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Sample records for small field sizes

  1. A practical and theoretical definition of very small field size for radiotherapy output factor measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charles, P H; Cranmer-Sargison, G; Thwaites, D I; Crowe, S B; Kairn, T; Knight, R T; Kenny, J; Langton, C M; Trapp, J V

    2014-04-01

    This work introduces the concept of very small field size. Output factor (OPF) measurements at these field sizes require extremely careful experimental methodology including the measurement of dosimetric field size at the same time as each OPF measurement. Two quantifiable scientific definitions of the threshold of very small field size are presented. A practical definition was established by quantifying the effect that a 1 mm error in field size or detector position had on OPFs and setting acceptable uncertainties on OPF at 1%. Alternatively, for a theoretical definition of very small field size, the OPFs were separated into additional factors to investigate the specific effects of lateral electronic disequilibrium, photon scatter in the phantom, and source occlusion. The dominant effect was established and formed the basis of a theoretical definition of very small fields. Each factor was obtained using Monte Carlo simulations of a Varian iX linear accelerator for various square field sizes of side length from 4 to 100 mm, using a nominal photon energy of 6 MV. According to the practical definition established in this project, field sizes ≤ 15 mm were considered to be very small for 6 MV beams for maximal field size uncertainties of 1 mm. If the acceptable uncertainty in the OPF was increased from 1.0% to 2.0%, or field size uncertainties are 0.5 mm, field sizes ≤ 12 mm were considered to be very small. Lateral electronic disequilibrium in the phantom was the dominant cause of change in OPF at very small field sizes. Thus the theoretical definition of very small field size coincided to the field size at which lateral electronic disequilibrium clearly caused a greater change in OPF than any other effects. This was found to occur at field sizes ≤ 12 mm. Source occlusion also caused a large change in OPF for field sizes ≤ 8 mm. Based on the results of this study, field sizes ≤ 12 mm were considered to be theoretically very small for 6 MV beams. Extremely

  2. SU-E-T-432: Field Size Influence On the Electron and Photon Spectra Within Small MV Field Detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benmakhlouf, H; Andreo, P [Department of Medical Physics, Karolinska University Hospital, Stockholm and Department of Physics, Medical Radiation Physics, Stockholm University (Sweden)

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: To investigate the influence of photon field size on the electron and photon fluence spectra in the active volume of small field detectors. Methods: The PENELOPE MC system based usercode PenEasy was used to calculate the material influence on the spectra by scoring the differential fluence in inserts of silicon, carbon, phosphorus and aluminium having 3 mm diameter and height. The spectra were then calculated inside the active volume of eleven detectors (ion chambers and solid-state detectors) whose geometry was simulated with great detail. The inserts/detectors were placed at 10 cm depth in a 30 cm x 30 cm x 30 cm water phantom and irradiated with 2.5 MeV photons and Varian Clinac 6 MV beams of small, medium and large size. Results: For all configurations, photon spectra in the scoring volume were similar to that in a small water volume except for additional characteristic x-ray peaks resulting from the material itself and from the materials surrounding the detectors (i.e. high-Z shielding the silicon). Electron fluence calculated in the inserts were up to 60% larger than in water; the difference increased with material density and decreasing field size. MC-calculated doses were compared to analytically determined collision kerma and restricted cema (cut-off=15keV). For the inserts, with large and medium fields K-col agreed with MC-dose, but K-col overestimated the dose for small fields due to lack of lateral CPE. For the detectors, up to 15% differences between K-col and the MC-dose were found. For all configurations the C-delta and MC-dose agreed within ±2%. Conclusion: The most relevant findings were that shielding affects substantially the photon spectra and material conditions the electron spectra, their field size dependence varying with the geometry configuration. These affect the values of factors entering into relative dosimetry.

  3. submitter A High Precision 3D Magnetic Field Scanner for Small to Medium Size Magnets

    CERN Document Server

    Bergsma, F; Garnier, F; Giudici, P A

    2016-01-01

    A bench to measure the magnetic field of small to-medium-sized magnets with high precision was built. It uses a small-sized head with three orthogonal Hall probes, supported on a long pole at continuous movement during measurement. The head is calibrated in three dimensions by rotation over the full solid angle in a special device. From 0 to 2.5 T, the precision is ±0.2 mT in all components. The spatial range is 1 × 1 × 2 m with precision of ±0.02 mm. The bench and its controls are lightweight and easy to transport. The head can penetrate through small apertures and measure as close as 0.5 mm from the surface of a magnet. The bench can scan complicated grids in Cartesian or cylindrical coordinates, steered by a simple text file on an accompanying PC. The raw data is online converted to magnetic units and stored in a text file.

  4. Dosimetric parameters for small field sizes using Fricke xylenol gel, thermoluminescent and film dosimeters, and an ionization chamber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guzman Calcina, Carmen S; Oliveira, Lucas N de; Almeida, Carlos E de; Almeida, Adelaide de

    2007-01-01

    Dosimetric measurements in small therapeutic x-ray beam field sizes, such as those used in radiosurgery, that have dimensions comparable to or smaller than the build-up depth, require special care to avoid incorrect interpretation of measurements in regions of high gradients and electronic disequilibrium. These regions occur at the edges of any collimated field, and can extend to the centre of small fields. An inappropriate dosimeter can result in an underestimation, which would lead to an overdose to the patient. We have performed a study of square and circular small field sizes of 6 MV photons using a thermoluminescent dosimeter (TLD), Fricke xylenol gel (FXG) and film dosimeters. PMMA phantoms were employed to measure lateral beam profiles (1 x 1, 3 x 3 and 5 x 5 cm 2 for square fields and 1, 2 and 4 cm diameter circular fields), the percentage depth dose, the tissue maximum ratio and the output factor. An ionization chamber (IC) was used for calibration and comparison. Our results demonstrate that high resolution FXG, TLD and film dosimeters agree with each other, and that an ionization chamber, with low lateral resolution, underestimates the absorbed dose. Our results show that, when planning small field radiotherapy, dosimeters with adequate lateral spatial resolution and tissue equivalence are required to provide an accurate basic beam data set to correctly calculate the absorbed dose in regions of electronic disequilibrium

  5. Small size ion pumps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cyranski, R.; Kiliszek, Cz.R.; Marks, J.; Sobolewski, A.; Magielko, H.

    2001-01-01

    This paper describes some designs of the two versions ion pumps and their range operation for various magnetic fields. The first version is made with different cell size in the anode element and titanium cathode operating in magnetic field from 600 to 650 Gs and the second version with the same anode element but differential Ti/Ta cathode working in magnetic field above 1200 Gs

  6. Feasibility of using a dose-area product ratio as beam quality specifier for photon beams with small field sizes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pimpinella, Maria; Caporali, Claudio; Guerra, Antonio Stefano; Silvi, Luca; De Coste, Vanessa; Petrucci, Assunta; Delaunay, Frank; Dufreneix, Stéphane; Gouriou, Jean; Ostrowsky, Aimé; Rapp, Benjamin; Bordy, Jean-Marc; Daures, Josiane; Le Roy, Maïwenn; Sommier, Line; Vermesse, Didier

    2018-01-01

    To investigate the feasibility of using the ratio of dose-area product at 20 cm and 10 cm water depths (DAPR 20,10 ) as a beam quality specifier for radiotherapy photon beams with field diameter below 2 cm. Dose-area product was determined as the integral of absorbed dose to water (D w ) over a surface larger than the beam size. 6 MV and 10 MV photon beams with field diameters from 0.75 cm to 2 cm were considered. Monte Carlo (MC) simulations were performed to calculate energy-dependent dosimetric parameters and to study the DAPR 20,10 properties. Aspects relevant to DAPR 20,10 measurement were explored using large-area plane-parallel ionization chambers with different diameters. DAPR 20,10 was nearly independent of field size in line with the small differences among the corresponding mean beam energies. Both MC and experimental results showed a dependence of DAPR 20,10 on the measurement setup and the surface over which D w is integrated. For a given setup, DAPR 20,10 values obtained using ionization chambers with different air-cavity diameters agreed with one another within 0.4%, after the application of MC correction factors accounting for effects due to the chamber size. DAPR 20,10 differences among the small field sizes were within 1% and sensitivity to the beam energy resulted similar to that of established beam quality specifiers based on the point measurement of D w . For a specific measurement setup and integration area, DAPR 20,10 proved suitable to specify the beam quality of small photon beams for the selection of energy-dependent dosimetric parameters. Copyright © 2017 Associazione Italiana di Fisica Medica. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Small Business Size Standards

    Data.gov (United States)

    Small Business Administration — Certain government programs, such as SBA loan programs and contracting opportunities, are reserved for small business concerns. In order to qualify, businesses must...

  8. Recovery of Small-Sized Blood Vessels in Ischemic Bone under Static Magnetic Field

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shenzhi Xu

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Effects of static magnetic field (SMF on the vascularization in bone were evaluated using an ischemic bone model, where rat femoral artery was ligated. Magnetized and unmagnetized samarium–cobalt rods were implanted transcortically into the middle diaphysis of the ischemic femurs. Collateral circulation was evaluated by injection of microspheres into the abdominal aorta at the third week after ligation. It was found that the bone implanted with a magnetized rod showed a larger amount of trapped microspheres than that with an unmagnetized rod at the proximal and the distal region (P < 0.05 proximal region. There were no significant differences at the middle and the distal region. This tendency was similar to that of the bone mineral density in the SMF-exposed ischemic bone.

  9. Experimental measurement of radiological penumbra associated with intermediate energy x-rays (1 MV) and small radiosurgery field sizes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keller, Brian M.; Beachey, David J.; Pignol, Jean-Philippe

    2007-01-01

    Stereotactic radiosurgery is used to treat intracranial lesions with a high degree of accuracy. At the present time, x-ray energies at or above Co-60 gamma rays are used. Previous Monte Carlo simulations have demonstrated that intermediate energy x-ray photons or IEPs (defined to be photons in the energy range of 0.2-1.2 MeV), combined with small field sizes, produce a reduced radiological penumbra leading to a sharper dose gradient, improved dose homogeneity and sparing of critical anatomy adjacent to the target volume. This hypothesis is based on the fact that, for small x-ray fields, a dose outside the treatment volume is dictated mainly by the range of electrons set into motion by x-ray photons. The purpose of this work is: (1) to produce intermediate energy x rays using a detuned medical linear accelerator (2) to characterize the energy of this beam (3) to measure the radiological penumbra for IEPs and small fields to compare with that produced by 6 MV x rays or Co-60, and (4) to compare these experimental measurements with Monte Carlo computer simulations. The maximum photon energy of our IEP x-ray spectrum was measured to be 1.2 MeV. Gafchromic EBT films (ISP Technologies, Wayne, NJ) were irradiated and read using a novel digital microscopy imaging system with high spatial resolution. Under identical irradiation conditions the measured radiological penumbra widths (80%-20% distance), for field sizes ranging from 0.3x0.3 to 4.0x4.0 cm 2 , varied from 0.3-0.77 mm (1.2 MV) and from 1.1-2.1 mm (6 MV). Even more dramatic were the differences found when comparing the 90%-10% or the 95%-5% widths, which are in fact more significant in radiotherapy. Monte Carlo simulations agreed well with the experimental findings. The reduction in radiological penumbra could be substantial for specific clinical situations such as in the treatment of an ocular melanoma abutting the macula or for the treatment of functional disorders such as trigeminal neuralgia (a nonlethal

  10. Monte Carlo modeling of small photon fields: Quantifying the impact of focal spot size on source occlusion and output factors, and exploring miniphantom design for small-field measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scott, Alison J. D.; Nahum, Alan E.; Fenwick, John D.

    2009-01-01

    The accuracy with which Monte Carlo models of photon beams generated by linear accelerators (linacs) can describe small-field dose distributions depends on the modeled width of the electron beam profile incident on the linac target. It is known that the electron focal spot width affects penumbra and cross-field profiles; here, the authors explore the extent to which source occlusion reduces linac output for smaller fields and larger spot sizes. A BEAMnrc Monte Carlo linac model has been used to investigate the variation in penumbra widths and small-field output factors with electron spot size. A formalism is developed separating head scatter factors into source occlusion and flattening filter factors. Differences between head scatter factors defined in terms of in-air energy fluence, collision kerma, and terma are explored using Monte Carlo calculations. Estimates of changes in kerma-based source occlusion and flattening filter factors with field size and focal spot width are obtained by calculating doses deposited in a narrow 2 mm wide virtual ''milliphantom'' geometry. The impact of focal spot size on phantom scatter is also explored. Modeled electron spot sizes of 0.4-0.7 mm FWHM generate acceptable matches to measured penumbra widths. However the 0.5 cm field output factor is quite sensitive to electron spot width, the measured output only being matched by calculations for a 0.7 mm spot width. Because the spectra of the unscattered primary (Ψ Π ) and head-scattered (Ψ Σ ) photon energy fluences differ, miniphantom-based collision kerma measurements do not scale precisely with total in-air energy fluence Ψ=(Ψ Π +Ψ Σ ) but with (Ψ Π +1.2Ψ Σ ). For most field sizes, on-axis collision kerma is independent of the focal spot size; but for a 0.5 cm field size and 1.0 mm spot width, it is reduced by around 7% mostly due to source occlusion. The phantom scatter factor of the 0.5 cm field also shows some spot size dependence, decreasing by 6% (relative) as

  11. Influence of a small field-of-view size on the detection of coronary artery calcifications with MSCT: in vitro and in vivo study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahnken, Andreas H.; Muehlenbruch, Georg; Das, Marco; Pohl, Saskia; Guenther, Rolf W.; Wildberger, Joachim E.; Koos, Ralf; Stanzel, Sven

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to asses the impact of small field-of-view (FOV) sizes on the detection of coronary artery calcifications using multislice-spiral computed tomography (MSCT). First, a static chest phantom containing calcium inserts was scanned 10 times using a standardized scan protocol. Secondly, 50 patients (28 male, 63.6±10.6 years) underwent cardiac MSCT using the same protocol. Images were reconstructed with three different FOV sizes (180 x 180, 220 x 220, 380 x 380 mm 2 ). Coronary calcium scoring and risk stratification were performed for each image series. In the phantom study, the Agatston score calculated with a FOV size of 180 x 180 mm 2 was 657.80±20.05. At a FOV of 220 x 220 mm 2 and 380 x 380 mm 2 , the corresponding values were 657.04±21.36 and 655.04±20.74, respectively. The corresponding values in the patient study were 541.65±869.87, 541.91±872.57 and 536.61±867.81. No statistically significant differences in the calcium score were found comparing different FOV sizes. Significantly more lesions (p=0.00149) were detected in the patient study. Comparing the different FOV sizes of 180 x 180 mm 2 and 220 x 220 mm 2 (380 x 380 mm 2 ), four (six) patients had to be assigned to different risk groups. The use of small FOV sizes resulted in an improved detection of coronary calcifications influencing the risk stratification for further cardiac events in MSCT coronary calcium scoring. (orig.)

  12. Small head size after atomic irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, R.W.; Mulvihill, J.J.

    1975-01-01

    A study of children exposed to nuclear explosions in Hiroshima and Nagasaki showed small head size and mental retardation when exposure occurred less than 18 weeks of gestational age. Increased frequency of small head size occurred when maternal exposure was 10 to 19 rad. Tables and graphs are presented to show relationships between dose, gestational age, and frequency of small head size

  13. Decision Support on Small size Passive Samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir Popukaylo

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available A construction technique of adequate mathematical models for small size passive samples, in conditions when classical probabilistic-statis\\-tical methods do not allow obtaining valid conclusions was developed.

  14. Non-financial constraints to scaling-up small and medium-sized energy enterprises: Findings from field research in Ghana, Senegal, Tanzania and Zambia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haselip, James Arthur; Desgain, Denis DR; Mackenzie, Gordon A.

    2015-01-01

    constraint to establishing and expanding local small and medium-sized energy businesses, a range of significant non-financial constraints were also identified. This article provides a critical evaluation of these non-financial constraints as they were encountered in Ghana, Senegal, Tanzania and Zambia, based...... on the findings of a wider study into the key outcomes of the AREED project. These barriers include the institutional frameworks, human capacities and social and cultural factors....

  15. Assessing learning in small sized physics courses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emanuela Ene

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available We describe the construction, validation, and testing of a concept inventory for an Introduction to Physics of Semiconductors course offered by the department of physics to undergraduate engineering students. By design, this inventory addresses both content knowledge and the ability to interpret content via different cognitive processes outlined in Bloom’s revised taxonomy. The primary challenge comes from the low number of test takers. We describe the Rasch modeling analysis for this concept inventory, and the results of the calibration on a small sample size, with the intention of providing a useful blueprint to other instructors. Our study involved 101 students from Oklahoma State University and fourteen faculty teaching or doing research in the field of semiconductors at seven universities. The items were written in four-option multiple-choice format. It was possible to calibrate a 30-item unidimensional scale precisely enough to characterize the student population enrolled each semester and, therefore, to allow the tailoring of the learning activities of each class. We show that this scale can be employed as an item bank from which instructors could extract short testlets and where we can add new items fitting the existing calibration.

  16. Assessing learning in small sized physics courses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ene, Emanuela; Ackerson, Bruce J.

    2018-01-01

    We describe the construction, validation, and testing of a concept inventory for an Introduction to Physics of Semiconductors course offered by the department of physics to undergraduate engineering students. By design, this inventory addresses both content knowledge and the ability to interpret content via different cognitive processes outlined in Bloom's revised taxonomy. The primary challenge comes from the low number of test takers. We describe the Rasch modeling analysis for this concept inventory, and the results of the calibration on a small sample size, with the intention of providing a useful blueprint to other instructors. Our study involved 101 students from Oklahoma State University and fourteen faculty teaching or doing research in the field of semiconductors at seven universities. The items were written in four-option multiple-choice format. It was possible to calibrate a 30-item unidimensional scale precisely enough to characterize the student population enrolled each semester and, therefore, to allow the tailoring of the learning activities of each class. We show that this scale can be employed as an item bank from which instructors could extract short testlets and where we can add new items fitting the existing calibration.

  17. 76 FR 14323 - Small Business Size Standards: Professional, Scientific and Technical Services

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-16

    ... government small business assistance programs, SBA establishes small business size definitions (referred to... its field of operation and (3) within a specific small business definition or size standard... SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION 13 CFR Part 121 RIN 3245-AG07 Small Business Size Standards...

  18. Linear models for airborne-laser-scanning-based operational forest inventory with small field sample size and highly correlated LiDAR data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Junttila, Virpi; Kauranne, Tuomo; Finley, Andrew O.; Bradford, John B.

    2015-01-01

    Modern operational forest inventory often uses remotely sensed data that cover the whole inventory area to produce spatially explicit estimates of forest properties through statistical models. The data obtained by airborne light detection and ranging (LiDAR) correlate well with many forest inventory variables, such as the tree height, the timber volume, and the biomass. To construct an accurate model over thousands of hectares, LiDAR data must be supplemented with several hundred field sample measurements of forest inventory variables. This can be costly and time consuming. Different LiDAR-data-based and spatial-data-based sampling designs can reduce the number of field sample plots needed. However, problems arising from the features of the LiDAR data, such as a large number of predictors compared with the sample size (overfitting) or a strong correlation among predictors (multicollinearity), may decrease the accuracy and precision of the estimates and predictions. To overcome these problems, a Bayesian linear model with the singular value decomposition of predictors, combined with regularization, is proposed. The model performance in predicting different forest inventory variables is verified in ten inventory areas from two continents, where the number of field sample plots is reduced using different sampling designs. The results show that, with an appropriate field plot selection strategy and the proposed linear model, the total relative error of the predicted forest inventory variables is only 5%–15% larger using 50 field sample plots than the error of a linear model estimated with several hundred field sample plots when we sum up the error due to both the model noise variance and the model’s lack of fit.

  19. 77 FR 28520 - Small Business Size Regulations, Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) Program and Small...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-15

    ... SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION 13 CFR Part 121 RIN 3245-AG46 Small Business Size Regulations, Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) Program and Small Business Technology Transfer (STTR) Program AGENCY: Small Business Administration. ACTION: Proposed rule. SUMMARY: The U.S. Small Business Administration...

  20. 77 FR 30227 - Small Business Size Regulations, Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) Program and Small...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-22

    ... Business Size Regulations, Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) Program and Small Business Technology... public Webinar and Roundtable Meetings regarding its proposal to amend its regulations governing size and eligibility for the Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) and Small Business Technology Transfer (STTR...

  1. Small-size biofuel cell on paper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lingling; Zhou, Ming; Wen, Dan; Bai, Lu; Lou, Baohua; Dong, Shaojun

    2012-05-15

    In this work, we demonstrated a novel paper-based mediator-less and compartment-less biofuel cell (BFC) with small size (1.5 cm × 1.5 cm). Ionic liquid functionalized carbon nanotubes (CNTs-IL) nanocomposite was used as support for both stably confining the anodic biocatalyst (i.e., NAD(+)-dependent glucose dehydrogenase, GDH) for glucose electrooxidation and for facilitating direct electrochemistry of the cathodic biocatalyst (i.e., bilirubin oxidase, BOD) for O(2) electroreduction. Such BFC provided a simple approach to fabricate low-cost and portable power devices on small-size paper, which can harvest energy from a wide range of commercial beverages containing glucose (e.g., Nescafe instant coffee, Maidong vitamin water, Watermelon fresh juice, and Minute Maid grape juice). These made the low-cost paper-based biodevice potential for broad energy applications. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Establishment of dosimetric references for high energy X-ray beams of very small field sizes (≤ 1 cm2) used in radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dufreneix, Stephane

    2014-01-01

    The French primary standard dosimetry laboratory 'Laboratoire National Henri Becquerel' is in charge of the establishment of dosimetric standards for ionizing radiation beams. Absolute dose measurements are thus available for X-Ray beams used in radiotherapy for field sizes between 10 and 2 cm. Since the miniaturization of absolute dosimeters is not possible for smaller field sizes, a dose area product (DAP) has been suggested as a substitute to the absorbed dose at a point.In order to measure a DAP with dosimeters which sensitive surface is larger than the beam, a graphite calorimeter with a sensitive surface of 3 cm diameter was designed, built and tested. An ionization chamber with the same diameter was realized and tested to transfer the dosimetric references to the end users. Its calibration factor in terms of DAP was determined in circular beams of 2, 1 and 0.75 cm diameter with an uncertainty smaller than 0.7 %. The two-Dimension relative dose distribution was measured thanks to a diamond dosimeter, a PinPoint ionization chamber and gafchromic films, using a specific protocol. Both approaches, respectively based on a PDS and an absorbed dose to water at a point, were in good agreement in the 2 cm beam. Correction factors determined from Monte Carlo simulations and measured dose distributions were needed for this comparison. The calibration factor of the large ionization chamber in the 1 and 0.75 cm diameter beams were in good agreement within the uncertainties but a gap of -2.6 % was found with the one established in the 2 cm diameter beam. As a result, the DAP can be used if the sensitive surface is much larger than the beam section. (author) [fr

  3. Magneto dynamic study of small size superconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mamsurova, L.G.; Pigal'skij, K.S.; Sakun, V.P.

    1996-01-01

    Magnetic field dependencies of magnetic permeability in fine grained YBaCuO samples of grain size D approx λ are investigated. The hysteresis of an oscillatory part of the magnetic permeability is evaluated for a system of loosely bound grains. Numerical calculations of vortex structures and appropriate μ v values for a superconducting plate of thickness d approx λ are made for cases of thermodynamical equilibrium and the existence. The computational results qualitatively agree with the experiment

  4. Development of small-size baking oven

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tabata, Akihisa; Kuwabara, Shigeru; Yamazawa, Yoshitaka; Shigeta, Eiji

    1987-03-01

    In the bakery business, oven fresh bakeries selling fresh bread by installing their own baking ovens at their shops have become popular recently. This article reports the development of a small-size gas baking oven for oven fresh bakaries. The gas convection oven developed recently is based on the structure of the conventional electric convection oven, and uses low pressure gas. The gas oven has an advantage that the combustion gas contains moisture. The convection oven bakes bread normally at the baking density approximately 2.5 times as much as that of the radiation oven, thereby the size of the oven may become smaller. This oven can bake many kinds of bread ranging from croissants to bean-jam buns by gas combnstion heat as well as radiation heat from the radiation plates installed at the top of each compartment in the oven. An ultra small air heat type burner was developed to provide stable short flames in order to make the size of the combustion chamber smaller. (20 figs, 2 tabs)

  5. Estimating the Magnitude and Field-Size Dependence of Radiotherapy-Induced Mortality and Tumor Control After Postoperative Radiotherapy For Non-Small-Cell Lung Cancer: Calculations From Clinical Trials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miles, Edward F.; Kelsey, Chris R.; Kirkpatrick, John P.; Marks, Lawrence B.

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: To create, on the basis of available data, a mathematical model to describe the tumor stage- and field size-dependent risks/benefits of postoperative radiotherapy (PORT) for non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC), and to assess whether this simple model can accurately describe the reported changes in overall survival. Methods and Materials: The increase in overall survival afforded by PORT is assumed equal to the increase in cancer-specific survival minus the rate of RT-induced mortality. The increase in cancer-specific survival is the product of the probabilities of (residual local disease) x (sterilization of residual disease with PORT) x (absence of metastatic disease). Data were extracted from the literature to estimate these probabilities. Different models were considered to relate the RT-induced mortality to field size. Results: The rate of RT-induced mortality seems to be proportional to the cube of the field size. When these mortality rates are included in the model, the predicted changes in overall survival approximate the literature values. Conclusion: Clinical data can be explained by a simple model that suggests that RT-induced mortality is strongly dependent on field size and at least partly offsets the benefit afforded by PORT. Smaller RT fields, tailored to treat the areas most at risk for recurrence, provide the highest therapeutic ratio. The data used do not reflect the impact of chemotherapy, which will reduce the rate of distant metastases and enhance the efficacy of RT

  6. Perspective on small and medium size reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stahlkopf, K.E.; Braun, C.

    1985-01-01

    There has been renewed interests in the United States in small and medium size nuclear power plants (600 MWe or less). The reasons for this include: (1) there is a large uncertainty in load growth projections. Small to medium size nuclear power plants may be better suited to meet uncertain load growth projections. (2) It has been argued that a large economy of scale exists because of the nature of nuclear power installations. A recent examination of the French program shows that no economy of scale exists between the 900 MWe and 1300 MWe plants. Others have suggested that it is possible to reduce the economy of scale so it is not a prohibitive factor. (3) In the past in the United States, it has been customary for several smaller utilities to share the output of a large nuclear plant to take advantage of the perceived economy of scale. Difficulties have been encountered by some of these enterprises. (4) An examination of capacity factors for the United States shows that plants of smaller output appear to operate more reliably and economically than larger plants

  7. Spectral distribution of particle fluence in small field detectors and its implication on small field dosimetry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benmakhlouf, Hamza; Andreo, Pedro

    2017-02-01

    Correction factors for the relative dosimetry of narrow megavoltage photon beams have recently been determined in several publications. These corrections are required because of the several small-field effects generally thought to be caused by the lack of lateral charged particle equilibrium (LCPE) in narrow beams. Correction factors for relative dosimetry are ultimately necessary to account for the fluence perturbation caused by the detector. For most small field detectors the perturbation depends on field size, resulting in large correction factors when the field size is decreased. In this work, electron and photon fluence differential in energy will be calculated within the radiation sensitive volume of a number of small field detectors for 6 MV linear accelerator beams. The calculated electron spectra will be used to determine electron fluence perturbation as a function of field size and its implication on small field dosimetry analyzed. Fluence spectra were calculated with the user code PenEasy, based on the PENELOPE Monte Carlo system. The detectors simulated were one liquid ionization chamber, two air ionization chambers, one diamond detector, and six silicon diodes, all manufactured either by PTW or IBA. The spectra were calculated for broad (10 cm × 10 cm) and narrow (0.5 cm × 0.5 cm) photon beams in order to investigate the field size influence on the fluence spectra and its resulting perturbation. The photon fluence spectra were used to analyze the impact of absorption and generation of photons. These will have a direct influence on the electrons generated in the detector radiation sensitive volume. The electron fluence spectra were used to quantify the perturbation effects and their relation to output correction factors. The photon fluence spectra obtained for all detectors were similar to the spectrum in water except for the shielded silicon diodes. The photon fluence in the latter group was strongly influenced, mostly in the low-energy region, by

  8. 77 FR 42211 - Small Business Size Standards: Arts, Entertainment, and Recreation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-18

    ..., SBA establishes small business definitions (referred to as size standards) for private sector... operated; (2) not dominant in its field of operation; and (3) within a specific small business definition... SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION 13 CFR Part 121 RIN 3245-AG36 Small Business Size Standards: Arts...

  9. 76 FR 70667 - Small Business Size Standards: Educational Services

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-15

    ... business assistance, SBA establishes small business size definitions (referred to as size standards) for... SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION 13 CFR Part 121 RIN 3245-AG29 Small Business Size Standards: Educational Services AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Proposed rule. SUMMARY: The U.S...

  10. 76 FR 63216 - Small Business Size Standards: Information

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-12

    ... Federal small business assistance, SBA establishes small business definitions (referred to as size... business definition or size standard established by the SBA Administrator. The SBA considers as part of its... SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION 13 CFR Part 121 RIN 3245-AG26 Small Business Size Standards...

  11. 76 FR 69154 - Small Business Size and Status Integrity

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-08

    ... SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION 13 CFR Parts 121, 124, 125, 126, and 127 RIN 3245-AG23 Small Business Size and Status Integrity AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration (SBA). ACTION: Proposed rule... implement provisions of the Small Business Jobs Act of 2010 (Jobs Act) pertaining to small business size and...

  12. 77 FR 72702 - Small Business Size Standards: Information

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-06

    ... SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION 13 CFR Part 121 RIN 3245-AG26 Small Business Size Standards: Information AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: The United States Small Business Administration (SBA) is increasing the receipts based small business size standards for 15...

  13. Small fields measurements with radiochromic films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez-Lopez, Antonio; Vera-Sanchez, Juan-Antonio; Lago-Martin, Jose-Domingo

    2015-01-01

    The small fields in radiotherapy are widely used due to the development of techniques such as intensity-modulated radiotherapy and stereotactic radio surgery. The measurement of the dose distributions for small fields is a challenge. A perfect dosimeter should be independent of the radiation energy and the dose rate and should have a negligible volume effect. The radiochromic (RC) film characteristics fit well to these requirements. However, the response of RC films and their digitizing processes present a significant spatial inhomogeneity problem. The present work uses a method for two-dimensional (2D) measurement with RC films based on the reduction of the spatial inhomogeneity of both the film and the film digitizing process. By means of registering and averaging several measurements of the same field, the inhomogeneities are mostly canceled. Measurements of output factors (OFs), dose profiles (in-plane and cross-plane), and 2D dose distributions are presented. The field sizes investigated are 0.5 × 0.5 cm(2), 0.7 × 0.7 cm(2), 1 × 1 cm(2), 2 × 2 cm(2), 3 × 3 cm(2), 6 × 6 cm(2), and 10 × 10 cm(2) for 6 and 15 MV photon beams. The OFs measured with the RC film are compared with the measurements carried out with a PinPoint ionization chamber (IC) and a Semiflex IC, while the measured transversal dose profiles were compared with Monte Carlo simulations. The results obtained for the OFs measurements show a good agreement with the values obtained from RC films and the PinPoint and Semiflex chambers when the field size is greater or equal than 2 × 2 cm(2). These agreements give confidence on the accuracy of the method as well as on the results obtained for smaller fields. Also, good agreement was found between the measured profiles and the Monte Carlo calculated profiles for the field size of 1 × 1 cm(2). We expect, therefore, that the presented method can be used to perform accurate measurements of small fields.

  14. 77 FR 39385 - Receipts-Based, Small Business Size Standard

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-03

    .... The NRC is increasing its receipts-based, small business size standard from $6.5 million to $7 million...-based, small business size standard increasing from $6.5 million to $7.0 million. This adjustment is to... regulatory programs. The NRC is increasing its receipts-based, small business size standard from $6.5 million...

  15. 77 FR 76215 - Small Business Size Regulations, Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) Program and Small...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-27

    ... overall goal of simplification and maximization of benefits for small businesses, SBA proposed amendments... franchisee. F. Section 121.704--When SBA Determines Size and Eligibility SBA's proposed regulations for the...

  16. 76 FR 27935 - Small Business Size Standards: Transportation and Warehousing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-13

    ... assistance, SBA establishes small business definitions (referred to as size standards) for private sector... SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION 13 CFR Part 121 RIN 3245-AG08 Small Business Size Standards: Transportation and Warehousing AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Proposed rule. SUMMARY: The U...

  17. Marketing research among small and medium-sized business enterprises - a VDEW field investigation with baker`s shops; Marktforschung bei Gewerbebetrieben - VDEW-Baeckereibefragung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fischer, A. [Isar-Amperwerke AG, Muenchen (Germany); Nickel, M. [VDEW-Hauptgeschaeftsstelle, Frankfurt am Main (Germany). Gruppe ``Energiewirtschaft und Statistik``

    1998-12-14

    The baker`s trade is a business of interest to electric utilities, as bakers have a high demand for process heat and their supply requirements are characterized by simple load histories. Hence competing electric utilities in the competitive market target this customer group with increasing efforts. The authors summarize the information obtained from the field investigation and the conclusions drawn. (orig./CB) [Deutsch] Die Baeckereien sind wegen ihres hohen Prozesswaermebedarfs und des guenstigen Lastverlaufs eine interessante Kundengruppe fuer die Stromversorger. Der Beratung und Betreuung dieser Kunden muss deshalb hohe Aufmerksamkeit gewidmet werden. Nicht zuletzt wegen des Wettbewerbs auf dem Energiemarkt muessen die Stromversorger die Kundenorientierung noch intensivieren. Auch dadurch entstehen neue Anforderungen an die Kundenberatung und -betreuung. Die Verfasser erlaeutern die wichtigsten Ergebnisse und Schlussfolgerungen aus einer Befragung von Baeckereibetrieben. (orig.)

  18. 78 FR 77334 - Small Business Size Standards: Construction

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-23

    ... enrollment in the System of Award Management's (SAM) Dynamic Small Business Search database, and more firms... SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION 13 CFR Part 121 RIN 3245-AG37 Small Business Size Standards: Construction AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: The United States Small...

  19. On the size of sports fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Texier, Baptiste Darbois; Cohen, Caroline; Clanet, Christophe; Dupeux, Guillaume; Quéré, David

    2014-01-01

    The size of sports fields considerably varies from a few meters for table tennis to hundreds of meters for golf. We first show that this size is mainly fixed by the range of the projectile, that is, by the aerodynamic properties of the ball (mass, surface, drag coefficient) and its maximal velocity in the game. This allows us to propose general classifications for sports played with a ball. (paper)

  20. 76 FR 63509 - Small Business Size Standards: Administrative and Support, Waste Management and Remediation Services

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-12

    ... Federal small business assistance, SBA establishes small business definitions (referred to as size... operated, (2) not dominant in its field of operation, and (3) within a specific small business definition... Vol. 76 Wednesday, No. 197 October 12, 2011 Part VI Small Business Administration 13 CFR Part 121...

  1. 77 FR 39442 - Receipts-Based, Small Business Size Standard

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-03

    ... RIN 3150-AJ14 [NRC-2012-0062] Receipts-Based, Small Business Size Standard AGENCY: Nuclear Regulatory... Regulatory Flexibility Act of 1980, as amended. The NRC is proposing to increase its receipts-based, small business size standard from $6.5 million to $7 million to conform to the standard set by the Small Business...

  2. Small and medium size nuclear reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Mugrabi, M.A.

    1996-01-01

    The purpose of this appendix is to provide up-to-date technical information relevant to the deployment of small and medium reactors (SMRs). It summarizes the status of SMRs and discusses areas of relevance to their utilization, including seawater desalination; and in particular their simplicity, their flexibility for a variety of applications and the use of passive safety features as fundamental to most of these designs. In response to important commercial developments, the energy range of small and medium reactors is now taken as being up to around 700 MW(e). Detailed information on SMR designs can be found in the IAEA report on The Design and Development Status of Small and Medium Reactor Systems 1995. 5 refs, 2 figs, 1 tab

  3. Macroscopic sizes of field of superrelativistic charges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strel'tsov, V.N.

    1995-01-01

    Based on the equation of Lienard-Wiechert equipotentials, it is shown that the field of superrelativistic charges reaches macroscopic sizes (e.g., R || = 2 m at E e = 50 GeV). This phenomenon serves an initial cause of the known considerable growth of formation length at high energies. 3 refs., 1 tab

  4. String Theory: Big Problem for Small Size

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahoo, S.

    2009-01-01

    String theory is the most promising candidate theory for a unified description of all the fundamental forces that exist in nature. It provides a mathematical framework that combines quantum theory with Einstein's general theory of relativity. The typical size of a string is of the order of 10[superscript -33] cm, called the Planck length. But due…

  5. 75 FR 61597 - Small Business Size Standards: Retail Trade

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-06

    ... eligibility for Federal small business assistance programs, SBA establishes small business size definitions... authorizes the SBA Administrator to establish only one definition of small business for an industry. [[Page... SBA's Administrator the responsibility for establishing small business definitions. The Act also...

  6. 78 FR 38811 - Small Business Size and Status Integrity

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-28

    .... Firms will not be able submit offers for small business contracts based on their online representations... SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION 13 CFR Parts 121, 124, 125, 126, and 127 RIN 3245-AG23 Small Business Size and Status Integrity AGENCY: Small Business Administration. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: This...

  7. 76 FR 8221 - Small Business Size Regulations; 8(a) Business Development/Small Disadvantaged Business Status...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-11

    ... Vol. 76 Friday, No. 29 February 11, 2011 Part VII Small Business Administration 13 CFR Parts 121 and 124 Small Business Size Regulations; 8(a) Business Development/Small Disadvantaged Business Status... Regulations#0;#0; [[Page 8222

  8. Small-size low-temperature scanning tunnel microscope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al'tfeder, I.B.; Khajkin, M.S.

    1989-01-01

    A small-size scanning tunnel microscope, designed for operation in transport helium-filled Dewar flasks is described. The microscope design contains a device moving the pin to the tested sample surface and a piezoelectric fine positioning device. High vibration protection of the microscope is provided by its suspension using silk threads. The small-size scanning tunnel microscope provides for atomic resolution

  9. Small Sized Drone Fall Recover Mechanism Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    LIU, Tzu-Heng; CHAO, Fang-Lin; LIOU, Jhen-Yuan

    2017-12-01

    Drones uses four motors to rotate clockwise, counter-clockwise, or change in rotational speed to change its status of motion. The problem of Unmanned Aerial Vehicle turnover causes personal loses and harm local environment. Designs of devices that can let falling drones recover are discussed. The models attempt to change the orientation, so that the drone may be able to improve to the point where it can take off again. The design flow included looking for functional elements, using simplify model to estimate primary functional characteristics, and find the appropriate design parameters. For reducing the complexity, we adopted the simple rotate mechanism with rotating arms to change the fuselage angle and reduce the dependence on the extra-components. A rough model was built to verify structure, and then the concept drawing and prototype were constructed. We made the prototype through the integration of mechanical part and the electronic control circuit. The electronic control module that selected is Arduino-mini pro. Through the Bluetooth modules, user can start the rebound mechanism by the motor control signal. Protections frames are added around each propeller to improve the body rotate problem. Limited by current size of Arduino module, motor and rebound mechanism make the main chassis more massive than the commercial product. However, built-in sensor and circuit miniaturization will improve it in future.

  10. Stellarator fields with small PS current at small rotational transform

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herrnegger, F.

    2001-01-01

    One aspect of the optimization concept of stellarators is the reduction of the normalized Pfirsch-Schlueter current density p arallel 2 / j p erpendikular 2 > 1/2 to a reasonable level but obeying other side conditions, e.g., concerning small bootstrap currents, good stability properties, reasonable aspect ratio, etc. This problem is addressed in the present work. Various stellarator vacuum field are given analytically for M 2, 3, 5, 10, 12 (M is the number of field period around the torus) where the PS-current density is reduced by more than a factor of ten to rather small values around 0.3 even at small i-values

  11. 75 FR 1296 - Small Business Size Regulations; 8(a) Business Development/Small Disadvantaged Business Status...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-11

    ... SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION 13 CFR Parts 121 and 124 Small Business Size Regulations; 8(a) Business Development/Small Disadvantaged Business Status Determinations AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Notice of public meetings; request for comments. SUMMARY: The U.S. Small Business...

  12. Chironomid midges (Diptera, chironomidae) show extremely small genome sizes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornette, Richard; Gusev, Oleg; Nakahara, Yuichi; Shimura, Sachiko; Kikawada, Takahiro; Okuda, Takashi

    2015-06-01

    Chironomid midges (Diptera; Chironomidae) are found in various environments from the high Arctic to the Antarctic, including temperate and tropical regions. In many freshwater habitats, members of this family are among the most abundant invertebrates. In the present study, the genome sizes of 25 chironomid species were determined by flow cytometry and the resulting C-values ranged from 0.07 to 0.20 pg DNA (i.e. from about 68 to 195 Mbp). These genome sizes were uniformly very small and included, to our knowledge, the smallest genome sizes recorded to date among insects. Small proportion of transposable elements and short intron sizes were suggested to contribute to the reduction of genome sizes in chironomids. We discuss about the possible developmental and physiological advantages of having a small genome size and about putative implications for the ecological success of the family Chironomidae.

  13. Export Marketing Involvement of African Small and Medium Size ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Export Marketing Involvement of African Small and Medium Size Enterprises: Tanzania's Fish Processing Industry. ... This study examined the Export marketing involvement of SMEs from the Least ... EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL TEXT

  14. Information Security in Small and Medium-Sized Companies

    OpenAIRE

    David Kral

    2011-01-01

    Information security doesn’t involve only large organizations. Small and medium-sized companies must closely examine this issue too, because they are increasingly threatened by cyber attacks. Many of them mistakenly believe, that security of their valuable data is sufficient, or that the attackers are not interested in them. Existing standards and methodologies for implementation and management of information security are often hard to transfer to the environment of small and medium-sized bus...

  15. The causal effect of board size in the performance of small and medium-sized firms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bennedsen, Morten; Kongsted, Hans Christian; Meisner Nielsen, Kasper

    2008-01-01

    correlation between family size and board size and show this correlation to be driven by firms where the CEO's relatives serve on the board. Second, we find empirical evidence of a small adverse board size effect driven by the minority of small and medium-sized firms that are characterized by having......Empirical studies of large publicly traded firms have shown a robust negative relationship between board size and firm performance. The evidence on small and medium-sized firms is less clear; we show that existing work has been incomplete in analyzing the causal relationship due to weak...... identification strategies. Using a rich data set of almost 7000 closely held corporations we provide a causal analysis of board size effects on firm performance: We use a novel instrument given by the number of children of the chief executive officer (CEO) of the firms. First, we find a strong positive...

  16. Theory of flotation of small and medium-size particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derjaguin, B. V.; Dukhin, S. S.

    1993-08-01

    The paper describes a theory of flotation of small and medium-size particles less than 50μ in radius) when their precipitation on a bubble surface depends more on surface forces than on inertia forces, and deformation of the bubble due to collisions with the particles may be neglected. The approach of the mineral particle to the bubble surface is regarded as taking place in three stages corresponding to movement of the particles through zones 1, 2 and 3. Zone 3 is a liquid wetting layer of such thickness that a positive or negative disjoining pressure arises in this intervening layer between the particle and the bubble. By zone 2 is meant the diffusional boundary layer of the bubble. In zone 1, which comprises the entire liquid outside zone 2, there are no surface forces. Precipitation of the particles is calculated by considering the forces acting in zones 1, 2 and 3. The particles move through zone 1 under the action of gravity and inertia. Analysis of the movement of the particles under the action of these forces gives the critical particle size, below which contact with the bubble surface is impossible, if the surface forces acting in zones 2 and 3 be neglected. The forces acting in zone 2 are ‘diffusio-phoretic’ forces due to the concentration gradient in the diffusional boundary layer. The concentration and electric field intensity distribution in zone 2 is calculated, taking into account ion diffusion to the deformed bubble surface. An examination is made of the ‘equilibrium’ surface forces acting in zone 3 independent of whether the bubble is at rest or in motion. These forces, which determine the behaviour of the thin wetting intervening layer between the bubble and the mineral particle and the height of the force barrier against its rupture, may be represented as results of the disjoining pressure forces acting on various parts of the film. The main components of the disjoining pressure are van der Waals forces, forces of an iono

  17. Examination on small-sized cogeneration HTGR for developing countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakaba, Nariaki; Tachibana, Yukio; Shimakawa, Satoshi; Ohashi, Hirofumi; Sato, Hiroyuki; Yan, Xing; Murakami, Tomoyuki; Ohashi, Kazutaka; Nakagawa, Shigeaki; Goto, Minoru; Ueta, Shohei; Mozumi, Yasuhiro; Imai, Yoshiyuki; Tanaka, Nobuyuki; Okuda, Hiroyuki; Iwatsuki, Jin; Kubo, Shinji; Takada, Shoji; Nishihara, Tetsuo; Kunitomi, Kazuhiko

    2008-03-01

    The small-sized and safe cogeneration High Temperature Gas-cooled Reactor (HTGR) that can be used not only for electric power generation but also for hydrogen production and district heating is considered one of the most promising nuclear reactors for developing countries where sufficient infrastructure such as power grids is not provided. Thus, the small-sized cogeneration HTGR, named High Temperature Reactor 50-Cogeneration (HTR50C), was studied assuming that it should be constructed in developing countries. Specification, equipment configuration, etc. of the HTR50C were determined, and economical evaluation was made. As a result, it was shown that the HTR50C is economically competitive with small-sized light water reactors. (author)

  18. Monte Carlo simulation of small field electron beams for small animal irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Chung-Chi; Chen, Ai-Mei; Tung, Chuan-Jong; Chao, Tsi-Chian

    2011-01-01

    The volume effect of detectors in the dosimetry of small fields for photon beams has been well studied due to interests in radiosurgery and small beamlets used in IMRT treatments; but there is still an unexplored research field for small electron beams used in small animal irradiation. This study proposes to use the BEAM Monte Carlo (MC) simulation to assess characteristics of small electron beams (4, 6, 14, 30 mm in diameter) with the kinetic energies of 6 and 18 MeV. Three factors influencing beam characteristics were studied (1) AE and ECUT settings, (2) photon jaw settings and (3) simulation pixel sizes. Study results reveal that AE/ECUT settings at 0.7 MeV are adequate for linear accelerator treatment head simulation, while 0.521 MeV is more favorable to be used for the phantom study. It is also demonstrated that voxel size setting at 1/4 of the simulation field width in all directions is sufficient to achieve accurate results. As for the photon jaw setting, it has great impact on the absolute output of different field size setting (i.e. output factor) but with minimum effect on the relative lateral distribution.

  19. SU-G-BRB-12: Polarity Effects in Small Volume Ionization Chambers in Small Fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arora, V; Parsai, E; Mathew, D; Tanny, S; Sperling, N

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: Dosimetric quantities such as the polarity correction factor (Ppol) are important parameters for determining the absorbed dose and can influence the choice of dosimeter. Ppol has been shown to depend on beam energy, chamber design, and field size. This study is to investigate the field size and detector orientation dependence of Ppol in small fields for several commercially available micro-chambers. Methods: We evaluate the Exradin A26, Exradin A16, PTW 31014, PTW 31016, and two prototype IBA CC-01 micro-chambers in both horizontal and vertical orientations. Measurements were taken at 10cm depth and 100cm SSD in a Wellhofer BluePhantom2. Measurements were made at square fields of 0.6, 0.8, 1.0, 1.2, 1.4, 2.0, 2.4, 3.0, and 5.0 cm on each side using 6MV with both ± 300VDC biases. PPol was evaluated as described in TG-51, reported using −300VDC bias for Mraw. Ratios of PPol measured in the clinical field to the reference field are presented. Results: A field size dependence of Ppol was observed for all chambers, with increased variations when mounted vertically. The maximum variation observed in PPol over all chambers mounted horizontally was <1%, and occurred at different field sizes for different chambers. Vertically mounted chambers demonstrated variations as large as 3.2%, always at the smallest field sizes. Conclusion: Large variations in Ppol were observed for vertically mounted chambers compared to horizontal mountings. Horizontal mountings demonstrated a complicated relationship between polarity variation and field size, probably relating to differing details in each chambers construction. Vertically mounted chambers consistently demonstrated the largest PPol variations for the smallest field sizes. Measurements obtained with a horizontal mounting appear to not need significant polarity corrections for relative measurements, while those obtained using a vertical mounting should be corrected for variations in PPol.

  20. SU-G-BRB-12: Polarity Effects in Small Volume Ionization Chambers in Small Fields

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arora, V; Parsai, E [University of Toledo Medical Center, Toledo, OH (United States); Mathew, D [University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN (United States); Tanny, S [SUNY Upstate Medical University, Syracuse NY (United States); Sperling, N [University of Toledo Medical Center, Sylvania, OH (United States)

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: Dosimetric quantities such as the polarity correction factor (Ppol) are important parameters for determining the absorbed dose and can influence the choice of dosimeter. Ppol has been shown to depend on beam energy, chamber design, and field size. This study is to investigate the field size and detector orientation dependence of Ppol in small fields for several commercially available micro-chambers. Methods: We evaluate the Exradin A26, Exradin A16, PTW 31014, PTW 31016, and two prototype IBA CC-01 micro-chambers in both horizontal and vertical orientations. Measurements were taken at 10cm depth and 100cm SSD in a Wellhofer BluePhantom2. Measurements were made at square fields of 0.6, 0.8, 1.0, 1.2, 1.4, 2.0, 2.4, 3.0, and 5.0 cm on each side using 6MV with both ± 300VDC biases. PPol was evaluated as described in TG-51, reported using −300VDC bias for Mraw. Ratios of PPol measured in the clinical field to the reference field are presented. Results: A field size dependence of Ppol was observed for all chambers, with increased variations when mounted vertically. The maximum variation observed in PPol over all chambers mounted horizontally was <1%, and occurred at different field sizes for different chambers. Vertically mounted chambers demonstrated variations as large as 3.2%, always at the smallest field sizes. Conclusion: Large variations in Ppol were observed for vertically mounted chambers compared to horizontal mountings. Horizontal mountings demonstrated a complicated relationship between polarity variation and field size, probably relating to differing details in each chambers construction. Vertically mounted chambers consistently demonstrated the largest PPol variations for the smallest field sizes. Measurements obtained with a horizontal mounting appear to not need significant polarity corrections for relative measurements, while those obtained using a vertical mounting should be corrected for variations in PPol.

  1. Investigation of small and modular-sized fast reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kubota, Kenichi; Kawasaki, Nobuchika; Umetsu, Yoichiro; Akatsu, Minoru; Kasai, Shigeo; Konomura, Mamoru; Ichimiya, Masakazu

    2000-06-01

    In this paper, feasibility of the multipurpose small fast reactor, which could be used for requirements concerned with various utilization of electricity and energy and flexibility of power supply site, is discussed on the basis of examination of literatures of various small reactors. And also, a possibility of economic improvement by learning effect of fabrication cost is discussed for the modular-sized reactor which is expected to be a base load power supply system with lower initial investment. (1) Multipurpose small reactor (a) The small reactor with 10MWe-150MWe has a potential as a power source for large co-generation, a large island, a middle city, desalination and marine use. (b) Highly passive mechanism, long fuel exchange interval, and minimized maintenance activities are required for the multipurpose small reactor design. The reactor has a high potential for the long fuel exchange interval, since it is relatively easy for FR to obtain a long life core. (c) Current designs of small FRs in Japan and USA (NERI Project) are reviewed to obtain design requirements for the multipurpose small reactor. (2) Modular-sized reactor (a) In order that modular-sized reactor could be competitive to 3200MWe twin plant (two large monolithic reactor) with 200kyenWe, the target capital cost of FOAK is estimated to be 260kyen/yenWe for 800MWe modular, 280kyen/yenWe for 400MWe modular and 290kyen/yenWe for 200MWe by taking account of the leaning effect. (b) As the result of the review on the current designs of modular-sized FRs in Japan and USA (S-PRISM) from the viewpoint of economic improvement, since it only be necessary to make further effort for the target capital cost of FOAK, since the modular-sized FRs requires a large amount of material for shielding, vessels and heat exchangers essentially. (author)

  2. Testing of elastomer seals using small-size rigs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leeks, C.W.E.; Dunford, B.; Barnfield, J.H.; Gray, I.L.S.

    1997-01-01

    This paper looks at the use of small size seal leakage test rigs to demonstrate the compliance of full size container seals against the IAEA Transport Regulation's limits for activity release for normal transport and accident conditions. The detailed requirements of the regulations are discussed and it is concluded that an appropriate test programme to meet these requirements using only small size test rigs, can normally be set up and carried out on a relatively short time scale. It is important that any small test rigs should be designed to represent the relevant features of the seal arrangement and the overall test programme should cover all of the conditions, specified by the regulations, for the type, classification and contents of the container under consideration. The parameters of elastomer O-rings, which affect their sealing ability, are considered and those which are amenable to small scale testing or have to be modelled at full size are identified. Generally, the seals used in leakage tests have to be modelled with a full size cross-section but can have a reduced peripheral length. (Author)

  3. Small field electron beam dosimetry using MOSFET detector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amin, Md Nurul; Heaton, Robert; Norrlinger, Bern; Islam, Mohammad K

    2010-10-04

    The dosimetry of very small electron fields can be challenging due to relative shifts in percent depth-dose curves, including the location of dmax, and lack of lateral electronic equilibrium in an ion chamber when placed in the beam. Conventionally a small parallel plate chamber or film is utilized to perform small field electron beam dosimetry. Since modern radiotherapy departments are becoming filmless in favor of electronic imaging, an alternate and readily available clinical dosimeter needs to be explored. We have studied the performance of MOSFET as a relative dosimeter in small field electron beams. The reproducibility, linearity and sensitivity of a high-sensitivity microMOSFET were investigated for clinical electron beams. In addition, the percent depth doses, output factors and profiles have been measured in a water tank with MOSFET and compared with those measured by an ion chamber for a range of field sizes from 1 cm diameter to 10 cm × 10 cm for 6, 12, 16 and 20 MeV beams. Similar comparative measurements were also per-formed with MOSFET and films in solid water phantom. The MOSFET sensitivity was found to be practically constant over the range of field sizes investigated. The dose response was found to be linear and reproducible (within ± 1% for 100 cGy). An excellent agreement was observed among the central axis depth dose curves measured using MOSFET, film and ion chamber. The output factors measured with MOSFET for small fields agreed to within 3% with those measured by film dosimetry. Overall results indicate that MOSFET can be utilized to perform dosimetry for small field electron beam.

  4. Implementation of small field radiotherapy dosimetry for spinal metastase case

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rofikoh, Wibowo, W. E.; Pawiro, S. A.

    2017-07-01

    The main objective of this study was to know dose profile of small field radiotherapy in the spinal metastase case with source axis distance (SAD) techniques. In addition, we evaluated and compared the dose planning of stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) and conventional techniques to measurements with Exradin A16 and Gafchromic EBT3 film dosimeters. The results showed that film EBT3 had a highest precision and accuracy with the average of the standard deviation of ±1.7 and maximum discrepancy of 2.6 %. In addition, the average value of Full Wave Half Maximum (FWHM) and its largest deviation in small field size of 0.8 x 0.8 cm2 are 0.82 cm and 16.3 % respectively, while it was found around 2.36 cm and 3 % for the field size of 2.4 x 2.4 cm2. The comparison between penumbra width and the collimation was around of 37.1 % for the field size of 0.8 x 0.8 cm2, while it was found of 12.4 % for the field size of 2.4 x 2.4 cm2.

  5. Small renal size in newborns with spina bifida: possible causes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montaldo, Paolo; Montaldo, Luisa; Iossa, Azzurra Concetta; Cennamo, Marina; Caredda, Elisabetta; Del Gado, Roberto

    2014-02-01

    Previous studies reported that children with neural tube defects, but without any history of intrinsic renal diseases, have small kidneys when compared with age-matched standard renal growth. The aim of this study was to investigate the possible causes of small renal size in children with spina bifida by comparing growth hormone deficiency, physical limitations and hyperhomocysteinemia. The sample included 187 newborns with spina bifida. Renal sizes in the patients were assessed by using maximum measurement of renal length and the measurements were compared by using the Sutherland monogram. According to the results, the sample was divided into two groups--a group of 120 patients with small kidneys (under the third percentile) and a control group of 67 newborns with normal kidney size. Plasma total homocysteine was investigated in mothers and in their children. Serum insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) levels were measured. Serum IGF-1 levels were normal in both groups. Children and mothers with homocysteine levels >10 μmol/l were more than twice as likely to have small kidneys and to give to birth children with small kidneys, respectively, compared with newborns and mothers with homocysteine levels <10 μmol/l. An inverse correlation was also found between the homocysteine levels of mothers and kidney sizes of children (r = - 0.6109 P ≤ 0.01). It is highly important for mothers with hyperhomocysteinemia to be educated about benefits of folate supplementation in order to reduce the risk of small renal size and lower renal function in children.

  6. 78 FR 11745 - Small Business Size Regulations, Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) Program and Small...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-20

    .... As published, the final regulations contain two points where the word ``small'' was inadvertently... and procedure, Government procurement, Government property, Loan programs-business, Small businesses...

  7. Mechanical stability of nanoporous metals with small ligament sizes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crowson, Douglas A.; Farkas, Diana; Corcoran, Sean G.

    2009-01-01

    Digital samples of nanoporous gold with small ligament sizes were studied by atomistic simulation using different interatomic potentials that represent varying surface stress values. We predict a surface relaxation driven mechanical instability for these materials. Plastic deformation is induced by the surface stress without external load, related to the combination of the surface stress value and the surface to volume ratio.

  8. The value chain of small-sized energy wood

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karttunen, K.; Foehr, J.; Ranta, T. (Lappeenranta Univ. of Technology, Mikkeli (Finland), LUT Energy), Email: kalle.karttunen@lut.fi, Email: jarno.fohr@lut.fi, Email: tapio.ranta@lut.fi; Ahtikoski, A. (The Finnish Forest Research Institute, Rovaniemi (Finland)), Email: anssi.ahtikoski@metla.fi; Valsta, L. (Helsinki Univ. (Finland), Dept. of Forest Economics), Email: lauri.valsta@helsinki.fi

    2009-07-01

    Finland has agreed to increase the share of renewable energy to the level of 38% by the end of 2020. Most of the increase is to be based on bioenergy. According to the National Climate and Energy Strategy, the need for forest biomass will come to more than 20 TWh, or some 10 million cubic meters per year. Energy wood from young stand thinnings are the biomass resource with the most potential at the moment. The purpose of this study was to compare cost differences between forest management incorporating energy wood thinning and forest management based on traditional roundwood thinning. In addition, alternative supply chain costs for small-sized wood were studied. The results of the study show that it is worth considering the following points if the demand and average price for forest chips remain high. 1. Forest-owners: Forest management including energy wood thinning is financially feasible. 2. Supply chain: A terminal chipping chain enables large-scale procurement of small-sized energy wood. 3. Power plants: Currently, subsidies, emission trading, and decreasing pulpwood prices together enable large-scale use of small-sized wood for energy purposes. The value chain of small-sized energy wood in large-scale power plants could be mobilised. (orig.)

  9. Workplace Health Promotion within Small and Medium-Sized Enterprises

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Ann; Parahoo, Kader; Fleming, Paul

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study is to explore managers' understanding of workplace health promotion (WHP) and experiences of WHP activity within small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) in a Health and Social Care Trust area of Northern Ireland. The paper aims to focus on engagement with activities within the context of prevention of…

  10. Financing Of Small And Medium-Size Enterprises In Cameroon ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Financing Of Small And Medium-Size Enterprises In Cameroon. ... Available data from the banking sector shows that as much as 78.7% of all ... SMEs and large companies pay back their loans better than the other ... Even the SME loan repayment rate of 62.9% is still low by World Bank ... AJOL African Journals Online.

  11. Small and medium-sized nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmidt, R.

    1986-01-01

    Small and medium-sized nuclear power plants have long been under discussion as possible applications of nuclear power in countries with small transmission grid systems, in threshold countries and developing countries, and under special local supply conditions. IAEA has condensed and promoted this interest and tried to establish the demand, and possibilities of meeting it, in special events and campaigns. In recent years, considerable interest was registered even in industrialized countries, but here specially for heating and process heat generation applications and for special purposes and, in medium-sized units, also for combined supplies of electricity and heat. This corresponds to special reactor and plant concepts, some of which have already been developed to a stage at which construction work could begin. The analysis presented deals with necessary preconditions on the sides of the users and the vendors, with problems of economy, infrastructure and financing and with the market prospects of small nuclear power plants. (orig./HP) [de

  12. INITIAL PLANETESIMAL SIZES AND THE SIZE DISTRIBUTION OF SMALL KUIPER BELT OBJECTS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schlichting, Hilke E.; Fuentes, Cesar I.; Trilling, David E.

    2013-01-01

    The Kuiper Belt is a remnant from the early solar system and its size distribution contains many important constraints that can be used to test models of planet formation and collisional evolution. We show, by comparing observations with theoretical models, that the observed Kuiper Belt size distribution is well matched by coagulation models, which start with an initial planetesimal population with radii of about 1 km, and subsequent collisional evolution. We find that the observed size distribution above R ∼ 30 km is primordial, i.e., it has not been modified by collisional evolution over the age of the solar system, and that the size distribution below R ∼ 30 km has been modified by collisions and that its slope is well matched by collisional evolution models that use published strength laws. We investigate in detail the resulting size distribution of bodies ranging from 0.01 km to 30 km and find that its slope changes several times as a function of radius before approaching the expected value for an equilibrium collisional cascade of material strength dominated bodies for R ∼< 0.1 km. Compared to a single power-law size distribution that would span the whole range from 0.01 km to 30 km, we find in general a strong deficit of bodies around R ∼ 10 km and a strong excess of bodies around 2 km in radius. This deficit and excess of bodies are caused by the planetesimal size distribution left over from the runaway growth phase, which left most of the initial mass in small planetesimals while only a small fraction of the total mass is converted into large protoplanets. This excess mass in small planetesimals leaves a permanent signature in the size distribution of small bodies that is not erased after 4.5 Gyr of collisional evolution. Observations of the small Kuiper Belt Object (KBO) size distribution can therefore test if large KBOs grew as a result of runaway growth and constrained the initial planetesimal sizes. We find that results from recent KBO

  13. Stochastic Neural Field Theory and the System-Size Expansion

    KAUST Repository

    Bressloff, Paul C.

    2010-01-01

    We analyze a master equation formulation of stochastic neurodynamics for a network of synaptically coupled homogeneous neuronal populations each consisting of N identical neurons. The state of the network is specified by the fraction of active or spiking neurons in each population, and transition rates are chosen so that in the thermodynamic or deterministic limit (N → ∞) we recover standard activity-based or voltage-based rate models. We derive the lowest order corrections to these rate equations for large but finite N using two different approximation schemes, one based on the Van Kampen system-size expansion and the other based on path integral methods. Both methods yield the same series expansion of the moment equations, which at O(1/N) can be truncated to form a closed system of equations for the first-and second-order moments. Taking a continuum limit of the moment equations while keeping the system size N fixed generates a system of integrodifferential equations for the mean and covariance of the corresponding stochastic neural field model. We also show how the path integral approach can be used to study large deviation or rare event statistics underlying escape from the basin of attraction of a stable fixed point of the mean-field dynamics; such an analysis is not possible using the system-size expansion since the latter cannot accurately determine exponentially small transitions. © by SIAM.

  14. Small is Beautiful? Firm's Size, Prevention & Food Safety.

    OpenAIRE

    Rouviere, Elodie; Soubeyran, Raphael

    2012-01-01

    The European General Food Law of 2005 and the newly promulgated FDA Food Safety Modernization Act (FFSMA) of 2010 ask all food operators to implement preventive efforts. In this article, we explore the link between firm’s size and preventive efforts. We show two main results. First, when there is no cross-contamination, small firms will provide higher preventive efforts than large firms. When there is crosscontamination, the effort-size curve may have a "inverted-U" shape. From our results we...

  15. Bank Size and Small- and Medium-sized Enterprise (SME) Lending: Evidence from China

    Science.gov (United States)

    SHEN, YAN; SHEN, MINGGAO; XU, ZHONG; BAI, YING

    2014-01-01

    Summary Using panel data collected in 2005, we evaluate how bank size, discretion over credit, incentive schemes, competition, and the institutional environment affect lending to small- and medium-sized enterprises in China. We deal with the endogeneity problem using instrumental variables, and a reduced-form approach is also applied to allow for weak instruments in estimation. We find that total bank asset is an insignificant factor for banks’ decision on small- and medium-enterprise (SME) lending, but more local lending authority, more competition, carefully designed incentive schemes, and stronger law enforcement encourage commercial banks to lend to SMEs. PMID:26052179

  16. Bank Size and Small- and Medium-sized Enterprise (SME) Lending: Evidence from China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Yan; Shen, Minggao; Xu, Zhong; Bai, Ying

    2009-04-01

    Using panel data collected in 2005, we evaluate how bank size, discretion over credit, incentive schemes, competition, and the institutional environment affect lending to small- and medium-sized enterprises in China. We deal with the endogeneity problem using instrumental variables, and a reduced-form approach is also applied to allow for weak instruments in estimation. We find that total bank asset is an insignificant factor for banks' decision on small- and medium-enterprise (SME) lending, but more local lending authority, more competition, carefully designed incentive schemes, and stronger law enforcement encourage commercial banks to lend to SMEs.

  17. Electrophysical properties of crystals with superconducting inclusions of small sizes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sugakov, V.I.; Shevtsova, O.N.

    2001-01-01

    The effect of superconducting inclusions, incorporated in a semiconducting or dielectric matrix, on the electrophysical properties of the dielectric is studied. The critical magnetic field of a spherical isolated inclusion is determined in the assumption that the inclusion radius is less than or of the order of coherence length. The dependence of conductivity on temperature and magnetic field is calculated for a crystal with superconducting inclusions. In the calculations an assumption is made that the inclusion concentration is inadequate for the superconductivity to appear in a whole sample (i.e. below the thresh-old of percolation). It is shown that the presence of superconducting inclusions leads to a sharp increase of the sample conductivity at low temperatures, and to a strong dependence of conductivity on magnetic field (magnetoresistance). The magnetoresistance is caused by suppression of superconductivity in the inclusions with increasing magnetic field. The influence of variations in inclusion size on the temperature and magnetic field dependences of conductivity is studied

  18. Internationalization of small and medium-sized enterprises

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zoran Paunović

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Highly developed countries, which are similar to Croatia by size and population, highlight the importance of small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs as holders of export activities and key factors in raising the competitiveness of the entire economy. In this paper authors research the concept of internationalization of SMEs. Analyzing the influence of decision makers on the process of internationalization and showing its advantages and disadvantages for the respective company and country, this research introduces the most common models on the basis of which this process is implemented in practice. A case study of a small export company from Croatia illustrates the process of internationalization to the U.S. market and provides useful information to the companies which are planning to enter new markets.

  19. The status of development of small and medium sized reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Konstantinov, L.V; Kupitz, J.

    1987-01-01

    Several IAEA Member States have shown their interest in reactor design, having a smaller power rating (100-500 MW(e) range) than those generally available on the international market. These small and medium sized power reactors are of interest either for domestic applications or for export into countries with less developed infrastructure. There are different developments undertaken for these power reactors to be ready for offering in the nineties and beyond. The paper gives an overview about the status and different trends in IAEA Member States in the development of small and medium sized reactors for the 90's and provides an outlook for very new reactor designs as a long term option for nuclear power. (author)

  20. High temperature salting of mince of small sized fish

    OpenAIRE

    Sorinmade, S.O.; Talabi, S.O.; Aliu, A.

    1982-01-01

    Freshly caught small sized fish species were transported to the laboratory gutted and washed before mechanical separation into bone and mince. Duplicate batches of the mince were then treated with seven different concentrations (wt/wt) of sodium chloride before cooking. The cooked mince was divided into two groups, pressed and unpressed. Percentage residual salt in the salted cooked mince, free and press water and salted cooked pressed mince were determined. Also, the moisture contents of...

  1. Unions in small and medium-sized enterprises

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holten, Ann-Louise; Crouch, Colin

    2014-01-01

    Trade unions are commonly weak in small- and medium-sized enterprises, which constitute a majority of European firms and are often family-owned. We investigate the influence of family ownership on employee membership, perceptions and experience with unions in Danish and Italian firms in the textile...... and clothing sector. Family ownership reduces union membership; and within family firms, the number of family members employed is negatively associated with unionization rates and employee perceptions of unions....

  2. Customer acquisition plan for a small-size entrepreneur

    OpenAIRE

    Puotiniemi, Tiia

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this thesis was to draw a customer acquisition plan and improve the marketing planning in the company. Therefore, the final result was the market research summary. Development of the marketing strategy planning was based on internal and external situation analyses. This thesis is concentrated on a small-size operator’s business and therefore the internet marketing was brought up with its profitable benefits and advantages. The thesis was written as an auxiliary guide to build u...

  3. Utilizing Content Marketing in Small and Medium-Sized Organizations

    OpenAIRE

    Parviainen, Ville

    2014-01-01

    The major objective of this study is to find out how and to what extent online content is currently utilized for marketing purposes among small and medium-sized organizations in Finland. Additionally, positive and negative future prospects concerning this type of content marketing were explored. The study is mainly qualitative by nature. The empirical part of this thesis was carried out between July 2013 and March 2014 and it consists of five semi-structured interviews with five professio...

  4. Sales strategy in small and medium-sized food companies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Renate; Stacey, Julia; Andersen, Lone Merete Schreiber

    2002-01-01

    All managing teams know that they have to deal with the company's strategy in handling the market. But how do they do it and on the basis of which beleifs and interpretations? A nearly completed PhD project has examined the way in which three small and medium-sized food companies define...... their market, their competitors and customers, and how they create the world they perceive and act in through their own actions....

  5. JAIF report on small- and medium-size LWRs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1983-01-01

    The Ministry of International Trade and Industry has made a report on the results of the study on the utilization of small and medium size LWRs. The Japan Atomic Industrial Forum undertook this research work by the commission of the Ministry. It studied six cases of PWRs and BWRs with thermal output power ranging from 20 MWt to 700 MWt as the hypothetical design for their siting conditions, reactor capacity and the examples of utilization of the corresponding steam output. A large housing estate of 5,000 units, a local core city with population of 100,000, industrial utilization for petrochemical plants and paper and pulp plants and the combined utilization for a factory and a housing estate of 5,000 units were examined. The report said that a city with population of 100,000 would be the best object to supply heat from a nuclear reactor, and it is important to develop the nuclear reactors with 200 MWt capacity. This type is versatile in the siting conditions, and can be constructed near a city, accordingly, it offers the possibility of extensive utilization. The significance of small and medium size LWRs as the alternative energy for oil, the regional development accompanying the use of small and medium size LWRs, the technical development toward scale reduction, easy operation and versatile utilization, the economical evaluation of the utilization models and the tasks for the future are reported. (Kako, I.)

  6. Significance assessment of small-medium sized reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kanno, Minoru [Japan Atomic Power Co., Research and Development Dept., Tokyo (Japan)

    2002-12-01

    Preliminary assessment for deployment of small-medium sized reactor (S and M reactor) as a future option has been conducted at the JAPCO (Japan Atomic Power Company) under the cooperation with the CRIERI (Central Research Institute of Electric Power Industry). Significance of the S and M reactor introduction is listed as follows; lower investment cost, possible siting near demand side, enlarged freedom of siting, shorter transmission line, good compatibility with slow increase of demand and plain explanation of safety using simpler system such as integral type vessel without piping, natural convection core cooling and passive safety system. The deployment of simpler plant system, modular shop fabrication, ship-shell structured building and longer operation period can assure economics comparable with that of a large sized reactor, coping with scale-demerit. Also the S and M reactor is preferable in size for the nuclear heat utilization such as hydrogen production. (T. Tanaka)

  7. Effects of corridors on home range sizes and interpatch movements of three small mammal species.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mabry, Karen, E.; Barrett, Gary, W.

    2002-04-30

    Mabry, K.E., and G.W. Barrett. 2002. Effects of corridors on home range sizes and interpatch movements of three small mammal species. Landscape Ecol. 17:629-636. Corridors are predicted to benefit populations in patchy habitats by promoting movement, which should increase population densities, gene flow, and recolonization of extinct patch populations. However, few investigators have considered use of the total landscape, particularly the possibility of interpatch movement through matrix habitat, by small mammals. This study compares home range sizes of 3 species of small mammals, the cotton mouse, old field mouse and cotton rat between patches with and without corridors. Corridor presence did not have a statistically significant influence on average home range size. Habitat specialization and sex influenced the probability of an individual moving between 2 patches without corridors. The results of this study suggest that small mammals may be more capable of interpatch movement without corridors than is frequently assumed.

  8. Field size and dose distribution of electron beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang, Wee Saing

    1980-01-01

    The author concerns some relations between the field size and dose distribution of electron beams. The doses of electron beams are measured by either an ion chamber with an electrometer or by film for dosimetry. We analyzes qualitatively some relations; the energy of incident electron beams and depths of maximum dose, field sizes of electron beams and depth of maximum dose, field size and scatter factor, electron energy and scatter factor, collimator shape and scatter factor, electron energy and surface dose, field size and surface dose, field size and central axis depth dose, and field size and practical range. He meets with some results. They are that the field size of electron beam has influence on the depth of maximum dose, scatter factor, surface dose and central axis depth dose, scatter factor depends on the field size and energy of electron beam, and the shape of the collimator, and the depth of maximum dose and the surface dose depend on the energy of electron beam, but the practical range of electron beam is independent of field size

  9. Local field in finite-size metamaterials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bordo, Vladimir

    2018-01-01

    The theory of the optical response of a metamaterial slab which is represented by metal nanoparticles embedded in a dielectric matrix is developed. It is demonstrated that the account of the reflections from the slab boundaries essentially modifies the local field in the slab and leads...

  10. Size distribution and structure of Barchan dune fields

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Durán

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Barchans are isolated mobile dunes often organized in large dune fields. Dune fields seem to present a characteristic dune size and spacing, which suggests a cooperative behavior based on dune interaction. In Duran et al. (2009, we propose that the redistribution of sand by collisions between dunes is a key element for the stability and size selection of barchan dune fields. This approach was based on a mean-field model ignoring the spatial distribution of dune fields. Here, we present a simplified dune field model that includes the spatial evolution of individual dunes as well as their interaction through sand exchange and binary collisions. As a result, the dune field evolves towards a steady state that depends on the boundary conditions. Comparing our results with measurements of Moroccan dune fields, we find that the simulated fields have the same dune size distribution as in real fields but fail to reproduce their homogeneity along the wind direction.

  11. Observations of Bright Massive Stars Using Small Size Telescopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beradze, Sopia; Kochiashvili, Nino

    2017-11-01

    The size of a telescope determines goals and objects of observations. During the latest decades it becomes more and more difficult to get photometric data of bright stars because most of telescopes of small sizes do not operate already. But there are rather interesting questions connected to the properties and evolution ties between different types of massive stars. Multi-wavelength photometric data are needed for solution of some of them. We are presenting our observational plans of bright Massive X-ray binaries, WR and LBV stars using a small size telescope. All these stars, which are presented in the poster are observational targets of Sopia Beradze's future PhD thesis. We already have got very interesting results on the reddening and possible future eruption of the massive hypergiant star P Cygni. Therefore, we decided to choose some additional interesting massive stars of different type for future observations. All Massive stars play an important role in the chemical evolution of galaxies because of they have very high mass loss - up to 10-4M⊙/a year. Our targets are on different evolutionary stages and three of them are the members of massive binaries. We plan to do UBVRI photometric observations of these stars using the 48 cm Cassegrain telescope of the Abastumani Astrophisical Observatory.

  12. Small and medium sized reactors: Status and prospects. Proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2002-08-01

    During the early years of nuclear power deployment, the plants entering service were dominated by what are now considered small (less than 300 MW(e)) and medium (300 to 700 MW(e)) reactors. In the late 1970s, the balance shifted to larger size plants to serve the requirements of industrialized countries. However, since the early 1990s, the increased interest of developing countries in nuclear power, mainly in Asia, has resulted in intensified efforts in development of small and medium sized reactors (SMRs). Also, in industrialized countries, electricity market deregulation is calling for power generation flexibility that SMRs may offer. Apart from electricity generation, SMRs are of particular interest for non-electrical applications of nuclear energy, such as desalination of seawater and district heating. In recognition of the current global interest in small and medium sized reactors this seminar was convened to provide a forum for the exchange of information by experts and policy makers from industrialized and developing countries on the technical, economic, environmental, and social aspects of SMR development and implementation in the 21st century, and to make this information available to all interested IAEA Member States. Keynote addresses also provided information on global energy demand and supply and international trends impacting the development and introduction of SMRs. Two hundred forty seven attendees from 39 countries and 5 international organizations participated in the seminar. The majority of the participants were from developing countries. The seminar not only provided valuable up to date information on SMRs, it also highlighted the importance of continued international co-operation in the development and application of nuclear power for peaceful uses throughout the world.

  13. Small and medium sized reactors: Status and prospects. Proceedings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    During the early years of nuclear power deployment, the plants entering service were dominated by what are now considered small (less than 300 MW(e)) and medium (300 to 700 MW(e)) reactors. In the late 1970s, the balance shifted to larger size plants to serve the requirements of industrialized countries. However, since the early 1990s, the increased interest of developing countries in nuclear power, mainly in Asia, has resulted in intensified efforts in development of small and medium sized reactors (SMRs). Also, in industrialized countries, electricity market deregulation is calling for power generation flexibility that SMRs may offer. Apart from electricity generation, SMRs are of particular interest for non-electrical applications of nuclear energy, such as desalination of seawater and district heating. In recognition of the current global interest in small and medium sized reactors this seminar was convened to provide a forum for the exchange of information by experts and policy makers from industrialized and developing countries on the technical, economic, environmental, and social aspects of SMR development and implementation in the 21st century, and to make this information available to all interested IAEA Member States. Keynote addresses also provided information on global energy demand and supply and international trends impacting the development and introduction of SMRs. Two hundred forty seven attendees from 39 countries and 5 international organizations participated in the seminar. The majority of the participants were from developing countries. The seminar not only provided valuable up to date information on SMRs, it also highlighted the importance of continued international co-operation in the development and application of nuclear power for peaceful uses throughout the world

  14. SMALL AND MEDIUM-SIZED ENTERPRISES IN REPUBLIC OF MOLDOVA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igor G. SÎRODOEV

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper examines the role of SME sector in Moldova’s economy and its likely implications in the RD processes. There are emphasized several key features of the relationship between knowledge economy, RD and SMEs, and their effect on regional and local communities. Then, a summary of RD particular features in Moldova is presented.The role of SME sector, examined in terms of its performance by ownership and activity types, as a whole and by main firms’ categories (micro-, small, and medium-sized is analyzed. Small enterprises have been considered as the most adequate solution forpromoting RD in general case. National-level analysis is completed by regional insight into the sector as a whole. Finally, some critical aspects of SMEs’ role in RD in Moldova are discussed.

  15. THE SOCIAL MEDIA IMPACT ON SMALL AND MEDIUM SIZED BUSINESSES

    OpenAIRE

    Mihai Alexandru Constantin Logofatu

    2012-01-01

    This paper aims to be a short introduction to social media and discusses on few ways in which small and medium sized businesses in Romania can take advantage of this hot topic. Through the use of social media every company can reach a global audience with less effort, time and money. In a world shaped more and more around social platforms the customer behaviour has completely and forever changed and those leaders and organizations that understand and embrace this new type of communication, co...

  16. Status and prospects for small and medium sized reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kupitz, J.; Arkhipov, V.; Brey, H.L.

    2000-01-01

    Member States have evinced interest in the continued development of small and medium sized reactors (SMRs) as an energy source for the future. Support for this programme was recently reaffirmed at the IAEA 1997 General Conference. Although the generation of electricity is the predominant focus of existing SMRs, there is increasing interest in using these plants for desalination, district heating and high temperature industrial process heat applications. Here is a review of SMR development within selected Member States, an overview of the IAEA's SMR programme and a discussion of selected SMR designs with emphasis on safety attributes. (author)

  17. Status and Prospects for Small and Medium Sized Reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kupitz, J.; Arkhipov, V.; Brey, H. L.

    1998-01-01

    There is considerable interest by Member States in the continued development of small and medium sized reactors (SMRs) as a significant energy sources for the future. The support for this programme within the IAEA was recently reaffirmed at the 1997 General Conference. Although the generation of electricity has been predominant focus of existing SMRs, there is increasing interest in using these plants for other applications such as desalination, district heating and hydrogen production from the reforming of methane. Addressed herein is a review of ongoing SMR development activities within selected Member States, an overview of the Agency's SMR programme and a discussion of selected SMR designs with emphasis on their safety attributes. (author)

  18. 75 FR 61604 - Small Business Size Standards; Accommodation and Food Services Industries

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-06

    ... business assistance programs, SBA establishes small business size definitions (referred to as size... Administrator the responsibility for establishing small business definitions. The Act also requires that small business definitions vary to reflect industry differences. The supplementary information section of this...

  19. Small-Sized Whole-Tree Harvesting in Finland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaerhae, Kalle [Metsaeteho Oy, Helsinki (Finland)

    2006-07-15

    In Finland, there are two mechanized harvesting systems used for small diameter (d{sub 1.3}= 10 cm) thinning wood: 1) the traditional two-machine (harvester and forwarder) system, and 2) the harwarder system (i.e. the same machine performs both felling and haulage to the roadside). At present, there are more than 20 energy wood harwarders in use in Finland. However, there have been no comprehensive studies carried out on the energy wood harwarders. This paper looks into the productivity results obtained with energy wood harwarders. In addition, the energy wood harvesting costs for harwarders are compared with those of the two-machine system. The results clearly indicated what kind of machine resources can be profitably allocated to different whole-tree harvesting sites. The energy wood harwarders should be directed towards harvesting sites where the forwarding distances are small, the trees harvested are relatively small, and the total volume of energy wood removed is quite low. Respectively, when the stem size removed is relatively large in young stands, and the forest haulage distances are long, the traditional two-machine system is more competitive.

  20. Market Potential Estimation of a Small and Medium Size Reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oh, K. B.; Yang, M. H.; Lee, M. K.; Chung, W. S.; Kim, H. J.; Kim, S. S.; Lee, B. W.; Ryu, J. S.; Juhn, P. E.

    2004-12-01

    Technically, nuclear reactors which produce energy in the form of heat can supply energy products other than electricity, including district heat, process heat, potable water etc. Currently non-civil uses of nuclear energy are very limited civil applications except for a military nuclear powered ship and an energy usage in isolated areas. However, the future global environment and an energy resources scarcity could promote a significant usage of non-electrical applications on an industrial scale. Considering these situations, this report analyzed the following: (1) Worldwide non-electrical application of a small and medium sized nuclear reactor - survey the situation of the current technical applications, - survey the global market potential estimation for various applications (2) Technical cooperation potential in several countries - identify necessary conditions for nuclear cooperation, - select candidate countries: Morocco, UAE, Indonesia, Chile and Vietnam, - survey the energy and water situation, - survey the legal and international regime infrastructure

  1. Ultracapacitors for fuel saving in small size hybrid vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Solero, L.; Lidozzi, A.; Serrao, V. [University ROMA TRE, Dept. of Mechanical and Industrial Eng., Via della Vasca Navale, 79 - 00146 Roma (Italy); Martellucci, L. [University of Rome ' ' La Sapienza' ' , Dept. of Electrical Eng., Via Eudossiana, 18 - 00184 Roma (Italy); Rossi, E. [ENEA, Via Anguillarese, 301 - 00060 S. Maria Galeria, Roma (Italy)

    2011-01-01

    The main purpose of the paper is to describe a small size hybrid vehicle having ultracapacitors as on-board storage unit. The vehicle on-board main power supply is achieved by a genset being formed of a 250 cm{sup 3} internal combustion engine and a permanent magnet synchronous electric generator, whereas 4 16V-500F ultracapacitors modules are connected in series in order to supply as well as to store the power peaks during respectively acceleration and braking vehicle modes of operation. The traction power is provided by a permanent magnet synchronous electric motor, whereas a distributed power electronic interface is in charge of all the required electronic conversions as well of controlling the operating conditions for each power unit. The paper discusses the implemented control strategy and shows experimental results on the modes of operation of both generation unit and storage unit. (author)

  2. The role of small and medium-sized reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kupitz, J.; Mourogov, V.

    1999-01-01

    The second half of the twentieth century has seen nuclear power evolve from the research and development environment to an industry that supplies 17% of the world's electricity. The past decade, however, has seen stagnation in nuclear power plant construction in the Western industrialized world, slow nuclear power growth in Eastern Europe and expansion only in East Asia. But the turn of the century is potentially a turning-point for nuclear power because of: increasing world energy consumption, with nuclear power's contribution to reducing greenhouse gas emissions, nuclear fuel resources sustainability, and improvements in operation of current nuclear power plants; advanced reactor designs that will improve economics and availability, and further enhance safety; and continued strengthening of the nuclear power safeguards system. This paper looks at the role that small and medium-sized reactors can play in an increasingly competitive global energy market, particularly with regard to maintaining a sustainable mix of energy sources. (author)

  3. Small and medium sized enterprises (SMEs and transfer pricing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veronika Solilová

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Small and medium sized enterprises have very important position in the EU economy, mainly in the area of growth and employment. However, most of SMEs are active only in their home country and only a few of them participate in cross-border activities. Furthermore, their activities in the internal market are limited by great deal of obstacles, mainly in the form of different tax systems which generate excessive compliance costs of taxation and the existence of different SMEs definitions for various purposes in Member states. In addition, from the view of the international taxation issues, the most important obstacles can be considered a transfer pricing and cross-border loss compensations. In this area, SMEs are facing specific problems and have specific needs. The aim of the paper is to analyze and evaluate the specific transfer pricing issues of SMEs and propose recommendations for them.

  4. SU-E-T-813: What Is the “real” Field-Size in Photon Dosimetry?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gainey, M; Kollefrath, M; Saum, R; Bruggmoser, G [University Medical Centre Freiburg, Freiburg Im Breisgau, Baden-Wuerttemberg (Germany)

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: The definition of field sizes in photon dosimetry and the measurement of profiles are non-trivial. Current definitions are nominal, geometric, dosimetric (actual) or equivalent field size. In reality most detectors are not water equivalent since they contain air or high density materials. These materials can blur profiles, particularly in small fields. If necessary, detector and field size-specific volume dependent effects need to be considered. Methods: A TrueBeam-linac (Varian Medical Systems) was used. All measurements were performed within a water phantom (MP3, PTW-Freiburg), with filter (WFF) and without filter (FFF), using ionization chambers, shielded and unshielded diodes and diamond detectors. The position of the jaws was verified according to our QA-system. Field size profiles were taken at a defined depth (SSD =90 cm, SCD=100 cm). The penumbra of the profiles measured with the various detectors was compared to determine the dosimetric field size. For the evaluation of the field sizes the inclination points were also calculated. Results: The field size, both for the WFF and the FFF-mode, coincided within 1 mm of the nominal field size. Due to the fact that the jaws were adjusted properly, the dosimetric field size coincides with the geometric field size. Exceptions are very small fields, where the dosimetric field size, defined by the inclination points, becomes broader than the geometric field size. Conclusion: Profiles, particularly of small fields, have to be measured very carefully using a suitable detector. For this purpose, a detector with a negligible volume correction factor should be used. The dosimetric field size can be found by evaluating the inclination points for both WFF and FFF beams. For dosimetric purposes it is necessary to find the dosimetric size. Alternatively, if the measurements are basic data for a TPS, both, the geometric and the dosimetric sizes should be recorded.

  5. SU-E-T-813: What Is the “real” Field-Size in Photon Dosimetry?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gainey, M; Kollefrath, M; Saum, R; Bruggmoser, G

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The definition of field sizes in photon dosimetry and the measurement of profiles are non-trivial. Current definitions are nominal, geometric, dosimetric (actual) or equivalent field size. In reality most detectors are not water equivalent since they contain air or high density materials. These materials can blur profiles, particularly in small fields. If necessary, detector and field size-specific volume dependent effects need to be considered. Methods: A TrueBeam-linac (Varian Medical Systems) was used. All measurements were performed within a water phantom (MP3, PTW-Freiburg), with filter (WFF) and without filter (FFF), using ionization chambers, shielded and unshielded diodes and diamond detectors. The position of the jaws was verified according to our QA-system. Field size profiles were taken at a defined depth (SSD =90 cm, SCD=100 cm). The penumbra of the profiles measured with the various detectors was compared to determine the dosimetric field size. For the evaluation of the field sizes the inclination points were also calculated. Results: The field size, both for the WFF and the FFF-mode, coincided within 1 mm of the nominal field size. Due to the fact that the jaws were adjusted properly, the dosimetric field size coincides with the geometric field size. Exceptions are very small fields, where the dosimetric field size, defined by the inclination points, becomes broader than the geometric field size. Conclusion: Profiles, particularly of small fields, have to be measured very carefully using a suitable detector. For this purpose, a detector with a negligible volume correction factor should be used. The dosimetric field size can be found by evaluating the inclination points for both WFF and FFF beams. For dosimetric purposes it is necessary to find the dosimetric size. Alternatively, if the measurements are basic data for a TPS, both, the geometric and the dosimetric sizes should be recorded

  6. SIMPLIFIED MATHEMATICAL MODEL OF SMALL SIZED UNMANNED AIRCRAFT VEHICLE LAYOUT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Strong reduction of new aircraft design period using new technology based on artificial intelligence is the key problem mentioned in forecasts of leading aerospace industry research centers. This article covers the approach to devel- opment of quick aerodynamic design methods based on artificial intelligence neural system. The problem is being solved for the classical scheme of small sized unmanned aircraft vehicle (UAV. The principal parts of the method are the mathe- matical model of layout, layout generator of this type of aircraft is built on aircraft neural networks, automatic selection module for cleaning variety of layouts generated in automatic mode, robust direct computational fluid dynamics method, aerodynamic characteristics approximators on artificial neural networks.Methods based on artificial neural networks have intermediate position between computational fluid dynamics methods or experiments and simplified engineering approaches. The use of ANN for estimating aerodynamic characteris-tics put limitations on input data. For this task the layout must be presented as a vector with dimension not exceeding sev-eral hundred. Vector components must include all main parameters conventionally used for layouts description and com- pletely replicate the most important aerodynamics and structural properties.The first stage of the work is presented in the paper. Simplified mathematical model of small sized UAV was developed. To estimate the range of geometrical parameters of layouts the review of existing vehicle was done. The result of the work is the algorithm and computer software for generating the layouts based on ANN technolo-gy. 10000 samples were generated and the dataset containig geometrical and aerodynamic characteristics of layoutwas created.

  7. Small Field Dosimetry Comparing Measured Data Versus the ADAC Pinnacle 3 Model

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ludolph, Daniel

    2004-01-01

    .... While this method can optimize conformity to tumors and provide better sparing of surrounding tissue, it also presents a host of challenges due to reliance on dosimetry data for small field sizes...

  8. Exact association test for small size sequencing data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Joowon; Lee, Seungyeoun; Jang, Jin-Young; Park, Taesung

    2018-04-20

    Recent statistical methods for next generation sequencing (NGS) data have been successfully applied to identifying rare genetic variants associated with certain diseases. However, most commonly used methods (e.g., burden tests and variance-component tests) rely on large sample sizes. Notwithstanding, due to its-still high cost, NGS data is generally restricted to small sample sizes, that cannot be analyzed by most existing methods. In this work, we propose a new exact association test for sequencing data that does not require a large sample approximation, which is applicable to both common and rare variants. Our method, based on the Generalized Cochran-Mantel-Haenszel (GCMH) statistic, was applied to NGS datasets from intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasm (IPMN) patients. IPMN is a unique pancreatic cancer subtype that can turn into an invasive and hard-to-treat metastatic disease. Application of our method to IPMN data successfully identified susceptible genes associated with progression of IPMN to pancreatic cancer. Our method is expected to identify disease-associated genetic variants more successfully, and corresponding signal pathways, improving our understanding of specific disease's etiology and prognosis.

  9. Size and importance of small electrical end uses in households

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Broderick, J R; Zogg, R A; Alberino, D L

    1998-07-01

    Miscellaneous end uses (an energy-consumption category in the residential sector) has recently emerged with more importance than ever before. Miscellaneous end uses are a collection of numerous end uses (often unrelated in technology or market characteristics) that individually are small consumers but when grouped together can become notable in size. The Annual Energy Outlook 1998, published by the Energy Information Administration (EIA), suggests that about 32% of residential electricity use in 1996 is attributable to miscellaneous end uses (21% from the Other Uses category and 11% from other miscellaneous categories). The EIA predicts this consumption will grow to about 47% of residential electricity use by 2010. Other studies have shown substantial consumption in this category, and forecast substantial future growth as well. However, it is not clear that the current accounting structure of the miscellaneous category is the most appropriate one, nor that the forecast growth in consumption will materialize. A bottom-up study on a collection of miscellaneous electric end uses was performed to better understand this complex, ill-defined category. Initial results show that many end uses can be categorized more appropriately, such as furnace fans, which belong in Space Heating. A recommended categorization reduces the Other Uses category from 21% to 12% of electric consumption estimated in 1996. Thus, the consumption from miscellaneous end uses is not nearly as large as thought. Furthermore, the growth rate associated with small end uses is projected to be lower relative to projections from other sources.

  10. Variability of the raindrop size distribution at small spatial scales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berne, A.; Jaffrain, J.

    2010-12-01

    Because of the interactions between atmospheric turbulence and cloud microphysics, the raindrop size distribution (DSD) is strongly variable in space and time. The spatial variability of the DSD at small spatial scales (below a few km) is not well documented and not well understood, mainly because of a lack of adequate measurements at the appropriate resolutions. A network of 16 disdrometers (Parsivels) has been designed and set up over EPFL campus in Lausanne, Switzerland. This network covers a typical operational weather radar pixel of 1x1 km2. The question of the significance of the variability of the DSD at such small scales is relevant for radar remote sensing of rainfall because the DSD is often assumed to be uniform within a radar sample volume and because the Z-R relationships used to convert the measured radar reflectivity Z into rain rate R are usually derived from point measurements. Thanks to the number of disdrometers, it was possible to quantify the spatial variability of the DSD at the radar pixel scale and to show that it can be significant. In this contribution, we show that the variability of the total drop concentration, of the median volume diameter and of the rain rate are significant, taking into account the sampling uncertainty associated with disdrometer measurements. The influence of this variability on the Z-R relationship can be non-negligible. Finally, the spatial structure of the DSD is quantified using a geostatistical tool, the variogram, and indicates high spatial correlation within a radar pixel.

  11. Electric field engineering using quantum-size-effect-tuned heterojunctions

    KAUST Repository

    Adinolfi, V.; Ning, Z.; Xu, J.; Masala, Silvia; Zhitomirsky, D.; Thon, S. M.; Sargent, E. H.

    2013-01-01

    be tuned across the light-absorbing semiconductor layer via control over CQD size, employing solution-processed, room-temperature fabricated materials. We exploit this feature by designing and demonstrating a field-enhanced heterojunction architecture. We

  12. Metastable structures and size effects in small group dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lauro Grotto, Rosapia; Guazzini, Andrea; Bagnoli, Franco

    2014-01-01

    In his seminal works on group dynamics Bion defined a specific therapeutic setting allowing psychoanalytic observations on group phenomena. In describing the setting he proposed that the group was where his voice arrived. This physical limit was later made operative by assuming that the natural dimension of a therapeutic group is around 12 people. Bion introduced a theory of the group aspects of the mind in which proto-mental individual states spontaneously evolve into shared psychological states that are characterized by a series of features: (1) they emerge as a consequence of the natural tendency of (both conscious and unconscious) emotions to combine into structured group patterns; (2) they have a certain degree of stability in time; (3) they tend to alternate so that the dissolution of one is rapidly followed by the emergence of another; (4) they can be described in qualitative terms according to the nature of the emotional mix that dominates the state, in structural terms by a kind of typical "leadership" pattern, and in "cognitive" terms by a set of implicit expectations that are helpful in explaining the group behavior (i.e., the group behaves "as if" it was assuming that). Here we adopt a formal approach derived from Socio-physics in order to explore some of the structural and dynamic properties of this small group dynamics. We will described data from an analytic DS model simulating small group interactions of agents endowed with a very simplified emotional and cognitive dynamic in order to assess the following main points: (1) are metastable collective states allowed to emerge in the model and if so, under which conditions in the parameter space? (2) can these states be differentiated in structural terms? (3) to what extent are the emergent dynamic features of the systems dependent of the system size? We will finally discuss possible future applications of the quantitative descriptions of the interaction structure in the small group clinical setting.

  13. Metastable structures and size effects in small group dynamics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosapia eLauro Grotto

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available In his seminal works on group dynamics Bion defined a specific therapeutic setting allowing psychoanalytic observations on group phenomena. In describing the setting he proposed that the group was where his voice arrived. This physical limit was later made operative by assuming that the natural dimension of a therapeutic group is around 12 people. Bion introduced a theory of the group aspects of the mind in which proto-mental individual states spontaneously evolve into shared psychological states that are characterized by a series of features: 1 they emerge as a consequence of the natural tendency of (both conscious and unconscious emotions to combine into structured group patterns; 2 they have a certain degree of stability in time; 3 they tend to alternate so that the dissolution of one is rapidly followed by the emergence of another; 4 they can be described in qualitative terms according to the nature of the emotional mix that dominates the state, in structural terms by a kind of typical 'leadership’ pattern, and in 'cognitive’ terms by a set of implicit expectations that are helpful in explaining the group behavior (i.e. the group behaves 'as if’ it was assuming that…. Here we adopt a formal approach derived from Socio-physics in order to explore some of the structural and dynamic properties of this small group dynamics. We will described data from an analytic DS model simulating small group interactions of agents endowed with a very simplified emotional and cognitive dynamic in order to assess the following main points: 1 are metastable collective states allowed to emerge in the model and if so, under which conditions in the parameter space? 3 can these states be differentiated in structural terms? 3 to what extent are the emergent dynamic features of the systems dependent of the system size? We will finally discuss possible future applications of the quantitative descriptions of the interaction structure in the small group clinical

  14. 76 FR 70680 - Small Business Size Standards: Real Estate and Rental and Leasing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-15

    ... eligibility for Federal small business assistance, SBA establishes small business size definitions (referred... business definition or size standard established by the SBA Administrator. SBA considers as part of its... SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION 13 CFR Part 121 RIN 3245-AG28 Small Business Size Standards: Real...

  15. Challenges and Considerations for Innovative Small and Medium Sized Reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuznetsov, V.

    2008-01-01

    There is an ongoing interest in Member States in the development and application of small and medium sized reactors (SMRs). In the near term, most new NPPs are likely to be evolutionary water cooled reactor designs building on proven systems while incorporating technological advances and often the economics of scale, resulting from the reactor outputs of up to 1600 MW(e). For a longer term, the focus is on innovative designs aiming to provide increased benefits in the areas of safety and security, non-proliferation, waste management, resource utilization and economy, as well as to offer a variety of energy products and flexibility in design, siting and fuel cycle options. Many innovative designs are reactors within the SMR range, having an equivalent electric power less than 700 MW(e) or even less than 300 MW(e). It is important that small or medium sized reactor does not necessarily mean small or medium sized nuclear power plant. The majority of innovative SMR concepts and designs provide for power station configurations with several units at a site or for NPP configurations with 2 or more reactor modules. In most cases, the units or modules could be added incrementally. Innovative SMRs are in many cases intended for markets different from those in which large nuclear power plants operate, i.e., markets that value more distributed electrical supplies, a better match between supply increments and investment capability or demand growth, more flexible siting or greater product variety. SMRs cannot compete with larger capacity plants on an economy of scale basis. However, they could be competitive via employing alternative design strategies, taking advantage of smaller reactor size resulting in a less complex design and operation and maintenance or in an increased overall energy conversion efficiency, and by relying on alternative deployment strategies, taking advantage of multiple unit factors and learning curve, and shorter construction schedule and 'exact' unit

  16. A contemporary decennial global sample of changing agricultural field sizes

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, E.; Roy, D. P.

    2011-12-01

    In the last several hundred years agriculture has caused significant human induced Land Cover Land Use Change (LCLUC) with dramatic cropland expansion and a marked increase in agricultural productivity. The size of agricultural fields is a fundamental description of rural landscapes and provides an insight into the drivers of rural LCLUC. Increasing field sizes cause a subsequent decrease in the number of fields and therefore decreased landscape spatial complexity with impacts on biodiversity, habitat, soil erosion, plant-pollinator interactions, diffusion of disease pathogens and pests, and loss or degradation in buffers to nutrient, herbicide and pesticide flows. In this study, globally distributed locations with significant contemporary field size change were selected guided by a global map of agricultural yield and literature review and were selected to be representative of different driving forces of field size change (associated with technological innovation, socio-economic conditions, government policy, historic patterns of land cover land use, and environmental setting). Seasonal Landsat data acquired on a decadal basis (for 1980, 1990, 2000 and 2010) were used to extract field boundaries and the temporal changes in field size quantified and their causes discussed.

  17. Nanometer size field effect transistors for terahertz detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knap, W; Rumyantsev, S; Coquillat, D; Dyakonova, N; Teppe, F; Vitiello, M S; Tredicucci, A; Blin, S; Shur, M; Nagatsuma, T

    2013-01-01

    Nanometer size field effect transistors can operate as efficient resonant or broadband terahertz detectors, mixers, phase shifters and frequency multipliers at frequencies far beyond their fundamental cut-off frequency. This work is an overview of some recent results concerning the application of nanometer scale field effect transistors for the detection of terahertz radiation. (paper)

  18. Approaches to Assess Competitiveness of Small and Medium Sized Reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuznetsov, V.; Barkatullah, N.

    2011-01-01

    There is continuing interest in Member States concerning the development and application of small and medium sized reactors (SMRs), i.e., reactors with the equivalent electric power of less than 700 MW. Currently, developed SMRs are in most cases intended for markets different than those in which large nuclear power plants operate. Such markets have essentially different investment requirements, siting flexibility, grid connections and infrastructure restrictions. Therefore, economic factors affecting the competitiveness or competition of SMRs in such markets would also be different from those observed in established markets for electricity production. For example, investment capability may be limited, which would favour capacity addition in smaller increments; grids may be small or weak, which would favour capacities exactly matching the demand; infrastructure and human resource may be insufficient, which would favour less complex operation and maintenance requirements; and non-electrical energy products, such as potable water, may be in demand, which would favour reasonably close plant location to the customer. In practice it is futile to compare a single SMR needs to a single larger capacity plant on an economy of scale basis because SMRs are suitable for those locations that might not be appropriate for larger plants. However, a series of SMRs could be considered comparable to fewer larger plants to achieve the same overall power station capacity. In this case, SMRs have a potential to be competitive by employing alternative design strategies, taking advantage of smaller reactor size, offering a less complex design and operation and maintenance, relying on deployment-in-series approaches, taking an advantage of the accelerated learning, multiple unit factors and shorter construction duration. Reflecting on developments in member states, the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) is finalizing the preparation of a report highlighting the economics and

  19. Latent hardening size effect in small-scale plasticity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bardella, Lorenzo; Segurado, Javier; Panteghini, Andrea; Llorca, Javier

    2013-07-01

    We aim at understanding the multislip behaviour of metals subject to irreversible deformations at small-scales. By focusing on the simple shear of a constrained single-crystal strip, we show that discrete Dislocation Dynamics (DD) simulations predict a strong latent hardening size effect, with smaller being stronger in the range [1.5 µm, 6 µm] for the strip height. We attempt to represent the DD pseudo-experimental results by developing a flow theory of Strain Gradient Crystal Plasticity (SGCP), involving both energetic and dissipative higher-order terms and, as a main novelty, a strain gradient extension of the conventional latent hardening. In order to discuss the capability of the SGCP theory proposed, we implement it into a Finite Element (FE) code and set its material parameters on the basis of the DD results. The SGCP FE code is specifically developed for the boundary value problem under study so that we can implement a fully implicit (Backward Euler) consistent algorithm. Special emphasis is placed on the discussion of the role of the material length scales involved in the SGCP model, from both the mechanical and numerical points of view.

  20. Latent hardening size effect in small-scale plasticity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bardella, Lorenzo; Panteghini, Andrea; Segurado, Javier; Llorca, Javier

    2013-01-01

    We aim at understanding the multislip behaviour of metals subject to irreversible deformations at small-scales. By focusing on the simple shear of a constrained single-crystal strip, we show that discrete Dislocation Dynamics (DD) simulations predict a strong latent hardening size effect, with smaller being stronger in the range [1.5 µm, 6 µm] for the strip height. We attempt to represent the DD pseudo-experimental results by developing a flow theory of Strain Gradient Crystal Plasticity (SGCP), involving both energetic and dissipative higher-order terms and, as a main novelty, a strain gradient extension of the conventional latent hardening. In order to discuss the capability of the SGCP theory proposed, we implement it into a Finite Element (FE) code and set its material parameters on the basis of the DD results. The SGCP FE code is specifically developed for the boundary value problem under study so that we can implement a fully implicit (Backward Euler) consistent algorithm. Special emphasis is placed on the discussion of the role of the material length scales involved in the SGCP model, from both the mechanical and numerical points of view. (paper)

  1. Salary Management System for Small and Medium-sized Enterprises

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Zhang; Guangli, Xu; Yuhuan, Zhang; Yilong, Lei

    Small and Medium-sized Enterprises (SMEs) in the process of wage entry, calculation, the total number are needed to be done manually in the past, the data volume is quite large, processing speed is low, and it is easy to make error, which is resulting in low efficiency. The main purpose of writing this paper is to present the basis of salary management system, establish a scientific database, the computer payroll system, using the computer instead of a lot of past manual work in order to reduce duplication of staff labor, it will improve working efficiency.This system combines the actual needs of SMEs, through in-depth study and practice of the C/S mode, PowerBuilder10.0 development tools, databases and SQL language, Completed a payroll system needs analysis, database design, application design and development work. Wages, departments, units and personnel database file are included in this system, and have data management, department management, personnel management and other functions, through the control and management of the database query, add, delete, modify, and other functions can be realized. This system is reasonable design, a more complete function, stable operation has been tested to meet the basic needs of the work.

  2. Development of a small-sized radon data logger

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tasaka, Shigeki; Sasaki, Yoshimi

    1996-01-01

    A small-sized radon data logger and a electrostatic collecting radon monitor were developed for the continuous monitoring of environmental radon and radon daughters. A PIN photodiode (PD), an alpha particle defector, installed inside a container attracts radon daughters when charged electrostatically. Alpha particles are completely separated from each other according to the energy level. New logger has made it possible 10 analysts and save the radon data. Alpha particle count data from radon daughters are automatically integrated over preset time intervals and the energy regions. The desiccant P 2 O 5 was placed in the bottom of the monitor, since the collection efficiency of 218 Po atoms depends on the humidity of the air. We can get the 30 days continuous data logging at 30 min sampling frequency at any place with the car battery. We observed the radon concentration of the air inside the Super-Kamiokande dome from Jan-30 to Feb-8-1996. The average of radon concentration was found to be (46±13) Bq/m 3 . (author)

  3. Body size, energy use, and community structure of small mammals

    OpenAIRE

    Ernest, S.K. Morgan

    2005-01-01

    Body size has long been hypothesized to play a major role in community structure and dynamics. Two general hypotheses exist for how resources are distributed among body sizes: (1) resources are equally available and uniformly utilized across body sizes and (2) resources are differentially available to organisms of different body sizes, resulting in a nonuniform or modal distribution. It has also been predicted that the distri-bution of body sizes of species in a community should reflect the u...

  4. Visual exposure to large and small portion sizes and perceptions of portion size normality: Three experimental studies

    OpenAIRE

    Robinson, Eric; Oldham, Melissa; Cuckson, Imogen; Brunstrom, Jeffrey M.; Rogers, Peter J.; Hardman, Charlotte A.

    2016-01-01

    Portion sizes of many foods have increased in recent times. In three studies we examined the effect that repeated visual exposure to larger versus smaller food portion sizes has on perceptions of what constitutes a normal-sized food portion and measures of portion size selection. In studies 1 and 2 participants were visually exposed to images of large or small portions of spaghetti bolognese, before making evaluations about an image of an intermediate sized portion of the same food. In study ...

  5. How big is big and how small is small the sizes of everything and why

    CERN Document Server

    Smith, Timothy Paul

    2013-01-01

    This book is about how big is the universe and how small are quarks, and what are the sizes of dozens of things between these two extremes. It describes the sizes of atoms and planets, quarks and galaxies, cells and sequoias. It is a romp through forty-five orders of magnitude from the smallest sub-nuclear particles we have measured, to the edge of the observed universe. It also looks at time, from the epic age of the cosmos to the fleeting lifetimes of ethereal particles. It is a narrative that trips its way from stellar magnitudes to the clocks on GPS satellites, from the nearly logarithmic scales of a piano keyboard through a system of numbers invented by Archimedes and on to the measurement of the size of an atom. Why do some things happen at certain scales? Why are cells a hundred thousandths of a meter across? Why are stars never smaller than about 100 million meters in diameter? Why are trees limited to about 120 meters in height? Why are planets spherical, but asteroids not? Often the size of an objec...

  6. Measuring the Size of a Small, Frost World

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-01-01

    Observing a very rare occultation of a star by Pluto's satellite Charon from three different sites, including Paranal, home of the VLT, astronomers were able to determine with great accuracy the radius and density of the satellite to the farthest planet. The density, 1.71 that of water, is indicative of an icy body with about slightly more than half of rocks. The observations also put strong constraints on the existence of an atmosphere around Charon. ESO PR Photo 02a/06 ESO PR Photo 02a/06 Artist's Impression of the Pluto-Charon system Since its discovery in 1978, Charon and Pluto have appeared to form a double planet, rather than a planet-satellite couple. Actually, Charon is about twice as small as Pluto in size, and about eight times less massive. However, there have been considerable discussions concerning the precise radii of Pluto and Charon, as well as about the presence of a tenuous atmosphere around Charon. In August 2004, Australian amateur astronomer Dave Herald predicted that the 15-magnitude star UCAC2 26257135 should be occulted by Charon on 11 July 2005. The occultation would be observable from some parts of South America, including Cerro Paranal, in the northern Atacama Desert, the location of ESO's Very Large Telescope (VLT). Stellar occultations have proved to be powerful tools to both measure sizes - at km-level accuracy, i.e. a factor ten better than what is feasible with other techniques - and detect very tenuous atmosphere - at microbar levels or less. Unfortunately, in the case of Charon, such occultations are extremely rare, owing to the very small angular diameter of the satellite on the sky: 55 milli-arcsec, i.e. the size of a one Euro coin observed from 100 km away! This explains why only one occultation by Charon was ever observed before 2005, namely on 7 April 1980 by Alistair Walker, from the South Africa Astronomical Observatory. Similarly, only in 1985, 1988 and 2002 could astronomers observe stellar occultations by Pluto. Quite

  7. 78 FR 37404 - Small Business Size Standards: Support Activities for Mining

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-20

    ... assistance programs, SBA establishes small business size definitions (referred to as size standards) for... million should be the limit of a small business definition and anything larger than that, such as that SBA... Business Act (15 U.S.C. 632(a)) (Act) requires that small business size definitions vary to reflect...

  8. Small and Medium Sized Reactors: Driving Forces and Technology Development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gowin, P.J.; Kupitz, J.

    2002-01-01

    There will be growing demands for energy in the coming decades. One aspect of particular importance is that prospects for nuclear energy will to a considerable extent be influenced by developing countries. Since population growth will occur primarily in developing countries nuclear energy cannot play a significant global role without being a viable option in these countries. Since new power plants to be built will have to be compatible with regional electricity grids, this may result in a greater focus on plants in the small and medium range, defined by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) to produce up to 700 Megawatt of electrical power. This paper first examines the driving forces that could influence the development of nuclear energy in general and of Small and Medium Sized Reactors (SMRs) in particular in the next decades and identifies key factors in that process. Concerns over climate change may to a certain extent influence the discussion on future energy options. Other factors of equal importance for the future of nuclear are a continued emphasis on maintaining high safety standards, the implementation of acceptable solutions for spent fuel and radioactive waste disposal and a globally accepted non-proliferation regime, factors that may in turn have an impact on public acceptance. Economic competitiveness of nuclear energy is an additional important factor, and without being commercially viable, no energy source can in the long run represent a major and stable component in a competitive energy sector. The introduction of SMRs in developing countries poses additional challenges, such as investment limitations. Technology development plays an important role in keeping the nuclear option open for countries wishing to use nuclear reactors to meet their energy needs, and advances in reactor design will be important to enable a significant nuclear component in developing countries. This paper considers the contribution that nuclear science and

  9. 78 FR 30384 - Small Business Size Standards: Waiver of the Nonmanufacturer Rule

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-22

    ... SBA's 8(a) Business Development (BD) program, or Women-Owned Small Businesses (WOSBs). DATES: Comments... small businesses, Service-Disabled Veteran-Owned (SDVO) small businesses, Women-Owned Small Businesses... SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION Small Business Size Standards: Waiver of the Nonmanufacturer Rule...

  10. Small Scale Yielding Correction of Constraint Loss in Small Sized Fracture Toughness Test Specimens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Maan Won; Kim, Min Chul; Lee, Bong Sang; Hong, Jun Hwa

    2005-01-01

    Fracture toughness data in the ductile-brittle transition region of ferritic steels show scatter produced by local sampling effects and specimen geometry dependence which results from relaxation in crack tip constraint. The ASTM E1921 provides a standard test method to define the median toughness temperature curve, so called Master Curve, for the material corresponding to a 1T crack front length and also defines a reference temperature, T 0 , at which median toughness value is 100 MPam for a 1T size specimen. The ASTM E1921 procedures assume that high constraint, small scaling yielding (SSY) conditions prevail at fracture along the crack front. Violation of the SSY assumption occurs most often during tests of smaller specimens. Constraint loss in such cases leads to higher toughness values and thus lower T 0 values. When applied to a structure with low constraint geometry, the standard fracture toughness estimates may lead to strongly over-conservative estimates. A lot of efforts have been made to adjust the constraint effect. In this work, we applied a small-scale yielding correction (SSYC) to adjust the constraint loss of 1/3PCVN and PCVN specimens which are relatively smaller than 1T size specimen at the fracture toughness Master Curve test

  11. 77 FR 11001 - Small Business Size Standards: Health Care and Social Assistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-24

    ..., and (3) within a specific small business definition or size standard established by the SBA... SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION 13 CFR Part 121 RIN 3245-AG30 Small Business Size Standards: Health Care and Social Assistance AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Proposed rule. SUMMARY...

  12. 77 FR 55755 - Small Business Size Standards: Agriculture, Forestry, Fishing, and Hunting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-11

    ... operation; and (3) within a specific small business definition or size standard established by SBA... SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION 13 CFR Part 121 RIN 3245-AG43 Small Business Size Standards: Agriculture, Forestry, Fishing, and Hunting AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Proposed rule...

  13. 77 FR 72766 - Small Business Size Standards: Support Activities for Mining

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-06

    ... eligibility for Federal small business assistance, SBA establishes small business size definitions (referred... operation; and (3) within a specific small business definition or size standard established by SBA... to SBA's Administrator the responsibility for establishing small business definitions. The Act also...

  14. 78 FR 45051 - Small Business Size Standards; Support Activities for Mining; Correction

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-26

    ... Regulations by increasing small business size standards for three of the four industries in North American... SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION 13 CFR Part 121 RIN 3245-AG44 Small Business Size Standards; Support Activities for Mining; Correction AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Final rule; correction...

  15. 76 FR 27952 - Small Business Size Standards: Professional, Scientific and Technical Services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-13

    ... Administration (SBA or Agency) proposed to increase small business size standards for 35 industries and one sub... SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION 13 CFR Part 121 RIN 3245-AG07 Small Business Size Standards: Professional, Scientific and Technical Services. AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Proposed...

  16. Evaluation of the field size in dental diagnostic radiology system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andrade, P.S.; Potiens, M.P.A.

    2006-01-01

    In this work the field size of a dental X rays machine was evaluated considering the recommendation of the Brazilian Health Ministry Regulation 453 which established basic lines of radiological protection in medical and dental diagnostic radiology. The diameter of the field should not be superior to 6 cm in the localized end point, limiting the radiated area and protecting the head-neck region. The measurements were carried out in a dental X rays machine, Dabi Atlante, model Spectro 70X Seletronic. For the field size or useful beam determination, the intra-oral films were positioned on a plain surface to be exposed in four stages and two focus-film distances (FFD), 20 cm and 27.5 cm: 1) with spacer cone; 2) without spacer cone; 3) with spacer cone and film-holding device; 4) without spacer cone and film-holding device. The results show that the diameter of the field size is satisfactory only for FFD = 20 cm. When the film-holding device is used, which is recommended by the Regulation 453, item 5.8 d(ii), the diameter of the field size exceeds the maximum recommended value of 6 cm. (authors)

  17. Iterative CT reconstruction with small pixel size: distance-driven forward projector versus Joseph's

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hahn, K.; Rassner, U.; Davidson, H. C.; Schöndube, H.; Stierstorfer, K.; Hornegger, J.; Noo, F.

    2015-03-01

    Over the last few years, iterative reconstruction methods have become an important research topic in x-ray CT imaging. This effort is motivated by increasing evidence that such methods may enable significant savings in terms of dose imparted to the patient. Conceptually, iterative reconstruction methods involve two important ingredients: the statistical model, which includes the forward projector, and a priori information in the image domain, which is expressed using a regularizer. Most often, the image pixel size is chosen to be equal (or close) to the detector pixel size (at field-of-view center). However, there are applications for which a smaller pixel size is desired. In this investigation, we focus on reconstruction with a pixel size that is twice smaller than the detector pixel size. Using such a small pixel size implies a large increase in computational effort when using the distance-driven method for forward projection, which models the detector size. On the other hand, the more efficient method of Joseph will create imbalances in the reconstruction of each pixel, in the sense that there will be large differences in the way each projection contributes to the pixels. The purpose of this work is to evaluate the impact of these imbalances on image quality in comparison with utilization of the distance-driven method. The evaluation involves computational effort, bias and noise metrics, and LROC analysis using human observers. The results show that Joseph's method largely remains attractive.

  18. Laboratory and Field Investigations of Small Crater Repair Technologies

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Priddy, Lucy P; Tingle, Jeb S; McCaffrey, Timothy J; Rollings, Ray S

    2007-01-01

    .... This airfield damage repair (ADR) investigation consisted of laboratory testing of selected crater fill and capping materials, as well as full-scale field testing of small crater repairs to evaluate field mixing methods, installation...

  19. Effects of AC Electric Field on Small Laminar Nonpremixed Flames

    KAUST Repository

    Xiong, Yuan

    2015-01-01

    Electric field can be a viable method in controlling various combustion properties. Comparing to traditional actuators, an application of electric field requires very small power consumption. Especially, alternating current (AC) has received

  20. Flexible small size radiofrequency plasma torch for Tokamak wall cleaning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eusebiu-Rosini Ionita; Luciu, I.; Dinescu, G.; Grisolia, Ch.

    2006-01-01

    Tritium accumulation in walls is a limiting factor in efficient long term operation of fusion machines. A number of detritiation techniques are under study, like laser, discharge, flash lamp based cleaning. One of the encountered difficulties is the limited access of the detritiation tool in narrow spaces, as in divertor region, inter-tiles or inside castellated gaps, where in fact an enhanced co-deposition and tritium trapping were observed. This contribution addresses the problem of elaboration of plasma torch as a tool appropriate for stimulating detritiation and removal of co-deposited layers in such spaces. The requirements imposed to the plasma torch source were related to the compatibility with inside torus operation: small diameter in order to permit access in narrow spaces, reasonable power, large range of working pressures from vacuum to atmosphere, closed loop cooling, flexibility in order to allow scanning and mounting on a robotic arm. The approached design is based on a radiofrequency discharge constricted to burn in a closed space between an active radiofrequency electrode and a grounded nozzle, from where plasma expands outside as a directional beam. The found solutions have led to a flexible hand held source working stable up to 300 W injected power and consisting of a cylindrical body of 20 mm diameter including the external water jacket embracing the discharge and an inside cooling circuit. The electrical characterization of the radiofrequency discharge sustaining the expanded plasma was performed and the domain of stable source operation in terms of power, current, pressure, argon mass flow rate is presented and discussed. The plasma beam size presents a strong dependence on pressure: the plasma length decreases from 200 mm to 20 mm, when pressure increases from vacuum to atmospheric, depending on power and mass flow rate. The ionized gas temperature, as indicated by a thermocouple head inserted in expansion in the nozzle proximity fall in the

  1. Strategic management in micro, small and medium-sized businesses in relation to financial success of the enterprise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monika Švárová

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Small and medium sized enterprises play an essential role in the economy of the Czech Republic as a report of development of small and medium-sized enterprises and its support from 2010 announces. They are the source of development of towns, regions and the state itself. Small and medium-sized enterprises represent 99.84 % of the whole business subjects. Statistic data underline this position- they indicate that small and medium-sized enterprises employ 2/3 employees. Therefore, occupying small and medium-sized enterprises are to be taken as priority.Strategic management on the level of small and medium-sized enterprises is, as number of authors write, diverse. Small enterprises including micro have less access to capital, they have no money for employing specialists in the field, and they solve administration primarily. The aim of this follow-up GAJU project contribution concerned on process analysis of small and medium-sized enterprises is to summarize the gained results from the view of comparison of the level of strategic management in small and medium-sized enterprises.Nowadays, numbers of enterprises are thinking about whether they are able to remain in the market as an established company, they explore the possibility of improving its position. There is a question for small and medium-sized enterprises management- can strategic management be used as an instrument for increasing competitiveness? The results show that SMEs with a clearly defined strategy show better results of financial health (IN99 and ROA than companies without a defined strategy. In terms of business focus, we were able to demonstrate positive relationship between strategy and finance only for companies in the construction industry, on the significance level of 0.05. Compared to manufacturers and service-providing companies where this relation is not statistically significant.

  2. Visual exposure to large and small portion sizes and perceptions of portion size normality: Three experimental studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Eric; Oldham, Melissa; Cuckson, Imogen; Brunstrom, Jeffrey M; Rogers, Peter J; Hardman, Charlotte A

    2016-03-01

    Portion sizes of many foods have increased in recent times. In three studies we examined the effect that repeated visual exposure to larger versus smaller food portion sizes has on perceptions of what constitutes a normal-sized food portion and measures of portion size selection. In studies 1 and 2 participants were visually exposed to images of large or small portions of spaghetti bolognese, before making evaluations about an image of an intermediate sized portion of the same food. In study 3 participants were exposed to images of large or small portions of a snack food before selecting a portion size of snack food to consume. Across the three studies, visual exposure to larger as opposed to smaller portion sizes resulted in participants considering a normal portion of food to be larger than a reference intermediate sized portion. In studies 1 and 2 visual exposure to larger portion sizes also increased the size of self-reported ideal meal size. In study 3 visual exposure to larger portion sizes of a snack food did not affect how much of that food participants subsequently served themselves and ate. Visual exposure to larger portion sizes may adjust visual perceptions of what constitutes a 'normal' sized portion. However, we did not find evidence that visual exposure to larger portions altered snack food intake. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  3. 75 FR 61591 - Small Business Size Standards; Other Services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-06

    ... standards) for private sector industries in the United States. SBA's existing size standards use two primary... do perform contracts under NAICS codes in different Sectors and Industries with various size... Industries in NAICS Sector 81. All comments to the proposed rule are available for public review at http...

  4. Connected size Ramsey number for matchings vs. small stars or ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2017-11-20

    Nov 20, 2017 ... determine the connected size Ramsey number ˆrc(nK2, K1,3)forn ≥ 2 ... concerning the size Ramsey number for many pairs of graphs can be seen in [3]. ... Then, color all edges incident to x by red and the other edges of F by.

  5. 76 FR 62313 - Small Business Size and Status Integrity

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-07

    ... business concern in the Online Representations and Certifications Application (ORCA) database (or any... Veteran-Owned business concern in the Online Representations and Certifications Application (ORCA... SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION 13 CFR Parts 121, 124, 125, 126, 127 RIN 3245-AG23 Small Business...

  6. A contemporary decennial global Landsat sample of changing agricultural field sizes

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Emma; Roy, David

    2014-05-01

    Agriculture has caused significant human induced Land Cover Land Use (LCLU) change, with dramatic cropland expansion in the last century and significant increases in productivity over the past few decades. Satellite data have been used for agricultural applications including cropland distribution mapping, crop condition monitoring, crop production assessment and yield prediction. Satellite based agricultural applications are less reliable when the sensor spatial resolution is small relative to the field size. However, to date, studies of agricultural field size distributions and their change have been limited, even though this information is needed to inform the design of agricultural satellite monitoring systems. Moreover, the size of agricultural fields is a fundamental description of rural landscapes and provides an insight into the drivers of rural LCLU change. In many parts of the world field sizes may have increased. Increasing field sizes cause a subsequent decrease in the number of fields and therefore decreased landscape spatial complexity with impacts on biodiversity, habitat, soil erosion, plant-pollinator interactions, and impacts on the diffusion of herbicides, pesticides, disease pathogens, and pests. The Landsat series of satellites provide the longest record of global land observations, with 30m observations available since 1982. Landsat data are used to examine contemporary field size changes in a period (1980 to 2010) when significant global agricultural changes have occurred. A multi-scale sampling approach is used to locate global hotspots of field size change by examination of a recent global agricultural yield map and literature review. Nine hotspots are selected where significant field size change is apparent and where change has been driven by technological advancements (Argentina and U.S.), abrupt societal changes (Albania and Zimbabwe), government land use and agricultural policy changes (China, Malaysia, Brazil), and/or constrained by

  7. 76 FR 42157 - Small Business Size Standards; Waiver of the Nonmanufacturer Rule

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-18

    ... Development (BD) Program, or Women- Owned Small Business (WOSB) concerns to provide the products of small... SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION Small Business Size Standards; Waiver of the Nonmanufacturer Rule AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Notice of Retraction of a Class Waiver SUMMARY: The U...

  8. 76 FR 42157 - Small Business Size Standards: Waiver of the Nonmanufacturer Rule

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-18

    ... (BD) Program, or Women-Owned Small Business (WOSB) concerns to provide the products of small business... SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION Small Business Size Standards: Waiver of the Nonmanufacturer Rule AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Notice of Denial to Waive the Nonmanufacturer Rule...

  9. 77 FR 72691 - Small Business Size Standards: Administrative and Support, Waste Management and Remediation Services

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-06

    ... importantly, the Small Business Act requires SBA to establish one definition of what is a small business... SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION 13 CFR Part 121 RIN 3245-AG27 Small Business Size Standards: Administrative and Support, Waste Management and Remediation Services AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration...

  10. Characterization of TLD-100 micro-cubes for use in small field dosimetry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peña-Jiménez, Salvador, E-mail: zoid-9861@yahoo.com.mx; Gamboa-deBuen, Isabel, E-mail: gamboa@nucleares.unam.mx [Instituto de Ciencias Nucleares, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Av. Universidad 3000, 04510 DF (Mexico); Lárraga-Gutiérrez, José Manuel, E-mail: jose.larraga.gtz@gmail.com, E-mail: amanda.garcia.g@gmail.com; García-Garduño, Olivia Amanda, E-mail: jose.larraga.gtz@gmail.com, E-mail: amanda.garcia.g@gmail.com [Laboratorio de Física Médica, Instituto Nacional de Neurología y Neurocirugía Manuel Velasco Suárez, Av. Insurgentes Sur 3877, 14269 DF (Mexico)

    2014-11-07

    At present there are no international regulations for the management of millimeter scale fields and there are no suggestions for a reference detector to perform the characterization and dose determination for unconventional radiation beams (small fields) so that the dosimetry of small fields remains an open research field worldwide because these fields are used in radiotherapy treatments. Sensitivity factors and reproducibility of TLD-100 micro-cubes (1×1×1 mm3) were determinate irradiating the dosimeters with a 6 MV beam in a linear accelerator dedicated to radiosurgery at the Instituto Nacional de Neurología y Neurocirugía (INNN). Thermoluminescent response as a function of dose was determined for doses in water between 0.5 and 3 Gy and two field sizes (2×2 cm2 and 10×10 cm2). It was found that the response is linear over the dose range studied and it does not depend on field size.

  11. Born small, die young: Intrinsic, size-selective mortality in marine larval fish

    KAUST Repository

    Garrido, S.

    2015-11-24

    Mortality during the early stages is a major cause of the natural variations in the size and recruitment strength of marine fish populations. In this study, the relation between the size-at-hatch and early survival was assessed using laboratory experiments and on field-caught larvae of the European sardine (Sardina pilchardus). Larval size-at-hatch was not related to the egg size but was significantly, positively related to the diameter of the otolith-at-hatch. Otolith diameter-at-hatch was also significantly correlated with survival-at-age in fed and unfed larvae in the laboratory. For sardine larvae collected in the Bay of Biscay during the spring of 2008, otolith radius-at-hatch was also significantly related to viability. Larval mortality has frequently been related to adverse environmental conditions and intrinsic factors affecting feeding ability and vulnerability to predators. Our study offers evidence indicating that a significant portion of fish mortality occurs during the endogenous (yolk) and mixed (yolk /prey) feeding period in the absence of predators, revealing that marine fish with high fecundity, such as small pelagics, can spawn a relatively large amount of eggs resulting in small larvae with no chances to survive. Our findings help to better understand the mass mortalities occurring at early stages of marine fish.

  12. Born small, die young: Intrinsic, size-selective mortality in marine larval fish

    KAUST Repository

    Garrido, S.; Ben-Hamadou, R.; Santos, A.M.P.; Ferreira, S.; Teodó sio, M.A.; Cotano, U.; Irigoien, Xabier; Peck, M.A.; Saiz, E.; Ré , P.

    2015-01-01

    Mortality during the early stages is a major cause of the natural variations in the size and recruitment strength of marine fish populations. In this study, the relation between the size-at-hatch and early survival was assessed using laboratory experiments and on field-caught larvae of the European sardine (Sardina pilchardus). Larval size-at-hatch was not related to the egg size but was significantly, positively related to the diameter of the otolith-at-hatch. Otolith diameter-at-hatch was also significantly correlated with survival-at-age in fed and unfed larvae in the laboratory. For sardine larvae collected in the Bay of Biscay during the spring of 2008, otolith radius-at-hatch was also significantly related to viability. Larval mortality has frequently been related to adverse environmental conditions and intrinsic factors affecting feeding ability and vulnerability to predators. Our study offers evidence indicating that a significant portion of fish mortality occurs during the endogenous (yolk) and mixed (yolk /prey) feeding period in the absence of predators, revealing that marine fish with high fecundity, such as small pelagics, can spawn a relatively large amount of eggs resulting in small larvae with no chances to survive. Our findings help to better understand the mass mortalities occurring at early stages of marine fish.

  13. Theoretical Investigation of Trust in Small and Medium Sized Enterprises

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentinas Navickas

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The hectic pace of competition pushes the sector of small and medium enterprise to adopt sophisticated marketing ideas. In this context, customers are becoming more and more selective. However, expansion possibilities are burdened by the great variety of limitations. The current study paper aims to investigate the academic perception of trust which is treated as competitive advantage for small and medium enterprises. The object of the article is trust in small and medium enterprises. It has three objectives: to analyse small and medium enterprise characteristics through the academic perspective; to consider trust from the theoretical point of view; and to present the models that centre their attention on the trust as a construct that enhances customer satisfaction. Regarding the novelty of the current study, it brings a novel approach on a great variety of collected understandings of trust and puts an important foundation for future theory and practice investigations.

  14. ORGANIZATIONAL CHANGE MODELS IN SMALL AND MEDIUM SIZED ENTERPRISES (SMES)

    OpenAIRE

    Oliviana Bold, Ph. D Student

    2011-01-01

    Bringing forward the concepts of change and change management is no longer surprising nowadays. Small and Medium Enterprises (SMEs) face unique and difficult challenges in the business environment. Challenges to the growth and viability of Small and Medium Enterprises (SMEs) are arising from several external factors, like globalization, increased customer expectations or competition, technological advances, all of the factors being determined by the change. SMEs need to successfully deal with...

  15. [Application of health questionnaires for health management in small- and medium-sized enterprises].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kishida, K; Saito, M; Hasegawa, T; Aoki, S; Suzuki, S

    1986-01-01

    Two kinds of health questionnaires, the Todai Health Index (THI) and Cumulative Fatigue Index (CFI), were applied as a screening device for health management of workers belonging to small-medium sized enterprises. A total of 495 workers composed of 452 male workers of a glass-bottle manufacturing factory and 43 male workers of a soft-drink bottling factory were the subjects of the present study. It was found that the two kinds of health questionnaires were different from each other and have their own characteristics. Twelve scales of THI were grouped into two, the first consisting of ten scales (SUSY, RESP, EYSK, MOUT, DIGE, IMPU, MENT, DEPR, NERV, and LIFE) and the second consisting of two scales (AGGR and LISC). Nine categories of CFI were grouped into one by using principal factor analysis. It was confirmed that the twelve scale scores of THI obtained at small-medium sized factories differed from those scale scores of a reference group investigated at a large-sized enterprise. It is on the basis of the scales of aggressiveness and lies and also of the scale of mental unstability which characterizes workers, locality, job (clerical or field work), and size of industry (large or small sized) that the difference could be evaluated. Urban life characterized by a life style of staying up late at night and waking up late in the morning has been reflected on the scale of life irregularity. Irregularity of life induced by transformation of working schedule, such as two or three shifts of work and overtime, was also reflected on this scale. Two scales of THI test, i.e., many subjective symptoms and digestive organ complaints, seemed to be the representative scales indicating a close relation between work load and health level. The discriminant score for diagnosis of psychosomatic diseases is considered to be one of the most useful assessments of the individual's health condition. As mentioned above, THI is recommended as a convenient assessment method for health

  16. 78 FR 37397 - Small Business Size Standards: Agriculture, Forestry, Fishing and Hunting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-20

    ... responsibility for establishing small business size definitions (15 U.S.C. 632(a)). The Act also requires that small business size definitions vary to reflect industry differences. The Jobs Act requires the... definition, after consultation with the Office of Advocacy of the U.S. Small Business Administration (5 U.S.C...

  17. 77 FR 53769 - Receipts-Based, Small Business Size Standard; Confirmation of Effective Date

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-04

    ... Flexibility Act of 1980, as amended. The NRC is increasing its receipts-based, small business size standard from $6.5 million to $7 million to conform to the standard set by the Small Business Administration...-Based, Small Business Size Standard; Confirmation of Effective Date AGENCY: Nuclear Regulatory...

  18. Small numbers are sensed directly, high numbers constructed from size and density.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmermann, Eckart

    2018-04-01

    Two theories compete to explain how we estimate the numerosity of visual object sets. The first suggests that the apparent numerosity is derived from an analysis of more low-level features like size and density of the set. The second theory suggests that numbers are sensed directly. Consistent with the latter claim is the existence of neurons in parietal cortex which are specialized for processing the numerosity of elements in the visual scene. However, recent evidence suggests that only low numbers can be sensed directly whereas the perception of high numbers is supported by the analysis of low-level features. Processing of low and high numbers, being located at different levels of the neural hierarchy should involve different receptive field sizes. Here, I tested this idea with visual adaptation. I measured the spatial spread of number adaptation for low and high numerosities. A focused adaptation spread of high numerosities suggested the involvement of early neural levels where receptive fields are comparably small and the broad spread for low numerosities was consistent with processing of number neurons which have larger receptive fields. These results provide evidence for the claim that different mechanism exist generating the perception of visual numerosity. Whereas low numbers are sensed directly as a primary visual attribute, the estimation of high numbers however likely depends on the area size over which the objects are spread. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Particle size, magnetic field, and blood velocity effects on particle retention in magnetic drug targeting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cherry, Erica M; Maxim, Peter G; Eaton, John K

    2010-01-01

    A physics-based model of a general magnetic drug targeting (MDT) system was developed with the goal of realizing the practical limitations of MDT when electromagnets are the source of the magnetic field. The simulation tracks magnetic particles subject to gravity, drag force, magnetic force, and hydrodynamic lift in specified flow fields and external magnetic field distributions. A model problem was analyzed to determine the effect of drug particle size, blood flow velocity, and magnetic field gradient strength on efficiency in holding particles stationary in a laminar Poiseuille flow modeling blood flow in a medium-sized artery. It was found that particle retention rate increased with increasing particle diameter and magnetic field gradient strength and decreased with increasing bulk flow velocity. The results suggest that MDT systems with electromagnets are unsuitable for use in small arteries because it is difficult to control particles smaller than about 20 microm in diameter.

  20. Electric field engineering using quantum-size-effect-tuned heterojunctions

    KAUST Repository

    Adinolfi, V.

    2013-07-03

    A quantum junction solar cell architecture was recently reported that employs colloidal quantum dots (CQDs) on each side of the p-n junction. This architecture extends the range of design opportunities for CQD photovoltaics, since the bandgap can be tuned across the light-absorbing semiconductor layer via control over CQD size, employing solution-processed, room-temperature fabricated materials. We exploit this feature by designing and demonstrating a field-enhanced heterojunction architecture. We optimize the electric field profile within the solar cell through bandgap engineering, thereby improving carrier collection and achieving an increased open circuit voltage, resulting in a 12% improvement in power conversion efficiency.

  1. SU-E-T-471: Small Field Jaw/MLC Reference Data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kerns, J; Alvarez, P; Followill, D; Lowenstein, J; Molineu, A; Summers, P; Kry, S

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: In recent years the need for small field data of MLCs has increased due to the use of intensity-modulated radiation (IMRT), but moreover the use of stereotactic body radiation (SBRT) has increased, which uses not simply small field sizes, but small jaw and field sizes together. Having reference data for these small fields that is reliable would be invaluable to the physics community. Our study has gathered these values and the data distributions from the Radiological Physics Center's (RPC) site visits between 1990 and the present. Methods: For all measurements, the RPC used a 25 × 25 × 25cm water phantom placed at 100cm SSD. All measurements were made with an Exradin A16 cylindrical ion chamber at an effective depth of 10 cm. A total of 42 Varian machine measurements were used to compose the data for a 6 MV beam and 5 TrueBeam 6 MV flattening filter free (FFF) beams were used for FFF data. Results: Jaw/MLC fields were measured for both 6 MV and 6 MF FFF beams with the jaws and MLCs both at the following field sizes: 6×6, 4×4, 3×3, and 2×2cm. Measurements were normalized to the 10×10 field readings (defined by the jaws and MLC). Spread in the data was minimal and demonstrates a high level of accuracy of acquired data. Conclusion: Small field Jaw/MLC reference data for Varian 6MV and 6 MV FFF beams has been analyzed and presented here, composed of the aggregation of numerous RPC site visits. Obtaining reliable small field data remains difficult, however the RPC has collected high fidelity small field Jaw/MLC data. The data are presented as a reference along with their distributions, in such a way that the physicist can act based upon their own desired agreement with the reference data

  2. Effect of small mapping population sizes on reliability of quantitative ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A limitation of quantitative trait loci (QTL) mapping is that accuracy of determining QTL position and effects are largely determined by population size. Despite the importance of this concept, known as the "Beavis effect there has generally been a lack of understanding by molecular geneticists and breeders. One possible ...

  3. 77 FR 58739 - Small Business Size Standards: Educational Services

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-24

    ... Business Investment Company (SBIC), 7(a), and Certified Development Company (CDC or 504) Loan Programs... examines its characteristics (such as average firm size, startup costs, industry competition, and... logistic and support services. Second, the commenter maintained that the value of Federal contracts has...

  4. 77 FR 42441 - Small Business Size Standards: Utilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-19

    ... and are still engaged in activities in other industries. To qualify as small under receipts based and... industry. New firms producing electric power using alternative energy sources (solar, wind, etc.) have... undergone significant changes, many large electric power producers still continue to generate, transmit, and...

  5. Silent, indirect strategic processes in small and medium sized enterprises

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Mette Vinther; Madsen, Charlotte Øland; Rasmussen, Jørgen Gulddahl

    Based on empirical data we in this paper explore day-to-day strategising with an emphasis on phronesis. This way we shed some light on the nearly silent, quiet, indirect strategic change processes as they are practiced and reflected upon by leaders in small companies in their daily practice...

  6. Size dependent diffusive parameters and tensorial diffusion equations in neutronic models for optically small nuclear systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Premuda, F.

    1983-01-01

    Two lines in improved neutron diffusion theory extending the efficiency of finite-difference diffusion codes to the field of optically small systems, are here reviewed. The firs involves the nodal solution for tensorial diffusion equation in slab geometry and tensorial formulation in parallelepiped and cylindrical gemometry; the dependence of critical eigenvalue from small slab thicknesses is also analitically investigated and finally a regularized tensorial diffusion equation is derived for slab. The other line refer to diffusion models formally unchanged with respect to the classical one, but where new size-dependent RTGB definitions for diffusion parameters are adopted, requiring that they allow to reproduce, in diffusion approach, the terms of neutron transport global balance; the trascendental equation for the buckling, arising in slab, sphere and parallelepiped geometry from the above requirement, are reported and the sizedependence of the new diffusion coefficient and extrapolated end point is investigated

  7. Sterilization of small-size media by gamma--irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shimahara, K; Shimada, K [Seikei Univ., Musashino, Tokyo (Japan)

    1976-04-01

    An application of the radiopasteurization method to the culture media of laboratory size was investigated. The radiation dose necessary to diminish the cell counts of the media to 10/sup 00/-3/sup 00/ per 10 ml was found to be not exceed 3,500 krad. Several properties of the irradiated media were also examined in comparison with the autoclaved and tydallized media.

  8. Management of small and medium size enterprises as a carrier of economic growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ožegović Lazar

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Numerous studies in the world of market economy show that the share of small and medium size enterprises is constantly increasing compared to large enterprises. This does not decrease the significance of large enterprises, but the dependence between them gets larger every day. National economies which manage to find the optimal combination between small, medium size and large enterprises are more successful than the others. Management of small and medium size enterprises (SMEs in conceptual terms is similar to the process of management of large enterprises. An organization must be managed in order to function and this rule applies to small and medium size enterprises.

  9. Impact of pressure losses in small-sized parabolic-trough collectors for direct steam generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lobón, David H.; Valenzuela, Loreto

    2013-01-01

    Using PTC (parabolic-trough solar collectors) for industrial thermal processes in the temperature range up to 300 °C is not new, but in recent years there is a boosted interest in this type of concentrating solar technology. One of the problems that arise when designing PTC solar fields is how to deal with the pressure losses which are critical when producing saturated steam directly in the collectors. Depending on the characteristics of the collector, mainly on the receiver diameter, and on the nominal process conditions defined, a solar field configuration can be feasible or not. This paper presents a sensitivity analysis done using a software tool developed to study the thermo-hydraulic behaviour of PTC systems using water-steam as heat transfer fluid. In the case study presented, a small-sized PTC designed for industrial process heat applications is considered, which has a focal length of 0.2 m, an aperture area of 2 m 2 , and its receiver pipe has an inner diameter of 15 mm. Varied process conditions are inlet water pressure, temperature, and mass flow rate, solar irradiance and incidence angle of solar radiation. Results show that working pressure definition is particularly critical to make feasible or not the direct steam generation in solar collectors. - Highlights: • DSG (Direct steam generation) in small-sized parabolic-trough collectors. • Thermo-hydraulic sensitivity analysis. • Influence of working pressure and receiver geometry in DSG process

  10. 75 FR 68394 - Small Business Size Standards: Waiver of the Nonmanufacturer Rule

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-05

    ..., Participants in SBA's 8(a) Business Development (BD) Program, or Women-Owned Small Business (WOSB) concerns... SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION Small Business Size Standards: Waiver of the Nonmanufacturer Rule AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Notice of Waiver to the Nonmanufacturer Rule for...

  11. 78 FR 61443 - Small Business Size Standards: Waiver of the Nonmanufacturer Rule

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-03

    ... SBA's 8(a) Business Development Program, or Women-Owned Small Businesses to provide aerospace ball and... businesses, Women-Owned Small Businesses, or Participants in the SBA's 8(a) Business Development Program... SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION Small Business Size Standards: Waiver of the Nonmanufacturer Rule...

  12. 78 FR 76886 - Small Business Size Standards: Waiver of the Nonmanufacturer Rule

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-19

    ..., Participants in SBA's 8(a) Business Development (BD) Program, or Women-Owned Small Business (WOSB) concerns... SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION Small Business Size Standards: Waiver of the Nonmanufacturer Rule AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Notice of Final Action: Granting Class Waiver of the...

  13. 77 FR 58747 - Small Business Size Standards: Real Estate and Rental and Leasing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-24

    ...: The United States Small Business Administration (SBA) is increasing the small business size standards... small businesses, the commenter suggested increasing it to $150 million. He contended that his business... industry makes it difficult for small businesses to grow and develop and increase their market share. To...

  14. SU-E-T-611: Effective Treatment Volume of the Small Size IORT Applicators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krechetov, A.S.; Goer, D.A.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Mobile electron linear accelerators are gaining more attention recently, providing a lower cost and simpler way to perform intraoperative treatment. However, the simplicity of the treatment process does not eliminate the need for proper attention to the technical aspects of the treatment. One of the potential pitfalls is incorrect selection of the appropriate applicator size to adequately cover the tumor bed to the prescription dose. When treating tumor beds in the pelvis, the largest applicator that fits into the pelvis is usually selected as there is concern about microscopic extension of the disease along the sidewalls of the pelvis. But when treating early stage breast tumors, there is a natural tendency to select an applicator as small as possible so as not to jeopardize cosmesis. Methods This investigation questions how much of the typical breast treatment volume gets adequate exposure and what is the correct strategy in selecting the proper applicator size. Actual data from isodose scans were analyzed. Results We found that typical treatment dose prescriptions can cover as much as 80% and as little as 20% of the nominal treatment volume depending on the applicator size and energy of the beam and whether the dose is prescribed to the 80 or 90% isodose level. Treatment volume is defined as a cylinder with diameter equal to applicator and height equal to the corresponding D80 or D90 depth. Conclusion If mobile linear accelerators are used, there can be significant amount of “cold volume” depending on the applicator size and this should be taken into account when selecting the applicator that is needed. Using too small of an applicator could result in significant under-dosing to the tissue at risk. Long-term clinical data demonstrates that selecting an adequate field size results in good ontological control as well as excellent cosmesis. Intraop Medical Corp was providing facilities and equipment for this research

  15. Combine To Create Size or Growing From Small To Big?

    OpenAIRE

    Gan, Thian Han

    2013-01-01

    Many companies seek to acquire or merge to grow. Size has always been the underlying rationale for mergers and acquisitions (“M&A”) as the creation of larger entities will purportedly increase the capacity of the entities hence allowing them to take advantage of economies of scale and scope. Another reason for M&A is to create a “portfolio of core competences” by combining and exploiting the core competences of the two entities to create synergy and to enhance the competitive edge for the enl...

  16. Research Note: Networking Among Small and Medium-sized Enterprises

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Limborg, Hans Jørgen; Grøn, Sisse; Flensborg Jensen, Maya

    2014-01-01

    interviews, document analysis and observations were used to analyse two networks of small enterprises (in dairy and brewery) in Denmark that launched similar occupational health projects but had different outcomes. Whilst both Dairy (D) and Brewery (B) networks had active external funding, the following...... - limited), mutual trust (D - active, B - limited), workers involved in 'button up' process ( D - to some extent, B - nonexistent), exclusion criteria (D - agreed, B - none), pact on openness (D - agreed, B - not defined), shared commitment to new standards (D - limited, B - non-existent). It is concluded...

  17. Cogeneration using small sized series connected units: Feasibility study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tondelli, F.; Bergamini, G.

    1992-01-01

    This paper evidences the technical/economic feasibility of the use of methane fuelled modular cogeneration systems based on small series connected Otto or Diesel cycle engines delivering from 20 to 90 kW of power. Ample reference is made to the successful application of modular cogeneration systems to supply low temperature thermal energy to hospitals, hotels, food processing firms, etc., in Italy. The cost benefit analysis covers many aspects: design, manufacturing, operation, performance, maintenance and safety. Suggestions are also made as to optimum contractual arrangements for equipment service and maintenance, as well as, for the exchange of power with local utilities

  18. Small angle neutron scattering measurements of magnetic cluster sizes in magnetic recorging disks

    CERN Document Server

    Toney, M

    2003-01-01

    We describe Small Angle Neutron Scattering measurements of the magnetic cluster size distributions for several longitudinal magnetic recording media. We find that the average magnetic cluster size is slightly larger than the average physical grain size, that there is a broad distribution of cluster sizes, and that the cluster size is inversely correlated to the media signal-to-noise ratio. These results show that intergranular magnetic coupling in these media is small and they provide empirical data for the cluster-size distribution that can be incorporated into models of magnetic recording.

  19. Ethanol production in small- to medium-size facilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiler, E. A.; Coble, C. G.; Oneal, H. P.; Sweeten, J. M.; Reidenbach, V. G.; Schelling, G. T.; Lawhon, J. T.; Kay, R. D.; Lepori, W. A.; Aldred, W. H.

    1982-04-01

    In early 1980 system design criteria were developed for a small-scale ethanol production plant. The plant was eventually installed on November 1, 1980. It has a production capacity of 30 liters per hour; this can be increased easily (if desired) to 60 liters per hour with additional fermentation tanks. Sixty-six test runs were conducted to date in the alcohol production facility. Feedstocks evaluated in these tests include: corn (28 runs); grain sorghum (33 runs); grain sorghum grits (1 run); half corn/half sorghum (1 run); and sugarcane juice (3 runs). In addition, a small bench-scale fermentation and distillation system was used to evaluate sugarcane and sweet sorghum feedstocks prior to their evaluation in the larger unit. In each of these tests, evaluation of the following items was conducted: preprocessing requirements; operational problems; conversion efficiency (for example, liters of alcohol produced per kilogram of feedstock); energy balance and efficiency; nutritional recovery from stillage; solids separation by screw press; chemical characterization of stillage including liquid and solids fractions; wastewater requirements; and air pollution potential.

  20. Small field axion inflation with sub-Planckian decay constant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kadota, Kenji [Center for Theoretical Physics of the Universe, Institute for Basic Science,Daejeon 305-811 (Korea, Republic of); Kobayashi, Tatsuo [Department of Physics, Hokkaido University,Sapporo 060-0810 (Japan); Oikawa, Akane [Department of Physics, Waseda University,Tokyo 169-8555 (Japan); Omoto, Naoya [Department of Physics, Hokkaido University,Sapporo 060-0810 (Japan); Otsuka, Hajime [Department of Physics, Waseda University,Tokyo 169-8555 (Japan); Tatsuishi, Takuya H. [Department of Physics, Hokkaido University,Sapporo 060-0810 (Japan)

    2016-10-10

    We study an axion inflation model recently proposed within the framework of type IIB superstring theory, where we pay a particular attention to a sub-Planckian axion decay constant. Our axion potential can lead to the small field inflation with a small tensor-to-scalar ratio, and a typical reheating temperature can be as low as GeV.

  1. Design and field tests of a modified small mammallivetrap

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    -vinyl-chloride) and metal small mammal live-trap has been developed and subjected to field tests. The PVC traps captured greater numbers of very small rodents and shrews but fewer large rodents than did hardboard ones. s. Afr. J. Zool.

  2. Determination of the quality index (Q) for photon beams at arbitrary field sizes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sauer, Otto A

    2009-09-01

    A commonly used beam quality index (Q) for high-energy photon beams is the tissue phantom ratio (TPR20,10) for a square field of 10 x 10 cm2 and SDD of 100 cm. On some specialized radiotherapy treatment equipment such a reference collimator setting is not achievable. Likewise a flat beam profile, not explicitly required in dosimetry protocols, but certainly influences the measurement of Q, is not always produced. In this work, a method was developed in order to determine Q at any field size, especially for small and nonflattened beams. An analytical relationship was derived between TPR20,10 for arbitrary field sizes and Q [the TPR20,10 (10 x 10 cm2)] as quality index. The proposed model equation was fitted to the measured and published data in order to achieve three general fit parameters. The procedure was then tested with published data from TomoTherapy and CyperKnife treatment devices. For standard flattened photon fields, the uncertainty in Q measured at any field size using the parameters derived from this study is better than 1%. In flattening-filter free beams, the proposed procedure results in a reliable Q for any field size setting. A method is introduced and successfully tested in order to measure the beam quality under nonstandard conditions. It can be used, e.g., to get energy dependent correction factors as tabulated in dosimetry codes of practice even if standard conditions are not adjustable.

  3. On Field Size and Success Probability in Network Coding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Geil, Hans Olav; Matsumoto, Ryutaroh; Thomsen, Casper

    2008-01-01

    Using tools from algebraic geometry and Gröbner basis theory we solve two problems in network coding. First we present a method to determine the smallest field size for which linear network coding is feasible. Second we derive improved estimates on the success probability of random linear network...... coding. These estimates take into account which monomials occur in the support of the determinant of the product of Edmonds matrices. Therefore we finally investigate which monomials can occur in the determinant of the Edmonds matrix....

  4. Effects of Group Size on Students Mathematics Achievement in Small Group Settings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enu, Justice; Danso, Paul Amoah; Awortwe, Peter K.

    2015-01-01

    An ideal group size is hard to obtain in small group settings; hence there are groups with more members than others. The purpose of the study was to find out whether group size has any effects on students' mathematics achievement in small group settings. Two third year classes of the 2011/2012 academic year were selected from two schools in the…

  5. Managers' Understanding of Workplace Health Promotion within Small and Medium-Sized Enterprises: A Phenomenological Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Ann; Parahoo, Kader; Fleming, Paul

    2011-01-01

    Objective: This study aimed at exploring managers' understanding of workplace health promotion and experiences of workplace health promotion activity within small and medium-sized enterprises. Design: A Heideggerian interpretive phenomenological methodology was adopted. Setting: This study was undertaken with small and medium-sized enterprise…

  6. The field size matters: low dose external beam radiotherapy for thumb carpometacarpal osteoarthritis : Importance of field size.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaltenborn, Alexander; Bulling, Elke; Nitsche, Mirko; Carl, Ulrich Martin; Hermann, Robert Michael

    2016-08-01

    The purpose of this work was to evaluate the efficacy of low-dose radiotherapy (RT) for thumb carpometacarpal osteoarthritis (rhizarthrosis). The responses of 84 patients (n = 101 joints) were analyzed 3 months after therapy (n = 65) and at 12 months (n = 27). Patients were treated with 6 fractions of 1 Gy, two times a week, with a linear accelerator. At the end of therapy, about 70 % of patients reported a response (partial remission or complete remission), 3 months later about 60 %, and 1 year after treatment 70 %. In univariate regression analysis, higher patient age and field size greater than 6 × 4 cm were associated with response to treatment, while initial increase of pain under treatment was predictive for treatment failure. Duration of RT series (more than 18 days), gender, time of symptoms before RT, stress pain or rest pain, or prior ortheses use, injections, or surgery of the joint were not associated with treatment efficacy. In multivariate regression analysis, only field size and initial pain increase were highly correlated with treatment outcome. In conclusion, RT represents a useful treatment option for patients suffering from carpometacarpal osteoarthritis. In contrast to other benign indications, a larger field size (>6 × 4 cm) seems to be more effective than smaller fields and should be evaluated in further prospective studies.

  7. THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN SMALL AND MEDIUM-SIZED ENTERPRISES, TOURISM AND ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatjana Dimoska

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Tourism is the world’s largest industry and makes a major contribution to the economies of most developed and developing countries. Tourism as an important socio-economical phenomenon is characterized with distinctly largeness and dynamic development that results with many positive direct as well as indirect economical effects. That is a measure for increasing of possibilities of encouragement of the total economical development through tourism development. Tourism generates income from consumption of goods and services by tourists as well as taxes on businesses in the tourism industry, provides employment in services related to tourism, but also creates jobs in the tertiary sector, generates growth of primary and secondary sectors of the industry as result of multiplicative effect. In this context especially are important small and medium tourism enterprises which dominate in the tourism destinations according to their number, originating a variety of benefits for the tourism destinations by providing direct contact with tourists and by encouraging tourist for spending in a local community. The aim of this paper is to point out the importance of small and medium –sized enterprises in general and especially in the field of tourism for increasing economic development in the national economy with particular reference on the territory of the Republic of Macedonia. In this paper, first will be analyzed the term small and medium - sized enterprises in general and then will be explained their application in the field of tourism with highlighting of their strategic advantages for the tourism destinations and overall economic development of the entire national economy. Finally, will be analyzed the role played by SMEs for the economic development of the Republic of Macedonia with a special emphasis on the measures and actions which have to be taken in the future by the competent authorities for further stimulation of their development.

  8. Numerical simulation for the magnetic force distribution in electromagnetic forming of small size flat sheet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xiaowei; Wang, Wenping; Wan, Min

    2013-12-01

    It is essential to calculate magnetic force in the process of studying electromagnetic flat sheet forming. Calculating magnetic force is the basis of analyzing the sheet deformation and optimizing technical parameters. Magnetic force distribution on the sheet can be obtained by numerical simulation of electromagnetic field. In contrast to other computing methods, the method of numerical simulation has some significant advantages, such as higher calculation accuracy, easier using and other advantages. In this paper, in order to study of magnetic force distribution on the small size flat sheet in electromagnetic forming when flat round spiral coil, flat rectangular spiral coil and uniform pressure coil are adopted, the 3D finite element models are established by software ANSYS/EMAG. The magnetic force distribution on the sheet are analyzed when the plane geometries of sheet are equal or less than the coil geometries under fixed discharge impulse. The results showed that when the physical dimensions of sheet are less than the corresponding dimensions of the coil, the variation of induced current channel width on the sheet will cause induced current crowding effect that seriously influence the magnetic force distribution, and the degree of inhomogeneity of magnetic force distribution is increase nearly linearly with the variation of induced current channel width; the small size uniform pressure coil will produce approximately uniform magnetic force distribution on the sheet, but the coil is easy to early failure; the desirable magnetic force distribution can be achieved when the unilateral placed flat rectangular spiral coil is adopted, and this program can be take as preferred one, because the longevity of flat rectangular spiral coil is longer than the working life of small size uniform pressure coil.

  9. Thermoeconomic optimization of small size central air conditioner

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, G.Q.; Wang, L.; Liu, L.; Wang, Z.

    2004-01-01

    The application of thermoeconomic optimization design in an air-conditioning system is important in achieving economical life cycle cost. Previous work on thermoeconomic optimization mainly focused on directly calculating exergy input into the system. However, it is usually difficult to do so because of the uncertainty of input power of fan on the air side of the heat-exchanger and that of pump in the system. This paper introduces a new concept that exergy input into the system can be substituted for the sum of exergy destruction and exergy output from the system according to conservation of exergy. Although it is also difficult for a large-scale system to calculate exergy destruction, it is feasible to do so for a small-scale system, for instance, villa air conditioner (VAC). In order to perform thermoeconomic optimization, a program is firstly developed to evaluate the thermodynamic property of HFC134a on the basis of Martin-Hou state equation. Authors develop thermodynamic and thermoeconomic objective functions based on second law and thermoeconomic analysis of VAC system. Two optimization results are obtained. The design of VAC only aimed at decreasing the energy consumption is not comprehensive. Life cycle cost at thermoeconomic optimization is lower than that at thermodynamic optimization

  10. Small size modular fast reactors in large scale nuclear power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zrodnikov, A.V.; Toshinsky, G.I.; Komlev, O.G.; Dragunov, U.G.; Stepanov, V.S.; Klimov, N.N.; Kopytov, I.I.; Krushelnitsky, V.N.

    2005-01-01

    The report presents an innovative nuclear power technology (NPT) based on usage of modular type fast reactors (FR) (SVBR-75/100) with heavy liquid metal coolant (HLMC) i. e. eutectic lead-bismuth alloy mastered for Russian nuclear submarines' (NS) reactors. Use of this NPT makes it possible to eliminate a conflict between safety and economic requirements peculiar to the traditional reactors. Physical features of FRs, an integral design of the reactor and its small power (100 MWe), as well as natural properties of lead-bismuth coolant assured realization of the inherent safety properties. This made it possible to eliminate a lot of safety systems necessary for the reactor installations (RI) of operating NPPs and to design the modular NPP which technical and economical parameters are competitive not only with those of the NPP based on light water reactors (LWR) but with those of the steam-gas electric power plant. Multipurpose usage of transportable reactor modules SVBR-75/100 of entirely factory manufacture assures their production in large quantities that reduces their fabrication costs. The proposed NPT provides economically expedient change over to the closed nuclear fuel cycle (NFC). When the uranium-plutonium fuel is used, the breeding ratio is over one. Use of proposed NPT makes it possible to considerably increase the investment attractiveness of nuclear power (NP) with fast neutron reactors even today at low costs of natural uranium. (authors)

  11. Dose profile analysis of small fields in intensity modulated radiotherapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Medel B, E. [IMSS, Centro Medico Nacional Manuel Avila Camacho, Calle 2 Nte. 2004, Barrio de San Francisco, 72090 Puebla, Pue. (Mexico); Tejeda M, G.; Romero S, K., E-mail: romsakaren@gmail.com [Benemerita Universidad Autonoma de Puebla, Facultad de Ciencias Fisico Matematicas, Av. San Claudio y 18 Sur, Ciudad Universitaria, 72570 Puebla, Pue.(Mexico)

    2015-10-15

    Full text: Small field dosimetry is getting a very important worldwide task nowadays. The use of fields of few centimeters is more common with the introduction of sophisticated techniques of radiation therapy, as Intensity Modulated Radiotherapy (IMRT). In our country the implementation of such techniques is just getting started and whit it the need of baseline data acquisition. The dosimetry under small field conditions represents a challenge for the physicists community. In this work, a dose profile analysis was done, using various types of dosimeters for further comparisons. This analysis includes the study of quality parameters as flatness, symmetry, penumbra, and other in-axis measurements. (Author)

  12. Minimization of small bowel volume within treatment fields using customized small bowel displacement system (SBDS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lim, D. H.; Huh, S. J.; Ahn, Y. C.; Kim, D. Y.; Wu, H. G.; Kim, M. K.; Choi, D. R.; Shin, K. H.

    1997-01-01

    Authors designed a customized Small Bowel Displacement System(SBDS) to displace the small bowel from the pelvic radiation fields and minimize treatment-related bowel morbidities. From August 1995 to May 1996, 55 consecutive patients who received pelvic radiation therapy with the SBDS were included in this study. The SBDS consists of a customized styrofoam compression device which can displace the small bowel from the radiation fields and an individualized immobilization abdominal board for easy daily setup in prone position. After opacifying the small bowel with Barium, the patients were laid prone and posterior-anterior (PA) and lateral (LAT) simulation films were taken with and without the SBDS. The areas of the small bowel included in the radiation fields with and without the SBDS were compared. Using the SBDS, the mean small bowel area was reduced by 59% on PA and 51% on LAT films (P=0.0001). In six patients (6/55, 11%), it was possible that no small bowel was included within the treatment fields. The mean upward displacement of the most caudal small bowel was 4.8 cm using the SBDS. Only 15% (8/55) of patients treated with the SBDS manifested diarrhea requiring medication. The SBDS is a novel method that can be used to displace the small bowel away from the treatment portal effectively and reduce the radiation therapy morbidities. Compliance with setup is excellent when the SBDS is used. (author)

  13. A modified method of calculating the lateral build-up ratio for small electron fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tyner, E; McCavana, P; McClean, B

    2006-01-01

    This note outlines an improved method of calculating dose per monitor unit values for small electron fields using Khan's lateral build-up ratio (LBR). This modified method obtains the LBR directly from the ratio of measured, surface normalized, electron beam percentage depth dose curves. The LBR calculated using this modified method more accurately accounts for the change in lateral scatter with decreasing field size. The LBR is used along with Khan's dose per monitor unit formula to calculate dose per monitor unit values for a set of small fields. These calculated dose per monitor unit values are compared to measured values to within 3.5% for all circular fields and electron energies examined. The modified method was further tested using a small triangular field. A maximum difference of 4.8% was found. (note)

  14. Effects of AC Electric Field on Small Laminar Nonpremixed Flames

    KAUST Repository

    Xiong, Yuan

    2015-04-01

    Electric field can be a viable method in controlling various combustion properties. Comparing to traditional actuators, an application of electric field requires very small power consumption. Especially, alternating current (AC) has received attention recently, since it could modulate flames appreciably even for the cases when direct current (DC) has minimal effects. In this study, the effect of AC electric fields on small coflow diffusion flames is focused with applications of various laser diagnostic techniques. Flow characteristics of baseline diffusion flames, which corresponds to stationary small coflow diffusion flames when electric field is not applied, were firstly investigated with a particular focus on the flow field in near-nozzle region with the buoyancy force exerted on fuels due to density differences among fuel, ambient air, and burnt gas. The result showed that the buoyancy force exerted on the fuel as well as on burnt gas significantly distorted the near-nozzle flow-fields. In the fuels with densities heavier than air, recirculation zones were formed very close to the nozzle exit. Nozzle heating effect influenced this near-nozzle flow-field particularly among lighter fuels. Numerical simulations were also conducted and the results showed that a fuel inlet boundary condition with a fully developed velocity profile for cases with long fuel tubes should be specified inside the fuel tube to obtain satisfactory agreement in both the flow and temperature fields with those from experiment. With sub-critical AC applied to the baseline flames, particle image velocimetry (PIV), light scattering, laser-induced incandescence (LII), and laser-induced fluores- cence (LIF) techniques were adopted to identify the flow field and the structures of OH, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), soot zone. Under certain AC condi- tions of applied voltage and frequency, the distribution of PAHs and the flow field near the nozzle exit were drastically altered from the

  15. Comparing Server Energy Use and Efficiency Using Small Sample Sizes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coles, Henry C.; Qin, Yong; Price, Phillip N.

    2014-11-01

    This report documents a demonstration that compared the energy consumption and efficiency of a limited sample size of server-type IT equipment from different manufacturers by measuring power at the server power supply power cords. The results are specific to the equipment and methods used. However, it is hoped that those responsible for IT equipment selection can used the methods described to choose models that optimize energy use efficiency. The demonstration was conducted in a data center at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory in Berkeley, California. It was performed with five servers of similar mechanical and electronic specifications; three from Intel and one each from Dell and Supermicro. Server IT equipment is constructed using commodity components, server manufacturer-designed assemblies, and control systems. Server compute efficiency is constrained by the commodity component specifications and integration requirements. The design freedom, outside of the commodity component constraints, provides room for the manufacturer to offer a product with competitive efficiency that meets market needs at a compelling price. A goal of the demonstration was to compare and quantify the server efficiency for three different brands. The efficiency is defined as the average compute rate (computations per unit of time) divided by the average energy consumption rate. The research team used an industry standard benchmark software package to provide a repeatable software load to obtain the compute rate and provide a variety of power consumption levels. Energy use when the servers were in an idle state (not providing computing work) were also measured. At high server compute loads, all brands, using the same key components (processors and memory), had similar results; therefore, from these results, it could not be concluded that one brand is more efficient than the other brands. The test results show that the power consumption variability caused by the key components as a

  16. GOVERNMENT SUPPORT FOR SMALL AND MEDIUM-SIZED BUSINESS AND INNOVATIVE ACTIVITIES

    OpenAIRE

    Pоlina Kolisnichenko

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of the paper is to reveal the conditions of the innovative development of the small and mediumsized entrepreneurship in Ukraine; the problems that suppress the innovative activity and small and medium-sized enterprises development; peculiarities of the tax incentives for the development of the entrepreneurship in the advanced countries and in Ukraine; the main kinds and characteristics of the small and medium-sized enterprises public support. Methodology. The methods of scientific...

  17. 77 FR 7489 - Small Business Size Standards: Professional, Technical, and Scientific Services

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-10

    ... would (1) provide a competitive advantage to larger firms over their truly small counterparts; (2) allow... Vol. 77 Friday, No. 28 February 10, 2012 Part V Small Business Administration 13 CFR Part 121 Small Business Size Standards: Professional, Technical, and Scientific Services; Final Rule #0;#0...

  18. 77 FR 55737 - Small Business Size Standards: Finance and Insurance and Management of Companies and Enterprises

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-11

    ... 3245-AG45 Small Business Size Standards: Finance and Insurance and Management of Companies and Enterprises AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Proposed rule. SUMMARY: The U.S. Small... NAICS Sector 55, Management of Companies and Enterprises. In addition, SBA proposes to change the...

  19. The art of being small : brain-body size scaling in minute parasitic wasps

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Woude, van der Emma

    2017-01-01

    Haller’s rule states that small animals have relatively larger brains than large animals. This brain-body size relationship may enable small animals to maintain similar levels of brain performance as large animals. However, it also causes small animals to spend an exceptionally large proportion

  20. The Small Nuclear Genomes of Selaginella Are Associated with a Low Rate of Genome Size Evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baniaga, Anthony E; Arrigo, Nils; Barker, Michael S

    2016-06-03

    The haploid nuclear genome size (1C DNA) of vascular land plants varies over several orders of magnitude. Much of this observed diversity in genome size is due to the proliferation and deletion of transposable elements. To date, all vascular land plant lineages with extremely small nuclear genomes represent recently derived states, having ancestors with much larger genome sizes. The Selaginellaceae represent an ancient lineage with extremely small genomes. It is unclear how small nuclear genomes evolved in Selaginella We compared the rates of nuclear genome size evolution in Selaginella and major vascular plant clades in a comparative phylogenetic framework. For the analyses, we collected 29 new flow cytometry estimates of haploid genome size in Selaginella to augment publicly available data. Selaginella possess some of the smallest known haploid nuclear genome sizes, as well as the lowest rate of genome size evolution observed across all vascular land plants included in our analyses. Additionally, our analyses provide strong support for a history of haploid nuclear genome size stasis in Selaginella Our results indicate that Selaginella, similar to other early diverging lineages of vascular land plants, has relatively low rates of genome size evolution. Further, our analyses highlight that a rapid transition to a small genome size is only one route to an extremely small genome. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Molecular Biology and Evolution.

  1. Electromagnetic fields in small systems from a multiphase transport model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Xin-Li; Ma, Yu-Gang; Ma, Guo-Liang

    2018-02-01

    We calculate the electromagnetic fields generated in small systems by using a multiphase transport (AMPT) model. Compared to A +A collisions, we find that the absolute electric and magnetic fields are not small in p +Au and d +Au collisions at energies available at the BNL Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider and in p +Pb collisions at energies available at the CERN Large Hadron Collider. We study the centrality dependencies and the spatial distributions of electromagnetic fields. We further investigate the azimuthal fluctuations of the magnetic field and its correlation with the fluctuating geometry using event-by-event simulations. We find that the azimuthal correlation 〈" close="〉cos(ϕα+ϕβ-2 ΨRP)〉">cos2 (ΨB-Ψ2) between the magnetic field direction and the second-harmonic participant plane is almost zero in small systems with high multiplicities, but not in those with low multiplicities. This indicates that the charge azimuthal correlation is not a valid probe to study the chiral magnetic effect (CME) in small systems with high multiplicities. However, we suggest searching for possible CME effects in small systems with low multiplicities.

  2. Resource efficiency and culture--workplace training for small and medium-sized enterprises.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bliesner, Anna; Liedtke, Christa; Rohn, Holger

    2014-05-15

    Although there are already some qualification offers available for enterprises to support resource efficiency innovations, the high potentials that can be identified especially for small and medium sized enterprises (SMEs) have not been activated until now. As successful change lies in the hands of humans, the main aim of vocational education has to be the promotion of organisational and cultural changes in the enterprises. As there is already a small but increasing number of enterprises that perform very well in resource efficiency innovations one question arises: What are typical characteristics of those enterprises? Leaning on a good-practice approach, the project "ResourceCulture" is going to prove or falsify the hypothesis that enterprises being successful with resource efficiency innovations have a specific culture of trust, which substantially contributes to innovation processes, or even initially enables them. Detailed empirical field research will light up which correlations between resource efficiency, innovation and cultures of trust can be found and will offer important aspects for the improvement of management instruments and qualification concepts for workplace training. The project seizes qualification needs that were likewise mentioned by enterprises and consultants, regarding the implementation of resource efficiency. This article - based on first empirical field research results - derives preliminary indications for the design of the qualification module for the target groups resource efficiency consultants and managers. On this basis and in order to implement "ResourceCulture" conceptual and methodological starting points for workplace training are outlined. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Involvement of small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs in elaborating and implementing public policies: Study case-Romanian small and medium-sized enterprises

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Popescu Ruxandra

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Involvement and development of the private sector in boosting the economy nationwide is a main objective of the current program of the government, which means that a good cooperation between small and medium companies, private companies and multinationals and public environment including both public institutions and policies implemented and developed by them, becomes more than necessary. The paper summarizes the findings of a quantitative research based on a self-applied questionnaire which was aimed at Romanian small and medium-sized enterprises and also of a qualitative research that gives an overview of the process of elaborating and implementing a public policy. The involvement of small and medium-sized enterprises in the process of designing and implementing a public policy can become indispensable but it is well know that there is, in fact, a lack of initiative at this level, from both parties. One of the main research questions of this paper is to find out how much do representatives of small and medium-sized enterprises get involved in the process of elaborating a public policy and how much do these actions and measures impact the organizational policies of the companies themselves. A good cooperation between the business environment and the public institutions and a strong correlation of their joint efforts, should become a common practice between both parties, being crucial that this form of cooperation to be initiated from the very beginning. The contribution of this paper is a practical one, given the fact that the paper itself entails the direct responses of small and medium-sized enterprises on the current and future public policies that directly targets them, providing as well an analysis on the effects of public policies on small and medium-sized enterprises. Thus being said, the paper can also be a guide for both small and medium-sized enterprises in providing examples and measures of involvement and favorable public policies

  4. Prognosis method to predict small-sized breast cancer affected by fibrocystic disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. A. Velichko

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the study is to develop an effective radiological symptom-complex of small-sized breast cancer affected by fibrocystic breast disease by using multivariate statistical methods.Materials and methods. Radiological findings of small-sized breast cancer affected by fibrocystic mastopathy were analyzed in 100 patients with histologically verified diagnosis.Results. It was revealed that the conventional approach to the analysis of mammograms based on the detection of the primary, secondary and indirect mammographic signs of small-sized breast cancer is not effective enough - the sensitivity of mammography is only 62%. Fibrocystic disease and moderate-to-severe sclerosing adenosis make small-sized breast cancer hard to visualize by mammography. The detailed analysis of mammograms allowed us to identify the additional manifestations of small-sized breast cancer affected by mastopathy. The computer program allowing us to evaluate the risk of small-size breast cancer and the diagnostic algorithm for detecting small size breast cancer with sensitivity of 92% were developed. 

  5. Irradiation test of component for radiation-resistant small sized motor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakamichi, M.; Ishitsuka, E.; Shimakawa, S.; Kan, S.

    2009-01-01

    A small-sized motor with a resistance to radiation was developed. This motor has been able to operate at a gamma-ray dose of a value 700 times as high as the specification of a commercial motor. The present work describes results of post-irradiation examinations (PIEs) to evaluate effects of neutron irradiation on the lifetime of some major components of the motor such as a bearing, a magnet and a fixation agent for a field coil wire. It became clear from the results of PIEs that the radiation-resistance dose of the motor using a Sm-Co magnet will be expected to be one order of magnitude higher than that of the motor using a Nb-Fe-B magnet.

  6. β-ray scintillation survey meter for small-sized pipes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamano, Toshiya; Suzuki, Toshikazu; Yoshida, Yoshiteru; Higashidate, Takamichi; Yonemura, Kenji; Fujita, Michio.

    1990-01-01

    The outer surface of the small-sized pipes used as scaffolding is measured by beta/gamma survey meter when they are carried out from the controlled area in nuclear facilities. But, the measurement of the radioactive contamination on the inner surface, when it is needed, is done indirectly using the smear method. To improve these vexatious works, Fuji Electric Co., Ltd. and Chubu Electric Power Co., Inc. jointly developed a beta-ray scintillation survey meter which, when inserted directly into pipes, can detect radioactive contamination on the inner surface. This detector is made of cylindrical plastic scintillator and it can measure low energy beta-ray by using the coincidence method which reduces random noise. A field test carried out with this prototype survey meter brought favorable results for designing its final version. (author)

  7. Size and field effect on mesoscopic spin glass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Komatsu, K. [Department of Applied Physics and Physico-Infomatics, Faculty of Science and Technology, Keio University, Yokohama 223-8522 (Japan)]. E-mail: komatsu@az.appi.keio.ac.jp; Maki, H. [Department of Applied Physics and Physico-Infomatics, Faculty of Science and Technology, Keio University, Yokohama 223-8522 (Japan); Taniyama, T. [Materials and Structures Laboratory, Tokyo Institute of Technology, 4259 Nagatsuta, Midori-ku, Yokohama 226-8503 (Japan); Sato, T. [Department of Applied Physics and Physico-Infomatics, Faculty of Science and Technology, Keio University, Yokohama 223-8522 (Japan)

    2007-03-15

    Spin glass particles were prepared as the mesoscopic system in order to examine the space scale of spin glass domain (droplet). The peak temperature T {sub peak} in the temperature-dependent magnetization is systematically reduced with decreasing average particle size. This is due to the imitation of droplet growth to the particle diameter. The magnetic field H also decreases T {sub peak}, which is caused by the reduction of the barrier height by Zeeman energy. However, there appears different tendency in the relation between H and T {sub peak} below 100 Oe. This indicates the existence of crossover between the two regimes in which the free energy and Zeeman energy govern the droplet excitation.

  8. Field size and centring for conventional X-ray equipment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klimpel, H.; Kreienfeld, H.; Overbeck, R.

    1989-01-01

    Since 1973, all X-ray equipment for medical applications in the Federal Republic of Germany has had to be examined according to the requirements of the German ''Rontgenverordnung'' before it is used on patients and after each essential modification of design or construction. These examinations are carried out by inspectors appointed by the authorities, e.g. TUV. The field size adjustment and the centring of the radiation beam in relation to the image reception area is checked, along with other tests. To increase quality assurance in X-ray diagnosis, since the mid-1980s X-ray equipment has also been subject to in-service inspections to an increasing extent. (author)

  9. Small-Field Dosimetry in A 6 MV Photon Beam Using Alanine and Liquid Ionisation Chamber

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zimmermann, S.; Riis, H. L.; Hjelm-Hansen, M.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose/Objective: Dosimetry of small field sizes in MV photon beams is an increasingly important subject, and a generally accepted guideline for clinical measurements is still lacking. The present comparative study was carried out to further investigate the use of alanine and the PTW microLion...... of each field and depth. This dose maximum was measured for each field using a Scanditronix Wellhöfer photon field diode. The same measurements were carried out using a liquid ionchamber, PTW microLion, irradiated by 500 MU. The output of the accelerator was controlled by a PTW semiflex ion chamber...

  10. Evaluation research of small and medium-sized enterprise informatization on big data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Na

    2017-09-01

    Under the background of big data, key construction of small and medium-sized enterprise informationization level was needed, but information construction cost was large, while information cost of inputs can bring benefit to small and medium-sized enterprises. This paper established small and medium-sized enterprise informatization evaluation system from hardware and software security level, information organization level, information technology application and the profit level, and information ability level. The rough set theory was used to brief indexes, and then carry out evaluation by support vector machine (SVM) model. At last, examples were used to verify the theory in order to prove the effectiveness of the method.

  11. International seminar on status and prospects for small and medium sized reactors. Book of extended synopses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-05-01

    Small and medium sized reactors have been defined by IAEA in accordance with their net electrical power rating, or thermal equivalent power rating for reactors producing process heat. Within the global energy supply and demand the role of nuclear power, and specifically the role of small and medium sizes reactors, is reviewed. Some new design prospects of dual purpose power plants, namely for heat production and desalination, are presented. Some proposal for new concepts of small size power reactors are described. A special concern is devoted to economic and energy policy issues as well as to safety and non-proliferation matters

  12. Behavior of small ferromagnetic particles in traveling magnetic field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deych, V. G.; Terekhov, V. P.

    1985-03-01

    Forces and moments acting on a magnetizable body in a traveling magnetic field are calculated for a body with dimensions much smaller than the wavelength of the magnetic field. It is assumed that a particle of given linear dimension does not have a constant magnetic moment. The material of a particle is characterized by its magnetic permeability and electrical conductivity. The hypothesis that rotation plays a major role in the behavior of small particles is confirmed and the fact that a small particle rolls on a plane, without sliding, when the surface is perfectly rough, in the opposite direction from which the magnetic field travels is explained. Calculations are based on the magnetohydrodynamic equations for a quasi steady magnetic field, and the induced Foucault eddy currents are considered. The results are applicable to transport of ferrofluids and to such metallurgical devices as separators.

  13. Local-Field Distribution of Two Dielectric Inclusions at Small Separation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siu, Yuet-Lun; Yu, Kin-Wah

    2001-03-01

    When two dielectric inclusions approach to each other in a composite medium, significant mutual polarization effects must occur. These effects are multipolar in nature and are difficult to treat from first principles(J. D. Jackson, Classical Electrodynamics), 2nd edition, (Wiley, New York, 1975).. In this work, we employ the discrete-dipole theory(B. T. Draine and P. J. Flatau, J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 11) 1491 (1994). to account for the mutual polarization effects by dividing the inclusions into many small subparts. We begin the calculation at small inclusion sizes and large separation, where the point-dipole limit being valid, and proceed to larger inclusion sizes and small separation, for which the mutual polarization effect becomes important. Then, we apply the theory to determine the dipole moment of each subpart self-consistently. In this way, each dipole moment yields the local electric field, which in turn polarizes the neighboring dipoles. We also begin the calculation at small inclusion sizes and large separation, where the point-dipole limit being valid, and proceed to larger inclusion sizes and small separation. Our resluts indicate that convergence is achieved with moderate computational effects. The results produce valuable information about the local electric field distribution, which is relevant to optical absorption due to surface phonon-polaritons of ionic microcrystals.

  14. Shear-wave elastography contributes to accurate tumour size estimation when assessing small breast cancers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mullen, R.; Thompson, J.M.; Moussa, O.; Vinnicombe, S.; Evans, A.

    2014-01-01

    Aim: To assess whether the size of peritumoural stiffness (PTS) on shear-wave elastography (SWE) for small primary breast cancers (≤15 mm) was associated with size discrepancies between grey-scale ultrasound (GSUS) and final histological size and whether the addition of PTS size to GSUS size might result in more accurate tumour size estimation when compared to final histological size. Materials and methods: A retrospective analysis of 86 consecutive patients between August 2011 and February 2013 who underwent breast-conserving surgery for tumours of size ≤15 mm at ultrasound was carried out. The size of PTS stiffness was compared to mean GSUS size, mean histological size, and the extent of size discrepancy between GSUS and histology. PTS size and GSUS were combined and compared to the final histological size. Results: PTS of >3 mm was associated with a larger mean final histological size (16 versus 11.3 mm, p < 0.001). PTS size of >3 mm was associated with a higher frequency of underestimation of final histological size by GSUS of >5 mm (63% versus 18%, p < 0.001). The combination of PTS and GSUS size led to accurate estimation of the final histological size (p = 0.03). The size of PTS was not associated with margin involvement (p = 0.27). Conclusion: PTS extending beyond 3 mm from the grey-scale abnormality is significantly associated with underestimation of tumour size of >5 mm for small invasive breast cancers. Taking into account the size of PTS also led to accurate estimation of the final histological size. Further studies are required to assess the relationship of the extent of SWE stiffness and margin status. - Highlights: • Peritumoural stiffness of greater than 3 mm was associated with larger tumour size. • Underestimation of tumour size by ultrasound was associated with peri-tumoural stiffness size. • Combining peri-tumoural stiffness size to ultrasound produced accurate tumour size estimation

  15. Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms in the HIRA Gene Affect Litter Size in Small Tail Han Sheep

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mei Zhou

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Maintenance of appropriate levels of fecundity is critical for efficient sheep production. Opportunities to increase sheep litter size include identifying single gene mutations with major effects on ovulation rate and litter size. Whole-genome sequencing (WGS data of 89 Chinese domestic sheep from nine different geographical locations and ten Australian sheep were analyzed to detect new polymorphisms affecting litter size. Comparative genomic analysis of sheep with contrasting litter size detected a novel set of candidate genes. Two SNPs, g.71874104G>A and g.71833755T>C, were genotyped in 760 Small Tail Han sheep and analyzed for association with litter size. The two SNPs were significantly associated with litter size, being in strong linkage disequilibrium in the region 71.80–71.87 Mb. This haplotype block contains one gene that may affect litter size, Histone Cell Cycle Regulator (HIRA. HIRA mRNA levels in sheep with different lambing ability were significantly higher in ovaries of Small Tail Han sheep (high fecundity than in Sunite sheep (low fecundity. Moreover, the expression levels of HIRA in eight tissues of uniparous Small Tail Han sheep were significantly higher than in multiparous Small Tail Han sheep (p < 0.05. HIRA SNPs significantly affect litter size in sheep and are useful as genetic markers for litter size.

  16. Large- and small-size advantages in sneaking behaviour in the dusky frillgoby Bathygobius fuscus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takegaki, Takeshi; Kaneko, Takashi; Matsumoto, Yukio

    2012-04-01

    Sneaking tactic, a male alternative reproductive tactic involving sperm competition, is generally adopted by small individuals because of its inconspicuousness. However, large size has an advantage when competition occurs between sneakers for fertilization of eggs. Here, we suggest that both large- and small-size advantages of sneaker males are present within the same species. Large sneaker males of the dusky frillgoby Bathygobius fuscus showed a high success rate in intruding into spawning nests because of their advantage in competition among sneaker males in keeping a suitable position to sneak, whereas small sneakers had few chances to sneak. However, small sneaker males were able to stay in the nests longer than large sneaker males when they succeeded in sneak intrusion. This suggests the possibility of an increase in their paternity. The findings of these size-specific behavioural advantages may be important in considering the evolution of size-related reproductive traits.

  17. Mechanism of Interaction between Entrepreneurial Spirit and Growth of Small and Medium Sized Private Enterprises

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Peng XIE

    2016-01-01

    In the context of government appeal of " mass entrepreneurship and innovation",all areas launched the movement of " mass entrepreneurship" and " grassroots entrepreneurship". As parts of vitality of China’s market economy,small and medium sized private enterprises become grassroots of market competition in talents,funds,and technologies. This paper combined three levels of entrepreneurial spirit and small and medium sized private enterprises,studied acting mechanism of entrepreneurial spirit,discussed competitive power of small and medium sized private enterprises,and recommended that small and medium sized private enterprises should cultivate core competitive power,adapt to external environment,and create external environment support,to realize sound development.

  18. Local governments and climate change: sustainable energy planning and implementation in small and medium sized communities

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Van Staden, Maryke; Musco, Francesco

    2010-01-01

    The focus of 'Local governments and climate change' is on how small and medium-sized communities in Europe are effectively responding to climate change, with a particular focus on different approaches...

  19. Small-sized reverberation chamber for the measurement of sound absorption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rey, R. del; Alba, J.; Bertó, L.; Gregori, A.

    2017-01-01

    This paper presents the design, construction, calibration and automation of a reverberation chamber for small samples. A balance has been sought between reducing sample size, to reduce the manufacturing costs of materials, and finding the appropriate volume of the chamber, to obtain reliable values at high and mid frequencies. The small-sized reverberation chamber, that was built, has a volume of 1.12 m3 and allows for the testing of samples of 0.3 m2. By using diffusers, to improve the diffusion degree, and automating measurements, we were able to improve the reliability of the results, thus reducing test errors. Several comparison studies of the measurements of the small-sized reverberation chamber and the standardised reverberation chamber are shown, and a good degree of adjustment can be seen between them, within the range of valid frequencies. This paper presents a small laboratory for comparing samples and making decisions before the manufacturing of larger sizes. [es

  20. Delivery of workshops on mobility monitoring in small to medium-sized communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-11-01

    This report summarizes the delivery and outcome of a series of workshops conducted in 13 cities across the : state on performing mobility monitoring in small to medium-sized communities. The workshops served as : implementation for research project 0...

  1. The development of internet based ship design support system for small and medium sized shipyards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Sung-Chul; Lee, Soon-Sup; Kang, Dong-Hoon; Lee, Kyung-Ho

    2012-03-01

    In this paper, a prototype of ship basic planning system is implemented for the small and medium sized shipyards based on the internet technology and concurrent engineering concept. The system is designed from the user requirements. Consequently, standardized development environment and tools are selected. These tools are used for the system development to define and evaluate core application technologies. The system will contribute to increasing competitiveness of small and medium sized shipyards in the 21st century industrial en-vironment.

  2. The business environment and phases of development of small and medium-sized enterprises

    OpenAIRE

    Wach, Krzysztof

    2006-01-01

    The subject literature distinguishes several factors that determine the establishment, survival , operations and development of micro, small, and medium-sized enterprises in particular regions. In this article, the author presents a classification of these factors in terms of whether they are barriers or stimulators. On this basis, the author explains the influence of regional environment (meso-environment) factors on the development of small and medium-sized enterprises in various phases of ...

  3. Financial Management Challenges In Small And Medium-Sized Enterprises: A Strategic Management Approach

    OpenAIRE

    Hande Karadag

    2015-01-01

    Abstract :Due to their significant role in creation of new jobs, rise in GDP, entrepreneurship and innovation, small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) are recognized as the the drivers of socio-economic growth, both in developed and developing economies. In Turkey, 99.9 % of all enterprises fall into SME category. Therefore, the significance of SMEs for Turkish economy and society is much higher in Turkey, compared to other emerging and developed countries. Small and medium-sized companies ...

  4. Large- and small-size advantages in sneaking behaviour in the dusky frillgoby Bathygobius fuscus

    OpenAIRE

    Takegaki, Takeshi; Kaneko, Takashi; Matsumoto, Yukio

    2012-01-01

    Sneaking tactic, a male alternative reproductive tactic involving sperm competition, is generally adopted by small individuals because of its inconspicuousness. However, large size has an advantage when competition occurs between sneakers for fertilization of eggs. Here, we suggest that both large- and small-size advantages of sneaker males are present within the same species. Large sneaker males of the dusky frillgoby Bathygobius fuscus showed a high success rate in intruding into spawning n...

  5. Fringe field effects in small rings of large acceptance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Berz

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available Recently there has been renewed interest in the influence of fringe fields on particle dynamics, due to studies that revealed their importance in some cases, as, for example, the proposed Neutrino Factory and muon colliders. In this paper, we present a systematic study of generic fringe field effects. Using as an example a lattice of the proposed Neutrino Factory, we show that fringe fields influence the dynamics of particles at all orders, starting with the linear motion. It is found that the widely used sharp cutoff approximation leads to divergences regardless of the specific fall-off shape of the fields. The results suggest that a careful consideration of fringe field effects in the design stage of small machines for large emittances is always recommended.

  6. Sustainability and Small to Medium Sized Enterprises--How to Engage Them

    Science.gov (United States)

    Condon, Linda

    2004-01-01

    Small and medium sized enterprises (SMEs) have a major advantage over larger organisations in regard to addressing sustainability issues--their size means they are able to react very quickly to changes in the business environment. They are disadvantaged, however, by lack of information on marketplace changes that make sustainability an opportunity…

  7. The role of small and medium size reactors in the future US nuclear market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Twilley, R.C.

    2002-01-01

    This paper addresses the various aspects of siting and sizing new generating facilities in the USA. Environmental and licensing issues are discussed. The economic considerations and assumptions for new plants are presented. Also, the electric transmission and distribution system characteristics and constraints are described with the potential role for several small and medium size designs summarized. (authors)

  8. Small-for-Size Liver Transplantation Increases Pulmonary Injury in Rats: Prevention by NIM811

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qinlong Liu

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Pulmonary complications after liver transplantation (LT often cause mortality. This study investigated whether small-for-size LT increases acute pulmonary injury and whether NIM811 which improves small-for-size liver graft survival attenuates LT-associated lung injury. Rat livers were reduced to 50% of original size, stored in UW-solution with and without NIM811 (5 μM for 6 h, and implanted into recipients of the same or about twice the donor weight, resulting in half-size (HSG and quarter-size grafts (QSG, respectively. Liver injury increased and regeneration was suppressed after QSG transplantation as expected. NIM811 blunted these alterations >75%. Pulmonary histological alterations were minimal at 5–18 h after LT. At 38 h, neutrophils and monocytes/macrophage infiltration, alveolar space exudation, alveolar septal thickening, oxidative/nitrosative protein adduct formation, and alveolar epithelial cell/capillary endothelial apoptosis became overt in the lungs of QSG recipients, but these alterations were mild in full-size and HSG recipients. Liver pretreatment with NIM811 markedly decreased pulmonary injury in QSG recipients. Hepatic TNFα and IL-1β mRNAs and pulmonary ICAM-1 expression were markedly higher after QSG transplantation, which were all decreased by NIM811. Together, dysfunctional small-for-size grafts produce toxic cytokines, leading to lung inflammation and injury. NIM811 decreased toxic cytokine formation, thus attenuating pulmonary injury after small-for-size LT.

  9. Using a Monte Carlo model to predict dosimetric properties of small radiotherapy photon fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scott, Alison J. D.; Nahum, Alan E.; Fenwick, John D.

    2008-01-01

    Accurate characterization of small-field dosimetry requires measurements to be made with precisely aligned specialized detectors and is thus time consuming and error prone. This work explores measurement differences between detectors by using a Monte Carlo model matched to large-field data to predict properties of smaller fields. Measurements made with a variety of detectors have been compared with calculated results to assess their validity and explore reasons for differences. Unshielded diodes are expected to produce some of the most useful data, as their small sensitive cross sections give good resolution whilst their energy dependence is shown to vary little with depth in a 15 MV linac beam. Their response is shown to be constant with field size over the range 1-10 cm, with a correction of 3% needed for a field size of 0.5 cm. BEAMnrc has been used to create a 15 MV beam model, matched to dosimetric data for square fields larger than 3 cm, and producing small-field profiles and percentage depth doses (PDDs) that agree well with unshielded diode data for field sizes down to 0.5 cm. For fields sizes of 1.5 cm and above, little detector-to-detector variation exists in measured output factors, however for a 0.5 cm field a relative spread of 18% is seen between output factors measured with different detectors--values measured with the diamond and pinpoint detectors lying below that of the unshielded diode, with the shielded diode value being higher. Relative to the corrected unshielded diode measurement, the Monte Carlo modeled output factor is 4.5% low, a discrepancy that is probably due to the focal spot fluence profile and source occlusion modeling. The large-field Monte Carlo model can, therefore, currently be used to predict small-field profiles and PDDs measured with an unshielded diode. However, determination of output factors for the smallest fields requires a more detailed model of focal spot fluence and source occlusion.

  10. Irradiation tests of a small-sized motor with radiation resistance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakamichi, M.; Ishitsuka, E.; Shimakawa, S.; Kan, S.

    2007-01-01

    In the Test Blanket Module (TBM) of the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER), tritium production and release behavior will be studied using neutrons from fusion reactions, as the blanket development for a demonstration (DEMO) reactor. For development of the TBM, in-pile functional tests are planned, including an integrated irradiation experiment of a fusion blanket mock-up for pulsed operation simulating the ITER operation mode, using the Japan Materials Testing Reactor (JMTR) of Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA).Due to be installed in an irradiation rig, a small-sized motor has to be developed for rotating a neutron absorber with a window to realize the simulated pulse operation. Since degradation of materials of the motor may be caused by radiation damage due to neutron and gamma-ray irradiation, it is important to examine the soundness of the motor materials under the neutron and gamma irradiation.In the present study, a small-sized motor with increased radiation resistance was developed as follows. A design of a commercial alternate current (AC) servomotor was adopted in the base structure, and some components of the motor were replaced by those made of radiation-proof materials, through elimination of organic materials. Polyester-coated wire for field coil and epoxy for fixed resin were replaced by polyimide-coated wire and polysiloxane filled with MgO and Al 2 O 3 , respectively. Furthermore, inorganic lubricant (Mo-based coating of 4 micro meter in thickness) was treated on the surface of a gear, instead of organic (polyphenylether) oil.Radiation-induced degradation of the components of the developed small-sized motor was examined using JMTR and the Japan Research Reactor No.4 (JRR-4) of JAEA. The motor was operating normally up to a gamma-ray dose of 7 x 10 8 Gy, a fast neutron (E>1 MeV) fluence of 2 x 10 21 m -2 and a thermal neutron (E 22 m -2 . The irradiated gamma-ray dose for this motor is about 700 times as high as the operation

  11. Successful E-Learning in Small and Medium-Sized Enterprises

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paulsen, Morten Flate

    2009-01-01

    So far, e-learning has primarily been used when there are many learners involved. The up-front investments related to e-learning are relatively high, and may be perceived as prohibitive for small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs). Some e-learning is, however, getting less expensive, and some e-learning models are more suited for small-scale…

  12. Simultaneous analysis of small organic acids and humic acids using high performance size exclusion chromatography

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Qin, X.P.; Liu, F.; Wang, G.C.; Weng, L.P.

    2012-01-01

    An accurate and fast method for simultaneous determination of small organic acids and much larger humic acids was developed using high performance size exclusion chromatography. Two small organic acids, i.e. salicylic acid and 2,3-dihydroxybenzoic acid, and one purified humic acid material were used

  13. Estimating sample size for a small-quadrat method of botanical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Reports the results of a study conducted to determine an appropriate sample size for a small-quadrat method of botanical survey for application in the Mixed Bushveld of South Africa. Species density and grass density were measured using a small-quadrat method in eight plant communities in the Nylsvley Nature Reserve.

  14. A Single IGF1 Allele Is a Major Determinant of Small Size in Dogs

    OpenAIRE

    Sutter, Nathan B.; Bustamante, Carlos D.; Chase, Kevin; Gray, Melissa M.; Zhao, Keyan; Zhu, Lan; Padhukasahasram, Badri; Karlins, Eric; Davis, Sean; Jones, Paul G.; Quignon, Pascale; Johnson, Gary S.; Parker, Heidi G.; Fretwell, Neale; Mosher, Dana S.

    2007-01-01

    The domestic dog exhibits greater diversity in body size than any other terrestrial vertebrate. We used a strategy that exploits the breed structure of dogs to investigate the genetic basis of size. First, through a genome-wide scan, we identified a major quantitative trait locus (QTL) on chromosome 15 influencing size variation within a single breed. Second, we examined genetic variation in the 15-megabase interval surrounding the QTL in small and giant breeds and found marked evidence for a...

  15. Size Exclusion HPLC Detection of Small-Size Impurities as a Complementary Means for Quality Analysis of Extracellular Vesicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tao Huang

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available For extracellular vesicle research, whether for biomarker discoveries or therapeutic applications, it is critical to have high-quality samples. Both microscopy and NanoSight Tracking Analysis (NTA for size distribution have been used to detect large vesicles. However, there is currently no well-established method that is convenient for routine quality analysis of small-size impurities in vesicle samples. In this paper we report a convenient method, called ‘size-exclusion high-performance liquid chromatography’ (SE-HPLC, alongside NTA and Microscopy analysis to guide and qualify the isolation and processing of vesicles. First, the SE-HPLC analysis was used to detect impurities of small-size proteins during the ultra-centrifugation process of vesicle isolation; it was then employed to test the changes of vesicles under different pH conditions or integrity after storage. As SE-HPLC is generally accessible in most institutions, it could be used as a routine means to assist researchers in examining the integrity and quality of extracellular vesicles along with other techniques either during isolation/preparation or for further engineering and storage.

  16. Role of Relationship Marketing in Small and Medium-Sized Entreprises

    OpenAIRE

    Ružica Butigan; Ivana Mahnić

    2011-01-01

    Along with marketing, small and medium enterprises (SMEs) are commonly associated in literature with relationship marketing which results in marketing networks. This paper examines the specific characteristics that differentiate large companies from small and medium-sized enterprises, and the reasons that prevent SMEs from engaging in traditional marketing within the scope of marketing mix. The paper also shows that the key characteristic which distinguishes small from large companies is a pr...

  17. Regional Determinants of Efficiency Growth of Small and Medium-Sized Enterprises. Evidence from Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teresa Łuczka

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available SMEs sector plays a vital role in modern economies. Therefore, the interest in its functioning among economists is in fact quite natural. This article is a part of a current research on regional factors contributing to the development of enterprises in this category. The first section examines earlier studies in this field conducted globally and in Poland. According to them, many elements enable the SME’s development. It is not surprisingly that the specified set of pro-growth factors does not exists. Next section describes the results of the author’s own studies in the fields. These studies relate to regional factors contributing to the efficiency growth of micro, small and medium-sized enterprises in Poland. Data used in the study was collected from GUS[1] and EUROSTAT and encompassed 16 provinces for the years 2003-2008. The model prepared included 11 independent variables on labor force, social mobility, living standard and R&D policy. The authors would have gladly considered more than 11 explanatory variable, but the inaccessibility of such data made it impossible. In the next step, using GRETL software, equations of regression were defined. On this basis it was concluded that the most important factors contributing to efficiency growth of SMEs are the amount of spending on R&D and the level of wages.

  18. Small field in-air output factors: The role of miniphantom design and dosimeter type

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Warrener, Kirbie; Hug, Benjamin; Ebert, Martin A.; Liu, Paul; McKenzie, David R.; Ralston, Anna; Suchowerska, Natalka

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: The commissioning of treatment planning systems and beam modeling requires measured input parameters. The measurement of relative output in-air, S c is particularly difficult for small fields. The purpose of this study was to investigate the influence of miniphantom design and detector selection on measured S c values for small fields and to validate the measurements against Monte Carlo simulations. Methods: Measurements were performed using brass caps (with sidewalls) or tops (no sidewalls) of varying heights and widths. The performance of two unshielded diodes (60012 and SFD), EBT2 radiochromic film, and a fiber optic dosimeter (FOD) were compared for fields defined by MLCs (5–100 mm) and SRS cones (4–30 mm) on a Varian Novalis linear accelerator. Monte Carlo simulations were performed to theoretically predict S c as measured by the FOD. Results: For all detectors, S c agreed to within 1% for fields larger than 10 mm and to within 2.3% for smaller fields. Monte Carlo simulation matched the FOD measurements for all size of cone defined fields to within 0.5%. Conclusions: Miniphantom design is the most important variable for reproducible and accurate measurements of the in-air output ratio, S c , in small photon fields (less than 30 mm). Sidewalls are not required for fields ≤ 30 mm and tops are therefore preferred over the larger caps. Unlike output measurements in water, S cp, the selection of detector type for S c is not critical, provided the active dosimeter volume is small relative to the field size

  19. Small field in-air output factors: The role of miniphantom design and dosimeter type

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Warrener, Kirbie, E-mail: kirbie.warrener@sesiahs.health.nsw.gov.au [Illawarra Cancer Care Centre, Wollongong Hospital, Wollongong, New South Wales 2521, Australia and Centre for Medical Radiation Physics, University of Wollongong, Wollongong, New South Wales 2522 (Australia); Hug, Benjamin; Ebert, Martin A. [School of Physics, University of Western Australia, Crawley, Western Australia 6009, Australia and Department of Radiation Oncology, Sir Charles Gairdner Hospital, Perth, Western Australia 6009 (Australia); Liu, Paul; McKenzie, David R. [School of Physics, University of Sydney, Darlington, New South Wales 2008 (Australia); Ralston, Anna [Chris O' Brien Lifehouse, Radiation Oncology, Sydney, New South Wales 2050 (Australia); Suchowerska, Natalka [School of Physics, University of Sydney, Darlington, New South Wales 2008, Australia and Chris O' Brien Lifehouse, Radiation Oncology, Sydney, New South Wales 2050 (Australia)

    2014-02-15

    Purpose: The commissioning of treatment planning systems and beam modeling requires measured input parameters. The measurement of relative output in-air, S{sub c} is particularly difficult for small fields. The purpose of this study was to investigate the influence of miniphantom design and detector selection on measured S{sub c} values for small fields and to validate the measurements against Monte Carlo simulations. Methods: Measurements were performed using brass caps (with sidewalls) or tops (no sidewalls) of varying heights and widths. The performance of two unshielded diodes (60012 and SFD), EBT2 radiochromic film, and a fiber optic dosimeter (FOD) were compared for fields defined by MLCs (5–100 mm) and SRS cones (4–30 mm) on a Varian Novalis linear accelerator. Monte Carlo simulations were performed to theoretically predict S{sub c} as measured by the FOD. Results: For all detectors, S{sub c} agreed to within 1% for fields larger than 10 mm and to within 2.3% for smaller fields. Monte Carlo simulation matched the FOD measurements for all size of cone defined fields to within 0.5%. Conclusions: Miniphantom design is the most important variable for reproducible and accurate measurements of the in-air output ratio, S{sub c}, in small photon fields (less than 30 mm). Sidewalls are not required for fields ≤ 30 mm and tops are therefore preferred over the larger caps. Unlike output measurements in water, S{sub cp,} the selection of detector type for S{sub c} is not critical, provided the active dosimeter volume is small relative to the field size.

  20. A Single IGF1 Allele Is a Major Determinant of Small Size in Dogs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutter, Nathan B.; Bustamante, Carlos D.; Chase, Kevin; Gray, Melissa M.; Zhao, Keyan; Zhu, Lan; Padhukasahasram, Badri; Karlins, Eric; Davis, Sean; Jones, Paul G.; Quignon, Pascale; Johnson, Gary S.; Parker, Heidi G.; Fretwell, Neale; Mosher, Dana S.; Lawler, Dennis F.; Satyaraj, Ebenezer; Nordborg, Magnus; Lark, K. Gordon; Wayne, Robert K.; Ostrander, Elaine A.

    2009-01-01

    The domestic dog exhibits greater diversity in body size than any other terrestrial vertebrate. We used a strategy that exploits the breed structure of dogs to investigate the genetic basis of size. First, through a genome-wide scan, we identified a major quantitative trait locus (QTL) on chromosome 15 influencing size variation within a single breed. Second, we examined genetic variation in the 15-megabase interval surrounding the QTL in small and giant breeds and found marked evidence for a selective sweep spanning a single gene (IGF1), encoding insulin-like growth factor 1. A single IGF1 single-nucleotide polymorphism haplotype is common to all small breeds and nearly absent from giant breeds, suggesting that the same causal sequence variant is a major contributor to body size in all small dogs. PMID:17412960

  1. High dose per fraction dosimetry of small fields with Gafchromic EBT2 film

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hardcastle, Nicholas; Basavatia, Amar; Bayliss, Adam; Tome, Wolfgang A.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: Small field dosimetry is prone to uncertainties due to the lack of electronic equilibrium and the use of the correct detector size relative to the field size measured. It also exhibits higher sensitivity to setup errors as well as large variation in output with field size and shape. Radiochromic film is an attractive method for reference dosimetry in small fields due to its ability to provide 2D dose measurements while having minimal impact on the dose distribution. Gafchromic EBT2 has a dose range of up to 40 Gy; therefore, it could potentially be useful for high dose reference dosimetry with high spatial resolution. This is a requirement in stereotactic radiosurgery deliveries, which deliver high doses per fraction to small targets. Methods: Targets of 4 mm and 12 mm diameters were treated to a minimum peripheral dose of 21 Gy prescribed to 80% of the maximum dose in one fraction. Target doses were measured with EBT2 film (both targets) and an ion chamber (12 mm target only). Measured doses were compared with planned dose distributions using profiles through the target and minimum peripheral dose coverage. Results: The measured target doses and isodose coverage agreed with the planned dose within ±1 standard deviation of three measurements, which were 2.13% and 2.5% for the 4 mm and 12 mm targets, respectively. Conclusions: EBT2 film is a feasible dosimeter for high dose per fraction reference 2D dosimetry.

  2. Small-size pedestrian detection in large scene based on fast R-CNN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shengke; Yang, Na; Duan, Lianghua; Liu, Lu; Dong, Junyu

    2018-04-01

    Pedestrian detection is a canonical sub-problem of object detection with high demand during recent years. Although recent deep learning object detectors such as Fast/Faster R-CNN have shown excellent performance for general object detection, they have limited success for small size pedestrian detection in large-view scene. We study that the insufficient resolution of feature maps lead to the unsatisfactory accuracy when handling small instances. In this paper, we investigate issues involving Fast R-CNN for pedestrian detection. Driven by the observations, we propose a very simple but effective baseline for pedestrian detection based on Fast R-CNN, employing the DPM detector to generate proposals for accuracy, and training a fast R-CNN style network to jointly optimize small size pedestrian detection with skip connection concatenating feature from different layers to solving coarseness of feature maps. And the accuracy is improved in our research for small size pedestrian detection in the real large scene.

  3. Test of a sample container for shipment of small size plutonium samples with PAT-2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuhn, E.; Aigner, H.; Deron, S.

    1981-11-01

    A light-weight container for the air transport of plutonium, to be designated PAT-2, has been developed in the USA and is presently undergoing licensing. The very limited effective space for bearing plutonium required the design of small size sample canisters to meet the needs of international safeguards for the shipment of plutonium samples. The applicability of a small canister for the sampling of small size powder and solution samples has been tested in an intralaboratory experiment. The results of the experiment, based on the concept of pre-weighed samples, show that the tested canister can successfully be used for the sampling of small size PuO 2 -powder samples of homogeneous source material, as well as for dried aliquands of plutonium nitrate solutions. (author)

  4. Small, medium, large or supersize? The development and evaluation of interventions targeted at portion size

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vermeer, W M; Steenhuis, I H M; Poelman, M P

    2014-01-01

    In the past decades, portion sizes of high-caloric foods and drinks have increased and can be considered an important environmental obesogenic factor. This paper describes a research project in which the feasibility and effectiveness of environmental interventions targeted at portion size was evaluated. The studies that we conducted revealed that portion size labeling, offering a larger variety of portion sizes, and proportional pricing (that is, a comparable price per unit regardless of the size) were considered feasible to implement according to both consumers and point-of-purchase representatives. Studies into the effectiveness of these interventions demonstrated that the impact of portion size labeling on the (intended) consumption of soft drinks was, at most, modest. Furthermore, the introduction of smaller portion sizes of hot meals in worksite cafeterias in addition to the existing size stimulated a moderate number of consumers to replace their large meals by a small meal. Elaborating on these findings, we advocate further research into communication and marketing strategies related to portion size interventions; the development of environmental portion size interventions as well as educational interventions that improve people's ability to deal with a ‘super-sized' environment; the implementation of regulation with respect to portion size labeling, and the use of nudges to stimulate consumers to select healthier portion sizes. PMID:25033959

  5. Prognostic Importance of Small Prostate Size in Men Receiving Definitive Prostate Brachytherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taira, Al V.; Merrick, Gregory S.; Galbreath, Robert W.; Butler, Wayne M.; Adamovich, Edward; Wallner, Kent E.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: To assess whether small prostate size is an adverse prognostic factor in men undergoing brachytherapy in the same manner in which it seems to be for men undergoing radical prostatectomy. Methods and Materials: From April 1995 to June 2008, 2024 patients underwent brachytherapy by a single brachytherapist. Median follow-up was 7.4 years. The role of small prostate size (≤20 cm 3 ) as a prognostic factor for biochemical progression-free survival, cause-specific survival, and all-cause mortality was investigated. The differences in survival between men with small and larger prostates were compared using Kaplan-Meier curves and log-rank tests. Results: Median prostate size for the entire cohort was 32.7 cm 3 . For the 167 men with small prostates, median prostate size was 17.4 cm 3 . There was no difference in biochemical progression-free survival (95.2% vs 96.2%, P=.603), cause-specific survival (97.7% vs 98.3%, P=.546), or all-cause mortality (78.0% vs 77.2%, P=.838) at 10 years for men with small prostates compared with men with larger prostates. On univariate and multivariate analysis, small prostate size was not associated with any of the primary outcome measures. Conclusion: Men with small prostates treated with brachytherapy have excellent outcomes and are at no higher risk of treatment failure than men with larger glands. High-quality implants with adequate margins seem sufficient to address the increased adverse risk factors associated with small prostate size.

  6. Rapid parameterization of small molecules using the Force Field Toolkit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayne, Christopher G; Saam, Jan; Schulten, Klaus; Tajkhorshid, Emad; Gumbart, James C

    2013-12-15

    The inability to rapidly generate accurate and robust parameters for novel chemical matter continues to severely limit the application of molecular dynamics simulations to many biological systems of interest, especially in fields such as drug discovery. Although the release of generalized versions of common classical force fields, for example, General Amber Force Field and CHARMM General Force Field, have posited guidelines for parameterization of small molecules, many technical challenges remain that have hampered their wide-scale extension. The Force Field Toolkit (ffTK), described herein, minimizes common barriers to ligand parameterization through algorithm and method development, automation of tedious and error-prone tasks, and graphical user interface design. Distributed as a VMD plugin, ffTK facilitates the traversal of a clear and organized workflow resulting in a complete set of CHARMM-compatible parameters. A variety of tools are provided to generate quantum mechanical target data, setup multidimensional optimization routines, and analyze parameter performance. Parameters developed for a small test set of molecules using ffTK were comparable to existing CGenFF parameters in their ability to reproduce experimentally measured values for pure-solvent properties (<15% error from experiment) and free energy of solvation (±0.5 kcal/mol from experiment). Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. SIZE AND FIELD OF ACTIVITY INFLUENCE ON WEB SITES FUNCTIONALITY FOR ROMANIAN COMPANIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tarca Ioan

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available The internet became an important part of the company’s informational system. In order to take advantage on the Internet’s interactive nature, a lot of companies have created their own websites. Companies use the website for numerous applications: to promote themselves, online shopping, and communication with targeted clients. This study reveals the fact that the company’s size and field of activity have influence on website’s functionality and interactivity. Small companies use the website to successfully compete corporations which do not have yet necessary stimulants to fully exploit the internet capacities.

  8. Cosmic microwave background observables of small field models of inflation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ben-Dayan, Ido; Brustein, Ram

    2010-01-01

    We construct a class of single small field models of inflation that can predict, contrary to popular wisdom, an observable gravitational wave signal in the cosmic microwave background anisotropies. The spectral index, its running, the tensor to scalar ratio and the number of e-folds can cover all the parameter space currently allowed by cosmological observations. A unique feature of models in this class is their ability to predict a negative spectral index running in accordance with recent cosmic microwave background observations. We discuss the new class of models from an effective field theory perspective and show that if the dimensionless trilinear coupling is small, as required for consistency, then the observed spectral index running implies a high scale of inflation and hence an observable gravitational wave signal. All the models share a distinct prediction of higher power at smaller scales, making them easy targets for detection

  9. SU-F-T-490: Separating Effects Influencing Detector Response in Small MV Photon Fields

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wegener, S; Sauer, O [University of Wuerzburg, Wuerzburg (Germany)

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: Different detector properties influence their responses especially in field sizes below the lateral electron range. Due to the finite active volume, the detector density and electron perturbation at other structural parts, the response factor is in general field size dependent. We aimed to visualize and separate the main effects contributing to detector behavior for a variety of detector types. This was achieved in an experimental setup, shielding the field center. Thus, effects caused by scattered radiation could be examined separately. Methods: Signal ratios for field sizes down to 8 mm (SSD 90 cm, water depth 10 cm) of a 6MV beam from a Siemens Primus LINAC were recorded with several detectors: PTW microDiamond and PinPoint ionization chamber, shielded diodes (PTW P-60008, IBA PFD and SNC Edge) and unshielded diodes (PTW E-60012 and IBA SFD). Measurements were carried out in open fields and with an aluminum pole of 4 mm diameter as a central block. The geometric volume effect was calculated from profiles obtained with Gafchromic EBT3 film, evaluated using FilmQA Pro software (Ashland, USA). Results: Volume corrections were 1.7% at maximum. After correction, in small open fields, unshielded diodes showed a lower response than the diamond, i.e. diamond detector over-response seems to be higher than that for unshielded diodes. Beneath the block, this behavior was amplified by a factor of 2. For the shielded diodes, the overresponse for small open fields could be confirmed. However their lateral response behavior was strongly type dependent, e.g. the signal ratio dropped from 1.02 to 0.98 for the P-60008 diode. Conclusion: The lateral detector response was experimentally examined. Detector volume and density alone do not fully account for the field size dependence of detector response. Detector construction details play a major role, especially for shielded diodes.

  10. Nonlinear gravitational self-force: Field outside a small body

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pound, Adam

    2012-10-01

    A small extended body moving through an external spacetime gαβ creates a metric perturbation hαβ, which forces the body away from geodesic motion in gαβ. The foundations of this effect, called the gravitational self-force, are now well established, but concrete results have mostly been limited to linear order. Accurately modeling the dynamics of compact binaries requires proceeding to nonlinear orders. To that end, I show how to obtain the metric perturbation outside the body at all orders in a class of generalized wave gauges. In a small buffer region surrounding the body, the form of the perturbation can be found analytically as an expansion for small distances r from a representative worldline. Given only a specification of the body’s multipole moments, the field obtained in the buffer region suffices to find the metric everywhere outside the body via a numerical puncture scheme. Following this procedure at first and second order, I calculate the field in the buffer region around an arbitrarily structured compact body at sufficiently high order in r to numerically implement a second-order puncture scheme, including effects of the body’s spin. I also define nth-order (local) generalizations of the Detweiler-Whiting singular and regular fields and show that in a certain sense, the body can be viewed as a skeleton of multipole moments.

  11. Online virtual isocenter based radiation field targeting for high performance small animal microirradiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, James M. P.; Ansell, Steve; Lindsay, Patricia E.; Jaffray, David A.

    2015-12-01

    Advances in precision microirradiators for small animal radiation oncology studies have provided the framework for novel translational radiobiological studies. Such systems target radiation fields at the scale required for small animal investigations, typically through a combination of on-board computed tomography image guidance and fixed, interchangeable collimators. Robust targeting accuracy of these radiation fields remains challenging, particularly at the millimetre scale field sizes achievable by the majority of microirradiators. Consistent and reproducible targeting accuracy is further hindered as collimators are removed and inserted during a typical experimental workflow. This investigation quantified this targeting uncertainty and developed an online method based on a virtual treatment isocenter to actively ensure high performance targeting accuracy for all radiation field sizes. The results indicated that the two-dimensional field placement uncertainty was as high as 1.16 mm at isocenter, with simulations suggesting this error could be reduced to 0.20 mm using the online correction method. End-to-end targeting analysis of a ball bearing target on radiochromic film sections showed an improved targeting accuracy with the three-dimensional vector targeting error across six different collimators reduced from 0.56+/- 0.05 mm (mean  ±  SD) to 0.05+/- 0.05 mm for an isotropic imaging voxel size of 0.1 mm.

  12. Human resources management within the process management in small and medium-sized enterprises

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie Duspivová

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Sector of small and medium-sized enterprises is regarded as the backbone of the economy and a driving force of innovation, employment and social integration. Development of the sector of small and medium-sized enterprises in the Czech Republic has a substantial impact on economic and social development of the country and its various regions. This article deals with the human resources management in small and medium-sized enterprises, because it is more than obvious recently that the prosperity of the organization is depended on human resources and management of them can determine not only whether the organizations succeed, but whether it will be able to survive in turbulent conditions in the present world. The main aim of this paper is to analytical describe the monitoring the process of human resources management in selected categories of enterprises by business activity and number of employees including statistical analysis of causal effects. Further to analytical describe the evaluation the process of human resources management and indicators of this process, which are monitored by small and medium-sized enterprises. To achieve this aim were used selected primary data collected in the project GAJU 068/2010/S titled “Process management and its possible implementation in small and medium-sized enterprises”.

  13. MMS Multipoint Electric Field Observations of Small-Scale Magnetic Holes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodrich, Katherine A.; Ergun, Robert E.; Wilder, Frederick; Burch, James; Torbert, Roy; Khotyaintsev, Yuri; Lindqvist, Per-Arne; Russell, Christopher; Strangeway, Robert; Magnus, Werner

    2016-01-01

    Small-scale magnetic holes (MHs), local depletions in magnetic field strength, have been observed multiple times in the Earths magnetosphere in the bursty bulk flow (BBF) braking region. This particular subset of MHs has observed scale sizes perpendicular to the background magnetic field (B) less than the ambient ion Larmor radius (p(sib i)). Previous observations by Time History of Events and Macroscale Interactions during Substorms (THEMIS) indicate that this subset of MHs can be supported by a current driven by the E x B drift of electrons. Ions do not participate in the E x B drift due to the small-scale size of the electric field. While in the BBF braking region, during its commissioning phase, the Magnetospheric Multiscale (MMS) spacecraft observed a small-scale MH. The electric field observations taken during this event suggest the presence of electron currents perpendicular to the magnetic field. These observations also suggest that these currents can evolve to smaller spatial scales.

  14. Hybrid Guidance Control for a Hypervelocity Small Size Asteroid Interceptor Vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zebenay, Melak M.; Lyzhoft, Joshua R.; Barbee, Brent W.

    2017-01-01

    Near-Earth Objects (NEOs) are comets and/or asteroids that have orbits in proximity with Earth's own orbit. NEOs have collided with the Earth in the past, which can be seen at such places as Chicxulub crater, Barringer crater, and Manson crater, and will continue in the future with potentially significant and devastating results. Fortunately such NEO collisions with Earth are infrequent, but can happen at any time. Therefore it is necessary to develop and validate techniques as well as technologies necessary to prevent them. One approach to mitigate future NEO impacts is the concept of high-speed interceptor. This concept is to alter the NEO's trajectory via momentum exchange by using kinetic impactors as well as nuclear penetration devices. The interceptor has to hit a target NEO at relative velocity which imparts a sufficient change in NEO velocity. NASA's Deep Impact mission has demonstrated this scenario by intercepting Comet Temple 1, 5 km in diameter, with an impact relative speed of approximately 10 km/s. This paper focuses on the development of hybrid guidance navigation and control (GNC) algorithms for precision hypervelocity intercept of small sized NEOs. The spacecraft's hypervelocity and the NEO's small size are critical challenges for a successful mission as the NEO will not fill the field of view until a few seconds before intercept. The investigation needs to consider the error sources modeled in the navigation simulation such as spacecraft initial state uncertainties in position and velocity. Furthermore, the paper presents three selected spacecraft guidance algorithms for asteroid intercept and rendezvous missions. The selected algorithms are classical Proportional Navigation (PN) based guidance that use a first order difference to compute the derivatives, Three Plane Proportional Navigation (TPPN), and the Kinematic Impulse (KI). A manipulated Bennu orbit that has been changed to impact Earth will be used as a demonstrative example to compare the

  15. GOVERNMENT SUPPORT FOR SMALL AND MEDIUM-SIZED BUSINESS AND INNOVATIVE ACTIVITIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pоlina Kolisnichenko

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the paper is to reveal the conditions of the innovative development of the small and mediumsized entrepreneurship in Ukraine; the problems that suppress the innovative activity and small and medium-sized enterprises development; peculiarities of the tax incentives for the development of the entrepreneurship in the advanced countries and in Ukraine; the main kinds and characteristics of the small and medium-sized enterprises public support. Methodology. The methods of scientific research include: analysis and generalization for studying the main kinds and characteristics of the government support of the small and medium-sized enterprises; dynamic and comparative analysis for studying the problems and factors influencing the development of small and medium enterprises and innovative activity, peculiarities of tax incentives for business development; systemanalytical method for studying the conditions of the innovative development of the small and medium-sized entrepreneurship. Results. The government's financial support priorities should be: optimal application of the fiscal regulation instruments (reduction of the amount of taxes, determination of the criteria for the maximum taxation amount, tax incentives etc., maintenance of the self-investment of small and medium-sized enterprises as well as investment, financial means of the public influence over the development of the enterprises, effective combination of both direct and indirect forms of the innovative development support. Practical implications. The obtained results can be used in the process of formation and implementation of the small and medium enterprise sector development strategy and innovative activity in the long-term perspective. Value/originality. The obtained data can provide a better understanding of the direction of innovative business development in Ukraine.

  16. Spatial distribution and size of small canopy gaps created by Japanese black bears: estimating gap size using dropped branch measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Kazuaki; Takahashi, Kaori

    2013-06-10

    Japanese black bears, a large-bodied omnivore, frequently create small gaps in the tree crown during fruit foraging. However, there are no previous reports of black bear-created canopy gaps. To characterize physical canopy disturbance by black bears, we examined a number of parameters, including the species of trees in which canopy gaps were created, gap size, the horizontal and vertical distribution of gaps, and the size of branches broken to create gaps. The size of black bear-created canopy gaps was estimated using data from branches that had been broken and dropped on the ground. The disturbance regime was characterized by a highly biased distribution of small canopy gaps on ridges, a large total overall gap area, a wide range in gap height relative to canopy height, and diversity in gap size. Surprisingly, the annual rate of bear-created canopy gap formation reached 141.3 m2 ha-1 yr-1 on ridges, which were hot spots in terms of black bear activity. This rate was approximately 6.6 times that of tree-fall gap formation on ridges at this study site. Furthermore, this rate was approximately two to three times that of common tree-fall gap formation in Japanese forests, as reported in other studies. Our findings suggest that the ecological interaction between black bears and fruit-bearing trees may create a unique light regime, distinct from that created by tree falls, which increases the availability of light resources to plants below the canopy.

  17. 75 FR 9431 - Small and Medium-Sized Enterprises: U.S. and EU Export Activities, and Barriers and Opportunities...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-02

    ... to the USTR on the first investigation, No. 332-508, Small and Medium-Sized Enterprises: Overview of..., investigation No. 332-509, Small and Medium-Sized Enterprises: U.S. and EU Export Activities, and Barriers and Opportunities Experienced by U.S. Firms, and investigation No. 332- 510, Small and Medium-Sized Enterprises...

  18. Improving the accuracy of ionization chamber dosimetry in small megavoltage x-ray fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNiven, Andrea L.

    The dosimetry of small x-ray fields is difficult, but important, in many radiation therapy delivery methods. The accuracy of ion chambers for small field applications, however, is limited due to the relatively large size of the chamber with respect to the field size, leading to partial volume effects, lateral electronic disequilibrium and calibration difficulties. The goal of this dissertation was to investigate the use of ionization chambers for the purpose of dosimetry in small megavoltage photon beams with the aim of improving clinical dose measurements in stereotactic radiotherapy and helical tomotherapy. A new method for the direct determination of the sensitive volume of small-volume ion chambers using micro computed tomography (muCT) was investigated using four nominally identical small-volume (0.56 cm3) cylindrical ion chambers. Agreement between their measured relative volume and ionization measurements (within 2%) demonstrated the feasibility of volume determination through muCT. Cavity-gas calibration coefficients were also determined, demonstrating the promise for accurate ion chamber calibration based partially on muCT. The accuracy of relative dose factor measurements in 6MV stereotactic x-ray fields (5 to 40mm diameter) was investigated using a set of prototype plane-parallel ionization chambers (diameters of 2, 4, 10 and 20mm). Chamber and field size specific correction factors ( CSFQ ), that account for perturbation of the secondary electron fluence, were calculated using Monte Carlo simulation methods (BEAM/EGSnrc simulations). These correction factors (e.g. CSFQ = 1.76 (2mm chamber, 5mm field) allow for accurate relative dose factor (RDF) measurement when applied to ionization readings, under conditions of electronic disequilibrium. With respect to the dosimetry of helical tomotherapy, a novel application of the ion chambers was developed to characterize the fan beam size and effective dose rate. Characterization was based on an adaptation of the

  19. Improvement of environmental management incentives for small and medium-sized enterprises

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chang, Kee Bok; Lee, Seung Kyu; Lim, Chae Woon; Chung, Ho Sun [Korea Environment Institute, Seoul (Korea)

    1998-12-01

    The developed countries have been prepared the national innovation for sustainable development for a long time. The international advanced enterprises, such as multinational enterprises, are enhancing the active and strategic environmental management. However, in spite of such changes in the world, small and middle-sized enterprises do not show any substantial changes. It is true that most of enterprises do not recognize the need of environmental management. Although they have intention for environmental improvement, it is also true that they do not have any strength to maintain effective management. Moreover, with over 99% of small and middle-sized enterprises among entire enterprises in Korea, it is hardly possible to establish an effective regulation system. The purpose of this study is to make a policy plan to induce the development of environmental friendly small and middle-sized enterprises under the recognition of such problems. 138 refs., 4 figs., 195 tabs.

  20. Motion of small bodies in classical field theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gralla, Samuel E.

    2010-01-01

    I show how prior work with R. Wald on geodesic motion in general relativity can be generalized to classical field theories of a metric and other tensor fields on four-dimensional spacetime that (1) are second-order and (2) follow from a diffeomorphism-covariant Lagrangian. The approach is to consider a one-parameter-family of solutions to the field equations satisfying certain assumptions designed to reflect the existence of a body whose size, mass, and various charges are simultaneously scaled to zero. (That such solutions exist places a further restriction on the class of theories to which our results apply.) Assumptions are made only on the spacetime region outside of the body, so that the results apply independent of the body's composition (and, e.g., black holes are allowed). The worldline 'left behind' by the shrinking, disappearing body is interpreted as its lowest-order motion. An equation for this worldline follows from the 'Bianchi identity' for the theory, without use of any properties of the field equations beyond their being second-order. The form of the force law for a theory therefore depends only on the ranks of its various tensor fields; the detailed properties of the field equations are relevant only for determining the charges for a particular body (which are the ''monopoles'' of its exterior fields in a suitable limiting sense). I explicitly derive the force law (and mass-evolution law) in the case of scalar and vector fields, and give the recipe in the higher-rank case. Note that the vector force law is quite complicated, simplifying to the Lorentz force law only in the presence of the Maxwell gauge symmetry. Example applications of the results are the motion of 'chameleon' bodies beyond the Newtonian limit, and the motion of bodies in (classical) non-Abelian gauge theory. I also make some comments on the role that scaling plays in the appearance of universality in the motion of bodies.

  1. Effect of pulsed electric fields treatment and mash size on extraction and composition of apple juices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turk, Mohammad F; Baron, Alain; Vorobiev, Eugene

    2010-09-08

    This study explored the effect of pulsed electric field (PEF) treatment (E=450 V/cm; tt=10 ms; Eapple mash size on juice yield, polyphenolic compounds, sugars, and malic acid. Juice yield increased significantly after PEF treatment of large mash (Y=71.4%) and remained higher than the juice yield obtained for a control small mash (45.6%). The acid sweet balance was not altered by PEF. A correlation was established between the decrease of light absorbance (control: 1.43; treated: 1.10) and the decline of native polyphenols yield due to PEF treatment (control: 9.6%; treated: 5.9% for small mash). An enhanced oxidation of phenolic compounds in cells due to electroporation of the inner cell membrane and the adsorption of the oxidized products on the mash may explain both the lower light absorbance and the lower native polyphenol concentration.

  2. ENVIRONMENTAL RESPONSIBILITY OF SMALL AND MEDIUM-SIZED ENTERPRISES AND ITS SIGNIFICANCE FOR THE IMPLEMENTATION OF THE CSR CONCEPT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magdalena Kaźmierczak

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This article attempts to assess the importance of the environmental dimension of the concept of corporate social responsibility (Social Corporate Responsibility - CSR in small and medium-sized enterprises. The first part describes the essence of corporate social responsibility. The second part is the basic pillar of CSR, which is an ecological area. The third part presents the environmental efforts undertaken by small and medium-sized enterprises in the field of CSR. The analysis was based on the literature available and data obtained from empirical research conducted by the writer. The results show that companies, however in different extent undertake ecological activities willingly. Furthermore, those activities benefit not only in terms of the environmental dimension of CSR, but also in other areas of the organization.

  3. Design features to achieve defence-in-depth in small and medium sized reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuznetsov, Vladimir

    2009-01-01

    Broader incorporation of inherent and passive safety design features has become a 'trademark' of many advanced reactor concepts, including several evolutionary designs and nearly all innovative small and medium sized design concepts. Ensuring adequate defence-in-depth is important for reactors of smaller output because many of them are being designed to allow more proximity to the user, specifically, when non-electrical energy products are targeted. Based on the activities recently performed by the International Atomic Energy Agency, the paper provides a summary description of the design features used to achieve defence in depth in the eleven representative concepts of small and medium sized reactors. (author)

  4. Graduate Student in Engineering, Hoped by Owners of Medium-and Small-Sized Companies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kida, Yoshihiro

    Medium-and small-sized companies have held up Japanese technologies which situated top level in the world as far. However, for the technologies of medium-and small-sized companies to keep the top-level in the 21 centuries, researchers and engineers are demand to have high technologies. Those engineers are hoped for to have not only “knowledge”, but also “creativity, feeling and experience”. Therefore, in order to create such professional engineers, educational institute must have a function by which a practical training and education can be conducted.

  5. Simplified analysis of passive residual heat removal systems for small size PWR's

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Botelho, D.A.

    1992-02-01

    The function and general objectives of a passive residual heat removal system for small size PWR's are defined. The characteristic configuration, the components and the operation modes of this system are concisely described. A preliminary conceptual specification of this system, for a small size PWR of 400 MW thermal, is made analogous to the decay heat removal system of the AP-600 reactor. It is shown by analytic models that such passive systems can dissipate 2% of nominal power within the thermal limits allowed to the reactor fuel elements. (author)

  6. More Differences or More Similarities Regarding Education in Big, Middle-sized and Small Companies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marjana Merkač

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the results of research of education and qualifying of employees in small, middle-sized and big Slovenian companies. The research shows some differences regarding the attitude to the development of employees as a part of a company's business strategy, some obstacles for developing their abilities, and connections between job satisfaction and motivation for learning. It also shows how important it is for the subjects concerning education and qualifying if an individual works for a big, middle-sized, or small company.

  7. SMALL AND MIDDLE-SIZED BUSINESS: LOGISTICAL AND SOCIAL AND ECONOMICAL FUNCTIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. N. Pavlova

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Entrepreneurship is one of the factors that can ensure a sustainable character to the development of Belarus. The present Belarusian entrepreneurship should select the required forms and determine development priorities. It is practically impossible to do it without taking into account modem global social and economical tendencies and also specificity of Belarusian mentality and traditions. In this sense priority status is given to small and middle-sized business because it is considered as an element of economic system that ensures stability to economy. Small and middle-sized business is an ideal logistical model that provides harmonization of interests and optimization of management solutions.

  8. Strategies for Successful Information Technology Adoption in Small and Medium-sized Enterprises

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morteza Ghobakhloo

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Information Technology (IT adoption is an important field of study in a number of areas, which include small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs. Due to the numerous advantages of IT, SMEs are trying to adopt IT applications to support their businesses. IT adoption by SMEs differs from larger organizations because of their specific characteristics, such as resources constraints. Therefore, this research aims to provide a better and clearer understanding of IT adoption within SMEs by reviewing and analyzing current IT literature. In this research, the review of literature includes theories, perspectives, empirical research and case studies related to IT adoption, in particular within SMEs from various databases such as Business Premier, Science Direct, JStor, Emerald Insight and Springer Link. The proposed model of effective IT adoption is believed to provide managers, vendors, consultants and governments with a practical synopsis of the IT adoption process in SMEs, which will in turn assist them to be successful with IT institutionalization within these businesses.

  9. Wind and solar data for sizing small wind turbine and photovoltaic power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grainger, W [Northumbrian Energy Workshop Ltd., Hexham (GB)

    1990-01-01

    Small renewable energy power systems have to be more carefully sized and installed than fossil fuelled alternatives. Accurate assessment of the energy resource available at the site is the first step in system design. This paper describes the sort of data available and how they are processed. When small systems are involved there is little money available for detailed meteorological investigations. This has led our company to develop the techniques described. (author).

  10. The role of micro size computing clusters for small physics groups

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shevel, A Y

    2014-01-01

    A small physics group (3-15 persons) might use a number of computing facilities for the analysis/simulation, developing/testing, teaching. It is discussed different types of computing facilities: collaboration computing facilities, group local computing cluster (including colocation), cloud computing. The author discuss the growing variety of different computing options for small groups and does emphasize the role of the group owned computing cluster of micro size.

  11. Uncertainty budget in internal monostandard NAA for small and large size samples analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dasari, K.B.; Acharya, R.

    2014-01-01

    Total uncertainty budget evaluation on determined concentration value is important under quality assurance programme. Concentration calculation in NAA or carried out by relative NAA and k0 based internal monostandard NAA (IM-NAA) method. IM-NAA method has been used for small and large sample analysis of clay potteries. An attempt was made to identify the uncertainty components in IM-NAA and uncertainty budget for La in both small and large size samples has been evaluated and compared. (author)

  12. Impact of mobility on call block, call drops and optimal cell size in small cell networks

    OpenAIRE

    Ramanath , Sreenath; Voleti , Veeraruna Kavitha; Altman , Eitan

    2011-01-01

    We consider small cell networks and study the impact of user mobility. Assuming Poisson call arrivals at random positions with random velocities, we discuss the characterization of handovers at the boundaries. We derive explicit expressions for call block and call drop probabilities using tools from spatial queuing theory. We also derive expressions for the average virtual server held up time. These expressions are used to derive optimal cell sizes for various profile of velocities in small c...

  13. Progress report on irradiation experiment on small size specimens in high temperature flux module

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramesh, M.; Jacquet, P.; Chaouadi, R.

    2011-02-15

    This report describes the progress made in IFREC/DEMO Research and Development Program during the year 2010 at SCK/CEN. This task is part of demonstrating the possibility to irradiate small specimens in the HFTM modules that will be used in DEMO. Different small specimens of three candidate materials of DEMO fusion reactor will be irradiated with the objective of validating the specimen geometry and size to reliably characterize the mechanical properties of unirradiated and in future of irradiated materials.

  14. Accounting standards for small and medium-sized entities. Evidence from Spain

    OpenAIRE

    Milanés Montero Patricia; Albarrán Lozano Irene; Texeira Quirós Joaquín; Esteban Pérez Calderón

    2011-01-01

    By approving Regulation 1606/2002, the European Commission entrusts the local European Union regulators with the difficult decision as to whether making the International Accounting Standards (IAS/IFRS) extensive for their Small and Medium sized Entities or not. International Financial Reporting Standard for Small and Medium-sizzed Entities (hereinafter IFRS for SMEs) was published in 2009, and the European Commission had also decided to seek the opinion of EU stakeholders on this Standard. W...

  15. Inhomogeneous initial data and small-field inflation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marsh, M. C. David; Barrow, John D.; Ganguly, Chandrima

    2018-05-01

    We consider the robustness of small-field inflation in the presence of scalar field inhomogeneities. Previous numerical work has shown that if the scalar potential is flat only over a narrow interval, such as in commonly considered inflection-point models, even small-amplitude inhomogeneities present at the would-be onset of inflation at τ = τi can disrupt the accelerated expansion. In this paper, we parametrise and evolve the inhomogeneities from an earlier time τIC at which the initial data were imprinted, and show that for a broad range of inflationary and pre-inflationary models, inflection-point inflation withstands initial inhomogeneities. We consider three classes of perturbative pre-inflationary solutions (corresponding to energetic domination by the scalar field kinetic term, a relativistic fluid, and isotropic negative curvature), and two classes of exact solutions to Einstein's equations with large inhomogeneities (corresponding to a stiff fluid with cylindrical symmetry, and anisotropic negative curvature). We derive a stability condition that depends on the Hubble scales H(τi) and H(τIC), and a few properties of the pre-inflationary cosmology. For initial data imprinted at the Planck scale, the absence of an inhomogeneous initial data problem for inflection-point inflation leads to a novel, lower limit on the tensor-to-scalar ratio.

  16. Origin of temperature and field dependence of magnetic skyrmion size in ultrathin nanodots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomasello, R.; Guslienko, K. Y.; Ricci, M.; Giordano, A.; Barker, J.; Carpentieri, M.; Chubykalo-Fesenko, O.; Finocchio, G.

    2018-02-01

    Understanding the physical properties of magnetic skyrmions is important for fundamental research with the aim to develop new spintronic device paradigms where both logic and memory can be integrated at the same level. Here, we show a universal model based on the micromagnetic formalism that can be used to study skyrmion stability as a function of magnetic field and temperature. We consider ultrathin, circular ferromagnetic magnetic dots. Our results show that magnetic skyrmions with a small radius—compared to the dot radius—are always metastable, while large radius skyrmions form a stable ground state. The change of energy profile determines the weak (strong) size dependence of the metastable (stable) skyrmion as a function of temperature and/or field.

  17. On the atomic displacement fields of small interstitial dislocation loops

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou, Z.; Dudarev, S.L.; Jenkins, M.L.; Sutton, A.P.; Kirk, M.A.

    2005-01-01

    The atomic displacement fields of dislocation loops of size 1-5 nm formed by self-interstitial atoms in α-Fe have been calculated using isotropic elasticity theory and anisotropic elasticity theory, and compared with atomic simulations for loops formed by 43-275 self-interstitial atoms. The atomic displacements predicted by anisotropic elasticity theory were in good agreement with those given by the atomistic simulations at distances greater than 3 nm from the loop plane, but the displacements predicted by isotropic elasticity theory showed significant discrepancies at distances up to 15 nm

  18. Overestimation of test performance by ROC analysis: Effect of small sample size

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seeley, G.W.; Borgstrom, M.C.; Patton, D.D.; Myers, K.J.; Barrett, H.H.

    1984-01-01

    New imaging systems are often observer-rated by ROC techniques. For practical reasons the number of different images, or sample size (SS), is kept small. Any systematic bias due to small SS would bias system evaluation. The authors set about to determine whether the area under the ROC curve (AUC) would be systematically biased by small SS. Monte Carlo techniques were used to simulate observer performance in distinguishing signal (SN) from noise (N) on a 6-point scale; P(SN) = P(N) = .5. Four sample sizes (15, 25, 50 and 100 each of SN and N), three ROC slopes (0.8, 1.0 and 1.25), and three intercepts (0.8, 1.0 and 1.25) were considered. In each of the 36 combinations of SS, slope and intercept, 2000 runs were simulated. Results showed a systematic bias: the observed AUC exceeded the expected AUC in every one of the 36 combinations for all sample sizes, with the smallest sample sizes having the largest bias. This suggests that evaluations of imaging systems using ROC curves based on small sample size systematically overestimate system performance. The effect is consistent but subtle (maximum 10% of AUC standard deviation), and is probably masked by the s.d. in most practical settings. Although there is a statistically significant effect (F = 33.34, P<0.0001) due to sample size, none was found for either the ROC curve slope or intercept. Overestimation of test performance by small SS seems to be an inherent characteristic of the ROC technique that has not previously been described

  19. THE POSSIBILITY OF USING INTERNATIONAL EXPERIENCE IN MICRO-CREDIT FOR SMALL AND MEDIUM-SIZED INDUSTRIAL ENTERPRISES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. N. Klyukin

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose of the study. Increasing the availability of funding for small and medium-sized enterprises of the industrial sector put among the most important tasks of economic development as the leading developed countries, and developing countries. In connection with the above, the purpose of this article is to study the micro-credit as an efficient mechanism to stimulate the development of small and medium-sized industrial enterprises and analyzing the possibility of using foreign experience in improving the process of micro-credit to stimulate their development.Research Methodology. The study was conducted on the material of publications on various aspects of the microcredit industry small and medium businesses, including international experience in micro-credit for small and medium-sized industrial enterprises.The article analyzes the functioning of the various models and micro-technologies, disclosed interoperability of commercial banks and microfinance institutions (MFIs in the framework of country-specific microcredit models, and formulated the immediate tasks and activities of the government and regulatory authorities of the Russian Federation aimed at improving the financing of small and medium-sized industrial enterprises.Sounding the findings suggest that the funds to support small and medium-sized industrial enterprises should be more actively attract private investment in the implementation of industrial and innovative development of their projects. In this case, the intensification of financial-credit and investment support to small and medium-sized industrial enterprises, integration and optimization of the different sources of financial resources create favorable conditions for their access to financial and credit resources, and improvement of financial and credit support mechanisms will enhance their responsibility for use granted resources and contribute to their development. At the same time, the main focus of the use of public

  20. TH-EF-204-05: Application of Small-Field Treatment: The Promises and Pitfalls of SBRT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ford, E.

    2016-01-01

    Joanna E. Cygler, Jan Seuntjens, J. Daniel Bourland, M. Saiful Huq, Josep Puxeu Vaque, Daniel Zucca Aparicio, Tatiana Krylova, Yuri Kirpichev, Eric Ford, Caridad Borras Stereotactic Radiation Therapy (SRT) utilizes small static and dynamic (IMRT) fields, to successfully treat malignant and benign diseases using techniques such as Stereotactic Radiosurgery (SRS) and Stereotactic Body Radiation Therapy (SBRT). SRT is characterized by sharp dose gradients for individual fields and their resultant dose distributions. For appropriate targets, small field radiotherapy offers improved treatment quality by allowing better sparing of organs at risk while delivering the prescribed target dose. Specialized small field treatment delivery systems, such as robotic-controlled linear accelerators, gamma radiosurgery units, and dynamic arc linear accelerators may utilize rigid fixation, image guidance, and tumor tracking, to insure precise dose delivery to static or moving targets. However, in addition to great advantages, small field delivery techniques present special technical challenges for dose calibration due to unique geometries and small field sizes not covered by existing reference dosimetry protocols such as AAPM TG-51 or IAEA TRS 398. In recent years extensive research has been performed to understand small field dosimetry and measurement instrumentation. AAPM, IAEA and ICRU task groups are expected to provide soon recommendations on the dosimetry of small radiation fields. In this symposium we will: 1] discuss the physics, instrumentation, methodologies and challenges for small field radiation dose measurements; 2] review IAEA and ICRU recommendations on prescribing, recording and reporting of small field radiation therapy; 3] discuss selected clinical applications and technical aspects for specialized image-guided, small field, linear accelerator based treatment techniques such as IMRT and SBRT. Learning Objectives: To learn the physics of small fields in contrast to

  1. TH-EF-204-02: Small Field Radiation Therapy: Physics and Recent Recommendations From IAEA and ICRU

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seuntjens, J.

    2016-01-01

    Joanna E. Cygler, Jan Seuntjens, J. Daniel Bourland, M. Saiful Huq, Josep Puxeu Vaque, Daniel Zucca Aparicio, Tatiana Krylova, Yuri Kirpichev, Eric Ford, Caridad Borras Stereotactic Radiation Therapy (SRT) utilizes small static and dynamic (IMRT) fields, to successfully treat malignant and benign diseases using techniques such as Stereotactic Radiosurgery (SRS) and Stereotactic Body Radiation Therapy (SBRT). SRT is characterized by sharp dose gradients for individual fields and their resultant dose distributions. For appropriate targets, small field radiotherapy offers improved treatment quality by allowing better sparing of organs at risk while delivering the prescribed target dose. Specialized small field treatment delivery systems, such as robotic-controlled linear accelerators, gamma radiosurgery units, and dynamic arc linear accelerators may utilize rigid fixation, image guidance, and tumor tracking, to insure precise dose delivery to static or moving targets. However, in addition to great advantages, small field delivery techniques present special technical challenges for dose calibration due to unique geometries and small field sizes not covered by existing reference dosimetry protocols such as AAPM TG-51 or IAEA TRS 398. In recent years extensive research has been performed to understand small field dosimetry and measurement instrumentation. AAPM, IAEA and ICRU task groups are expected to provide soon recommendations on the dosimetry of small radiation fields. In this symposium we will: 1] discuss the physics, instrumentation, methodologies and challenges for small field radiation dose measurements; 2] review IAEA and ICRU recommendations on prescribing, recording and reporting of small field radiation therapy; 3] discuss selected clinical applications and technical aspects for specialized image-guided, small field, linear accelerator based treatment techniques such as IMRT and SBRT. Learning Objectives: To learn the physics of small fields in contrast to

  2. TH-EF-204-03: Determination of Small Field Output Factors, Advantages and Limitations of Monte Carlo Simulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vaque, J. Puxeu

    2016-01-01

    Joanna E. Cygler, Jan Seuntjens, J. Daniel Bourland, M. Saiful Huq, Josep Puxeu Vaque, Daniel Zucca Aparicio, Tatiana Krylova, Yuri Kirpichev, Eric Ford, Caridad Borras Stereotactic Radiation Therapy (SRT) utilizes small static and dynamic (IMRT) fields, to successfully treat malignant and benign diseases using techniques such as Stereotactic Radiosurgery (SRS) and Stereotactic Body Radiation Therapy (SBRT). SRT is characterized by sharp dose gradients for individual fields and their resultant dose distributions. For appropriate targets, small field radiotherapy offers improved treatment quality by allowing better sparing of organs at risk while delivering the prescribed target dose. Specialized small field treatment delivery systems, such as robotic-controlled linear accelerators, gamma radiosurgery units, and dynamic arc linear accelerators may utilize rigid fixation, image guidance, and tumor tracking, to insure precise dose delivery to static or moving targets. However, in addition to great advantages, small field delivery techniques present special technical challenges for dose calibration due to unique geometries and small field sizes not covered by existing reference dosimetry protocols such as AAPM TG-51 or IAEA TRS 398. In recent years extensive research has been performed to understand small field dosimetry and measurement instrumentation. AAPM, IAEA and ICRU task groups are expected to provide soon recommendations on the dosimetry of small radiation fields. In this symposium we will: 1] discuss the physics, instrumentation, methodologies and challenges for small field radiation dose measurements; 2] review IAEA and ICRU recommendations on prescribing, recording and reporting of small field radiation therapy; 3] discuss selected clinical applications and technical aspects for specialized image-guided, small field, linear accelerator based treatment techniques such as IMRT and SBRT. Learning Objectives: To learn the physics of small fields in contrast to

  3. TH-EF-204-02: Small Field Radiation Therapy: Physics and Recent Recommendations From IAEA and ICRU

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seuntjens, J. [McGill University (Canada)

    2016-06-15

    Joanna E. Cygler, Jan Seuntjens, J. Daniel Bourland, M. Saiful Huq, Josep Puxeu Vaque, Daniel Zucca Aparicio, Tatiana Krylova, Yuri Kirpichev, Eric Ford, Caridad Borras Stereotactic Radiation Therapy (SRT) utilizes small static and dynamic (IMRT) fields, to successfully treat malignant and benign diseases using techniques such as Stereotactic Radiosurgery (SRS) and Stereotactic Body Radiation Therapy (SBRT). SRT is characterized by sharp dose gradients for individual fields and their resultant dose distributions. For appropriate targets, small field radiotherapy offers improved treatment quality by allowing better sparing of organs at risk while delivering the prescribed target dose. Specialized small field treatment delivery systems, such as robotic-controlled linear accelerators, gamma radiosurgery units, and dynamic arc linear accelerators may utilize rigid fixation, image guidance, and tumor tracking, to insure precise dose delivery to static or moving targets. However, in addition to great advantages, small field delivery techniques present special technical challenges for dose calibration due to unique geometries and small field sizes not covered by existing reference dosimetry protocols such as AAPM TG-51 or IAEA TRS 398. In recent years extensive research has been performed to understand small field dosimetry and measurement instrumentation. AAPM, IAEA and ICRU task groups are expected to provide soon recommendations on the dosimetry of small radiation fields. In this symposium we will: 1] discuss the physics, instrumentation, methodologies and challenges for small field radiation dose measurements; 2] review IAEA and ICRU recommendations on prescribing, recording and reporting of small field radiation therapy; 3] discuss selected clinical applications and technical aspects for specialized image-guided, small field, linear accelerator based treatment techniques such as IMRT and SBRT. Learning Objectives: To learn the physics of small fields in contrast to

  4. TH-EF-204-03: Determination of Small Field Output Factors, Advantages and Limitations of Monte Carlo Simulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vaque, J. Puxeu [Institut Catala d’Oncologia (Spain)

    2016-06-15

    Joanna E. Cygler, Jan Seuntjens, J. Daniel Bourland, M. Saiful Huq, Josep Puxeu Vaque, Daniel Zucca Aparicio, Tatiana Krylova, Yuri Kirpichev, Eric Ford, Caridad Borras Stereotactic Radiation Therapy (SRT) utilizes small static and dynamic (IMRT) fields, to successfully treat malignant and benign diseases using techniques such as Stereotactic Radiosurgery (SRS) and Stereotactic Body Radiation Therapy (SBRT). SRT is characterized by sharp dose gradients for individual fields and their resultant dose distributions. For appropriate targets, small field radiotherapy offers improved treatment quality by allowing better sparing of organs at risk while delivering the prescribed target dose. Specialized small field treatment delivery systems, such as robotic-controlled linear accelerators, gamma radiosurgery units, and dynamic arc linear accelerators may utilize rigid fixation, image guidance, and tumor tracking, to insure precise dose delivery to static or moving targets. However, in addition to great advantages, small field delivery techniques present special technical challenges for dose calibration due to unique geometries and small field sizes not covered by existing reference dosimetry protocols such as AAPM TG-51 or IAEA TRS 398. In recent years extensive research has been performed to understand small field dosimetry and measurement instrumentation. AAPM, IAEA and ICRU task groups are expected to provide soon recommendations on the dosimetry of small radiation fields. In this symposium we will: 1] discuss the physics, instrumentation, methodologies and challenges for small field radiation dose measurements; 2] review IAEA and ICRU recommendations on prescribing, recording and reporting of small field radiation therapy; 3] discuss selected clinical applications and technical aspects for specialized image-guided, small field, linear accelerator based treatment techniques such as IMRT and SBRT. Learning Objectives: To learn the physics of small fields in contrast to

  5. TH-EF-204-05: Application of Small-Field Treatment: The Promises and Pitfalls of SBRT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ford, E. [University of Washington (United States)

    2016-06-15

    Joanna E. Cygler, Jan Seuntjens, J. Daniel Bourland, M. Saiful Huq, Josep Puxeu Vaque, Daniel Zucca Aparicio, Tatiana Krylova, Yuri Kirpichev, Eric Ford, Caridad Borras Stereotactic Radiation Therapy (SRT) utilizes small static and dynamic (IMRT) fields, to successfully treat malignant and benign diseases using techniques such as Stereotactic Radiosurgery (SRS) and Stereotactic Body Radiation Therapy (SBRT). SRT is characterized by sharp dose gradients for individual fields and their resultant dose distributions. For appropriate targets, small field radiotherapy offers improved treatment quality by allowing better sparing of organs at risk while delivering the prescribed target dose. Specialized small field treatment delivery systems, such as robotic-controlled linear accelerators, gamma radiosurgery units, and dynamic arc linear accelerators may utilize rigid fixation, image guidance, and tumor tracking, to insure precise dose delivery to static or moving targets. However, in addition to great advantages, small field delivery techniques present special technical challenges for dose calibration due to unique geometries and small field sizes not covered by existing reference dosimetry protocols such as AAPM TG-51 or IAEA TRS 398. In recent years extensive research has been performed to understand small field dosimetry and measurement instrumentation. AAPM, IAEA and ICRU task groups are expected to provide soon recommendations on the dosimetry of small radiation fields. In this symposium we will: 1] discuss the physics, instrumentation, methodologies and challenges for small field radiation dose measurements; 2] review IAEA and ICRU recommendations on prescribing, recording and reporting of small field radiation therapy; 3] discuss selected clinical applications and technical aspects for specialized image-guided, small field, linear accelerator based treatment techniques such as IMRT and SBRT. Learning Objectives: To learn the physics of small fields in contrast to

  6. Small clusters with anisotropic antiferromagnetic exchange in a magnetic field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parkinson, J B; Elliott, R J; Timonen, J

    2004-01-01

    We consider small symmetric clusters of magnetic atoms (spins) with anisotropic exchange interaction between the atoms in a magnetic field at zero temperature. The inclusion of the anisotropy leads to a wealth of different phases as a function of the applied magnetic field. These are not phases in the thermodynamic sense with critical properties but rather physical structures with different arrangements of the spins and hence different symmetries. We study the spatial symmetry of these phases, for the classical and quantum cases. Results are presented mainly for three frustrated systems, the triangle, the tetrahedron and the five-atom ring, which have many interesting features. In the classical limit we obtain phase diagrams in which some of the phase changes occur because of energy crossings and others due to energy bifurcations, corresponding to 'first-' and 'second-order' changes. In the quantum case we show how the symmetries of the states are related to the corresponding classical symmetries

  7. Core and shell sizing of small silver-coated nanospheres by optical extinction spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schinca, D C; Scaffardi, L B

    2008-01-01

    Silver metal nanoparticles (Nps) are extensively used in different areas of research and technology due to their interesting optical, thermal and electric properties, especially for bare core and core-shell nanostructures with sizes smaller than 10 nm. Since these properties are core-shell size-dependent, size measurement is important in manipulating their potential functionalization and applications. Bare and coated small silver Nps fabricated by physical and chemical methods present specific characteristics in their extinction spectra that are potentially useful for sizing purposes. This work presents a novel procedure to size mean core radius smaller than 10 nm and mean shell thickness of silver core-shell Nps based on a comparative study of the characteristics in their optical extinction spectra in different media as a function of core radii, shell thickness and coating refractive index. From the regularities derived from these relationships, it can be concluded that plasmon full width at half-maximum (FWHM) is sensitive to core size but not to coating thickness, while plasmon resonance wavelength (PRW) is related to shell thickness and mostly independent of core radius. These facts, which allow sizing simultaneously both mean core radius and shell thickness, can also be used to size bare silver Nps as a special case of core-shell Nps with zero shell thickness. The proposed method was applied to size experimental samples and the results show good agreement with conventional TEM microscopy.

  8. International Financial Reporting standard for Small and Medium-sized entities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z Koppeschaar

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The International Financial Reporting Standard for Small and Medium-sized entities (IFRS for SMEs was published as a standard by the International Accounting Standards Board (IASB during July 2009. During 2007 South Africa became one of the first countries and the first country in Africa to early accept the proposed accounting standard (exposure draft of an IFRS for SMEs. The accounting standard will probably also be accepted by numerous other countries. The aim of this article is to investigate the applicability of this accounting standard. The results indicated that the IFRS for SMEs remains too comprehensive for the majority of small companies. The IFRS for SMEs does not satisfy the needs of South African users of small company financial statements, and as a result the accounting requirements should be simplified. KEYWORDS: Financial accounting; Financial reporting requirements; IFRS for SMEs; Small companies; Users of financial statements; Small company financial statements.

  9. HRM implications for network collaboration of small and medium sized companies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kesting, Peter; Müller, Sabine; Jørgensen, Frances

    Collaboration in innovation networks is particularly important for small and medium enterprises (SMEs) to remain competitive in a rapidly changing environment. Collaboration may however be particularly challenging for SMEs, due to their size and their inherent shortage of resources. In this paper...

  10. The Impact of their Adoption on Small and Medium-sized Enterprises

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    ... of small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) as well as the impact of these ... of Mathematics and Industrial Engineering at the École Polytechique, Montréal. Dr Lefebvre's research focuses on technological innovation and the strategic ...

  11. Transformational and transactional leadership: does it work in small to medium-sized enterprises?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mesu, J.K.

    2013-01-01

    Using a sample of 755 employees who rated 121 supervisors within 50 Dutch small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs), this dissertation intends to fill in some of the existing gaps in the literature. Firstly, by investigating whether the impact of transformational and transactional leadership extends

  12. Strategic use of the Internet by small- and medium-sized companies : an exploratory study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sadowski, B.M.; Maitland, C.; Dongen, van J.

    2002-01-01

    The paper investigates the extent to which the adoption of Internet software and services in small- and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) has been strategic, i.e. based upon the exploitation of the network characteristics of the new technology. Within SMEs, it seems that opportunistic motivations

  13. The Relationship Between Training and Employment Growth in Small and Medium-Sized Enterprises

    OpenAIRE

    Andy Cosh; Alan Hughes; Melvyn Weeks

    2000-01-01

    This paper provides a rigorous analysis of the impact of training upon the employment growth characteristics of small and medium sized firms. Using appropriate statistical techniques to cope with sample selection biases and heterogenerous employment growth patterns it reveals that training is positively related to employment growth, in particular when it is embedded in a wider range of human relations practices.

  14. Continuing Education for Managers from Small and Medium Sized German Companies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fub, Jorg

    1995-01-01

    An international trade school in southern Germany, which is a highly export-oriented environment, has established a vocational and professional continuing education program for personnel of small- and medium-size companies. Offerings include a graduate course in international marketing, seminars for export companies, distance education in…

  15. Shrinkage of body size of small insects: A possible link to global warming?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    He Jihuan

    2007-01-01

    The increase of global mean surface temperature leads to the increase of metabolic rate. This might lead to an unexpected threat from the small insect world. Global warming shrinks cell size, shorten lifespan, and accelerate evolution. The present note speculates on possible connections between allometry and E-infinity theory

  16. Understanding Informal Learning in Small- and Medium-Sized Enterprises in South Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Shinhee; McLean, Gary N.; Park, Soyoun

    2018-01-01

    Purpose: This paper aims to explore informal learning experiences among employees working in South Korean small- and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) with fewer than 100 employees. This study specifically seeks to understand the characteristics of informal learning in Korean SMEs and culturally sensitive contextual factors that shape informal…

  17. An Agile Methodology for Implementing Service-Oriented Architecture in Small and Medium Sized Organizations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laidlaw, Gregory

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to evaluate the use of Lean/Agile principles, using action research to develop and deploy new technology for Small and Medium sized enterprises. The research case was conducted at the Lapeer County Sheriff's Department and involves the initial deployment of a Service Oriented Architecture to alleviate the data…

  18. Position paper: Management of men complaining of a small penis despite an actually normal size.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghanem, Hussein; Glina, Sidney; Assalian, Pierre; Buvat, Jacques

    2013-01-01

    With the worldwide increase in penile augmentation procedures and claims of devices designed to elongate the penis, it becomes crucial to study the scientific basis of such procedures or devices, as well as the management of a complaint of a small penis in men with a normal penile size. The aim of this work is to study the scientific basis of opting to penile augmentation procedures and to develop guidelines based on the best available evidence for the management of men complaining of a small penis despite an actually normal size. We reviewed the literature and evaluated the evidence about what the normal penile size is, what patients complaining of a small penis usually suffer from, benefits vs. complications of surgery, penile stretching or traction devices, and outcome with patient education and counseling. Repeated presentation and detailed discussions within the Standard Committee of the International Society for Sexual Medicine were performed. Recommendations are based on the evaluation of evidence-based medical literature, widespread standards committee discussion, public presentation, and debate. We propose a practical approach for evaluating and counseling patients complaining of a small-sized penis. Based on the current status of science, penile lengthening procedure surgery is still considered experimental and should only be limited to special circumstances within research or university institutions with supervising ethics committees. © 2012 International Society for Sexual Medicine.

  19. Modeling, design and experimental validation of a small-sized magnetic gear

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zanis, R.; Borisavljevic, A.; Jansen, J.W.; Lomonova, E.A.

    2013-01-01

    A magnetostatic analytical model is created to analyze and design a small-sized magnetic gear for a robotic application. Through a parameter variation study, it is found that the inner rotor magnet height is highly influential to the torque, and based on which, the design is performed. Several

  20. Bridging the Gap between Universities of Professional Education and Small- and Medium-Sized Enterprises

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Masurel, E.; Nijkamp, P.

    2011-01-01

    Improving the relationship between knowledge institutions (especially Universities of Professional Education, UPE) and Small-and Medium-sized Enterprises (SMEs) is one of the challenges of current economic policy. Innovation is an important aspect of this policy. However, the characteristics of both

  1. Barriers to Employee Training in Small and Medium Sized Enterprises: Insights and Evidences from Mauritius

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padachi, Kesseven; Bhiwajee, Soolakshna Lukea

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: Training is an important component of successful business concerns. However, although there is growing acceptance amongst scholars that small- and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) are engines that drive economies across nations, through their contribution in terms of job creation and poverty reduction; extant research portray that these…

  2. Meaningfulness for creation of growth in Small- and Medium-sized enterprises

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brink, Tove; Neville, Mette

    2016-01-01

    The research in this paper reveals how meaningfulness of growth can be created in Small- and Medium-sized Enterprises (SMEs). The research is conducted in a four-year period with 24 SMEs participating from different industry branches. The research is now in the late part of the 3rd. year starting...

  3. Hedging Behavior in Small and Medium-sized Enterprises: The Role of Unobserved Heterogeneity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pennings, J.M.E.; Garcia, P.

    2004-01-01

    Abstract We investigate factors that drive derivative usage in small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs). The influence of these factors on hedging behavior cannot a priori be assumed equal for all SMEs. To address this heterogeneity, a generalized mixture regression model is used which classifies

  4. Favouring Small and Medium Sized Enterprises with Directive 2014/24/EU

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trybus, Martin; Andrecka, Marta

    2017-01-01

    This article argues that the four main measures introduced in the 2014 reform of the Procurement Directives to promote Small andMediumSized Enterprises (SMEs) cannot be classified as measures favouring SMEs. A measure favours SMEs when it compromises the main objectives of competition, non...

  5. Greening Small and Medium-Sized Enterprises: Evaluating Environmental Policy in Vietnam

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Khoa, Le

    2006-01-01

    Small and Medium-sized Enterprises (SMEs) contribute considerably to the economic and social development of bothViet Namand Ho Chi Minh City (HCMC). But at the same time this sector causes severe environmental

  6. Implementation of Lean Six Sigma in small- and medium-sized manufacturing enterprises in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Timans, W.; Antony, J.; Ahaus, K.; van Solingen, R.

    In this paper we provide an exploration and analysis of Lean Six Sigma (LSS) implementation in Dutch manufacturing/engineering small- and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs). Critical success factors (CSFs) and impeding factors are identified and analysed. Exploratory empirical evidence about LSS

  7. Current information technology needs of small to medium sized apparel manufacturers and contractors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wipple, C.; Vosti, E.

    1997-11-01

    This report documents recent efforts of the American Textile Partnership (AMTEX) Demand Activated Manufacturing Architecture (DAMA) Project to address needs that are characterized of small to medium sized apparel manufactures and contractors. Background on the AMTEX/DAMA project and objectives for this specific efforts are discussed.

  8. SMGE: strategic challenges and performance measurement in a small-sized company (case)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    MBA R. Vieveen; PhD B. Pesalj

    2015-01-01

    Case portrays the Superior Manufacturing Group Europe (SMGE), Barendrecht (Netherlands), a small-sized company doing business in the matting industry; facing challenges of how to sustain and improve its performance, by balancing between entrepreneurial initiative, and a need for strategic planning

  9. Personnel role by implementing anti-crisis programs in small and medium-size enterprises

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pak Andrey Borisovitch

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available To recover from crisis, small and medium-size enterprises have to develop anti-crisis plans and programs and to monitor the implementation process. The implementation efficiency is provided by the personnel which needs appraisal, motivation and development.

  10. New Balancing Equipment for Mass Production of Small and Medium-Sized Electrical Machines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Argeseanu, Alin; Ritchie, Ewen; Leban, Krisztina Monika

    2010-01-01

    The level of vibration and noise is an important feature. It is good practice to explain the significance of the indicators of the quality of electrical machines. The mass production of small and medium-sized electrical machines demands speed (short typical measurement time), reliability...

  11. The effect of feeding position and body size on the capacity of small ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effect of feeding position and body size on the capacity of small ruminants to reach, for food when fed through barriers. ... The barrier allowed the neck to pass through, but not the shoulders. It was hypothesized that goats would have larger reach than sheep and that for each species, horizontal reach forwards, F, ...

  12. Toward a Singleton Undergraduate Computer Graphics Course in Small and Medium-Sized Colleges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shesh, Amit

    2013-01-01

    This article discusses the evolution of a single undergraduate computer graphics course over five semesters, driven by a primary question: if one could offer only one undergraduate course in graphics, what would it include? This constraint is relevant to many small and medium-sized colleges that lack resources, adequate expertise, and enrollment…

  13. Prognostic Factors Affecting Rotator Cuff Healing After Arthroscopic Repair in Small to Medium-sized Tears.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Ji Soon; Park, Hyung Jun; Kim, Sae Hoon; Oh, Joo Han

    2015-10-01

    Small and medium-sized rotator cuff tears usually have good clinical and anatomic outcomes. However, healing failure still occurs in some cases. To evaluate prognostic factors for rotator cuff healing in patients with only small to medium-sized rotator cuff tears. Case-control study; Level of evidence, 3. Data were prospectively collected from 339 patients with small to medium-sized rotator cuff tears who underwent arthroscopic repair by a single surgeon between March 2004 and August 2012 and who underwent magnetic resonance imaging or computed tomographic arthrography at least 1 year after surgery. The mean age of the patients was 59.8 years (range, 39-80 years), and the mean follow-up time was 20.8 months (range, 12-66 months). The functional evaluation included the visual analog scale (VAS) for pain, American Shoulder and Elbow Surgeons score, Constant-Murley score, and Simple Shoulder Test. Postoperative VAS for pain and functional scores improved significantly compared with preoperative values (P rotator cuff healing (P 2 cm in size (34.2%) compared with patients with a tear ≤2 cm (10.6%) (P rotator cuff tears, grade II fatty degeneration of the infraspinatus muscle according to the Goutallier classification could be a reference point for successful healing, and anatomic outcomes might be better if repair is performed before the patient is 69 years old and the tear size exceeds 2 cm. © 2015 The Author(s).

  14. Regional statistical and economic analysis of small and medium-sized businesses development in Zhytomyr region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.I. Pavlova

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Small and medium-sized businesses play an important role in the development of the regional economic system in particular and in solving a number of the following local problems: developing competition, developing the market for goods and services, providing jobs for the able-bodied population, raising living standards and improving the social environment in society. The purpose of this paper is to analyze the state and development of small and medium-sized businesses in the Zhytomyr region, to analyze its contribution to the economic development of the region, and to identify the main problems existing in the region. According to the indicators of state statistics, the author presents the general characteristics of enterprises in the Zhytomyr region from 2012 to 2016 in the context of indicators of the number of enterprises, the number of employed workers and the volume of the products sold, highlighting the activities of small enterprises and assessing their share in general levels. In addition, the paper provides the description of the activities of individual entrepreneurs. The structural comparison for the above-listed indicators of the distribution of influence on the economic system of the Zhytomyr region in terms of enterprises by size is presented. In terms of quantity 93,5 % are small enterprises that provide 31,4 % of the total number of employees with work and make up 23,1 % of the total volume of sales. Average enterprises in these indicators have 6,4 %, 62,0 % and 54,8 % respectively. The statistical and economic analysis of the structure of small enterprises by types of economic activity, by indicators of the number of registered enterprises, and by the volumes of sold products is carried out. The uniformity of the distribution is estimated using the index of the concentration coefficient. The indicators of revenues to budgets of different levels from small and medium-sized businesses are set. The paper presents and summarizes the

  15. Small-Size High-Current Generators for X-Ray Backlighting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaikovsky, S. A.; Artyomov, A. P.; Zharova, N. V.; Zhigalin, A. S.; Lavrinovich, I. V.; Oreshkin, V. I.; Ratakhin, N. A.; Rousskikh, A. G.; Fedunin, A. V.; Fedushchak, V. F.; Erfort, A. A.

    2017-12-01

    The paper deals with the soft X-ray backlighting based on the X-pinch as a powerful tool for physical studies of fast processes. Proposed are the unique small-size pulsed power generators operating as a low-inductance capacitor bank. These pulse generators provide the X-pinch-based soft X-ray source (hν = 1-10 keV) of micron size at 2-3 ns pulse duration. The small size and weight of pulse generators allow them to be transported to any laboratory for conducting X-ray backlighting of test objects with micron space resolution and nanosecond exposure time. These generators also allow creating synchronized multi-frame radiographic complexes with frame delay variation in a broad range.

  16. Determining the optimal size of small molecule mixtures for high throughput NMR screening

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mercier, Kelly A.; Powers, Robert

    2005-01-01

    High-throughput screening (HTS) using NMR spectroscopy has become a common component of the drug discovery effort and is widely used throughout the pharmaceutical industry. NMR provides additional information about the nature of small molecule-protein interactions compared to traditional HTS methods. In order to achieve comparable efficiency, small molecules are often screened as mixtures in NMR-based assays. Nevertheless, an analysis of the efficiency of mixtures and a corresponding determination of the optimum mixture size (OMS) that minimizes the amount of material and instrumentation time required for an NMR screen has been lacking. A model for calculating OMS based on the application of the hypergeometric distribution function to determine the probability of a 'hit' for various mixture sizes and hit rates is presented. An alternative method for the deconvolution of large screening mixtures is also discussed. These methods have been applied in a high-throughput NMR screening assay using a small, directed library

  17. Design of an interdisciplinary engineering elective scoped around collaboration with Small Medium Sized enterprises (SME)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Nynne Budtz; Ulrich, Mai-Mai; Pontoppidan, Maja Lund

    2014-01-01

    a real life setting elective course, involving small and medium sized enterprises (SME) in engineering education. How do you engage with companies without compromising the learning outcome? How you manage the expectation from the companies and still maintaining the student responsibility for the problem...... of a compulsory 10 ECTS element with focus on interdisciplinary and industry collaboration for all Bachelors of Engineering at The Technical University of Denmark in 2016. As collaboration partner the elective has chosen to work with small and medium sized enterprises (SME) as more than half of the value added...... to the European economy comes from the SME’s and around half of all employees work in micro or small businesses with less than 50 employees5. At the same time the barriers for university collaboration with SMEs are somewhat steeper than working with larger organizations6. The paper will focus on the SME...

  18. Regulation of Small and Medium-Sized Business Development in Russia: Problems and Solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lyudmila Yuryevna Bogachkova

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The authors prove that despite the active state policy carried out since the second half of the 2000s and aimed at supporting small and medium-sized business in the Russian Federation, the current level of development of this economic sector is insufficient. The present paper characterizes the modern structure of small and medium-sized business. The authors show that the main problems hindering its growth are conditioned by low market demand, large tax deductions, numerous administrative barriers, lack of funding and state support. On the basis of the official data of Russian Federal State Statistics Service on theresults of annual surveys of entrepreneurs, the authors revealed the factors that prevented innovation situation in the country have stable negative impact on MSB, while the impact of such factors as imperfect legal and regulatory framework, investment risks, low profitability and inadequate state of technological infrastructure is relatively nonsignificant. The authors describe systemwide and resource measures of state regulation of small and medium-sized business. The system-wide measures include preferential access to production facilities and equipment, special tax regimes, administrative control. The measures of resource support to entrepreneurs consist in subsidizing the lease payments and interest rates on loans for the modernization of production; grant support, the establishment of microfinance organizations and guarantee funds, the development of business support infrastructure. The authors describe the forms of these measures implementation in 2013 and the main directions of improving the state regulation of small and medium-sized business, including the reduction of tax burden and facilitation of taxation procedures, the reduction of administrative barriers and ensuring access of small and medium-sized enterprises to government orders and technological infrastructure.

  19. Possible Future Role of Small and Medium Sized Reactors (SMRs) in Countries with Small and Medium Electricity Grids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alujevic, L.

    2016-01-01

    Small and Medium Sized Reactors (SMRs) could have enormous potential as options for enhancing the energy supply security, as well as providing a lower capital investment compared to conventional Nuclear Power Plants (NPPs). The trend in SMR development has been towards design certification of small modular reactors, defined as advanced reactors that produce electric power up to 300 MW(e), designed to be built in factories and shipped to utilities for installation as demand arises. The factory-built small modular reactors aim to reduce lengthy construction times while simultaneously increasing quality, thereby minimizing the costs associated with the current time for construction that spans 5 to 8 years. SMR designs include water-cooled reactors, high temperature gas cooled reactors, as well as liquid metal cooled reactors with fast neutron spectrum. Also, many are designed to be emplaced below ground level, giving a high resistance to terrorist threats. The projected timelines of readiness for deployment of SMRs generally range from the present to 2025 - 2030. Currently there are more than 45 SMR designs under development for different application issues. This paper will try to elaborate the benefits and drawbacks of SMRs, as well as describe a couple of designs. Furthermore, some timelines and cost estimates will be provided, depending on the data currently available. Taking all that into account, the conclusion will try to ascertain the suitability of SMRs for Countries with Small and Medium Electricity Grids, namely Croatia. (author).

  20. Incremental change in cross sectional area in small endotracheal tubes: A call for more size options.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mortelliti, Caroline L; Mortelliti, Anthony J

    2016-08-01

    To elucidate the relatively large incremental percent change (IPC) in cross sectional area (CSA) in currently available small endotracheal tubes (ETTs), and to make recommendation for lesser incremental change in CSA in these smaller ETTs, in order to minimize iatrogenic airway injury. The CSAs of a commercially available line of ETTs were calculated, and the IPC of the CSA between consecutive size ETTs was calculated and graphed. The average IPC in CSA with large ETTs was applied to calculate identical IPC in the CSA for a theoretical, smaller ETT series, and the dimensions of a new theoretical series of proposed small ETTs were defined. The IPC of CSA in the larger (5.0-8.0 mm inner diameter (ID)) ETTs was 17.07%, and the IPC of CSA in the smaller ETTs (2.0-4.0 mm ID) is remarkably larger (38.08%). Applying the relatively smaller IPC of CSA from larger ETTs to a theoretical sequence of small ETTs, starting with the 2.5 mm ID ETT, suggests that intermediate sizes of small ETTs (ID 2.745 mm, 3.254 mm, and 3.859 mm) should exist. We recommend manufacturers produce additional small ETT size options at the intuitive intermediate sizes of 2.75 mm, 3.25 mm, and 3.75 mm ID in order to improve airway management for infants and small children. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. MO-D-BRD-02: In Memoriam of Bengt Bjarngard: SBRT II: Small Field Dosimetry - TG155

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Das, I; Reft, C

    2014-01-01

    Specialized radiation treatment such as SRS/SRT. SBRT, IMRT, VMAT, Tomotherapy, CyberKnife and Gamma Knife use small fields or combination of small fields where dosimetry is challenging and uncertain due to non-equilibrium conditions such as longitudinal and lateral disequilibrium. Additionally the primary photon fluence is greatly affected by the obstruction of the source size by the jaws creating a large dose gradient across the field. Electronic equilibrium is a phenomenon associated with the range of secondary particles which depend on the beam energy, photon spectrum and the composition of the medium. Additionally, the finite size of detectors creates volume averaging and fluence perturbations especially in small fields. The IAEA/AAPM has provided a frame work for non-compliant reference dosimetry in small fields1. The AAPM TG-1552 has adopted this frame work to provide guidelines in relative dosimetry. This course provides the insight of TG-155 that defines small field, provides recommendations for suitable detectors and associated correction factors to convert reading to dose. Recommendations of a good working practice for relative dosimetry measurements (PDD, TMR, output factor, etc.) and dose calculations based on the new formulation is are elaborated. It also discusses beam modeling and dose calculations as a critical step in clinical utilization of small field radiotherapy. Small errors in beam data, approximations in dose algorithms, or misaligned of detectors and field settings can propagate into large errors in planned and delivered dose. The modeling and treatment planning aspects of small field dosimetry are reviewed with emphasis on the most critical parts for ensuring accurate and safe radiation therapy. Discussion on k(fmsr, fclin) for commercially available detectors are also provided.1 P. Alfonso, P. Andreo, R. Capote, M. S. Huq, W. Kilby, P. Kjall, T. R. Mackie, H. Palmans, K. Rosser, J. Seuntjens, W. Ullrich and S. Vatnitsky, “A new

  2. SU-F-T-445: Effect of Triaxial Cables and Microdetectors in Small Field Dosimetry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Das, I; Andersen, A [Indiana University- School of Medicine, Indianapolis, IN (United States)

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: Advances in radiation treatment especially with smaller fields used in SRS, Gamma knife, Tomotherapy, Cyberknife, and IMRT, require a high degree of precision especially with microdetectors for small field dosimetry (Das et al, Med Ph, 35, 206, 2008; Alfonso et al, Med Phys, 35, 5179, 2008). Due to small signal, the triaxial cable becomes critical in terms of signal to noise ratio (SNR) which is studied with microdetectors. Methods: Six high quality triaxial cables, 9.1 meters long from different manufacturers without any defects were acquired along with 5 most popular microdetectors (microdiamond, plastic scintillators, SRS-diode, edge-diode and pinpoint). A dedicated electrometer was used for each combination except W1 which has its own supermax electrometer. A 6MV photon beam from Varian True beam with 100 MU at a 600 MU/min was used. Measurements were made at a depth of 5 cm in water phantom. Field sizes were varied from 0.5 cm to 10 cm square fields. Readings were taken with combination of cables and microdetectors. Results: Signal is dependent on the quality of the connectors, cables and types of microdetector. The readings varied from nC to pC depending on the type of microdetector. The net signal, S, (Sc-Sn), where Sc is signal with chamber and Sn is without chamber is a linear function of sensitive volume, v; (S = α+β•V), where α and β are constants. The standard deviation (SD) in 3 sets of reading with each combination of cable-detector was extremely low <0.02%. As expected the SD is higher in small fields (<3cm). Maximum estimated error was only ±0.2% in cables-detector combinations. Conclusion: The choice of cables has relatively small effect (±0.2%) with microdosimeter and should be accounted in overall error estimation in k value that is needed to convert ratio of reading to dose in small field dosimetry.

  3. SU-F-T-445: Effect of Triaxial Cables and Microdetectors in Small Field Dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Das, I; Andersen, A

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: Advances in radiation treatment especially with smaller fields used in SRS, Gamma knife, Tomotherapy, Cyberknife, and IMRT, require a high degree of precision especially with microdetectors for small field dosimetry (Das et al, Med Ph, 35, 206, 2008; Alfonso et al, Med Phys, 35, 5179, 2008). Due to small signal, the triaxial cable becomes critical in terms of signal to noise ratio (SNR) which is studied with microdetectors. Methods: Six high quality triaxial cables, 9.1 meters long from different manufacturers without any defects were acquired along with 5 most popular microdetectors (microdiamond, plastic scintillators, SRS-diode, edge-diode and pinpoint). A dedicated electrometer was used for each combination except W1 which has its own supermax electrometer. A 6MV photon beam from Varian True beam with 100 MU at a 600 MU/min was used. Measurements were made at a depth of 5 cm in water phantom. Field sizes were varied from 0.5 cm to 10 cm square fields. Readings were taken with combination of cables and microdetectors. Results: Signal is dependent on the quality of the connectors, cables and types of microdetector. The readings varied from nC to pC depending on the type of microdetector. The net signal, S, (Sc-Sn), where Sc is signal with chamber and Sn is without chamber is a linear function of sensitive volume, v; (S = α+β•V), where α and β are constants. The standard deviation (SD) in 3 sets of reading with each combination of cable-detector was extremely low <0.02%. As expected the SD is higher in small fields (<3cm). Maximum estimated error was only ±0.2% in cables-detector combinations. Conclusion: The choice of cables has relatively small effect (±0.2%) with microdosimeter and should be accounted in overall error estimation in k value that is needed to convert ratio of reading to dose in small field dosimetry.

  4. Dosimetry of small electron fields shaped by lead

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perez, M.; Hill, R.; Whitaker, M.; Greig, L.; West, M.; Jones, L.

    2000-01-01

    Full text: Electron fields can be used to treat superficial cancers. Field shaping can be achieved by placing lead on the patient surface to minimise the dose to surrounding areas and may improve beam penumbra compared to using standard applicators. However, significant dosimetry changes under high density material edges for electron fields have been reported (W Pohlit and KH Manegold, cited in The Physics of Radiation Therapy, P.M. Khan, 1994). This project evaluated the dosimetry of small dimension electron fields shaped with lead placed on the surface. Comparisons were made between circular lead cutouts (3 and 5cm diameters) and an open electron applicator (5cm diameter). For each of these fields depth doses and profiles were measured using a diode detector in a water phantom, and isodoses were measured using X-Omat film sandwiched within a Solid water phantom. Output factors were measured in the Solid water using a Markus parallel plate ionisation chamber. The effect of the lead thickness on the profiles and output was quantified and the thickness used for the final measurements selected so as to give less than 5% transmission of the primary dose. Penumbral widths for 6MeV and 8MeV using the lead cutouts showed distinct differences compared with the open applicator. At depths of the 90% relative dose the profiles for lead shaped fields showed tighter penumbra widths by an average of 2 mm. This became more pronounced nearer the surface where, at 2mm depth, the difference in penumbral widths was an average of 4mm. The 3cm lead cutouts showed surface dose increases of 6% and 9% for 6MeV and 8 MeV respectively. Depth dose parameters (D max and R 90 ) varied by no more than 2mm between the lead cutouts and the open applicator measurements. Lead can be used to shape electron fields for radiotherapy treatments. Depth dose characteristics do not vary significantly with a 5 cm circular applicator. The penumbral width indicates less isodose spread for the lead cutout

  5. SU-E-T-323: Dosimetric Evaluation of Small Fields for SBRT Treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gupta, R; Eldib, A; Wang, B; Ma, C; Li, J [Fox Chase Cancer Center, Philadelphia, PA (United States)

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: Stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) is commonly employed to treat small targets for effective tumor control with radiation beams of small field sizes. The goal of this work was to evaluate dosimetrically a treatment planning system (TPS) by comparing the calculated dose for SBRT treatment with ion-chamber measurements. Methods: 3D images of a solid-water phantom with a pinpoint ion-chamber (0.015cm3) inside were acquired with a CT scanner. Active volume of the ion-chamber was delineated on CT images. Targets with a diameter of 1.5cm, 2cm, 3cm, 4cm and 5cm were drawn around the chamber. 3DCRT plans were generated for each target size with centrally opened 6MV beams and off-axis beams by changing the isocenter location, respectively, using a TPS with the Analytical Anisotropic Algorithm. A 21iX linear accelerator was employed for plan delivery. The measured and calculated doses were compared. To evaluate the dose calculations in heterogeneity for small fields SBRT treatment, similar plans were also generated and delivered on a heterogeneous thoracic phantom for 5 different size targets in the lung. Results: Dose comparisons between measurements and calculations showed 5.2%, 1.88%, 1.34%, 1.01% and 0.85% difference for SBRT plans with small central axis beams and 0.96%, 0.15%, 0.58%, 0.22% and 0.77% difference for plans with off-axis beams for five different size targets. For the thoracic phantom, the differences on dose between measurements and calculations are bigger, which are 8%, 5.9%, 4.5%, 3.9% and 4.5%, respectively. Conclusion: Dose verification for small fields used in the SBRT treatment has been performed based on ion-chamber measurements in both homogenous and heterogeneous phantoms. More than a 5% difference has been observed in the heterogeneous phantom, especially for very small fields. To meet the ICRU recommendation on a dose difference of no more than 5%, some corrections on the commissioning parameters of the TPS are needed.

  6. Equilibrium Eulerian approach for predicting the thermal field of a dispersion of small particles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferry, J. [University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign, IL (United States). Center for Simulation of Advanced Rockets; Balachandar, S. [University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign, IL (United States). Dept. of Theoretical and Applied Mechanics

    2005-02-01

    The equilibrium Eulerian method [J. Ferry, S. Balachandar, A fast Eulerian method for disperse two-phase flow, Int. J. Multiphase Flow 27 (7) (2001) 1199-1226] provides an accurate approximation to the velocity field of sufficiently small dispersed particles in a turbulent fluid. In particular, it captures the important physics of particle response to turbulent flow, such as preferential concentration and turbophoresis. It is therefore employed as an efficient alternative to solving a PDE to determine the particle velocity field. Here we explore two possible extensions of this method to determine the particle temperature field accurately and efficiently, as functions of the underlying fluid velocity and temperature fields. Both extensions are theoretically shown to be highly accurate for asymptotically small particles. Their behavior for finite-size particles is assessed in a DNS of turbulent channel flow (Re{sub {tau}} = 150) with a passive temperature field (Pr = 1). Here it is found that although the order of accuracy of the two extensions is the same, the constant factor by which one is superior to the other can be quite large, so the less accurate extension is appropriate only in the case of a very small mechanical-to-thermal response time ratio. (Author)

  7. Subureteral Injection with Small-Size Dextranomer/Hyaluronic Acid Copolymer: Is It Really Efficient?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iyimser Üre

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the clinical results of patients with vesicoureteral reflux, which were treated with subureteral injection of small-size (80–120 μm dextranomer/hyaluronic acid copolymer (Dx/HA. Data of 75 children (105 renal units who underwent STING procedure with small-size Dx/HA for the treatment of vesicoureteral reflux (VUR in our clinic between 2008 and 2012 were retrospectively analyzed. Preoperative reflux grade and side, injection indication, postoperative urinary infections and urinary symptoms, voiding cystourethrogram, and renal scintigraphy results were evaluated. The success rate of the procedure was 100% in patients with grades 1 and 2 reflux, 91% in patients with grade 3 reflux, and 82.6% in patients with grade 4. Overall success rate of the treated patients was 97%. Endoscopic subureteric injection with Dx/HA procedure has become a reasonable minimally invasive alternative technique to open surgery, long-term antibiotic prophylaxis, and surveillance modalities in treatment of VUR in terms of easy application, low costs and complication rates, and high success rates. Injection material composed of small-size dextranomer microspheres seems superior to normal size Dx/HA, together with offering similar success with low cost.

  8. Conceptual design of small-sized HTGR system (1). Major specifications and system designs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohashi, Hirofumi; Sato, Hiroyuki; Tazawa, Yujiro; Yan, Xing L.; Tachibana, Yukio

    2011-06-01

    Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA) has started a conceptual design of a 50MWt small-sized high temperature gas cooled reactor (HTGR) for steam supply and electricity generation (HTR50S), which is a first-of-kind of the commercial plant or a demonstration plant of a small-sized HTGR system for steam supply to the industries and district heating and electricity generation by a steam turbine, to deploy in developing countries in the 2030s. The design philosophy is that the HTR50S is a high advanced reactor, which is reducing the R and D risk based on the HTTR design, upgrading the performance and reducing the cost for commercialization by utilizing the knowledge obtained by the HTTR operation and the GTHTR300 design. The major specifications of the HTR50S were determined and targets of the technology demonstration using the HTR50S (e.g., the increasing the power density, reduction of the number of uranium enrichment in the fuel, increasing the burn up, side-by-side arrangement between the reactor pressure vessel and the steam generator) were identified. In addition, the system design of HTR50S, which offers the capability of electricity generation, cogeneration of electricity and steam for a district heating and industries, was performed. Furthermore, a market size of small-sized HTGR systems was investigated. (author)

  9. Small- and Medium-Sized Commercial Building Monitoring and Controls Needs: A Scoping Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Katipamula, Srinivas; Underhill, Ronald M.; Goddard, James K.; Taasevigen, Danny J.; Piette, M. A.; Granderson, J.; Brown, Rich E.; Lanzisera, Steven M.; Kuruganti, T.

    2012-10-31

    Buildings consume over 40% of the total energy consumption in the U.S. A significant portion of the energy consumed in buildings is wasted because of the lack of controls or the inability to use existing building automation systems (BASs) properly. Much of the waste occurs because of our inability to manage and controls buildings efficiently. Over 90% of the buildings are either small-size (<5,000 sf) or medium-size (between 5,000 sf and 50,000 sf); these buildings currently do not use BASs to monitor and control their building systems from a central location. According to Commercial Building Energy Consumption Survey (CBECS), about 10% of the buildings in the U.S. use BASs or central controls to manage their building system operations. Buildings that use BASs are typically large (>100,000 sf). Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL), Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) and Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) were asked by the U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE’s) Building Technologies Program (BTP) to identify monitoring and control needs for small- and medium-sized commercial buildings and recommend possible solutions. This study documents the needs and solutions for small- and medium-sized buildings.

  10. Pen size and parity effects on maternal behaviour of Small-Tail Han sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lv, S-J; Yang, Y; Dwyer, C M; Li, F-K

    2015-07-01

    The aim of this experiment was to study the effects of pen size and parity on maternal behaviour of twin-bearing Small-Tail Han ewes. A total of 24 ewes were allocated to a 2×2 design (six per pen), with parity (primiparous or multiparous) and pen size (large: 6.0×3.0 m; small: 6.0×1.5 m) as main effects at Linyi University, Shandong Province, China. Behaviour was observed from after parturition until weaning. All ewes were observed for 6 h every 5 days from 0700 to1000 h and from 1400 to 1700 h. Continuous focal animal sampling was used to quantify the duration of maternal behaviours: sucking, grooming and following as well as the frequency of udder accepting, udder refusing and low-pitched bleating. Oestradiol and cortisol concentrations in the faeces (collected in the morning every 5 days) were detected using EIA kits. All lambs were weighed 24 h after parturition and again at weaning at 35 days of age. The small pen size significantly reduced following (Pbehaviour in sheep during lactation. The study is also the first to report on the maternal behaviour of Chinese native sheep breeds (Small-Tail Han sheep), with implications for the production of sheep in China.

  11. Analysis of near optimum design for small and medium size nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmed, A.A.

    1977-01-01

    Market surveys in recent years have shown that a significant market would exist among the developing nations of the world for nuclear power plants that would be classified as small to medium sized, provided that these small plants could produce electricity at a unit price comparable to that of equivalent sized fossil fired plants. Nuclear plants in the range of 100 MWe to 500 MWe would fit more effectively into the relatively smaller grids of most developing nations than would the 900 MWe to 1300 MWe units now being constructed in the large industrial nations. Worldwide re-evaluation of the worth of fossil fuels has prompted a re-examination of the competitive position of small to medium sized nuclear generating units compared to comparable fossil fired units, especially in the context of units specifically optimized for the size range of interest, rather than of designs that are simply scaled down versions of the currently available larger units. Since the absolute cost of electricity is more sensitive to external factors such as cost of money, national inflation rate and time required for licensing and construction than to details of design or perhaps even to choice of fuels, and since the cost of electricity generated in small to medium sized fossil fired units is periodically compared to that of scaled down versions of conventional large nuclear units, the point of view taken here is one of comparing the relative generating costs of smaller nuclear units of optimum design with the corresponding costs of scaled down versions of current large nuclear generating units

  12. Small grain size zirconium-based coatings deposited by magnetron sputtering at low temperatures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jimenez, O., E-mail: omar.jimenez.udg@gmail.com [Departamento de Ingeniería de Proyectos, CUCEI, Universidad de Guadalajara, AP 307, CP 45101 Zapopan, Jal (Mexico); Department of Materials Science and Engineering, The University of Sheffield, Sheffield S1 3JD (United Kingdom); Audronis, M.; Leyland, A. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, The University of Sheffield, Sheffield S1 3JD (United Kingdom); Flores, M.; Rodriguez, E. [Departamento de Ingeniería de Proyectos, CUCEI, Universidad de Guadalajara, AP 307, CP 45101 Zapopan, Jal (Mexico); Kanakis, K.; Matthews, A. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, The University of Sheffield, Sheffield S1 3JD (United Kingdom)

    2015-09-30

    Hard, partly amorphous, ZrTiB(N) coatings were deposited by Physical Vapour Deposition (PVD) onto (111) silicon wafers at low substrate temperatures of 85 and 110 °C using Closed Field Unbalanced Magnetron Sputtering. A segmented rectangular sputter target composed of three pieces (Zr/TiB{sub 2}/Zr) was used as the source of evaporation of coating components. Two different substrate biases (i.e. floating potential and − 50 V) and N{sub 2} reactive-gas flow rates of 2, 4 and 6 sccm were employed as the main deposition parameter variables. The chemical composition, structure, morphology and mechanical properties were investigated using a variety of analytical techniques such as Glow-Discharge Optical Emission Spectroscopy, cross-sectional Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), Glancing Angle X-ray Diffraction (GAXRD) and nanoindentation. With other parameters fixed, coating properties were found to be dependent on the substrate negative bias and nitrogen flow rate. Linear scan profiles and SEM imaging revealed that all coatings were smooth, dense and featureless (in fracture cross section) with no apparent columnar morphology or macro-defects. GAXRD structural analysis revealed that mostly metallic phases were formed for coatings containing no nitrogen, whereas a solid solution (Zr,Ti)N single phase nitride was found in most of the reactively deposited coatings — exhibiting a very small grain size due to nitrogen and boron grain refinement effects. Hardness values from as low as 8.6 GPa up to a maximum of 25.9 GPa are related mainly to solid solution strengthening effects. The measured elastic moduli correlated with the trends in hardness behaviour; values in the range of 120–200 GPa were observed depending on the selected deposition parameters. Also, high H/E values (> 0.1) were achieved with several of the coatings.

  13. FGF signaling regulates the number of posterior taste papillae by controlling progenitor field size.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camille I Petersen

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The sense of taste is fundamental to our ability to ingest nutritious substances and to detect and avoid potentially toxic ones. Sensory taste buds are housed in papillae that develop from epithelial placodes. Three distinct types of gustatory papillae reside on the rodent tongue: small fungiform papillae are found in the anterior tongue, whereas the posterior tongue contains the larger foliate papillae and a single midline circumvallate papilla (CVP. Despite the great variation in the number of CVPs in mammals, its importance in taste function, and its status as the largest of the taste papillae, very little is known about the development of this structure. Here, we report that a balance between Sprouty (Spry genes and Fgf10, which respectively antagonize and activate receptor tyrosine kinase (RTK signaling, regulates the number of CVPs. Deletion of Spry2 alone resulted in duplication of the CVP as a result of an increase in the size of the placode progenitor field, and Spry1(-/-;Spry2(-/- embryos had multiple CVPs, demonstrating the redundancy of Sprouty genes in regulating the progenitor field size. By contrast, deletion of Fgf10 led to absence of the CVP, identifying FGF10 as the first inductive, mesenchyme-derived factor for taste papillae. Our results provide the first demonstration of the role of epithelial-mesenchymal FGF signaling in taste papilla development, indicate that regulation of the progenitor field size by FGF signaling is a critical determinant of papilla number, and suggest that the great variation in CVP number among mammalian species may be linked to levels of signaling by the FGF pathway.

  14. TU-F-BRE-05: Experimental Determination of K Factor in Small Field Dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Das, I; Akino, Y; Francescon, P

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: Small-field dosimetry is challenging due to charged-particle disequilibrium, source occlusion and more importantly finite size of detectors. IAEA/AAPM has published approach to convert detector readings to dose by k factor. Manufacturers have been trying to provide various types of micro-detectors that could be used in small fields. However k factors depends on detector perturbations and are derived using Monte Carlo simulation. PTW has introduced a microDiamond for small-field dosimetry. An experimental approach is presented to derive the k factor for this detector. Methods: PTW microDiamond is a small volume detector with 1.1 mm radius and 1.0 micron thick synthetic diamond. Output factors were measured from 1×1cm2 to 12×12 cm2 on a Varian machine at various depths using various micro-detectors with published k factors. Dose is calculated as reading * K. Assuming k factor is accurate, output factor should be identical with every micro-detectors. Hence published k values (Francescon et al Med Phys 35, 504-513,2008) were used to covert readings and then output factors were computed. Based on the converged curve from other detectors, k factor for microDiamond was computed versus field size. Results: Traditional output factors as ratio of readings normalized to 10×10 cm2 differ significantly for micro-detectors for fields smaller than 3×3 cm2 which are now being used extensively. When readings are converted to dose, the output factor is independent of detector. Based on this method, k factor for microDiamond was estimated to be nearly constant 0.993±0.007 over varied field sizes. Conclusion: Our method provides a unique opportunity to determine the k factor for any unknown detector. It is shown that even though k factor depends on machine type due to focal spot, however for fields ≥1×1 cm2 this method provides accurate evaluation of k factor. Additionally microDiamond could be used with assumption that k factor is nearly unity

  15. Robust size illusion produced by expanding and contracting flow fields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Xue; Bai, Jianying; Bao, Min

    2017-04-01

    A new illusion is described. Randomly positioned dots moved radially within an imaginary annular window. The dots' motion periodically changed the direction, leading to an alternating percept of expanding and contracting motion. Strikingly, the apparent size of the enclosed circular region shrank during the dots' expanding phases and dilated during the contracting phases. We quantitatively measured the illusion, and found that the presence of energy at the local kinetic edge could not account for the illusion. Besides, we reproduced the illusion on a natural scene background seen from a first-person point of view that moved forward and backward periodically. Blurring the boundaries of motion areas could not reverse the illusion in all subjects. Taken together, our observed illusion is likely induced by optic flow processing with some components of motion contrast. Expanding or contracting dots may induce the self-motion perception of either approaching or leaving way from the circle. These will make the circle appear smaller or larger since its retinal size remains constant. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Characterization of the exradin W1 plastic scintillation detector for small field applications in proton therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoehr, C.; Lindsay, C.; Beaudry, J.; Penner, C.; Strgar, V.; Lee, R.; Duzenli, C.

    2018-05-01

    Accurate dosimetry in small field proton therapy is challenging, particularly for applications such as ocular therapy, and suitable detectors for this purpose are sought. The Exradin W1 plastic scintillating fibre detector is known to out-perform most other detectors for determining relative dose factors for small megavoltage photon beams used in radiotherapy but its potential in small proton beams has been relatively unexplored in the literature. The 1 mm diameter cylindrical geometry and near water equivalence of the W1 makes it an attractive alternative to other detectors. This study examines the dosimetric performance of the W1 in a 74 MeV proton therapy beam with particular focus on detector response characteristics relevant to relative dose measurement in small fields suitable for ocular therapy. Quenching of the scintillation signal is characterized and demonstrated not to impede relative dose measurements at a fixed depth. The background cable-only (Čerenkov and radio-fluorescence) signal is 4 orders of magnitude less than the scintillation signal, greatly simplifying relative dose measurements. Comparison with other detectors and Monte Carlo simulations indicate that the W1 is useful for measuring relative dose factors for field sizes down to 5 mm diameter and shallow spread out Bragg peaks down to 6 mm in depth.

  17. Small to Mid-Size Sporting Events: Are We Prepared to Recover from an Attack?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian M. Harrell

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This article describes a fictional deadly attack by a lone-wolf terrorist during a high school football event in a small town, here in the United States. The authors begin by describing an attack and then focus on the response from the medical community, city, county, state, and federal government officials. Next, the authors make several recommendations on what actions are needed to develop an effective plan to combat terrorist activities during a small- to mid-size sports event. Among the actions needed, the authors focus on the following: response planning, emergency action plan, incident command, policies and procedures, and security staff training.

  18. Risk assessment of small-sized HTR with pebble-bed core

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kroeger, W.; Mertens, J.; Wolters, J.

    1987-01-01

    Two recent concepts of small-sized HTR's (HTR-Modul and HTR-100) were analysed regarding their safety concepts and risk protection. In neither case do core cooling accidents contribute to the risk because of the low induced core temperatures. Water ingress accidents dominate the risk in both cases by detaching deposited fission products which can be released into the environment. For these accident sequences no early fatalities and practically no lethal case of cancer were computed. Both HTR concepts include adequate precautionary measures and an infinitely small risk according to the usual standards. The safety concepts make express use of the specific inherent safety features of pebble-bed HTR's. (orig.)

  19. Activities in the field of small nuclear power reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baranaev, Yu.D.; Dolgov, V.V.; Sergeev, Yu.A. [Physics and Power Eng. Inst., Obninsk (Russian Federation). State Res. Centre

    1997-10-01

    Considerable efforts have been undertaken for development, design, construction and operation of small nuclear power plants (SNPP) in Russia. Systematic work in this area was started in the mid-1950s. The driving force for this activity was the awareness that the use of nuclear fuel would practically solve the problem of fuel transportation. As far as the remote northern regions are concerned, this provides the key advantage of nuclear over conventional energy sources. The activity in the field of SNPP has included pre-design analytical feasibility studies and experimental research including large-scale experiments on critical assemblies, thermal and hydraulic test facilities, research and development work, construction and operation of pilot and demonstration SNPPs, and finally, construction and more than 20 years of operation of the commercial SNPP, namely Bilibino nuclear co-generation plant (NCGP) located in Chukotka autonomous district, which is one of the most remote regions in the far north-east of Russia. In recent years, studies have been carried out on the development of several new SNPP designs using advanced reactors of the new generation. Among these are the second stage of Bilibino NCGP, floating NCGP VOLNOLOM-3, designated for siting in the Arctic sea coast area, and a nuclear district heating plant for the town of Apatity, in the Murmansk region. In this paper, the background and current status of the SNPPs are given, and the problems as well as prospects of small nuclear reactors development and implementation are considered. (orig.) 20 refs.

  20. Size characterization by Sedimentation Field Flow Fractionation of silica particles used as food additives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Contado, Catia; Ravani, Laura; Passarella, Martina

    2013-07-25

    Four types of SiO2, available on the market as additives in food and personal care products, were size characterized using Sedimentation Field Flow Fractionation (SdFFF), SEM, TEM and Photon Correlation Spectroscopy (PCS). The synergic use of the different analytical techniques made it possible, for some samples, to confirm the presence of primary nanoparticles (10 nm) organized in clusters or aggregates of different dimension and, for others, to discover that the available information is incomplete, particularly that regarding the presence of small particles. A protocol to extract the silica particles from a simple food matrix was set up, enriching (0.25%, w w(-1)) a nearly silica-free instant barley coffee powder with a known SiO2 sample. The SdFFF technique, in conjunction with SEM observations, made it possible to identify the added SiO2 particles and verify the new particle size distribution. The SiO2 content of different powdered foodstuffs was determined by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectroscopy (GFAAS); the concentrations ranged between 0.006 and 0.35% (w w(-1)). The protocol to isolate the silica particles was so applied to the most SiO2-rich commercial products and the derived suspensions were separated by SdFFF; SEM and TEM observations supported the size analyses while GFAAS determinations on collected fractions permitted element identification. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Development and Evaluation of Algorithms to Improve Small- and Medium-Size Commercial Building Operations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Woohyun [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Katipamula, Srinivas [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Lutes, Robert G. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Underhill, Ronald M. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2016-10-31

    Small- and medium-sized (<100,000 sf) commercial buildings (SMBs) represent over 95% of the U.S. commercial building stock and consume over 60% of total site energy consumption. Many of these buildings use rudimentary controls that are mostly manual, with limited scheduling capability, no monitoring or failure management. Therefore, many of these buildings are operated inefficiently and consume excess energy. SMBs typically utilize packaged rooftop units (RTUs) that are controlled by an individual thermostat. There is increased urgency to improve the operating efficiency of existing commercial building stock in the U.S. for many reasons, chief among them is to mitigate the climate change impacts. Studies have shown that managing set points and schedules of the RTUs will result in up to 20% energy and cost savings. Another problem associated with RTUs is short-cycling, where an RTU goes through ON and OFF cycles too frequently. Excessive cycling can lead to excessive wear and lead to premature failure of the compressor or its components. The short cycling can result in a significantly decreased average efficiency (up to 10%), even if there are no physical failures in the equipment. Also, SMBs use a time-of-day scheduling is to start the RTUs before the building will be occupied and shut it off when unoccupied. Ensuring correct use of the zone set points and eliminating frequent cycling of RTUs thereby leading to persistent building operations can significantly increase the operational efficiency of the SMBs. A growing trend is to use low-cost control infrastructure that can enable scalable and cost-effective intelligent building operations. The work reported in this report describes three algorithms for detecting the zone set point temperature, RTU cycling rate and occupancy schedule detection that can be deployed on the low-cost infrastructure. These algorithms only require the zone temperature data for detection. The algorithms have been tested and validated using

  2. SU-F-T-579: Extrapolation Techniques for Small Field Dosimetry Using Gafchromic EBT3 Film

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morales, J [Chris OBrien Lifehouse, Camperdown, NSW (Australia)

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: The purpose of this project is to test an experimental approach using an extrapolation technique for Gafchromic EBT3 film for small field x-ray dosimetry. Methods: Small fields from a Novalis Tx linear accelerator with HD Multileaf Collimators with 6 MV was used. The field sizes ranged from 5 × 5 to 50 × 50 mm2 MLC fields and a range of circular cones of 4 to 30 mm2 diameters. All measurements were performed in water at an SSD of 100 cm and at a depth of 10 cm. The relative output factors (ROFs) were determined from an extrapolation technique developed to eliminate the effects of partial volume averaging in film scan by scanning films with high resolution (1200 DPI). The size of the regions of interest (ROI) was varied to produce a plot of ROFs versus ROI which was then extrapolated to zero ROI to determine the relative output factor. The results were compared with other solid state detectors with proper correction, namely, IBA SFD diode, PTW 60008 and PTW 60012 diode. Results: For the 4 mm cone, the extrapolated ROF had a value of 0.658 ± 0.014 as compared to 0.642 and 0.636 for 0.5 mm and 1 mm2 ROI analysis, respectively. This showed a change in output factor of 2.4% and 3.3% at this comparative ROI sizes. In comparison, the 25 mm cone had a difference in measured output factor of 0.3% and 0.5% between 0.5 and 1.0 mm, respectively compared to zero volume. For the fields defined by MLCs a difference of up to 2% for 5×5 mm2 was observed. Conclusion: A measureable difference can be seen in ROF based on the ROI when radiochromic film is used. Using extrapolation technique from high resolution scanning a good agreement can be achieved.

  3. Batched Triangular Dense Linear Algebra Kernels for Very Small Matrix Sizes on GPUs

    KAUST Repository

    Charara, Ali; Keyes, David E.; Ltaief, Hatem

    2017-01-01

    Batched dense linear algebra kernels are becoming ubiquitous in scientific applications, ranging from tensor contractions in deep learning to data compression in hierarchical low-rank matrix approximation. Within a single API call, these kernels are capable of simultaneously launching up to thousands of similar matrix computations, removing the expensive overhead of multiple API calls while increasing the occupancy of the underlying hardware. A challenge is that for the existing hardware landscape (x86, GPUs, etc.), only a subset of the required batched operations is implemented by the vendors, with limited support for very small problem sizes. We describe the design and performance of a new class of batched triangular dense linear algebra kernels on very small data sizes using single and multiple GPUs. By deploying two-sided recursive formulations, stressing the register usage, maintaining data locality, reducing threads synchronization and fusing successive kernel calls, the new batched kernels outperform existing state-of-the-art implementations.

  4. Supply Chain adoption in Small and Medium-Sized Enterprises (SMEs)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juhl, Mathias Thim; Bernon, Mike

    Purpose: The importance of having a competitive supply chain strategy is not to be underestimated (Underwood & Agg 2012; Aronow et al. 2014). Despite the importance of creating strong supply chain capabilities, small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) find it difficult to implement supply chain...... and customer needs. Research Approach: An exploratory case study of five small and medium sized manufacturing companies was undertaken using in-depth interviews and business reports. Combined with relevant literature, the case study interviews provide basis for a discussion on the current adoption of supply...... needs and a low interaction in the supply chain, to having an “outside-in” perspective (Day & Moorman 2013) and development of capabilities that support long-term competitive advantage. The case studies revealed two significant factors to support consistency between supply chain capabilities...

  5. The role of independent intermediaries. The case of small and medium-sized exporters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Tage Koed; Moen, Øystein; Hammervold, Randi

    2012-01-01

    and participation rather than just discrete types of intermediary modes (agents, importers, dealers, etc.). Associations with performance as well as the role of product and distributor characteristics are analyzed. Empirical data based on a sample of product-market ventures in 227 small and medium-sized Norwegian...... export firms are analysed by a structural equation modelling approach. The article provides empirical evidence that managers keep control of decision making to an extent that may have a negative impact on export performance. The empirical study indicates that firms should participate more in task......The article examines how small and medium-sized exporters collaborate with intermediaries in foreign markets by studying the level of control, i.e. the delegation of decisions rights and task solution. It goes one step further than previous research, since it examines degrees of control...

  6. Batched Triangular Dense Linear Algebra Kernels for Very Small Matrix Sizes on GPUs

    KAUST Repository

    Charara, Ali

    2017-03-06

    Batched dense linear algebra kernels are becoming ubiquitous in scientific applications, ranging from tensor contractions in deep learning to data compression in hierarchical low-rank matrix approximation. Within a single API call, these kernels are capable of simultaneously launching up to thousands of similar matrix computations, removing the expensive overhead of multiple API calls while increasing the occupancy of the underlying hardware. A challenge is that for the existing hardware landscape (x86, GPUs, etc.), only a subset of the required batched operations is implemented by the vendors, with limited support for very small problem sizes. We describe the design and performance of a new class of batched triangular dense linear algebra kernels on very small data sizes using single and multiple GPUs. By deploying two-sided recursive formulations, stressing the register usage, maintaining data locality, reducing threads synchronization and fusing successive kernel calls, the new batched kernels outperform existing state-of-the-art implementations.

  7. Synthesis and characterization of small size fluorescent LEEH caped blue emission ZnTe quantum dots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patnaik Sumanta Kumar

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available We report here for the first time the synthesis of LEEH caped very small size (2 nm ZnTe quantum dots at low temperature (less than 100 °C using a simple chemical route. The effects of aging and stirring time on the absorption spectra of the quantum dots were investigated. The synthesized nanocrystal (NC was characterized by PL, TEM, XRD and the formation of very small size quantum dots having FCC structure was confirmed. Further, blue emission from the prepared sample was observed during exposure to monochromatic UV radiation. ZnTe NCs obtained in this study were found to be more stable compared to those presented in literature reports. ZnTe NCs may be considered as a new material in place of CdTe for optoelectronics devices.

  8. Targeting Triple Negative Breast Cancer with a Small-sized Paramagnetic Nanoparticle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Li; Varma, Nadimpalli RS; Gang, Zhang Z.; Ewing, James R.; Arbab, Ali S; Ali, Meser M

    2016-01-01

    There is no available targeted therapy or imaging agent for triple negative breast cancer (TNBC). We developed a small-sized dendrimer-based nanoparticle containing a clinical relevant MRI contrast agent, GdDOTA and a NIR fluorescent dye, DL680. Systemic delivery of dual-modal nanoparticles led to accumulation of the agents in a flank mouse model of TNBC that were detected by both optical and MR imaging. In-vivo fluorescence images, as well as ex-vivo fluorescence images of individual organs, demonstrated that nanoparticles accumulated into tumor selectively. A dual modal strategy resulted in a selective delivery of a small-sized (GdDOTA)42-G4-DL680 dendrimeric agent to TNBC tumors, avoiding other major organs. PMID:28018751

  9. The Suitability of Expert System Application in Czech Small and Medium‑Sized Enterprises

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ekaterina Khitilova

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Small and medium-sized enterprises play an important role in the economy of Czech Republic. Expert systems are one of the alternatives evaluated the effectiveness of the relationship between supplier and customer. Currently, measurement and increase in efficiency of supplier-customer relations is very topical subject. The requirements for tools the improvement supplier- customer relationship can be specified on the base the literature analysis. The article defines basic requirements for expert system. The presentation of expert system and its suitability in the surroundings of small and medium sized enterprises is the part of this article. The comparison of the expert system possibilities and the compiled requirements leads to suitability analysis of selected solution. Actual questions and the way of future work are derived from current results, presented in the paper. The article defined the directions of development this expert system.

  10. THE RELATIONSHIP MARKETING APPLICATION IN SMALL AND MEDIUM-SIZED ENTERPRISES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SABOU FELICIA

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the importance of relationship marketing, the communication between customers and romanian small and medium-sized enterprises, analyzing also how are investigated and resolved the complaints received from the customers. In the paper, I made a study through I analyzed if the small and medium-sized enterprises undertake investigations about the reasons which they have lost customers. The study was conducted during january - february 2016, the main research methods used in the study were observation, documentation, analysis and market survey. Also, I chose the study questionnaire as research tool. From this study resulted that 79,31% of companies surveyed, were concerned and investigated the reasons they lost customers. Customer satisfaction is very important to business success, so it is recommended that companies must pay attention to the customers reactions and customers dissatisfaction consequences.

  11. Small Size and Low Cost UHF RFID Tag Antenna Mountable on Metallic Objects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio López-Soriano

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Reducing tag size while maintaining good performance is one of the major challenges in radio-frequency identification applications (RFID, in particular when labeling metallic objects. In this contribution, a small size and low cost tag antenna for identifying metal objects in the European UHF band (865–868 MHz is presented. The antenna consists of a transmission line mounted on an inexpensive thin dielectric which is proximity-coupled to a short-ended patch mounted on FR4 substrate. The overall dimensions of the tag are 33.5 × 30 × 3.1 mm. Experimental results show that, for an EIRP of 3.2 W (European regulations, such a small and cheap tag attains read ranges of about 5 m when attached to a metallic object.

  12. External Determinants of the Development of Small and Medium-Sized Enterprises – Empirical Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata Lisowska

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper aims to identify external determinants of the development of small and medium-sized enterprises and assess their impact on the functioning of these entities in Poland. Meeting this objective required: identifying determinants of the development of SMEs, determining the current development situation of the surveyed enterprises and examining the impact of external determinants on the development of SMEs. The implementation of the above-presented goals was based on the following assumptions: (i the current situation of the surveyed enterprises is determined with the use of quantitative indicators (turnover volume, number of employees, market share, profit levels (ii the analysis of external determinants encompasses three components of the environment: the macro-environment, the meso-environment and the micro-environment, (iii in each analysed area there are separate analyses conducted for micro, small and medium-sized enterprises, enabling greater precision in the identification of external determinants of development for each category of businesses.

  13. Size of nuclear sources from measurements of proton-proton correlations at small relative momentum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rebreyend, D.; Kox, S.; Merchez, F.; Noren, B.; Perrin, C.; Khelfaoui, B.; Gondrand, J.C.; Bondorf, J.P.

    1990-01-01

    This contribution will present recent measurements performed on light heavy ion reactions at intermediate energies. Nuclear source sizes were determined by measuring the correlation at small relative momentum, between two protons detected in the EMRIC set-up. This technique allows the determination of the extent of the emitting source by constructing a correlation function for the coincident protons and analyzing it in the framework of a final state interaction model. We found the apparent source size to be large compared to the dimension of the studied system and low sensitivity of the extracted radii as a function of the target mass and detection angle. We will show that simulations may be needed to fully estimate the correlation induced by detectors with small angular acceptance

  14. The Role of Branding in Small and Medium-Sized Enterprises

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franc Vidic

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this article is to show the relationship between branding and brand management in small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs. Traditionally, branding was associated with large and global corporations. However, we often forget that small and medium-sized enterprises also deal with their own names (brands in their own way. The study identified four types of businesses, regardless of their association with brands. We named these four types, as follows: Ignorant; User; Low-Cost Producer; and Differentiation Producer. If the first two types (i.e. Ignorant and User differ primarily in the extent to which they use simple branding activities, and are used mainly in the local market where the enterprises tend to operate, we found that the last two types (i.e. low-cost producers and differentiation producers design their branding strategies in accordance with their generic strategies and mode of growth.

  15. Modelling of the costs of decision support for small and medium-sized enterprises

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viera Tomišová

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The support of decision-making activities in small and medium-sized enterprises (SME has its specific features. When suggesting steps for the implementation of decision-support tools in the enterprise, we identified two main ways of decision-making support based on the data analysis: ERP (Enterprise Resource Planning without BI (Business Intelligence and ERP with BI. In our contribution, we present costs models of both mentioned decision support systems and their practical interpretation.

  16. Small and medium sized enterprises (SMEs) in international business: A survey of recent literature

    OpenAIRE

    Schmidt, Klaus-Dieter

    1996-01-01

    It is often argued that the process of globalization has mainly favoured large-scale multinational companies which are able to organize their business efficiently within internal hierarchies. However, globalization has not only pushed cross-border intra-finn transactions but also other arrangements among firms such as licensing or subcontracting that fall short of ownership involvements. This opens up new opportunities for small and medium sized enterprises, too. The paper provides a general ...

  17. Features of digital photogrammetry methods application and image processing in small and medium-sized enterprises

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samsonova N. V.

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available the paper discusses the methods of survey enterprises employees effective training to use modern measurement systems and the need for further photogrammetric processing of the results obtained. Attention is also paid to integrated learning, based primarily on web content, the introduction of a social component in the development and familiarization with new photogrammetric equipment and technologies in order to increase the competitiveness of engineering and research small and medium-sized enterprises.

  18. Billboard and its role in the marketing strategy of small and medium-sized enterprises

    OpenAIRE

    Mikolajová, Kamila

    2013-01-01

    The main objective of this work was to clarify the role billboard in the marketing strategy of small and medium-sized enterprise. The theoretical part deals with marketing and commercial communications, their mixes and process of creation. This work also analyzes the billboard as one of the types of outdoor advertising. It provides a detailed look at its advantages, disadvantages, characteristics that should be considered when choosing media. It also provides guidance on how it should look li...

  19. Favouring Small and Medium Sized Enterprises with Directive 2014/24/EU

    OpenAIRE

    Trybus, Martin; Andrecka, Marta

    2017-01-01

    This article argues that the four main measures introduced in the 2014 reform of the Procurement Directives to promote Small andMediumSized Enterprises (SMEs) cannot be classified as measures favouring SMEs. A measure favours SMEs when it compromises the main objectives of competition, non-discrimination and value for money. The discussion covers the regimes on the division of larger contracts into lots, the European Single Procurement Document (ESPD), minimum turnover requirements, and direc...

  20. European Health Claims for Small and Medium-Sized Companies – Utopian Dream or Future Reality?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonja Brandenburger

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: In December 2007, the European Regulation (EC 1924/2006 on nutrition and health claims came into force. The European Union wanted to regulate the use of health claims on products. An online survey was carried out to evaluate the situation, particularly of small and medium-sized companies, dealing with the new regulation. Methods: The online survey on health claims was conducted with 16 enterprises. To underline the findings a SWOT (Strength, Weaknesses, Opportunities, Threats analysis was made of the nutrition and health claims regulation regarding small and medium-sized companies in the European food and drink market. Results: The findings of this study indicated that the European Union did a step in the right direction. Most companies defined the decent competition, the simplified trade within the inner-European market, and the consumer protection as positive aspects. The biggest threat is seen in false investment conditioned by the limited research and development budgets, especially of small and medium-sized enterprises, and the cost intensive scientific evaluation to reach an authorized health claim. Conclusions: Overall, there are several strengths and opportunities speaking for SMEs and health claims in the near future. The most promising ones are the publishing of the new European Union Register of Nutrition and Health Claims and the learning effects that will occur. The biggest threat is, and will remain to be, false investment and the possible loss of a lot of money. Nevertheless, health claims for small and medium-sized enterprises will inevitably be the future to keep the European food and drink market competitive.

  1. Expansion And International Expansion Of Small-To Medium Sized Firms: The Role Of Finance

    OpenAIRE

    Jan Smolarski; Can Kut; Neil Wilner

    2011-01-01

    Small- to medium-sized firms are expected to show international growth at an early stage. Several factors may affect the outcome of initial efforts to expand and internationalize. Our research examines how equity based venture funding affects SME expansion and internationalization. We divide venture capital financing into two categories: incremental financing where firms receive their venture capital funding in portions and lump-sum venture funding where firms receive their funding in one lum...

  2. Experimental investigation of a small-sized betatron with superposed magnetization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kas'yanov, V.A.; Rychkov, M.V.; Filimonov, A.A.; Furman, Eh.G.; Chakhlov, V.L.; Chertov, A.S.; Shtejn, M.M.

    2001-01-01

    The aim of the paper is to study possibilities of small-sized betatrons (SSB) with direct current superposed magnetization (DSM). It is shown that DSM permits to decrease the SSB weight and cost of the electromagnet and capacitor storage and to shape the prolonged beam dump. It is noted that the DSM realization has the most expediency in SSB operating in a short-time mode [ru

  3. Particle size determination in small solid propellant rocket motors using the diffractively scattered light method.

    OpenAIRE

    Cramer, Robert Grewelle.

    1982-01-01

    Approved for public release; distribution unlimited A dual beam apparatus was developed which simultaneously measured particle size (D32) at the entrance and exit of an exhaust nozzle of a small solid propellant rocket motor. The diameters were determined using measurements of dif fractiveiy scattered laser power spectra. The apparatus was calibrated by using spherical glass beads and aluminum oxide powder. Measurements were successfully made at both locations. Because of...

  4. Exploring the Usage of CSR in Small and Medium-Sized Companies

    OpenAIRE

    Perälä, Veera; Saukkonen, Anna-Reetta

    2017-01-01

    The objective of this study was to examine how small and medium sized companies understood the concept of corporate social responsibility and how they incorporated it in their business strategies. The topical nature of this subject made it interesting and worth researching. In addition to discovering ideas about CSR, the study also focused on marketing communications and the competitive advantage that CSR provides. The methodological approach used in the study was that of qualitative resea...

  5. MICRO, SMALL AND MEDIUM-SIZED BUSINESSES IN JALISCO: THEIR EVOLUTION, AND STRATEGIC CHALLENGES

    OpenAIRE

    Carlos Fong Reynoso; Moisés Alejandro Alarcón Osuna; Luis Ernesto Ocampo Figueroa

    2014-01-01

    The business structure in Jalisco, Mexico is primarily composed of micro, small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs). Thus, it is fundamentally necessary to understand the dynamics, evolution and above all, the strategic challenges of this sector in order to understand the state’s economic performance and the possibilities for future development in Jalisco. As a result, this study analyzes the evolution of the SMEs (known as PyME, in Spanish) in Mexico and Jalisco by using data from the Econom...

  6. Meeting increased logistical demands : Developing as a small- and medium-sized system supplier

    OpenAIRE

    Carlsson, Inga-Lill

    2009-01-01

    Many subcontractors choose to implement a strategy of “system supply” in order to meetincreasing global competition. They are then confronted with increased demands to take agreater overall responsibility in this role. It is important to investigate the implications of theseresponsibilities before investing in developing the organization, especially for a small- ormedium-sized subcontractor with limited resources. The customer’s view of different demandsdoes not necessarily correspond to how ...

  7. Determinants of capital structure in small and medium sized enterprises in Malaysia

    OpenAIRE

    Mat Nawi, Hafizah

    2015-01-01

    This thesis was submitted for the award of Doctor of Philosophy and was awarded by Brunel University London This study aims to investigate the determinants of capital structure in small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) in Malaysia and their effect on firms’ performance. The study addresses the following primary question: What are the factors that influence the capital structure of SMEs in Malaysia? The sample of this research is SMEs in the east coast region of Malaysia. Adopting a posi...

  8. Size ratio performance in detecting cerebral aneurysm rupture status is insensitive to small vessel removal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lauric, Alexandra; Baharoglu, Merih I; Malek, Adel M

    2013-04-01

    The variable definition of size ratio (SR) for sidewall (SW) vs bifurcation (BIF) aneurysms raises confusion for lesions harboring small branches, such as carotid ophthalmic or posterior communicating locations. These aneurysms are considered SW by many clinicians, but SR methodology classifies them as BIF. To evaluate the effect of ignoring small vessels and SW vs stringent BIF labeling on SR ruptured aneurysm detection performance in borderline aneurysms with small branches, and to reconcile SR-based labeling with clinical SW/BIF classification. Catheter rotational angiographic datasets of 134 consecutive aneurysms (60 ruptured) were automatically measured in 3-dimensional. Stringent BIF labeling was applied to clinically labeled aneurysms, with 21 aneurysms switching label from SW to BIF. Parent vessel size was evaluated both taking into account, and ignoring, small vessels. SR was defined accordingly as the ratio between aneurysm and parent vessel sizes. Univariate and multivariate statistics identified significant features. The square of the correlation coefficient (R(2)) was reported for bivariate analysis of alternative SR calculations. Regardless of SW/BIF labeling method, SR was equally significant in discriminating aneurysm ruptured status (P analysis of alternative SR had a high correlation of R(2) = 0.94 on the whole dataset, and R = 0.98 on the 21 borderline aneurysms. Ignoring small branches from SR calculation maintains rupture status detection performance, while reducing postprocessing complexity and removing labeling ambiguity. Aneurysms adjacent to these vessels can be considered SW for morphometric analysis. It is reasonable to use the clinical SW/BIF labeling when using SR for rupture risk evaluation.

  9. Consultant-Client Relationship and Knowledge Transfer in Small- and Medium-Sized Enterprises Change Processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez, Luis F; Ferreira, Aristides I; Can, Amina B

    2016-04-01

    Based on Szulanski's knowledge transfer model, this study examined how the communicational, motivational, and sharing of understanding variables influenced knowledge transfer and change processes in small- and medium-sized enterprises, particularly under projects developed by funded programs. The sample comprised 144 entrepreneurs, mostly male (65.3%) and mostly ages 35 to 45 years (40.3%), who filled an online questionnaire measuring the variables of "sharing of understanding," "motivation," "communication encoding competencies," "source credibility," "knowledge transfer," and "organizational change." Data were collected between 2011 and 2012 and measured the relationship between clients and consultants working in a Portuguese small- and medium-sized enterprise-oriented action learning program. To test the hypotheses, structural equation modeling was conducted to identify the antecedents of sharing of understanding, motivational, and communicational variables, which were positively correlated with the knowledge transfer between consultants and clients. This transfer was also positively correlated with organizational change. Overall, the study provides important considerations for practitioners and academicians and establishes new avenues for future studies concerning the issues of consultant-client relationship and the efficacy of Government-funded programs designed to improve performance of small- and medium-sized enterprises. © The Author(s) 2016.

  10. Use of sales and operations planning in small and medium-sized enterprises

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michał Adamczak

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Increasing competitiveness in the market, customer expectations related to the shortening of the deadlines and the reduction of prices of products and services force companies to improve the efficiency of internal processes. The integration of planning process is one of possible ways to achieve this aim. The integration of planning processes by the use of SOP model (Sales and Operations Planning is a method to implement this idea. The study allowed to identify ways to implement the process of sales and operations planning in small and medium-sized enterprises. Material and methods: The study was conducted in companies from different industries. The research method was in-depth interviews conducted with managers of companies or persons occupying management positions in the organizational process of implementing sales and operations planning. Results: During the survey, 10 companies were asked about the use of sales and operations planning, its elements and organizational aspects of its development, by the company. Conclusions: The use of sales and operations plan is closely dependent on the size of the company and its localization in the supply chain. Small enterprises are not interested in the integration of the planning process due to the small scale of operations and the centralization of decision-making process. Medium-sized enterprises, due to the increased complexity of the processes of planning, see the benefits of their integration in the SOP model.

  11. Czech small and medium-sized enterprises and the success in foreign markets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lenka Procházková

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The importance of small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs in national economies has been growing. For these reasons, SME’s are paid more attention. The paper deals with the success of Czech SME’s activities in the foreign markets. These enterprises exploited the opportunity of extensive European Union market without internal borders and extended its activities to foreign markets. The objective of this paper is to determine characteristics related to activities carried on by small and medium-sized Czech companies in the foreign markets and then to describe those that fundamentally affect the success of these entities in the foreign markets. The characteristics are divided into five groups (a group of characteristics relating to the company, product, management, international experience and a group of characteristics relating to the target market. The enterprises’ success in foreign markets is assessed by aggregate indicator of success. This indicator is monitored by multi-dimensional indicators of corporate success and evaluation of both objective and subjective. At the last part of the article due to analysis of relationship used, there are identified characteristics affecting the success of Czech small and medium-sized enterprises in foreign markets.

  12. Conceptual design of small-sized HTGR system (3). Core thermal and hydraulic design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inaba, Yoshitomo; Sato, Hiroyuki; Goto, Minoru; Ohashi, Hirofumi; Tachibana, Yukio

    2012-06-01

    The Japan Atomic Energy Agency has started the conceptual designs of small-sized High Temperature Gas-cooled Reactor (HTGR) systems, aiming for the 2030s deployment into developing countries. The small-sized HTGR systems can provide power generation by steam turbine, high temperature steam for industry process and/or low temperature steam for district heating. As one of the conceptual designs in the first stage, the core thermal and hydraulic design of the power generation and steam supply small-sized HTGR system with a thermal power of 50 MW (HTR50S), which was a reference reactor system positioned as a first commercial or demonstration reactor system, was carried out. HTR50S in the first stage has the same coated particle fuel as HTTR. The purpose of the design is to make sure that the maximum fuel temperature in normal operation doesn't exceed the design target. Following the design, safety analysis assuming a depressurization accident was carried out. The fuel temperature in the normal operation and the fuel and reactor pressure vessel temperatures in the depressurization accident were evaluated. As a result, it was cleared that the thermal integrity of the fuel and the reactor coolant pressure boundary is not damaged. (author)

  13. Is the PTW 60019 microDiamond a suitable candidate for small field reference dosimetry?

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Coste, Vanessa; Francescon, Paolo; Marinelli, Marco; Masi, Laura; Paganini, Lucia; Pimpinella, Maria; Prestopino, Giuseppe; Russo, Serenella; Stravato, Antonella; Verona, Claudio; Verona-Rinati, Gianluca

    2017-09-01

    A systematic study of the PTW microDiamond (MD) output factors (OF) is reported, aimed at clarifying its response in small fields and investigating its suitability for small field reference dosimetry. Ten MDs were calibrated under 60Co irradiation. OF measurements were performed in 6 MV photon beams by a CyberKnife M6, a Varian DHX and an Elekta Synergy linacs. Two PTW silicon diodes E (Si-D) were used for comparison. The results obtained by the MDs were evaluated in terms of absorbed dose to water determination in reference conditions and OF measurements, and compared to the results reported in the recent literature. To this purpose, the Monte Carlo (MC) beam-quality correction factor, kQMD , was calculated for the MD, and the small field output correction factors, k{{Qclin},{{Q}msr}}{{fclin},{{f}msr}} , were calculated for both the MD and the Si-D by two different research groups. An empirical function was also derived, providing output correction factors within 0.5% from the MC values calculated for all of the three linacs. A high reproducibility of the dosimetric properties was observed among the ten MDs. The experimental kQMD values are in agreement within 1% with the MC calculated ones. Output correction factors within  +0.7% and  -1.4% were obtained down to field sizes as narrow as 5 mm. The resulting MD and Si-D field factors are in agreement within 0.2% in the case of CyberKnife measurements and 1.6% in the other cases. This latter higher spread of the data was demonstrated to be due to a lower reproducibility of small beam sizes defined by jaws or multi leaf collimators. The results of the present study demonstrate the reproducibility of the MD response and provide a validation of the MC modelling of this device. In principle, accurate reference dosimetry is thus feasible by using the microDiamond dosimeter for field sizes down to 5 mm.

  14. 13 CFR 121.412 - What are the size procedures for partial small business set-asides?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Requirements for Government Procurement § 121.412 What are the size procedures for partial small business set... portion of a procurement, and is not required to qualify as a small business for the unrestricted portion. ...

  15. Response dependence of a ring ionization chamber response on the size of the X radiation field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshizumi, Maira T.; Caldas, Linda V.E.

    2009-01-01

    A ring monitor ionization chamber was developed at the IPEN-Sao Paulo, Brazil, fixed on a system of collimators which determine the dimension of the radiation field size. This work verified that the ring chamber response depends on the exponential form with the size of de radiation field

  16. Genetic algorithm with small population size for search feasible control parameters for parallel hybrid electric vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Huei Cheng

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The control strategy is a major unit in hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs. In order to provide suitable control parameters for reducing fuel consumptions and engine emissions while maintaining vehicle performance requirements, the genetic algorithm (GA with small population size is applied to search for feasible control parameters in parallel HEVs. The electric assist control strategy (EACS is used as the fundamental control strategy of parallel HEVs. The dynamic performance requirements stipulated in the Partnership for a New Generation of Vehicles (PNGV is considered to maintain the vehicle performance. The known ADvanced VehIcle SimulatOR (ADVISOR is used to simulate a specific parallel HEV with urban dynamometer driving schedule (UDDS. Five population sets with size 5, 10, 15, 20, and 25 are used in the GA. The experimental results show that the GA with population size of 25 is the best for selecting feasible control parameters in parallel HEVs.

  17. Dosimetry for small size beams such as IMRT and stereotactic radiotherapy, is the concept of the dose at a point still relevant? proposal for a new methodology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ostrowsky, A.; Bordy, J.M.; Daures, J.; De Carlan, L.; Delaunay, F.

    2010-01-01

    Solving the problem of traceability of the absorbed dose to the tumour for the radiation fields of small and very small dimensions, like those used for new treatment modality usually results in the use of dosemeters of much smaller size than those of the beam. For the realisation of the reference in primary standards laboratories, the absence of technology likely to produce absolute small-size dosemeters leaves no possibility for the direct measurement of the absorbed dose at a point and implies the use of passive or active small-size transfer dosemeters. This report intends to introduce a new kind of dose quantity for radiotherapy similar do the Dose Area Product concept used in radiology. Such a new concept has to be propagated through the metrology chain, including the TPS, to the calculation of the absorbed dose to the tumour. (authors)

  18. Specifics of Management in Small and Medium-Size Enterprises in Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marija Lazarević-Moravčević

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Under modern conditions for performing business, an enterprise regardless of its size or business activity must be systematically directed and run. Small and medium-size enterprises have certain characteristics that make them considerably different compared to large systems, therefore it is not realistic to expect that the management process in such organizations would develop in the same way as in the large systems. The fact is that the small business often does not involve a small investment, and the management of small enterprises is constantly faced with the problem of "poverty of resources" that leads to the conclusion that the success of SMEs is predominantly determined by the managerial skills of managers/owners. Assuming that the owners/managers of SMEs adequately perceive the capabilities of their enterprise, make the right decisions, finding effective solutions in terms of organization and apply modern approaches to control and the success of the company definitely will follow. In this paper theoretical and empirical research has been carried out with the aim to identify the basic characteristics of successful management of SMEs in Serbia. The research results indicate that the managerial capacity of managers/owners of SMEs is the main strength of the company, and one of the key sources of growth and development. When the influence of external factors is very unfavorable for business development, the management as an internal resource of organization is increasingly gaining importance in creating business success and competitive advantage.

  19. Electron Emitter for small-size Electrodynamic Space Tether using MEMS Technology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fleron, René A. W.; Blanke, Mogens

    2004-01-01

    Adjustment of the orbit of a spacecraft using the forces created by an electro-dynamic space-tether has been shown as a theoretic possibility in recent literature. Practical implementation is being pursued for larger scale missions where a hot filament device controls electron emission...... and the current flowing in the electrodynamic space tether. Applications to small spacecraft, or space debris in the 1–10 kg range, possess difficulties with electron emission technology, as low power emitting devices are needed. This paper addresses the system concepts of a small spacecraft electrodynamic tether...... system with focus on electron emitter design and manufacture using micro-electro-mechanical- system (MEMS) technology. The paper addresses the system concepts of a small size electrodynamic tether mission and shows a novel electron emitter for the 1-2 mA range where altitude can be effectively affected...

  20. Electrostatic field and charge distribution in small charged dielectric droplets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Storozhev, V. B.

    2004-08-01

    The charge distribution in small dielectric droplets is calculated on the basis of continuum medium approximation. There are considered charged liquid spherical droplets of methanol in the range of nanometer sizes. The problem is solved by the following way. We find the free energy of some ion in dielectric droplet, which is a function of distribution of other ions in the droplet. The probability of location of the ion in some element of volume in the droplet is a function of its free energy in this element of volume. The same approach can be applied to other ions in the droplet. The obtained charge distribution differs considerably from the surface distribution. The curve of the charge distribution in the droplet as a function of radius has maximum near the surface. Relative concentration of charges in the vicinity of the center of the droplet does not equal to zero, and it is the higher, the less is the total charge of the droplet. According to the estimates the model is applicable if the droplet radius is larger than 10 nm.

  1. Electrostatic field and charge distribution in small charged dielectric droplets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Storozhev, V.B.

    2004-01-01

    The charge distribution in small dielectric droplets is calculated on the basis of continuum medium approximation. There are considered charged liquid spherical droplets of methanol in the range of nanometer sizes. The problem is solved by the following way. We find the free energy of some ion in dielectric droplet, which is a function of distribution of other ions in the droplet. The probability of location of the ion in some element of volume in the droplet is a function of its free energy in this element of volume. The same approach can be applied to other ions in the droplet. The obtained charge distribution differs considerably from the surface distribution. The curve of the charge distribution in the droplet as a function of radius has maximum near the surface. Relative concentration of charges in the vicinity of the center of the droplet does not equal to zero, and it is the higher, the less is the total charge of the droplet. According to the estimates the model is applicable if the droplet radius is larger than 10 nm

  2. Test methodology and technology of fracture toughness for small size specimens

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wakai, E.; Takada, F.; Ishii, T.; Ando, M. [Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Naga-gun, Ibaraki-ken (Japan); Matsukawa, S. [JNE Techno-Research Co., Kanagawa-ken (Japan)

    2007-07-01

    Full text of publication follows: Small specimen test technology (SSTT) is required to investigate mechanical properties in the limited availability of effective irradiation volumes in test reactors and accelerator-based neutron and charged particle sources. The test methodology guideline and the manufacture processes for very small size specimens have not been established, and we would have to formulate it. The technology to control exactly the load and displacement is also required in the test technology under the environment of high dose radiation produced from the specimens. The objective of this study is to examine the test technology and methodology of fracture toughness for very small size specimens. A new bend test machine installed in hot cell has been manufactured to obtain fracture toughness and DBTT (ductile - brittle transition temperature) of reduced-activation ferritic/martensitic steels for small bend specimens of t/2-1/3PCCVN (pre-cracked 1/3 size Charpy V-notch) with 20 mm length and DFMB (deformation and fracture mini bend specimen) with 9 mm length. The new machine can be performed at temperatures from -196 deg. C to 400 deg. C under unloading compliance method. Neutron irradiation was also performed at about 250 deg. C to about 2 dpa in JMTR. After the irradiation, fracture toughness and DBTT were examined by using the machine. Checking of displacement measurement between linear gauge of cross head's displacement and DVRT of the specimen displacement was performed exactly. Conditions of pre-crack due to fatigue in the specimen preparation were also examined and it depended on the shape and size of the specimens. Fracture toughness and DBTT of F82H steel for t/2-1/3PCCVN, DFMB and 0.18DCT specimens before irradiation were examined as a function of temperature. DBTT of smaller size specimens of DFMB was lower than that of larger size specimen of t/2-1/3PCCVN and 0.18DCT. The changes of fracture toughness and DBTT due to irradiation were also

  3. A deployable mechanism concept for the collection of small-to-medium-size space debris

    Science.gov (United States)

    St-Onge, David; Sharf, Inna; Sagnières, Luc; Gosselin, Clément

    2018-03-01

    Current efforts in active debris removal strategies and mission planning focus on removing the largest, most massive debris. It can be argued, however, that small untrackable debris, specifically those smaller than 5 cm in size, also pose a serious threat. In this work, we propose and analyze a mission to sweep the most crowded Low Earth Orbit with a large cupola device to remove small-to-medium-size debris. The cupola consists of a deployable mechanism expanding more than 25 times its storage size to extend a membrane covering its surface. The membrane is sufficiently stiff to capture most small debris and to slow down the medium-size objects, thus accelerating their fall. An overview of the design of a belt-driven rigid-link mechanism proposed to support the collecting cupola surface is presented, based on our previous work. Because of its large size, the cupola will be subject to significant aerodynamic drag; thus, orbit maintenance analysis is carried out using the DTM-2013 atmospheric density model and it predicts feasible requirements. While in operation, the device will also be subject to numerous hyper-velocity impacts which may significantly perturb its orientation from the desired attitude for debris collection. Thus, another important feature of the proposed debris removal device is a distributed array of flywheels mounted on the cupola for reorienting and stabilizing its attitude during the mission. Analysis using a stochastic modeling framework for hyper-velocity impacts demonstrates that three-axes attitude stabilization is achievable with the flywheels array. MASTER-2009 software is employed to provide relevant data for all debris related estimates, including the debris fluxes for the baseline mission design and for assessment of its expected performance. Space debris removal is a high priority for ensuring sustainability of space and continual launch and operation of man-made space assets. This manuscript presents the first analysis of a small

  4. Size characterization by Sedimentation Field Flow Fractionation of silica particles used as food additives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Contado, Catia; Ravani, Laura; Passarella, Martina

    2013-01-01

    Graphical abstract: -- Highlights: •Four types of SiO 2 particles were characterized by SdFFF, PCS and EM techniques. •Clusters of 10 nm nanoparticles were found in some SiO 2 samples. •A method was set up to extract SiO 2 particles from food matrices. •The effects of the carrier solution composition on SdFFF separations were evaluated. •Particle size distributions were obtained from SiO 2 particles extracted from foodstuffs. -- Abstract: Four types of SiO 2 , available on the market as additives in food and personal care products, were size characterized using Sedimentation Field Flow Fractionation (SdFFF), SEM, TEM and Photon Correlation Spectroscopy (PCS). The synergic use of the different analytical techniques made it possible, for some samples, to confirm the presence of primary nanoparticles (10 nm) organized in clusters or aggregates of different dimension and, for others, to discover that the available information is incomplete, particularly that regarding the presence of small particles. A protocol to extract the silica particles from a simple food matrix was set up, enriching (0.25%, w w −1 ) a nearly silica-free instant barley coffee powder with a known SiO 2 sample. The SdFFF technique, in conjunction with SEM observations, made it possible to identify the added SiO 2 particles and verify the new particle size distribution. The SiO 2 content of different powdered foodstuffs was determined by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectroscopy (GFAAS); the concentrations ranged between 0.006 and 0.35% (w w −1 ). The protocol to isolate the silica particles was so applied to the most SiO 2 -rich commercial products and the derived suspensions were separated by SdFFF; SEM and TEM observations supported the size analyses while GFAAS determinations on collected fractions permitted element identification

  5. Lack of dependence on resonant error field of locked mode island size in ohmic plasmas in DIII-D

    Science.gov (United States)

    La Haye, R. J.; Paz-Soldan, C.; Strait, E. J.

    2015-02-01

    DIII-D experiments show that fully penetrated resonant n = 1 error field locked modes in ohmic plasmas with safety factor q95 ≳ 3 grow to similar large disruptive size, independent of resonant error field correction. Relatively small resonant (m/n = 2/1) static error fields are shielded in ohmic plasmas by the natural rotation at the electron diamagnetic drift frequency. However, the drag from error fields can lower rotation such that a bifurcation results, from nearly complete shielding to full penetration, i.e., to a driven locked mode island that can induce disruption. Error field correction (EFC) is performed on DIII-D (in ITER relevant shape and safety factor q95 ≳ 3) with either the n = 1 C-coil (no handedness) or the n = 1 I-coil (with ‘dominantly’ resonant field pitch). Despite EFC, which allows significantly lower plasma density (a ‘figure of merit’) before penetration occurs, the resulting saturated islands have similar large size; they differ only in the phase of the locked mode after typically being pulled (by up to 30° toroidally) in the electron diamagnetic drift direction as they grow to saturation. Island amplification and phase shift are explained by a second change-of-state in which the classical tearing index changes from stable to marginal by the presence of the island, which changes the current density profile. The eventual island size is thus governed by the inherent stability and saturation mechanism rather than the driving error field.

  6. Analysis of small sample size studies using nonparametric bootstrap test with pooled resampling method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dwivedi, Alok Kumar; Mallawaarachchi, Indika; Alvarado, Luis A

    2017-06-30

    Experimental studies in biomedical research frequently pose analytical problems related to small sample size. In such studies, there are conflicting findings regarding the choice of parametric and nonparametric analysis, especially with non-normal data. In such instances, some methodologists questioned the validity of parametric tests and suggested nonparametric tests. In contrast, other methodologists found nonparametric tests to be too conservative and less powerful and thus preferred using parametric tests. Some researchers have recommended using a bootstrap test; however, this method also has small sample size limitation. We used a pooled method in nonparametric bootstrap test that may overcome the problem related with small samples in hypothesis testing. The present study compared nonparametric bootstrap test with pooled resampling method corresponding to parametric, nonparametric, and permutation tests through extensive simulations under various conditions and using real data examples. The nonparametric pooled bootstrap t-test provided equal or greater power for comparing two means as compared with unpaired t-test, Welch t-test, Wilcoxon rank sum test, and permutation test while maintaining type I error probability for any conditions except for Cauchy and extreme variable lognormal distributions. In such cases, we suggest using an exact Wilcoxon rank sum test. Nonparametric bootstrap paired t-test also provided better performance than other alternatives. Nonparametric bootstrap test provided benefit over exact Kruskal-Wallis test. We suggest using nonparametric bootstrap test with pooled resampling method for comparing paired or unpaired means and for validating the one way analysis of variance test results for non-normal data in small sample size studies. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  7. Photon small-field measurements with a CMOS active pixel sensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spang, F Jiménez; Rosenberg, I; Hedin, E; Royle, G

    2015-06-07

    In this work the dosimetric performance of CMOS active pixel sensors for the measurement of small photon beams is presented. The detector used consisted of an array of 520  × 520 pixels on a 25 µm pitch. Dosimetric parameters measured with this sensor were compared with data collected with an ionization chamber, a film detector and GEANT4 Monte Carlo simulations. The sensor performance for beam profiles measurements was evaluated for field sizes of 0.5  × 0.5 cm(2). The high spatial resolution achieved with this sensor allowed the accurate measurement of profiles, beam penumbrae and field size under lateral electronic disequilibrium. Field size and penumbrae agreed within 5.4% and 2.2% respectively with film measurements. Agreements with ionization chambers better than 1.0% were obtained when measuring tissue-phantom ratios. Output factor measurements were in good agreement with ionization chamber and Monte Carlo simulation. The data obtained from this imaging sensor can be easily analyzed to extract dosimetric information. The results presented in this work are promising for the development and implementation of CMOS active pixel sensors for dosimetry applications.

  8. Effects of 'target' plant species body size on neighbourhood species richness and composition in old-field vegetation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brandon S Schamp

    Full Text Available Competition is generally regarded as an important force in organizing the structure of vegetation, and evidence from several experimental studies of species mixtures suggests that larger mature plant size elicits a competitive advantage. However, these findings are at odds with the fact that large and small plant species generally coexist, and relatively smaller species are more common in virtually all plant communities. Here, we use replicates of ten relatively large old-field plant species to explore the competitive impact of target individual size on their surrounding neighbourhoods compared to nearby neighbourhoods of the same size that are not centred by a large target individual. While target individuals of the largest of our test species, Centaurea jacea L., had a strong impact on neighbouring species, in general, target species size was a weak predictor of the number of other resident species growing within its immediate neighbourhood, as well as the number of resident species that were reproductive. Thus, the presence of a large competitor did not restrict the ability of neighbouring species to reproduce. Lastly, target species size did not have any impact on the species size structure of neighbouring species; i.e. they did not restrict smaller, supposedly poorer competitors, from growing and reproducing close by. Taken together, these results provide no support for a size-advantage in competition restricting local species richness or the ability of small species to coexist and successfully reproduce in the immediate neighbourhood of a large species.

  9. Laser cutting of triangular geometry into 2024 aluminum alloy: Influence of triangle size on thermal stress field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yilbas, Bekir Sami; Akhtar, Syed Sohail [King Fahd University of Petroleum and Minerals, Dhahran (Saudi Arabia); Keles, Omer; Boran, Kurtulus [Gazi University, Ankara (Turkmenistan)

    2015-08-15

    Laser cutting of a triangular geometry into aluminum 2024 alloy is carried out. Thermal stress field in the cutting section is predicted using the finite element code ABAQUS. Surface temperature predictions are validated through the thermocouple data. Morphological changes in the cut section are examined incorporating optical and electron scanning microscopes. The effects of the size of the triangular geometry on thermal stress field are also examined. It is found that surface temperature predictions agree well with thermocouple data. von Mises stress remains high in the region close to the corners of the triangular geometry, which is more pronounced for the small size triangle. This behavior is associated with the occurrence of the high cooling rates in this region. Laser cut edges are free from large scale sideways burning and large size burr attachments. However, some locally scattered dross attachments are observed at the kerf exit.

  10. On the Structure of Cortical Microcircuits Inferred from Small Sample Sizes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vegué, Marina; Perin, Rodrigo; Roxin, Alex

    2017-08-30

    The structure in cortical microcircuits deviates from what would be expected in a purely random network, which has been seen as evidence of clustering. To address this issue, we sought to reproduce the nonrandom features of cortical circuits by considering several distinct classes of network topology, including clustered networks, networks with distance-dependent connectivity, and those with broad degree distributions. To our surprise, we found that all of these qualitatively distinct topologies could account equally well for all reported nonrandom features despite being easily distinguishable from one another at the network level. This apparent paradox was a consequence of estimating network properties given only small sample sizes. In other words, networks that differ markedly in their global structure can look quite similar locally. This makes inferring network structure from small sample sizes, a necessity given the technical difficulty inherent in simultaneous intracellular recordings, problematic. We found that a network statistic called the sample degree correlation (SDC) overcomes this difficulty. The SDC depends only on parameters that can be estimated reliably given small sample sizes and is an accurate fingerprint of every topological family. We applied the SDC criterion to data from rat visual and somatosensory cortex and discovered that the connectivity was not consistent with any of these main topological classes. However, we were able to fit the experimental data with a more general network class, of which all previous topologies were special cases. The resulting network topology could be interpreted as a combination of physical spatial dependence and nonspatial, hierarchical clustering. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT The connectivity of cortical microcircuits exhibits features that are inconsistent with a simple random network. Here, we show that several classes of network models can account for this nonrandom structure despite qualitative differences in

  11. Structure of Small and Medium-Sized Business: Results of Total Statistic Observations in Russia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iuliia S. Pinkovetskaia

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the research is estimation of regularities and tendencies, characteristic for modern sectoral structure of small and mediumsized business in Russia. The subject of the research is a set of processes of structural changes on the types of economic activities of such enterprises, as well as the differentiation of the number of employees in enterprises. The research methodology included consideration of aggregates of subjects of small and medium-sized business, formed according to sectoral and territorial features. As the initial data used the official statistical information, which was obtain in the course of total observation of the activities of small and medium-sized businesses in 2010 and 2015. The study was conducted on indicators characterizing the full range of legal entities and individual entrepreneurs in the country. The materiality of structural changes was carried out on the basis of the Ryabtsev index. Modeling the differentiation of the values of the number of employees per enterprise was based on the development of density normal distribution functions. According to the hypothesis it is assumed that the differentiation of the number of employees working in enterprises depend on six main types of economic activity and on the subjects of Russia. Based on the results of the study was proved that there are no significant structural changes for the period from 2010 to 2015, both in terms of the number of enterprises and the number of their employees. Based on the results of the simulation, the average values of the number of employees for the six main types of activity were established, as well as the intervals for changing these indicators for the aggregates of small and medium-sized enterprises located in the majority of the country's subjects. The results of research can be used in the performance of scientific works related to the justification of the expected number and number of employees of enterprises, the formation of

  12. Size and density distribution of very small dust grains in the Barnard 5 cloud

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lis, Dariusz C.; Leung, Chun Ming

    1991-01-01

    The effects of the temperature fluctuations in small graphite grains on the energy spectrum and the IR surface brightness of an isolated dust cloud heated externally by the interstellar radiation field were investigated using a series of models based on a radiation transport computer code. This code treats self-consistently the thermal coupling between the transient heating of very small dust grains and the equilibrium heating of conventional large grains. The model results were compared with the IRAS observations of the Barnard 5 (B5) cloud, showing that the 25-micron emission of the cloud must be produced by small grains with a 6-10 A radius, which also contribute about 50 percent to the observed 12-micron emission. The remaining 12 micron flux may be produced by the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. The 60-and 100-micron radiation is dominated by emission from large grains heated under equilibrium conditions.

  13. Preliminary study of diagnostic workstation with different matrix size for detection of small pulmonary nodules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu Jie; Wang Xuejian; Wang Bo; Tong Juan; Wei Yuqing; Shen Guiquan; Wang Limei; Cao Jun; Sui He

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To assess the influence in detecting small pulmonary nodules (SPNs) on soft-copy images displayed with different matrix sizes. Methods: Seventy-six chest compute radiographs were selected for the study. Of the 76 test images, 36 pulmonary nodules smaller than 20 mm in diameter were proven by CT, which were further divided into two groups: 1.0-2.0 cm and Z values and standard error of three kinds of view system for individual observers. Results: For 1.0-2.0 cm group, the mean A Z values were 0.7936 for DRCS with 2-fold magnification and window technique, 0.8225 for 1 K monitor with 2-fold magnification and window technique, and 0.8367 for 2 K monitor without magnification; for Z values increased slightly as the display matrix size improved, but there were no significant differences among the three sets in the detection of SPNs in the ROC analyses. Conclusion: It is acceptable to detect small pulmonary nodules of 1.0-2.0 cm in diameter on 1 K monitor and DRCS with magnification. High resolution diagnostic workstation is recommended for detecting small pulmonary nodules <1.0 cm in diameter. Reasonable equipment for the detection of subtle abnormality may result in better cost-efficacy and diagnostic accuracy

  14. Penetration of small and medium sized food companies on foreign markets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ladislav Mura

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available In the world the interconnection of national economies and internationalization of economic processes occur. In turbulent changing business environment only those companies that understand the current trends in global economy may survive, develop and prosper. Therefore, the issue of internationalization for most companies becomes to be more important and the process of in­ter­na­tio­na­li­za­tion is the way how to stand this increasingly competitive environment. In presented contribution, the attention is paid to issues of internationalization of Slovak food industry enterprises such as their way of business internationalization, percentage share of foreign - trading activities on overall business activity, company evaluation of business internationalization or barriers of foreign markets pe­ne­tra­tion that researched companies have to deal with. Small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs are the engine of the Slovak economy, generator of development, innovation, growth and they employ more than 60% of employees. Almost all businesses operating in agri-food complex have character of small and medium enterprises. The results of carried research have shown that small and medium-sized companies are considered to be successful in operation on foreign markets in surrounding European countries.

  15. Measurement of the absorbed dose in the very small size photon beams used in stereotactic radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Derreumaux, S.; Huet, C.; Robbes, I.; Trompier, F.; Boisserie, G.; Brunet, G.; Buchheit, I.; Sarrazin, T.; Chea, M.

    2008-01-01

    After the radiotherapy accident in Toulouse, the French authority of nuclear safety and the French agency of health products safety have asked the IR.S.N. to establish, together with experts from the French society of medical physics and the French society of radiotherapy and oncology, a national protocol on dose calibration for the very small beams used in stereotactic radiotherapy. The research and reflexions of the working group 'GT minifaisceaux ' set up by the I.R.S.N. are presented in this final report. A review of the international literature has been performed. A national survey has been done to know the present practices in the dosimetry of small fields. A campaign of measurements of the data needed to characterize the small beams for the different stereotactic systems has started, using different types of detectors acquired by the I.R.S.N.. In this report are presented a deep synthesis on the problems related to the dosimetry of small fields, the results of the national survey, the first results of the campaign of measurements and the recommendations of the GT. (authors)

  16. Effects of kinship or familiarity? Small thrips larvae experience lower predation risk only in groups of mixed-size siblings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Bruijn, P.J.A.; Sabelis, M.W.; Egas, M.

    2014-01-01

    In many species of insects, larvae are distributed in an aggregated fashion. As they may differ in size and size matters to predation risk, small larvae may be less likely to fall prey to predators when near large and therefore better-defended larvae. We hypothesize that the small larvae may profit

  17. Resonant atom-field interaction in large-size coupled-cavity arrays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ciccarello, Francesco

    2011-01-01

    We consider an array of coupled cavities with staggered intercavity couplings, where each cavity mode interacts with an atom. In contrast to large-size arrays with uniform hopping rates where the atomic dynamics is known to be frozen in the strong-hopping regime, we show that resonant atom-field dynamics with significant energy exchange can occur in the case of staggered hopping rates even in the thermodynamic limit. This effect arises from the joint emergence of an energy gap in the free photonic dispersion relation and a discrete frequency at the gap's center. The latter corresponds to a bound normal mode stemming solely from the finiteness of the array length. Depending on which cavity is excited, either the atomic dynamics is frozen or a Jaynes-Cummings-like energy exchange is triggered between the bound photonic mode and its atomic analog. As these phenomena are effective with any number of cavities, they are prone to be experimentally observed even in small-size arrays.

  18. The practical application of scintillation dosimetry in small-field photon-beam radiotherapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burke, Elisa; Poppinga, Daniela; Schoenfeld, Andreas A.; Poppe, Bjoern; Looe, Hui Khee [Oldenburg Univ. (Germany). Univ. Clinic for Medical Radiation Physics; Harder, Dietrich [Goettingen Univ. (Germany). Medical Physics and Biophysics

    2017-07-01

    Plastic scintillation detectors are a new instrument of stereotactic photon-beam dosimetry. The clinical application of the plastic scintillation detector Exradin W1 at the Siemens Artiste and Elekta Synergy accelerators is a matter of current interest. In order to reduce the measurement uncertainty, precautions have to be taken with regard to the geometrical arrangement of the scintillator, the light-guide fiber and the photodiode in the radiation field. To determine the ''Cerenkov light ratio'' CLR with a type A uncertainty below 1%, the Cerenkov calibration procedure for small-field measurements based on the two-channel spectral method was used. Output factors were correctly measured with the W1 for field sizes down to 0.5 x 0.5 cm{sup 2} with a type A uncertainty of 1.8%. Measurements of small field dose profiles and percentage depth dose curves were carried out with the W1 using automated water phantom profile scans, and a type A uncertainty for dose maxima of 1.4% was achieved. The agreement with a synthetic diamond detector (microDiamond, PTW Freiburg) and a plane parallel ionization chamber (Roos chamber, PTW Freiburg) in relative dose measurements was excellent. In oversight of all results, the suitability of the plastic scintillation detector Exradin W1 for clinical dosimetry under stereotactic conditions, in particular the tried and tested procedures for CLR determination, output factor measurement and automated dose profile scans in water phantoms, have been confirmed.

  19. Small-field fractionated radiotherapy with or without stereotactic boost for vestibular schwannoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kagei, K.; Shirato, H.; Suzuki, K.; Isu, T.; Sawamura, Y.; Sakamoto, T.; Fukuda, S.; Nishioka, T.; Hashimoto, S.; Miyasaka, K.

    1999-01-01

    Purpose: To assess the efficacy and toxicity of small-field fractionated radiotherapy with or without stereotactic boost (SB) for vestibular schwannomas.Methods and materials: Thirty-nine patients with vestibular schwannoma were treated with irradiation between March 1991 and February 1996. Extra-meatal tumor diameters were under 30 mm. Thirty-three patients received small-field fractionated radiotherapy followed by SB. Basic dose schedule was 44 Gy in 22 fractions over 5 1/2 weeks plus 4 Gy in one session. Six patients received small-field fractionated radiotherapy only (40-44 Gy in 20-22 fractions over 5-5 1/2 weeks or 36 Gy in 20 fractions over 5 weeks).< Results: Follow-up ranged from 6 to 69 months (median, 24 months). Tumors decreased in size in 13 cases (33%), were unchanged in 25 (64%), and increased in one (3%). The actuarial 2-year tumor control rate was 97%. Fifteen patients had useful hearing (Gardner-Robertson class 1-2) and 25 patients had testable hearing (class 1-4) before irradiation. The 2-year actuarial rates of useful hearing preservation (free of deterioration from class 1-2 to class 3-5) were 78%. The 2-year actuarial rates of any testable hearing preservation (free of deterioration from class 1-4 to class 5) were 96%. No permanent facial and trigeminal neuropathy developed after irradiation. The 2-year actuarial incidences of facial and trigeminal neuropathies were 8% and 16%, respectively.Conclusions: Small-field fractionated radiotherapy with or without SB provides excellent short-term local control and a relatively low incidence of complications for vestibular schwannoma, although further follow-up is necessary to evaluate the long-term results. (Copyright (c) 1999 Elsevier Science B.V., Amsterdam. All rights reserved.)

  20. Potential growth and opportunities for Kenyan small sized firms online : E-business adoption for small boutiques and the new customer online

    OpenAIRE

    Mbare, Candy

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this thesis is to identify the online growth opportunities for the small sized firm in Kenya. Kenya is the most developed nation in East-Africa. E-commerce is a rapidly rising trend in developing nations, that provides small sized firms with growth opportunities. The e-commerce trend also comes with changes in consumer behavior. Sufficient use of e-commerce by small sized firms in Kenya, can open a opportunity to reach a wider range of audience and increase profits by expan...

  1. Analyses on the Performance and Interaction Between the Impeller and Casing in a Small-Size Turbo-Compressor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Youn-Jea; Kim, Dong-Won

    The effects of casing shapes on the performance and the interaction between an impeller and a casing in a small-size turbo-compressor are investigated. Numerical analysis is conducted for the turbo-compressor with circular and single volute casings from the inlet to a discharge nozzle. The optimum design for each element is important to develop the small-size turbo-compressor using alternative refrigerant as a working fluid. Typically, the rotating speed of the compressor is in the range of 40000-45000rpm because of the small size of an impeller diameter. A blade of an impeller has backswept two-dimensional shape due to tip clearance and a vane diffuser has wedge type. In order to predict the flow pattern inside the entire impeller, the vaneless diffuser and the casing, calculations with multiple frames of reference method between the rotating and stationery parts of the domain are carried out. For compressible turbulent flow fields, the continuity and time-averaged three-dimensional Navier-Stokes equations are employed. To evaluate the performance of two types of casings, the static pressure recovery and loss coefficients are obtained with various flow rates. Also, static pressure distributions around casings are studied for different casing shapes, which are very important to predict the distribution of radial load. To prove the accuracy of numerical results, measurements of static pressure around the casing and pressure difference between the inlet and the outlet of the compressor are performed for the circular casing. The comparison of experimental and numerical results is conducted, and reasonable agreement is obtained.

  2. Requirement analysis to promote small-sized E-waste collection from consumers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishima, Kuniko; Nishimura, Hidekazu

    2016-02-01

    The collection and recycling of small-sized waste electrical and electronic equipment is an emerging problem, since these products contain certain amounts of critical metals and rare earths. Even if the amount is not large, having a few supply routes for such recycled resources could be a good strategy to be competitive in a world of finite resources. The small-sized e-waste sometimes contains personal information, therefore, consumers are often reluctant to put them into recycling bins. In order to promote the recycling of E-waste, collection of used products from the consumer becomes important. Effective methods involving incentives for consumers might be necessary. Without such methods, it will be difficult to achieve the critical amounts necessary for an efficient recycling system. This article focused on used mobile phones among information appliances as the first case study, since it contains relatively large amounts of valuable metals compared with other small-sized waste electrical and electronic equipment and there are a large number of products existing in the market. The article carried out surveys to determine what kind of recycled material collection services are preferred by consumers. The results clarify that incentive or reward money alone is not a driving force for recycling behaviour. The article discusses the types of effective services required to promote recycling behaviour. The article concludes that securing information, transferring data and providing proper information about resources and environment can be an effective tool to encourage a recycling behaviour strategy to promote recycling, plus the potential discount service on purchasing new products associated with the return of recycled mobile phones. © The Author(s) 2015.

  3. A framework for effective implementation of lean production in Small and Medium-sized Enterprises

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amine Belhadi

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The present paper aims at developing an effective framework including all the components necessary for implementing lean production properly in Small and Medium-sized Enterprises. Design/methodology/approach: The paper begins with the review of the main existing framework of lean implementation in order to highlight shortcomings in the literature through a lack of suitable framework for small companies. To overcome this literature gap, data of successful initiatives of lean implementation were collected based on a multiple case study approach. These initiatives has been juxtaposed in order to develop a new, practical and effective framework that includes all the components (process, tools, success factors that are necessary to implement lean in Small and Medium-sized Enterprises. Findings: The proposed framework presents many significant contributions: First, it provides an overcoming for the limitations of the existing frameworks by proposing for consultants, researchers and organizations an effective framework for lean implementation in SMEs that allows SMEs to benefit from competitive advantages  gained by lean. Second, it brings together a set of the more essential and critical elements of lean implementation commonly used by SMEs and derived from the practical experiences of them in lean implementation. Finally, it highlights the successful experiences of small companies in implementing lean programs and then proves that lean can give a relevant results even for SMEs. Research limitations/implications: The proposed framework presents a number of limitations and still evokes extension for further researches: Although it was derived from practical experiences of SMEs, the proposed framework is not supported by practical implementation. On the other hand and even though the elements in the proposed framework from the practical experiences of four SMEs, the identified elements need to be generalized and enriching by conducting

  4. Characterization and optimization of Silicon Photomultipliers and small size scintillator tiles for future calorimeter applications

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(CDS)2095312; Horváth, Ákos

    For the active layers of highly granular sampling calorimeters, small scintillator tiles read out by Silicon Photomultipliers (SiPM) can be an interesting and cost effective alternative to silicon sensors. At CERN a test setup was realized for the development of new generations of calorimeters to characterize new types of Silicon Photomultipliers in terms of gain, noise, afterpulses and crosstalk and to study the impact of scintillator wrappings and the tile size on the measured light yield and uniformity. In this thesis work, the experimental setup is described and the steps for commissioning the equipment are discussed. Then, the temperature dependence of the Silicon Photomultiplier response will be investigated, including the dependence of bare Silicon Photomultipliers as well as Silicon Photomultipliers coupled to scintillator tiles. Finally, the tile-photomultiplier response for different tile sizes and coating options will be evaluated. The experimental setup will be extended to allow for the characteri...

  5. US market potential for small and medium-sized nuclear reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hardie, R.W.; Jackson, S.V.

    1988-01-01

    This paper presents the results of on-site interviews with representatives of 23 investor-owned utilities and 3 publicly-owned utilities. The purpose of the interviews was to obtain information on utilities' attitudes towards small and medium-sized power plants and towards building new nuclear plants in general. Most of the utilities interviewed preferred power plants smaller than the ones currently being offered, as long as the smaller plants did not incur a major economic penalty. However, according to the utilities interviewed, without changes in the current environment it is unlikely that there will be a significant market for new nuclear plants of any size. A trend in the utility industry towards generating companies appears to be a positive step. (orig.)

  6. US market potential for small and medium-sized nuclear reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hardie, R.W.; Jackson, S.V.

    1987-01-01

    This paper presents the results of on-site interviews with representatives of 23 investor-owned utilities and 3 publicly-owned utilities. The purpose of the interviews was to obtain information on utilities' attitudes toward small and medium-sized power plants and towards building new nuclear plants in general. Most of the utilities interviewed preferred power plants smaller than the ones currently being offered, as long as the smaller plants did not incur a major economic penalty. However, according to the utilities interviewed, without changes in the current environment it is unlikely that there will be a significant market for new nuclear plants of any size. A trend in the utility industry towards generating companies appears to be a positive step. (author)

  7. Particle size distribution models of small angle neutron scattering pattern on ferro fluids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sistin Asri Ani; Darminto; Edy Giri Rachman Putra

    2009-01-01

    The Fe 3 O 4 ferro fluids samples were synthesized by a co-precipitation method. The investigation of ferro fluids microstructure is known to be one of the most important problems because the presence of aggregates and their internal structure influence greatly the properties of ferro fluids. The size and the size dispersion of particle in ferro fluids were determined assuming a log normal distribution of particle radius. The scattering pattern of the measurement by small angle neutron scattering were fitted by the theoretical scattering function of two limitation models are log normal sphere distribution and fractal aggregate. Two types of particle are detected, which are presumably primary particle of 30 Armstrong in radius and secondary fractal aggregate of 200 Armstrong with polydispersity of 0.47 up to 0.53. (author)

  8. Effects of small magnetic fields on the critical current of thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Passos, Wagner de Assis Cangussu; Lisboa-Filho, Paulo Noronha; Ortiz, Wilson Aires; Kang, W.N.; Choi, Eun-Mi; Hyeong-Jin, Kim; Lee, Sung-Ik Lee

    2002-01-01

    Full text: Magnetic fields applied perpendicularly to superconducting thin films may produce dendritic patterns, where penetrated and Meissner regions coexist, as observed in Nb, YBaCuO and MgB 2 [1]. A temperature-dependent limiting-field, Hd(T), separates the dendritic mode from a critical-state-like penetration regime. Due to large demagnetizing factors in the perpendicular geometry, small fields may be enough to drive portions of the sample into the mixed state. Lack of symmetry and local defects might then permeate the dendritic mode. Hd(T) is related[2] to the bulk lower critical field, Hc1, which depends on the in-plane current density, J. Not surprisingly, Hd is depressed by J[3]. The dendritic mode can be detected by the AC-susceptibility: penetrated fingers act as intergranular material, and the imaginary component peaks at Tc-inter(J). Films of 0.2-0.4 microns, with millimeter lateral sizes, develop dendrites when submitted to Earth's field[2], what limits the critical current, J c . This contribution studies how J c is affected by field-induced granularity in thin films. 1. C. A. Duran et al., PRB 52 (1995) 75; P. Leiderer et al., PRL. 71 (1993) 2646; T.H. Johansen et al., Supercond. Sci. Technol. 14 (2001) 1. 2. W. A. Ortiz et al., Physica C 361 (2001) 267. 3. A. V. Bobyl et al., cond-mat/0201260, submitted to APL

  9. Optimal sizing of a run-of-river small hydropower plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anagnostopoulos, John S.; Papantonis, Dimitris E.

    2007-01-01

    The sizing of a small hydropower plant of the run-of-river type is very critical for the cost effectiveness of the investment. In the present work, a numerical method is used for the optimal sizing of such a plant that comprises two hydraulic turbines operating in parallel, which can be of different type and size in order to improve its efficiency. The study and analysis of the plant performance is conducted using a newly developed evaluation algorithm that simulates in detail the plant operation during the year and computes its production results and economic indices. A parametric study is performed first in order to quantify the impact of some important construction and operation factors. Next, a stochastic evolutionary algorithm is implemented for the optimization process. The examined optimization problem uses data of a specific site and is solved in the single and two-objective modes, considering, together with economic, some additional objectives, as maximization of the produced energy and the best exploitation of the water stream potential. Analyzing the results of various optimizations runs, it becomes possible to identify the most advantageous design alternatives to realize the project. It was found that the use of two turbines of different size can enhance sufficiently both the energy production of the plant and the economic results of the investment. Finally, the sensitivity of the plant performance to other external parameters can be easily studied with the present method, and some indicative results are given for different financial or hydrologic conditions

  10. Spatial filtering velocimetry revisited: exact short-time detecting schemes from arbitrarily small-size reticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ando, S; Nara, T; Kurihara, T

    2014-01-01

    Spatial filtering velocimetry was proposed in 1963 by Ator as a velocity-sensing technique for aerial camera-control systems. The total intensity of a moving surface is observed through a set of parallel-slit reticles, resulting in a narrow-band temporal signal whose frequency is directly proportional to the image velocity. However, even despite its historical importance and inherent technical advantages, the mathematical formulation of this technique is only valid when infinite-length observation in both space and time is possible, which causes significant errors in most applications where a small receptive window and high resolution in both axes are desired. In this study, we apply a novel mathematical technique, the weighted integral method, to solve this problem, and obtain exact sensing schemes and algorithms for finite (arbitrarily small but non-zero) size reticles and short-time estimation. Practical considerations for utilizing these schemes are also explored both theoretically and experimentally. (paper)

  11. The role of strategic information systems planning a typical Small or Medium-sized Enterprise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicky Meyer

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Little is known about how Strategic Information Systems Planning (SISP and small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs are linked in a developing country. SISP has also been a concern for many in the Information Technology (IT industry and IT based businesses as a whole. This research seeks to address this shortcoming by exploring what constitutes a typical SME, what role Information Systems (ISs play in SMEs and what role SISP plays in SMEs. Consequently, a Delphi panel comprising a questionnaire in the first phase and an interview in the second phase was employed. Some correlation was found to exist with the literature, with the exception of the role of IS in SMEs, whether SISP is an on-going activity, and the fact that SISP can be outsourced. Some new facts were discovered, especially on the topic of outsourcing. Keywords: company strategy; strategic information systems planning; small and mediumsized enterprises; SME sustainability; stakeholders and management; Viewpoint Training and Consulting

  12. Optimal chest drain size: the rise of the small-bore pleural catheter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fysh, Edward T H; Smith, Nicola A; Lee, Y C Gary

    2010-12-01

    Drainage of the pleural space is not a modern concept, but the optimal size of chest drains to use remains debated. Conventional teaching advocates blunt dissection and large-bore tubes; but in recent years, small-bore catheters have gained popularity. In the absence of high-quality randomized data, this review summarizes the available literature on the choice of chest drains. The objective data supporting the use of large-bore tubes is scarce in most pleural diseases. Increasing evidence shows that small-bore catheters induce less pain and are of comparable efficacy to large-bore tubes, including in the management of pleural infection, malignant effusion, and pneumothoraces. The onus now is on those who favor large tubes to produce clinical data to justify the more invasive approach. © Thieme Medical Publishers.

  13. Branding and outcomes in small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Odoom, Raphael; Narteh, Bedman; Rand, John

    2017-01-01

    The study investigates the relationships of enterprise resources and branding capabilities with branding efforts and branding benefits. It examines the differential effect of physical resources and branding capabilities on enterprises’ branding efforts and outcomes. Empirical data for the study...... were drawn from 304 small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) in Ghana. The hypothesized relationships were analyzed using Structural Equation Modeling. The study found that resources and capabilities possessions might not be enough to produce the optimum branding benefits for enterprises. A better...... result, however, emerges when these resources and capabilities are integrated with well-coordinated branding efforts of the enterprises. The study offers several implications for managers of small businesses based on the findings of the study....

  14. Current information technology needs of small to medium sized apparel manufacturers and contractors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wimple, C., LLNL

    1998-04-01

    This report documents recent efforts of the American Textile Partnership (AMTEX{sup TM}) Demand Activated Manufacturing Architecture (DAMA) Project to identify opportunities for cost effective enhanced information technology use by small to medium sized apparel manufacturers and contractors. Background on the AMTEX/DAMA project and objectives for the specific DAMA Small and Medium Enterprise (SME) effort are discussed in this section. The approach used to gather information about current opportunities or needs is outlined in Section 2 Approach, and relevant findings are identified and a brief analysis of the information gathered is presented in Section 3 Findings. Recommendations based on the analysis, are offered in Section 4 Recommendations, and plans are suggested for DAMA follow-on in Section 5 Future Plans. Trip reports for each of the companies visited are contained in Appendix E - Company Trip Reports. These individual reports contain the data upon which the analysis presented in Section 3 Findings is based.

  15. The natural selection of organizational and safety culture within a small to medium sized enterprise (SME).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks, Benjamin

    2008-01-01

    Small to Medium Sized Enterprises (SMEs) form the majority of Australian businesses. This study uses ethnographic research methods to describe the organizational culture of a small furniture-manufacturing business in southern Australia. Results show a range of cultural assumptions variously 'embedded' within the enterprise. In line with memetics - Richard Dawkin's cultural application of Charles Darwin's theory of Evolution by Natural Selection, the author suggests that these assumptions compete to be replicated and retained within the organization. The author suggests that dominant assumptions are naturally selected, and that the selection can be better understood by considering the cultural assumptions in reference to Darwin's original principles and Frederik Barth's anthropological framework of knowledge. The results are discussed with reference to safety systems, negative cultural elements called Cultural Safety Viruses, and how our understanding of this particular organizational culture might be used to build resistance to these viruses.

  16. Improvement of the penumbra for small radiosurgical fields using flattening filter free low megavoltage beams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yarahmadi, Mehran [Kurdistan Univ. of Medical Sciences, Sanandaj (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Allahverdi, Mahmoud; Nedaie, Hassan A.; Asnaashari, Khadijeh; Vaezzadeh, Sayed A. [Tehran Univ. of Medical Sciences, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Sauer, Otto A. [Wuerzburg Univ. (Germany). Klinik und Poliklinik fuer Strahlentherapie

    2013-07-01

    Background: In stereotactic radiosurgery, sharp beam edges have clear advantages to spare normal tissues. In general, the dose gradient is a limiting factor in minimizing dose to nearby critical structures for clinical cases. Therefore the penumbral width should be diminished. Methods: A Varian Clinac 2100 linear accelerator equipped with in-house designed radiosurgical collimator was modeled using the EGSnrc/BEAMnrc Monte Carlo code and compared with the measurements. The 0.015 cm{sup 3} PinPoint chamber was used to measure the 6 MV photon beam characteristics and to validate Monte Carlo calculations. Additional to the standard (STD) linac, a flattening filter free (FFF) linac was simulated. Percent depth doses, beam profiles and output factors were calculated for small field sizes with diameter of 5, 10, 20 and 30 mm with DOSXYZnrc. The mean energy and photon fluence at the water surface were calculated with BEAMDP for both FFF linac and STD linacs. Results: The penumbra width (80%-20%) was decreased by 0.5, 0.3, 0.2 and 0.2 mm for field sizes of 5, 10, 20 and 30 mm respectively when removing the FF. The fluence of photons at the surface increased up to 3.6 times and the mean energy decreased by a factor of 0.69 when removing the FF. The penumbra width (80%-20%) decreased by 17% when a 2 MeV monoenergetic electron pencil beam incident on the target is used instead of 6.2 MeV. Conclusions: It was found that the penumbra of small field sizes is decreased by removing the FF. Likewise using low megavoltage photons reduced the beam penumbra maintaining adequate penetration and skin sparing. (orig.)

  17. A 10-step safety management framework for construction small and medium-sized enterprises.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunduz, Murat; Laitinen, Heikki

    2017-09-01

    It is of great importance to develop an occupational health and safety management system (OHS MS) to form a systemized approach to improve health and safety. It is a known fact that thousands of accidents and injuries occur in the construction industry. Most of these accidents occur in small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs). This article provides a 10-step user-friendly OHS MS for the construction industry. A quantitative OHS MS indexing method is also introduced in the article. The practical application of the system to real SMEs and its promising results are also presented.

  18. Detection of small-size planetary candidates with CoRoT data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moutou C.

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available With the discovery of CoRoT-7b, the first transiting super-Earth, the CoRoT space mission has shown the capability to detect short-period rocky planets around solar-like stars. By performing a blind test with real CoRoT light curves, we want to establish the detection threshold of small-size planets in CoRoT data. We investigate the main obstacles to the detection of transiting super-Earths in CoRoT data, notably the presence of short-time scale variability and hot pixels.

  19. Financial Management Challenges In Small And Medium-Sized Enterprises: A Strategic Management Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hande Karadag

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract :Due to their significant role in creation of new jobs, rise in GDP, entrepreneurship and innovation, small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs are recognized as the the drivers of socio-economic growth, both in developed and developing economies. In Turkey, 99.9 % of all enterprises fall into SME category. Therefore, the significance of SMEs for Turkish economy and society is much higher in Turkey, compared to other emerging and developed countries. Small and medium-sized companies are faced with a number of challenges whereas the problems arising from “poor financial management” are reported as the major causes of business failures in SMEs. Strategic financial management (SFM which is a research area that has attracted the interest of researchers after 2010, is one of the key managerial areas of SMEs, due to its vital role on the survival, growth and performance of SMEs. The purpose of this paper is to analyze the central role of financial management and identify the financial management challenges and practices that influence the organizational performance in Turkish SMEs, from a strategic management perspective. Within the course of this paper, the importance and challenges of SMEs in Turkey are presented in the first section, while the literature on strategic and financial management in SMEs are reviewed in the second part. In the third section, the recent strategic financial management concept, the implications of strategic financial management practices for SMEs in Turkey and the relationships between strategic financial management practices and SME performance, are discussed. Small and medium sized enterprise finance in Turkey is a developing research area, therefore this paper aims to make a significant contribution to the existing literature by analyzing the major challenges at the conduct of financial management in Turkish SMEs and the influence of strategic financial management practices on the performances of small and

  20. IMPACT OF INNOVATION UPON THE DYNAMICS OF ROMANIAN SMALL AND MEDIUM SIZED ENTERPRISES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JEANINA CIUREA

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Innovation is central to economic growth, as the area in which it develops takes the whole sphere of economic activities: product, process, service, organization, marketing, hence the economic effects they may cause. Creating "innovative enterprises", giving tax cuts to certain periods of time, preferential loans, creating funds 'risk capital' are just some of the measures that European countries which already apply and Romania, willing to encourage innovation. The present paper presents two ways of exposing this issue, using theoretical sources but also real official data concerning the concept of innovation and also the ways of applying it within small and medium sized enterprises.

  1. Visual SLAM and Moving-object Detection for a Small-size Humanoid Robot

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yin-Tien Wang

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available In the paper, a novel moving object detection (MOD algorithm is developed and integrated with robot visual Simultaneous Localization and Mapping (vSLAM. The moving object is assumed to be a rigid body and its coordinate system in space is represented by a position vector and a rotation matrix. The MOD algorithm is composed of detection of image features, initialization of image features, and calculation of object coordinates. Experimentation is implemented on a small-size humanoid robot and the results show that the performance of the proposed algorithm is efficient for robot visual SLAM and moving object detection.

  2. A miniature small size 3 MeV deuteron linear accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baranov, L.N.; Bryzgalov, G.A.; Verbovskij, V.V.; Kovpak, N.E.; Onoprienko, V.T.; Papkovich, V.G.; Khizhnyak, N.A.; Shulika, N.G.; Yashin, V.P.

    1975-01-01

    Basic characteristics are presented of the small-size linear deuteron accelerator for 3 MeV, the accelerating system of which operates at H-wave. It is shown that the usage of such accelerating systems makes it possible to reduce the resonator volume by more than 30 times, whereas the capacity of the evacuating devices as well as the total HF supply power are decreased. Owing to a relatively large wave length, particle injection energy may be reduced to 100-150 keV

  3. eLEARNING - A CHANCE FOR SMALL AND MEDIUM SIZED ENTERPRISES

    OpenAIRE

    Ileana Hamburg; Christiane Lindecke; Judith Terstriep

    2005-01-01

    eLearning through its flexibility and facility of access is seen as a major enabler of lifelong learning (LLL), as a catalyst of change and a chance for small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) to improve their business and to integrate into European market. But so far the eLearning in the context of vocational educational training has been mainly adopted by large enterprises, while only little activity can be observed in SMEs. The question arises what the chances and challenges for SMEs are...

  4. Prevalence of advanced adenomas in small and diminutive colon polyps using direct measurement of size.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Franklin C; Strum, Williamson B

    2011-08-01

    Most studies reporting polyp size use visual estimates. Determining the prevalence of advanced histology based on direct measurement of polyp size may help guide the management of polyps found at optical colonoscopy (OC) and CT colonography (CTC). We designed a large, prospective study to assess the prevalence of advanced adenomas based on direct measurement of polyp size by a certified pathologists' assistant as reported in the pathology report. Patients between 40 and 89 years of age who presented for screening colonoscopy were included in our study. Advanced adenomas were defined as ≥10 mm or ≥25% villous features, high grade dysplasia or cancer. Polyps were divided by size into three groups: diminutive (≤5 mm), small (6-9 mm) and large (≥10 mm). If more than one adenoma was present, the most advanced was used for analysis. We evaluated 6,905 consecutive patients referred for colonoscopy between January 2005 and December 2006. Of the 4,967 who met the inclusion criteria, the mean age was 58.8 and consisted of 59% women. Overall, 930 (18.7%) had an adenoma; 248 (5%) were advanced adenomas including 8 (0.16%) cancers. Of 89 polyps≥10 mm, 76 (85%) had advanced histology; of 247 polyps 6-9 mm, 67 (27%) were advanced; of 1,025 polyps ≤5 mm, 105 (10%) were advanced. Thus, 172 of 248 (69%) patients with advanced adenomas had small or diminutive adenomas. Our data indicate the majority (69%) of advanced adenomas are advanced adenomas (10%). These findings may help guide the management of sub-centimeter colon polyps found by OC or CTC.

  5. Evaluation of Approaches to Analyzing Continuous Correlated Eye Data When Sample Size Is Small.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jing; Huang, Jiayan; Chen, Yong; Ying, Gui-Shuang

    2018-02-01

    To evaluate the performance of commonly used statistical methods for analyzing continuous correlated eye data when sample size is small. We simulated correlated continuous data from two designs: (1) two eyes of a subject in two comparison groups; (2) two eyes of a subject in the same comparison group, under various sample size (5-50), inter-eye correlation (0-0.75) and effect size (0-0.8). Simulated data were analyzed using paired t-test, two sample t-test, Wald test and score test using the generalized estimating equations (GEE) and F-test using linear mixed effects model (LMM). We compared type I error rates and statistical powers, and demonstrated analysis approaches through analyzing two real datasets. In design 1, paired t-test and LMM perform better than GEE, with nominal type 1 error rate and higher statistical power. In design 2, no test performs uniformly well: two sample t-test (average of two eyes or a random eye) achieves better control of type I error but yields lower statistical power. In both designs, the GEE Wald test inflates type I error rate and GEE score test has lower power. When sample size is small, some commonly used statistical methods do not perform well. Paired t-test and LMM perform best when two eyes of a subject are in two different comparison groups, and t-test using the average of two eyes performs best when the two eyes are in the same comparison group. When selecting the appropriate analysis approach the study design should be considered.

  6. Operational Risk Assessment and Management in Small and Medium-sized Enterprises

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viktorija Stasytytė

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Modern organizations have raised a need to actively and quickly react to the changes in external business environment, as well as in internal processes considering not only the present situation, but also evaluating possible changes and forecasting the future. Enterprise risk assessment and management, which is strongly related with foreseeing the uncertain future, becomes topical not only scientifically, but also practically seeking to reveal new and unique solutions. Operational risk management in small and medium enterprises, creating the largest part of value added in the whole European Union, demands a separate attention and coordinated decisions and means. The objective of the paper – to analyse the process of enterprise risk management in small and medium-sized enterprises, as well as to propose adequate risk management solutions for these companies. After performing a research, it was found out that small and medium enterprises more than big organizations require a risk management strategy and methodology, need to distinguish activity objectives and events influencing them, and they can efficiently apply a risk portfolio method to manage risk. In small and medium enterprises it is recommended to incorporate a risk management system based on COSO ERM model that can be modified depending on company needs and possibilities, turning it into less formal and structured and easily applicable.

  7. Project appraisal for small and medium size wind energy installation: The Italian wind energy policy effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fera, M.; Iannone, R.; Macchiaroli, R.; Miranda, S.; Schiraldi, M.M.

    2014-01-01

    In the last few years, the distributed energy production from small wind turbines (i.e.<200 kWp) has developed into a relevant business opportunity for different investors in Italy. The market, especially in Italy, has rapidly grown, achieving 9 MWp only in 2011, with an increase from 1.5 MW in 2009 to 13.3 MW at the end of 2011. This paper reports the results of a case study on the installation of several small wind turbines. It aims to provide an analysis of the conditions in Italy that make it possible to install these machines and offer a reliable reference for designing, planning, and controlling small wind turbine projects while focusing on the strategic variables of time, cost, and quality used by typical enterprises in the investment projects. The results are relevant to investors as well as engineering, procurement, and construction companies involved in this new sector, which must understand Italy’s renewable energy policy and its effects in practice. Moreover, certain national energy policy conclusions are reported and discussed in this paper. To properly study the sector, the data on time, cost and quality are analysed using typical project management tools. - Highlights: • Focus on the Italian wind energy sector. • Analysis of Italian policy effects. • Focus on small/medium size wind energy machines

  8. Development of natural circulation small and medium sized boiling water reactor: HSBWR-600

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miki, Minoru; Horiuchi, Tetsuo; Yoshimoto, Yuichiro; Sumida, Isao; Murase, Michio; Akita, Minoru; Niino, Tsuyoshi

    1988-01-01

    In nuclear power generation, the development of large reactors has been promoted as the main energy source in Japan. However, world economy entered low growth age, and the growth of electric power demand slowed down. Accordingly, attention has been paid to the medium and small reactors that can cope with whatever needs by serializing their types in addition to the nuclear power plants of medium output matching to electric power demand. In order to cope with these new needs, the economical efficiency of medium and small reactors must be as close as possible to that of large reactors, and as the countermeasures to the demerits due to small size, those must be made into the plants having simplified systems and the safety easily acceptable to public. Hitachi Ltd. plans to develop the natural circulation type medium and small BWRs of 600 NWe output class, HSBWR-600, on the basis of the nuclear power plant technology based on the rich results of design and operation of BWRs obtained so far, and to rank them as one of the BWR series. The target of their development design, the circumstance of their development, the core design and the thermo-hydraulic characteristics, the reactor pressure vessel and in-core structures, the safety design, system design, building layout and the evaluation are reported. (Kako, I.)

  9. Performance evaluation of a mouse-sized camera for dynamic studies in small animals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loudos, George; Majewski, Stan; Wojcik, Randy; Weisenberger, Andrew; Sakellios, Nicolas; Nikita, Konstantina; Uzunoglu, Nikolaos; Bouziotis, Penelope; Varvarigou, Alexandra

    2007-01-01

    A mouse sized camera has been built in terms of collaboration between the presenting institutions. The system is used for the performance of dynamic studies in small animals, in order to evaluate novel radiopharmaceuticals. The active area of the detector is approximately 48x96 mm allowing depiction of the entire mouse in a single view. The system is based on two flat-panel Hamamatsu H8500 position sensitive photomultiplier tubes (PSPMT), a pixellated NaI(Tl) scintillator and a copper-beryllium (CuBe) parallel-hole collimator. In this work, the evaluation results of the system are presented, using phantoms and small animals injected with conventional radiophrmaceuticals. Average resolution was ∼1.6 mm on the collimator surface and increased to ∼4.1 mm in 12 cm distance from the detector. The average energy resolution was measured and found to be ∼15.6% for Tc 99m . Results from imaging thin capillaries demonstrated system's high resolution and sensitivity in activity variations was shown. Initial dynamic studies have been carried out in small animals injected with Tc 99m -DTPA and Tc 99m -MDP. The results show system's ability to perform kinetic imaging in small animals

  10. Bivariate Probit Models for Analysing how “Knowledge” Affects Innovation and Performance in Small and Medium Sized Firms

    OpenAIRE

    FARACE, Salvatore; MAZZOTTA, Fernanda

    2011-01-01

    This paper examines the determinants of innovation and its effects on small- and medium-sized firms We use the data from the OPIS databank, which provides a survey on a representative sample of firms from a province of the Southern Italy. We want to study whether small and medium sized firms can have a competitive advantage using their innovative capabilities, regardless of their sectoral and size limits. The main factor influencing the likelihood of innovation is knowledge, which is acquired...

  11. Size matters: pitch dimensions constrain inter-team distances and surface area difference in small-sided soccer games

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Frencken, Wouter; van der Plaats, Jorrit; Visscher, Chris; Lemmink, Koen

    2013-01-01

    Pitch size varies in official soccer matches and differently sized pitches are adopted for tactical purposes in small-sided training games. Since interactive team behaviour emerges under con- straints, the authors evaluate the effect of pitch size (task) manipulations on interactive team behaviour

  12. The social effectiveness of small and medium-sized entities standard from the view point of Game Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre Gonzales

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Accounting has been undergoing significant changes, and among these changes is the creation of a standard for the accounting of small and medium enterprises, in line with international accounting standards for companies of this size. This rule arose from the development of a pronouncement by the Accounting Pronouncements Committee – CPC, which subsequently was approved by the Federal Accounting Council - CFC through specific resolutions. The present study aimed to analyze trends of accounting professionals and business managers concerning the adoption of Technical Pronouncement emitted by Accounting Pronouncements Committee for Small and Medium Enterprises. Considering the level of complexity of the operations performed by companies of this size, the lack of oversight by specific entities and the question of enforcement of these pronouncements, it was used the game theory to determine possible strategies adopted by the accountants and business managers regarding to the effective adoption of pronouncement for SMEs. The study was characterized as a descriptive research, using bibliographical and field research. With the use of surveys sought to identify the perceptions of accounting professionals regarding the adoption of the pronouncement. It was found that this statement constitutes a valid legal standard, endowed with legal effectiveness and technical efficiency, but lacking social effectiveness, due to the low level of efforts for its adoption, both by accounting professionals and by firms.

  13. Small Lesion Size Is Associated with Sleep-Related Epilepsy in Focal Cortical Dysplasia Type II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bo Jin

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available ObjectiveTo investigate the neuroimaging and clinical features associated with sleep-related epilepsy (SRE in patients with focal cortical dysplasia (FCD type II.MethodsPatients with histopathologically proven FCD type II were included from three epilepsy centers. SRE was defined according to the video EEG findings and seizure history. Cortical surface reconstruction and volume calculation were performed using FreeSurfer. The lesions were manually delineated on T1 volumetric MRI using the ITK-SNAP software. The lesion volumes were normalized by the intracranial volume of each patient. The lesions were classified as small or large by placing a threshold based on quantitative (whether the lesion was detected on MRI report and qualitative (volume criteria.ResultsA total of 77 consecutive patients were included. Of them, 36 had SRE and 41 had non-SRE. An earlier age of epilepsy onset, high seizure frequency, regional interictal EEG findings, and favorable surgical outcome were characteristic in both groups. Small lesions were defined as those having a volume <3,217 mm3. In total, 60.9% of the patients with SRE (25/41 had small FCD lesion, which was significantly higher than the non-SRE group (9/34, 26.5%, p = 0.005. Small lesion size was the only predictor significantly associated with SRE in the overall type II group by multivariate analyses (p = 0.016. Although the proportion of patients who had frontal FCD and SRE was higher than non-frontal FCD (54.5 vs. 27.3%, p = 0.043, the relationship between SRE and lesion location was not confirmed by multivariate analysis. Thalamic volume and seizure semiology were not statistically different between the SRE and non-SRE group. The significant association between lesion size and SRE was reproducible in type IIb and IIa subgroups.SignificanceSRE is common in patients with FCD type II. Small FCD type II lesions are significantly associated with SRE. Although our findings cannot be applied to

  14. SU-F-T-610: Comparison of Output Factors for Small Radiation Fields Used in SBRT Treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gupta, R; Eldib, A; Li, J; Ma, C

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: In order to fundamentally understand our previous dose verification results between measurements and calculations from treatment planning system (TPS) for SBRT plans for different sized targets, the goal of the present work was to compare output factors for small fields measured using EDR2 films with TPS and Monet Carlo (MC) simulations. Methods: 6MV beam was delivered to EDR2 films for each of the following field sizes; 1×1 cm"2, 1.5×1.5 cm"2, 2×2 cm"2, 3×3 cm"2, 4×4 cm"2, 5×5 cm"2 and 10×10 cm"2. The films were developed in a film processer, then scanned with a Vidar VXR-16 scanner and analyzed using RIT113 version 6.1. A standard calibration curve was obtained with the 6MV beam and was used to get absolute dose for measured field sizes. Similar plans for all fields sizes mentioned above were generated using Eclipse with the Analytical Anisotropic Algorithm. Similarly, MC simulations were carried out using the MCSIM, an in-house MC code for different field sizes. Output factors normalized to 10×10 cm"2 reference field were calculated for different field sizes in all the three cases and compared. Results: For field sizes ranging from 1×1 cm"2 to 2×2 cm"2, the differences in output factors between measurements (films), TPS and MC simulations were within 0.22%. For field sizes ranging from 3×3cm"2 to 5×5cm"2, differences in output factors were within 0.10%. Conclusion: No clinically significant difference was obtained in output factors for different field sizes acquired from films, TPS and MC simulations. Our results showed that the output factors are predicted accurately from TPS when compared to the actual measurements and superior dose calculation Monte Carlo method. This study would help us in understanding our previously obtained dose verification results for small fields used in the SBRT treatment.

  15. Radiation-related small head sizes among prenatally exposed atomic bomb survivors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Otaki, Masanori; Schull, William J.

    2004-01-01

    severely mentally retarded cases with small heads and 68.9 and 11.9 for the severely mentally retarded cases without small heads. These values are 96.4 and 19.8 for cases with small heads only. The mean IQ and standard deviation for the overall sample are 107.8 and 16.4, respectively. No significant difference exists between the first two IQ means identified above, but both are significantly less than the mean for individuals with small heads but without severe mental retardation. The mean IQ of individuals with small heads but without severe mental retardation does not differ significantly from the mean for the entire sample. The relationship of small head size to four other anthropometric measurements (standing height, body weight, sitting height, and chest circumference) is described. (author)

  16. Small body size and extreme cortical bone remodeling indicate phyletic dwarfism in Magyarosaurus dacus (Sauropoda: Titanosauria).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stein, Koen; Csiki, Zoltan; Rogers, Kristina Curry; Weishampel, David B; Redelstorff, Ragna; Carballido, Jose L; Sander, P Martin

    2010-05-18

    Sauropods were the largest terrestrial tetrapods (>10(5) kg) in Earth's history and grew at rates that rival those of extant mammals. Magyarosaurus dacus, a titanosaurian sauropod from the Upper Cretaceous (Maastrichtian) of Romania, is known exclusively from small individuals (dwarfism (phyletic nanism) in dinosaurs, but a recent study suggested that the small Romanian titanosaurs actually represent juveniles of a larger-bodied taxon. Here we present strong histological evidence that M. dacus was indeed a dwarf (phyletic nanoid). Bone histological analysis of an ontogenetic series of Magyarosaurus limb bones indicates that even the smallest Magyarosaurus specimens exhibit a bone microstructure identical to fully mature or old individuals of other sauropod taxa. Comparison of histologies with large-bodied sauropods suggests that Magyarosaurus had an extremely reduced growth rate, but had retained high basal metabolic rates typical for sauropods. The uniquely decreased growth rate and diminutive body size in Magyarosaurus were adaptations to life on a Cretaceous island and show that sauropod dinosaurs were not exempt from general ecological principles limiting body size.

  17. Corporate social responsibility and small-medium sized enterprises: evidence from Greece

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Electra Pitoska

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper is a qualitative empirical research of Greek Small and Medium-sized Enterprises (SMEs and examines their dominant perceptions and attitudes towards Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR. The research was conducted in the Region of Western Macedonia, North Greece, via personal interviews based on a structured questionnaire, which was completed by 420 enterprises, with different business functions, and were randomly chosen from local Chamber registers. The results demonstrated that, as Greek SMEs in the periphery have not decided on a particular strategy for Social Responsibility practices, CSR is frequently defined as sponsorship or charity programmes. The research also revealed the restraining factors for SMEs in implementing CSR policies: financial cost, small size of enterprises, absence of specialized partners, and poor supporting role of public authorities. Whereas, the most significant non-financial goals for the enterprises attempting to implement CSR in Greece are: responsibility and respect to customers, promotion of sustainability, environmentally-friendly practices; human resources and protection of rights are less emphasized. Interestingly, more than 80% of the subjects hold that engaging in CSR practices in the current financial context is vital. With regard to the benefits resulting from CSR, the research demonstrated that: Enhancing ‘corporate image’, ‘business performance’, and ‘customer satisfaction’ are significant. Nevertheless, the research highlighted that implementing CSR strategies are rather positively than strongly correlated with the benefits deriving from CSR.

  18. Determinants of Supply and Demand for Trade Credit by Micro, Small and Medium-Sized Enterprises

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudinê Jordão de Carvalho

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available This article investigates the determinant factors of supply and demand for trade credit by micro, small and medium-sized enterprises (MSMEs, using data collected in a survey of managers from 481 firms in 32 cities in the states of São Paulo and Minas Gerais (Brazil between 2008 and 2010. The multivariate relationship model proposed here is grounded in trade credit, agency and transaction costs theories. This study is based on a technique known as path analysis that uses a system of simple regressions estimated by simultaneous equations. The main results show the following: (i trade credit and short-term bank loans are supplementary (and not substitute sources of funds for MSMEs, which demonstrates that trade credit can be used by financial institutions as an indicator of the creditworthiness of the company; (ii the proportion of credit sales, the days sales outstanding measure and sales growth are positively related to the amount of trade credit demanded, which suggests that trade credit is transferred along the supply chain; and (iii the supply of trade credit is positively related to the importance that management ascribes to both internal capital and bank credit, which illustrates the strategic use of the supply of trade credit to increase sales. These results have important implications for companies' managers, financial institutions and the government agencies responsible for formulating policies that support and promote the development of small and medium-sized enterprises.

  19. APLIKASI MOBILE-CUSTOMER RELATIONSHIP MANAGEMENT UNTUK SMALL AND MEDIUM SIZE ENTERPRISES (SMEs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Utaminingsih Linarti

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The key factor of enterprise in order to still growth and developed is customer. The customer will give the value to the enterprise in the form of profit. Therefore, enterprises must be able to establish an sustainable relationship to customer. Since 1990 began to develop what is called Customer Relationship Management (CRM. CRM implements between the development of information technology and customer-centric views. The development of technology and the human need's to move quickly, CRM evolved into a mobile CRM. The Internet make mobile-CRM easily used to all of enterprise, especially small and medium size enterprise. This article is aim to explain the role and the applicability of mobile CRM to business level conditions of small and medium size enterprises (SMEs. The presence of mobile phone operating system that is flexible (android system, the internet cost of affordable and the social media applications as analogy of user interface in making mobile CRM application. CRM mobile application can be downloaded or installed through the app store with ease. It encourages mobile-CRM benefit's rather than as a function of customer data collection but became a window for customer information. In addition, the database can be analysis and relate to customer activity. Mobile CRM applications can take advantage of cross selling methods.

  20. Development of design program for small-sized gas absorption chiller/heaters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoon, J.I.; Kwon, O.K.; Moon, C.K. [Pukyong National University, Pusan (Korea); Yang, Y.M.; Kim, H.Y. [R and D Center, Korea Gas Corporation, Ansan (Korea)

    1999-10-01

    Analysis of basic data is performed for development of small size water-cooled household absorption chiller/heater using non CFC refrigerant, analytic simulation program of air cooling performance is developed that system has 1.5-10RT of air cooling performance, we perform cycle analysis and numerical simulation. We develope a performance analysis of simulation program to perform a basic design for 1.5-10RT apparatus of small size system of development model in gas driven double effect absorption chiller/heater. The system working condition and operation limit condition is decided from the existing data which is analyzed and the conference with KOGAS. After the basic input variable and regular condition is established for heat cycle analysis, the simulation algorithm is set up and performance simulation program is coded according to the organized algorithm. The basic design of optimum system is completed from parametric study using developed simulation program and establishing the design variable range of developing object model. 20 refs., 30 figs., 9 tabs.

  1. Factors that influence planning for physical activity among workers in small- and medium-sized enterprises

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sawako Kawahara

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Physical activity (PA is necessary for improving the health of workers in small- to medium-sized enterprises (SMEs. However, behavioral changes conducive to PA are often difficult to achieve despite intentions. Because intention to perform PA does not always translate to action, proper planning may be critical for achieving PA. In this study, we aimed to identify factors related to planning for PA among workers in SMEs because this is one population that has been identified as being at higher risk for lifestyle-related diseases in Japan. Participants completed a series of validated questionnaires. Of 353 valid responses, 226 individuals (149 men; aged 47.5 ± 8.7 years stated their intention to perform PA. Multiple regression analysis indicated that a higher PA planning score was significantly associated with higher self-efficacy for PA (p < 0.001, higher risk perception regarding inactivity (p = 0.012, and greater knowledge of information about PA community services (p = 0.019. Therefore, we recommend that self-efficacy, risk perception, and information regarding PA community services are enhanced in the daily working lives of workers at their workplaces. In this manner, they can promote their planning of health behavioral changes in a supportive environment, drawing upon available services, supports, and other resources. Keywords: Workers, Planning, Intention, Physical activity, Small- and medium-sized enterprises

  2. SU-F-T-74: Experimental Validation of Monaco Electron Monte Carlo Dose Calculation for Small Fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Varadhan; Way, S; Arentsen, L; Gerbi, B

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: To verify experimentally the accuracy of Monaco (Elekta) electron Monte Carlo (eMC) algorithm to calculate small field size depth doses, monitor units and isodose distributions. Methods: Beam modeling of eMC algorithm was performed for electron energies of 6, 9, 12 15 and 18 Mev for a Elekta Infinity Linac and all available ( 6, 10, 14 20 and 25 cone) applicator sizes. Electron cutouts of incrementally smaller field sizes (20, 40, 60 and 80% blocked from open cone) were fabricated. Dose calculation was performed using a grid size smaller than one-tenth of the R_8_0_–_2_0 electron distal falloff distance and number of particle histories was set at 500,000 per cm"2. Percent depth dose scans and beam profiles at dmax, d_9_0 and d_8_0 depths were measured for each cutout and energy with Wellhoffer (IBA) Blue Phantom"2 scanning system and compared against eMC calculated doses. Results: The measured dose and output factors of incrementally reduced cutout sizes (to 3cm diameter) agreed with eMC calculated doses within ± 2.5%. The profile comparisons at dmax, d_9_0 and d_8_0 depths and percent depth doses at reduced field sizes agreed within 2.5% or 2mm. Conclusion: Our results indicate that the Monaco eMC algorithm can accurately predict depth doses, isodose distributions, and monitor units in homogeneous water phantom for field sizes as small as 3.0 cm diameter for energies in the 6 to 18 MeV range at 100 cm SSD. Consequently, the old rule of thumb to approximate limiting cutout size for an electron field determined by the lateral scatter equilibrium (E (MeV)/2.5 in centimeters of water) does not apply to Monaco eMC algorithm.

  3. SU-F-T-74: Experimental Validation of Monaco Electron Monte Carlo Dose Calculation for Small Fields

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Varadhan [Minneapolis Radiation Oncology, Fridley, MN (United States); Way, S [Minneapolis Radiation Oncology, Robbinsdale, MN (United States); Arentsen, L; Gerbi, B [University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN (United States)

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: To verify experimentally the accuracy of Monaco (Elekta) electron Monte Carlo (eMC) algorithm to calculate small field size depth doses, monitor units and isodose distributions. Methods: Beam modeling of eMC algorithm was performed for electron energies of 6, 9, 12 15 and 18 Mev for a Elekta Infinity Linac and all available ( 6, 10, 14 20 and 25 cone) applicator sizes. Electron cutouts of incrementally smaller field sizes (20, 40, 60 and 80% blocked from open cone) were fabricated. Dose calculation was performed using a grid size smaller than one-tenth of the R{sub 80–20} electron distal falloff distance and number of particle histories was set at 500,000 per cm{sup 2}. Percent depth dose scans and beam profiles at dmax, d{sub 90} and d{sub 80} depths were measured for each cutout and energy with Wellhoffer (IBA) Blue Phantom{sup 2} scanning system and compared against eMC calculated doses. Results: The measured dose and output factors of incrementally reduced cutout sizes (to 3cm diameter) agreed with eMC calculated doses within ± 2.5%. The profile comparisons at dmax, d{sub 90} and d{sub 80} depths and percent depth doses at reduced field sizes agreed within 2.5% or 2mm. Conclusion: Our results indicate that the Monaco eMC algorithm can accurately predict depth doses, isodose distributions, and monitor units in homogeneous water phantom for field sizes as small as 3.0 cm diameter for energies in the 6 to 18 MeV range at 100 cm SSD. Consequently, the old rule of thumb to approximate limiting cutout size for an electron field determined by the lateral scatter equilibrium (E (MeV)/2.5 in centimeters of water) does not apply to Monaco eMC algorithm.

  4. Comparison of film dosimetry and Monte Carlo simulations in small field IMRT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, S.R.; Suh, T.S.; Choe, B.Y.; Lee, H.K. [The Catholic Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Sohn. Jason W. [Washington Univ., St. Louis (United States)

    2002-07-01

    Intensity modulated radiation therapy(IMRT) is a recent useful technique that conforms a high dose to the target volume while restricting dose to the surrounding critical organs. In IMRT, the small size beam let is used for intensity modulation. Thus, dose calculation in small field is very important. But, dose calculation in small field is not accurate in recent RTP system because electronic disequilibrium and the effect of multiple scattering electron are not considered in dose calculation. and therefore, We have evaluated the errors of depth dose and beam profile between measurement data and Monte Carlo simulation. With a homogeneous phantom and two heterogeneous phantoms, A thermoluminescent dosimeter (TLD) and radiochromic films have been selected for dose measurement in 6 MV photon beams. A linear accelerator Varian 2300C (Varian Medical Systems, USA) equipped with a multileaf collimator have been used in dose measurement. The results of simulations using the Monte Carlo systems BEAM/EGS4 (NRC, Canada) to model the beam geometry have been compared with dose measurements. Generally good agreements were found between measurements and dose calculations of Monte Carlo simulation. But some discrepancies were found in this study. Thus further study will be needed to compensate these errors.

  5. Comparison of Flattening Filter (FF) and Flattening-Filter-Free (FFF) 6 MV photon beam characteristics for small field dosimetry using EGSnrc Monte Carlo code

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sangeetha, S.; Sureka, C. S.

    2017-06-01

    The present study is focused to compare the characteristics of Varian Clinac 600 C/D flattened and unflattened 6 MV photon beams for small field dosimetry using EGSnrc Monte Carlo Simulation since the small field dosimetry is considered to be the most crucial and provoking task in the field of radiation dosimetry. A 6 MV photon beam of a Varian Clinac 600 C/D medical linear accelerator operates with Flattening Filter (FF) and Flattening-Filter-Free (FFF) mode for small field dosimetry were performed using EGSnrc Monte Carlo user codes (BEAMnrc and DOSXYZnrc) in order to calculate the beam characteristics using Educated-trial and error method. These includes: Percentage depth dose, lateral beam profile, dose rate delivery, photon energy spectra, photon beam uniformity, out-of-field dose, surface dose, penumbral dose and output factor for small field dosimetry (0.5×0.5 cm2 to 4×4 cm2) and are compared with magna-field sizes (5×5 cm2 to 40×40 cm2) at various depths. The results obtained showed that the optimized beam energy and Full-width-half maximum value for small field dosimetry and magna-field dosimetry was found to be 5.7 MeV and 0.13 cm for both FF and FFF beams. The depth of dose maxima for small field size deviates minimally for both FF and FFF beams similar to magna-fields. The depths greater than dmax depicts a steeper dose fall off in the exponential region for FFF beams comparing FF beams where its deviations gets increased with the increase in field size. The shape of the lateral beam profiles of FF and FFF beams varies remains similar for the small field sizes less than 4×4 cm2 whereas it varies in the case of magna-fields. Dose rate delivery for FFF beams shows an eminent increase with a two-fold factor for both small field dosimetry and magna-field sizes. The surface dose measurements of FFF beams for small field size were found to be higher whereas it gets lower for magna-fields than FF beam. The amount of out-of-field dose reduction gets

  6. The optimum circular field size for dental radiography with intraoral films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    van Straaten, F.J.; van Aken, J.

    1982-01-01

    Intraoral radiographs are often made with circular fields to irradiate the film, and in many instances these fields are much larger than the film. The feasibility of reducing a circular radiation field without increasing the probability of excessive cone cutting was evaluated clinically, and an optimum field size was determined. A circular radiation field 4.5 cm. at the tube end was found to minimize cone cutting and reduce the area of tissue irradiated by at least 44 percent. Findings suggest that current I.C.R.P. recommendations for a 6 to 7.5 cm. diameter circular field may be too liberal

  7. Exploring drivers and barriers to sustainability green business practices within small medium sized enterprises: primary findings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amir Aghelie

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Presently the conducted studies on how SMEs should integrate sustainability align with their core business principle is limited. Most of the discussion on this field is emphasized to address issues for larger organizations and very limited effort on small firms. The drivers and barriers of approaching sustainability practices in SMEs are different from those in large organizations since SMEs lack technical specialist, experience and money required to make such strategy. Since SMEs play a significant role in nation’s economic growth, it is essential to study and find their drivers and barriers toward sustainability business practices constitutes main motivation of this paper. This is a primary finding that aims to understand the SME motivation and barriers that are facing in implementing green sustainable business practices to offer insight look to small firms to find key factors that influence adoption of sustainability business approach within their management practices.

  8. Size measurement of radioactive aerosol particles in intense radiation fields using wire screens and imaging plates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oki, Yuichi; Tanaka, Toru; Takamiya, Koichi; Ishi, Yoshihiro; UesugI, Tomonori; Kuriyama, Yasutoshi; Sakamoto, Masaaki; Ohtsuki, Tsutomu [Kyoto University Research Reactor Institute, Osaka (Japan); Nitta, Shinnosuke [Graduate School of Engineering, Kyoto University, Kyoto (Japan); Osada, Naoyuki [Advanced Science Research Center, Okayama University, Okayama (Japan)

    2016-09-15

    Very fine radiation-induced aerosol particles are produced in intense radiation fields, such as high-intensity accelerator rooms and containment vessels such as those in the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant (FDNPP). Size measurement of the aerosol particles is very important for understanding the behavior of radioactive aerosols released in the FDNPP accident and radiation safety in high-energy accelerators. A combined technique using wire screens and imaging plates was developed for size measurement of fine radioactive aerosol particles smaller than 100 nm in diameter. This technique was applied to the radiation field of a proton accelerator room, in which radioactive atoms produced in air during machine operation are incorporated into radiation-induced aerosol particles. The size of 11C-bearing aerosol particles was analyzed using the wire screen technique in distinction from other positron emitters in combination with a radioactive decay analysis. The size distribution for 11C-bearing aerosol particles was found to be ca. 70 μm in geometric mean diameter. The size was similar to that for 7Be-bearing particles obtained by a Ge detector measurement, and was slightly larger than the number-based size distribution measured with a scanning mobility particle sizer. The particle size measuring method using wire screens and imaging plates was successfully applied to the fine aerosol particles produced in an intense radiation field of a proton accelerator. This technique is applicable to size measurement of radioactive aerosol particles produced in the intense radiation fields of radiation facilities.

  9. Traceable size determination of PMMA nanoparticles based on Small Angle X-ray Scattering (SAXS)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gleber, G; Cibik, L; Mueller, P; Krumrey, M [Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt (PTB), Abbestrasse 2-12, 10587 Berlin (Germany); Haas, S; Hoell, A, E-mail: gudrun.gleber@ptb.d [Helmholtz-Zentrum-Berlin fuer Materialien und Energie (HZB), Albert-Einstein-Strasse 15, 12489 Berlin (Germany)

    2010-10-01

    The size and size distribution of PMMA nanoparticles has been investigated with SAXS (small angle X-ray scattering) using monochromatized synchrotron radiation. The uncertainty has contributions from the wavelength or photon energy of the radiation, the scattering angle and the fit procedure for the obtained scattering curves. The wavelength can be traced back to the lattice constant of silicon, and the scattering angle is traceable via geometric measurements of the detector pixel size and the distance between the sample and the detector. SAXS measurements and data evaluations have been performed at different distances and photon energies for two PMMA nanoparticle suspensions with low polydispersity and nominal diameters of 108 nm and 192 nm, respectively, as well as for a mixture of both. The relative variation of the diameters obtained for different experimental conditions was below {+-} 0.3 %. The determined number-weighted mean diameters of (109.0 {+-} 0.7) nm and (188.0 {+-} 1.3) nm, respectively, are close to the nominal values.

  10. Traceable size determination of PMMA nanoparticles based on Small Angle X-ray Scattering (SAXS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gleber, G.; Cibik, L.; Haas, S.; Hoell, A.; Müller, P.; Krumrey, M.

    2010-10-01

    The size and size distribution of PMMA nanoparticles has been investigated with SAXS (small angle X-ray scattering) using monochromatized synchrotron radiation. The uncertainty has contributions from the wavelength or photon energy of the radiation, the scattering angle and the fit procedure for the obtained scattering curves. The wavelength can be traced back to the lattice constant of silicon, and the scattering angle is traceable via geometric measurements of the detector pixel size and the distance between the sample and the detector. SAXS measurements and data evaluations have been performed at different distances and photon energies for two PMMA nanoparticle suspensions with low polydispersity and nominal diameters of 108 nm and 192 nm, respectively, as well as for a mixture of both. The relative variation of the diameters obtained for different experimental conditions was below ± 0.3 %. The determined number-weighted mean diameters of (109.0 ± 0.7) nm and (188.0 ± 1.3) nm, respectively, are close to the nominal values.

  11. Small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) for metrological size determination of nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gleber, Gudrun; Krumrey, Michael; Cibik, Levent; Marggraf, Stefanie; Mueller, Peter [Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt, Abbestr. 2-12, 10587 Berlin (Germany); Hoell, Armin [Helmholtz-Zentrum Berlin, Albert-Einstein-Str. 15, 12489 Berlin (Germany)

    2011-07-01

    To measure the size of nanoparticles, different measurement methods are available but their results are often not compatible. In the framework of an European metrology project we use Small-Angle X-ray Scattering (SAXS) to determine the size and size distribution of nanoparticles in aqueous solution, where the special challange is the traceability of the results. The experiments were performed at the Four-Crystal Monochromator (FCM) beamline in the laboratory of Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt (PTB) at BESSY II using the SAXS setup of the Helmholtz-Zentrum Berlin (HZB). We measured different particles made of PMMA and gold in a diameter range of 200 nm down to about 10 nm. The aspects of traceability can be classified in two parts: the first is the experimental part with the uncertainties of distances, angles, and wavelength, the second is the part of analysis, with the uncertainty of the choice of the model used for fitting the data. In this talk we want to show the degree of uncertainty, which we reached in this work yet.

  12. Traceable size determination of PMMA nanoparticles based on Small Angle X-ray Scattering (SAXS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gleber, G; Cibik, L; Mueller, P; Krumrey, M; Haas, S; Hoell, A

    2010-01-01

    The size and size distribution of PMMA nanoparticles has been investigated with SAXS (small angle X-ray scattering) using monochromatized synchrotron radiation. The uncertainty has contributions from the wavelength or photon energy of the radiation, the scattering angle and the fit procedure for the obtained scattering curves. The wavelength can be traced back to the lattice constant of silicon, and the scattering angle is traceable via geometric measurements of the detector pixel size and the distance between the sample and the detector. SAXS measurements and data evaluations have been performed at different distances and photon energies for two PMMA nanoparticle suspensions with low polydispersity and nominal diameters of 108 nm and 192 nm, respectively, as well as for a mixture of both. The relative variation of the diameters obtained for different experimental conditions was below ± 0.3 %. The determined number-weighted mean diameters of (109.0 ± 0.7) nm and (188.0 ± 1.3) nm, respectively, are close to the nominal values.

  13. Role of Relationship Marketing in Small and Medium-Sized Entreprises

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ružica Butigan

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Along with marketing, small and medium enterprises (SMEs are commonly associated in literature with relationship marketing which results in marketing networks. This paper examines the specific characteristics that differentiate large companies from small and medium-sized enterprises, and the reasons that prevent SMEs from engaging in traditional marketing within the scope of marketing mix. The paper also shows that the key characteristic which distinguishes small from large companies is a prominent role of owner/managers. The owner/manager affects marketing of SMEs by creating his or her own personal networks with stakeholders in the environment, and considers it an important strategic focus and a factor that increases the performance of marketing decision-making. After a thorough review of secondary data sources this paper examines relationship marketing as a marketing framework for SMEs and, finally, proves that relationship marketing is more appropriate for SMEs than are traditional marketing concepts, that relationship marketing and network marketing create an important framework for SMEs and that there is a link between relationship marketing, personal networks and SMEs.

  14. The role of electrostatic charging of small and intermediate sized bodies in the solar system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mendis, D.A.

    1981-01-01

    The role of electrostatic charging of small and intermediate sized bodies in the solar system is reviewed. These bodies include planetary, interplanetary and cometary dust as well as cometary nuclei (at large heliocentric distances), asteroids and the larger bodies in the Saturnian ring system. While this charging has both physical and dynamical consequences for the small dust grains, it has only physical consequences for the larger bodies. The main physical consequences for the small grains are electrostatic erosion (''chipping'') and disruption, whereas for the larger bodies they include electrostatic levitation and blow-off of fine loose dust from their surfaces. A large variety of solar system phenomena, recently observed by the Pioneer and Voyager deep space probes as well as the HEOS-2 earth satellite, are explained in terms of these processes. Certain peculiar features observed in the dust tails of comets as well as the spatial orientation of the zodiacal dust cloud may also be explained along these lines. The possible electrostatic erosion of the dust mantles of new comets as well as the electrostatic 'polishing' of the smaller asteroids are also discussed. (Auth.)

  15. Correlates of Tax Compliance of Small and Medium Size Businesses in Cameroon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oludele Akinloye Akinboade

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Taxation provides a predictable and stable flow of revenue to finance development objectives. This is important in a country like Cameroon that has serious challenges with meeting its development objectives. Small and medium enterprises (SMEs are significant for economic growth in the country, contributing as much as about 22 percent of the gross domestic product. SMEs generate taxable incomes. They also collect employment and value added taxes on behalf of the government. Taxation, however, imposes high cost to small businesses. SMEs are less tax compliant in comparison to large businesses. SMEs are considered the ‘hard to tax group from the informal sector.’ As such, the literature suggests that only a fraction of their taxable incomes is reported to tax authorities. Against this background, factors that correlate with tax compliance of 575 small and medium size companies in Cameroon are discussed from a survey of companies in the manufacturing and wholesale sectors. High registration cost and time-consuming processes promote tax non-compliance. The perception that tax system is corrupt discourages registration and filing compliance. When there are too many compliance hurdles, the probability of filing compliance is reduced. However, a fair and static system encourages filing and registration compliance. A clear and consistent tax system promotes filing compliance. Authorities that understand their responsibilities and are willing to respond to enquiries during the registration process promote tax compliance in general.

  16. Energetic Communities: Planning support for sustainable energy transition in small- and medium-sized communities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christina Valeska Sager-Klauss

    2016-04-01

    energy transition processes? For the research project this general question was broken down into four primary research questions: • How can communities anchor and monitor long-term energy transition visions in their communal development plans? • What tools and models are available for urban energy system analysis? • How can tools and models be adapted to the specific demands and boundary conditions in the case study communities to ensure long-term implementation of appropriate technologies and measures? • How does the practical implementation of the adapted tools work in the case study and what barriers must be overcome for long-term success? To answer these questions a combination of review of the current state of scientific literature of the thematic field with a practical application and evaluation of ‘real’ implementation projects was chosen. This appears to be a beneficial approach to scientific research in planning disciplines. The first research question is closely connected to urban planning and strategy. To anchor energy transition goals in these disciplines the potentials and consequences of political energy visions were studied. To monitor developments and progress existing indicator systems were reviewed and adapted to the needs of small- and medium-sized communities. For this overall target-definition the question of 'Exergy Thinking' in planning urban environments and energy systems was discussed. This basically means to create a deep understanding of the quality aspects in energy demand and supply systems and to be aware for better matching solutions. This approach opens many options for the integration of renewables in the heating and cooling supply. It showed that the definition of a clear long-term target or 'energy vision' supports the implementation of measures because it facilitates communication and controversy. The large number of available tools and scientific methods for the analysis and optimization of communal energy systems was

  17. K-band EPR dosimetry: small-field beam profile determination with miniature alanine dosimeter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Felipe; Graeff, Carlos F.O.; Baffa, Oswaldo

    2005-01-01

    The use of small-size alanine dosimeters presents a challenge because the signal intensity is less than the spectrometer sensitivity. K-band (24 GHz) EPR spectrometer seems to be a good compromise between size and sensitivity of the sample. Miniature alanine pellets were evaluated for small-field radiation dosimetry. Dosimeters of DL-alanine/PVC with dimensions of 1.5 mm diameter and 2.5 mm length with 5 mg mass were developed. These dosimeters were irradiated with 10 MV X-rays in the dose range 0.05-60 Gy and the first harmonic (1 h) spectra were recorded. Microwave power, frequency and amplitude of modulation were optimized to obtain the best signal-to-noise ratio (S/N). For beam profile determination, a group of 25 dosimeters were placed in an acrylic device with dimensions of (7.5x2.5x1) cm 3 and irradiated with a (3x3) cm 2 10 MV X-rays beam field size. The dose at the central region of the beam was 20 Gy at a depth of 2.2 cm (build up for acrylic). The acrylic device was oriented perpendicular to the beam axis and to the gantry rotation axis. For the purposes of comparison of the spatial resolution, the beam profile was also determined with a radiographic film and 2 mm aperture optical densitometer; in this case the dose was 1 cGy. The results showed a similar spatial resolution for both types of dosimeters. The dispersion in dose reading was larger for alanine in comparison with the film, but alanine dosimeters can be read faster and more directly than film over a wide dose range

  18. When Theory Meets Data: Comparing Model Predictions Of Hillslope Sediment Size With Field Measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmoudi, M.; Sklar, L. S.; Leclere, S.; Davis, J. D.; Stine, A.

    2017-12-01

    The size distributions of sediment produced on hillslopes and supplied to river channels influence a wide range of fluvial processes, from bedrock river incision to the creation of aquatic habitats. However, the factors that control hillslope sediment size are poorly understood, limiting our ability to predict sediment size and model the evolution of sediment size distributions across landscapes. Recently separate field and theoretical investigations have begun to address this knowledge gap. Here we compare the predictions of several emerging modeling approaches to landscapes where high quality field data are available. Our goals are to explore the sensitivity and applicability of the theoretical models in each field context, and ultimately to provide a foundation for incorporating hillslope sediment size into models of landscape evolution. The field data include published measurements of hillslope sediment size from the Kohala peninsula on the island of Hawaii and tributaries to the Feather River in the northern Sierra Nevada mountains of California, and an unpublished data set from the Inyo Creek catchment of the southern Sierra Nevada. These data are compared to predictions adapted from recently published modeling approaches that include elements of topography, geology, structure, climate and erosion rate. Predictive models for each site are built in ArcGIS using field condition datasets: DEM topography (slope, aspect, curvature), bedrock geology (lithology, mineralogy), structure (fault location, fracture density), climate data (mean annual precipitation and temperature), and estimates of erosion rates. Preliminary analysis suggests that models may be finely tuned to the calibration sites, particularly when field conditions most closely satisfy model assumptions, leading to unrealistic predictions from extrapolation. We suggest a path forward for developing a computationally tractable method for incorporating spatial variation in production of hillslope

  19. Stabilization of the extra dimension size in RS model by bulk Higgs field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Egorov, V O; Volobuev, I P

    2017-01-01

    An extension of the Standard Model is considered, which is built on the basis of a stabilized Randall-Sundrum model with two branes. The stabilization of the extra dimension size is achieved with the help of a five-dimensional Higgs field, which plays the role of the Goldberger-Wise field. The stabilization makes the radion massive, and all the fermion fields, which are assumed to be localized on the TeV brane, get their masses due to the interaction with the boundary value of the Higgs field. The gauge invariance of the theory demands that the electroweak gauge fields also live in the bulk. The equations of motion for the background field configurations and for the field fluctuations against a background solution are obtained. The interaction of the bulk Higgs field with the multidimensional gauge field is studied and possible values of the model parameters are estimated. (paper)

  20. Size characterization by Sedimentation Field Flow Fractionation of silica particles used as food additives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Contado, Catia, E-mail: Catia.Contado@unife.it [University of Ferrara, Department of Chemical and Pharmaceutical Sciences, via L. Borsari, 46, 44121 Ferrara (Italy); Ravani, Laura [University of Ferrara, Department of Life Sciences and Biotechnologies, via L. Borsari, 46, 44121 Ferrara (Italy); Passarella, Martina [University of Ferrara, Department of Chemical and Pharmaceutical Sciences, via L. Borsari, 46, 44121 Ferrara (Italy)

    2013-07-25

    Graphical abstract: -- Highlights: •Four types of SiO{sub 2} particles were characterized by SdFFF, PCS and EM techniques. •Clusters of 10 nm nanoparticles were found in some SiO{sub 2} samples. •A method was set up to extract SiO{sub 2} particles from food matrices. •The effects of the carrier solution composition on SdFFF separations were evaluated. •Particle size distributions were obtained from SiO{sub 2} particles extracted from foodstuffs. -- Abstract: Four types of SiO{sub 2}, available on the market as additives in food and personal care products, were size characterized using Sedimentation Field Flow Fractionation (SdFFF), SEM, TEM and Photon Correlation Spectroscopy (PCS). The synergic use of the different analytical techniques made it possible, for some samples, to confirm the presence of primary nanoparticles (10 nm) organized in clusters or aggregates of different dimension and, for others, to discover that the available information is incomplete, particularly that regarding the presence of small particles. A protocol to extract the silica particles from a simple food matrix was set up, enriching (0.25%, w w{sup −1}) a nearly silica-free instant barley coffee powder with a known SiO{sub 2} sample. The SdFFF technique, in conjunction with SEM observations, made it possible to identify the added SiO{sub 2} particles and verify the new particle size distribution. The SiO{sub 2} content of different powdered foodstuffs was determined by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectroscopy (GFAAS); the concentrations ranged between 0.006 and 0.35% (w w{sup −1}). The protocol to isolate the silica particles was so applied to the most SiO{sub 2}-rich commercial products and the derived suspensions were separated by SdFFF; SEM and TEM observations supported the size analyses while GFAAS determinations on collected fractions permitted element identification.

  1. Reliability of different mark-recapture methods for population size estimation tested against reference population sizes constructed from field data.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annegret Grimm

    evaluate the performance of mark-recapture population size estimators under field conditions, which is essential for selecting an appropriate method and obtaining reliable results in ecology and conservation biology, and thus for sound management.

  2. Spin-torque oscillation in large size nano-magnet with perpendicular magnetic fields

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luo, Linqiang, E-mail: LL6UK@virginia.edu [Department of Physics, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, VA 22904 (United States); Kabir, Mehdi [Department of Electrical & Computer Engineering, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, VA 22904 (United States); Dao, Nam; Kittiwatanakul, Salinporn [Department of Materials Science & Engineering, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, VA 22904 (United States); Cyberey, Michael [Department of Electrical Engineering, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, VA 22904 (United States); Wolf, Stuart A. [Department of Physics, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, VA 22904 (United States); Department of Materials Science & Engineering, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, VA 22904 (United States); Institute of Defense Analyses, Alexandria, VA 22311 (United States); Stan, Mircea [Department of Electrical & Computer Engineering, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, VA 22904 (United States); Lu, Jiwei [Department of Materials Science & Engineering, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, VA 22904 (United States)

    2017-06-15

    Highlights: • 500 nm size nano-pillar device was fabricated by photolithography techniques. • A magnetic hybrid structure was achieved with perpendicular magnetic fields. • Spin torque switching and oscillation was demonstrated in the large sized device. • Micromagnetic simulations accurately reproduced the experimental results. • Simulations demonstrated the synchronization of magnetic inhomogeneities. - Abstract: DC current induced magnetization reversal and magnetization oscillation was observed in 500 nm large size Co{sub 90}Fe{sub 10}/Cu/Ni{sub 80}Fe{sub 20} pillars. A perpendicular external field enhanced the coercive field separation between the reference layer (Co{sub 90}Fe{sub 10}) and free layer (Ni{sub 80}Fe{sub 20}) in the pseudo spin valve, allowing a large window of external magnetic field for exploring the free-layer reversal. A magnetic hybrid structure was achieved for the study of spin torque oscillation by applying a perpendicular field >3 kOe. The magnetization precession was manifested in terms of the multiple peaks on the differential resistance curves. Depending on the bias current and applied field, the regions of magnetic switching and magnetization precession on a dynamical stability diagram has been discussed in details. Micromagnetic simulations are shown to be in good agreement with experimental results and provide insight for synchronization of inhomogeneities in large sized device. The ability to manipulate spin-dynamics on large size devices could be proved useful for increasing the output power of the spin-transfer nano-oscillators (STNOs).

  3. Future Perspectives for Small and Medium Sized Reactors in India. Annex V

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2013-12-15

    Innovative small and medium sized reactors (SMRs) have several features that are expected to affect their future development and deployment in India. These include the: - Potential for simpler designs and reduced demands for human intervention, resulting in fewer potentially unsafe actions; - Potential for construction close to population centres, due to enhanced safety; - Potential of using the capability and capacity of local industries to enable their participation in the design and construction of such reactors, and high adaptability to the standardization and modular construction approach; - Potential to achieve low upfront capital costs. Future SMR concepts, employing increased use of passive safety features and capable of producing both electricity and high temperature process heat, may find application in specific regions of the country to supply both electricity and process heat, through distributed deployment. The following sections describe future SMR design concepts meeting the above mentioned objectives, and highlight their projected economic competitiveness.

  4. Selecting Sustainability Indicators for Small to Medium Sized Urban Water Systems Using Fuzzy-ELECTRE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chhipi-Shrestha, Gyan; Hewage, Kasun; Sadiq, Rehan

    2017-03-01

      Urban water systems (UWSs) are challenged by the sustainability perspective. Certain limitations of the sustainability of centralized UWSs and decentralized household level wastewater treatments can be overcome by managing UWSs at an intermediate scale, referred to as small to medium sized UWSs (SMUWSs). SMUWSs are different from large UWSs, mainly in terms of smaller infrastructure, data limitation, smaller service area, and institutional limitations. Moreover, sustainability assessment systems to evaluate the sustainability of an entire UWS are very limited and confined only to large UWSs. This research addressed the gap and has developed a set of 38 applied sustainability performance indicators (SPIs) by using fuzzy-Elimination and Choice Translating Reality (ELECTRE) I outranking method to assess the sustainability of SMUWSs. The developed set of SPIs can be applied to existing and new SMUWSs and also provides a flexibility to include additional SPIs in the future based on the same selection criteria.

  5. Comparative study of a small size wind generation system efficiency for battery charging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mayouf Messaoud

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an energetic comparison between two control strategies of a small size wind generation system for battery charging. The output voltage of the direct drive PMSG is connected to the battery through a switch mode rectifier. A DC-DC boost converter is used to regulate the battery bank current in order to achieve maximum power from the wind. A maximum powertracking algorithm calculates the current command that corresponds to maximum power output of the turbine. The DC-DC converter uses this current to calculate the duty cycle witch is necessary to control the pulse width modulated (PWM active switching device (IGPT. The system overview and modeling are presented including characteristics of wind turbine, generator, batteries, power converter, control system, and supervisory system. A simulation of the system is performed using MATLAB/SIMULINK.

  6. Competitive intelligence tools used by small and medium-sized enterprises

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tshilidzi Eric Nenzhelele

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Small and Medium-sized Enterprises (SMEs contribute highly to the gross domestic product, reduction in unemployment, wealth creation and improvement in the quality of life. Due to technology and globalisation, SMEs now compete with enterprises beyond the borders of their country. To survive in this global competitive business environment, SMEs seek for tools that offer competitive advantage. Competitive Intelligence (CI provides competitive advantage to enterprises that practice it. While CI practice has been widely research for larger enterprises, there is lack of research on CI practice pertaining to SMEs. This research establishes tools used by SMEs in CI practice. The research was quantitative in nature and a self-administered questionnaire was used to collected data from owners/managers of SMEs

  7. Flexible and elastic metamaterial absorber for low frequency, based on small-size unit cell

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoo, Y. J.; Zheng, H. Y.; Kim, Y. J.; Lee, Y. P., E-mail: yplee@hanyang.ac.kr [Department of Physics and RINS, Hanyang University, Seoul 133-791 (Korea, Republic of); Rhee, J. Y. [Department of Physics, Sungkyunkwan University, Suwon (Korea, Republic of); Kang, J.-H. [Department of Nano and Electronic Physics, Kookmin University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, K. W. [Department of Information Display, Sunmoon University, Asan (Korea, Republic of); Cheong, H. [Department of Physics, Sogang University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Y. H. [Infovion Inc., Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-07-28

    Using a planar and flexible metamaterial (MM), we obtained the low-frequency perfect absorption even with very small unit-cell size in snake-shape structure. These shrunken, deep-sub-wavelength and thin MM absorbers were numerically and experimentally investigated by increasing the inductance. The periodicity/thickness (the figure of merit for perfect absorption) is achieved to be 10 and 2 for single-snake-bar and 5-snake-bar structures, respectively. The ratio between periodicity and resonance wavelength (in mm) is close to 1/12 and 1/30 at 2 GHz and 400 MHz, respectively. The absorbers are specially designed for absorption peaks around 2 GHz and 400 MHz, which can be used for depressing the electromagnetic noise from everyday electronic devices and mobile phones.

  8. FINANCING OF FIXED ASSET INVESTMENT IN THE SMALL AND MEDIUM-SIZED ENTERPRISES IN POLAND

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beata Geruzel-Dudzińska

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Small and medium-sized enterprises play an important role in the economy, creates, because a significant part of GDP, provides employment to many millions of people. One of the main barriers to the development of these enterprises, not only in Poland but also in EU countries, is the scarcity of equity and the difficulty in obtaining external sources of financing. It is not just about lack of funds to finance current operations, but also, and perhaps above all, lack of investment in fixed assets. This paper aims to present available sources of financing of fixed assets for enterprises from the SME sector and the assessment of their use by these companies.

  9. Examples from P2 and energy assessments at small to medium size manufacturers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fleischman, M.; Watters, J.C.; Cobourn, W.G.; Collins, D.J.

    1996-01-01

    Using engineering student-faculty teams, the U.S. Department of energy sponsored industrial assessment center (IAC) at the university of louisville does free pollution prevention and energy assessments at small to medium size manufacturers (SIC 20-39) in kentucky and indiana. Each client plant must meet three of the following four criteria: Annual energy bills less than $1, 750, 000 and more than $50, 00. Gross annual sales of less than $75 million. Less than 500 employees. Lack a dedicated energy/waste engineer. Lack of in-house staff to perform these analyses. The program criteria and assessment procedures are briefly described and summaries of assessment at a sheet fed offset (lithographic) printing plant and 2 denim jeans pre washing plants are presented. 4 figs., 8 tabs

  10. Bank Finance For Small And Medium-Sized Enterprises In Sri Lanka: Issues And Policy Reforms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gamage Pandula

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Access to bank finance is necessary to create an economic environment that enables Small and Medium-sized enterprises (SMEs to grow and prosper. The SMEs in Sri Lanka, however, face significant constraints to access bank finance. The purpose of this paper is to investigate the access to bank finance and related issues in the SME sector of Sri Lanka. The paper is exploratory in nature and reviews the bank financing situation for SMEs in Sri Lanka, as well as provides an overview of constraints faced by the banks (supply-side and SMEs (demand-side. The paper also highlights some good practices in SME lending from international experience and outlines some recommendations to help overcome the constraints faced by the banks and SMEs. The recommendations discussed in this paper may be of importance to policymakers, not only in Sri Lanka, but in many other developing countries in a similar stage of economic growth.

  11. MACROECONOMIC CLIMATE AND THE SMALL AND MEDIUM SIZE COMPANIES IN ROMANIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrei Rădulescu

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Small and medium size companies (SMEs represent the engine of the economy in the member states of the European Union. In Romania, SMEs entered the post-crisis cycle in 2013 after a severe adjustment process under the impact of the Great Recession. The economic performance of SMEs is strongly influenced by the macroeconomic climate. The important role of SMEs in the economy has determined the Romanian government to implement several measures in order to support their activity. The present paper highlights the mid-term macroeconomic outlook for Romania, as well as the recent developments related to SMEs, along with the main measures implemented by the Government over the past years in order to support the development of these companies.

  12. Challenges in Improving Customer Focus in Small-Sized House-building Companies in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos T. Formoso

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Some important changes in the business environment in several countries are forcing house-building companies to change their competitive strategies. This paper discusses a set of customer servicing practices, which have been adopted by small-sized house-building companies in Brazil that have been involved in quality management improvement programs, emphasizing customer satisfaction measurement. Such practices are referred to a model of the customer servicing process that integrates the main customer-interaction functions from product inception to building operation. Based on multiple case studies and also on a literature review, the main difficulties faced by this sector in terms of improving customer satisfaction are discussed and some improvement opportunities are pointed out.

  13. Accelerating Innovation in Small and Medium-Sized Enterprises in the ICT Services Sector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Vicente García Manjón

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This work is aimed at establishing key organizational strategies that push small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs in the information and communication technologies (ICT services sector to be more innovative. Following an input and output approach, a theoretical model is built that helps determine such key factors. Then the model is validated with fieldwork carried out on a representative sample in Castile-Leon region (Spain. According to this model, the decision to innovate (and the trigger for research and development [R&D] activities in SMEs in the ICT services sector is the result of needs that are presented by customers (public or private sector in tailored projects. All the same, the factors leading to innovation are in order of importance, the technological level of the company, the effort made by the company in R&D, and finally, systems of incentives.

  14. Adoption of an information systems security policy in small and medium sized enterprises.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabel Maria Lopes

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Information Systems Security (ISS is a relevant fact for current organizations. This paper focuses on Small and Medium Sized Enterprises (SMEs. This article aims to constitute an empirical study on the applicability of the Action Research (AR method in information systems, more specifically by assessing the adoption of an ISS policy in six SMEs, and identifying the critical success factors in adopting an ISS policy. The research question we intend to answer is to what extent this research method is adequate to reach the proposed goal. The results of the study suggest that AR is a promising means for the evaluation of ISS policies adoption. It can both act as a research method that improves the understanding about the reasons why the policy has been abandoned, and as a change method, assisting practitioners to overcome barriers and suggesting measures to be implemented.

  15. Sustainability in Small and Medium-Sized Manufacturing Enterprises: An Empirical Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Garbie

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The main goal of this paper is to analyze and investigate sustainable practices in small and medium-sized manufacturing enterprises (SMEs. A comprehensive analysis and a mathematical framework are used to assess the sustainability indexes (SDIs of each aspect/issue and pillar/dimension, and of the whole manufacturing enterprise. Sustainability in the whole manufacturing enterprise is represented by the sustainable development index (SDI. The results show that there is a significant difference in SDIs between aspects and dimensions, with economic sustainability representing the highest percentage in the SDI. Also, the results show that industrial companies are adopting sustainable practices and applying them to most of the issues/aspects of the dimensions, and they can direct manufacturing companies in the industrial sector to develop strategies for sustainability. This paper introduces a new understanding of the practices and implementation of sustainability/sustainable development by SMEs through assessing the SDIs.

  16. A novel approach for small sample size family-based association studies: sequential tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ilk, Ozlem; Rajabli, Farid; Dungul, Dilay Ciglidag; Ozdag, Hilal; Ilk, Hakki Gokhan

    2011-08-01

    In this paper, we propose a sequential probability ratio test (SPRT) to overcome the problem of limited samples in studies related to complex genetic diseases. The results of this novel approach are compared with the ones obtained from the traditional transmission disequilibrium test (TDT) on simulated data. Although TDT classifies single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) to only two groups (SNPs associated with the disease and the others), SPRT has the flexibility of assigning SNPs to a third group, that is, those for which we do not have enough evidence and should keep sampling. It is shown that SPRT results in smaller ratios of false positives and negatives, as well as better accuracy and sensitivity values for classifying SNPs when compared with TDT. By using SPRT, data with small sample size become usable for an accurate association analysis.

  17. Tax-saving, Innovative Incentives for Small and Medium - Sized Enterprises in Hungary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rita Ambrus

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The small-and medium-sized enterprises in the Hungarian economy have been playing a decisive role. Among the difficulties they face during their activities one of the most serious is to raise funds for their labour costs. They try to reduce their tax wedge burden, which is regarded one of the highest in Europe, in various ways. In order to keep the adequate workforce they can provide fringe benefits supplementing to wages and salaries. The cautious application of the referring acts enables companies to motivate workforce and reduce the tax and contribution burdens at the same time. Our research aimed to find an answer how SMEs take these advantages and what factors support or hinder the use of the system.

  18. Robust Color Choice for Small-size League RoboCup Competition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiang Zhou

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the problem of choosing a set of most separable colors in a given environment is discussed. The proposed method models the process of generating theoretically computed best colors, printing of these colors through a color printer, and imaging the printed colors through a camera into an integrated framework. Thus, it provides a feasible way to generate practically best separable colors for a given environment with a set of given equipment. A real world application (robust color choice for small-size league RoboCup competition is used as an example to illustrate the proposed method. Experimental results on this example show the competitiveness of the colors learned from our algorithm compared to the colors adopted by other teams which are chosen via an extensive trial and error process using standard color papers.

  19. Improved Cost Management at Small and Medium Sized Road Transport Companies: Case Hungary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zoltan Bokor

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Small and medium sized road freight transport companies located in Hungary are facing strong competition on the logistics market. An advanced cost management system supporting decisions on capacity allocations or pricing may be a competitive advantage for them and indirectly for the whole economy as well. Still, they generally apply simple, traditional cost calculation regimes, potentially sufficient in case of a homogeneous service portfolio. Nevertheless, road haulage companies with heterogeneous service structures may witness information distortions when using traditional costing methods. So it might be recommended for them to introduce better costing principles. To support an improved transport costing, a multi-level full cost allocation model has been set up and tested in this paper. The research results have pointed out that such a methodological development accompanied by the extension of the data collection mechanism can contribute to making the cost management systems of road freight transport companies more effective.

  20. Decision-makers' Risk Perception in the Internationalisation of Small and Medium-Sized Firms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eduardsen, Jonas Strømfeldt; Marinova, Svetla Trifonova

    2016-01-01

    awareness exists, decision-makers do not perceive internationalisation as risky behaviour. Findings highlight the importance of decision-makers’ background, including cognitive and psychological characteristics, such as self-efficacy and locus of control, and their experiences in explaining risk perceptions......This study examines the risk perception of decision-makers in small and medium sized enterprises (SMEs) and the factors underlying these perceptions in the process of internationalization of their firms. While risk perception has been identified as a potential predictor variable...... in internationalisation research, very little work has been done exploring the factors and processes that shape decision-makers’ perception of risk. A qualitative interview-based approach was adopted by collecting data from thirty-two Danish SMEs operating in four different industries. Findings suggest that while risk...

  1. eLEARNING - A CHANCE FOR SMALL AND MEDIUM SIZED ENTERPRISES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ileana Hamburg

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available eLearning through its flexibility and facility of access is seen as a major enabler of lifelong learning (LLL, as a catalyst of change and a chance for small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs to improve their business and to integrate into European market. But so far the eLearning in the context of vocational educational training has been mainly adopted by large enterprises, while only little activity can be observed in SMEs. The question arises what the chances and challenges for SMEs are and what is the experience with its usage. In this paper after a presentation of key issues in eLearning chances and challenges of eLearning for SMEs are discussed and experiences are exemplified by three EU-funded eLearning projects. The focus lies on the ongoing project ARIEL - Analysing and Reporting the Implementation of Electronic Learning in Europe - coordinated by the Institut Arbeit und Technik (IAT.

  2. Near Field UHF RFID Antenna System Enabling the Tracking of Small Laboratory Animals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luca Catarinucci

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Radio frequency identification (RFID technology is more and more adopted in a wide range of applicative scenarios. In many cases, such as the tracking of small-size living animals for behaviour analysis purposes, the straightforward use of commercial solutions does not ensure adequate performance. Consequently, both RFID hardware and the control software should be tailored for the particular application. In this work, a novel RFID-based approach enabling an effective localization and tracking of small-sized laboratory animals is proposed. It is mainly based on a UHF Near Field RFID multiantenna system, to be placed under the animals’ cage, and able to rigorously identify the NF RFID tags implanted in laboratory animals (e.g., mice. Once the requirements of the reader antenna have been individuated, the antenna system has been designed and realized. Moreover, an algorithm based on the measured Received Signal Strength Indication (RSSI aiming at removing potential ambiguities in data captured by the multiantenna system has been developed and integrated. The animal tracking system has been largely tested on phantom mice in order to verify its ability to precisely localize each subject and to reconstruct its path. The achieved and discussed results demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed tracking system.

  3. Dry paths effectively reduce road mortality of small and medium-sized terrestrial vertebrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niemi, Milla; Jääskeläinen, Niina C; Nummi, Petri; Mäkelä, Tiina; Norrdahl, Kai

    2014-11-01

    Wildlife passages are widely used mitigation measures designed to reduce the adverse impacts of roads on animals. We investigated whether road kills of small and medium-sized terrestrial vertebrates can be reduced by constructing dry paths adjacent to streams that pass under road bridges. The study was carried out in southern Finland during the summer of 2008. We selected ten road bridges with dry paths and ten bridges without them, and an individual dry land reference site for each study bridge on the basis of landscape and traffic features. A total of 307 dead terrestrial vertebrates were identified during the ten-week study period. The presence of dry paths decreased the amount of road-killed terrestrial vertebrates (Poisson GLMM; p road-kills on mammals was not such clear. In the mammal model, a lack of dry paths increased the amount of carcasses (p = 0.001) whereas the number of casualties at dry path bridges was comparable with dry land reference sites. A direct comparison of the dead ratios suggests an average efficiency of 79% for the dry paths. When considering amphibians and mammals alone, the computed effectiveness was 88 and 70%, respectively. Our results demonstrate that dry paths under road bridges can effectively reduce road-kills of small and medium-sized terrestrial vertebrates, even without guiding fences. Dry paths seemed to especially benefit amphibians which are a threatened species group worldwide and known to suffer high traffic mortality. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Mechanical weed control on small-size dry bean and its response to cross-flaming

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martelloni, L.; Frasconi, C.; Fontanelli, M.; Raffaelli, M.; Peruzzi, A.

    2016-11-01

    Dry bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) can be a profitable crop for farmers; however controlling weeds effectively without a decrease in yield remains a problem. An example where mechanical weed control is difficult to conduct is dry bean ‘Toscanello’, which is a small sized high-income niche product growing low to the ground. Concerning intra-row weed control, also flame weeding could be an opportunity but the dry bean heat tolerance needs to be studied. The aims of this research were to study the weed control efficacy of a spring-tine harrow and an inter-row cultivator in this bean variety, and to test the tolerance of dry bean cultivated under weed-free conditions to cross-flaming applied with different liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) doses. Flame weeding was applied at BBCH 13 and BBCH 14 bean growth stages by pairs of burners producing direct double flame acting into the intra-row space, with bean plants placed in the middle. The results suggest that the spring-tine harrow used two times at BBCH 13 and 14, respectively, lead to a yield similar to that of the weedy control. The inter-row cultivator could be an opportunity for small-sized dry bean crops producers, enabling them to obtain a similar yield compared to the hand-weeded control. Concerning the bean tolerance to cross-flaming the results showed that bean flamed at BBCH 13 stage had little tolerance to cross-flaming. Bean flamed at BBCH 14 stage was tolerant until an LPG dose of 39 kg/ha, giving yield responses similar to those observed in the non-flamed control. (Author)

  5. EXTERNAL FORCES DRIVING CHANGE IN THE ROMANIAN SMALL AND MEDIUM SIZED ENTERPRISES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roiban Roxana Nadina

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Change is a constant in everyday life confronting organizations to continuously adapt their strategy, structure, processes, and culture in order to survive and stay competitive on the market. Implementing organizational change is one of the most important skills required for managers and in the meantime the most difficult one. The forces driving change within an organization, that can be either external or internal, are those that propel a company forward towards change and in order to identify the need for change and make the proper changes, managers have to develop a tool that allows them to analyze how does the environment influence their business activities. A vision for change will clarify the directions in which the organization needs to move, starting from its current state and taking in consideration the existing opportunities and threats from the environment that allow to move to a future desired state. The purpose of this paper is to identify the concern for change in the Romanian small and medium sized enterprises by presenting and explaining the past and present influences of the main external forces that have determined the need for change in the last 3-5 years and to make recommendations about future possible changes that have to be performed by managers for a better harmonization with the environment. The research method used for this study is the interview on a sample that contains some of the most relevant SME’s from the western side of Romania, from different industries. We analyzed the main external forces that had an impact on the small and medium sized enterprises and how were they generating the need for organizational change, in order to see which present and future changes are required.

  6. Bridging the energy gap through small and medium sized nuclear reactors in India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Srivastava, R.

    1987-01-01

    India is the only country in the world which is employing small sized nuclear reactors for its nuclear power programme. It has now embarked on a programme of augmenting the contribution of the nuclear power by way of employing both medium and small sized nuclear reactors in the next 15 years. This paper discusses the Indian experience and its efforts for industrial mobilisation for rapidly constructing 235/500 MWe nuclear reactor units in a period of about 8 to 9 years. The current energy situation in India and this context the near term role of nuclear power for supplementing the existing sources of commercial energy have been evaluated. Nuclear power has reached such a stage of maturity whereby it has now become a commercially viable source of electricity and it could be utilised on large scale to bridge the energy gap. At present six reactor units of 210/235 MWe capacity are in operation and eight more are in different stages of construction. While we are continuing with the construction of 235 MWe units, a programme of being pursued to construct 550 MWe capacity reactor units from midnineties onwards. This has become possible with the strengthening of regional electricity grids and simultaneous efforts undertaken for augmentation of fuel supply, heavy water production and industrial infrastructure. For a developing country like India, implementation of a sizable nuclear power programme has posed certain special challenges as major inputs are required to be made available with indigeneous efforts. This paper discusses such challenges and presents the ways and means adopted to surmount them. Other developing countries with conditions comparable to those in India could benefit from Indian experience in this regard. This paper also proposes India's willingness to cooperate with other countries for exchange of information and assistance in terms of technical knowhow. (author)

  7. Behavior of small-sized BWR fuel under reactivity initiated accident conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yanagisawa, Kazuaki; Fujishiro, Toshio; Horiki, Oichiro; Chen Dianshan; Takeuchi, Kiyoshi.

    1992-01-01

    The present work was performed on this small-sized BWR fuel, where Zr liner and rod prepressurization were taken as experimental parameters. Experiment was done under simulated reactivity initiated accident (RIA) conditions at Nuclear Safety Research Reactor (NSRR) belonged to Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (JAERI). Major remarks obtained are as follows: (1) Three different types of the fuel rods consisted of (a) Zr lined/pressurized (0.65MPa), (b) Zr lined/non-pressurized and (c) non-Zr lined/pressurized (o.65MPa) were used, respectively. Failure thresholds of these were not less than that (260 cal/g·fuel) described in Japanese RIA Licensing Guideline. Small-sized BWR and conventional 8 x 8 BWR fuels were considered to be in almost the same level in failure threshold. Failure modes of the three were (a) cladding melt/brittle, (b) cladding melt/brittle and (c) rupture by large ballooning, respectively. (2) The magnitude of pressure pulse at fuel fragmentation was also studied by lined/pressurized and non-lined/pressurized fuels. Above the energy deposition of 370 cal/g·fuel, mechanical energy (or pressure) was found to be released from these fragmented fuels. No measurable difference was, however, observed between the tested fuels and NSRR standard (and conventional 8 x 8 BWR) fuels. (3) It is worthy of mentioning that Zr liner tended to prevent the cladding from large ballooning. Non-lined/pressurized fuel tended to cause wrinkle deformation at cladding. Hence, cladding external was notched much by the wrinkles. (4) Time to fuel failure measured from the tested BWR fuels (pressurization < 0.6MPA) was longer than that measured from PWR fuels (pressurization < 3.2MPa). The magnitude of the former was of the order of 3 ∼ 6s, while that of the latter was < 1s. (J.P.N.)

  8. Traditional Small-Size Citrus from Taiwan: Essential Oils, Bioactive Compounds and Antioxidant Capacity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min-Hung Chen

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: The calamondin (Citrus microcarpa Bunge and the kumquat (Fortunella crassifolia Swingle are two small-size citrus fruits that have traditionally been consumed in Taiwan; however, there has been a lack of scientific research regarding the active compounds and functionalities of these fruits. Methods: Analysis of volatile composition of essential oil and phytosterol was carried out using Gas Chromatography–Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS. Flavonoid and limonoid were analyzed by High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC. Moreover, antioxidant capacity from their essential oils and extracts were assessed in vitro. Results: The compositions of the essential oils of both fruits were identified, with the results showing that the calamondin and kumquat contain identified 43 and 44 volatile compounds, respectively. In addition, oxygenated compounds of volatiles accounted for 4.25% and 2.04%, respectively, consistent with the fact that oxygenated compounds are generally found in high content in citrus fruits. In terms of flavonoids, the calamondin exhibited higher content than the kumquat, with disomin-based flavonoids being predominant; on the other hand, phytosterol content of kumquat was higher than that of calamondin, with amyrin being the dominant phytosterol. Both of them contain high amounts of limonoids. The ethanol extracts and essential oils of small-sized citrus fruits have been shown to have antioxidant effects, with those effects being closely related to the flavonoid content of the fruit in question. Conclusions: The present study also reviewed antioxidant activity in terms of specific bioactive compounds in order to find the underlying biological activity of both fruits. The calamondin and kumquat have antioxidant effects, which are in turn very important for the prevention of chronic diseases.

  9. Conceptual design of small-sized HTGR system (4). Plant design and technical feasibility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohashi, Hirofumi; Sato, Hiroyuki; Yan, Xing L.; Sumita, Junya; Nomoto, Yasunobu; Tazawa, Yujiro; Noguchi, Hiroki; Imai, Yoshiyuki; Tachibana, Yukio

    2013-09-01

    Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA) has started a conceptual design of a 50MWt small-sized high temperature gas cooled reactor (HTGR) for steam supply and electricity generation (HTR50S), which is a first-of-kind of the commercial plant or a demonstration plant of a small-sized HTGR system for steam supply to the industries and district heating and electricity generation by a steam turbine, to deploy in developing countries in the 2020s. HTR50S was designed for steam supply and electricity generation by the steam turbine with the reactor outlet temperature of 750degC as a reference plant configuration. On the other hand, the intermediate heat exchanger (IHX) will be installed in the primary loop to demonstrate the electricity generation by the helium gas turbine and hydrogen production by thermochemical water splitting by utilizing the secondary helium loop with the reactor outlet temperature of 900degC as a future plant configuration. The plant design of HTR50S for the steam supply and electricity generation was performed based on the plant specification and the requirements for each system taking into account for the increase of the reactor outlet coolant temperature from 750degC to 900degC and the installation of IHX. The technical feasibility of HTR50S was confirmed because the designed systems (i.e., reactor internal components, reactor pressure vessel, vessel cooling system, shutdown cooling system, steam generator (SG), gas circulator, SG isolation and drainage system, reactor containment vessel, steam turbine and heat supply system) satisfies the design requirements. The conceptual plant layout was also determined. This paper provides the summary of the plan design and technical feasibility of HTR50S. (author)

  10. Using multi-theory model to predict initiation and sustenance of small portion size consumption among college students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manoj Sharma

    2016-08-01

    Conclusion: Based on this study’s findings, MTM appears to be a robust theoretical framework for predicting small portion size consumption behavior change. Interventions in this regard need to be designed.

  11. Autoregressive Prediction with Rolling Mechanism for Time Series Forecasting with Small Sample Size

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhihua Wang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Reasonable prediction makes significant practical sense to stochastic and unstable time series analysis with small or limited sample size. Motivated by the rolling idea in grey theory and the practical relevance of very short-term forecasting or 1-step-ahead prediction, a novel autoregressive (AR prediction approach with rolling mechanism is proposed. In the modeling procedure, a new developed AR equation, which can be used to model nonstationary time series, is constructed in each prediction step. Meanwhile, the data window, for the next step ahead forecasting, rolls on by adding the most recent derived prediction result while deleting the first value of the former used sample data set. This rolling mechanism is an efficient technique for its advantages of improved forecasting accuracy, applicability in the case of limited and unstable data situations, and requirement of little computational effort. The general performance, influence of sample size, nonlinearity dynamic mechanism, and significance of the observed trends, as well as innovation variance, are illustrated and verified with Monte Carlo simulations. The proposed methodology is then applied to several practical data sets, including multiple building settlement sequences and two economic series.

  12. Anomalous size effect in conductivity of Bi films of small thickness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anopchenko, A.S.; Kashirin, V.Yu.; Komnik, Yu.F.

    1995-01-01

    Experimental data are obtained at helium temperature, which describe the kinetic properties (conductivity, magnetoresistance and Hall coefficient) of Bi films whose thicknesses are within 100-500 A. The small-thickness Bi films display an anomalous size effect- the growing conductivity at decreasing thickness, and pronounced quantum interference effects - weak electron localization and enhancing electron-electron interaction in a disordered system. The information derived on the kinetic properties of the films is used to identify the character of the changes in the electron and hole concentrations and mobilities with a decreasing thickness. The isotropy of the properties in the films plane due to the axial texture has permitted us to use the equations for a conductor with two types of charge carriers. The used kinetic characteristics correctly take into account the contribution of the quantum corrections related to quantum interference. It is found that the concentration of the charge carries increases appreciably (by about two orders of magnitude) as the film thickness decreases to 100 A, which determines the anomalous size effect in the conductivity of the films

  13. Design and calibration of a new optical plankton counter capable of sizing small zooplankton

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herman, Alex W.

    1992-04-01

    A new design of optical plankton counter (OPC) capable of sizing zooplankton in the size range of 256μ to 2 cm is presented. The detection sensitivity is the result of new optical design of the previous system ( HERMAN, 1988, Continental Shelf Research, 8, 205-221) that originally had a lower detection limit of 550 μm. Both theoretical and experimental calibrations for the OPC are derived and compared. Preserved copepods and eggs introduced in a flow tank demonstrate the response of the OPC and its capability for detecting plankton to a limit of 250 μm. Copepod profiles measured by the OPC mounted on plankton net samplers provided intercomparisons that showed good agreement in identifying copepod layers and identifying some species, for example, copepods as small as Calanus finmarchicus II and up to the adult stages. Profiles containing marine snow and Ceratium illustrate some of the limitations of the OPC in directly measuring and identifying copepods. An additional modification to the OPC may result in a potential lower limit detection of 120 μm, and the practicality of such applications are discussed.

  14. Knowledge, attitude, and practice of quality standards in small-sized public hospitals, Saudi Arabia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fahad Khamis Alomari

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The aim of this study was to assess current situations in small size hospitals regarding knowledge of staff, their attitude and practice of quality standards, in order to set a plan to improve the current situations and overcome barriers of quality practice. Materials and Methods: A descriptive cross-sectional research was conducted by a validated self-administered questionnaire using systematic random technique. Results: The study included about 37.7% Physicians followed by 28.3% nurses, and 18.8% administrators. Median percentage of participants′ knowledge and attitude scores regarding healthcare quality was 48% and 80% respectively. Meanwhile, the median percentage of participants′ perception toward hospital support and implementation of healthcare quality was 54% and 50% respectively. The main barriers for quality standards implementation and practicing were; staff resistance (84.8% followed by deficient knowledge (81.1%. Knowledge showed significant positive correlation with hospital application of quality standards (P = 0.001. Conclusion: The researcher concluded that improvement of knowledge and attitude toward implementation of quality standards as well as leadership commitment to quality and change management were a critical element for organisational shifting transformation to implementing quality of care. Focusing on small hospital and providing more support with all resources for implementation of quality standards through proper education and training for all staff categories are highly recommended.

  15. Business Benefits from Enterprise Systems Implementation in Small and Medium-sized Enterprises

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanjay Mathrani

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available The market for enterprise systems (ESs continues to grow as business becomes increasingly global and competitive. Increasingly, the market focus for ES vendors is on small businesses. The purpose of this study is to provide a unique ES vendor/consultant perspective on (a the business benefits small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs expect from their ES investment and (b to examine current practices of ES implementation in SMEs through a conceptual framework that considers the organisational, process and strategic context of the implementation. This study does so with interview data collected from ES vendors, ES consultants and IT research firms, who are the key players in the New Zealand ES industry. A distinctive contribution of this research is the vendor/consultant perspective as the unit of analysis, rather than the SME perspective commonly used in similar research. The vendor/consultant perspective offers a comprehensive viewpoint that extends across numerous SMEs in a variety of industries. Findings from interviews with these professionals indicate that although many ES implementations are several years old now, SMEs have only recently started tracking benefits through analytical processes in expectation to realise business value from their ES investment. The results also identify how ES implementation practices are adapting to be more suitable to the SME sector, an important market for ES vendors given the saturation of the large enterprise market for ES implementation.

  16. PROSPECTS OF DEVELOPMENT OF SMALL AND MEDIUM-SIZED ENTERPRISES IN UKRAINIAN AGRICULTURE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Pimenova

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Main directions of development of small and medium-sized enterprises in Ukrainian agriculture are examined. It is determined that entrepreneurship in agrarian sector is a driving force behind the development of agriculture, as these activities contributes to the production of quality agricultural products that satisfies the needs of society, food security, independence and improves the living standards of rural population. Potential customers of small parties of harvest in Ukrainian grain market are analyzed. The ways of mutually beneficial cooperation between Ukrainian farmers and entrepreneurs are proved. The study of foreign experience has proven that strengthening the competitiveness of Ukrainian agricultural products in the context of globalization is possible on the basis of mutually beneficial cooperation of Ukrainian farmers and entrepreneurs, where recent purchase of output at market prices for the purpose of resale or creation of agricultural cooperatives, such form of economy in agrarian relations that combines a balanced economic, social and environmental components. In particular in paper is shown that sustainable economic management provide only forms of economy that take into account the socioeconomic and geophysical specifics of agriculture, particularities of agricultural labor and methods of management. The most common among these forms are farmers.

  17. Creativity, creations and innovations in the management of small and medium-sized business

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Usheva M.

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Creativity is a process of development and expression of new ideas interwoven in the company mission and vision to lead not only to financial success but also to real loyalty and involvement of the employees with the company problems and achievements. The main objective of this paper is through the research among contemporary managers and entrepreneurs, representatives of small and medium-sized business in the region of Blagoevgrad to prove that creativity skills are deployed in each person, to identify the specific characteristics of the creative thinking of the manager and the tools that stimulate them to increase competitiveness in the context of the sustainable development of the small and medium business in international and domestic tourism market. The main result to be achieved is evidence that when there is adequate (positive self-evaluation, intrinsic motivation or chiefly necessity of creativity manifestation, emotivity in the sense of creative enthusiasm, personal professional effectiveness and appropriate situational factors, the modern manager is able to model conditions for the manifestation of creativity (creative self-expression, both in themselves and in their subordinates. This in turn leads to increased competitiveness and intensive implementation of innovations in the company management and operation. The main research methods used in the study are literature review on the subject, survey, analysis of processes, intuitive and systematic approach, systematic observation, data classification and interpretation.

  18. Specificities of the small and medium-sized enterprises in the Czech Republic and EU

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helena Chládková

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Small and medium enterprises (SME are the engine of the European economy. They are an essential source of jobs, create entrepreneurial spirit and innovation in the EU and are thus crucial for fostering competitiveness and employment. In the enlarged European Union of 27 countries, some 20 million SMEs provide around 75 million jobs and represent 99 % of all enterprises. However, they are often confronted with market imperfections. SMEs frequently have difficulties in obtaining capital or credit, particularly in the early start–up phase. Their limited resources may also restrict access to new technology or innovation. It is therefore necessary to monitor the development of SMEs in individual EU countries and highlighting their problems and mainly to their importance.During the recent period of time there have been many researchers from the FBE Mendel University in Brno, who focused on the analysis of the small and medium-sized enterprise, e.g. Bohušová (2007; Chládková (2009; Nerudová a Bohušová (2008; Kubíčková a Peprný (2006; Zrůst a Pyšný (2008. This paper is the part of the Research proposal MSM 6215648904 being solved at the FBE Mendel University in Brno.

  19. Hybrid neural intelligent system to predict business failure in small-to-medium-size enterprises.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borrajo, M Lourdes; Baruque, Bruno; Corchado, Emilio; Bajo, Javier; Corchado, Juan M

    2011-08-01

    During the last years there has been a growing need of developing innovative tools that can help small to medium sized enterprises to predict business failure as well as financial crisis. In this study we present a novel hybrid intelligent system aimed at monitoring the modus operandi of the companies and predicting possible failures. This system is implemented by means of a neural-based multi-agent system that models the different actors of the companies as agents. The core of the multi-agent system is a type of agent that incorporates a case-based reasoning system and automates the business control process and failure prediction. The stages of the case-based reasoning system are implemented by means of web services: the retrieval stage uses an innovative weighted voting summarization of self-organizing maps ensembles-based method and the reuse stage is implemented by means of a radial basis function neural network. An initial prototype was developed and the results obtained related to small and medium enterprises in a real scenario are presented.

  20. Multi-SOM: an Algorithm for High-Dimensional, Small Size Datasets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shen Lu

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Since it takes time to do experiments in bioinformatics, biological datasets are sometimes small but with high dimensionality. From probability theory, in order to discover knowledge from a set of data, we have to have a sufficient number of samples. Otherwise, the error bounds can become too large to be useful. For the SOM (Self- Organizing Map algorithm, the initial map is based on the training data. In order to avoid the bias caused by the insufficient training data, in this paper we present an algorithm, called Multi-SOM. Multi-SOM builds a number of small self-organizing maps, instead of just one big map. Bayesian decision theory is used to make the final decision among similar neurons on different maps. In this way, we can better ensure that we can get a real random initial weight vector set, the map size is less of consideration and errors tend to average out. In our experiments as applied to microarray datasets which are highly intense data composed of genetic related information, the precision of Multi-SOMs is 10.58% greater than SOMs, and its recall is 11.07% greater than SOMs. Thus, the Multi-SOMs algorithm is practical.