WorldWideScience

Sample records for small group session

  1. Small group presentations for each session

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-01-01

    This section presents the results of the questionnaires with the recommendations from the 3 discussion groups. The questions approached are as follows: 1 - Discussion Group 1, 2 and 3 - Senior Management / Organizational Issues: Do Senior Managers understand the root cause analysis (RCA) process? Who in the organization is responsible for RCA? Are there regulatory requirements / influence? Does the culture of the organization affect the RCA process? Specific Recommendations. 2 - Discussion Group 1, 2 and 3 - Systematic Methodology / Tools: What are the challenges in using available analyses tools for identification of Human and Organisational Factors (HOF) in RCA? How do you 'handle' the perceived qualitative/subjective nature of HOF? Is the vocabulary used in RCA methodologies consistent? Will organizational issues be identified in analyses less intensive than RCA? Are you able to identify organizational issues from a single event? Is it difficult to make a clear link between RCA and CAs? What do you do if your scope expands? Recommendations. 3 - Discussion Group 1, 2 and 3 - Team Composition / Attributes: What are the challenges associated in team / individual competence? Is there management / HOF representation on the team? Does the level of the management sponsor affect the willingness of the organization to accept the HOF in RCA? Are RCA results presented to management? Who presents? Recommendations. 4 - Discussion Group 1, 2 and 3 - Learning: How many RCAs are done in a year? Is this sufficient? Could you identify organizational issues using an 'Apparent Cause Analysis' method? Are events with HOF issues trended in your organization? How do you know you have a learning organization? How can you measure the effectiveness of CAs?

  2. Small group effectiveness during pharmacology learning sessions in a Nepalese medical school.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shankar, Pr; Gurung, Sb; Jha, N; Bajracharya, O; Karki, Bms; Thapa, Tp

    2011-01-01

    Small group learning sessions are used in pharmacology at the KIST Medical College, Lalitpur, Nepal. Feedback about student behaviours that enhance and hinder small group effectiveness was obtained. This will help us improve the small group sessions and will also be useful to educators using small groups in other medical schools. The small groups were self-managing with a group leader, time-keeper, recorder and presenter. Small group effectiveness was measured using the Tutorial Group Effectiveness Instrument (TGEI) developed by Singaram and co-authors. The instrument was administered in June 2010 and key findings obtained were shared with students and facilitators. The instrument was administered again in August. The mean cognitive, motivational, demotivational and overall scores were compared among different categories of respondents in June and August. Scores were also compared between June and August 2010. A total of 89 students participated in the study in June and 88 in August 2010. In June, females rated overall group productivity higher compared to males. The cognitive and motivational scores were higher in August 2010 while the demotivational score was lower. The small group effectiveness was higher in August after the educational intervention which utilised feedback about problems observed, theoretical considerations of effective small groups and how this information can be applied in practice.

  3. Small group effectiveness during pharmacology learning sessions in a Nepalese medical school

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shankar PR

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundSmall group learning sessions are used in pharmacology atthe KIST Medical College, Lalitpur, Nepal. Feedback aboutstudent behaviours that enhance and hinder small groupeffectiveness was obtained. This will help us improve thesmall group sessions and will also be useful to educatorsusing small groups in other medical schools.MethodThe small groups were self-managing with a group leader,time-keeper, recorder and presenter. Small groupeffectiveness was measured using the Tutorial GroupEffectiveness Instrument (TGEI developed by Singaram andco-authors. The instrument was administered in June 2010and key findings obtained were shared with students andfacilitators. The instrument was administered again inAugust. The mean cognitive, motivational, demotivationaland overall scores were compared among differentcategories of respondents in June and August. Scores werealso compared between June and August 2010.ResultsA total of 89 students participated in the study in June and88 in August 2010. In June, females rated overall groupproductivity higher compared to males. The cognitive andmotivational scores were higher in August 2010 while thedemotivational score was lower.ConclusionThe small group effectiveness was higher in August after theeducational intervention which utilised feedback aboutproblems observed, theoretical considerations of effectivesmall groups and how this information can be applied inpractice.

  4. Basic steps in establishing effective small group teaching sessions in medical schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meo, Sultan Ayoub

    2013-07-01

    Small-group teaching and learning has achieved an admirable position in medical education and has become more popular as a means of encouraging the students in their studies and enhance the process of deep learning. The main characteristics of small group teaching are active involvement of the learners in entire learning cycle and well defined task orientation with achievable specific aims and objectives in a given time period. The essential components in the development of an ideal small group teaching and learning sessions are preliminary considerations at departmental and institutional level including educational strategies, group composition, physical environment, existing resources, diagnosis of the needs, formulation of the objectives and suitable teaching outline. Small group teaching increases the student interest, teamwork ability, retention of knowledge and skills, enhance transfer of concepts to innovative issues, and improve the self-directed learning. It develops self-motivation, investigating the issues, allows the student to test their thinking and higher-order activities. It also facilitates an adult style of learning, acceptance of personal responsibility for own progress. Moreover, it enhances student-faculty and peer-peer interaction, improves communication skills and provides opportunity to share the responsibility and clarify the points of bafflement.

  5. Summary of southeastern group breakout sessions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bob Ford; Charles P. Nicholson

    1993-01-01

    The breakout sessions held by the southeastern representatives at the Partners In Flight meeting in Colorado were extremely well attended Most states were represented, as well as several federal agencies (including USFS, USFWS, TVA, EPA), and non-government organizations. Two sessions were held, one to discuss a strategy of management by...

  6. Small Group Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGrath, Joseph E.

    1978-01-01

    Summarizes research on small group processes by giving a comprehensive account of the types of variables primarily studied in the laboratory. These include group structure, group composition, group size, and group relations. Considers effects of power, leadership, conformity to social norms, and role relationships. (Author/AV)

  7. Detailed session outputs by the groups

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-01-01

    Session 1 (What are we trying to look at and when should we do it?) discussed the following points: - What are the key characteristics of safety culture that we should look at as nuclear regulators? - Should/can the regulator look at attitudes, values and behaviours as well as processes and documents? - Can safety culture be regarded as a separate topic or is it best considered as part of other regulatory areas e.g. safety management? - When do we/should we gather information about safety culture? Session 2a (How do we gather and interpret data? Tools, methods, resources and competencies needed to gather safety culture data) discussed the following points: - What methods can/do we use to gather data on licensee safety culture? What are their advantages and disadvantages? - How do we ensure that regulatory staff carrying out safety culture interventions are competent to do so - and what knowledge/skills and training are needed? - Who should gather safety culture data for regulatory use - regulators? Specialist contractors or others? Session 2b (How to gather and interpret the data? How to interpret data and codify it, qualitative versus quantitative data) discussed the following points: - How do we make a judgement on licensee safety culture? Do we have adequate indicators/criteria? - Can we meaningfully extrapolate from a finding on one part of plant to the whole organisation? If not, what should we conclude? - Is it meaningful to rate/score licensee safety culture numerically? - Are safety cultures methods mature enough to numerically score? What are the risks of this approach? Session 3 (How can we use the data?) discussed the following points: - How can safety culture data collection be built into existing regulatory activities? - How do we engage with licensees so that they accept and act on safety culture findings? - How do we expect licensees to respond to issues raised? - Is interaction with licensees on safety culture compatible with other regulatory

  8. New Session of introductory “E-Groups Training”

    CERN Multimedia

    2013-01-01

    The session provides a short introduction of E-Groups and how to use it to efficiently manage mailing lists at CERN. Alongside a general overview of the E-Groups application, E-Groups specific terminology, the management of dynamic and static groups and the specific settings for mails and archives are discussed in detail.   The course is intended to give newcomers a clear idea of what E-Groups are and how they can be used at CERN. It should enable users to be more efficient when being confronted in particular with: the creation of dynamic and static E-groups and the decision whether the one or the other type is more appropriate, the management of E-group memberships, and the setting of mailing/archiving related properties. The session will also focus on some best practices and give general advice on how to use E-Groups. This introductory training session is given jointly by members of the IT-OIS and GS-AIS groups and is intended for any member at CERN potentially being confronted with the ...

  9. Construction of group exercise sessions in geriatric inpatient rehabilitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallin, Marjo; Talvitie, Ulla; Cattan, Mima; Karppi, Sirkka-Liisa

    2008-01-01

    There is little knowledge about the ways geriatric physiotherapy is being carried out in practice and about the situational construction of formal policies for promoting physical activity. This article examines how professional physiotherapists and frail community-dwelling older adults as their clients use talk and action to construct a group exercise session in an inpatient rehabilitation setting in Finland. The analysis of 7 group exercise sessions with a total of 52 clients and 9 professional physiotherapists revealed 3 different practitioner approaches, which served different functions in older adults' empowerment and lifestyle activity change. The highly structured approach favored taciturn physical performances completed independently and successfully by frail older adults. The guided exercise approach with individualized guidance encouraged occasional coconstruction of shared understanding of learning the exercises. The circuit training approach facilitated occasional self-regulation by the clients. The results of this study indicate that a combination of different approaches is required to address the multifaceted needs of heterogeneous frail older adults.

  10. Group versus individual sessions delivered by a physiotherapist for female urinary incontinence: an interview study with women attending group sessions nested within a randomised controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smith Jan

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The aim was to explore the concerns and expectations of women invited to attend group physiotherapy sessions for the management of female urinary incontinence and whether the experience changed their views; and to gather recommendations from women attending group sessions on the design and delivery of these sessions Methods An interview study nested within a randomised controlled trial in five British NHS physiotherapy departments, including 22 women who had expressed a preference for an individual physiotherapy session but were randomised to, and attended, group sessions. Results Embarrassment was woven throughout women's accounts of experiencing urinary incontinence and seeking health care. Uncertainty about the nature of group sessions was a source of concern. Attending the first session was seen as a big hurdle by many women. However, a sense of relief was common once the session started, with most women describing some benefit from attendance. Recommendations for design and delivery of the sessions from women focused on reducing embarrassment and uncertainty prior to attendance. Conclusion Taking account of women's embarrassment and providing detailed information about the content of group sessions will enable women to benefit from group physiotherapy sessions for the management of female urinary incontinence. Trial Registration Trial registration number: ISRCTN 16772662

  11. Rotational Seismology: AGU Session, Working Group, and Website

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, William H.K.; Igel, Heiner; Todorovska, Maria I.; Evans, John R.

    2007-01-01

    . Igel, W.H.K. Lee, and M. Todorovska during the 2006 AGU Fall Meeting. The goal of this session was to discuss rotational sensors, observations, modeling, theoretical aspects, and potential applications of rotational ground motions. The session was accompanied by the inauguration of an International Working Group on Rotational Seismology (IWGoRS) which aims to promote investigations of all aspects of rotational motions in seismology and their implications for related fields such as earthquake engineering, geodesy, strong-motion seismology, and tectonics, as well as to share experience, data, software, and results in an open Web-based environment. The primary goal of this article is to make the Earth Science Community aware of the emergence of the field of rotational seismology.

  12. Special Session 2: Cosmic Evolution of Groups and Clusters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vrtilek, J. M.; David, L. P.

    2015-03-01

    During the past decade observations across the electromagnetic spectrum have led to broad progress in the understanding of galaxy clusters and their far more abundant smaller siblings, groups. From the X-rays, where Chandra and XMM have illuminated old phenomena such as cooling cores and discovered new ones such as shocks, cold fronts, bubbles and cavities, through rich collections of optical data (including vast and growing arrays of redshifts), to the imaging of AGN outbursts of various ages through radio observations, our access to cluster and group measurements has leaped forward, while parallel advances in theory and modeling have kept pace. This Special Session offered a survey of progress to this point, an assessment of outstanding problems, and a multiwavelength overview of the uses of the next generation of observatories. Holding the symposium in conjuction with the XXVIIIth General Assembly provided the significant advantage of involving not only a specialist audience, but also interacting with a broad cross-section of the world astronomical community.

  13. Psychophysiological Responses to Group Exercise Training Sessions: Does Exercise Intensity Matter?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matteo Vandoni

    Full Text Available Group exercise training programs were introduced as a strategy for improving health and fitness and potentially reducing dropout rates. This study examined the psychophysiological responses to group exercise training sessions. Twenty-seven adults completed two group exercise training sessions of moderate and vigorous exercise intensities in a random and counterbalanced order. The %HRR and the exertional and arousal responses to vigorous session were higher than those during the moderate session (p<0.05. Consequently, the affective responses to vigorous session were less pleasant than those during moderate session (p<0.05. These results suggest that the psychophysiological responses to group exercise training sessions are intensity-dependent. From an adherence perspective, interventionists are encouraged to emphasize group exercise training sessions at a moderate intensity to maximize affective responses and to minimize exertional responses, which in turn may positively affect future exercise behavior.

  14. Resistances in the first session of psychodrama psychotherapy group with adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drakulić, Aleksandra Mindoljević

    2010-06-01

    Resistance refers to all types of behaviour that oppose the exploration processes in the therapeutic process and inhibit work. Very common types of resistances, such as forgetting the time of session, being late, non-payment of sessions and such are found in every type of psychotherapy, including psychodrama psychotherapy. The attempt to break resistance in order to evoke changes could be dangerous as it represents the necessary defence mechanism and it is also a vital element of the person's functioning in therapy. In psychodrama, which is a type of action method of group psychotherapy, resistance can manifest through continuous verbalization of problems, in not wanting to act out the problem, the protagonist's typical non-verbal message or the most obvious manifestation: the absence of the protagonist. This paper will be on the typical resistance which the therapist has noticed during the first session of psychodrama psychotherapy, with a small group of adult clients. As the group was young and with undeveloped cohesiveness, resistance represented a certain balancing power for maintaining mental homeostasis of the group.

  15. Psychophysiological Responses to Group Exercise Training Sessions: Does Exercise Intensity Matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandoni, Matteo; Codrons, Erwan; Marin, Luca; Correale, Luca; Bigliassi, Marcelo; Buzzachera, Cosme Franklim

    2016-01-01

    Group exercise training programs were introduced as a strategy for improving health and fitness and potentially reducing dropout rates. This study examined the psychophysiological responses to group exercise training sessions. Twenty-seven adults completed two group exercise training sessions of moderate and vigorous exercise intensities in a random and counterbalanced order. The %HRR and the exertional and arousal responses to vigorous session were higher than those during the moderate session (psession were less pleasant than those during moderate session (ptraining sessions are intensity-dependent. From an adherence perspective, interventionists are encouraged to emphasize group exercise training sessions at a moderate intensity to maximize affective responses and to minimize exertional responses, which in turn may positively affect future exercise behavior.

  16. Creating psychological connections between intervention recipients: development and focus group evaluation of a group singing session for people with aphasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarrant, Mark; Warmoth, Krystal; Code, Chris; Dean, Sarah; Goodwin, Victoria A; Stein, Ken; Sugavanam, Thavapriya

    2016-02-23

    The study sought to identify key design features that could be used to create a new framework for group-based health interventions. We designed and tested the first session of a group intervention for stroke survivors with aphasia which was aimed at nurturing new psychological connections between group members. The intervention session, a participant focus group and interviews with intervention facilitators were held in a local community music centre in the South West of England. A convenience sample of 10 community-dwelling people with poststroke aphasia participated in the session. Severity of aphasia was not considered for inclusion. Participants took part in a 90-min group singing session which involved singing songs from a specially prepared song book. Musical accompaniment was provided by the facilitators. Participants and group facilitators reported their experiences of participating in the session, with a focus on activities within the session related to the intervention aims. Researcher observations of the session were also made. Two themes emerged from the analysis, concerning experiences of the session ('developing a sense of group belonging') and perceptions of its design and delivery ('creating the conditions for engagement'). Participants described an emerging sense of shared social identity as a member of the intervention group and identified fixed (eg, group size, session breaks) and flexible (eg, facilitator responsiveness) features of the session which contributed to this emergence. Facilitator interviews and researcher observations corroborated and expanded participant reports. Engagement with health intervention content may be enhanced in group settings when intervention participants begin to establish positive and meaningful psychological connections with other group members. Understanding and actively nurturing these connections should be a core feature of a general framework for the design and delivery of group interventions. Published by the

  17. Individual neuropsychological support and group sessions for relatives to TBI patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Siert, Lars

    TITLE: Individual neuropsychological support and group sessions for relatives to TBI patients. OBJECTIVE: To describe how the neuropsychologist work with early and ongoing individual support and group sessions for relatives to adult TBI patients in the acute and sub acute phase and after discharge...

  18. Creating psychological connections between intervention recipients: development and focus group evaluation of a group singing session for people with aphasia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarrant, Mark; Warmoth, Krystal; Code, Chris; Dean, Sarah; Goodwin, Victoria A; Stein, Ken; Sugavanam, Thavapriya

    2016-01-01

    Objectives The study sought to identify key design features that could be used to create a new framework for group-based health interventions. We designed and tested the first session of a group intervention for stroke survivors with aphasia which was aimed at nurturing new psychological connections between group members. Setting The intervention session, a participant focus group and interviews with intervention facilitators were held in a local community music centre in the South West of England. Participants A convenience sample of 10 community-dwelling people with poststroke aphasia participated in the session. Severity of aphasia was not considered for inclusion. Intervention Participants took part in a 90-min group singing session which involved singing songs from a specially prepared song book. Musical accompaniment was provided by the facilitators. Primary and secondary outcome measures Participants and group facilitators reported their experiences of participating in the session, with a focus on activities within the session related to the intervention aims. Researcher observations of the session were also made. Results Two themes emerged from the analysis, concerning experiences of the session (‘developing a sense of group belonging’) and perceptions of its design and delivery (‘creating the conditions for engagement’). Participants described an emerging sense of shared social identity as a member of the intervention group and identified fixed (eg, group size, session breaks) and flexible (eg, facilitator responsiveness) features of the session which contributed to this emergence. Facilitator interviews and researcher observations corroborated and expanded participant reports. Conclusions Engagement with health intervention content may be enhanced in group settings when intervention participants begin to establish positive and meaningful psychological connections with other group members. Understanding and actively nurturing these connections

  19. Group relationships in early and late sessions and improvement in interpersonal problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lo Coco, Gianluca; Gullo, Salvatore; Di Fratello, Carla; Giordano, Cecilia; Kivlighan, Dennis M

    2016-07-01

    Groups are more effective when positive bonds are established and interpersonal conflicts resolved in early sessions and work is accomplished in later sessions. Previous research has provided mixed support for this group development model. We performed a test of this theoretical perspective using group members' (actors) and aggregated group members' (partners) perceptions of positive bonding, positive working, and negative group relationships measured early and late in interpersonal growth groups. Participants were 325 Italian graduate students randomly (within semester) assigned to 1 of 16 interpersonal growth groups. Groups met for 9 weeks with experienced psychologists using Yalom and Leszcz's (2005) interpersonal process model. Outcome was assessed pre- and posttreatment using the Inventory of Interpersonal Problems, and group relationships were measured at Sessions 3 and 6 using the Group Questionnaire. As hypothesized, early measures of positive bonding and late measures of positive working, for both actors and partners, were positively related to improved interpersonal problems. Also as hypothesized, late measures of positive bonding and early measures of positive working, for both actors and partners, were negatively related to improved interpersonal problems. We also found that early actor and partner positive bonding and negative relationships interacted to predict changes in interpersonal problems. The findings are consistent with group development theory and suggest that group therapists focus on group-as-a-whole positive bonding relationships in early group sessions and on group-as-a-whole positive working relationships in later group sessions. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  20. Peer-led small groups: Are we on the right track?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Fraser

    2017-10-01

    Peer tutor-led small group sessions are a valuable learning strategy but students may lack confidence in the absence of a content expert. This study examined whether faculty reinforcement of peer tutor-led small group content was beneficial. Two peer tutor-led small group sessions were compared with one faculty-led small group session using questionnaires sent to student participants and interviews with the peer tutors. One peer tutor-led session was followed by a lecture with revision of the small group content; after the second, students submitted a group report which was corrected and returned to them with comments. Student participants and peer tutors identified increased discussion and opportunity for personal reflection as major benefits of the peer tutor-led small group sessions, but students did express uncertainty about gaps in their learning following these sessions. Both methods of subsequent faculty reinforcement were perceived as valuable by student participants and peer tutors. Knowing in advance that the group report would be corrected reduced discussion in some groups, potentially negating one of the major benefits of the peer tutor-led sessions. Faculty reinforcement of peer-tutor led small group content benefits students but close attention should be paid to the method of reinforcement.

  1. Engaging Urban Parents of Early Adolescents in Parenting Interventions: Home Visits vs. Group Sessions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finigan-Carr, Nadine M; Copeland-Linder, Nikeea; Haynie, Denise L; Cheng, Tina L

    2014-01-01

    Interventions targeting parents of young children have shown effectiveness, but research is lacking about best practices for engaging parents of early adolescents. Low levels of enrollment and attendance in parenting interventions present major problems for researchers and clinicians. Effective and efficient ways to engage and collaborate with parents to strengthen parenting practices and to promote healthy development of early adolescents are needed. This exploratory mixed methods study examined the feasibility of three methods of engaging parents in positive parenting activities. Participants were parents of youth ages 11-13 enrolled in three urban, public middle schools in neighborhoods characterized by high rates of community violence. Families ( N = 144) were randomized into one of three interventions: six home sessions, two home sessions followed by four group sessions, or six group sessions. The majority of parents were single, non-Hispanic, African American mothers. Urban parents of middle school students were more likely to participate in home visits than in group sessions; offering a combination did not increase participation in the group sessions. As only 34% of those who consented participated in the intervention, qualitative data were examined to explain the reasons for non-participation.

  2. Breakout Sessions

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2004-01-01

    Participants are split into small groups for detailed discussion on their chosen topic. To register please click on 'See details' link from the agenda and then on the link to send an email to the session for which you would like to book. Please don't change the subject line of the email.

  3. The interprofessional team as a small group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kane, R A

    1975-01-01

    Conflicts in interprofessional teamwork may be as much explained by group process considerations as by the interaction of professional roles and statuses. This paper examines the interprofessional team as a small group, using a synthesis of sources from social psychology, social group work, T-group literature, management theory, and health team research. Eight issues are considered in relation to the team as a small group, namely, (a) the individual in the group, (b) team size, (c) group norms, (d) democracy, (e) decision making and conflict resolution, (f) communication and structure, (g) leadership, and (h) group harmony and its relationship to group productivity.

  4. AREVA Technical Days (ATD) session 1: Energy outlook and presentation of the Areva Group; AREVA Technical Days (ATD) session 1: enjeux energetiques et presentation du groupe AREVA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2002-07-01

    These technical days organized by the Areva Group aims to explain the group activities in a technological and economic point of view, to provide an outlook of worldwide energy trends and challenges and to present each of their businesses in a synthetic manner. This first session deals with energy challenges and nuclear, public acceptance of nuclear power, mining activities, chemistry activities, enrichment activities, fuel assembly, reactors and services activities, nuclear measurements activities, reprocessing and recycling activities, logistics activities and connectors activities. (A.L.B.)

  5. Small group learning: effect on item analysis and accuracy of self-assessment of medical students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biswas, Shubho Subrata; Jain, Vaishali; Agrawal, Vandana; Bindra, Maninder

    2015-01-01

    Small group sessions are regarded as a more active and student-centered approach to learning. Item analysis provides objective evidence of whether such sessions improve comprehension and make the topic easier for students, in addition to assessing the relative benefit of the sessions to good versus poor performers. Self-assessment makes students aware of their deficiencies. Small group sessions can also help students develop the ability to self-assess. This study was carried out to assess the effect of small group sessions on item analysis and students' self-assessment. A total of 21 female and 29 male first year medical students participated in a small group session on topics covered by didactic lectures two weeks earlier. It was preceded and followed by two multiple choice question (MCQ) tests, in which students were asked to self-assess their likely score. The MCQs used were item analyzed in a previous group and were chosen of matching difficulty and discriminatory indices for the pre- and post-tests. The small group session improved the marks of both genders equally, but female performance was better. The session made the items easier; increasing the difficulty index significantly but there was no significant alteration in the discriminatory index. There was overestimation in the self-assessment of both genders, but male overestimation was greater. The session improved the self-assessment of students in terms of expected marks and expectation of passing. Small group session improved the ability of students to self-assess their knowledge and increased the difficulty index of items reflecting students' better performance.

  6. Small Group Multitasking in Literature Classes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baurain, Bradley

    2007-01-01

    Faced with the challenge of teaching American literature to large, multilevel classes in Vietnam, the writer developed a flexible small group framework called "multitasking". "Multitasking" sets up stable task categories which rotate among small groups from lesson to lesson. This framework enabled students to work cooperatively…

  7. LARGE AND SMALL GROUP TYPEWRITING PROJECT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    JEFFS, GEORGE A.; AND OTHERS

    AN INVESTIGATION WAS CONDUCTED TO DETERMINE IF GROUPS OF HIGH SCHOOL STUDENTS NUMERICALLY IN EXCESS OF 50 COULD BE AS EFFECTIVELY INSTRUCTED IN TYPEWRITING SKILLS AS GROUPS OF LESS THAN 30. STUDENTS ENROLLED IN 1ST-YEAR TYPEWRITING WERE RANDOMLY ASSIGNED TO TWO LARGE GROUPS AND THREE SMALL GROUPS TAUGHT BY THE SAME INSTRUCTOR. TEACHER-MADE,…

  8. Papers from the NSU Summer session of 2014 - study group 3

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rendtorff, Jacob Dahl

    2014-01-01

    In this special issue we present the conference papers by the study group “Crisis and Crisis Scenarios: Normativity, Possibilities and Dilemmas” at the 2014 NSU Summer Session, held between 24th July and 31st July 2014 in Sauðárkrókur, Northern Iceland.......In this special issue we present the conference papers by the study group “Crisis and Crisis Scenarios: Normativity, Possibilities and Dilemmas” at the 2014 NSU Summer Session, held between 24th July and 31st July 2014 in Sauðárkrókur, Northern Iceland....

  9. Pre-Session Satiation as a Treatment for Stereotypy During Group Activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rispoli, Mandy; Camargo, Síglia Hoher; Neely, Leslie; Gerow, Stephanie; Lang, Russell; Goodwyn, Fara; Ninci, Jennifer

    2014-05-01

    Individuals with developmental disabilities may engage in automatically reinforced behaviors that may interfere with learning opportunities. Manipulation of motivating operations has been shown to reduce automatically maintained behavior in some individuals. Considering behavioral indicators of satiation may assist in identifying the point at which an abolishing operation has begun to effect behavior. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of pre-session satiation of automatic reinforcement on subsequent levels of stereotypy and activity engagement during group activities for three males ages 5 to 13 years with developmental disabilities. Following functional analyses with analogue conditions, an alternating treatment design compared a pre-session access to stereotypy condition with a no-pre-session access condition prior to group activity sessions. Results indicated that pre-session satiation of the putative reinforcer produced by stereotypy was effective in decreasing stereotypy and increasing activity engagement during subsequent group activities for all participants. These findings add to the literature supporting the effectiveness of abolishing operations to decrease automatically maintained stereotypy. © The Author(s) 2013.

  10. A trial of team-based versus small-group learning for second-year medical students: does the size of the small group make a difference?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willett, Laura Rees; Rosevear, G Craig; Kim, Sarang

    2011-01-01

    Team-based learning is a large-group instructional modality intended to provide active learning with modest faculty resources. The goal is to determine if team-based learning could be substituted for small-group learning in case sessions without compromising test performance or satisfaction. One hundred and sixty-seven students were assigned to team-based or small-group learning for 6 case discussion sessions. Examination scores and student satisfaction were compared. Instruction modality had no meaningful effect on examination score, 81.7% team based versus 79.7% small-group, p=.56 after multivariate adjustment. Student satisfaction was lower with team-based learning, 2.45 versus 3.74 on a 5-point scale, pgroups influenced the preference for small-group learning. Team-based learning does not adversely affect examination performance. However, student satisfaction may be inferior, especially if compared to instruction in very small groups of 10 or fewer students.

  11. JCOMM Expert Team on Sea Ice (ETSI), Third Session Steering Group for the Global Digital Sea Ice Data Bank (GDSIDB) Eleventh Session

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    2007-01-01

    ...); Terms of reference of the task team on provision of MSI in polar regions; Report of the IMO/IHO/WMO Correspondence Group on Arctic MSI Services presented at the Eleventh Session of the IMO/COMSAR...

  12. Small Group Activities for Introductory Business Classes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mundrake, George

    1999-01-01

    Describes numerous small-group activities for the following areas of basic business education: consumer credit, marketing, business organization, entrepreneurship, insurance, risk management, economics, personal finance, business careers, global markets, and government regulation. (SK)

  13. Using a Smartphone App and Coaching Group Sessions to Promote Residents' Reflection in the Workplace.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Könings, Karen D; van Berlo, Jean; Koopmans, Richard; Hoogland, Henk; Spanjers, Ingrid A E; ten Haaf, Jeroen A; van der Vleuten, Cees P M; van Merriënboer, Jeroen J G

    2016-03-01

    Reflecting on workplace-based experiences is necessary for professional development. However, residents need support to raise their awareness of valuable moments for learning and to thoughtfully analyze those learning moments afterwards. From October to December 2012, the authors held a multidisciplinary six-week postgraduate training module focused on general competencies. Residents were randomly assigned to one of four conditions with varying degrees of reflection support; they were offered (1) a smartphone app, (2) coaching group sessions, (3) a combination of both, or (4) neither type of support. The app allowed participants to capture in real time learning moments as a text note, audio recording, picture, or video. Coaching sessions held every two weeks aimed to deepen participants' reflection on captured learning moments. Questionnaire responses and reflection data were compared between conditions to assess the effects of the app and coaching sessions on intensity and frequency of reflection. Sixty-four residents participated. App users reflected more often, captured more learning moments, and reported greater learning progress than nonapp users. Participants who attended coaching sessions were more alert to learning moments and pursued more follow-up learning activities to improve on the general competencies. Those who received both types of support were most alert to these learning moments. A simple mobile app for capturing learning moments shows promise as a tool to support workplace-based learning, especially when combined with coaching sessions. Future research should evaluate these tools on a broader scale and in conjunction with residents' and students' personal digital portfolios.

  14. Clinical and no-clinical setting specificities in first session short-term psychotherapy psychodrama group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drakulić, Aleksandra Mindoljević

    2011-03-01

    Modern history of short-term group psychotherapy dates back to the late 1950-ies. From then to present day, this psychotherapeutic method has been used in various forms, from dynamic-oriented to cognitive behavioural psychotherapies. Although it has always been considered rather controversial, due its cost-effectiveness, it has been capturing more and more popularity. This paper presents the specificities of first session short-term psychotherapy psychodrama group through session work with two examined groups: a group of 20 adult women who suffer from mild or moderate forms of unipolar depression and a group of 20 students of the School of Medicine in Zagreb without any psychiatric symptomatology. The results indicate the high importance of having structure in first psychodrama session, of relating it with the previously thoroughly conducted, initial, clinical, interviews, and of the clarity and focus in terms of determining the goals of therapy, especially in a clinical context. This study also confirmed assumptions regarding the need for different approaches of warming-up in psychodrama, both in the clinical and in non-clinical samples. A psychodrama psychotherapist should have good time managing skills and capability to convert the time available into an opportunity for directly boosting the group energy and work on therapeutic alliance.

  15. Student leadership in small group science inquiry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Alandeom W.; Boz, Umit; Broadwell, George A.; Sadler, Troy D.

    2014-09-01

    Background: Science educators have sought to structure collaborative inquiry learning through the assignment of static group roles. This structural approach to student grouping oversimplifies the complexities of peer collaboration and overlooks the highly dynamic nature of group activity. Purpose: This study addresses this issue of oversimplification of group dynamics by examining the social leadership structures that emerge in small student groups during science inquiry. Sample: Two small student groups investigating the burning of a candle under a jar participated in this study. Design and method: We used a mixed-method research approach that combined computational discourse analysis (computational quantification of social aspects of small group discussions) with microethnography (qualitative, in-depth examination of group discussions). Results: While in one group social leadership was decentralized (i.e., students shared control over topics and tasks), the second group was dominated by a male student (centralized social leadership). Further, decentralized social leadership was found to be paralleled by higher levels of student cognitive engagement. Conclusions: It is argued that computational discourse analysis can provide science educators with a powerful means of developing pedagogical models of collaborative science learning that take into account the emergent nature of group structures and highly fluid nature of student collaboration.

  16. Facilitating small groups: how to encourage student learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitchen, Mark

    2012-02-01

    Many clinicians are involved in medical education, with small group teaching (SGT) forming a significant part of their work. Most facilitate these sessions by experience and common sense: less than one-third of them have received formal training in SGT. Evidence suggests small group productivity depends on good facilitation rather than on topic knowledge. Applying the fundamental concepts of SGT will lead to improvements in the quality of clinicians' teaching and in student learning. Good SGT creates the perfect environment for learning and discussion, without the need for didactic teaching. SGT emphasises the role of students in sharing and discussing their ideas in a safe learning environment, without domination by the tutor. This article provides clinicians with basic requirements for effective session design and planning, explains how to encourage student participation, how to manage students as a group, how to manage student learning, and how to recognise and deal with problems. Active facilitation and group management is the key to success in SGT, and consequently better learning outcomes. Improving the facilitation skills of clinical teachers makes teaching more effective, stimulating, and enjoyable for both tutors and students. © Blackwell Publishing Ltd 2012.

  17. Consensus group sessions are useful to reconcile stakeholders’ perspectives about network performance evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie-Eve Lamontagne

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Having a common vision among network stakeholders is an important ingredient to developing a performance evaluation process. Consensus methods may be a viable means to reconcile the perceptions of different stakeholders about the dimensions to include in a performance evaluation framework.Objectives: To determine whether individual organizations within traumatic brain injury (TBI networks differ in perceptions about the importance of performance dimensions for the evaluation of TBI networks and to explore the extent to which group consensus sessions could reconcile these perceptions.Methods: We used TRIAGE, a consensus technique that combines an individual and a group data collection phase to explore the perceptions of network stakeholders and to reach a consensus within structured group discussions.Results: One hundred and thirty-nine professionals from 43 organizations within eight TBI networks participated in the individual data collection; 62 professionals from these same organisations contributed to the group data collection. The extent of consensus based on questionnaire results (e.g. individual data collection was low, however, 100% agreement was obtained for each network during the consensus group sessions. The median importance scores and mean ranks attributed to the dimensions by individuals compared to groups did not differ greatly. Group discussions were found useful in understanding the reasons motivating the scoring, for resolving differences among participants, and for harmonizing their values.Conclusion: Group discussions, as part of a consensus technique, appear to be a useful process to reconcile diverging perceptions of network performance among stakeholders.

  18. AREVA Technical Days (ATD) session 1: Energy outlook and presentation of the Areva Group

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    These technical days organized by the Areva Group aims to explain the group activities in a technological and economic point of view, to provide an outlook of worldwide energy trends and challenges and to present each of their businesses in a synthetic manner. This first session deals with energy challenges and nuclear, public acceptance of nuclear power, mining activities, chemistry activities, enrichment activities, fuel assembly, reactors and services activities, nuclear measurements activities, reprocessing and recycling activities, logistics activities and connectors activities. (A.L.B.)

  19. Group sessions with Paro in a nursing home: Structure, observations and interviews.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Hayley; Broadbent, Elizabeth; MacDonald, Bruce

    2016-06-01

    We recently reported that a companion robot reduced residents' loneliness in a randomised controlled trial at an aged-care facility. This report aims to provide additional, previously unpublished data about how the sessions were run, residents' interactions with the robot and staff perspectives. Observations were conducted focusing on engagement, how residents treated the robot and if the robot acted as a social catalyst. In addition, 16 residents and 21 staff were asked open-ended questions at the end of the study about the sessions and the robot. Observations indicated that some residents engaged on an emotional level with Paro, and Paro was treated as both an agent and an artificial object. Interviews revealed that residents enjoyed sharing, interacting with and talking about Paro. This study supports other research showing Paro has psychosocial benefits and provides a guide for those wishing to use Paro in a group setting in aged care. © 2015 AJA Inc.

  20. The Group's Absence Norm and Commitment to the Group as Predictors of Group Member Absence in the Next Session: An Actor-Partner Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kivlighan, Dennis M., Jr.; Kivlighan, D. Martin, III; Cole, Odessa Dorian

    2012-01-01

    The group's absence norm, a construct from the applied psychology literature, was used to examine session absences in personal growth groups. Rather than examining the absence norm statically, we modeled it dynamically as a time-varying covariate (Tasca et al., 2010). We also examined moderation by modeling the interaction of the absence norm and…

  1. Small Group Teaching in Epidemiology Courses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azita Goshtasebi

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Background and purpose: small group teaching(SGT in is a known method for developing intellectual skills, changing attitudes and encouraging the taking of responsibilities for learning. This study was an attempt to compare students’ attitudes and knowledge scores on SGT and lecture -based teaching (LBT.Methods: 22 first year medical students were enrolled in a course using two methods (lecture- based and small group discussion for teaching basic epidemiology. Data about attitudes and knowledge scores of the two methods were collected at the end of the course and analyzed using a two-sided Wilcoxon test.Results: The students were satisfied and preferred SGT in terms of Evaluation method for the course, Participatory learning and team working, effectiveness and developing self learning skills (p<0.001,and scored higher on topics of SGT(p<0.01, but believed that they needed longer discussion of the topics.Conclusion: Better question design and course organization and creating a safe, comfortable environment is essential for good performance. Integrating this teaching strategy in medical education curricula with appropriate professional and organizational development is suggested.Key words: MEDICAL EDUCATION, SMALL GROUP TEACHING, COURSE EVALUATION

  2. Dynamics of small groups of galaxies. I. Virialized groups

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mamon, G.A.; New York Univ., NY)

    1987-01-01

    The dynamical evolution of small groups of galaxies from an initial virial equilibrium state is investigated by means of numerical simulations. The basic scheme is a gravitational N-body code in which galaxies and diffuse background are treated as single particles with both external parameters and internal structure; collisional and tidal stripping, dynamical friction, mergers, and orbital braking are taken into account. The results are presented in extensive tables and graphs and characterized in detail. Eight-galaxy groups with surface densities like those of compact groups (as defined by Hickson, 1982) are found to be unstable to rapid mergers after 1/30 to 1/8 Hubble time. The effects of dark-matter distribution (in galactic halos or in a common intergalactic background) are considered. 79 references

  3. A model for the use of blended learning in large group teaching sessions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herbert, Cristan; Velan, Gary M; Pryor, Wendy M; Kumar, Rakesh K

    2017-11-09

    Although blended learning has the potential to enhance the student experience, both in terms of engagement and flexibility, it can be difficult to effectively restructure existing courses. To achieve these goals for an introductory Pathology course, offered to more than 250 undergraduate students at UNSW Sydney, we devised a novel approach. For each topic presented over 2-3 weeks, a single face-to-face overview lecture was retained. The remaining content that had previously been delivered as conventional lectures was converted into short (12-18 min) online modules. These were based on lecture slides with added animations/highlights, plus narration using edited excerpts of previous lecture recordings. The modules also incorporated interactive questions and review quizzes with feedback which used various question types. Modules were developed in PowerPoint and iSpring and uploaded to Moodle as SCORM packages. Each topic concluded with an interactive large-group session focussing on integration of the content, with in-class questions to which students could respond via the Echo360 Active Learning Platform (ALP). Overall, more than 50% of face-to-face lecture time was replaced by online modules and interactive large-group sessions. Quantitative evaluation data included usage statistics from 264 students and feedback via online survey responses from 41 students. Qualitative evaluation data consisted of reflective commentaries from 160 student ePortfolios, which were analysed to identify factors affecting learning benefits and user acceptability. All of the modules were completed by 74% of students and on average, 83.1% of students eventually passed the optional review quizzes. Notably, 88.4% of students responded to in-class questions during the integration and feedback sessions via the ALP. Student reflections emphasised that the modules promoted understanding, which was reinforced through active learning. The modules were described as enjoyable, motivating and were

  4. A model for the use of blended learning in large group teaching sessions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristan Herbert

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although blended learning has the potential to enhance the student experience, both in terms of engagement and flexibility, it can be difficult to effectively restructure existing courses. To achieve these goals for an introductory Pathology course, offered to more than 250 undergraduate students at UNSW Sydney, we devised a novel approach. Methods For each topic presented over 2–3 weeks, a single face-to-face overview lecture was retained. The remaining content that had previously been delivered as conventional lectures was converted into short (12–18 min online modules. These were based on lecture slides with added animations/highlights, plus narration using edited excerpts of previous lecture recordings. The modules also incorporated interactive questions and review quizzes with feedback which used various question types. Modules were developed in PowerPoint and iSpring and uploaded to Moodle as SCORM packages. Each topic concluded with an interactive large-group session focussing on integration of the content, with in-class questions to which students could respond via the Echo360 Active Learning Platform (ALP. Overall, more than 50% of face-to-face lecture time was replaced by online modules and interactive large-group sessions. Quantitative evaluation data included usage statistics from 264 students and feedback via online survey responses from 41 students. Qualitative evaluation data consisted of reflective commentaries from 160 student ePortfolios, which were analysed to identify factors affecting learning benefits and user acceptability. Results All of the modules were completed by 74% of students and on average, 83.1% of students eventually passed the optional review quizzes. Notably, 88.4% of students responded to in-class questions during the integration and feedback sessions via the ALP. Student reflections emphasised that the modules promoted understanding, which was reinforced through active learning. The

  5. Small group experience for socially withdrawn girls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houck, Gail M; Stember, Lisa

    2002-08-01

    Social competence is the effectiveness of social interaction behavior. Given its link to mental health outcomes, it is an important consideration in child and adolescent development. Social withdrawal is associated with depression. Socially withdrawn children make few social initiations and tend to be isolated in their play, further limiting their social involvement. To develop effective social behavior, experiences must be provided to learn relationship skills. This practice improvement project provided a small group experience for five socially withdrawn school-age girls. Weekly group meetings provided a social situation in which conversations could occur around a shared snack and craft project. The school nurse facilitated self-assertion and the expression of prosocial behavior in a socially safe (nonrejecting) environment and promoted social problem solving. On completion of the program, the participants not only showed more effective social reasoning and social skills, but developed friendships with each other that lasted beyond the life of the group.

  6. Effectiveness of a group opt-in session on uptake and graduation rates for pulmonary rehabilitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graves, J; Sandrey, V; Graves, T; Smith, D L

    2010-08-01

    Pulmonary rehabilitation (PR) is an effective intervention in the treatment of patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Unfortunately some patients offered this treatment either fail to take up the offer or fail to complete the course. Studies have indicated a number of factors influencing uptake and completion rates. We describe the introduction of an intervention, the group opt-in session (GOIS), prior to individualised baseline assessment and entry to the PR course, with the intention being to improve uptake and completion rates. A 1.5-hour-long GOIS was offered as the first face-to-face contact to all patients referred for PR. Drop-out rates at all stages of the pathway from referral to graduation were collected on 200 patients prior to the introduction of the GOIS (non-GOIS group) and compared to the first 400 patients following introduction (the GOIS group). Possible independent predictors of course uptake and completion were examined in the GOIS group. The proportion of referred patients taking up the offer of individualised baseline assessment or a GOIS was similar (75% vs. 72.2%, p value not significant [ns]). However, since in the GOIS group the opt-in session preceded the individualised baseline assessment and some patients opted-out, a smaller proportion of referred patients underwent this assessment than in the non-GOIS group (58.7% vs. 75%, p graduated in the GOIS group (87.9% vs. 76.4%, p rates due to illness were similar in both groups (8.5% pre vs. 6.8% post, ns). However, drop-out rates not due to illness were much higher in the non-GOIS group (15.1% vs. 5.3%, p graduation rates at The North Bristol Lung Centre PR Course and reduced wasted assessments. There was no effect on initial uptake. Analysis of the behaviour of patients invited to a GOIS suggested that age, lung function and travel distance were important factors influencing patient choice.

  7. Using social media to support small group learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole, Duncan; Rengasamy, Emma; Batchelor, Shafqat; Pope, Charles; Riley, Stephen; Cunningham, Anne Marie

    2017-11-10

    Medical curricula are increasingly using small group learning and less didactic lecture-based teaching. This creates new challenges and opportunities in how students are best supported with information technology. We explored how university-supported and external social media could support collaborative small group working on our new undergraduate medical curriculum. We made available a curation platform (Scoop.it) and a wiki within our virtual learning environment as part of year 1 Case-Based Learning, and did not discourage the use of other tools such as Facebook. We undertook student surveys to capture perceptions of the tools and information on how they were used, and employed software user metrics to explore the extent to which they were used during the year. Student groups developed a preferred way of working early in the course. Most groups used Facebook to facilitate communication within the group, and to host documents and notes. There were more barriers to using the wiki and curation platform, although some groups did make extensive use of them. Staff engagement was variable, with some tutors reviewing the content posted on the wiki and curation platform in face-to-face sessions, but not outside these times. A small number of staff posted resources and reviewed student posts on the curation platform. Optimum use of these tools depends on sufficient training of both staff and students, and an opportunity to practice using them, with ongoing support. The platforms can all support collaborative learning, and may help develop digital literacy, critical appraisal skills, and awareness of wider health issues in society.

  8. A review of results from patient experience surveys during the introduction of group pre-radiotherapy patient information sessions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chapman, K.; James, S.

    2016-01-01

    Aim: The aims of the survey were to check that group pre-radiotherapy information sessions met patients' needs. The use of virtual technology (VT) through Patient Education And Radiotherapy Learning (PEARL) was incorporated part way through the survey period. Methods: Patients attending group pre-radiotherapy information sessions led by assistant practitioners between March and December 2014 were asked to complete questionnaires after they had attended at least five radiotherapy sessions. Key results: 305 patients attended sessions during the survey period. 129 questionnaires were distributed with 103 returned, resulting in an 80% response rate (Overall rate 34%). 102 (99%) patients responded that they were happy and comfortable to receive their radiotherapy information in a group setting. The majority of patients responded that they felt no additional information should be included. Conclusions and recommendations: The survey highlighted that almost all patients were happy to receive their information in a group setting. Patients attending non PEARL and PEARL sessions indicated high satisfaction levels with no notable differences between the groups. This has allayed MVCC staffs' original concerns that patients may find the use of VT as frightening in patient information sessions, so the centre is now confident to incorporate it in the future. The implementation of these sessions has seemed to be both feasible and an efficient use of staff time. All patients referred for radical breast radiotherapy are now invited to attend. It is recommended that regular patient experience surveys are conducted in the future to ensure they continue to meet patients' needs. - Highlights: • 102 (99%) patients responded happy to receive their information in a group setting. • 86 (83%) patients responded they felt no additional information should be included. • 58 (56%) patients provided complimentary comments about the sessions.

  9. The Emotional Resources Group: Provisional outcome data for a pilot six-session emotion regulation programme for secondary care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bacon, Thomas; Doughty, Caitriona; Summers, Andrew; Wiffen, Benjamin; Stanley, Zoe; McAlpine, Susan

    2018-06-01

    To examine the effectiveness of a new, six-session emotion regulation group intervention designed for the secondary care setting: The Emotional Resources Group (ERG). In this pilot study, participants were recruited by referral from secondary care mental health services. Forty-seven individuals participated in the study. Participants who attended the ERG were compared on measures of emotion regulation, well-being, and self-efficacy, pre- and post-intervention. Intent-to-treat analyses indicated highly statistically significant improvements in measures of emotion regulation, well-being, and self-efficacy, accompanied by large effect sizes. In addition, improvements in emotion regulation produced good rates of both reliable and clinically significant change. The ERG may be an effective, brief intervention to improve emotion regulation in the secondary care setting, worthy of further evaluation. Clinical implications Emotion regulation may be an appropriate treatment target to improve well-being and self-efficacy in a transdiagnostic population. The ERG may be effective as a brief emotion regulation intervention for secondary care mental health settings. Outcomes of the ERG appear to be equivalent to other more intensive group-based emotion regulation interventions. The ERG's tailored design may be responsible for positive outcomes. Limitations There was a small sample size. There was no control group. There was no follow-up data. © 2018 The British Psychological Society.

  10. Small groups and long memories promote cooperation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Alexander J; Plotkin, Joshua B

    2016-06-01

    Complex social behaviors lie at the heart of many of the challenges facing evolutionary biology, sociology, economics, and beyond. For evolutionary biologists the question is often how group behaviors such as collective action, or decision making that accounts for memories of past experience, can emerge and persist in an evolving system. Evolutionary game theory provides a framework for formalizing these questions and admitting them to rigorous study. Here we develop such a framework to study the evolution of sustained collective action in multi-player public-goods games, in which players have arbitrarily long memories of prior rounds of play and can react to their experience in an arbitrary way. We construct a coordinate system for memory-m strategies in iterated n-player games that permits us to characterize all cooperative strategies that resist invasion by any mutant strategy, and stabilize cooperative behavior. We show that, especially when groups are small, longer-memory strategies make cooperation easier to evolve, by increasing the number of ways to stabilize cooperation. We also explore the co-evolution of behavior and memory. We find that even when memory has a cost, longer-memory strategies often evolve, which in turn drives the evolution of cooperation, even when the benefits for cooperation are low.

  11. Coaching Paraprofessionals to Promote Engagement and Social Interactions during Small Group Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ledford, Jennifer R.; Zimmerman, Kathleen N.; Chazin, Kate T.; Patel, Natasha M.; Morales, Vivian A.; Bennett, Brittany P.

    2017-01-01

    Paraprofessionals need adequate training and supports to assist young children with autism spectrum disorders to engage in appropriate social interactions during small group activities with their peers. In this study, we used in situ coaching and brief post-session feedback to improve the use of environmental arrangement, prompting, and praise by…

  12. Effects of structured group psychosocial support sessions on psychosocial wellbeing of children and their caregivers: a descriptive study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Humeid, Jasem

    2018-02-21

    Children aged 7-12 years and their caregivers participated in a series of group psychosocial support sessions, using standard manuals specifically developed for facilitating such sessions such as Children Affected by Armed Conflict and Joint Sessions. The sessions used various activities, including drawing, storytelling, folk games, and other activities, to provide participants with opportunities to express their feelings, learn and practice new coping skills, and interact with others. The aim of this study was to measure the effects of structured psychosocial support sessions on the psychosocial wellbeing of children and their caregivers in the Gaza Strip. This descriptive study involved children and female caregivers selected from six locations using a stratified sampling technique. External numerators collected data before and after the group sessions. Two interview questionnaires with questions about psychological and social status were used, one for children and one for caregivers. The caregivers' questionnaire also assessed their psychosocial knowledge. Adult participants and caregivers of participating children provided verbal consent. Data were analysed with SPSS, and a p value less than 0·05 indicated significance. 155 children (77 [50%] boys and 78 [50%] girls) and 155 female caregivers were enrolled from a population of 1720 children (50% boys and 50% girls) and 1720 female caregivers. The sessions improved psychosocial wellbeing in participants, with the average psychosocial wellbeing score increasing from 58% to 87% in children and from 69% to 84% in caregivers. Caregivers' knowledge increased from 70% to 82%. Improvement was found in the various aspects of psychosocial wellbeing. No differences were found with respect to location, sex, and age. Structured group sessions improved psychosocial wellbeing in children and caregivers and improved caregivers' knowledge. Given the design of this study, it is difficult to fully attribute these results to the

  13. The Effectiveness of Group Motivational Interviewing Sessions on Enhancing of Addicted Women’s Self-Esteem and Self Efficacy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samireh Dehghani F

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The aim of present research was to study of the effectiveness of motivational interviewing on enhancing of self-esteem and self-efficacy in addicted women who were under therapy. Method: The research method was semi experimental research design namely: pretest-posttest with witness group. The population consisted of all addicted women who were referred to Ayandeh Roshan recovery addiction camp of Isfahan city during summer in 1391. By available sampling, 30 women selected and divided randomly to two experimental and witness groups (N= 15, per group. Experimental group received eight sessions of 90 minutes based on group counseling sessions following motivational interviewing style. For gathering data, Cooper Smith’s self-esteem and general self-efficacy questionnaires administered among two groups. Results: The results indicated the effectiveness of motivational interviewing. Conclusion: It can be concluded that motivational interviewing has had enhancing effect on self-esteem and self-efficacy among experimental group.

  14. Student Leadership in Small Group Science Inquiry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Alandeom W.; Boz, Umit; Broadwell, George A.; Sadler, Troy D.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Science educators have sought to structure collaborative inquiry learning through the assignment of static group roles. This structural approach to student grouping oversimplifies the complexities of peer collaboration and overlooks the highly dynamic nature of group activity. Purpose: This study addresses this issue of…

  15. Emergency Medicine Curriculum: Complications of Pregnancy Small Group Module

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linda L Herman

    2017-07-01

    encourage self-directed learning, improve understanding and knowledge retention, improve the educational experience of our residents, and allow assessment by the faculty concerning the knowledge base and ability of the residents. Methods: Core obstetric emergency medicine content will be delivered through small group modules and case-based content authored by faculty and content experts. Suggested resources for self-directed learning are tied to each module. The Socratic Method, as used during small group sessions, drives learner participation and critical evaluation of the core topics. Open-ended questions developed by the faculty andresidents for each module stimulate further discussion and integration with real-life experience. Learners (as well as faculty are encouraged to utilize free open access medical (FOAM education resources both in the preparatory self-directed learning phase as well as afterwards to continue integration of core content with real-life experience. Suggested obstetric simulations are included and encouraged as well.

  16. The Effectiveness of Peer Taught Group Sessions of Physiotherapy Students within the Clinical Setting: A Quasi-Experimental Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Dee; Jelsma, Jennifer

    2014-01-01

    The study aimed to investigate whether learning from peers, learning from a clinical educator, or being the peer teacher during clinical group sessions was more effective at enhancing student learning outcomes for different health conditions. A secondary aim was to determine which method students found more satisfactory. Physiotherapy students at…

  17. Small diameter symmetric networks from linear groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Lowell; Carlsson, Gunnar E.; Dinneen, Michael J.; Faber, Vance; Fellows, Michael R.; Langston, Michael A.; Moore, James W.; Multihaupt, Andrew P.; Sexton, Harlan B.

    1992-01-01

    In this note is reported a collection of constructions of symmetric networks that provide the largest known values for the number of nodes that can be placed in a network of a given degree and diameter. Some of the constructions are in the range of current potential engineering significance. The constructions are Cayley graphs of linear groups obtained by experimental computation.

  18. How do small groups make decisions?

    OpenAIRE

    Chahine, Saad; Cristancho, Sayra; Padgett, Jessica; Lingard, Lorelei

    2017-01-01

    In the competency-based medical education (CBME) approach, clinical competency committees are responsible for making decisions about trainees? competence. However, we currently lack a?theoretical model for group decision-making to inform this emerging assessment phenomenon. This paper proposes an organizing framework to study and guide the decision-making processes of clinical competency committees. This is an explanatory, non-exhaustive review, tailored to identify relevant theoretical and e...

  19. A prospective randomized trial of content expertise versus process expertise in small group teaching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peets, Adam D; Cooke, Lara; Wright, Bruce; Coderre, Sylvain; McLaughlin, Kevin

    2010-10-14

    Effective teaching requires an understanding of both what (content knowledge) and how (process knowledge) to teach. While previous studies involving medical students have compared preceptors with greater or lesser content knowledge, it is unclear whether process expertise can compensate for deficient content expertise. Therefore, the objective of our study was to compare the effect of preceptors with process expertise to those with content expertise on medical students' learning outcomes in a structured small group environment. One hundred and fifty-one first year medical students were randomized to 11 groups for the small group component of the Cardiovascular-Respiratory course at the University of Calgary. Each group was then block randomized to one of three streams for the entire course: tutoring exclusively by physicians with content expertise (n = 5), tutoring exclusively by physicians with process expertise (n = 3), and tutoring by content experts for 11 sessions and process experts for 10 sessions (n = 3). After each of the 21 small group sessions, students evaluated their preceptors' teaching with a standardized instrument. Students' knowledge acquisition was assessed by an end-of-course multiple choice (EOC-MCQ) examination. Students rated the process experts significantly higher on each of the instrument's 15 items, including the overall rating. Students' mean score (±SD) on the EOC-MCQ exam was 76.1% (8.1) for groups taught by content experts, 78.2% (7.8) for the combination group and 79.5% (9.2) for process expert groups (p = 0.11). By linear regression student performance was higher if they had been taught by process experts (regression coefficient 2.7 [0.1, 5.4], p teach first year medical students within a structured small group environment; preceptors with process expertise result in at least equivalent, if not superior, student outcomes in this setting.

  20. Effects of Group Size on Students Mathematics Achievement in Small Group Settings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enu, Justice; Danso, Paul Amoah; Awortwe, Peter K.

    2015-01-01

    An ideal group size is hard to obtain in small group settings; hence there are groups with more members than others. The purpose of the study was to find out whether group size has any effects on students' mathematics achievement in small group settings. Two third year classes of the 2011/2012 academic year were selected from two schools in the…

  1. Gender differences in leadership amongst first-year medical students in the small-group setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wayne, Nancy L; Vermillion, Michelle; Uijtdehaage, Sebastian

    2010-08-01

    To investigate the extent of gender bias in the volunteerism of small-group leaders amongst first-year medical students, and whether bias could be eliminated with special instructions to the students. The gender of leaders in small-group sessions in a real academic setting was monitored under two conditions: control conditions, in which basic instructions were provided to participants, and intervention conditions, in which the same basic instructions were provided plus a brief "pep talk" on the importance of experiencing a leadership role in a safe environment. During the small-group sessions, an observer noted the gender and names of group leaders for later analysis. After a class debriefing, a subset of leaders and nonleaders from both the control and intervention groups were invited to be interviewed about their perceptions of the small-group experience. Interviews were tape recorded and transcribed for analysis. In 2007-2008 and 2008-2009, disproportionately fewer women than men volunteered to become small-group leaders under control conditions. This gender bias was eliminated under intervention conditions. The interviews illustrated how a subtle change in instructions helped some female students take on a leadership role. Gender bias in leadership in the small-group setting amongst medical students-even when women make up half of the class-may persist without targeted intervention. The authors suggest that frequent and consistent intervention during medical school could be an important factor in encouraging women to identify themselves as leaders, promoting confidence to consider leadership roles in medicine.

  2. Group treatments for sensitive health care problems: a randomised controlled trial of group versus individual physiotherapy sessions for female urinary incontinence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamb, S E; Pepper, J; Lall, R; Jørstad-Stein, E C; Clark, M D; Hill, L; Fereday-Smith, J

    2009-09-14

    The aim was to compare effectiveness of group versus individual sessions of physiotherapy in terms of symptoms, quality of life, and costs, and to investigate the effect of patient preference on uptake and outcome of treatment. A pragmatic, multi-centre randomised controlled trial in five British National Health Service physiotherapy departments. 174 women with stress and/or urge incontinence were randomised to receive treatment from a physiotherapist delivered in a group or individual setting over three weekly sessions. Outcome were measured as Symptom Severity Index; Incontinence-related Quality of Life questionnaire; National Health Service costs, and out of pocket expenses. The majority of women expressed no preference (55%) or preference for individual treatment (36%). Treatment attendance was good, with similar attendance with both service delivery models. Overall, there were no statistically significant differences in symptom severity or quality of life outcomes between the models. Over 85% of women reported a subjective benefit of treatment, with a slightly higher rating in the individual compared with the group setting. When all health care costs were considered, average cost per patient was lower for group sessions (Mean cost difference 52.91 pounds 95%, confidence interval ( 25.82 pounds- 80.00 pounds)). Indications are that whilst some women may have an initial preference for individual treatment, there are no substantial differences in the symptom, quality of life outcomes or non-attendance. Because of the significant difference in mean cost, group treatment is recommended. ISRCTN 16772662.

  3. Teaching Small Group Communication: The Do Good Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minei, Elizabeth M.

    2016-01-01

    This paper focuses on the parameters of a semester-long project called the "Do Good" project, geared towards developing small group communication skills in undergraduate students. This project highlights participation in a social engagement project that allows students to bridge concepts learned in small group communication lectures…

  4. Group treatments for sensitive health care problems : a randomised controlled trial of group versus individual physiotherapy sessions for female urinary incontinence

    OpenAIRE

    Lamb, S. E. (Sallie E.); Pepper, Jo; Lall, Ranjit; Jørstad-Stein , Ellen C.; Clark, M. D. (Michael D.); Hill, Lesley; Fereday Smith, Jan

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Background The aim was to compare effectiveness of group versus individual sessions of physiotherapy in terms of symptoms, quality of life, and costs, and to investigate the effect of patient preference on uptake and outcome of treatment. Methods A pragmatic, multi-centre randomised controlled trial in five British National Health Service physiotherapy departments. 174 women with stress and/or urge incontinence were randomised to receive treatment from a physiotherapist delivered in ...

  5. Cooperative behavior evolution of small groups on interconnected networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, Keke; Cheng, Yuan; Zheng, Xiaoping; Yang, Yeqing

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Small groups are modeled on interconnected networks. • Players face different dilemmas inside and outside small groups. • Impact of the ratio and strength of link on the behavioral evolution are studied. - Abstract: Understanding the behavioral evolution in evacuation is significant for guiding and controlling the evacuation process. Based on the fact that the population consists of many small groups, here we model the small groups which are separated in space but linked by other methods, such as kinship, on interconnected networks. Namely, the players in the same layer belong to an identical small group, while the players located in different layers belong to different small groups. And the players of different layers establish interaction by edge crossed layers. In addition, players face different dilemmas inside and outside small groups, in detail, the players in the same layer play prisoner’s dilemma, but players in different layers play harmony game. By means of numerous simulations, we study the impact of the ratio and strength of link on the behavioral evolution. Because the framework of this work takes the space distribution into account, which is close to the realistic life, we hope that it can provide a new insight to reveal the law of behavioral evolution of evacuation population.

  6. Integrating a Social Behavior Intervention during Small Group Academic Instruction Using a Total Group Criterion Intervention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, Billie Jo; Anderson, Cynthia M.

    2014-01-01

    Total group contingencies, a variation of interdependent group contingencies, provide educators with an efficient and effective mechanism to improve social behavior and increase academic skills. Their utility has not been examined in small educational groups. This is unfortunate as supplemental instruction frequently is delivered in small group…

  7. Group treatments for sensitive health care problems: a randomised controlled trial of group versus individual physiotherapy sessions for female urinary incontinence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clark MD

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The aim was to compare effectiveness of group versus individual sessions of physiotherapy in terms of symptoms, quality of life, and costs, and to investigate the effect of patient preference on uptake and outcome of treatment. Methods A pragmatic, multi-centre randomised controlled trial in five British National Health Service physiotherapy departments. 174 women with stress and/or urge incontinence were randomised to receive treatment from a physiotherapist delivered in a group or individual setting over three weekly sessions. Outcome were measured as Symptom Severity Index; Incontinence-related Quality of Life questionnaire; National Health Service costs, and out of pocket expenses. Results The majority of women expressed no preference (55% or preference for individual treatment (36%. Treatment attendance was good, with similar attendance with both service delivery models. Overall, there were no statistically significant differences in symptom severity or quality of life outcomes between the models. Over 85% of women reported a subjective benefit of treatment, with a slightly higher rating in the individual compared with the group setting. When all health care costs were considered, average cost per patient was lower for group sessions (Mean cost difference £52.91 95%, confidence interval (£25.82 - £80.00. Conclusion Indications are that whilst some women may have an initial preference for individual treatment, there are no substantial differences in the symptom, quality of life outcomes or non-attendance. Because of the significant difference in mean cost, group treatment is recommended. Trial Registration Trial Registration number: ISRCTN 16772662

  8. Sharing experienced sadness : Negotiating meanings of self-defined sad music within a group interview session

    OpenAIRE

    Peltola, Henna-Riikka

    2017-01-01

    Sadness induced by music listening has been a popular research focus in music and emotion research. Despite the wide consensus in affective sciences that emotional experiences are social processes, previous studies have only concentrated on individuals. Thus, the intersubjective dimension of musical experience – how music and music-related emotions are experienced between individuals – has not been investigated. In order to tap into shared emotional experiences, group discussions about experi...

  9. Proceedings of the Working Group Session on Fertility Preservation for Individuals with Gender and Sex Diversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finlayson, Courtney; Johnson, Emilie K; Chen, Diane; Dabrowski, Elizabeth; Gosiengfiao, Yasmin; Campo-Engelstein, Lisa; Rosoklija, Ilina; Jacobson, Jill; Shnorhavorian, Margarett; Pavone, Mary Ellen; Moravek, Molly B; Bonifacio, Herbert J; Simons, Lisa; Hudson, Janella; Fechner, Patricia Y; Gomez-Lobo, Veronica; Kadakia, Rachel; Shurba, Angela; Rowell, Erin; Woodruff, Teresa K

    2016-01-01

    Children and adolescents with gender and sex diversity include (1) gender-nonconforming and transgender individuals for whom gender identity or expression are incongruent with birth-assigned sex (heretofore, transgender) and (2) individuals who have differences in sex development (DSD). Although these are largely disparate groups, there is overlap in the medical expertise necessary to care for individuals with both gender and sex diversity. In addition, both groups face potential infertility or sterility as a result of desired medical and surgical therapies. The Ann & Robert H. Lurie Children's Hospital of Chicago (Lurie Children's) gender and sex development program (GSDP) provides specialized multidisciplinary care for both transgender and DSD patients. In response to patient concerns that recommended medical treatments have the potential to affect fertility, the Lurie Children's GSDP team partnered with experts from the Oncofertility Consortium at Northwestern University to expand fertility preservation options to gender and sex diverse youth. This article summarizes the results of a meeting of experts across this field at the annual Oncofertility Consortium conference with thoughts on next steps toward a unified protocol for this patient group.

  10. Searching for Intertextual Connections in Small Group Text Discussion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chi, Feng-ming

    2012-01-01

    This paper reports the sources for and intentions of intertextuality made by 10 groups of Taiwanese university students in the process of discussing two American stories. Two types of data, small group text discussions and oral interviews, were gathered. The results indicated that participants used diverse sources of intertextual links, and with…

  11. Teaching Small Group Communication: A Do Good Project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth M. Minei, PhD

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper focuses on the parameters of a semester-long project called the “Do Good” project, geared towards developing small group communication skills in undergraduate students. This project highlights participation in a social engagement project that allows students to bridge concepts learned in small group communication lectures (e.g., team dynamics, project management, conflict resolution, decision making, leadership with community outreach. Included are an overview of the project, and examples for how each component both challenges students’ ability to communicate in groups and provides motivation that foster students’ ability to link in-class knowledge with practical, real world application.

  12. Small-Group Learning in Undergraduate STEM Disciplines: Effect of Group Type on Student Achievement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Micari, Marina; Pazos, Pilar; Streitwieser, Bernhard; Light, Gregory

    2010-01-01

    Small-group learning in the science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) disciplines has been widely studied, and it is clear that this method offers many benefits to students. Less attention has been paid to the ways in which small learning groups differ from one another, and how these differences may affect student learning and…

  13. Involving postgraduate's students in undergraduate small group teaching promotes active learning in both

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalra, Ruchi; Modi, Jyoti Nath; Vyas, Rashmi

    2015-01-01

    Background: Lecture is a common traditional method for teaching, but it may not stimulate higher order thinking and students may also be hesitant to express and interact. The postgraduate (PG) students are less involved with undergraduate (UG) teaching. Team based small group active learning method can contribute to better learning experience. Aim: To-promote active learning skills among the UG students using small group teaching methods involving PG students as facilitators to impart hands-on supervised training in teaching and managerial skills. Methodology: After Institutional approval under faculty supervision 92 UGs and 8 PGs participated in 6 small group sessions utilizing the jigsaw technique. Feedback was collected from both. Observations: Undergraduate Feedback (Percentage of Students Agreed): Learning in small groups was a good experience as it helped in better understanding of the subject (72%), students explored multiple reading resources (79%), they were actively involved in self-learning (88%), students reported initial apprehension of performance (71%), identified their learning gaps (86%), team enhanced their learning process (71%), informal learning in place of lecture was a welcome change (86%), it improved their communication skills (82%), small group learning can be useful for future self-learning (75%). Postgraduate Feedback: Majority performed facilitation for first time, perceived their performance as good (75%), it was helpful in self-learning (100%), felt confident of managing students in small groups (100%), as facilitator they improved their teaching skills, found it more useful and better identified own learning gaps (87.5%). Conclusions: Learning in small groups adopting team based approach involving both UGs and PGs promoted active learning in both and enhanced the teaching skills of the PGs. PMID:26380201

  14. An evaluation of Cognitive Stimulation Therapy sessions for people with dementia and a concomitant support group for their carers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, Jan; Kingston, Paul; Alford, Simon; Taylor, Louise; Tolhurst, Edward

    2017-11-01

    This research aimed to ascertain the impact of a pragmatic Cognitive Stimulation Therapy course of 10 sessions on the cognitive function of people living with dementia and whether attending a concomitant carers support group was beneficial to carers. A mixed method quasi-experimental approach was adopted; data were collected pre- and post-intervention. The quantitative arm utilised three validated questionnaires rated by the carers. Qualitative data were collected via semi-structured interviews with carers regarding their perceptions of the impact of Cognitive Stimulation Therapy and the carers support group. Quantitative data analysis found no statistically significant differences within or between groups. The qualitative data demonstrated that carers perceived Cognitive Stimulation Therapy had some benefits for the people living with dementia, especially social benefits. Carers also perceived that attending the carers support group was beneficial for them in terms of gaining a better understanding of dementia, developing coping skills and having peer support. The study was limited in scale and further research with a larger sample, using direct measures of the impact of Cognitive Stimulation Therapy with people living with dementia and supplementary research exploring which characteristic of carers support groups are effective would be worthwhile.

  15. A qualitative assessment of faculty perspectives of small group teaching experience in Iraq.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saleh, Abubakir M; Shabila, Nazar P; Dabbagh, Ali A; Al-Tawil, Namir G; Al-Hadithi, Tariq S

    2015-02-15

    of the system. Despite what the faculty perceived as the college's failure to provide physical settings or training for small group learning to the faculty and the students, the faculty members were able to articulate positive experiences and outcomes associated with their college's efforts to introduce teaching in smaller group sessions.

  16. THE APPLICABILITY OF SMALL GROUP DISCUSSION IN ENGLISH READING CLASS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kurniawan Yudhi Nugroho

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Success of learning is not only a matter of using an appropriate teaching resources, instead, the interference of teaching method is found to be essential to determine the students’ learning achievement. Teacher as a captain of class has the right to choose type of method used in the classroom for sake of students’ improvement. This study was designed as an attempt to help Master Students from a well established private university improve their reading comprehension skill through small group discussion. This study was participated by 30 students, later divided into two classes and served differently as an experimental group for the class A and a control group for the class B. Referring to the final data analysis of the study, it is found that there is an improving learning achievement in the experimental group, indicated by higher performance of posttest (20.333 than the pretest. Apart from this, further analysis was also conducted to find out whether or not small group discussion was able to show better performance than another teaching method applied in another different class. Based on the result of statistical calculation, it shows that small group discussion got better result 12.334 than that of another group. As a result, some suggestions were made by referring to result of the study.

  17. Metastable structures and size effects in small group dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lauro Grotto, Rosapia; Guazzini, Andrea; Bagnoli, Franco

    2014-01-01

    In his seminal works on group dynamics Bion defined a specific therapeutic setting allowing psychoanalytic observations on group phenomena. In describing the setting he proposed that the group was where his voice arrived. This physical limit was later made operative by assuming that the natural dimension of a therapeutic group is around 12 people. Bion introduced a theory of the group aspects of the mind in which proto-mental individual states spontaneously evolve into shared psychological states that are characterized by a series of features: (1) they emerge as a consequence of the natural tendency of (both conscious and unconscious) emotions to combine into structured group patterns; (2) they have a certain degree of stability in time; (3) they tend to alternate so that the dissolution of one is rapidly followed by the emergence of another; (4) they can be described in qualitative terms according to the nature of the emotional mix that dominates the state, in structural terms by a kind of typical "leadership" pattern, and in "cognitive" terms by a set of implicit expectations that are helpful in explaining the group behavior (i.e., the group behaves "as if" it was assuming that). Here we adopt a formal approach derived from Socio-physics in order to explore some of the structural and dynamic properties of this small group dynamics. We will described data from an analytic DS model simulating small group interactions of agents endowed with a very simplified emotional and cognitive dynamic in order to assess the following main points: (1) are metastable collective states allowed to emerge in the model and if so, under which conditions in the parameter space? (2) can these states be differentiated in structural terms? (3) to what extent are the emergent dynamic features of the systems dependent of the system size? We will finally discuss possible future applications of the quantitative descriptions of the interaction structure in the small group clinical setting.

  18. Metastable structures and size effects in small group dynamics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosapia eLauro Grotto

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available In his seminal works on group dynamics Bion defined a specific therapeutic setting allowing psychoanalytic observations on group phenomena. In describing the setting he proposed that the group was where his voice arrived. This physical limit was later made operative by assuming that the natural dimension of a therapeutic group is around 12 people. Bion introduced a theory of the group aspects of the mind in which proto-mental individual states spontaneously evolve into shared psychological states that are characterized by a series of features: 1 they emerge as a consequence of the natural tendency of (both conscious and unconscious emotions to combine into structured group patterns; 2 they have a certain degree of stability in time; 3 they tend to alternate so that the dissolution of one is rapidly followed by the emergence of another; 4 they can be described in qualitative terms according to the nature of the emotional mix that dominates the state, in structural terms by a kind of typical 'leadership’ pattern, and in 'cognitive’ terms by a set of implicit expectations that are helpful in explaining the group behavior (i.e. the group behaves 'as if’ it was assuming that…. Here we adopt a formal approach derived from Socio-physics in order to explore some of the structural and dynamic properties of this small group dynamics. We will described data from an analytic DS model simulating small group interactions of agents endowed with a very simplified emotional and cognitive dynamic in order to assess the following main points: 1 are metastable collective states allowed to emerge in the model and if so, under which conditions in the parameter space? 3 can these states be differentiated in structural terms? 3 to what extent are the emergent dynamic features of the systems dependent of the system size? We will finally discuss possible future applications of the quantitative descriptions of the interaction structure in the small group clinical

  19. Dynamical networks of influence in small group discussions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moussaïd, Mehdi; Noriega Campero, Alejandro; Almaatouq, Abdullah

    2018-01-01

    In many domains of life, business and management, numerous problems are addressed by small groups of individuals engaged in face-to-face discussions. While research in social psychology has a long history of studying the determinants of small group performances, the internal dynamics that govern a group discussion are not yet well understood. Here, we rely on computational methods based on network analyses and opinion dynamics to describe how individuals influence each other during a group discussion. We consider the situation in which a small group of three individuals engages in a discussion to solve an estimation task. We propose a model describing how group members gradually influence each other and revise their judgments over the course of the discussion. The main component of the model is an influence network-a weighted, directed graph that determines the extent to which individuals influence each other during the discussion. In simulations, we first study the optimal structure of the influence network that yields the best group performances. Then, we implement a social learning process by which individuals adapt to the past performance of their peers, thereby affecting the structure of the influence network in the long run. We explore the mechanisms underlying the emergence of efficient or maladaptive networks and show that the influence network can converge towards the optimal one, but only when individuals exhibit a social discounting bias by downgrading the relative performances of their peers. Finally, we find a late-speaker effect, whereby individuals who speak later in the discussion are perceived more positively in the long run and are thus more influential. The numerous predictions of the model can serve as a basis for future experiments, and this work opens research on small group discussion to computational social sciences.

  20. Integrating Academic Interventions into Small Group Counseling in Elementary School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steen, Sam; Kaffenberger, Carol J.

    2007-01-01

    Professional school counselors face the challenge of delivering guidance and counseling services to students while connecting to the educational mission of schools. This article is a summary and evaluation of a small group counseling program that targets academic issues while addressing personal/social issues with elementary-aged children. Results…

  1. A Mindfulness Experiential Small Group to Help Students Tolerate Ambiguity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohecker, Lynn; Vereen, Linwood G.; Wells, Pamela C.; Wathen, Cristen C.

    2016-01-01

    This study explored the lived experiences of 20 counselors-in-training (CITs) in a mindfulness experiential small group. Using grounded theory, the authors described a 5-dimensional model for navigating ambiguity. Findings suggest mindfulness training provides CITs self-reflection skills and a greater ability to manage cognitive complexity.

  2. Listening--A New Priority In Small Group Process?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brack, Harold A.

    Although listening is a major activity in small group communication, it has received minimal attention. Examination of several books and journals reveals a very sparse treatment of the subject. More attention should be given to listening because it is a key factor in a democratic leadership style and requires different skills than does listening…

  3. Small arms proliferation. Report on working group 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-01-01

    The working group reported on the proliferation of small arms, light weapons non-lethal weapons, which have traditionally been given little attention in international talks on peace on the contrary to nuclear weapons which have been tested during the Second World War but never used in war later

  4. The electrocardiogram made (really) easy: Using small-group ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Medicine designed small-group tutorials using animations and analogies as methods to improve the ECG interpretation skills of students. Objectives. To improve students' ability to interpret ECGs and assess their perceptions of the tutorials. Methods. A questionnaire was administered to 67 final-year medical students after ...

  5. WE-AB-207B-10: On Spinal Nerve Toxicity from Single-Session SAbR in Pigs and the Translation of Small Animal NTCP Models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hrycushko, B; Medin, P

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The incidence of peripheral neuropathy has risen with increased utilization of SAbR. There is no consensus regarding the dose-tolerance of the peripheral nervous system. In 2015, we commenced an investigation to test the hypotheses that single-session irradiation to the pig spinal nerves exhibit a similar dose-tolerance as that of the spinal cord and that a dose-length effect exists. This work evaluates the direct application of small animal NTCP models to both large animal spinal cord and preliminary peripheral nerve data. Methods: To date, 16 of 25 Yucatan minipigs have received single-session SAbR to a 1.5cm length and 4 of 25 have received irradiation to a 0.5cm length of left-sided C6-C8 spinal nerves. Toxicity related gait change has been observed in 13 animals (9 from the long length group and 4 from the short). This preliminary data is overlaid on several dose-response models which have been fit to rodent spinal cord tolerance experiments. Model parameters define a toxicity profile between a completely serial or parallel behaving organ. Adequacy of model application, including how length effects are handled, to published minipig spinal cord dose-response data and to preliminary peripheral nerve response data was evaluated through residual analysis. Results: No rodent-derived dose-response models were directly applicable to all pig data for the different lengths irradiated. Several models fit the long-length irradiated spinal cord data well, with the more serial-like models fitting best. Preliminary data on the short-length irradiation suggests no length effect exists, disproving our hypothesis. Conclusion: Direct application of small-animal NTCP models to pig data suggests dose-length effect predictions from small animal data may not translate clinically. However, the small animal models used have not considered dose heterogeneity and it is expected that including the low-to-mid dose levels in the penumbral region will improve this match. This work

  6. WE-AB-207B-10: On Spinal Nerve Toxicity from Single-Session SAbR in Pigs and the Translation of Small Animal NTCP Models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hrycushko, B; Medin, P [UT Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, TX (United States)

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: The incidence of peripheral neuropathy has risen with increased utilization of SAbR. There is no consensus regarding the dose-tolerance of the peripheral nervous system. In 2015, we commenced an investigation to test the hypotheses that single-session irradiation to the pig spinal nerves exhibit a similar dose-tolerance as that of the spinal cord and that a dose-length effect exists. This work evaluates the direct application of small animal NTCP models to both large animal spinal cord and preliminary peripheral nerve data. Methods: To date, 16 of 25 Yucatan minipigs have received single-session SAbR to a 1.5cm length and 4 of 25 have received irradiation to a 0.5cm length of left-sided C6-C8 spinal nerves. Toxicity related gait change has been observed in 13 animals (9 from the long length group and 4 from the short). This preliminary data is overlaid on several dose-response models which have been fit to rodent spinal cord tolerance experiments. Model parameters define a toxicity profile between a completely serial or parallel behaving organ. Adequacy of model application, including how length effects are handled, to published minipig spinal cord dose-response data and to preliminary peripheral nerve response data was evaluated through residual analysis. Results: No rodent-derived dose-response models were directly applicable to all pig data for the different lengths irradiated. Several models fit the long-length irradiated spinal cord data well, with the more serial-like models fitting best. Preliminary data on the short-length irradiation suggests no length effect exists, disproving our hypothesis. Conclusion: Direct application of small-animal NTCP models to pig data suggests dose-length effect predictions from small animal data may not translate clinically. However, the small animal models used have not considered dose heterogeneity and it is expected that including the low-to-mid dose levels in the penumbral region will improve this match. This work

  7. Preparation of small group constants for calculation of shielding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khokhlov, V.F.; Shejno, I.N.; Tkachev, V.D.

    1979-01-01

    Studied is the effect of the shielding calculation error connected with neglect of the angular and spatial neutron flux dependences while determining the small-group constants on the basis of the many-group ones. The economical method allowing for dependences is proposed. The spatial dependence is substituted by the average value according to the zones singled out in the limits of the zones of the same content; the angular cross section dependence is substituted by the average values in the half-ranges of the angular variable. To solve the transfer equation the ALGOL-ROSA-M program using the method of characteristic interpolation and trial run method is developed. The program regards correctly for nonscattered and single scattered radiations. Compared are the calculation results of neutron transmission (10.5 MeV-0.01 eV) in the 21-group approximation with the 3-group calculations for water (the layer thickness is 30 cm) and 5-group calculations for heterogeneous shielding of alternating stainless steel layers (3 layers, each of the 16 cm thickness) and graphite layers (2 layers, each of the 20 cm thickness). The analysis shows that the method proposed permits to obtain rather accurate results in the course of preparation of the small-group cross sections, decreasing considerably the number of the groups (from 21 to 3-5) and saving the machine time

  8. Educational Outcomes of Small-Group Discussion Versus Traditional Lecture Format in Dental Students' Learning and Skills Acquisition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arias, Ana; Scott, Raymond; Peters, Ove A; McClain, Elizabeth; Gluskin, Alan H

    2016-04-01

    The aim of this prospective quantitative study was to compare the effect of different instructional formats on dental students' skills and knowledge acquisition for access cavity preparation. All first-year dental students were invited to participate in this study conducted during the four consecutive two-week endodontic rotation courses at the University of the Pacific Arthur A. Dugoni School of Dentistry in spring semester 2015. Four alphabetically distributed intact groups of students were randomly allocated to two groups (n=70 each) that participated in either small-group discussion or a traditional lecture on access preparation. The first outcome measure was skill acquisition, measured by the quality of access cavities prepared in extracted teeth at the conclusion of the session. Two blinded raters scored direct observations on a continuous scale. Knowledge, the second outcome measure, was scored with a multiple-choice and open-ended question test at the end of each two-week session. Data were obtained for 134 of the 140 students, for a 96% response rate. The results showed that students in the small-group discussion groups scored significantly higher than those in the lecture groups when skill performance was tested (p=8.9 × 10(-7)). However, no significant differences were found in the acquisition of knowledge between the two groups on the written test. Active student participation was significantly related to improved manual skill acquisition, but the format of the session does not seem to have had a direct influence on acquired knowledge.

  9. An evaluation of Ontario's Group Education Session (GES) for license renewal of seniors aged 80 and above.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanlaar, Ward; Hing, Marisela Mainegra; Robertson, Robyn; Mayhew, Dan; Carr, David

    2016-02-01

    In 1996, the Ministry of Transportation in Ontario (MTO) implemented the Group Education Session (GES), which is a mandatory license renewal program for drivers aged 80 and older. This study describes an evaluation of the GES to assess its impact on road safety in Ontario, as well as its effect on the safety of individual drivers who participated in the program. Time series analysis of senior driver records both before and after implementation of the GES, and logistic regression and survival analysis examining senior driver records prior to, and following, their participation in the GES. Using time series analysis there is some evidence to suggest that the GES had a positive impact on road safety. According to the other analyses, participation in the GES is associated with a decrease in the odds of collisions and convictions, regardless of whether drivers pass their first attempt of the knowledge test or not. In addition, failing the first road test and/or having demerit points are strong indicators of future collision and conviction involvement. Results from this evaluation suggest that the GES has had a protective effect on the safety of senior drivers. The findings and discussion will help MTO improve the GES program and provide insights to other jurisdictions that have, or are considering, introducing new senior driver programs. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd and National Safety Council. All rights reserved.

  10. Task Type and Group Motivation: Implications for a Behavioral Approach to Leadership in Small Groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latham, Van M.

    1987-01-01

    Discusses a theory of leadership effectiveness in small discussion/decision making groups developed to facilitate discussion and goal efficacy. Develops four leadership styles (coordinator, inventor, enthusiast, and director) focusing on two critical questions the leader must address. Discusses implications of the model for leadership training and…

  11. Testing an empirically derived mental health training model featuring small groups, distributed practice and patient discussion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murrihy, Rachael C; Byrne, Mitchell K; Gonsalvez, Craig J

    2009-02-01

    Internationally, family doctors seeking to enhance their skills in evidence-based mental health treatment are attending brief training workshops, despite clear evidence in the literature that short-term, massed formats are not likely to improve skills in this complex area. Reviews of the educational literature suggest that an optimal model of training would incorporate distributed practice techniques; repeated practice over a lengthy time period, small-group interactive learning, mentoring relationships, skills-based training and an ongoing discussion of actual patients. This study investigates the potential role of group-based training incorporating multiple aspects of good pedagogy for training doctors in basic competencies in brief cognitive behaviour therapy (BCBT). Six groups of family doctors (n = 32) completed eight 2-hour sessions of BCBT group training over a 6-month period. A baseline control design was utilised with pre- and post-training measures of doctors' BCBT skills, knowledge and engagement in BCBT treatment. Family doctors' knowledge, skills in and actual use of BCBT with patients improved significantly over the course of training compared with the control period. This research demonstrates preliminary support for the efficacy of an empirically derived group training model for family doctors. Brief CBT group-based training could prove to be an effective and viable model for future doctor training.

  12. Opinion dynamics within a virtual small group: the stubbornness effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guazzini, Andrea; Cini, Alessandro; Bagnoli, Franco; Ramasco, José

    2015-09-01

    The modeling of opinion dynamics is social systems has attracted a good deal of attention in the last decade. Even though based on intuition and observation, the mechanisms behind many of these models need solid empirical grounding. In this work, we investigate the relation among subjective variables (such as the personality), the dynamics of the affinity network dynamics, the communication patterns emerging throughout the social interactions and the opinions dynamics in a series of experiments with five small groups of ten people each. In order to ignite the discussion, the polemic topic of animal experimentation was proposed. The groups essentially polarized in two factions with a set of stubborn individuals (those not changing their opinions in time) playing the role of anchors. Our results suggest that the different layers present in the group dynamics (i.e., individual level, group dynamics and meso-communication) are deeply intermingled, specifically the stubbornness effect appears to be related to the dynamical features of the network topologies, and only in an undirected way to the personality of the participants.

  13. Opinion dynamics within a virtual small group: the stubbornness effect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea eGuazzini

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The modeling of opinion dynamics is social systems has attracted a good deal of attention in the last decade. Even though based on intuition and observation, the mechanisms behind many of these models need solid empirical grounding. In this work, we investigate the relation among subjective variables (such as the personality, the dynamics of the affinity network dynamics, the communication patterns emerging throughout the social interactions and the opinions dynamics in a series of experiments with five small groups of ten people each. In order to ignite the discussion, the polemic topic of animal experimentation was proposed. The groups essentially polarized in two factions with a set of stubborn individuals (those not changing their opinions in time playing the role of anchors. Our results suggest that the different layers present in the group dynamics (i.e., individual level, group dynamics and meso-communication are deeply intermingled, specifically the stubbornness effect appears to be related to the dynamical features of the network topologies, and only in an undirected way to the personality of the participants.

  14. Closing session

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2014-01-01

    This part makes a summary of the different sessions and discussions of the workshop in a series of slide presentations: Summary of Opening Session; Summary of Session 1: Analysis of External Hazard Potential; Summary of session 2: Specific features of analysis and modeling of particular natural external hazards; Summary of session-3: Practices and research efforts on natural external events PSA; Summary of session 4: Modeling of NPP response to natural external events in PSA; Summary of session 5: Seismic Risk Analysis; Summary of session 6: Use of external events PSA with the focus on regulatory body role; Facilitated discussion 1 summary: Where do we stand in the analysis of external events?; Summary Facilitated Discussion 2: Findings and Good Practices for External Events Analysis

  15. SMALL GROUP LEARNING METHODS AND THEIR EFFECT ON LEARNERS’ RELATIONSHIPS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radka Borůvková

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Building relationships in the classroom is an essential part of any teacher's career. Having healthy teacher-to-learner and learner-to-learner relationships is an effective way to help prevent pedagogical failure, social conflict and quarrelsome behavior. Many strategies are available that can be used to achieve good long-lasting relationships in the classroom setting. Successful teachers’ pedagogical work in the classroom requires detailed knowledge of learners’ relationships. Good understanding of the relationships is necessary, especially in the case of teenagers’ class. This sensitive period of adolescence demands attention of all teachers who should deal with the problems of their learners. Special care should be focused on children that are out of their classmates’ interest (so called isolated learners or isolates in such class and on possibilities to integrate them into the class. Natural idea how to do it is that of using some modern non-traditional teaching/learning methods, especially the methods based on work in small groups involving learners’ cooperation. Small group education (especially problem-based learning, project-based learning, cooperative learning, collaborative learning or inquire-based learning as one of these methods involves a high degree of interaction. The effectiveness of learning groups is determined by the extent to which the interaction enables members to clarify their own understanding, build upon each other's contributions, sift out meanings, ask and answer questions. An influence of this kind of methods (especially cooperative learning (CL on learners’ relationships was a subject of the further described research. Within the small group education, students work with their classmates to solve complex and authentic problems that help develop content knowledge as well as problem-solving, reasoning, communication, and self-assessment skills. The aim of the research was to answer the question: Can the

  16. Session 35 - Panel: Remaining US Disposition Issues for Orphan or Small Volume Low Level and Low Level Mixed Waste Streams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blauvelt, Richard; Small, Ken; Gelles, Christine; McKenney, Dale; Franz, Bill; Loveland, Kaylin; Lauer, Mike

    2006-01-01

    Faced with closure schedules as a driving force, significant progress has been made during the last 2 years on the disposition of DOE mixed waste streams thought previously to be problematic. Generators, the Department of Energy and commercial vendors have combined to develop unique disposition paths for former orphan streams. Recent successes and remaining issues will be discussed. The session will also provide an opportunity for Federal agencies to share lessons learned on low- level and mixed low-level waste challenges and identify opportunities for future collaboration. This panel discussion was organized by PAC member Dick Blauvelt, Navarro Research and Engineering Inc who served as co-chair along with Dave Eaton from INL. In addition, George Antonucci, Duratek Barnwell and Rich Conley, AFSC were invited members of the audience, prepared to contribute the Barnwell and DOD perspective to the issues as needed. Mr. Small provide information regarding the five year 20K M3 window of opportunity at the Nevada Test Site for DOE contractors to dispose of mixed waste that cannot be received at the Energy Solutions (Envirocare) site in Utah because of activity levels. He provided a summary of the waste acceptance criteria and the process sites must follow to be certified to ship. When the volume limit or time limit is met, the site will undergo a RCRA closure. Ms. Gelles summarized the status of the orphan issues, commercial options and the impact of the EM reorganization on her program. She also announced that there would be a follow-on meeting in 2006 to the very successful St. Louis meeting of last year. It will probably take place in Chicago in July. Details to be announced. Mr. McKenney discussed progress made at the Hanford Reservation regarding disposal of their mixed waste inventory. The news is good for the Hanford site but not good for the rest of the DOE complex since shipment for out of state of both low level and low level mixed waste will continue to be

  17. Palliative medicine Death Rounds: small group learning on a vital subject.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitzes, Judith A; Kalishman, Summers; Kingsley, Darra D; Mines, Jan; Lawrence, Elizabeth

    The medical student's experience with patients' dying and death has profound impact on personal and professional development. Death Rounds at the University of New Mexico School of Medicine is a small group educational model that promotes student self-reflection, metacognition, professional growth, and collegial support. To describe the implementation and evaluation activities of a third year clerkship Death Rounds which are a structured, institutionally supported resource for helping students to understand the clinical, ethical, legal, professional, cultural, and spiritual aspects of death. Medical students attend 2 to 3 small group palliative medicine Death Rounds sessions, facilitated by the attending clerkship director, chief residents, and a palliative care physician. The students' assessment of their palliative medicine knowledge and skills in 5 categories before and after participation in Death Rounds rated their skills after Death Rounds higher with effect sizes ranging from 0.9 to 1.9. Evidence from both the Death Rounds Questionnaire and Facilitators' Logs demonstrates that multiple issues and topics were addressed and all associated with the School of Medicine's 6 core competencies. Death Rounds minimally affect on clerkship time and faculty resources.

  18. A Single Session of rTMS Enhances Small-Worldness in Writer’s Cramp: Evidence from Simultaneous EEG-fMRI Multi-Modal Brain Graph

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rose D. Bharath

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Background and Purpose: Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS induces widespread changes in brain connectivity. As the network topology differences induced by a single session of rTMS are less known we undertook this study to ascertain whether the network alterations had a small-world morphology using multi-modal graph theory analysis of simultaneous EEG-fMRI.Method: Simultaneous EEG-fMRI was acquired in duplicate before (R1 and after (R2 a single session of rTMS in 14 patients with Writer’s Cramp (WC. Whole brain neuronal and hemodynamic network connectivity were explored using the graph theory measures and clustering coefficient, path length and small-world index were calculated for EEG and resting state fMRI (rsfMRI. Multi-modal graph theory analysis was used to evaluate the correlation of EEG and fMRI clustering coefficients.Result: A single session of rTMS was found to increase the clustering coefficient and small-worldness significantly in both EEG and fMRI (p < 0.05. Multi-modal graph theory analysis revealed significant modulations in the fronto-parietal regions immediately after rTMS. The rsfMRI revealed additional modulations in several deep brain regions including cerebellum, insula and medial frontal lobe.Conclusion: Multi-modal graph theory analysis of simultaneous EEG-fMRI can supplement motor physiology methods in understanding the neurobiology of rTMS in vivo. Coinciding evidence from EEG and rsfMRI reports small-world morphology for the acute phase network hyper-connectivity indicating changes ensuing low-frequency rTMS is probably not “noise”.

  19. Enhancing group cognitive-behavioral therapy for hoarding disorder with between-session Internet-based clinician support: A feasibility study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivanov, Volen Z; Enander, Jesper; Mataix-Cols, David; Serlachius, Eva; Månsson, Kristoffer N T; Andersson, Gerhard; Flygare, Oskar; Tolin, David; Rück, Christian

    2018-02-07

    Hoarding disorder (HD) is difficult to treat. In an effort to increase efficacy and engagement in cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT), we developed and evaluated a novel intervention comprising group CBT combined with between-session Internet-based clinician support for people with HD. Twenty participants with HD received group CBT combined with an Internet-support system enabling therapist-participant communication between group sessions. The treatment was associated with a significant reduction on the Saving Inventory-Revised (SI-R) and a large effect size (Cohen's d = 1.57) was found at posttreatment. Treatment gains were maintained at the 3-month follow-up. Group attendance was high and no participants dropped out from treatment prematurely. Between-session motivational support from the therapist was most frequently mentioned as the main strength of the system. The results of this study support adding Internet-based clinician support to group CBT for HD to increase treatment adherence and, potentially, improve the overall efficacy of CBT. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Sharing a Personal Trainer: Personal and Social Benefits of Individualized, Small-Group Training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wayment, Heidi A; McDonald, Rachael L

    2017-11-01

    Wayment, HA and McDonald, RL. Sharing a personal trainer: personal and social benefits of individualized, small-group training. J Strength Cond Res 31(11): 3137-3145, 2017-We examined a novel personal fitness training program that combines personal training principles in a small-group training environment. In a typical training session, exercisers warm-up together but receive individualized training for 50 minutes with 1-5 other adults who range in age, exercise experience, and goals for participation. Study participants were 98 regularly exercising adult members of a fitness studio in the southwestern United States (64 women and 32 men), aged 19-78 years (mean, 46.52 years; SD = 14.15). Average membership time was 2 years (range, 1-75 months; mean, 23.54 months; SD = 20.10). In collaboration with the program directors, we developed a scale to assess satisfaction with key features of this unique training program. Participants completed an online survey in Fall 2015. Hypotheses were tested with a serial mediator model (model 6) using the SPSS PROCESS module. In support of the basic tenets of self-determination theory, satisfaction with small-group, individualized training supported basic psychological needs, which in turn were associated with greater autonomous exercise motivation and life satisfaction. Satisfaction with this unique training method was also associated with greater exercise self-efficacy. Autonomous exercise motivation was associated with both exercise self-efficacy and greater self-reported health and energy. Discussion focuses on why exercise programs that foster a sense of social belonging (in addition to motivation and efficacy) may be helpful for successful adherence to an exercise program.

  1. Using Telestrations™ to Illustrate Small Group Communication Principles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fedesco, Heather Noel

    2014-01-01

    This single class activity described here: (1) illustrates the importance of interdependence in groups; (2) can be used to measure group productivity and performance; (3) can encourage groups to engage in group learning; and (4) can facilitate group cohesion for newly formed groups. Students will be working in groups for the majority of their…

  2. In-group and role identity influences on the initiation and maintenance of students' voluntary attendance at peer study sessions for statistics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Katherine M; O'Connor, Erin L; Hamilton, Kyra

    2011-06-01

    Although class attendance is linked to academic performance, questions remain about what determines students' decisions to attend or miss class. In addition to the constructs of a common decision-making model, the theory of planned behaviour, the present study examined the influence of student role identity and university student (in-group) identification for predicting both the initiation and maintenance of students' attendance at voluntary peer-assisted study sessions in a statistics subject. University students enrolled in a statistics subject were invited to complete a questionnaire at two time points across the academic semester. A total of 79 university students completed questionnaires at the first data collection point, with 46 students completing the questionnaire at the second data collection point. Twice during the semester, students' attitudes, subjective norm, perceived behavioural control, student role identity, in-group identification, and intention to attend study sessions were assessed via on-line questionnaires. Objective measures of class attendance records for each half-semester (or 'term') were obtained. Across both terms, students' attitudes predicted their attendance intentions, with intentions predicting class attendance. Earlier in the semester, in addition to perceived behavioural control, both student role identity and in-group identification predicted students' attendance intentions, with only role identity influencing intentions later in the semester. These findings highlight the possible chronology that different identity influences have in determining students' initial and maintained attendance at voluntary sessions designed to facilitate their learning. ©2010 The British Psychological Society.

  3. Interprofessional communication skills training for serious illness: evaluation of a small-group, simulated patient intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bays, Alison M; Engelberg, Ruth A; Back, Anthony L; Ford, Dee W; Downey, Lois; Shannon, Sarah E; Doorenbos, Ardith Z; Edlund, Barbara; Christianson, Phyllis; Arnold, Richard W; O'Connor, Kim; Kross, Erin K; Reinke, Lynn F; Cecere Feemster, Laura; Fryer-Edwards, Kelly; Alexander, Stewart C; Tulsky, James A; Curtis, J Randall

    2014-02-01

    Communication with patients and families is an essential component of high-quality care in serious illness. Small-group skills training can result in new communication behaviors, but past studies have used facilitators with extensive experience, raising concerns this is not scalable. The objective was to investigate the effect of an experiential communication skills building workshop (Codetalk), led by newly trained facilitators, on internal medicine trainees' and nurse practitioner students' ability to communicate bad news and express empathy. Trainees participated in Codetalk; skill improvement was evaluated through pre- and post- standardized patient (SP) encounters. The subjects were internal medicine residents and nurse practitioner students at two universities. The study was carried out in anywhere from five to eight half-day sessions over a month. The first and last sessions included audiotaped trainee SP encounters coded for effective communication behaviors. The primary outcome was change in communication scores from pre-intervention to post-intervention. We also measured trainee characteristics to identify predictors of performance and change in performance over time. We enrolled 145 trainees who completed pre- and post-intervention SP interviews-with participation rates of 52% for physicians and 14% for nurse practitioners. Trainees' scores improved in 8 of 11 coded behaviors (p<0.05). The only significant predictors of performance were having participated in the intervention (p<0.001) and study site (p<0.003). The only predictor of improvement in performance over time was participating in the intervention (p<0.001). A communication skills intervention using newly trained facilitators was associated with improvement in trainees' skills in giving bad news and expressing empathy. Improvement in communication skills did not vary by trainee characteristics.

  4. Panel Session

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bertelsen, Olav Wedege

    2004-01-01

    In this panel session, four researchers will discuss the role of a theoretical foundation, in particular AT, in the design of information technology based artefacts. The general discussion will take of from a specific examination of the ActAD approach.......In this panel session, four researchers will discuss the role of a theoretical foundation, in particular AT, in the design of information technology based artefacts. The general discussion will take of from a specific examination of the ActAD approach....

  5. The Decision-Making Process of a Small Task Group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roderick, Joan C.

    1985-01-01

    This article focuses on the following areas of group process: the nature of the task group, the steps taken to reach a decision, and the ways in which a leader can effectively manage the inevitable conflict that emerges within groups as the problem-solving process progresses. (CT)

  6. Acceptance and Commitment Therapy and Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy as Treatments for Academic Procrastination: A Randomized Controlled Group Session

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shuo; Zhou, Ya; Yu, Shi; Ran, Li-Wen; Liu, Xiang-Ping; Chen, Yu-Fei

    2017-01-01

    Objective: This study tested the efficacy of Acceptance and Commitment Therapy (ACT), compared with Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy (CBT), in alleviating academic procrastination. Method: A total of 60 (53.3% male) undergraduates suffering from academic procrastination were randomly assigned to two treatment groups (ACT and CBT) and a control group.…

  7. Small groups, contexts, and civic engagement: A multilevel analysis of United States Congregational Life Survey data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitehead, Andrew L; Stroope, Samuel

    2015-07-01

    Prior research suggests that church-goers are more civically engaged than their non-church-going counterparts. Little is known, however, about how the popular phenomenon of small groups factors into this equation. In the present study, we examine relationships between small group participation at individual and congregation levels and civic engagement. Using multilevel modeling and national data on congregations and individuals from the U.S. Congregational Life Study (n=82,044), we find that: (1) individual-level small group involvement is associated with four measures of civic engagement; (2) congregation-level small group participation is associated with both lower and higher civic engagement in the case of two outcomes; and (3) in the case of three civic outcomes, congregation-level small group participation moderates individual-level small group involvement such that small group members' civic activity more closely resembles the lower civic engagement of small group nonparticipants. In the case of one civic outcome, at high levels of overall small group participation, small group members' civic engagement drops below that of small group nonparticipants. Explanations for these findings, including a "crowding out" effect, are examined including their complex implications for debates regarding small groups, religious involvement, and civic engagement. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Student Talk and Opportunities for Mathematical Learning in Small Group Interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Marcy B.; Kalinec, Crystal A.

    2012-01-01

    Small group interactions are an important tool for mathematical learning and yet researchers have neither examined small group talk across entire lessons nor have they focused on moments of mathematical learning in small groups. We examined such talk and identified kinds of interactions and connections between interactions and mathematical…

  9. Teaching as Interaction: Challenges in Transitioning Teachers' Instruction to Small Groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wyatt, Tasha; Chapman-DeSousa, Brook

    2017-01-01

    Although small group instruction is often endorsed in teaching young children, teachers are rarely given explicit instruction on how to move instruction into small groups where effective adult-child interactions can take place. This study examines how 14 early childhood educators transitioned their instruction from whole to small group teaching…

  10. Deming, quality and the small medical group administrator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noll, D C

    1992-01-01

    As administrators, writes Douglas Noll, we can coordinate and implement quality measures affecting our practices and which impact the patient's total medical experience. Unfortunately, many smaller groups cannot hire an outside consultant or single employee whose sole purpose would be to monitor quality. Noll offers several simple practices that administrators can use to improve the quality of service in their groups.

  11. Process factors facilitating and inhibiting medical ethics teaching in small groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bentwich, Miriam Ethel; Bokek-Cohen, Ya'arit

    2017-11-01

    To examine process factors that either facilitate or inhibit learning medical ethics during case-based learning. A qualitative research approach using microanalysis of transcribed videotaped discussions of three consecutive small-group learning (SGL) sessions on medical ethics teaching (MET) for three groups, each with 10 students. This research effort revealed 12 themes of learning strategies, divided into 6 coping and 6 evasive strategies. Cognitive-based strategies were found to relate to Kamin's model of critical thinking in medical education, thereby supporting our distinction between the themes of coping and evasive strategies. The findings also showed that cognitive efforts as well as emotional strategies are involved in discussions of ethical dilemmas. Based on Kamin's model and the constructivist learning theory, an examination of the different themes within the two learning strategies-coping and evasive-revealed that these strategies may be understood as corresponding to process factors either facilitating or inhibiting MET in SGL, respectively. Our classification offers a more nuanced observation, specifically geared to pinpointing the desired and less desired process factors in the learning involved in MET in the SGL environment. Two key advantages of this observation are: (1) it brings to the forefront process factors that may inhibit and not merely facilitate MET in SGL and (2) it acknowledges the existence of emotional and not just cognitive process factors. Further enhancement of MET in SGL may thus be achieved based on these observations. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  12. mCell: Facilitating Mobile Communication of Small Groups

    OpenAIRE

    Mikko T. Tarkiainen; Jonna Häkkilä; Jan Blom; Merja Haveri; Jyri Virtanen

    2008-01-01

    Mobile communication technology offers a potential platform for new types of communication applications. Here, we describe the development and experiences with a mobile group communication application, mCell, that runs on a mobile phone. We present the underlying design implications, the application implementation, and a user study, where three groups used the application for one month. The findings of the user study reveal general user experiences with the application and show different patt...

  13. Conducting Creativity Brainstorming Sessions in Small and Medium-Sized Enterprises Using Computer-Mediated Communication Tools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murthy, Uday S.

    A variety of Web-based low cost computer-mediated communication (CMC) tools are now available for use by small and medium-sized enterprises (SME). These tools invariably incorporate chat systems that facilitate simultaneous input in synchronous electronic meeting environments, allowing what is referred to as “electronic brainstorming.” Although prior research in information systems (IS) has established that electronic brainstorming can be superior to face-to-face brainstorming, there is a lack of detailed guidance regarding how CMC tools should be optimally configured to foster creativity in SMEs. This paper discusses factors to be considered in using CMC tools for creativity brainstorming and proposes recommendations for optimally configuring CMC tools to enhance creativity in SMEs. The recommendations are based on lessons learned from several recent experimental studies on the use of CMC tools for rich brainstorming tasks that require participants to invoke domain-specific knowledge. Based on a consideration of the advantages and disadvantages of the various configuration options, the recommendations provided can form the basis for selecting a CMC tool for creativity brainstorming or for creating an in-house CMC tool for the purpose.

  14. Small Group Teaching in Undergraduate Science. Higher Education Learning Project (h.e.l.p.) - Physics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogborn, Jon, Ed.; And Others

    While this book is focused primarily on the tutorials held in the British universities, it offers many insights that can improve the teaching in the discussion sections so common in our large universities. Introductions to analyses of group processes of technical language, and of questions are given. Lesson plans for skill building sessions are…

  15. Evaluating effectiveness of small group information literacy instruction for Undergraduate Medical Education students using a pre- and post-survey study design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClurg, Caitlin; Powelson, Susan; Lang, Eddy; Aghajafari, Fariba; Edworthy, Steven

    2015-06-01

    The Undergraduate Medical Education (UME) programme at the University of Calgary is a three-year programme with a strong emphasis on small group learning. The purpose of our study was to determine whether librarian led small group information literacy instruction, closely integrated with course content and faculty participation, but without a hands on component, was an effective means to convey EBM literacy skills. Five 15-minute EBM information literacy sessions were delivered by three librarians to 12 practicing physician led small groups of 15 students. Students were asked to complete an online survey before and after the sessions. Data analysis was performed through simple descriptive statistics. A total of 144 of 160 students responded to the pre-survey, and 112 students answered the post-survey. Instruction in a small group environment without a mandatory hands on component had a positive impact on student's evidence-based information literacy skills. Students were more likely to consult a librarian and had increased confidence in their abilities to search and find relevant information. Our study demonstrates that student engagement and faculty involvement are effective tools for delivering information literacy skills when working with students in a small group setting outside of a computer classroom. © 2015 Health Libraries Group.

  16. Behavioral and biological interactions with small groups in confined microsocieties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brady, J. V.; Emurian, H. H.

    1982-01-01

    Requirements for high levels of human performance in the unfamiliar and stressful environments associated with space missions necessitate the development of research-based technological procedures for maximizing the probability of effective functioning at all levels of personnel participation. Where the successful accomplishment of such missions requires the coordinated contributions of several individuals collectively identified with the achievement of a common objective, the conditions for characterizing a team, crew, or functional group are operationally defined. For the most part, studies of group performances under operational conditions which emphasize relatively long exposure to extended mission environments have been limited by the constraints imposed on experimental manipulations to identify critical effectiveness factors. On the other hand, laboratory studies involving relatively brief exposures to contrived task situations have been considered of questionable generality to operational settings requiring realistic group objectives.

  17. 77 FR 14031 - Public Listening Sessions To Obtain Input on the Multi-Stakeholder Group Tasked With the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-08

    ... governments and companies to publicly disclose in parallel the revenues paid and received for extraction of... work with industry and civil society to implement USEITI. EITI will strengthen relationships among the... in the multi-stakeholder group? How best can a balance of interests and perspectives, be achieved in...

  18. Small-Group Discourse: Establishing a Communication-Rich Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quebec Fuentes, Sarah

    2013-01-01

    Establishing a communication-rich classroom can be difficult. This article describes the process and findings of a practitioner action research study addressing the question of how teachers can interact with their students while they are working in groups to encourage and enhance student-to-student communication. Recommended research-based teacher…

  19. Small Group Learning: Do Group Members' Implicit Theories of Ability Make a Difference?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beckmann, Nadin; Wood, Robert E.; Minbashian, Amirali; Tabernero, Carmen

    2012-01-01

    We examined the impact of members' implicit theories of ability on group learning and the mediating role of several group process variables, such as goal-setting, effort attributions, and efficacy beliefs. Comparisons were between 15 groups with a strong incremental view on ability (high incremental theory groups), and 15 groups with a weak…

  20. Perspectives on Troubled Interactions:What Happened When a Small Group

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Ross

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated fostering political development (as defined in the report through an integration of adult development, public issues analysis, and structured public discourse. Entitled The Integral Process For Working On Complex Issues (TIP, that multi-session discourse methodology includes issue analysis and framing, deliberation, and organizing systemic action. Its issue-framing template helps users generate multiple approaches to issues that reflect different levels of complexity and incorporate the conceivable human and institutional perspectives and environmental life conditions. The small group used the discourse process to select a public issue of concern and to begin to address it. It was about how to change the community’s adversarial political culture. They conducted a deliberative action inquiry into their own tones and intentions toward that issue as the starting point to address it, and did deliberative decision-making on that basis. The political reasoning and culture of the group developed during the study, evidenced by the group’s work and changes that participants experienced. The study is the first of its kind in several respects, which are: (a to use this public discourse process as part of the research methodology, (b to perform this kind of empirical research on public discourse and deliberation, and (c to foster political and adult development while addressing complex issues. This extended length research report departs from traditional journal article formats not only by its length but also by integrating its report of findings with analyses of the processes that resulted in the findings. It is complemented by a shorter article in this issue of Integral Review, which describes the steps of the process and the major themes evident in participants’ experience.

  1. Large and small sets with respect to homomorphisms and products of groups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Riccardo Gusso

    2002-10-01

    Full Text Available We study the behaviour of large, small and medium subsets with respect to homomorphisms and products of groups. Then we introduce the definition af a P-small set in abelian groups and we investigate the relations between this kind of smallness and the previous one, giving some examples that distinguish them.

  2. Key Informant Models for Measuring Group-Level Variables in Small Groups: Application to Plural Subject Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Algesheimer, René; Bagozzi, Richard P.; Dholakia, Utpal M.

    2018-01-01

    We offer a new conceptualization and measurement models for constructs at the group-level of analysis in small group research. The conceptualization starts with classical notions of group behavior proposed by Tönnies, Simmel, and Weber and then draws upon plural subject theory by philosophers Gilbert and Tuomela to frame a new perspective…

  3. Framing Negotiation: Dynamics of Epistemological and Positional Framing in Small Groups during Scientific Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shim, Soo-Yean; Kim, Heui-Baik

    2018-01-01

    In this study, we examined students' epistemological and positional framing during small group scientific modeling to explore their context-dependent perceptions about knowledge, themselves, and others. We focused on two small groups of Korean eighth-grade students who participated in six modeling activities about excretion. The two groups were…

  4. Outcomes and lessons from a pilot RCT of a community-based HIV prevention multi-session group intervention for gay men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harding, R; Bensley, J; Corrigan, N; Franks, L; Stratman, J; Waller, Z; Warner, J

    2004-07-01

    This paper presents the first outcome evaluation of multi-session groupwork for HIV prevention among gay men in the UK. This community-based RCT recruited 50 men, of whom 42% were HIV-positive or untested, and 32% reported status unknown or serodiscordant UAI in the previous 12 months. No knowledge, skills, attitudinal or behavioural differences were detected between intervention and control at baseline. At eight weeks, those attending the group reported significant gains over their control in making sexual choices, physical safety, HIV and STI transmission knowledge, and sexual negotiation skills. At 20 weeks, significant differences remained for HIV and STI transmission knowledge and comfort with sexual choices. Although no behavioural differences were detected, the aims of the National Prevention Strategy were met. This pilot RCT is appraised in the light of modest sample size and attrition, and recommendations for establishing behavioural outcomes are presented. This study has demonstrated that high-risk community samples can be recruited to multi-session interventions, and has provided feasibility data for future rigorous evaluation designs.

  5. Student talk and opportunities for mathematical learning in small group interactions

    OpenAIRE

    Wood, M.; Kalinec, C.

    2012-01-01

    Small group interactions are an important tool for mathematical learning and yet researchers have neither examined small group talk across entire lessons nor have they focused on moments of mathematical learning in small groups. We examined such talk and identified kinds of interactions and connections between interactions and mathematical learning. We differentiated talk based upon its focus: mathematical objects (mathematizing), people (subjectifying), or more specifically, people’s attribu...

  6. Session 7: Reserve

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bailey, R.; Crockford, G.

    2001-01-01

    The reserve session was devoted to some issues that came up through the workshop, which were grouped into three main areas: The Global Accelerator Network, Problems of stress and how to get organized to minimize them, What should an operations group be responsible for? This paper summarizes the discussions that took place. (author)

  7. Session summaries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sudo, Y.

    2002-01-01

    In the summary session, possible international activities in the field of basic studies on high-temperature engineering were discussed within the framework of the OECD/NEA Nuclear Science Committee (NSC). It was recommended to include topics relevant to fission-product behaviour and safety issues of HTGR in next meeting, in addition to the topics discussed in this meeting. The chairperson of the last session summarised the recommendations to be presented to the NSC into the following five topics as possible international activities: - Basic studies on behaviour of irradiated graphite/carbon and ceramic materials including their composites under both operation and storage conditions. - Development of in-core material characterisation and instrumentation methods. - Improvement in material properties through high-temperature irradiation. - Basic studies on HTGR fuel fabrication and performance including fission-product release. - Basic studies on safety issues of HTGR. It was also recommended that a further information exchange meeting focused on the organisation of the interactive collaboration activity with regard to the above topics be planned in 2003, tentatively in Oarai, Japan. (author)

  8. Session Introduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eliane Lessner, Co-Chair:

    2009-03-01

    A panel discussion session providing a worldwide assessment of the status and experiences of women in physics, paying attention to the different cultures and environments they work in and to how the age of the physicist affects their perspective. We will hear about women physicists in Korea in particular and Asia in general, in Egypt in particular and Africa in general, and in the Caribbean. Six invited speakers will present analyses of the progress being made in promoting women in physics from their personal experiences and as assessed from their participation in the Third International Conference on Women In Physics (ICWIP2008) convened in Seoul, Korea in October 2008. From Albania to Zimbabwe, with representation of all the continents, ICWIP2008 congregated 283 women and men physicists from 57 countries to share the participants' scientific accomplishments and evaluate international progress in improving the status of women in physics. This three-hour session is organized jointly by the Committee on the Status of Women in Physics of the APS (CSWP) and the Forum on International Physics of the APS (FIP). Audience participation in the panel discussion will be strongly encouraged.

  9. The role of micro size computing clusters for small physics groups

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shevel, A Y

    2014-01-01

    A small physics group (3-15 persons) might use a number of computing facilities for the analysis/simulation, developing/testing, teaching. It is discussed different types of computing facilities: collaboration computing facilities, group local computing cluster (including colocation), cloud computing. The author discuss the growing variety of different computing options for small groups and does emphasize the role of the group owned computing cluster of micro size.

  10. Professional Development of Mathematics Teachers toward the Facilitation of Small-Group Collaboration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabach, Michal; Schwarz, Baruch B.

    2018-01-01

    Collaborative work in small groups is often a suitable context for yielding substantial individual learning outcomes. Indeed, small-group collaboration has recently become an educational goal rather than a means. Yet, this goal is difficult to attain, and students must be taught how to learn together. In this paper, we focus on how to prepare…

  11. Evaluation of Small-Group Teaching in Human Gross Anatomy in a Caribbean Medical School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Lap Ki; Ganguly, Pallab K.

    2008-01-01

    Although there are a number of medical schools in the Caribbean islands, very few reports have come out so far in the literature regarding the efficacy of small-group teaching in them. The introduction of small-group teaching in the gross anatomy laboratory one and a half years ago at St. Matthew's University (SMU) on Grand Cayman appears to have…

  12. Assessing the Internal Dynamics of Mathematical Problem Solving in Small Groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Artzt, Alice F.; Armour-Thomas, Eleanor

    The purpose of this exploratory study was to examine the problem-solving behaviors and perceptions of (n=27) seventh-grade students as they worked on solving a mathematical problem within a small-group setting. An assessment system was developed that allowed for this analysis. To assess problem-solving behaviors within a small group a Group…

  13. Group music performance causes elevated pain thresholds and social bonding in small and large groups of singers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinstein, Daniel; Launay, Jacques; Pearce, Eiluned; Dunbar, Robin I. M.; Stewart, Lauren

    2016-01-01

    Over our evolutionary history, humans have faced the problem of how to create and maintain social bonds in progressively larger groups compared to those of our primate ancestors. Evidence from historical and anthropological records suggests that group music-making might act as a mechanism by which this large-scale social bonding could occur. While previous research has shown effects of music making on social bonds in small group contexts, the question of whether this effect ‘scales up’ to larger groups is particularly important when considering the potential role of music for large-scale social bonding. The current study recruited individuals from a community choir that met in both small (n = 20 – 80) and large (a ‘megachoir’ combining individuals from the smaller subchoirs n = 232) group contexts. Participants gave self-report measures (via a survey) of social bonding and had pain threshold measurements taken (as a proxy for endorphin release) before and after 90 minutes of singing. Results showed that feelings of inclusion, connectivity, positive affect, and measures of endorphin release all increased across singing rehearsals and that the influence of group singing was comparable for pain thresholds in the large versus small group context. Levels of social closeness were found to be greater at pre- and post-levels for the small choir condition. However, the large choir condition experienced a greater change in social closeness as compared to the small condition. The finding that singing together fosters social closeness – even in large contexts where individuals are not known to each other – is consistent with evolutionary accounts that emphasize the role of music in social bonding, particularly in the context of creating larger cohesive groups than other primates are able to manage. PMID:27158219

  14. Abstracts of SIG Sessions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Proceedings of the ASIS Annual Meeting, 1994

    1994-01-01

    Includes abstracts of 18 special interest group (SIG) sessions. Highlights include natural language processing, information science and terminology science, classification, knowledge-intensive information systems, information value and ownership issues, economics and theories of information science, information retrieval interfaces, fuzzy thinking…

  15. The "g" Factor and Cognitive Test Session Behavior: Using a Latent Variable Approach in Examining Measurement Invariance Across Age Groups on the WJ III

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frisby, Craig L.; Wang, Ze

    2016-01-01

    Data from the standardization sample of the Woodcock-Johnson Psychoeducational Battery--Third Edition (WJ III) Cognitive standard battery and Test Session Observation Checklist items were analyzed to understand the relationship between g (general mental ability) and test session behavior (TSB; n = 5,769). Latent variable modeling methods were used…

  16. Benefits of adding small financial incentives or optional group meetings to a web-based statewide obesity initiative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leahey, Tricia M; Subak, Leslee L; Fava, Joseph; Schembri, Michael; Thomas, Graham; Xu, Xiaomeng; Krupel, Katie; Kent, Kimberly; Boguszewski, Katherine; Kumar, Rajiv; Weinberg, Brad; Wing, Rena

    2015-01-01

    To examine whether adding either small, variable financial incentives or optional group sessions improves weight losses in a community-based, Internet behavioral program. Participants (N = 268) from Shape Up Rhode Island 2012, a 3-month Web-based community wellness initiative, were randomized to: Shape Up+Internet behavioral program (SI), Shape Up+Internet program+incentives (SII), or Shape Up+Internet program+group sessions (SIG). At the end of the 3-month program, SII achieved significantly greater weight losses than SI (SII: 6.4% [5.1-7.7]; SI: 4.2% [3.0-5.6]; P = 0.03); weight losses in SIG were not significantly different from the other two conditions (SIG: 5.8% [4.5-7.1], P's ≥ 0.10). However, at the 12-month no-treatment follow-up visit, both SII and SIG had greater weight losses than SI (SII: 3.1% [1.8-4.4]; SIG: 4.5% [3.2-5.8]; SI: 1.2% [-0.1-2.6]; P's ≤ 0.05). SII was the most cost-effective approach at both 3 (SII: $34/kg; SI: $34/kg; SIG: $87/kg) and 12 months (SII: $64/kg; SI: $140/kg; SIG: $113/kg). Modest financial incentives enhance weight losses during a community campaign, and both incentives and optional group meetings improved overall weight loss outcomes during the follow-up period. However, the use of the financial incentives is the most cost-effective approach. © 2014 The Obesity Society.

  17. Medical Students Perceive Better Group Learning Processes when Large Classes Are Made to Seem Small

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hommes, Juliette; Arah, Onyebuchi A.; de Grave, Willem; Schuwirth, Lambert W. T.; Scherpbier, Albert J. J. A.; Bos, Gerard M. J.

    2014-01-01

    Objective Medical schools struggle with large classes, which might interfere with the effectiveness of learning within small groups due to students being unfamiliar to fellow students. The aim of this study was to assess the effects of making a large class seem small on the students' collaborative learning processes. Design A randomised controlled intervention study was undertaken to make a large class seem small, without the need to reduce the number of students enrolling in the medical programme. The class was divided into subsets: two small subsets (n = 50) as the intervention groups; a control group (n = 102) was mixed with the remaining students (the non-randomised group n∼100) to create one large subset. Setting The undergraduate curriculum of the Maastricht Medical School, applying the Problem-Based Learning principles. In this learning context, students learn mainly in tutorial groups, composed randomly from a large class every 6–10 weeks. Intervention The formal group learning activities were organised within the subsets. Students from the intervention groups met frequently within the formal groups, in contrast to the students from the large subset who hardly enrolled with the same students in formal activities. Main Outcome Measures Three outcome measures assessed students' group learning processes over time: learning within formally organised small groups, learning with other students in the informal context and perceptions of the intervention. Results Formal group learning processes were perceived more positive in the intervention groups from the second study year on, with a mean increase of β = 0.48. Informal group learning activities occurred almost exclusively within the subsets as defined by the intervention from the first week involved in the medical curriculum (E-I indexes>−0.69). Interviews tapped mainly positive effects and negligible negative side effects of the intervention. Conclusion Better group learning processes can be

  18. Medical students perceive better group learning processes when large classes are made to seem small.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hommes, Juliette; Arah, Onyebuchi A; de Grave, Willem; Schuwirth, Lambert W T; Scherpbier, Albert J J A; Bos, Gerard M J

    2014-01-01

    Medical schools struggle with large classes, which might interfere with the effectiveness of learning within small groups due to students being unfamiliar to fellow students. The aim of this study was to assess the effects of making a large class seem small on the students' collaborative learning processes. A randomised controlled intervention study was undertaken to make a large class seem small, without the need to reduce the number of students enrolling in the medical programme. The class was divided into subsets: two small subsets (n=50) as the intervention groups; a control group (n=102) was mixed with the remaining students (the non-randomised group n∼100) to create one large subset. The undergraduate curriculum of the Maastricht Medical School, applying the Problem-Based Learning principles. In this learning context, students learn mainly in tutorial groups, composed randomly from a large class every 6-10 weeks. The formal group learning activities were organised within the subsets. Students from the intervention groups met frequently within the formal groups, in contrast to the students from the large subset who hardly enrolled with the same students in formal activities. Three outcome measures assessed students' group learning processes over time: learning within formally organised small groups, learning with other students in the informal context and perceptions of the intervention. Formal group learning processes were perceived more positive in the intervention groups from the second study year on, with a mean increase of β=0.48. Informal group learning activities occurred almost exclusively within the subsets as defined by the intervention from the first week involved in the medical curriculum (E-I indexes>-0.69). Interviews tapped mainly positive effects and negligible negative side effects of the intervention. Better group learning processes can be achieved in large medical schools by making large classes seem small.

  19. Invented Spelling Activities in Small Groups and Early Spelling and Reading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins, Margarida Alves; Salvador, Liliana; Albuquerque, Ana; Silva, Cristina

    2016-01-01

    Our aim was to assess the impact of an invented spelling programme conducted in small groups on children's written language acquisition in Portuguese. We expected the experimental group to have better post-test results than the control group in spelling and reading. Participants were 160 preschool-age children who were randomly divided into an…

  20. Small, Task-Oriented Groups: Conflict, Conflict Management, Satisfaction, and Decision Quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wall, Victor D., Jr.; And Others

    1987-01-01

    Examined relationship among amount of conflict experienced, the style of its management, individual satisfaction, and decision quality of small, task-oriented groups using 129 college student subjects in 24 groups. Data suggest a curvilinear relationship between the number of conflict episodes experienced by group members and the subsequent…

  1. Integrative and distributive negotiation in small groups : Effects of task structure, decision rule, and social motive

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beersma, Bianca; De Dreu, Carsten K W

    2002-01-01

    This study examined the interactive effects of task structure, decision rule, and social motive on small-group negotiation processes and outcomes. Three-person groups negotiated either within an asymmetrical task structure (in which a majority of group members have compatible interests) or within a

  2. Novel Emergency Medicine Curriculum Utilizing Self-Directed Learning and the Flipped Classroom Method: Genitourinary Emergencies Small Group Module

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew King

    2017-07-01

    -life experiences, and small group discussions in place of traditional lectures. In doing so, a goal of the curriculum is to encourage self-directed learning, improve understanding and knowledge retention, and improve the educational experience of our residents. Methods: The educational strategies used in this curriculum include: small group modules authored by education faculty and content experts based on the core emergency medicine content. This program also includes resident submitted questions that were developed during review of the content. The Socratic Method, used during small group sessions, encourages active participation; small groups also focus on the synthesis and application of knowledge through the discussion of real life experiences. The use of free open access medical education (FOAM resources allows learners to work at their own pace and maximize autonomy.

  3. Novel Emergency Medicine Curriculum Utilizing Self-Directed Learning and the Flipped Classroom Method: Gastrointestinal Emergencies Small Group Module

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew King

    2017-01-01

    -directed learning, improve understanding and knowledge retention, and improve the educational experience of our residents. Methods: The educational strategies used in this curriculum include: small group modules authored by education faculty and content experts, based on core emergency medicine content. This program also includes resident submitted questions that were developed during review of the content. The Socratic Method, used during small group sessions encourages active participation; small groups also focus on synthesis and application of knowledge through discussion of real life experiences. The use of free open access medical education (FOAM resources allows learners to work at their own pace and maximize autonomy in resident learning.

  4. Novel Emergency Medicine Curriculum Utilizing Self-Directed Learning and the Flipped Classroom Method: Psychiatric Emergencies Small Group Module

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew King

    2017-07-01

    discussions in place of traditional lectures. In doing so, a goal of the curriculum is to encourage self-directed learning, improve understanding and knowledge retention, and improve the educational experience of our residents. Methods: The educational strategies used in this curriculum include: small group modules authored by education faculty and content experts based on the core emergency medicine content. This program also includes resident submitted questions that were developed during review of the content. The Socratic Method, used during small group sessions, encourages active participation; small groups also focus on the synthesis and application of knowledge through the discussion of real life experiences. The use of free open access medical education (FOAM resources allows learners to work at their own pace and maximize autonomy.

  5. Proceedings of the Annual Meeting of the North American Chapter of the International Group for the Psychology of Mathematics Education (16th, Baton Rouge, Louisiana, November 5-8, 1994). Volume 1: Plenary Sessions, Technology Focus Groups, Discussion Groups and Research Papers, Oral Reports and Posters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirshner, David, Ed.

    This volume contains the full text of 2 plenary papers and 26 research reports. In addition, brief, usually one-page, reports are provided for 6 discussion groups, 10 technology focus groups, 7 symposiums, 7 oral presentations, and 17 position sessions. The two full plenary reports are: (1) "Problems of Reification: Representations and…

  6. Small business groups enhance performance and promote stability, not expropriation. Evidence from French SMEs

    OpenAIRE

    Anaïs Hamelin

    2010-01-01

    This paper investigates the influence of a firm’s distance from control on its performance, using a unique firm level data set on small business ownership, as well as balance sheet information. This study fills a gap in the empirical governance literature by investigating whether or not there is an expropriation of minority shareholders in small business groups. Contrary to what is usually observed for large business groups, results show a positive relationship between the separation of contr...

  7. Responsive Guided Reading in Grades K-5: Simplifying Small-Group Instruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berne, Jennifer; Degener, Sophie C.

    2010-01-01

    Guided reading is a staple of elementary literacy instruction, yet planning and conducting reading groups can be time consuming and challenging. This hands-on book presents an innovative approach to guided reading that is manageable even for teachers who are new to small-group, differentiated reading instruction. Numerous classroom examples…

  8. Vocabulary Learning in Collaborative Tasks: A Comparison of Pair and Small Group Work

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobao, Ana Fernández

    2014-01-01

    This study examined the opportunities that pair and small group interaction offer for collaborative dialogue and second language (L2) vocabulary learning. It compared the performance of the same collaborative writing task by learners working in groups of four (n = 60) and in pairs (n = 50), focusing on the occurrence of lexical language-related…

  9. Learning Science in Small Multi-Age Groups: The Role of Age Composition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kallery, Maria; Loupidou, Thomais

    2016-01-01

    The present study examines how the overall cognitive achievements in science of the younger children in a class where the students work in small multi-age groups are influenced by the number of older children in the groups. The context of the study was early-years education. The study has two parts: The first part involved classes attended by…

  10. Factors Influencing Electronic Clinical Information Exchange in Small Medical Group Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kralewski, John E.; Zink, Therese; Boyle, Raymond

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to identify the organizational factors that influence electronic health information exchange (HIE) by medical group practices in rural areas. Methods: A purposive sample of 8 small medical group practices in 3 experimental HIE regions were interviewed to determine the extent of clinical information exchange…

  11. The small group subtlety of using ICT for participatory governance: A South African experience

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Twinomurinzi, H

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available the necessity to re-design ICT to suit small groups as part of participative e-governance rather than the normative ICT design that suits individual work styles. Additionally, the research reveals that by working in groups, communities are more willing to accept...

  12. Building Children's Sense of Community in a Day Care Centre through Small Groups in Play

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koivula, Merja; Hännikäinen, Maritta

    2017-01-01

    This study examines the process through which children build a sense of community in small groups in a day care centre. The study asks the following: how does children's sense of community develop, and what are its key features? Data were collected by applying ethnographic methods in a group of three- to five-year-old children over eleven months.…

  13. Evaluation of a Small-Group Technique as a Teacher Training Instrument. Final Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whipple, Babette S.

    An exploratory study was designed to determine whether the use of a new, small group technique adds significantly to the level of training in early childhood education. Two groups of five student teachers learned the technique and were then evaluated. The evaluation procedure was designed to measure changes in their educational objectives, their…

  14. A Project Team Analysis Using Tuckman's Model of Small-Group Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Natvig, Deborah; Stark, Nancy L

    2016-12-01

    Concerns about equitable workloads for nursing faculty have been well documented, yet a standardized system for workload management does not exist. A project team was challenged to establish an academic workload management system when two dissimilar universities were consolidated. Tuckman's model of small-group development was used as the framework for the analysis of processes and effectiveness of a workload project team. Agendas, notes, and meeting minutes were used as the primary sources of information. Analysis revealed the challenges the team encountered. Utilization of a team charter was an effective tool in guiding the team to become a highly productive group. Lessons learned from the analysis are discussed. Guiding a diverse group into a highly productive team is complex. The use of Tuckman's model of small-group development provided a systematic mechanism to review and understand group processes and tasks. [J Nurs Educ. 2016;55(12):675-681.]. Copyright 2016, SLACK Incorporated.

  15. Proceedings of the self-healing topical session of the IGSC Working Group on Measurement and Physical Understanding of Groundwater Flow through Argillaceous Media (Clay Club)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-01-01

    A Topical Session focused on the 'Evidence of, and Approaches to Self-Healing in Argillaceous Media' was organised in the framework to the 11. meeting of the Clay Club. It was held at Nancy in France on 16 May 2001 at the invitation of the French Organisation for Radioactive Waste Management (ANDRA). Twenty-six participants representing several national waste management organisations, regulatory authorities, geological surveys as well as academic community took part in the session. The Topical session was mainly aimed at exchanging information on: - The general point of view on self-healing from geomechanical and geochemical experts; - The approaches that are or will be followed by the various organisations in order to deal with self-healing. The geological settings covered in the presentations concerned the whole range of argillaceous media, from soft, plastic clays to indurated clay-stones, currently studied with respect to deep disposal of radioactive waste. The Topical Session showed the importance of a multidisciplinary approach to this topic. The presentations emphasised the interest of a state-of-the-art report on self-healing to provide a sound and disposal-dedicated scientific framework for subsequent studies related to this area

  16. Development of active learning modules in pharmacology for small group teaching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tripathi, Raakhi K; Sarkate, Pankaj V; Jalgaonkar, Sharmila V; Rege, Nirmala N

    2015-01-01

    Current teaching in pharmacology in undergraduate medical curriculum in India is primarily drug centered and stresses imparting factual knowledge rather than on pharmacotherapeutic skills. These skills would be better developed through active learning by the students. Hence modules that will encourage active learning were developed and compared with traditional methods within the Seth GS Medical College, Mumbai. After Institutional Review Board approval, 90 second year undergraduate medical students who consented were randomized into six sub-groups, each with 15 students. Pre-test was administered. The three sub-groups were taught a topic using active learning modules (active learning groups), which included problems on case scenarios, critical appraisal of prescriptions and drug identification. The remaining three sub-groups were taught the same topic in a conventional tutorial mode (tutorial learning groups). There was crossover for the second topic. Performance was assessed using post-test. Questionnaires with Likert-scaled items were used to assess feedback on teaching technique, student interaction and group dynamics. The active and tutorial learning groups differed significantly in their post-test scores (11.3 ± 1.9 and 15.9 ± 2.7, respectively, P active learning session as interactive (vs. 37/90 students in tutorial group) and enhanced their understanding vs. 56/90 in tutorial group), aroused intellectual curiosity (47/90 students of active learning group vs. 30/90 in tutorial group) and provoked self-learning (41/90 active learning group vs. 14/90 in tutorial group). Sixty-four students in the active learning group felt that questioning each other helped in understanding the topic, which was the experience of 25/90 students in tutorial group. Nevertheless, students (55/90) preferred tutorial mode of learning to help them score better in their examinations. In this study, students preferred an active learning environment, though to pass examinations, they

  17. How do Small Groups Promote Behaviour Change? An Integrative Conceptual Review of Explanatory Mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borek, Aleksandra J; Abraham, Charles

    2018-03-01

    Small groups are used to promote health, well-being, and personal change by altering members' perceptions, beliefs, expectations, and behaviour patterns. An extensive cross-disciplinary literature has articulated and tested theories explaining how such groups develop, function, and facilitate change. Yet these theoretical understandings are rarely applied in the development, description, and evaluation of health-promotion, group-based, behaviour-change interventions. Medline database, library catalogues, search engines, specific journals and reference lists were searched for relevant texts. Texts were reviewed for explanatory concepts or theories describing change processes in groups, which were integrated into the developing conceptual structure. This was designed to be a parsimonious conceptual framework that could be applied to design and delivery. Five categories of interacting processes and concepts were identified and defined: (1) group development processes, (2) dynamic group processes, (3) social change processes, (4) personal change processes, and (5) group design and operating parameters. Each of these categories encompasses a variety of theorised mechanisms explaining individual change in small groups. The final conceptual model, together with the design issues and practical recommendations derived from it, provides a practical basis for linking research and theory explaining group functioning to optimal design of group-based, behaviour-change interventions. © 2018 The Authors. Applied Psychology: Health and Well-Being published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of International Association of Applied Psychology.

  18. Female peers in small work groups enhance women's motivation, verbal participation, and career aspirations in engineering

    OpenAIRE

    Dasgupta, Nilanjana; Scircle, Melissa McManus; Hunsinger, Matthew

    2015-01-01

    Advances in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics are critical to the American economy and require a robust workforce. The scarcity of women in this workforce is a well-recognized problem, but data-driven solutions to this problem are less common. We provide experimental evidence showing that gender composition of small groups in engineering has a substantial impact on undergraduate women’s persistence. Women participate more actively in engineering groups when members are mostly ...

  19. Taking It to the Classroom: Number Board Games as a Small Group Learning Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramani, Geetha B.; Siegler, Robert S.; Hitti, Aline

    2012-01-01

    We examined whether a theoretically based number board game could be translated into a practical classroom activity that improves Head Start children's numerical knowledge. Playing the number board game as a small group learning activity promoted low-income children's number line estimation, magnitude comparison, numeral identification, and…

  20. Information Problem-Solving Skills in Small Virtual Groups and Learning Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Consuelo; Badia, Antoni

    2017-01-01

    This study investigated the frequency of use of information problem-solving (IPS) skills and its relationship with learning outcomes. During the course of the study, 40 teachers carried out a collaborative IPS task in small virtual groups in a 4-week online training course. The status of IPS skills was collected through self-reports handed in over…

  1. What Do We Want Small Group Activities For? Voices from EFL Teachers in Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kato, Yoshitaka

    2016-01-01

    This paper discusses the fundamental issue of why small group activities are utilized in the language learning classroom. Although these activities have gained popularity in the field of Teaching English as a Second Language (TESL), supported by a sound theoretical base, few studies have so far examined the reasons why language teachers are…

  2. Ten-year diameter and basal area growth of trees surrounding small group selection openings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Philip M. McDonald; Martin W. Ritchie; Celeste S. Abbott

    1996-01-01

    The effects of small openings in forest stands has interested silviculturists and ecologists for years. Interest generally has centered on the vegetation in the openings, not on that immediately outside of them. Quantitative information on the growth of trees adjacent to group-selection openings, although often mentioned in forestry textbooks as contributing to cost...

  3. A cross-cultural comparative analysis of small group collaboration using mobile twitter

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kyungsub Stephen Choi, Il Im; Hofstede, G.J.

    2016-01-01

    This study was undertaken to determine the distinctive user behaviors and patterns of participants communicating using Twitter on a mobile device in a small-group collaborative setting. Participants were from Western and Eastern cultures (the United States and Korea). Tweets were coded and

  4. Worrying about What Others Think: A Social-Comparison Concern Intervention in Small Learning Groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Micari, Marina; Pazos, Pilar

    2014-01-01

    Small-group learning has become commonplace in education at all levels. While it has been shown to have many benefits, previous research has demonstrated that it may not always work to the advantage of every student. One potential problem is that less-prepared students may feel anxious about participating, for fear of looking "dumb" in…

  5. Exploring Young Children's Response to Three Genres of Literature in Small-Peer Groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffin, Jennifer Adams

    2010-01-01

    This teacher research studied second graders' small-group, peer-led discussions about three genres of literature--realistic fiction, biography picture books, and science information books--across one school year (during three units in the fall, winter, and spring). It set out to explore how this peer talk, in general, mediated children's responses…

  6. Strong Teens: A School-Based Small Group Experience for African American Males

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Nathan J.; Rayle, Andrea Dixon

    2007-01-01

    This article describes the school-based, small group adaptation of the existing Strong Teens Curriculum (STC) for African American male adolescents in high schools. The STC was created to equip adolescents with skills that promote more effective social interaction and enhance personal emotional and psychological wellness. The authors present a…

  7. Developing Reflective Dispositions through Collaborative Knowledge-Building during Small Group Bible Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toh, Tze Keong; Koh, Joyce Hwee Ling; Chai, Ching Sing

    2017-01-01

    This article explores the use of a constructivist pedagogical approach to cultivate reflective dispositions during small group Bible study. Conducted in a local church Bible class setting (n = 12), the instructional design emulated the reflective thinking process, while adopting collaborative knowledge-building as its pedagogical framework.…

  8. Developing Employment Interview and Interviewing Skills in Small-group Project Work.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hindle, Paul

    2000-01-01

    Discusses the value of communications skills in geographical education. Describes the use of realistic interviews that were a part of small-group project work. Explains that students wrote job specifications, a curriculum vitae, a cover letter, and conducted interview panels. (CMK)

  9. Creating in the Collective: Dialogue, Collaboration, and the Search for Understanding in the Jazz Small Group

    Science.gov (United States)

    Branker, Anthony Daniel John

    2010-01-01

    What would happen if college students involved in jazz small group performance were given the opportunity to be musically independent and self-directed while working in their own collaborative space? What sorts of things would they experience? What kind of learning space would they create for themselves? The purpose of this study was to…

  10. Teaching Play Skills to Children with Autism through Video Modeling: Small Group Arrangement and Observational Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozen, Arzu; Batu, Sema; Birkan, Binyamin

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to examine if video modeling was an effective way of teaching sociodramatic play skills to individuals with autism in a small group arrangement. Besides maintenance, observational learning and social validation data were collected. Three 9 year old boys with autism participated in the study. Multiple probe…

  11. Promoting Pre-Service Elementary Students' Understanding of Chemical Equilibrium through Discussions in Small Groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilgin, Ibrahim

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effectiveness of small group discussion on students' conceptual understanding of chemical equilibrium. Students' understanding of chemical equilibrium concepts was measured using the Misconception Identification Test. The test consisted of 30 items and administered as pre-posttests to a total of 81…

  12. Female peers in small work groups enhance women's motivation, verbal participation, and career aspirations in engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dasgupta, Nilanjana; Scircle, Melissa McManus; Hunsinger, Matthew

    2015-01-01

    For years, public discourse in science education, technology, and policy-making has focused on the “leaky pipeline” problem: the observation that fewer women than men enter science, technology, engineering, and mathematics fields and more women than men leave. Less attention has focused on experimentally testing solutions to this problem. We report an experiment investigating one solution: we created “microenvironments” (small groups) in engineering with varying proportions of women to identify which environment increases motivation and participation, and whether outcomes depend on students’ academic stage. Female engineering students were randomly assigned to one of three engineering groups of varying sex composition: 75% women, 50% women, or 25% women. For first-years, group composition had a large effect: women in female-majority and sex-parity groups felt less anxious than women in female-minority groups. However, among advanced students, sex composition had no effect on anxiety. Importantly, group composition significantly affected verbal participation, regardless of women’s academic seniority: women participated more in female-majority groups than sex-parity or female-minority groups. Additionally, when assigned to female-minority groups, women who harbored implicit masculine stereotypes about engineering reported less confidence and engineering career aspirations. However, in sex-parity and female-majority groups, confidence and career aspirations remained high regardless of implicit stereotypes. These data suggest that creating small groups with high proportions of women in otherwise male-dominated fields is one way to keep women engaged and aspiring toward engineering careers. Although sex parity works sometimes, it is insufficient to boost women’s verbal participation in group work, which often affects learning and mastery. PMID:25848061

  13. Female peers in small work groups enhance women's motivation, verbal participation, and career aspirations in engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dasgupta, Nilanjana; Scircle, Melissa McManus; Hunsinger, Matthew

    2015-04-21

    For years, public discourse in science education, technology, and policy-making has focused on the "leaky pipeline" problem: the observation that fewer women than men enter science, technology, engineering, and mathematics fields and more women than men leave. Less attention has focused on experimentally testing solutions to this problem. We report an experiment investigating one solution: we created "microenvironments" (small groups) in engineering with varying proportions of women to identify which environment increases motivation and participation, and whether outcomes depend on students' academic stage. Female engineering students were randomly assigned to one of three engineering groups of varying sex composition: 75% women, 50% women, or 25% women. For first-years, group composition had a large effect: women in female-majority and sex-parity groups felt less anxious than women in female-minority groups. However, among advanced students, sex composition had no effect on anxiety. Importantly, group composition significantly affected verbal participation, regardless of women's academic seniority: women participated more in female-majority groups than sex-parity or female-minority groups. Additionally, when assigned to female-minority groups, women who harbored implicit masculine stereotypes about engineering reported less confidence and engineering career aspirations. However, in sex-parity and female-majority groups, confidence and career aspirations remained high regardless of implicit stereotypes. These data suggest that creating small groups with high proportions of women in otherwise male-dominated fields is one way to keep women engaged and aspiring toward engineering careers. Although sex parity works sometimes, it is insufficient to boost women's verbal participation in group work, which often affects learning and mastery.

  14. Charge transfer through amino groups-small molecules interface improving the performance of electroluminescent devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Havare, Ali Kemal; Can, Mustafa; Tozlu, Cem; Kus, Mahmut; Okur, Salih; Demic, Şerafettin; Demirak, Kadir; Kurt, Mustafa; Icli, Sıddık

    2016-05-01

    A carboxylic group functioned charge transporting was synthesized and self-assembled on an indium tin oxide (ITO) anode. A typical electroluminescent device [modified ITO/TPD (50 nm)/Alq3 (60 nm)/LiF (2 nm)/(120 nm)] was fabricated to investigate the effect of the amino groups-small molecules interface on the characteristics of the device. The increase in the surface work function of ITO is expected to facilitate the hole injection from the ITO anode to the Hole Transport Layer (HTL) in electroluminescence. The modified electroluminescent device could endure a higher current and showed a much higher luminance than the nonmodified one. For the produced electroluminescent devices, the I-V characteristics, optical characterization and quantum yields were performed. The external quantum efficiency of the modified electroluminescent device is improved as the result of the presence of the amino groups-small molecules interface.

  15. Health insurance reform and HMO penetration in the small group market.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchmueller, Thomas C; Liu, Su

    This study uses data from several national employer surveys conducted between the late 1980s and the mid-1990s to investigate the effect of state-level underwriting reforms on HMO penetration in the small group health insurance market. We identify reform effects by exploiting cross-state variation in the timing and content of reform legislation and by using mid-sized and large employers, which were not affected by the legislation, as within-state control groups. While it is difficult to disentangle the effect of state reforms from other factors affecting HMO penetration in the small group markets, the results suggest a positive relationship between insurance market regulations and HMO penetration.

  16. Reducing HIV risk among Hispanic/Latino men who have sex with men: Qualitative analysis of behavior change intentions by participants in a small-group intervention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alonzo, Jorge; Mann, Lilli; Tanner, Amanda E.; Sun, Christina J.; Painter, Thomas M.; Freeman, Arin; Reboussin, Beth A.; Song, Eunyoung; Rhodes, Scott D.

    2016-01-01

    Objective The southeastern United States has the fastest-growing Hispanic/Latino population in the country and carries a disproportionate HIV burden. Among Hispanics/Latinos, men, and men who have sex with men (MSM) in particular, are at elevated risk of HIV infection; however, very few efficacious behavioral HIV prevention interventions are available for use with this vulnerable population. To address this shortage of prevention resources, our community-based participatory research (CBPR) partnership developed and is currently evaluating the efficacy of the HOLA en Grupos intervention to increase condom use and HIV testing among Hispanic/Latino MSM. Methods We recruited 304 Hispanic/Latino MSM who were randomized to receive the small group HOLA en Grupos intervention that was implemented during four 4-hour long sessions over four consecutive Sundays, or a 4-session small group general health education comparison intervention. At the end of the fourth session of the HOLA en Grupos intervention, the intervention facilitators asked participants to write down the sexual health-related behaviors they intended to change as a result of their participation. Results Qualitative analysis of the participants’ responses identified six types of intended behavior changes: increasing and maintaining condom use; identifying strategies to support correct and consistent condom use; increasing communication and negotiation with sexual partners about condom use; getting tested for HIV and other sexually transmitted infections; applying other sexual health promotion strategies; and sharing newly learned sexual health information with their peers. Conclusion Most risk-reduction intentions aligned with the intervention’s key messages of using condoms consistently and getting tested for HIV. However, participants’ stated intentions may have also depended on which behavior changes they perceived as most salient after participating in the intervention. Participants’ intentions to

  17. Reducing HIV risk among Hispanic/Latino men who have sex with men: Qualitative analysis of behavior change intentions by participants in a small-group intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alonzo, Jorge; Mann, Lilli; Tanner, Amanda E; Sun, Christina J; Painter, Thomas M; Freeman, Arin; Reboussin, Beth A; Song, Eunyoung; Rhodes, Scott D

    2016-05-01

    The southeastern United States has the fastest-growing Hispanic/Latino population in the country and carries a disproportionate HIV burden. Among Hispanics/Latinos, men, and men who have sex with men (MSM) in particular, are at elevated risk of HIV infection; however, very few efficacious behavioral HIV prevention interventions are available for use with this vulnerable population. To address this shortage of prevention resources, our community-based participatory research (CBPR) partnership developed and is currently evaluating the efficacy of the HOLA en Grupos intervention to increase condom use and HIV testing among Hispanic/Latino MSM. We recruited 304 Hispanic/Latino MSM who were randomized to receive the small group HOLA en Grupo s intervention that was implemented during four 4-hour long sessions over four consecutive Sundays, or a 4-session small group general health education comparison intervention. At the end of the fourth session of the HOLA en Grupo s intervention, the intervention facilitators asked participants to write down the sexual health-related behaviors they intended to change as a result of their participation. Qualitative analysis of the participants' responses identified six types of intended behavior changes: increasing and maintaining condom use; identifying strategies to support correct and consistent condom use; increasing communication and negotiation with sexual partners about condom use; getting tested for HIV and other sexually transmitted infections; applying other sexual health promotion strategies; and sharing newly learned sexual health information with their peers. Most risk-reduction intentions aligned with the intervention's key messages of using condoms consistently and getting tested for HIV. However, participants' stated intentions may have also depended on which behavior changes they perceived as most salient after participating in the intervention. Participants' intentions to share information with their peers may

  18. TIME DISTRIBUTIONS OF LARGE AND SMALL SUNSPOT GROUPS OVER FOUR SOLAR CYCLES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kilcik, A.; Yurchyshyn, V. B.; Abramenko, V.; Goode, P. R.; Cao, W.; Ozguc, A.; Rozelot, J. P.

    2011-01-01

    Here we analyze solar activity by focusing on time variations of the number of sunspot groups (SGs) as a function of their modified Zurich class. We analyzed data for solar cycles 20-23 by using Rome (cycles 20 and 21) and Learmonth Solar Observatory (cycles 22 and 23) SG numbers. All SGs recorded during these time intervals were separated into two groups. The first group includes small SGs (A, B, C, H, and J classes by Zurich classification), and the second group consists of large SGs (D, E, F, and G classes). We then calculated small and large SG numbers from their daily mean numbers as observed on the solar disk during a given month. We report that the time variations of small and large SG numbers are asymmetric except for solar cycle 22. In general, large SG numbers appear to reach their maximum in the middle of the solar cycle (phases 0.45-0.5), while the international sunspot numbers and the small SG numbers generally peak much earlier (solar cycle phases 0.29-0.35). Moreover, the 10.7 cm solar radio flux, the facular area, and the maximum coronal mass ejection speed show better agreement with the large SG numbers than they do with the small SG numbers. Our results suggest that the large SG numbers are more likely to shed light on solar activity and its geophysical implications. Our findings may also influence our understanding of long-term variations of the total solar irradiance, which is thought to be an important factor in the Sun-Earth climate relationship.

  19. Small group gender ratios impact biology class performance and peer evaluations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan, Lauren L; Ballen, Cissy J; Cotner, Sehoya

    2018-01-01

    Women are underrepresented in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) disciplines. Evidence suggests the microclimate of the classroom is an important factor influencing female course grades and interest, which encourages retention of women in STEM fields. Here, we test whether the gender composition of small (8-9 person) learning groups impacts course performance, sense of social belonging, and intragroup peer evaluations of intellectual contributions. Across two undergraduate active learning courses in introductory biology, we manipulated the classroom microclimate by varying the gender ratios of learning groups, ranging from 0% female to 100% female. We found that as the percent of women in groups increased, so did overall course performance for all students, regardless of gender. Additionally, women assigned higher peer- evaluations in groups with more women than groups with less women. Our work demonstrates an added benefit of the retention of women in STEM: increased performance for all, and positive peer perceptions for women.

  20. Directions for new developments on statistical design and analysis of small population group trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilgers, Ralf-Dieter; Roes, Kit; Stallard, Nigel

    2016-06-14

    Most statistical design and analysis methods for clinical trials have been developed and evaluated where at least several hundreds of patients could be recruited. These methods may not be suitable to evaluate therapies if the sample size is unavoidably small, which is usually termed by small populations. The specific sample size cut off, where the standard methods fail, needs to be investigated. In this paper, the authors present their view on new developments for design and analysis of clinical trials in small population groups, where conventional statistical methods may be inappropriate, e.g., because of lack of power or poor adherence to asymptotic approximations due to sample size restrictions. Following the EMA/CHMP guideline on clinical trials in small populations, we consider directions for new developments in the area of statistical methodology for design and analysis of small population clinical trials. We relate the findings to the research activities of three projects, Asterix, IDeAl, and InSPiRe, which have received funding since 2013 within the FP7-HEALTH-2013-INNOVATION-1 framework of the EU. As not all aspects of the wide research area of small population clinical trials can be addressed, we focus on areas where we feel advances are needed and feasible. The general framework of the EMA/CHMP guideline on small population clinical trials stimulates a number of research areas. These serve as the basis for the three projects, Asterix, IDeAl, and InSPiRe, which use various approaches to develop new statistical methodology for design and analysis of small population clinical trials. Small population clinical trials refer to trials with a limited number of patients. Small populations may result form rare diseases or specific subtypes of more common diseases. New statistical methodology needs to be tailored to these specific situations. The main results from the three projects will constitute a useful toolbox for improved design and analysis of small

  1. A Comparison of Web-based and Small-Group Palliative and End-of-Life Care Curricula: A Quasi-Randomized Controlled Study at One Institution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Day, Frank C.; Srinivasan, Malathi; Der-Martirosian, Claudia; Griffin, Erin; Hoffman, Jerome R.; Wilkes, Michael S.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Few studies have compared the effect of web-based eLearning versus small-group learning on medical student outcomes. Palliative and end-of-life (PEOL) education is ideal for this comparison, given uneven access to PEOL experts and content nationally. Method In 2010, the authors enrolled all third-year medical students at the University of California, Davis School of Medicine into a quasi-randomized controlled trial of web-based interactive education (eDoctoring) compared to small-group education (Doctoring) on PEOL clinical content over two months. All students participated in three 3-hour PEOL sessions with similar content. Outcomes included a 24-item PEOL-specific self-efficacy scale with three domains (diagnosis/treatment [Cronbach’s alpha = 0.92, CI: 0.91–0.93], communication/prognosis [alpha = 0.95; CI: 0.93–0.96], and social impact/self-care [alpha = 0.91; CI: 0.88–0.92]); eight knowledge items; ten curricular advantage/disadvantages, and curricular satisfaction (both students and faculty). Results Students were randomly assigned to web-based eDoctoring (n = 48) or small-group Doctoring (n = 71) curricula. Self-efficacy and knowledge improved equivalently between groups: e.g., prognosis self-efficacy, 19%; knowledge, 10–42%. Student and faculty ratings of the web-based eDoctoring curriculum and the small group Doctoring curriculum were equivalent for most goals, and overall satisfaction was equivalent for each, with a trend towards decreased eDoctoring student satisfaction. Conclusions Findings showed equivalent gains in self-efficacy and knowledge between students participating in a web-based PEOL curriculum, in comparison to students learning similar content in a small-group format. Web-based curricula can standardize content presentation when local teaching expertise is limited, but may lead to decreased user satisfaction. PMID:25539518

  2. Individual and small group interactions in learning to teach with a hypermedia case

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Mi-Lee Ahn

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the similarities and differences of individual and small group preservice teachers' interactions with a hypermedia case. Preservice teachers' interactions with a hypermedia case were defined in terms of their (1) goals and perception of accomplishments of the goals, (2) use of features of the hypermedia case, and (3) types of questions and conflicts raised. Two individuals and two small groups of three preservice teachers participated by interacting with the hypermedia case which was developed to illustrate conceptual change science teaching in an elementary classroom. Most of the previous studies in this area have addressed large group use of hypermedia cases, and this study attempted to address the gap in the literature related to different social contexts, individuals and small groups, from the constructivist perspective. The assumptions of symbolic interactionism guided data collection from think-alouds and interviews. These multiple sources of data were used to understand the participants' construction of knowledge; data were analyzed and interpreted by a process of analytic induction. The major assertion was that the preservice teachers perceived the hypermedia case to be like a tool to link theory and practice of teaching. Three sub-assertions, and several supporting categories, also emerged from the data. These findings indicated that group learning experiences with the hypermedia case were more valuable than those of individuals. In general, preservice teachers benefited from learning how to teach with the hypermedia case in both settings. However, the individuals were not as satisfied as those in small groups, and the members of small groups interacted more actively with the hypermedia case as well as with the peers. The results of this study suggest that effective use of hypermedia cases takes place in a community of learners where the learners share the context and can draw upon the resources afforded by the

  3. Literacy and Technology: Integrating Technology with Small Group, Peer-led Discussions of Literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Genya Coffey

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available This review examines research of computer-mediated small group discussion of literature. The goal of this review is to explore several instructional formats for integrating print-based and new literacies skills. First, the theoretical foundations for the shift from teacher-led to student led discussion are outlined. Research exploring ways in which technology has been infused into several common elements of literature discussion groups are presented next. Benefits and challenges of such integration are highlighted and suggestions for future research are presented.

  4. The Lp Spectrum of Locally Symmetric Spaces with Small Fundamental Group

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weber, Andreas

    2009-01-01

    We determine the L p spectrum of the Laplace-Beltrami operator on certain complete locally symmetric spaces M whose universal covering X is a symmetric space of non-compact type with rank one. More precisely, we show that the L p spectra of M and X coincide if the fundamental group of M is small and if the injectivity radius of M is bounded away from zero. In the L 2 case, the restriction on the injectivity radius is not needed

  5. Small Groups, Big Change: Preliminary Findings from the Sparks for Change Institute

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirsch, R.; Batchelor, R. L.; Habtes, S. Y.; King, B.; Crockett, J.

    2017-12-01

    The geoscience professoriate continues to under represent women and minorities, yet the value of diversity, both for science as well as recruiting and retaining diverse students, is well known. While there are growing numbers of early career tenure-track minority faculty, low retention rates pose a challenge for sustained diversity in the professoriate. Part of this challenge is the lack of institutional support and recognition in tenure and promotion pathways for faculty who undertake broadening participation efforts. Sparks for Change is a NSF Geoscience Opportunities for Leadership in Diversity (GOLD)-funded project that aims to change departmental culture to better value and reward inclusion and broadening participation efforts. By encouraging, recognizing, and rewarding diversity, equity, and inclusion (DEI) efforts at the department level, we aim to support and retain underrepresented minority (URM) faculty, who often disproportionately undertake these efforts, and to build more inclusive environments for faculty, staff and students alike. Sparks for Change utilizes a small group theory of change, arguing that the effort of a small group of committed individuals inside the organization is the best way to overcome the institutional inertia of academic departments that makes them resistant to change. For this effort, we propose that the ideal composition of these small groups is a junior faculty URM who is interested in DEI in the geosciences, a senior member of that same department who can lend weight to efforts and is positioned to help enact department policy, and an external broadening participation expert who can share best practices and provide accountability for the group. Eleven of these small groups, representing a range of institutions, will be brought together at the Sparks for Change Institute in Boulder, CO, in September. There they will receive leadership training on adaptive, transformative, and solidarity practices, share DEI experiences and

  6. Small functional groups for controlled differentiation of hydrogel-encapsulated human mesenchymal stem cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benoit, Danielle S. W.; Schwartz, Michael P.; Durney, Andrew R.; Anseth, Kristi S.

    2008-10-01

    Cell-matrix interactions have critical roles in regeneration, development and disease. The work presented here demonstrates that encapsulated human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) can be induced to differentiate down osteogenic and adipogenic pathways by controlling their three-dimensional environment using tethered small-molecule chemical functional groups. Hydrogels were formed using sufficiently low concentrations of tether molecules to maintain constant physical characteristics, encapsulation of hMSCs in three dimensions prevented changes in cell morphology, and hMSCs were shown to differentiate in normal growth media, indicating that the small-molecule functional groups induced differentiation. To our knowledge, this is the first example where synthetic matrices are shown to control induction of multiple hMSC lineages purely through interactions with small-molecule chemical functional groups tethered to the hydrogel material. Strategies using simple chemistry to control complex biological processes would be particularly powerful as they could make production of therapeutic materials simpler, cheaper and more easily controlled.

  7. Novel Emergency Medicine Curriculum Utilizing Self-Directed Learning and the Flipped Classroom Method: Obstetric and Gynecologic Emergencies Small Group Module

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jillian McGrath

    2017-09-01

    learners, study questions, real-life experiences, and small group discussions in place of traditional lectures. In doing so, a goal of the curriculum is to encourage self-directed learning, improve understanding and knowledge retention, and improve the educational experience of our residents. Methods: The educational strategies used in this curriculum include small group modules authored by education faculty and content experts based on the core EM content. This program also incorporates submission of questions from residents that were developed during their review of the content prior to the session. The Socratic Method, used during small group sessions, encourages active participation; small groups also focus on the synthesis and application of knowledge through the discussion of real life experiences. The use of free open access medical education (FOAM resources allows learners to work at their own pace and maximize autonomy.

  8. What Factors Influence Well-being of Students on Performing Small Group Discussion?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wulanyani, N. M. S.; Vembriati, N.

    2018-01-01

    Generally, Faculty of Medicine of Udayana University applied Small Group Discussion (SGD) in its learning process. If group problem solving succeeds, each individual of the group will individually succeed. However, the success is also determined by each individual’s level of psychological well-being. When the students are in the high level of wellbeing, they will feel comfortable in small group discussion, and teamwork will be effective. Therefore, it is needed to conduct a research which investigates how psychological factors, such as traits, needs, cognitive, and social intelligence, influence students’ wellbeing in performing SGD. This research is also initiated by several cases of students who prefer individual learning and take SGD merely to fulfill attendance requirement. If the students have good wellbeing, they will take the SGD process optimally. The subject of this research was 100 students of Faculty of Medicine of Udayana University. This survey research used psychological test assessment, Psychological well-being scale, and Social Intelligence scale to gain data analyzed quantitatively. The results showed that all aspects of traits together with aspects ‘need for rules and supervision’ affect social intelligence. Furthermore, social intelligence factor with cognitive factors influence wellbeing of the students in the process of SGD.

  9. Precious "MeTL": Reflections on the Use of Tablet PCs and Collaborative Interactive Software in Peer- Assisted Study Sessions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devey, Adrian; Hicks, Marianne; Gunaratnam, Shaminka; Pan, Yijun; Plecan, Alexandru

    2012-01-01

    Peer-Assisted Study Sessions (PASS) is an academic mentoring program, where high achieving senior students assist small groups of first years in study sessions throughout semester. One of the challenges PASS Leaders face at Monash in conducting their classes is the limited time they have with their students. The current paper explores, through…

  10. Analysis of multidrug resistant group B streptococci with reduced penicillin susceptibility forming small, less hemolytic colonies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hirotsugu Banno

    Full Text Available Group B streptococci (GBS; Streptococcus agalactiae are the leading cause of neonatal invasive diseases and are also important pathogens for elderly adults. Until now, nearly all GBS with reduced penicillin susceptibility (PRGBS have shown β-hemolytic activity and grow on sheep blood agar. However, we have previously reported three PRGBS clinical isolates harboring a CylK deletion that form small less hemolytic colonies. In this study, we examined the causes of small, less hemolytic colony formation in these clinical isolates. Isogenic strains were sequenced to identify the mutation related to a small colony size. We identified a 276_277insG nucleic acid insertion in the thiamin pyrophosphokinase (tpk gene, resulting in premature termination at amino acid 103 in TPK, as a candidate mutation responsible for small colony formation. The recombinant strain Δtpk, which harbored the 276_277insG insertion in the tpk gene, showed small colony formation. The recombinant strain ΔcylK, which harbored the G379T substitution in cylK, showed a reduction in hemolytic activity. The phenotypes of both recombinant strains were complemented by the expression of intact TPK or CylK, respectively. Moreover, the use of Rapid ID 32 API and VITEK MS to identify strains as GBS was evaluated clinical isolates and recombinant strains. VITEK MS, but not Rapid ID 32 API, was able to accurately identify the strains as GBS. In conclusion, we determined that mutations in tpk and cylK caused small colonies and reduced hemolytic activity, respectively, and characterized the clinical isolates in detail.

  11. Evolution of project-based learning in small groups in environmental engineering courses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesús M. Requies

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available This work presents the assessment of the development and evolution of an active methodology (Project-Based Learning –PBL- implemented on the course “Unit Operations in Environmental Engineering”, within the bachelor’s degree in Environmental Engineering, with the purpose of decreasing the dropout rate in this course. After the initial design and implementation of this methodology during the first academic year (12/13, different modifications were adopted in the following ones (13-14, 14-15 & 15-16 in order to optimize the student’s and professor’s work load as well as correct some malfunctions observed in the initial design of the PBL. This active methodology seeks to make students the main architects of their own learning processes. Accordingly, they have to identify their learning needs, which is a highly motivating approach both for their curricular development and for attaining the required learning outcomes in this field of knowledge. The results obtained show that working in small teams (cooperative work enhances each group member’s self–learning capabilities. Moreover, academic marks improve when compared to traditional learning methodologies. Nevertheless, the implementation of more active methodologies, such as project-based learning, in small groups has certain specific characteristics. In this case it has been implemented simultaneously in two different groups of 10 students each one. Such small groups are more heterogeneoussince the presence of two highly motivated students or not can vary or affect the whole group’s attitude and academic results.

  12. Memory Transmission in Small Groups and Large Networks: An Agent-Based Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luhmann, Christian C; Rajaram, Suparna

    2015-12-01

    The spread of social influence in large social networks has long been an interest of social scientists. In the domain of memory, collaborative memory experiments have illuminated cognitive mechanisms that allow information to be transmitted between interacting individuals, but these experiments have focused on small-scale social contexts. In the current study, we took a computational approach, circumventing the practical constraints of laboratory paradigms and providing novel results at scales unreachable by laboratory methodologies. Our model embodied theoretical knowledge derived from small-group experiments and replicated foundational results regarding collaborative inhibition and memory convergence in small groups. Ultimately, we investigated large-scale, realistic social networks and found that agents are influenced by the agents with which they interact, but we also found that agents are influenced by nonneighbors (i.e., the neighbors of their neighbors). The similarity between these results and the reports of behavioral transmission in large networks offers a major theoretical insight by linking behavioral transmission to the spread of information. © The Author(s) 2015.

  13. Recommendations on vaccination for Asian small animal practitioners: a report of the WSAVA Vaccination Guidelines Group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Day, M J; Karkare, U; Schultz, R D; Squires, R; Tsujimoto, H

    2015-02-01

    In 2012 and 2013, the World Small Animal Veterinary Association (WSAVA) Vaccination Guidelines Group (VGG) undertook fact-finding visits to several Asian countries, with a view to developing advice for small companion animal practitioners in Asia related to the administration of vaccines to dogs and cats. The VGG met with numerous first opinion practitioners, small animal association leaders, academic veterinarians, government regulators and industry representatives and gathered further information from a survey of almost 700 veterinarians in India, China, Japan and Thailand. Although there were substantial differences in the nature and magnitude of the challenges faced by veterinarians in each country, and also differences in the resources available to meet those challenges, overall, the VGG identified insufficient undergraduate and postgraduate training in small companion animal microbiology, immunology and vaccinology. In most of the countries, there has been little academic research into small animal infectious diseases. This, coupled with insufficient laboratory diagnostic support, has limited the growth of knowledge concerning the prevalence and circulating strains of key infectious agents in most of the countries visited. Asian practitioners continue to recognise clinical infections that are now considered uncommon or rare in western countries. In particular, canine rabies virus infection poses a continuing threat to animal and human health in this region. Both nationally manufactured and international dog and cat vaccines are variably available in the Asian countries, but the product ranges are small and dominated by multi-component vaccines with a licensed duration of immunity (DOI) of only 1 year, or no description of DOI. Asian practitioners are largely unaware of current global trends in small animal vaccinology or of the WSAVA vaccination guidelines. Consequently, most practitioners continue to deliver annual revaccination with both core and non

  14. 78 FR 26684 - Notice of Funding Availability for the Small Business Transportation Resource Center Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-07

    ... of 20 hours of individual or group counseling sessions to small businesses per month. (D) Planning... technical assistance, business training programs, business assessment, management training, counseling... activities such as information dissemination, small business counseling, and technical assistance with small...

  15. 78 FR 4973 - Notice of Funding Availability for the Small Business Transportation Resource Center Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-23

    ... individual or group counseling sessions to small businesses per month. (D) Planning Committee 1. Establish a... training programs, business assessment, management training, counseling, marketing and outreach, and the... dissemination, small business counseling, and technical assistance with small businesses currently doing...

  16. 77 FR 36034 - Notice of Funding Availability for the Small Business Transportation Resource Center Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-15

    ... hours of individual or group counseling sessions to small businesses per month. (D) Planning Committee 1... programs, business assessment, management training, counseling, marketing and outreach, and the... dissemination, small business counseling, and technical assistance with small businesses currently doing...

  17. Comparison of micelle structure of glycolipids with different head groups by small angle neutron scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    He, Lizhong; Middelberg, Anton; Hartmann, Thorsten; Niemeyer, Bernd; Garamus, V.M.; Willumeit, Regine

    2005-01-01

    Full text: Glycolipids such as n-alkyl- beta-D-glucopyranoside and n-alkyl- beta-D-maltopyranoside can self-assemble into different structures depending on solution conditions. Their amphiphilic properties enable them to serve as biosurfactants in biology and biotechnology, especially for solubilizing membrane proteins. The physicochemical properties of glycolipids have attracted attentions from several research groups, aiming to better understand their application in biological and environmental processes. For example, small angle neutron and X-ray scattering have been used to study micelle structures formed by glycolipids. Our previous work has shown that n-octyl-beta- D-glucopyranoside and n-octyl- beta-D-maltopyranoside form micelles with different structure, suggesting an important role of the sugar head group in micelle formation. In the present work, we further compare micelle structures of n-octyl- beta-Dglucopyranoside and n-octyl- beta-D-galactopyranoside. These two glycolipids have the same hydrophobic tail and their head sugar groups differ only in the conformation with one hydroxyl group pointing to different direction. Our SANS data together with phase behaviours reported by other group have suggested that a slight alteration of head group conformation can significantly affect self-assembly of glycolipids. (authors)

  18. Effects of communication strategy training on EFL students’ performance in small-group discussions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stuart Benson

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, a number of studies have been conducted with regard to communication strategy training and performance on communicative tasks (Lam, 2009; Nakatani, 2010; Naughton, 2006. This study aims to add to the literature by examining how two strategies, clarifying/confirming and extending a conversation, and two methods of teaching the strategies, affected the interactional sequences and overall group discussion performance of EFL students at a university in Japan. Pre and posttreatment small-group discussions were recorded for assessment, and a stimulated recall interview was administered to determine the participants’ perceptions of their learning and language use. Posttest results reveal that the experimental groups that were taught predetermined phrases aimed at clarifying/confirming and extending a conversation employed such phrases more frequently than the control group. However, this employment of phrases did not lead to higher gains in group discussion skills as the control group enjoyed the largest gains from pre to posttest. The researchers consider the findings in light of previous research, and conclude with recommendations for future research on the topic with special regard to research design.

  19. Women Entrepreneurs: Their Success and Problems. Hearing before the Committee on Small Business, United States Senate, Ninety-Eighth Congress, Second Session (Eugene, Oregon).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. Senate Committee on Small Business.

    This is a congressional hearing to acquire testimony and information about women in business or about unusual problems that have been found. Testimony includes statements from individuals representing Big Bear Shopper, Inc.; United States Business and Professional Women (BPW/USA); Rural Small Business Programs, Lane Community College;…

  20. [The Positionality of Caring Action: Small Group Dialogue in a Course on Nursing Ethics].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiang, Hsien-Hsien

    2016-12-01

    The content of nursing-ethics education has typically focused on the external standards of caring behavior and neglected the relationship between the ethical attitudes and internal experiences of caregivers. To explore the embodied experience in order to define the positionality of caring action, which is necessary to enrich the content of nursing ethics through small-group-learning-based dialogue. The researcher, as a participant observer, teaches a course on nursing ethics. Reflective analysis was used to analyze the data from the process of small group learning, a reflective group of faculty members, and 30 reflective journals submitted by 10 students. The results identified three items that were related to the positionality of caring action: the attitudes of belief, including the choice to belief and deep understanding; articulating the value system, including exploring affectivity and positionality; and cultivating the self through self-dialogues and dialogues with others. The attitudes of belief promote trust in interpersonal relationships. Articulating the value system deepens the meaning of caring. Cultivating the self may facilitate the ethical self.

  1. Benefits of Group Foraging Depend on Prey Type in a Small Marine Predator, the Little Penguin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutton, Grace J; Hoskins, Andrew J; Arnould, John P Y

    2015-01-01

    Group foraging provides predators with advantages in over-powering prey larger than themselves or in aggregating small prey for efficient exploitation. For group-living predatory species, cooperative hunting strategies provide inclusive fitness benefits. However, for colonial-breeding predators, the benefit pay-offs of group foraging are less clear due to the potential for intra-specific competition. We used animal-borne cameras to determine the prey types, hunting strategies, and success of little penguins (Eudyptula minor), a small, colonial breeding air-breathing marine predator that has recently been shown to display extensive at-sea foraging associations with conspecifics. Regardless of prey type, little penguins had a higher probability of associating with conspecifics when hunting prey that were aggregated than when prey were solitary. In addition, success was greater when individuals hunted schooling rather than solitary prey. Surprisingly, however, success on schooling prey was similar or greater when individuals hunted on their own than when with conspecifics. These findings suggest individuals may be trading-off the energetic gains of solitary hunting for an increased probability of detecting prey within a spatially and temporally variable prey field by associating with conspecifics.

  2. Replacing Lectures with Small Groups: The Impact of Flipping the Residency Conference Day

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Andrew M.; Mayer, Chad; Barrie, Michael; Greenberger, Sarah; Way, David P.

    2018-01-01

    The flipped classroom, an educational alternative to the traditional lecture, has been widely adopted by educators at all levels of education and across many disciplines. In the flipped classroom, learners prepare in advance of the face-to-face meeting by learning content material on their own. Classroom time is reserved for application of the learned content to solving problems or discussing cases. Over the past year, we replaced most residency program lectures with small-group discussions using the flipped-classroom model, case-based learning, simulation and procedure labs. In the new model, residents prepared for conference by reviewing a patient case and studying suggested learning materials. Conference day was set aside for facilitated small-group discussions about the case. This is a cross-cohort study of emergency medicine residents who experienced the lecture-based curriculum to residents in the new flipped-classroom curriculum using paired comparisons (independent t-tests) on in-training exam scores while controlling for program year level. We also compared results of the evaluation of various program components. We observed no differences between cohorts on in-training examination scores. Small-group methods were rated the same across program years. Two program components in the new curriculum, an updated format of both adult and pediatric case conferences, were rated significantly higher on program quality. In preparation for didactics, residents in the new curriculum report spending more time on average with outside learning materials, including almost twice as much time reviewing textbooks. Residents found the new format of the case conferences to be of higher quality because of the inclusion of rapid-fire case discussions with targeted learning points. PMID:29383050

  3. Comparison of small-group training with self-directed internet-based training in inhaler techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toumas, Mariam; Basheti, Iman A; Bosnic-Anticevich, Sinthia Z

    2009-08-28

    To compare the effectiveness of small-group training in correct inhaler technique with self-directed Internet-based training. Pharmacy students were randomly allocated to 1 of 2 groups: small-group training (n = 123) or self-directed Internet-based training (n = 113). Prior to intervention delivery, all participants were given a placebo Turbuhaler and product information leaflet and received inhaler technique training based on their group. Technique was assessed following training and predictors of correct inhaler technique were examined. There was a significant improvement in the number of participants demonstrating correct technique in both groups (small group training, 12% to 63%; p training, 9% to 59%; p groups in the percent change (n = 234, p > 0.05). Increased student confidence following the intervention was a predictor for correct inhaler technique. Self-directed Internet-based training is as effective as small-group training in improving students' inhaler technique.

  4. A study of grouphate in a course on small group communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myers, Scott A; Goodboy, Alan K

    2005-10-01

    This study explored the relationship between grouphate and cohesion, consensus, relational satisfaction, affective learning, and cognitive learning. Participants were 83 undergraduate students enrolled in an introductory course on small group communication. Participants completed the Grouphate scale, the Classroom Cohesion scale, the Consensus scale, the Relational Satisfaction scale, three subscales of the Instructional Affect Assessment Instrument, and the Cognitive Learning Loss measure. Mean grouphate significantly increased during the semester, and negative correlations were found between scores for grouphate and cohesion (-.50), consensus (-.45), relational satisfaction (-.58), attitude toward the behaviors recommended in the course (-.23), the likelihood of developing an appreciation for the course content (-.33), and cognitive learning (-.32). Results may imply that students' grouphate is not associated with prosocial outcomes of the group work in this course.

  5. Prospecting for customers in the small employer market: the experience of Arizona Health Care Group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christianson, J B; Liu, C F; Schroeder, C M

    1994-01-01

    The findings of this study provide an interesting profile of the small employer "prospects" for prepaid health plans, where a prospect is defined as an employer that responds to a mass mailing effort with a request for information and further contact. About 60% of these prospects already have insurance, with 40% having group insurance. Therefore, a substantial portion of prospects are seeking to replace their existing health benefit package with a different one. Of those who do not offer existing insurance, the most common reason is that it is "too expensive" or the employer is "not profitable." A very small proportion do not offer insurance because they do not qualify for it due to medical underwriting considerations. Prospects tend to be larger than non-prospects in terms of sales, but employ lower wage employees, on average. About half of prospects are in service industries, a proportion typical of small employers in general. Somewhat surprisingly, most prospects have been in operation for over five years. They are not new firms attempting to establish their benefit packages. This is consistent with the findings on gross sales, suggesting that some maturity is necessary before an employer considers offering group health insurance as a benefit. The prepaid plans in this study also appeared to target established employers for their marketing efforts. In responding to questions about their attitudes towards health insurance, over one-quarter of prospects indicated that they would be unwilling to offer insurance at rates so low that they would not normally apply to the coverages offered by prepaid plans. Thus, although they were "prospects" by the study's definition, they were unlikely to eventually contract with prepaid plans. Those prospects that had offered insurance previously, but had discontinued it, tended to cite premium increases as the reason. This suggests that prospects among small employers are likely to be very price sensitive, and that further

  6. Post-Session Authentication

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ahmed, Naveed; Jensen, Christian D.

    2012-01-01

    Entity authentication provides confidence in the claimed identity of a peer entity, but the manner in which this goal is achieved results in different types of authentication. An important factor in this regard is the order between authentication and the execution of the associated session....... In this paper, we consider the case of post-session authentication, where parties authenticate each other at the end of their interactive session. This use of authentication is different from session-less authentication (e.g., in RFID) and pre-session authentication (e.g., for access control.) Post......-session authentication, although a new term, is not a new concept; it is the basis of at least a few practical schemes. We, for the first time, systematically study it and present the underlying authentication model. Further, we show that an important class of problems is solvable using post-session authentication...

  7. Technical Note: Harmonizing met-ocean model data via standard web services within small research groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Signell, Richard; Camossi, E.

    2016-01-01

    Work over the last decade has resulted in standardised web services and tools that can significantly improve the efficiency and effectiveness of working with meteorological and ocean model data. While many operational modelling centres have enabled query and access to data via common web services, most small research groups have not. The penetration of this approach into the research community, where IT resources are limited, can be dramatically improved by (1) making it simple for providers to enable web service access to existing output files; (2) using free technologies that are easy to deploy and configure; and (3) providing standardised, service-based tools that work in existing research environments. We present a simple, local brokering approach that lets modellers continue to use their existing files and tools, while serving virtual data sets that can be used with standardised tools. The goal of this paper is to convince modellers that a standardised framework is not only useful but can be implemented with modest effort using free software components. We use NetCDF Markup language for data aggregation and standardisation, the THREDDS Data Server for data delivery, pycsw for data search, NCTOOLBOX (MATLAB®) and Iris (Python) for data access, and Open Geospatial Consortium Web Map Service for data preview. We illustrate the effectiveness of this approach with two use cases involving small research modelling groups at NATO and USGS.

  8. A Small-Group Activity Introducing the Use and Interpretation of BLAST

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter D. Newell

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available As biological sequence data are generated at an ever increasing rate, the role of bioinformatics in biological research also grows. Students must be trained to complete and interpret bioinformatic searches to enable them to effectively utilize the trove of sequence data available. A key bioinformatic tool for sequence comparison and genome database searching is BLAST (Basic Local Alignment Search Tool. BLAST identifies sequences in a database that are similar to the entered query sequence, and ranks them based on the length and quality of the alignment. Our goal was to introduce sophomore and junior level undergraduate students to the basic functions and uses of BLAST with a small group activity lasting a single class period. The activity provides students an opportunity to perform a BLAST search, interpret the data output, and use the data to make inferences about bacterial cell envelope structure. The activity consists of two parts. Part 1 is a handout to be completed prior to class, complete with video tutorial, that reviews cell envelope structure, introduces key terms, and allows students to familiarize themselves with the mechanics of a BLAST search. Part 2 consists of a hands-on, web-based small group activity to be completed during the class period. Evaluation of the activity through student performance assessments suggests that students who complete the activity can better interpret the BLAST output parameters % query coverage and % max identity. While the topic of the activity is bacterial cell wall structure, it could be adapted to address other biological concepts.

  9. Small Marine Protected Areas in Fiji Provide Refuge for Reef Fish Assemblages, Feeding Groups, and Corals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pires, Mathias M.; Guimarães, Paulo Roberto; Hoey, Andrew S.; Hay, Mark E.

    2017-01-01

    The establishment of no-take marine protected areas (MPAs) on coral reefs is a common management strategy for conserving the diversity, abundance, and biomass of reef organisms. Generally, well-managed and enforced MPAs can increase or maintain the diversity and function of the enclosed coral reef, with some of the benefits extending to adjacent non-protected reefs. A fundamental question in coral reef conservation is whether these benefits arise within small MPAs (fish assemblages, composition of fish feeding groups, benthic cover, and key ecosystem processes (grazing, macroalgal browsing, and coral replenishment) in three small (0.5–0.8 km2) no-take MPAs and adjacent areas where fisheries are allowed (non-MPAs) on coral reefs in Fiji. The MPAs exhibited greater species richness, density, and biomass of fishes than non-MPAs. Furthermore, MPAs contained a greater abundance and biomass of grazing herbivores and piscivores as well as a greater abundance of cleaners than fished areas. We also found differences in fish associations when foraging, with feeding groups being generally more diverse and having greater biomass within MPAs than adjacent non-MPAs. Grazing by parrotfishes was 3–6 times greater, and macroalgal browsing was 3–5 times greater in MPAs than in non-MPAs. On average, MPAs had 260–280% as much coral cover and only 5–25% as much macroalgal cover as their paired non-MPA sites. Finally, two of the three MPAs had three-fold more coral recruits than adjacent non-MPAs. The results of this study indicate that small MPAs benefit not only populations of reef fishes, but also enhance ecosystem processes that are critical to reef resilience within the MPAs. PMID:28122006

  10. Capacity of small groups of muscles to accomplish precision grasping tasks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Towles, Joseph D; Valero-Cuevas, Francisco J; Hentz, Vincent R

    2013-01-01

    An understanding of the capacity or ability of various muscle groups to generate endpoint forces that enable grasping tasks could provide a stronger biomechanical basis for the design of reconstructive surgery or rehabilitation for the treatment of the paralyzed or paretic hand. We quantified two-dimensional endpoint force distributions for every combination of the muscles of the index finger, in cadaveric specimens, to understand the capability of muscle groups to produce endpoint forces that accomplish three common types of grasps-tripod, tip and lateral pinch-characterized by a representative level of Coulomb friction. We found that muscle groups of 4 or fewer muscles were capable of generating endpoint forces that enabled performance of each of the grasping tasks examined. We also found that flexor muscles were crucial to accomplish tripod pinch; intrinsic muscles, tip pinch; and the dorsal interosseus muscle, lateral pinch. The results of this study provide a basis for decision making in the design of reconstructive surgeries and rehabilitation approaches that attempt to restore the ability to perform grasping tasks with small groups of muscles.

  11. Clinical course teaching in transport of critically ill patients: Small group methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Taghi Beigmohammadi

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Critically ill patient transfer is potentially risky and may be lead to morbidity and mortality. Physicians' skill is very important for safe transport. We want to evaluate the effect of clinical course teaching on the promotion of physicians' abilities in the transport of critically ill patients. In an interventional study, 320 interns, male and female, were taught about patient transfer in two groups include in one day clinical course as the small group system (n=160 and other group the lecture base learning (n=160. In the clinical course, each participant under observation of an anesthesiologist in the operation room and ICU was acquainted with mask ventilation, intubation and learned to work with a defibrillator, infusion pump, portable ventilator and pulse oximeter. In lecture group, the anesthesiologist explained the topics by video and dummy. At the end of education course, the interns’ abilities were evaluated based on checklist method and scored by the project colleague in all educational items. Three hundred twenty interns, 122 males, and 198 females; were enrolled, two groups. The clinical course training caused improvements in the interns’ knowledge and abilities in intubation and use of the defibrillator and portable ventilator vs.lecture group significantly (P<0.005. The males were better than females in laryngoscopy, but the progress of the females was significantly better than males (P=0.003. The rate of adverse events was reduced significantly after clinical course teaching (P=0.041 Clinical course teaching could promote interns' clinical competencies in the transport of critically ill patients.

  12. The use of computer simulations in whole-class versus small-group settings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smetana, Lara Kathleen

    This study explored the use of computer simulations in a whole-class as compared to small-group setting. Specific consideration was given to the nature and impact of classroom conversations and interactions when computer simulations were incorporated into a high school chemistry course. This investigation fills a need for qualitative research that focuses on the social dimensions of actual classrooms. Participants included a novice chemistry teacher experienced in the use of educational technologies and two honors chemistry classes. The study was conducted in a rural school in the south-Atlantic United States at the end of the fall 2007 semester. The study took place during one instructional unit on atomic structure. Data collection allowed for triangulation of evidence from a variety of sources approximately 24 hours of video- and audio-taped classroom observations, supplemented with the researcher's field notes and analytic journal; miscellaneous classroom artifacts such as class notes, worksheets, and assignments; open-ended pre- and post-assessments; student exit interviews; teacher entrance, exit and informal interviews. Four web-based simulations were used, three of which were from the ExploreLearning collection. Assessments were analyzed using descriptive statistics and classroom observations, artifacts and interviews were analyzed using Erickson's (1986) guidelines for analytic induction. Conversational analysis was guided by methods outlined by Erickson (1982). Findings indicated (a) the teacher effectively incorporated simulations in both settings (b) students in both groups significantly improved their understanding of the chemistry concepts (c) there was no statistically significant difference between groups' achievement (d) there was more frequent exploratory talk in the whole-class group (e) there were more frequent and meaningful teacher-student interactions in the whole-class group (f) additional learning experiences not measured on the assessment

  13. Student perceptions of independent versus facilitated small group learning approaches to compressed medical anatomy education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whelan, Alexander; Leddy, John J; Mindra, Sean; Matthew Hughes, J D; El-Bialy, Safaa; Ramnanan, Christopher J

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare student perceptions regarding two, small group learning approaches to compressed (46.5 prosection-based laboratory hours), integrated anatomy education at the University of Ottawa medical program. In the facilitated active learning (FAL) approach, tutors engage students and are expected to enable and balance both active learning and progression through laboratory objectives. In contrast, the emphasized independent learning (EIL) approach stresses elements from the "flipped classroom" educational model: prelaboratory preparation, independent laboratory learning, and limited tutor involvement. Quantitative (Likert-style questions) and qualitative data (independent thematic analysis of open-ended commentary) from a survey of students who had completed the preclerkship curriculum identified strengths from the EIL (promoting student collaboration and communication) and FAL (successful progression through objectives) approaches. However, EIL led to student frustration related to a lack of direction and impaired completion of objectives, whereas active learning opportunities in FAL were highly variable and dependent on tutor teaching style. A "hidden curriculum" was also identified, where students (particularly EIL and clerkship students) commonly compared their compressed anatomy education or their anatomy learning environment with other approaches. Finally, while both groups highly regarded the efficiency of prosection-based learning and expressed value for cadaveric-based learning, student commentary noted that the lack of grade value dedicated to anatomy assessment limited student accountability. This study revealed critical insights into small group learning in compressed anatomy education, including the need to balance student active learning opportunities with appropriate direction and feedback (including assessment). © 2015 American Association of Anatomists.

  14. Can Management Potential Be Revealed in Groups?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chartrand, P. J.; Jackson, D.

    1971-01-01

    Videotaping small group problem solving sessions and applying Bales Social Interaction scale can give valuable insight into areas where people (particularly managers) can profitably spend time developing themselves. (Author/EB)

  15. Social Transmission of False Memory in Small Groups and Large Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maswood, Raeya; Rajaram, Suparna

    2018-05-21

    Sharing information and memories is a key feature of social interactions, making social contexts important for developing and transmitting accurate memories and also false memories. False memory transmission can have wide-ranging effects, including shaping personal memories of individuals as well as collective memories of a network of people. This paper reviews a collection of key findings and explanations in cognitive research on the transmission of false memories in small groups. It also reviews the emerging experimental work on larger networks and collective false memories. Given the reconstructive nature of memory, the abundance of misinformation in everyday life, and the variety of social structures in which people interact, an understanding of transmission of false memories has both scientific and societal implications. © 2018 Cognitive Science Society, Inc.

  16. Implementation of small group discussion as a teaching method in earth and space science subject

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aryani, N. P.; Supriyadi

    2018-03-01

    In Physics Department Universitas Negeri Semarang, Earth and Space Science subject is included in the curriculum of the third year of physics education students. There are various models of teaching earth and space science subject such as textbook method, lecturer, demonstrations, study tours, problem-solving method, etc. Lectures method is the most commonly used of teaching earth and space science subject. The disadvantage of this method is the lack of two ways interaction between lecturers and students. This research used small group discussion as a teaching method in Earth and Space science. The purpose of this study is to identify the conditions under which an efficient discussion may be initiated and maintained while students are investigating properties of earth and space science subjects. The results of this research show that there is an increase in student’s understanding of earth and space science subject proven through the evaluation results. In addition, during the learning process, student’s activeness also increase.

  17. Savings and Loans Program, The Revenue of Small Micro Enterprises and Poverty Reduction among Women Groups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Zahrotun Nihayah

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available This research aims to understand the micro small medium business income both before and after receiving the program, to find out the number of poverty reduction, and to see the application of Islamic economic values on the women’s saving and loans program.The population of this research are members of the women’s saving and loans program, which is 215 people in total and scattered in 16 business group. Using random sampling techniques, there are 70 people that was taken into consideration. The method analysis used in in this research is using Wilcoxon rank test analysis, the poverty reduction analysis, and the Islamic economics values. Based on data analysis is(1 founded that the women’s saving and loans program affecting the micro small medium enterprises income. (2 Due to the women’s saving and loans program there are decreasing number of poverty rate about 20 percent. (3 It is realized that there are some applications of Islamic economics values upon the women’s saving and loans program, they are time extensions, fine replacement, social activities, and the improvement of society welfare.

  18. Post-Session Authentication

    OpenAIRE

    Ahmed , Naveed; Jensen , Christian ,

    2012-01-01

    Part 1: Full Papers; International audience; Entity authentication provides confidence in the claimed identity of a peer entity, but the manner in which this goal is achieved results in different types of authentication. An important factor in this regard is the order between authentication and the execution of the associated session. In this paper, we consider the case of post-session authentication, where parties authenticate each other at the end of their interactive session. This use of a...

  19. Scientifically speaking: Identifying, analyzing, and promoting science talk in small groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holthuis, Nicole Inamine

    In this dissertation I define, document, and analyze the nature of students' science talk as they work in cooperative learning groups. Three questions form the basis of this research. First, what is science talk? Second, how much and what kind of science talk did students do? And, third, what conditions help promote or inhibit students' science talk? This study was conducted in a total of six classrooms in three high schools. I videotaped and audiotaped students as they worked in small groups during the course of an ecology unit. I analyzed this videotape data and field notes using both quantitative and qualitative methods. I define science talk as talk that serves to move students along in terms of the science (both content and process) required or suggested by the activity. More specifically, I identified five epistemological characteristics that delineate what counts as scientific knowledge and, subsequently, science talk. From this definition, I developed an analytic framework and science talk observation instrument to document the quantity and level of student and teacher talk during groupwork. Analysis of the data from this instrument indicates that the overall level of students' science talk is considerable and students do significantly more science talk than school talk. I also found that while the overall level and type of science talk does not vary by class or by school, it does vary by activity type. Finally, my analysis suggests that science talk does not vary by gender composition of the group. I explored the classroom conditions that promote or inhibit science talk during groupwork. My findings suggest that, among other things, teachers can promote science talk by delegating authority to students, by emphasizing content and the big idea, by implementing open-ended tasks, and by modeling science talk. In conclusion, the findings described in this dissertation point teachers and researchers toward ways in which they may improve practice in order to

  20. Effects of longitudinal small-group learning on delivery and receipt of communication skills feedback.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chou, Calvin L; Masters, Dylan E; Chang, Anna; Kruidering, Marieke; Hauer, Karen E

    2013-11-01

    Although feedback is a critical component of learning, recent data suggest that learners may discount feedback they receive. The emotional threat inherent in feedback can contribute to its ineffectiveness, particularly for sensitive topics like communication skills. Longitudinal relationships among peers may increase their sense of safety and soften the perceived threat of feedback to allow students to give, receive and potentially more effectively incorporate feedback. We studied the effects of prior shared learning experiences among medical students in the delivery and receipt of feedback on clinical (communication) skills. During a formative clinical skills examination, we divided Year 3 students at a US medical school into two subgroups comprising, respectively, small-group classmates from a 2-year longitudinal pre-clerkship clinical skills course (with prior peer-learning relationships), and peers with no prior shared small-group coursework. Students in both subgroups observed peers in a simulated clinical case and then provided feedback, which was videotaped, transcribed and coded. Feedback recipients also completed a survey on their perceptions of the feedback. Students valued the feedback they received and intended to enact it, regardless of whether they had prior peer-learning relationships. Coding of feedback revealed high specificity. Feedback providers who had prior peer-learning relationships with recipients provided more specific corrective feedback on communication skills than those with no such relationships (p = 0.014); there was no significant difference between subgroups in the provision of reinforcing feedback on communication skills. Year 3 medical student peers can deliver specific feedback on clinical skills; prior peer-learning relationships in pre-clerkship clinical skills courses enrich the provision of specific corrective feedback about communication skills. Feedback between peers with pre-existing peer-learning relationships represents

  1. Transformational leadership and group potency in small military units: The mediating role of group identification and cohesion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos García-Guiu

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, we examined an exploratory model to assess the relationship between transformational leadership and group potency and analyze the mediating role of group identification and cohesion. The research was conducted with squads of the Spanish Army. The sample was composed of 243 members of 51 squads of operational units. Our findings highlighted the importance of the transformational leadership style of command of non-commissioned officers (NCOs due to its positive relationship with the group potency of the squad. We also analyzed the indirect relationships between transformational leadership and group identification and group cohesion and found that the latter variables played a mediating role between transformational leadership and group potency. The conclusions of this study are relevant due to the growing importance of transformational leadership and actions implemented at lower levels of the command chain for the success of missions of security organizations and defense.

  2. The Effect of Functional Roles on Group Efficiency : Using Multilevel Modeling and Content Analysis to Investigate Computer-Supported Collaboration in Small Groups

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Strijbos, J.W.; Martens, R.L.; Jochems, W.M.G.; Broers, N.J.

    2004-01-01

    The usefulness of roles to support small group performance can often be read; however, their effect is rarely empirically assessed. This article reports the effects of functional roles on group performance, efficiency, and collaboration during computer-supported collaborative learning. A comparison

  3. Using computer-assisted process facilitation techniques in government sponsored public meetings and working sessions - a paper addressing the East Fork Poplar Creek Working Group Experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Armstrong, L.D.; Rymer, G.; Perkins, S.

    1994-01-01

    This paper addresses a process facilitation technique using computer hardware and software that assists its users in group decision-making, consensus building, surveying and polling, and strategic planning. The process and equipment has been successfully used by the Department of Energy and Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc., Environmental Restoration and Waste Management Community Relations program. The technology is used to solicit and encourage qualitative and documented public feedback in government mandated or sponsored public meetings in Oak Ridge, Tennessee

  4. Using Small Group Debates to Actively Engage Students in an Introductory Microbiology Course†

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, Joyce A.

    2012-01-01

    Debates stimulate critical thinking and can be a highly effective way to actively engage students in the classroom. This paper describes a small group debate format in which groups of four to six students debated preassigned topics in microbiology in front of the rest of the class. Rapid advancements in science, especially in microbiology, provide the scaffolding for students to locate and share evidence-based information from a plethora of complex and often conflicting sources. Student-generated debate presentations can be a welcome respite from the lecture format. Debates were scheduled throughout the course to coincide with topics being covered. Questionnaires distributed immediately after each debate revealed that the debates were well received by students and were effective in changing student attitudes and misconceptions. Debate preparation provided students the opportunity to gain proficiency in accessing information from electronic databases, to use resources from professional organizations, and to synthesize and analyze information. In addition, the debate process gave students experience in developing oral communication skills. PMID:23653803

  5. Loads on small muscle groups as a risk of hypertensive conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga G. Kourova

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Background ― Hypertension is a widespread condition nowadays. Changes in physical activity patterns of the population, namely, sedentary lifestyle and increased loads on small muscle groups, are the key factors behind the development of hypertension. Although science has amassed sufficient amounts of facts about a hypertensive effect of local loads, the very mechanisms underlying adaptive reactions of the circulatory system have not received comprehensive study. Material and Methods ― We studied adaptive reactions to local muscle work in 108 adult subjects groups aged between 18 and 20, 30 and 35, and 60 and 74 respectively by means of a Mosso’s ergograph until the onset of fatigue with all the three age groups receiving medium loads. We have analyzed their work performance, including static and dynamic stamina. We took blood pressure measurements, electrocardiograms (ECGs and electroencephalograms (EEGs before and after the test. Results ― We discovered increased heartbeat rates, systolic blood pressure, and diastolic blood pressure in all of the subjects, as they were doing local load tests, while their ECGs showed shortened electric diastole time, which was indicative of heart functional tension, especially in the subjects aged between 18 and, and 60 and 74. Adverse heart reactions were more pronounced while the subjects were doing static tests rather than dynamic tests, and their EEGs showed increased slow-wave activity within alpha- and theta-ranges, with regularly recurrent alpha wave synchronizations. Conclusion ― Our research shows that central mechanisms underlie hypertensive reactions of the cardiovascular system to local loads with the participation of metabolic receptors of muscles. We have also justified the necessity of preventive campaigns against hypertensions in individuals receiving increased amounts of local muscle work in the motor mode.

  6. The Public Poster Session

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levine-Rasky, Cynthia

    2009-01-01

    This note describes the use of a student poster session as an innovative approach to student learning. The local context for the assignment is provided, followed by a description of the course for which the poster was prepared, details about the assignment including its evaluation, and practical considerations for planning a poster session. The…

  7. Multiparty Asynchronous Session Types

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Honda, Kohei; Yoshida, Nobuko; Carbone, Marco

    2016-01-01

    . This work extends the foregoing theories of binary session types to multiparty, asynchronous sessions, which often arise in practical communication-centered applications. Presented as a typed calculus for mobile processes, the theory introduces a new notion of types in which interactions involving multiple......Communication is a central elements in software development. As a potential typed foundation for structured communication-centered programming, session types have been studied over the past decade for a wide range of process calculi and programming languages, focusing on binary (two-party) sessions...... peers are directly abstracted as a global scenario. Global types retain the friendly type syntax of binary session types while specifying dependencies and capturing complex causal chains of multiparty asynchronous interactions. A global type plays the role of a shared agreement among communication peers...

  8. Spontaneous mass generation and the small dimensions of the Standard Model gauge groups U(1, SU(2 and SU(3

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guillermo García Fernández

    2017-02-01

    The result follows from strong antiscreening of the running coupling for those larger groups (with an appropriately small number of flavors together with scaling properties of the Dyson–Schwinger equation for the fermion mass.

  9. A Review and Annotated Bibliography of the Literature Pertaining to Team and Small Group Performance (1989 to 1999)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    LaJoie, Andrew

    1999-01-01

    .... Training and military doctrine has been evolving to reflect this emphasis on teamwork. The purpose of this annotated bibliography is to review literature published over the last ten years concerning team and small group performance...

  10. Oregon department of transportation small business group twice-monthly payments pilot project : summary report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-07-01

    Oregon Department of Transportation (ODOT) recently completed a pilot study on small business payment practices. In the study, three pilot projects were tested where payments to small business contractors were changed from a monthly payment to twice-...

  11. The networked minority: How a small group prevailed in a local windfarm conflict

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, Carmel

    2013-01-01

    This paper aims to explain through a qualitative case study how a small protest group prevailed during a local windfarm conflict in south-eastern Australia. A social capital analytical framework was developed to analyse the data. The analysis found that two communities inhabited the area for which the windfarm development was proposed. The public participation process failed to address the concerns of both communities and led to the emergence of a social network of resistance. The network had high stocks of bridging social capital, which enabled an effective protest that led to the abandonment of the development. Their effectiveness was inadvertently aided by the windfarm supporters who were unable to act collectively to defend their interests because socio-economic changes in the community among other factors had led to a depletion of their social capital. In this context, different democratic participatory processes were needed to address the concerns of the two communities. Guidance and tools for researching and developing the types of participatory processes needed for vulnerable communities with low social capital and those similar to the social network with high social capital are provided. These will inform community-appropriate public participation processes and participatory planning policy. - Highlights: ► A case study of a local social network's resistance to a windfarm is undertaken. ► The link between high social capital and resistance is confirmed. ► Successful protest groups can be aided by passive windfarm supporters. ► Protesters are likely to participate in well-designed participatory processes. ► Guidance for developing community-specific participatory processes is provided

  12. Metastatic non-small cell lung cancer Current treatment based on evidence (ONCOL Group)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castro, Carlos; Cardona, Andres Felipe; Reveiz, Ludovic; Serrano, Silvia Juliana; Carranza, Hernan; Vargas, Carlos Alberto; Reguart, Noemi; Campo, Felipe; Ospina, Edgar Guillermo; Sanchez, Oswaldo; Torres, Diana; Otero, Jorge Miguel

    2010-01-01

    to perform a review of evidence about the treatment of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Source of data: the information was obtained from searches conducted in Medline, CCTR, Biosis, Embase, Lilacs and CINHAL. We also collected the most representative references presented during the last five years at Asco, ESMO and IASLC. Data extraction: data were extracted by associate members to the ONCOL Group. The collection of information did not follow a uniform strategy. Results of data synthesis: therapy for NSCLC can prolong survival and improve quality of life, but the majority of advanced stage patients dies due to disease progression within 2 years, meaning that there is room for improvement. The standard chemotherapy for NSCLC involves one of a number of platinum-based doublets that have been shown to improve survival when compared with single agents or best supportive care. These doublets are generally comparable in terms of efficacy, differing primarily in their toxicity profiles. However, encouraging new options may be approaching, including therapies targeted to specific patient subpopulations, and the use of combinations of current and new drugs to produce synergistic effects. This review present a detailed analysis of current evidence regarding the treatment of NSCLC based on a representative case series. This review didn't conduct a systematic evaluation of the evidence. Conclusion: medical therapy for NSCLC produces positive changes in main outcomes, including quality of life

  13. Risk transfer formula for individual and small group markets under the Affordable Care Act.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pope, Gregory C; Bachofer, Henry; Pearlman, Andrew; Kautter, John; Hunter, Elizabeth; Miller, Daniel; Keenan, Patricia

    2014-01-01

    The Affordable Care Act provides for a program of risk adjustment in the individual and small group health insurance markets in 2014 as Marketplaces are implemented and new market reforms take effect. The purpose of risk adjustment is to lessen or eliminate the influence of risk selection on the premiums that plans charge. The risk adjustment methodology includes the risk adjustment model and the risk transfer formula. This article is the third of three in this issue of the Medicare & Medicaid Research Review that describe the ACA risk adjustment methodology and focuses on the risk transfer formula. In our first companion article, we discussed the key issues and choices in developing the methodology. In our second companion paper, we described the risk adjustment model that is used to calculate risk scores. In this article we present the risk transfer formula. We first describe how the plan risk score is combined with factors for the plan allowable premium rating, actuarial value, induced demand, geographic cost, and the statewide average premium in a formula that calculates transfers among plans. We then show how each plan factor is determined, as well as how the factors relate to each other in the risk transfer formula. The goal of risk transfers is to offset the effects of risk selection on plan costs while preserving premium differences due to factors such as actuarial value differences. Illustrative numerical simulations show the risk transfer formula operating as anticipated in hypothetical scenarios.

  14. Metagenomics uncovers a new group of low GC and ultra-small marine Actinobacteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghai, Rohit; Mizuno, Carolina Megumi; Picazo, Antonio; Camacho, Antonio; Rodriguez-Valera, Francisco

    2013-01-01

    We describe a deep-branching lineage of marine Actinobacteria with very low GC content (33%) and the smallest free living cells described yet (cell volume ca. 0.013 μm3), even smaller than the cosmopolitan marine photoheterotroph, ‘Candidatus Pelagibacter ubique'. These microbes are highly related to 16S rRNA sequences retrieved by PCR from the Pacific and Atlantic oceans 20 years ago. Metagenomic fosmids allowed a virtual genome reconstruction that also indicated very small genomes below 1 Mb. A new kind of rhodopsin was detected indicating a photoheterotrophic lifestyle. They are estimated to be ~4% of the total numbers of cells found at the site studied (the Mediterranean deep chlorophyll maximum) and similar numbers were estimated in all tropical and temperate photic zone metagenomes available. Their geographic distribution mirrors that of picocyanobacteria and there appears to be an association between these microbial groups. A new sub-class, ‘Candidatus Actinomarinidae' is proposed to designate these microbes. PMID:23959135

  15. Task Performance in Small Group Settings: The Role of Group Members' Self-Efficacy And Collective Efficacy and Group's Characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khong, Jerrine Z. N.; Liem, Gregory Arief D.; Klassen, Robert M.

    2017-01-01

    The present study extends the literature by investigating the relative salience of self- and collective efficacy in predicting group performance among early adolescents in Indonesia. A total of 435 early adolescents (mean age 11.70 years, 53% female) were randomly assigned to groups of three to four and completed three group tasks (task 1:…

  16. Session 8: biofuels; Session 8: Les biocarburants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Botte, J.M.

    2006-01-15

    Here are given the summaries of the speeches of Mr Daniel Le Breton (Total): the transports of the future: the role of biofuels; of Mr Pierre Rouveirolles (Renault): the future expectations and needs; of Mr Frederic Monot (IFP): the developments of new generations of biofuels from biomass; of Mr Willem Jan Laan (Unilever): the use of bio resources for food and fuel: a fair competition? All these speeches have been presented at the AFTP yearly days (12-13 october 2005) on the session 8 concerning the biofuels. (O.M.)

  17. 75 FR 42181 - Notice of Funding Availability for the Small Business Transportation Resource Center Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-20

    ... of 20 hours of individual or group counseling sessions to small businesses per month. (D) Planning... training programs, such as, business assessment, management training, counseling, technical assistance... business counseling, and technical assistance with small businesses currently doing business with public...

  18. Pioneering small-group learning in Tanzanian emergency medicine: Investigating acceptability for physician learners

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A G Lim

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Background. Emergency medicine (EM is a relatively new, but growing medical specialty in sub-Saharan Africa. African EM training programmes have used small-group learning (SGL modalities in their curricula. However, there is little knowledge of whether SGL modalities are perceived to be effective in these African EM training programmes. Objectives. To investigate the acceptability of SGL for physicians’ training in an academic Tanzanian emergency department using a novel EM curriculum. Methods. Using responses to a written questionnaire, we explored the perceived effectiveness of SGL compared with traditional didactic lectures among 38 emergency department physician learners in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. Perceptions of SGL were identified from qualitative responses, and regression analyses were used to determine strength of association between quantitative outcomes. Results. Reported benefits of SGL included team building, simulation training, enhancement of procedural skills, and the opportunity to discuss opinions on clinical management. SGL scored more favourably with regard to improving clinical practice, enjoyment of learning, and building peer-to-peer relations. Lectures scored more favourably at improving medical knowledge. Preference towards SGL over lectures for overall training increased with years of clinical experience (95% confidence interval (CI 0.16 - 0.62, p=0.002, Spearman’s rho 0.51, and the perception that SGL reinforces learner-teacher relationships correlated with seniority within residency training (95% CI 0.14 - 0.86, p=0.007, Spearman’s rho 0.47. Conclusion. Techniques of SGL were perceived as effective at improving clinical practice in the emergency department setting. These modalities may be more favourably accepted by more experienced physician learners – therefore, new EM teaching programmes in Africa should consider these factors when targeting educational strategies for their respective regions and learner

  19. Using Cooperative Small Groups in Introductory Accounting Classes: A Practical Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miglietti, Cynthia

    2002-01-01

    Effective use of cooperative learning groups requires the following: attention to group formation, orientation that sets clear expectations and guidelines, activities to develop teamwork skills, peer evaluation, and other assessments that recognize and measure individual effort on group projects. (SK)

  20. 77 FR 9882 - Arsenic Small Systems Compliance and Alternative Affordability Criteria Working Group; public...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-21

    ... affordability criteria that give extra weight to small, rural, and lower income communities. This meeting will... held via the Internet using a Webcast and teleconference. Registrants will receive an Internet access... affordability criteria that give extra weight to small, rural, and lower income communities. Based upon input...

  1. Effects of an additional small group discussion to cognitive achievement and retention in basic principles of bioethics teaching methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dedi Afandi

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Aim The place of ethics in undergraduate medical curricula is essential but the methods of teaching medical ethics did not show substantial changes. “Basic principles of bioethics” is the best knowledge to develop student’s reasoning analysis in medical ethics In this study, we investigate the effects of an additional small group discussion in basic principles of bioethics conventional lecture methods to cognitive achievement and retention. This study was a randomized controlled trial with parallel design. Cognitive scores of the basic principles of bioethics as a parameter was measured using basic principles of bioethics (Kaidah Dasar Bioetika, KDB test. Both groups were attending conventional lectures, then the intervention group got an additional small group discussion.Result Conventional lectures with or without small group discussion significantly increased cognitive achievement of basic principles of bioethics (P= 0.001 and P= 0.000, respectively, and there were significant differences in cognitive achievement and retention between the 2 groups (P= 0.000 and P= 0.000, respectively.Conclusion Additional small group discussion method improved cognitive achievement and retention of basic principles of bioethics. (Med J Indones 2009; 18: 48-52Keywords: lecture, specification checklist, multiple choice questions

  2. THINKING ALOUD, TALKING, AND LEAThinking aloud, talking, and learning to read: esl reading comprehension training in small cooperative groups Thinking aloud, talking, and learning to read: esl reading comprehension training in small cooperative groups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yael Bejanaro

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Training students to become independent skillful readers is a major concern of the EFL reading teacher. How can we best train students in selecting and applying reading strategies so that they become more efficient readers? Can we ensure that an increase in students’ awareness of the need to use strategies will help them become more skillful readers? These questions served as a trigger for this study. The aim of this study was to investigate whether verbal articulation of reading behavior in a small group will improve foreign language comprehension. It is our contention that using verbalization in small groups will raise metacognitive awareness which will in turn enhance effective use of skills and strategies and result in improvement in reading comprehension. We assume that the special features that characterize small group interactions can provide an appropriate setting for raising metacognitive awareness. Training students to become independent skillful readers is a major concern of the EFL reading teacher. How can we best train students in selecting and applying reading strategies so that they become more efficient readers? Can we ensure that an increase in students’ awareness of the need to use strategies will help them become more skillful readers? These questions served as a trigger for this study. The aim of this study was to investigate whether verbal articulation of reading behavior in a small group will improve foreign language comprehension. It is our contention that using verbalization in small groups will raise metacognitive awareness which will in turn enhance effective use of skills and strategies and result in improvement in reading comprehension. We assume that the special features that characterize small group interactions can provide an appropriate setting for raising metacognitive awareness.

  3. Summary: Hadron dynamics sessions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carroll, A.S.; Londergan, J.T.

    1993-01-01

    Four sessions on Hadron Dynamics were organized at this Workshop. The first topic, QCD Exclusive Reactions and Color Transparency, featured talks by Ralston, Heppelman and Strikman; the second, QCD and Inclusive Reactions had talks by Garvey, Speth and Kisslinger. The third dynamics session, Medium Modification of Elementary Interactions had contributions from Kopeliovich, Alves and Gyulassy; the fourth session Pre-QCD Dynamics and Scattering, had talks by Harris, Myhrer and Brown. An additional joint Spectroscopy/Dynamics session featured talks by Zumbro, Johnson and McClelland. These contributions are reviewed briefly in this summary. Two additional joint sessions between Dynamics and η physics are reviewed by the organizers of the Eta sessions. In such a brief review there is no way the authors can adequately summarize the details of the physics presented here. As a result, they concentrate only on brief impressionistic sketches of the physics topics discussed and their interrelations. They include no bibliography in this summary, but simply refer to the talks given in more detail in the Workshop proceedings. They focus on topics which were common to several presentations in these sessions. First, nuclear and particle descriptions of phenomena are now clearly converging, in both a qualitative and quantitative sense; they show several examples of this convergence. Second, an important issue in hadron dynamics is the extent to which elementary interactions are modified in nuclei at high energies and/or densities, and they illustrate some of these medium effects. Finally, they focus on those dynamical issues where hadron facilities can make an important, or even a unique, contribution to the knowledge of particle and nuclear physics

  4. Breakout Session: Case Studies from the Field: Making Fair Use Determinations in an Educational Setting.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Billie Peterson-Lugo

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available This interactive session enabled the audience to provide some fair use scenarios and to discuss selected scenarios in small groups and then in the larger group—with the goal of making a collective decision about whether or not the scenarios were fair use.

  5. Working session 3: Tubing integrity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cueto-Felgueroso, C.; Strosnider, J.

    1997-01-01

    Twenty-three individuals representing nine countries (Belgium, Canada, the Czech Republic, France, Japan, the Slovak Republic, Spain, the UK, and the US) participated in the session on tube integrity. These individuals represented utilities, vendors, consultants and regulatory authorities. The major subjects discussed by the group included overall objectives of managing steam generator tube degradation, necessary elements of a steam generator degradation management program, the concept of degradation specific management, structural integrity evaluations, leakage evaluations, and specific degradation mechanisms. The group's discussions on these subjects, including conclusions and recommendations, are summarized in this article

  6. Beam instability Workshop - plenary sessions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-01-01

    The purpose of this workshop was to provide a review of the mechanisms of limiting beam instabilities, their cures, including feedback, and beam measurement for synchrotron radiation light sources. 12 plenary sessions took place whose titles are: 1) challenging brilliance and lifetime issues with increasing currents; 2) limiting instabilities in multibunch; 3) experience from high currents in B factories; 4) longitudinal dynamics in high intensity/bunch; 5) Transverse instabilities for high intensity/bunch; 6) working group introduction from ESRF experience; 7) impedance modelling: simulations, minimization; 8) report on the broadband impedance measurements and modelling workshop; 9) feedback systems for synchrotron light sources; 10) beam instabilities diagnostics; 11) harmonic cavities: the pros and cons; and 12) experimental study of fast beam-ion instabilities at PLS. This document gathers the 12 articles that were presented during these sessions

  7. Beam instability Workshop - plenary sessions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-07-01

    The purpose of this workshop was to provide a review of the mechanisms of limiting beam instabilities, their cures, including feedback, and beam measurement for synchrotron radiation light sources. 12 plenary sessions took place whose titles are: 1) challenging brilliance and lifetime issues with increasing currents; 2) limiting instabilities in multibunch; 3) experience from high currents in B factories; 4) longitudinal dynamics in high intensity/bunch; 5) Transverse instabilities for high intensity/bunch; 6) working group introduction from ESRF experience; 7) impedance modelling: simulations, minimization; 8) report on the broadband impedance measurements and modelling workshop; 9) feedback systems for synchrotron light sources; 10) beam instabilities diagnostics; 11) harmonic cavities: the pros and cons; and 12) experimental study of fast beam-ion instabilities at PLS. This document gathers the 12 articles that were presented during these sessions.

  8. Small Group Conflict: A Look at Equity, Satisfaction, and Styles of Conflict Management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wall, Victor D., Jr.; Nolan, Linda L.

    1987-01-01

    Study of 71 task-oriented groups revealed that perceived inequity was negatively related to amount of expressed satisfaction with the group and positively related to amount of perceived conflict within the group. Inequity was associated more strongly with conflict centered around people than with conflict centered around task; least associated…

  9. Estimating cohesion in small groups using audio-visual nonverbal behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hung, H.; Gatica-Perez, D.

    2010-01-01

    Cohesiveness in teams is an essential part of ensuring the smooth running of task-oriented groups. Research in social psychology and management has shown that good cohesion in groups can be correlated with team effectiveness or productivity, so automatically estimating group cohesion for team

  10. An Analysis of Small Group Interactions of Vietnamese Students under the Bourdieusian Theoretical Lens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pham, Thanh; Pham, Lam

    2018-01-01

    Group work has been increasingly encouraged and applied in Vietnamese universities. However, very little has been known about how Vietnamese university students work in a group and what the conditions are that help establish an effective group. This study attempted to redress this gap. The research applied Bourdieu's social field theory to examine…

  11. Linearly Refined Session Types

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Baltazar

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Session types capture precise protocol structure in concurrent programming, but do not specify properties of the exchanged values beyond their basic type. Refinement types are a form of dependent types that can address this limitation, combining types with logical formulae that may refer to program values and can constrain types using arbitrary predicates. We present a pi calculus with assume and assert operations, typed using a session discipline that incorporates refinement formulae written in a fragment of Multiplicative Linear Logic. Our original combination of session and refinement types, together with the well established benefits of linearity, allows very fine-grained specifications of communication protocols in which refinement formulae are treated as logical resources rather than persistent truths.

  12. Workshop: poster session

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schell, W.R.; Colgan, P.A.

    1990-01-01

    The poster session consisted of a microcosm of projects encompassing the wide range of problems in the radioecology of natural and semi-natural ecosystems. The authors presented a brief resume of the poster at a plenary session during which highlights were pointed out. The range of studies covered microbial transfer, fungi, insects herbicides, lichens, solid speciation of cesium, soil properties, plant cover, transfer factors from soil to plants, uptake by sludge fertilizers, fertilizer remediation and compartmental models for soil-plant uptake. (author)

  13. Session 2: Machine studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Assmann, R.W.; Papotti, G.

    2012-01-01

    This document summarizes the talks and discussion that took place in the second session of the Chamonix 2012 workshop concerning results from machine studies performed in 2011. The session consisted of the following presentations: -) LHC experience with different bunch spacings by G. Rumolo; -) Observations of beam-beam effects in MDs in 2011 by W. Herr; -) Beam-induced heating/ bunch length/RF and lessons for 2012 by E. Metral; -) Lessons in beam diagnostics by R. Jones; -) Quench margins by M. Sapinski; and -) First demonstration with beam of the Achromatic Telescopic Squeeze (ATS) by S. Fartoukh. (authors)

  14. Small groups, large profits: Calculating interest rates in community-managed microfinance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Ole Dahl

    2012-01-01

    Savings groups are a widely used strategy for women’s economic resilience – over 80% of members worldwide are women, and in the case described here, 72.5%. In these savings groups it is common to see the interest rate on savings reported as "20-30% annually". Using panel data from 204 groups...... in Malawi, I show that the right figure is likely to be at least twice this figure. For these groups, the annual return is 62%. The difference comes from sector-wide application of a non-standard interest rate calculations and unrealistic assumptions about the savings profile in the groups. As a result......, it is impossible to compare returns in savings groups with returns elsewhere. Moreover, the interest on savings is incomparable to the interest rate on loans. I argue for the use of a standardized comparable metric and suggest easy ways to implement it. Developments of new tools and standard along these lines...

  15. Teaching self-control to small groups of dually diagnosed adults.

    OpenAIRE

    Dixon, M R; Holcomb, S

    2000-01-01

    The present study examined the use of a progressive delay procedure to teach self-control to two groups of dually diagnosed adults. When given a choice between an immediate smaller reinforcer and a larger delayed reinforcer, both groups chose the smaller reinforcer during baseline. During treatment, progressive increases in work requirements for gaining access to a larger reinforcer resulted in both groups selecting larger delayed reinforcers. The results are discussed with respect to increas...

  16. Session 2: Availability

    CERN Document Server

    Uythoven, J

    2012-01-01

    This session concentrated on the main players affecting the availability of the LHC: the Quench Protection System (QPS), the cryogenics system, the regularly foreseen technical stops and the effect of radiation on equipment failures. A forecast for operation in 2012 was made for all these items.

  17. Summary of Session 3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fleischer, J.

    2004-01-01

    In Session 3, the speakers were dealing with the following topics: Automatization of Feynman Diagram Calculations (FDC), Event generators, Analytical approaches to FDC and various Mathematical innovations related to different physical problems. A more general, 'brainstorming', talk was given by J. Vermaseren as first talk

  18. Summary of Session III

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Furman, M.A.

    2002-01-01

    This is a summary of the talks presented in Session III ''Simulations of Electron-Cloud Build Up'' of the Mini-Workshop on Electron-Cloud Simulations for Proton and Positron Beams ECLOUD-02, held at CERN, 15-18 April 2002

  19. NSSS vendors session

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1982-01-01

    A transcription of a question and answer session at the 1982 Nuclear Commerce Conference was presented. Standardization of nuclear power plant design, and the effects it would have on Nuclear Regulatory Commission licensing and regulations, was of particular interest. Forecasts of the demand for nuclear power for the rest of this country were also discussed

  20. 45 CFR 146.150 - Guaranteed availability of coverage for employers in the small group market.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... SERVICES REQUIREMENTS RELATING TO HEALTH CARE ACCESS REQUIREMENTS FOR THE GROUP HEALTH INSURANCE MARKET... (and their dependents) or any health status-related factor relating to those employees and dependents... status-related factor relating to those employees and dependents. (2) An issuer that denies group health...

  1. Need for Cognition and Active Information Search in Small Student Groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curseu, Petru Lucian

    2011-01-01

    In a sample of 213 students organized in 44 groups this study tests the impact of need for cognition on active information search by using a multilevel analysis. The results show that group members with high need for cognition seek more advice in task related issues than those with low need for cognition and this pattern of information exchange is…

  2. "Explain to Your Partner": Teachers' Instructional Practices and Students' Dialogue in Small Groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webb, Noreen M.; Franke, Megan L.; De, Tondra; Chan, Angela G.; Freund, Deanna; Shein, Pat; Melkonian, Doris K.

    2009-01-01

    Collaborative group work has great potential to promote student learning, and increasing evidence exists about the kinds of interaction among students that are necessary to achieve this potential. Less often studied is the role of the teacher in promoting effective group collaboration. This article investigates the extent to which teachers'…

  3. Examining the Effect of Small Group Discussions and Question Prompts on Vicarious Learning Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Yekyung; Ertmer, Peggy A.

    2006-01-01

    This study investigated the effect of group discussions and question prompts on students' vicarious learning experiences. Vicarious experiences were delivered to 65 preservice teachers via VisionQuest, a Web site that provided examples of successful technology integration. A 2x2 factorial research design employed group discussions and question…

  4. Administrative Leadership in Three Small, Private Tennessee Colleges: Working Groups, Real Teams, or Both?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nichols, Michael E.

    2010-01-01

    Diversity of knowledge and multiple perspectives are characteristic advantages of group leadership as compared to transactional or bureaucratic forms of leadership. When groups are engaged in administrative functions, they are more likely to realize a higher level of performance and more relevant and innovative solutions than may be achieved by a…

  5. Testing the Efficacy of a Kindergarten Mathematics Intervention by Small Group Size

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ben Clarke

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available This study used a randomized controlled trial design to investigate the ROOTS curriculum, a 50-lesson kindergarten mathematics intervention. Ten ROOTS-eligible students per classroom (n = 60 were randomly assigned to one of three conditions: a ROOTS five-student group, a ROOTS two-student group, and a no-treatment control group. Two primary research questions were investigated as part of this study: What was the overall impact of the treatment (the ROOTS intervention as compared with the control (business as usual? Was there a differential impact on student outcomes between the two treatment conditions (two- vs. five-student group? Initial analyses for the first research question indicated a significant impact on three outcomes and positive but nonsignificant impacts on three additional measures. Results for the second research question, comparing the two- and five-student groups, indicated negligible and nonsignificant differences. Implications for practice are discussed.

  6. The Effect of the Student Success Skills Small Group Counseling Intervention on Factors Associated with Dropout Potential in High School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinstein, Jodie

    2013-01-01

    The focus of this study is to add to the outcome research on effective school counseling interventions and to specifically evaluate the effectiveness of the Student Success Skills (SSS) small group intervention with students identified as having drop out potential in the 9th grade. This study analyzed two years of pre-existing, non-identifiable…

  7. A Meta-Analytic Review of Studies of the Effectiveness of Small-Group Learning Methods on Statistics Achievement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalaian, Sema A.; Kasim, Rafa M.

    2014-01-01

    This meta-analytic study focused on the quantitative integration and synthesis of the accumulated pedagogical research in undergraduate statistics education literature. These accumulated research studies compared the academic achievement of students who had been instructed using one of the various forms of small-group learning methods to those who…

  8. Among Friends: The Role of Academic-Preparedness Diversity in Individual Performance within a Small-Group STEM Learning Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Micari, Marina; Van Winkle, Zachary; Pazos, Pilar

    2016-01-01

    In this study, we investigate the relationship between academic-preparedness diversity within small learning groups and individual academic performance in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) university courses. We further examine whether academic-preparedness diversity impacts academically more- and less-prepared students…

  9. The Nature of Students' Efferent or Aesthetic Responses to Nonfiction Texts in Small, Peer-Led Literature Discussion Groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khieu, Tema Leah

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to provide an in-depth exploration and describe the nature of fourth graders' responses to nonfiction text in the context of small, peer-led literature discussion groups. This study took place in the teacher researcher's daily, forty-five minute, pull-out intervention time. The participants for this study consisted of…

  10. On the use of the Lie group technique for differential equations with a small parameter: Approximate solutions and integrable equations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burde, G.I.

    2002-01-01

    A new approach to the use of the Lie group technique for partial and ordinary differential equations dependent on a small parameter is developed. In addition to determining approximate solutions to the perturbed equation, the approach allows constructing integrable equations that have solutions with (partially) prescribed features. Examples of application of the approach to partial differential equations are given

  11. A Model of Small-Group Problem-Based Learning in Pharmacy Education: Teaching in the Clinical Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khumsikiew, Jeerisuda; Donsamak, Sisira; Saeteaw, Manit

    2015-01-01

    Problem-based Learning (PBL) is an alternate method of instruction that incorporates basic elements of cognitive learning theory. Colleges of pharmacy use PBL to aid anticipated learning outcomes and practice competencies for pharmacy student. The purpose of this study were to implement and evaluate a model of small group PBL for 5th year pharmacy…

  12. Children's Behaviors and Emotions in Small-Group Argumentative Discussion: Explore the Influence of Big Five Personality Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Ting

    2009-01-01

    The assessment and structure of personality traits and small group learning during classroom discussions are both research fields that have undergone fast development in the past few decades. However, very few studies have investigated the relationship between individual personality characteristics and performance in discussions, especially with…

  13. Power and status within small groups: An analysis of students' verbal and nonverbal behavior and responses to one another

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Lynnae Carol

    The purpose of this research has been to determine the influence of verbal and nonverbal behavior on power and status within small groups. The interactions which took place within five small groups of students in a middle school spatial reasoning elective were analyzed. Verbal responses to requests for help were analyzed using sequential analysis techniques. Results indicated that the identity of the student asking a question or requesting help in some form or another is a better predictor of whether he/she will receive help than the type of questions he/she asks. Nonverbal behavior was analyzed for social gestures, body language, and shifts in possession of tools. Each nonverbal act was coded as either "positive" (encouraging participation) or "negative" (discouraging participation); and, the researchers found that in groups in which there was unequal participation and less "help" provided among peers (according to the verbal analysis results) there tended to be more "negative" nonverbal behavior demonstrated than in groups in which "shared talk time" and "helping behavior" were common characteristics of the norm. The combined results from the analyses of the verbal and nonverbal behavior of students within small groups were then reviewed through the conflict, power, status perspective of small group interactions in order to determine some common characteristics of high functioning (collaborative) and low functioning (non-collaborative) groups. Some common characteristics of the higher functioning groups include: few instances of conflict, shared "talk time" and decision making, inclusive leadership, frequent use of encouraging social gestures and body language, and more sharing of tools than seizing. Some shared traits among the lower functioning groups include: frequent occurrences of interpersonal conflict, a focus on process (rather than content), persuasive or alienating leadership, unequal participation and power, frequent use of discouraging social gestures

  14. A case-based, small-group cooperative learning course in preclinical veterinary science aimed at bridging basic science and clinical literacy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.P. Schoeman

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available In 1999 a dedicated problem-based learning course was introduced into the lecture-based preclinical veterinary curriculum of the University of Pretoria. The Introduction to Clinical Studies Course combines traditional lectures, practical sessions, student self-learning and guided tutorials. The self-directed component of the course utilises case-based, small group cooperative learning as an educational vehicle to link basic science with clinical medicine. The aim of this article is to describe the objectives and structure of the course and to report the results of the assessment of the students' perceptions on some aspects of the course. Students reacted very positively to the ability of the course to equip them with problem-solving skills. Students indicated positive perceptions about the workload of the course. There were, however, significantly lower scores for the clarity of the course objectives. Although the study guide for the course is very comprehensive, the practice regarding the objectives is still uncertain. It is imperative to set clear objectives in non-traditional, student-centred courses. The objectives have to be explained at the outset and reiterated throughout the course. Tutors should also communicate the rationale behind problem based learning as a pedagogical method to the students. Further research is needed to verify the effectiveness of this course in bridging the gap between basic science and clinical literacy in veterinary science. Ongoing feedback and assessment of the management and content are important to refine this model for integrating basic science with clinical literacy.

  15. A case-based, small-group cooperative learning course in preclinical veterinary science aimed at bridging basic science and clinical literacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoeman, J P; van Schoor, M; van der Merwe, L L; Meintjes, R A

    2009-03-01

    In 1999 a dedicated problem-based learning course was introduced into the lecture-based preclinical veterinary curriculum of the University of Pretoria. The Introduction to Clinical Studies Course combines traditional lectures, practical sessions, student self-learning and guided tutorials. The self-directed component of the course utilises case-based, small-group cooperative learning as an educational vehicle to link basic science with clinical medicine. The aim of this article is to describe the objectives and structure of the course and to report the results of the assessment of the students' perceptions on some aspects of the course. Students reacted very positively to the ability of the course to equip them with problem-solving skills. Students indicated positive perceptions about the workload of the course. There were, however, significantly lower scores for the clarity of the course objectives. Although the study guide for the course is very comprehensive, the practice regarding the objectives is still uncertain. It is imperative to set clear objectives in non-traditional, student-centred courses. The objectives have to be explained at the outset and reiterated throughout the course. Tutors should also communicate the rationale behind problem-based learning as a pedagogical method to the students. Further research is needed to verify the effectiveness of this course in bridging the gap between basic science and clinical literacy in veterinary science. Ongoing feedback and assessment of the management and content are important to refine this model for integrating basic science with clinical literacy.

  16. Group integration for lattice gauge theory at large and at small coupling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brower, R.C.; Nauenberg, M.

    1981-01-01

    We consider the fundamental SU(N) invariant integrals encountered in Wilson's lattice QCD with an eye to analytical results for N → infinite and approximations for small g 2 at fixed N. We develop a new semiclassical technique starting from the Schwinger-Dyson equations cast in differential form to give an exact solution to the single-link integral for N → infinite. The third-order phase transition discovered by Gross and Witten for two-dimensional QCD occurs here for any dimension. Alternatively we parametrize directly the integral over the Haar measure and obtain approximate results for SU(N) using stationary phase at small g 2 . Remarkably the single-loop correction gives the exact answer at N = infinite. We show that the naive lattice string of Weingarten is obtained from N → infinite QCD in the limit of dimensions d → infinite. We discuss applications of our techniques to the 1/N expansion. (orig.)

  17. Report of the advisory group meeting on elemental analysis of extremely small samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    This publication contains summary of discussions held at the meeting with brief description and comparative characteristics of most common nuclear analytical techniques used for analysis of very small samples as well as the conclusions of the meeting. Some aspect of reference materials and quality control are also discussed. The publication also contains individual contributions made by the participants, each of these papers haven provided with an abstract and indexed separately

  18. Learning science in small groups: The relationship of conversation to conceptual understanding

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonald, James Tarleton

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between conversation and conceptual understanding of erosion. The objective of this study was to investigate how fifth grade students' conceptions of erosion changed while they used stream tables and worked in groups of four within an inquiry-based curriculum. This study used symbolic interactionism and sociocognitive frameworks to interpret science learning in the elementary classroom. The research focused on the conceptual understanding of the focal group students, their use of classroom discourse to talk about their understandings of erosion, and the expertise that emerged while using stream tables. This study took place over a one-semester long study on erosion. Key informants were eight fifth graders. The data sources consisted of children's journals; transcripts of audiotaped interviews with the key informants before, during, and after the erosion unit; transcripts of videotapes of the students using the stream tables; and field notes recording children's discourse and activity. Individual and group cases were constructed during the study. The knowledge of the eight focal group children was placed on a hierarchy of conceptual understanding that contained 8 components of the erosion process. All four of the students whose ideas were examined in depth gained in their conceptual understanding of erosion. Students' individual expertise enhanced their own conceptual understanding. The contribution of classroom discourse and expertise to conceptual understanding differed between the two focal groups. Group 1 used essential expertise to sustain generative conversations, maximizing their learning opportunities. Students in Group 1 got along with one another, rotated assigned roles and jobs, and were able to start their own generative conversations. Members of Group 1 asked generative questions, connected stream table events to real life situations, and involved everyone in the group. Group 2 engaged in a

  19. Quantitative Modeling of Membrane Transport and Anisogamy by Small Groups Within a Large-Enrollment Organismal Biology Course

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric S. Haag

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Quantitative modeling is not a standard part of undergraduate biology education, yet is routine in the physical sciences. Because of the obvious biophysical aspects, classes in anatomy and physiology offer an opportunity to introduce modeling approaches to the introductory curriculum. Here, we describe two in-class exercises for small groups working within a large-enrollment introductory course in organismal biology. Both build and derive biological insights from quantitative models, implemented using spreadsheets. One exercise models the evolution of anisogamy (i.e., small sperm and large eggs from an initial state of isogamy. Groups of four students work on Excel spreadsheets (from one to four laptops per group. The other exercise uses an online simulator to generate data related to membrane transport of a solute, and a cloud-based spreadsheet to analyze them. We provide tips for implementing these exercises gleaned from two years of experience.

  20. The relationship between session frequency and psychotherapy outcome in a naturalistic setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erekson, David M; Lambert, Michael J; Eggett, Dennis L

    2015-12-01

    The dose-response relationship in psychotherapy has been examined extensively, but few studies have included session frequency as a component of psychotherapy "dose." Studies that have examined session frequency have indicated that it may affect both the speed and the amount of recovery. No studies were found examining the clinical significance of this construct in a naturalistic setting, which is the aim of the current study. Using an archival database of session-by-session Outcome Questionnaire 45 (OQ-45) measures over 17 years, change trajectories of 21,488 university counseling center clients (54.9% female, 85.0% White, mean age = 22.5) were examined using multilevel modeling, including session frequency at the occasion level. Of these clients, subgroups that attended therapy approximately weekly or fortnightly were compared to each other for differences in speed of recovery (using multilevel Cox regression) and clinically significant change (using multilevel logistic regression). Results indicated that more frequent therapy was associated with steeper recovery curves (Cohen's f2 = 0.07; an effect size between small and medium). When comparing weekly and fortnightly groups, clinically significant gains were achieved faster for those attending weekly sessions; however, few significant differences were found between groups in total amount of change in therapy. Findings replicated previous session frequency literature and supported a clinically significant effect, where higher session frequency resulted in faster recovery. Session frequency appears to be an impactful component in delivering more efficient psychotherapy, and it is important to consider in individual treatment planning, institutional policy, and future research. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  1. Working session 1: Tubing degradation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kharshafdjian, G.; Turluer, G.

    1997-01-01

    A general introductory overview of the purpose of the group and the general subject area of SG tubing degradation was given by the facilitator. The purpose of the session was described as to open-quotes develop conclusions and proposals on regulatory and technical needs required to deal with the issues of SG tubing degradation.close quotes Types, locations and characteristics of tubing degradation in steam generators were briefly reviewed. The well-known synergistic effects of materials, environment, and stress and strain/strain rate, subsequently referred to by the acronym open-quotes MESSclose quotes by some of the group members, were noted. The element of time (i.e., evolution of these variables with time) was emphasized. It was also suggested that the group might want to consider the related topics of inspection capabilities, operational variables, degradation remedies, and validity of test data, and some background information in these areas was provided. The presentation given by Peter Millet during the Plenary Session was reviewed; Specifically, the chemical aspects and the degradation from the secondary side of the steam generator were noted. The main issues discussed during the October 1995 EPRI meeting on secondary side corrosion were reported, and a listing of the potential SG tube degradations was provided and discussed

  2. Session 1 - discussion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wells, C.; Richards, K.M.; McKerrow, J.F.

    1991-01-01

    This discussion session of the Landfill Gas-Energy and Environment 90 Conference covered the landfill gas potential, the setting up of the Non-Fossil Fuel Obligation; anticipated developments in the post 1998 period, the problem of smell for those who live near a landfill, and the length of time a landfill site is productive in terms of gas evolution. Relevant regulations in California are briefly discussed. (author)

  3. Novel Emergency Medicine Curriculum Utilizing Self-Directed Learning and the Flipped Classroom Method: Head, Eyes, Ears, Nose and Throat Emergencies Small Group Module

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew King

    2017-09-01

    engagement, fosters intellectual curiosity and active learning, and meets the needs of today’s learners.6,9,14 Objectives: We aim to teach the presentation and management of HEENT emergencies through the creation of a flipped classroom design. This unique, innovative curriculum utilizes resources chosen by education faculty and resident learners, study questions, real-life experiences, and small group discussions in place of traditional lectures. In doing so, a goal of the curriculum is to encourage self-directed learning, improve understanding and knowledge retention, and improve the educational experience of our residents. Methods: The educational strategies used in this curriculum include: small group modules authored by education faculty and content experts based on the core emergency medicine content. This program also includes resident-submitted questions that were developed during review of the content. The Socratic Method, used during small group sessions, encourages active participation; small groups also focus on the synthesis and application of knowledge through the discussion of real life experiences. The use of free open access medical education (FOAM resources allows learners to work at their own pace and maximize autonomy.

  4. Lurking on the Internet: A Small-Group Assignment that Puts a Human Face on Psychopathology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowman, Joseph; Judge, Abigail M.; Wiss, Charles

    2010-01-01

    Lurking on the Internet aims to put a human face on psychopathology for the abnormal psychology course. Student groups are assigned major diagnostic categories and instructed to search the Internet for discussion forums, individual blogs, or YouTube videos where affected individuals discuss their symptoms and lives. After discussing the ethics of…

  5. Distribution of Feedback among Teacher and Students in Online Collaborative Learning in Small Groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coll, Cesar; Rochera, Maria Jose; de Gispert, Ines; Diaz-Barriga, Frida

    2013-01-01

    This study explores the characteristics and distribution of the feedback provided by the participants (a teacher and her students) in an activity organized inside a collaborative online learning environment. We analyse 853 submissions made by two groups of graduate students and their teacher (N1 = 629 & N2 = 224) involved in the collaborative…

  6. Can't You Just Talk to Them? Small Group Work in a Senior Thesis Course.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nance, Teresa; Mackey-Kallis, Susan

    At Villanova University, the Senior Projects Course is designed to serve as a capstone course. Students are required to integrate the pieces of the discipline acquired from previous course work into a comprehensive, fully developed research project. This paper looks critically at one aspect of effectively managing a group project course: conflict…

  7. Informal Cooperative Learning in Small Groups: The Effect of Scaffolding on Participation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lange, Christopher; Costley, Jamie; Han, Seung Lock

    2016-01-01

    This study examines the effect of group work scaffolding on participation. The procedural scaffolding of two cooperative learning techniques, Numbered Heads Together and Think-Pair-Share, are compared based on levels of participation, learning, and satisfaction they elicit. Aspects of participation that are examined include levels of group…

  8. The economic efficiency of investment in the development of reserves of small groups of geographically contiguous gold deposits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evdokimov S.I.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The object of the research is a group of geographically contiguous low volume gold deposits. The subject of the study is an economic justification for a way to involve economic turnover to get a positive commercial result on a specially formed group of gold deposits, in which individual field development is unprofitable. A small production volume, combined with high capital and operating costs are objective reasons for the reduction in investment attractiveness of the deposits which have reserves of gold of 50%, equipped with a mobile processing complex with deep processing technology on highly liquid commodity products on site. An economic-mathematical model was devised to determine the rational placement of the processing capacity of the group.A simulation was conducted and an economic evaluation was performed on the effectiveness of investments in individual and group mining projects. The simulation results show that the joint exploitation of the reserves of the group of deposits, the internal rate of return on investments exceed the rate of return of funds to the bank deposit, the return on investment is above the level of inflation. The group project complies with the strategic line of small mining companies in terms of cost recovery terms, availability of financial sources to cover expenses, provision of stable means of income and obtaining competitive advantage.

  9. Applying information theory to small groups assessment: emotions and well-being at work.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Izquierdo, Antonio León; Moreno, Blanca; García-Izquierdo, Mariano

    2010-05-01

    This paper explores and analyzes the relations between emotions and well-being in a sample of aviation personnel, passenger crew (flight attendants). There is an increasing interest in studying the influence of emotions and its role as psychosocial factors in the work environment as they are able to act as facilitators or shock absorbers. The contrast of the theoretical models by using traditional parametric techniques requires a large sample size to the efficient estimation of the coefficients that quantify the relations between variables. Since the available sample that we have is small, the most common size in European enterprises, we used the maximum entropy principle to explore the emotions that are involved in the psychosocial risks. The analyses show that this method takes advantage of the limited information available and guarantee an optimal estimation, the results of which are coherent with theoretical models and numerous empirical researches about emotions and well-being.

  10. RETHINKING THE ROLE OF SMALL-GROUP COLLABORATORS AND ADVERSARIES IN THE LONDON KLEINIAN DEVELOPMENT (1914-1968).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguayo, Joseph; Regeczkey, Agnes

    2016-07-01

    The authors historically situate the London Kleinian development in terms of the small-group collaborations and adversaries that arose during the course of Melanie Klein's career. Some collaborations later became personally adversarial (e.g., those Klein had with Glover and Schmideberg); other adversarial relationships forever remained that way (with A. Freud); while still other long-term collaborations became theoretically contentious (such as with Winnicott and Heimann). After the Controversial Discussions in 1944, Klein marginalized one group of supporters (Heimann, Winnicott, and Riviere) in favor of another group (Rosenfeld, Segal, and Bion). After Klein's death in 1960, Bion maintained loyalty to Klein's ideas while quietly distancing his work from the London Klein group, immigrating to the United States in 1968. © 2016 The Psychoanalytic Quarterly, Inc.

  11. Ethics case reflection sessions: Enablers and barriers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartholdson, Cecilia; Molewijk, Bert; Lützén, Kim; Blomgren, Klas; Pergert, Pernilla

    2018-03-01

    In previous research on ethics case reflection (ECR) sessions about specific cases, healthcare professionals in childhood cancer care were clarifying their perspectives on the ethical issue to resolve their main concern of consolidating care. When perspectives were clarified, consequences in the team included 'increased understanding', 'group strengthening' and 'decision grounding'. Additional analysis of the data was needed on conditions that could contribute to the quality of ECR sessions. The aim of this study was to explore conditions for clarifying perspectives during ECR sessions. Data were collected from observations and interviews and the results emerged from an inductive analysis using grounded theory. Participants and research context: Six observations during ECR sessions and 10 interviews were performed with healthcare professionals working in childhood cancer care and advanced paediatric homecare. Ethical considerations: The study was approved by a regional ethical review board. Participants were informed about their voluntary involvement and that they could withdraw their participation without explaining why. Two categories emerged: organizational enablers and barriers and team-related enablers and barriers. Organizational enablers and barriers included the following sub-categories: the timing of the ECR session, the structure during the ECR session and the climate during the ECR session. Sub-categories to team-related enablers and barriers were identified as space for inter-professional perspectives, varying levels of ethical skills and space for the patient's and the family's perspectives. Space for inter-professional perspectives included the dominance of a particular perspective that can result from hierarchical positions. The medical perspective is relevant for understanding the child's situation but should not dominate the ethical reflection. Conditions for ECR sessions have been explored and the new knowledge can be used when training

  12. Just forest governance: how small learning groups can have big impact

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mayers, James; Bhattacharya, Prodyut; Diaw, Chimere [and others

    2009-10-15

    Forests are power bases, but often for the wrong people. As attention turns from making an international deal on REDD to making it work on the ground, the hunt will be on for practical ways of shifting power over forests towards those who enable and pursue sustainable forest-linked livelihoods. The Forest Governance Learning Group – an alliance active in Cameroon, Ghana, India, Indonesia, Malawi, Mozambique, South Africa, Uganda and Vietnam – has developed practical tactics for securing safe space, provoking dialogue, building constituencies, wielding evidence and interacting politically. It has begun to have significant impacts. To deepen and widen those impacts, FGLG seeks allies.

  13. A model for warfare in stratified small-scale societies: The effect of within-group inequality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandit, Sagar; van Schaik, Carel

    2017-01-01

    In order to predict the features of non-raiding human warfare in small-scale, socially stratified societies, we study a coalitionary model of war that assumes that individuals participate voluntarily because their decisions serve to maximize fitness. Individual males join the coalition if war results in a net economic and thus fitness benefit. Within the model, viable offensive war ensues if the attacking coalition of males can overpower the defending coalition. We assume that the two groups will eventually fuse after a victory, with ranks arranged according to the fighting abilities of all males and that the new group will adopt the winning group’s skew in fitness payoffs. We ask whether asymmetries in skew, group size and the amount of resources controlled by a group affect the likelihood of successful war. The model shows, other things being equal, that (i) egalitarian groups are more likely to defeat their more despotic enemies, even when these are stronger, (ii) defection to enemy groups will be rare, unless the attacked group is far more despotic than the attacking one, and (iii) genocidal war is likely under a variety of conditions, in particular when the group under attack is more egalitarian. This simple optimality model accords with several empirically observed correlations in human warfare. Its success underlines the important role of egalitarianism in warfare. PMID:29228014

  14. Diffuse X-ray emission from the NGC 2300 group of galaxies - Implications for dark matter and galaxy evolution in small groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulchaey, John S.; Davis, David S.; Mushotzky, Richard F.; Burstein, David

    1993-01-01

    The discovery of diffuse X-ray emission from the NGC 2300 group of galaxies using the ROSAT Position Sensitive Proportional Counter is reported. The gas distributions is roughly symmetric and extends to a radius of at least 0.2/h(50) Mpc. A Raymond-Smith hot plasma model provides an excellent fit the X-ray spectrum with a best-fit value temperature of 0.9 + -/15 or - 0.14 keV and abundance 0.06 + 0/.12 or - 0.05 solar. The assumption of gravitational confinement leads to a total mass of the group of 3.0 + 0.4 or - 0.5 x 10 exp 13 solar. Baryons can reasonably account for 4 percent of this mass, and errors could push this number not higher than 10-15 percent. This is one of the strongest pieces of evidence that dark matter dominates small groups such as this one. The intragroup medium in this system has the lowest metal abundance yet found in diffuse gas in a group or cluster.

  15. Summary Of Session 3: How Should Accelerator Operations Be Organized?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bloemhard, R.; Stanek, M.

    2001-01-01

    The underlying structure and organization of a group strongly influences its effectiveness and efficiency. An operations group may develop a 'persistence of form' that prevents it from responding to changes in responsibilities and technology. Even if a group has been in existence for a long time, it is a good idea to re-evaluate its structure periodically. An organization can possess an aesthetic quality related to how simple and transparent its functions appear to users and other outsiders. Information and tasks should flow freely without undue impedance. In this session we examined the issue of group design from a variety of perspectives including both large and small labs, commercial operations and that of an 'expert' consultant. (author)

  16. Summary Of Session 3: How Should Accelerator Operations Be Organized?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bloemhard, R.; Stanek, M

    2001-07-01

    The underlying structure and organization of a group strongly influences its effectiveness and efficiency. An operations group may develop a 'persistence of form' that prevents it from responding to changes in responsibilities and technology. Even if a group has been in existence for a long time, it is a good idea to re-evaluate its structure periodically. An organization can possess an aesthetic quality related to how simple and transparent its functions appear to users and other outsiders. Information and tasks should flow freely without undue impedance. In this session we examined the issue of group design from a variety of perspectives including both large and small labs, commercial operations and that of an 'expert' consultant. (author)

  17. ICALEPS 2005 : opening session

    CERN Multimedia

    Maximilien Brice

    2005-01-01

    ICALEPCS 2005, the tenth International Conference on Accelerator and Large Experimental Physics Control Systems, will be held in Geneva, Switzerland, 10-14 Oct. 2005 at the International Conference Center Geneva (CICG). ICALEPCS 2005 thus falls in the year that UNESCO has declared the "World Year of Physics". ICALEPCS covers all aspects of control and operation of Experimental Physics facilities such as particle accelerators, particle detectors, optical telescopes, radio telescopes, nuclear fusion facilities like Tokamaks, nuclear reactors, lasers, etc .... Opening session by . A. Daneels (CERN): Introducting ICALEPCS 2005 . C.Lamprecht (Republic & State of Geneva): Welcome speech . J. Lister (EPFL): Welcome speech . J. Engelen (CERN): The machine and experiment challenges of LHC

  18. 98th LHCC meeting Agenda OPEN Session and CLOSED Session

    CERN Document Server

    CERN. Geneva

    2009-01-01

    OPEN Session on Wednesday, 8 July at 9h00-11h00 in Main Auditorium, Live webcast, followed by CLOSED Session, Conference room 160-1-009 11h20-17h00. CLOSED Session continued on Thursday, 9 July at 9h00-12h30

  19. Introduction of small and medium reactors in developing countries. Proceedings of two advisory group meetings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-02-01

    This publication presents material submitted both by vendor and interested buyer organizations and conclusions drawn from the discussions of these contributions at two Advisory Group meetings on the SMR introduction in developing countries. A few papers were prepared as follow-up contributions to the proceedings. The summary presents a review of the main areas related to SMR introduction and of relevant situations and activities in both industrialized and developing countries. It includes an assessment of the expected potential market and of relevant experience that may help developing countries in their efforts to introduce SMRs. Owing to the inclusion of several new designs, this TECDOC provides an update of the SMR status report (IAEA-TECDOC-881) published in 1996. It also reviews real time compact nuclear power plant simulators. Refs, figs, tabs.

  20. Introduction of small and medium reactors in developing countries. Proceedings of two advisory group meetings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-02-01

    This publication presents material submitted both by vendor and interested buyer organizations and conclusions drawn from the discussions of these contributions at two Advisory Group meetings on the SMR introduction in developing countries. A few papers were prepared as follow-up contributions to the proceedings. The summary presents a review of the main areas related to SMR introduction and of relevant situations and activities in both industrialized and developing countries. It includes an assessment of the expected potential market and of relevant experience that may help developing countries in their efforts to introduce SMRs. Owing to the inclusion of several new designs, this TECDOC provides an update of the SMR status report (IAEA-TECDOC-881) published in 1996. It also reviews real time compact nuclear power plant simulators

  1. ssDNA Pairing Accuracy Increases When Abasic Sites Divide Nucleotides into Small Groups.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandra Peacock-Villada

    Full Text Available Accurate sequence dependent pairing of single-stranded DNA (ssDNA molecules plays an important role in gene chips, DNA origami, and polymerase chain reactions. In many assays accurate pairing depends on mismatched sequences melting at lower temperatures than matched sequences; however, for sequences longer than ~10 nucleotides, single mismatches and correct matches have melting temperature differences of less than 3°C. We demonstrate that appropriately grouping of 35 bases in ssDNA using abasic sites increases the difference between the melting temperature of correct bases and the melting temperature of mismatched base pairings. Importantly, in the presence of appropriately spaced abasic sites mismatches near one end of a long dsDNA destabilize the annealing at the other end much more effectively than in systems without the abasic sites, suggesting that the dsDNA melts more uniformly in the presence of appropriately spaced abasic sites. In sum, the presence of appropriately spaced abasic sites allows temperature to more accurately discriminate correct base pairings from incorrect ones.

  2. Level of 90Sr in the urine of a small group of Finnish people

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Puhakainen, M.; Suomela, M.; Rahola, T.

    1999-01-01

    The aim of the study was to test the feasibility of the applied analysis method for 90 Sr and if possible to estimate the current level of the 90 Sr concentration in the urine. Urine samples were collected from seven Finnish volunteers in connection with studies of 137 Cs body burdens. The activity measurements of urine samples were performed 14 - 18 days after chemical separation of 90 Sr to allow ingrowing of 90 Y. The 90 Sr and 90 Y activities were measured simultaneously using a Quantulus liquid scintillation spectrometer. The detection limit for 90 Sr was 0.0033 Bq per sample, or 0.0007-0.0015 Bq 1 -1 . The 90 Sr activities in urine varied between 0.006 and 0.046 Bq 1 1 . The daily urinary excretion was found to be 0.007-0.018 Bq for the five volunteers that collected three-day urine samples. Assuming that the daily 90 Sr intake was constant and that 18% of the ingested activity was excreted in urine, the mean intake in the investigated group would vary between 0.039 and 0.1 Bq d -1 . Based on these estimated intake values the respective annual effective internal doses from 90 Sr and 90 Y varied from 0.4 to 1 Sv during the sampling period. (au)

  3. Small-group learning in an upper-level university biology class enhances academic performance and student attitudes toward group work.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaudet, Andrew D; Ramer, Leanne M; Nakonechny, Joanne; Cragg, Jacquelyn J; Ramer, Matt S

    2010-12-29

    To improve science learning, science educators' teaching tools need to address two major criteria: teaching practice should mirror our current understanding of the learning process; and science teaching should reflect scientific practice. We designed a small-group learning (SGL) model for a fourth year university neurobiology course using these criteria and studied student achievement and attitude in five course sections encompassing the transition from individual work-based to SGL course design. All students completed daily quizzes/assignments involving analysis of scientific data and the development of scientific models. Students in individual work-based (Individualistic) sections usually worked independently on these assignments, whereas SGL students completed assignments in permanent groups of six. SGL students had significantly higher final exam grades than Individualistic students. The transition to the SGL model was marked by a notable increase in 10th percentile exam grade (Individualistic: 47.5%; Initial SGL: 60%; Refined SGL: 65%), suggesting SGL enhanced achievement among the least prepared students. We also studied student achievement on paired quizzes: quizzes were first completed individually and submitted, and then completed as a group and submitted. The group quiz grade was higher than the individual quiz grade of the highest achiever in each group over the term. All students--even term high achievers--could benefit from the SGL environment. Additionally, entrance and exit surveys demonstrated student attitudes toward SGL were more positive at the end of the Refined SGL course. We assert that SGL is uniquely-positioned to promote effective learning in the science classroom.

  4. Who is the competent physics student? A study of students' positions and social interaction in small-group discussions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Due, Karin

    2014-06-01

    This article describes a study which explored the social interaction and the reproduction and challenge of gendered discourses in small group discussions in physics. Data for the study consisted of video recordings of eight upper secondary school groups solving physics problems and 15 audiotaped individual interviews with participating students. The analysis was based on gender theory viewing gender both as a process and a discourse. Specifically discursive psychology analysis was used to examine how students position themselves and their peers within discourses of physics and gender. The results of the study reveal how images of physics and of "skilled physics student" were constructed in the context of the interviews. These discourses were reconstructed in the students' discussions and their social interactions within groups. Traditional gendered positions were reconstructed, for example with boys positioned as more competent in physics than girls. These positions were however also resisted and challenged.

  5. Big hearts, small hands: a focus group study exploring parental food portion behaviours

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristina Curtis

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The development of healthy food portion sizes among families is deemed critical to childhood weight management; yet little is known about the interacting factors influencing parents’ portion control behaviours. This study aimed to use two synergistic theoretical models of behaviour: the COM-B model (Capability, Opportunity, Motivation – Behaviour and Theoretical Domains Framework (TDF to identify a broad spectrum of theoretically derived influences on parents’ portion control behaviours including examination of affective and habitual influences often excluded from prevailing theories of behaviour change. Methods Six focus groups exploring family weight management comprised of one with caseworkers (n = 4, four with parents of overweight children (n = 14 and one with parents of healthy weight children (n = 8. A thematic analysis was performed across the dataset where the TDF/COM-B were used as coding frameworks. Results To achieve the target behaviour, the behavioural analysis revealed the need for eliciting change in all three COM-B domains and nine associated TDF domains. Findings suggest parents’ internal processes such as their emotional responses, habits and beliefs, along with social influences from partners and grandparents, and environmental influences relating to items such as household objects, interact to influence portion size behaviours within the home environment. Conclusion This is the first study underpinned by COM-B/TDF frameworks applied to childhood weight management and provides new targets for intervention development and the opportunity for future research to explore the mediating and moderating effects of these variables on one another.

  6. Setting the question for inquiry: The effects of whole class vs small group on student achievement in elementary science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavagnetto, Andy Roy

    This study was conducted to determine the effects of two different student-centered approaches to setting the question for inquiry. The first approach (whole class) consisted of students setting a single question for inquiry after which students worked in small groups during an investigation phase of the activity with all groups exploring the same question. The second approach (small group) consisted of each group of students setting a question resulting in numerous questions being explored per class. A mixed method quasi-experimental design was utilized. Two grade five teachers from a small rural school district in the Midwestern United States participated, each teaching two sections of science (approximately 25 students per section). Results indicate three major findings. Instructional approach (whole class vs. small group) did not effect student achievement in science or language arts. Observational data indicated the actions and skills teachers utilized to implement the approaches were similar. Specifically, the pedagogical skills of dialogical interaction (which was found to be influenced by teacher level of control of learning and teacher content knowledge) and effective rather than efficient use of time were identified as key factors in teachers' progression toward a student-centered, teacher-managed instructional approach. Unit exams along with qualitative and quantitative teacher observation data indicated that these factors do have an impact on student achievement. Specifically increased dialogical interaction in the forms of greater student voice, and increased cognitive demands placed on students by embedding and emphasizing science argument within the student inquiry corresponded to positive gains in student achievement. Additionally, teacher's perception of student abilities was also found to influence professional growth. Finally, allowing students to set the questions for inquiry and design the experiments impact the classroom environment as teacher

  7. Small-Group Randomized Controlled Trial to Increase Condom Use and HIV Testing Among Hispanic/Latino Gay, Bisexual, and Other Men Who Have Sex With Men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhodes, Scott D; Alonzo, Jorge; Mann, Lilli; Song, Eunyoung Y; Tanner, Amanda E; Arellano, Jorge Elias; Rodriguez-Celedon, Rodrigo; Garcia, Manuel; Freeman, Arin; Reboussin, Beth A; Painter, Thomas M

    2017-06-01

    To evaluate the HOLA en Grupos intervention, a Spanish-language small-group behavioral HIV prevention intervention designed to increase condom use and HIV testing among Hispanic/Latino gay, bisexual, and other men who have sex with men. In 2012 to 2015, we recruited and randomized 304 Hispanic/Latino men who have sex with men, aged 18 to 55 years in North Carolina, to the 4-session HOLA en Grupos intervention or an attention-equivalent general health education comparison intervention. Participants completed structured assessments at baseline and 6-month follow-up. Follow-up retention was 100%. At follow-up, relative to comparison participants, HOLA en Grupos participants reported increased consistent condom use during the past 3 months (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 4.1; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 2.2, 7.9; P < .001) and HIV testing during the past 6 months (AOR = 13.8; 95% CI = 7.6, 25.3; P < .001). HOLA en Grupos participants also reported increased knowledge of HIV (P < .001) and sexually transmitted infections (P < .001); condom use skills (P < .001), self-efficacy (P < .001), expectancies (P < .001), and intentions (P < .001); sexual communication skills (P < .01); and decreased fatalism (P < .001). The HOLA en Grupos intervention is efficacious for reducing HIV risk behaviors among Hispanic/Latino men who have sex with men.

  8. Do medical students generate sound arguments during small group discussions in problem-based learning?: an analysis of preclinical medical students' argumentation according to a framework of hypothetico-deductive reasoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ju, Hyunjung; Choi, Ikseon; Yoon, Bo Young

    2017-06-01

    Hypothetico-deductive reasoning (HDR) is an essential learning activity and a learning outcome in problem-based learning (PBL). It is important for medical students to engage in the HDR process through argumentation during their small group discussions in PBL. This study aimed to analyze the quality of preclinical medical students' argumentation according to each phase of HDR in PBL. Participants were 15 first-year preclinical students divided into two small groups. A set of three 2-hour discussion sessions from each of the two groups during a 1-week-long PBL unit on the cardiovascular system was audio-recorded. The arguments constructed by the students were analyzed using a coding scheme, which included four types of argumentation (Type 0: incomplete, Type 1: claim only, Type 2: claim with data, and Type 3: claim with data and warrant). The mean frequency of each type of argumentation according to each HDR phase across the two small groups was calculated. During small group discussions, Type 1 arguments were generated most often (frequency=120.5, 43%), whereas the least common were Type 3 arguments (frequency=24.5, 8.7%) among the four types of arguments. The results of this study revealed that the students predominantly made claims without proper justifications; they often omitted data for supporting their claims or did not provide warrants to connect the claims and data. The findings suggest instructional interventions to enhance the quality of medical students' arguments in PBL, including promoting students' comprehension of the structure of argumentation for HDR processes and questioning.

  9. Session Types at the Mirror

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luca Padovani

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available We (redefine session types as projections of process behaviors with respect to the communication channels they use. In this setting, we give session types a semantics based on fair testing. The outcome is a unified theory of behavioral types that shares common aspects with conversation types and that encompass features of both dyadic and multi-party session types. The point of view we provide sheds light on the nature of session types and gives us a chance to reason about them in a framework where every notion, from well-typedness to the subtyping relation between session types, is semantically -rather than syntactically- grounded.

  10. How do small groups make decisions? : A theoretical framework to inform the implementation and study of clinical competency committees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chahine, Saad; Cristancho, Sayra; Padgett, Jessica; Lingard, Lorelei

    2017-06-01

    In the competency-based medical education (CBME) approach, clinical competency committees are responsible for making decisions about trainees' competence. However, we currently lack a theoretical model for group decision-making to inform this emerging assessment phenomenon. This paper proposes an organizing framework to study and guide the decision-making processes of clinical competency committees.This is an explanatory, non-exhaustive review, tailored to identify relevant theoretical and evidence-based papers related to small group decision-making. The search was conducted using Google Scholar, Web of Science, MEDLINE, ERIC, and PsycINFO for relevant literature. Using a thematic analysis, two researchers (SC & JP) met four times between April-June 2016 to consolidate the literature included in this review.Three theoretical orientations towards group decision-making emerged from the review: schema, constructivist, and social influence. Schema orientations focus on how groups use algorithms for decision-making. Constructivist orientations focus on how groups construct their shared understanding. Social influence orientations focus on how individual members influence the group's perspective on a decision. Moderators of decision-making relevant to all orientations include: guidelines, stressors, authority, and leadership.Clinical competency committees are the mechanisms by which groups of clinicians will be in charge of interpreting multiple assessment data points and coming to a shared decision about trainee competence. The way in which these committees make decisions can have huge implications for trainee progression and, ultimately, patient care. Therefore, there is a pressing need to build the science of how such group decision-making works in practice. This synthesis suggests a preliminary organizing framework that can be used in the implementation and study of clinical competency committees.

  11. Small Ubiquitin-like Modifier (SUMO) Conjugation Impedes Transcriptional Silencing by the Polycomb Group Repressor Sex Comb on Midleg*

    OpenAIRE

    Smith, Matthew; Mallin, Daniel R.; Simon, Jeffrey A.; Courey, Albert J.

    2011-01-01

    The Drosophila protein Sex Comb on Midleg (Scm) is a member of the Polycomb group (PcG), a set of transcriptional repressors that maintain silencing of homeotic genes during development. Recent findings have identified PcG proteins both as targets for modification by the small ubiquitin-like modifier (SUMO) protein and as catalytic components of the SUMO conjugation pathway. We have found that the SUMO-conjugating enzyme Ubc9 binds to Scm and that this interaction, which requires the Scm C-te...

  12. Occupational Safety and Health Conditions Aboard Small- and Medium-Size Fishing Vessels: Differences among Age Groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zytoon, Mohamed A; Basahel, Abdulrahman M

    2017-02-24

    Although marine fishing is one of the most hazardous occupations, research on the occupational safety and health (OSH) conditions aboard marine fishing vessels is scarce. For instance, little is known about the working conditions of vulnerable groups such as young and aging fishermen. The objective of the current paper is to study the OSH conditions of young and aging fishermen compared to middle-aged fishermen in the small- and medium-size (SM) marine fishing sector. A cross-sectional study was designed, and 686 fishermen working aboard SM fishing vessels were interviewed to collect information about their safety and health. The associations of physical and psychosocial work conditions with safety and health outcomes, e.g., injuries, illnesses and job satisfaction, are presented. The results of the current study can be utilized in the design of effective accident prevention and OSH training programs for the three age groups and in the regulation of working conditions aboard fishing vessels.

  13. The role of prophylactic cranial irradiation in regionally advanced non-small cell lung cancer. A Southwest Oncology Group Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rusch, V.W.; Griffin, B.R.; Livingston, R.B. (Univ. of Washington, Seattle (USA))

    1989-10-01

    Lung cancer is the most common malignant disease in the United States. Only the few tumors detected very early are curable, but there has been some progress in the management of more advanced non-small cell lung cancer, particularly in regionally inoperable disease. Prevention of central nervous system relapse is an important issue in this group of patients because brain metastases ultimately develop in 20% to 25% of them. Seventy-three patients with regionally advanced non-small cell lung cancer were entered into a Phase II trial of neutron chest radiotherapy sandwiched between four cycles of chemotherapy including cisplatin, vinblastine, and mitomycin C. Prophylactic cranial irradiation was administered concurrently with chest radiotherapy (3000 cGy in 10 fractions in 15 patients; 3600 cGy in 18 fractions in the remaining 50 patients). Patients underwent computed tomographic scan of the brain before treatment and every 3 months after treatment. The initial overall response rate was 79%, but 65 of the 73 patients have subsequently died of recurrent disease. Median follow-up is 9 months for all 73 patients and 26 months for eight long-term survivors. No patient who completed the prophylactic cranial irradiation program had clinical or radiologic brain metastases. Toxic reactions to prophylactic cranial irradiation included reversible alopecia in all patients, progressive dementia in one patient, and possible optic neuritis in one patient. Both of these patients received 300 cGy per fraction of irradiation. The use of prophylactic cranial irradiation has been controversial, but its safety and efficacy in this trial supports its application in a group of patients at high risk for central nervous system relapse. Further evaluation of prophylactic cranial irradiation in clinical trials for regionally advanced non-small cell lung cancer is warranted.

  14. Preserving third year medical students' empathy and enhancing self-reflection using small group "virtual hangout" technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duke, Pamela; Grosseman, Suely; Novack, Dennis H; Rosenzweig, Steven

    2015-01-01

    Medical student professionalism education is challenging in scope, purpose, and delivery, particularly in the clinical years when students in large universities are dispersed across multiple clinical sites. We initiated a faculty-facilitated, peer small group course for our third year students, creating virtual classrooms using social networking and online learning management system technologies. The course emphasized narrative self-reflection, group inquiry, and peer support. We conducted this study to analyze the effects of a professionalism course on third year medical students' empathy and self-reflection (two elements of professionalism) and their perceptions about the course. Students completed the Groningen Reflection Ability Scale (GRAS) and the Jefferson Scale of Empathy (JSE) before and after the course and provided anonymous online feedback. The results of the JSE before and after the course demonstrated preservation of empathy rather than its decline. In addition, there was a statistically significant increase in GRAS scores (p < 0.001), suggesting that the sharing of personal narratives may foster reflective ability and reflective practice among third year students. This study supports previous findings showing that students benefit from peer groups and discussion in a safe environment, which may include the use of a virtual group video platform.

  15. The Importance of End Groups for Solution-Processed Small-Molecule Bulk-Heterojunction Photovoltaic Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, Ruomeng; Cui, Yong; Zhao, Yanfei; Li, Chen; Chen, Long; Hou, Jianhui; Wagner, Manfred; Baumgarten, Martin; He, Chang; Müllen, Klaus

    2016-05-10

    End groups in small-molecule photovoltaic materials are important owing to their strong influence on molecular stability, solubility, energy levels, and aggregation behaviors. In this work, a series of donor-acceptor pentads (D2 -A-D1 -A-D2 ) were designed and synthesized, aiming to investigate the effect of the end groups on the materials properties and photovoltaic device performance. These molecules share identical central A-D1 -A triads (with benzodithiophene as D1 and 6-carbonyl-thieno[3,4-b]thiophene as A), but with various D2 end groups composed of alkyl-substituted thiophene (T), thieno[3,2-b]thiophene (TT), and 2,2'-bithiophene (BT). The results indicate a relationship between conjugated segment/alkyl chain length of the end groups and the photovoltaic performance, which contributes to the evolving molecular design principles for high efficiency organic solar cells. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  16. Comparison of the Effectiveness and Efficiency of Text Previewing and Preteaching Keywords as Small-Group Reading Comprehension Strategies with Middle-School Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burns, Matthew K.; Hodgson, Jennifer; Parker, David C.; Fremont, Kathryn

    2011-01-01

    Reading instruction for middle- and high-school students is focused on vocabulary and comprehension, yet research suggests that comprehension skills among these students are alarmingly low. Small-group reading interventions are becoming more prevalent in schools, but there are few studies regarding small-group reading comprehension interventions.…

  17. One-Way Functions and Composition of Conjugacy and Discrete Logarithm Problems in the Small Cancellation Groups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. V. Bezverkhniy

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper considers the possibility for building a one-way function in the small cancellation group. Thus, it uses the algorithm to solve the problem for a cyclic subgroup, also known as a discrete logarithm problem, and the algorithm to solve the word problem in this class of groups.Research is conducted using geometric methods of combinatorial group theory (the method of diagrams in groups.In public channel exchange of information are used one-way functions, direct calculation of which should be much less complicated than the calculation of the inverse function. The paper considers the combination of two problems: discrete logarithms and conjugacy. This leads to the problem of conjugate membership for a cyclic subgroup. The work proposes an algorithm based on this problem, which can be used as a basis in investigation of the appropriate one-way function for its fitness to build a public key distribution scheme.The study used doughnut charts of word conjugacy, and for one special class of such charts has been proven a property of the layer-based periodicity. The presence of such properties is obviously leads to a solution of the power conjugacy of words in the considered class of groups. Unfortunately, this study failed to show any periodicity of a doughnut chart, but for one of two possible classes this periodicity has been proven.The building process of one-way function considered in the paper was studied in terms of possibility to calculate both direct and inverse mappings. The computational complexity was not considered. Thus, the following two tasks were yet unresolved: determining the quality of one-way function in the above protocol of the public key distribution and completing the study of the periodicity of doughnut charts of word conjugacy, leading to a positive solution of the power conjugacy of words in the class groups under consideration.

  18. Astronauts and cosmonauts during emergency bailout training session

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-01-01

    Using small life rafts, several cosmonauts and astronauts participating in joint Russia - United States space missions take part in an emergency bailout training session in the JSC Weightless Environment Training Facility (WETF) 25-feet-deep pool. In the

  19. Multiple group I introns in the small-subunit rDNA of Botryosphaeria dothidea: implication for intraspecific genetic diversity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chao Xu

    Full Text Available Botryosphaeria dothidea is a widespread and economically important pathogen on various fruit trees, and it often causes die-back and canker on limbs and fruit rot. In characterizing intraspecies genetic variation within this fungus, group I introns, rich in rDNA of fungi, may provide a productive region for exploration. In this research, we analysed complete small subunit (SSU ribosomal DNA (rDNA sequences of 37 B. dothidea strains, and found four insertions, designated Bdo.S943, Bdo.S1199-A, Bdo.S1199-B and Bdo.S1506, at three positions. Sequence analysis and structure prediction revealed that both Bdo.S943 and Bdo.S1506 belonged to subgroup IC1 of group I introns, whereas Bdo.S1199-A and Bdo.S1199-B corresponded to group IE introns. Moreover, Bdo.S1199-A was found to host an open reading frame (ORF for encoding the homing endonuclease (HE, whereas Bdo.S1199-B, an evolutionary descendant of Bdo.S1199-A, included a degenerate HE. The above four introns were novel, and were the first group I introns observed and characterized in this species. Differential distribution of these introns revealed that all strains could be separated into four genotypes. Genotype III (no intron and genotype IV (Bdo.S1199-B were each found in only one strain, whereas genotype I (Bdo.S1199-A and genotype II (Bdo.S943 and Bdo.S1506 occurred in 95% of the strains. There is a correlation between B. dothidea genotypes and hosts or geographic locations. Thus, these newly discovered group I introns can help to advance understanding of genetic differentiation within B. dothidea.

  20. Attendance at NHS mandatory training sessions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brand, Darren

    2015-02-17

    To identify factors that affect NHS healthcare professionals' attendance at mandatory training sessions. A quantitative approach was used, with a questionnaire sent to 400 randomly selected participants. A total of 122 responses were received, providing a mix of qualitative and quantitative data. Quantitative data were analysed using statistical methods. Open-ended responses were reviewed using thematic analysis. Clinical staff value mandatory training sessions highly. They are aware of the requirement to keep practice up-to-date and ensure patient safety remains a priority. However, changes to the delivery format of mandatory training sessions are required to enable staff to participate more easily, as staff are often unable to attend. The delivery of mandatory training should move from classroom-based sessions into the clinical area to maximise participation. Delivery should be assisted by local 'experts' who are able to customise course content to meet local requirements and the requirements of different staff groups. Improved arrangements to provide staff cover, for those attending training, would enable more staff to attend training sessions.

  1. Formal description of the OSI session layer: session service

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Sinderen, Marten J.; van Eijk, P.H.J.; Vissers, C.A.; Diaz, M.

    1989-01-01

    The LOTOS formal description of the OSI session service is presented on basis of specification samples from the full description, giving account of how specification styles and session service architectural elements are reflected in the description. Both information (data types) and process

  2. Negotiating the Inquiry Question: A Comparison of Whole Class and Small Group Strategies in Grade Five Science Classrooms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavagnetto, Andy R.; Hand, Brian; Norton-Meier, Lori

    2011-03-01

    The purpose of this study is to examine the effect of two strategies for negotiating the question for exploration during science inquiry on student achievement and teachers' perceptions. The study is set in the context of the Science Writing Heuristic. The first strategy (small group) consisted of each group of four students negotiating a question for inquiry with the teacher while the second strategy (whole class) consisted of the entire class negotiating a single question for inquiry with the teacher. The study utilized a mixed-method approach. A quasi-experimental repeated measures design was used to determine the effect of strategy on student achievement and semi-structured teacher interviews were used to probe the question of teacher perceptions of the two strategies. Teacher observations were conducted using the Reformed Teaching Observation Protocol (RTOP) to check for variation in implementation of the two strategies. Iowa Test of Basic Skills Science (ITBSS) (2005 and 2006) and teacher/researcher developed unit exams (pre and post) were used as student achievement measures. No statistically significant differences were found among students in the two treatment groups on the ITBSS or unit exams. RTOP observations suggest that teacher implementation was consistent across the two treatment strategies. Teachers disclosed personal preferences for the two strategies, indicating the whole class treatment was easier to manage (at least at the beginning of the school year) as students gained experience with science inquiry and the associated increased responsibility. Possible mechanisms linking the two strategies, negotiated questions, and student outcomes are discussed.

  3. Traffic represents the main source of pollution in small Mediterranean urban areas as seen by lichen functional groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Llop, Esteve; Pinho, Pedro; Ribeiro, Manuel C; Pereira, Maria João; Branquinho, Cristina

    2017-05-01

    The land-use type (residential, green areas, and traffic) within relatively small Mediterranean urban areas determines significant changes on lichen diversity, considering species richness and functional groups related to different ecological factors. Those areas with larger volume of traffic hold lower species diversity, in terms of species richness and lichen diversity value (LDV). Traffic areas also affect the composition of the lichen community, which is evidenced by sensitive species. The abundance of species of lichens tolerant to low levels of eutrophication diminishes in traffic areas; oppositely, those areas show a higher abundance of species of lichens tolerating high levels of eutrophication. On the other hand, residential and green areas have an opposite pattern, mainly with species highly tolerant to eutrophication being less abundant than low or moderate ones. The characteristics of tree bark do not seem to affect excessively on lichen composition; however, tree species shows some effect that should be considered in further studies.

  4. Single case design studies in music therapy: resurrecting experimental evidence in small group and individual music therapy clinical settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geist, Kamile; Hitchcock, John H

    2014-01-01

    The profession would benefit from greater and routine generation of causal evidence pertaining to the impact of music therapy interventions on client outcomes. One way to meet this goal is to revisit the use of Single Case Designs (SCDs) in clinical practice and research endeavors in music therapy. Given the appropriate setting and goals, this design can be accomplished with small sample sizes and it is often appropriate for studying music therapy interventions. In this article, we promote and discuss implementation of SCD studies in music therapy settings, review the meaning of internal study validity and by extension the notion of causality, and describe two of the most commonly used SCDs to demonstrate how they can help generate causal evidence to inform the field. In closing, we describe the need for replication and future meta-analysis of SCD studies completed in music therapy settings. SCD studies are both feasible and appropriate for use in music therapy clinical practice settings, particularly for testing effectiveness of interventions for individuals or small groups. © the American Music Therapy Association 2014. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  5. INFRARED AND RADIO OBSERVATIONS OF A SMALL GROUP OF PROTOSTELLAR OBJECTS IN THE MOLECULAR CORE, L1251-C

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jungha; Lee, Jeong-Eun [School of Space Research, Kyung Hee University, Yongin-Si, Gyeonggi-Do 446-701 (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Minho; Kang, Miju [Korea Astronomy and Space Science Institute, 776 Daedeokdaero, Yuseong, Daejeon 305-348 (Korea, Republic of); Bourke, Tyler L. [Square Kilometre Array Organisation, Jodrell Bank Observatory, Lower Withington, Cheshire SK11 9DL (United Kingdom); II, Neal J. Evans [Department of Astronomy, University of Texas at Austin, 2515 Speedway, Stop C1400, Austin, TX 78712-1205 (United States); Francesco, James Di [National Research Council Canada, Herzberg Institute of Astrophysics, Victoria, BC (Canada); Cieza, Lucas A. [Universidad Diego Portales, Facultad de Ingeniera, Av. Ejército 441, Santiago (Chile); Dunham, Michael M. [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States)

    2015-05-15

    We present a multi-wavelength observational study of a low-mass star-forming region, L1251-C, with observational results at wavelengths from the near-infrared to the millimeter. Spitzer Space Telescope observations confirmed that IRAS 22343+7501 is a small group of protostellar objects. The extended emission in the east–west direction with its intensity peak at the center of L1251A has been detected at 350 and 850 μm with the Caltech Submillimeter Observatory and James Clerk Maxwell telescopes, tracing dense envelope material around L1251A. The single-dish data from the Korean VLBI Network and TRAO telescopes show inconsistencies between the intensity peaks of several molecular emission lines and that of the continuum emission, suggesting complex distributions of molecular abundances around L1251A. The Submillimeter Array interferometer data, however, show intensity peaks of CO 2–1 and {sup 13}CO 2–1 located at the position of IRS 1, which is both the brightest source in the Infrared Array Camera image and the weakest source in the 1.3 mm dust-continuum map. IRS 1 is the strongest candidate for the driving source of the newly detected compact CO 2–1 outflow. Over the entire region (14′ × 14′) of L125l-C, 3 Class I and 16 Class II sources have been detected, including three young stellar objects (YSOs) in L1251A. A comparison between the average projected distance among the 19 YSOs in L1251-C and that among the 3 YSOs in L1251A suggests that L1251-C is an example of low-mass cluster formation where protostellar objects form in a small group.

  6. Adaptations to short, frequent sessions of endurance and strength training are similar to longer, less frequent exercise sessions when the total volume is the same

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kilen, Anders; Hjelvang, Line B; Dall, Niels

    2015-01-01

    ]: n = 21) performed nine 15-minute training sessions weekly, whereas a second group ("classical training" [CL]: n = 8) completed exactly the same training on a weekly basis but as three 45-minute sessions. For each group, each session comprised exclusively strength, high-intensity cardiovascular...

  7. The effects of session length on demand functions generated using FR schedules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, T Mary; Kinloch, Jennifer; Poling, Alan

    2011-05-01

    In comparing open and closed economies, researchers often arrange shorter sessions under the former condition than under the latter. Several studies indicate that session length per se can affect performance and there are some data that indicate that this variable can influence demand functions. To provide further data, the present study exposed domestic hens to series of increasing fixed-ratio schedules with the length of the open-economy sessions varied over 10, 40, 60, and 120 min. Session time affected the total-session response rates and pause lengths. The shortest session gave the greatest response rates and shortest pauses and the longest gave the lowest response rates and longest pauses. The total-session demand functions also changed with session length: The shortest session gave steeper initial slopes (i.e., the functions were more elastic at small ratios) and smaller rates of change of elasticity than the longest session. Response rates, pauses, and demand functions were, however, similar for equivalent periods of responding taken from within sessions of different overall lengths (e.g., total-session data for 10-min sessions and the data for the first 10 min of 120-min sessions). These findings suggest that differences in session length can confound the results of studies comparing open and closed economies when those economies are arranged in sessions that differ substantially in length, hence data for equivalent-length periods of responding, rather than total-session data, should be of primary interest under these conditions.

  8. Review for session K - benchmarks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCracken, A.K.

    1980-01-01

    Eight of the papers to be considered in Session K are directly concerned, at least in part, with the Pool Critical Assembly (P.C.A.) benchmark at Oak Ridge. The remaining seven papers in this session, the subject of this review, are concerned with a variety of topics related to the general theme of Benchmarks and will be considered individually

  9. DFT Study of Electronic and Optical Properties of Small Oligothiophenes Based on Terthiophene End-capped by Several Donor Groups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    El Alamy Aziz

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Eight small molecules based on terthiophene end-capped by several donor groups have been carried out using density functional theory (DFT and time-dependent (TDDFT methods in neutral and doped states. The theoretical ground-state geometry, electronic structure and optical properties of the studied molecules were obtained by the DFT and TD-DFT methods at the B3LYP level with 6-31G(d basis set. Theoretical knowledge of the highest occupied molecular orbital (HOMO, the lowest unoccupied molecular orbital (LUMO energy levels the gap energy (Eg and the open-circuit voltage (Voc of the studied compounds are calculated and discussed. The effects of the donor group substituents on the geometries and optoelectronic properties of these materials are discussed to investigate the relationship between molecular structure and optoelectronic properties. The results of this work suggest some of these materials as a good candidate for organic solar cells. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.17807/orbital.v9i3.995

  10. Working session 4: Preventative and corrective measures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clark, R.; Slama, G.

    1997-01-01

    The Preventive and Corrective Measures working session included 13 members from France, Germany, Japan, Spain, Slovenia, and the United States. Attendee experience included regulators, utilities, three steam generator vendors, consultants and researchers. Discussions centered on four principal topics: (1) alternate materials, (2) mechanical mitigation, (3) maintenance, and (4) water chemistry. New or replacement steam generators and original equipment steam generators were separately addressed. Four papers were presented to the session, to provide information and stimulate various discussion topics. Topics discussed and issues raised during the several meeting sessions are provided below, followed by summary conclusions and recommendations on which the group was able to reach a majority consensus. The working session was composed of individuals with diverse experience and varied areas of specialized expertise. The somewhat broad range of topics addressed by the group at times saw discussion participation by only a few individuals. As in any technical meeting where all are allowed the opportunity to speak their mind, straying from an Individual topic was not unusual. Where useful, these stray topics are also presented below within the context In which they occurred. The main categories of discussion were: minimize sludge; new steam generators; maintenance; mechanical mitigation; water chemistry

  11. Identification of risk groups in patients with completely resected N1 non-small cell lung carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sawyer, T.E.; Bonner, J.A.; Gould, P.J.; Foote, R.L.; Deschamps, C.; Trastek, V.F.; Pairolero, P.C.; Allen, M.S.; Lange, C. M.; Li, H.

    1997-01-01

    Purpose: Although the potential benefits of radiation therapy and chemotherapy in the management of completely resected AJCC N1 non-small cell lung cancer are unknown, the majority of studies have failed to demonstrate a survival benefit with any neoadjuvant or adjuvant therapy. While it is possible that radiation therapy and chemotherapy are ineffective adjunctive therapies in this disease, it is also possible that previous studies have been diluted by the inclusion of patients at low risk for local recurrence and/or distant metastasis and therefore, this study was undertaken to assess these risks. Methods: From 1987 through 1990, 107 patients underwent complete resection of AJCC N1 non-small cell lung carcinoma and received no other treatment. These patients were the subject of a retrospective review to separate patients into high-, medium-, and low-risk groups with respect to freedom from local recurrence (FFLR), freedom from distant metastasis (FFDM), and overall survival (OS) utilizing a regression analysis of Cox and a regression tree analysis (Breiman LI et al, Wadsworth International Group, Belmont, CA 1984). Results: The 5-year rates of FFLR, FFDM, and OS were 62%, 53%, and 32% respectively. The following factors were assessed for potential relationships with FFLR, FFDM, and OS: status of the pre-operative bronchoscopy, type of surgery performed (segmentectomy/wedge resection vs. lobectomy vs. bilobectomy/pneumonectomy), number of involved N1 nodes, number of involved N1 stations, number of N1 nodes removed, number of N2 nodes removed, number of lung lobes involved, tumor grade, tumor histology (squamous vs non-squamous), AJCC T-stage, pathologic tumor size, and pathologic margin status. Regression analyses revealed that the factors independently associated with an improved outcome included a positive bronchoscopy (FFLR, p=.005), a greater number of N1 nodes dissected (FFDM, p=.02), and a lesser T-stage (OS, p=.01). Regression tree analyses were then

  12. A path less traveled: A self-guided action science inquiry among a small group of adult learners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Folkman, Daniel Vance

    This dissertation provides an analysis of the dialogue that occurred among a small group of adult learners who engaged in a self-guided action science inquiry into their own practice. The following pages describe how this group of five practitioners ventured into a critical, self-reflective inquiry into their own values, feelings, and intentions in search of personal and professional growth. It is a deeply revealing story that shows how, through group dialogue, the members gradually unravel the interconnections between their values, feelings, and intention. They uncover surprising and unanticipated patterns in their reasoning-in-action that reflect lessons from present day experiences as well as childhood axioms about what constitutes appropriate behavior. They push their learning further to recognize emotional triggers that are useful in confronting old habits of mind that must be overcome if new Model II strategies are to be learned and internalized. They conclude that becoming Model II requires a centering on basic values, a personal commitment to change, a willingness to persist in the face of resistance, and the wisdom to act with deliberate caution. The transformative power of this insight lies in the realization of what it takes personally and collectively to make the world a truly respectful, productive, democratic, and socially just place in which to live and work. The action science literature holds the assumption that a trained facilitator is needed to guide such an inquiry and the learning of Model II skills. Unfortunately, there are few educator-trainers available to facilitate the learning of Model II proficiencies over the months and years that may be required. The data presented here show that it is possible for a group of highly motivated individuals to initiate and sustain their own action science inquiry without the aid of a highly skilled facilitator. A model of the group dialogue is presented that highlights the salient characteristics of an

  13. H.R. 3593: This act may be cited as the Department of Energy Small Business and Industry Partnership Enhancement Act of 1998, introduced in the House of Representatives, One Hundred Fifth Congress, Second Session, March 30, 1998

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-01-01

    The purposes of this Act are to improve the ability of small businesses, Federal agencies, industry, and universities to work with the contractor-operated facilities of the Department of Energy while ensuring full cost recovery of each contractor-operated facility's expenses incurred in such work; to encourage the contractor-operated facilities to expand their partnerships with universities and industries; and to expand interactions of contractor-operated facilities with small businesses so as to encourage commercial evaluation and development of the science and technology base of the contractor-operated facilities; and provide technical assistance to small businesses

  14. Session II-D. Systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hall, R.J.

    1981-01-01

    The objectives of the Systems Task in the NWTS Program include: development of program requirements, allocation of the requirements to subsystems or tasks, integration of the task activities towards meeting the overall requirements, and assessment of progress towards achievement of the program mission. The Systems Task also includes a number of ancillary activities which are necessary to the program but which do not logically fall into other work-breakdown structure elements. Activities in the Systems Task, which in the NWTS Program are conducted at both the program and project levels, are generally grouped under the heading systems engineering and include identification of requirements, development of a baseline, integration of the system, baseline control, functional analyses, trade-off studies, and system analyses. The following papers in this session address some of the activities and progress that was achieved in the Systems Task in FY 1981: (1) waste isolation system alternatives: a cost comparison; (2) BWIP technical integration and control; (3) BWIP performance evaluation process: a criteria based method; (4) impacts of waste age; (5) systems studies of subseabed disposal; and (6) systems studies of waste transportation

  15. The Abundances of the Fe Group Elements in AV 304, an Abundance Standard in the Small Magellanic Cloud

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, Geraldine J.; Lanz, Thierry; Bouret, Jean-Claude; Proffitt, Charles R.; Adelman, Saul J.; Hubeny, Ivan

    2018-06-01

    AV 304 is a B0.5 IV field star in the Small Magellanic Cloud with ultra-sharp spectral lines that has emerged as an abundance standard. We have combined recent spectroscopic observations from the Cosmic Origins Spectrograph (COS) on the Hubble Space Telescope with archival data from the Far Ultraviolet Spectroscopic Explorer (FUSE) and ESO’s VLT/UVES to determine the abundances of the Fe group elements (Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, & Ni). The analysis was carried through using the Hubeny/Lanz NLTE programs TLUSTY/SYNSPEC. The COS observations were secured with the G130M, G160M, G185M, and G225M gratings. Combined with the FUSE data, we have achieved spectral coverage in the UV from 950 to 2400 A. Measurable lines from the Fe group, except for a very few multiplets of Fe II, III are not observed in optical spectra. The following stellar parameters were found: Teff = 27500±500 K, log g = 3.7±0.1 cm/s2, Vturb= 1±1 km/s, and v sin i = 8 ±2 km/s. The Fe abundance appears to be only slightly lower than the mean depletion in the SMC, but the other Fe group elements are underabundant by 0.3 dex or more. This study confirmed the low abundance of nitrogen (-1.25 dex relative to the solar value) that was reported by Peters & Adelman (ASP Conf. Series, 348, p. 136, 2006). Whereas the light elements are delivered to the ISM by core-collapse supernovae (CCSNe), the Fe group elements are believed to come mostly from low/intermediate mass binaries containing white dwarfs that undergo SNe Ia explosions. A single SNe Ia can deliver 0.5 solar masses of pure Fe (and maybe Mn) to the ISM compared with about 0.07 solar masses from a CCSNe. It appears that there is very little processed material from its interior in the atmosphere of AV 304 and that the star did not form from an interstellar cloud that was enriched by material from earlier supernova activity. Support from STScI grants HST-GO-14081.002 and HST-GO-13346.022, and USC’s Women in Science and Engineering (WiSE) program is

  16. Faculty Development for Small-Group-Teaching with Simulated Patients (SP) - Design and Evaluation of a Competency-based Workshop.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hölzer, Henrike; Freytag, Julia; Sonntag, Ulrike

    2017-01-01

    Objective: The introduction of innovative teaching formats and methods in medical education requires a specific didactic training for teachers to use complicated formats effectively. This paper describes preliminary considerations, design, implementation and evaluation of a skills-based workshop (7,5 hours long) for teaching with simulated patients. The aim is to describe the essential components for a lasting effect of the workshop so that the concept can be adapted to other contexts. Method: We present the theoretical framework, the objectives, the didactic methodology and the implementation of the workshop. The evaluation of the workshop was carried out using questionnaires. First the participants (teachers of the faculty of medicine, clinical and science subjects) were asked to estimate how well they felt prepared for small group teaching immediately after workshop. Later, after some teaching experience of their own, they gave feedback again as a part of the general evaluation of the semester. Results: In the course of three years 27 trainings were conducted and evaluated with a total of 275 participants. In the context of semester evaluation 452 questionnaires were evaluated on the quality of training. Conclusion: The evaluation shows that participants appreciate the concept of the workshop and also feel sufficiently well prepared. As a limitation it must be said that this is so far only the lecturers' self-assessment. Nevertheless, it can be stated that even a one-day workshop with a stringent teaching concept shows long term results regarding innovative teaching methods.

  17. [Development of clinical trial education program for pharmaceutical science students through small group discussion and role-playing using protocol].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imakyure, Osamu; Shuto, Hideki; Nishikawa, Fumi; Hagiwara, Yoshifuka; Inoue, Sachiko; Koyanagi, Taeko; Hirakawa, Masaaki; Kataoka, Yasufumi

    2010-08-01

    The acquirement of basic knowledge of clinical trials and professional attitude in their practices is a general instructional objective in the Model Core Curriculum for Pharmaceutical Education. Unfortunately, the previous program of clinical trial education was not effective in the acquirement of a professional attitude in their practices. Then, we developed the new clinical trial education program using protocol through small group discussion (SGD) and roll-playing. Our program consists of 7 steps of practical training. In step 1, the students find some problems after presentation of the protocol including case and prescription. In step 2, they analyse the extracted problems and share the information obtained in SGD. In steps 3 and 5, five clinical case scenarios are presented to the students and they discuss which case is suitable for entry to the clinical trial or which case corresponds to the discontinuance criteria in the present designed protocol. In steps 4 and 6, the roll-playing is performed by teachers and students as doctors and clinical research coordinators (CRC) respectively. Further, we conducted a trial practice based on this program for the students. In the student's self-evaluation into five grades, the average score of the skill acquisition level in each step was 3.8-4.7 grade. Our clinical trial education program could be effective in educating the candidates for CRC or clinical pharmacists.

  18. Small ubiquitin-like modifier (SUMO) conjugation impedes transcriptional silencing by the polycomb group repressor Sex Comb on Midleg.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Matthew; Mallin, Daniel R; Simon, Jeffrey A; Courey, Albert J

    2011-04-01

    The Drosophila protein Sex Comb on Midleg (Scm) is a member of the Polycomb group (PcG), a set of transcriptional repressors that maintain silencing of homeotic genes during development. Recent findings have identified PcG proteins both as targets for modification by the small ubiquitin-like modifier (SUMO) protein and as catalytic components of the SUMO conjugation pathway. We have found that the SUMO-conjugating enzyme Ubc9 binds to Scm and that this interaction, which requires the Scm C-terminal sterile α motif (SAM) domain, is crucial for the efficient sumoylation of Scm. Scm is associated with the major Polycomb response element (PRE) of the homeotic gene Ultrabithorax (Ubx), and efficient PRE recruitment requires an intact Scm SAM domain. Global reduction of sumoylation augments binding of Scm to the PRE. This is likely to be a direct effect of Scm sumoylation because mutations in the SUMO acceptor sites in Scm enhance its recruitment to the PRE, whereas translational fusion of SUMO to the Scm N terminus interferes with this recruitment. In the metathorax, Ubx expression promotes haltere formation and suppresses wing development. When SUMO levels are reduced, we observe decreased expression of Ubx and partial haltere-to-wing transformation phenotypes. These observations suggest that SUMO negatively regulates Scm function by impeding its recruitment to the Ubx major PRE.

  19. Small Ubiquitin-like Modifier (SUMO) Conjugation Impedes Transcriptional Silencing by the Polycomb Group Repressor Sex Comb on Midleg*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Matthew; Mallin, Daniel R.; Simon, Jeffrey A.; Courey, Albert J.

    2011-01-01

    The Drosophila protein Sex Comb on Midleg (Scm) is a member of the Polycomb group (PcG), a set of transcriptional repressors that maintain silencing of homeotic genes during development. Recent findings have identified PcG proteins both as targets for modification by the small ubiquitin-like modifier (SUMO) protein and as catalytic components of the SUMO conjugation pathway. We have found that the SUMO-conjugating enzyme Ubc9 binds to Scm and that this interaction, which requires the Scm C-terminal sterile α motif (SAM) domain, is crucial for the efficient sumoylation of Scm. Scm is associated with the major Polycomb response element (PRE) of the homeotic gene Ultrabithorax (Ubx), and efficient PRE recruitment requires an intact Scm SAM domain. Global reduction of sumoylation augments binding of Scm to the PRE. This is likely to be a direct effect of Scm sumoylation because mutations in the SUMO acceptor sites in Scm enhance its recruitment to the PRE, whereas translational fusion of SUMO to the Scm N terminus interferes with this recruitment. In the metathorax, Ubx expression promotes haltere formation and suppresses wing development. When SUMO levels are reduced, we observe decreased expression of Ubx and partial haltere-to-wing transformation phenotypes. These observations suggest that SUMO negatively regulates Scm function by impeding its recruitment to the Ubx major PRE. PMID:21278366

  20. 77 FR 42790 - Notice of Funding Availability for the Small Business Transportation Resource Center Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-20

    ... subcontracts portfolio. 3. Provide a minimum of 20 hours of individual or group counseling sessions to small..., business assessment, management training, counseling, marketing and outreach, and the dissemination of... dissemination, small business counseling, and technical assistance with small businesses currently doing...

  1. Mathematics Intensive Summer Session (MISS). Final technical report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-11-01

    This final technical report appears in two parts: the report for the 1995 summer MISS program and the report for the 1996 summer MISS program. Copies of the US Department of Energy Pre-Freshman Enrichment Program 1995 Entry Form and 1996 Entry Form completed by all participants were sent to the Oak Ridge Institute for Science and Education in the fall of 1995 and 1996 respectively. Those forms are on file should they be needed. Attached also is a copy of the Summary of ideas for panel discussions, problem-solving sessions, or small group discussions presented at the Department of Energy Oak Ridge Institute for Science and Education Pre-Freshman Enrichment Program Project Directors Meeting held in San Antonio, TX, November 12--14, 1995.

  2. Who Is the Competent Physics Student? A Study of Students' Positions and Social Interaction in Small-Group Discussions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Due, Karin

    2014-01-01

    This article describes a study which explored the social interaction and the reproduction and challenge of gendered discourses in small group discussions in physics. Data for the study consisted of video recordings of eight upper secondary school groups solving physics problems and 15 audiotaped individual interviews with participating students.…

  3. Temozolomide in patients with advanced non-small cell lung cancer with and without brain metastases. a phase II study of the EORTC Lung Cancer Group (08965).

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dziadziuszko, R; Ardizzoni, A.; Postmus, P.E.; Smit, E.F.; Price, A; Debruyne, C.; Legrand, C; Giaccone, G.

    2003-01-01

    This study was performed to evaluate the activity of single-agent temozolomide in two groups of chemotherapy-naive non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients, with (12 patients) and without (13 patients) brain metastases (BM). Patients in both groups were treated with temozolomide 200 mg/m(2)/day,

  4. A Band of Sisters: The Impact of Long-Term Small Group Participation--Forty Years in a Women's Prayer and Bible Study Group

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawson, Kevin E.

    2006-01-01

    This article reports on a case study of a women's prayer and Bible study group that has met for over forty years. The report focuses on factors contributing to the group's longevity and vitality over time, how it changed over the years, and its impact on the lives of the women who participated in it. It also addresses how this long-term group…

  5. Poster Session B

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    B.1 Development of a Proximity Labeling Method to Identify the Protein Targets of Bioactive Small Molecules Zachary Hill, Min Zhuang, James Wells University of California, San Francisco, CA, USA Identifying the direct protein targets of a bioactive small molecule gives insight into the compound's mechanism of action, its efficacy, and possible toxicity. Target identification is becoming an increasingly important part of the drug- development process. However, given the transient and heterogeneous nature of interactions between small molecules and proteins, this step is often difficult, greatly slowing the development of new therapeutics. For this reason, new methods to rapidly identify the direct protein targets of bioactive small molecules are of great importance. Enrichment strategies coupled with quantitative mass spectrometry have shown great promise in target identification. Here we will present our progress toward developing an engineered enzymatic tagging method that enables specific labeling and enrichment of protein targets from complex lysates. This method couples the binding of a small molecule to a proximity-based labeling event. Labeled target proteins are enriched and subsequently identified using quantitative LC-MS/MS. We will discuss several variations of this method, and highlight our progress towards applying proximity labeling to small-molecule target identification and validation. B.2 Modelling Atherosclerosis: Molecular Changes in the Ascending Aorta of Cholesterol-fed Rabbits Jingshu Xu1,2, Mia Jüllig1,2, Martin J. Middleditch1,2, Garth J.S. Cooper1,2,3,4 1School of Biological Sciences, University of Auckland, New Zealand; 2Maurice Wilkins Centre for Molecular Biodiscovery, Faculty of Science, University of Auckland, New Zealand; 3Department of Pharmacology, Medical Sciences Division, University of Oxford, Oxford, UK; 4Centre for Advanced Discovery and Experimental Therapeutics, NIHR Manchester Biomedical Research Centre, the University of

  6. Revealing the Value of “Green” and the Small Group with a Big Heart in Transportation Mode Choice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Gaker

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available To address issues of climate change, people are more and more being presented with the greenhouse gas emissions associated with their alternatives. Statements of pounds or kilograms of CO2 are showing up in trip planners, car advertisements, and even restaurant menus under the assumption that this information influences behavior. This research contributes to the literature that investigates how travelers respond to such information. Our objective is to better understand the “value of green” or how much travelers are willing to pay in money in order to reduce the CO2 associated with their travel. As with previous work, we designed and conducted a mode choice experiment using methods that have long been used to study value of time. The contributions of this paper are twofold. First, we employ revealed preference data, whereas previous studies have been based on stated preferences. Second, we provide new insight on how the value of green is distributed in the population. Whereas previous work has specified heterogeneity either systematically or with a continuous distribution, we find that a latent class choice model specification better fits the data and also is attractive behaviorally. The best fitting latent class model has two classes: one large class (76% of the sample who are not willing to spend any time or money to reduce their CO2 and a second class (24% of the sample who value reducing their CO2 at a very high rate of $2.68 per pound of reduction—our so-called small group with a big heart. We reanalyzed three datasets that we had previously collected and found considerable robustness of this two class result.

  7. The challenge of NSCLC diagnosis and predictive analysis on small samples. Practical approach of a working group

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thunnissen, Erik; Kerr, Keith M; Herth, Felix J F

    2012-01-01

    Until recently, the division of pulmonary carcinomas into small cell lung cancer (SCLC) and non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) was adequate for therapy selection. Due to the emergence of new treatment options subtyping of NSCLC and predictive testing have become mandatory. A practical approach to...

  8. Effects of kinship or familiarity? Small thrips larvae experience lower predation risk only in groups of mixed-size siblings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Bruijn, P.J.A.; Sabelis, M.W.; Egas, M.

    2014-01-01

    In many species of insects, larvae are distributed in an aggregated fashion. As they may differ in size and size matters to predation risk, small larvae may be less likely to fall prey to predators when near large and therefore better-defended larvae. We hypothesize that the small larvae may profit

  9. Less is more: latent learning is maximized by shorter training sessions in auditory perceptual learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molloy, Katharine; Moore, David R; Sohoglu, Ediz; Amitay, Sygal

    2012-01-01

    The time course and outcome of perceptual learning can be affected by the length and distribution of practice, but the training regimen parameters that govern these effects have received little systematic study in the auditory domain. We asked whether there was a minimum requirement on the number of trials within a training session for learning to occur, whether there was a maximum limit beyond which additional trials became ineffective, and whether multiple training sessions provided benefit over a single session. We investigated the efficacy of different regimens that varied in the distribution of practice across training sessions and in the overall amount of practice received on a frequency discrimination task. While learning was relatively robust to variations in regimen, the group with the shortest training sessions (∼8 min) had significantly faster learning in early stages of training than groups with longer sessions. In later stages, the group with the longest training sessions (>1 hr) showed slower learning than the other groups, suggesting overtraining. Between-session improvements were inversely correlated with performance; they were largest at the start of training and reduced as training progressed. In a second experiment we found no additional longer-term improvement in performance, retention, or transfer of learning for a group that trained over 4 sessions (∼4 hr in total) relative to a group that trained for a single session (∼1 hr). However, the mechanisms of learning differed; the single-session group continued to improve in the days following cessation of training, whereas the multi-session group showed no further improvement once training had ceased. Shorter training sessions were advantageous because they allowed for more latent, between-session and post-training learning to emerge. These findings suggest that efficient regimens should use short training sessions, and optimized spacing between sessions.

  10. Summary of the 11-th session of the AER Working Group F - 'Spent Fuel transmutations' and 2nd meeting of INPRO Project RMI - 'Meeting energy needs in the period of raw materials insufficiency during the 21st century'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lelek, V.

    2009-01-01

    There was concluded on the session during discussion, that we must be very cautious in giving forecast of particular form of energy demand and that any longer development in energy is no more possible without taking into account boundary conditions in oil and gas external supply. It was recommended in the discussion to prepare publication based on works, which were published, and try to give into it formulation of new tasks as in nuclear technologies so from nonnuclear branches, including possible society feedbacks. There were several works on the meeting concerning fluoride technology application for future more effective and cleaner reprocessing of spent nuclear fuel. It must be noted that participants expect that it will be part of new technology development, which of course must be done in greater capacities and in more direct connections with new preindustrial project. Such development is expected. It was also discussed how to proceed with INPRO publication 'Task 3 - Global vision of nuclear energy in the 21st century' - up to now the text is prepared in different ways - our position that expected troubles and at least qualitative recommendations for future steps should be there reflected. The technical program covered also the following topics: System energy research in RRC Kurchatov Institute; Results of program SPHINX; Energy forecasts: Methods and computer codes; Preliminary results of analysis of energy situation in the Central Europe; Perspectives of Molten Salt Reactor development in Czech Republic; Calculations of operation states of packed distillation column for uranium hexafluoride; Neutronic Analysis of Two-Fluid Thorium Molten Salt Reactor; Cross-section Measurements of (n,xn) Reactions in the Energy Range 20-100 MeV; The Czech Geological Repository Reference Design 2011: impacts on the strategy of the fuel cycle back end ect.

  11. Human Reliability Analysis: session summary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hall, R.E.

    1985-01-01

    The use of Human Reliability Analysis (HRA) to identify and resolve human factors issues has significantly increased over the past two years. Today, utilities, research institutions, consulting firms, and the regulatory agency have found a common application of HRA tools and Probabilistic Risk Assessment (PRA). The ''1985 IEEE Third Conference on Human Factors and Power Plants'' devoted three sessions to the discussion of these applications and a review of the insights so gained. This paper summarizes the three sessions and presents those common conclusions that were discussed during the meeting. The paper concludes that session participants supported the use of an adequately documented ''living PRA'' to address human factors issues in design and procedural changes, regulatory compliance, and training and that the techniques can produce cost effective qualitative results that are complementary to more classical human factors methods

  12. Sessions and Separability in Security Protocols

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carbone, Marco; Guttman, Joshua

    2013-01-01

    Despite much work on sessions and session types in non- adversarial contexts, session-like behavior given an active adversary has not received an adequate definition and proof methods. We provide a syntactic property that guarantees that a protocol has session-respecting executions. Any uncomprom......Despite much work on sessions and session types in non- adversarial contexts, session-like behavior given an active adversary has not received an adequate definition and proof methods. We provide a syntactic property that guarantees that a protocol has session-respecting executions. Any...

  13. Identification of mistakes and their correction by a small group discussion as a revision exercise at the end of a teaching module in biochemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bobby, Zachariah; Nandeesha, H; Sridhar, M G; Soundravally, R; Setiya, Sajita; Babu, M Sathish; Niranjan, G

    2014-01-01

    Graduate medical students often get less opportunity for clarifying their doubts and to reinforce their concepts after lecture classes. The Medical Council of India (MCI) encourages group discussions among students. We evaluated the effect of identifying mistakes in a given set of wrong statements and their correction by a small group discussion by graduate medical students as a revision exercise. At the end of a module, a pre-test consisting of multiple-choice questions (MCQs) was conducted. Later, a set of incorrect statements related to the topic was given to the students and they were asked to identify the mistakes and correct them in a small group discussion. The effects on low, medium and high achievers were evaluated by a post-test and delayed post-tests with the same set of MCQs. The mean post-test marks were significantly higher among all the three groups compared to the pre-test marks. The gain from the small group discussion was equal among low, medium and high achievers. The gain from the exercise was retained among low, medium and high achievers after 15 days. Identification of mistakes in statements and their correction by a small group discussion is an effective, but unconventional revision exercise in biochemistry. Copyright 2014, NMJI.

  14. Evaluation of Small Student-Led Discussion Groups as an Adjunct to a Course in Abnormal Psychology

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Geoffry D.

    1978-01-01

    Presents data related to student involvement in biweekly student-led discussion groups in an undergraduate abnormal psychology course. Evaluates the degree to which students felt they benefited from discussion groups composed of similar and dissimilar students. (Author/AV)

  15. Aspen Global Change Institute Summer Science Sessions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Katzenberger, John; Kaye, Jack A

    2006-10-01

    The Aspen Global Change Institute (AGCI) successfully organized and convened six interdisciplinary meetings over the course of award NNG04GA21G. The topics of the meetings were consistent with a range of issues, goals and objectives as described within the NASA Earth Science Enterprise Strategic Plan and more broadly by the US Global Change Research Program/Our Changing Planet, the more recent Climate Change Program Strategic Plan and the NSF Pathways report. The meetings were chaired by two or more leaders from within the disciplinary focus of each session. 222 scholars for a total of 1097 participants-days were convened under the auspices of this award. The overall goal of each AGCI session is to further the understanding of Earth system science and global environmental change through interdisciplinary dialog. The format and structure of the meetings allows for presentation by each participant, in-depth discussion by the whole group, and smaller working group and synthesis activities. The size of the group is important in terms of the group dynamics and interaction, and the ability for each participant's work to be adequately presented and discussed within the duration of the meeting, while still allowing time for synthesis

  16. Perceived effectiveness of environmental decision support systems in participatory planning: Evidence from small groups of end-users

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Inman, D.; Blind, M.; Ribarova, I.; Krause, A.; Roosenschoon, O.R.; Kassahun, A.; Scholten, H.; Arampatzis, G.; Abrami, G.; McIntosh, B.S.; Jeffrey, P.

    2011-01-01

    The challenges associated with evaluating the effectiveness of environmental decision support systems (EDSS) based on the perceptions of only a small sample of end-users are well understood. Although methods adopted from Management Information Systems (MISs) evaluation research have benefited from

  17. The "Project": Putting Student Controlled, Small Group Work and Transferable Skills at the Core of a Geography Course.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hindle, Brian Paul

    1993-01-01

    Describes how a cooperative group project has become a foundation of the first two years of a three-year program in college-level geography. Discusses the origin, development, and topic selection for each of the cohort groups working in the program. Asserts that the program has been favorably received by both students and faculty members. (CFR)

  18. Topical Session on Materials Management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    At its second meeting, in Paris, 5-7 December 2001, the WPDD held two topical sessions on the D and D Safety Case and on the Management of Materials from D and D, respectively. This report documents the topical session on the management of materials. Presentations during the topical session covered key aspects of the management of materials and meant to provide an exchange of information and experience, including: Experience and lessons learnt from VLLW and non-radioactive material management in Spain and Germany with special attention to recycling (How specific solutions came about? Are there 'generic' examples for wider adoption?); Risk assessment of recycling and non-recycling: a CPD study; Waste acceptance issues within different national contexts (What constraints are there on the waste receiving body and what flexibility can the latter have? What constraints does this impose on D and D implementers? What about wastes are without current solution? What needs to be done? What about large items and 'difficult' waste in general?); Radiological characterisation of materials during decommissioning, particularly difficult situations - large volumes, large items,.. wastes, heterogeneous streams (What examples of established practice? What are the approaches or aspects that set the regulatory requirements? How can the flow rates be large but the answers acceptable? How much is needed to be known for later action, e. g., disposal, release, protection of worker, etc.); Radiological characterisation of buildings as they stand, in order to allow conventional demolition (What are strategies for optimisation of characterisation? How much needs to be known to take action later? e.g. for storage, disposal, release, cost estimation and ALARA? What needs to be done in advance and after decommissioning/dismantling?). At the end of each presentation time was allotted for discussion of the paper. Integral to the Topical Session was a facilitated plenary discussion on the topical

  19. Novel polyfucosylated N-linked glycopeptides with blood group A, H, X and Y determinants from human small intestinal epithelial cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vliegenthart, J.F.G.; Finne, J.; Breimer, M.E.; Hansson, G.C.; Karlsson, K.-A.; Leffler, H.; Halbeek, H. van

    1989-01-01

    A novel type of N-linked glycopeptides representing a major part of the glycans in human small intestinal epithelial cells from blood group A and O individuals were isolated by gel filtrations and affinity chromatography on concanavalin A-Sepharose and Bandeiraea simplicifolia lectin I-Sepharose.

  20. The Effectiveness of the Smart Board-Based Small-Group Graduated Guidance Instruction on Digital Gaming and Observational Learning Skills of Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cattik, Melih; Odluyurt, Serhat

    2017-01-01

    The objective of this study was to teach digital gaming skills to children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) using a SMART board with a graduated guidance teaching method in a small-group instructional format, to determine the participants' levels of learning by observation, and to determine the views of their families on the conducted…

  1. Teaching Children with Autism in Small Groups with Students Who Are At-Risk for Academic Problems: Effects on Academic and Social Behaviors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ledford, Jennifer R.; Wehby, Joseph H.

    2015-01-01

    Students with ASD are often taught in individual instructional arrangements, even when they receive educational services in inclusive settings. Providing intervention in small group arrangements may increase opportunities for social interactions, particularly when these opportunities are systematically planned. In this study, academic instruction…

  2. Improving Executive Functions in 5- and 6-year-olds: Evaluation of a Small Group Intervention in Prekindergarten and Kindergarten Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Röthlisberger, Marianne; Neuenschwander, Regula; Cimeli, Patriza; Michel, Eva; Roebers, Claudia M.

    2012-01-01

    Research suggests a central role of executive functions for children's cognitive and social development during preschool years, especially in promoting school readiness. Interventions aiming to improve executive functions are therefore being called for. The present study examined the effect of a small group intervention implemented in kindergarten…

  3. Reducing the Grade Disparities between American Indians and Euro-American Students in Introduction to Psychology through Small-Group, Peer-Mentored, Supplemental Instruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okun, Morris Alan; Berlin, Anna; Hanrahan, Jeanne; Lewis, James; Johnson, Kathryn

    2015-01-01

    Supplemental instruction (SI) is a small-group, peer-mentored programme which is compatible with the learning preferences of American Indian students. We tested the hypothesis that SI is a compensatory strategy that reduces the differences in the grades earned in introduction to psychology by Euro-American and American Indian students. The sample…

  4. Parallel Monitors for Self-adaptive Sessions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario Coppo

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents a data-driven model of self-adaptivity for multiparty sessions. System choreography is prescribed by a global type. Participants are incarnated by processes associated with monitors, which control their behaviour. Each participant can access and modify a set of global data, which are able to trigger adaptations in the presence of critical changes of values. The use of the parallel composition for building global types, monitors and processes enables a significant degree of flexibility: an adaptation step can dynamically reconfigure a set of participants only, without altering the remaining participants, even if the two groups communicate.

  5. Inference With Difference-in-Differences With a Small Number of Groups: A Review, Simulation Study, and Empirical Application Using SHARE Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rokicki, Slawa; Cohen, Jessica; Fink, Günther; Salomon, Joshua A; Landrum, Mary Beth

    2018-01-01

    Difference-in-differences (DID) estimation has become increasingly popular as an approach to evaluate the effect of a group-level policy on individual-level outcomes. Several statistical methodologies have been proposed to correct for the within-group correlation of model errors resulting from the clustering of data. Little is known about how well these corrections perform with the often small number of groups observed in health research using longitudinal data. First, we review the most commonly used modeling solutions in DID estimation for panel data, including generalized estimating equations (GEE), permutation tests, clustered standard errors (CSE), wild cluster bootstrapping, and aggregation. Second, we compare the empirical coverage rates and power of these methods using a Monte Carlo simulation study in scenarios in which we vary the degree of error correlation, the group size balance, and the proportion of treated groups. Third, we provide an empirical example using the Survey of Health, Ageing, and Retirement in Europe. When the number of groups is small, CSE are systematically biased downwards in scenarios when data are unbalanced or when there is a low proportion of treated groups. This can result in over-rejection of the null even when data are composed of up to 50 groups. Aggregation, permutation tests, bias-adjusted GEE, and wild cluster bootstrap produce coverage rates close to the nominal rate for almost all scenarios, though GEE may suffer from low power. In DID estimation with a small number of groups, analysis using aggregation, permutation tests, wild cluster bootstrap, or bias-adjusted GEE is recommended.

  6. National Sessions of Radiation Protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sociedad Argentina de Radioproteccion

    2012-01-01

    The Radioprotection Argentine Society (SAR) was organized the National Sessions on Radiation Protection 2012 in order to continue the exchange in the radiation protection community in the country, on work areas that present a challenge to the profession. The new recommendations of the ICRP and the IAEA Safety Standards (2011), among others, includes several topics that are necessary to develop. The SAR wants to encourage different organizations from Argentina, to submit projects that are developing in order to strengthen radiation protection.

  7. Scientific conference proceedings. Session 3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bartosek, V.

    1985-01-01

    The Radiochemical Technology session met at UJV Rez on June 7, 1985 to hear 13 papers of which 11 were incorporated in INIS. The papers inform of results attained in the field of processing liquid radioactive wastes from nuclear power plants, processing spent nuclear fuel using the fluoride process, of the separation of fission products by dicarbolide extraction, the chemistry of complex uranium compounds, etc. The cooperation of UJV with VUJE and VUCHZ is also dealt with. (E.S.)

  8. Perspectives on Positioning, Interaction, and Learning in Small-Group Discussion: Possibilities for Extending the Analytic Lens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kittleson, Julie M.; Wilson, Rachel E.

    2014-01-01

    In this forum piece, we respond to Karin Due's study of social dynamics in groups of students in physics class and gender issues that play out in this context. We discuss two threads that appear in Due's paper: one pertains to patterns of talk within groups and how these patterns open up possibilities for learning, the other pertains to…

  9. Semi-Automated Discovery of Application Session Structure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kannan, J.; Jung, J.; Paxson, V.; Koksal, C.

    2006-09-07

    While the problem of analyzing network traffic at the granularity of individual connections has seen considerable previous work and tool development, understanding traffic at a higher level---the structure of user-initiated sessions comprised of groups of related connections---remains much less explored. Some types of session structure, such as the coupling between an FTP control connection and the data connections it spawns, have prespecified forms, though the specifications do not guarantee how the forms appear in practice. Other types of sessions, such as a user reading email with a browser, only manifest empirically. Still other sessions might exist without us even knowing of their presence, such as a botnet zombie receiving instructions from its master and proceeding in turn to carry them out. We present algorithms rooted in the statistics of Poisson processes that can mine a large corpus of network connection logs to extract the apparent structure of application sessions embedded in the connections. Our methods are semi-automated in that we aim to present an analyst with high-quality information (expressed as regular expressions) reflecting different possible abstractions of an application's session structure. We develop and test our methods using traces from a large Internet site, finding diversity in the number of applications that manifest, their different session structures, and the presence of abnormal behavior. Our work has applications to traffic characterization and monitoring, source models for synthesizing network traffic, and anomaly detection.

  10. Middle-school students of United Arab Emirates: effects of heterogeneous small group work on attitudes toward mathematics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alkhateeb, H M; Jumaa, M

    2000-10-01

    This study compared the effects of two instructional strategies, small heterogeneous cooperative learning experience versus lecture and discussion, on students' attitudes toward mathematics. 54 boys and 57 girls in Grade 8 of four middle-school mathematics classes participated. Two classes (57 students) were taught using a cooperative learning method and the other two classes (54 students) were taught using traditional lecture and discussion. Differences between attitudes of boys and girls were also investigated and discussed in the light of Arabic culture. The results suggested that cooperative learning might be a valuable method with which to teach mathematics concepts to boys.

  11. Controlling the Morphology of BDTT-DPP-Based Small Molecules via End-Group Functionalization for Highly Efficient Single and Tandem Organic Photovoltaic Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Ji-Hoon; Park, Jong Baek; Yang, Hoichang; Jung, In Hwan; Yoon, Sung Cheol; Kim, Dongwook; Hwang, Do-Hoon

    2015-11-04

    A series of narrow-band gap, π-conjugated small molecules based on diketopyrrolopyrrole (DPP) electron acceptor units coupled with alkylthienyl-substituted-benzodithiophene (BDTT) electron donors were designed and synthesized for use as donor materials in solution-processed organic photovoltaic cells. In particular, by end-group functionalization of the small molecules with fluorine derivatives, the nanoscale morphologies of the photoactive layers of the photovoltaic cells were successfully controlled. The influences of different fluorine-based end-groups on the optoelectronic and morphological properties, carrier mobilities, and the photovoltaic performances of these materials were investigated. A high power conversion efficiency (PCE) of 6.00% under simulated solar light (AM 1.5G) illumination has been achieved for organic photovoltaic cells based on a small-molecule bulk heterojunction system consisting of a trifluoromethylbenzene (CF3) end-group-containing oligomer (BDTT-(DPP)2-CF3) as the donor and [6,6]-phenyl-C71-butyric acid methyl ester (PC71BM) as the acceptor. As a result, the introduction of CF3 end-groups has been found to enhance both the short circuit current density (JSC) and fill factor (FF). A tandem photovoltaic device comprising an inverted BDTT-(DPP)2-CF3:PC71BM cell and a poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT):indene-C60-bisadduct (IC60BA)-based cell as the top and bottom cell components, respectively, showed a maximum PCE of 8.30%. These results provide valuable guidelines for the rational design of conjugated small molecules for applications in high-performance organic photovoltaic cells. Furthermore, to the best of our knowledge, this is the first report on the design of fluorine-functionalized BDTT-DPP-based small molecules, which have been shown to be a viable candidate for use in inverted tandem cells.

  12. 75 FR 79072 - Notice of Funding Availability for the Small Business Transportation Resource Center Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-17

    ... hours of individual or group counseling sessions to small businesses per month. (D) Planning Committee 1..., such as, business assessment, management training, counseling, technical assistance, marketing and... counseling, and technical assistance with small businesses currently doing business with public and private...

  13. Central model predictive control of a group of domestic heat pumps, case study for a small district

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Leeuwen, Richard Pieter; Fink, J.; Smit, Gerardus Johannes Maria; Helfert, Markus; Krempels, Karl-Heinz; Donnellan, Brian; Klein, Cornel

    2015-01-01

    In this paper we investigate optimal control of a group of heat pumps. Each heat pump provides space heating and domestic hot water to a single household. Besides a heat pump, each house has a buffer for domestic hot water and a floor heating system for space heating. The paper describes models and

  14. Ethnocultural Groups--The Making of Canada: Economic Contributions to Canadian Life. Report 2: Seven Successful Small Business Entrepreneurs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutt, S.; And Others

    Immigrants and refugees come to Canada for many reasons and are often risk-takers. Some ethnic groups follow identifiable patterns of distinctive economic development, while others meld and blend into Canadian society so that no discernible pattern can be identified. This publication provides an overview of the contributions made by seven…

  15. [Benefits of cisplatin-based polychemotherapy in non-small cell bronchogenic carcinoma. Kyushu Lung Cancer Chemotherapy Study Group].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohta, M; Hara, N; Ichikawa, Y; Kanda, T; Shima, K; Tamura, K; Hokama, M

    1988-06-01

    We studied the efficacy of cisplatin-based polychemotherapy for non-small-cell lung cancer. One hundred nineteen patients with adenocarcinoma or large cell carcinoma were randomized to receive cyclophosphamide, adriamycin, cisplatin and mitomycin C (CAPM) or mitomycin C, cytosine arabinoside and tegafur (MCT), and 48 patients with squamous cell carcinoma were randomized to receive cisplatin, adriamycin and peplomycin (PAP) or mitomycin C, cyclophosphamide, tespamine, toyomycin and tegafur (MCTTT). Radiation was given to the chest in patients with stage I-III disease. The response rates were CAPM, 34.5%; MCT, 13.1% (p less than 0.01) and PAP, 63.3%; MCTTT, 42.3%. A significant difference in response rate between the CAPM and MCT regimens was observed only in stage IV patients and not in stage I-III patients. The median survival was 9.5 months in the CAPM arm vs. 6.5 months in the MCT arm (p less than 0.007), and 8.5 months in the PAP arm vs. 6.5 months in the MCTTT arm. Improved median survival for the CAPM regimen was noted only in stage IV patients and not in stage I-III patients when compared to patients given the MCT regimen, respectively. Nausea and vomiting were significantly increased in patients with cisplatin-based polychemotherapy. Myelosuppression was more severe with the CAPM regimen than with the other chemotherapy regimens. We concluded that cisplatin-based polychemotherapy, CAPM and PAP therapy were of more benefit to patients with disseminated non-small-cell lung cancer than MCT and MCTTT therapy.

  16. CIME Session on Pluripotential Theory

    CERN Document Server

    Patrizio, Giorgio; Berteloot, Francois; Demailly, Jean Pierre

    2013-01-01

    Pluripotential theory is a very powerful tool in geometry, complex analysis and dynamics. This volume brings together the lectures held at the 2011 CIME session on "pluripotential theory" in Cetraro, Italy. This CIME course focused on complex Monge-Ampére equations, applications of pluripotential theory to Kahler geometry and algebraic geometry and to holomorphic dynamics. The contributions provide an extensive description of the theory and its very recent developments, starting from basic introductory materials and concluding with open questions in current research.

  17. Summary of spin physics sessions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roser, T.

    1988-01-01

    The list of topics in the many talks given during the Spin Physics sessions of this Intersections conference is nearly as long as the one of this conference: P and T Violation NN Interaction πp and πd Elastic Scattering Nuclear Matter Spin Effects Muon (g-2) Polarized Proton Beams Polarized Gas Targets This points to the almost trivial fact that spin is fundamental to our understanding of nuclear and particle physics. I will discuss in some detail only four of these topics. Needless to say this choice is very much personally biased and I apologize to all the speakers whose excellent contributions I did not include

  18. Primary social and emotional aspects of learning (SEAL small group interventions: a qualitative study of factors affecting implementation and the role of Local Authority support

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neil Humphrey

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available The aims of the current study were to examine the factors affecting implementation of social and emotional aspects of learning (SEAL small group interventions in primary schools and to explore the role of support from Local Authorities (LAs in the implementation process. Telephone interviews were conducted with lead SEAL staff in 12 LAs across England as part of a larger national evaluation of this educational initiative. Data were transcribed and subjected to qualitative content analysis. Subsequently, a tentative model was developed to document the relationship between the nature of support provided by LAs (e.g. training events, developing/providing additional materials, factors affecting implementation at school level (e.g. school readiness, the profile of SEAL and perceived barriers to success (e.g. misconceptions about the purpose of small group interventions. These findings are discussed in relation to the existing literature on the implementation of social-emotional initiatives and interventions in education.

  19. Development of partitioning method: confirmation of behavior of technetium in 4-Group Partitioning Process by a small scale experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morita, Yasuji; Yamaguchi, Isoo; Fujiwara, Takeshi; Kubota, Masumitsu; Mizoguchi, Kenichi

    1998-08-01

    The separation behavior of Tc in the whole of 4-Group Partitioning Process was examined by a flask-scale experiment using simulated high-level liquid waste containing a macro amount of Tc, in order to confirm the reproducibility of the results obtained in previous studies on the Tc behavior at each step of the process. The 4-Group Partitioning Process consists of pre-treatment step, extraction step with diisodecylphosphoric acid (DIDPA), adsorption step with active carbon or precipitation step by denitration for the separation of Tc and platinum group metals (PGM), and adsorption step with inorganic ion exchangers. The present study deals with the behavior of Tc and other elements at all the above steps and additional step for Tc dissolution from the precipitate formed by the denitration. At the pre-treatment step, the ratio of Tc precipitated was very low (about 0.2%) at both operations of heating-denitration and colloid removal. Tc was not extracted with DIDPA and was contained quantitatively in the raffinate from the extraction step. Batch adsorption with active carbon directly from the raffinate showed that distribution coefficient of Tc was more than 100ml/g, which is high enough for the separation. It also revealed much effect of coexisting Mo on the Tc adsorption. At the precipitation step by denitration, 98.2% of Tc were precipitated. At the Tc dissolution from the precipitate with H 2 O 2 , 84.2% of Tc were selectively dissolved in a single operation. Tc was not adsorbed with inorganic ion exchangers. From these results, composition of Tc product from the partitioning process was estimated. The weight ratio of Tc in the Tc product can be increased to about 50% at least. Main contaminating elements are Cr, Ni, Sr, Ba, Mo and Pd. Process optimization to decrease their contamination should be performed in a next study. (J.P.N.)

  20. The rate of spread of sheep scab within small groups of Merino and Dorper sheep : short communication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Meintjies

    2002-07-01

    Full Text Available A single Merino sheep, artificially infested with the sheep scab mite, Psoroptes ovis, and a similarly infested Dorper sheep were placed with 9 uninfested Merino or 9 uninfested Dorper sheep respectively during winter and the rate of spread of infestation on the uninfested sheep observed. The same procedure was repeated in summer. It took 14 and 8 weeks respectively in winter before all sheep in the 2 groups displayed lesions of sheep scab, whereas in summer it took 10 and 12 weeks before all sheep had lesions.

  1. Lifting the mask: identification of new small molecule inhibitors of uropathogenic Escherichia coli group 2 capsule biogenesis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos C Goller

    Full Text Available Uropathogenic Escherichia coli (UPEC is the leading cause of community-acquired urinary tract infections (UTIs, with over 100 million UTIs occurring annually throughout the world. Increasing antimicrobial resistance among UPEC limits ambulatory care options, delays effective treatment, and may increase overall morbidity and mortality from complications such as urosepsis. The polysaccharide capsules of UPEC are an attractive target a therapeutic, based on their importance in defense against the host immune responses; however, the large number of antigenic types has limited their incorporation into vaccine development. The objective of this study was to identify small-molecule inhibitors of UPEC capsule biogenesis. A large-scale screening effort entailing 338,740 compounds was conducted in a cell-based, phenotypic screen for inhibition of capsule biogenesis in UPEC. The primary and concentration-response assays yielded 29 putative inhibitors of capsule biogenesis, of which 6 were selected for further studies. Secondary confirmatory assays identified two highly active agents, named DU003 and DU011, with 50% inhibitory concentrations of 1.0 µM and 0.69 µM, respectively. Confirmatory assays for capsular antigen and biochemical measurement of capsular sugars verified the inhibitory action of both compounds and demonstrated minimal toxicity and off-target effects. Serum sensitivity assays demonstrated that both compounds produced significant bacterial death upon exposure to active human serum. DU011 administration in mice provided near complete protection against a lethal systemic infection with the prototypic UPEC K1 isolate UTI89. This work has provided a conceptually new class of molecules to combat UPEC infection, and future studies will establish the molecular basis for their action along with efficacy in UTI and other UPEC infections.

  2. Recovery or removal of uranium contained in small quantity in waste water by tannic-group adsorbent

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Komoto, Shigetoshi [Power Reactor and Nuclear Fuel Development Corp., Kamisaibara, Okayama (Japan). Ningyo Toge Works

    1991-12-01

    It was found that tannic compounds have a very strong affinity for uranium and thorium which are nuclear fuel materials, and the new uranium adsorbents composed mainly by tannic-group compounds were made. The solid-state refractory persimmon tannins in those compounds has the most superior capacity for uranium as high as 1.7 g of uranium on 1 g of the adsorbent. The tests adsorbing uranium on the adsorbent are carried out practically by using dam water of Ningyo-toge Works, PNC. Adsorption tests changed the pH or temperature of dam water, elution test, and adsorption-elution repeating test were performed, and it was found that uranium in dam water contained from ppb-level to ppm-level was recovered or removed with very excellent efficiency. (author).

  3. Physical Function After Total Knee Replacement: An Observational Study Describing Outcomes in a Small Group of Women From China and the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Daniel K; Li, Zhichang; Zhang, Yuqing; Marmon, Adam R; Master, Hiral; Zeni, Joseph; Niu, Jingbo; Jiang, Long; Zhang, Shu; Lin, Jianhao

    2018-01-01

    To describe physical function before and six months after Total Knee Replacement (TKR) in a small sample of women from China and the United States. Observational. Community environment. Both groups adhered to the Osteoarthritis Research Society International (OARSI) protocols for the 6-minute walk and 30-second chair stand. We compared physical function prior to TKR and 6 months after using linear regression adjusted for covariates. Women (N=60) after TKR. Not applicable. Age and body mass index in the China group (n=30; 66y and 27.0kg/m 2 ) were similar to those in the U.S. group (n=30; 65y and 29.6kg/m 2 ). Before surgery, the China group walked 263 (95% confidence interval [CI], -309 to -219) less meters and had 10.2 (95% CI, -11.8 to -8.5) fewer chair stands than the U.S. group. At 6 months when compared with the U.S. group, the China group walked 38 more meters, but this difference did not reach statistical significance (95% CI, -1.6 to 77.4), and had 3.1 (95% CI, -4.4 to -1.7) fewer chair stands. The China group had greater improvement in the 6-minute walk test than did the U.S. group (PChina group had greater gains in walking endurance and similar gains in repeated chair stands than did the U.S. group after surgery. Copyright © 2017 American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Round table discussion during session 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mays, C.

    2004-01-01

    The round table discussions of the second session of the FSC Belgium Workshop addressed the following questions: - Do local stakeholders have, internally or externally, all the expertise they need in order to address the issues raised by radioactive waste management projects? - Do institutional stakeholders have all the expertise they need to take local impacts into account? - What kinds of expert input are sought and attained by the different stakeholders? - Were any formal methods used to aid local partnerships perform technology assessments? Or other types of assessment? - How to maintain the knowledge and expertise achieved by the stakeholders? Discussion took place after the plenary presentations, at tables grouping Belgian stakeholders and FSC delegates. As in Session I, most of the round table discussion focussed specifically on the experience of the local partnerships. Many insights were shared about the nature and role of expertise in complex decision making. They are summarised below, on the basis of the feedback provided to the plenary by each round table. Some of these insights can be generalised to other contexts. All in all, a profile emerged of the local partnerships as a unique and effective tool to deal with knowledge issues in managing risk. (author)

  5. Small-group, computer-mediated argumentation in middle-school classrooms: the effects of gender and different types of online teacher guidance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asterhan, Christa S C; Schwarz, Baruch B; Gil, Julia

    2012-09-01

    Research has shown the importance of careful teacher support during collaborative group work to promote productive discourse between students (Webb, 2009). However, this research has traditionally focused on face-to-face communication. The role of online teacher guidance of small-group computer-mediated discussions has received little attention, especially in secondary school classroom settings. Researchers of computer-supported collaborative learning (CSCL), on the other hand, have traditionally focused on software-embedded features, such as scripts, to support a-synchronous peer dialogue, and less so on human guidance of synchronous group discussions. The main aim of the present in vivo, experimental study is to examine whether online teacher guidance can improve the quality of small-group synchronous discussions, and whether different types of guidance (epistemic or interaction guidance) affect these discussions differently, when compared to an unguided condition. The second goal of this study is to explore potential differences between all-female and all-male discussion groups. Eighty-two 9th graders (three classrooms) and six teachers from a rural high school in Israel. Whereas epistemic guidance only improved aspects of the argumentative quality of the discussion, interaction guidance only improved aspects of collaboration. Discussions of all-girls groups scored higher on aspects of collaboration and argumentative quality, compared to all-boys groups. The findings show that teacher guidance of synchronous, online discussions in classrooms is realizable and reasonably reaches its intended goals. Training should be focused on acquiring various guidance strategies to augment their beneficial effects. Furthermore, future research should pay more attention to potential gender differences in peer-to-peer argumentation. ©2011 The British Psychological Society.

  6. Joint working group session report. Concerted Action EPBD

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wittchen, Kim Bjarne; Edelenbos, Edwin

    The Energy Efficiency Directive (EED) is the only one of the 3 Directives (EED, RES, and EPBD) that directly mention demand side response and hence indirectly demand side flexibility (DSF). In the RES Directive there is an indirect reference to DSF as MS must take steps to ensure optimum utilisat...... demand. This will call upon buildings to become active players and provide their share of demand side flexibility in the future. It is though necessary to take this into account when setting requirements to buildings that contribute with demand side flex-ibility....

  7. Thermal properties of some small peptides (N-acetyl-amino acid-N′-methylamides) with non-polar side groups

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Badea, Elena; Della Gatta, Giuseppe; Pałecz, Bartłomiej

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • T fus and Δ fus H m of methylamides of N-acetyl substituted non-polar amino acids were measured. • T fus and Δ fus H m increased as a function of the molar mass of the alkyl side chains. • DL racemates showed T fus of about 40 °C lower than those of the corresponding pure L enantiomers. • Ideal solubility of solids at T = 298.15 K was estimated based on their T fus and Δ fus S m . - Abstract: Temperatures and molar enthalpies of fusion of a series of uncharged small peptides, namely the methylamides of N-acetyl substituted glycine, α-amino-butyric acid, alanine, valine, norvaline, leucine, isoleucine, norleucine, and proline, were measured by differential scanning calorimetry (d.s.c.), and molar entropies of fusion were derived. Both L- and DL-compunds were taken into account for the chiral molecules. No solid-to-solid transitions were detected from room temperature to fusion except for N-acetyl-N′-methyl alaninamide. Comparisons were made with the values for the N-acetyl amides of the corresponding amino acids previously reported. Both L enantiomers and DL racemates of α-aminobutyric acid, alanine, valine and isoleucine methylamides displayed temperatures of fusion sharply increasing as a function of molar mass, whereas much lower values, in countertendency with their molar mass increase, were found for proline and leucine methylamides. The racemic DL crystals showed temperatures of fusion of about 40 °C lower than those of the corresponding pure L enantiomers, except for proline and leucine derivatives. The enthalpies and entropies of fusion also varied as a function of molar mass following a similar trend with that of temperatures of fusion, except for alanine derivatives which showed lower values than expected. The values of ideal solubility of solids at T = 298.15 K were estimated based on their temperatures and molar entropies of fusion. Results were discussed with reference to the packing patterns based on hydrogen bonding and

  8. Working session 2: Tubing inspection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guerra, J.; Tapping, R.L.

    1997-01-01

    This session was attended by delegates from 10 countries, and four papers were presented. A wide range of issues was tabled for discussion. Realizing that there was limited time available for more detailed discussion, three topics were chosen for the more detailed discussion: circumferential cracking, performance demonstration (to focus on POD and sizing), and limits of methods. Two other subsessions were organized: one dealt with some challenges related to the robustness of current inspection methods, especially with respect to leaving cracked tubes in service, and the other with developing a chart of current NDE technology with recommendations for future development. These three areas are summarized in turn, along with conclusions and/or recommendations. During the discussions there were four presentations. There were two (Canada, Japan) on eddy current probe developments, both of which addressed multiarray probes that would detect a range of flaws, one (Spain) on circumferential crack detection, and one (JRC, Petten) on the recent PISC III results

  9. Cinema Sessions in Primary Care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Ignacio MORETA-VELAYOS

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available For a long time films have been used in teaching and at various levels of professional training  and more specifically in the medical area. In this case, through the description of a project developed in a Primary Care Health Center, we intend to justify the use of movies as a tool that could ease, the sometimes difficult task of continued education among Primary Care professionals. We propose different aspects of everyday practice in which cinema can be potentially useful, as well as the way to include it in the Plan of Continued Education of the Centre and its accreditation.Films and issues discussed in each session, and the project evaluation, are detailed.

  10. DWPF recycle minimization: Brainstorming session

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jacobs, R.A.; Poirier, M.R.

    1993-01-01

    The recycle stream from the DWPF constitutes a major source of water addition to the High Level Waste evaporator system. As now designed, the entire flow of 3.5 to 6.5 gal/min (at sign 25% and 75% attainment, respectively), or 2 gal/min during idling, flow to the 2H evaporator system (Tank 43). Substantial improvement in the HLW water balance and tank volume management is expected if the DWPF recycle to the HLW evaporator system can be significantly reduced. A task team has been appointed to study alternatives for reducing the flow to the HLW evaporator system and make recommendations for implementation and/or further study and evaluation. The brainstorming session detailed in this report was designed to produce the first cut options for the task team to further evaluate

  11. Celebrating the tenth conference session

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1966-01-01

    Full text: This number of the Bulletin appears during a month when the tenth regular session of the Agency's General Conference is being held. It is fitting that among the special arrangements made to give added significance to such an historical landmark should be an opening address by Herr Franz Jonas, Federal President of the host country, Austria. The Festsaal of the Kongresszentrum, in the Hofburg, has now been the centre for every annual session held in Austria, except the first. On that occasion, recorded in the photograph on the cover, the Konzerthaus was made available. A commemorative series of talks dealing with topics of particular interest in the international development of the peaceful uses of atomic energy, delivered by scientists of world distinction was another idea which will add much profound thought to the records of nuclear energy. Under the chairmanship of Professor L.C. Prado, with Dr. W.B. Lewis as Moderator, the subjects chosen by the participants were : The Impact of Atomic Energy in our Society - Sir John Cockcroft; Nuclear Power Systems and their Technical Potentialities - Prof. Alexandre Leipunski; The Commercial Future of Nuclear Power - Dr. William Webster; Nuclear Science in Life Sciences - Dr. A.R. Gopal-Ayengar; Fundamental Research in Atomic Energy Centres - Prof. Louis Neel. These speeches will be reproduced in full in the Agency's Atomic Energy Review. The pages of this issue of the Bulletin are intended to give indications of the stage which the Agency has now reached in some, but by no means all, of its activities in promoting the techniques of atomic energy for the benefit of mankind. (author)

  12. Evaluation of a two-phase experimental study of a small group (“MultiLit” reading intervention for older low-progress readers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer Buckingham

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The study reported here examined the efficacy of a small group (Tier 2 in a three-tier Response to Intervention model literacy intervention for older low-progress readers (in Years 3–6. This article focuses on the second phase of a two-phase, crossover randomized control trial involving 26 students. In Phase 1, the experimental group (E1 received the 1 h literacy intervention daily for three school terms. The control group received regular classroom instruction. In Phase 2, the original control group received the intervention (E2. At the end of Phase 1, there was a statistically significant difference between groups and a large treatment effect on one of five measures—the Martin and Pratt Non-word Reading Test of phonological recoding. At the end of Phase 2, the large effect on phonological recoding was confirmed for the second experimental group, and there were also statistically significant differences with moderate or large effect sizes on four other measures—single word reading, fluency, passage reading accuracy, and comprehension.

  13. Summary of session C1: experimental gravitation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laemmerzahl, C

    2008-01-01

    The fact that gravity is a metric theory follows from the Einstein equivalence principle. This principle consists of (i) the universality of free fall, (ii) the universality of the gravitational redshift and (iii) the local validity of Lorentz invariance. Many experiments searching for deviations from standard general relativity test the various aspects of the Einstein equivalence principle. Here we report on experiments covering the whole Einstein equivalence principle. Until now all experiments have been in agreement with the Einstein equivalence principle. As a consequence, gravity has to be described by a metric theory. Any metric theory of gravity leads to effects such as perihelion shift, deflection of light, gravitational redshift, gravitational time delay, Lense-Thirring effect, Schiff effect, etc. A particular theory of that sort is Einstein's general relativity. For weak gravitational fields which are asymptotically flat any deviation from Einstein's general relativity can be parametrized by a few constants, the PPN parameters. Many astrophysical observations and space experiments are devoted to a better measurement of the effects and, thus, of the PPN parameters. It is clear that gravity is best tested for intermediate ranges, that is, for distances between 1 m and several astronomical units. It is highly interesting to push forward our domain of experience and to strengthen the experimental foundation of gravity also beyond these scales. This point is underlined by the fact that many quantum gravity and unification-inspired theories suggest deviation from the standard laws of gravity at very small or very large scales. In this session summary we briefly outline the status and report on the talks presented in session C1 about experimental gravitation

  14. Session A5: hadron spectroscopy, experimental

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ozaki, S.

    1978-01-01

    Reports 55 contubutions made by mini-rapporteurs and individual contributors are assembled. It is clear, from the contributions made to this session, that there has been steady progress in solving the problem of the hadron spectroscopy of the old style. The picture on the scalar mesons has become clearer. Among the vector meson group, we started to understand Q mesons, though the situation with A 1 is still not clear. Mesons with higher spin have been found and, in some cases, confirmed. In a sense, the jigsaw puzzle on the mesons is gradually being completed while more complex features are found. The same can be said on the baryons. An active study is in progress in the experiment on the exotic states such as narrow baryonium and dibaryon states. However, owing to the difficulty of such experiments and interpretation of the data, a definitive result is yet to come. 94 references

  15. Group Cohesion in Experiential Growth Groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steen, Sam; Vasserman-Stokes, Elaina; Vannatta, Rachel

    2014-01-01

    This article explores the effect of web-based journaling on changes in group cohesion within experiential growth groups. Master's students were divided into 2 groups. Both used a web-based platform to journal after each session; however, only 1 of the groups was able to read each other's journals. Quantitative data collected before and…

  16. Exercise, Manual Therapy, and Booster Sessions in Knee Osteoarthritis: Cost-Effectiveness Analysis From a Multicenter Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bove, Allyn M; Smith, Kenneth J; Bise, Christopher G; Fritz, Julie M; Childs, John; Brennan, Gerard P; Abbott, J Haxby; Fitzgerald, G Kelley

    2018-01-01

    Limited information exists regarding the cost-effectiveness of rehabilitation strategies for individuals with knee osteoarthritis (OA). The study objective was to compare the cost-effectiveness of 4 different combinations of exercise, manual therapy, and booster sessions for individuals with knee OA. This economic evaluation involved a cost-effectiveness analysis performed alongside a multicenter randomized controlled trial. The study took place in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania; Salt Lake City, Utah; and San Antonio, Texas. The study participants were 300 individuals taking part in a randomized controlled trial investigating various physical therapy strategies for knee OA. Participants were randomized into 4 treatment groups: exercise only (EX), exercise plus booster sessions (EX+B), exercise plus manual therapy (EX+MT), and exercise plus manual therapy and booster sessions (EX+MT+B). For the 2-year base case scenario, a Markov model was constructed using the United States societal perspective and a 3% discount rate for costs and quality-adjusted life years (QALYs). Incremental cost-effectiveness ratios were calculated to compare differences in cost per QALY gained among the 4 treatment strategies. In the 2-year analysis, booster strategies (EX+MT+B and EX+B) dominated no-booster strategies, with both lower health care costs and greater effectiveness. EX+MT+B had the lowest total health care costs. EX+B cost ${\\$}$1061 more and gained 0.082 more QALYs than EX+MT+B, for an incremental cost-effectiveness ratio of ${\\$}$12,900/QALY gained. The small number of total knee arthroplasty surgeries received by individuals in this study made the assessment of whether any particular strategy was more successful at delaying or preventing surgery in individuals with knee OA difficult. Spacing exercise-based physical therapy sessions over 12 months using periodic booster sessions was less costly and more effective over 2 years than strategies not containing booster sessions for

  17. Session Report - S. Voinis (Andra)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Voinis, Sylvie

    2014-01-01

    The session addressed key issues related to the industrial feasibility of construction. It covered the implementer and regulator points of view. The conclusions derive from three presentations completed by the outcomes of six WG. At the Morsleben Repository, Germany, the licensing of the closure of the repository has been initiated by BfS. The closure concept is based on extensive backfilling with salt concrete complemented by seals. In order to demonstrate the feasibility of constructing such a seal structure an in-situ experiment is performed in a drift of the repository. In the UK, the framework for implementing geological disposal of the higher activity radioactive waste is described in the White Paper published by the UK Government in June 2008. The process to site a facility will be staged and based on voluntarism and partnership with local communities. This process is in its early stage. The paper outlines the work being undertaken by the NDA. In canada, Ontario Power Generation (OPG) has submitted information required for a CNSC licence to prepare the site and construct a DGR for the disposal of low and intermediate level waste from the operation of their nuclear power reactors. That submission includes an Environmental Impact Statement (EIS), as required for a Panel Review under the Canadian Environmental Assessment Act (CEAA), and the information required for a licence application under the NSCA Regulations. Discussions between the proponent and the regulator in the pre-licensing phase, clarified CNSC expectations for the characterization of the site and for the development of the EIS and application. They also helped to ensure that OPG understood these expectations. Outcomes WG session-1: - Start with construction but during operational phase: Simultaneous construction and operation activities. - Need for technical requirements/criteria: So that it can be judged whether 'products' meet the requirements; LT safety issues to be considered during

  18. A Student Experience of Peer Assisted Study Sessions in Physiotherapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sole, Gisela; Rose, Andrew; Bennet, Tracey; Jaques, Katrina; Rippon, Zoe; van der Meer, Jacques

    2012-01-01

    Peer Assisted Study Sessions (PASS) were introduced as an optional learning experience in a Bachelor of Physiotherapy programme. The aim of this study was to evaluate the use of PASS from the student perspective. Eight third year physiotherapy students who had participated in PASS during their second year of training attended a focus group, at…

  19. Implementing Problem-Based Learning in the Counseling Session.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Kimberly R.

    This study examined the use of problem-based learning (PBL) in an actual counseling session and the effects on student assertiveness skills. A group of seventh-grade students, who were all victims of bullies, participated in the study. The students, two boys and one girls, were 13 and 14 years old. Teachers rated the level of assertiveness skills…

  20. Synchrony in Dyadic Psychotherapy Sessions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramseyer, Fabian; Tschacher, Wolfgang

    Synchrony is a multi-faceted concept used in diverse domains such as physics, biology, and the social sciences. This chapter reviews some of the evidence of nonverbal synchrony in human communication, with a main focus on the role of synchrony in the psychotherapeutic setting. Nonverbal synchrony describes coordinated behavior of patient and therapist. Its association with empathy, rapport and the therapeutic relationship has been pointed out repeatedly, yet close evaluation of empirical studies suggests that the evidence remains inconclusive. Particularly in naturalistic studies, research with quantitative measures of synchrony is still lacking. We introduce a new empirical approach for the study of synchrony in psychotherapies under field conditions: Motion Energy Analysis (MEA). This is a video-based algorithm that quantifies the amount of movement in freely definable regions of interest. Our statistical analysis detects synchrony on a global level, irrespective of the specific body parts moving. Synchrony thus defined can be considered as a general measure of movement coordination between interacting individuals. Data from a sequence of N = 21 therapy sessions taken from one psychotherapy dyad shows a high positive relationship between synchrony and the therapeutic bond. Nonverbal synchrony can thus be considered a promising concept for research on the therapeutic alliance. Further areas of application are discussed.

  1. Mini-conference and Related Sessions on Laboratory Plasma Astrophysics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hantao Ji

    2004-01-01

    This paper provides a summary of some major physics issues and future perspectives discussed in the Mini-Conference on Laboratory Plasma Astrophysics. This Mini-conference, sponsored by the Topical Group on Plasma Astrophysics, was held as part of the American Physical Society's Division of Plasma Physics 2003 Annual Meeting (October 27-31, 2003). Also included are brief summaries of selected talks on the same topic presented at two invited paper sessions (including a tutorial) and two contributed focus oral sessions, which were organized in coordination with the Mini-Conference by the same organizers

  2. Mini-conference and Related Sessions on Laboratory Plasma Astrophysics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hantao Ji

    2004-02-27

    This paper provides a summary of some major physics issues and future perspectives discussed in the Mini-Conference on Laboratory Plasma Astrophysics. This Mini-conference, sponsored by the Topical Group on Plasma Astrophysics, was held as part of the American Physical Society's Division of Plasma Physics 2003 Annual Meeting (October 27-31, 2003). Also included are brief summaries of selected talks on the same topic presented at two invited paper sessions (including a tutorial) and two contributed focus oral sessions, which were organized in coordination with the Mini-Conference by the same organizers.

  3. Small power and heat generation systems on the basis of propulsion and innovative reactor technologies. Proceedings of an advisory group meeting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-09-01

    In the future for developing regions and remote areas one or two power reactors in the 50 MWe to 100 MWe range could be appropriately applied for electricity and heat generation. Introducing and managing such a small program with conventional reactor systems would require a mature supporting technological infrastructure and many skilled highly-trained staff at the site, which might be a problem in some countries. An increased number of small conventional reactors would increase the burden and expenditure for assuring security and non-proliferation. To this end, the time has come to develop an innovative small reactor concept which meets the following requirements: reliable, safe operation with a minimum maintenance and supporting infrastructure, economic competitiveness with alternative energy sources available to the candidate sites, and significant improvements in proliferation resistance relative to existing reactor systems. Successful resolution of such a problem requires a comprehensive system approach that considers all aspects of manufacturing, transportation, operation and ultimate disposal. Some elements of this approach have been used previously in the development of propulsion nuclear power systems, with consideration given to many diverse requirements such as highly autonomous operation for a long period of time, no planned maintenance, no on-site refueling and ultimate disposition. It is with this focus that the IAEA convened the Advisory Group on Propulsion Reactor technologies for Civilian Applications

  4. Small power and heat generation systems on the basis of propulsion and innovative reactor technologies. Proceedings of an advisory group meeting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-09-01

    In the future for developing regions and remote areas one or two power reactors in the 50 MWe to 100 MWe range could be appropriately applied for electricity and heat generation. Introducing and managing such a small program with conventional reactor systems would require a mature supporting technological infrastructure and many skilled highly-trained staff at the site, which might be a problem in some countries. An increased number of small conventional reactors would increase the burden and expenditure for assuring security and non-proliferation. To this end, the time has come to develop an innovative small reactor concept which meets the following requirements: reliable, safe operation with a minimum maintenance and supporting infrastructure, economic competitiveness with alternative energy sources available to the candidate sites, and significant improvements in proliferation resistance relative to existing reactor systems. Successful resolution of such a problem requires a comprehensive system approach that considers all aspects of manufacturing, transportation, operation and ultimate disposal. Some elements of this approach have been used previously in the development of propulsion nuclear power systems, with consideration given to many diverse requirements such as highly autonomous operation for a long period of time, no planned maintenance, no on-site refueling and ultimate disposition. It is with this focus that the IAEA convened the Advisory Group on Propulsion Reactor technologies for Civilian Applications.

  5. Use of care management practices in small- and medium-sized physician groups: do public reporting of physician quality and financial incentives matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, Jeffrey A; Maeng, Daniel; Casalino, Lawrence P; Rittenhouse, Diane

    2013-04-01

    To examine the effect of public reporting (PR) and financial incentives tied to quality performance on the use of care management practices (CMPs) among small- and medium-sized physician groups. Survey data from The National Study of Small and Medium-sized Physician Practices were used. Primary data collection was also conducted to assess community-level PR activities. The final sample included 643 practices engaged in quality reporting; about half of these practices were subject to PR. We used a treatment effects model. The instrumental variables were the community-level variables that capture the level of PR activity in each community in which the practices operate. (1) PR is associated with increased use of CMPs, but the estimate is not statistically significant; (2) financial incentives are associated with greater use of CMPs; (3) practices' awareness/sensitivity to quality reports is positively related to their use of CMPs; and (4) combined PR and financial incentives jointly affect CMP use to a greater degree than either of these factors alone. Small- to medium-sized practices appear to respond to PR and financial incentives by greater use of CMPs. Future research needs to investigate the appropriate mix and type of incentive arrangements and quality reporting. © Health Research and Educational Trust.

  6. The Effects of Music and Group Stage on Group Leader and Member Behavior in Psychoeducational Groups for Children of Divorce

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cercone, Kristin; DeLucia-Waack, Janice

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the effects of music and group stage on group process and group leader and member behavior within 8-week psychoeducational groups for children of divorce. Audiotapes of group sessions were rated using the Interactional Process Analysis and the Group Sessions Ratings Scale. Both treatment groups were very similar in terms of…

  7. Secure Execution of Distributed Session Programs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nuno Alves

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The development of the SJ Framework for session-based distributed programming is part of recent and ongoing research into integrating session types and practical, real-world programming languages. SJ programs featuring session types (protocols are statically checked by the SJ compiler to verify the key property of communication safety, meaning that parties engaged in a session only communicate messages, including higher-order communications via session delegation, that are compatible with the message types expected by the recipient. This paper presents current work on security aspects of the SJ Framework. Firstly, we discuss our implementation experience from improving the SJ Runtime platform with security measures to protect and augment communication safety at runtime. We implement a transport component for secure session execution that uses a modified TLS connection with authentication based on the Secure Remote Password (SRP protocol. The key technical point is the delicate treatment of secure session delegation to counter a previous vulnerability. We find that the modular design of the SJ Runtime, based on the notion of an Abstract Transport for session communication, supports rapid extension to utilise additional transports whilst separating this concern from the application-level session programming task. In the second part of this abstract, we formally prove the target security properties by modelling the extended SJ delegation protocols in the pi-calculus.

  8. Beneficial effect of two culture systems with small groups of embryos on the development and quality of in vitro-produced bovine embryos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cebrian-Serrano, A; Salvador, I; Silvestre, M A

    2014-02-01

    Currently, in vitro-produced embryos derived by ovum pick up (OPU) and in vitro fertilization (IVF) technologies represent approximately one-third of the embryos worldwide in cattle. Nevertheless, the culture of small groups of embryos from an individual egg donor is an issue that OPU-IVF laboratories have to face. In this work, we tested whether the development and quality of the preimplantation embryos in vitro cultured in low numbers (five embryos) could be improved by the addition of epidermal growth factor, insulin, transferrin and selenium (EGF-ITS) or by the WOW system. With this aim, immature oocytes recovered from slaughtered heifers were in vitro matured and in vitro fertilized. Presumptive zygotes were then randomly cultured in four culture conditions: one large group (LG) (50 embryos/500 μl medium) and three smaller groups [five embryos/50 μl medium without (control) or with EGF-ITS (EGF-ITS) and five embryos per microwell in the WOW system (WOW)]. Embryos cultured in LG showed a greater ability to develop to blastocyst stage than embryos cultured in smaller groups, while the blastocyst rate of WOW group was significantly higher than in control. The number of cells/blastocyst in LG was higher than control or WOW, whereas the apoptosis rate per blastocyst was lower. On the other hand, the addition of EGF-ITS significantly improved both parameters compared to the control and resulted in similar embryo quality to LG. In conclusion, the WOW system improved embryo development, while the addition of EGF-ITS improved the embryo quality when smaller groups of embryos were cultured. © 2013 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  9. Adaptations to Short, Frequent Sessions of Endurance and Strength Training Are Similar to Longer, Less Frequent Exercise Sessions When the Total Volume Is the Same.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilen, Anders; Hjelvang, Line B; Dall, Niels; Kruse, Nanna L; Nordsborg, Nikolai B

    2015-11-01

    The hypothesis that the distribution of weekly training across several short sessions, as opposed to fewer longer sessions, enhances maximal strength gain without compromising maximal oxygen uptake was evaluated. Twenty-nine subjects completed an 8-week controlled parallel-group training intervention. One group ("micro training" [MI]: n = 21) performed nine 15-minute training sessions weekly, whereas a second group ("classical training" [CL]: n = 8) completed exactly the same training on a weekly basis but as three 45-minute sessions. For each group, each session comprised exclusively strength, high-intensity cardiovascular training or muscle endurance training. Both groups increased shuttle run performance (MI: 1,373 ± 133 m vs. 1,498 ± 126 m, p ≤ 0.05; CL: 1,074 ± 213 m vs. 1,451 ± 202 m, p training intervention. In conclusion, similar training adaptations can be obtained with short, frequent exercise sessions or longer, less frequent sessions where the total volume of weekly training performed is the same.

  10. Influence of multiple antenatal counselling sessions on modern contraceptive uptake in Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adanikin, Abiodun I; Onwudiegwu, Uche; Loto, Olabisi M

    2013-10-01

    To determine the influence of multiple contraceptive counselling sessions during antenatal care on use of modern postpartum contraception. A total of 216 eligible pregnant women were randomised into antenatal and postnatal counselling groups. The 'Antenatal group' received one-to-one antenatal contraceptive counselling on several occasions while the 'Postnatal group' received a single one-to-one contraceptive counselling session at the sixth week postnatal check, as is routinely practised. All participants were contacted six months postpartum by telephone or personal visit, and questioned about their contraceptive use, if any. More women who had multiple antenatal contraceptive counselling sessions used modern contraceptive methods than those who had a single postnatal counselling session (57% vs. 35%; p = 0.002). There was also a significantly more frequent use of contraception among previously undecided patients in the Antenatal group (p = 0.014). Multiple antenatal contraceptive counselling sessions improve the use of modern postpartum contraception.

  11. Exploring Radiotherapy Targeting Strategy and Dose: A Pooled Analysis of Cooperative Group Trials of Combined Modality Therapy for Stage III Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schild, Steven E; Fan, Wen; Stinchcombe, Thomas E; Vokes, Everett E; Ramalingam, Suresh S; Bradley, Jeffrey D; Kelly, Karen; Pang, Herbert H; Wang, Xiaofei

    2018-04-21

    Concurrent chemoradiotherapy(CRT) is standard therapy for locally-advanced non-small-cell lung cancer(LA-NSCLC)patients. This study was performed to examine thoracic radiotherapy(TRT) parameters and their impact on patient survival. We collected Individual patient data(IPD) from 3600LA-NSCLC patients participating in 16 cooperative group trials of concurrent CRT. The primary TRT parameters examined included field design strategy(elective nodal irradiation(ENI) compared to involved field TRT(IF-TRT)), total dose, and biologically effective dose(BED). Hazard ratios(HRs) for overall survival were calculated with univariable and multivariable Cox models. TRT doses ranged from 60 to 74 Gy with most treatments administered once-daily. ENI was associated with poorer survival than IF-TRT(univariable HR,1.37;95%CI,1.24-1.51,pENI patients were 24 and 16 months, respectively. Patients were divided into 3 dose groups: low total dose(60 Gy), medium total dose(>60Gy-66Gy) and high total dose(>66Gy-74 Gy). With reference to the low dose group, the multivariable HR's were 1.08 for the medium dose group(95%CI=0.93-1.25) and 1.12 for the high dose group(CI=0.97-1.30).The univariate p=0.054 and multivariable p=0.17. BED was grouped as follows: low(55.5 Gy 10 ). With reference to the low BED group, the HR was 1.00(95%CI=0.85-1.18) for the medium BED group and 1.10(95%CI=0.93-1.31) for the high BED group. The univariable p=0.076 and multivariable p=0.16. For LA-NSCLC patients treated with concurrent CRT, IF-TRT was associated with significantly better survival than ENI-TRT. TRT total and BED dose levels were not significantly associated with patient survival. Future progress will require research focusing on better systemic therapy and TRT. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  12. Sustained impact of a short small group course with systematic feedback in addition to regular clinical clerkship activities on musculoskeletal examination skills--a controlled study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perrig, Martin; Berendonk, Christoph; Rogausch, Anja; Beyeler, Christine

    2016-01-28

    The discrepancy between the extensive impact of musculoskeletal complaints and the common deficiencies in musculoskeletal examination skills lead to increased emphasis on structured teaching and assessment. However, studies of single interventions are scarce and little is known about the time-dependent effect of assisted learning in addition to a standard curriculum. We therefore evaluated the immediate and long-term impact of a small group course on musculoskeletal examination skills. All 48 Year 4 medical students of a 6 year curriculum, attending their 8 week clerkship of internal medicine at one University department in Berne, participated in this controlled study. Twenty-seven students were assigned to the intervention of a 6×1 h practical course (4-7 students, interactive hands-on examination of real patients; systematic, detailed feedback to each student by teacher, peers and patients). Twenty-one students took part in the regular clerkship activities only and served as controls. In all students clinical skills (CS, 9 items) were assessed in an Objective Structured Clinical Examination (OSCE) station, including specific musculoskeletal examination skills (MSES, 7 items) and interpersonal skills (IPS, 2 items). Two raters assessed the skills on a 4-point Likert scale at the beginning (T0), the end (T1) and 4-12 months after (T2) the clerkship. Statistical analyses included Friedman test, Wilcoxon rank sum test and Mann-Whitney U test. At T0 there were no significant differences between the intervention and control group. At T1 and T2 the control group showed no significant changes of CS, MSES and IPS compared to T0. In contrast, the intervention group significantly improved CS, MSES and IPS at T1 (p skills during regular clinical clerkship activities. However, an additional small group, interactive clinical skills course with feedback from various sources, improved these essential examination skills immediately after the teaching and several months later

  13. Undergraduate Researchers and the Poster Session

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Gail; Green, Raymond

    2007-01-01

    Undergraduates presented original research in classroom poster sessions open to students, faculty, and friends. We assessed the reaction of the students to the experience and their reported change in their interest in presenting at conferences. Students enjoyed the poster session experience and indicated they preferred this method over other…

  14. Multiparty session types as coherence proofs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carbone, Marco; Montesi, Fabrizio; Schürmann, Carsten

    2017-01-01

    We propose a Curry–Howard correspondence between a language for programming multiparty sessions and a generalisation of Classical Linear Logic (CLL). In this framework, propositions correspond to the local behaviour of a participant in a multiparty session type, proofs to processes, and proof nor...

  15. Summary of the session on other effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chao, A.

    1997-07-01

    The theme of this workshop is to discuss the effects of foreign particles on the native beam in a storage ring. This paper summarizes the session on effects not covered in sessions on fast ion instability, electron cloud instability, and cures. The topics discussed are the beam, the foreign particle, how are foreign particles trapped, and how do foreign particles and beam couple

  16. Ann Arbor Session I: Breaking Ground.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Music Educators Journal, 1979

    1979-01-01

    Summarizes the first session of the National Symposium on the Applications of Psychology to the Teaching and Learning of Music held at Ann Arbor from October 30 to November 2, 1978. Sessions concerned auditory perception, motor learning, child development, memory and information processing, and affect and motivation. (SJL)

  17. BILATERAL SINGLE SESSION URETEROSCOPY FOR URETERAL ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objectives: To determine the feasibility, safety and success rate of bilateral single session rigid retrograde ureteroscopy (URS) for bilateral ureteral calculi. Patients and Methods: Thirty-five patients underwent bilateral single session ureteroscopic calculus removal. Results: Out of 70 renal units in 35 patients treated, ...

  18. Summary of Technical Sessions - Summary and Recommendations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2013-01-01

    Technical Session 1 - Development achievements of BEPU methods and State of the Art: The objective of this session was to present the different approaches dealing with Best Estimate codes and uncertainties evaluations. Existing methods were summarized and different papers were focused on specific methods stressing their bases, peculiarities, advantages and limitations. As a result of the session a picture of the current State of the Art was obtained. The session comprised six papers. Technical Session 2 - International comparative activities: This session had as a main objective to review the activities launched in the past and present from the NEA in connection with BEPU methods, with focus on the applicability of conclusions derived from former benchmarks like UMS, the main outcomes of the recently finished BEMUSE project, and the objectives and relevance of UAM and PREMIUM projects. The session comprised four papers. Technical Session 3 - Applications: Licensing, safety analysis support, regulatory body views and industry activities: This session focused on the application of current methods in safety analyses. Contributions from industry, technical safety organizations and regulatory bodies were provided. As a result, a view of the penetration of BEPU methods in current safety analyses was obtained, as well as an indication of the evolution in the near future. Elements such as licensing practices, assessment process, etc. were considered. The session comprised nine papers. Technical Session 4. BEPU methods extension to new fields The session addressed the extension of BEPU methods beyond their current use. By now such methods are mainly applied to classic deterministic environment but it is believed that their benefits could be extended to other fields. Seven papers were presented in the session dealing with subjects that fit in the objectives established in the workshop programme. The papers cover areas like: extension to CFD, quantification of global safety

  19. Using session types as an effect system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dominic Orchard

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Side effects are a core part of practical programming. However, they are often hard to reason about, particularly in a concurrent setting. We propose a foundation for reasoning about concurrent side effects using sessions. Primarily, we show that session types are expressive enough to encode an effect system for stateful processes. This is formalised via an effect-preserving encoding of a simple imperative language with an effect system into the pi-calculus with session primitives and session types (into which we encode effect specifications. This result goes towards showing a connection between the expressivity of session types and effect systems. We briefly discuss how the encoding could be extended and applied to reason about and control concurrent side effects.

  20. Topical Session on the Decommissioning and Dismantling Safety Case

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    Set up by the Radioactive Waste Management Committee (RWMC), the WPDD brings together senior representatives of national organisations who have a broad overview of Decommissioning and Dismantling (D and D) issues through their work as regulators, implementers, R and D experts or policy makers. These include representatives from regulatory authorities, industrial decommissioners from the NEA Cooperative Programme on Exchange of Scientific and Technical Information on Nuclear Installation Decommissioning Projects (CPD), and cross-representation from the NEA Committee on Nuclear Regulatory Activities, the Committee on Radiation Protection and Public Health, and the RWMC. The EC is a member of the WPDD and the IAEA also participates. This ensures co-ordination amongst activities in these international programmes. Participation from civil society organisations is considered on a case by case basis, and has already taken place through the active involvement of the Group of Municipalities with Nuclear Installations at the first meeting of the WPDD At its second meeting, in Paris, 5-7 December 2001, the WPDD held two topical sessions on the D and D Safety Case and on the Management of Materials from D and D, respectively. This report documents the topical session on the safety case. The topical session was meant to provide an exchange of information and experience on the following issues: What topics should be included in a safety case? Of what should it consist? Is there sufficient and complete guidance nationally and internationally? How do practices differ internationally? Main boundary condition to this session was that it would deal with plants where spent fuel has been removed. Also the topical sessions was kept at a level that makes the most of the varied constituency of the WPDD. Namely, interface issues are important, and issue-identification and discussion was the immediate goal. There was less interest in examining areas where variability amongst national

  1. Context matters: volunteer bias, small sample size, and the value of comparison groups in the assessment of research-based undergraduate introductory biology lab courses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brownell, Sara E; Kloser, Matthew J; Fukami, Tadashi; Shavelson, Richard J

    2013-01-01

    The shift from cookbook to authentic research-based lab courses in undergraduate biology necessitates the need for evaluation and assessment of these novel courses. Although the biology education community has made progress in this area, it is important that we interpret the effectiveness of these courses with caution and remain mindful of inherent limitations to our study designs that may impact internal and external validity. The specific context of a research study can have a dramatic impact on the conclusions. We present a case study of our own three-year investigation of the impact of a research-based introductory lab course, highlighting how volunteer students, a lack of a comparison group, and small sample sizes can be limitations of a study design that can affect the interpretation of the effectiveness of a course.

  2. Context Matters: Volunteer Bias, Small Sample Size, and the Value of Comparison Groups in the Assessment of Research-Based Undergraduate Introductory Biology Lab Courses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara E. Brownell

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The shift from cookbook to authentic research-based lab courses in undergraduate biology necessitates the need for evaluation and assessment of these novel courses. Although the biology education community has made progress in this area, it is important that we interpret the effectiveness of these courses with caution and remain mindful of inherent limitations to our study designs that may impact internal and external validity. The specific context of a research study can have a dramatic impact on the conclusions. We present a case study of our own three-year investigation of the impact of a research-based introductory lab course, highlighting how volunteer students, a lack of a comparison group, and small sample sizes can be limitations of a study design that can affect the interpretation of the effectiveness of a course.

  3. Why aren't women choosing STEM academic jobs? Observations from a small-group discussion at the 2016 American Society for Microbiology annual meeting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adamowicz, Elizabeth M

    2017-03-01

    This commentary summarizes a small-group discussion that recently occurred at the American Society for Microbiology annual general meeting, ASM Microbe, in Boston, Massachusetts, on 16-20 June 2016, on the topic 'why are so few women choosing to become academics?' Specifically, the discussion focused on asking what the actual and perceived barriers to academic STEM careers women face, and possible solutions to address them which would make women more likely to seek out academic careers. The conclusions reached suggest that, despite improvement in recent years, women and minorities still face complex barriers to STEM academic careers, and further research is needed to determine the best solutions to this problem. © FEMS 2017. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  4. Implementing the patient-centered medical home model for chronic disease care in small medical practices: practice group characteristics and physician understanding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baxter, Louisa; Nash, David B

    2013-01-01

    Strengthening primary care may improve health outcomes and restrain spending. The patient-centered medical home (PCMH) model is endorsed as a tool to achieve this. Early evaluations in large group practices demonstrate improvements in some health outcomes. Evidence is lacking from small medical practices that deliver the majority of primary health care. This was a national survey of 200 physicians that explored perceptions of PCMH. There was considerable interest in adoption of the model; however, providing PCMH care was seen as an extension of traditional roles that requires additional reimbursement. No differentiation was made among a variety of payment models to do this. All joint principle components of the model were identified as important: extending access and information technology were the most contentious. There was consensus that PCMH might improve the quality of primary care; however, tension between wider societal benefits and rising costs for individual practices was a challenge to implementation.

  5. Radiotherapeutic management of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). An overview based on the clinical trials of the radiation therapy oncology group (RTOG)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilson, J.F.; Byhardt, R.W.

    1995-01-01

    Recent clinical trials clarified the role of radiation therapy (RT) in the treatment of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). The evolution of this research is illustrated by a systemic succession of studies conducted during the last twenty years by the Radiation Therapy Oncology Group (RTOG). This article reviews past and present RTOG research efforts in NSCLC. For unresectable NSCLS, major research themes have included radiation dose intensification using both standard and altered fractionation (hyperfractionation or accelerated fraction RT), treatment intensification using combined modality RT and chemotherapy (CT), as well as noncytotoxic adjuvants to RT. These trials have shown that treatment intensification can yield improved survival with acceptable toxicity. Local control and survival was improved with induction CT followed by standard RT to 60 Gy. Current studies will evaluate the timing and sequencing of CT and RT and the combination of CT with altered fractionation RT. Hypoxic cell sensitizers and nonspecific immune stimulants, two noncytotoxic adjuvants to RT, have shown no survival benefit. Biologic response modifiers, including recombinant interferon-beta, will also be evaluated as adjuvants to standard RT, based on interferon-beta radiosensitization observed in the laboratory and clinical investigations suggesting improved survival. Overall, RTOG studies have demonstrated small, but definite, incremental improvements in treatment outcome in NSCLS and provide a solid foundation on which to develop future investigations. (N.K.) 51 refs

  6. Effects of an Intensive Resistant Training Sessions and Green Tea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Esmaeil Afzalpour

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Intensive and acute exercise trainings may induce oxidative stress, but antioxidant supplements may attenuate its degenerative consequences. The aim of this research was to examine the effect of green tea supplementation on the oxidative stress indices after an intensive resistance training session. Materials and Methods: 40 non-athletes (without regular physical activity women were randomly divided into 4 equal (n=10 groups including green tea supplementation, green tea supplementation plus resistance training, resistance training, and control groups. After supplementation period (600 mg/day, 14 days, resistance training and green tea supplementation plus resistance training groups performed an intensive resistance training session at 75-85 % of one repetition maximum. The malondialdehyde and total thiol were measured as oxidative stress indices. Data were analyzed by using of repeated measure ANOVA and LSD tests at p<0.056T. Results: Results showed that after 14 days of green tea consumption, malondialdehyde significantly decreased in green tea supplementation (p=0.03 and green tea supplementation plus resistance training (p=0.01 groups, while total thiol increased significantly (p=0.01 in two green tea supplementation groups. However, an intensive resistance training session increased malondialdehyde (p=0.01 without any significantly changes in total thiol (p=0.426T. Conclusion: It seems that green tea supplementation can inhibit exercise-induced protein and lipid oxidation in non-athletes women via enhancement of antioxidant defense system of the body6T.6T

  7. Pilot investigation of the circadian plasma melatonin rhythm across the menstrual cycle in a small group of women with premenstrual dysphoric disorder.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ari Shechter

    Full Text Available Women with premenstrual dysphoric disorder (PMDD experience mood deterioration and altered circadian rhythms during the luteal phase (LP of their menstrual cycles. Disturbed circadian rhythms may be involved in the development of clinical mood states, though this relationship is not fully characterized in PMDD. We therefore conducted an extensive chronobiological characterization of the melatonin rhythm in a small group of PMDD women and female controls. In this pilot study, participants included five women with PMDD and five age-matched controls with no evidence of menstrual-related mood disorders. Participants underwent two 24-hour laboratory visits, during the follicular phase (FP and LP of the menstrual cycle, consisting of intensive physiological monitoring under "unmasked", time-isolation conditions. Measures included visual analogue scale for mood, ovarian hormones, and 24-hour plasma melatonin. Mood significantly (P≤.03 worsened during LP in PMDD compared to FP and controls. Progesterone was significantly (P = .025 increased during LP compared to FP, with no between-group differences. Compared to controls, PMDD women had significantly (P<.05 decreased melatonin at circadian phases spanning the biological night during both menstrual phases and reduced amplitude of its circadian rhythm during LP. PMDD women also had reduced area under the curve of melatonin during LP compared to FP. PMDD women showed affected circadian melatonin rhythms, with reduced nocturnal secretion and amplitude during the symptomatic phase compared to controls. Despite our small sample size, these pilot findings support a role for disturbed circadian rhythms in affective disorders. Possible associations with disrupted serotonergic transmission are proposed.

  8. Effects of Post-Session Wheel Running on Within-Session Changes in Operant Responding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aoyama, Kenjiro

    2007-01-01

    This study tested the effects of post-session wheel running on within-session changes in operant responding. Lever-pressing by six rats was reinforced by a food pellet under a continuous reinforcement (CRF) schedule in 30-min sessions. Two different flavored food pellets were used as reinforcers. In the wheel conditions, 30-min operant-sessions…

  9. Session-RPE for quantifying the load of different youth basketball training sessions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lupo, C; Tessitore, A; Gasperi, L; Gomez, Mar

    2017-03-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate youth basketball training, verifying the reliability of the session-RPE method in relation to session duration (session) categories. Six male youth basketball players (age, 16.5±0.5 years; height, 195.5±6.75 cm; body mass, 93.9±10.9 kg; and body mass index, 23.6±2.8 kg.m -2 ) were monitored (HR, type and duration of workouts) during 15 (66 individual) training sessions (80±26 minutes). Edwards' HR method was used as a reference measure of internal training load (ITL); the CR-10 RPE scale was administered 30 minutes after the end of each session. The results obtained showed that all comparisons between different session durations and workout portions revealed effects in term of Edwards' ITLs except for warm-up portions. Moderate to strong relationships between Edwards' and session- RPE methods emerged for all sessions (r = .85, P sessions (r range = .79 - .95, P session durations (session-RPE to monitor the ITL, regardless of session durations and workout portions.

  10. Session-RPE for quantifying the load of different youth basketball training sessions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C Lupo

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to evaluate youth basketball training, verifying the reliability of the session-RPE method in relation to session duration (< and ≥ 80 minutes and workout typology (reduced and high warm-up, conditioning, technical, tactical, game portions within a single session categories. Six male youth basketball players (age, 16.5±0.5 years; height, 195.5±6.75 cm; body mass, 93.9±10.9 kg; and body mass index, 23.6±2.8 kg.m-2 were monitored (HR, type and duration of workouts during 15 (66 individual training sessions (80±26 minutes. Edwards’ HR method was used as a reference measure of internal training load (ITL; the CR-10 RPE scale was administered 30 minutes after the end of each session. The results obtained showed that all comparisons between different session durations and workout portions revealed effects in term of Edwards’ ITLs except for warm-up portions. Moderate to strong relationships between Edwards’ and session- RPE methods emerged for all sessions (r = .85, P < .001, player’s sessions (r range = .79 - .95, P < .001, session durations (< 80 minutes: r = .67, P < .001; ≥ 80 minutes: r = .75, P < .001, and workout portions (r range = .78 - .89, P range = .002 - < .001. The findings indicated that coaches of youth basketball players can successfully use session-RPE to monitor the ITL, regardless of session durations and workout portions.

  11. The impact of team dialogue sessions on employee engagement in an information and communication technology company

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael A.W. Seymour

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Orientation: Engaged employees are regarded as extremely valuable in today’s unstable economic environment. However, despite spending large amounts of money on the improvement of employee engagement, the effect thereof is seldom determined. This study was about determining the impact of team dialogue sessions on the enhancement of employee engagement in a large information and communication technology company over a 2-year period. Research purpose: This study focused on determining the improvement of employee engagement through an organisation development intervention. The intervention was based on a social constructionist perspective, namely, team dialoguing, and was facilitated over a period of two years. Motivation for the study: Although the matter regarding the improvement of employee engagement seems to be extensively discussed in the literature, research on the use of interventions to enhance employee engagement is to a large extent still lacking. Based on a theoretical integration, it was argued that team dialoguing could improve employee engagement. Research design, approach and method: This was a quantitative study, employing a quasi-experimental design. An experimental group was exposed to an organisation development intervention of team dialogues over a 2-year period and then compared to a control group that had not been exposed to the intervention. Main findings: Although with a small effect size, it was discovered that facilitating team dialogue sessions had a positive impact on employee engagement, more specifically on the exercise of discretionary effort, intention to remain, rational commitment, communication and supervisory support as dimensions. Practical and managerial implications: The practical implication of this study is that the engagement of employees can be enhanced by involving the direct supervisor and his or her team in dialoguing sessions. Contribution or value-add: The study contributed to the literature

  12. Can a four-session biofeedback regimen be used effectively for treating children with dysfunctional voiding?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sener, Nevzat Can; Altunkol, Adem; Unal, Umut; Ercil, Hakan; Bas, Okan; Gumus, Kemal; Ciftci, Halil; Yeni, Ercan

    2015-01-01

    To compare the outcomes of the open-ended six to ten sessions of biofeedback against a novel regime of four sessions of biofeedback to treat children with dysfunctional voiding. Patients from two centers using different methods were retrospectively analyzed. Group 1 comprised 20 patients treated with four sessions of biofeedback. Group 2 comprised 20 patients treated with six to ten sessions of biofeedback. Each group was evaluated with subjective and objective parameters pre-treatment, immediately post-treatment and 6 months post-treatment. All patients in Group 1 were treated with four sessions of biofeedback and in Group 2 the mean number of sessions was 7.35±1.30 (range 6-10). Normalized voiding flow curves after treatment were determined in 18 patients in Group 1 (90%) and 19 patients in Group 2 (95%) (p=0.553). There were seven patients (35%) in Group 1 and eight patients (40%) in Group 2 with reflux. When units were compared, there were 11 units (4 bilateral) in Group 1 and 13 units (5 bilateral) in Group 2 with reflux (p=0.747). At 6 months post-treatment, in Group 1, seven had resolved (63.6%), three had improved (27.2%) and one persisted (9.01%). In Group 2, ten had resolved (76.9%) and three had improved (23.1%) (p=0.553). Biofeedback therapy is one of the most widely used techniques in dysfunctional voiding in children. The regime of use has not been well defined, and the results of this study showed that a regime of four sessions of biofeedback therapy may be as safe and effective as the previously defined open-ended six to ten sessions.

  13. Evaluating a Pre-Session Homework Exercise in a Standalone Information Literacy Class

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goetz, Joseph E.; Barber, Catherine R.

    2015-01-01

    In this study, researchers evaluate a homework exercise assigned before a standalone information literacy session. Students in a Master of Education program completed a worksheet using the ERIC database thesaurus. The researchers conducted pre- and posttests within a single library session to assess student learning, using a control group for…

  14. A cluster randomized controlled trial to assess the impact on intimate partner violence of a 10-session participatory gender training curriculum delivered to women taking part in a group-based microfinance loan scheme in Tanzania (MAISHA CRT01): study protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harvey, Sheila; Lees, Shelley; Mshana, Gerry; Pilger, Daniel; Hansen, Christian; Kapiga, Saidi; Watts, Charlotte

    2018-04-02

    Worldwide, almost one third (30%) of women who have been in a relationship have experienced physical and/or sexual violence from an intimate partner. Given the considerable negative impacts of intimate partner violence (IPV) on women's physical health and well-being, there is an urgent need for rigorous evidence on violence prevention interventions. The study, comprising a cluster randomized controlled trial (RCT) and in-depth qualitative study, will assess the impact on women's past year experience of physical and/or sexual IPV of a participatory gender training curriculum (MAISHA curriculum) delivered to women participating in group-based microfinance in Tanzania. More broadly, the study aims to learn more about the factors that contribute to women's vulnerability to violence and understand how the intervention impacts on the lives of women and their families. Sixty-six eligible microfinance loan groups are enrolled and randomly allocated to: the 10-session MAISHA curriculum, delivered over 20 weeks (n = 33); or, to no intervention (n = 33). Study participants are interviewed at baseline and at 24 months post-intervention about their: household; partner; income; health; attitudes and social norms; relationship (including experiences of different forms of violence); childhood; and community. For the qualitative study and process evaluation, focus group discussions are being conducted with study participants and MAISHA curriculum facilitators. In-depth interviews are being conducted with a purposive sample of 18 participants. The primary outcome, assessed at 24 months post-intervention, is a composite of women's reported experience of physical and/or sexual IPV during the past 12 months. Secondary outcomes include: reported experience of physical, sexual and emotional/psychological IPV during the past 12 months, attitudes towards IPV and reported disclosure of IPV to others. The study forms part of a wider programme of research (MAISHA) that includes

  15. Flexible session management in a distributed environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, Zach; /Wisconsin U., Madison; Bradley, Dan; /Wisconsin U., Madison; Tannenbaum, Todd; /Wisconsin U., Madison; Sfiligoi, Igor; /Fermilab

    2010-01-01

    Many secure communication libraries used by distributed systems, such as SSL, TLS, and Kerberos, fail to make a clear distinction between the authentication, session, and communication layers. In this paper we introduce CEDAR, the secure communication library used by the Condor High Throughput Computing software, and present the advantages to a distributed computing system resulting from CEDAR's separation of these layers. Regardless of the authentication method used, CEDAR establishes a secure session key, which has the flexibility to be used for multiple capabilities. We demonstrate how a layered approach to security sessions can avoid round-trips and latency inherent in network authentication. The creation of a distinct session management layer allows for optimizations to improve scalability by way of delegating sessions to other components in the system. This session delegation creates a chain of trust that reduces the overhead of establishing secure connections and enables centralized enforcement of system-wide security policies. Additionally, secure channels based upon UDP datagrams are often overlooked by existing libraries; we show how CEDAR's structure accommodates this as well. As an example of the utility of this work, we show how the use of delegated security sessions and other techniques inherent in CEDAR's architecture enables US CMS to meet their scalability requirements in deploying Condor over large-scale, wide-area grid systems.

  16. Flexible session management in a distributed environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, Zach; Bradley, Dan; Tannenbaum, Todd; Sfiligoi, Igor

    2010-01-01

    Many secure communication libraries used by distributed systems, such as SSL, TLS, and Kerberos, fail to make a clear distinction between the authentication, session, and communication layers. In this paper we introduce CEDAR, the secure communication library used by the Condor High Throughput Computing software, and present the advantages to a distributed computing system resulting from CEDAR's separation of these layers. Regardless of the authentication method used, CEDAR establishes a secure session key, which has the flexibility to be used for multiple capabilities. We demonstrate how a layered approach to security sessions can avoid round-trips and latency inherent in network authentication. The creation of a distinct session management layer allows for optimizations to improve scalability by way of delegating sessions to other components in the system. This session delegation creates a chain of trust that reduces the overhead of establishing secure connections and enables centralized enforcement of system-wide security policies. Additionally, secure channels based upon UDP datagrams are often overlooked by existing libraries; we show how CEDAR's structure accommodates this as well. As an example of the utility of this work, we show how the use of delegated security sessions and other techniques inherent in CEDAR's architecture enables US CMS to meet their scalability requirements in deploying Condor over large-scale, wide-area grid systems.

  17. Flexible session management in a distributed environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, Zach; Bradley, Dan; Tannenbaum, Todd [University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States); Sfiligoi, Igor, E-mail: zmiller@cs.wisc.ed [Fermi National Acceleartor Laboratory, Batavia, IL (United States)

    2010-04-01

    Many secure communication libraries used by distributed systems, such as SSL, TLS, and Kerberos, fail to make a clear distinction between the authentication, session, and communication layers. In this paper we introduce CEDAR, the secure communication library used by the Condor High Throughput Computing software, and present the advantages to a distributed computing system resulting from CEDAR's separation of these layers. Regardless of the authentication method used, CEDAR establishes a secure session key, which has the flexibility to be used for multiple capabilities. We demonstrate how a layered approach to security sessions can avoid round-trips and latency inherent in network authentication. The creation of a distinct session management layer allows for optimizations to improve scalability by way of delegating sessions to other components in the system. This session delegation creates a chain of trust that reduces the overhead of establishing secure connections and enables centralized enforcement of system-wide security policies. Additionally, secure channels based upon UDP datagrams are often overlooked by existing libraries; we show how CEDAR's structure accommodates this as well. As an example of the utility of this work, we show how the use of delegated security sessions and other techniques inherent in CEDAR's architecture enables US CMS to meet their scalability requirements in deploying Condor over large-scale, wide-area grid systems.

  18. Flexible session management in a distributed environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Zach; Bradley, Dan; Tannenbaum, Todd; Sfiligoi, Igor

    2010-04-01

    Many secure communication libraries used by distributed systems, such as SSL, TLS, and Kerberos, fail to make a clear distinction between the authentication, session, and communication layers. In this paper we introduce CEDAR, the secure communication library used by the Condor High Throughput Computing software, and present the advantages to a distributed computing system resulting from CEDAR's separation of these layers. Regardless of the authentication method used, CEDAR establishes a secure session key, which has the flexibility to be used for multiple capabilities. We demonstrate how a layered approach to security sessions can avoid round-trips and latency inherent in network authentication. The creation of a distinct session management layer allows for optimizations to improve scalability by way of delegating sessions to other components in the system. This session delegation creates a chain of trust that reduces the overhead of establishing secure connections and enables centralized enforcement of system-wide security policies. Additionally, secure channels based upon UDP datagrams are often overlooked by existing libraries; we show how CEDAR's structure accommodates this as well. As an example of the utility of this work, we show how the use of delegated security sessions and other techniques inherent in CEDAR's architecture enables US CMS to meet their scalability requirements in deploying Condor over large-scale, wide-area grid systems.

  19. 'My body is mine': Qualitatively exploring agency among internally displaced women participants in a small-group intervention in Leogane, Haiti.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Logie, Carmen H; Daniel, CarolAnn

    2016-01-01

    The 2010 earthquake resulted in the breakdown of Haiti's social, economic and health infrastructure. Over one-quarter of a million people remain internally displaced (ID). ID women experience heightened vulnerability to intimate partner violence (IPV) due to increased poverty and reduced community networks. Scant research has examined experiences of IPV among ID women in post-earthquake Haiti. We conducted a qualitative study to explore the impact of participating in Famn an Aksyon Pou Santé Yo (FASY), a small-group HIV prevention intervention, on ID women's agency in Leogane, Haiti. We conducted four focus groups with ID women, FASY participants (n = 40) and in-depth individual interviews with peer health workers (n = 7). Our study was guided by critical ethnography and paid particular attention to power relations. Findings highlighted multiple forms of IPV (e.g., physical, sexual). Participants discussed processes of intrapersonal (confidence), interpersonal (communication), relational (support) and collective (women's rights) agency. Yet structural factors, including patriarchal gender norms and poverty, silenced IPV discussions and constrained women's agency. Findings suggest that agency among ID women is a multi-level, non-linear and incremental process. To effectively address IPV among ID women in Haiti, interventions should address structural contexts of gender inequity and poverty and concurrently facilitate multi-level processes of agency.

  20. SmallSat Database

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petropulos, Dolores; Bittner, David; Murawski, Robert; Golden, Bert

    2015-01-01

    required. When completed it will interface with the SCENIC environment to allow modeling of smallSats. The SmallSat Relational Database can also be integrated with the SCENIC Simulation modeling system that is currently in development. The SmallSat Relational Database simulation will be of great significance in assisting the NASA SCaN group to understand the impact the smallSats have made which have populated the lower orbit around our mother earth. What I have created and worked on this summer session 2015, is the basis for a tool that will be of value to the NASA SCaN SCENIC Simulation Environment for years to come.

  1. La centralidad en las comunicaciones y la influencia percibida en los pequeños grupos The communication centrality and the perceived influence in small groups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nancy Noemi Terroni

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available Este trabajo reporta los resultados de medidas del análisis de redes en la comunicación de pequeños grupos que resuelven una tarea de recuperación de memoria y su asociación con la influencia percibida. El reactivo empleado es una historia y los 65 participantes, alumnos de la Universidad Nacional de Mar del Plata, debieron reconstruir la misma primero en forma individual, luego grupal colaborativa y nuevamente en forma individual. Se registraron las interacciones grupales con comunicación cara a cara y mediada por computadora; se analizaron las medidas de prominencia, la centralidad y el prestigio de la comunicación y el tipo de alocución, orientado a la gestión grupal o hacia la tarea. Se observaron asociaciones significativas entre las medidas reticulares y la influencia percibida para ambos medios de comunicación y se hallaron diferencias en la comunicación de gestión grupal. Se discuten estos resultados con relación a las restricciones que imponen los canales de comunicación mediados.This work reports reticular measures of the social network analysis in the communication of small groups while solving a recall memory task and their association with the perceived influence. The task used is a story and the 65 subjects, students at the Mar del Plata University had to reconstruct the story, first individually, then in collaborative groups and again individually. The subjects’ interactions in face to face and computer mediated communication groups were recorded; the prominence measures, the centrality and the prestige of the communication and the type of speech were analyzed, oriented to the group management or towards the task (conceptual. Significant associations between the reticular measures and the perceived influence were observed, for both media, and differences in the group management communications were found. These results in relation to the restrictions of the communication mediated channels are discussed.

  2. The Physics and Applications of High Brightness Beams: Working Group C Summary on Applications to FELS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nuhn, Heinz-Dieter

    2003-01-01

    This is the summary of the activities in working group C, ''Application to FELs,'' which was based in the Bithia room at the Joint ICFA Advanced Accelerator and Beam Dynamics Workshop on July 1-6, 2002 in Chia Laguna, Sardinia, Italy. Working group C was small in relation to the other working groups at that workshop. Attendees include Enrica Chiadroni, University of Rome ape with an identical pulse length. ''La Sapienza'', Luca Giannessi, ENEA, Steve Lidia, LBNL, Vladimir Litvinenko, Duke University, Patrick Muggli, UCLA, Alex Murokh, UCLA, Heinz-Dieter Nuhn, SLAC, Sven Reiche, UCLA, Jamie Rosenzweig, UCLA, Claudio Pellegrini, UCLA, Susan Smith, Daresbury Laboratory, Matthew Thompson, UCLA, Alexander Varfolomeev, Russian Research Center, plus a small number of occasional visitors. The working group addressed a total of nine topics. Each topic was introduced by a presentation, which initiated a discussion of the topic during and after the presentation. The speaker of the introductory presentation facilitated the discussion. There were six topics that were treated in stand-alone sessions of working group C. In addition, there were two joint sessions, one with working group B, which included one topic, and one with working group C, which included two topics. The presentations that were given in the joint sessions are summarized in the working group summary reports for groups B and D, respectively. This summary will only discuss the topics that were addressed in the stand-alone sessions, including Start-To-End Simulations, SASE Experiment, PERSEO, ''Optics Free'' FEL Oscillators, and VISA II

  3. Round table discussion during session 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aebersold, M.

    2004-01-01

    The round table discussions of the first session of the Belgium Workshop addressed the following questions: - Accepting or refusing a person, an institution or a grouping as a legitimate Stakeholder who makes the decision and how? - How are the local partnerships built and organised? - How to obtain community support for the partnership's legitimate decisions/findings? - Experience teaches that no decision is reached solely by formal and legal processes. What role do informal processes play? - How can the informal procedures be accepted? Do they need to be made explicit? Discussion took place after the plenary presentations, at tables grouping Belgian stakeholders and FSC delegates. After the discussion, each table's findings were reported to the plenary. Most of the discussion concerned the local partnerships. Important findings were that the statutes for the partnerships were developed by the partnerships themselves and there were no legally binding rules handed down by the federal level. The partnerships are part of an informal process. A legally binding participation (i.e. within the EIA) will be initiated at a later stage. As the partnerships function outside of the formal legal procedure, they can function in a more flexible way. It was noted that the partnerships make recommendations, but it is not clear what the government will do with these recommendations. It was also argued that the process may cause conflicts between neighboring communities. As in other contexts visited by the FSC, the importance of the right of veto of the community was stressed, although this may cause a conflict between technical suitability and social acceptance. Access of the community to the local partnership is necessary. Finally it was accepted that time is needed to explain the recommendations to the broader community before any decisions are taken. (author)

  4. Summary of session W2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deitrich, L.W.

    1988-01-01

    This paper reports on the development and validation of the SASSYS-1 code which is being used to analyze the transient behavior of the U.S. innovative designs, SAFR and PRISM, as well as the future metal fueled core for FFTF. The description emphasized the high degree of flexibility of SASSYS-1 and its capability to do detailed core calculations needed to accurately model reactivity feedbacks. Validation work based on calculations of EBR-II SHRT (shutdown neat removal) tests and FFTF transient experiments was presented. The paper presents a discussion of the modifications to the SSC code required to model the ATWS events in SAFR and PRISM, along with results of calculations done with the modified SSC. The probability that passive shutdown could be defeated and severe core damage sustained has been investigated, and some results are presented in this paper. It was stated that simple design choices can keep risk almost arbitrarily low, and that the leading uncertainties will be reduced through future R ampersand D and demonstration testing. Uncertainties exist due to uncertainties in feedback coefficients and in the models and codes used to do the calculations. Large margin and relatively small uncertainties lead to low probabilities (less than 10-3) of defeat of passive shutdown by exceeding temperature limits. The given value is considered to be conservative to allow for uncertainties in knowledge of all relevant accident sequences at this stage in design and analysis. This paper also deals with experimental work on decay heat removal in PRISM and SAFR. Experiments on air-side heat transfer in the RVACS/RACS passive decay heat removal path, was reported. A data correlation for use in predicting heat transfer has been discussed for the RVACS conditions

  5. Teaching Students about Research: Classroom Poster Sessions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crowley-Long, Kathleen; And Others

    1997-01-01

    Finds that undergraduate students in an introductory psychology class acquired more favorable attitudes toward research as a result of their active participation in the creation and presentation of a poster that illustrates their independent work. Appends poster session instructions. (RS)

  6. Work session on the SAR. Pt. 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burkart, K.

    1980-01-01

    The present paper contains the tables of the contribution of K. Burkart 'Work Session on the SAR' to the IAEA Interregional Training Course held in Sept/Oct. 1980 at the Kernforschungszentrum Karlsruhe. (RW)

  7. Session summary: Electronics, triggering and data acquisition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rescia, S.

    1991-12-01

    The session focused on the requirements for calorimetry at the SSC/LHC. Results on new readout techniques, calibration, radiation hard electronics and semiconductor devices, analog and digital front and electronics, and trigger strategies are presented

  8. Resources for Education and Outreach Activities discussion session

    CERN Document Server

    Barney, David; The ATLAS collaboration; Bourdarios, Claire; Kobel, Michael; Kourkoumelis, Christine; Melo, Ivan; Rangel-Smith, Camila; Alexopoulos, Angelos

    2015-01-01

    Over the past few years a variety of resources have been developed, by individuals and groups, to support Education & Outreach activities in particle physics. Following short (five-minute) presentations by six speakers, a discussion session allowed the audience to go further in depth in activities they found particularly interesting. This paper presents brief overviews from each of the six speakers, followed by a summary of the ensuing discussion

  9. Summary of the relativistic heavy ion sessions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harris, J.W.

    1988-01-01

    The topics covered in the Relativistic Heavy Ion Sessions span four orders of magnitude in energy in the laboratory and a few more in theory. In the two years since the last Intersections conference, experiments in the field of very high energy heavy ion research have begun at CERN and Brookhaven. The prime motivation for these experiments is the possibility of forming quark matter. This paper is a review of the topics covered in the Relativistic Heavy Ion Sessions

  10. A positionism epitomology applied to small group decision-making in radioactive waste management. Doctoral thesis prepared at SCK-CEN and defended in 2004

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bombaerts, G.

    2005-01-01

    The article refers to an abstract of a doctoral thesis. Assuring the safety of technological developments is becoming one of the most important tasks in society. For nuclear waste repositories, it is important to know what will remain valuable of current performance and safety assessments within a few hundred years. The core of the PhD concerns the meaning that can be attributed to safety assessments. This study develops a new philosophical theory to explain how small group decision-making on technoscientific problems takes place. It is applied to the specific problem of decision-making on radioactive waste disposal and its related risk assessment. The new philosophical theory is based on Latour's interactionism theory, which in its essence states that facts are only facts if they are accepted by the network. The theory adds that fact-building or decision-making happens in a certain context by interaction of different context elements. The word context has a very specific meaning. It refers to a problem solving situations in which individuals work out a problem framing and use attitudes, personalities, group cultures, and objects. Decisions or fact-building within the group will happen by interaction between these context elements that will get different hierarchical positions and lead to contextual dissonance reduction. This is called positionism. An international questionnaire has been carried out asking for estimations by technologists and scientists of the risks and uncertainties of a high level waste repository on the one hand and their personality, group culture and background characteristics on the other hand. Two important indicators occur. High neuroticism -a personality measure indicating the general tendency to experience affects such as fear, sadness, or distrust- correlates with high assessments of the waste repository risks. Scientists with high confidence in science give significant lower estimations of the repository risks. These results illustrate

  11. Assessing treatment integrity in cognitive-behavioral therapy: comparing session segments with entire sessions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weck, Florian; Grikscheit, Florian; Höfling, Volkmar; Stangier, Ulrich

    2014-07-01

    The evaluation of treatment integrity (therapist adherence and competence) is a necessary condition to ensure the internal and external validity of psychotherapy research. However, the evaluation process is associated with high costs, because therapy sessions must be rated by experienced clinicians. It is debatable whether rating session segments is an adequate alternative to rating entire sessions. Four judges evaluated treatment integrity (i.e., therapist adherence and competence) in 84 randomly selected videotapes of cognitive-behavioral therapy for major depressive disorder, social anxiety disorder, and hypochondriasis (from three different treatment outcome studies). In each case, two judges provided ratings based on entire therapy sessions and two on session segments only (i.e., the middle third of the entire sessions). Interrater reliability of adherence and competence evaluations proved satisfactory for ratings based on segments and the level of reliability did not differ from ratings based on entire sessions. Ratings of treatment integrity that were based on entire sessions and session segments were strongly correlated (r=.62 for adherence and r=.73 for competence). The relationship between treatment integrity and outcome was comparable for ratings based on session segments and those based on entire sessions. However, significant relationships between therapist competence and therapy outcome were only found in the treatment of social anxiety disorder. Ratings based on segments proved to be adequate for the evaluation of treatment integrity. The findings demonstrate that session segments are an adequate and cost-effective alternative to entire sessions for the evaluation of therapist adherence and competence. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  12. Phase II trial of paclitaxel and cisplatin in patients with extensive stage small cell lung cancer: Cancer and Leukemia Group B Trial 9430.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stinchcombe, Thomas E; Mauer, Ann M; Hodgson, Lydia D; Herndon, James E; Lynch, Thomas J; Green, Mark R; Vokes, Everett E

    2008-11-01

    Cancer and Leukemia Group B trial 9430 was a randomized phase II trial which investigated the safety and activity of four novel doublets in untreated extensive stage small cell lung cancer. The results of the paclitaxel and cisplatin arm have not been reported. Patients received paclitaxel 230 mg/m followed by cisplatin 75 mg/m on day 1 every 21 days. All patients received granulocyte colony stimulating factor 5 microg/kg/d beginning on day 3 of each cycle. The patient characteristics of the 34 patients assigned to this treatment arm were: median age 61.5 years (range 41-82), male (76%), performance status 0 (41%), 1 (32%), and 2 (26%). An objective response was observed in 23 patients (68%; 95% confidence interval (CI): 49-83%); 2 complete responses (6%) and 21 partial responses (62%). Median progression-free survival time was 5.6 months (95% CI: 4.8-7.1 month), and median overall survival time was 7.7 months (95% CI: 7.2-12.6 months). The 1-year survival rate observed was 29% (95% CI: 15-45%). Grade 3/4 neutropenia and thrombocytopenia was observed in 5 (15%) and 4 (12%) patients, respectively. Two patients developed febrile neutropenia including one patient who died of neutropenic sepsis. Grade 3/4 nonhematologic observed were: sensory neuropathy in eight patients (24%); and hyperglycemia, malaise and nausea were all observed in four patients (12%). Cancer and Leukemia Group B will not pursue further investigation of paclitaxel and cisplatin due to the modest activity and the toxicity observed on this trial.

  13. Electrical properties of SAM-modified ITO surface using aromatic small molecules with double bond carboxylic acid groups for OLED applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Can, Mustafa; Havare, Ali Kemal; Aydın, Hasan; Yagmurcukardes, Nesli; Demic, Serafettin; Icli, Sıddık; Okur, Salih

    2014-01-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • We report that the performance of OLED consist of aromatic small molecules with double bond carboxylic acid groups on ITO surface. • The OLED devices were tested in terms of electrical and optical characteristics. • The I–V results show that OLEDs with SAM-modified ITO surface have lower turn on voltages than OLED configurations without SAMs. - Abstract: 5-[(3-Methylphenyl)(phenyl)amino]isophthalic acid (5-MePIFA) and 5-(diphenyl)amino]isophthalic acid (5-DPIFA) organic molecules were synthesized to form self-assembled monolayer on indium tin oxide (ITO) anode to enhance hole transport from ITO to organic hole transport layers such as TPD. The modified surface was characterized by scanning tunneling microscopy (STM). The change in the surface potential was measured by Kelvin probe force microscopy (KPFM). Our Kelvin probe force microscopy (KPFM) measurements showed that the surface potentials increased more than 100 mV with reference to bare indium tin-oxide. The results show that the threshold voltage on OLEDs with modified ITO is lowered significantly compared to OLEDs with unmodified ITO. The hole mobility of TPD has been estimated using space–charge-limited current measurements (SCLC)

  14. SMALL-SCALE AND GLOBAL DYNAMOS AND THE AREA AND FLUX DISTRIBUTIONS OF ACTIVE REGIONS, SUNSPOT GROUPS, AND SUNSPOTS: A MULTI-DATABASE STUDY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muñoz-Jaramillo, Andrés; Windmueller, John C.; Amouzou, Ernest C.; Longcope, Dana W. [Department of Physics, Montana State University, Bozeman, MT 59717 (United States); Senkpeil, Ryan R. [Department of Physics, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN 47907 (United States); Tlatov, Andrey G. [Kislovodsk Mountain Astronomical Station of the Pulkovo Observatory, Kislovodsk 357700 (Russian Federation); Nagovitsyn, Yury A. [Pulkovo Astronomical Observatory, Russian Academy of Sciences, St. Petersburg 196140 (Russian Federation); Pevtsov, Alexei A. [National Solar Observatory, Sunspot, NM 88349 (United States); Chapman, Gary A.; Cookson, Angela M. [San Fernando Observatory, Department of Physics and Astronomy, California State University Northridge, Northridge, CA 91330 (United States); Yeates, Anthony R. [Department of Mathematical Sciences, Durham University, South Road, Durham DH1 3LE (United Kingdom); Watson, Fraser T. [National Solar Observatory, Tucson, AZ 85719 (United States); Balmaceda, Laura A. [Institute for Astronomical, Terrestrial and Space Sciences (ICATE-CONICET), San Juan (Argentina); DeLuca, Edward E. [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Martens, Petrus C. H., E-mail: munoz@solar.physics.montana.edu [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Georgia State University, Atlanta, GA 30303 (United States)

    2015-02-10

    In this work, we take advantage of 11 different sunspot group, sunspot, and active region databases to characterize the area and flux distributions of photospheric magnetic structures. We find that, when taken separately, different databases are better fitted by different distributions (as has been reported previously in the literature). However, we find that all our databases can be reconciled by the simple application of a proportionality constant, and that, in reality, different databases are sampling different parts of a composite distribution. This composite distribution is made up by linear combination of Weibull and log-normal distributions—where a pure Weibull (log-normal) characterizes the distribution of structures with fluxes below (above) 10{sup 21}Mx (10{sup 22}Mx). Additionally, we demonstrate that the Weibull distribution shows the expected linear behavior of a power-law distribution (when extended to smaller fluxes), making our results compatible with the results of Parnell et al. We propose that this is evidence of two separate mechanisms giving rise to visible structures on the photosphere: one directly connected to the global component of the dynamo (and the generation of bipolar active regions), and the other with the small-scale component of the dynamo (and the fragmentation of magnetic structures due to their interaction with turbulent convection)

  15. Electrical properties of SAM-modified ITO surface using aromatic small molecules with double bond carboxylic acid groups for OLED applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Can, Mustafa [Izmir Katip Celebi University, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Engineering Sciences, Çiğli, Izmir (Turkey); Havare, Ali Kemal [Toros University, Faculty of Engineering, Electric and Electronic Department, Mersin (Turkey); Aydın, Hasan; Yagmurcukardes, Nesli [Izmir Institute of Technology, Material Science and Engineering, Izmir (Turkey); Demic, Serafettin [Izmir Katip Celebi University, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Material Science and Engineering, Çiğli, Izmir (Turkey); Icli, Sıddık [Ege University, Solar Energy Institute, Izmir (Turkey); Okur, Salih, E-mail: salih.okur@ikc.edu.tr [Izmir Katip Celebi University, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Material Science and Engineering, Çiğli, Izmir (Turkey)

    2014-09-30

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • We report that the performance of OLED consist of aromatic small molecules with double bond carboxylic acid groups on ITO surface. • The OLED devices were tested in terms of electrical and optical characteristics. • The I–V results show that OLEDs with SAM-modified ITO surface have lower turn on voltages than OLED configurations without SAMs. - Abstract: 5-[(3-Methylphenyl)(phenyl)amino]isophthalic acid (5-MePIFA) and 5-(diphenyl)amino]isophthalic acid (5-DPIFA) organic molecules were synthesized to form self-assembled monolayer on indium tin oxide (ITO) anode to enhance hole transport from ITO to organic hole transport layers such as TPD. The modified surface was characterized by scanning tunneling microscopy (STM). The change in the surface potential was measured by Kelvin probe force microscopy (KPFM). Our Kelvin probe force microscopy (KPFM) measurements showed that the surface potentials increased more than 100 mV with reference to bare indium tin-oxide. The results show that the threshold voltage on OLEDs with modified ITO is lowered significantly compared to OLEDs with unmodified ITO. The hole mobility of TPD has been estimated using space–charge-limited current measurements (SCLC)

  16. SUCCESS RATE OF ONE SESSION AND TWO SESSION TECHNIQUES FOR TREATMENT OF ASYMPTOMATIC PULPITIS OF PRIMARY TEETH WITH INDIRECT PULP CAPPING.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rossitza Kabaktchieva

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Objective: To compare the success rate between the one session and two session indirect pulp capping of asymptomatic pulpitis for 1 year after the treatment was performed in children with different caries risk. Material and Methods: The children and the teeth were selected according to certain criteria for inclusion in the study. According to that, 72 children with low, moderate and high caries risk were included and 131 teeth with asymptomatic pulpitis were treated. The clinical protocols for indirect pulp capping (IPC in one session and two sessions were defined. The review appointments were performed 6 and 12 months after the treatment using certain clinical and radiographic criteria which defined success or post-treatment complications. The results are statistically analysed using One Sided Exact Two-Proportion Test with 95% Significance level (5% risk of type I error. Results: The statistical test showed that between the compared success rates of the one session and two sessions IPC, on the 6th and 12th month, there wasn’t a significant difference (p>0.05. This was valid for every one of the examined groups of patients (p>0. 05. This proves that there is no difference in the success rates of treatment of pulpitis in primary teeth using one or two sessions. Conclusions: The results about the success of treatment of asymptomatic pulpitis in primary teeth during one or two sessions have confirmed the results showed in other current studies. Our study has confirmed (clinically and radiographically the success of both techniques and we have concluded that in children with high caries risk, more appropriate technique is the one performed in two sessions. Treatment in one session is recommended in children with low or moderate caries risk.

  17. Effect of an EBM course in combination with case method learning sessions: an RCT on professional performance, job satisfaction, and self-efficacy of occupational physicians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hugenholtz, Nathalie I R; Schaafsma, Frederieke G; Nieuwenhuijsen, Karen; van Dijk, Frank J H

    2008-10-01

    An intervention existing of an evidence-based medicine (EBM) course in combination with case method learning sessions (CMLSs) was designed to enhance the professional performance, self-efficacy and job satisfaction of occupational physicians. A cluster randomized controlled trial was set up and data were collected through questionnaires at baseline (T0), directly after the intervention (T1) and 7 months after baseline (T2). The data of the intervention group [T0 (n = 49), T1 (n = 31), T2 (n = 29)] and control group [T0 (n = 49), T1 (n = 28), T2 (n = 28)] were analysed in mixed model analyses. Mean scores of the perceived value of the CMLS were calculated in the intervention group. The overall effect of the intervention over time comparing the intervention with the control group was statistically significant for professional performance (p Job satisfaction and self-efficacy changes were small and not statistically significant between the groups. The perceived value of the CMLS to gain new insights and to improve the quality of their performance increased with the number of sessions followed. An EBM course in combination with case method learning sessions is perceived as valuable and offers evidence to enhance the professional performance of occupational physicians. However, it does not seem to influence their self-efficacy and job satisfaction.

  18. 47 CFR 97.513 - VE session manager requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false VE session manager requirements. 97.513 Section... SERVICES AMATEUR RADIO SERVICE Qualifying Examination Systems § 97.513 VE session manager requirements. (a) A VE session manager may be selected by the VE team for each examination session. The VE session...

  19. Evaluating a Pre-session Exercise in a Standalone Information Literacy Class

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph E. Goetz

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In this study, researchers evaluate a homework exercise assigned before a standalone information literacy session. Students in a Master of Education program completed a worksheet using the ERIC database thesaurus. The researchers conducted pre- and posttests within a single library session to assess student learning, using a control group for comparison. The treatment group did not demonstrate better thesaurus skills than students who had regular library instruction alone, but results pointed the way to targeted improvements of pre-session learning materials. This approach could inform other information literacy homework applications such as flipping the classroom.

  20. The FasX Small Regulatory RNA Negatively Regulates the Expression of Two Fibronectin-Binding Proteins in Group A Streptococcus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danger, Jessica L; Makthal, Nishanth; Kumaraswami, Muthiah; Sumby, Paul

    2015-12-01

    The group A Streptococcus (GAS; Streptococcus pyogenes) causes more than 700 million human infections each year. The success of this pathogen can be traced in part to the extensive arsenal of virulence factors that are available for expression in temporally and spatially specific manners. To modify the expression of these virulence factors, GAS use both protein- and RNA-based regulators, with the best-characterized RNA-based regulator being the small regulatory RNA (sRNA) FasX. FasX is a 205-nucleotide sRNA that contributes to GAS virulence by enhancing the expression of the thrombolytic secreted virulence factor streptokinase and by repressing the expression of the collagen-binding cell surface pili. Here, we have expanded the FasX regulon, showing that this sRNA also negatively regulates the expression of the adhesion- and internalization-promoting, fibronectin-binding proteins PrtF1 and PrtF2. FasX posttranscriptionally regulates the expression of PrtF1/2 through a mechanism that involves base pairing to the prtF1 and prtF2 mRNAs within their 5' untranslated regions, overlapping the mRNA ribosome-binding sites. Thus, duplex formation between FasX and the prtF1 and prtF2 mRNAs blocks ribosome access, leading to an inhibition of mRNA translation. Given that FasX positively regulates the expression of the spreading factor streptokinase and negatively regulates the expression of the collagen-binding pili and of the fibronectin-binding PrtF1/2, our data are consistent with FasX functioning as a molecular switch that governs the transition of GAS between the colonization and dissemination stages of infection. More than half a million deaths each year are a consequence of infections caused by GAS. Insights into how this pathogen regulates the production of proteins during infection may facilitate the development of novel therapeutic or preventative regimens aimed at inhibiting this activity. Here, we have expanded insight into the regulatory activity of the GAS small

  1. Small 'l' leadership.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parsons, Jenni

    2009-05-01

    Recently I attended the RACGP Leadership Masterclass in Sydney. When I enrolled, I thought, 'Yes... sounds interesting...good speakers... I need to learn something about leadership...'As the time drew closer I started to get a bit anxious about the whole thing. I realised that the title, 'Masterclass', probably implied that the attendees were expected to already know something about leadership and its theories, if not have considerable expertise and experience in leadership. I also wondered how the workshop sessions were going to go and I started to feel a bit sorry for the facilitators. Imagine trying to facilitate a group of 10 aspiring leaders... a bit like trying to herd cats. A few days later I received a call from the organisers,saying they were a bit short of facilitators and could I help out if necessary. Great... better do a crash course in cat herding! Then there was the first 'predisposing activity'. Step 1: think of leaders you admire. Easy enough. Leaders of social justice and social change on a world stage, people who have shown great courage of their convictions and great orators popped into my head... Ghandi, Martin Luther King, Mandela, JFK. Step 2:describe the ways in which you are like these leaders. Whoa!Never going to measure up here. I wondered if there was going to be sessions on 'leadership for introverts', or 'leadership of small things', or 'leaders without grand vision or fabulous oratory skills', or perhaps 'leadership for people who are deeply suspicious of the corrupting influence of power'.

  2. NEDO Forum 2000. Industrial technology development session; Sangyo gijutsu kenkyu kaihatsu session

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-09-01

    This session presented the following subjects: I. IT innovation, II. Bio-seminar, III. Nano-technology, IV. Machine technology seminar, and V. 'Development subsidy project to put industrial technologies into practical use'. The theme in I relates to (1) influence of IT innovation on the society, (2) the theory of semiconductor evolution, (3) the theory of liquid crystal evolution, and (4) the theory of disk evolution. The theme II searches (1) how far have bio-technologies come?, (2) search of human evolution from genes, (3) can human being live up to 150 years by bio-technologies?, and (4) what is a DNA array (chip)?. The theme III covers (1) product innovation in polymers (new polymeric materials brought about by polymer nano-technology, taking polyolefin as an example), and (2) creation of ceramics materials by using nano-technologies. The theme IV relates to (1) ITS changes the car society into this way, (2) the current status and outlook on research and development of micro-machine technologies, and (3) the futuristic society and new industries opened by the Humanoid project. The theme V describes (1) practical application of ultra-small medical device production technologies, (2) development of next generation semiconductor manufacturing resists, (3) development for practical application of an optical brain function imaging device, and (4) development for practical application of new screening technologies toward creation of medicines using genome. (NEDO)

  3. Modeling Local Control After Hypofractionated Stereotactic Body Radiation Therapy for Stage I Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer: A Report From the Elekta Collaborative Lung Research Group

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ohri, Nitin, E-mail: ohri.nitin@gmail.com [Department of Radiation Oncology, Jefferson Medical College of Thomas Jefferson University, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (United States); Werner-Wasik, Maria [Department of Radiation Oncology, Jefferson Medical College of Thomas Jefferson University, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (United States); Grills, Inga S. [Department of Radiation Oncology, William Beaumont Hospital, Royal Oak, Michigan (United States); Belderbos, Jose [Department of Radiation Oncology, The Netherlands Cancer Institute, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Hope, Andrew [Department of Radiation Oncology, Princess Margaret Hospital and University of Toronto, Toronto, ON (Canada); Yan Di; Kestin, Larry L. [Department of Radiation Oncology, William Beaumont Hospital, Royal Oak, Michigan (United States); Guckenberger, Matthias [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Wuerzburg, Wuerzburg (Germany); Sonke, Jan-Jakob [Department of Radiation Oncology, The Netherlands Cancer Institute, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Bissonnette, Jean-Pierre [Department of Radiation Oncology, Princess Margaret Hospital and University of Toronto, Toronto, ON (Canada); Xiao, Ying [Department of Radiation Oncology, Jefferson Medical College of Thomas Jefferson University, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (United States)

    2012-11-01

    Purpose: Hypofractionated stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) has emerged as an effective treatment option for early-stage non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Using data collected by the Elekta Lung Research Group, we generated a tumor control probability (TCP) model that predicts 2-year local control after SBRT as a function of biologically effective dose (BED) and tumor size. Methods and Materials: We formulated our TCP model as follows: TCP = e{sup [BED10-c Asterisk-Operator L-TCD50]/k} Division-Sign (1 + e{sup [BED10-c Asterisk-Operator L-TCD50]/k}), where BED10 is the biologically effective SBRT dose, c is a constant, L is the maximal tumor diameter, and TCD50 and k are parameters that define the shape of the TCP curve. Least-squares optimization with a bootstrap resampling approach was used to identify the values of c, TCD50, and k that provided the best fit with observed actuarial 2-year local control rates. Results: Data from 504 NSCLC tumors treated with a variety of SBRT schedules were available. The mean follow-up time was 18.4 months, and 26 local recurrences were observed. The optimal values for c, TCD50, and k were 10 Gy/cm, 0 Gy, and 31 Gy, respectively. Thus, size-adjusted BED (sBED) may be defined as BED minus 10 times the tumor diameter (in centimeters). Our TCP model indicates that sBED values of 44 Gy, 69 Gy, and 93 Gy provide 80%, 90%, and 95% chances of tumor control at 2 years, respectively. When patients were grouped by sBED, the model accurately characterized the relationship between sBED and actuarial 2-year local control (r=0.847, P=.008). Conclusion: We have developed a TCP model that predicts 2-year local control rate after hypofractionated SBRT for early-stage NSCLC as a function of biologically effective dose and tumor diameter. Further testing of this model with additional datasets is warranted.

  4. Modeling Local Control After Hypofractionated Stereotactic Body Radiation Therapy for Stage I Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer: A Report From the Elekta Collaborative Lung Research Group

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohri, Nitin; Werner-Wasik, Maria; Grills, Inga S.; Belderbos, José; Hope, Andrew; Yan Di; Kestin, Larry L.; Guckenberger, Matthias; Sonke, Jan-Jakob; Bissonnette, Jean-Pierre; Xiao, Ying

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: Hypofractionated stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) has emerged as an effective treatment option for early-stage non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Using data collected by the Elekta Lung Research Group, we generated a tumor control probability (TCP) model that predicts 2-year local control after SBRT as a function of biologically effective dose (BED) and tumor size. Methods and Materials: We formulated our TCP model as follows: TCP = e [BED10−c∗L−TCD50]/k ÷ (1 + e [BED10−c∗L−TCD50]/k ), where BED10 is the biologically effective SBRT dose, c is a constant, L is the maximal tumor diameter, and TCD50 and k are parameters that define the shape of the TCP curve. Least-squares optimization with a bootstrap resampling approach was used to identify the values of c, TCD50, and k that provided the best fit with observed actuarial 2-year local control rates. Results: Data from 504 NSCLC tumors treated with a variety of SBRT schedules were available. The mean follow-up time was 18.4 months, and 26 local recurrences were observed. The optimal values for c, TCD50, and k were 10 Gy/cm, 0 Gy, and 31 Gy, respectively. Thus, size-adjusted BED (sBED) may be defined as BED minus 10 times the tumor diameter (in centimeters). Our TCP model indicates that sBED values of 44 Gy, 69 Gy, and 93 Gy provide 80%, 90%, and 95% chances of tumor control at 2 years, respectively. When patients were grouped by sBED, the model accurately characterized the relationship between sBED and actuarial 2-year local control (r=0.847, P=.008). Conclusion: We have developed a TCP model that predicts 2-year local control rate after hypofractionated SBRT for early-stage NSCLC as a function of biologically effective dose and tumor diameter. Further testing of this model with additional datasets is warranted.

  5. Gender, Race, and Survival: A Study in Non-Small-Cell Lung Cancer Brain Metastases Patients Utilizing the Radiation Therapy Oncology Group Recursive Partitioning Analysis Classification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Videtic, Gregory M.M.; Reddy, Chandana A.; Chao, Samuel T.; Rice, Thomas W.; Adelstein, David J.; Barnett, Gene H.; Mekhail, Tarek M.; Vogelbaum, Michael A.; Suh, John H.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: To explore whether gender and race influence survival in non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) in patients with brain metastases, using our large single-institution brain tumor database and the Radiation Therapy Oncology Group recursive partitioning analysis (RPA) brain metastases classification. Methods and materials: A retrospective review of a single-institution brain metastasis database for the interval January 1982 to September 2004 yielded 835 NSCLC patients with brain metastases for analysis. Patient subsets based on combinations of gender, race, and RPA class were then analyzed for survival differences. Results: Median follow-up was 5.4 months (range, 0-122.9 months). There were 485 male patients (M) (58.4%) and 346 female patients (F) (41.6%). Of the 828 evaluable patients (99%), 143 (17%) were black/African American (B) and 685 (83%) were white/Caucasian (W). Median survival time (MST) from time of brain metastasis diagnosis for all patients was 5.8 months. Median survival time by gender (F vs. M) and race (W vs. B) was 6.3 months vs. 5.5 months (p = 0.013) and 6.0 months vs. 5.2 months (p = 0.08), respectively. For patients stratified by RPA class, gender, and race, MST significantly favored BFs over BMs in Class II: 11.2 months vs. 4.6 months (p = 0.021). On multivariable analysis, significant variables were gender (p = 0.041, relative risk [RR] 0.83) and RPA class (p < 0.0001, RR 0.28 for I vs. III; p < 0.0001, RR 0.51 for II vs. III) but not race. Conclusions: Gender significantly influences NSCLC brain metastasis survival. Race trended to significance in overall survival but was not significant on multivariable analysis. Multivariable analysis identified gender and RPA classification as significant variables with respect to survival.

  6. Multiparty Session Types as Coherence Proofs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carbone, Marco; Montesi, Fabrizio; Schürmann, Carsten

    2015-01-01

    We propose a Curry-Howard correspondence between a language for programming multiparty sessions and a generalisation of Classical Linear Logic (CLL). In this framework, propositions correspond to the local behaviour of a participant in a multiparty session type, proofs to processes, and proof...... normalisation to executing communications. Our key contribution is generalising duality, from CLL, to a new notion of n-ary compatibility, called coherence. Building on coherence as a principle of compositionality, we generalise the cut rule of CLL to a new rule for composing many processes communicating...... in a multiparty session. We prove the soundness of our model by showing the admissibility of our new rule, which entails deadlock-freedom via our correspondence....

  7. Intersections and Unions of Session Types

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Coşku Acay

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Prior work has extended the deep, logical connection between the linear sequent calculus and session-typed message-passing concurrent computation with equi-recursive types and a natural notion of subtyping. In this paper, we extend this further by intersection and union types in order to express multiple behavioral properties of processes in a single type. We prove session fidelity and absence of deadlock and illustrate the expressive power of our system with some simple examples. We observe that we can represent internal and external choice by intersection and union, respectively, which was previously suggested by Padovani for a different language of session types motivated by operational rather than logical concerns.

  8. Instruments for documentation of music therapy sessions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ridder, Hanne Mette Ochsner

    It is an important part of the clinical music therapy work to document the daily sessions. For the clinician it is necessary to have a brief overview of each session in order to assess the methods and the process, and not least to be able to give clear reports of these issues to other health care...... professionals at staff meetings, conferences, etc. For music therapists with many clients there is not time enough during a working day to provide comprehensive process descriptions in the music therapy log. Therefore instruments that help the clinician in reducing and structuring this information are needed....... Danish and Norwegian music therapist have collaborated on developing a one page sheet with a structured form where they after each music therapy session document their use of methods and techniques in individual music therapy with persons with dementia. With this instrument therapists have easy access...

  9. Five training sessions improves 3000 meter running performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riiser, A; Ripe, S; Aadland, E

    2015-12-01

    The primary aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of two weeks of endurance training on 3000-meter running performance. Secondary we wanted to assess the relationship between baseline running performance and change in running performance over the intervention period. We assigned 36 military recruits to a training group (N.=28) and a control group. The training group was randomly allocated to one of three sub-groups: 1) a 3000 meter group (test race); 2) a 4x4-minutes high-intensity interval group; 3) a continuous training group. The training group exercised five times over a two-week period. The training group improved its 3000 meter running performance with 50 seconds (6%) compared to the control group (P=0.003). Moreover, all sub-groups improved their performance by 37 to 73 seconds (4-8%) compared to the control group (Ptraining group. We conclude that five endurance training sessions improved 3000 meter running performance and the slowest runners achieved the greatest improvement in running performance.

  10. One session treatment for specific phobias in children: Comorbid anxiety disorders and treatment outcome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, Sarah M; Strege, Marlene V; Oar, Ella L; Ollendick, Thomas H

    2017-03-01

    One-Session Treatment (OST) for specific phobias has been shown to be effective in reducing phobia severity; however, the effect of different types of co-occurring anxiety disorders on OST outcomes is unknown. The present study examined (1) the effects of co-occurring generalized anxiety disorder (GAD), social anxiety disorder (SAD), or another non-targeted specific phobia (OSP) on the efficacy of OST for specific phobias, and (2) the effects of OST on these co-occurring disorders following treatment. Three groups of 18 youth (7-15 years) with a specific phobia and comorbid GAD, SAD, or OSP were matched on age, gender, and phobia type. Outcome measures included diagnostic status and severity, and clinician rated improvement. All groups demonstrated an improvement in their specific phobia following treatment. Treatment was equally effective regardless of co-occurring anxiety disorder. In addition, comorbid anxiety disorders improved following OST; however, this effect was not equal across groups. The SAD group showed poorer improvement in their comorbid disorder than the GAD group post-treatment. However, the SAD group continued to improve and this differential effect was not evident six-months following treatment. The current study sample was small, with insufficient power to detect small and medium effect sizes. Further, the sample only included a portion of individuals with primary GAD or SAD, which may have attenuated the findings. The current study demonstrated that co-occurring anxiety disorders did not interfere with phobia treatment. OST, despite targeting a single specific phobia type, significantly reduced comorbid symptomatology across multiple anxiety disorders. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Chemical analysis of carbon stars in the local group - l.  The small magnetic cloud and the Sagittarius Dwarf Spheroidal galaxy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Laverny...[], P.; Abia, C.; Dominguez, I

    2006-01-01

    Stars: abundances, stars: carbon, nuclear reactions, nucleosynthesis, abundances, galaxies: Local Group Udgivelsesdato: Feb.......Stars: abundances, stars: carbon, nuclear reactions, nucleosynthesis, abundances, galaxies: Local Group Udgivelsesdato: Feb....

  12. The Teratology Society 2007 strategic planning session: a desire to inspire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-05-01

    On April 18-20, 2007, the Teratology Society held its third strategic planning session (SPS) in San Diego, CA. The purpose of this session was to build on the successful work generated by the previous strategic plans [Nashville, TN 2002 and Cincinnati, OH 1997] and importantly, to provide a path forward to inspire the Society, create deeper connections with members that speak to their individual passion for the science of teratology and to increase the Society's visibility within the larger scientific community. The following summary report provides an overview of the session's pre-work, objective, and discussions. A total of 24 attendees were present at the session. The group included representation from Council, various committees and different members constituencies. This plan and the activities subsequent to the session will provide a path forward for our Society for the next five years.

  13. Training and Support of Sessional Staff to Improve Quality of Teaching and Learning at Universities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knott, Gillian; Crane, Linda; Heslop, Ian; Glass, Beverley D

    2015-06-25

    Sessional staff is increasingly involved in teaching at universities, playing a pivotal role in bridging the gap between theory and practice for students, especially in the health professions, including pharmacy. Although sessional staff numbers have increased substantially in recent years, limited attention has been paid to the quality of teaching and learning provided by this group. This review will discuss the training and support of sessional staff, with a focus on Australian universities, including the reasons for and potential benefits of training, and structure and content of training programs. Although sessional staff views these programs as valuable, there is a lack of in-depth evaluations of the outcomes of the programs for sessional staff, students and the university. Quality assurance of such programs is only guaranteed, however, if these evaluations extend to the impact of this training and support on student learning.

  14. Repetition Performance And Blood Lactate Responses Adopting Different Recovery Periods Between Training Sessions In Trained Men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miranda, Humberto; de Freitas Maia, Marianna; Paz, Gabriel Andrade; de Souza, João A A A; Simão, Roberto; de Araújo Farias, Déborah; Willardson, Jeffrey M

    2017-02-08

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of different recovery periods (24h, 48h, and 72h) between repeated resistance training (RT) sessions for the upper body muscles on repetition performance and blood lactate responses in trained men. Sixteen recreationally trained men (age: 26.1 ± 3.1 years; height: 179 ± 4.5 cm; body mass: 82.6 ± 4.0 kg, 4.5 ± 2.2 years of RT experience) participated in this study. Eight-repetition maximum (8-RM) loads were determined for the bench press (BP), 30° incline bench press (BP30), and 45° incline bench press (BP45) exercises. To assess the effects of different recovery periods between repeated training sessions, three protocols were performed in randomized order, including: 24 hours (P24); 48 hours (P48); and 72 hours (P72). Each RT session consisted of performing four repetition maximum sets of BP, BP30, and BP45 with 8-RM loads and 2-minute rest intervals between sets. Blood lactate levels were measured pre-session (PRE), immediately post-session (POST), 3 minutes post-session (P3), and 5 minutes post-session (P5). For the P24 protocol, significant decreases in repetition performance were found between sessions for the BP, BP30, and BP45 exercises, respectively. When considering session 2 only, the total work (repetition x sets) was significantly higher in P48 and P72 versus P24 for the BP30 and BP45 exercises. Blood lactate levels (i.e. POST, P3, and P5) significantly increased for session 2 under the P24 compared to the P48 and P72 protocols, respectively. Therefore, coaches and practitioners who need to accomplish a higher training volume for the upper body muscles should adopt recovery periods longer than 24 hours between sessions that train the same or similar muscle groups.

  15. Poster session in instructional technology course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diniaty, Artina; Fauzi'ah, Lina; Wulan Febriana, Beta; Arlianty, Widinda Normalia

    2017-12-01

    Instructional technology course must be studied by students in order to 1) understand the role of technology in learning, 2) capable of analyzing advantages and disadvantages of using technology in teaching, 3) capable of performing technology in teaching. A poster session in instructional technology course was performed to 1) enhance students' interest in this course and develop students' creativity. The step of this research includes: planning, implementation, and evaluation. The result showed that students' responses towards poster session in instructional technology course were good.

  16. Summary of Session 2 "Machine Studies"

    CERN Document Server

    Assmann, R W

    2012-01-01

    This document summarizes the talks and discussion that took place in the second session of the Chamonix 2012 workshop concerning results from machine studies performed in 2011. The session consisted of the following presentations: “LHC experience with different bunch spacings” by G. Rumolo; “Observations of beam-beam effects in MDs in 2011” by W. Herr; “Beam-induced heating/ bunch length/RF and lessons for 2012” by E. Metral; “Lessons in beam diagnostics” by R. Jones; “Quench margins” by M. Sapinski; “First demonstration with beam of the Achromatic Telescopic Squeeze (ATS)” by S. Fartoukh.

  17. Summary of Session 2 'Machine Studies'

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Assmann, R W; Papotti, G [European Organization for Nuclear Research, Geneva (Switzerland)

    2012-07-01

    This document summarizes the talks and discussion that took place in the second session of the Chamonix 2012 workshop concerning results from machine studies performed in 2011. The session consisted of the following presentations: “LHC experience with different bunch spacings” by G. Rumolo; “Observations of beam-beam effects in MDs in 2011” by W. Herr; “Beam-induced heating/ bunch length/RF and lessons for 2012” by E. Metral; “Lessons in beam diagnostics” by R. Jones; “Quench margins” by M. Sapinski; “First demonstration with beam of the Achromatic Telescopic Squeeze (ATS)” by S. Fartoukh. (author)

  18. Effects of prolonged exercise versus multiple short exercise sessions on risk for metabolic syndrome and the atherogenic index in middle-aged obese women: a randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, JinWook; Kim, KwangJun; Hong, Jeeyoung; Kong, Hyoun-Joong

    2017-08-22

    Many people, although they may recognise the positive effects of exercise, do not exercise regularly owing to lack of time. This study aimed to investigate the effects of prolonged single-session exercise and multiple short sessions of exercise on the risk of metabolic syndrome and the atherogenic index in middle-aged obese women. Thirty-six participants were divided into the single-session group, multiple-session group, and control group. The single-session group engaged in one session of treadmill exercise for 30 min a day; the multiple-session group had three sessions of 10 min a day. Both groups exercised 3 days/week for 12 weeks. The control group did not perform any exercise. The single-session group showed decreases in weight (0.97 kg [95% C.I. = 0.09-1.83], p exercise is superior to multiple short sessions for improving the risk of metabolic syndrome and the atherogenic index in middle-aged obese women. However, multiple short sessions can be recommended as an alternative to prolonged exercise when the goal is to decrease blood glucose or waist circumference.

  19. The volume effect in radiation-related late small bowel complications. Results of a clinical study of the EORTC Radiotherapy Cooperative Group in patients treated for rectal carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Letschert, J.G.J.; Lebesque, J.V.; Aleman, B.M.P.; Bartelink, H.; Bosset, J.F.; Horiot, J.C.; Cionini, L.; Hamers, J.P.; Leer, J.W.H.; van Glabbele, M.

    1994-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to quantify the correlation between irradiated small bowel volume and late occurring small bowel complications. Methods: Small bowel volumes in the high-dose region were measured using orthogonal barium films for 203 patients treated for rectal carcinoma with pelvic postoperative radiotherapy to 50 Gy in an EORTC multicentric study. Results: The 5-year estimate of lat pelvic small bowel obstruction requiring surgery was 11%. No correlation between the irradiated small bowel volume and obstruction was detected. The actuarial 5-year estimate of chronic diarrhea varied from 31% in patients with irradiated small bowel volumes below 77 cm 3 to 42% in patients with volumes over 328 cm 3 . This correlation was significant in the univariate and multivariate analysis (p=0.025). The type of rectal surgery significantly influenced the incidence of chronic diarrhea and malabsorption, the actuarial 5-year estimate being 49% and 26% after low anterior resection and abdominoperineal resection, respectively (p=0.04). Conclusions: This study demonstrated that there is a volume-effect in radiation-induced diarrhea atr a dose of 50 Gy in 25 fractions. No volume-effect for small bowel obstruction was detected at this dose-level in pelvic postoperative radiotherapy. A review of the literature data on small bowel obstruction indicates that the volume effect at this dose level can only be demonstrated in patients who were treated with extended field radiotherapy (estimated small bowel volume 800 cm 3 ) after intra-abdominal surgery. (author). 22 refs., 5 tabs

  20. Summary session D-3 - Nuclear based electric power technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hansen, K.

    1991-01-01

    There is a consensus among the authors in this session that nuclear power offers very great environmental benefits over conventional means of electric energy production. The papers deal largely with the key issues involved in capturing these potential benefits. The issues include: nuclear safety, nuclear power economics, and the regulation of the industry. Research and development for the future will concentrate on enhanced safety through simplified designs that reduce hardware, while taking advantage of natural processes for heat removal. Cost reductions will be achieved via simplification and imporved plant capacity. Long-duration generation cycles are anticipated for all reactor designs. An unresolved challenge for the future is the role of nuclear power in lesser developed countries. Current plants are too large and complex for use in small grids. It is unclear whether or not small, easy-to-operate, and ultrasafe systems can be made available. Until the industry regains commercial success, efforts in these directions are unlikely

  1. Multiple Sessions for Information Literacy Instruction are Associated with Improvement in Students’ Research Abilities and Confidence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kelley Wadson

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available A Review of: Henry, J., Glauner, D., & Lefoe, G. (2015. A double shot of information literacy instruction at a community college. Community & Junior College Libraries, 21(1-2, 27-36. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/02763915.2015.1120623 Abstract Objective – To evaluate the impact of providing multiple information literacy (IL sessions, instead of a single “one-shot” session, to students in face-to-face and online English courses. Design – Non-experimental, using pre-test and post-test surveys for one group, and only a post-test survey for the other group. Setting – A small community college in North Carolina, United States of America. Subjects – 352 students enrolled in 2 successive 3-credit English courses, excluding those under the age of 18, for a total of 244 participants. Methods – The researchers selected two English courses, ENG 111 and ENG 112, of which most students were required to take at least one to earn a degree or certification. After consulting with faculty, the researchers designed two workshops for each course that integrated active and group learning techniques. The ENG 111 workshops covered pre-searching (e.g., mind mapping and selecting search terms and database searching in the first session, and website analysis and research (e.g., URLs, Google’s advanced search, and the evaluative CRAAP test in the second session. The ENG 112 workshops covered subject database searching in the first session and evaluative analysis of magazine and scholarly journal articles in the second session. Instructors provided web-based tutorials to online course sections as a substitute for the face-to-face sessions. Course assignments were the same for both online and face-to-face classes. The researchers used anonymous online surveys. ENG 111 students completed pre-test and post-test surveys for their two workshops during the fall 2014 semester. The surveys consisted of seven fill-in-the-blank and multiple-choice questions measuring pre

  2. Black women, work, stress, and perceived discrimination: the focused support group model as an intervention for stress reduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mays, V M

    1995-01-01

    This exploratory study examined the use of two components (small and large groups) of a community-based intervention, the Focused Support Group (FSG) model, to alleviate employment-related stressors in Black women. Participants were assigned to small groups based on occupational status. Groups met for five weekly 3-hr sessions in didactic or small- and large-group formats. Two evaluations following the didactic session and the small and large group sessions elicited information on satisfaction with each of the formats, self-reported change in stress, awareness of interpersonal and sociopolitical issues affecting Black women in the labor force, assessing support networks, and usefulness of specific discussion topics to stress reduction. Results indicated the usefulness of the small- and large-group formats in reduction of self-reported stress and increases in personal and professional sources of support. Discussions on race and sex discrimination in the workplace were effective in overall stress reduction. The study highlights labor force participation as a potential source of stress for Black women, and supports the development of culture- and gender-appropriate community interventions as viable and cost-effective methods for stress reduction.

  3. Undergraduate Seminars: The Poster Session Solution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chute, Douglas L.; Bank, Barry

    1983-01-01

    A good alternative to the undergraduate psychology seminar is the poster session. During the course each student wrote a review paper. For use in his/her class presentation, the student provided the following information on poster paper: title, author, abstract, a few graphs or illustrations from the literature, conclusions, and references. (RM)

  4. IAEA General Conference begins annual session

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-01-01

    The document gives general information about the opening and the programme of the 45th regular session of the IAEA General Conference (17-21 September 2001, Austria Center Vienna). The conference is attended by ministers and high-level governmental representatives from 132 Member States of the IAEA

  5. IAEA General Conference begins annual session

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-01-01

    The document gives general information about the opening and the programme of the 44th regular session of the IAEA General Conference (18 -22 September 2000, Austria Center Vienna). The conference is attended by ministers and high-level governmental representatives from 130 Member States of the IAEA

  6. Declarative interpretations of session-based concurrency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cano, Mauricio; Rueda, Camilo; López-Acosta, Hugo-Andrés

    2015-01-01

    Session-based concurrency is a type-based approach to the analysis of communication-intensive systems. Correct behavior in these systems may be specified in an operational or declarative style: the former defines how interactions are structured; the latter defines governing conditions...

  7. 9. Biennial session of nuclear physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-03-01

    As every two years the 9th biennial session of nuclear physics shall try to make a survey of the recent experimental developments as well as the evolution of the theoretical ideas in Nuclear Physics. Communications are indexed and analysed separately

  8. Summary of the Relativistic Heavy Ion Sessions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harris, J.W.

    1988-07-01

    This paper briefly discusses the topics covered in the relativistic heavy ion in sessions. The prime motivation for these investigations is the possibility of forming quark matter, therefore the formation of a quark-gluon plasma. Topics on suppression of J//psi/ production, th equation of state of nuclear matter, transverse energy distributions and two pion interferometry techniques are discussed. 38 refs

  9. An Erlang Implementation of Multiparty Session Actors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon Fowler

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available By requiring co-ordination to take place using explicit message passing instead of relying on shared memory, actor-based programming languages have been shown to be effective tools for building reliable and fault-tolerant distributed systems. Although naturally communication-centric, communication patterns in actor-based applications remain informally specified, meaning that errors in communication are detected late, if at all. Multiparty session types are a formalism to describe, at a global level, the interactions between multiple communicating entities. This article describes the implementation of a prototype framework for monitoring Erlang/OTP gen_server applications against multiparty session types, showing how previous work on multiparty session actors can be adapted to a purely actor-based language, and how monitor violations and termination of session participants can be reported in line with the Erlang mantra of "let it fail". Finally, the framework is used to implement two case studies: an adaptation of a freely-available DNS server, and a chat server.

  10. Posters. [Poster Session at AHRD Conference, 2001].

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001

    The first of the papers in this poster session, "Developing the Employment Brand: Targeting MBA Campus Hires" (Diane M. Bergeron), posits that employment branding benefits both individuals and organizations. It functions as a campus recruiting tool in a competitive labor market and communicates the organization's values and work…

  11. Observations of youth football training: How do coaches structure training sessions for player development?

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Connor, Donna; Larkin, Paul; Williams, A Mark

    2018-01-01

    We used systematic observation tools to explore the structure (i.e., activity and inactivity) and sequencing (i.e., the types of activities used) of football coaching sessions in Australia following the implementation of a new National Curriculum. Youth soccer coaches (n = 34), coaching within the Skill Acquisition (U11-U13 n = 19) and Game Training (U14-U17 n = 15) phases of the Football Federation Australia National Curriculum participated. Participants were filmed during a regular coaching session, with systematic observation of the session undertaken to provide a detailed analysis of the practice activities and coach behaviours. Findings indicated a session comprised of Playing Form activities (40.9%), Training Form activities (22.3%), inactivity (31%), and transitions between activities (5.8%). Coaches prescribed more Training Form activities (e.g., individual (5.4%) and drills (15.1%)) early in the session and progressed to Playing Form activities (i.e., small-sided games (15.3%) then larger games (24.8%)) later in the session. Most inactivity reflected the players listening to the coach - either in a team huddle (9.9%) or frozen on the spot during an activity (16.5%). In addition, coaches generally spent over 3 min communicating to players prior to explaining and introducing an activity regardless of when in the session the activity was scheduled.

  12. Byers Auto Group: A Case Study Into The Economics, Zoning, and Overall Process of Installing Small Wind Turbines at Two Automotive Dealerships in Ohio (Presentation)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sinclair, K.; Oteri, F.

    2011-05-01

    This presentation provides the talking points about a case study on the installation of a $600,000 small wind project, the installation process, estimated annual energy production and percentage of energy needs met by the turbines.

  13. Byers Auto Group: A Case Study Into The Economics, Zoning, and Overall Process of Installing Small Wind Turbines at Two Automotive Dealerships in Ohio

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oteri, F.; Sinclair, K.

    2011-11-01

    This paper provides the talking points about a case study on the installation of a $600,000 small wind project, the installation process, estimated annual energy production and percentage of energy needs met by the turbines.

  14. Premenstrual mood and empathy after a single light therapy session.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aan Het Rot, Marije; Miloserdov, Kristina; Buijze, Anna L F; Meesters, Ybe; Gordijn, Marijke C M

    2017-10-01

    To examine whether acute changes in cognitive empathy might mediate the impact of light therapy on mood, we assessed the effects of a single light-therapy session on mood and cognitive empathy in 48 premenstrual women, including 17 who met Premenstrual Symptoms Screening Tool criteria for moderate-to-severe premenstrual syndrome / premenstrual dysphoric disorder (PMS/PMDD). Using a participant-blind between-groups design, 23 women underwent 30min of morning light therapy (5,000lx; blue-enriched polychromatic light, 17,000K) while 25 women had a sham session (200lx, polychromatic light, 5,000K). We administered the Positive Affect and Negative Affect Schedule and the Affect Grid right before and after the intervention, and 60min later upon completion of a computerized empathic accuracy task. There were no significant effects of light condition on cognitive empathy as assessed using the computer task. Nonetheless, bright light reduced negative affect, specifically in women not using hormonal contraceptives. No effects of bright light on mood were observed in women who were using contraceptives. If a single light-therapy session does not alter cognitive empathy, then cognitive empathy may not mediate the impact of light therapy on mood in premenstrual women. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Fungal Nomenclature at IMC10: Report of the Nomenclature Sessions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redhead, Scott A; Demoulin, Vincent; Hawksworth, David L; Seifert, Keith A; Turland, Nicholas J

    2014-12-01

    Three Nomenclature Sessions were convened during the 10(th) International Mycological Congress (IMC10) in Bangkok on 3-8 August 2014. In addition a Questionnaire was given to all delegates. This Report reviews and summarizes the views expressed in the Sessions and in the responses to the Questionnaire. The issues covered related to aspects of: registration, protected names, forgotten names, pleomorphic fungi, lichenized fungi, typification, diagnoses, and governance. In addition, reports were received from working groups preparing lists of names to be proposed for protection, and controversial cases of competing names were discussed. The Congress was mandated to ratify decisions of the Nomenclature Committee for Fungi (NCF) on the appointment of repositories for the registration of new fungal names. After discussion in the Sessions on the decision of the NCF to appoint three such bodies, a Resolution to that effect was approved by the Congress. The Congress also adopted a Resolution asking that the opinions of mycologists on future directions for the nomenclature of fungi be taken into account in formulating changes in the rules for consideration at the International Botanical Congress in 2017.

  16. Crizotinib for Untreated Anaplastic Lymphoma Kinase-Positive Non-Small-Cell Lung Cancer: An Evidence Review Group Perspective of a NICE Single Technology Appraisal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, Philip; Woolacott, Nerys; Biswas, Mousumi; Mebrahtu, Teumzghi; Harden, Melissa; Hodgson, Robert

    2017-09-01

    As part of the National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE) single technology appraisal process, the manufacturer of crizotinib submitted evidence on the clinical and cost effectiveness of crizotinib in untreated anaplastic lymphoma kinase-positive (ALK-positive) non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Crizotinib has previously been assessed by NICE for patients with previously treated ALK-positive NSCLC (TA 296). It was not approved in this previous appraisal, but had been made available through the cancer drugs fund. As part of this new appraisal, the company included a price discount patient access scheme (PAS). The Centre for Reviews and Dissemination and Centre for Health Economics Technology Appraisal Group at the University of York was commissioned to act as the independent Evidence Review Group (ERG). This article provides a description of the company's submission and the ERG's review and summarises the resulting NICE guidance issued in August 2016. The main clinical-effectiveness data were derived from a multicentre randomised controlled trial-PROFILE 1014-that compared crizotinib with pemetrexed chemotherapy in combination with carboplatin or cisplatin in patients with untreated non-squamous ALK-positive NSCLC. In the trial, crizotinib demonstrated improvements in progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS). The company's economic model was a three-state 'area under the curve' Markov model. The base-case incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER) was estimated to be greater than £50,000 per quality-adjusted life-year (QALY) gained (excluding the PAS discount). The ERG assessment of the evidence submitted by the company raised a number of concerns. In terms of the clinical evidence, the OS benefit was highly uncertain due to the cross-over permitted in the trial and the immaturity of the data; only 26% of events had occurred by the data cut-off point. In the economic modelling, the most significant concerns related to the analysis

  17. The number of bleaching sessions influences pulp tissue damage in rat teeth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cintra, Luciano Tavares Angelo; Benetti, Francine; da Silva Facundo, Aguinaldo Cândido; Ferreira, Luciana Louzada; Gomes-Filho, João Eduardo; Ervolino, Edilson; Rahal, Vanessa; Briso, André Luiz Fraga

    2013-12-01

    Hydrogen peroxide tooth bleaching is claimed to cause alterations in dental tissue structures. This study investigated the influence of the number of bleaching sessions on pulp tissue in rats. Male Wistar rats were studied in 5 groups (groups 1S-5S) of 10 each, which differed by the number (1-5) of bleaching sessions. In each session, the animals were anesthetized, and 35% hydrogen peroxide gel was applied to 3 upper right molars. Two days after the experimental period, the animals were killed, and their jaws were processed for light microscope evaluation. Pulp tissue reactions were scored as follows: 1, no or few inflammatory cells and no reaction; 2, session, necrotic tissue in the pulp horns and underlying inflammatory changes were observed. The extent and intensity of these changes increased with the number of bleaching sessions. After 5 sessions, the changes included necrotic areas in the pulp tissue involving the second third of the radicular pulp and intense inflammation in the apical third. The number of bleaching sessions directly influenced the extent of pulp damage. Copyright © 2013 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Session-RPE for quantifying load of different youth taekwondo training sessions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lupo, Corrado; Capranica, Laura; Cortis, Cristina; Guidotti, Flavia; Bianco, Antonino; Tessitore, Antonio

    2017-03-01

    The session rating of perceived exertion (session-RPE) proved to be a valuable method to quantify the internal training load (ITL) in taekwondo. However, no study validated this method in youth taekwondo athletes performing different training sessions. Thus this study aimed at evaluating the reliability of the session-RPE to monitor the ITL of prepubescent taekwondo athletes during pre-competitive (PC) and competitive (C) training sessions. Five female (age: 12.0±0.7 y; height: 1.54±0.08 m; body mass: 48.8±7.3 kg) and four male (age: 12.0±0.8 yrs; height: 1.55±0.07 m; body mass: 47.3±5.3 kg) taekwondo athletes were monitored during 100 individual sessions (PC: N.=33; C: N.=67). The Edwards' HR method was used as reference measure of ITL; the CR-10 RPE scale was administered at 1- and 30-minutes from the end of each session. No difference for gender emerged. The ITLs of C (Edwards: 228±40 arbitrary units, AU) resulted higher than that of PC (192±26 AU; P=0.04). Although all training typologies and data collections achieved significant correlations between Edwards' and session-RPE methods, a large relationship (r =0.71, Psessions evaluated at 30 minutes of the recovery phases. Findings support coaches of prepubescent taekwondo athletes to successfully use session-RPE to monitor the ITL of different training typologies. However, PC training evaluated at 30 minutes of the recovery phase represents the best condition for a highly reliable ITL perception.

  19. Poster Sessions in Marketing Education: An Empirical Examination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stegemann, Nicole; Sutton-Brady, Catherine

    2009-01-01

    Poster sessions provide a creative and stimulating alternative to traditional assessment methods in marketing. Poster sessions, as a means of assessment, have long been used in science fields. This article presents the successful implementation of poster sessions as a means of assessment in a postgraduate unit of study. Poster sessions in…

  20. Graph Transformation for Consolidation of Creativity Sessions Results

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dolog, Peter

    2010-01-01

    Graph transformation approach for consolidation of creativity sessions results is part of the FP7 EU/IST project idSpace: Tooling of and training for collaborative, distributed product innovation. The goal of graph transformation approach is to provide a tool for merging results of various sessions...... (such as brainstorming sessions), which are represented as graphs, when the session participants- are physically distributed....