the gold standard, FISH tests had a low sensitivity (58.33%, but very good specificity (99.32%. IHC stain had better sensitivity (91.67% than FISH, but lower specificity (79.52%, when the cut off was IHC2+. All of the 8 patients with high abundance of EML4-ALK positive cells in tumor tissues (assessed by the signal intensities of the RT-PCR product, were also have high expression of ALK protein (IHC3+, and positive for FISH, except one failed in FISH. Variants 3a+3b (4/5, 80% of EML4-ALK fusion gene were more common to have high abundance of EML4-ALK positive cells in tumor tissues than variant 1 (1/3, 33.3%. Meta-analysis of the published data of 2273 NSCLC patients revealed that variant 3 (23/44, 52.3% was the most common type in Chinese population, while variant 1 (28/37, 75.7% was most common in Caucasian. CONCLUSIONS: Among the three detection methods, RT-PCR could detect not only the presence of EML4-ALK fusion gene and their variant types, but also the abundance of EML4-ALK positive cells in NSCLC tumor tissues. The latter two factors might affect the treatment response to anti-ALK inhibitor. Including RT-PCR as a diagnostic test for ALK inhibitor treatment in the prospective clinical trials is recommended.

  3. Indigenous Geographies: Research as Reconciliation

    Cindy Smithers Graeme

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Employing a reflexive and co-constructed narrative analysis, this article explores our experiences as a non-Indigenous doctoral student and a First Nations research assistant working together within the context of a community-based participatory Indigenous geography research project. Our findings revealed that within the research process there were experiences of conflict, and opportunities to reflect upon our identity and create meaningful relationships. While these experiences contributed to an improved research process, at a broader level, we suggest that they also represented our personal stories of reconciliation. In this article, we share these stories, specifically as they relate to reconciliatory processes of re-education and cultural regeneration. We conclude by proposing several policy recommendations to support research as a pathway to reconciliation in Canada.

  4. Nutrient composition of important fish species in Bangladesh and potential contribution to recommended nutrient intakes

    Bogard, Jessica R.; Thilsted, Shakuntala H.; Marks, Geoffrey C.

    2015-01-01

    Fish, in Bangladesh where malnutrition remains a significant development challenge, is an irreplaceable animal-source food in the diet of millions. However, existing data on the nutrient composition of fish do not reflect the large diversity available and have focused on only a few select nutrien...... indigenous species, which should guide policy and programmes to improve food and nutrition security in Bangladesh....

  5. Hawaii ESI: FISHPT (Fish Points)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive biological resource data for native stream and anchialine pool fish species in coastal Hawaii. (Anchialine pools are small,...

  6. Perspectives on Reconciliation & Indigenous Rights

    Nina Burridge

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper provides an overview of discourses of the movement for national reconciliation prevailing within the Australian socio-political context since the inception of the Council for Aboriginal Reconciliation in 1991, to the national apology delivered by the Prime Minister Kevin Rudd on 13th February 2008. It provides an framework for the various discourses of reconciliation, by exploring and analysing the accrued meanings to such terms such as ‘genuine’, substantive or ‘true’ reconciliation; the Howard’s Government’s ‘practical reconciliation’ and the Rudd government’s great attempt at ‘symbolic’ reconciliation in the national apology to Indigenous Australians. In the changing political context in Australia today this paper revisits the debates on reconciliation, and endeavours to locate the movement solidly within a human rights framework that includes first nation rights. This requires an examination of the roots of the reconciliation movement including community attitudes to reconciliation and the nature of the peoples’ movement as well as the differing perspectives of policy makers, politicians and of course, Indigenous peoples. It asks crucial questions about the progress of reconciliation and the type of reconciliation mainstream Australians will accept. In truth therefore, was the ‘National Apology’ a grand symbolic gesture by mainstream Australia to maintain the status quo and divert our eyes from the more searching questions of the ‘unfinished business’ of ‘substantive’ reconciliation which encompasses first nations rights for Indigenous peoples.

  7. Circle of Courage Infusion into the Alberta Indigenous Games 2011

    Marchand, Dawn Marie

    2011-01-01

    Thousands of indigenous people from across North America came to the Enoch Cree Nation for the Alberta Indigenous Games, six days of sport, education, and cultural awakening. The vision of the Alberta Indigenous Games is to recognize the value and potential of Indigenous culture and the young people. Activities include sports, indigenous arts,…

  8. Preliminary exploration and thought of promoting library science Indigenization

    Liu Wenping; Du Jingling

    2014-01-01

    The article explains the significance of Library Science Indigenization, Answer some misunderstanding of Library Science Indigenization,reveals express form of Library Science Indigenization, Discusses criteria of Library Science Indigenization, finally give some suggestions and methods of Library Science Indigenization. (authors)

  9. Coldwater fish in wadeable streams [Chapter 8

    Jason B. Dunham; Amanda E. Rosenberger; Russell F. Thurow; C. Andrew Dolloff; Philip J. Howell

    2009-01-01

    Small, wadeable streams comprise the majority of habitats available to fishes in fluvial networks. Wadeable streams are generally less than 1 m deep, and fish can be sampled without the use of water craft. Cold waters are defined as having mean 7-d summer maximum water temperatures of less than 20°C and providing habitat for coldwater fishes.

  10. Responding to Indigenous Australian Sexual Assault

    Janya McCalman

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Indigenous Australians experience a high prevalence of sexual assault, yet a regional sexual assault service found few Indigenous Australians accessed their services. This prompted exploration of how its services might be improved. A resultant systematic search of the literature is reported in this article. Seven electronic databases and seven websites were systematically searched for peer reviewed and gray literature documenting responses to the sexual assault of Indigenous Australians. These publications were then classified by response type and study type. Twenty-three publications met the inclusion criteria. They included studies of legal justice, media, and community-based and mainstream service responses for Indigenous survivors and perpetrators. We located program descriptions, measurement, and descriptive research, but no intervention studies. There is currently insufficient evidence to confidently prescribe what works to effectively respond to Indigenous Australian sexual assault. The study revealed an urgent need for researchers, Indigenous communities, and services to work together to develop the evidence base.

  11. Fish health and fish quality

    Ingerslev, Hans-Christian

    Aquaculture is an expanding worldwide industry producing an increasing amount of fish every year. The quality of the fish meat is dependent upon many biological and non-biological factors. Infectious diseases are known to cause bleedings and damage of the muscle tissue that may lead to scarring...... are poorly described in fish. The present work in this thesis focused on: 1) examination of potential changes in the quality regarding texture of the muscle tissue in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) after previous infection with the bacterial pathogens Yersinia ruckeri and Vibrio anguillarum; 2...... of these studies showed that previous infections by Yersinia ruckeri and Vibrio anguillarum gave rise to subsequent changes regarding textural quality parameters in fresh fish meat, while no differences were seen for cold-smoked meat from the same fish. The texture in previous infected fish was less flaky and less...

  12. China's Indigenous IP Policies -- Here to Stay?

    Prud'homme, Dan

    2013-01-01

    In 2010 and 2011, foreign businesses and governments welcomed measures believed to dramatically reform a highly controversial branch of China’s indigenous innovation policy which provided government procurement preferences to applicants who can meet restrictive indigenous intellectual property (IP) rights requirements. However, this article describes specific examples of (what can be labeled) China’s “indigenous IP policy” that are still very much in force, in particular several programs link...

  13. Emerging Ideas for Innovation in Indigenous Education: A Research Synthesis of Indigenous Educative Roles in Mainstream and Flexi Schools

    Shay, Marnee

    2017-01-01

    The Indigenous education agenda in Australia remains focused on mainstream schooling contexts. Although overlooked in Indigenous education discourse, flexi schools appear to be engaging with disproportionately high numbers of Indigenous students and staff. The educative roles of Indigenous peoples in broader Indigenous education discourse are…

  14. Plant Provocations: Botanical Indigeneity and (Decolonial Imaginations

    Narendran Kumarakulasingam

    Full Text Available Abstract Abstract: This paper examines the possibilities and limitations of an emergent global discourse of indigeneity to offer an oppositional praxis in the face of the depredations of settler colonialism in post-apartheid South Africa. Self-conscious articulations of indigeneity, we argue, reveal the fraught relationship between increasingly hegemonic and narrow understandings of the indigenous and the carceral logic of apartheid. We examine this by focusing on the meanings and attachments forged through indigenous plants in two realms: the world of indigenous gardening practised by white suburban dwellers and that of subsistence farming undertaken by rural black women. This juxtaposition reveals that in contrast to the pervasive resurrection of colonial time that defines metropolitan indigenous gardening, the social relations of a subsistence cultivator challenge the confines of colonial temporality, revealing a creative mode of dissent structured around dreams, ancestral knowledge, and the commons. Our exploration of struggles around botanical indigeneity suggests that anticolonial modes of indigeneity do not necessarily inhere in recognisable forms and that studies of the indigenous need to proceed beyond those that bear familial resemblance to emergent global understandings.

  15. Fishing degrades size structure of coral reef fish communities.

    Robinson, James P W; Williams, Ivor D; Edwards, Andrew M; McPherson, Jana; Yeager, Lauren; Vigliola, Laurent; Brainard, Russell E; Baum, Julia K

    2017-03-01

    Fishing pressure on coral reef ecosystems has been frequently linked to reductions of large fishes and reef fish biomass. Associated impacts on overall community structure are, however, less clear. In size-structured aquatic ecosystems, fishing impacts are commonly quantified using size spectra, which describe the distribution of individual body sizes within a community. We examined the size spectra and biomass of coral reef fish communities at 38 US-affiliated Pacific islands that ranged in human presence from near pristine to human population centers. Size spectra 'steepened' steadily with increasing human population and proximity to market due to a reduction in the relative biomass of large fishes and an increase in the dominance of small fishes. Reef fish biomass was substantially lower on inhabited islands than uninhabited ones, even at inhabited islands with the lowest levels of human presence. We found that on populated islands size spectra exponents decreased (analogous to size spectra steepening) linearly with declining biomass, whereas on uninhabited islands there was no relationship. Size spectra were steeper in regions of low sea surface temperature but were insensitive to variation in other environmental and geomorphic covariates. In contrast, reef fish biomass was highly sensitive to oceanographic conditions, being influenced by both oceanic productivity and sea surface temperature. Our results suggest that community size structure may be a more robust indicator than fish biomass to increasing human presence and that size spectra are reliable indicators of exploitation impacts across regions of different fish community compositions, environmental drivers, and fisheries types. Size-based approaches that link directly to functional properties of fish communities, and are relatively insensitive to abiotic variation across biogeographic regions, offer great potential for developing our understanding of fishing impacts in coral reef ecosystems. © 2016

  16. An Indigenous Academic Perspective to Preserving and Promoting Indigenous Knowledge and Traditions: A Fiji Case Study

    Ali, Wahab

    2017-01-01

    Indigenous knowledge is multidimensional encompassing the beliefs, practices, arts, spirituality and other forms of traditional and cultural experiences that belong to Indigenous communities globally. In order to protect, preserve and recognize the knowledge of the Indigenous people of Fiji, known as the iTaukei, the University of Fiji has…

  17. Stimulating Parenting Practices in Indigenous and Non-Indigenous Mexican Communities

    Heather A. Knauer

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Parenting may be influenced by ethnicity; marginalization; education; and poverty. A critical but unexamined question is how these factors may interact to compromise or support parenting practices in ethnic minority communities. This analysis examined associations between mothers’ stimulating parenting practices and a range of child-level (age; sex; and cognitive and socio-emotional development; household-level (indigenous ethnicity; poverty; and parental education; and community-level (economic marginalization and majority indigenous population variables among 1893 children ages 4–18 months in poor; rural communities in Mexico. We also explored modifiers of associations between living in an indigenous community and parenting. Key findings were that stimulating parenting was negatively associated with living in an indigenous community or family self-identification as indigenous (β = −4.25; SE (Standard Error = 0.98; β = −1.58; SE = 0.83 respectively. However; living in an indigenous community was associated with significantly more stimulating parenting among indigenous families than living in a non-indigenous community (β = 2.96; SE = 1.25. Maternal education was positively associated with stimulating parenting only in indigenous communities; and household crowding was negatively associated with stimulating parenting only in non-indigenous communities. Mothers’ parenting practices were not associated with child sex; father’s residential status; education; or community marginalization. Our findings demonstrate that despite greater community marginalization; living in an indigenous community is protective for stimulating parenting practices of indigenous mothers.

  18. Motivation Matters: Profiling Indigenous and Non-Indigenous Students' Motivational Goals

    Magson, Natasha R.; Craven, Rhonda G.; Nelson, Genevieve F.; Yeung, Alexander S.; Bodkin-Andrews, Gawaian H.; McInerney, Dennis M.

    2014-01-01

    This research explored gender and cross-cultural similarities and differences in the motivational profiles of Indigenous Papua New Guinean (PNG) and Indigenous and non-Indigenous Australians. Secondary students (N = 1,792) completed self-report motivational measures. Invariance testing demonstrated that the Inventory of School Motivation…

  19. Fish pelleting

    PUBLICATIONS1

    fish meal pelletizing machine utilized 4kg of ingredients to produce 3.77kg pellets at an effi- ciency of .... Design and fabrication of fish meal pellet processing machine ... 53 ... horsepower for effective torque application on .... two edges were tacked with a spot weld to hold ... then welded on to the shaft making sure that the.

  20. Fish parasites

    This book contains 22 chapters on some of the most important parasitic diseases in wild and farmed fish. International experts give updated reviews and provide solutions to the problems......This book contains 22 chapters on some of the most important parasitic diseases in wild and farmed fish. International experts give updated reviews and provide solutions to the problems...

  1. Fish reproduction

    Rocha, Maria João; Arukwe, Augustine; Kapoor, B. G

    2008-01-01

    ... of reproductive systems is essential for such studies. Fishes comprise over 28,000 species, with a remarkable variability in morphology, physiology and environmental adaptation. Knowledge on fish reproduction is scattered across numerous sources that shows a dynamic research field. The Editors believe it to be an opportune moment for a...

  2. A Comparative Analysis of Indigenous Research Guidelines to Inform Genomic Research in Indigenous Communities

    Jay Maddock

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Genetic research has potential benefits for improving health, such as identifying molecular characteristics of a disease, understanding disease prevalence and treatment, and developing treatments tailored to patients based on individual genetic characteristics of their disease. Indigenous people are often targeted for genetic research because genes are easier to study in communities that practice endogamy. Therefore, populations perceived to be more homogenous, such as Indigenous peoples, are ideal for genetic studies. While Indigenous communities remain the focal point of many genomic studies, some result in harm and unethical practice. Unfortunately, the harms of poorly formulated and unethical research involving Indigenous people have created barriers to participation that prevent critical and lifesaving research. These harms have led a number of Indigenous communities to develop guidelines for engaging with researchers to assist in safely bridging the gap between genetic research and Indigenous peoples.SPECIFIC AIMS: The specific aims of this study were: (1 to conduct an international review and comparison of Indigenous research guidelines that highlight topics regarding genetics and use of biological samples and identify commonalities and differences among ethical principles of concern to Indigenous peoples; and (2 develop policy recommendations for Indigenous populations interested in creating formal policies around the use of genetic information and protection of biological samples using data from specific aim 1.METHODS: A comparative analysis was performed to identify best research practices and recommendations for Indigenous groups from four countries: Canada, New Zealand, Australia, and the United States. The analysis examined commonalities in political relationships, which support self-determination among these Indigenous communities to control their data. Current international Indigenous guidelines were analyzed to review

  3. Fish assemblages

    McGarvey, Daniel J.; Falke, Jeffrey A.; Li, Hiram W.; Li, Judith; Hauer, F. Richard; Lamberti, G.A.

    2017-01-01

    Methods to sample fishes in stream ecosystems and to analyze the raw data, focusing primarily on assemblage-level (all fish species combined) analyses, are presented in this chapter. We begin with guidance on sample site selection, permitting for fish collection, and information-gathering steps to be completed prior to conducting fieldwork. Basic sampling methods (visual surveying, electrofishing, and seining) are presented with specific instructions for estimating population sizes via visual, capture-recapture, and depletion surveys, in addition to new guidance on environmental DNA (eDNA) methods. Steps to process fish specimens in the field including the use of anesthesia and preservation of whole specimens or tissue samples (for genetic or stable isotope analysis) are also presented. Data analysis methods include characterization of size-structure within populations, estimation of species richness and diversity, and application of fish functional traits. We conclude with three advanced topics in assemblage-level analysis: multidimensional scaling (MDS), ecological networks, and loop analysis.

  4. The importance of indigenous games: The selected cases of ...

    The importance of indigenous games: The selected cases of Indigenous games in South Africa. ... do not have enough time to transfer their skills and knowledge of indigenous games to the younger generation. ... AJOL African Journals Online.

  5. Integrating indigenous games and knowledge into Physical Education

    Integrating indigenous games and knowledge into Physical Education: Implications for ... The aim of this study was to analyse indigenous Zulu games towards integrating indigenous game skill and knowledge ... AJOL African Journals Online.

  6. Fishes and humankind III. Editorial.

    Andrew K. G. Jones

    1999-12-01

    Full Text Available The publication of this group of three papers form part of the 1987 meeting of the International Council for Archaeozoologists Fish Remains Working Group which took place at the University of York, U. K. The papers illustrate an increased awareness of the significance of ichthyological research to archaeology and cover three areas of research: taphonomy; fishing artefacts; and fish remains recovered from an excavation. Jones sheds some light on the relative robustness of the bewildering array of elements in a fish skeleton by recording damage to a skeleton when it is trampled. His paper suggests an index of robustness which might be used to assess the degree of fragmentation in archaeological assemblages. Kemp reports on the excavation of a small medieval building located adjacent to medieval fish ponds created by Cistercian monks in North Yorkshire, England. In addition to the structural evidence, an impressive assemblage of weights, presumably net weights, found on or near the site is published. Perhaps most significant is a large lead weight which may have been used to weight catches of fish from the ponds. Fish remains recovered from two excavations at the quayside at Newcastle-upon-Tyne, England are discussed by Nicholson. Around 6000 identified bones form the basis for the study, the majority of which were identified as Gadid (cod family or herring. While the main food fishes typify fish bone assemblages from most post-Roman urban archaeological sites, the identification of small fishes such as sandeels, smelt, gobies and buttefish may indicate the utilisation of fish not nowadays considered as food at all. Given the diversity of species (30 individual species identified it is suggested that the remains from the main bone-producing organic horizons, dated to the late twelfth to thirteenth centuries, may include discard from a nearby fishmarket.

  7. One Fish, Two Fish, Redfish, You Fish!

    White, Katherine; Timmons, Maryellen; Medders, Paul

    2011-01-01

    The recreational fishing activity presented in this article provides a hands-on, problem-based experience for students; it unites biology, math, economics, environmental policy, and population dynamics concepts. In addition, the activity allows students to shape environmental policy in a realistic setting and evaluate their peers' work. By…

  8. Mobilising indigenous resources for anthropologically designed HIV ...

    The purpose was to discover what aspects of indigenous leadership and cultural resources might be accessed and developed to influence individual behaviour as well as the prevailing community norms, values, sanctions and social controls that are related to sexual behaviour. The indigenous leaders participating in the ...

  9. Gambling: A Poison Chalice for Indigenous Peoples'

    Dyall, Lorna

    2010-01-01

    Indigenous populations are now being encouraged to be involved in the business of gambling as an operator or if not given that status, are actively encouraged to participate in gambling activities. Research both published and unpublished show that different indigenous populations often have a higher prevalence of problem and pathological gambling…

  10. Reframing Evaluation: Defining an Indigenous Evaluation Framework

    LaFrance, Joan; Nichols, Richard

    2008-01-01

    The American Indian Higher Education Consortium (AIHEC), comprising 34 American Indian tribally controlled colleges and universities, has undertaken a comprehensive effort to develop an "Indigenous Framework for Evaluation" that synthesizes Indigenous ways of knowing and Western evaluation practice. To ground the framework, AIHEC engaged…

  11. Race, Racialization and Indigeneity in Canadian Universities

    Henry, Frances; Dua, Enakshi; Kobayashi, Audrey; James, Carl; Li, Peter; Ramos, Howard; Smith, Malinda S.

    2017-01-01

    This article is based on data from a four-year national study of racialization and Indigeneity at Canadian universities. Its main conclusion is that whether one examines representation in terms of numbers of racialized and Indigenous faculty members and their positioning within the system, their earned income as compared to white faculty, their…

  12. Rowing upstream: Contextualising indigenous research processes ...

    The use of indigenous research ethics has a possibility of contextualising indigenous research. Orthodox research is guided by ethical principles which are meant to protect the institution or researcher and the participants. Despite the existence of the ethical pronouncements, literature has shown that research has proven to ...

  13. Sonographic measurements of ocular biometry of indigenous ...

    This study was aimed at conducting ophthalmic sonographic examination of Nigerian indigenous dogs to provide baseline information on some major ocular parameters. Healthy eyes of eighty (80) indigenous dogs were used for the study. The dogs were adequately restrained physically and the structure of the ocular ...

  14. Bolivian Currents: Popular Participation and Indigenous Communities.

    Dudley, Mary Jo

    1997-01-01

    Describes the effects on indigenous communities of Bolivia's recent Popular Participation Laws, which relocated political and financial decision making to the municipal level; community efforts toward cultural maintenance and nonformal agricultural education; the activism of indigenous university students; and the dual discrimination suffered by…

  15. Knowledge, indigenous knowledge, peace and development ...

    This paper seeks to understand the nature of knowledge, introduce the concept of indigenous knowledge, provide some idea of the status of Indigenous ... African professionals, scholars, researchers, policy makers and activists attempting to understand or promote IK run the risk of a cool reception, ridicule or even outright ...

  16. Indilinga: African Journal of Indigenous Knowledge Systems ...

    Focus and Scope. Welcome to Indilinga: African Journal of Indigenous Knowledge Systems (IAJIKS). The name Indilinga: stands for the "circular orientation" of indigenous African communities which is exhibited in their material culture and behaviour. The journal has been motivated by the need for a dependable expression ...

  17. Otosclerosis among South African indigenous blacks | Tshifularo ...

    Objective: To report cases of clinical otosclerosis histologically confirmed among indigenous South African blacks. Design: A retrospective study. Setting: Referral tertiary center, MEDUNSA, Garankuwa Hospital, South Africa. Subjects: All fifteen indigenous South African blacks diagnosed with clinical otosclerosis at ...

  18. Breeding program for indigenous chicken in Kenya

    Ngeno, K.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract

    Ngeno, K. (2015). Breeding program for indigenous chicken in Kenya. Analysis of diversity in indigenous chicken populations. PhD thesis, Wageningen University, the Netherlands

    The objective of this research was to generate knowledge required for the

  19. Embedding Indigenous Perspectives in Teaching School Science

    Appanna, Subhashni Devi

    2011-01-01

    Some Indigenous students are at risk of academic failure and science teachers have a role in salvaging these equally able students. This article firstly elucidates the research entailed in Indigenous science education in Australia and beyond. Secondly, it reviews the cultural and language barriers when learning science, faced by middle and senior…

  20. Haptoglobin Phenotypes and Hypertension in Indigenous Zambians ...

    Haptoglobin Phenotypes and Hypertension in Indigenous Zambians at the University Teaching Hospital, Lusaka, Zambia. MM Phiri, T Kaile, FM Goma. Abstract. Objectives: The aim of the study was to investigate the association between presence of haptoglobin phenotypes and hypertension in indigenous Zambian patients ...

  1. Documenting indigenous knowledge about Africa's traditional ...

    This article examines the global debates about indigenous knowledge and Africa's traditional medicine. It explores whether it is possible to document all the elements of indigenous knowledge about Africa's traditional medicine that is used for the treatment of diverse forms of sickness. Certain types of Africa's traditional ...

  2. Indigenous Students in the Tertiary Education Sector

    Bandias, Susan; Fuller, Don; Larkin, Steven

    2014-01-01

    Important recent objectives of indigenous education policy in Australia have been aimed at redressing indigenous economic and social disadvantage through increasing student retention, progression and completion rates in both compulsory and post-compulsory education. The two sectors of the tertiary education system, vocational education and…

  3. Including People with Disabilities: An Indigenous Perspective

    Bevan-Brown, Jill

    2013-01-01

    Being victims of racial prejudice, religious intolerance, poverty, disempowerment and language loss it could be expected that indigenous people would be supportive of the Inclusion Movement with its philosophy of valuing and acceptance of all people. This supposition is examined for Maori, the indigenous people of Aotearoa/New Zealand. In…

  4. Indigenous Angiosperm biodiversity of Olabisi Onabanjo University ...

    The conservation of the genetic variability of the indigenous angiosperm community is a sine qua non. A survey of indigenous angiosperm biodiversity of the Olabisi Onabanjo University permanent site was undertaken. Plants collected were dried, poisoned and mounted on herbarium sheets, proper identification and ...

  5. Indigenous Ecological Knowledge and Modern Western Ecological ...

    Indigenous knowledge is often dismissed as 'traditional and outdated', and hence irrelevant to modern ecological assessment. This theoretical paper critically examines the arguments advanced to elevate modern western ecological knowledge over indigenous ecological knowledge, as well as the sources and uses of ...

  6. Decolonizing Methodologies: Research and Indigenous Peoples.

    Smith, Linda Tuhiwai

    From the vantage point of indigenous peoples, the term "research" is inextricably linked to European imperialism and colonialism. In this book, an indigenous researcher calls for the decolonization of research methods. The first part of the book critically examines the historical and philosophical bases of Western research; Western…

  7. INDIGENOUS KNOWLEDGE IN THE MANAGEMENT OF A ...

    Apusigah

    the attention of decision-makers yet it forms part of discussions in such fora as the Convention .... neem tree under the millet heads when they lay them on the ground to dry. .... There is a close competition between the conventional and indigenous practices, .... Figure 3: Most Effective Indigenous Management Practices.

  8. The contribution of geography to disparities in preventable hospitalisations between indigenous and non-indigenous Australians.

    Harrold, Timothy C; Randall, Deborah A; Falster, Michael O; Lujic, Sanja; Jorm, Louisa R

    2014-01-01

    To quantify the independent roles of geography and Indigenous status in explaining disparities in Potentially Preventable Hospital (PPH) admissions between Indigenous and non-Indigenous Australians. Analysis of linked hospital admission data for New South Wales (NSW), Australia, for the period July 1 2003 to June 30 2008. Age-standardised admission rates, and rate ratios adjusted for age, sex and Statistical Local Area (SLA) of residence using multilevel models. PPH diagnoses accounted for 987,604 admissions in NSW over the study period, of which 3.7% were for Indigenous people. The age-standardised PPH admission rate was 76.5 and 27.3 per 1,000 for Indigenous and non-Indigenous people respectively. PPH admission rates in Indigenous people were 2.16 times higher than in non-Indigenous people of the same age group and sex who lived in the same SLA. The largest disparities in PPH admission rates were seen for diabetes complications, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and rheumatic heart disease. Both rates of PPH admission in Indigenous people, and the disparity in rates between Indigenous than non-Indigenous people, varied significantly by SLA, with greater disparities seen in regional and remote areas than in major cities. Higher rates of PPH admission among Indigenous people are not simply a function of their greater likelihood of living in rural and remote areas. The very considerable geographic variation in the disparity in rates of PPH admission between Indigenous and non-Indigenous people indicates that there is potential to reduce unwarranted variation by characterising outlying areas which contribute the most to this disparity.

  9. Re-vitalizing an indigenous language

    Hansen, Annette Skovsted

    2014-01-01

    The re-vitalization of indigenous languages depend on political and legal support and the imple-mentation of language rights depend on knowledge of vocabulary and grammar structures of the individual languages. Throughout the nineteenth century world, compilers of dictionaries adapted indigenous...... languages to match standards defined in nation-building and, thereby, enabled latent possibilities for indigenous populations to re-vitalize their languages in connection with the United Nations Year for Indigenous Peoples in 1993, and the first United Nations Decade for Indigenous Peoples, 1995......–2004. This article focuses on dictionaries of the languages of the Ainu populations in the borderlands between the nation-states Japan and Russia. The main argument is that the Ainu Cultural Promotion Act promulgated in 1997 had a significant impact on the production and purpose of Ainu dictionaries...

  10. Injury prevention in Australian Indigenous communities.

    Ivers, Rebecca; Clapham, Kathleen; Senserrick, Teresa; Lyford, Marilyn; Stevenson, Mark

    2008-12-01

    Injury prevention in Indigenous communities in Australia is a continuing national challenge, with Indigenous fatality rates due to injury three times higher than the general population. Suicide and transport are the leading causes of injury mortality, and assault, transport and falls the primary causes of injury morbidity. Addressing the complex range of injury problems in disadvantaged Indigenous communities requires considerable work in building or enhancing existing capacity of communities to address local safety issues. Poor data, lack of funding and absence of targeted programs are some of the issues that impede injury prevention activities. Traditional approaches to injury prevention can be used to highlight key areas of need, however adaptations are needed in keeping with Indigenous peoples' holistic approach to health, linked to land and linked to community in order to address the complex spiritual, emotional and social determinants of Indigenous injury.

  11. Environmental education and indigenous approach

    Babar, S.M.; Hussain, M.; Mahmood, T.

    2005-01-01

    Environmental pollution control is the most important and highly discussed issue at the international level. Our and our's next generation survival highly depends on environment. Environmental security is not less important than territorial security. Living in the Competitive trade, Business and Commerce era. WTO threats of globalization to countries like Pakistan require sharp and immediate actions. SOS(Save our Sole) steps should be taken in Environmental Education in order to reorganizing values and clarifying Concepts to develop the necessary skills and attitude necessary to understand and appreciate the interrelatidness among masses, the Cultures and Ecosystem. Historical backgrounds along with different approaches were discussed particularly reference to Pakistan. In this presentation a new but indigenous idea is flashed to improve the environment education system in poor third world countries including Pakistan. Instead of imported ideas, previous implemented as such, indigenous approach highly Perfumed with Islamic, Ideological and cultural blends will do the right job in right direction if employed with true sense of commitment. (author)

  12. scale fish- eries: a comparison of two fishing settlements in ...

    is widely recognised as having a major influence on marine ecosystems ... sanal and small - scale fisheries can be difficult due to geographi- ... ever - growing coastal populations, the number of small - scale ... northern Madagascar near the city of Antsiranana, ... increasingly becoming a tourist destination, and some fish-.

  13. Alabama ESI: FISH (Fish Polygons)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive biological resource data for marine, estuarine, and freshwater fish species in Alabama. Vector polygons in this data set represent...

  14. Maryland ESI: FISH (Fish Polygons)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive biological resource data for marine, estuarine, anadromous, and freshwater fish species in Maryland. Vector polygons in this data...

  15. Hawaii ESI: FISH (Fish Polygons)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive biological resource data for reef, marine, estuarine, and native stream fish species in coastal Hawaii. Vector polygons in this data...

  16. Virginia ESI: FISH (Fish Polygons)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive biological resource data for marine, estuarine, anadromous, and brackishwater fish species in Virginia. Vector polygons in this data...

  17. Louisiana ESI: FISH (Fish Polygons)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive biological resource data for freshwater (inland) fish species in coastal Louisiana. Vector polygons represent water-bodies and other...

  18. Tendency in fishing development and fish consumption in Serbia

    Tešić Milan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Production and catch of fish in Serbia increases from year to year, while in the world it reached its peak at the beginning of this century. Serbia has all the favorable natural and economic conditions for further development of fishing. Out of total production, that is, annual fish catch in Serbia, the greatest part is sold by organized purchase, lower part is exported, and the reminder goes to the market through retail. It is well known that food consumption, therefore fish consumption, depends on several factors such as the production level, retail price, consumers purchasing power and their eating habits. Therefore, when analyzing the tendency of production and consumption of fish in Serbia, it is important to investigate the influence of production, price and purchasing power of consumers on it. In order to investigate the set objective, there were used corresponding quantitative data obtained by Statistical Office of the Republic of Serbia. On the basis of the original data, there were determined certain parameters, which were used as variables for calculation of correlational-regressive and maginal analysis for determining the elasticity of demand and consummation of fish per capita in Serbia. Production and catch of fish in Serbia tended to increase during the observed period, with annual growth rate of 17.4%. Beside the fact that annual growth rate is 4.8%, fish consumption per capita in Serbia is still quite small (X=4.89kg, what is a consequence of population habit to consume predominantly meat. In our study we have found out that fish consumption in Serbia mostly depend on fish production per capita (rxy=0.6364, as well as on groos (rxy=0.6045 and net (rxy=0.5969 earnings. Also, it is determined that consumption elasticity has the highest growth in regard to fish production per capita. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. TR 31011

  19. Developing an indigenous surgical workforce for Australasia.

    Aramoana, Jaclyn; Alley, Patrick; Koea, Jonathan B

    2013-12-01

    Progress has been made in Australia and New Zealand to increase the numbers of indigenous students (Aboriginal, Torres Strait Islander and Maori) entering primary medical qualification courses. In New Zealand, up to 20 Maori are graduating annually, with similar numbers possible in Australia, creating a potential opportunity to develop an indigenous surgical workforce. A literature review identified factors utilized by medical schools to attract indigenous students into medical careers and the interventions necessary to ensure successful graduation. A further search identified those factors important in encouraging indigenous medical graduates to enter specialist training programmes and achieve faculty appointments. All medical schools have utilized elements of a 'pipeline approach' encompassing contact with students at secondary school level to encourage aspirational goals and assist with suitable subject selection. Bridging courses can ensure students leaving school have appropriate skill sets before entering medical degree courses. Extensive practical help is available during primary medical qualification study. The elements necessary for primary medical qualification success - dedicated and focused study, developing appropriate skill sets, mentoring, support, and an institutional and collegial commitment to success - are also the elements required for postgraduate achievement. The Royal Australasian College of Surgeons (RACS) is primarily involved in training rather than service provision. The increasing numbers of indigenous medical graduates in both Australia and New Zealand represent an opportunity for the College to contribute to improving indigenous health status by implementing specific measures to increase numbers of indigenous surgeons. © 2013 Royal Australasian College of Surgeons.

  20. A multicompartment approach--diatoms, macrophytes, benthic macroinvertebrates and fish--to assess the impact of toxic industrial releases on a small French river.

    Manon Lainé

    Full Text Available The River Luzou flows through a sandy substrate in the South West of France. According to the results of two assessment surveys, the Water Agency appraised that this river may not achieve the good ecological status by 2015 as required by the Water Framework Directive (2000/60/EC. This ecosystem is impacted by industrial effluents (organic matter, metals and aromatic compounds. In order to assess and characterize the impact, this study aimed to combine a set of taxonomic and non-taxonomic metrics for diatoms, macrophytes, macroinvertebrates and fish along the up- to downstream gradient of the river. Diversity metrics, biological indices, biological and ecological traits were determined for the four biological quality elements (BQE. Various quantitative metrics (biomass estimates were also calculated for diatom communities. The results were compared to physicochemical analysis. Biological measurements were more informative than physicochemical analysis, in the context of the study. Biological responses indicated both the contamination of water and its intensity. Diversity metrics and biological indices strongly decreased with pollution for all BQE but diatoms. Convergent trait selection with pollution was observed among BQE: reproduction, colonization strategies, or trophic regime were clearly modified at impaired sites. Taxon size and relation to the substrate diverged among biological compartments. Multiple anthropogenic pollution calls for alternate assessment methods of rivers' health. Our study exemplifies the fact that, in the case of complex contaminations, biological indicators can be more informative for environmental risk, than a wide screening of contaminants by chemical analysis alone. The combination of diverse biological compartments provided a refined diagnostic about the nature (general mode of action and intensity of the contamination.

  1. A Multicompartment Approach - Diatoms, Macrophytes, Benthic Macroinvertebrates and Fish - To Assess the Impact of Toxic Industrial Releases on a Small French River

    Lainé, Manon; Morin, Soizic; Tison-Rosebery, Juliette

    2014-01-01

    The River Luzou flows through a sandy substrate in the South West of France. According to the results of two assessment surveys, the Water Agency appraised that this river may not achieve the good ecological status by 2015 as required by the Water Framework Directive (2000/60/EC). This ecosystem is impacted by industrial effluents (organic matter, metals and aromatic compounds). In order to assess and characterize the impact, this study aimed to combine a set of taxonomic and non-taxonomic metrics for diatoms, macrophytes, macroinvertebrates and fish along the up- to downstream gradient of the river. Diversity metrics, biological indices, biological and ecological traits were determined for the four biological quality elements (BQE). Various quantitative metrics (biomass estimates) were also calculated for diatom communities. The results were compared to physicochemical analysis. Biological measurements were more informative than physicochemical analysis, in the context of the study. Biological responses indicated both the contamination of water and its intensity. Diversity metrics and biological indices strongly decreased with pollution for all BQE but diatoms. Convergent trait selection with pollution was observed among BQE: reproduction, colonization strategies, or trophic regime were clearly modified at impaired sites. Taxon size and relation to the substrate diverged among biological compartments. Multiple anthropogenic pollution calls for alternate assessment methods of rivers' health. Our study exemplifies the fact that, in the case of complex contaminations, biological indicators can be more informative for environmental risk, than a wide screening of contaminants by chemical analysis alone. The combination of diverse biological compartments provided a refined diagnostic about the nature (general mode of action) and intensity of the contamination. PMID:25019954

  2. Indigenous Australians and Preschool Education: Who Is Attending?

    Biddle, Nicholas

    2007-01-01

    This paper discusses the individual, family, household and area level characteristics associated with preschool attendance for Indigenous and non-Indigenous Australians (aged three to five years who are not at school). Controlling for these factors explains all of the difference between Indigenous and non-Indigenous attendance rates for…

  3. Revolutionizing Environmental Education through Indigenous Hip Hop Culture

    Gorlewski, Julie; Porfilio, Brad J.

    2012-01-01

    Based upon the life histories of six Indigenous hip hop artists of the Beat Nation artist collective, this essay captures how Indigenous hip hop has the potential to revolutionize environmental education. Hip hop provides Indigenous youth an emancipatory space to raise their opposition to neocolonial controls of Indigenous territories that…

  4. Fishing Access Areas

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — The Vermont Fish & Wildlife Department maintains developed fishing access areas. These sites provide public access to waters in Vermont for shore fishing...

  5. Doing Climate Science in Indigenous Communities

    Pandya, R. E.; Bennett, B.

    2009-12-01

    Historically, the goal of broadening participation in the geosciences has been expressed and approached from the viewpoint of the majority-dominated geoscience community. The need for more students who are American Indian, Native Hawaiian, or Alaska Native is expressed in terms of the need to diversify the research community, and strategies to engage more students are often posed around the question “what can we do to get more indigenous students interested in coming to our institutions to do geosciences?” This approach can lead to neglecting indigenous ways of knowing, inadvertently prioritizes western values over traditional ones, and doesn’t necessarily honor tribal community’s desire to hold on to their talented youth. Further, while this approach has resulted in some modest success, the overall participation in geoscience by students from indigenous backgrounds remains low. Many successful programs, however, have tried an alternate approach; they begin by approaching the geosciences from the viewpoint of indigenous communities. The questions they ask center around how geosciences can advance the priorities of indigenous communities, and their approaches focus on building capacity for the geosciences within indigenous communities. Most importantly, perhaps, these efforts originate in Tribal communities themselves, and invite the geoscience research community to partner in projects that are rooted in indigenous culture and values. Finally, these programs recognize that scientific expertise is only one among many skills indigenous peoples employ in their relation with their homelands. Climate change, like all things related to the landscape, is intimately connected to the core of indigenous cultures. Thus, emerging concerns about climate change provide a venue for developing new, indigenous-centered, approaches to the persistent problem of broadening participation in the geoscience. This presentation will highlight three indigenous-led efforts in to

  6. [The contribution of indigenous community health workers to special healthcare for Brazilian indigenous peoples].

    Diehl, Eliana Elisabeth; Langdon, Esther Jean; Dias-Scopel, Raquel Paiva

    2012-05-01

    Indigenous community health workers are part of a strategy developed by Brazil in the last two decades to promote a special healthcare model for indigenous peoples. Their role is designed to deal with various aspects of the special health policy, including the link between the heath team and the community and mediation between scientific and indigenous medical knowledge. Despite a significant increase in the number of indigenous community health workers in recent years, an evaluation of their responsibilities and contributions to the success of special care had not been conducted previously. This article, based on a literature review and original research by the authors, analyzes the role of the indigenous community health workers vis-à-vis their training and participation in health teams in different contexts in Brazil. Considering the importance assigned to the role of indigenous community health workers, this analysis reveals various ambiguities and contradictions that hinder both their performance and their potential contribution to the special health services.

  7. The Mapuche People's Battle for Indigenous Land. Litigation as a Strategy to Defend Indigenous Land Rights

    Skjævestad, Anne

    2008-01-01

    Land is the foundation for the economic sustenance of indigenous peoples and for the continued survival of their cultures. One of the major problems faced by indigenous peoples is the dispossession of their traditional lands and territories. The activities of business interests and economic development projects in indigenous territories – such as forest logging and infrastructure projects - and the environmental implications of such activities, often constitute a great threat to the livelihoo...

  8. The politics of indigeneity: Indigenous strategies for inclusion in climate change negotiations

    Doolittle Amity

    2010-01-01

    Indigenous environmental activists have clearly articulated their views on global climate change policy. The content of these views was explored during the 10-day 2008 World Conservation Congress (WCC) in Barcelona. Data were primarily collected through interviews and participant observation. In addition, policy statements and declarations made by indigenous environmental activists from 2000 to 2009 were analysed to place the perspectives of indigenous leaders and environmental activists in t...

  9. Mapuche Institutions in Chile: from sovereign rights to indigenous consultation

    Ronny Alejandro Leiva

    2014-01-01

    Chilean indigenous institutions recently joined the Convention concerning Indigenous and Tribal Peoples Convention, 1989 (no. 169) of the International Labor Organization (ILO) to its administrative structure. Prior to this, indigenous law 19.253 indigenous organizations were created in order to foster the participation of these peoples. Convention No. 169 and other international instruments on indigenous rights enshrine the right to participation through their own representative institut...

  10. Status and future of Lake Huron fish communities

    Ebener, M.P.; Johnson, J.E.; Reid, D.M.; Payne, N.P.; Argyle, R.L.; Wright, G.M.; Krueger, K.; Baker, J.P.; Morse, T.; Weise, J.; Munawar, M.; Edsall, T.; Leach, J.

    1995-01-01

    In 1993, fishery management agencies with jurisdiction over Lake Huron fish populations developed draft fish community objectives in response to the Joint Strategic Plan for Management of Great Lakes Fisheries. The Joint Strategic Plan charged the Great Lakes Fishery Commission sponsored Lake Huron Committee to define objectives for what the fish community of Lake Huron should look like in the future, and to develop means for measuring progress toward the objectives. The overall management objective for Lake Huron is to 'over the next two decades restore an ecologically balanced fish community dominated by top predators and consisting largely of self-sustaining, indigenous and naturalized species and capable of sustaining annual harvests of 8.9 million kg'. This paper represents the first attempt at consolidating current biological information from different management agencies on a lake-wide basis for the purpose of assessing the current status and dynamics of Lake Huron fishes.

  11. Do bacteria, not fish, produce 'fish kairomone'?

    Ringelberg, J.; Van Gool, E.

    1998-01-01

    Fish-associated chemicals enhance phototactic downward swimming in Daphnia. If perch were treated with the antibiotic ampicillin, this enhancement was significantly decreased. Therefore, not fish, but bacteria associated with fish, seem to produce this kairomone. [KEYWORDS: Diel vertical migration;

  12. The Relevance of Indigenous Knowledge for Small-Scale Farming ...

    Based on the study findings, it was evident that the local communities had an extensive base of IK and understanding of their environment, and they were able to put appropriate managerial skills and adaptive strategies to crop and animal farming. The findings also showed that IK was location specific, and farmers ...

  13. Indigenous algae: Potential factories for biodiesel production

    Maharajh, Dheepak M

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available advantages. Approximately 30% of South African environments favourable for isolating algae have been sampled. Samples were enriched, purified and assessed for lipid content, resulting in a database of indigenous algae. Positive isolates were grown under...

  14. African indigenous plants with chemotherapeutic potentials and ...

    Herbal-based and plant-derived products can be exploited with sustainable comparative and competitive advantage. This review presents some indigenous African plants with chemotherapeutic properties and possible ways of developing them into potent pharmacological agents using biotechnological approaches.

  15. Masihambisane, lessons learnt using participatory indigenous ...

    knowledge research approaches in a school-based collaborative project of the .... ticipate in informal employment; however, they manage to provide for their families. ... Entitled “Promoting and learning from Cofimvaba community's indigenous.

  16. Documenting and disseminating agricultural indigenous knowledge

    Eric

    harvesting and storage of indigenous root crops and animals. .... sample of 351 informants who were selected using random, purposive and snowball sampling ... The farmers in Soroti also spray crops with human and animal urine, dust.

  17. African indigenous and traditional vegetables in Tanzania ...

    Indigenous and traditional African vegetables (AITVs) are important sources of ... and (iii) marketing: retail markup, price variation by season, year and region, ... size and cost, retailer storage, remainders, processing and less common AITVs.

  18. Indigenous Control Methods for Parasites among Pastoralists ...

    RLG

    Indigenous knowledge system should ... Therefore, ignoring these local knowledge practices by the ..... International Journal of Science and Rural Development. ... Ethno-medicine: Its potential in the health care system, Canoe Press.

  19. Indigenous Knowledge And Sustainable Development: Investigating ...

    challenges) in society, sometimes it is marginalized in education because it is seen as non-scientific and non-engaging in formal education. Using the capability approach to human development, this paper investigates the link between indigenous ...

  20. Supporting indigenous women in science, technology, engineering ...

    Supporting indigenous women in science, technology, engineering and mathematics careers in Mexico and Central ... ROSSA's latest bulletin puts a focus on women. ... IDRC invites applications for the IDRC Doctoral Research Awards.

  1. SEMIOTICS IN INDIGENOUS DANCE PERFORMANCES: EKELEKE ...

    Dean SPGS NAU

    dance performance presents Ekwe people; situated in Isu local government ... Indigenous dance is not a luxury… it is part of each .... symbols for certain brand products in adverts. ... music, costumes, make-up, set lights and any other effects.

  2. (indigenous) education ensure effective gender mainstreaming in ...

    Leaving no one behind: can (indigenous) education ensure effective gender ... in the distribution of socio-economic and political benefits, depict that additional ... of gender equality and equity and explores in different ways the relationships ...

  3. Using the Monte Carlo method for the economic evaluation of polycultures of silver catfish, carps and tilapia-the-nile as an alternative model of fish farming for small properties

    Filipe Ritter

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available With a growing world population and increasing demand for quality food in sufficient quantities, the aquaculture fits in this context as a producer of high quality animal protein with high productivity. The fish production in ponds has practiced for over five decades in Rio Grande do Sul state. The fish culture system commonly used is the carp only polyculture, which consists in culturing different carp species aiming to improve the performance of each one and, therefore, achieve high productivity. The carp polyculture has a low technological level and the production obtained is considered small moreover, the release of effluents in natural water bodies may cause an imbalance in the natural aquatic environment. Some studies have been performed adding the silver catfish to the traditional polyculture. Also, several studies were performed about economic viability, but with a single species, or consortium, as is the case of polyculture of shrimp and Nile tilapia. We tested the polyculture with partial substitution of 25, 50 and 75% of carps by silver catfish and Nile tilapia. We analyzed the economic viability of all substitution rates by obtaining the Net Present Value (NPV, Annual Value (AV, Internal Rate of Return (IRR and Pay Back period. In conditions of uncertainty, we held on sensitivity analysis and evaluation through the Monte Carlo method. We concluded that substitution rate of 25% of carps by silver catfish and Nile tilapia has higher biomass production and better effluent quality. Regarding economic analysis, an investment in polyculture with vita useful 25 years is economically feasible for a fee Minimum Attractiveness (TMA of 6.17%.

  4. Fish irradiation

    Kovacs, J.; Tengumnuay, C.; Juangbhanich, C.

    1970-01-01

    Chub-mackerel was chosen for the study because they are the most common fish in Thailand. Preliminary investigations were conducted to determine the maximum radiation dose of gamma-rays by organoleptic tests. The samples were subjected to radiation at various doses up to 4 Mrad. Many experiments were conducted using other kinds of fish. The results showed that 1 Mrad would be the maximum acceptable dose for fish. Later, the influence of the radiation dose from 0.1-1 Mrad was studied in order to find the optimum acceptable dose for preservation of fish without off-flavour. For this purpose, the Hedonic scale was used. It was found that 0.2 and 0.5 Mrad gave the best result on Chub mackerel. The determinations of optimum dose, organoleptic, microbiological and trimethylamine content changes were done. The results showed that Chub mackerel irradiated at 0.2, 0.5 and 1 Mrad stored at 3 0 C for 71 days were still acceptable, on the contrary the untreated samples were found unacceptable at 14 days. The trimethylamine increment was significantly higher in the untreated samples. At 15 days storage, trimethylamine in the non-irradiated Chub-mackerel was about 10 times higher than the irradiated ones. At 51 and 79 days storage, about 13 times higher in the control samples than the irradiated samples except 0.1 Mrad. Only 2 times higher was found for the 0.1 Mrad. The microbiological results showed that the irradiation above 0.2 Mrad gave favorable extension of shelf-life of fish

  5. Abundance and tidal behaviour of pelagic fish in the gateway to the Wadden Sea

    Couperus, Bram; Gastauer, Sven; Fässler, Sascha M.M.; Tulp, Ingrid; Veer, van der Henk W.; Poos, Jan Jaap

    2016-01-01

    The shallow coast of The Netherlands is an important habitat for small pelagic fish. They form one of the major links between plankton and the higher trophic levels. Predatory fish, sea mammals and birds rely on small pelagic fish as a major food source. Currently, monitoring of fish in the Dutch

  6. Abundance and tidal behaviour of pelagic fish in the gateway to the Wadden Sea

    Couperus, B.; Gastauer, S.; Fässler, S.M.M.; Tulp, I.; van der Veer, H.W.; Poos, J.J.

    2016-01-01

    The shallow coast of The Netherlands is an important habitat for small pelagic fish. They form one of the major links between plankton and the higher trophic levels. Predatory fish, sea mammals and birds rely on small pelagic fish as a major food source. Currently, monitoring of fish in the Dutch

  7. Catch and size selectivity of small-scale fishing gear for the smooth-hound shark Mustelus mustelus (Linnaeus, 1758 (Chondrichthyes: Triakidae from the Aegean Turkish coast

    T. CEYHAN

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Catch rate, CPUE, biomass ratios and size selectivity from traditional longline and trammel nets of Turkish coastal small-scale fisheries were investigated in order to describe the Smooth-hound shark (Mustelus mustelus fishery. The SELECT method was used to estimate the selectivity parameters of a variety of models for the trammel nets inner panel of 150 and 170 mm mesh sizes. Catch composition and proportion of the species were significantly different in longline and trammel nets. While mean CPUE of longline was 119.2±14.3 kg/1000 hooks, these values for 150 and 170 mm trammel nets were 5.3±1.2 kg/1000 m of net and 12.7±3.9 kg/1000 m of net, respectively. Biomass ratios of the by catch to Smooth-hound catch were found to be 1:0.32 for 150 mm trammel net, 1:0.65 for longline and 1:0.73 for 170 mm trammel net. The estimated modal lengths and spreads were found to be 91.1 and 16.2 cm for 150 mm and 103.2 and 18.4 cm for 170 mm, respectively. The modal lengths of the species as well as the spread values increased with mesh size.

  8. Microbiological spoilage of fish and fish products

    Gram, Lone; Huss, Hans Henrik

    1996-01-01

    Spoilage of fresh and lightly preserved fish products is caused by microbial action. This paper reviews the current knowledge in terms of the microbiology of fish and fish products with particular emphasis on identification of specific spoilage bacteria and the qualitative and quantitative...... biochemical indicators of spoilage. Shewanzella putrefaciens and Pseudomonas spp. are the specific spoilage bacteria of iced fresh fish regardless of the origin of the fish. Modified atmosphere stored marine fish from temperate waters are spoiled by the CO2 resistant Photobacterium phosphoreum whereas Gram......- positive bacteria are likely spoilers of CO2 packed fish from fresh or tropical waters. Fish products with high salt contents may spoil due to growth of halophilic bacteria (salted fish) or growth of anaerobic bacteria and yeasts (barrel salted fish). Whilst the spoilage of fresh and highly salted fish...

  9. Leadership as a Personal Journey: An Indigenous Perspective.

    Doyle, Kerrie; Hungerford, Catherine

    2015-05-01

    Indigenous Australians have higher levels of mental illness, self-harm, suicide and substance abuse than non-Indigenous Australians, as well as more frequent contact with the criminal justice system. These indices point to the need for strong leadership to support Close the Gap programmes that have now been implemented across Australia. This article considers leadership as a journey of learning for Australian Indigenous leaders. Through the use of story, it is suggested that a situational leadership approach, incorporating the principles of mindfulness, provides the most appropriate framework for Indigenous leaders who work with Indigenous communities. Flexible approaches are needed to meet the needs of diverse Indigenous populations, and address the complex challenges involved, including lateral violence. Such flexibility will enable Indigenous leaders and communities to work together to achieve improvements in the health outcomes, not only for Indigenous Australians, but also for Indigenous populations worldwide.

  10. Indigenous values and water markets: Survey insights from northern Australia

    Nikolakis, William D.; Grafton, R. Quentin; To, Hang

    2013-09-01

    Drawing upon on the literature on Indigenous values to water, water markets and the empirical findings from a survey of 120 Indigenous and non-Indigenous respondents across northern Australia, the paper makes important qualitative and statistical comparisons between Indigenous and non-Indigenous values to water markets. The study is the first comparison of Indigenous and non-Indigenous values to water markets based on the same survey instrument. Key results from Indigenous respondents include: (1) water markets are held to be an acceptable approach to managing water; (2) markets must be carefully designed to protect customary and ecological values; (3) the allocation of water rights need to encompass equity considerations; and (4) water and land rights should not be separated even if this enhances efficiency, as it runs counter to Indigenous holistic values. Overall, the survey results provide the basis for a proposed adaptive decision loop, which allows decision makers to incorporate stakeholder values in water markets.

  11. Bioethanol Production from Indigenous Algae

    Madhuka Roy

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Enhanced rate of fossil fuel extraction is likely to deplete limited natural resources over short period of time. So search for alternative fuel is only the way to overcome this problem of upcoming energy crisis. In this aspect biofuel is a sustainable option. Agricultural lands cannot be compromised for biofuel production due to the requirement of food for the increasing population. Certain species of algae can produce ethanol during anaerobic fermentation and thus serve as a direct source for bioethanol production. The high content of complex carbohydrates entrapped in the cell wall of the microalgae makes it essential to incorporate a pre-treatment stage to release and convert these complex carbohydrates into simple sugars prior to the fermentation process. There have been researches on production of bioethanol from a particular species of algae, but this work was an attempt to produce bioethanol from easily available indigenous algae. Acid hydrolysis was carried out as pre-treatment. Gas Chromatographic analysis showed that 5 days’ fermentation by baker’s yeast had yielded 93% pure bioethanol. The fuel characterization of the bioethanol with respect to gasoline showed comparable and quite satisfactory results for its use as an alternative fuel.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3126/ije.v4i1.12182International Journal of Environment Volume-4, Issue-1, Dec-Feb 2014/15, page: 112-120  

  12. Intimate partner violence and mental ill health among global populations of Indigenous women: a systematic review.

    Chmielowska, Marta; Fuhr, Daniela C

    2017-06-01

    Intimate partner violence (IPV) has been recognised as a major obstacle to the achievement of gender equality and human development. Its adverse physical and mental health consequences have been reported to affect women of all ages and backgrounds. Although Indigenous women seem to experience higher rates of partner abuse than non-Indigenous women, mental health consequences of IPV among this population are not yet clearly established in the literature. This study systematically reviewed the global literature on mental health outcomes and risk factors for mental ill health among Indigenous women who experienced IPV. Primary quantitative and mixed methods studies that reported about mental health and IPV among Indigenous women (aged 14+) were included. 21 bibliographic databases were searched until January 2017. Quality of included studies was assessed through the Newcastle-Ottawa Scale. Findings are reported according to PRISMA-P 2015. 13 studies were identified. The majority of studies reported very high rates of IPV and high prevalence of mental disorders. The most frequently identified types of IPV were physical and/or sexual violence, verbal aggression, and emotional abuse. The strongest predictor of poor mental health was physical violence. The most commonly reported mental health outcomes were depression and posttraumatic stress disorder. Despite the small number of studies identified, the available evidence suggests that experiences of IPV and mental disorders among Indigenous women are linked and exacerbated by poverty, discrimination, and substance abuse. More research is needed to better understand distributions and presentations of IPV-related mental illness in this population.

  13. Water intake fish diversion apparatus

    Taft, E.P. III; Cook, T.C.

    1995-01-01

    A fish diversion apparatus uses a plane screen to divert fish for variety of types of water intakes in order to protect fish from injury and death. The apparatus permits selection of a relatively small screen angle, for example ten degrees, to minimize fish injury. The apparatus permits selection of a high water velocity, for example ten feet per second, to maximize power generation efficiency. The apparatus is especially suitable retrofit to existing water intakes. The apparatus is modular to allow use plural modules in parallel to adjust for water flow conditions. The apparatus has a floor, two opposite side walls, and a roof which define a water flow passage and a plane screen within the passage. The screen is oriented to divert fish into a fish bypass which carries fish to a safe discharge location. The dimensions of the floor, walls, and roof are selected to define the dimensions of the passage and to permit selection of the screen angle. The floor is bi-level with a level upstream of the screen and a level beneath screen selected to provide a uniform flow distribution through the screen. The apparatus may include separation walls to provide a water flow channel between the apparatus and the water intake. Lead walls may be used to adjust water flow conditions into the apparatus. The apparatus features stoplog guides near its upstream and downstream ends to permit the water flow passage to be dewatered. 3 figs

  14. Climate Change and Fish Availability

    Teng, Paul P. S.; Lassa, Jonatan; Caballero-Anthony, Mely

    Human consumption of fish has been trending upwards in the past decades and this is projected to continue. The main sources of fish are from wild fisheries (marine and freshwater) and aquaculture. Climate change is anticipated to affect the availability of fish through its effect on these two sources as well as on supply chain processes such as storage, transport, processing and retail. Climate change is known to result in warmer and more acid oceans. Ocean acidification due to higher CO2 concentration levels at sea modifies the distribution of phytoplankton and zooplankton to affect wild, capture fisheries. Higher temperature causes warm-water coral reefs to respond with species replacement and bleaching, leading to coral cover loss and habitat loss. Global changes in climatic systems may also cause fish invasion, extinction and turnover. While this may be catastrophic for small scale fish farming in poor tropical communities, there are also potential effects on animal protein supply shifts at local and global scales with food security consequences. This paper discusses the potential impacts of climate change on fisheries and aquaculture in the Asian Pacific region, with special emphasis on Southeast Asia. The key question to be addressed is “What are the impacts of global climate change on global fish harvests and what does it mean to the availability of fish?”

  15. Non-Indigenous Women Teaching Indigenous Education: A Duoethnographic Exploration of Untold Stories

    Burm, Sarah; Burleigh, Dawn

    2017-01-01

    Identifying as non-Indigenous, we are often left considering our positionality and identity in Indigenous education, how we have come to be invested in this area of research, and what we see as our contribution. In conversation with one another, we realized we choose to share certain stories and not others about our experiences working in…

  16. [Eating characteristics of Chilean indigenous and non-indigenous adolescent girls].

    Araneda, Jacqueline; Amigo, Hugo; Bustos, Patricia

    2010-03-01

    During childhood and adolescence, eating habits become established which are instrumental in determining eating behavior later in life. Various authors have described the acculturation of the Mapuche people toward Western culture. The objective of this study was to analyze the eating characteristics of indigenous and non-indigenous adolescent girls in the Araucania Region of Chile. A cross-sectional design was used with a probabilistic sample of 281 adolescents comprised of 139 indigenous and 142 non-indigenous girls attending 168 elementary schools. A modified food frequency questionnaire was applied, designed to obtain information about eating habits and consumption of Mapuche foods. The eating schedules are similar in both ethnic groups, with dinner being the meal that is least consumed. Total snack consumption per week has a mean of 7 with an interquartile range (IQR) of 5 to 10 without any differences between ethnic groups; of these snacks, only 2 were healthy (IQR = 1 to 3). The indigenous girls had a higher probability of consumption of native foods including mote (boiled wheat) (OR = 2.00; IC = 0.93-4.29), muday (fermented cereal alcohol) (OR = 3.45; IC = 1.90-6.27), and yuyo (field mustard) (OR = 4.40; IC = 2.06-9.39). The study's conclusion is that the the eating habits and behavior of indigenous adolescents are similar to those of non-indigenous girls, though the former still consume more indigenous foods.

  17. What Is Indigenous Research in Philosophy of Education? And What Is PESA, from an Indigenous Perspective?

    Mika, Carl; Stewart, Georgina; Watson, Ka'imi; Silva, Keola; Martin, Brian; Matapo, Jacoba; Galuvao, Akata

    2018-01-01

    In this commentary, various expert authors offer their ideas on indigenous research in the philosophy of education and PESA's role from an indigenous perspective. Georgiana Stewart is the first author to step forward and explain that education is based on knowledge, and so education is centrally concerned with literacy and identity. Stewart goes…

  18. Measured elemental transfer factors for boreal hunter/gatherer scenarios: fish, game and berries

    Sheppard, S.C.; Long, J.M.; Sanipelli, B.

    2010-01-01

    The environmental assessment of long-term nuclear waste management requires data to estimate food chain transfers for radionuclides in various environmental settings. For key elements such as iodine (I) and chlorine (Cl), there is a paucity of transfer factor data, particularly outside of agricultural food chains. This study dealt with transfers of I, Cl and 28 other elements to foods that would be typical of boreal hunter/gatherer lifestyles, as well as being common foods for modern recreational and subsistence hunters. Food/substrate concentration ratios (CRs) and related transfer factors for eight species of widely distributed fish, whitetail deer (Odocoileus virginianus), Canada geese (Branta canadensis) and wild blueberries (Vaccinium myrtilloides) were measured and compared to the literature. Limited data were obtained for caribou (Rangifer tarandus), elk (Cervus elaphus) and moose (Alces americanus). Freshwater sediment Kd values and CRs for a ubiquitous freshwater macrophyte were also obtained. The CRs for I in fish were 29 L kg -1 in edible muscle (fillets) of large-bodied species and 85 L kg -1 for whole, small-bodied fish. The log CRs for fish and macrophytes were correlated across elements. For several elements, the Kds for sediments in deep water were ∼4-fold higher than for littoral samples. The elemental transfers to wild animals for some elements were notably different than the literature indicates for domestic animals. It is argued that the transfer data obtained using indigenous elements from real environmental settings, as opposed to contaminant elements in experimental or impacted environments, are especially relevant to assessment of long-term impacts.

  19. Measured elemental transfer factors for boreal hunter/gatherer scenarios: fish, game and berries

    Sheppard, S.C., E-mail: sheppards@ecomatters.co [ECOMatters Inc., WB Lewis Business Centre, 24 Aberdeen Avenue, Pinawa, Manitoba R0E 1L0 (Canada); Long, J.M.; Sanipelli, B. [ECOMatters Inc., WB Lewis Business Centre, 24 Aberdeen Avenue, Pinawa, Manitoba R0E 1L0 (Canada)

    2010-11-15

    The environmental assessment of long-term nuclear waste management requires data to estimate food chain transfers for radionuclides in various environmental settings. For key elements such as iodine (I) and chlorine (Cl), there is a paucity of transfer factor data, particularly outside of agricultural food chains. This study dealt with transfers of I, Cl and 28 other elements to foods that would be typical of boreal hunter/gatherer lifestyles, as well as being common foods for modern recreational and subsistence hunters. Food/substrate concentration ratios (CRs) and related transfer factors for eight species of widely distributed fish, whitetail deer (Odocoileus virginianus), Canada geese (Branta canadensis) and wild blueberries (Vaccinium myrtilloides) were measured and compared to the literature. Limited data were obtained for caribou (Rangifer tarandus), elk (Cervus elaphus) and moose (Alces americanus). Freshwater sediment Kd values and CRs for a ubiquitous freshwater macrophyte were also obtained. The CRs for I in fish were 29 L kg{sup -1} in edible muscle (fillets) of large-bodied species and 85 L kg{sup -1} for whole, small-bodied fish. The log CRs for fish and macrophytes were correlated across elements. For several elements, the Kds for sediments in deep water were {approx}4-fold higher than for littoral samples. The elemental transfers to wild animals for some elements were notably different than the literature indicates for domestic animals. It is argued that the transfer data obtained using indigenous elements from real environmental settings, as opposed to contaminant elements in experimental or impacted environments, are especially relevant to assessment of long-term impacts.

  20. SCHOOL, INDIGENOUS AND WESTERN CULTURES: REFLEXIONS TO THINK THE EDUCATION IN THE INDIGENOUS SCHOOLS

    Cláudia Pereira Antunes

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The education in the indigenous schools, even though it is build within the legal framework of the State and a modern concept of education, demands new comprehensions from the western society not only in its relation with the indigenous education, but also in its relation with the indigenous people. Because of its condition as a mediator between two different forms of thinking, the indigenous school also represents a fertile ground to think about the western conceptions of education. This article is dedicated to a deeper reflection about some aspects of the relation between the western society, based on rationality and science, and the indian people in the construction of the indigenous schools.

  1. Cardiovascular dynamics of Canadian Indigenous peoples.

    Foulds, Heather J A; Bredin, Shannon S D; Warburton, Darren E R

    2018-12-01

    Limited understanding of Indigenous adults' cardiovascular structure and function exists despite high rates of cardiovascular disease. This investigation characterised cardiovascular structure and function among young Indigenous adults and compared to age- and sex-matched European descendants. Echocardiographic assessments included apical two- and four-chamber images, parasternal short-axis images and Doppler. Analyses included cardiac volumes, dimensions, velocities and strains. Cardiovascular structure and function were similar between Indigenous (n=10, 25 ± 3 years, 4 women) and European-descendant (n=10, 24 ± 4 years, 4 women,) adults, though European descendants demonstrated greater systemic vascular resistance (18.19 ± 3.94 mmHg∙min -1 ∙L -1 vs. 15.36 ± 2.97 mmHg∙min -1 ∙L -1 , p=0.03). Among Indigenous adults, women demonstrated greater arterial elastance (0.80 ± 0.15 mmHg·mL -1 ·m -2 vs. 0.55 ± 0.17 mmHg·mL -1 ·m -2 , p=0.02) and possibly greater systemic vascular resistance (17.51 ± 2.20 mmHg∙min -1 ∙L -1 vs. 13.93 ± 2.61 mmHg∙min -1 ∙L -1 , p=0.07). Indigenous men had greater cardiac size, dimensions and output, though body size differences accounted for cardiac size differences. Similar cardiac rotation and strains were observed across sexes. Arterial elastance and cardiac size were different between Indigenous men and women while cardiovascular structure and function may be similar between Indigenous and European descendants.

  2. Indigenously developed large pumping speed cryoadsorption cryopump

    Gangradey, Ranjana; Mukherjee, Samiran Shanti; Agarwal, Jyoti

    2015-01-01

    Indigenous cryoadsorption cryopump with large pumping speeds for fusion reactor application has been developed at the Institute for Plasma Research (IPR). Towards its successful realization, technological bottlenecks were identified, studied and resolved. Hydroformed cryopanels were developed from concept leading to the design and product realization with successful technology transfer to the industry. This has led to the expertise for developing hydroformed panels for any desired shape, geometry and welding pattern. Activated sorbents were developed, characterized using an experimental set up which measures adsorption isotherms down to 4K for hydrogen and helium. Special techniques were evolved for coating sorbents on hydroformed cryopanels with suitable cryo-adhesives. Various arrangements of cryopanels at 4 K surrounded by 80 K shields and baffles (which are also hydroformed) were studied and optimized by transmission probability analysis using Monte Carlo techniques. CFD analysis was used to study the temperature distribution and flow analysis during the cryogen flow through the panels. Integration of the developed technologies to arrive at the final product was a challenging task and this was meticulously planned and executed. This resulted in a cryoadsorption cryopump offering pumping speeds as high as 50,000 to 70,000 1/s for helium and 1,50,000 1/s for hydrogen with a 3.2 m 2 of sorbent panel area. The first laboratory scale pump integrating the developed technologies was a Small Scale CryoPump (SSCP-01) with a pumping speed of 2,000 1/s for helium. Subsequently, Single Panel CryoPump (SPCP-01) with pumping speed 10,000 1/s for helium and a Multiple Panel CryoPump (MPCP-08) with a pumping speed of 70,000 1/s for helium and 1,50,000 1/s for hydrogen respectively were developed. This paper describes the efforts in realizing these products from laboratory to industrial scales. (author)

  3. Fish gelatin.

    Boran, Gokhan; Regenstein, Joe M

    2010-01-01

    Gelatin is a multifunctional ingredient used in foods, pharmaceuticals, cosmetics, and photographic films as a gelling agent, stabilizer, thickener, emulsifier, and film former. As a thermoreversible hydrocolloid with a narrower gap between its melting and gelling temperatures, both of which are below human body temperature, gelatin provides unique advantages over carbohydrate-based gelling agents. Gelatin is mostly produced from pig skin, and cattle hides and bones. Some alternative raw materials have recently gained attention from both researchers and the industry not just because they overcome religious concerns shared by Jews and Muslims but also because they provide, in some cases, technological advantages over mammalian gelatins. Fish skins from a number of fish species are among the other sources that have been comprehensively studied as sources for gelatin production. Fish skins have a significant potential for the production of high-quality gelatin with different melting and gelling temperatures over a much wider range than mammalian gelatins, yet still have a sufficiently high gel strength and viscosity. Gelatin quality is industrially determined by gel strength, viscosity, melting or gelling temperatures, the water content, and microbiological safety. For gelatin manufacturers, yield from a particular raw material is also important. Recent experimental studies have shown that these quality parameters vary greatly depending on the biochemical characteristics of the raw materials, the manufacturing processes applied, and the experimental settings used for quality control tests. In this review, the gelatin quality achieved from different fish species is reviewed along with the experimental procedures used to determine gelatin quality. In addition, the chemical structure of collagen and gelatin, the collagen-gelatin conversion, the gelation process, and the gelatin market are discussed. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Fish Immunoglobulins

    Sara Mashoof; Michael F. Criscitiello

    2016-01-01

    The B cell receptor and secreted antibody are at the nexus of humoral adaptive immunity. In this review, we summarize what is known of the immunoglobulin genes of jawed cartilaginous and bony fishes. We focus on what has been learned from genomic or cDNA sequence data, but where appropriate draw upon protein, immunization, affinity and structural studies. Work from major aquatic model organisms and less studied comparative species are both included to define what is the rule for an immunoglob...

  5. Fish cognition

    Bshary, Redouan; Brown, Culum

    2017-01-01

    The central nervous system, and the brain in particular, is one of the most remarkable products of evolution. This system allows an individual to acquire, process, store and act on information gathered from the environment. The resulting flexibility in behavior beyond genetically coded strategies is a prime adaptation in animals. The field of animal cognition examines the underlying processes and mechanisms. Fishes are a particularly interesting group of vertebrates to study cognition for two...

  6. Fish hemoglobins

    Souza,P.C. de; Bonilla-Rodriguez,G.O.

    2007-01-01

    Vertebrate hemoglobin, contained in erythrocytes, is a globular protein with a quaternary structure composed of 4 globin chains (2 alpha and 2 beta) and a prosthetic group named heme bound to each one. Having myoglobin as an ancestor, hemoglobin acquired the capacity to respond to chemical stimuli that modulate its function according to tissue requirements for oxygen. Fish are generally submitted to spatial and temporal O2 variations and have developed anatomical, physiological and biochemica...

  7. The politics of indigeneity: Indigenous strategies for inclusion in climate change negotiations

    Doolittle Amity

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Indigenous environmental activists have clearly articulated their views on global climate change policy. The content of these views was explored during the 10-day 2008 World Conservation Congress (WCC in Barcelona. Data were primarily collected through interviews and participant observation. In addition, policy statements and declarations made by indigenous environmental activists from 2000 to 2009 were analysed to place the perspectives of indigenous leaders and environmental activists in the context of their decade-long struggle to gain negotiating power at the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change. This study examines the rhetorical strategies indigenous leaders from around the world use to gain political recognition and legitimacy in climate change negotiations. Two core principles, relating to a particular representation of indigenous environmental knowledge are identified as fundamental rhetorical tools. These are a belief that the earth is a living being with rights and the conviction that it is the responsibility of indigenous peoples to protect the earth from over-exploitation. However, reference to indigenous environmental knowledge is not the only rhetorical mechanism used by indigenous leaders in the climate debates. When faced with specific United Nations policies to combat climate change that could have a profound impact on their land rights, some indigenous leaders adopt a more confrontational response. Fearing that new polices would reinforce historical trends of marginalisation, indigenous leaders seeking recognition in climate change debates speak less about their ecological knowledge and responsibility to the earth and more about their shared histories of political and economic marginalisation and land dispossession, experienced first through colonialism and more recently through globalisation.

  8. Restricted-range fishes and the conservation of Brazilian freshwaters.

    Cristiano Nogueira

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Freshwaters are the most threatened ecosystems on earth. Although recent assessments provide data on global priority regions for freshwater conservation, local scale priorities remain unknown. Refining the scale of global biodiversity assessments (both at terrestrial and freshwater realms and translating these into conservation priorities on the ground remains a major challenge to biodiversity science, and depends directly on species occurrence data of high taxonomic and geographic resolution. Brazil harbors the richest freshwater ichthyofauna in the world, but knowledge on endemic areas and conservation in Brazilian rivers is still scarce. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Using data on environmental threats and revised species distribution data we detect and delineate 540 small watershed areas harboring 819 restricted-range fishes in Brazil. Many of these areas are already highly threatened, as 159 (29% watersheds have lost more than 70% of their original vegetation cover, and only 141 (26% show significant overlap with formally protected areas or indigenous lands. We detected 220 (40% critical watersheds overlapping hydroelectric dams or showing both poor formal protection and widespread habitat loss; these sites harbor 344 endemic fish species that may face extinction if no conservation action is in place in the near future. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: We provide the first analysis of site-scale conservation priorities in the richest freshwater ecosystems of the globe. Our results corroborate the hypothesis that freshwater biodiversity has been neglected in former conservation assessments. The study provides a simple and straightforward method for detecting freshwater priority areas based on endemism and threat, and represents a starting point for integrating freshwater and terrestrial conservation in representative and biogeographically consistent site-scale conservation strategies, that may be scaled-up following naturally linked

  9. Restricted-range fishes and the conservation of Brazilian freshwaters.

    Nogueira, Cristiano; Buckup, Paulo A; Menezes, Naercio A; Oyakawa, Osvaldo T; Kasecker, Thais P; Ramos Neto, Mario B; da Silva, José Maria C

    2010-06-30

    Freshwaters are the most threatened ecosystems on earth. Although recent assessments provide data on global priority regions for freshwater conservation, local scale priorities remain unknown. Refining the scale of global biodiversity assessments (both at terrestrial and freshwater realms) and translating these into conservation priorities on the ground remains a major challenge to biodiversity science, and depends directly on species occurrence data of high taxonomic and geographic resolution. Brazil harbors the richest freshwater ichthyofauna in the world, but knowledge on endemic areas and conservation in Brazilian rivers is still scarce. Using data on environmental threats and revised species distribution data we detect and delineate 540 small watershed areas harboring 819 restricted-range fishes in Brazil. Many of these areas are already highly threatened, as 159 (29%) watersheds have lost more than 70% of their original vegetation cover, and only 141 (26%) show significant overlap with formally protected areas or indigenous lands. We detected 220 (40%) critical watersheds overlapping hydroelectric dams or showing both poor formal protection and widespread habitat loss; these sites harbor 344 endemic fish species that may face extinction if no conservation action is in place in the near future. We provide the first analysis of site-scale conservation priorities in the richest freshwater ecosystems of the globe. Our results corroborate the hypothesis that freshwater biodiversity has been neglected in former conservation assessments. The study provides a simple and straightforward method for detecting freshwater priority areas based on endemism and threat, and represents a starting point for integrating freshwater and terrestrial conservation in representative and biogeographically consistent site-scale conservation strategies, that may be scaled-up following naturally linked drainage systems. Proper management (e. g. forestry code enforcement, landscape

  10. Fish hemoglobins

    P.C. de Souza

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Vertebrate hemoglobin, contained in erythrocytes, is a globular protein with a quaternary structure composed of 4 globin chains (2 alpha and 2 beta and a prosthetic group named heme bound to each one. Having myoglobin as an ancestor, hemoglobin acquired the capacity to respond to chemical stimuli that modulate its function according to tissue requirements for oxygen. Fish are generally submitted to spatial and temporal O2 variations and have developed anatomical, physiological and biochemical strategies to adapt to the changing environmental gas availability. Structurally, most fish hemoglobins are tetrameric; however, those from some species such as lamprey and hagfish dissociate, being monomeric when oxygenated and oligomeric when deoxygenated. Fish blood frequently possesses several hemoglobins; the primary origin of this finding lies in the polymorphism that occurs in the globin loci, an aspect that may occasionally confer advantages to its carriers or even be a harmless evolutionary remnant. On the other hand, the functional properties exhibit different behaviors, ranging from a total absence of responses to allosteric regulation to drastic ones, such as the Root effect.

  11. Fisheries and fishing effort at the Indigenous Reserves Ashaninka/Kaxinawá, river Breu, Brazil/Peru As pescarias e esforço de pesca na Reserva Indígena Ashaninka/Kaxinawá, rio Breu, Brasil/Peru

    Benedito Domingues do Amaral

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available This article aimed to describe the subsistence fisheries of traditional populations of three ethnic groups, one Ashaninka and two Kaxinawá, lying on the banks of the River Breu. Initially, monitors were trained to fill logbooks with data from fisheries of the villages during an annual cycle (august/1995 august/1996. Based on these data, it was realized an inventory of the most common fish species caught as well as one about the fishing environment. The following results were obtained: i Indians prefer to use pools, locally known as "poços", for fishing; ii the most common caught species are the "mandis" (35%, Pimelodidae, armored catfishes (Loricariidae, specially Hypostomus sp. (25%, the "curimatá" (9%, Prochilodus sp. and the "saburus" (8%, Curimatidae, among others; iii the fishing gears that lead to a high rate of fishing are the native "tingui", nets and bow and arrows; iv fisheries are more intensive during summer; v the fishing effort and their associated factors statistically significant in predicting the catches in the Indian Reserve were f1 = number of fishermen, f2 = (number of fishermen*total time devoted to fishing, f3 = [(number of fishermen*(total time devoted to fishing-(the time displacement] and the factor villages and fishing gears; vi although almost all the fisheries are done by walking to the fishing places, catches increase when paddle boats are used; and vii the most active fishermen belong to Kaxinawá tribe.Este artigo tem o objetivo de descrever a pesca de subsistência das populações tradicionais de uma aldeia Ashaninka e duas Kaxinawá vivendo à beira do rio Breu. Inicialmente, foram treinados monitores para preencher fichas de coleta de dados das pescarias nas aldeias durante um ciclo anual (agosto/1995 agosto/1996. A partir desses dados realizaram-se os inventários das espécies de peixes capturadas e dos ambientes pesqueiros. A análise dos dados foi efetuada por meio de estatística descritiva e explorat

  12. Indigenous Policy Conference Summary Report: Beyond Reconciliation

    Sophie Lorefice

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The School of Public Policy (SPP at the University of Calgary organized a conference to announce the establishment of its Indigenous Policy program and to share knowledge and stories about policy issues critical to Indigenous Peoples in Canada. The conference, titled “Beyond Reconciliation,” was held at the University of Calgary Downtown Campus on Nov. 21, 2016 and was attended by 73 participants. This included Indigenous elders, chiefs and leaders, and members of Indigenous organizations, including a women’s group. Also included were members of universities and academic institutions, including students; industry representatives from the oil and gas, pipeline, forestry, electricity, legal and financial sectors; as well as representatives from government and regulatory agencies. The purpose of the conference was established with the following abstract, which was circulated to speakers and participants: The School of Public Policy is establishing a new Indigenous Policy program in order to produce widely disseminated research and engage in outreach that covers an array of policy areas, such as health, education, self-government, and natural resource development. The program will directly engage Indigenous communities in the search for original, long-term, and evidence-based solutions, as part of an effort to improve our national capacity in problem-solving and policy development. The conference will provide a platform to launch the program, showcasing preliminary research and providing a venue for discussion of policy solutions. The conference included three moderated panel sessions and a keynote speaker.1 The first panel considered business and entrepreneurship in Indigenous communities; the second panel showcased case studies that are examining the experiences of Indigenous communities with natural resource development projects, and particularly their experiences with consultation and engagement. The final panel focused on ways of

  13. Celebrating indigenous communities compassionate traditions.

    Prince, Holly

    2018-01-01

    Living in a compassionate community is not a new practice in First Nations communities; they have always recognized dying as a social experience. First Nations hold extensive traditional knowledge and have community-based practices to support the personal, familial, and community experiences surrounding end-of-life. However, western health systems were imposed and typically did not support these social and cultural practices at end of life. In fact, the different expectations of western medicine and the community related to end of life care has created stress and misunderstanding for both. One solution is for First Nations communities to develop palliative care programs so that people can receive care at home amongst their family, community and culture. Our research project "Improving End-of-Life Care in First Nations Communities" (EOLFN) was funded by the Canadian Institutes of Health Research [2010-2015] and was conducted in partnership with four First Nations communities in Canada (see www.eolfn.lakeheadu.ca). Results included a community capacity development approach to support Indigenous models of care at end-of-life. The workshop will describe the community capacity development process used to develop palliative care programs in First Nations communities. It will highlight the foundation to this approach, namely, grounding the program in community values and principles, rooted in individual, family, community and culture. Two First Nations communities will share stories about their experiences developing their own palliative care programs, which celebrated cultural capacity in their communities while enhancing medical palliative care services in a way that respected and integrated with their community cultural practices. This workshop shares the experiences of two First Nations communities who developed palliative care programs by building upon community culture, values and principles. The underlying model guiding development is shared.

  14. Engaging indigenous and academic knowledge on bees in the Amazon: implications for environmental management and transdisciplinary research.

    Athayde, Simone; Stepp, John Richard; Ballester, Wemerson C

    2016-06-20

    This paper contributes to the development of theoretical and methodological approaches that aim to engage indigenous, technical and academic knowledge for environmental management. We present an exploratory analysis of a transdisciplinary project carried out to identify and contrast indigenous and academic perspectives on the relationship between the Africanized honey bee and stingless bee species in the Brazilian Amazon. The project was developed by practitioners and researchers of the Instituto Socioambiental (ISA, a Brazilian NGO), responding to a concern raised by a funding agency, regarding the potential impact of apiculture development by indigenous peoples, on the diversity of stingless bee species in the Xingu Park, southern Brazilian Amazon. Research and educational activities were carried out among four indigenous peoples: Kawaiwete or Kaiabi, Yudja or Juruna, Kīsêdjê or Suyá and Ikpeng or Txicão. A constructivist qualitative approach was developed, which included academic literature review, conduction of semi-structured interviews with elders and leaders, community focus groups, field walks and workshops in schools in four villages. Semi-structured interviews and on-line surveys were carried out among academic experts and practitioners. We found that in both indigenous and scientific perspectives, diversity is a key aspect in keeping exotic and native species in balance and thus avoiding heightened competition and extinction. The Africanized honey bee was compared to the non-indigenous westerners who colonized the Americas, with whom indigenous peoples had to learn to coexist. We identify challenges and opportunities for engagement of indigenous and scientific knowledge for research and management of bee species in the Amazon. A combination of small-scale apiculture and meliponiculture is viewed as an approach that might help to maintain biological and cultural diversity in Amazonian landscapes. The articulation of knowledge from non-indigenous

  15. The brazilian indigenous planetary-observatory

    Afonso, G. B.

    2003-08-01

    We have performed observations of the sky alongside with the Indians of all Brazilian regions that made it possible localize many indigenous constellations. Some of these constellations are the same as the other South American Indians and Australian aborigines constellations. The scientific community does not have much of this information, which may be lost in one or two generations. In this work, we present a planetary-observatory that we have made in the Park of Science Newton Freire-Maia of Paraná State, in order to popularize the astronomical knowledge of the Brazilian Indians. The planetary consists, essentially, of a sphere of six meters in diameter and a projection cylinder of indigenous constellations. In this planetary we can identify a lot of constellations that we have gotten from the Brazilian Indians; for instance, the four seasonal constellations: the Tapir (spring), the Old Man (summer), the Deer (autumn) and the Rhea (winter). A two-meter height wooden staff that is posted vertically on the horizontal ground similar to a Gnomon and stones aligned with the cardinal points and the soltices directions constitutes the observatory. A stone circle of ten meters in diameter surrounds the staff and the aligned stones. During the day we observe the Sun apparent motions and at night the indigenous constellations. Due to the great community interest in our work, we are designing an itinerant indigenous planetary-observatory to be used in other cities mainly by indigenous and primary schools teachers.

  16. Reduced nephron endowment in the neonates of Indigenous Australian peoples.

    Kandasamy, Y; Smith, R; Wright, I M R; Lumbers, E R

    2014-02-01

    Rates of chronic kidney disease (CKD) among Indigenous groups in Australia exceed non-Indigenous rates eight-fold. Using kidney volume as a surrogate for nephron number, we carried out a study to determine if Indigenous neonates have a smaller kidney volume (and thus a reduced nephron number) from birth compared with non-Indigenous neonates. We recruited term and preterm neonates (Indigenous) and 39 term (13 Indigenous) neonates. TKV of Indigenous neonates was significantly lower at 32 weeks [12.0 (2.0) v. 15.4 (5.1) ml; P=0.03] and 38 weeks CA [18.6 (4.0) v. 22.6 (5.9) ml; P=0.04] respectively. Term Indigenous neonates also had smaller kidney volumes compared with non-Indigenous neonates. Despite a smaller kidney volume (and reduced nephron number), Indigenous neonates did not have a significantly lower eGFR. Indigenous neonates achieve similar eGFRs to Non-Indigenous neonates, presumably through a higher single nephron filtration rate. This places Indigenous neonates at a greater risk of long-term kidney damage later in life.

  17. The Indigenous Phenology Network: Engage, Observe, and Adapt to Change

    Miller, B. W.; Davíd-Chavez, D. M.; Elevitch, C.; Hamilton, A.; Hatfield, S. C.; Jones, K. D.; Rabin, R.; Rosemartin, A.; Souza, M. K.; Sparrow, E.

    2017-12-01

    The Indigenous Phenology Network (IPN) is a grassroots organization whose participants are interested in understanding changes to seasonality and timing of life cycle events, and forecasting impacts to lands and species of importance to native peoples. The group focuses on building relationships, ensuring benefit to indigenous communities, and integrating indigenous and western knowledge systems. The IPN's work is guided by the Relational Doctrine, a set of principles founded on the notion that all things are connected. This multimedia presentation and dialogue will bring together IPN members and their experiences in diverse communities and landscapes facing impacts from a changing climate and extreme weather events. Impacts on water supply, vegetation, wildlife, and living conditions, and ideas for minimizing and responding to the projected impacts of continued change will be discussed in the context of multi-generational, place-based traditional knowledge and community resilience. Scalable, community-based gardens, for example, provide a sustainable source of traditional, locally grown food, most valuable in times of disaster when supplies from the outside world are unavailable. Following the concept of Victory Gardens, the model of small-scale agroforestry (VICTree Gardens - Virtually Interconnected Community Tree Gardens), being implemented in Hawaii, has the potential to provide a diverse diet of food grown in very limited space. Gardens build resilience by connecting people with each other, with local food, and with nature. We envision community-based projects which will apply local, multi-generational knowledge to adapt the gardens to changing environments. Going forward, direct observation of garden conditions can be combined with satellite and ground-based measurements of environmental conditions, such as soil moisture, soil and air temperature, precipitation, and phenology, to further assess and manage these gardens in the context of the surrounding

  18. Farming a new economically viable fish species: Kisinja (Barbus altianalis)

    Aruho, C.; Ondhoro, C.C.

    2010-01-01

    Kisinja (Barbus altianalis)is an indigenous omnivorous fish, of high economic value in Uganda. It was widely distributed in most lakes and rivers in the country but its stocks were depleted due to overfishing and degradation of its natural habitat. 1t can grow up to a maximum length of 120m and a weight of 15kg in the wild and grows faster, attains larger size than commonly farmed fishes in Uganda, including the Nile tilapia, the African catfish, and mirror carp. Kisinja is a highly valuable ...

  19. Exporting by Migrants and Indigenous Entrepreneurs

    Ashourizadeh, Shayegheh; Schøtt, Thomas; Pişkinsüt Şengüler, Ece

    2016-01-01

    Migrants may become entrepreneurs in their host countries. They may utilize their dual embeddedness in both the home country and the host country, and also use transnational links to gain a competitive advantage in exporting compared to indigenous entrepreneurs. Migrant entrepreneurs’ advantage may......, however, be contingent on attributes such as gender and education, especially among the first generation of migrants, in that being male and educated is more advantageous for migrants than for indigenous entrepreneurs. A representative sample of 50,371 entrepreneurs establishing or operating enterprises...... around the world was surveyed in the Global Entrepreneurship Monitor, which reports on migration and exporting. Hierarchical linear modeling shows that migrant entrepreneurs export more than indigenous entrepreneurs, especially in the first generation, and especially among educated and male migrants...

  20. Indigenous Storytelling and Participatory Action Research

    2015-01-01

    Storytelling, in its various forms, has often been described as a practice with great emancipatory potential. In turn, Indigenous knowledge shows great promise in guiding a participatory action research (PAR) methodology. Yet these two approaches are rarely discussed in relation to one another, nor, has much been written in terms of how these two approaches may work synergistically toward a decolonizing research approach. In this article, I report on a community-driven knowledge translation activity, the Peoples’ International Health Tribunal, as an exemplar of how narrative and PAR approaches, guided by local Indigenous knowledge, have great potential to build methodologically and ethically robust research processes. Implications for building globally relevant research alliances and scholarship are further discussed, particularly in relation to working with Indigenous communities. PMID:28462305

  1. Indilinga: African Journal of Indigenous Knowledge Systems - Vol 4 ...

    Indilinga: African Journal of Indigenous Knowledge Systems. ... Resource conservation and utilisation through indigenous knowledge in a tribal community of Orissa, ... \\'The snake will swallow you': supernatural snakes and the creation of the ...

  2. Nigerian women reap benefits from indigenous vegetables | IDRC ...

    2016-06-06

    Jun 6, 2016 ... Demand for fresh indigenous vegetables in Nigeria has increased ... greater returns from indigenous vegetables compared to conventional vegetables. ... In Kolli Hills, Tamil Nadu, monocropping of a single, non-edible variety ...

  3. Working with Indigenous Knowledge: A Guide for Researchers ...

    In the 1990s, indigenous knowledge has been fertile ground for research, and ... research and will appeal to both seasoned development professional as well as ... indigenous-knowledge issues with the University of Indonesia, the Institute of ...

  4. Walking the Path Together: Indigenous Health Data at ICES.

    Pyper, Evelyn; Henry, David; Yates, Erika A; Mecredy, Graham; Ratnasingham, Sujitha; Slegers, Brian; Walker, Jennifer D

    2018-01-01

    Indigenous data governance principles assert that Indigenous communities have a right to data that identifies their people or communities, and a right to determine the use of that data in ways that support Indigenous health and self-determination. Indigenous-driven use of the databases held at the Institute for Clinical Evaluative Sciences (ICES) has resulted in ongoing partnerships between ICES and diverse Indigenous organizations and communities. To respond to this emerging and complex landscape, ICES has established a team whose goal is to support the infrastructure for responding to community-initiated research priorities. ICES works closely with Indigenous partners to develop unique data governance agreements and supports processes, which ensure that ICES scientists must work with Indigenous organizations when conducting research that involves Indigenous peoples. © 2018 Longwoods Publishing.

  5. CASE STUDY: Chile — Health, environment, and indigenous culture ...

    2011-01-06

    Jan 6, 2011 ... CASE STUDY: Chile — Health, environment, and indigenous culture .... For example, the National Corporation for Indigenous Development (CONADI) ... Institute for Agriculture Development (INDAP), and applied research on ...

  6. The Kenyan indigenous languages and the mass media ...

    vernacular mass media and the Kenyan indigenous languages. ... African indigenous languages had, "against all odds", survived as media of communication ..... regulations should, of course, primarily ensure quality and ethical journalism.

  7. Indilinga: African Journal of Indigenous Knowledge Systems - Vol 11 ...

    Indilinga: African Journal of Indigenous Knowledge Systems. ... halting the spread of HIV and AIDS in South Africa: The case of Soshanguve township in the ... Tourism policies and management practices as perceived by indigenous people in ...

  8. A Physical Education Curriculum Enriched With Indigenous Zulu ...

    A Physical Education Curriculum Enriched With Indigenous Zulu Games For Improved Social Development ... Therefore, it was necessary to assess these indigenous Zulu games' potential in obtaining overt ... AJOL African Journals Online.

  9. Several required OWL features for indigenous knowledge management systems

    Alberts, R

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the features required of OWL (Web Ontology Language) to realise and enhance Indigenous Knowledge (IK) digital repositories. Several needs for Indigenous Knowledge management systems (IKMSs) are articulated, based on extensive...

  10. Better processing and marketing of healthy fish products in Malawi

    : small fish, in particular, are a vital source of calcium, vi- tamin A, iron, and zinc. Once caught, most fish are sun-dried, smoked, parboiled, or pan roasted. However, peak fish catches in Malawi coincide with seasonal rains and high humidity,.

  11. Fish Tales

    McLerran, L.

    2010-01-01

    This talk is about fishing and the friendships that have resulted in its pursuit. It is also about theoretical physics, and the relationship of imagination and fantasy to the establishment of ideas about nature. Fishermen, like theoretical physicists, are well known for their inventive imaginations. Perhaps neither are as clever as sailors, who conceived of the mermaid. If one doubts the power of this fantasy, one should remember the ghosts of the many sailors who drowned pursuing these young nymphs. An extraordinary painting by J. Waterhouse is shown as Fig. 1. The enchantment of a mermaid must reflect an extraordinary excess of imagination on the part of the sailor, perhaps together with an impractical turn of mind. A consummated relationship with a mermaid is after all, by its very nature a fantasy incapable of realization. To a theoretical physicist, she is symbolic of many ideas we develop. There are many truths known to fisherman in which one might also find parallels to the goals of scientists: (1) A fish is the only animal that keeps growing after its death; (2) Nothing makes a fish bigger than almost being caught; (3) ''...of all the liars among mankind, the fisherman is the most trustworthy.'' (William Sherwood Fox, in Silken Lines and Silver Hooks); and (4) Men and fish are alike. They both get into trouble when they open their mouths. These quotes may be interpreted as reflecting skepticism regarding the honesty of fisherman, and probably do not reflect adequate admiration for a creative imagination. Is it fair to criticize a person for believing a falsehood that he or she sincerely believes to be true? The fisherman simultaneously invents the lie, and believes in it himself. The parallel with theoretical physics is perhaps only approximate, although we physicists may invent stories that we come to believe, on some rare occasions our ideas actually correspond to a more or less true descriptions of nature. These minor philosophical differences are not

  12. Fish Tales

    McLerran, L.

    2010-07-06

    This talk is about fishing and the friendships that have resulted in its pursuit. It is also about theoretical physics, and the relationship of imagination and fantasy to the establishment of ideas about nature. Fishermen, like theoretical physicists, are well known for their inventive imaginations. Perhaps neither are as clever as sailors, who conceived of the mermaid. If one doubts the power of this fantasy, one should remember the ghosts of the many sailors who drowned pursuing these young nymphs. An extraordinary painting by J. Waterhouse is shown as Fig. 1. The enchantment of a mermaid must reflect an extraordinary excess of imagination on the part of the sailor, perhaps together with an impractical turn of mind. A consummated relationship with a mermaid is after all, by its very nature a fantasy incapable of realization. To a theoretical physicist, she is symbolic of many ideas we develop. There are many truths known to fisherman in which one might also find parallels to the goals of scientists: (1) A fish is the only animal that keeps growing after its death; (2) Nothing makes a fish bigger than almost being caught; (3) ''...of all the liars among mankind, the fisherman is the most trustworthy.'' (William Sherwood Fox, in Silken Lines and Silver Hooks); and (4) Men and fish are alike. They both get into trouble when they open their mouths. These quotes may be interpreted as reflecting skepticism regarding the honesty of fisherman, and probably do not reflect adequate admiration for a creative imagination. Is it fair to criticize a person for believing a falsehood that he or she sincerely believes to be true? The fisherman simultaneously invents the lie, and believes in it himself. The parallel with theoretical physics is perhaps only approximate, although we physicists may invent stories that we come to believe, on some rare occasions our ideas actually correspond to a more or less true descriptions of nature. These minor philosophical

  13. Land rights of indigenous peoples in Southeast Asia

    Xanthaki, A

    2003-01-01

    Very little has been written on indigenous rights in South-East Asia. This article attempts to address issues concerning indigenous land rights in the region, arguing that there is a clear gap between the existing situation and the relevant standards of the international human rights system. After a short overview of the international human rights framework currently binding South-East Asian states, the article analyses issues of indigenous land ownership and control by indigenous peoples ove...

  14. GLOBAL CATEGORIZATION OF THE WORLD'S INDIGENOUS LAND AND RESOURCES RIGHTS

    Dubertret , Fabrice

    2014-01-01

    This document is a draft. It aims at providing a basis for discussion between the different organizations and indigenous land and resources rights experts involved in the wider project of building a world atlas of indigenous territories.; This working paper describes the process of establishing a global categorization of indigenous land and resources rights. From the analysis of a great variability of legislations regarding indigenous territories, common considered topics are identified, such...

  15. Indigenously built resonance ionization mass spectrometer

    Razvi, M.A.N.; Jayasekharan, T.; Thankarajan, K.; Guhagarkar, M.B.; Dixit, M.N.; Bhale, G.L.

    2000-04-01

    Design, fabrication and performance testing of an indigenously built Resonance Ionization Mass Spectrometer (RIMS) is presented in this report. The instrument is totally indigenous, but for the laser components consisting of the excimer laser and tunable dye lasers. Constructional details of atomic beam source and linear time-of-flight mass spectrometer are included. Finally, commissioning and performance testing of the instrument is described. Mass resolving power of 400 and a detection limit of 100 atoms has been achieved using this RIMS set-up. (author)

  16. Indigenous women's voices: marginalization and health.

    Dodgson, Joan E; Struthers, Roxanne

    2005-10-01

    Marginalization may affect health care delivery. Ways in which indigenous women experienced marginalization were examined. Data from 57 indigenous women (18 to 65 years) were analyzed for themes. Three themes emerged: historical trauma as lived marginalization, biculturalism experienced as marginalization, and interacting within a complex health care system. Experienced marginalization reflected participants' unique perspective and were congruent with previous research. It is necessary for health care providers to assess the detrimental impact of marginalization on the health status of individuals and/or communities.

  17. Swimming activity in marine fish.

    Wardle, C S

    1985-01-01

    Marine fish are capable of swimming long distances in annual migrations; they are also capable of high-speed dashes of short duration, and they can occupy small home territories for long periods with little activity. There is a large effect of fish size on the distance fish migrate at slow swimming speeds. When chased by a fishing trawl the effect of fish size on swimming performance can decide their fate. The identity and thickness of muscle used at each speed and evidence for the timing of myotomes used during the body movement cycle can be detected using electromyogram (EMG) electrodes. The cross-sectional area of muscle needed to maintain different swimming speeds can be predicted by relating the swimming drag force to the muscle force. At maximum swimming speed one completed cycle of swimming force is derived in sequence from the whole cross-sectional area of the muscles along the two sides of the fish. This and other aspects of the swimming cycle suggest that each myotome might be responsible for generating forces involved in particular stages of the tail sweep. The thick myotomes at the head end shorten during the peak thrust of the tail blade whereas the thinner myotomes nearer the tail generate stiffness appropriate for transmission of these forces and reposition the tail for the next cycle.

  18. Swimming Performance of Toy Robotic Fish

    Petelina, Nina; Mendelson, Leah; Techet, Alexandra

    2015-11-01

    HEXBUG AquaBotsTM are a commercially available small robot fish that come in a variety of ``species''. These models have varying caudal fin shapes and randomly-varied modes of swimming including forward locomotion, diving, and turning. In this study, we assess the repeatability and performance of the HEXBUG swimming behaviors and discuss the use of these toys to develop experimental techniques and analysis methods to study live fish swimming. In order to determine whether these simple, affordable model fish can be a valid representation for live fish movement, two models, an angelfish and a shark, were studied using 2D Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) and 3D Synthetic Aperture PIV. In a series of experiments, the robotic fish were either allowed to swim freely or towed in one direction at a constant speed. The resultant measurements of the caudal fin wake are compared to data from previous studies of a real fish and simplified flapping propulsors.

  19. An indicator for ecosystem externalities in fishing

    Ravn-Jonsen, Lars; Andersen, Ken Haste; Vestergaard, Niels

    2016-01-01

    Ecosystem externalities arise when one use of an ecosystem affects its other uses through the production functions of the ecosystem. We use simulations with a size-spectrum ecosystem model to investigate the ecosystem externality created by fishing of multiple species. The model is based upon...... general ecological principles and is calibrated to the North Sea. Two fleets are considered: a "forage fish" fleet targeting species that mature at small sizes and a "large fish" fleet targeting large piscivorous species. Based on the marginal analysis of the present value of the rent, we develop...... a benefit indicator that explicitly divides the consequences of fishing into internal and external benefits. This analysis demonstrates that the forage fish fleet has a notable economic impact on the large fish fleet, but the reverse is not true. The impact can be either negative or positive, which entails...

  20. Incorporating Indigenous Rights and Environmental Justice into Fishery Management: Comparing Policy Challenges and Potentials from Alaska and Hawaíi

    Richmond, Laurie

    2013-11-01

    Colonial processes including the dispossession of indigenous lands and resources and the development of Western management institutions to govern the use of culturally important fish resources have served in many ways to marginalize indigenous interests within the United States fisheries. In recent years, several US fishery institutions have begun to develop policies that can confront this colonial legacy by better accommodating indigenous perspectives and rights in fishery management practices. This paper analyzes two such policies: the 2005 community quota entity program in Alaska which permits rural communities (predominantly Alaska Native villages) to purchase and lease commercial halibut fishing privileges and the 1994 State of Hawaíi community-based subsistence fishing area (CBSFA) legislation through which Native Hawaiian communities can designate marine space near their community as CBSFAs and collaborate with the state of Hawaíi to manage those areas according to traditional Hawaiian practices. The analysis reveals a striking similarity between the trajectories of these two policies. While they both offered significant potential for incorporating indigenous rights and environmental justice into state or federal fishery management, they have so far largely failed to do so. Environmental managers can gain insights from the challenges and potentials of these two policies. In order to introduce meaningful change, environmental policies that incorporate indigenous rights and environmental justice require a commitment of financial and institutional support from natural resource agencies, a commitment from indigenous groups and communities to organize and develop capacity, and careful consideration of contextual and cultural factors in the design of the policy framework.

  1. Teaching Indigenous Geography in a Neo-Colonial World

    Carter, Jennifer; Hollinsworth, David

    2017-01-01

    Australian universities are increasingly embedding Indigenous content and perspectives within curriculum to promote Indigenous cultural competency. We present teaching challenges in an Indigenous geography course designed to present an engaged, intercultural learning experience. We critically reflect on student evaluations, informal discussions…

  2. Indigeneity and Homeland: Land, History, Ceremony, and Language

    Lerma, Michael

    2012-01-01

    What is the relationship between Indigenous peoples and violent reactions to contemporary states? This research explores differing, culturally informed notions of attachment to land or place territory. Mechanistic ties and organic ties to land are linked to a key distinction between Indigenous peoples and non-Indigenous peoples. Utilizing the…

  3. Indigenous Rights and the 1991-2000 Australian Reconciliation Process

    Andrew Gunstone

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available The formal reconciliation process in Australia was conducted between 1991 and 2000 and aimed to reconcile Indigenous and non-Indigenous peoples by 2001. In this paper, I detail the failure of both this reconciliation process and governments, in particular the Howard Government, to recognise Indigenous rights, such as sovereignty, a treaty, self-determination and land rights.

  4. Indigenous counseling: A needed area in school counseling in Nigeria

    Indigenous counselling has not been given attention in Nigeria's school counselling programme. This counselling gap was created by European colonialism, which succeeded in developing in the minds of the African that anything indigenous is local, unscientific and unorthodox. Indigenous counselling is one of the ...

  5. Educational Leadership and Indigeneity: Doing Things the Same, Differently

    Hohepa, Margie Kahukura (Ngapuhi)

    2013-01-01

    Educational leadership, it is argued, must play a critical role in improving student outcomes, especially those of minoritized and Indigenous students. In the process of improving education and schooling for Indigenous students, Indigenous educational leadership needs to be considered alongside educational leadership more generally. This article…

  6. Characterization of indigenous chicken production systems in Kenya.

    Okeno, Tobias O; Kahi, Alexander K; Peters, Kurt J

    2012-03-01

    Indigenous chicken (IC) and their production systems were characterized to understand how the whole system operates for purposes of identifying threats and opportunities for holistic improvement. A survey involving 594 households was conducted in six counties with the highest population of IC in Kenya using structured questionnaires. Data on IC farmers' management practices were collected and analysed and inbreeding levels calculated based on the effective population size. Indigenous chicken were ranked highest as a source of livestock income by households in medium- to high-potential agricultural areas, but trailed goats in arid and semi-arid areas. The production system practised was mainly low-input and small-scale free range, with mean flock size of 22.40 chickens per household. The mean effective population size was 16.02, translating to high levels of inbreeding (3.12%). Provision for food and cash income were the main reasons for raising IC, whilst high mortality due to diseases, poor nutrition, housing and marketing channels were the major constraints faced by farmers. Management strategies targeting improved healthcare, nutrition and housing require urgent mitigation measures, whilst rural access road network needs to be developed for ease of market accessibility. Sustainable genetic improvement programmes that account for farmers' multiple objectives, market requirements and the production circumstances should be developed for a full realization of IC productivity.

  7. Fishing activities

    Oberle, Ferdinand; Puig, Pere; Martin, Jacobo; Micallef, Aaron; Krastel, Sebastian; Savini, Alessandra

    2018-01-01

    Unlike the major anthropogenic changes that terrestrial and coastal habitats underwent during the last centuries such as deforestation, river engineering, agricultural practices or urbanism, those occurring underwater are veiled from our eyes and have continued nearly unnoticed. Only recent advances in remote sensing and deep marine sampling technologies have revealed the extent and magnitude of the anthropogenic impacts to the seafloor. In particular, bottom trawling, a fishing technique consisting of dragging a net and fishing gear over the seafloor to capture bottom-dwelling living resources has gained attention among the scientific community, policy makers and the general public due to its destructive effects on the seabed. Trawling gear produces acute impacts on biota and the physical substratum of the seafloor by disrupting the sediment column structure, overturning boulders, resuspending sediments and imprinting deep scars on muddy bottoms. Also, the repetitive passage of trawling gear over the same areas creates long-lasting, cumulative impacts that modify the cohesiveness and texture of sediments. It can be asserted nowadays that due to its recurrence, mobility and wide geographical extent, industrial trawling has become a major force driving seafloor change and affecting not only its physical integrity on short spatial scales but also imprinting measurable modifications to the geomorphology of entire continental margins.

  8. The Diverse Uses Of Fish-Poison Plants In Northwest Guyana

    Andel, T.R. van

    2000-01-01

    Although prohibited by law, fish poison plants are still widely used by indigenous tribes in Guyana. The latest ethnobotanical collections date from the first half of the 20th century and, from recent anthropological studies, it cannot be deduced whether the same species are still used today. The

  9. Fish tapeworm infection

    Fish tapeworm infection is an intestinal infection with a parasite found in fish. ... The fish tapeworm ( Diphyllobothrium latum ) is the largest parasite that infects humans. Humans become infected when they eat raw ...

  10. Habitat degradation and fishing effects on the size structure of coral reef fish communities.

    Wilson, S K; Fisher, R; Pratchett, M S; Graham, N A J; Dulvy, N K; Turner, R A; Cakacaka, A; Polunin, N V C

    2010-03-01

    Overfishing and habitat degradation through climate change pose the greatest threats to sustainability of marine resources on coral reefs. We examined how changes in fishing pressure and benthic habitat composition influenced the size spectra of island-scale reef fish communities in Lau, Fiji. Between 2000 and 2006 fishing pressure declined in the Lau Islands due to declining human populations and reduced demand for fresh fish. At the same time, coral cover declined and fine-scale architectural complexity eroded due to coral bleaching and outbreaks of crown-of-thorns starfish, Acanthaster planci. We examined the size distribution of reef fish communities using size spectra analysis, the linearized relationship between abundance and body size class. Spatial variation in fishing pressure accounted for 31% of the variation in the slope of the size spectra in 2000, higher fishing pressure being associated with a steeper slope, which is indicative of fewer large-bodied fish and/or more small-bodied fish. Conversely, in 2006 spatial variation in habitat explained 53% of the variation in the size spectra slopes, and the relationship with fishing pressure was much weaker (approximately 12% of variation) than in 2000. Reduced cover of corals and lower structural complexity was associated with less steep size spectra slopes, primarily due to reduced abundance of fish < 20 cm. Habitat degradation will compound effects of fishing on coral reefs as increased fishing reduces large-bodied target species, while habitat loss results in fewer small-bodied juveniles and prey that replenish stocks and provide dietary resources for predatory target species. Effective management of reef resources therefore depends on both reducing fishing pressure and maintaining processes that encourage rapid recovery of coral habitat.

  11. Fishing destabilizes the biomass flow in the marine size spectrum.

    Rochet, M-J; Benoît, E

    2012-01-22

    Fishing impacts on marine food webs are predicted by simulations of a size spectrum community model. In this model, predation is determined by predator and prey size and abundance, and drives predator growth and prey mortality. Fishing amplifies temporal oscillations in the biomass flow. Oscillations appear at lower fishing intensity and have wider amplitude when fishing is selective (removes a narrow size range) and/or when large fish are targeted, than when fishing is more balanced (catching a larger size range) or when small fish are targeted. A novel index of size diversity is developed, and is shown to be sensitive to both fishing intensity and selectivity. To avoid unstable food web dynamics with potential harmful consequences for fisheries, limiting both fishing intensity and selectivity might be an appropriate exploitation strategy.

  12. Working Together: Strategies That Support Cross-Cultural Engagement of Indigenous Teacher Assistants Working in Indigenous Contexts

    Armour, Danielle; Warren, Elizabeth; Miller, Jodie

    2016-01-01

    Indigenous teacher assistants (ITAs) are often employed in schools to assist in addressing educational issues relating to Indigenous students. While, this practice has occurred for over 40 years in most Australian states, little has been written about their contribution in assisting Indigenous students to learn. This paper explores the influence…

  13. A pesca de pequena escala no rio Madeira pelos desembarques ocorridos em Manicoré (Estado do Amazonas, Brasil Small-scale fishery at Madeira River by fish landings in Manicoré city (Amazon State, Brazil

    Renato Soares Cardoso

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available O trabalho teve como objetivo analisar o desembarque da pesca comercial na região do Médio rio Madeira, tendo como área focal o município de Manicoré, buscando identificar as espécies explotadas, os locais de pesca e sua contribuição para o abastecimento local de pescado. O desembarque foi amostrado diariamente, utilizando questionários aplicados aos pescadores após a comercialização do pescado. Foram desembarcadas no ano de 2002 aproximadamente 225,4 toneladas de pescado. Canoas motorizadas efetuaram mais expedições de pesca, entretanto os barcos de pesca desembarcaram uma maior produção. Os valores médios de desembarque foram de 11,2; 5,4 e 2,4 toneladas por mês para barcos, canoas e compradores de pescado respectivamente, sendo as capturas compostas por 32 espécies ou grupo de espécies, sendo jaraqui (Semaprochilodus spp, pacu (Mylossoma duriventre, curimatá (Prochilodus nigricans, sardinha (Triportheus spp e jatuarana (Brycon spp, responsáveis por 75% do pescado desembarcado. Foram identificados 32 locais de pesca, sendo os mais explotados os rios Madeira e Manicoré, os lagos Acará e Boquerão e o igarapé Matupiri.The study aimed to analyze the landing of commercial fishing in Middle Madeira River, near Manicoré city, identifying the exploited species, fishing grounds and the contribution for the local supplying of fish. Fish landings were sampled daily, using questionnaires, given to fishermen after the fish sale. In 2002, 225.4 tons of fish were landed in Manicoré city. Motorized canoes undertook more fishing trips, but the higher fish landings were accomplished by boats. Mean values of fish landings were 11.2 tons/month, 5.4 tons/month and 2.4 tons/month for boats, motorized canoes and fish purchasers, respectively. 32 species or group of species were landed, with a predominance of jaraqui (Semaprochilodus spp, pacu (Mylossoma duriventre, curimatá (Prochilodus nigricans, sardinha (Triportheus spp e jatuarana

  14. Fish welfare: Fish capacity to experience pain

    Vučinić Marijana

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Teleost fish possess similar nociceptive processing systems to those found in terrestrial vertebrates. It means that they react to potential painful stimuli in a similar manner as mammals and birds. However, the welfare of fish has been the focus of less research than that of higher vertebrates. Humans may affect the welfare of fish through fisheries, aquaculture and a number of other activities. There is scientific evidence to support the assumption that fish have the capacity to experience pain because they possess functional nociceptors, endogenous opioids and opioid receptors, brain structures involved in pain processing and pathways leading from nociceptors to higher brain structures. Also, it is well documented that some anaesthetics and analgesics may reduce nociceptive responses in fish. Behavioural indicators in fish such as lip-rubbing and rocking behaviours are the best proof that fish react to potential painful stimuli. This paper is an overview of some scientific evidence on fish capacity to experience pain.

  15. A Comparative Analysis of Indigenous Research Guidelines to Inform Genomic Research in Indigenous Communities

    Jay Maddock; Nicole K. Taniguchi

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Genetic research has potential benefits for improving health, such as identifying molecular characteristics of a disease, understanding disease prevalence and treatment, and developing treatments tailored to patients based on individual genetic characteristics of their disease. Indigenous people are often targeted for genetic research because genes are easier to study in communities that practice endogamy. Therefore, populations perceived to be more homogenous, such as Indigenous ...

  16. Indigenous knowledge and communal conflict resolution: Evidence ...

    This paper discusses an experience of relying on indigenous knowledge to resolve a communal conflict between two Nigerian local communities. The authors were working in one of the communities when conflict erupted, and had to initiate moves to restore peace and normality. They relied largely on information on the ...

  17. Understanding the relationship between indigenous (traditional ...

    With the advancement of modern scientific methods and technology, most of these indigenous biological resources are being developed into commercial products, largely without benefiting the very communities that have sustainably managed them over many generations. This paper examines current regulatory ...

  18. Ectoparasites and Haemoparasites of Indigenous Chicken ( Gallus ...

    This research undertook the study of ectoparasites and haemoparasites found on and in the body of indigenous chicken (Gallus domesticus). Six hundred and nineteen ectoparasites were collected from 375 chicken from 28 households in and around Ibadan city between February and November, 1999. Of these, 455 ...

  19. Biochemical characterization of indigenous Fulani and Yoruba ...

    The study was carried out to characterize two indigenous chickens of Nigeria using protein markers; haemolglobin (HB) and carbonic anhydrase (CA). Separation of the two proteins was achieved by cellulose acetate electrophoresis and direct gene counting method was employed to interpret the result. Palentological ...

  20. Production Performance of Indigenous Chicken under Semi ...

    A study to evaluate four indigenous chicken – namely: Horasi, Kuchi, Naked neck and Frizzled in order to obtain grand-parent and parent stocks was carried out at Tanzania Livestock Research Institute, Mpwapwa district of Dodoma, Tanzania. The perfomance of the ecotypes were compared so as to come out with the best ...

  1. Chemical composition of Ricinodendron heudelotii : An indigenous ...

    An ethnobotanical survey and germplasm collection of Ricinodendron heudelotii (Bail.) (an indigenous fruit tree) were carried out in six provinces of the humid rainforest zone in southern Cameroon. Fruit samples were collected at 40-50 km intervals along the main road network of the zone, from homegardens, food crop as ...

  2. Risk Management Practices of Multinational and indigenous ...

    Construction projects' high uncertainty rates make them unattractive to non-risk takers. Construction companies are therefore necessarily risk takers, albeit, to varying degrees. This study made an inquiry into the risk management (RM) practices of multinational and indigenous construction companies (MCCs and ICCs, ...

  3. Emancipatory Indigenous Knowledge Systems: implications for ...

    Erna Kinsey

    A child inherits from his or family those sets of meaning, quali- ties of style, modes of ... of experience and trial-and-error problem solving by groups of people working to .... indigenous capitals of the past and relinquishes all that is de- skilling or ...

  4. Desiderata: Towards Indigenous Models of Vocational Psychology

    Leong, Frederick T. L.; Pearce, Marina

    2011-01-01

    As a result of a relative lack of cross-cultural validity in most current (Western) psychological models, indigenous models of psychology have recently become a popular approach for understanding behaviour in specific cultures. Such models would be valuable to vocational psychology research with culturally diverse populations. Problems facing…

  5. SPATIAL COMPARISONS OF POPULATIONS OF AN INDIGENOUS ...

    In the 1970s, the Mediterranean mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis invaded the South African coast and spread rapidly to dominate much of the West Coast, indicating either the opportunity to occupy a vacant niche or its superior competitive capability over indigenous species. In Namaqualand on the West Coast it appears to ...

  6. Assessment of Indigenous Knowledge Application among Livestock ...

    This study investigated the application of indigenous knowledge among livestock farmers in Southern Ijaw Local Government Area of Bayelsa State. A structured questionnaire was administered to one hundred and fifty four respondents in the study area. The data were analyzed using descriptive and inferential statistics.

  7. Indigenous communication, religion and education as determinants ...

    The study examined indigenous communication, religion and education as determinants of attitudes towards STIs/HIV/AIDS education in Igando Community Lagos State, Nigeria. A sample of 195 people was randomly selected from the population. The study used four hypotheses to test the respondents' attitude to the use of ...

  8. Nigerian indigenous yoghurt (kindirmo) production using ...

    user

    2011-01-24

    Jan 24, 2011 ... The production of Nigerian indigenous yoghurt (kindirmo) using Lactobacillus bulgaricus and. Streptococcus thermophilus mutants as starter culture was investigated. The results of milk fermentations using L. bulgaricus and S. thermophilus mutant isolates when compared with their wild- type strains ...

  9. Control of indigenous pathogenic bacteria in seafood

    Huss, Hans Henrik

    1997-01-01

    The pathogenic bacteria indigenous to the aquatic and general environment are listed. Their distribution in nature, prevalence in seafood and the possibilities for growth of these organisms in various types of products are outlined These data, combined with what is known regarding the epidemiology...

  10. Ethical dimension of indigenous knowledge systems | Mutula ...

    Indigenous people around the world both in developed and developing countries have long been marginalized by governments and /or by other privileged social groups from main stream social, political and economic activities. As a result they suffer indignity because their legitimate human rights are violated by way of ...

  11. Indigenous Health, Social Inequity, and Interculturality: Research ...

    The implementation of intercultural health programs, often understood as the integration of indigenous and biomedical models of medicine, is a common challenge in many countries. Currently there is great interest in implementing intercultural health programs in Peru and throughout the Latin American region. This project ...

  12. Indigenous environmental values as human values

    Monica Gratani

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The claim that in natural resource management (NRM a change from anthropocentric values and ethics to eco-centric ones is necessary to achieve sustainability leads to the search for eco-centric models of relationship with the environment. Indigenous cultures can provide such models; hence, there is the need for multicultural societies to further include their values in NRM. In this article, we investigate the environmental values placed on a freshwater environment of the Wet Tropics by a community of indigenous Australians. We discuss their environmental values as human values, and so as beliefs that guide communities’ understanding of how the natural world should be viewed and treated by humans. This perspective represents a step forward in our understanding of indigenous environmental values, and a way to overcome the paradigm of indigenous values as valued biophysical attributes of the environment or processes happening in landscapes. Our results show that the participant community holds biospheric values. Restoring these values in the NRM of the Wet Tropics could contribute to sustainability and environmental justice in the area.

  13. Indigenous Learning Preferences and Interactive Technologies

    Kitchenham, Andrew

    2017-01-01

    This three-year research study examined the influence of interactive technologies on the math achievement of Indigenous students in Years 4, 5, 6 and 7 technology-equipped classrooms in a rural elementary school in British Columbia, Canada. Using a mixed-methods approach, the researcher conducted semistructured interviews and collected math…

  14. Indigenous Fallow Management on Yap Island

    M.V.C. Falanruw; Francis Ruegorong

    2002-01-01

    On Yap Island, indigenous management of the fallow in shifting agriculture has resulted in the development of site-stable taro patch and tree garden agroforestry systems. These systems are relatively sustainable and supportive of household economies , with some surplus for local market sales. however, a broad range of crops whose harvest is complementary to those...

  15. INDIGENOUS COMMUNICATION AS AN ENABLING FACTOR FOR ...

    multifaceted, multi-sectorial and widely a participatory process in which the .... Important colours used to communicate different meanings among Mbano people are .... of two local government areas – Isiala-Mbano and Ehime-Mbano. ..... view. Again, 190 respondents believed that indigenous communication can assist the.

  16. Nigerian indigenous yoghurt (kindirmo) production using ...

    The production of Nigerian indigenous yoghurt (kindirmo) using Lactobacillus bulgaricus and Streptococcus thermophilus mutants as starter culture was investigated. The results of milk fermentations using L. bulgaricus and S. thermophilus mutant isolates when compared with their wildtype strains (control) indicated that the ...

  17. Synergy between indigenous knowledge systems, modern health ...

    ... the people of this country should harness a synergy between indigenous health care systems, scientific research and modern health care methods. This article attempts to address the historical evolution of health care methods in South Africa, its effect on the community as well as challenges facing the health professions.

  18. Indigenous Australian art in intercultural contact zones

    Eleonore Wildburger

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available This article comments on Indigenous Australian art from an intercultural perspective. The painting Bush Tomato Dreaming (1998, by the Anmatyerre artist Lucy Ngwarai Kunoth serves as model case for my argument that art expresses existential social knowledge. In consequence, I will argue that social theory and art theory together provide tools for intercultural understanding and competence.

  19. Cultural tourism and identity : rethinking indigeneity

    Tomaselli, K.G.

    2012-01-01

    Studies of cultural tourism and indigenous identity are fraught with questions concerning exploitation, entitlement, ownership and authenticity. Unease with the idea of leveraging a group identity for commercial gain is ever-present. This anthology articulates some of these debates from a multitude

  20. Genetic diversity and relationships among indigenous Mozambican ...

    Three indigenous Mozambican cattle breeds, namely the Angone, Landim and Bovino de Tete were characterized using six proteins, 13 autosomal microsatellite loci and one Y-specific microsatellite locus (INRA124). The Mashona breed from Zimbabwe was also studied to elucidate the origin of the Bovino de Tete cattle.

  1. Case Study: Indigenous Knowledge and Data Sharing

    Cameron Neylon

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The IDRC-funded project 'Empowering Indigenous Peoples and Knowledge Systems Related to Climate Change and Intellectual Property Rights' is part of the Open and Collaborative Science in Development Network (OCSDNet. The project “examiners processes of open and collaborative science related to indigenous peoples’ knowledge, climate change and intellectual property rights”. Natural Justice, the lead organisation has a strong ethical stance on the agency and control over knowledge being vested with the contributing project participants, communities of the Nama and Griqua peoples of the Western Cape of South Africa. The project focuses on questions of how climate change is affecting these communities, how do they produce and maintain knowledge relating to climate change, how that knowledge is characterised and shared (or not with wider publics, and how legal frameworks promote or hinder the agenda of these indigenous communities and their choices to communicate and collaborate with wider publics. Indigenous Knowledge is an area where ethical issues of informed consent, historical injustice, non-compatible epistemologies and political, legal, and economic issues all collide in ways that challenge western and Anglo-American assumptions about data sharing. The group seeks to strongly model and internally critique their own ethical stance in the process of their research, through for instance, using community contracts and questioning institutional informed consent systems.

  2. Indigenous peoples and the new extraction

    Anthias, Penelope Fay

    2016-01-01

    A growing body of literature examines how the rise of “neo-extractivist” states in Latin America is reconfiguring the relationship between resources, nation, territory, and citizenship. However, the implications for indigenous territorial projects remain underexplored. Ethnographic research in th...... challenge resistance narratives and resource-curse theories, revealing how resources act as conduits for deeper postcolonial struggles over territory, sovereignty, and citizenship....

  3. Trace Metals Bioaccumulation Potentials of Three Indigenous ...

    The rapid increase in the number of industries may have increased the levels of trace metals in the soil. Phytoremediation of these polluted soils using indigenous grasses is now considered an alternative method in remediating these polluted soils. The present study investigated and compared the ability of three ...

  4. Toward Conceptualising Cultural Diversity: An Indigenous Critique.

    Manu'atu, Linita; Kepa, Mere

    This paper, written from the perspectives of indigenous Maori and Tongan researchers, critiques the Auckland Secondary Schools Principals Association's (ASSPA) perspective that culture disrupts students' schooling. It discusses the relations of schooling to the cultural and political forces inside and outside of school; the relations of indigenous…

  5. Performance assessment of indigenously developed FBG strain ...

    Use of FBG sensors for real time health monitoring of various civil engineering structures is well-established in western world since last decade, whereas in the Indian context this technology is still in a nascent stage. In this paper, performance assessment of indigenously developed FBG sensors for the application of health ...

  6. Forward | Castiano | Indilinga: African Journal of Indigenous ...

    Indilinga: African Journal of Indigenous Knowledge Systems. Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 12, No 2 (2013) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. Username, Password, Remember me, or Register. DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT ...

  7. Forward | Castiano | Indilinga: African Journal of Indigenous ...

    Indilinga: African Journal of Indigenous Knowledge Systems. Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 12, No 1 (2013) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. Username, Password, Remember me, or Register. DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT ...

  8. Homestead creator: a tool for indigenous designers

    Rodil, Kasper; Winschiers-Theophilus, Heike; Jensen, Kasper L

    2012-01-01

    The article presents in-situ findings of introducing a tablet prototype, with touch interaction and 3D graphical visualizations, to empower knowledgeable village elders in Namibia to locally re-create a 3D graphical context for previously recorded video clips of indigenous practices and narratives...

  9. ASSESSMENT OF METALS IN ROASTED INDIGENOUS COFFEE ...

    *Corresponding author. E-mail: bscv2006@yahoo.com. This work is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License. ASSESSMENT OF METALS IN ROASTED INDIGENOUS COFFEE VARIETIES OF. ETHIOPIA. Abera Gure1,2, Bhagwan Singh Chandravanshi1* and Taddese Wondimu Godeto1, ...

  10. LIFE AND DEATH AMONGST INDIGENOUS PEOPLES

    Jane Felipe Beltrão

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Considering the frequent rights violations perpetrated against indigenous peoples, which affect people and territories, compromising their lives and even their right to mourn the dead, it is imperative to understand the care and concerns of the indigenous towards life and death. Thus, we propose to analyze ethnographic narratives about the Apinayé, Ka'apor, Tapirapé, Tembé, Tenetehara, Terena and Asurini, in order to discuss the caring of people, considering the context of funerary rituals. The texts analyzed are able to reveal: (1 the existence (or not of the practice; (2 the specific contexts in which the funeral rites are (or not practiced; and (3 the meanings that the practice gain in ethnically differentiated societies. The narratives of indigenous peoples are included in order to attempt to make the peoples that nowadays find themselves accused by both the media and (reportedly pro-life organizations “be heard”. Therefore, using the classical literature we study the heritage of ritual practices, which besides confering dignity to the dead, indicate that life is the greater good among indigenous peoples.

  11. Age standardisation – an indigenous standard?

    Simmonds Shirley

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The study of inequities in health is a critical component of monitoring government obligations to uphold the rights of Indigenous Peoples. In Aotearoa/New Zealand the indigenous Māori population has a substantially younger age structure than the non-indigenous population making it necessary to account for age differences when comparing population health outcomes. An age-standardised rate is a summary measure of a rate that a population would have if it had a standard age structure. Changing age standards have stimulated interest in the potential impact of population standards on disparities data and consequently on health policy. This paper compares the age structure of the Māori and non-Māori populations with two standard populations commonly used in New Zealand: Segi's world and WHO world populations. The performance of these standards in Māori and non-Māori mortality data was then measured against the use of the Māori population as a standard. It was found that the choice of population standard affects the magnitude of mortality rates, rate ratios and rate differences, the relative ranking of causes of death, and the relative width of confidence intervals. This in turn will affect the monitoring of trends in health outcomes and health policy decision-making. It is concluded that the choice of age standard has political implications and the development and utilisation of an international indigenous population standard should be considered.

  12. Specific aminopeptidases of indigenous Lactobacillus brevis and ...

    Lactic acid bacteria play an important role in milk coagulation and cheese ripening. To select strains showing interesting industrial features, two indigenous lactobacilli (Lactobacillus brevis and Lactobacillus plantarum) were studied for aminopeptidase activity. Cell and cells free extract were tested for leucyl aminopeptidase ...

  13. Fish for Feed vs Fish for Food

    Allan, Geoff L.

    2004-01-01

    Aquaculture is the fastest-growing food producing industry sector in the world. Demand for feed ingredients, particularly for preferred protein sources such as fishmeal, fish oil and ‘trash fish’, has also increased, raising questions about sustainability and uses of fish for aquaculture feeds or directly as human food. Approximately 30 million metric tonnes (MMT) of fish from capture fisheries are used each year to produce fishmeal and fish oil. The species used are not usually consumed dire...

  14. Indigenous housing and health in the Canadian North

    Christensen, Julia

    2016-01-01

    In this article, I explore the relationship between housing, home and health amongst Indigenous homeless people living in the Canadian North. In particular, I examine the ways in which Indigenous homemaking practices conflict with housing policy, and exacerbate individual pathways to homelessness....... I argue that integral components in northern Indigenous conceptualizations of home and, in turn, health are not only unrecognized in housing policy, but actively discouraged. The potential for homemaking to inform health and housing policy speaks to the relevance of cultural safety not only...... to Indigenous health services, but also to a comprehensive framing of Indigenous health....

  15. Rehabilitation and indigenous peoples: the Māori experience.

    Harwood, Matire

    2010-01-01

    Indigenous peoples often have the worst health status in comparison to non-indigenous people in their own nations; urgent action to address the health inequities for indigenous people is required. The role of rehabilitation in addressing health and disability inequities is particularly important due to the health need of indigenous peoples; the unequal distribution of health determinants; and disparities in access to, quality of care through and outcomes following rehabilitation. This article will present a perspective for Māori, the indigenous peoples of New Zealand, on a framework for improving rehabilitation services for Māori and ultimately their health and wellbeing.

  16. Demersal and larval fish assemblages in the Chukchi Sea

    Norcross, Brenda L.; Holladay, Brenda A.; Busby, Morgan S.; Mier, Kathryn L.

    2010-01-01

    A multidisciplinary research cruise was conducted in the Chukchi Sea in summer 2004 during which we investigated assemblages of small demersal fishes and ichthyoplankton and the water masses associated with these assemblages. This study establishes a baseline of 30 demersal fish and 25 ichthyoplankton taxa in US and Russian waters of the Chukchi Sea. Presence/absence of small demersal fish clustered into four assemblages: Coastal Fishes, Western Chukchi Fishes, South Central Chukchi Fishes, and North Central Chukchi Fishes. Habitats occupied by small demersal fishes were characterized by sediment type, bottom salinity, and bottom temperature. Abundance of ichthyoplankton grouped into three assemblages with geographical extent similar to that of the bottom assemblages, except that there was a single assemblage for Central Chukchi Fishes. Water-column temperature and salinity characterized ichthyoplankton habitats. Three water masses, Alaska Coastal Water, Bering Sea Water, and Winter Water, were identified from both bottom and depth-averaged water-column temperature and salinity. A fourth water mass, Resident Chukchi Water, was identified only in the bottom water. The water mass and habitat characteristics with which demersal and larval fish assemblages were associated create a baseline to measure anticipated effects of climate change that are expected to be most severe at high latitudes. Monitoring fish assemblages could be a tool for assessing the effects of climate change. Climate-induced changes in distributions of species would result in a restructuring of fish assemblages in the Chukchi Sea.

  17. Geographic distribution of isolated indigenous societies in Amazonia and the efficacy of indigenous territories.

    Kesler, Dylan C; Walker, Robert S

    2015-01-01

    The headwaters of the Amazon Basin harbor most of the world's last indigenous peoples who have limited contact with encroaching colonists. Knowledge of the geographic distribution of these isolated groups is essential to assist with the development of immediate protections for vulnerable indigenous settlements. We used remote sensing to document the locations of 28 isolated villages within the four Brazilian states of Acre, Amazonas, Roraima, and Rondônia. The sites were confirmed during previous over-flights and by image evidence of thatched-roof houses; they are estimated to host over 1,700 individuals. Locational data were used to train maximum entropy models that identified landscape and anthropogenic features associated with the occurrence of isolated indigenous villages, including elevation, proximity to streams of five different orders, proximity to roads and settlements, proximity to recent deforestation, and vegetation cover type. Isolated villages were identified at mid elevations, within 20 km of the tops of watersheds and at greater distances from existing roads and trails. We further used model results, combined with boundaries of the existing indigenous territory system that is designed to protect indigenous lands, to assess the efficacy of the existing protected area network for isolated peoples. Results indicate that existing indigenous territories encompass all of the villages we identified, and 50% of the areas with high predicted probabilities of isolated village occurrence. Our results are intended to help inform policies that can mitigate against future external threats to isolated peoples.

  18. Geographic distribution of isolated indigenous societies in Amazonia and the efficacy of indigenous territories.

    Dylan C Kesler

    Full Text Available The headwaters of the Amazon Basin harbor most of the world's last indigenous peoples who have limited contact with encroaching colonists. Knowledge of the geographic distribution of these isolated groups is essential to assist with the development of immediate protections for vulnerable indigenous settlements. We used remote sensing to document the locations of 28 isolated villages within the four Brazilian states of Acre, Amazonas, Roraima, and Rondônia. The sites were confirmed during previous over-flights and by image evidence of thatched-roof houses; they are estimated to host over 1,700 individuals. Locational data were used to train maximum entropy models that identified landscape and anthropogenic features associated with the occurrence of isolated indigenous villages, including elevation, proximity to streams of five different orders, proximity to roads and settlements, proximity to recent deforestation, and vegetation cover type. Isolated villages were identified at mid elevations, within 20 km of the tops of watersheds and at greater distances from existing roads and trails. We further used model results, combined with boundaries of the existing indigenous territory system that is designed to protect indigenous lands, to assess the efficacy of the existing protected area network for isolated peoples. Results indicate that existing indigenous territories encompass all of the villages we identified, and 50% of the areas with high predicted probabilities of isolated village occurrence. Our results are intended to help inform policies that can mitigate against future external threats to isolated peoples.

  19. Reclaiming Indigenous identities: Culture as strength against suicide among Indigenous youth in Canada.

    Barker, Brittany; Goodman, Ashley; DeBeck, Kora

    2017-06-16

    In Canada, Indigenous youth suicide represents one of several health disparities burdening Indigenous populations, and like many other of these disparities, can be understood as an expression of societal, historical, cultural and familial trauma. As the number of Indigenous youth who take their own lives every year in Canada continues to far exceed national averages, it appears that conventional suicide prevention efforts remain ineffective among this population. A growing body of research argues that conventional interventions, largely rooted in Western individual-level behavioural change frameworks, are culturally discordant with Indigenous paradigms. In response, some Indigenous communities are turning to cultural revitalization as a holistic community-driven response to suicide prevention and treatment. The following commentary explores the emerging evidence base for "culture as treatment" - a novel approach to suicide that emphasizes the significance of interconnectedness in healing, alongside the revitalization of traditional values to reclaim community wellness. In doing so, we seek to contribute to a changing discourse surrounding Indigenous youth suicide by acknowledging culture as strength against this national crisis.

  20. Microbiological spoilage of fish and fish products.

    Gram, L; Huss, H H

    1996-11-01

    Spoilage of fresh and lightly preserved fish products is caused by microbial action. This paper reviews the current knowledge in terms of the microbiology of fish and fish products with particular emphasis on identification of specific spoilage bacteria and the qualitative and quantitative biochemical indicators of spoilage. Shewanella putrefaciens and Pseudomonas spp. are the specific spoilage bacteria of iced fresh fish regardless of the origin of the fish. Modified atmosphere stored marine fish from temperate waters are spoiled by the CO2 resistant Photobacterium phosphoreum whereas Gram-positive bacteria are likely spoilers of CO2 packed fish from fresh or tropical waters. Fish products with high salt contents may spoil due to growth of halophilic bacteria (salted fish) or growth of anaerobic bacteria and yeasts (barrel salted fish). Whilst the spoilage of fresh and highly salted fish is well understood, much less is known about spoilage of lightly preserved fish products. It is concluded that the spoilage is probably caused by lactic acid bacteria, certain psychotrophic Enterobacteriaceae and/or Photobacterium phosphoreum. However, more work is needed in this area.

  1. Fishing Fish Stem Cells and Nuclear Transplants

    Hong, Yunhan

    2011-01-01

    Fish has been the subject of various research fields, ranging from ecology, evolution, physiology and toxicology to aquaculture. In the past decades fish has attracted considerable attention for functional genomics, cancer biology and developmental genetics, in particular nuclear transfer for understanding of cytoplasmic-nuclear relationship. This special issue reports on recent progress made in fish stem cells and nuclear transfer.

  2. The indigenous space and marginalized peoples in the United Nations

    Dahl, Jens

    For more than 20 years, Jens Dahl has observed and now analyzed how a relatively independent space, the Indigenous Space, has been constructed within the confines of the United Nations. In the UN, indigenous peoples have achieved more than any other group of people, minorities included. The book...... traces this to the ability of indigenous peoples to create consensus among themselves; the establishment of an indigenous caucus; and the construction of a global indigenousness in a continuously developing process in which contentious relationships and symbols have been constructed, reformulated......, negotiated and re-negotiated internally and with the states. In this process 'indigenous peoples' developed as a category and an evolving concept. Dahl looks into the ability of different indigenous representatives to make an impact on the UN processes and use achievements for purposes at home. Combining...

  3. Indigenous participation and representation in Venezuelan electoral processes

    Luis Fernando ANGOSTO FERRÁNDEZ

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available This article examines the Venezuelan regional elections of 2008 as a contextual event for the analysis of electoral strategies and results associated with the indigenous representation. Three factors intertwined in the electoral moment are analyzed: 1. the existence of minimum guaranteed representation for indigenous population in legislative organs; 2. the participation of indigenous candidates and electors; 3. the maneuvers of political parties and civil organizations that attempt to channel and/or benefit from such indigenous representation and participation. The description of the electoral context facilitates the identification of factors that, beyond the normative structure of the State, condition the agency of individuals and parties involved in electoral processes. Among those factors are the symbolic value of indigeneity in the current process of national identity re-definition, the interest of political parties in controlling the vote of the indigenous representation and the tendency towards the consolidation of professionalized elites within the indigenous activism.

  4. The Portrayal of Indigenous Health in Selected Australian Media

    Melissa J. Stoneham

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available It is acknowledged that health outcomes for Australian Indigenous peoples are lower than those of non-Indigenous Australians. Research suggests negative media in relation to Indigenous Australians perpetuates racist stereotypes among the wider population and impacts on the health of Indigenous Australians. This study examined the media portrayal of Indigenous Australian public health issues in selected media over a twelve month period and found that, overwhelmingly, the articles were negative in their portrayal of Indigenous health. A total of 74 percent of the coverage of Australian Indigenous related articles were negative, 15 percent were positive, and 11 percent were neutral. The most common negative subject descriptors related to alcohol, child abuse, petrol sniffing, violence, suicide, deaths in custody, and crime.

  5. Contrasting colonist and indigenous impacts on amazonian forests.

    Lu, Flora; Gray, Clark; Bilsborrow, Richard E; Mena, Carlos F; Erlien, Christine M; Bremner, Jason; Barbieri, Alisson; Walsh, Stephen J

    2010-06-01

    To examine differences in land use and environmental impacts between colonist and indigenous populations in the northern Ecuadorian Amazon, we combined data from household surveys and remotely sensed imagery that was collected from 778 colonist households in 64 colonization sectors, and 499 households from five indigenous groups in 36 communities. Overall, measures of deforestation and forest fragmentation were significantly greater for colonists than indigenous peoples. On average, colonist households had approximately double the area in agriculture and cash crops and 5.5 times the area in pasture as indigenous households. Nevertheless, substantial variation in land-use patterns existed among the five indigenous groups in measures such as cattle ownership and use of hired agricultural labor. These findings support the potential conservation value of indigenous lands while cautioning against uniform policies that homogenize indigenous ethnic groups.

  6. CONTEMPORARY INDIGENOUS LITERATURE: FORMS AND CONTENTS IN THE POETRY AND PROSE OF THE II LITERARY PARTY OF INDIGENOUS POETICS.

    Deborah Goldemberg

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available By analyzing the forms and contents of the presentations made by indigenous performers and writers at the I Literary Party of Indigenous Poetics, this article exposes the challenges faced by traditional genre theories in tackling indigenous narratives and analyses how this “crisis” contributes to widening hierarchical and Western biased conceptions. On a stage open to contemporary indigenous expression, as is the literary party, the concepts of performance and storytelling, with the social function of maintaining tradition, continuous learning and transformation, better define this indigenous expression.

  7. Prevalence and characteristics of overweight and obesity in indigenous Australian children: A systematic review.

    Dyer, Suzanne Marie; Gomersall, Judith Streak; Smithers, Lisa Gaye; Davy, Carol; Coleman, Dylan T; Street, Jackie Mary

    2017-05-03

    Evidence-based profiling of obesity and overweight in Indigenous Australian children has been poor. This study systematically reviewed evidence of the prevalence and patterns of obesity/overweight, with respect to gender, age, remoteness, and birth weight, in Indigenous Australian children, 0-18 years (PROSPERO CRD42014007626). Study quality and risk of bias were assessed. Twenty-five publications (21 studies) met inclusion criteria, with large variations in prevalence for obesity or overweight (11 to 54%) reported. A high degree of heterogeneity in study design was observed, few studies (6/21) were representative of the target population, and few appropriately recruited Indigenous children (8/21). Variability in study design, conduct, and small sample sizes mean that it is not possible to derive a single estimate for prevalence although two high-quality studies indicate at least one in four Indigenous Australian children are overweight or obese. Four of six studies reporting on gender, found overweight/obesity higher in girls and eight studies reporting on overweight/obesity by age suggest prevalence increases with age with one high quality large national study reporting total overweight/obesity as 22.4% of children aged 2-4 years, 27.5% of those aged 5-9, 38.5% aged 10-14, and 36.3% aged 15-17. Three of four studies, reporting obesity/overweight by region, found lower rates for children living in more remote areas than urban areas.

  8. 77 FR 51520 - Endangered and Threatened Species; Take of Anadromous Fish

    2012-08-24

    ... and Threatened Species; Take of Anadromous Fish AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS... (16 U.S.C. 1531-1543) and regulations governing listed fish and wildlife permits (50 CFR parts 222-226... expect to kill any listed fish but a small number, up to 20 percent (equivalent to one fish), may die as...

  9. Indigenous knowledge of HIV/AIDS among High School students in Namibia

    Zealand Donovan

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The use of Indigenous Knowledge (IK can help students to form schemas for interpreting local phenomena through the prism of what they already know. The formation of schemas related to HIV/AIDS risk perception and prevention is important for individuals to form local meanings of the HIV/AIDS epidemic. The objective of this study was to explore the indigenous names and symptoms of HIV/AIDS among High School students in Namibia Methods Focus group discussions were used to collect qualitative data on indigenous names and symptoms of HIV/AIDS from students in 18 secondary schools located in six education regions. Data were grouped into themes. Results People living with HIV/AIDS were called names meaning prostitute: ihule, butuku bwa sihule, and shikumbu. Names such askibutu bwa masapo (bone disease,katjumba (a young child,kakithi (disease, andshinangele (very thin person were used to describe AIDS. Derogatory names like mbwa (dog, esingahogo (pretender, ekifi (disease, and shinyakwi noyana (useless person were also used. Other terms connoted death (zeguru, heaven; omudimba, corpse, fear (simbandembande, fish eagle; katanga kamufifi, (hot ball, and subtle meaning using slang words such as 4 × 4, oondanda ne (four letters, desert soul, and mapilelo (an AIDS service organization. Typical (body wasting and non-typical (big head, red eyes symptoms of HIV were also revealed. Conclusions The study determined students' IK of the names and symptoms of HIV/AIDS. Programmes to prevent/manage adolescent HIV infection and stigma may be strengthened if they take students' indigenous understandings of the disease on board.

  10. Indigenous Knowledge of HIV/AIDS among High School students in Namibia.

    Chinsembu, Kazhila C; Shimwooshili-Shaimemanya, Cornelia N; Kasanda, Choshi D; Zealand, Donovan

    2011-06-09

    The use of Indigenous Knowledge (IK) can help students to form schemas for interpreting local phenomena through the prism of what they already know. The formation of schemas related to HIV/AIDS risk perception and prevention is important for individuals to form local meanings of the HIV/AIDS epidemic. The objective of this study was to explore the indigenous names and symptoms of HIV/AIDS among High School students in Namibia Focus group discussions were used to collect qualitative data on indigenous names and symptoms of HIV/AIDS from students in 18 secondary schools located in six education regions. Data were grouped into themes. People living with HIV/AIDS were called names meaning prostitute: ihule, butuku bwa sihule, and shikumbu. Names such askibutu bwa masapo (bone disease), katjumba (a young child), kakithi (disease), and shinangele (very thin person) were used to describe AIDS. Derogatory names like mbwa (dog), esingahogo (pretender), ekifi (disease), and shinyakwi noyana (useless person) were also used. Other terms connoted death (zeguru, heaven; omudimba, corpse), fear (simbandembande, fish eagle; katanga kamufifi, (hot ball), and subtle meaning using slang words such as 4 × 4, oondanda ne (four letters), desert soul, and mapilelo (an AIDS service organization). Typical (body wasting) and non-typical (big head, red eyes) symptoms of HIV were also revealed. The study determined students' IK of the names and symptoms of HIV/AIDS. Programmes to prevent/manage adolescent HIV infection and stigma may be strengthened if they take students' indigenous understandings of the disease on board. © 2011 Chinsembu et al; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.

  11. Review of fish diversity in the Lake Huron basin

    Roseman, E.F.; Schaeffer, J.S.; Steen, P.J.

    2009-01-01

    Lake Huron has a rich aquatic habitat diversity that includes shallow embayments, numerous tributaries, shallow mid-lake reef complexes, archipelagos, and profundal regions. These habitats provide support for warm, cool, and cold water fish communities. Diversity of fishes in Lake Huron reflects post-glaciation colonization events, current climate conditions, accidental and intentional introductions of non-indigenous species, and extinctions. Most extinction events have been largely associated with habitat alterations, exploitation of fisheries, and interactions with non-indigenous species. The most recent historical survey of extirpated and imperiled species conducted in the late 1970s identified 79 fish species in Lake Huron proper and about 50 additional species in tributaries. Of those 129 species, 20 are now considered extirpated or imperiled. Extirpated species include Arctic grayling, paddlefish, weed shiner, deepwater cisco, blackfin cisco, shortnose cisco, and kiyi. Six species have declined appreciably due to loss of clear-water stream habitat: the river redhorse, river darter, black redhorse, pugnose shiner, lake chubsucker, redside dace, eastern sand darter, and channel darter. While numerous agencies, universities, and other organizations routinely monitor nearshore and offshore fish distribution and abundance, there is a need for more rigorous examination of the distribution and abundance of less-common species to better understand their ecology. This information is critical to the development of management plans aimed at ecosystem remediation and restoration.

  12. Fish under exercise

    Palstra, A.P.; Planas, J.V.

    2011-01-01

    Improved knowledge on the swimming physiology of fish and its application to fisheries science and aquaculture (i.e., farming a fitter fish) is currently needed in the face of global environmental changes, high fishing pressures, increased aquaculture production as well as increased concern on fish

  13. Meet the surrogate fish

    Johnson, Bob; Neitzel, Duane; Moxon, Suzanne

    1999-01-01

    This article gives details of the US Department of Energy's innovative research into the development of a sensor system that will work as a surrogate fish to provide information to aid the design of fish-friendly turbines for hydroelectric power plants. The selection of the dams for the testing of sensor fish, the release and recovery of the sensor fish, the recording of the physical forces exerted on fish as they pass through the turbines, and use of the information gathered to build more sensor fish are discussed. Fish investigations conducted at the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory are briefly described. (UK)

  14. Plastic fish

    Antonella Del Rosso

    2015-01-01

    In terms of weight, the plastic pollution in the world’s oceans is estimated to be around 300,000 tonnes. This plastic comes from both land-based and ocean-based sources. A lecture at CERN by chemist Wolfgang Trettnak addressed this issue and highlighted the role of art in raising people’s awareness.   Artwork by Wolfgang Trettnak. Packaging materials, consumer goods (shoes, kids’ toys, etc.), leftovers from fishing and aquaculture activities… our oceans and beaches are full of plastic litter. Most of the debris from beaches is plastic bottles. “PET bottles have high durability and stability,” explains Wolfgang Trettnak, a chemist by education and artist from Austria, who gave a lecture on this topic organised by the Staff Association at CERN on 26 May. “PET degrades very slowly and the estimated lifetime of a bottle is 450 years.” In addition to the beach litter accumulated from human use, rivers bring several ki...

  15. Challenges in preventing pyelonephritis in pregnant women in Indigenous communities.

    Bookallil, M; Chalmers, E; Andrew, B

    2005-01-01

    To measure the quality of antenatal care in rural and remote regions of the Northern Territory, using asymptomatic bacteruria as an indicator. Indigenous Australian women and their babies have a greater frequency of adverse outcomes in pregnancy than their non-Indigenous counterparts. It is well established that asymptomatic bacteriuria may have serious outcomes in pregnancy, including an increased risk of pyelonephritis and a strong association with preterm and low birth weight delivery. Ensuring good quality antenatal care can reduce the individual risks of pregnancy for mothers and their babies. In the Northern Territory there are well established guidelines for antenatal care in rural and remote Indigenous communities. These are documented in the Women's Business Manual. Audit and feedback is one method that has been shown to have a small to moderate effect in changing clinician behaviour, in this case improving compliance with guidelines. A retrospective chart audit of antenatal clients was conducted at 10 rural and remote primary health care clinics in the Northern Territory, Australia. The audit reviewed all the available charts (n = 268) of pregnant women, from the participating communities, who gave birth in 2002 or 2003. The diagnosis and management of asymptomatic bacteriuria was chosen as the indicator of quality antenatal care, as it is one of five areas of antenatal care where there is evidence that appropriate management improves outcomes. The quality of care was measured against the local guidelines, the Women's Business Manual. Women frequently had urine tests with where the dipstick showed an abnormal result, with 75% (95% CI [0.70,0.80]) of women having at least one episode of abnormal urinalysis during pregnancy. Six hundred and twenty episodes of abnormal urinalysis in pregnancy were identified. The incidence of bacteriuria at first visit was 16%, (95%-confidence interval = 95% CI [0.10, 0.21]). Compliance with the guidelines was poor. Fifty

  16. Three Kinds of Fish

    Høst, Jeppe Engset

    2012-01-01

    There are three kinds of fish. Fish you were given, fish you bought and fish you lease. This might sound a bit odd, but it is nevertheless the basis for the activities of Danish commercial fishers since the introduction of transferable fishing concessions (TFCs) in 2007. In the current 2012 reform...... of market based systems are wild speculation, concentration and monopolization of fishing access and subsequent leasing with fishing communities and new entrants very likely being worse off (see for example the chapter “From fishing rights to financial derivatives” is this volume or Olson 2011; Sumaila 2010...... will examine five Danish fishing operations and discuss how they have reacted in different ways to the newly introduced system of transferable fishing concessions. By introducing TFCs as a solution to fleet overcapacity, the EU Commission will also be introducing a system where buying, selling and leasing...

  17. Successes and failures of small ruminant breeding programmes in the tropics: a review

    Kosgey, I.S.; Baker, R.L.; Udo, H.M.J.; Arendonk, van J.A.M.

    2006-01-01

    Despite the large numbers and importance of adapted indigenous sheep and goats in the tropics, information on sustainable conventional breeding programmes for them is scarce and often unavailable. This paper reviews within-breed selection strategies for indigenous small ruminants in the tropics,

  18. Bioactive Components in Fish Venoms

    Ziegman, Rebekah; Alewood, Paul

    2015-01-01

    Animal venoms are widely recognized excellent resources for the discovery of novel drug leads and physiological tools. Most are comprised of a large number of components, of which the enzymes, small peptides, and proteins are studied for their important bioactivities. However, in spite of there being over 2000 venomous fish species, piscine venoms have been relatively underrepresented in the literature thus far. Most studies have explored whole or partially fractioned venom, revealing broad pharmacology, which includes cardiovascular, neuromuscular, cytotoxic, inflammatory, and nociceptive activities. Several large proteinaceous toxins, such as stonustoxin, verrucotoxin, and Sp-CTx, have been isolated from scorpaenoid fish. These form pores in cell membranes, resulting in cell death and creating a cascade of reactions that result in many, but not all, of the physiological symptoms observed from envenomation. Additionally, Natterins, a novel family of toxins possessing kininogenase activity have been found in toadfish venom. A variety of smaller protein toxins, as well as a small number of peptides, enzymes, and non-proteinaceous molecules have also been isolated from a range of fish venoms, but most remain poorly characterized. Many other bioactive fish venom components remain to be discovered and investigated. These represent an untapped treasure of potentially useful molecules. PMID:25941767

  19. Burden of tuberculosis in indigenous peoples globally: a systematic review.

    Tollefson, D; Bloss, E; Fanning, A; Redd, J T; Barker, K; McCray, E

    2013-09-01

    The burden of tuberculosis (TB) in the estimated 370 million indigenous peoples worldwide is unknown. To conduct a literature review to summarize the TB burden in indigenous peoples, identify gaps in current knowledge, and provide the foundation for a research agenda prioritizing indigenous health within TB control. A systematic literature review identified articles published between January 1990 and November 2011 quantifying TB disease burden in indigenous populations worldwide. Among the 91 articles from 19 countries included in the review, only 56 were from outside Australia, Canada, New Zealand and the United States. The majority of the studies showed higher TB rates among indigenous groups than non-indigenous groups. Studies from the Amazon generally reported the highest TB prevalence and incidence, but select populations from South-East Asia and Africa were found to have similarly high rates of TB. In North America, the Inuit had the highest reported TB incidence (156/100000), whereas the Metis of Canada and American Indians/Alaska Natives experienced rates of indigenous groups. Where data exist, indigenous peoples were generally found to have higher rates of TB disease than non-indigenous peoples; however, this burden varied greatly. The paucity of published information on TB burden among indigenous peoples highlights the need to implement and improve TB surveillance to better measure and understand global disparities in TB rates.

  20. Tuberculosis in indigenous children in the Brazilian Amazon

    Caroline Gava

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Assess the epidemiological aspects of tuberculosis in Brazilian indigenous children and actions to control it. METHODS: An epidemiological study was performed with 356 children from 0 to 14 years of age in Rondônia State, Amazon, Brazil, during the period 1997-2006. Cases of TB reported to the Notifiable Diseases Surveillance System were divided into indigenous and non-indigenous categories and analyzed according to sex, age group, place of residence, clinical form, diagnostic tests and treatment outcome. A descriptive analysis of cases and hypothesis test (χ² was carried out to verify if there were differences in the proportions of illness between the groups investigated. RESULTS: A total of 356 TB cases were identified (125 indigenous, 231 non-indigenous of which 51.4% of the cases were in males. In the indigenous group, 60.8% of the cases presented in children aged 0-4 years old. The incidence mean was much higher among indigenous; in 2001, 1,047.9 cases/100,000 inhabitants were reported in children aged < 5 years. Pulmonary TB was reported in more than 80% of the cases, and in both groups over 70% of the cases were cured. Cultures and histopathological exams were performed on only 10% of the patients. There were 3 cases of TB/HIV co-infection in the non-indigenous group and none in the indigenous group. The case detection rate was classified as insufficient or fair in more than 80% of the indigenous population notifications, revealing that most of the diagnoses were performed based on chest x-ray. CONCLUSIONS: The approach used in this study proved useful in demonstrating inequalities in health between indigenous and non-indigenous populations and was superior to the conventional analyses performed by the surveillance services, drawing attention to the need to improve childhood TB diagnosis among the indigenous population.