Impact of communicative head movements on the quality of functional near-infrared spectroscopy signals: negligible effects for affirmative and negative gestures and consistent artifacts related to raising eyebrows
Balardin, Joana Bisol; Morais, Guilherme Augusto Zimeo; Furucho, Rogério Akira; Trambaiolli, Lucas Romualdo; Sato, João Ricardo
Functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) is currently one of the most promising tools in the neuroscientific research to study brain hemodynamics during naturalistic social communication. The application of fNIRS by studies in this field of knowledge has been widely justified by its strong resilience to motion artifacts, including those that might be generated by communicative head and facial movements. Previous studies have focused on the identification and correction of these artifacts, but a quantification of the differential contribution of common communicative movements on the quality of fNIRS signals is still missing. We assessed the impact of four movements (nodding head up and down, reading aloud, nodding head sideways, and raising eyebrows) performed during rest and task conditions on two metrics of signal quality control: an estimative of signal-to-noise performance and the negative correlation between oxygenated and deoxygenated hemoglobin (oxy-Hb and deoxy-Hb). Channel-wise group analysis confirmed the robustness of the fNIRS technique to head nodding movements but showed a large effect of raising eyebrows in both signal quality control metrics, both during task and rest conditions. Reading aloud did not disrupt the expected anticorrelation between oxy-Hb and deoxy-Hb but had a relatively large effect on signal-to-noise performance. These findings may have implications to the interpretation of fNIRS studies examining communicative processes.
Impact of communicative head movements on the quality of functional near-infrared spectroscopy signals: negligible effects for affirmative and negative gestures and consistent artifacts related to raising eyebrows.
Balardin, Joana Bisol; Zimeo Morais, Guilherme Augusto; Furucho, Rogério Akira; Trambaiolli, Lucas Romualdo; Sato, João Ricardo
Functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) is currently one of the most promising tools in the neuroscientific research to study brain hemodynamics during naturalistic social communication. The application of fNIRS by studies in this field of knowledge has been widely justified by its strong resilience to motion artifacts, including those that might be generated by communicative head and facial movements. Previous studies have focused on the identification and correction of these artifacts, but a quantification of the differential contribution of common communicative movements on the quality of fNIRS signals is still missing. We assessed the impact of four movements (nodding head up and down, reading aloud, nodding head sideways, and raising eyebrows) performed during rest and task conditions on two metrics of signal quality control: an estimative of signal-to-noise performance and the negative correlation between oxygenated and deoxygenated hemoglobin (oxy-Hb and deoxy-Hb). Channel-wise group analysis confirmed the robustness of the fNIRS technique to head nodding movements but showed a large effect of raising eyebrows in both signal quality control metrics, both during task and rest conditions. Reading aloud did not disrupt the expected anticorrelation between oxy-Hb and deoxy-Hb but had a relatively large effect on signal-to-noise performance. These findings may have implications to the interpretation of fNIRS studies examining communicative processes.
Full Text Available Eyebrows constitute a very important and prominent feature of the face. With growing information, eyebrow transplant has become a popular procedure. However, though it is a small area it requires a lot of precision and knowledge regarding anatomy, designing of brows, extraction and implantation technique. This article gives a comprehensive view regarding eyebrow transplant with special emphasis on follicular unit extraction technique, which has become the most popular technique.
Gupta, Jyoti; Kumar, Amrendra; Chouhan, Kavish; Ariganesh, C; Nandal, Vinay
Eyebrows constitute a very important and prominent feature of the face. With growing information, eyebrow transplant has become a popular procedure. However, though it is a small area it requires a lot of precision and knowledge regarding anatomy, designing of brows, extraction and implantation technique. This article gives a comprehensive view regarding eyebrow transplant with special emphasis on follicular unit extraction technique, which has become the most popular technique. PMID:28852290
Angelo Alberto Leto Barone
Full Text Available The eyebrow region is of utmost importance for facial movement, symmetry, and the overall cosmetic appearance of the face. Trauma or tumor resection often leave scars that may dislocate the eyebrow producing an alteration both in static symmetry of the face and in the dynamic expressivity. The authors present a technique for eyebrow’s defects repair using the remaining eyebrow advancement by means of a “freestyle-like” V-Y flap. In the past two years a total of eight consecutive patients underwent excision of skin lesions in the superciliary region and immediate reconstruction with this technique. On histology, six patients were affected from basal cell carcinomas, one from squamous cell carcinoma, and one from congenital intradermal melanocytic nevus. The pedicle of the flap included perforators from the supratrochlear, supraorbital, or superficial temporalis artery. Advancement of the entire aesthetic subunit that includes the eyebrow using a V-Y perforator flap was performed successfully in all cases achieving full, tension-free closure of defects up to 3.0 cm. “Freestyle-like” V-Y flaps should be considered as a first-line choice for partial defects of the eyebrow. The greater mobility compared to random subcutaneous flaps allows to reconstruct large defects providing an excellent cosmetic result.
Full Text Available Background: The eyebrow plays an important role in facial harmony and eye protection. Eyebrows can be injured by burn, trauma, tumour, tattooing and alopecia. Eyebrow reconstructions have been done via several techniques. Here, our experience with a fairly new method for eyebrow reconstruction is presented. Materials and Methods: This is a descriptive-analytical study which was done on 76 patients at the Al-Zahra and Imam Mousa Kazem hospitals at Isfahan University of Medical University, Isfahan, Iran, from 1994 to 2004. Totally 86 eyebrows were reconstructed. All patients were examined before and after the operation. Methods which are commonly applied in eyebrow reconstruction are as follows: 1. Superficial Temporal Artery Flap (Island, 2. Interpolitation Scalp Flap, 3. Graft. Our method which is named Forehead Facial Island Flap with inferior pedicle provides an easier approach for the surgeon and more ideal hair growth direction for the patient. Results: Significantly lower rates of complication along with greater patient satisfaction were obtained with Forehead Facial Island Flap. Conclusions: According to the acquired results, this method seems to be more technically practical and aesthetically favourable when compared to others.
Klingbeil, Kyle D; Fertig, Raymond
The objective of this systematic review was to investigate the etiologies of hair loss of the eyebrow and eyelash that required hair transplantation, the optimal surgical technique, patient outcomes, and common complications. A total of 67 articles including 354 patients from 18 countries were included in this study. Most patients were women with an average age of 29 years. The most common etiology requiring hair transplantation was burns, occurring in 57.6 percent of cases. Both eyebrow and eyelash transplantation use follicular unit transplantation techniques most commonly; however, other techniques involving composite grafts and skin flaps continue to be utilized effectively with minimal complication rates. In summary, many techniques have been developed for use in eyebrow/eyelash transplantation and the selection of technique depends upon the dermatologic surgeon's preferences and the unique presentations of their patients.
Lee, Jong-Sun; Park, Jin; Kim, Seong-Min; Kim, Han-Uk
Malignant skin tumors, including squamous cell carcinoma and malignant melanoma, have occurred in tattoos. Seven documented cases of basal cell carcinoma associated with tattoos have also been reported in the medical literature. We encountered a patient with basal cell carcinoma in a tattooed eyebrow. We report on this case as the eighth reported case of a patient with basal cell carcinoma arising in a tattooed area. PMID:20523804
Marinheiro, Thamires S.; Lange, Camila N.; Figueiredo, Ana Maria G.; Ticianelli, Regina B.; Jesus, Tatiane A. de
The mass fraction of Ba, Cd, Co, Cr, Fe, Ni and Zn in henna for Eyebrow coloring was evaluated. Henna of different colors and brands marketed in the market and applied in hairdressing salons were analyzed. Four of the 11 samples analyzed presented barium mass fraction values about 250 times higher than the value recommended by the Brazilian National Health Surveillance Agency (ANVISA), a fact that may represent a potential risk to users of this type of product. The mass fractions of Cd, Co, Cr, Fe, Ni and Zn presented values below the regulated limits for cosmetics
Giulieri, Stefano; Morisod, Benoit; Edney, Timothy; Odman, Micaela; Genné, Daniel; Malinverni, Raffaele; Hammann, Catherine; Musumeci, Enrico; Voide, Cathy; Greub, Gilbert; Masserey, Eric; Bille, Jacques; Cavassini, Matthias; Jaton, Katia
We report a Mycobacterium haemophilum outbreak after permanent make-up of the eyebrows performed by the same freelance artist. Twelve patients presented an eyebrow lesion and cervical lymphadenitis. All were treated with antibiotics. Surgery was required in 10 cases. M. haemophilum DNA was identified in the make-up ink.
Zeinstra, Christopher Gerard; Veldhuis, Raymond N.J.; Spreeuwers, Lieuwe Jan
In forensic face comparison, one of the features taken into account are the eyebrows. In this paper, we investigate human performance on an eyebrow verification task. This task is executed twice by participants: a "best-effort" approach and an approach using features based on forensic knowledge. The
Mabry, Karen, E.; Barrett, Gary, W.
Mabry, K.E., and G.W. Barrett. 2002. Effects of corridors on home range sizes and interpatch movements of three small mammal species. Landscape Ecol. 17:629-636. Corridors are predicted to benefit populations in patchy habitats by promoting movement, which should increase population densities, gene flow, and recolonization of extinct patch populations. However, few investigators have considered use of the total landscape, particularly the possibility of interpatch movement through matrix habitat, by small mammals. This study compares home range sizes of 3 species of small mammals, the cotton mouse, old field mouse and cotton rat between patches with and without corridors. Corridor presence did not have a statistically significant influence on average home range size. Habitat specialization and sex influenced the probability of an individual moving between 2 patches without corridors. The results of this study suggest that small mammals may be more capable of interpatch movement without corridors than is frequently assumed.
Lee, Saridpong; Tanglertsampan, Chuchai; Tanchotikul, Mingkwan; Worapunpong, Nigun
Topical minoxidil has been successfully used to treat androgenetic alopecia. It can also be applied to enhance eyebrows. However, there is no study comparing minoxidil lotion with placebo for eyebrow enhancement. In this trial, we determined the efficacy and safety of minoxidil 2% lotion for eyebrow enhancement compared with placebo. Forty patients were randomized for minoxidil on the eyebrow on one side of the face and placebo on the other. Efficacy was evaluated by global photographic assessment, eyebrow diameter, eyebrow count and subject's satisfaction. Side-effects were also evaluated. Thirty-nine patients (97.5%) completed the study. After 16 weeks, the minoxidil group achieved significantly better results in all measured outcomes compared to the placebo group. Side-effects were minor and did not preclude patients from continuing the study. Our study suggests that minoxidil 2% lotion is a safe and effective treatment for eyebrow hypotrichosis. © 2014 Japanese Dermatological Association.
Kokubun, Nobuo; Kim, Jeong-Hoon; Shin, Hyoung-Chul; Naito, Yasuhiko; Takahashi, Akinori
Determining temporal and spatial variation in feeding rates is essential for understanding the relationship between habitat features and the foraging behavior of top predators. In this study we examined the utility of head movement as a proxy of prey encounter rates in medium-sized Antarctic penguins, under the presumption that the birds should move their heads actively when they encounter and peck prey. A field study of free-ranging chinstrap and gentoo penguins was conducted at King George Island, Antarctica. Head movement was recorded using small accelerometers attached to the head, with simultaneous monitoring for prey encounter or body angle. The main prey was Antarctic krill (>99% in wet mass) for both species. Penguin head movement coincided with a slow change in body angle during dives. Active head movements were extracted using a high-pass filter (5 Hz acceleration signals) and the remaining acceleration peaks (higher than a threshold acceleration of 1.0 g) were counted. The timing of head movements coincided well with images of prey taken from the back-mounted cameras: head movement was recorded within ±2.5 s of a prey image on 89.1±16.1% (N=7 trips) of images. The number of head movements varied largely among dive bouts, suggesting large temporal variations in prey encounter rates. Our results show that head movement is an effective proxy of prey encounter, and we suggest that the method will be widely applicable for a variety of predators.
Norman, J.R.; Hagler, M.M.; Freeman, Mary C.; Freeman, B.J.
While it is widely acknowledged that culverted road-stream crossings may impede fish passage, effects of culverts on movement of nongame and small-bodied fishes have not been extensively studied and studies generally have not accounted for spatial variation in capture probabilities. We estimated probabilities for upstream and downstream movement of small (30-120 mm standard length) benthic and water column fishes across stream reaches with and without culverts at four road-stream crossings over a 4-6-week period. Movement and reach-specific capture probabilities were estimated using multistate capture-recapture models. Although none of the culverts were complete barriers to passage, only a bottomless-box culvert appeared to permit unrestricted upstream and downstream movements by benthic fishes based on model estimates of movement probabilities. At two box culverts that were perched above the water surface at base flow, observed movements were limited to water column fishes and to intervals when runoff from storm events raised water levels above the perched level. Only a single fish was observed to move through a partially embedded pipe culvert. Estimates for probabilities of movement over distances equal to at least the length of one culvert were low (e.g., generally ???0.03, estimated for 1-2-week intervals) and had wide 95% confidence intervals as a consequence of few observed movements to nonadjacent reaches. Estimates of capture probabilities varied among reaches by a factor of 2 to over 10, illustrating the importance of accounting for spatially variable capture rates when estimating movement probabilities with capture-recapture data. Longer-term studies are needed to evaluate temporal variability in stream fish passage at culverts (e.g., in relation to streamflow variability) and to thereby better quantify the degree of population fragmentation caused by road-stream crossings with culverts. ?? American Fisheries Society 2009.
Full Text Available Base on measurements and movement analysis, movement model for smallroundabouts has been built. Model can be useful for minor roads capacity estimating. The gap acceptance problem for small roundabouts has been presented in this article. This is one of the burning issue in modelling traffic flow on small roundabouts. At roundabout,vehicle circle counterclockwise. Approaching flow give priority to circulating flows. This ensures an uninterrupted flow in the circulating roadway. Circulating and approaching flows merge immediately at the entrance to the circulating roadway. Each vehicle must make two right turns. All other movements are eliminated. As a subordinate vehicle enters the circulating roadway it became a priority vehicle. The value of critical gap is very important in merging process.
Schneider, Ines; Lehmann, Mandy D; Kogosov, Vlada; Stockfleth, Eggert; Nindl, Ingo
Cutaneous human papillomavirus (HPV) infections seem to be associated with the onset of actinic keratosis (AK). This study compares the presence of cutaneous HPV types in eyebrow hairs to those in tissues of normal skin and skin lesions of 75 immunocompetent AK patients. Biopsies from AK lesions, normal skin and plucked eyebrow hairs were collected from each patient. DNA from these specimens was tested for the presence of 28 cutaneous HPV (betaPV and gammaPV) by a PCR based method. The highest number of HPV prevalence was detected in 84% of the eyebrow hairs (63/75, median 6 types) compared to 47% of AK lesions (35/75, median 3 types) (pAK and 69 in normal skin. In all three specimens HPV20, HPV23 and/or HPV37 were the most prevalent types. The highest number of multiple types of HPV positive specimens was found in 76% of the eyebrow hairs compared to 60% in AK and 57% in normal skin. The concordance of at least one HPV type in virus positive specimens was 81% (three specimens) and 88-93% of all three combinations with two specimens. Thus, eyebrow hairs revealed the highest number of cutaneous HPV infections, are easy to collect and are an appropriate screening tool in order to identify a possible association of HPV and AK.
Choe, Sung Jay; Lee, Won-Soo
Few treatment modalities are available for treating alopecia areata (AA) of the eyebrow. Due to the anatomical proximity of the eyebrows to the eyes, safety issues and side effects should always be taken into consideration when choosing the treatment modality. This study was designed to examine the efficacy of superficial cryotherapy on patients with AA of the eyebrow. Superficial cryotherapy was performed every other week on the right eyebrow (SC-treated) in a total of 20 patients who had been previously treated with diphenylcyclopropenone (DPCP) immunotherapy on the scalp. No specific treatment was performed on the left eyebrows as a control. The degree of eyebrow recovery was compared in 15 patients who continued to receive more than 10 superficial cryotherapy treatments (5 months of treatment) on their right eyebrow. Hair density was significantly increased on both treated and control eyebrows after 5 months of treatment compared with the pretreatment density; moreover, the SC-treated eyebrows exhibited a significantly greater increase in density than the control eyebrows. Although hair thickness in the control eyebrows did not change significantly over the treatment period, hair thickness of the SC-treated eyebrows showed a statistically significant increase at months 3 and 5. Superficial cryotherapy is associated with minimal to no adverse events and exhibits high compliance and relatively good efficacy. Thus, this treatment is an important additional option for patients with AA of the eyebrow. © 2017 The International Society of Dermatology.
Castle, Kevin T; Weller, Theodore J; Cryan, Paul M; Hein, Cris D; Schirmacher, Michael R
Determining the detailed movements of individual animals often requires them to carry tracking devices, but tracking broad-scale movement of small bats (system (GPS) tags and geolocating data loggers to small bats. We used monofilament, synthetic, absorbable sutures to secure GPS tags and data loggers to the skin of anesthetized big brown bats (Eptesicus fuscus) in Colorado and hoary bats (Lasiurus cinereus) in California. GPS tags and data loggers were sutured to 17 bats in this study. Three tagged bats were recaptured 7 months after initial deployment, with tags still attached; none of these bats showed ill effects from the tag. No severe injuries were apparent upon recapture of 6 additional bats that carried tags up to 26 days after attachment; however, one of the bats exhibited skin chafing. Use of absorbable sutures to affix small tracking devices seems to be a safe, effective method for studying movements of bats over multiple months, although additional testing is warranted. This new attachment method has the potential to quickly advance our understanding of small bats, particularly as more sophisticated miniature tracking devices (e.g., satellite tags) become available.
Cordo, P J; Gurfinkel, V S; Brumagne, S; Flores-Vieira, C
The study reported in this paper investigated how vibration-evoked illusions of joint rotation are influenced by slow (0.3 degrees /s), small (2-4 degrees ) passive rotation of the joint. Normal human adults (n=15) matched the perceived position of the left ("reference") arm with the right ("matching") arm while vibration (50 pps, 0.5 mm) was applied for 30 s to the relaxed triceps brachii of the reference arm. Both arms were constrained to rotate horizontally at the elbow. Three experimental conditions were investigated: (1) vibration of the stationary reference arm, (2) slow, small passive extension or flexion of the reference arm during vibration, and (3) slow, small passive extension or flexion of the reference arm without vibration. Triceps brachii vibration at 50 pps induced an illusion of elbow flexion. The movement illusion began after several seconds, relatively fast to begin with and gradually slowing down to a stop. On average, triceps vibration produced illusory motion at an average latency of 6.3 s, amplitude of 9.7 degrees , velocity of 0.6 degrees /s, and duration of 16.4 s. During vibration, slow, small ( approximately 0.3 degrees /s, 1.3 degrees ) passive rotations of the joint dramatically enhanced, stopped, or reversed the direction of illusory movement, depending on the direction of the passive joint rotation. However, the subjects' perceptions of these passive elbow rotations were exaggerated: 2-3 times the size of the actual movement. In the absence of vibration, the subjects accurately reproduced these passive joint rotations. We discuss whether the exaggerated perception of slow, small movement during vibration is better explained by contributions of non muscle spindle Ia afferents or by changes in the mechanical transmission of vibration to the receptor.
Background Cutaneous human papillomavirus (HPV) infections seem to be associated with the onset of actinic keratosis (AK). This study compares the presence of cutaneous HPV types in eyebrow hairs to those in tissues of normal skin and skin lesions of 75 immunocompetent AK patients. Methods Biopsies from AK lesions, normal skin and plucked eyebrow hairs were collected from each patient. DNA from these specimens was tested for the presence of 28 cutaneous HPV (betaPV and gammaPV) by a PCR based method. Results The highest number of HPV prevalence was detected in 84% of the eyebrow hairs (63/75, median 6 types) compared to 47% of AK lesions (35/75, median 3 types) (p< 0.001) and 37% of normal skin (28/75, median 4 types) (p< 0.001), respectively. A total of 228 HPV infections were found in eyebrow hairs compared to only 92 HPV infections in AK and 69 in normal skin. In all three specimens HPV20, HPV23 and/or HPV37 were the most prevalent types. The highest number of multiple types of HPV positive specimens was found in 76% of the eyebrow hairs compared to 60% in AK and 57% in normal skin. The concordance of at least one HPV type in virus positive specimens was 81% (three specimens) and 88-93% of all three combinations with two specimens. Conclusions Thus, eyebrow hairs revealed the highest number of cutaneous HPV infections, are easy to collect and are an appropriate screening tool in order to identify a possible association of HPV and AK. PMID:23618013
Orozco, Javier; Rudovic, Ognjen; Gonzalez Garcia, Jordi; Pantic, Maja
In this paper, we propose an On-line Appearance-Based Tracker (OABT) for simultaneous tracking of 3D head pose, lips, eyebrows, eyelids and irises in monocular video sequences. In contrast to previously proposed tracking approaches, which deal with face and gaze tracking separately, our OABT can
Shinji Matsuo, MD
Conclusions: The procedure for raising an extended hair-bearing lateral orbital flap is relatively easy, although attention must be paid to the temporal facial nerve. This flap is useful for simultaneously reconstructing defects of the upper eyelid and lateral eyebrow.
Brehme, Cheryl S.; Tracey, Jeff A.; McClenaghan, Leroy R.; Fisher, Robert N.
A primary objective of road ecology is to understand and predict how roads affect connectivity of wildlife populations. Road avoidance behavior can fragment populations, whereas lack of road avoidance can result in high mortality due to wildlife-vehicle collisions. Many small animal species focus their activities to particular microhabitats within their larger habitat. We sought to assess how different types of roads affect the movement of small vertebrates and to explore whether responses to roads may be predictable on the basis of animal life history or microhabitat preferences preferences. We tracked the movements of fluorescently marked animals at 24 sites distributed among 3 road types: low-use dirt, low-use secondary paved, and rural 2-lane highway. Most data we collected were on the San Diego pocket mouse (Chaetodipus fallax), cactus mouse (Peromyscus eremicus), western fence lizard (Sceloporus occidentalis), orange-throated whiptail (Aspidoscelis hyperythra), Dulzura kangaroo rat (Dipodomys simulans) (dirt, secondary paved), and deer mouse (Peromyscus maniculatus) (highway only). San Diego pocket mice and cactus mice moved onto dirt roads but not onto a low-use paved road of similar width or onto the highway, indicating they avoidpaved road substrate. Both lizard species moved onto the dirt and secondary paved roads but avoided the rural 2-lane rural highway, indicating they may avoid noise, vibration, or visual disturbance from a steady flow of traffic. Kangaroo rats did not avoid the dirt or secondary paved roads. Overall, dirt and secondary roads were more permeable to species that prefer to forage or bask in open areas of their habitat, rather than under the cover of rocks or shrubs. However, all study species avoided the rural 2-lane highway. Our results suggest that microhabitat use preferences and road substrate help predict species responses to low-use roads,but roads with heavy traffic may deter movement of a much wider range of small animal
Brehme, Cheryl S; Tracey, Jeff A; McClenaghan, Leroy R; Fisher, Robert N
A primary objective of road ecology is to understand and predict how roads affect connectivity of wildlife populations. Road avoidance behavior can fragment populations, whereas lack of road avoidance can result in high mortality due to wildlife-vehicle collisions. Many small animal species focus their activities to particular microhabitats within their larger habitat. We sought to assess how different types of roads affect the movement of small vertebrates and to explore whether responses to roads may be predictable on the basis of animal life history or microhabitat preferences preferences. We tracked the movements of fluorescently marked animals at 24 sites distributed among 3 road types: low-use dirt, low-use secondary paved, and rural 2-lane highway. Most data we collected were on the San Diego pocket mouse (Chaetodipus fallax), cactus mouse (Peromyscus eremicus), western fence lizard (Sceloporus occidentalis), orange-throated whiptail (Aspidoscelis hyperythra), Dulzura kangaroo rat (Dipodomys simulans) (dirt, secondary paved), and deer mouse (Peromyscus maniculatus) (highway only). San Diego pocket mice and cactus mice moved onto dirt roads but not onto a low-use paved road of similar width or onto the highway, indicating they avoid paved road substrate. Both lizard species moved onto the dirt and secondary paved roads but avoided the rural 2-lane rural highway, indicating they may avoid noise, vibration, or visual disturbance from a steady flow of traffic. Kangaroo rats did not avoid the dirt or secondary paved roads. Overall, dirt and secondary roads were more permeable to species that prefer to forage or bask in open areas of their habitat, rather than under the cover of rocks or shrubs. However, all study species avoided the rural 2-lane highway. Our results suggest that microhabitat use preferences and road substrate help predict species responses to low-use roads, but roads with heavy traffic may deter movement of a much wider range of small animal
In April 1978, a study of local movement of small mammals on the Subsurface Disposal Area (SDA) of the Radioactive Waste Management Complex (RWMC) was undertaken in conjunction with a study of rodent dispersal. Live trapping in May and June revealed a strong potential for the detection of local movement of at least four species of rodents. Information on this movement is important as each species, during burrowing, may transport radioactive waste from the point of interment to the surface. The area over which contamination may be spread, as fecal deposits or as metabolically incorporated elements, is a function of the daily movement of each animal. At least eight factors may effect size and shape of home range. These factors are discussed, techniques employed in the calculation of home range are outlined, and problems associated with live trapping and studying local movement of small mammals are considered
Full Text Available Huron, Dahl, and Johnson, in their paper “Facial Expression and Vocal Pitch Height: Evidence of an Intermodal Association”, demonstrated a positive correlation between the pitch of a sung note and the vertical position of the singer’s eyebrows. Moreover, other subjects viewing photographs of the faces of the singers, with the lower part of the face and neck of the singers blocked out, could accurately judge whether a high note or low note had been sung. The authors offer a number of hypothetical explanations for their findings. I propose a speculative, ethologically-based, explanation for these correlations: namely, how both pitch of voice and eyebrow position would be correlated in this way to convey to the viewer the degree of potential threat – or lack of threat – posed by the signaler.
Greg A. Breed
Full Text Available Consumer-grade GPS units are a staple of modern field ecology, but the relatively large error radii reported by manufacturers (up to 10 m ostensibly precludes their utility in measuring fine-scale movement of small animals such as insects. Here we demonstrate that for data collected at fine spatio-temporal scales, these devices can produce exceptionally accurate data on step-length and movement patterns of small animals. With an understanding of the properties of GPS error and how it arises, it is possible, using a simple field protocol, to use consumer grade GPS units to collect step-length data for the movement of small animals that introduces a median error as small as 11 cm. These small error rates were measured in controlled observations of real butterfly movement. Similar conclusions were reached using a ground-truth test track prepared with a field tape and compass and subsequently measured 20 times using the same methodology as the butterfly tracking. Median error in the ground-truth track was slightly higher than the field data, mostly between 20 and 30 cm, but even for the smallest ground-truth step (70 cm, this is still a signal-to-noise ratio of 3:1, and for steps of 3 m or more, the ratio is greater than 10:1. Such small errors relative to the movements being measured make these inexpensive units useful for measuring insect and other small animal movements on small to intermediate scales with budgets orders of magnitude lower than survey-grade units used in past studies. As an additional advantage, these units are simpler to operate, and insect or other small animal trackways can be collected more quickly than either survey-grade units or more traditional ruler/gird approaches.
Oztel, Ismail; Yolcu, Gozde; Oz, Cemil; Kazan, Serap; Bunyak, Filiz
Facial expressions have an important role in interpersonal communications and estimation of emotional states or intentions. Automatic recognition of facial expressions has led to many practical applications and became one of the important topics in computer vision. We present a facial expression recognition system that relies on geometry-based features extracted from eye and eyebrow regions of the face. The proposed system detects keypoints on frontal face images and forms a feature set using geometric relationships among groups of detected keypoints. Obtained feature set is refined and reduced using the sequential forward selection (SFS) algorithm and fed to a support vector machine classifier to recognize five facial expression classes. The proposed system, iFER (eye-eyebrow only facial expression recognition), is robust to lower face occlusions that may be caused by beards, mustaches, scarves, etc. and lower face motion during speech production. Preliminary experiments on benchmark datasets produced promising results outperforming previous facial expression recognition studies using partial face features, and comparable results to studies using whole face information, only slightly lower by ˜ 2.5 % compared to the best whole face facial recognition system while using only ˜ 1 / 3 of the facial region.
Zador, Zsolt; Coope, David J; Gnanalingham, Kanna; Lawton, Michael T
Eyebrow craniotomy is a recently described minimally invasive approach for tackling primarily pathology of the anterior skull base. The removal of the orbital bar may further expand the surgical corridor of this exposure, but the extent of benefit is poorly quantified. We assessed the effect of orbital bar removal with regards to surgical access in the eyebrow craniotomy using classic morphometric measurements in cadaver heads. Using surgical phantoms and neuronavigation, we also measured the 'working volume', a new parameter for characterising the volume of surgical access in these approaches. Silicon injected cadaver heads (n = 5) were used for morphometric analysis of the eyebrow craniotomy with and without orbital bar removal. Working depths and 'working areas' of surgical access were measured as defined by key anatomical landmarks. The eyebrow craniotomy with or without orbital bar removal was also simulated using surgical phantoms (n = 3, 90-120 points per trial), calibrated against a frameless neuronavigation system. Working volume was derived from reference coordinates recorded along the anatomical borders of the eyebrow craniotomy using the "α-shape algorithm" in R statistics. In cadaver heads, eyebrow craniotomy with removal of the orbital bar reduced the working depth to the ipsilateral anterior clinoid process (42 ± 2 versus 33 ± 3 mm; p < 0.05), but the working areas as defined by deep neurovascular and bony landmarks was statistically unchanged (total working areas of 418 ± 80 cm(2) versus 334 ± 48 cm(2); p = 0.4). In surgical phantom studies, however, working-volume for the simulated eyebrow craniotomies was increased with orbital bar removal (16 ± 1 cm(3) versus 21 ± 1 cm(3); p < 0.01). In laboratory studies, orbital bar removal in eyebrow craniotomy provides a modest reduction in working depth and increase in the working volume. But this must be weighed up against the added morbidity of the
This thesis explores alternative media on the Internet by drawing on a range of theoretical literatures - particularly in the areas of the public sphere, social movements and globalisation. Parallel to this theoretical exploration, a significant body of published research is reviewed on Internet use by social movements and groups in global, national, and local contexts. From this review and analysis, an original conceptual framework for analysing alternative media on the Internet is developed...
Hwang, Kun; Yoo, Seong Kyung
The aim of this study was to analyze eyebrow shapes in portraits of Chinese empresses of Ming and Qing dynasties.The frontal portraits of 20 Ming empresses and 24 of Qing in which the eye and eyebrows were identifiable were measured and analyzed. The arch shape did not differ significantly (P > 0.05) between Ming and Qing. The head-up type (66.6%) was significantly more common (P Qing empresses were classified as 5 arch types: L (Lamas), A (Anastasia), H (Hwang), M (Empress Ma), and D (Empress Du). In Ming, type-H (45.0%) was the most frequent, followed by type-D (25.0%). In Qing, type-L (45.8%) was the most frequent, followed by type-H (16.7%) and type-D (16.7%). The relative eyebrow width (REW) of Ming and Qing was 1.59 ± 0.28. The REW of Qing (1.63 ± 0.30) and Ming (1.55 ± 0.26) did not differ significantly. The relative medial height (RMH, 1.05 ± 0.20) and relative lateral height (RLH; 1.05 ± 0.21) were the same, and greater than the relative mid-pupillary height (RPH; 0.84 ± 0.19; P Qing (1.02 ± 0.16) did not differ significantly. The RLH likewise did not differ significantly between Ming (1.01 ± 0.21) and Qing (1.08 ± 0.22). However, the RPH of Ming (0.91 ± 0.21) was significantly (P = 0.042) greater than Qing (0.79 ± 0.17). The relative brow thickness (RBT) of Qing (0.13 ± 0.06) was significantly (p = 0.033) greater than Ming (0.17 ± 0.06). The RBT of Ming and Qing was 0.15 ± 0.06 and increased with time (P = 0.023).The results of this study may be useful for brow lift or the tattooing.
D. Ryan Ormond
Full Text Available In the modern era of neurosurgery, the use of the operative microscope, rigid rod-lens endoscope, and neuronavigation has helped to overcome some of the previous limitations of surgery due to poor lighting and anatomic localization available to the surgeon. Over the last thirty years, the supraorbital craniotomy and subfrontal approach through an eyebrow incision have been developed and refined to play a legitimate role in the armamentarium of the modern skull base neurosurgeon. With careful patient selection, the supraorbital “keyhole” approach offers a less invasive but still efficacious approach to a number of lesions along the subfrontal corridor. Well over 1000 cases have been reported in the literature utilizing this approach establishing its safety and efficacy. This paper discusses the nuances of this approach, including the benefits and limitations of its use described through our technique, review of the literature, and case illustration.
Permanent makeup is becoming more and more popular. The procedures, however, bear some medical risks. We will describe possible adverse effects of the procedure. This is a report of clinical observations. We report about two women aged 26 and 47 years, who developed nodules with some delay after permanent tattooing the eyebrows. Clinical, histologic, and laboratory investigations revealed a noninfectious granulomatous reaction not responding to topical calcineurin inhibitor but corticosteroids in the younger patient. In the other woman, an infection by Mycobacterium haemophilum could be identified. A triple combination of clarithromycin, ciprofloxacin, and rifampicin succeeded in clearance of the lesions. Adverse reactions after permanent makeup need a medical evaluation to identify health risks and initiate early treatment. © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Succurro, Elena; Palleria, Caterina; Ruffo, Mariafrancesca; Serra, Raffaele; Arturi, Franco; Gallelli, Luca
The fixed dose combination of sitagliptin 50 mg and metformin 850 mg (Janumet ®), is indicated for the treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus in addition to diet and exercise to improve glycemic control in patients treated with metformin alone. We report a 69-year-old man with type 2 diabetes that developed sudden loss of eyebrows and eyelashes about 4 months after the beginning of Janumet®. Clinical and laboratory findings excluded the presence of systemic or skin diseases able to induce these manifestations, while the Naranjo probability scale documented a possible association between the drug and the adverse drug reaction. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at firstname.lastname@example.org.
Guo, Shiyi; Mai, Ying; Zhao, Hongying; Gao, Pengqi
The airborne video streams of small-UAVs are commonly plagued with distractive jittery and shaking motions, disorienting rotations, noisy and distorted images and other unwanted movements. These problems collectively make it very difficult for observers to obtain useful information from the video. Due to the small payload of small-UAVs, it is a priority to improve the image quality by means of electronic image stabilization. But when small-UAV makes a turn, affected by the flight characteristics of it, the video is easy to become oblique. This brings a lot of difficulties to electronic image stabilization technology. Homography model performed well in the oblique image motion estimation, while bringing great challenges to intentional motion estimation. Therefore, in this paper, we focus on solve the problem of the video stabilized when small-UAVs banking and turning. We attend to the small-UAVs fly along with an arc of a fixed turning radius. For this reason, after a series of experimental analysis on the flight characteristics and the path how small-UAVs turned, we presented a new method to estimate the intentional motion in which the path of the frame center was used to fit the video moving track. Meanwhile, the image sequences dynamic mosaic was done to make up for the limited field of view. At last, the proposed algorithm was carried out and validated by actual airborne videos. The results show that the proposed method is effective to stabilize the oblique video of small-UAVs.
Abdullah, Uzma; Farooq, Muhammad; Mang, Yuan
2 mutations is still under explored as only eleven families have been reported worldwide. Here, we analyzed a consanguineous Pakistani MCPH family, characterized by moderate to severe intellectual disability, speech impairment, moderately short stature and sparse eyebrows. Whole exome sequencing...
de Oliveira, Ricardo Santos; Viana, Dinark Conceição; Augusto, Lucas Pires; Santos, Marcelo Volpon; Machado, Hélio Rubens
Craniopharyngiomas can be a surgical challenge for the pediatric neurosurgeon. Ideally, total removal must be achieved. However, the need to reduce surgical morbidity and preserve quality of life has led to a number of neurosurgical approaches in order to attain this goal. The aim of this article is to present an alternative surgical approach to these lesions and to provide the rationale for this technique. Medical charts and operative records of eight pediatric patients harboring craniopharyngiomas who underwent surgical treatment using a supraorbital eyebrow approach (SOA) were reviewed from 2014 to 2016. Only patients younger than 18 years with a minimum follow-up of 12 months were included in this study. Using pre-operative magnetic resonance (MRI) scans, tumors were classified according to their degree of hypothalamic involvement. The surgical technique is also described in detail. The study group included six males and two females with a mean age of 10 years (range, 2-16 years). The SOA was used successfully in elective surgery of eight craniopharyngiomas. The hypothalamus was displaced by the tumor in three patients and severely involved in five patients. Subtotal resection was undertaken in six patients, whereas gross-total resection was achieved in two. Endoscopic assistance was used after standard microscopic visualization in two out of eight cases. Cosmetic outcomes were excellent, and the complication rate related to the surgical procedure was quite low, apart from diabetes insipidus (which occurred in three out of the eight patients). In one patient, a large subdural collection needed surgery for evacuation. Mean follow-up was 23.2 months (range, 12-36 months). Additionally, no CSF leak or wound infection was identified. The supraorbital eyebrow approach is an alternative route to operate on craniopharyngiomas in properly selected cases of all pediatric age ranges, from infants to teenagers. There is sufficient working space for the endoscope and
Joyful laughter is the only laughter type that has received sufficient validation in terms of morphology (i.e., face, voice). Still, it is unclear whether joyful laughter involves one prototypical facial-morphological configuration (Duchenne Display and mouth opening) to be decoded as such, or whether qualitatively distinct facial markers occur at different stages of laughter intensity. It was proposed that intense laughter goes along with eyebrow-lowering frowning, but in decoding studies of pictures, these “frowns” were associated with perceived maliciousness rather than higher intensity. Thus, two studies were conducted to investigate the influence of the presentation mode (static, dynamic) and eyebrow-lowering frowning on the perception of laughter animations of different intensity. In Study 1, participants (N = 110) were randomly assigned to two presentation modes (static pictures vs. dynamic videos) to watch animations of Duchenne laughter and laughter with added eyebrow-lowering frowning. Ratings on the intensity, valence, and contagiousness of the laughter were completed. In Study 2, participants (N = 55) saw both animation types in both presentation modes sequentially. Results confirmed that the static presentation lead to eyebrow-lowering frowning in intense laughter being perceived as more malicious, less intense, less benevolent, and less contagious compared to the dynamic presentation. This was replicated for maliciousness in Study 2, although participants could potentially infer the “frown” as a natural element of the laugh, as they had seen the video and the picture. Thus, a dynamic presentation is necessary for detecting graduating intensity markers in the joyfully laughing face. While this study focused on the decoding, future studies should investigate the encoding of frowning in laughter. This is important, as tools assessing facially expressed joy might need to account for laughter intensity markers that differ from the Duchenne Display
Filipovich, M.A.; Keller, B.L.
This study was initiated to examine the population composition, density and food habits of small mammals on a radioactive waste disposal area. Population parameters of small mammals were studied at 3-month intervals on and adjacent to the SL-1 radioactive waste disposal area (1.4 ha) and a 0.3 ha control area between August 1981 and February 1982 with mark-release methods. Both areas have crested wheatgrass (Agropyron cristatum) stands surrounded by sagebrush steppe. Species composition on the SL-1 and control area was similar to that found on the Subsurface Disposal Area at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. Considerable use by small mammals of the perimeter of the crested wheatgrass stands was found on both the SL-1 and control area. Additionally, deer mice (Peromyscus maniculatus) and Ord's kangaroo rats (Dipodomys ordii) that frequent the crested wheatgrass stands of the SL-1 and control area were often captured over 100 m from the crested wheatgrass stands. Thus, future research efforts will focus on examining the intensity of perimeter use and food habits of rodents residing on and adjacent to the SL-1. Results of this study will be used to evaluate ecological conditions that affect small mammal use of radioactive waste disposal areas
Popescu, F C; Rymer, W Z
A single force pulse was applied unexpectedly to the arms of five normal human subjects during nonvisually guided planar reaching movements of 10-cm amplitude. The pulse was applied by a powered manipulandum in a direction perpendicular to the motion of the hand, which gripped the manipulandum via a handle at the beginning, at the middle, or toward the end the movement. It was small and brief (10 N, 10 ms), so that it was barely perceptible. We found that the end points of the perturbed motions were systematically different from those of the unperturbed movements. This difference, dubbed "terminal error," averaged 14.4 +/- 9.8% (mean +/- SD) of the movement distance. The terminal error was not necessarily in the direction of the perturbation, although it was affected by it, and it did not decrease significantly with practice. For example, while perturbations involving elbow extension resulted in a statistically significant shift in mean end-point and target-acquisition frequency, the flexion perturbations were not clearly affected. We argue that this error distribution is inconsistent with the "equilibrium point hypothesis" (EPH), which predicts minimal terminal error is determined primarily by the variance in the command signal itself, a property referred to as "equifinality." This property reputedly derives from the "spring-like" properties of muscle and is enhanced by reflexes. To ensure that terminal errors were not due to mid-course voluntary corrections, we only accepted trials in which the final position was already established before such a voluntary response to the perturbation could have begun, that is, in a time interval shorter than the minimum reaction time (RT) for that subject. This RT was estimated for each subject in supplementary experiments in which the subject was instructed to move to a new target if perturbed and to the old target if no perturbation was detected. These RT movements were found to either stop or slow greatly at the original
Rudershausen, Paul J.; Buckel, Jeffery A.; Dubreuil, Todd; O'Donnell, Matthew J.; Hightower, Joseph E.; Poland, Steven J.; Letcher, Benjamin H.
We evaluated the performance of small (12.5 mm long) passive integrated transponder (PIT) tags and custom detection antennas for obtaining fine-scale movement and demographic data of mummichog Fundulus heteroclitus in a salt marsh creek. Apparent survival and detection probability were estimated using a Cormack Jolly Seber (CJS) model fitted to detection data collected by an array of 3 vertical antennas from November 2010 to March 2011 and by a single horizontal antenna from April to August 2011. Movement of mummichogs was monitored during the period when the array of vertical antennas was used. Antenna performance was examined in situ using tags placed in wooden dowels (drones) and in live mummichogs. Of the 44 tagged fish, 42 were resighted over the 9 mo monitoring period. The in situ detection probabilities of the drone and live mummichogs were high (~80-100%) when the ambient water depth was less than ~0.8 m. Upstream and downstream movement of mummichogs was related to hourly water depth and direction of tidal current in a way that maximized time periods over which mummichogs utilized the intertidal vegetated marsh. Apparent survival was lower during periods of colder water temperatures in December 2010 and early January 2011 (median estimate of daily apparent survival = 0.979) than during other periods of the study (median estimate of daily apparent survival = 0.992). During late fall and winter, temperature had a positive effect on the CJS detection probability of a tagged mummichog, likely due to greater fish activity over warmer periods. During the spring and summer, this pattern reversed possibly due to mummichogs having reduced activity during the hottest periods. This study demonstrates the utility of PIT tags and continuously operating autonomous detection systems for tracking fish at fine temporal scales, and improving estimates of demographic parameters in salt marsh creeks that are difficult or impractical to sample with active fishing gear.
Linear movement, density, and transuranic radionuclide inventory were estimated for small mammals residing at a liquid radioactive waste disposal area in southeastern Idaho. Deer mice (Peromyscus maniculatus), kangaroo rats (Dipodomys ordii), western harvest mice (Reithrodontomys megalotis), and Great Basin pocket mice (Perognathus parvus) were the predominant species. The total small mammal population within the 3.0-ha waste area was estimated to be 93. The distance between consecutive captures for all species combined averaged 41 m and ranged from 7 to 201 m. About 30% of the rodents captured inside the waste area were also captured outside its boundaries. The total population inventory of 238 Pu, /sup 239,240/Pu, 241 Am, 242 Cm, and 244 Cm was 44 pCi, 30 pCi, 19 pCi, 21 pCi, and <1 pCi, respectively. One-third, or about 35 pCi of transuranics, could be removed from the waste area by small mammals during the summer of 1981. 16 references, 3 figures, 3 tables
Shimizu, Shinichi; Shirato, Hiroki; Kagei, Kenji; Nishioka, Takeshi; Bo Xo; Dosaka-Akita, Hirotoshi; Hashimoto, Seiko; Aoyama, Hidefumi; Tsuchiya, Kazuhiko; Miyasaka, Kazuo
Purpose: Three-dimensional (3D) treatment planning has often been performed while patients breathe freely, under the assumption that the computed tomography (CT) images represent the average position of the tumor. We investigated the impact of respiratory movement on the free-breathing CT images of small lung tumors using sequential CT scanning at the same table position. Methods: Using a preparatory free-breathing CT scan, the patient's couch was fixed at the position where each tumor showed its maximum diameter on image. For 16 tumors, over 20 sequential CT images were taken every 2 s, with a 1-s acquisition time occurring during free breathing. For each tumor, the distance between the surface of the CT table and the posterior border of the tumor was measured to determine whether the edge of the tumor was sufficiently included in the planning target volume (PTV) during normal breathing. Results: In the sequential CT scanning, the tumor itself was not visible in the examination slice in 21% (75/357) of cases. There were statistically significant differences between lower lobe tumors (39.4%, 71/180) and upper lobe tumors (0%, 0/89) (p < 0.01) and between lower lobe tumors and middle lobe tumor (8.9%, 4/45) (p < 0.01) in the incidence of the disappearance of the tumor from the image. The mean difference between the maximum and minimum distances between the surface of the CT table and the posterior border of the tumor was 6.4 mm (range 2.1-24.4). Conclusion: Three-dimensional treatment planning for lung carcinoma would significantly underdose many lesions, especially those in the lower lobe. The excess 'safety margin' might call into question any additional benefit of 3D treatment. More work is required to determine how to control respiratory movement
Vrcek, Ivan; Chou, Eva; Somogyi, Marie; Shore, John W
Loss of volume in the sub-brow fat pad with associated descent of the eyebrow is a common anatomical finding resulting in both functional and aesthetic consequences. A variety of techniques have been described to address brow position at the time of blepharoplasty. To our knowledge, none of these techniques treat the sub-brow fat pad as an isolated unit. Doing so enables the surgeon to stabilize and volumize the brow without resultant tension on the blepharoplasty wound. The authors describe a technique for addressing volume loss in the eyebrow with associated brow descent that treats the sub-brow fat pad as an isolated unit. A retrospective review of all patients undergoing brow ptosis repair by a single surgeon (J.W.S.) over an 11-month period was performed. Eighteen patients and 33 brows underwent the technique described. Patients were followed for an average of 11 weeks (range: 4 weeks to 20 weeks). All patients preoperatively displayed both visually significant dermatochalasis and brow descent below the orbital rim. Evaluation of pre- and postoperative photos demonstrates successful volumization of the brow with skin redraping without focal dimpling or undue tension on the eyelid wound. Performing a dissection that allows the sub-brow fat pad to be elevated in isolation from the overlying orbicularis and underlying periosteum allows for volumization and of the brow without compromising closure. This technique is a safe and effective means of volumizing the brow and treating secondary brow descent.
Paulsen, G. E.; Nielsen, S. B.; Hansen, D. L.
The vertical movements during a regional stress reversal in a rifted basin or on a passive continental margin are examined using a numerical 2D thermo-mechanical finite element model with a visco-elastic-plastic rheology. Three different physical mechanisms are recognized in small-scale vertical movements at small inplane force variations: elastic dilatation, elastic flexure, and permanent deformation. Their rela- tive importance depend on the applied force, the duration of the force, and the thermal structure of the lithosphere. Elastic material dilatation occurs whenever the stress state changes. A reversal from extension to compression therefore immediately leads to elastic dilatation, and re- sults in an overall subsidence of the entire profile. Simultaneously with dilatation the lithosphere reacts with flexure. The significance of the flexural component strongly depends on the thermal structure of the lithosphere. The polarity and amplitude of the flexure depends on the initial (before compression) loading of the lithosphere. Gener- ally, the flexural effects lead to subsidence of the overdeep in the landward part of the basin and a small amount of uplift at the basin flanks. The amplitudes of the flexural response are small and comparable with the amplitudes of the elastic dilatation. With continuing compression permanent deformation and lithospheric thickening becomes increasingly important. Ultimately, the thickened part of the lithosphere stands out as an inverted zone. The amount of permanent deformation is directly connected with the size and duration of the applied force, but even a relatively small force leads to inversion tectonics in the landward part of the basin. The conclusions are: 1) small stress induced vertical movements in rift basins and at passive continental margins are the result of a complex interaction of at least three different processes, 2) the total sediment loaded amplitudes resulting from these pro- cesses are small (2-300 m) for
Radmanesh, Mohammad; Rafiei, Zohreh
The eyebrow tattoo removal using Q-switched lasers is usually prolonged. Other modalities may be required to enhance the efficacy and shorten the treatment course. To compare the efficacy of Q-switched neodymium-doped yttrium aluminum garnet (Nd:YAG) laser alone versus combination of Q-switched Nd:YAG and Ultrapulse CO2 lasers for eyebrow tattoo removal after a single session. After local anesthesia, the right eyebrow of 20 patients was treated with Ultrapulse CO2 laser with the parameters of 4 J/cm(2) and 3.2 J/cm(2) for the first and the second passes. Both eyebrows were then treated with 1064-nm and 532-nm Q-switched Nd:YAG laser. The spot size and pulse duration were 3 mm and 5 nanoseconds for both wavelengths, and the fluence was 7 J/cm(2) for 1064 nm and 3 J/cm (2) for 532 nm. The side treated with combination of Q-switched Nd:YAG and CO2 lasers improved 75-100% in 6 of 20 patients versus only 1 of 20 in the side treated with Q-switched Nd:YAG alone. Similarly, the right side in 13 of 20 patients showed more than 50% improvement with combination therapy versus the left side (the monotherapy side), where only 6 of 20 cases showed more than 50% improvement. The Mann-Whitney test was 2.85 for the right side and 1.95 for the left side (P value = 0.007). Using Ultra pulse CO2 laser enhances the efficacy of Q-switched Nd:YAG laser in eyebrow tattoo removal.
Van Leeuwen, C H A; Dokk, T; Haugen, T O; Kiffney, P M; Museth, J
Behaviour of early life stages of the salmonid European grayling Thymallus thymallus was investigated by assessing the timing of larval downstream movement from spawning areas, the depth at which larvae moved and the distribution of juvenile fish during summer in two large connected river systems in Norway. Trapping of larvae moving downstream and electrofishing surveys revealed that T. thymallus larvae emerging from the spawning gravel moved downstream predominantly during the night, despite light levels sufficient for orientation in the high-latitude study area. Larvae moved in the water mostly at the bottom layer close to the substratum, while drifting debris was caught in all layers of the water column. Few young-of-the-year still resided close to the spawning areas in autumn, suggesting large-scale movement (several km). Together, these observations show that there may be a deliberate, active component to downstream movement of T. thymallus during early life stages. This research signifies the importance of longitudinal connectivity for T. thymallus in Nordic large river systems. Human alterations of flow regimes and the construction of reservoirs for hydropower may not only affect the movement of adult fish, but may already interfere with active movement behaviour of fish during early life stages. © 2017 The Fisheries Society of the British Isles.
Full Text Available Abstract Background In stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT for lung tumors, reducing tumor movement is necessary. In this study, we evaluated changes in tumor movement and percutaneous oxygen saturation (SpO2 levels, and preliminary clinical results of SBRT using the BodyFIX immobilization system. Methods Between 2004 and 2006, 53 consecutive patients were treated for 55 lesions; 42 were stage I non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC, 10 were metastatic lung cancers, and 3 were local recurrences of NSCLC. Tumor movement was measured with fluoroscopy under breath holding, free breathing on a couch, and free breathing in the BodyFIX system. SpO2 levels were measured with a finger pulseoximeter under each condition. The delivered dose was 44, 48 or 52 Gy, depending on tumor diameter, in 4 fractions over 10 or 11 days. Results By using the BodyFIX system, respiratory tumor movements were significantly reduced compared with the free-breathing condition in both craniocaudal and lateral directions, although the amplitude of reduction in the craniocaudal direction was 3 mm or more in only 27% of the patients. The average SpO2 did not decrease by using the system. At 3 years, the local control rate was 80% for all lesions. Overall survival was 76%, cause-specific survival was 92%, and local progression-free survival was 76% at 3 years in primary NSCLC patients. Grade 2 radiation pneumonitis developed in 7 patients. Conclusion Respiratory tumor movement was modestly suppressed by the BodyFIX system, while the SpO2 level did not decrease. It was considered a simple and effective method for SBRT of lung tumors. Preliminary results were encouraging.
Luck, J.M.; Othman, D.B.
Major, trace elements and Sr-Pb isotope data on the dissolved and particulate phases are reported for water samples taken regularly over the September flood of a Mediterranean river (S France). This river drains runoff from a small, carbonate, karstified watershed with Miocene and Jurassic lithologies, and characterized by agricultural, urban and road network activities. The objective is to combine all the data into a dynamic model for constraining the origin(s) and movements of waters and of their loads. Furthermore, for metals, it becomes then feasible to know their fate and bioavailability downstream
Iannacone, Michelle R; Gheit, Tarik; Pfister, Herbert; Giuliano, Anna R; Messina, Jane L; Fenske, Neil A; Cherpelis, Basil S; Sondak, Vernon K; Roetzheim, Richard G; Silling, Steffi; Pawlita, Michael; Tommasino, Massimo; Rollison, Dana E
Cutaneous human papillomaviruses (HPV) have been reported in cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma (SCC). We conducted a clinic-based case-control study to investigate the association between genus-beta HPV DNA in eyebrow hairs (EBH) and SCC. EBH from 168 SCC cases and 290 controls were genotyped for genus-beta HPV DNA. SCC tumors from a subset of cases (n = 142) were also genotyped. Viral load was determined in a subset of specimens positive for a single HPV type. Associations with SCC were estimated by odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) adjusted for age and sex using logistic regression. Statistical tests were two-sided. EBH DNA prevalence was greater in cases (87%) than controls (73%) (p genus-beta types tested, when accounting for DNA for the same HPV type in the tumor (ORs = 3.44-76.50). Compared to controls, the mean viral DNA load in EBH among the selected cases was greater for HPV5, HPV8 and HPV24, but lower for HPV38. SCC cases were more likely than controls to have HPV DNA+ EBH for single and multiple HPV types, providing additional support for the potential role of genus-beta HPV infections in SCC development. © 2013 UICC.
Randers, Morten B; Brix, Jonathan; Hagman, Marie
The present study investigated whether street soccer might be proposed as an alternative to recreational small-sided games on grass as a health-enhancing activity, and specifically the effects of the boards surrounding the pitch. Eleven recreationally active young males (28.4±4.2 (±SD) yrs, 19.......9±4.2% body fat, 47.7±6.0 mlminkg), after familiarization, completed one to two sessions of 20x13-m 3v3 street soccer games with boards (WB) and one to two sessions without boards (WOB) in a randomized order. Movement pattern was measured using GPS and heart rate recordings, blood sampling and RPE scales were...... after WB than after WOB (7.1±1.0 vs. 5.5±1.2, p game formats to expect short- and long-term health improvements as a result of regular participation. Boards affected movement pattern and physiological demands, producing higher...
Harrison, Craig B; Gill, Nicholas D; Kinugasa, Taisuke; Kilding, Andrew E
The aim of this study was to quantify the physiological responses, time-motion characteristics, and technical executions associated with a novel non-sport-specific small-sided game (SSG) in young team sport players. On 6 separate occasions, 12 young male team sport athletes (mean ± SD: age, 13.0 ± 0.3 years; height, 157.4 ± 4.9 cm; body mass, 47.0 ± 5.0 kg; and V[Combining Dot Above]O2peak, 55.1 ± 4.6 ml·kg·min) completed various "bucketball" SSG formats (i.e., 3 vs. 3, 4 vs. 4, and 6 vs. 6) twice each. Heart rate (HR) was measured during each SSG at 5-second intervals. Time-motion characteristics were measured using global positioning systems. Ratings of perceived exertion (RPEs) were recorded immediately after the SSGs using the Borg scale (RPEs, 6-20). Technical skill executions were measured using a high-speed digital video camera. Analysis revealed a tendency for the 3 vs. 3 games to elicit higher HRs (88.3 ± 4.3) than either 4 vs. 4 (85.9 ± 4.9) or 6 vs. 6 formats (85.9 ± 3.2). Total distance traveled at 13-17.9 km·h was more during 6 vs. 6 than 3 vs. 3 games (very likely substantial true difference, 97%), and total possessions and number of catches, passes, and shots were all higher in 3 vs. 3 compared with 4 vs. 4 and 6 vs. 6 games. There was no difference in RPE between the game formats. The results of this study indicate that 3 vs. 3 non-sport-specific SSGs provide higher stimulus for aerobic fitness adaptation and technical improvement than 4 vs. 4 and 6 vs. 6 formats, and their use for training young team sport athletes is recommended.
A bowel movement is the last stop in the movement of food through your digestive tract. Your stool passes out of ... what you eat and drink. Sometimes a bowel movement isn't normal. Diarrhea happens when stool passes ...
J. Gaona Silva
Full Text Available La reconstrucción de las cejas juega un papel importante en la Cirugía Reconstructiva facial, debido a que la ausencia o deformidad de las mismas altera la expresión y las características de la cara, ejerciendo una influencia poderosa en la apariencia de la región periorbitaria, así como en el aspecto y en la autoestima de los pacientes. Describimos una técnica quirúrgica basada en el empleo de un colgajo temporal en isla de cuero cabelludo para la reconstrucción de la subunidad estética de la ceja y presentamos 3 casos de pacientes con defectos alopécicos de las cejas reconstruidos mediante dicha técnica.Eyebrow reconstruction plays an important role in facial Reconstructive Surgery. Absence or deformity of the eyebrows alter the expression and other features in the face exerting a powerful influence in the appearance of the periorbital region, so in the aspect as well as in the self-esteem of the patients. This paper describes the use of a temporal island scalp flap technique to reconstruct the eyebrow unit and we present 3 patients who underwent eyebrows reconstruction with this technique.
... Loss of coordination; Coordination impairment; Ataxia; Clumsiness; Uncoordinated movement ... Smooth graceful movement requires a balance between different muscle groups. A part of the brain called the cerebellum manages this balance.
On this poster some reasons of slope movements on the territory of the Slovak Republic are presented. Slope movements induced deterioration of land and forests, endangering of towns villages, and communications as well as hydro-engineering structures. Methods of preventing and stabilisation of slope movements are presented.
Blaauwendraat, Conny; Levy Berg, Adrienne; Gyllensten, Amanda Lundvik
The present study with mixed methods design evaluated the long-term effects of Basic Body Awareness Therapy (BBAT) for patients with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Fifteen patients received 12 individual sessions of BBAT treatment as usual (TAU) when needed. The patients were assessed at baseline (T0), directly after treatment (T1) and at one-year follow-up (T2), using the Body Awareness Scale Movement Quality and Experience (BAS MQ-E), the Visual Analog Scale (VAS), and the Impact of Event Scale-Revised (IES-R). The results at T1 showed significant improvement in the quality of movement (p = 0.001), body experience (p = 0.007), and symptoms (p = 0.001). At T2, the improvements were sustained. Pain in stillness (p = 0.017) and during movement (p = 0.007) had decreased. The verbal ability to describe the body experiences in words was poor at T0, but became more detailed at T1 and even more so at T2. Our findings suggest that BBAT in addition to TAU can be a viable physiotherapeutic treatment for patients with PTSD. This knowledge may influence future treatment strategies for patients with PTSD and be of guidance to physiotherapists working with persons with trauma experiences in the community or psychiatry/mental healthcare areas.
Dystonia; Involuntary slow and twisting movements; Choreoathetosis; Leg and arm movements - uncontrollable; Arm and leg movements - uncontrollable; Slow involuntary movements of large muscle groups; Athetoid movements
Full Text Available Viruses in the family Luteoviridae have positive-sense RNA genomes of around 5.2 to 6.3 kb, and they are limited to the phloem in infected plants. The Luteovirus and Polerovirus genera include all but one virus in the Luteoviridae. They share a common gene block, which encodes the coat protein (ORF3, a movement protein (ORF4, and a carboxy-terminal extension to the coat protein (ORF5. These three proteins all have been reported to participate in the phloem-specific movement of the virus in plants. All three are translated from one subgenomic RNA, sgRNA1. Here, we report the discovery of a novel short ORF, termed ORF3a, encoded near the 5' end of sgRNA1. Initially, this ORF was predicted by statistical analysis of sequence variation in large sets of aligned viral sequences. ORF3a is positioned upstream of ORF3 and its translation initiates at a non-AUG codon. Functional analysis of the ORF3a protein, P3a, was conducted with Turnip yellows virus (TuYV, a polerovirus, for which translation of ORF3a begins at an ACG codon. ORF3a was translated from a transcript corresponding to sgRNA1 in vitro, and immunodetection assays confirmed expression of P3a in infected protoplasts and in agroinoculated plants. Mutations that prevent expression of P3a, or which overexpress P3a, did not affect TuYV replication in protoplasts or inoculated Arabidopsis thaliana leaves, but prevented virus systemic infection (long-distance movement in plants. Expression of P3a from a separate viral or plasmid vector complemented movement of a TuYV mutant lacking ORF3a. Subcellular localization studies with fluorescent protein fusions revealed that P3a is targeted to the Golgi apparatus and plasmodesmata, supporting an essential role for P3a in viral movement.
Smirnova, Ekaterina; Firth, Andrew E; Miller, W Allen; Scheidecker, Danièle; Brault, Véronique; Reinbold, Catherine; Rakotondrafara, Aurélie M; Chung, Betty Y-W; Ziegler-Graff, Véronique
Viruses in the family Luteoviridae have positive-sense RNA genomes of around 5.2 to 6.3 kb, and they are limited to the phloem in infected plants. The Luteovirus and Polerovirus genera include all but one virus in the Luteoviridae. They share a common gene block, which encodes the coat protein (ORF3), a movement protein (ORF4), and a carboxy-terminal extension to the coat protein (ORF5). These three proteins all have been reported to participate in the phloem-specific movement of the virus in plants. All three are translated from one subgenomic RNA, sgRNA1. Here, we report the discovery of a novel short ORF, termed ORF3a, encoded near the 5' end of sgRNA1. Initially, this ORF was predicted by statistical analysis of sequence variation in large sets of aligned viral sequences. ORF3a is positioned upstream of ORF3 and its translation initiates at a non-AUG codon. Functional analysis of the ORF3a protein, P3a, was conducted with Turnip yellows virus (TuYV), a polerovirus, for which translation of ORF3a begins at an ACG codon. ORF3a was translated from a transcript corresponding to sgRNA1 in vitro, and immunodetection assays confirmed expression of P3a in infected protoplasts and in agroinoculated plants. Mutations that prevent expression of P3a, or which overexpress P3a, did not affect TuYV replication in protoplasts or inoculated Arabidopsis thaliana leaves, but prevented virus systemic infection (long-distance movement) in plants. Expression of P3a from a separate viral or plasmid vector complemented movement of a TuYV mutant lacking ORF3a. Subcellular localization studies with fluorescent protein fusions revealed that P3a is targeted to the Golgi apparatus and plasmodesmata, supporting an essential role for P3a in viral movement.
Randers, Morten Bredsgaard; Ørntoft, Christina Øyangen; Hagman, Marie von Ahnen
Recreational soccer is an effective health-promoting activity, but it is unclear how different game formats influence internal and external load. Thus, to be able to advise how to maximise the outcome of recreational football, we examined movement pattern and physiological response in 11 untrained...... men (32.6 ± 6.7 yrs, 23.3 ± 4.9 fat%, 43.4 ± 5.3 ml·min(-1)·kg(-1)) during three football sessions comprising 4 × 12 min of 3v3, 5v5 or 7v7 with a constant pitch size of 20 × 40 m. Movement pattern, heart rate (HR), blood lactate and RPE were measured during and after the 12-min periods. Greater (P...
Lancioni, G.E.; Bellini, D.; Oliva, D.; Singh, N.N.; O'Reilly, M.F.; Sigafoos, J.; Lang, R.B.; Didden, H.C.M.
A camera-based microswitch technology was recently used to successfully monitor small eyelid and mouth responses of two adults with profound multiple disabilities (Lancioni et al., Res Dev Disab 31:1509-1514, 2010a). This technology, in contrast with the traditional optic microswitches used for
The author describes the development of protest movements in postwar Germay and outlines two essential overlapping 'flow cycles'. The first of these was characterised by the restaurative postwar years. It culminated and ended in the students' revolt. This revolt is at the same time the start of a second cycle of protest which encompasses all subsequent individual movement and is initated by an economic, political and sociocultural procrastination of modernisation. This cycle culminates in the late 70s and early 80s and clearly lost momentum over the last few years. The follwoing phases and themes are described profoundly: against restauration and armament in the 1950; the revolutionary impatience of the students' movement, politisation of everyday life by the womens' movement and citizens' action groups, antinuclear- and ecological movement, differentiation and stabilisation of the movement in the 70s and 80s; break-up and continuity in the German protest behaviour. The paper contains a detailed chronicle of protest activities since 1945. (orig.) [de
Like all music performance, percussion playing requires high control over timing and sound properties. Specific to percussionists, however, is the need to adjust the movement to different instruments with varying physical properties and tactile feedback to the player. Furthermore, the well defined...... note onsets and short interaction times between player and instrument do not allow for much adjustment once a stroke is initiated. The paper surveys research that shows a close relationship between movement and sound production, and how playing conditions such as tempo and the rebound after impact...
Prat, Ricardo; Galeano, Inma; Evangelista, Rocío; Pancucci, Giovanni; Guarín, Juliana; Ayuso, Angel; Misra, Mukesh
One of the main drawbacks in the surgery of large craniopharyngiomas is the presence of a prefixed optic chiasm. Our main objective in this study is to compare the predictive value of the optic nerve length and optic chiasm location on large craniopharyngiomas' extent of resection. We retrospectively studied 21 consecutive patients with large craniopharyngiomas who underwent tumor resection through the trans-eyebrow supraorbital approach. Clinical and radiological findings on preoperative MRI were recorded, including the optic chiasm location classified as prefixed, postfixed or normal. We registered the optic nerve length measured intraoperatively prior to tumor removal and confirmed the measurements on preoperative MRI. Using a linear regression model, we calculated a prediction formula of the percentage of the extent of resection as a function of optic nerve length. On preoperative MRI, 15 patients were considered to have an optic chiasm in a normal location, 3 cases had a prefixed chiasm, and the remaining 3 had a postfixed chiasm. In the group with normal optic chiasm location, a wide range of percentage of extent of resection was observed (75-100%). The percentage of extent of resection of large craniopharyngiomas was observed to be dependent on the optic nerve length in a linear regression model (p < 0.0001). According to this model in the normal optic chiasm location group, we obtained an 87% resection in 9-mm optic nerve length patients, a 90.5% resection in 10-mm optic nerve length patients and 100% resection in 11-mm optic nerve length patients. Optic chiasm location provides useful information to predict the percentage of resection in both prefixed and postfixed chiasm patients but not in the normal optic chiasm location group. Optic nerve length was proven to provide a more accurate way to predict the percentage of resection than the optic chiasm location in the normal optic chiasm location group.
Trope, G E; Eizenman, M; Coyle, E
Present-day computerized perimetry is often inaccurate and unreliable owing to the need to maintain central fixation over long periods while repressing the normal response to presentation of peripheral stimuli. We tested a new method of perimetry that does not require prolonged central fixation. During this test eye movements were encouraged on presentation of a peripheral target. Twenty-three eyes were studied with an Octopus perimeter, with a technician monitoring eye movements. The sensitivity was 100% and the specificity 23%. The low specificity was due to the technician's inability to accurately monitor small eye movements in the central 6 degrees field. If small eye movements are monitored accurately with an eye tracker, eye movement perimetry could become an alternative method to standard perimetry.
This thesis describes the measurement of brain-tissue functions in patients with movement disorders using positron emission tomography (PET). This scanning technique is a method for direct in vivo quantitation of the regional tissue content of positron emitting radionuclides in brain (or other organs) in an essentially non-invasive way. Ch. 2 outlines some general features of PET and describes the scanner which has been used for the studies in this thesis. Also the tracer methodology, as applied to data investigations of movement disorders, are discussed. Ch. 3 contains the results of the PET investigations which were performed in the study of movement disorders. The results are presented in the form of 12 papers. The main goals of these studies were the understanding of the pathophysiology of Parkinson's disease, Huntington's chorea, Steele-Richardson-Olzewski syndrome and special case reports. Ch. 4 summarizes the results of these publications and Ch. 5 concludes the main part of this thesis with a general discussion of movement disorders in relation to PET investigations. 697 refs.; 60 figs.; 31 tabs
Pedersen, Inge Nygaard
This chapter/article describes the historical development of the disciplin Psychodynamic Movement. The importance of this disciplin for self-experience and for training in developing a therapist identy for the music therapy students are emphasized. Prototypeexercises developed and simplified...
levels than those related to building, and this exploration is a special challenge and competence implicit artistic development work. The project Mixed Movements generates drawing-material, not primary as representation, but as a performance-based media, making the body being-in-the-media felt and appear...... as possible operational moves....
Kolen, Judith; de Smet, Eline; de Theije, M.E.M.
Abstract Scholars have been carrying out research into the urbanization of the Brazilian Amazon since the 1960s. This article addresses the role of small-scale gold mining in urbanization, by focusing on local processes in two mining settlements in the Tapajós Mineral Province: Creporizão and
Kolen, Judith; de Smet, Eline; de Theije, M.E.M.
Abstract Scholars have been carrying out research into the urbanization of the Brazilian Amazon since the 1960s. This article addresses the role of small-scale gold mining in urbanization, by focusing on local processes in two mining settlements in the Tapajós Mineral Province: Creporizão and
Marcio Henrique Mendes
Full Text Available Pilomatricoma é um tumor benigno oriundo do folículo pilossebáceo, que surge como nódulo intradérmico durante a infância na maioria dos casos. Geralmente é recoberto por pele normal, alcança em média diâmetro de 1,5 cm e frequentemente não recidiva após exérese cirúrgica. Os autores descrevem um caso no qual uma lesão tumoral iniciou seu crescimento na região superciliar esquerda de um paciente de 26 anos, sendo realizada exérese total da mesma e diagnóstico através do exame anatomopatológico de pilomatricoma. Esta lesão teve um crescimento lento, de aproximadamente dois anos, segundo o paciente. Decorridos oito meses da intervenção cirúrgica houve novo crescimento tumoral no local, desta vez de maneira rápida e exacerbada e com ulceração de pequena área da pele que recobria a lesão, induzindo, portanto, suspeita de malignidade. Realizada nova exérese com margem de segurança, o exame anatomopatológico confirmou ser a lesão um pilomatricoma, não possuindo a peça cirúrgica sinais de malignização. O paciente encontra-se em seguimento há um ano, sem sinais de recidiva até o momento.Pilomatricoma is a benign neoplasm originated in the pilosebaceous follicle wich appears as an intradermal nodule during childhood, in most cases. It is generally covered with normal skin, reaching a diameter of 1.5 cm on average, and it often shows no recurrence after surgical excision. The authors describe a case in wich a 26-year-old patient presented a tumoral lesion on the upper left superciliary area was submitted to total excision, and diagnosed as pilomatricoma by the histological study. According to the patient, this lesion had a progressive and slow growth of about two years. Eight months after the first surgical intervention, there was a new tumor growth in the region, this time quicker and worsen, with ulceration on the small skin area that covered the lesion, thus leading to malignity suspicion. After the conduction of
Marinheiro, Thamires S.; Lange, Camila N.; Figueiredo, Ana Maria G.; Ticianelli, Regina B., E-mail: email@example.com [Instituto de Pesquisas Energéticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), São Paulo, SP (Brazil); Jesus, Tatiane A. de, E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org [Universidade Federal do ABC (UFABC), Santo André, SP (Brazil). Centro de Engenharia, Modelagem e Ciências Sociais Aplicadas
The mass fraction of Ba, Cd, Co, Cr, Fe, Ni and Zn in henna for Eyebrow coloring was evaluated. Henna of different colors and brands marketed in the market and applied in hairdressing salons were analyzed. Four of the 11 samples analyzed presented barium mass fraction values about 250 times higher than the value recommended by the Brazilian National Health Surveillance Agency (ANVISA), a fact that may represent a potential risk to users of this type of product. The mass fractions of Cd, Co, Cr, Fe, Ni and Zn presented values below the regulated limits for cosmetics.
This SpringerBrief discusses the characteristics of spatiotemporal movement data, including uncertainty and scale. It investigates three core aspects of Computational Movement Analysis: Conceptual modeling of movement and movement spaces, spatiotemporal analysis methods aiming at a better understanding of movement processes (with a focus on data mining for movement patterns), and using decentralized spatial computing methods in movement analysis. The author presents Computational Movement Analysis as an interdisciplinary umbrella for analyzing movement processes with methods from a range of fi
The anti-nuclear movements in France are part of a broader movement which, following common usage, the author calls the Ecological Movement. In France, the movement can be divided into a fairly small politically oriented core, numerous and varied associations for the defence of the environment, and a number of consumer associations. The movement cannot be classified politically, which accounts for the attitude of the political parties - distrust of the ''ecologists'', but considerable interest in them as voters. Those with responsibility for power generation must explain to the population at large the energy problem and the importance of economic growth in raising wages and reducing unemployment. They must also explain why nuclear power generation is one of the safest technologies existing at present. (author)
... Publications Patient Organizations International Parkinson and Movement Disorder Society National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH) See all related organizations Publications Order NINDS Publications Definition Psychogenic movement is an unwanted muscle movement such ...
Non-invasive quick diagnosis of cardiovascular problems from visible and invisible abnormal changes with increased cardiac troponin I appearing on cardiovascular representation areas of the eyebrows, left upper lip, etc. of the face & hands: beneficial manual stimulation of hands for acute anginal chest pain, and important factors in safe, effective treatment.
Omura, Yoshiaki; Jones, Marilyn K; Duvvi, Harsha; Shimotsuura, Yasuhiro; Ohki, Motomu; Rodriques, Aaron
Our previous study indicated that there are at least 7 cardiovascular representation areas on the face, including the "Eyebrows", both sides of the "Nose", "Lelt Upper Lip" and the "Outside of the corner of both sides of the mouth," in addition to 2 areas in each hand. When there are cardiovascular problems, some of the heart representation areas of these areas often show the following changes: 1) Most distinctive visible changes such as the initial whitening with or without long white hair, then hair loss and complete disappearance of the hairs of the heart representation area of "Eyebrows" 2) Invisible biochemical changes that happen in heart representation areas at the "Left Upper Lips", 3) "Nose" below eye level as well as 4) "3rd segment of Middle Finger of Hands." Most distinctive visible & invisible changes are found in heart representation areas on the "Eyebrow", located nearest to the midline of face, where the color of the hairs becomes white compared with the rest of the Eyebrow. Then the cardiovascular problem advances, and hair starts disappearing. When there are no hairs at the heart representation areas of the Eyebrow, usually Cardiac Troponin I is increased to a very serious, abnormal high value. Most of the cardiovascular representation areas of the face show, regardless of presence or absence of visible change. When there is a cardiovascular problem, not only simple Bi-Digital O-Ring Test can detect without using any instrument in several minutes but also, corresponding biochemical changes of abnormally increased Cardiac Troponin I level can often be detected non-invasively from these Organ Representation Areas of Face & Hands, although changes in Eyebrows, L-Upper Lip & 3rd segment of middle fingers are clinically the most reliable changes & easy to identify the locations. Manual Stimulation of Hand's heart representation areas often eliminated acute anginal chest pain before medical help became available. Important factors for safe, effective
... work properly. There are many kinds of eye movement disorders. Two common ones are Strabismus - a disorder ... in "crossed eyes" or "walleye." Nystagmus - fast, uncontrollable movements of the eyes, sometimes called "dancing eyes" Some ...
... of Delirium Additional Content Medical News Overview of Movement Disorders By Hector A. Gonzalez-Usigli, MD, Professor ... Neurology, HE UMAE Centro Médico Nacional de Occidente; Movement Disorders Clinic, Neurology at IMSS Alberto Espay, MD, ...
Haith, Adrian M; Pakpoor, Jina; Krakauer, John W
Initiating a movement in response to a visual stimulus takes significantly longer than might be expected on the basis of neural transmission delays, but it is unclear why. In a visually guided reaching task, we forced human participants to move at lower-than-normal reaction times to test whether normal reaction times are strictly necessary for accurate movement. We found that participants were, in fact, capable of moving accurately ∼80 ms earlier than their reaction times would suggest. Reaction times thus include a seemingly unnecessary delay that accounts for approximately one-third of their duration. Close examination of participants' behavior in conventional reaction-time conditions revealed that they generated occasional, spontaneous errors in trials in which their reaction time was unusually short. The pattern of these errors could be well accounted for by a simple model in which the timing of movement initiation is independent of the timing of movement preparation. This independence provides an explanation for why reaction times are usually so sluggish: delaying the mean time of movement initiation relative to preparation reduces the risk that a movement will be initiated before it has been appropriately prepared. Our results suggest that preparation and initiation of movement are mechanistically independent and may have a distinct neural basis. The results also demonstrate that, even in strongly stimulus-driven tasks, presentation of a stimulus does not directly trigger a movement. Rather, the stimulus appears to trigger an internal decision whether to make a movement, reflecting a volitional rather than reactive mode of control. Copyright © 2016 the authors 0270-6474/16/363007-10$15.00/0.
Riisgaard Hansen, Thomas; Eriksson, Eva; Lykke-Olesen, Andreas
In this paper we explore the space in which movement based interaction takes place. We have in several projects explored how fixed and mobile cameras can be used in movement based interaction and will shortly describe these projects. Based on our experience with working with movement......-based interaction we will briefly introduce and discuss how learning, mapping and multi-user interaction are important when designing movement based interaction....
Calculation of temporal height changes for the determination of recent vertical crustal movements in northern, western, and southern Germany is described. Precise geodetic measurements and their analysis for the determination of recent crustal movements in north-eastern Iceland, western Venezuela, and central Peru are described. Determination of recent vertical crustal movements by leveling and gravity data; geodetic modeling of deformations and recent crustal movements; geodetic modeling of plate motions; and instrumental developments in geodetic measuring are discussed.
The article examines the role of social movements in the development of scientific knowledge. Interactions between social movements and science in broad, historical terms are discussed. The relations between the new social movements of the 1960s and 1970s and changes in the contemporary scientific...
Full Text Available Many studies have analysed how goal directed movements are corrected in response to changes in the properties of the target. However, only simple movements to single targets have been used in those studies, so little is known about movement corrections under more complex situations. Evidence from studies that ask for movements to several targets in sequence suggests that whole sequences of movements are planned together. Planning related segments of a movement together makes it possible to optimise the whole sequence, but it means that some parts are planned quite long in advance, so that it is likely that they will have to be modified. In the present study we examined how people respond to changes that occur while they are moving to the first target of a sequence. Subjects moved a stylus across a digitising tablet. They moved from a specified starting point to two targets in succession. The first of these targets was always at the same position but it could have one of two sizes. The second target could be in one of two different positions and its size was different in each case. On some trials the first target changed size, and on some others the second target changed size and position, as soon as the subject started to move. When the size of the first target changed the subjects slowed down the first segment of their movements. Even the peak velocity, which was only about 150 ms after the change in size, was lower. Beside this fast response to the change itself, the dwell time at the first target was also affected: its duration increased after the change. Changing the size and position of the second target did not influence the first segment of the movement, but also increased the dwell time. The dwell time was much longer for a small target, irrespective of its initial size. If subjects knew in advance which target could change, they moved faster than if they did not know which could change. Taken together, these
Ichikawa, Takashi; Yoneda, Yasuaki; Hanatsumi, Masaharu.
The present invention provides a device suitable to accurate recognition for the moving state of reactor core fuels as an object to be monitored in a nuclear power plant. Namely, the device of the present invention prepares each of scheduled paths for the movement of the object to be monitored and executed moving paths along with the movement based on the information of the movement obtained from scheduled information for the movement of the reactor core fuels as a object to be monitored and the actual movement of the object to be monitored. The results of the preparation are outputted. As an output mode, (1) the results of preparation for each of the paths for movement and the results of the monitoring obtained by monitoring the state of the object to be monitored are jointed and outputted, (2) images showing each of the paths for the movement are formed, and the formed images are displayed on a screen, and (3) each of the moving paths is prepared as an image, and the image is displayed together with the image of the regions before and after the movement of the object to be monitored. In addition, obtained images of each of the paths for the movement and the monitored images obtained by monitoring the state of the object to be monitored are joined and displayed. (I.S.)
The classification of movement disorders has evolved. Even the terminology has shifted, from an anatomical one of extrapyramidal disorders to a phenomenological one of movement disorders. The history of how this shift came about is described. The history of both the definitions and the classifications of the various neurologic conditions is then reviewed. First is a review of movement disorders as a group; then, the evolving classifications for 3 of them--parkinsonism, dystonia, and tremor--are covered in detail. Copyright © 2011 Movement Disorder Society.
Sensation of Movement will discuss the role of sensation in the control of action, bodily self-recognition, and sense of agency. Sensing movement is dependent on a range of information received by the brain, from signalling in the peripheral sensory organs to the establishment of higher order goals....... This volume will question whether one type of information is more relevant for the ability to sense and control movements, and demonstrate the importance of integrating neuroscientific knowledge with philosophical perspectives, in order to arrive at new insights into how sensation of movement can be studied...
The main objective of this thesis is to develop an approach for exploring, analysing and interpreting movement patterns of pedestrians interacting with the environment. This objective is broken down in sub-objectives related to four research questions. A case study of the movement of visitors in a
Fenichel, Emily, Ed.
This newsletter theme issue focuses on dance, play, and movement therapy for infants and toddlers with disabilities. Individual articles are: "Join My Dance: The Unique Movement Style of Each Infant and Toddler Can Invite Communication, Expression and Intervention" (Suzi Tortora); "Dynamic Play Therapy: An Integrated Expressive Arts Approach to…
Koopman, Hubertus F.J.M.
The part of (bio)mechanics that studies the interaction of forces on the human skeletal system and its effect on the resulting movement is called rigid body dynamics. Some basic concepts are presented: A mathematical formulation to describe human movement and how this relates on the mechanical loads
Full Text Available Islamic puritanism movements are the movements compelling to return to the teachings of Quran and Sunnah, as the pure teachings of Islam and abandon even abolish other teachings outside the teachings of Quran and Sunnah. The movements of Islamic puritanism can be considered as transnational movements because they spread their teachings and ideologies, create organizations, networks, and provide financial supports across nations. This paper describes Islamic puritanism movements in Indonesia and their transnational connections. Some Islamic puritanism movements in Indonesia can be considered as part of Islamic transnational movements, in which most of the movements are centered in the Middle East. In Indonesia, Islamic puritanism movements firstly appeared in the beginning of the nineteenth century, called Padri movement in West Sumatra. It was then continued to the emergence of Islamic organizations in the twentieth century. Recently, Islamic puritanism movements in Indonesia mostly take form as Salafism-Wahabism movements.
Ireland’s long history of patriarchy is matched by the ongoing evolution of its women’s movements. Today’s complex, transnational feminism finds its precursor in the colonial era. The first wave of the Irish women’s movement dates from the mid-19th century, with the franchise secured for women in 1918 while still under British colonial rule. First-wave feminists played a role in the nationalist movement, but their demands were sidelined later, during the construction of a conserva...
Rhythm is one of the fundamental elements without which music would not exist. In plays with singing, a child learns to synchronize its movements with the rhythm of music from a very early age. The skill of movement plays a major role in the learning of music and thus deserves an important place in the school curriculum. In this paper, an overview is made of the most important music pedagogues who introduced movement, and at the same time perceived its importance in learning musical conte...
The analysis of the ecological Movement in France is presented: its organisation, its topics, its position with respect to the main political trends. The accent is put in particular on the antinuclear contestation [fr
Aida M. Aylamazyan
Full Text Available The paper discusses the role of the movement in the process of shaping the personality, its importance as a mechanism for personality development is considered. The issue of the movement has always occupied a central place in Russian psychology. However, subsequently the movement began to be considered primarily as an executive action in human life. The role of movement in personality development can vary depending on the level it occupies in the hierarchical structure of activity, and also on the type of movement, its character, and the way it is constructed. Under certain conditions, the movement can express the attitude of the subject to the surrounding world and people. Many foreign and Russian psychologists point to a special place of the postural tonic component of the motor movement, the posture in personal regulation. The posture reflects his/her personal attitudes, the system of relationships, and, above all, the emotional attitude or emotional assessment of the current situation, the interest in the actions performed. Mastering the tonic level of motor management is based on the emotional regulation, so the ability to regulate one’s own pose is an important stage in the personality development. Posture tonic regulation of motor movements in humans reveals a qualitatively different character than in animals, this being due to the person’s facing the task of mastering his’her posture, arbitrary retention of the body in one or another position. Maintaining a vertical posture requires constant activity at an arbitrary and involuntary level of mental regulation. Mastering the posture of an unstable equilibrium presupposes the emergence of the «I» and is the last stage of the development. The way a person solves the motor task of maintaining the vertical position of the body reflects his/her specific personal strategy or attitude.
The result of the synergy between four doctoral projects and an advanced MA-level course on Bronze Age Europe, this integrated assemblage of articles represents a variety of different subjects united by a single theme: movement. Ranging from theoretical discussion of the various responses to and ...... period of European prehistory. In so doing, the text not only addresses transmission and reception, but also the conceptualization of mobility within a world which was literally Rooted in Movement....
Lim, Thien Thien
To provide an overview of paraneoplastic autoimmune disorders presenting with various movement disorders. The spectrum of paraneoplastic autoimmune disorders has been expanding with the discovery of new antibodies against cell surface and intracellular antigens. Many of these paraneoplastic autoimmune disorders manifest as a form of movement disorder. With the discovery of new neuronal antibodies, an increasing number of idiopathic or neurodegenerative movement disorders are now being reclassified as immune-mediated movement disorders. These include anti-N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) encephalitis which may present with orolingual facial dyskinesia and stereotyped movements, CRMP-5 IgG presenting with chorea, anti-Yo paraneoplastic cerebellar degeneration presenting with ataxia, anti-VGKC complex (Caspr2 antibodies) neuromyotonia, opsoclonus-myoclonus-ataxia syndrome, and muscle rigidity and episodic spasms (amphiphysin, glutamic acid decarboxylase, glycine receptor, GABA(A)-receptor associated protein antibodies) in stiff-person syndrome. Movement disorders may be a presentation for paraneoplastic autoimmune disorders. Recognition of these disorders and their common phenomenology is important because it may lead to the discovery of an occult malignancy. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Nuclear movement within a cell occurs in a variety of eukaryotic organisms including yeasts and filamentous fungi. Fungal molecular genetic studies identified the minus-end-directed microtubule motor cytoplasmic dynein as a critical protein for nuclear movement or orientation of the mitotic spindle contained in the nucleus. Studies in the budding yeast first indicated that dynein anchored at the cortex via its anchoring protein Num1 exerts pulling force on an astral microtubule to orient the anaphase spindle across the mother-daughter axis before nuclear division. Prior to anaphase, myosin V interacts with the plus end of an astral microtubule via Kar9-Bim1/EB1 and pulls the plus end along the actin cables to move the nucleus/spindle close to the bud neck. In addition, pushing or pulling forces generated from cortex-linked polymerization or depolymerization of microtubules drive nuclear movements in yeasts and possibly also in filamentous fungi. In filamentous fungi, multiple nuclei within a hyphal segment undergo dynein-dependent back-and-forth movements and their positioning is also influenced by cytoplasmic streaming toward the hyphal tip. In addition, nuclear movement occurs at various stages of fungal development and fungal infection of plant tissues. This review discusses our current understanding on the mechanisms of nuclear movement in fungal organisms, the importance of nuclear positioning and the regulatory strategies that ensure the proper positioning of nucleus/spindle. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
inequity, organize transnationally, and maintain a critical stance toward significant aspects of the state system. For this reason, many supporters favor other terms such as alterglobalization movement, global justice movement , or simply the movement of movements . Critics accuse the movements...... of ideological incoherence, self-interested protectionism, and illiberal and undemocratic political methods, and point to Western liberal elite dominance within the movements. The debate has ...
Loe, Daniel Aarset
Norway is in constant need of renewable energy, and hydroelectric power is still the main source. A great future potential can be found in countless small rivers scattered across the country, which could be developed through small hydro projects. In the process of converting mechanical movement - flowing water - into electric energy, about 5% turns into heat. From a power plant with an annual production of 15 GWh, this means energy enough to heat approximately 30 households is lost. In my pro...
Peters, M.J.; Dunajski, Z.; Meijzssen, T.E.M.; Breukink, E.W.; Wevers-Henke, J.J.
A new technique to measure small eye movements is reported. The precise recording of human eye movements is necessary for research on visual fatigue induced by visual display units.1 So far all methods used have disadvantages: especially those which are sensitive or are rather painful.2,3 Our method
Hadley, Adam S.; Betts, Matthew G.
Reduced pollination success, as a function of habitat loss and fragmentation, appears to be a global phenomenon. Disruption of pollinator movement is one hypothesis put forward to explain this pattern in pollen limitation. However, the small size of pollinators makes them very difficult to track; thus, knowledge of their movements is largely speculative. Using tiny radio transmitters (0.25 g), we translocated a generalist tropical ‘trap-lining’ hummingbird, the green hermit (Phaethornis guy), across agricultural and forested landscapes to test the hypothesis that movement is influenced by patterns of deforestation. Although, we found no difference in homing times between landscape types, return paths were on average 459±144 m (±s.e.) more direct in forested than agricultural landscapes. In addition, movement paths in agricultural landscapes contained 36±4 per cent more forest than the most direct route. Our findings suggest that this species can circumvent agricultural matrix to move among forest patches. Nevertheless, it is clear that movement of even a highly mobile species is strongly influenced by landscape disturbance. Maintaining landscape connectivity with forest corridors may be important for enhancing movement, and thus in facilitating pollen transfer. PMID:19158031
Olivares Romero, J
There are publications in which various neurological diseases are analysed on film. However, no references have been found on movement disorders in this medium. A total of 104 documents were collected and reviewed using the internet movie data base (IMDb). The majority were associated with dystonia, Parkinson's and tics, were American commercial productions, and the most common genre was drama. The cinema usually depicts old men with developed Parkinson's disease. However, motor complications only appear in 19% and non-motor symptoms in 14%. The image of dystonia is generally that of a young man, with disabling dystonia secondary to childhood cerebral palsy. Tics appear associated with Tourette's syndrome, with the excessive use of obscene expressions and with very few references to other important aspects of this syndrome, such as mood and behavioural changes. The majority of tremors portrayed on film are associated with Parkinsonism and are not pathological. Myoclonus appears anecdotically and is normally symptomatic. Parkinson's disease is the type of movement disorder that the cinema portrays with greater neurological honesty and in a more dignified manner.
Eugenio Francisco Bombino-Matos
Full Text Available Debido a la importancia que adquiere cada vez más el bagazo de caña, se estudia el movimiento vortiginoso de sus partículas transportadas por un gas y se comparan los resultados obtenidos experimentalmente con los simulados mediante un modelo matemático. La formación de la espiral se clasificó de tres formas, obteniéndose la velocidad y caída de presión en cada caso a través de un diseño de experimentos factorial multinivel con una réplica. Como variable dependiente cualitativa se tomó la formación de la espiral normal y como variables independientes cuantitativas la velocidad del gas, el tamaño de partículas y la concentración de la mezcla, obteniéndose una correlación que ajustó con84.64%. Se determinó el tamaño de muestra para comparar los valores de velocidades del gas y caídas de presión obtenidos experimentalmente con los simulados, los resultados experimentales cumplen una distribución normal y el modelo simula el proceso con error aceptable ingenierilmente.Palabras claves: movimiento de vórtice, secado neumático de bagazo, modelo matemático.______________________________________________________________________________AbstractThe vortex movement of sugar cane bagasse carry by a gas is study and the results obtained in the laboratory are compared with the ones simulated through a mathematical model. The formation of the hairspring was classified in three ways, being obtained the speed and fall of pressure in each case througha design of multilevel factorial experiments with a replica. The formation of the normal hairspring was taken as qualitative dependent variable, and as quantitative independent variables, the gas speed, particles sizeand the mixture concentration were taken, being obtained a correlation that adjusted with 84.64%. The sample size was determined to compare the values of gas speed and the falls of pressure experimentally obtained with those obtained by the simulation, the experimental results
Full Text Available Objective: Our aim is to evaluate the prognostic significance of isolated, preterm decreased fetal movement following normal initial full diagnostic workup. Study design: A retrospective observational study was conducted at a tertiary centre. The applied protocol was approved by the Medical Research Ethics Department of the hospital where the research was conducted. Obstetrics outcomes of preterm- and term-decreased fetal movement were compared following an initial, normal diagnostic work up. Evaluated outcomes were birth weight, mode of delivery, stillbirth rate, induction of labour, development of gestational hypertension, small for gestational age and oligohydramnios, polyhydramnios during the follow up period. Result: Obstetric complications related to placental insufficiency develops more frequently for decreased fetal movement in preterm cases with respect to that of in term cases. Following the diagnosis of decreased fetal movement, pregnancy hypertension occurred in 17% of preterm decreased fetal movement cases and in 4.7% of term decreased fetal movement cases. Fetal growth restriction developed in 6.6% of preterm decreased fetal movement and in 2.3% of term decreased fetal movement. Amniotic fluid abnormalities more frequently developed in preterm decreased fetal movement. Conclusion: Following an initial normal diagnostic workup, preterm decreased fetal movement convey a higher risk for the development of pregnancy complications associated with placental insufficiency. The patient should be monitored closely and management protocols must be developed for initial normal diagnostic workups in cases of preterm decreased fetal movement.
Uldam, Julie; McCurdy, Patrick
The research method of participant observation has long been used by scholars interested in the motivations, dynamics, tactics and strategies of social movements from a movement perspective. Despite participant observation being a common research method, there have been very few efforts to bring...... together this literature, which has often been spread across disciplines. This makes it difficult to identify the various challenges (and their interrelation) facing participant observers. Consequently, this article first reviews how participant observation roles have been conceptualised in general...... and then draws specific links to how the method has been used in the study of activism and social movements. In doing so, this article brings together key academic debates on participant observation, which have been considered separately, such as insider/outsider and overt/covert, but not previously been brought...
Couton, Philippe; López, José Julián
Opposition to utopianism on ontological and political grounds has seemingly relegated it to a potentially dangerous form of antiquated idealism. This conclusion is based on a restrictive view of utopia as excessively ordered panoptic discursive constructions. This overlooks the fact that, from its inception, movement has been central to the utopian tradition. The power of utopianism indeed resides in its ability to instantiate the tension between movement and place that has marked social transformations in the modern era. This tension continues in contemporary discussions of movement-based social processes, particularly international migration and related identity formations, such as open borders transnationalism and cosmopolitanism. Understood as such, utopia remains an ongoing and powerful, albeit problematic instrument of social and political imagination.
Full Text Available Johnson Simon, an artist based in West Palm Beach, FL, provided the cover art for the Fall 2017 edition of The Open Journal of Occupational Therapy (OJOT. “Dancing in Motion” is a 36” x 60” painting made from acrylic on canvas. Johnson always wanted to become a dancer. He was born with cerebral palsy, and therefore physical limitations make it difficult for Johnson to coordinate his body movements. Through use of vibrant colors and bold strokes, Johnson’s expressionist paintings evoke movement and motion. Occupational therapy helped Johnson discover his artistic abilities. Painting empowered him to move without limitations
Nathan, Ran; Getz, Wayne M; Revilla, Eloy; Holyoak, Marcel; Kadmon, Ronen; Saltz, David; Smouse, Peter E
Movement of individual organisms is fundamental to life, quilting our planet in a rich tapestry of phenomena with diverse implications for ecosystems and humans. Movement research is both plentiful and insightful, and recent methodological advances facilitate obtaining a detailed view of individual movement. Yet, we lack a general unifying paradigm, derived from first principles, which can place movement studies within a common context and advance the development of a mature scientific discipline. This introductory article to the Movement Ecology Special Feature proposes a paradigm that integrates conceptual, theoretical, methodological, and empirical frameworks for studying movement of all organisms, from microbes to trees to elephants. We introduce a conceptual framework depicting the interplay among four basic mechanistic components of organismal movement: the internal state (why move?), motion (how to move?), and navigation (when and where to move?) capacities of the individual and the external factors affecting movement. We demonstrate how the proposed framework aids the study of various taxa and movement types; promotes the formulation of hypotheses about movement; and complements existing biomechanical, cognitive, random, and optimality paradigms of movement. The proposed framework integrates eclectic research on movement into a structured paradigm and aims at providing a basis for hypothesis generation and a vehicle facilitating the understanding of the causes, mechanisms, and spatiotemporal patterns of movement and their role in various ecological and evolutionary processes. "Now we must consider in general the common reason for moving with any movement whatever." (Aristotle, De Motu Animalium, 4th century B.C.).
Melikov, Arsen Krikor; Sakoi, Tomonori; Kolencíková, Sona
The impact of direction, oscillation and temperature of isothermal room air movement on eye discomfort and tear film quality was studied. Twenty-four male subjects participated in the experiment. Horizontal air movement against the face and chest was generated by a large desk fan – LDF and a small...... when the airflow was directed against the face and when against the chest, LDF with and without oscillation and PV. Eye tear film samples were taken and analyzed at the beginning and the end of the exposures. Eye irritation and dryness were reported by the subjects. The air movement under individual...... control did not change significantly the tear film quality though tendency for improvement was observed. Eye dryness increased much when the airflow was blowing constantly against the face compared to oscillating airflow, airflow directed against the chest and upward airflow against the face....
Okely, A D; Booth, M L; Patterson, J W
To determine the relationship of participation in organized and nonorganized physical activity with fundamental movement skills among adolescents. Male and female children in Grade 8 (mean age, 13.3 yr) and Grade 10 (mean age, 15.3 yr) were assessed on six fundamental movement skills (run, vertical jump, catch, overhand throw, forehand strike, and kick). Physical activity was assessed using a self-report recall measure where students reported the type, duration, and frequency of participation in organized physical activity and nonorganized physical activity during a usual week. Multiple regression analysis indicated that fundamental movement skills significantly predicted time in organized physical activity, although the percentage of variance it could explain was small. This prediction was stronger for girls than for boys. Multiple regression analysis showed no relationship between time in nonorganized physical activity and fundamental movement skills. Fundamental movement skills are significantly associated with adolescents' participation in organized physical activity, but predict only a small portion of it.
O'Brien, Megan K; Ahmed, Alaa A
It long has been appreciated that humans behave irrationally in economic decisions under risk: they fail to objectively consider uncertainty, costs, and rewards and instead exhibit risk-seeking or risk-averse behavior. We hypothesize that poor estimates of motor variability (influenced by motor task) and distorted probability weighting (influenced by relevant emotional processes) contribute to characteristic irrationality in human movement decisions.
This contribution concerns itself with the design and realisation of architectures that operate with material dynamics. It presents this concern as a counter to the consideration of movement in architecture as something conceptualised from the position of the observer. The contribution draws upon...
Jensen, Søren Kjær; Moser, T.
In: Children and adolescents in movement - perspectives and ideas. The Danish Ministry of Culture, pages 150 - 162. 2003 Short description: the article debunks a lot of the myths surrounding body and learning, and replace them with a vision about another kind of learning. The aim is to reintroduce...
Like many other African countries, Kenya has a large and growing youth population. Some of the youths are mobilized into militant and political networks; one of these is the Mungiki movement. The article explores Mungiki’s combination of politics, religion and Kikuyu traditions. Using the examples...
Hansen, Hanne Foss; Rieper, Olaf
The evidence movement and the idea of systematic reviews, defined as summaries of the results of already existing evaluation and research projects, have gained considerable support in recent years as many international as well as national evidence-producing organizations have been established...
The associate director of education at Hubbard Street Dance Chicago recounts her learning and teaching through managing the Movement as Partnership program. Included are detailed descriptions of encounters with teachers and students as they create choreography reflective of their inquiry into integrating dance and literacy arts curriculum in the…
Carmichael, Karla D.
This paper's premise is that music, movement, and poetry are unique and creative methods to be used by the counselor in working with both children and adults. Through these media, the counselor generates material for the counseling session that may not be available through more traditional "talk therapies." The choice of music as a counseling…
Full Text Available Today, the juxtaposition between physical bodies and the gameworld is ever more fluid. Virtual Reality headsets are available at game stores with more AAA games being created for the format. The release of the Nintendo Switch and its dynamic JoyCon controllers reintroduce haptic movement based controls. Pokémon GO’s augmented reality took gamers outdoors and has encouraged the Harry Potter franchise to follow in its mobile footsteps. Each development encourages a step further into the digital world. At the same time, the movement of bodies always has political dimensions. We live in a world where walls seem like solutions to the movement of bodies, while the mere meeting of bodies elsewhere – for sex, marriage and other reasons – is still forbidden by many states’ rules. Games and game-like interfaces have shown the ability to bend those rules, and to sometimes project other worlds and rule systems over our world in order to make bodies move and meet. For this special issue on ‘Body Movements’, Press Start invited authors to focus on embodiment, body movements, political bodies, community bodies, virtual bodies, physical bodies, feminine, masculine, trans- bodies, agency or its lack, and anything else in between. The response to this invitation was variegated, and provocative, as outlined here.
Feb 20, 2018 ... Council for the Development of Social Science Research in Africa, 2017 ... revolted several times, namely in big cities like Casablanca, Marrakech or .... region in order to take advantage of their experience and acquire a regional ..... Undoubtedly, with social networking, the dynamics of protest movements.
Leading an architectural project means accompanying the movement which it induces within the teams. Between questioning, uncertainty and fear, the organisational changes inherent to the new facility must be subject to constructive and ongoing exchanges. Ethics, safety and training are revised and the unit projects are sometimes modified.
Sergiu eTcaci Popescu
Full Text Available People often perform spontaneous body movements during spatial tasks such as giving complex directions or orienting themselves on maps. How are these spontaneous gestures related to spatial problem-solving? We measured spontaneous movements during a perspective-taking task inspired by map reading. Analyzing the motion data to isolate rotation and translation components of motion in specific geometric relation to the task, we found out that most participants executed spontaneous miniature rotations of the head that were significantly related to the main task parameter. These head rotations were as if participants were trying to align themselves with the orientation on the map either in the image plane or on the ground plane, but with tiny amplitudes, typically below 1% of the actual movements. Our results are consistent with a model of sensorimotor prediction driving spatial reasoning. The efference copy of planned movements triggers this prediction mechanism. The movements themselves may then be mostly inhibited; the small spontaneous gestures that we measure are the visible traces of these planned but inhibited actions.
Hays, Graeme C.; Ferreira, Luciana C.; Sequeira, Ana M.M.; Meekan, Mark G.; Duarte, Carlos M.; Bailey, Helen; Bailleul, Fred; Bowen, W. Don; Caley, M. Julian; Costa, Daniel P.; Eguí luz, Victor M.; Fossette, Sabrina; Friedlaender, Ari S.; Gales, Nick; Gleiss, Adrian C.; Gunn, John; Harcourt, Rob; Hazen, Elliott L.; Heithaus, Michael R.; Heupel, Michelle; Holland, Kim; Horning, Markus; Jonsen, Ian; Kooyman, Gerald L.; Lowe, Christopher G.; Madsen, Peter T.; Marsh, Helene; Phillips, Richard A.; Righton, David; Ropert-Coudert, Yan; Sato, Katsufumi; Shaffer, Scott A.; Simpfendorfer, Colin A.; Sims, David W.; Skomal, Gregory; Takahashi, Akinori; Trathan, Philip N.; Wikelski, Martin; Womble, Jamie N.; Thums, Michele
It is a golden age for animal movement studies and so an opportune time to assess priorities for future work. We assembled 40 experts to identify key questions in this field, focussing on marine megafauna, which include a broad range of birds, mammals, reptiles, and fish. Research on these taxa has both underpinned many of the recent technical developments and led to fundamental discoveries in the field. We show that the questions have broad applicability to other taxa, including terrestrial animals, flying insects, and swimming invertebrates, and, as such, this exercise provides a useful roadmap for targeted deployments and data syntheses that should advance the field of movement ecology. Technical advances make this an exciting time for animal movement studies, with a range of small, reliable data-loggers and transmitters that can record horizontal and vertical movements as well as aspects of physiology and reproductive biology.Forty experts identified key questions in the field of movement ecology.Questions have broad applicability across species, habitats, and spatial scales, and apply to animals in both marine and terrestrial habitats as well as both vertebrates and invertebrates, including birds, mammals, reptiles, fish, insects, and plankton. © 2016 Elsevier Ltd.
Hays, Graeme C.
It is a golden age for animal movement studies and so an opportune time to assess priorities for future work. We assembled 40 experts to identify key questions in this field, focussing on marine megafauna, which include a broad range of birds, mammals, reptiles, and fish. Research on these taxa has both underpinned many of the recent technical developments and led to fundamental discoveries in the field. We show that the questions have broad applicability to other taxa, including terrestrial animals, flying insects, and swimming invertebrates, and, as such, this exercise provides a useful roadmap for targeted deployments and data syntheses that should advance the field of movement ecology. Technical advances make this an exciting time for animal movement studies, with a range of small, reliable data-loggers and transmitters that can record horizontal and vertical movements as well as aspects of physiology and reproductive biology.Forty experts identified key questions in the field of movement ecology.Questions have broad applicability across species, habitats, and spatial scales, and apply to animals in both marine and terrestrial habitats as well as both vertebrates and invertebrates, including birds, mammals, reptiles, fish, insects, and plankton. © 2016 Elsevier Ltd.
Orjuela-Rojas, Juan Manuel; Barrios Vincos, Gustavo Adolfo; Martínez Gallego, Melisa Alejandra
Movement disorders can be defined as neurological syndromes presenting with excessive or diminished automatic or voluntary movements not related to weakness or spasticity. Both Parkinson's disease (PD) and Huntington's disease (HD) are well-known examples of these syndromes. The high prevalence of comorbid psychiatric symptoms like depression, anxiety, obsessive-compulsive symptoms, hallucinations, delusions, impulsivity, sleep disorders, apathy and cognitive impairment mean that these conditions must be regarded as neuropsychiatric diseases. In this article, we review neuroanatomical (structural and functional), psychopathological and neuropsychological aspects of PD and HD. The role of fronto-subcortical loops in non-motor functions is particularly emphasised in order to understand the clinical spectrum of both diseases, together with the influence of genetic, psychological and psychosocial aspects. A brief description of the main psychopharmacological approaches for both diseases is also included. Copyright © 2017 Asociación Colombiana de Psiquiatría. Publicado por Elsevier España. All rights reserved.
Antonella Del Rosso
On 16 September 2015 at 22:54:33 (UTC), an 8.3-magnitude earthquake struck off the coast of Chile. 11,650 km away, at CERN, a new-generation instrument – the Precision Laser Inclinometer (PLI) – recorded the extreme event. The PLI is being tested by a JINR/CERN/ATLAS team to measure the movements of underground structures and detectors. The Precision Laser Inclinometer during assembly. The instrument has proven very accurate when taking measurements of the movements of underground structures at CERN. The Precision Laser Inclinometer is an extremely sensitive device capable of monitoring ground angular oscillations in a frequency range of 0.001-1 Hz with a precision of 10-10 rad/Hz1/2. The instrument is currently installed in one of the old ISR transfer tunnels (TT1) built in 1970. However, its final destination could be the ATLAS cavern, where it would measure and monitor the fine movements of the underground structures, which can affect the precise posi...
Nuclear power, heralded in the years after World War II as the answer to the world's energy needs, has in more recent times become the focus of intense ecological, political and economic debate. In this study, the current worldwide opposition to nuclear power is examined from its origins in expert dissent to the widespread development of grassroots activity. Chapter headings include: Social Movements: A Theoretical Framework; Creating the Preconditions for Public Protest; Local and Regional Opposition: Mobilizing the Grass Roots; Local Opposition and the Politicization of Nuclear Power; The Use of Local Opposition as a Political Resource; Local Opposition and Social Movement Analysis; The Removal of Political Stimuli: The Unpolitics of Nuclear Siting; Analyzing Host Community Attitudes: The Survey Evidence; Attitudes and Political Action of Nuclear Host Communities: Approaches and Explanations; Novel Siting Approaches and their Political Implications; Siting and Social Movement Analysis; Patterns and Outcomes of Nuclear Energy Conflicts; The Future of the Nuclear Energy Conflict. Throughout the text, analysis and theory are blended with detailed accounts of the growth and activities of individual anti-nuclear organizations in different countries. (author)
Merlino, Giovanni; Gigli, Gian Luigi
Several movement disorders may occur during nocturnal rest disrupting sleep. A part of these complaints is characterized by relatively simple, non-purposeful and usually stereotyped movements. The last version of the International Classification of Sleep Disorders includes these clinical conditions (i.e. restless legs syndrome, periodic limb movement disorder, sleep-related leg cramps, sleep-related bruxism and sleep-related rhythmic movement disorder) under the category entitled sleep-related movement disorders. Moreover, apparently physiological movements (e.g. alternating leg muscle activation and excessive hypnic fragmentary myoclonus) can show a high frequency and severity impairing sleep quality. Clinical and, in specific cases, neurophysiological assessments are required to detect the presence of nocturnal movement complaints. Patients reporting poor sleep due to these abnormal movements should undergo non-pharmacological or pharmacological treatments.
Maria Francisca Pinheiro Coelho
Full Text Available Abstract This study approaches the relationship between social movements and institutions in Brazil concerning three different stages of the process of re-democratization: the political transition; the National Constituent Assembly; and the new Constitutional Order. The general question is: what is the interface, reciprocity or conflict, between social movements and institutions in this context of social change? The paper examines the different roles of social movements and institutions in each specific period: in the pre-democratization moment, the movement for direct elections for president, Diretas-Já, is analyzed; in the National Constituent Assembly, the movement in defense for free public education is examined; in the new constitutional order, the pro-reform political movement is studied. The work focuses on the scope of the studies on social movements and democracy. It belongs to the field of the studies about the representativeness and legitimacy of the demands of social movements in the context of democracy and its challenges. Key words: social movement, institution, reciprocity, conflict, democracy. Social Movements and Institutions Resumen El estudio aborda la relación entre los movimientos sociales e instituciones en Brasil en tres etapas diferentes del proceso de redemocratización en las últimas décadas: la transición política; la Asamblea Nacional Constituyente; y el nuevo orden constitucional. La pregunta general es: ¿cuál es la relación, la reciprocidad o el conflito, entre los movimientos sociales y las instituciones en este contexto de cambio social? El artículo examina los diferentes roles de los movimientos sociales e instituciones en cada período específico: en el momento de la transición política analiza el movimiento de las elecciones directas para presidente, las Diretas-Já; en la Asamblea Nacional Constituyente aborda el movimiento en
Toftum, Jørn; Melikov, Arsen Krikor; Tynel, A.
Human preference for air movement was studied at slightly cool, neutral, and slightly warm overall thermal sensations and at temperatures ranging from 18 deg.C to 28 deg.C. Air movement preference depended on both thermal sensation and temperature, but large inter-individual differences existed...... between subjects. Preference for less air movement was linearly correlated with draught discomfort, but the percentage of subjects who felt draught was lower than the percentage who preferred less air movement....
Buchin, M.; Kruckenberg, H.; Kölzsch, A.; Timpf, S.; Laube, P.
Dividing movement trajectories according to different movement states of animals has become a challenge in movement ecology, as well as in algorithm development. In this study, we revisit and extend a framework for trajectory segmentation based on spatio-temporal criteria for this purpose. We adapt
Noting that the development of fundamental movement skills is basic to children's motor development, this booklet provides a guide for early childhood educators in planning movement experiences for children between 4 and 8 years. The booklet introduces a wide variety of appropriate practices to promote movement skill acquisition and increased…
Kobayashi, Yoshio; Watanabe, Hama; Taga, Gentaro
Infants must perform dynamic whole-body movements to initiate rolling, a key motor skill. However, little is known regarding limb coordination and postural control in infant rolling. To address this lack of knowledge, we examined movement patterns and limb coordination during rolling in younger infants (aged 5-7 months) that had just begun to roll and in older infants (aged 8-10 months) with greater rolling experience. Due to anticipated difficulty in obtaining measurements over the second half of the rolling sequence, we limited our analysis to the first half. Ipsilateral and contralateral limbs were identified on the basis of rolling direction and were classified as either a stationary limb used for postural stability or a moving limb used for controlled movement. We classified the observed movement patterns by identifying the number of stationary limbs and the serial order of combinational limb movement patterns. Notably, older infants performed more movement patterns that involved a lower number of stationary limbs than younger infants. Despite the wide range of possible movement patterns, a small group of basic patterns dominated in both age groups. Our results suggest that the fundamental structure of limb coordination during rolling in the early acquisition stages remains unchanged until at least 8-10 months of age. However, compared to younger infants, older infants exhibited a greater ability to select an effective rotational movement by positioning themselves with fewer stationary limbs and performing faster limb movements.
Dinstein, Ilan; Thomas, Cibu; Humphreys, Kate; Minshew, Nancy; Behrmann, Marlene; Heeger, David J
It has been proposed that individuals with autism have difficulties understanding the goals and intentions of others because of a fundamental dysfunction in the mirror neuron system. Here, however, we show that individuals with autism exhibited not only normal fMRI responses in mirror system areas during observation and execution of hand movements but also exhibited typical movement-selective adaptation (repetition suppression) when observing or executing the same movement repeatedly. Movement selectivity is a defining characteristic of neurons involved in movement perception, including mirror neurons, and, as such, these findings argue against a mirror system dysfunction in autism. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Singer, Harvey S
Stereotypic movements are repetitive, rhythmic, fixed, patterned in form, amplitude, and localization, but purposeless (e.g., hand shaking, waving, body rocking, head nodding). They are commonly seen in children; both in normal children (primary stereotypy) and in individuals with additional behavioral or neurological signs and symptoms (secondary stereotypy). They should be differentiated from compulsions (OCD), tics (tic disorders), trichotillomania, skin picking disorder, or the direct physiological effect of a substance. There is increasing evidence to support a neurobiological mechanism. Response to behavioral and pharmacological therapies is variable. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Hollins, M; Favorov, O
The existence of a tactile movement aftereffect was established in a series of experiments on the palmar surface of the hand and fingers of psychophysical observers. During adaptation, observers cupped their hand around a moving drum for up to 3 min; following this period of stimulation, they typically reported an aftereffect consisting of movement sensations located on and deep to the skin, and lasting for up to 1 min. Preliminary experiments comparing a number of stimulus materials mounted on the drum demonstrated that a surface approximating a low-spatial-frequency square wave, with a smooth microtexture, was especially effective at inducing the aftereffect; this adapting stimulus was therefore used throughout the two main experiments. In Experiment 1, the vividness of the aftereffect produced by 2 min of adaptation was determined under three test conditions: with the hand (1) remaining on the now stationary drum; (2) in contact with a soft, textured surface; or (3) suspended in air. Subjects' free magnitude estimates of the peak vividness of the aftereffect were not significantly different across conditions; each subject experienced the aftereffect at least once under each condition. Thus the tactile movement aftereffect does not seem to depend critically on the ponditions of stimulation that obtain while it is being experienced. In Experiment 2, the vividness and duration of the aftereffect were measured as a function of the duration of the adapting stimulus. Both measures increased steadily over the range of durations explored (30-180 sec). In its dependence on adapting duration, the aftereffect resembles the waterfall illusion in vision. An explanation for the tactile movement aftereffect is proposed, based on the model of cortical dynamics of Whitsel et al. (1989, 1991). With assumed modest variation of one parameter across individuals, this application of the model is able to account both for the data of the majority of subjects, who experienced the
Rayburn, W F
Recording fetal activity serves as an indirect measure of central nervous system integrity and function. The coordination of whole body movement, which requires complex neurologic control, is likely similar to that of the newborn infant. Short-term observations of the fetus are best performed using real-time ultrasound imaging. Monitoring fetal motion has been shown to be clinically worthwhile in predicting impending death or compromise, especially when placental insufficiency is longstanding. The presence of a vigorous fetus is reassuring. Perceived inactivity requires a reassessment of any underlying antepartum complication and a more precise evaluation by fetal heart rate testing or real-time ultrasonography before delivery is contemplated.
Hahonou, Eric Komlavi; Pelckmans, Lotte
In the context of liberalization of West African political regimes, the upsurge of audacious political entrepreneurs who want to end chattel slavery in their nation-state, resulted in the legal criminalisation of slavery in both Mauritania (2007) and Niger (2003) and in a proposal to revise......-slavery movements had raised awareness, this political emergence was even easier. Indeed the fight against ‘slave mentalities’ was everywhere a major challenge and a crucial step to mobilize groups of slave status under a united force. As this article argues changes in political structures and changes in political...
Langrock, Roland; Hopcraft, J. Grant C.; Blackwell, Paul G.
makes its movement decisions relative to the group centroid. The basic idea is framed within the flexible class of hidden Markov models, extending previous work on modelling animal movement by means of multi-state random walks. While in simulation experiments parameter estimators exhibit some bias......, to date, practical statistical methods which can include group dynamics in animal movement models have been lacking. We consider a flexible modelling framework that distinguishes a group-level model, describing the movement of the group's centre, and an individual-level model, such that each individual......Group dynamic movement is a fundamental aspect of many species' movements. The need to adequately model individuals' interactions with other group members has been recognised, particularly in order to differentiate the role of social forces in individual movement from environmental factors. However...
Nielsen, Jakob Isak
section unearths what characterizes the literature on camera movement. The second section of the dissertation delineates the history of camera movement itself within narrative cinema. Several organizational principles subtending the on-screen effect of camera movement are revealed in section two...... but they are not organized into a coherent framework. This is the task that section three meets in proposing a functional taxonomy for camera movement in narrative cinema. Two presumptions subtend the taxonomy: That camera movement actively contributes to the way in which we understand the sound and images on the screen......, commentative or valuative manner. 4) Focalization: associating the movement of the camera with the viewpoints of characters or entities in the story world. 5) Reflexive: inviting spectators to engage with the artifice of camera movement. 6) Abstract: visualizing abstract ideas and concepts. In order...
Schutte, Anne R; Spencer, John P
The timed-initiation paradigm developed by Ghez and colleagues (1997) has revealed two modes of motor planning: continuous and discrete. Continuous responding occurs when targets are separated by less than 60 degrees of spatial angle, and discrete responding occurs when targets are separated by greater than 60 degrees . Although these two modes are thought to reflect the operation of separable strategic planning systems, a new theory of movement preparation, the Dynamic Field Theory, suggests that two modes emerge flexibly from the same system. Experiment 1 replicated continuous and discrete performance using a task modified to allow for a critical test of the single system view. In Experiment 2, participants were allowed to correct their movements following movement initiation (the standard task does not allow corrections). Results showed continuous planning performance at large and small target separations. These results are consistent with the proposal that the two modes reflect the time-dependent "preshaping" of a single planning system.
Yamamoto, Naohide; Philbeck, John W
The loss of peripheral vision impairs spatial learning and navigation. However, the mechanisms underlying these impairments remain poorly understood. One advantage of having peripheral vision is that objects in an environment are easily detected and readily foveated via eye movements. The present study examined this potential benefit of peripheral vision by investigating whether competent performance in spatial learning requires effective eye movements. In Experiment 1, participants learned room-sized spatial layouts with or without restriction on direct eye movements to objects. Eye movements were restricted by having participants view the objects through small apertures in front of their eyes. Results showed that impeding effective eye movements made subsequent retrieval of spatial memory slower and less accurate. The small apertures also occluded much of the environmental surroundings, but the importance of this kind of occlusion was ruled out in Experiment 2 by showing that participants exhibited intact learning of the same spatial layouts when luminescent objects were viewed in an otherwise dark room. Together, these findings suggest that one of the roles of peripheral vision in spatial learning is to guide eye movements, highlighting the importance of spatial information derived from eye movements for learning environmental layouts.
... Health Conditions Congenital mirror movement disorder Congenital mirror movement disorder Printable PDF Open All Close All Enable ... view the expand/collapse boxes. Description Congenital mirror movement disorder is a condition in which intentional movements ...
Li, Qi-xin; Ma, Zhen; Jiang, Bo; Yao, Yong-sheng
As one of the most challenging problems in Computer Controlled Optical Surfacing (CCOS), the edge effect greatly affects the polishing accuracy and efficiency. CCOS rely on stable tool influence function (TIF), however, at the edge of the mirror surface,with the grinding head out of the mirror ,the contact area and pressure distribution changes, which resulting in a non-linear change of TIF, and leads to tilting or sagging at the edge of the mirror. In order reduce the adverse effects and improve the polishing accuracy and efficiency. In this paper, we used the finite element simulation to analyze the pressure distribution at the mirror edge and combined with the improved traditional method to establish a new model. The new method fully considered the non-uniformity of pressure distribution. After modeling the TIFs in different locations, the description and prediction of the edge effects are realized, which has a positive significance on the control and suppression of edge effects
different conditions are recorded in this experiment. These conditions are the resting state, left finger keyboard press, right finger keyboard...51 4.3.2. Right and Left Finger Keyboard Press Conditions ..................................... 57 4.4. Detection of Hand...solving Gamma 30 Hz and higher Blending of multiple brain functions ; Muscle related artifacts 2.2. EEG Artifacts EEG recordings are intended to
Rico, Adriana; Kindlmann, Pavel; Sedláček, František
Roč. 56, č. 1 (2007), s. 1-12 ISSN 0139-7893 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA206/04/0254; GA ČR(CZ) GD206/03/H034; GA MŠk LC06073 Keywords : Apodemus flavicollis * Clethrionomys glareolus * habitat fragmentation * linear clearings * road barriers * road crossing rates * Sorex araneus Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 0.376, year: 2007
Maeda, M.; Itou, S.; Ishii, Y.; Yamamoto, K.; Kawamura, Y.; Matsuda, T.; Hayashi, N.; Ishii, J.
Ten temporomandibular joints (TMJs) of 5 healthy volunteers and 19 TMJs of internal derangements in 16 patients with splint therapy were examined with MR imaging. T1-weighted images were obtained only in the closed mouth position, and gradient recalled acquisition in steady state (GRASS) images were obtained in active opening and closing phases, allowing a pseudodynamic display of TMJ movement. All patients received protrusive splint treatment. The usefulness of MR imaging to assess the efficacy of splint therapy was evaluated. Corrected disk position with the splint in place was clearly demonstrated in 9 TMJs, corresponding with elimination of reciprocal clicking. Ten other TMJs of anterior disk displacement without reduction showed uncorrected disk position by the splint. This information could confirm the therapeutic efficacy, or suggest other treatment alternatives. GRASS MR imaging can provide accurate and physiologic information about disk function in initial and follow-up assessment of protrusive splint therapy. (orig.)
Christensen, Line Hjorth
Summary: This article considers the display of posters as a distinctive activity and defining aspect of British modernism between the two wars, looking to a cardinal event, the Exhibition of British and Foreign Posters at the Victoria and Albert Museum in 1931. This manifestation was the first...... in the Museum to expose the poster-image as a medium in its own artistic, technical, historical and popular right; the article examines the event as a sign holding core characteristics of a ‘poster movement’ prevailing during the interwar years. The period made a varied scene for exhibitions promoting...... commercial and graphic design of various kinds of which British and Foreign Posters offers a particularly rich example. The exhibition attracted commercial, artistic and curatorial forces substantiating the idea of a movement, and approached commercial art from a perspective that raised new awareness towards...
Hansen, Lennard Højbjerg
It has been an accepted precept in film theory that specific stylistic features do not express specific content. Nevertheless, it is possible to find many examples in the history of film in which stylistic features do express specific content: for instance, the circular camera movement is used...... repeatedly to convey the feeling of a man and a woman falling in love. This raises the question of why producers and directors choose certain stylistic features to narrate certain categories of content. Through the analysis of several short film and TV clips, this article explores whether...... or not there are perceptual aspects related to specific stylistic features that enable them to be used for delimited narrational purposes. The article further attempts to reopen this particular stylistic debate by exploring the embodied aspects of visual perception in relation to specific stylistic features...
Rasmussen, Lisa Rosén
. The chapter traces the former pupil’s memories of physical and affective movements within the larger context of school and discovers surprisingly diverse modes of knowing, relating, and attending to things, teachers and classmates among and between the three generations. It thus taps into the rich realms...... of individual experiences of school and everyday school life as it unfolds in and beyond the formal teaching situations. The chapter follows in the wake of a growing attention to the aspects of everyday life and lived life at school in the history of education. It also develops tools for and demonstrates how...... the use of spoken memories is a rewarding source for the writing about school from the pupils’ perspective....
Yung, C Y
The descriptive aspects of all types of movement disorders and their related syndromes and terminologies used in the literature are reviewed and described. This comprises the features of (a) movement disorders secondary to neurological diseases affecting the extrapyramidal motor system, such as: athetosis, chorea, dystonia, hemiballismus, myoclonus, tremor, tics and spasm, (b) drug induced movement disorders, such as: akathisia, akinesia, hyperkinesia, dyskinesias, extrapyramidal syndrome, and tardive dyskinesia, and (c) abnormal movements in psychiatric disorders, such as: mannerism, stereotyped behaviour and psychomotor retardation. It is intended to bring about a more comprehensive overview of these movement disorders from a phenomenological perspective, so that clinicians can familiarize with these features for diagnosis. Some general statements are made in regard to some of the characteristics of movement disorders.
Dinstein, Ilan; Thomas, Cibu; Humphreys, Kate; Minshew, Nancy; Behrmann, Marlene; Heeger, David J.
It has been proposed that individuals with autism have difficulties understanding the goals and intentions of others because of a fundamental dysfunction in the mirror neuron system. Here, however, we show that individuals with autism exhibited not only normal fMRI responses in mirror system areas during observation and execution of hand movements, but also exhibited typical movement-selective adaptation (repetition suppression) when observing or executing the same movement repeatedly. Moveme...
The direct measurement of the fluctuation of molecular motions, which provides with useful information on the molecular movement, was conducted by introducing photon counting method. The utilization of photon counting makes it possible to treat the molecular system consisting of a small number of molecules like a radioisotope in the detection of a small number of atoms, which are significant in biological systems. This method is based on counting the number of photons of the definite polarization emitted in a definite time interval from the fluorescent molecules excited by pulsed light, which are bound to the marked large molecules found in a definite spatial region. Using the probability of finding a number of molecules oriented in a definite direction in the definite spatial region, the probability of counting a number of photons in a definite time interval can be calculated. Thus the measurable count rate of photons can be related with the fluctuation of molecular movement. The measurement was carried out under the condition, in which the probability of the simultaneous arrival of more than two photons at a detector is less than 1/100. As the experimental results, the resolving power of photon-counting apparatus, the frequency distribution of the number of photons of some definite polarization counted for 1 nanosecond are shown. In the solution, the variance of the number of molecules of 500 on the average is 1200, which was estimated from the experimental data by assuming normal distribution. This departure from the Poisson distribution means that a certain correlation does exist in molecular movement. In solid solution, no significant deviation was observed. The correlation existing in molecular movement can be expressed in terms of the fluctuation of the number of molecules. (Nakai, Y.)
Drawing a distinction between systemic and functional explanations of movement in general, I shall argue that the Chomskyan view of movement in language is originally functional. With the advent of the Minimimalist Program, however, it has become systemic, but no argument for this change has been...... forthcoming. I'll then present data (from Danish) to sustain the view that only functional type explanations of movement can be empirically motivated, and these only if movement is reinterpreted as transition states between representations of different kinds....
This article considers the development of the Tea Party movement, the character of its thinking and the nature of the interests and constituencies to which it is tied. The article suggests that despite the importance of ideas and interests, and the process of interaction between them, the movement....... The political friction that this creates has contributed to the anger that has characterised the movement. While the Tea Party movement may, as such, have only an ephemeral existence, independent conservatives are likely to remain a significant and potent constituency and will, within the institutional...
Fuchs, Melani Alexander
Montessori's first premise is that movement and cognition are closely entwined, and movement can enhance thinking and learning (Lillard, 2005). Children must move, and practice moving, to develop strength, balance, and the stability needed to fully participate in the rigors of daily life. It is imperative for young children's motor…
Utilizing data from a survey of participants at the May 6, 1979 antinuclear rally in Washington, DC (N = 420), this dissertation explored some of the major structural and ideological characteristics of the American Antinuclear Movement. By organizing the data around three of the key analytical concepts in the study of social movements - mobilization, recruitment, and ideology - the author was able to derive from the demonstration sample a descriptive and illustrative analysis of those individuals, organizations, and processes involved in the national antinuclear crusade. Given that few researchers have actively studied the antinuclear movement beyond the scope of local or regional protests, this work constitutes the only empirical study to date examining a cross section of the movement's participants from a sociological perspective. It is also one of the few attempts to use a national demonstration as a social laboratory for the study of a social movement in general. In terms of the mobilization variables examined in the study, it was found that organizational networks, past movement activism, and individual resources were important factors in the May 6 mobilization effort. While less than one-half of the demonstrators were part of the antinuclear organizational network per se, most of them had been active in the major protest movements of the 1960's and 1970's. The demonstrators were relatively high in socio-economic resources and had occupational or educational schedules conducive to creating the necessary discretionary time for movement participation
Fagan, William F; Lewis, Mark A; Auger-Méthé, Marie; Avgar, Tal; Benhamou, Simon; Breed, Greg; LaDage, Lara; Schlägel, Ulrike E; Tang, Wen-wu; Papastamatiou, Yannis P; Forester, James; Mueller, Thomas
Memory is critical to understanding animal movement but has proven challenging to study. Advances in animal tracking technology, theoretical movement models and cognitive sciences have facilitated research in each of these fields, but also created a need for synthetic examination of the linkages between memory and animal movement. Here, we draw together research from several disciplines to understand the relationship between animal memory and movement processes. First, we frame the problem in terms of the characteristics, costs and benefits of memory as outlined in psychology and neuroscience. Next, we provide an overview of the theories and conceptual frameworks that have emerged from behavioural ecology and animal cognition. Third, we turn to movement ecology and summarise recent, rapid developments in the types and quantities of available movement data, and in the statistical measures applicable to such data. Fourth, we discuss the advantages and interrelationships of diverse modelling approaches that have been used to explore the memory-movement interface. Finally, we outline key research challenges for the memory and movement communities, focusing on data needs and mathematical and computational challenges. We conclude with a roadmap for future work in this area, outlining axes along which focused research should yield rapid progress. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd/CNRS.
Møllenbach, Emilie; Hansen, John Paulin; Lillholm, Martin
Gaze as a sole input modality must support complex navigation and selection tasks. Gaze interaction combines specific eye movements and graphic display objects (GDOs). This paper suggests a unifying taxonomy of gaze interaction principles. The taxonomy deals with three types of eye movements...
A.M. van Alphen (Arjan)
textabstractThis thesis will address the generation of compensatory eye movements in naturally mutated or genetically modified mice. The reason for generating compensatory eye movements is solely related to the requirements for good vision. In a subject moving through its environment the projection
Rehm, Matthias; Christensen, Bianca Clavio; Nielsen, Thorsten B.
Although movement is essential in location-based games to get from one point of interest to the next, it is seldom taken into account for the game design and the selection of locations. Instead, player movement is usually analyzed after the fact, i.e. when the game is ready to play. In this paper......-based educational games....
Smith, Cindy; Moore, Thomas; Carlton, Elizabeth B.; Kranowitz, Carol Stock
Four articles address music and movement in early childhood education: (1) "For the Love of Music--and Children"(Cindy Smith); (2) "Music: The Great Connector" (Thomas Moore); (3) "Learning through Music: The Support of Brain Research" (Elizabeth B. Carlton); and (4) "Music and Movement Bring Together Children of…
Zhang, Youming; Juhola, Martti
Eye movements are a relatively novel data source for biometric identification. When video cameras applied to eye tracking become smaller and more efficient, this data source could offer interesting opportunities for the development of eye movement biometrics. In this paper, we study primarily biometric identification as seen as a classification task of multiple classes, and secondarily biometric verification considered as binary classification. Our research is based on the saccadic eye movement signal measurements from 109 young subjects. In order to test the data measured, we use a procedure of biometric identification according to the one-versus-one (subject) principle. In a development from our previous research, which also involved biometric verification based on saccadic eye movements, we now apply another eye movement tracker device with a higher sampling frequency of 250 Hz. The results obtained are good, with correct identification rates at 80-90% at their best.
McClelland, Verity M
To demonstrate how neurophysiological tools have advanced our understanding of the pathophysiology of paediatric movement disorders, and of neuroplasticity in the developing brain. Delineation of corticospinal tract connectivity using transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) is being investigated as a potential biomarker for response to therapy. TMS measures of cortical excitability and neuroplasticity are also being used to investigate the effects of therapy, demonstrating neuroplastic changes that relate to functional improvements. Analyses of evoked potentials and event-related changes in the electroencephalogaphy spectral activity provide growing evidence for the important role of aberrant sensory processing in the pathophysiology of many different movement disorders. Neurophysiological findings demonstrate that children with clinically similar phenotypes may have differing underlying pathophysiology, which in turn may explain differential response to therapy. Neurophysiological parameters can act as biomarkers, providing a means to stratify individuals, and are well suited to provide biofeedback. They therefore have enormous potential to facilitate improvements to therapy. Although currently a small field, the role of neurophysiology in paediatric movement disorders is poised to expand, both fuelled by and contributing to the rapidly growing fields of neuro-rehabilitation and neuromodulation and the move towards a more individualized therapeutic approach.
Mandel, J T; Bildstein, K L; Bohrer, G; Winkler, D W
We develop individual-based movement ecology models (MEM) to explore turkey vulture (Cathartes aura) migration decisions at both hourly and daily scales. Vulture movements in 10 migration events were recorded with satellite-reporting GPS sensors, and flight behavior was observed visually, aided by on-the-ground VHF radio-tracking. We used the North American Regional Reanalysis dataset to obtain values for wind speed, turbulent kinetic energy (TKE), and cloud height and used a digital elevation model for a measure of terrain ruggedness. A turkey vulture fitted with a heart-rate logger during 124 h of flight during 38 contiguous days showed only a small increase in mean heart rate as distance traveled per day increased, which suggests that, unlike flapping, soaring flight does not lead to greatly increased metabolic costs. Data from 10 migrations for 724 hourly segments and 152 daily segments showed that vultures depended heavily upon high levels of TKE in the atmospheric boundary layer to increase flight distances and maintain preferred bearings at both hourly and daily scales. We suggest how the MEM can be extended to other spatial and temporal scales of avian migration. Our success in relating model-derived atmospheric variables to migration indicates the potential of using regional reanalysis data, as here, and potentially other regional, higher-resolution, atmospheric models in predicting changing movement patterns of soaring birds under various scenarios of climate and land use change.
Palidis, Dimitrios J.; Wyder-Hodge, Pearson A.; Fooken, Jolande; Spering, Miriam
Dynamic visual acuity (DVA) is the ability to resolve fine spatial detail in dynamic objects during head fixation, or in static objects during head or body rotation. This ability is important for many activities such as ball sports, and a close relation has been shown between DVA and sports expertise. DVA tasks involve eye movements, yet, it is unclear which aspects of eye movements contribute to successful performance. Here we examined the relation between DVA and the kinematics of smooth pursuit and saccadic eye movements in a cohort of 23 varsity baseball players. In a computerized dynamic-object DVA test, observers reported the location of the gap in a small Landolt-C ring moving at various speeds while eye movements were recorded. Smooth pursuit kinematics—eye latency, acceleration, velocity gain, position error—and the direction and amplitude of saccadic eye movements were linked to perceptual performance. Results reveal that distinct eye movement patterns—minimizing eye position error, tracking smoothly, and inhibiting reverse saccades—were related to dynamic visual acuity. The close link between eye movement quality and DVA performance has important implications for the development of perceptual training programs to improve DVA. PMID:28187157
Palidis, Dimitrios J; Wyder-Hodge, Pearson A; Fooken, Jolande; Spering, Miriam
Dynamic visual acuity (DVA) is the ability to resolve fine spatial detail in dynamic objects during head fixation, or in static objects during head or body rotation. This ability is important for many activities such as ball sports, and a close relation has been shown between DVA and sports expertise. DVA tasks involve eye movements, yet, it is unclear which aspects of eye movements contribute to successful performance. Here we examined the relation between DVA and the kinematics of smooth pursuit and saccadic eye movements in a cohort of 23 varsity baseball players. In a computerized dynamic-object DVA test, observers reported the location of the gap in a small Landolt-C ring moving at various speeds while eye movements were recorded. Smooth pursuit kinematics-eye latency, acceleration, velocity gain, position error-and the direction and amplitude of saccadic eye movements were linked to perceptual performance. Results reveal that distinct eye movement patterns-minimizing eye position error, tracking smoothly, and inhibiting reverse saccades-were related to dynamic visual acuity. The close link between eye movement quality and DVA performance has important implications for the development of perceptual training programs to improve DVA.
Yoichiro Kanno; Benjamin H. Letcher; Jason A. Coombs; Keith H. Nislow; Andrew R. Whiteley
Defining functional connectivity between habitats in spatially heterogeneous landscapes is a particular challenge for small-bodied aquatic species. Traditional approaches (e.g. mark-recapture studies) preclude an assessment of animal movement over the life cycle (birth to reproduction), and movement of individuals may not represent the degree of gene movement for...
Kanno, Yoichiro; Letcher, Benjamin H.; Coombs, Jason A.; Nislow, Keith H.; Whiteley, Andrew R.
1. Defining functional connectivity between habitats in spatially heterogeneous landscapes is a particular challenge for small-bodied aquatic species. Traditional approaches (e.g. mark–recapture studies) preclude an assessment of animal movement over the life cycle (birth to reproduction), and movement of individuals may not represent the degree of gene movement for fecund species.
van Someren, E. J.; Vonk, B. F.; Thijssen, W. A.; Speelman, J. D.; Schuurman, P. R.; Mirmiran, M.; Swaab, D. F.
Actigraphy, the long-term measurement of human movement with a small solid state recorder, is gaining acceptance as a useful method in many research fields. Currently available actigraphs assess or estimate the movement duration per time interval. However, the output gives no information on movement
M.D. Bryant; M.D. Lukey; J.P. McDonell; R.A. Gubernick; R.S. Aho
The relationship between the movement of small (,150-mm) Dolly Varden Salvelinus malma and cutthroat trout Oncorhynchus clarkii and stream discharge is not well known in streams of southeast Alaska. We measured movement in a small headwater stream using passive integrated transponder (PIT) tags and stationary antennas to record time and date of movement. Fish with PIT...
Garcia Ruiz, Pedro J; Mayo, David; Hernandez, Jaime; Cantarero, Susana; Ayuso, Carmen
Movement disorders are well known features of some dominant hereditary ataxias (HA), specially SCA3/Machado-Joseph disease and dentatorubropallidolusyan atrophy. However, little is known about the existence and classification of movement disorders in other dominant and recessive ataxias. We prospectively studied the presence of movement disorders in patients referred for HA over the last 3 years. Only those patients with a confirmed family history of ataxia were included. We studied 84 cases of HA, including 46 cases of recessive and 38 cases of dominant HA. Thirty out of 46 cases of recessive HA could be classified as: Friedreich ataxia (FA), 29 cases; vitamin E deficiency, 1 case. Twenty-three out of 38 cases of dominant HA could be classified as: SCA 2, 4 cases; SCA 3, 8 cases; SCA 6, 4 cases; SCA 7, 6 cases and SCA 8, 1 case. We observed movement disorders in 20/38 (52%) patients with dominant HA and 25/46 (54%) cases with recessive HA, including 16 patients (16/29) with FA. In general, postural tremor was the most frequent observed movement disorder (27 cases), followed by dystonia (22 cases). Five patients had akinetic rigid syndrome, and in 13 cases, several movement disorders coexisted. Movement disorders are frequent findings in HA, not only in dominant HA but also in recessive HA. Copyright 2002 Elsevier Science B.V.
Thach, W T
Opinion is divided on what the exact function of the cerebellum is. Experiments are summarized that support the following views: (1) the cerebellum is a combiner of multiple movement factors; (2) it contains anatomically fixed permanent focal representation of individual body parts (muscles and segments) and movement modes (e.g., vestibular driven vs. cognitive driven); (3) it contains flexible changing representations/memory of physical properties of the body parts including muscle strength, segment inertia, joint viscosity, and segmental interaction torques (dynamics); (4) it contains mechanisms for learning and storage of the properties in item no. 3 through trial-and-error practice; (5) it provides for linkage of body parts, motor modes, and motordynamics via the parallel fiber system; (6) it combines and integrates the many factors so as to initiate coordinated movements of the many body parts; (7) it is thus enabled to play the unique role of initiating coordinated movements; and (8) this unique causative role is evidenced by the fact that: (a) electrical stimulation of the cerebellum can initiate compound coordinated movements; (b) in naturally initiated compound movements, cerebellar discharge precedes that in downstream target structures such as motor cerebral cortex; and (c) cerebellar ablation abolishes the natural production of compound movements in the awake alert individuals.
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This project is to determine horizontal and vertical movement patterns of two jellyfish species in Hood Canal, in relation to environmental variables. It is being...
Full Text Available In this review, we introduced our three studies that focused on facial movements. In the first study, we examined the temporal characteristics of neural responses elicited by viewing mouth movements, and assessed differences between the responses to mouth opening and closing movements and an averting eyes condition. Our results showed that the occipitotemporal area, the human MT/V5 homologue, was active in the perception of both mouth and eye motions. Viewing mouth and eye movements did not elicit significantly different activity in the occipitotemporal area, which indicated that perception of the movement of facial parts may be processed in the same manner, and this is different from motion in general. In the second study, we investigated whether early activity in the occipitotemporal region evoked by eye movements was influenced by a face contour and/or features such as the mouth. Our results revealed specific information processing for eye movements in the occipitotemporal region, and this activity was significantly influenced by whether movements appeared with the facial contour and/or features, in other words, whether the eyes moved, even if the movement itself was the same. In the third study, we examined the effects of inverting the facial contour (hair and chin and features (eyes, nose, and mouth on processing for static and dynamic face perception. Our results showed the following: (1 In static face perception, activity in the right fusiform area was affected more by the inversion of features while that in the left fusiform area was affected more by a disruption in the spatial relationship between the contour and features, and (2 In dynamic face perception, activity in the right occipitotemporal area was affected by the inversion of the facial contour.
Bauer, Robert O.
The movement of small business management courses into college and university curricula is discussed. The present state of small business management courses, the objectives of the courses, the variety of courses being offered, and teacher and student reaction to the courses are examined. A historical overview of small business courses at higher…
Karkou, Vicky; Meekums, Bonnie
Dementia is a collective name for different degenerative brain syndromes which, according to Alzheimer's Disease International, affects approximately 35.6 million people worldwide. The latest NICE guideline for dementia highlights the value of diverse treatment options for the different stages and symptoms of dementia including non-pharmacological treatments. Relevant literature also argues for the value of interventions that acknowledge the complexity of the condition and address the person as a whole, including their physical, emotional, social and cognitive processes. At the same time, there is growing literature that highlights the capacity of the arts and embodied practices to address this complexity. Dance movement therapy is an embodied psychological intervention that can address complexity and thus, may be useful for people with dementia, but its effectiveness remains unclear. To assess the effects of dance movement therapy on behavioural, social, cognitive and emotional symptoms of people with dementia in comparison to no treatment, standard care or any other treatment. Also, to compare different forms of dance movement therapy (e.g. Laban-based dance movement therapy, Chacian dance movement therapy or Authentic Movement). Searches took place up to March 2016 through ALOIS, Cochrane Dementia and Cognitive Improvement's Specialized Register, which covers CENTRAL, a number of major healthcare databases and trial registers, and grey literature sources. We checked bibliographies of relevant studies and reviews, and contacted professional associations, educational programmes and experts from around the world. We considered randomised controlled trials (RCTs) in any language, including cross-over design and cluster-RCTs for inclusion. Studies considered had to include people with dementia, in any age group and in any setting, with interventions delivered by a dance movement therapy practitioner who (i) had received formal training (ii) was a dance movement
when air movement is desirable and when it is not. At temperatures up to 22-23oC, at sedentary activity and with occupants feeling neutral or cooler there is a risk of air movement being perceived as unacceptable, even at low velocities. In particular, a cool overall thermal sensation negatively...... influences the subjective perception of air movement. With occupants feeling warmer than neutral, at temperatures above 23oC or at raised activity levels, humans generally do not feel draught at air velocities typical for indoor environments (up to around 0.4 m/s). In the higher temperature range, very high...
S. Pemberton (Steven)
htmlabstractThe term “Open Data” often goes hand in hand with the term “Big Data”, where large data sets get released allowing for analysis, but the Cinderella of the Open Data ball is Small Data, small amounts of data, nonetheless possibly essential, that are too small to be put in some database or
Ranzini, Mariagrazia; Lisi, Matteo; Zorzi, Marco
Growing evidence suggests that orienting visual attention in space can influence the processing of numerical magnitude, with leftward orienting speeding up the processing of small numbers relative to larger ones and the converse for rightward orienting. The manipulation of eye movements is a convenient way to direct visuospatial attention, but several aspects of the complex relationship between eye movements, attention orienting and number processing remain unexplored. In a previous study, we observed that inducing involuntary, reflexive eye movements by means of optokinetic stimulation affected number processing only when numerical magnitude was task relevant (i.e., during magnitude comparison, but not during parity judgment; Ranzini et al., in J Cogn Psychol 27, 459-470, (2015). Here, we investigated whether processing of task-irrelevant numerical magnitude can be modulated by voluntary eye movements, and whether the type of eye movements (smooth pursuit vs. saccades) would influence this interaction. Participants tracked with their gaze a dot while listening to a digit. The numerical task was to indicate whether the digit was odd or even through non-spatial, verbal responses. The dot could move leftward or rightward either continuously, allowing tracking by smooth pursuit eye movements, or in discrete steps across a series of adjacent locations, triggering a sequence of saccades. Both smooth pursuit and saccadic eye movements similarly affected number processing and modulated response times for large numbers as a function of direction of motion. These findings suggest that voluntary eye movements redirect attention in mental number space and highlight that eye movements should play a key factor in the investigation of number-space interactions.
together as movement disorders (e.g. Parkinson's disease, dystonia, essential tremor) is with medication and, in some, with ... Stereotactic lesioning of basal ganglia and/or thalamic targets ... and there is some concern related to suicide.
Full text: Neuroimaging methods are of great importance for the differential diagnostic delimitation of movement disorders associated with structural damage (neoplasms, ischemic lesions, neuroinfections) from those associated with specific pathophysiological mechanisms (dysmetabolic disorders, neurotransmitter disorders). Learning objective: Presentation of typical imaging findings contributing to nosological differentiation in groups of movement disorders with similar clinical signs. In this presentation are discussed neuroimaging findings in Parkinson‘s disease, atypical parkinsonian syndromes (multiple system atrophy, progressive supranuclear palsy, corticobasal degeneration), parkinsonism in genetically mediated diseases (Wilson’s disease, pantothenate kinase-associated neurodegeneration – PKAN), vascular parkinsonism, hyperkinetic movement disorders (palatal tremor, Huntington‘s chorea, symptomatic chorea in ischemic stroke and diabetes, rubral tremor, ballismus, hemifacial spasm). Contemporary neuroimaging methods enable support for diagnostic and differential diagnostic precision of a number of hypo- and hyperkinetic movement disorders, which is essential for neurological clinical practice
Full Text Available In this selective review, we examine key findings on eye movements when viewing advertisements. We begin with a brief, general introduction to the properties and neural underpinnings of saccadic eye movements. Next, we provide an overview of eye movement behavior during reading, scene perception, and visual search, since each of these activities is, at various times, involved in viewing ads. We then review the literature on eye movements when viewing print ads and warning labels (of the kind that appear on alcohol and tobacco ads, before turning to a consideration of advertisements in dynamic media (television and the Internet. Finally, we propose topics and methodological approaches that may prove to be useful in future research.
... body, are governed by the same basic physical laws,” says Dr. Jeffrey Weiss, a biomechanics expert at ... for movement disorders such as cerebral palsy and Parkinson’s disease. Joints are a common source of problems ...
Full Text Available This paper integrates thought on game narrative and embodied cognition, in order to consider the significance of movement to the embodied narrative experience of games. If games are a mode of ‘environmental storytelling’, determining the player’s mobile situatedness within the gamespace is of crucial importance. The metaphor of game design as narrative architecture should be expanded to include te the design of movement dynamics, alongside geographical gamespace. I suggest a theoretical infrastructure that aims to enable further analysis of movement design’s role in this scope. The theory of enactive perception asserts that all perception is inherently negotiated through embodied understanding of moving within environment. According to this model, by giving meaning to perception, movement is also directly related to the structure of consciousness and thought. Cognitive definitions of ‘narrative’ that integrate embodiment are applied to argue it can relevantly account for part of thought’s role in enactive perception. Mieke Bal’s concept of focalization (1997 broaches narrative perspective by underscoring the constant “movement of the look”. For enactive perception, such mobility should be understood as inseparable from the movement of the body even when perspective could appear detached from embodiment. Therefore, I offer the supplementary concept of “enactive focalization” – narrative perception as interpreted through the interconnected dynamics or perspectival and physical movement. To exemplify my ideas and the potential of future research in this scope, I discuss the uniquely effective and affective movement dynamic design of Journey. This paper concludes by reflecting on enactive focalization in light of the increased utilization of embodiment in the contemporary digital media landscape.
Schellhorn, N A; Bianchi, F J J A; Hsu, C L
Entomophagous arthropods can provide valuable biological control services, but they need to fulfill their life cycle in agricultural landscapes often dominated by ephemeral and disturbed habitats. In this environment, movement is critical to escape from disturbances and to find resources scattered in space and time. Despite considerable research effort in documenting species movement and spatial distribution patterns, the quantification of arthropod movement has been hampered by their small size and the variety of modes of movement that can result in redistribution at different spatial scales. In addition, insight into how movement influences in-field population processes and the associated biocontrol services is limited because emigration and immigration are often confounded with local-scale population processes. More detailed measurements of the habitat functionality and movement processes are needed to better understand the interactions between species movement traits, disturbances, the landscape context, and the potential for entomophagous arthropods to suppress economically important pests.
Hoogenboom, Barbara J; Sulavik, Mark
Although many physical therapists have begun to focus on movement and function in clinical practice, a significant number continue to focus on impairments or pathoanatomic models to direct interventions. This paradigm may be driven by the current models used to direct and guide curricula used for physical therapist education. The methods by which students are educated may contribute to a focus on independent systems, rather than viewing the body as a functional whole. Students who enter practice must be able to integrate information across multiple systems that affect a patient or client's movement and function. Such integration must be taught to students and it is the responsibility of those in physical therapist education to embrace and teach the next generation of students this identifying professional paradigm of the movement system. The purpose of this clinical commentary is to describe the current state of the movement system in physical therapy education, suggest strategies for enhancing movement system focus in entry level education, and envision the future of physical therapy education related to the movement system. Contributions by a student author offer depth and perspective to the ideas and suggestions presented. 5.
McMahon, Kathryn; van Dijk, Kor-Jent; Ruiz-Montoya, Leonardo; Kendrick, Gary A; Krauss, Siegfried L; Waycott, Michelle; Verduin, Jennifer; Lowe, Ryan; Statton, John; Brown, Eloise; Duarte, Carlos
A movement ecology framework is applied to enhance our understanding of the causes, mechanisms and consequences of movement in seagrasses: marine, clonal, flowering plants. Four life-history stages of seagrasses can move: pollen, sexual propagules, vegetative fragments and the spread of individuals through clonal growth. Movement occurs on the water surface, in the water column, on or in the sediment, via animal vectors and through spreading clones. A capacity for long-distance dispersal and demographic connectivity over multiple timeframes is the novel feature of the movement ecology of seagrasses with significant evolutionary and ecological consequences. The space-time movement footprint of different life-history stages varies. For example, the distance moved by reproductive propagules and vegetative expansion via clonal growth is similar, but the timescales range exponentially, from hours to months or centuries to millennia, respectively. Consequently, environmental factors and key traits that interact to influence movement also operate on vastly different spatial and temporal scales. Six key future research areas have been identified.
Title: Movement Games in Sports Training of Children Objectives: Create a systemized inventory of movement games. Movement games categorized according to which football skills can developed. Verify popularity of the each movement game in simple questionnaire. Methods: The literature search and data analysis. Also, quantitative research in the form of a simple questionnaire. Results: Systematized inventory of 39 movement games with methodological descriptions. Each movement game has feedback i...
The freight (cargo) transportation sector accounts for a major use of fossil fuels and contributes significantly to greenhouse gas emissions. A study was conducted to estimate and forecast emissions from transportation in Ontario, by mode, over the next 15 years, and to examine ways in which those emissions could be reduced. Published data of freight transportation industries was used to examine the fuel consumption characteristics of each mode, followed by a review of emission rates. It was determined that truck transportation accounts for most CO 2 emissions (about 70%). Rail follows with 21% and the marine and air modes contribute relatively small shares (6% and 2%). New intermodal technologies being introduced by the railways were discussed. They have been designed to make intermodal transport more accessible to a wider segment of the freight market. A recommendation was made which would require all truck shipments over 500 km, accounting for fully one half of truck tonne-km, to have their line-haul component diverted to this new more fuel-efficient mode (i.e., from truck to rail). refs., tabs., figs
Schick, Robert S; Loarie, Scott R; Colchero, Fernando; Best, Benjamin D; Boustany, Andre; Conde, Dalia A; Halpin, Patrick N; Joppa, Lucas N; McClellan, Catherine M; Clark, James S
Animal movement has been the focus on much theoretical and empirical work in ecology over the last 25 years. By studying the causes and consequences of individual movement, ecologists have gained greater insight into the behavior of individuals and the spatial dynamics of populations at increasingly higher levels of organization. In particular, ecologists have focused on the interaction between individuals and their environment in an effort to understand future impacts from habitat loss and climate change. Tools to examine this interaction have included: fractal analysis, first passage time, Lévy flights, multi-behavioral analysis, hidden markov models, and state-space models. Concurrent with the development of movement models has been an increase in the sophistication and availability of hierarchical bayesian models. In this review we bring these two threads together by using hierarchical structures as a framework for reviewing individual models. We synthesize emerging themes in movement ecology, and propose a new hierarchical model for animal movement that builds on these emerging themes. This model moves away from traditional random walks, and instead focuses inference on how moving animals with complex behavior interact with their landscape and make choices about its suitability.
Schijndel, van A.W.M.
The research focuses on the effect of air movement through building constructions. Although the typical air movement inside building constructions is quite small (velocity is of order ~10-5 m/s), this research shows the impact on the heat and moisture characteristics. The paper presents a case study
Schijndel, van A.W.M.
The research focuses on the effect of air movement through building constructions. Although the typical air movement inside building constructions is quite small (velocity is of order ~10-5 m/s), this research shows the impact on the heat and moisture characteristics. The paper presents a case study
Kawaharada, Yasuhiro; Itou, Akiyoshi; Matsubara, Kunio
With chest PET examination, expansion of an image showing a small accumulation and reduction in the radiation count due to breathing movements are anticipated. The purpose of this paper is to analyze movement in the chest region when breathing and to clarify effects of the movement on expansion of the image of a small accumulation and intensity of the radiation count. Movements around the hilum of the lung under resting respiration are analyzed in X-rays, CT images and MR images. Based on results of the analysis, breathing movements are reproduced by means of a phantom of our own design. The phantom is adjusted to the PET apparatus so as to change in accordance with the magnitude and movement of a small accumulation to obtain expansion of the image of this part and the intensity of the radiation count. It was found that movements around the hilum of the lung under resting respiration are of a reciprocative kind in the cranio-caudal direction which can be approximated by the fundamental wave. The extent of the image with average amplitude (8.2±2.8 mm, n=30) was 6 mm in the cranio-caudal direction. The average amplitude of the radiation count was lowered 38% at 3 mmφ and 22% at 6 mmφ. It is considered that breathing movement results in a reduction in the radiation count in small accumulations and this may cause underestimation of standardized uptake value (SUV). (author)
Robin E. Russell; Robert K. Swihart; Bruce A. Craig
The composition of the landscape between patches (the matrix) can have important effects on movement rates that potentially outweigh the effects of patch size and isolation. We conducted a small-scale experiment with radiocollared meadow voles (Microtus pennsylvanicus) to quantify the effects of matrix habitat on movement behavior of voles. Habitat...
htmlabstractThe term “Open Data” often goes hand in hand with the term “Big Data”, where large data sets get released allowing for analysis, but the Cinderella of the Open Data ball is Small Data, small amounts of data, nonetheless possibly essential, that are too small to be put in some database or online dataset to be put to use. RDFa is a technology that allows Cinderella to go to the ball.
Clark, Dav; Schumann, Frank; Mostofsky, Stewart H.
Bodily movement has long been employed as a foundation for cultivating mental skills such as attention, self-control or mindfulness, with recent studies documenting the positive impacts of mindful movement training, such as yoga and tai chi. A parallel “mind-body connection” has also been observed in many developmental disorders. We elaborate a spectrum of mindfulness by considering ADHD, in which deficient motor control correlates with impaired (disinhibited) behavioral control contributing to defining features of excessive distractibility and impulsivity. These data provide evidence for an important axis of variation for wellbeing, in which skillful cognitive control covaries with a capacity for skillful movement. We review empirical and theoretical literature on attention, cognitive control, mind wandering, mindfulness and skill learning, endorsing a model of skilled attention in which motor plans, attention, and executive goals are seen as mutually co-defining aspects of skilled behavior that are linked by reciprocal inhibitory and excitatory connections. Thus, any movement training should engage “higher-order” inhibition and selection and develop a repertoire of rehearsed procedures that coordinate goals, attention and motor plans. However, we propose that mindful movement practice may improve the functional quality of rehearsed procedures, cultivating a transferrable skill of attention. We adopt Langer’s spectrum of mindful learning that spans from “mindlessness” to engagement with the details of the present task and contrast this with the mental attitudes cultivated in standard mindfulness meditation. We particularly follow Feldenkrais’ suggestion that mindful learning of skills for organizing the body in movement might transfer to other forms of mental activity. The results of mindful movement training should be observed in multiple complementary measures, and may have tremendous potential benefit for individuals with ADHD and other
Full Text Available Bodily movement has long been employed as a foundation for cultivating mental skills such as attention, self-control or mindfulness, with recent studies documenting the positive impacts of mindful movement training, such as yoga and tai chi. A parallel mind-body connection has also been observed in many developmental disorders. We elaborate a spectrum of mindfulness by considering ADHD, in which deficient motor control correlates with impaired (disinhibited behavioral control contributing to defining features of excessive distractibility and impulsivity. These data provide evidence for an important axis of variation for wellbeing, in which skillful cognitive control covaries with a capacity for skillful movement. We review empirical and theoretical literature on attention, cognitive control, mind wandering, mindfulness and skill learning, endorsing a model of skilled attention in which motor plans, attention, and executive goals are seen as mutually co-defining aspects of skilled behavior that are linked by reciprocal inhibitory and excitatory connections. Thus, any movement training should engage higher-order inhibition and selection and develop a repertoire of rehearsed procedures that coordinate goals, attention and motor plans. However, we propose that mindful movement practice may improve the functional quality of rehearsed procedures, cultivating a transferrable skill of attention. We adopt Langer’s spectrum of mindful learning that spans from mindlessness to engagement with the details of the present task and contrast this with the mental attitudes cultivated in standard mindfulness meditation. We particularly follow Feldenkrais’ suggestion that mindful learning of skills for organizing the body in movement might transfer to other forms of mental activity. The results of mindful movement training should be observed in multiple complementary measures, and may have tremendous potential benefit for individuals with ADHD and other
Frid, Emma; Bresin, Roberto; Alborno, Paolo; Elblaus, Ludvig
In this paper we present three studies focusing on the effect of different sound models in interactive sonification of bodily movement. We hypothesized that a sound model characterized by continuous smooth sounds would be associated with other movement characteristics than a model characterized by abrupt variation in amplitude and that these associations could be reflected in spontaneous movement characteristics. Three subsequent studies were conducted to investigate the relationship between properties of bodily movement and sound: (1) a motion capture experiment involving interactive sonification of a group of children spontaneously moving in a room, (2) an experiment involving perceptual ratings of sonified movement data and (3) an experiment involving matching between sonified movements and their visualizations in the form of abstract drawings. In (1) we used a system constituting of 17 IR cameras tracking passive reflective markers. The head positions in the horizontal plane of 3-4 children were simultaneously tracked and sonified, producing 3-4 sound sources spatially displayed through an 8-channel loudspeaker system. We analyzed children's spontaneous movement in terms of energy-, smoothness- and directness-index. Despite large inter-participant variability and group-specific effects caused by interaction among children when engaging in the spontaneous movement task, we found a small but significant effect of sound model. Results from (2) indicate that different sound models can be rated differently on a set of motion-related perceptual scales (e.g., expressivity and fluidity). Also, results imply that audio-only stimuli can evoke stronger perceived properties of movement (e.g., energetic, impulsive) than stimuli involving both audio and video representations. Findings in (3) suggest that sounds portraying bodily movement can be represented using abstract drawings in a meaningful way. We argue that the results from these studies support the existence of a
Frid, Emma; Bresin, Roberto; Alborno, Paolo; Elblaus, Ludvig
In this paper we present three studies focusing on the effect of different sound models in interactive sonification of bodily movement. We hypothesized that a sound model characterized by continuous smooth sounds would be associated with other movement characteristics than a model characterized by abrupt variation in amplitude and that these associations could be reflected in spontaneous movement characteristics. Three subsequent studies were conducted to investigate the relationship between properties of bodily movement and sound: (1) a motion capture experiment involving interactive sonification of a group of children spontaneously moving in a room, (2) an experiment involving perceptual ratings of sonified movement data and (3) an experiment involving matching between sonified movements and their visualizations in the form of abstract drawings. In (1) we used a system constituting of 17 IR cameras tracking passive reflective markers. The head positions in the horizontal plane of 3–4 children were simultaneously tracked and sonified, producing 3–4 sound sources spatially displayed through an 8-channel loudspeaker system. We analyzed children's spontaneous movement in terms of energy-, smoothness- and directness-index. Despite large inter-participant variability and group-specific effects caused by interaction among children when engaging in the spontaneous movement task, we found a small but significant effect of sound model. Results from (2) indicate that different sound models can be rated differently on a set of motion-related perceptual scales (e.g., expressivity and fluidity). Also, results imply that audio-only stimuli can evoke stronger perceived properties of movement (e.g., energetic, impulsive) than stimuli involving both audio and video representations. Findings in (3) suggest that sounds portraying bodily movement can be represented using abstract drawings in a meaningful way. We argue that the results from these studies support the existence of a
This is a social anthropological analysis of the antinuclear movement in Middle Tennessee. This social movement was determined to halt the construction of proposed nuclear power plants in Tennessee, especially one the Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA) intended to build in Middle Tennessee. The data for the study were gathered by participant-observation interviewing, and the examination of documents from February 1973 through March 1975. The treatment of the data is based on transactional analysis and portions of the network model. This social movement was composed of a series of informally organized cells connected by a loose network of people who visited and talked with one another. Individual cells tended to be organized on a geographical basis, as was communication. Activity-initiators, however, often contacted antinuclear personnel in other Middle Tennessee cells. Movement activity for many of the antinuclear activists was short-lived. The strategic maneuvers of the movement utilized all the structurally and legally possible alternatives and the nuclear opponents hoped that the public would pressure public officials to oppose nuclear plants. Although the antinuclear activists worked very hard, they did not succeed in halting the planned construction of the Middle Tennessee nuclear plant. Indeed, they had not succeeded in the summer of 1977
Noll, T.; Zeschke, Th.; Reichardt, G.; Lammert, H.; Gudat, W.
At BESSY a new six-strut arrangement for general small travel mirror adjustment mechanisms has been developed. This patented (Patent DE 10042802.5) arrangement allows very simple movements in all six linear and rotational degrees of freedom. The movements of the mirror are simply determined by moving either one drive, or up to three drives by the same amount. The first mirror adjustment systems of this design is successfully in operation since the start of BESSY II. Their performance and reliability is very satisfactory. This contribution will present the concepts
Silvana Irene Torri
Full Text Available Potentially toxic elements (PTEs in soils are mainly associated with the solid phase, bound to the surface of solid components, or precipitated as minerals. For most PTEs, only a small portion is dissolved in the soil solution. However, there is an interest in following the fate of mobile PTEs in the environment, for a growing amount of evidence indicates that downward movement of PTEs may occur in biosolids amended soils, leading to groundwater contamination. Therefore, it is crucial to understand the factors that control the release of these elements after land application of biosolids, in order to overcome problems related to downward movement of PTEs in the soil profile.
Goto, Yumeno; Jono, Yasutomo; Hatanaka, Ryota; Nomura, Yoshifumi; Tani, Keisuke; Chujo, Yuta; Hiraoka, Koichi
We investigated differences in corticospinal and spinal control between discrete and rhythmic ankle movements. Motor evoked potentials (MEPs) in the tibialis anterior and soleus muscles and soleus H-reflex were elicited in the middle of the plantar flexion phase during discrete ankle movement or in the initial or later cycles of rhythmic ankle movement. The H-reflex was evoked at an intensity eliciting a small M-wave and MEPs were elicited at an intensity of 1.2 times the motor threshold of the soleus MEPs. Only trials in which background EMG level, ankle angle, and ankle velocity were similar among the movement conditions were included for data analysis. In addition, only trials with a similar M-wave were included for data analysis in the experiment evoking H-reflexes. Results showed that H reflex and MEP amplitudes in the soleus muscle during discrete movement were not significantly different from those during rhythmic movement. MEP amplitude in the tibialis anterior muscle during the later cycles of rhythmic movement was significantly larger than that during the initial cycle of the rhythmic movement or during discrete movement. Higher corticospinal excitability in the tibialis anterior muscle during the later cycles of rhythmic movement may reflect changes in corticospinal control from the initial cycle to the later cycles of rhythmic movement.
Full Text Available Active vision means that visual perception not only depends closely on the subject's own movements, but that these movements actually contribute to the visual perceptual processes. Vertebrates' and invertebrates' eye movements are probably part of an active visual process, but their exact role still remains to be determined. In this paper, studies on the retinal micro-movements occurring in the compound eye of the fly are reviewed. Several authors have located and identified the muscles involved in these small retinal movements. Others have established that these retinal micro-movements occur in walking and flying flies, but their exact functional role still remains to be determined. Many robotic studies have been performed in which animals' (flies' and spiders' miniature eye movements have been modelled, simulated and even implemented mechanically. Several robotic platforms have been endowed with artificial visual sensors performing periodic micro-scanning movements. Artificial eyes performing these active retinal micro-movements have some extremely interesting properties, such as hyperacuity and the ability to detect very slow movements (motion hyperacuity. The fundamental role of miniature eye movements still remains to be described in detail, but several studies on natural and artificial eyes have advanced considerably toward this goal.
Benjamin W Tatler
Full Text Available The impact of Yarbus's research on eye movements was enormous following the translation of his book Eye Movements and Vision into English in 1967. In stark contrast, the published material in English concerning his life is scant. We provide a brief biography of Yarbus and assess his impact on contemporary approaches to research on eye movements. While early interest in his work focused on his study of stabilised retinal images, more recently this has been replaced with interest in his work on the cognitive influences on scanning patterns. We extended his experiment on the effect of instructions on viewing a picture using a portrait of Yarbus rather than a painting. The results obtained broadly supported those found by Yarbus.
Huveneers, Charlie; Matsuo, Ayane; Kawabe, Ryo; Watanabe, Yuuki; Nishiumi, Nozomi; Payne, Nicholas; Kawabata, Yuuki
Animal-borne accelerometers are effective tools for quantifying the kinematics of animal behaviors, such as swimming, running, and flying, under natural conditions. However, quantifying burst movements of small and agile aquatic animals (e.g., small teleost fish), such as during predatory behavior, or while fleeing, remains challenging. To capture the details of burst movements, accelerometers need to sample at a very high frequency, which will inevitably shorten the duration of the recording...
... 45 Public Welfare 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Interstate movement. 400.119 Section 400.119... Services § 400.119 Interstate movement. After the initial placement of an unaccompanied minor, the same procedures that govern the movement of nonrefugee foster cases to other States apply to the movement of...
Kluttz, Jenalee; Walter, Pierre
This article extends Scandrett et al.'s conceptual framework for social movement learning to understand learning and knowledge creation in the climate justice movement. Drawing on radical pluralist theoretical approaches to social movement learning, learning in the climate justice movement is conceptualized at the micro, meso, and macro levels,…
Clavner, Jerry B.; Sumodi, Veronica R.
The paper analyzes the failure of the ecology/environmental movement to develop into a social movement and to generate a mass following. The movement has had difficulty not only in organizing collective behavior but also in maintaining the necessary momentum to change into a full-fledged social movement. Obvious reasons are that ecologists…
Nielsen, Peter V.; Brohus, Henrik; Petersen, A. J.
Results from small-scale experiments on smoke movement in an atrium are given, both with and without a vertical temperature gradient, and expressions for the smoke movement are developed on the basis of these experiments. Comparisons with a general analytical expression used for calculating...... the height to the location of the smoke layer are given. Furthermore, the paper discusses the air movement in a typical atrium exposed to different internal and external heat loads to elaborate on the use of the "flow element" expressions developed for smoke movement from a fire with a low rate of heat...
Bennett, K.; Tung, T.
A small hydro plant in Canada is defined as any project between 1 MW and 15 MW but the international standard is 10 MW. The global market for small hydro development was considered good. There are some 1000 to 2000 MW of generating capacity being added each year. In Canada, growth potential is considered small, primarily in remote areas, but significant growth is anticipated in Eastern Europe, Africa and Asia. Canada with its expertise in engineering, manufacturing and development is considered to have a good chance to take advantage of these growing markets
Tracking of individual 192 Ir-labelled ground beetles released in the field revealed that both the day-active and night-active species studied showed periods of small distances covered per day in random directions, alternating with periods of directed movement with large distances covered per day. This pattern occurred not only in the reproductive period but outside the breeding season as well in juvenile Pterostichus versicolor and spent Calathus melanocephalus. Although mean locomotory activity increased with temperature, great daily differences occurred between individuals, pointing to asynchronous behaviour. In an unfavorable habitat directed movement occurred both more frequently and more extremely, sometimes resulting in escape to more favorable areas. Most of the radioactive beetles died within 7 weeks due to radiation effects, but independent field experiments and simulations showed that the recorded patterns were valid. Simulated individuals of P. versicolor living on 1 ha spread over 49 ha, whereas simulated C. melanocephalus covered only 9 ha after one activity season. Normal locomotory activities lead to both exchange of individuals between subpopulations and dispersal out of the habitat. The significance of these phenomena for population stability and for the survival of the species is discussed. (orig.) [de
Pfordresher, Peter Q.; Dalla Bella, Simone
It is well known that timing of rhythm production is disrupted by delayed auditory feedback (DAF), and that disruption varies with delay length. We tested the hypothesis that disruption depends on the state of the movement trajectory at the onset of DAF. Participants tapped isochronous rhythms at a rate specified by a metronome while hearing DAF…
Wood, Johanna; Vikner, Sten
/solch to follow the article. We discuss two possible syntactic derivations, predicate raising (e.g. Corver 1998, Bennis, Corver & den Dikken 1998) and XP movement from an attributive adjective position within the nominal (e.g. Matushansky 2002). The analysis links up with the morphological agreement facts...
Full Text Available Chorea, hemichorea-hemiballismus and severe partial seizures may be the presenting features of nonketotic hyperglycemia in older adults with type 2 diabetes, but cases in young adults with type 1 diabetes are rare. We hereby report a very rare case of diabetic ketosis with movement disorder in a young patient.
Gregarious behaviour is an important factor influencing survival and reproduction of animals, as well as population interactions. In this paper I develop a model of movement with attraction or repulsion between conspecifics. To facilitate its use in empirical studies, the model is based on experimentally measurable features of individual behaviour.
Toeters, M.J.; Feijs, L.M.G.
Nowadays it is quite possible to deploy textiles as sensors and avoid traditional hard sensors. Actuation (movement) turns out more difficult. It is advantageous to combine sensing and actuation, similar to ecological perception theory. Although several actuators are known: SMA, voice coil, motors,
VON BARAVALLE, HERMANN
AN HISTORICAL REVIEW OF THE WALDORF SCHOOL PLAN TRACES THE MOVEMENT FROM ITS FOUNDING IN STUTTGART, GERMANY IN 1919, BY THE WALDORF ASTORIA COMPANY AND UNDER THE DIRECTION OF RUDOLF STEINER, TO ITS INTRODUCTION INTO SWITZERLAND, OTHER EUROPEAN COUNTRIES, THE AMERICAS, AUSTRALIA, NEW ZEALAND, AND SOUTH AFRICA, A TOTAL OF 175 SCHOOLS AS OF 1963. THE…
Snider, Sunny B; Gilliam, James F
Immigration, emigration, migration, and redistribution describe processes that involve movement of individuals. These movements are an essential part of contemporary ecological models, and understanding how movement is affected by biotic and abiotic factors is important for effectively modeling ecological processes that depend on movement. We asked how phenotypic heterogeneity (body size) and environmental heterogeneity (food resource level) affect the movement behavior of an aquatic snail (Tarebia granifera), and whether including these phenotypic and environmental effects improves advection-diffusion models of movement. We postulated various elaborations of the basic advection diffusion model as a priori working hypotheses. To test our hypotheses we measured individual snail movements in experimental streams at high- and low-food resource treatments. Using these experimental movement data, we examined the dependency of model selection on resource level and body size using Akaike's Information Criterion (AIC). At low resources, large individuals moved faster than small individuals, producing a platykurtic movement distribution; including size dependency in the model improved model performance. In stark contrast, at high resources, individuals moved upstream together as a wave, and body size differences largely disappeared. The model selection exercise indicated that population heterogeneity is best described by the advection component of movement for this species, because the top-ranked model included size dependency in advection, but not diffusion. Also, all probable models included resource dependency. Thus population and environmental heterogeneities both influence individual movement behaviors and the population-level distribution kernels, and their interaction may drive variation in movement behaviors in terms of both advection rates and diffusion rates. A behaviorally informed modeling framework will integrate the sentient response of individuals in terms of
Ling, Richard; Bjelland, Johannes; Sundsøy, Pål
and spatial movement is highly predictable and that the majority of calls and text messages are sent to only four to six different persons. This article extends this research by examining both tie strength and the distance between the interlocutors in urban and rural settings. The findings show that even......This article examines how we use mobile telephony to maintain our physically and socially closest social circle. The analysis is based on traffic data gathered from Norway using approximately 24 million calls and texts made by private individuals. Previous research has shown that our temporal...... as information and communication technologies (ICTs) potentially put the world at our fingertips, the mobile phone is an instrument of a more limited geographical and social sphere. Approximately two-thirds of our calls/texts go to strong ties that are within a 25-km radius....
Richard A. Horsley
Full Text Available This article investigates the origins and development of the earliest Jesus movements within the context of persistent conflict between the Judean and Galilean peasantry and their Jerusalem and Roman rulers. It explores the prominence of popular prophetic and messianic movements and shows how the earliest movements that formed in response to Jesus’ mission exhibit similar features and patterns. Jesus is not treated as separate from social roles and political-economic relationships. Viewing Jesus against the background of village communities in which people lived, the Gospels are understood as genuine communication with other people in historical social contexts. The article argues that the net effect of these interrelated factors of theologically determined New Testament interpretation is a combination of assumptions and procedures that would be unacceptable in the regular investigation of history. Another version of the essay was published in Horsley, Richard A (ed, A people’s history of Christianity, Volume 1: Christian origins, 23-46. Minneapolis, MN: Fortress.
Burke, David T; Meleger, Alec; Schneider, Jeffrey C; Snyder, Jim; Dorvlo, Atsu S S; Al-Adawi, Samir
This study tests the relation between eye-movements and thought processing. Subjects were given specific modality tasks (visual, gustatory, kinesthetic) and assessed on whether they responded with distinct eye-movements. Some subjects' eye-movements reflected ongoing thought processing. Instead of a universal pattern, as suggested by the neurolinguistic programming hypothesis, this study yielded subject-specific idiosyncratic eye-movements across all modalities. Included is a discussion of the neurolinguistic programming hypothesis regarding eye-movements and its implications for the eye-movement desensitization and reprocessing theory.
Full Text Available In this paper we present three studies focusing on the effect of different sound models ininteractive sonification of bodily movement. We hypothesized that a sound model characterizedby continuous smooth sounds would be associated with other movement characteristics thana model characterized by abrupt variation in amplitude and that these associations could bereflected in spontaneous movement characteristics. Three subsequent studies were conductedto investigate the relationship between properties of bodily movement and sound: (1 a motioncapture experiment involving interactive sonification of a group of children spontaneously movingin a room, (2 an experiment involving perceptual ratings of sonified movement data and (3an experiment involving matching between sonified movements and their visualizations in theform of abstract drawings. In (1 we used a system constituting of 17 IR cameras trackingpassive reflective markers. The head positions in the horizontal plane of 3-4 children weresimultaneously tracked and sonified, producing 3-4 sound sources spatially displayed throughan 8-channel loudspeaker system. We analyzed children’s spontaneous movement in termsof energy-, smoothness- and directness index. Despite large inter-participant variability andgroup-specific effects caused by interaction among children when engaging in the spontaneousmovement task, we found a small but significant effect of sound model. Results from (2 indicatethat different sound models can be rated differently on a set of motion-related perceptual scales(e.g. expressivity and fluidity. Also, results imply that audio-only stimuli can evoke strongerperceived properties of movement (e.g. energetic, impulsive than stimuli involving both audioand video representations. Findings in (3 suggest that sounds portraying bodily movementcan be represented using abstract drawings in a meaningful way. We argue that the resultsfrom these studies support the existence of a cross
Badler, N. I.; Fishwick, P.; Taft, N.; Agrawala, M.
The use of computer graphics to simulate the movement of articulated animals and mechanisms has a number of uses ranging over many fields. Human motion simulation systems can be useful in education, medicine, anatomy, physiology, and dance. In biomechanics, computer displays help to understand and analyze performance. Simulations can be used to help understand the effect of external or internal forces. Similarly, zero-gravity simulation systems should provide a means of designing and exploring the capabilities of hypothetical zero-gravity situations before actually carrying out such actions. The advantage of using a simulation of the motion is that one can experiment with variations of a maneuver before attempting to teach it to an individual. The zero-gravity motion simulation problem can be divided into two broad areas: human movement and behavior in zero-gravity, and simulation of articulated mechanisms.
Marsiliani, Laura; Renström, Thomas I
This paper explores the relationship between environmental protection and international capital movements, when tax policy is endogenous (through voting). A two-period general equilibrium model of a small open economy is specified to compare the effects of two different constitutions (commitment or no commitment in tax policy), as well as income inequality. Under the commitment regime, the equilibrium is characterised by a lower labour tax, higher environmental tax and less capital moving abr...
García Armada, Elena; Cestari, Manuel; Sanz Merodio, Daniel; Carrillo, Xavier Alberto
[EN] The invention relates to an exoskeleton for assisting human movement, which can be fitted to the user in terms of dimensions, tension and ranges of joint motion, either manually or automatically. Said exoskeleton can be fitted to the user in the anteroposterior direction in the sagittal plane, with the user in a horizontal or sitting position, without requiring a functional transfer. The exoskeleton has a modular design which is compatible with human biomechanics and reproduces a natural...
This paper summarizes the report of IPCC (Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change), and the movement of the global warming issues as seen from the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (Conference of the Parties: COP) and the policy discussions in Japan. From the Fifth Assessment Report published by IPCC, it shows the following items: (1) increasing trends of greenhouse effect gas emissions during 1970 and 2010, (2) trends in world's greenhouse effect gas emissions according to income segment, and (3) factor analysis of changes in greenhouse effect gas emissions. Next, it takes up the greenhouse gas emission scenario of IPCC, shows the scenario due to temperature rise pattern, and introduces the assumption of emission reduction due to BECCS. Regarding the 2 deg. scenario that has become a hot topic in international negotiations, it describes the reason for difficulties in its implementation. In addition, as the international trends of global warming, it describes the agreement of numerical targets for emissions at COP3 (Kyoto Conference) and the subsequent movements. Finally, it introduces Japan's measures against global warming, as well as the future movement. (A.O.)
Van Moorter, Bram; Rolandsen, Christer M; Basille, Mathieu; Gaillard, Jean-Michel
Animal space use has been studied by focusing either on geographic (e.g. home ranges, species' distribution) or on environmental (e.g. habitat use and selection) space. However, all patterns of space use emerge from individual movements, which are the primary means by which animals change their environment. Individuals increase their use of a given area by adjusting two key movement components: the duration of their visit and/or the frequency of revisits. Thus, in spatially heterogeneous environments, animals exploit known, high-quality resource areas by increasing their residence time (RT) in and/or decreasing their time to return (TtoR) to these areas. We expected that spatial variation in these two movement properties should lead to observed patterns of space use in both geographic and environmental spaces. We derived a set of nine predictions linking spatial distribution of movement properties to emerging space-use patterns. We predicted that, at a given scale, high variation in RT and TtoR among habitats leads to strong habitat selection and that long RT and short TtoR result in a small home range size. We tested these predictions using moose (Alces alces) GPS tracking data. We first modelled the relationship between landscape characteristics and movement properties. Then, we investigated how the spatial distribution of predicted movement properties (i.e. spatial autocorrelation, mean, and variance of RT and TtoR) influences home range size and hierarchical habitat selection. In landscapes with high spatial autocorrelation of RT and TtoR, a high variation in both RT and TtoR occurred in home ranges. As expected, home range location was highly selective in such landscapes (i.e. second-order habitat selection); RT was higher and TtoR lower within the selected home range than outside, and moose home ranges were small. Within home ranges, a higher variation in both RT and TtoR was associated with higher selectivity among habitat types (i.e. third-order habitat
Pasch, Marco; Bianchi-Berthouze, Nadia; van Dijk, Betsy; Nijholt, Anton
The phenomenon of immersing oneself into virtual environments has been established widely. Yet to date (to our best knowledge) the physical dimension has been neglected in studies investigating immersion in Human-Computer Interaction (HCI). In movement-based interaction the user controls the interface via body movements, e.g. direct manipulation of screen objects via gestures or using a handheld controller as a virtual tennis racket. It has been shown that physical activity affects arousal and that movement-based controllers can facilitate engagement in the context of video games. This paper aims at identifying movement features that influence immersion. We first give a brief survey on immersion and movement-based interfaces. Then, we report results from an interview study that investigates how users experience their body movements when interacting with movement-based interfaces. Based on the interviews, we identify four movement-specific features. We recommend them as candidates for further investigation.
Defines and traces the origins of the consumer movement and uses communication theories to explain the effects of the movement. Available from: Public Relations Review, Ray Hiebert, Dean, College of Journalism, University of Maryland, College Park, MD 20742. (MH)
Dreissen, Y. E. M.; Cath, D C; Tijssen, M A J; Hallet, Mark; Stone, Jon; Carson, Alan
Functional jerks are among the most common functional movement disorders. The diagnosis of functional jerks is mainly based on neurologic examination revealing specific positive clinical signs. Differentiation from other jerky movements, such as tics, organic myoclonus, and primary paroxysmal
Johnsson, Anders; Antonsen, Frank
Gravity effects on endogenous movements A. Johnsson * and F. Antonsen *+ * Department of Physics, Norwegian University of Science and Technology,NO-7491, Trond-heim, Norway, E-mail: email@example.com + Present address: Statoil Research Center Trondheim, NO-7005, Trondheim, Norway Circumnutations in stems/shoots exist in many plants and often consists of more or less regular helical movements around the plumb line under Earth conditions. Recent results on circumnu-tations of Arabidopsis in space (Johnsson et al. 2009) showed that minute amplitude oscilla-tions exist in weightlessness, but that centripetal acceleration (mimicking the gravity) amplified and/or created large amplitude oscillations. Fundamental mechanisms underlying these results will be discussed by modeling the plant tissue as a cylinder of cells coupled together. As a starting point we have modeled (Antonsen 1998) standing waves on a ring of biological cells, as first discussed in a classical paper (Turing 1952). If the coupled cells can change their water content, an `extension' wave could move around the ring. We have studied several, stacked rings of cells coupled into a cylinder that together represent a cylindrical plant tissue. Waves of extensions travelling around the cylinder could then represent the observable circumnutations. The coupling between cells can be due to cell-to-cell diffusion, or to transport via channels, and the coupling can be modeled to vary in both longitudinal and transversal direction of the cylinder. The results from ISS experiments indicate that this cylindrical model of coupled cells should be able to 1) show self-sustained oscillations without the impact of gravity (being en-dogenous) and 2) show how an environmental factor like gravity can amplify or generate the oscillatory movements. Gravity has been introduced in the model by a negative, time-delayed feed-back transport across the cylinder. This represents the physiological reactions to acceler
Dr. Montessori's words from the 1946 London Lectures describe principles of intelligence and character, the work of the hand, and movement with a purpose as being integral to self-construction. The perfection of movement is spiritual, says Dr. Montessori. Repetition of practical life exercises are exercises in movement with the dignity of human…
... 49 Transportation 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Pipe movement. 195.424 Section 195.424... PIPELINE Operation and Maintenance § 195.424 Pipe movement. (a) No operator may move any line pipe, unless... in the line section involved are joined by welding unless— (1) Movement when the pipeline does not...
... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Equipment movement. 250.602 Section 250.602... OPERATIONS IN THE OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF Oil and Gas Well-Workover Operations § 250.602 Equipment movement. The movement of well-workover rigs and related equipment on and off a platform or from well to well on...
... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Movement, trailing. 236.776 Section 236.776 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION... Movement, trailing. The movement of a train over the points of a switch which face in the direction in...
... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Equipment movement. 250.502 Section 250.502... OPERATIONS IN THE OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF Oil and Gas Well-Completion Operations § 250.502 Equipment movement. The movement of well-completion rigs and related equipment on and off a platform or from well to well...
... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Movement, facing. 236.774 Section 236.774 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION... Movement, facing. The movement of a train over the points of a switch which face in a direction opposite to...
... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Movement restrictions. 92.3 Section 92... ANIMAL PRODUCTS: PROCEDURES FOR REQUESTING RECOGNITION OF REGIONS § 92.3 Movement restrictions. Whenever... exist and the EC imposes prohibitions or other restrictions on the movement of animals or animal...
Mixed Movements is a research project engaged in performance-based architectural drawing. As one in a series working with architectonic implementation in relation to body and movements, the actual project relates body-movement and dynamic drawing and presents the material as interactive ‘space-time-tables’....
Transformers are simple movement experiences for the classroom that engage the mind and body, focus energy, and help children transition to the next activity. Teachers can use them throughout the day, every day. The author explains the basic movements and suggests ways to build on them. They range from deep breathing to gentle wake-up movements to…
Weiller-Abels, Karen; Bridges, Jennifer
All physical educators want to provide lessons that foster success. Particularly essential to the movement education framework is not only providing lessons that foster motor success, but also to develop knowledge about movement to help the learner develop skill in executing all different types of movement. The framework and examples provided in…
Burke Strobel; Daniel R. Shivley; Brett B. Roper
The movements of salmon carcasses over time were studied in two forest streams in the context of a large-scale salmon carcass supplementation program. The objectives were to assess both the level of treatment after stream flows had displaced carcasses and to evaluate whether the magnitude of carcass movements outside of a given reach could be predicted. The movements...
Full Text Available Among the many sectors currently engaged in struggle against the corporate food system, small farmers play a particularly important role—not only do they constitute a legitimate alternative to global agribusiness, but also they are the heirs to long traditions of local knowledge and practice. In defending peasant agriculture, rural social movements defend popular control over seeds and genetic resources, water, land and territory against the onslaught of globalized financial capital. A framework called food sovereignty has been developed by the international peasant movement La Via Campesina (LVC, to encompass the various elements of a food system alternative based on reclaiming popular resource control, defending small-scale agriculture and traditional knowledge, rebuilding local circuits of food and labor, and recovering the ecological processes that can make farming sustainable. Recognizing the need to develop “movement people” capable of integrating many ecological, social, cultural and political criteria into their organizational activities, LVC increasingly has articulated processes of popular education and consciousness-raising as part of the global social movement for agroecology and food sovereignty. Given the enormous diversity of organizations and actors in LVC, an underlying feature known in Spanish as diálogo de saberes (roughly the equivalent of “dialogue between ways of knowing” has characterized LVC processes of education, training, formation and exchange in agroecology. The diálogo de saberes takes place at the level of training centers and schools of the LVC organizations, as well as the larger scale of agricultural landscapes and peasant territories. The interactions between peasant, family or communal farmers, their organizations, their youth and their agroecology create social processes that assume the form and dynamic of a social movement in several countries of Latin America.
Lateral movement of a molecule in a biomembrane containing small compartments (0.23-μm diameter) and large ones (0.75 μm) is analyzed using a fractal description of its walk. The early time dependence of the mean square displacement varies from linear due to the contribution of ballistic motion. In small compartments, walking molecules do not have sufficient time or space to develop an asymptotic relation and the diffusion coefficient deduced from the experimental records is lower than that measured without restrictions. The model makes it possible to deduce the molecule step parameters, namely the step length and time, from data concerning confined and unrestricted diffusion coefficients. This is also possible using experimental results for sub-diffusive transport. The transition from normal to anomalous diffusion does not affect the molecule step parameters. The experimental literature data on molecular trajectories recorded at a high time resolution appear to confirm the modeled value of the mean free path length of DOPE for Brownian and anomalous diffusion. Although the step length and time give the proper values of diffusion coefficient, the DOPE speed calculated as their quotient is several orders of magnitude lower than the thermal speed. This is interpreted as a result of intermolecular interactions, as confirmed by lateral diffusion of other molecules in different membranes. The molecule step parameters are then utilized to analyze the problem of multiple visits in small compartments. The modeling of the diffusion exponent results in a smooth transition to normal diffusion on entering a large compartment, as observed in experiments.
Wang, Q.; Zhou, W.; Fan, J.; Yuan, W.; Li, H.; Sousa, J. J.; Guo, Z.
Movement is one of the most important characteristics of glaciers which can cause serious natural disasters. For this reason, monitoring this massive blocks is a crucial task. Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) can operate all day in any weather conditions and the images acquired by SAR contain intensity and phase information, which are irreplaceable advantages in monitoring the surface movement of glaciers. Moreover, a variety of techniques like DInSAR and offset tracking, based on the information of SAR images, could be applied to measure the movement. Sangwang lake, a glacial lake in the Himalayas, has great potentially danger of outburst. Shie glacier is situated at the upstream of the Sangwang lake. Hence, it is significant to monitor Shie glacier surface movement to assess the risk of outburst. In this paper, 6 high resolution COSMO-SkyMed images spanning from August to December, 2016 are applied with offset tracking technique to estimate the surface movement of Shie glacier. The maximum velocity of Shie glacier surface movement is 51 cm/d, which was observed at the end of glacier tongue, and the velocity is correlated with the change of elevation. Moreover, the glacier surface movement in summer is faster than in winter and the velocity decreases as the local temperature decreases. Based on the above conclusions, the glacier may break off at the end of tongue in the near future. The movement results extracted in this paper also illustrate the advantages of high resolution SAR images in monitoring the surface movement of small glaciers.
Novack, Miriam A; Wakefield, Elizabeth M; Goldin-Meadow, Susan
Theories of how adults interpret the actions of others have focused on the goals and intentions of actors engaged in object-directed actions. Recent research has challenged this assumption, and shown that movements are often interpreted as being for their own sake (Schachner & Carey, 2013). Here we postulate a third interpretation of movement-movement that represents action, but does not literally act on objects in the world. These movements are gestures. In this paper, we describe a framework for predicting when movements are likely to be seen as representations. In Study 1, adults described one of three scenes: (1) an actor moving objects, (2) an actor moving her hands in the presence of objects (but not touching them) or (3) an actor moving her hands in the absence of objects. Participants systematically described the movements as depicting an object-directed action when the actor moved objects, and favored describing the movements as depicting movement for its own sake when the actor produced the same movements in the absence of objects. However, participants favored describing the movements as representations when the actor produced the movements near, but not on, the objects. Study 2 explored two additional features-the form of an actor's hands and the presence of speech-like sounds-to test the effect of context on observers' classification of movement as representational. When movements are seen as representations, they have the power to influence communication, learning, and cognition in ways that movement for its own sake does not. By incorporating representational gesture into our framework for movement analysis, we take an important step towards developing a more cohesive understanding of action-interpretation. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Gabbard, Carl; Cacola, Priscila; Bobbio, Tatiana
Theory suggests that imagined and executed movement planning relies on internal models for action. Using a chronometry paradigm to compare the movement duration of imagined and executed movements, we tested children aged 7-11 years and adults on their ability to perform sequential finger movements. Underscoring this tactic was our desire to gain a…
Freeman, Roger D; Soltanifar, Atefeh; Baer, Susan
To expand the understanding of stereotypic movement disorder (SMD) and its differentiation from tics and autistic stereotypies. Forty-two children (31 males, mean age 6y 3mo, SD 2y 8mo; 11 females, mean age 6y 7mo, SD 1y 9mo) consecutively diagnosed with SMD, without-self-injurious behavior, intellectual disability, sensory impairment, or an autistic spectrum disorder (ASD), were assessed in a neuropsychiatry clinic. A list of probe questions on the nature of the stereotypy was administered to parents (and to children if developmentally ready). Questionnaires administered included the Stereotypy Severity Scale, Short Sensory Profile, Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire, Repetitive Behavior Scale--Revised, and the Developmental Coordination Disorder Questionnaire. The stereotyped movement patterns were directly observed and in some cases further documented by video recordings made by parents. The probe questions were used again on follow-up at a mean age of 10 years 7 months (SD 4y 4mo). Mean age at onset was 17 months. Males exceeded females by 3:1. Family history of a pattern of SMD was reported in 13 and neuropsychiatric comorbidity in 30 (attention-deficit-hyperactivity disorder in 16, tics in 18, and developmental coordination disorder in 16). Obsessive-compulsive disorder occurred in only two. The Short Sensory Profile correlated with comorbidity (p<0.001), the Stereotypy Severity Scale (p=0.009), and the Repetitive Behavior Scale (p<0.001); the last correlated with the Stereotypy Severity Scale (p=0.001). Children (but not their parents) liked their movements, which were usually associated with excitement or imaginative play. Mean length of follow-up was 4 years 8 months (SD 2y 10mo). Of the 39 children followed for longer than 6 months, the behavior stopped or was gradually shaped so as to occur primarily privately in 25. Misdiagnosis was common: 26 were initially referred as tics, 10 as ASD, five as compulsions, and one as epilepsy. Co-occurring facial
How do we know that molecules really exist? An important clue came from Brownian movement, a concept developed in 1827 by botanist Robert Brown, who noticed that tiny objects like pollen grains shook and moved erratically when viewed under a microscope. Nearly 80 years later, in 1905, Albert Einstein explained this ""Brownian motion"" as the result of bombardment by molecules. Einstein offered a quantitative explanation by mathematically estimating the average distance covered by the particles over time as a result of molecular bombardment. Four years later, Jean Baptiste Perrin wrote Brownia
Yung, C Y
This paper reports five movement disorders cases to serve as a basis for discussion of the problems encountered in the clinical management of these cases, and the pathophysiological mechanisms involved in these disorders as presented. Case 1 is a description of the subjective experience of a patient with acute orofacial dystonia from promethazine. Case 2 is the use of clonazepam is post-head injury tics. Case 3 is the complication from discontinuation of haloperidol and benztropine mesylate treatment. Case 4 is myoclonus in subacute sclerosing Panencephalitis, and Case 5 is rebound tremor from withdrawal of a beta-adrenergic blocker.
Nishioka, Masayuki; Fujioka, Tomio; Sakurai, Makoto; Nakajima, Toshifumi; Onoyama, Yasuto.
Movement of the target volume during the exposure to radiation results in decreased accuracy in radiotherapy. We carried out the quantitative evaluation of the movement of the diaphragm during the radiation therapy. Seventy seven patients, who received radiation therapy for lung cancer from December 1988 to February 1990 at the Osaka-prefectural Habikino Hospital, were studied. The movement was recorded with a sonoprinter at the time of treatment planning for radiotherapy, and the length of movement was evaluated at 6 points on the diaphragm. In a study of 402 points in 77 patients, the average movement was 12 mm, and the maximum movement was 40 mm. At the 17% of the points, the movement exceeded 20 mm. The largest movement was observed at the outer point of the right lung. Movement was greater in men than in women. Performance status was not related to the degree of movement. We concluded that in chest and abdominal irradiation, movement caused by respiration is not negligible, and synchronized radiotherapy should be developed in the future. (author)
Victoriya V Volkova
Full Text Available Various approaches have been used to investigate how properties of farm contact networks impact on the transmission of infectious diseases. The potential for transmission of an infection through a contact network can be evaluated in terms of the basic reproduction number, R(0. The magnitude of R(0 is related to the mean contact rate of a host, in this case a farm, and is further influenced by heterogeneities in contact rates of individual hosts. The latter can be evaluated as the second order moments of the contact matrix (variances in contact rates, and co-variance between contacts to and from individual hosts. Here we calculate these quantities for the farms in a country-wide livestock network: >15,000 Scottish sheep farms in each of 4 years from July 2003 to June 2007. The analysis is relevant to endemic and chronic infections with prolonged periods of infectivity of affected animals, and uses different weightings of contacts to address disease scenarios of low, intermediate and high animal-level prevalence.Analysis of networks of Scottish farms via sheep movements from July 2003 to June 2007 suggests that heterogeneities in movement patterns (variances and covariances of rates of movement on and off the farms make a substantial contribution to the potential for the transmission of infectious diseases, quantified as R(0, within the farm population. A small percentage of farms (80% and these farms could be efficiently targeted by interventions aimed at reducing spread of diseases via animal movement.
Higuchi, Yoshinori; Matsuda, Shinji; Serizawa, Toru
Functional radiosurgery has advanced steadily during the past half century since the development of the gamma knife technique for treating intractable cancer pain. Applications of radiosurgery for intracranial diseases have increased with a focus on understanding radiobiology. Currently, the use of gamma knife radiosurgery to ablate deep brain structures is not widespread because visualization of the functional targets remains difficult despite the increased availability of advanced neuroimaging technology. Moreover, most existing reports have a small sample size or are retrospective. However, increased experience with intraoperative neurophysiological evaluations in radiofrequency thalamotomy and deep brain stimulation supports anatomical and neurophysiological approaches to the ventralis intermedius nucleus. Two recent prospective studies have promoted the clinical application of functional radiosurgery for movement disorders. For example, unilateral gamma knife thalamotomy is a potential alternative to radiofrequency thalamotomy and deep brain stimulation techniques for intractable tremor patients with contraindications for surgery. Despite the promising efficacy of gamma knife thalamotomy, however, these studies did not include sufficient follow-up to confirm long-term effects. Herein, we review the radiobiology literature, various techniques, and the treatment efficacy of gamma knife radiosurgery for patients with movement disorders. Future research should focus on randomized controlled studies and long-term effects. © 2016 International Parkinson and Movement Disorder Society. © 2016 International Parkinson and Movement Disorder Society.
Hashimoto, Hisayuki [Department of Cardiology, Keio University School of Medicine, Tokyo (Japan); Yuasa, Shinsuke, E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org [Department of Cardiology, Keio University School of Medicine, Tokyo (Japan); Tabata, Hidenori [Department of Anatomy, Keio University School of Medicine, Tokyo (Japan); Tohyama, Shugo; Seki, Tomohisa; Egashira, Toru; Hayashiji, Nozomi; Hattori, Fumiyuki; Kusumoto, Dai; Kunitomi, Akira; Takei, Makoto; Kashimura, Shin; Yozu, Gakuto; Shimojima, Masaya; Motoda, Chikaaki; Muraoka, Naoto [Department of Cardiology, Keio University School of Medicine, Tokyo (Japan); Nakajima, Kazunori [Department of Anatomy, Keio University School of Medicine, Tokyo (Japan); Sakaue-Sawano, Asako; Miyawaki, Atsushi [Life Function and Dynamics, ERATO, JST, 2-1 Hirosawa, Wako-city, Saitama 351-0198 (Japan); Laboratory for Cell Function and Dynamics, Advanced Technology Development Group, Brain Science Institute, RIKEN, 2-1 Hirosawa, Wako-city, Saitama 351-0198 (Japan); Fukuda, Keiichi [Department of Cardiology, Keio University School of Medicine, Tokyo (Japan)
The precise assemblage of several types of cardiac precursors controls heart organogenesis. The cardiac precursors show dynamic movement during early development and then form the complicated heart structure. However, cardiomyocyte movements inside the newly organized mammalian heart remain unclear. We previously established the method of ex vivo time-lapse imaging of the murine heart to study cardiomyocyte behavior by using the Fucci (fluorescent ubiquitination-based cell cycle indicator) system, which can effectively label individual G1, S/G2/M, and G1/S-transition phase nuclei in living cardiomyocytes as red, green, and yellow, respectively. Global analysis of gene expression in Fucci green positive ventricular cardiomyocytes confirmed that cell cycle regulatory genes expressed in G1/S, S, G2/M, and M phase transitions were upregulated. Interestingly, pathway analysis revealed that many genes related to the cell cycle were significantly upregulated in the Fucci green positive ventricular cardiomyocytes, while only a small number of genes related to cell motility were upregulated. Time-lapse imaging showed that murine proliferating cardiomyocytes did not exhibit dynamic movement inside the heart, but stayed on site after entering the cell cycle. - Highlights: • We directly visualized cardiomyocyte movement inside the developing murine heart. • Cell cycle related genes were upregulated in the proliferating cardiomyocytes. • Time-lapse imaging revealed that proliferating murine cardiomyocytes stayed in place. • Murine ventricular cardiomyocytes proliferate on site during development.
Xiao, JiangWei; Qiu, Jian; Luo, Kaiqin; Peng, Li; Han, Peng
Human eyes are never completely static even when they are fixing a stationary point. These irregular, small movements, which consist of micro-tremors, micro-saccades and drifts, can prevent the fading of the images that enter our eyes. The importance of researching the fixational eye movements has been experimentally demonstrated recently. However, the characteristics of fixational eye movements and their roles in visual process have not been explained clearly, because these signals can hardly be completely extracted by now. In this paper, we developed a new eye movement detection device with a high-speed camera. This device includes a beam splitter mirror, an infrared light source and a high-speed digital video camera with a frame rate of 200Hz. To avoid the influence of head shaking, we made the device wearable by fixing the camera on a safety helmet. Using this device, the experiments of pupil tracking were conducted. By localizing the pupil center and spectrum analysis, the envelope frequency spectrum of micro-saccades, micro-tremors and drifts are shown obviously. The experimental results show that the device is feasible and effective, so that the device can be applied in further characteristic analysis.
Full Text Available The poem Small talk conjures up a communicative situation in which the main character, a newcomer from Poland, answers conventional questions related to their country. Bearing in mind the fact that this poem is set during a military dictatorship, superficial interest in his homeland may trigger a feeling of impatience. This is at least the impression formed if we adopt the perspective defined within the romantic tradition, and when taking into account the conventional poetry of martial law in Poland. Nevertheless, Barańczak retains an ironic distance towards such communicative situations and, as a consequence, does not create poetry that meets most readersʼ expectations. His poetic imperative for verbal art to be the expression of mistrust remains valid.
Holgersen, Sven-Erik; Bruun, Peter; Tjagvad, Mette
the study: What expectations do the class teacher and the professional musicians have to the creative practice, i.e. to the collaboration and to the musical outcome? To which extent do the collaborating partners share a common understanding of the aim, content and method of the workshop? How do the roles......The present chapter discusses roles and responsibilities of the collaborating partners in a creative music workshop called Small Composers. The aim is to be attentive to a number of potential alterations implicated by the collaborating partners’ different backgrounds. The following questions guided...... and responsibilities of the collaborating partners become visible through the practice? How do the professional identities of the teacher and the musicians become visible and what are the implications for the workshop as a musical community of practice?...
Full Text Available Thomas M ProebstleDepartment of Dermatology, University Clinic of Mainz, Mainz, GermanyBackground: Quantitative numerical analysis of skin displacement triggered by muscles inserting the overlaying skin would be useful for monitoring the inhibition of mimetic muscles.Methods: By using removable grid markings and digital photographs, skin displacement analysis (SDA was performed on 13 patients pre-treatment and on Days 1, 2, 3, and 7 after injection of 18 units of botulinum toxin type A (BoNT/A in the fronto-glabellar area.Results: At baseline, amplitudes of horizontal skin displacement with fronto-glabellar contraction showed a linear increase along the eyebrow laterally from the midline; mean values (±standard deviation [SD] 15 and 30 mm lateral to the midline were 3.2 ± 1.0 mm (range, 1.9–4.9 mm and 6.5 ± 1.4 mm (range 4.0–8.5 mm, respectively. After injection of BoNT/A, maximum horizontal skin displacement 30 mm lateral to the midline showed a mean reduction (±SD to 62% ± 23% at Day 2 and to 17% ± 16% at Day 7; corresponding values 15 mm lateral to the midline were 62% ± 29% and 15% ± 20%, respectively. In all cases, the reduction in horizontal skin displacement compared with pre-injection levels was statistically significant (P < 0.001.Conclusion: SDA is a feasible method for the quantitative evaluation of skin movements elicited by muscles inserting the overlaying skin in the face and neck area.Keywords: botulinum toxin type A, fronto-glabellar contraction, skin displacement analysis, glabellar lines
Naruse, Kumi; Sakuma, Haruo; Hirai, Takane
We examined whether slow movement execution has an effect on cognitive and information processing by measuring the P300 component. 8 subjects performed a continuous slow forearm rotational movement using 2 task speeds. Slow (a 30-50% decrease from the subject's Preferred speed) and Very Slow (a 60-80% decrease). The mean coefficient of variation for rotation speed under Very Slow was higher than that under Slow, showing that the subjects found it difficult to perform the Very Slow task smoothly. The EEG score of alpha-1 (8-10 Hz) under Slow Condition was increased significantly more than under the Preferred Condition; however, the increase under Very Slow was small when compared with Preferred. After performing the task. P300 latency under Very Slow increased significantly as compared to that at pretask. Further, P300 amplitude decreased tinder both speed conditions when compared to that at pretask, and a significant decrease was seen under the Slow Condition at Fz, whereas the decrease under the Very Slow Condition was small. These differences indicated that a more complicated neural composition and an increase in subjects' attention might have been involved when the task was performed under the Very Slow Condition. We concluded that slow movement execution may have an influence on cognitive function and may depend on the percentage of decrease from the Preferred speed of the individual.
Goto, Yumeno; Jono, Yasutomo; Hatanaka, Ryota; Nomura, Yoshifumi; Tani, Keisuke; Chujo, Yuta; Hiraoka, Koichi
We investigated differences in corticospinal and spinal control between discrete and rhythmic ankle movements. Motor evoked potentials (MEPs) in the tibialis anterior and soleus muscles and soleus H-reflex were elicited in the middle of the plantar flexion phase during discrete ankle movement or in the initial or later cycles of rhythmic ankle movement. The H-reflex was evoked at an intensity eliciting a small M-wave and MEPs were elicited at an intensity of 1.2 times the motor threshold of t...
Full Text Available We present a methodology for distinguishing between three types of animal movement behavior (foraging, resting, and walking based on high-frequency tracking data. For each animal we quantify an individual movement path. A movement path is a temporal sequence consisting of the steps through space taken by an animal. By selecting a set of appropriate movement parameters, we develop a method to assess movement behavioral states, reflected by changes in the movement parameters. The two fundamental tasks of our study are segmentation and clustering. By segmentation, we mean the partitioning of the trajectory into segments, which are homogeneous in terms of their movement parameters. By clustering, we mean grouping similar segments together according to their estimated movement parameters. The proposed method is evaluated using field observations (done by humans of movement behavior. We found that on average, our method agreed with the observational data (ground truth at a level of 80.75% ± 5.9% (SE.
Valentine, Kenneth H.; Falter, Diedre D.; Falter, Kelly G.
A system for monitoring moving objects, such as the flight of honeybees and other insects, using a pulsed laser light source. This system has a self-powered micro-miniaturized transmitting unit powered, in the preferred embodiment, with an array solar cells. This transmitting unit is attached to the object to be monitored. These solar cells provide current to a storage energy capacitor to produce, for example, five volts for the operation of the transmitter. In the simplest embodiment, the voltage on the capacitor operates a pulse generator to provide a pulsed energizing signal to one or more very small laser diodes. The pulsed light is then received at a receiving base station using substantially standard means which converts the light to an electrical signal for processing in a microprocessor to create the information as to the movement of the object. In the case of a unit for monitoring honeybees and other insects, the transmitting unit weighs less than 50 mg, and has a size no larger than 1.times.3.times.5 millimeters. Also, the preferred embodiment provides for the coding of the light to uniquely identify the particular transmitting unit that is being monitored. A "wake-up" circuit is provided in the preferred embodiment whereby there is no transmission until the voltage on the capacitor has exceeded a pre-set threshold. Various other uses of the motion-detection system are described.
Ingel, L. Kh.
The horizontal movement of inertial particles in the intensive vortices, where the centrifugal force can be substantially higher than the gravity, is studied analytically. A similar problem was studied earlier for small (Stokes) particles at low Reynolds number, which allow one to be limited to the linear resistance law. It is shown that the previous results to a great extent can be extrapolated to the case of considerably heavier particles (e.g., water droplets with a diameter up to 1 mm at Reynolds numbers up to 103). The nonlinear nature of the resistance, i.e., its dependence on the particle velocity relative to the medium, should be taken into account for such particles. Some general laws are established for particle dynamics. In particular, their tangential velocity is close to the velocity of the medium, while the radial velocity is substantially lower (it is close on the order of magnitude to the geometric mean of the particle tangential velocity and the difference between the latter and the tangential velocity of the medium). The limits of applicability of the results are found, i.e., the restrictions to the size and mass/density of particles.
Batson, P.E.; Reyes-Coronado, A.; Barrera, R.G.; Rivacoba, A.; Echenique, P.M.; Aizpurua, J.
Nanoparticle structures observed in aberration-corrected electron microscopes exhibit many types of behavior, some of which are dominated by intrinsic conditions, unrelated to the microscope environment. Some behaviors are clearly driven by the electron beam, however, and the question arises as to whether these are similar to intrinsic mechanisms, useful for understanding nanoscale behavior, or whether they should be regarded as unwanted modification of as-built specimens. We have studied a particular kind of beam–specimen interaction – plasmon dielectric forces caused by the electric fields imposed by a passing swift electron – identifying four types of forced motion, including both attractive and repulsive forces on single nanoparticles, and coalescent and non-coalescent forces in groups of two or more nanoparticles. We suggest that these forces might be useful for deliberate electron beam guided movement of nanoparticles. -- Highlights: ► We investigate the interaction of metal nanoparticles with a high energy electron beam. ► We find forces ranging from 0.1 to 50 pN forces between the metal particles and the beam. ► At moderate distances, dielectric forces are usually small and attractive. ► At sub-Nm distances the forces become repulsive, pushing nanoparticles away from the electron beam. ► While the repulsive behavior is predicted by electromagnetic theory, the detailed origin of the behavior is not yet understood.
Willick, Stuart E; Miller, Geoffrey D; Eichner, Daniel
Historical reports of doping in sports date as far back as the ancient Greek Olympic Games. The anti-doping community considers doping in sports to be cheating and a violation of the spirit of sport. During the past century, there has been an increasing awareness of the extent of doping in sports and the health risks of doping. In response, the anti-doping movement has endeavored to educate athletes and others about the health risks of doping and promote a level playing field. Doping control is now undertaken in most countries around the world and at most elite sports competitions. As athletes have found new ways to dope, however, the anti-doping community has endeavored to strengthen its educational and deterrence efforts. It is incumbent upon sports medicine professionals to understand the health risks of doping and all doping control processes. Copyright © 2016 American Academy of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
subjects the teaching style should be characterized by more variation and motivate the pupils. Research has shown that there is a correlation between physical activity and intellectual capital (e.g. educational attainment and academic performance), physical capital (e.g. physical fitness and reduction...... of the risk for diseases and risk factors) and emotional capital (e.g. fun, enjoyment and self-esteem) (Bailey, Hillman, Arent, & Petitpas, 2013). The school reform prescribes that all pupils from grade 1-9 must have at least 45 minutes of movement activities in average every day.Next to the well-known PE...... without prerequisites but part of discourses and at the same time individual interpretations of specific practices. The teaching role is something that is constantly produced and reproduced in the bodily interaction. Understanding teaching as performativity means that teachers are not acting in certain...
De Frenne, Pieter; Coomes, David A.; De Schrijver, An
environments can establish in nonlocal sites. •We assess the intraspecific variation in growth responses to nonlocal soils by planting a widespread grass of deciduous forests (Milium effusum) into an experimental common garden using combinations of seeds and soil sampled in 22 sites across its distributional...... range, and reflecting movement scenarios of up to 1600 km. Furthermore, to determine temperature and forest-structural effects, the plants and soils were experimentally warmed and shaded. •We found significantly positive effects of the difference between the temperature of the sites of seed and soil...... collection on growth and seedling emergence rates. Migrant plants might thus encounter increasingly favourable soil conditions while tracking the isotherms towards currently ‘colder’ soils. These effects persisted under experimental warming. Rising temperatures and light availability generally enhanced plant...
Full Text Available Transition Towns is a citizen-led movement that seeks to address individual and societal dependence on fossil fuels and the need to reduce greenhouse gas production in order to fight climate change. The foundation of Transition is permaculture, a design process based on whole-systems thinking informed by the patterns and relationships found in nature. Since its inception in 2005, the Transition movement has spread worldwide, as people in small groups and across large towns look for ways to take practical action to fight climate change: from home vegetable gardens to weatherization work parties, from time banks and tool shares to renewable energy systems. Transition looks different in every location because it meets the needs and draws on the skills of the local community. This article looks at Transition in one community: The Twin Cities of Minneapolis and St. Paul, profiling several Transition Town groups.
Herzog, Dennis; Krüger, Volker
, we develop an exemplar-based parametric hidden Markov model (PHMM) that allows to represent movements of a particular type. Since we use model interpolation to reduce the necessary amount of training data, we had to develop a method to setup local models in a synchronized way. In our experiments we......A common problem in human movement recognition is the recognition of movements of a particular type (semantic). E.g., grasping movements have a particular semantic (grasping) but the actual movements usually have very different appearances due to, e.g., different grasping directions. In this paper...... to recover the movement type, and, e.g., the object position a human is pointing at. Our experiments show the flexibility of the PHMMs in terms of the amount of training data and its robustness in terms of noisy observation data. In addition, we compare our PHMM to an other kind of PHMM, which has been...
Heinz, Simone K; Wissel, Christian; Conradt, Larissa; Frank, Karin
Dispersal functions are an important tool for integrating dispersal into complex models of population and metapopulation dynamics. Most approaches in the literature are very simple, with the dispersal functions containing only one or two parameters which summarise all the effects of movement behaviour as for example different movement patterns or different perceptual abilities. The summarising nature of these parameters makes assessing the effect of one particular behavioural aspect difficult. We present a way of integrating movement behavioural parameters into a particular dispersal function in a simple way. Using a spatial individual-based simulation model for simulating different movement behaviours, we derive fitting functions for the functional relationship between the parameters of the dispersal function and several details of movement behaviour. This is done for three different movement patterns (loops, Archimedean spirals, random walk). Additionally, we provide measures which characterise the shape of the dispersal function and are interpretable in terms of landscape connectivity. This allows an ecological interpretation of the relationships found.
Eriksson, Eva; Riisgaard Hansen, Thomas; Lykke-Olesen, Andreas
In this paper we present three concepts that address movement-based interaction using camera tracking. Based on our work with several movement-based projects we present four selected applications, and use these applications to leverage our discussion, and to describe our three main concepts space......, relations, and feedback. We see these as central for describing and analysing movement-based systems using camera tracking and we show how these three concepts can be used to analyse other camera tracking applications....
Giugni, Marco; Bosi, Lorenzo; Uba, Katrin
Scholarship has left the study of the consequences of social movements in the background for a long time, focusing instead on movement emergence, characteristics, and dynamics. Since the mid-1970s, however, scholars have paid an increasing interest in how social movements and protest activities may produce change at various levels. The existing literature can be ordered according to the kind of consequence addressed. In this regard, one can roughly distinguish between political, biographical,...
Ikeda, Takashi; Hirata, Masayuki; Kasaki, Masashi; Alimardani, Maryam; Matsushita, Kojiro; Yamamoto, Tomoyuki; Nishio, Shuichi; Ishiguro, Hiroshi
An android, i.e., a realistic humanoid robot with human-like capabilities, may induce an uncanny feeling in human observers. The uncanny feeling about an android has two main causes: its appearance and movement. The uncanny feeling about an android increases when its appearance is almost human-like but its movement is not fully natural or comparable to human movement. Even if an android has human-like flexible joints, its slightly jerky movements cause a human observer to detect subtle unnaturalness in them. However, the neural mechanism underlying the detection of unnatural movements remains unclear. We conducted an fMRI experiment to compare the observation of an android and the observation of a human on which the android is modelled, and we found differences in the activation pattern of the brain regions that are responsible for the production of smooth and natural movement. More specifically, we found that the visual observation of the android, compared with that of the human model, caused greater activation in the subthalamic nucleus (STN). When the android's slightly jerky movements are visually observed, the STN detects their subtle unnaturalness. This finding suggests that the detection of unnatural movements is attributed to an error signal resulting from a mismatch between a visual input and an internal model for smooth movement.
National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This SBIR research develops an automation tool improving temporary and permanent runway closure management. The Movement Area Closure Planner (MACP) provides airport...
McKenna, Dillon; Peever, John
During healthy rapid eye movement sleep, skeletal muscles are actively forced into a state of motor paralysis. However, in rapid eye movement sleep behavior disorder-a relatively common neurological disorder-this natural process is lost. A lack of motor paralysis (atonia) in rapid eye movement sleep behavior disorder allows individuals to actively move, which at times can be excessive and violent. At first glance this may sound harmless, but it is not because rapid eye movement sleep behavior disorder patients frequently injure themselves or the person they sleep with. It is hypothesized that the degeneration or dysfunction of the brain stem circuits that control rapid eye movement sleep paralysis is an underlying cause of rapid eye movement sleep behavior disorder. The link between brain stem degeneration and rapid eye movement sleep behavior disorder stems from the fact that rapid eye movement sleep behavior disorder precedes, in the majority (∼80%) of cases, the development of synucleinopathies such as Parkinson's disease, dementia with Lewy bodies, and multiple system atrophy, which are known to initially cause degeneration in the caudal brain stem structures where rapid eye movement sleep circuits are located. Furthermore, basic science and clinical evidence demonstrate that lesions within the rapid eye movement sleep circuits can induce rapid eye movement sleep-specific motor deficits that are virtually identical to those observed in rapid eye movement sleep behavior disorder. This review examines the evidence that rapid eye movement sleep behavior disorder is caused by synucleinopathic neurodegeneration of the core brain stem circuits that control healthy rapid eye movement sleep and concludes that rapid eye movement sleep behavior disorder is not a separate clinical entity from synucleinopathies but, rather, it is the earliest symptom of these disorders. © 2017 International Parkinson and Movement Disorder Society. © 2017 International Parkinson and
Huang, Xu; Jing, Jin; Zou, Xiao-Bing; Wang, Meng-Long; Li, Xiu-Hong; Lin, Ai-Hua
Reading Chinese, a kind of ideogram, relies more on visual cognition. The visuospatial cognitive deficit of Chinese dyslexia is an interesting topic that has received much attention. The purpose of current research was to explore the visuopatial cognitive characteristics of Chinese dyslexic children by studying their eye movements via a picture searching test. According to the diagnostic criteria defined by ICD-10, twenty-eight dyslexic children (mean age (10.12 +/- 1.42) years) were enrolled from the Clinic of Children Behavioral Disorder in the third affiliated hospital of Sun Yat-sen University. And 28 normally reading children (mean age (10.06 +/- 1.29) years), 1:1 matched by age, sex, grade and family condition were chosen from an elementary school in Guangzhou as a control group. Four groups of pictures (cock, accident, canyon, meditate) from Picture Vocabulary Test were chosen as eye movement experiment targets. All the subjects carried out the picture searching task and their eye movement data were recorded by an Eyelink II High-Speed Eye Tracker. The duration time, average fixation duration, average saccade amplitude, fixation counts and saccade counts were compared between the two groups of children. The dyslexic children had longer total fixation duration and average fixation duration (F = 7.711, P < 0.01; F = 4.520, P < 0.05), more fixation counts and saccade counts (F = 7.498, P < 0.01; F = 11.040, P < 0.01), and a smaller average saccade amplitude (F = 29.743, P < 0.01) compared with controls. But their performance in the picture vocabulary test was the same as those of the control group. The eye movement indexes were affected by the difficulty of the pictures and words, all eye movement indexes, except saccade amplitude, had a significant difference within groups (P < 0.05). Chinese dyslexic children have abnormal eye movements in picture searching, applying slow fixations, more fixations and small and frequent saccades. Their abnormal eye movement
Woitek, Ramona; Kasprian, Gregor; Lindner, Christian; Stuhr, Fritz; Weber, Michael; Schöpf, Veronika; Brugger, Peter C.; Asenbaum, Ulrika; Furtner, Julia; Bettelheim, Dieter; Seidl, Rainer; Prayer, Daniela
Objectives Eye movements are the physical expression of upper fetal brainstem function. Our aim was to identify and differentiate specific types of fetal eye movement patterns using dynamic MRI sequences. Their occurrence as well as the presence of conjugated eyeball motion and consistently parallel eyeball position was systematically analyzed. Methods Dynamic SSFP sequences were acquired in 72 singleton fetuses (17–40 GW, three age groups [17–23 GW, 24–32 GW, 33–40 GW]). Fetal eye movements were evaluated according to a modified classification originally published by Birnholz (1981): Type 0: no eye movements; Type I: single transient deviations; Type Ia: fast deviation, slower reposition; Type Ib: fast deviation, fast reposition; Type II: single prolonged eye movements; Type III: complex sequences; and Type IV: nystagmoid. Results In 95.8% of fetuses, the evaluation of eye movements was possible using MRI, with a mean acquisition time of 70 seconds. Due to head motion, 4.2% of the fetuses and 20.1% of all dynamic SSFP sequences were excluded. Eye movements were observed in 45 fetuses (65.2%). Significant differences between the age groups were found for Type I (p = 0.03), Type Ia (p = 0.031), and Type IV eye movements (p = 0.033). Consistently parallel bulbs were found in 27.3–45%. Conclusions In human fetuses, different eye movement patterns can be identified and described by MRI in utero. In addition to the originally classified eye movement patterns, a novel subtype has been observed, which apparently characterizes an important step in fetal brainstem development. We evaluated, for the first time, eyeball position in fetuses. Ultimately, the assessment of fetal eye movements by MRI yields the potential to identify early signs of brainstem dysfunction, as encountered in brain malformations such as Chiari II or molar tooth malformations. PMID:24194885
Woitek, Ramona; Kasprian, Gregor; Lindner, Christian; Stuhr, Fritz; Weber, Michael; Schöpf, Veronika; Brugger, Peter C; Asenbaum, Ulrika; Furtner, Julia; Bettelheim, Dieter; Seidl, Rainer; Prayer, Daniela
Eye movements are the physical expression of upper fetal brainstem function. Our aim was to identify and differentiate specific types of fetal eye movement patterns using dynamic MRI sequences. Their occurrence as well as the presence of conjugated eyeball motion and consistently parallel eyeball position was systematically analyzed. Dynamic SSFP sequences were acquired in 72 singleton fetuses (17-40 GW, three age groups [17-23 GW, 24-32 GW, 33-40 GW]). Fetal eye movements were evaluated according to a modified classification originally published by Birnholz (1981): Type 0: no eye movements; Type I: single transient deviations; Type Ia: fast deviation, slower reposition; Type Ib: fast deviation, fast reposition; Type II: single prolonged eye movements; Type III: complex sequences; and Type IV: nystagmoid. In 95.8% of fetuses, the evaluation of eye movements was possible using MRI, with a mean acquisition time of 70 seconds. Due to head motion, 4.2% of the fetuses and 20.1% of all dynamic SSFP sequences were excluded. Eye movements were observed in 45 fetuses (65.2%). Significant differences between the age groups were found for Type I (p = 0.03), Type Ia (p = 0.031), and Type IV eye movements (p = 0.033). Consistently parallel bulbs were found in 27.3-45%. In human fetuses, different eye movement patterns can be identified and described by MRI in utero. In addition to the originally classified eye movement patterns, a novel subtype has been observed, which apparently characterizes an important step in fetal brainstem development. We evaluated, for the first time, eyeball position in fetuses. Ultimately, the assessment of fetal eye movements by MRI yields the potential to identify early signs of brainstem dysfunction, as encountered in brain malformations such as Chiari II or molar tooth malformations.
Cook, Gray; Burton, Lee; Hoogenboom, Barbara J.; Voight, Michael
To prepare an athlete for the wide variety of activities needed to participate in or return to their sport, the analysis of fundamental movements should be incorporated into screening in order to determine who possesses, or lacks, the ability to perform certain essential movements. In a series of two articles, the background and rationale for the analysis of fundamental movement will be provided. The Functional Movement Screen (FMS™) will be described, and any evidence related to its use will...
This study 1) examined the influence of lower limb movement on upper limb movement symmetry, 2) determined the part of the propulsion phase displaying the greatest hand movement asymmetry, 3) diagnosed the range of upper limb propulsion phase which is the most prone to the influence of the lower limbs while swimming the breaststroke. Twenty-four participants took part in two tests. Half of them performed an asymmetrical leg movement. The propulsion in the first test was generated by four limb...
Abdo, W.F.; Warrenburg, B.P.C. van de; Burn, D.J.; Quinn, N.P.; Bloem, B.R.
Movement disorders are commonly encountered in the clinic. In this Review, aimed at trainees and general neurologists, we provide a practical step-by-step approach to help clinicians in their 'pattern recognition' of movement disorders, as part of a process that ultimately leads to the diagnosis.
Buchin, K.; Sijben, S.; Arseneau, T.J.-M.; Willems, E.P.
In trajectory data a low sampling rate leads to high uncertainty in between sampling points, which needs to be taken into account in the analysis of such data. However, current algorithms for movement analysis ignore this uncertainty and assume linear movement between sample points. In this paper we
examples taken from Danish media, it is shown that the study of movement cannot be separated from that of discursive power. Access to and control over physical movement is unequally distributed. However, so is access to and control over assessing which activities can meaningfully be given the label...
Schenck, C H; Montplaisir, J Y; Frauscher, B
We aimed to provide a consensus statement by the International Rapid Eye Movement Sleep Behavior Disorder Study Group (IRBD-SG) on devising controlled active treatment studies in rapid eye movement sleep behavior disorder (RBD) and devising studies of neuroprotection against Parkinson disease (PD...
Krueger, Konstanze; Flauger, Birgit; Farmer, Kate; Hemelrijk, Charlotte
Herds of ungulates, flocks of birds, swarms of insects and schools of fish move in coordinated groups. Computer models show that only one or very few animals are needed to initiate and direct movement. To investigate initiation mechanisms further, we studied two ways in which movement can be
Will, Leslie A
The earliest report on orthodontic tooth movement in the English literature was published in 1911. Oppenheim carried out studies on baboons to determine what histologic changes occurred during tooth movement. Reitan and many others carried out research into the nature of tooth movement. The pressure-tension model of tooth movement developed from these studies, whereby the two sides of the tooth responded to forces as if in isolation. A second theory, proposed by Stuteville in 1938, was the hydraulic theory of tooth movement. In this theory, fluid from the vasculature, lymphatic system and intercellular spaces responds to the forces of tooth movement, damping the force and limiting movement. Bien and Baumrind expanded on this theory with their own studies in the 1960s. It is clear that both the pressure-tension and fluid flow concepts have merit, but considerable work needs to be done to ascertain the details so that tooth movement can be managed and controlled. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.
Full Text Available Queuing effect can be in the different components of ground operations. Causes of surface – movement delays are long taxi – in and taxi – out operations during departure and arrival of aircraft. Surface movement delays in an airport are analyzed
Full Text Available The Olympic Movement is a term that covers all areas related to the phenomenon of Olympism. From its creation, the Olympic Movement has had to follow and to respond to numerous challenges and changes of the 20th and 21st century. The successful work of the International Olympic Committee (IOC on the implementation of their projects related to world peace, the education of youth, equal inclusion of women in every aspect of the Movement, the establishment of the Women’s Commission, the Sport for All Commission, and the Sports and the Environment Commission are facts indicating that the IOC has a significant impact on the values of the Olympic Movement. In addition to equal participation of all athletes, today, the Olympic Movement provides Olympic solidarity, education and other programs. The basic method that was used in this study was the historical method, which includes heuristic, empirical and theoretical study of the origin and development of the IOC and its operation as part of the Olympic Movement. Research results indicate that the management of the IOCas a sporting organization that manages this Movement is directed at achieving the goal to contribute to building a more peaceful and better world by educating young people through sports, and in accordance with the Olympic values. With proper management, the IOChas improved sports and has grown into an organization that is at the head of the Olympic Movement.
Walter, Teri; Quint, Ashleigh; Fischer, Kim; Kiger, Joy
This article presents warm-ups that are designed to physiologically and psychologically prepare students for vigorous physical activity. An active movement warm-up routine is made up of three parts: (1) active warm-up movement exercises, (2) general preparation, and (3) the energy system. These warm-up routines can be used with all grade levels…
Staples, Kerri L.; Reid, Greg
Delays and deficits may both contribute to atypical development of movement skills by children with ASD. Fundamental movement skills of 25 children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) (ages 9-12 years) were compared to three typically developing groups using the "Test of Gross Motor Development" ("TGMD-2"). The group matched on chronological age…
Deli, Eleni; Bakle, Iliana; Zachopoulou, Evridiki
The reported study aimed to identify the effects of two 10-week intervention programs on fundamental locomotor skill performance in kindergarten children. Seventy-five children with mean age 5.4 plus or minus 0.5 years participated. Experimental Group A followed a movement program, experimental Group B followed a music and movement program, and…
O' Brien, Wesley; Belton, Sarahjane; Issartel, Johann
Background: Literature suggests that physical education programmes ought to provide intense instruction towards basic movement skills needed to enjoy a variety of physical activities. Fundamental movement skills (FMS) are basic observable patterns of behaviour present from childhood to adulthood (e.g. run, skip and kick). Recent evidence indicates…
Stekelenburg, Jacquelien Van; Roggeband, Conny; Stekelenburg, Jacquelien Van; Roggeband, Conny; Klandermans, Bert
In The Future of Social Movement Research, some of the most influential scholars in the field provide a wide-ranging understanding of how social movements arise and persist, engendering unanswered questions pointing to new theoretical strands and fields of research. The resulting work is
Brain research has shown that the brain is “plastic” in that it can adapt continuously, and its structure can be changed by certain kinds of stimulation, including movement. The body is a sensory-motor response system that causes the brain to organize itself. Movement is essential to learning and can be regarded as the door ...
van Stekelenburg, Jacquelien
Mobilization against apartheid in South Africa, the campaign against blood diamonds, the women's movement in Liberia where Africa's first female head of State was elected in 2005 - these are all examples of socially based movements that have had a major effect on Africa's recent history. Yet the
Ellis, S.; Kessel, van W.M.J.
Mobilization against apartheid in South Africa, the campaign against blood diamonds, the women's movement in Liberia where Africa's first female head of State was elected in 2005 - these are all examples of socially based movements that have had a major effect on Africa's recent history. Yet the
Movement disorders are usually treated by neurologists, and appropriately so. The first-line management of all conditions that are grouped together as movement disorders (e.g. Parkinson's disease, dystonia, essential tremor) is with medication and, in some, with rehabilitative strategies, such as occupational therapy, ...
Radcliffe, Betty; Gerlach, Luther P.
Summarized are responses to a 1980 "Natural History""You and the Ecology Movement" questionnaire on ecological problems and the environmental movement. Returns indicate that concern for environmental quality is still very much in evidence, but some new directions and emphases are apparent. (WB)
Fofana, Abdou Moutalab; Hurford, Amy
An overlooked aspect of disease ecology is considering how and why animals come into contact with one and other resulting in disease transmission. Mathematical models of disease spread frequently assume mass-action transmission, justified by stating that susceptible and infectious hosts mix readily, and foregoing any detailed description of host movement. Numerous recent studies have recorded, analysed and modelled animal movement. These movement models describe how animals move with respect to resources, conspecifics and previous movement directions and have been used to understand the conditions for the occurrence and the spread of infectious diseases when hosts perform a type of movement. Here, we summarize the effect of the different types of movement on the threshold conditions for disease spread. We identify gaps in the literature and suggest several promising directions for future research. The mechanistic inclusion of movement in epidemic models may be beneficial for the following two reasons. Firstly, the estimation of the transmission coefficient in an epidemic model is possible because animal movement data can be used to estimate the rate of contacts between conspecifics. Secondly, unsuccessful transmission events, where a susceptible host contacts an infectious host but does not become infected can be quantified. Following an outbreak, this enables disease ecologists to identify 'near misses' and to explore possible alternative epidemic outcomes given shifts in ecological or immunological parameters.This article is part of the themed issue 'Opening the black box: re-examining the ecology and evolution of parasite transmission'. © 2017 The Author(s).
Slingsby, A.; van Loon, E.
Movement ecologists study animals' movement to help understand their behaviours and interactions with each other and the environment. Data from GPS loggers are increasingly important for this. These data need to be processed, segmented and summarised for further visual and statistical analysis,
Vukicevic, S.; Vinter, I.; Vukicevic, D.
Investigations were carried out on embalmed and fresh specimens of human pelvisis with preserved lumbar spines, hip joints and all the ligaments. Specimens were tested under static vertical loading by pulsed laser interferometry. The deformations and behaviour of particular pelvic parts were interpreted by providing computer interferogram models. Results indicate rotation and tilting of the sacrum in the dorso-ventral direction and small but significant movements in the cranio-caudal direction. Sandwich holography proved to be the only applicable method when there is a combination of translation and tilt in the range of 200 μm to 1.5 mm.
van Schie, Kevin; van Veen, Suzanne C; Engelhard, Iris M; Klugkist, Irene; van den Hout, Marcel A
In eye movement desensitization and reprocessing (EMDR), patients make eye movements (EM) while recalling traumatic memories. Making EM taxes working memory (WM), which leaves less resources available for imagery of the memory. This reduces memory vividness and emotionality during future recalls. WM theory predicts that individuals with small working memory capacities (WMCs) benefit more from low levels of taxing (i.e., slow EM) whereas individuals with large WMC benefit more from high levels of taxing (i.e., fast EM). We experimentally examined and tested four prespecified hypotheses regarding the role of WMC and EM speed in reducing emotionality and vividness ratings: 1) EM-regardless of WMC and EM speed-are more effective compared to no dual task, 2) increasing EM speed only affects the decrease in memory ratings irrespective of WMC, 3) low-WMC individuals-compared to high-WMC individuals-benefit more from making either type of EM, 4) the EM intervention is most effective when-as predicted by WM theory-EM are adjusted to WMC. Undergraduates with low (n=31) or high (n=35) WMC recalled three emotional memories and rated vividness and emotionality before and after each condition (recall only, recall + slow EM, and recall + fast EM). Contrary to the theory, the data do not support the hypothesis that EM speed should be adjusted to WMC (hypothesis 4). However, the data show that a dual task in general is more effective in reducing memory ratings than no dual task (hypothesis 1), and that a more cognitively demanding dual task increases the intervention's effectiveness (hypothesis 2). Although adjusting EM speed to an individual's WMC seems a straightforward clinical implication, the data do not show any indication that such a titration is helpful.
Kevin van Schie
Full Text Available Background: In eye movement desensitization and reprocessing (EMDR, patients make eye movements (EM while recalling traumatic memories. Making EM taxes working memory (WM, which leaves less resources available for imagery of the memory. This reduces memory vividness and emotionality during future recalls. WM theory predicts that individuals with small working memory capacities (WMCs benefit more from low levels of taxing (i.e., slow EM whereas individuals with large WMC benefit more from high levels of taxing (i.e., fast EM. Objective: We experimentally examined and tested four prespecified hypotheses regarding the role of WMC and EM speed in reducing emotionality and vividness ratings: 1 EM—regardless of WMC and EM speed—are more effective compared to no dual task, 2 increasing EM speed only affects the decrease in memory ratings irrespective of WMC, 3 low-WMC individuals—compared to high-WMC individuals—benefit more from making either type of EM, 4 the EM intervention is most effective when—as predicted by WM theory—EM are adjusted to WMC. Method: Undergraduates with low (n=31 or high (n=35 WMC recalled three emotional memories and rated vividness and emotionality before and after each condition (recall only, recall + slow EM, and recall + fast EM. Results: Contrary to the theory, the data do not support the hypothesis that EM speed should be adjusted to WMC (hypothesis 4. However, the data show that a dual task in general is more effective in reducing memory ratings than no dual task (hypothesis 1, and that a more cognitively demanding dual task increases the intervention's effectiveness (hypothesis 2. Conclusions: Although adjusting EM speed to an individual's WMC seems a straightforward clinical implication, the data do not show any indication that such a titration is helpful.
Requirements for evaluating the adherence characteristics of sludge on the fuel stored in the K East Basin and the effect of canister movement on basin water turbidity are documented in Briggs (1996). The results of the sludge adherence testing have been documented (Bergmann 1996). This report documents the results of the canister movement tests. The purpose of the canister movement tests was to characterize water turbidity under controlled canister movements (Briggs 1996). The tests were designed to evaluate methods for minimizing the plumes and controlling water turbidity during fuel movements leading to multi-canister overpack (MCO) loading. It was expected that the test data would provide qualitative visual information for use in the design of the fuel retrieval and water treatment systems. Video recordings of the tests were to be the only information collected
Humans are very good in expressing and interpreting emotions from a variety of different sources like voice, facial expression, or body movements. In this article, we concentrate on body movements and show that those are not only a source of affective information but might also have a different i...... with a study on creating an affective knocking movement for a humanoid robot and give details about a co-creation experiment for collecting a cross-cultural database on affective body movements and about the probabilistic model derived from this data....... interpretation in different cultures. To cope with these multiple viewpoints in generating and interpreting body movements in robots, we suggest a methodological approach that takes the cultural background of the developer and the user into account during the development process. We exemplify this approach...
Full Text Available Processes of motor control and learning in sports as well as in motor rehabilitation are based on perceptual functions and emergent motor representations. Here a new method of movement sonification is described which is designed to tune in more comprehensively the auditory system into motor perception to enhance motor learning. Usually silent features of the cyclic movement pattern "indoor rowing" are sonified in real time to make them additionally available to the auditory system when executing the movement. Via real time sonification movement perception can be enhanced in terms of temporal precision and multi-channel integration. But beside the contribution of a single perceptual channel to motor perception and motor representation also mechanisms of multisensory integration can be addressed, if movement sonification is configured adequately: Multimodal motor representations consisting of at least visual, auditory and proprioceptive components - can be shaped subtly resulting in more precise motor control and enhanced motor learning.
Van Hulle, Lore; Juravle, Georgiana; Spence, Charles; Crombez, Geert; Van Damme, Stefaan
Tactile perception is often impaired during movement. The present study investigated whether such sensory suppression also occurs during back movements, and whether this would be modulated by attention. In two tactile detection experiments, participants simultaneously engaged in a movement task, in which they executed a back-bending movement, and a perceptual task, consisting of the detection of subtle tactile stimuli administered to their upper or lower back. The focus of participants' attention was manipulated by raising the probability that one of the back locations would be stimulated. The results revealed that tactile detection was suppressed during the execution of the back movements. Furthermore, the results of Experiment 2 revealed that when the stimulus was always presented to the attended location, tactile suppression was substantially reduced, suggesting that sensory suppression can be modulated by top-down attentional processes. The potential of this paradigm for studying tactile information processing in clinical populations is discussed. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Hoskins, Bryan L
The Study of Movement Speeds Down Stairs closely examines forty-three unique case studies on movement patterns down stairwells. These studies include observations made during evacuation drills, others made during normal usage, interviews with people after fire evacuations, recommendations made from compiled studies, and detailed results from laboratory studies. The methodology used in each study for calculating density and movement speed, when known, are also presented, and this book identifies an additional seventeen variables linked to altering movement speeds. The Study of Movement Speeds Down Stairs is intended for researchers as a reference guide for evaluating pedestrian evacuation dynamics down stairwells. Practitioners working in a related field may also find this book invaluable.
Huette, Stephanie; Winter, Bodo; Matlock, Teenie; Ardell, David H; Spivey, Michael
Recent research using eye-tracking typically relies on constrained visual contexts in particular goal-oriented contexts, viewing a small array of objects on a computer screen and performing some overt decision or identification. Eyetracking paradigms that use pictures as a measure of word or sentence comprehension are sometimes touted as ecologically invalid because pictures and explicit tasks are not always present during language comprehension. This study compared the comprehension of sentences with two different grammatical forms: the past progressive (e.g., was walking), which emphasizes the ongoing nature of actions, and the simple past (e.g., walked), which emphasizes the end-state of an action. The results showed that the distribution and timing of eye movements mirrors the underlying conceptual structure of this linguistic difference in the absence of any visual stimuli or task constraint: Fixations were shorter and saccades were more dispersed across the screen, as if thinking about more dynamic events when listening to the past progressive stories. Thus, eye movement data suggest that visual inputs or an explicit task are unnecessary to solicit analog representations of features such as movement, that could be a key perceptual component to grammatical comprehension.
Full Text Available Recent research using eye-tracking typically relies on constrained visual contexts in particular goal-oriented contexts, viewing a small array of objects on a computer screen and performing some overt decision or identification. Eyetracking paradigms that use pictures as a measure of word or sentence comprehension are sometimes touted as ecologically invalid because pictures and explicit tasks are not always present during language comprehension. This study compared the comprehension of sentences with two different grammatical forms: the past progressive (e.g., was walking, which emphasizes the ongoing nature of actions, and the simple past (e.g., walked, which emphasizes the end-state of an action. The results showed that the distribution and timing of eye movements mirrors the underlying conceptual structure of this linguistic difference in the absence of any visual stimuli or task constraint: Fixations were shorter and saccades were more dispersed across the screen, as if thinking about more dynamic events when listening to the past progressive stories. Thus, eye movement data suggest that visual inputs or an explicit task are unnecessary to solicit analogue representations of features such as movement, that could be a key perceptual component to grammatical comprehension.
Jelena Zlatković Winter
Full Text Available After a brief historical review of migrations in Europe, the paper focuses on current migration trends and their consequences. At the end of the 1950s, Western Europe began to recruit labour from several Mediterranean countries – Italy, Spain, Portugal and former Yugoslavia, and later from Morocco, Algeria, Tunisia and Turkey. Some countries, such as France, Great Britain and the Netherlands, recruited also workers from their former colonies. In 1970 Germany had the highest absolute number of foreigners, followed by France, and then Switzerland and Belgium. The total number of immigrants in Western Europe was twelve million. During the 1970s mass recruitment of foreign workers was abandoned, and only the arrival of their family members was permitted, which led to family reunification in the countries of employment. Europe closed its borders, with the result that clandestine migration increased. The year 1989 was a turning point in the history of international migrations. The political changes in Central and Eastern Europe brought about mass migration to the West, which culminated in the so-called “mass movement of 1989–1990”. The arrival of ethnic Germans in Germany, migration inside and outside of the territory of the former Soviet Union, an increase in the number of asylum seekers and displaced persons, due to armed conflicts, are – according to the author – the main traits of current migration. The main part of the paper discusses the causes and effects of this mass wave, as well as trends in labour migration, which is still present. The second part of the paper, after presenting a typology of migrations, deals with the complex processes that brought about the formation of new communities and led to the phenomenon of new ethnic minorities and to corresponding migration policies in Western European countries that had to address these issues.
Yekutieli, Yoram; Sagiv-Zohar, Roni; Aharonov, Ranit; Engel, Yaakov; Hochner, Binyamin; Flash, Tamar
The octopus arm requires special motor control schemes because it consists almost entirely of muscles and lacks a rigid skeletal support. Here we present a 2D dynamic model of the octopus arm to explore possible strategies of movement control in this muscular hydrostat. The arm is modeled as a multisegment structure, each segment containing longitudinal and transverse muscles and maintaining a constant volume, a prominent feature of muscular hydrostats. The input to the model is the degree of activation of each of its muscles. The model includes the external forces of gravity, buoyancy, and water drag forces (experimentally estimated here). It also includes the internal forces generated by the arm muscles and the forces responsible for maintaining a constant volume. Using this dynamic model to investigate the octopus reaching movement and to explore the mechanisms of bend propagation that characterize this movement, we found the following. 1) A simple command producing a wave of muscle activation moving at a constant velocity is sufficient to replicate the natural reaching movements with similar kinematic features. 2) The biomechanical mechanism that produces the reaching movement is a stiffening wave of muscle contraction that pushes a bend forward along the arm. 3) The perpendicular drag coefficient for an octopus arm is nearly 50 times larger than the tangential drag coefficient. During a reaching movement, only a small portion of the arm is oriented perpendicular to the direction of movement, thus minimizing the drag force.
Full Text Available Preterm birth is associated with increased risks of neurological and motor impairments such as cerebral palsy. The risks are highest in those born at the lowest gestations. Early identification of those most at risk is challenging meaning that a critical window of opportunity to improve outcomes through therapy-based interventions may be missed. Clinically, the assessment of spontaneous general movements is an important tool which can be used for the prediction of movement impairments in high risk infants.Movement recognition aims to capture and analyze relevant limb movements through computerized approaches focusing on continuous, objective, and quantitative assessment. Different methods of recording and analyzing infant movements have recently been explored in high risk infants. These range from camera-based solutions to body-worn miniaturized movement sensors used to record continuous time-series data that represent the dynamics of limb movements. Various machine learning methods have been developed and applied to the analysis of the recorded movement data. This analysis has focused on the detection and classification of atypical spontaneous general movements. This paper aims to identify recent translational studies using movement recognition technology as a method of assessing movement in high risk infants. The application of this technology within pediatric practice represents a growing area of inter-disciplinary collaboration which may lead to a greater understanding of the development of the nervous system in infants at high risk of motor impairment.
Rachelle P. Tsachor
Full Text Available Although movement has long been recognized as expressing emotion and as an agent of change for emotional state, there was a dearth of scientific evidence specifying which aspects of movement influence specific emotions. The recent identification of clusters of Laban movement components which elicit and enhance the basic emotions of anger, fear, sadness and happiness indicates which types of movements can affect these emotions (Shafir et al., 2016, but not how best to apply this knowledge. This perspective paper lays out a conceptual groundwork for how to effectively use these new findings to support emotional resiliency through voluntary choice of one's posture and movements. We suggest that three theoretical principles from Laban Movement Analysis (LMA can guide the gradual change in movement components in one's daily movements to somatically support shift in affective state: (A Introduce new movement components in developmental order; (B Use LMA affinities-among-components to guide the expansion of expressive movement range and (C Sequence change among components based on Laban's Space Harmony theory to support the gradual integration of that new range. The methods postulated in this article have potential to foster resiliency and provide resources for self-efficacy by expanding our capacity to adapt emotionally to challenges through modulating our movement responses.
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Full Text Available Understanding the influence of the built environment on human movement requires quantifying spatial structure in a general sense. Because of the difficulty of this task, studies of movement dynamics often ignore spatial heterogeneity and treat movement through journey lengths or distances alone. This study analyses public bicycle data from central London to reveal that, although journey distances, directions, and frequencies of occurrence are spatially variable, their relative spatial patterns remain largely constant, suggesting the influence of a fixed spatial template. A method is presented to describe this underlying space in terms of the relative orientation of movements toward, away from, and around locations of geographical or cultural significance. This produces two fields: one of convergence and one of divergence, which are able to accurately reconstruct the observed spatial variations in movement. These two fields also reveal categorical distinctions between shorter journeys merely serving diffusion away from significant locations, and longer journeys intentionally serving transport between spatially distinct centres of collective importance. Collective patterns of human movement are thus revealed to arise from a combination of both diffusive and directed movement, with aggregate statistics such as mean travel distances primarily determined by relative numbers of these two kinds of journeys.
Full Text Available Change constitutes different things for the groups, as the position of one group may improve, but that of another deteriorate. Social change is a consequence of how the different groups act, and their actions again depend on their social and economic interests. In other words, there are groups in society (social classes, professional groups, the agrarian population, industrial workers, which come more or less openly in conflict with each other when looking after their interests. Thus this way of thinking is based on a conflict model. One sees social change as a consequence of people trying to protect their social and economic interests. Viewed this way even religious organizations and movements are involved in protecting the interests of social groups. However, the interesting point in this connection is that religious movements differ from political movements and groups, as the religious movements express the social interests of a group more indirectly than the political movements. The religious movements gather people from similar living conditions, and so to speak, prepare them for political work. They defend and justify the way of living of a group, and thus give ideological material for political groupings. They may also form coalitions with political groups and parties. The author analyzes Laestadianism from this point of view. Before going into the connection between religious dynamics and social change it is necessary to present a few general features of Laestadianism as a religious movement of the peasant population.
Colleen T O'Rourke
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Different strategies to search and detect prey may place specific demands on sensory modalities. We studied visual field configuration, degree of eye movement, and orbit orientation in three diurnal raptors belonging to the Accipitridae and Falconidae families. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We used an ophthalmoscopic reflex technique and an integrated 3D digitizer system. We found inter-specific variation in visual field configuration and degree of eye movement, but not in orbit orientation. Red-tailed Hawks have relatively small binocular areas (∼33° and wide blind areas (∼82°, but intermediate degree of eye movement (∼5°, which underscores the importance of lateral vision rather than binocular vision to scan for distant prey in open areas. Cooper's Hawks' have relatively wide binocular fields (∼36°, small blind areas (∼60°, and high degree of eye movement (∼8°, which may increase visual coverage and enhance prey detection in closed habitats. Additionally, we found that Cooper's Hawks can visually inspect the items held in the tip of the bill, which may facilitate food handling. American Kestrels have intermediate-sized binocular and lateral areas that may be used in prey detection at different distances through stereopsis and motion parallax; whereas the low degree eye movement (∼1° may help stabilize the image when hovering above prey before an attack. CONCLUSIONS: We conclude that: (a there are between-species differences in visual field configuration in these diurnal raptors; (b these differences are consistent with prey searching strategies and degree of visual obstruction in the environment (e.g., open and closed habitats; (c variations in the degree of eye movement between species appear associated with foraging strategies; and (d the size of the binocular and blind areas in hawks can vary substantially due to eye movements. Inter-specific variation in visual fields and eye movements can influence
O'Rourke, Colleen T; Hall, Margaret I; Pitlik, Todd; Fernández-Juricic, Esteban
Different strategies to search and detect prey may place specific demands on sensory modalities. We studied visual field configuration, degree of eye movement, and orbit orientation in three diurnal raptors belonging to the Accipitridae and Falconidae families. We used an ophthalmoscopic reflex technique and an integrated 3D digitizer system. We found inter-specific variation in visual field configuration and degree of eye movement, but not in orbit orientation. Red-tailed Hawks have relatively small binocular areas (∼33°) and wide blind areas (∼82°), but intermediate degree of eye movement (∼5°), which underscores the importance of lateral vision rather than binocular vision to scan for distant prey in open areas. Cooper's Hawks' have relatively wide binocular fields (∼36°), small blind areas (∼60°), and high degree of eye movement (∼8°), which may increase visual coverage and enhance prey detection in closed habitats. Additionally, we found that Cooper's Hawks can visually inspect the items held in the tip of the bill, which may facilitate food handling. American Kestrels have intermediate-sized binocular and lateral areas that may be used in prey detection at different distances through stereopsis and motion parallax; whereas the low degree eye movement (∼1°) may help stabilize the image when hovering above prey before an attack. We conclude that: (a) there are between-species differences in visual field configuration in these diurnal raptors; (b) these differences are consistent with prey searching strategies and degree of visual obstruction in the environment (e.g., open and closed habitats); (c) variations in the degree of eye movement between species appear associated with foraging strategies; and (d) the size of the binocular and blind areas in hawks can vary substantially due to eye movements. Inter-specific variation in visual fields and eye movements can influence behavioral strategies to visually search for and track prey while
Hartley, Stephen B.; Goatcher, Buddy L.; Sapkota, Sijan
The prolific breeding capability, behavioral adaptation, and adverse environmental impacts of invasive wild pigs (Sus scrofa) have increased efforts towards managing their populations and understanding their movements. Currently, little is known about wild pig populations and movements in Louisiana and Mississippi. From 2011 to 2013, the U.S. Geological Survey investigated spatial and temporal movements of wild pigs in both marsh and nonmarsh physiographic regions. Twenty-one Global Positioning System satellite telemetry tracking collars were installed on adult wild pigs captured with trained dogs and released. Coordinates of their locations were recorded hourly. We collected 16,674 hourly data points including date, time, air temperature, and position during a 3-year study. Solar and lunar attributes, such as sun and moon phases and azimuth angles, were not related significantly to the movements among wild pigs. Movements were significantly correlated negatively with air temperature. Differences in movements between seasons and years were observed. On average, movements of boars were significantly greater than those of sows. Average home range, determined by using a minimum convex polygon as a proxy, was 911 hectares for boars, whereas average home range for sows was 116 hectares. Wild pigs in marsh habitat traveled lesser distances relative to those from more arid, nonmarsh habitats. Overall, results of this study indicate that wild pigs in Louisiana and Mississippi have small home ranges. These small home ranges suggest that natural movements have not been a major factor in the recent broad-scale range expansion observed in this species in the United States.
O'Brien, Megan K.; Ahmed, Alaa A.
Emotional states such as sadness, anger, and threat have been shown to play a critical role in decision-making processes. Here we addressed the question of whether risk preferences are influenced by postural threat and whether this influence generalizes across motor tasks. We examined risk attitudes in the context of arm-reaching (ARM) and whole-body (WB) leaning movements, expecting that increased postural threat would lead to proportionally similar changes in risk-sensitivity for each motor task. Healthy young adults were shown a series of two-alternative forced-choice lotteries, where they were asked to choose between a riskier lottery and a safer lottery on each trial. Our lotteries consisted of different monetary rewards and target sizes. Subjects performed each choice task at ground level and atop an elevated platform. In the presence of this postural threat, increased physiological arousal was correlated with decreased movement variability. To determine risk-sensitivity, we quantified the frequency with which a subject chose the riskier lottery and fit lottery responses to a choice model based on cumulative prospect theory (CPT). Subjects exhibited idiosyncratic changes in risk-sensitivity between motor tasks and between elevations. However, we found that overweighting of small probabilities increased with postural threat in the WB task, indicating a more cautious, risk-averse strategy is ascribed to the possibility of a fall. Subjects were also more risk-seeking in the WB movements than in ARM at low elevation; this behavior does not seem to derive from consistent distortions in utility or probability representations but may be explained by subjects' inaccurate estimation of their own motor variability. Overall, our findings suggest that implicit threat can modify risk attitudes in the motor domain, and the threat may induce risk-aversion in salient movement tasks. PMID:26106311
Megan K. O'Brien
Full Text Available Emotional states such as sadness, anger, and threat have been shown to play a critical role in decision-making processes. Here we addressed the question of whether risk preferences are influenced by postural threat and whether this influence generalizes across motor tasks. We examined risk attitudes in the context of arm-reaching and whole-body leaning movements, expecting that increased postural threat would lead to proportionally similar changes in risk-sensitivity for each motor task. Healthy young adults were shown a series of two-alternative forced-choice lotteries, where they were asked to choose between a riskier lottery and a safer lottery on each trial. Our lotteries consisted of different monetary rewards and target sizes. Subjects performed each choice task at ground level and atop an elevated platform. In the presence of this postural threat, increased physiological arousal was correlated with decreased movement variability. To determine risk-sensitivity, we quantified the frequency with which a subject chose the riskier lottery and fit lottery responses to a choice model based on cumulative prospect theory. Subjects exhibited idiosyncratic changes in risk-sensitivity between motor tasks and between elevations. However, we found that overweighting of small probabilities increased with postural threat in the whole-body task, indicating a more cautious, risk-averse strategy is ascribed to the possibility of a fall. Subjects were also more risk-seeking in the whole-body movements than in arm-reaching at low elevation; this behavior does not seem to derive from consistent distortions in utility or probability representations but may be explained by subjects’ inaccurate estimation of their own motor variability. Overall, our findings suggest that implicit threat can modify risk attitudes in the motor domain, and the threat may induce risk-aversion in salient movement tasks.
O'Brien, Megan K; Ahmed, Alaa A
Emotional states such as sadness, anger, and threat have been shown to play a critical role in decision-making processes. Here we addressed the question of whether risk preferences are influenced by postural threat and whether this influence generalizes across motor tasks. We examined risk attitudes in the context of arm-reaching (ARM) and whole-body (WB) leaning movements, expecting that increased postural threat would lead to proportionally similar changes in risk-sensitivity for each motor task. Healthy young adults were shown a series of two-alternative forced-choice lotteries, where they were asked to choose between a riskier lottery and a safer lottery on each trial. Our lotteries consisted of different monetary rewards and target sizes. Subjects performed each choice task at ground level and atop an elevated platform. In the presence of this postural threat, increased physiological arousal was correlated with decreased movement variability. To determine risk-sensitivity, we quantified the frequency with which a subject chose the riskier lottery and fit lottery responses to a choice model based on cumulative prospect theory (CPT). Subjects exhibited idiosyncratic changes in risk-sensitivity between motor tasks and between elevations. However, we found that overweighting of small probabilities increased with postural threat in the WB task, indicating a more cautious, risk-averse strategy is ascribed to the possibility of a fall. Subjects were also more risk-seeking in the WB movements than in ARM at low elevation; this behavior does not seem to derive from consistent distortions in utility or probability representations but may be explained by subjects' inaccurate estimation of their own motor variability. Overall, our findings suggest that implicit threat can modify risk attitudes in the motor domain, and the threat may induce risk-aversion in salient movement tasks.
Walters, Arthur S; Lavigne, Gilles; Hening, Wayne; Picchietti, Daniel L; Allen, Richard P; Chokroverty, Sudhansu; Kushida, Clete A; Bliwise, Donald L; Mahowald, Mark W; Schenck, Carlos H; Ancoli-Israel, Sonia
The International Classification of Sleep Disorders (ICSD-2) has separated sleep-related movement disorders into simple, repetitive movement disorders (such as periodic limb movements in sleep [PLMS], sleep bruxism, and rhythmic movement disorder) and parasomnias (such as REM sleep behavior disorder and disorders of partial arousal, e.g., sleep walking, confusional arousals, night terrors). Many of the parasomnias are characterized by complex behaviors in sleep that appear purposeful, goal directed and voluntary but are outside the conscious awareness of the individual and therefore inappropriate. All of the sleep-related movement disorders described here have specific polysomnographic findings. For the purposes of developing and/or revising specifications and polysomnographic scoring rules, the AASM Scoring Manual Task Force on Movements in Sleep reviewed background literature and executed evidence grading of 81 relevant articles obtained by a literature search of published articles between 1966 and 2004. Subsequent evidence grading identified limited evidence for reliability and/or validity for polysomnographic scoring criteria for periodic limb movements in sleep, REM sleep behavior disorder, and sleep bruxism. Published scoring criteria for rhythmic movement disorder, excessive fragmentary myoclonus, and hypnagogic foot tremor/alternating leg muscle activation were empirical and based on descriptive studies. The literature review disclosed no published evidence defining clinical consequences of excessive fragmentary myoclonus or hypnagogic foot tremor/alternating leg muscle activation. Because of limited or absent evidence for reliability and/or validity, a standardized RAND/UCLA consensus process was employed for recommendation of specific rules for the scoring of sleep-associated movements.
The contribution is based on a topical panel set especially adjusted to the requirements of political culture research, electoral research, and movement research. The book is centered around empirically verified findings of political-cultural modernization and differentiation processes, and the development of German political culture. It was possible to empirically confirm the main thesis in particular: The new social movements call for rigid and quick social changes in emancipatory, equalitary, ecological and fundamental-democratic orientation. Apart from the Greens, an independent political subculture has formed itself, which is, even in the present phase with little movement-specific mobilization, politically effective and empirically ascertainable. (orig.) [de
on psychoanalytical, visual, and historical approaches. Movement scholars who focused on narrative, discourse, framing, and performance show how activists actively construct and mobilize collective memory. We know much less, however, about interactions between multiple layers and forms of remembering stored in images......, stories, or performances, or discursive forms. How do conflicting or contradictory memories about the past inside movement groups condition activists’ ability to speak, write, and even think about the future? While previous work conceived of memory in movements as a subcategory of narrative, discourse...
Garlick, M.J.; Powell, J.A.; Hooten, M.B.; McFarlane, L.R.
A difficulty in using diffusion models to predict large scale animal population dispersal is that individuals move differently based on local information (as opposed to gradients) in differing habitat types. This can be accommodated by using ecological diffusion. However, real environments are often spatially complex, limiting application of a direct approach. Homogenization for partial differential equations has long been applied to Fickian diffusion (in which average individual movement is organized along gradients of habitat and population density). We derive a homogenization procedure for ecological diffusion and apply it to a simple model for chronic wasting disease in mule deer. Homogenization allows us to determine the impact of small scale (10-100 m) habitat variability on large scale (10-100 km) movement. The procedure generates asymptotic equations for solutions on the large scale with parameters defined by small-scale variation. The simplicity of this homogenization procedure is striking when compared to the multi-dimensional homogenization procedure for Fickian diffusion,and the method will be equally straightforward for more complex models. ?? 2010 Society for Mathematical Biology.
Debono, Kurt; Schütz, Alexander C; Spering, Miriam; Gegenfurtner, Karl R
Humans use smooth pursuit eye movements to track moving objects of interest. In order to track an object accurately, motion signals from the target have to be integrated and segmented from motion signals in the visual context. Most studies on pursuit eye movements used small visual targets against a featureless background, disregarding the requirements of our natural visual environment. Here, we tested the ability of the pursuit and the perceptual system to integrate motion signals across larger areas of the visual field. Stimuli were random-dot kinematograms containing a horizontal motion signal, which was perturbed by a spatially localized, peripheral motion signal. Perturbations appeared in a gaze-contingent coordinate system and had a different direction than the main motion including a vertical component. We measured pursuit and perceptual direction discrimination decisions and found that both steady-state pursuit and perception were influenced most by perturbation angles close to that of the main motion signal and only in regions close to the center of gaze. The narrow direction bandwidth (26 angular degrees full width at half height) and small spatial extent (8 degrees of visual angle standard deviation) correspond closely to tuning parameters of neurons in the middle temporal area (MT). Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Laird Robert A
Full Text Available Abstract Background Physiotherapy for people with low back pain frequently includes assessment and modification of lumbo-pelvic movement. Interventions commonly aim to restore normal movement and thereby reduce pain and improve activity limitation. The objective of this systematic review was to investigate: (i the effect of movement-based interventions on movement patterns (muscle activation, lumbo-pelvic kinematics or postural patterns of people with low back pain (LBP, and (ii the relationship between changes in movement patterns and subsequent changes in pain and activity limitation. Methods MEDLINE, Cochrane Central, EMBASE, AMI, CINAHL, Scopus, AMED, ISI Web of Science were searched from inception until January 2012. Randomised controlled trials or controlled clinical trials of people with LBP were eligible for inclusion. The intervention must have been designed to influence (i muscle activity patterns, (ii lumbo-pelvic kinematic patterns or (iii postural patterns, and included measurement of such deficits before and after treatment, to allow determination of the success of the intervention on the lumbo-pelvic movement. Twelve trials (25% of retrieved studies met the inclusion criteria. Two reviewers independently identified, assessed and extracted data. The PEDro scale was used to assess method quality. Intervention effects were described using standardised differences between group means and 95% confidence intervals. Results The included trials showed inconsistent, mostly small to moderate intervention effects on targeted movement patterns. There was considerable heterogeneity in trial design, intervention type and outcome measures. A relationship between changes to movement patterns and improvements in pain or activity limitation was observed in one of six studies on muscle activation patterns, one of four studies that examined the flexion relaxation response pattern and in two of three studies that assessed lumbo-pelvic kinematics or
Laird, Robert A; Kent, Peter; Keating, Jennifer L
Physiotherapy for people with low back pain frequently includes assessment and modification of lumbo-pelvic movement. Interventions commonly aim to restore normal movement and thereby reduce pain and improve activity limitation. The objective of this systematic review was to investigate: (i) the effect of movement-based interventions on movement patterns (muscle activation, lumbo-pelvic kinematics or postural patterns) of people with low back pain (LBP), and (ii) the relationship between changes in movement patterns and subsequent changes in pain and activity limitation. MEDLINE, Cochrane Central, EMBASE, AMI, CINAHL, Scopus, AMED, ISI Web of Science were searched from inception until January 2012. Randomised controlled trials or controlled clinical trials of people with LBP were eligible for inclusion. The intervention must have been designed to influence (i) muscle activity patterns, (ii) lumbo-pelvic kinematic patterns or (iii) postural patterns, and included measurement of such deficits before and after treatment, to allow determination of the success of the intervention on the lumbo-pelvic movement. Twelve trials (25% of retrieved studies) met the inclusion criteria. Two reviewers independently identified, assessed and extracted data. The PEDro scale was used to assess method quality. Intervention effects were described using standardised differences between group means and 95% confidence intervals. The included trials showed inconsistent, mostly small to moderate intervention effects on targeted movement patterns. There was considerable heterogeneity in trial design, intervention type and outcome measures. A relationship between changes to movement patterns and improvements in pain or activity limitation was observed in one of six studies on muscle activation patterns, one of four studies that examined the flexion relaxation response pattern and in two of three studies that assessed lumbo-pelvic kinematics or postural characteristics. Movement
Mazzoni, Rosana; Iglesias-Rios, Ricardo
The identification of mechanisms of spatial-temporal variation, obtained from the quantification of natural populations, is a central topic of ecological research. Despite its importance to life-history theory, as well as to conservation and management of natural populations, no studies concerning movement patterns and home range of small stream-dwelling fishes from Brazilian rain forests are known. In the present study we aimed to describe the longitudinal pattern of long distance movement as well as local patterns of short movement (daily home-range) of fishes from a Mata Atlântica stream from Southeast Brazil. We gathered information about movement dynamic in order to discuss the relationship between swimming ability, fish morphology and home range. Long distance movement data were obtained in a mark-recapture experiment held in the field between June and September - 2008, on five sites along the Ubatiba stream. For this study, we had one day to mark fishes, on June-19, and 14 events for recapture. Considering the ten species that inhabit the study area, our study showed that four species: Astyanax janeiroensis, Astyanax hastatus, Parotocinclus maculicauda and Pimelodella lateristriga, moved at least 6 000m in 60 days. The other six species did not present long distance movements, as they were recaptured in the same site 90 days after being marked. For short distance study, movement data were obtained in one mark-recapture experiment held in a 100m long site subdivided into five 20m stretches where fishes were marked with different elastomer colours. We marked 583 specimens that after recapture showed two groups of different movement patterns. The first group was called "Long Movement Group" and the second one was called "Short Movement Group". The Long Movement Group showed, on average, 89.8% of moving fishes and 10.2% of non moving fishes, against 21.3% and 78.7%, respectively, for the Short Movement Group. It was concluded that fish movement could explain
Full Text Available The identification of mechanisms of spatial-temporal variation, obtained from the quantification of natural populations, is a central topic of ecological research. Despite its importance to life-history theory, as well as to conservation and management of natural populations, no studies concerning movement patterns and home range of small stream-dwelling fishes from Brazilian rain forests are known. In the present study we aimed to describe the longitudinal pattern of long distance movement as well as local patterns of short movement (daily home-range of fishes from a Mata Atlântica stream from Southeast Brazil. We gathered information about movement dynamic in order to discuss the relationship between swimming ability, fish morphology and home range. Long distance movement data were obtained in a mark-recapture experiment held in the field between June and September - 2008, on five sites along the Ubatiba stream. For this study, we had one day to mark fishes, on June-19, and 14 events for recapture. Considering the ten species that inhabit the study area, our study showed that four species: Astyanax janeiroensis, Astyanax hastatus, Parotocinclus maculicauda and Pimelodella lateristriga, moved at least 6 000m in 60 days. The other six species did not present long distance movements, as they were recaptured in the same site 90 days after being marked. For short distance study, movement data were obtained in one mark-recapture experiment held in a 100m long site subdivided into five 20m stretches where fishes were marked with different elastomer colours. We marked 583 specimens that after recapture showed two groups of different movement patterns. The first group was called “Long Movement Group” and the second one was called “Short Movement Group”. The Long Movement Group showed, on average, 89.8% of moving fishes and 10.2% of non moving fishes, against 21.3% and 78.7%, respectively, for the Short Movement Group. It was concluded that
Full Text Available Some studies suggest that complex arm movements in humans and monkeys may optimize several objective functions, while others claim that arm movements satisfy geometric constraints and are composed of elementary components. However, the ability to unify different constraints has remained an open question. The criterion for a maximally smooth (minimizing jerk motion is satisfied for parabolic trajectories having constant equi-affine speed, which thus comply with the geometric constraint known as the two-thirds power law. Here we empirically test the hypothesis that parabolic segments provide a compact representation of spontaneous drawing movements. Monkey scribblings performed during a period of practice were recorded. Practiced hand paths could be approximated well by relatively long parabolic segments. Following practice, the orientations and spatial locations of the fitted parabolic segments could be drawn from only 2-4 clusters, and there was less discrepancy between the fitted parabolic segments and the executed paths. This enabled us to show that well-practiced spontaneous scribbling movements can be represented as sequences ("words" of a small number of elementary parabolic primitives ("letters". A movement primitive can be defined as a movement entity that cannot be intentionally stopped before its completion. We found that in a well-trained monkey a movement was usually decelerated after receiving a reward, but it stopped only after the completion of a sequence composed of several parabolic segments. Piece-wise parabolic segments can be generated by applying affine geometric transformations to a single parabolic template. Thus, complex movements might be constructed by applying sequences of suitable geometric transformations to a few templates. Our findings therefore suggest that the motor system aims at achieving more parsimonious internal representations through practice, that parabolas serve as geometric primitives and that non
Full Text Available Movement is one of the most important characteristics of glaciers which can cause serious natural disasters. For this reason, monitoring this massive blocks is a crucial task. Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR can operate all day in any weather conditions and the images acquired by SAR contain intensity and phase information, which are irreplaceable advantages in monitoring the surface movement of glaciers. Moreover, a variety of techniques like DInSAR and offset tracking, based on the information of SAR images, could be applied to measure the movement. Sangwang lake, a glacial lake in the Himalayas, has great potentially danger of outburst. Shie glacier is situated at the upstream of the Sangwang lake. Hence, it is significant to monitor Shie glacier surface movement to assess the risk of outburst. In this paper, 6 high resolution COSMO-SkyMed images spanning from August to December, 2016 are applied with offset tracking technique to estimate the surface movement of Shie glacier. The maximum velocity of Shie glacier surface movement is 51 cm/d, which was observed at the end of glacier tongue, and the velocity is correlated with the change of elevation. Moreover, the glacier surface movement in summer is faster than in winter and the velocity decreases as the local temperature decreases. Based on the above conclusions, the glacier may break off at the end of tongue in the near future. The movement results extracted in this paper also illustrate the advantages of high resolution SAR images in monitoring the surface movement of small glaciers.
Harvie, Daniel S; Smith, Ross T; Hunter, Estin V; Davis, Miles G; Sterling, Michele; Moseley, G Lorimer
Illusions that alter perception of the body provide novel opportunities to target brain-based contributions to problems such as persistent pain. One example of this, mirror therapy, uses vision to augment perceived movement of a painful limb to treat pain. Since mirrors can't be used to induce augmented neck or other spinal movement, we aimed to test whether such an illusion could be achieved using virtual reality, in advance of testing its potential therapeutic benefit. We hypothesised that perceived head rotation would depend on visually suggested movement. In a within-subjects repeated measures experiment, 24 healthy volunteers performed neck movements to 50 o of rotation, while a virtual reality system delivered corresponding visual feedback that was offset by a factor of 50%-200%-the Motor Offset Visual Illusion (MoOVi)-thus simulating more or less movement than that actually occurring. At 50 o of real-world head rotation, participants pointed in the direction that they perceived they were facing. The discrepancy between actual and perceived direction was measured and compared between conditions. The impact of including multisensory (auditory and visual) feedback, the presence of a virtual body reference, and the use of 360 o immersive virtual reality with and without three-dimensional properties, was also investigated. Perception of head movement was dependent on visual-kinaesthetic feedback ( p = 0.001, partial eta squared = 0.17). That is, altered visual feedback caused a kinaesthetic drift in the direction of the visually suggested movement. The magnitude of the drift was not moderated by secondary variables such as the addition of illusory auditory feedback, the presence of a virtual body reference, or three-dimensionality of the scene. Virtual reality can be used to augment perceived movement and body position, such that one can perform a small movement, yet perceive a large one. The MoOVi technique tested here has clear potential for assessment and
Munts, Alexander Gerard
Complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS) may occur after trauma, usually to one limb, and is characterised by pain and disturbed blood flow, temperature regulation and motor control. Knowledge on CRPS and its movement disorders is scarce. Dysfunction in small nerve fiber processing was found in CRPS
Havsteen, Inger; Ohlhues, Anders; Madsen, Kristoffer H
Movement artifacts compromise image quality and may interfere with interpretation, especially in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) applications with low signal-to-noise ratio such as functional MRI or diffusion tensor imaging, and when imaging small lesions. High image resolution has high sensitiv...
Grivas, Dimitri A.; Bhagvati, Chakravarthy; Schultz, B. C.; Trigg, Alan; Rizkalla, Moness
This paper summarizes the findings of a cooperative effort between NOVA Gas Transmission Ltd. (NGTL), the Italian Natural Gas Transmission Company (SNAM), and Arista International, Inc., to determine whether current remote sensing technologies can be utilized to monitor small-scale ground movements over vast geographical areas. This topic is of interest due to the potential for small ground movements to cause strain accumulation in buried pipeline facilities. Ground movements are difficult to monitor continuously, but their cumulative effect over time can have a significant impact on the safety of buried pipelines. Interferometric synthetic aperture radar (InSAR or SARI) is identified as the most promising technique of those considered. InSAR analysis involves combining multiple images from consecutive passes of a radar imaging platform. The resulting composite image can detect changes as small as 2.5 to 5.0 centimeters (based on current analysis methods and radar satellite data of 5 centimeter wavelength). Research currently in progress shows potential for measuring ground movements as small as a few millimeters. Data needed for InSAR analysis is currently commercially available from four satellites, and additional satellites are planned for launch in the near future. A major conclusion of the present study is that InSAR technology is potentially useful for pipeline integrity monitoring. A pilot project is planned to test operational issues.
Sep 5, 1986 ... between depths, small males « 100 mm CW) do tend to favour deeper water than larger males and vice versa. ... A possible reason for the fact that mature females display different movement ... Floy Manufacturing Company were employed. ..... Chi-square contingency tests were performed on a portion of.
Diedrichsen, Jörn; Grafton, Scott; Albert, Neil; Hazeltine, Eliot; Ivry, Richard B
Conflict during bimanual movements can arise during the selection of movement goals or during movement planning and execution. We demonstrate a behavioral and neural dissociation of these 2 types of conflict. During functional magnetic resonance imaging scanning, participants performed bimanual reaching movements with symmetric (congruent) or orthogonal (incongruent) trajectories. The required movements were indicated either spatially, by illuminating the targets, or symbolically, using centrally presented letters. The processing of symbolic cues led to increased activation in a left hemisphere network including the intraparietal sulcus, premotor cortex, and inferior frontal gyrus. Reaction time cost for incongruent movements was substantially larger for symbolic than for spatial cues, indicating that the cost was primarily associated with the selection and assignment of movement goals, demands that are minimized when goals are directly specified by spatial cues. This goal-selection conflict increased activity in the pre-supplementary motor area and cingulate motor areas. Both cueing conditions led to larger activation for incongruent movements in the convexity of the superior parietal cortex, bilaterally, making this region a likely neural site for conflict that arises during the planning and execution of bimanual movements. These results suggest distinct neural loci for 2 forms of constraint on our ability to perform bimanual reaching movements.
should be on the uphill side of grass tussocks, small talus, and other level spots to avoid twisting an ankle or straining an Achilles tendon...should be extremely cautious while traveling on the side of a hill. During side-hill travel personnel are more vulnerable to twisted ankles , back injury...installation in the mountains is the fixed rope system. A fixed rope is a rope anchored in place to assist Soldiers in movement over difficult terrain
Agent based distillations (ABD) are low-resolution abstract models, which can be used to explore questions associated with land combat operations in a short period of time Movement of agents within the EINSTein and MANA ABDs...
Kristensen, Niels Heine; Nielsen, Thorkild
The paper report the organic movements impact on international institutions (EU, USDA, WTO and Codex Alimentarius). It focuses on the Danish experiences with 10 years of regulation on the organic sector...
Kristensen, Niels Heine; Nielsen, Thorkild
The paper report the organic movements impact on international institutions (EU, USDA, WTO and Codex Alimentarius). It focuses on the Danish experiences with 10 years of regulation on the organic sector....
Full Text Available Music is obviously not only an aesthetic phenomenon. It is embeddedin a dense network of social relations. However, its social involvementis rather ambiguous, particularly since the second half of the twentiethcentury. On the one hand, music is one of the main elements of culturalcapitalism and a part of the system of domination. On the other hand,music provokes, (coproduces or possibly strengthens and coexists witha number of counterdiscourses and social projects of counterhegemoniccharacter.The main objective of the paper is to examine relationships between both, revolutionary jazz and revolutionary social movements, namely the civil rights movement, but above all radical movements, especially black power movement. The crucial questions I am interested in are problems of selforganization, performative social practices, as well as alternatives elaborated by radical-oriented jazz circles in various social dimensions, for instance economic or symbolic.
In the summer of 1982 in Lebanon, a group of radical Shi'a Muslim clerics in association with Iranian Revolutionary Guardsmen formed the secretive and at times deadly movement known as Hizbollah, or the Party of God...
Risager, Bjarke Skærlund
’ that is to be explained (della Porta 2008) instead of a political subject with the ability to affect itself and society; and a corrective to the growing body of literature on the geographies of social movements that often has a too static and state-centred approach. Using John Agnew’s (1987) conceptualisation of place...... is dialectical and mutually constitutive: the physical and symbolic characteristics of place influence the formation of the movement and its actions while the latter re-creates the place. This is a corrective to a dominant approach in social movement studies to see movements as a ‘dependent variable......, into an eventful place, a prefigurative place characterised by a new way of doing politics....
Santos, Luís; Dias, Jorge
This work presents a study about the use of Laban Movement Analysis (LMA) as a robust tool to describe human basic behavior patterns, to be applied in human-machine interaction. LMA is a language used to describe and annotate dancing movements and is divided in components : Body, Space, Shape and Effort. Despite its general framework is widely used in physical and mental therapy , it has found little application in the engineering domain. Rett J.  proposed to implement LMA using Bayesian Networks. However LMA component models have not yet been fully implemented. A study on how to approach behavior using LMA is presented. Behavior is a complex feature and movement chain, but we believe that most basic behavior primitives can be discretized in simple features. Correctly identifying Laban parameters and the movements the authors feel that good patterns can be found within a specific set of basic behavior semantics.
Al-Hamadi, Ayoub; Limbrecht-Ecklundt, Kerstin; Walter, Steffen; Traue, Harald C.
Pain assessment can benefit from observation of pain behaviors, such as guarding or facial expression, and observational pain scales are widely used in clinical practice with nonverbal patients. However, little is known about head movements and postures in the context of pain. In this regard, we analyze videos of three publically available datasets. The BioVid dataset was recorded with healthy participants subjected to painful heat stimuli. In the BP4D dataset, healthy participants performed a cold-pressor test and several other tasks (meant to elicit emotion). The UNBC dataset videos show shoulder pain patients during range-of-motion tests to their affected and unaffected limbs. In all videos, participants were sitting in an upright position. We studied head movements and postures that occurred during the painful and control trials by measuring head orientation from video over time, followed by analyzing posture and movement summary statistics and occurrence frequencies of typical postures and movements. We found significant differences between pain and control trials with analyses of variance and binomial tests. In BioVid and BP4D, pain was accompanied by head movements and postures that tend to be oriented downwards or towards the pain site. We also found differences in movement range and speed in all three datasets. The results suggest that head movements and postures should be considered for pain assessment and research. As additional pain indicators, they possibly might improve pain management whenever behavior is assessed, especially in nonverbal individuals such as infants or patients with dementia. However, in advance more research is needed to identify specific head movements and postures in pain patients. PMID:29444153
Title: Diagnostics of movement predispositions in fitness Objectives: The objective of bachelor thesis is to summarize the findings of the initial diagnostics od movement predispositions in fitness and then serve as a resource for those interested in education in this field. The aim of the practical part of this work is to obtain information about the diagnostic methods used to assess physical assumptions in the fitness centers. Methods: In this thesis was used the method of analysis of scien...
Donatella della Porta
Full Text Available When the United States activists called for people to Occupy#everywhere, it is unlikely they were thinking of the headquarters of the Italian centre-left party. Parties and movements are often considered to be worlds apart. In reality, parties have been relevant players in movement politics, and movements have influenced parties, often through the double militancy of many of their members. OccupyPD testifies to a continuous fluidity at the movement-party border, but also to a blockage in the party’s interactions with society that started long before the economic crisis but drastically accelerated with it. In this paper we present the OccupyPD Movement as a case of interaction between party politics and social movement politics, and in particular between the base membership of a centre-left party and the broader anti-austerity movement that diffused from the US to Europe adopting similar forms of actions and claims. Second, by locating it within the context of the economic and democratic crisis that erupted in 2007, we understand its emergence as a reaction towards politics in times of crisis of responsibility, by which we mean a drastic drop in the capacity of the government to respond to citizens’ requests. To fulfil this double aim, we bridge social movement studies with research on party change, institutional trust and democratic theory, looking at some political effects of the economic crisis in terms of a specific form of legitimacy crisis, as well as citizens’ responses to it, with a particular focus on the political meaning of recent anti-austerity protests. In this analysis, we refer to both quantitative and qualitative data from secondary liter-ature and original in-depth interviews carried out with a sample of OccupyPD activists.
F F U A (Folkebevegelse for Fredelig Utnyttelse av Atomkraft - Popular Movement for Peaceful Exploitation of Atomic Power) was started in Jely 1976. Membership is concentrated mainly in Oslo and Trondheim and its main functions are to work for the development of nuclear power in Norway and to counteract the influence of the antinuclear groups on politicians and public opinion. The movement cooperates with R E O (Reel Energi Oplysning - True Energy Information) in Denmark and has established a literature service. (JIW)
Singh, Mohan; Lal, B.; Shrivastava, A.K.
Plant growth promoting rhizobacteria like Azospirillum brasilense have considerable potential in increasing crop productivity. The success of bacterial inoculation in fields however, depends on their root colonizing ability. These bacteria, applied either through seed pelleting or directly to the soil are distributed along roots through active or passive movements. 32 P labelled A.brasilense has been used to study their movements in sandy loam soils. (author). 5 refs., 2 figs
Drake, Carl T.; McGorray, Susan P.; Dolce, Calogero; Nair, Madhu; Wheeler, Timothy T.
Clear aligners provide a convenient model to measure orthodontic tooth movement (OTM). We examined the role of in vivo aligner material fatigue and subject-specific factors in tooth movement. Fifteen subjects seeking orthodontic treatment at the University of Florida were enrolled. Results were compared with data previously collected from 37 subjects enrolled in a similar protocol. Subjects were followed prospectively for eight weeks. An upper central incisor was programmed to move 0.5 mm. ev...
Shepard, Emily L C; Wilson, Rory P; Rees, W Gareth; Grundy, Edward; Lambertucci, Sergio A; Vosper, Simon B
The metabolic costs of animal movement have been studied extensively under laboratory conditions, although frequently these are a poor approximation of the costs of operating in the natural, heterogeneous environment. Construction of "energy landscapes," which relate animal locality to the cost of transport, can clarify whether, to what extent, and how movement properties are attributable to environmental heterogeneity. Although behavioral responses to aspects of the energy landscape are well documented in some fields (notably, the selection of tailwinds by aerial migrants) and scales (typically large), the principles of the energy landscape extend across habitat types and spatial scales. We provide a brief synthesis of the mechanisms by which environmentally driven changes in the cost of transport can modulate the behavioral ecology of animal movement in different media, develop example cost functions for movement in heterogeneous environments, present methods for visualizing these energy landscapes, and derive specific predictions of expected outcomes from individual- to population- and species-level processes. Animals modulate a suite of movement parameters (e.g., route, speed, timing of movement, and tortuosity) in relation to the energy landscape, with the nature of their response being related to the energy savings available. Overall, variation in movement costs influences the quality of habitat patches and causes nonrandom movement of individuals between them. This can provide spatial and/or temporal structure to a range of population- and species-level processes, ultimately including gene flow. Advances in animal-attached technology and geographic information systems are opening up new avenues for measuring and mapping energy landscapes that are likely to provide new insight into their influence in animal ecology.
Full Text Available How do you communicate a protest movement? And how do communication practices shape its character and power relations? Based on a view of communication as constitutive of protest movements, this talk considers these questions as two sides of the same coin. The focus lies on the Occupy movement and particularly on its use of digital media. Characterised by a belief in direct participation and a rejection of central leadership, Occupy emerged through a bottom-up process of organizing that spanned different platforms and physical places, from Facebook pages to public squares. The process of constructing the collective involved the creation of communication sites and foundational texts, and their interlinking. This process was influenced by the rules, affordances and proprietary character of media platforms and physical spaces, as well as the diverse cultures and strategies of the activists using them. A closer look at this process sheds light on the power relations within the movement and particularly on five sources of communication power. These range from the power to create communication sites and texts to the power to access or link them together. The picture that emerges is complex, revealing a movement with both centralizing and decentralizing dynamics. Ultimately, it was the balance between these opposing dynamics that determined both the emergence of the movement and its decline. Acknowledgement: This contribution is the podcast of a talk Anastasia Kavada gave in the Communication and Media Research Institute (CAMRI's Research Seminar Series on February 25, 2015, at the University of Westminster.
Thoms, R.L.; Manning, T.A.
The tectonic stability of salt domes is a major concern for long-term domal storage of noxious wastes. A necessary phase of the many faceted dome storage study includes obtaining a measure of current vertical movement of any potential storage dome. This information then can be combined with data obtained from studies involving geologic time scales so as to provide a history of dome movement that includes present time. A system of instrumentation for monitoring current rates of dome movement is described. Complimentary finite element modelling of plausible dome movement also is presented. The proposed instrumentation system includes tiltmeters, precise levelling, laser ranging, and monitoring of microseisms. Thus, components of rotation and vertical and horizontal movements at the ground surface over a dome can be monitored. In addition, a measure of dome movement also may be obtained acoustically. The finite element modelling furnishes an aid for: (1) locating instrument sites over a dome so as to maximize instrument sensitivity, and (2) interpreting data obtained from the instrumentation system. An example of tiltmeter installation and operation over a dome in northwest Louisiana is included. Typical tiltmeter output is presented and discussed
Endo, K.; Ohsawa, Y.; Miyahara, M.
The long term ground movement is estimated through the geological survey before a big accelerator is planned. For the case of TRISTAN-MR (main ring), its site was surveyed to reflect the underground information to the building prior to the construction. The movement of the synchrotron magnet mainly results from the structure of the tunnel. If an individual movement of the magnet exceeds a certain threshold limit, it gives a significant effect on the particle behavior in a synchrotron. Height of the quadrupole magnets were observed periodically during past two years at the TRISTAN-MR and their height differences along the 3 km circumference of the accelerator ring were decomposed into the Fourier components depicting the causes of the movements. Results shows the movement of the tunnel foundation which was also observed by the simultaneous measurement of both magnets and fiducial marks on the tunnel wall. The long term movement of the magnets is summarized with the geological survey prior to construction. 1 ref., 6 figs., 1 tab
Mannheim, Elana G; Helmes, Almut; Weis, Joachim
Dance/movement therapy may be defined as a psychosocial and body-oriented art therapy, which uses dance for the expression of emotional and cognitive issues. Dance/movement therapy is an important intervention for cancer patients to enhance coping strategies. There are only few studies investigating dance therapy with cancer patients. The present study investigates effects of dance/movement therapy (n = 115) in the setting of inpatient rehabilitation based on a pre-post design with a control group as well as a follow-up 3 months later. Standardized questionnaires measuring quality of life, anxiety and depression, and self-concept (EORTC QLQ-C30, HADS, FSKN) were used. In addition, at the end of the inpatient rehabilitation program subjective expectations of the dance/movement therapy and the patients' subjective evaluation of the benefits of the intervention were measured by a new developed questionnaire. As process factors of dance/movement therapy, expression of emotions, enhancement of self-esteem, development of the personality, vitality, getting inner balance, and getting in touch with the body have been identified. In terms of quality of life and psychological well-being, the results showed significant improvements with medium to large effect sizes. Even though those effects may not be attributed to the intervention alone, the analysis of the data and the patients' subjective statements help to reveal therapeutic factors and process characteristics of dance/movement therapy within inpatient rehabilitation. Copyright © 2013 S. Karger AG, Basel.
Rowland, Nathan C; Sammartino, Francesco; Lozano, Andres M
Movement disorder surgery has evolved throughout history as our knowledge of motor circuits and ways in which to manipulate them have expanded. Today, the positive impact on patient quality of life for a growing number of movement disorders such as Parkinson's disease is now well accepted and confirmed through several decades of randomized, controlled trials. Nevertheless, residual motor symptoms after movement disorder surgery such as deep brain stimulation and lack of a definitive cure for these conditions demand that advances continue to push the boundaries of the field and maximize its therapeutic potential. Similarly, advances in related fields - wireless technology, artificial intelligence, stem cell and gene therapy, neuroimaging, nanoscience, and minimally invasive surgery - mean that movement disorder surgery stands at a crossroads to benefit from unique combinations of all these developments. In this minireview, we outline some of these developments as well as evidence supporting topics of recent discussion and controversy in our field. Moving forward, expectations remain high that these improvements will come to encompass an even broader range of patients who might benefit from this therapy and decrease the burden of disease associated with these conditions. © 2016 International Parkinson and Movement Disorder Society. © 2016 International Parkinson and Movement Disorder Society.
Paleari, Marco; Luciani, Riccardo; Ariano, Paolo
This work reports on preliminary results about on hand movement recognition with Near InfraRed Spectroscopy (NIRS) and surface ElectroMyoGraphy (sEMG). Either basing on physical contact (touchscreens, data-gloves, etc.), vision techniques (Microsoft Kinect, Sony PlayStation Move, etc.), or other modalities, hand movement recognition is a pervasive function in today environment and it is at the base of many gaming, social, and medical applications. Albeit, in recent years, the use of muscle information extracted by sEMG has spread out from the medical applications to contaminate the consumer world, this technique still falls short when dealing with movements of the hand. We tested NIRS as a technique to get another point of view on the muscle phenomena and proved that, within a specific movements selection, NIRS can be used to recognize movements and return information regarding muscles at different depths. Furthermore, we propose here three different multimodal movement recognition approaches and compare their performances.
Krauss, Joachim K
Over the past few decades it has been recognized that traumatic brain injury may result in various movement disorders. In survivors of severe head injury, post-traumatic movement disorders were reported in about 20%, and they persisted in about 10% of patients. The most frequent persisting movement disorder in this population is kinetic cerebellar outflow tremor in about 9%, followed by dystonia in about 4%. While tremor is associated most frequently with cerebellar or mesencephalic lesions, patients with dystonia frequently have basal ganglia or thalamic lesions. Moderate or mild traumatic brain injury only rarely causes persistent post-traumatic movement disorders. It appears that the frequency of post-traumatic movement disorders overall has been declining which most likely is secondary to improved treatment of brain injury. In patients with disabling post-traumatic movement disorders which are refractory to medical treatment, stereotactic neurosurgery can provide long-lasting benefit. While in the past the primary option for severe kinetic tremor was thalamotomy and for dystonia thalamotomy or pallidotomy, today deep brain stimulation has become the preferred treatment. Parkinsonism is a rare consequence of single head injury, but repeated head injury such as seen in boxing can result in chronic encephalopathy with parkinsonian features. While there is still controversy whether or not head injury is a risk factor for the development of Parkinson's disease, recent studies indicate that genetic susceptibility might be relevant. © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Raket, Lars Lau; Grimme, Britta; Schöner, Gregor
mixed-effects models as viable alternatives to conventional analysis frameworks. The model is then combined with a novel factor-analysis model that estimates the low-dimensional subspace within which movements vary when the task demands vary. Our framework enables us to visualize different dimensions......A central task in the analysis of human movement behavior is to determine systematic patterns and differences across experimental conditions, participants and repetitions. This is possible because human movement is highly regular, being constrained by invariance principles. Movement timing...
Noelia L Volpe
Full Text Available Habitat loss and fragmentation influence species distributions and therefore ecological processes that depend upon them. Pollination may be particularly susceptible to fragmentation, as it depends on frequent pollinator movement. Unfortunately, most pollinators are too small to track efficiently which has precluded testing the hypothesis that habitat fragmentation reduces or eliminates pollen flow by disrupting pollinator movement. We used radio-telemetry to examine space use of the green hermit hummingbird (Phaethornis guy, an important 'hub' pollinator of understory flowering plants across substantial portions of the neotropics and the primary pollinator of a keystone plant which shows reduced pollination success in fragmented landscapes. We found that green hermits strongly avoided crossing large stretches of non-forested matrix and preferred to move along stream corridors. Forest gaps as small as 50 m diminished the odds of movement by 50%. Green hermits occurred almost exclusively inside the forest, with the odds of occurrence being 8 times higher at points with >95% canopy cover compared with points having <5% canopy cover. Nevertheless, surprisingly. the species occurred in fragmented landscapes with low amounts of forest (~30% within a 2 km radius. Our results indicate that although green hermits are present even in landscapes with low amounts of tropical forest, movement within these landscapes ends up strongly constrained by forest gaps. Restricted movement of pollinators may be an underappreciated mechanism for widespread declines in pollination and plant fitness in fragmented landscapes, even when in the presence of appropriate pollinators.
Odden, Morten; Athreya, Vidya; Rattan, Sandeep; Linnell, John D C
Understanding the nature of the interactions between humans and wildlife is of vital importance for conflict mitigation. We equipped five leopards with GPS-collars in Maharashtra (4) and Himachal Pradesh (1), India, to study movement patterns in human-dominated landscapes outside protected areas. An adult male and an adult female were both translocated 52 km, and exhibited extensive, and directional, post release movements (straight line movements: male = 89 km in 37 days, female = 45 km in 5 months), until they settled in home ranges of 42 km2 (male) and 65 km2 (female). The three other leopards, two adult females and a young male were released close to their capture sites and used small home ranges of 8 km2 (male), 11 km2 and 15 km2 (females). Movement patterns were markedly nocturnal, with hourly step lengths averaging 339±9.5 m (SE) during night and 60±4.1 m during day, and night locations were significantly closer to human settlements than day locations. However, more nocturnal movements were observed among those three living in the areas with high human population densities. These visited houses regularly at nighttime (20% of locations human settlements both day and night. The small home ranges of the leopards indicate that anthropogenic food resources may be plentiful although wild prey is absent. The study provides clear insights into the ability of leopards to live and move in landscapes that are extremely modified by human activity.
Fahmi, Fahmi; Marquering, Henk A.; Streekstra, Geert J.; Borst, Jordi; Beenen, Ludo F.M.; Majoie, Charles B.L.; Niesten, Joris M.; Velthuis, Birgitta K.; VanBavel, Ed
Head movement during CT brain perfusion (CTP) acquisition can deteriorate the accuracy of CTP analysis. Most CTP software packages can only correct in-plane movement and are limited to small ranges. The purpose of this study is to validate a novel 3D correction method for head movement during CTP acquisition. Thirty-five CTP datasets that were classified as defective due to head movement were included in this study. All CTP time frames were registered with non-contrast CT data using a 3D rigid registration method. Location and appearance of ischemic area in summary maps derived from original and registered CTP datasets were qualitative compared with follow-up non-contrast CT. A quality score (QS) of 0 to 3 was used to express the degree of agreement. Furthermore, experts compared the quality of both summary maps and assigned the improvement score (IS) of the CTP analysis, ranging from -2 (much worse) to 2 (much better). Summary maps generated from corrected CTP significantly agreed better with appearance of infarct on follow-up CT with mean QS 2.3 versus mean QS 1.8 for summary maps from original CTP (P = 0.024). In comparison to original CTP data, correction resulted in a quality improvement with average IS 0.8: 17 % worsened (IS = -2, -1), 20 % remained unchanged (IS = 0), and 63 % improved (IS = +1, +2). The proposed 3D movement correction improves the summary map quality for CTP datasets with severe head movement. (orig.)
Mahar, J.W.; Marino, G.G.
Surface ground movement related to sag mine subsidence has been monitored above Illinois abandoned room and pillar coal workings for periods of more than 15 years. The long term movement related to a specific mine subsidence is typically small relative to the initial displacements but have caused crack and tilt damage in both repaired and unrepaired structures. Seasonal variations in ground surface elevations are superimposed on the downward movement related to mine subsidence. Thus it is necessary to measure long term subsidence movement at about the same time each year in order to minimize environmental factors. This paper presents long term monitoring data from five subsidence sags in central and southern Illinois. The abandoned coal mine workings are located at depths of 160 to 460 ft below the ground surface. measured residual mine subsidence ranges between 1.4 and 3.6 in. 4.4 to 15 years after mine failure. The magnitude of downward displacement is greater than settlement design values (1 in.) and are at rates (0.0004 to 0.0056 ft/month) that cause damage to structures. Most of the damage in unrepaired structures occurs along existing cracks and separations. In all five cases, the ground movements are continuing at residual rates. Sag subsidence movement in Illinois takes place for a minimum of five years after the damage is manifested at the ground surface. A classification of say development is provided based on the displacement-time data
Tolston, Michael T; Shockley, Kevin; Riley, Michael A; Richardson, Michael J
The present study investigated how constraining movement affects interpersonal coordination and joint cognitive performance. Pairs of participants worked cooperatively to solve picture-puzzle tasks in which they conversed to identify differences between pictures in 3 degree-of-constraint conditions: both participants were free to move their hands (free-free; FF); both participants' hands were restrained (restrained-restrained; RR); and the hands of 1 participant were free while the hands of the other participant were restrained (free-restrained; FR). Eye tracking data were collected, and movement was measured at the waist, hand, and head. Data were analyzed using Cross-Recurrence Quantification Analysis (CRQ). Postural sway coordination, gaze coordination, and task performance were predicted to be highest in FF, followed by RR, and then by FR. Results showed the asymmetric FR condition generally exhibited lesser degrees of coordination than the symmetric Conditions FF and RR, and that the patterning of coordination in the symmetric conditions varied across the measured body segments. These results demonstrate that movement restraints affect not only interpersonal postural coordination, but also joint attention. Additionally, significant positive relationships were found between task performance and total amount of anterior-posterior movement measured at the head, hand and waist; number of utterances; and number of differences pairs found in the puzzles. These findings indicate a relationship between movement and task performance consistent with the hypotheses that both interpersonal coordination and cognitive performance are sensitive to local action constraints.
Kourtzi, Z; Shiffrar, M
Psychophysical and neurophysiological studies suggest that human body motions can be readily recognized. Human bodies are highly articulated and can move in a nonrigid manner. As a result, we perceive highly dissimilar views of the human form in motion. How does the visual system integrate multiple views of a human body in motion so that we can perceive human movement as a continuous event? The results of a set of priming experiments suggest that motion can readily facilitate the linkage of different views of a moving human. Positive priming was found for novel views of a human body that fell within the path of human movement. However, no priming was observed for novel views outside the path of motion. Furthermore, priming was restricted to those views that satisfied the biomechanical constraints of human movement. These results suggest that visual representation of human movement may be based upon the movement limitations of the human body and may reflect a dynamic interaction of motion and object-recognition processes.
Full Text Available This article revisits the debate over Barker and Cox’s (2011 use of Gramsci’s distinction between traditional and organic intellectuals to contrast academic and activist modes of theorizing about social movements. Often misread as an attack on personal choices in career and writing, the distinction aimed to highlight the different purposes, audiences, and social relationships entailed by these different forms of theorizing. Discourses which take ‘scholarship’ as their starting point position ‘activist’ as a personal choice within an institutional field, and substitute this moral commitment for a political assessment of its effects. By contrast, few academics have undergone the political learning curve represented by social movements. This may explain the widespread persistence – beyond any intellectual or empirical credibility – of a faith in ‘critical scholarship’ isolated from agency, an orientation to policy makers and mainstream media as primary audiences or an unquestioned commitment to existing institutional frameworks as pathways to substantial social change. Drawing on over three decades of movement participation and two of academic work, this article explores two processes of activist training within the academy. It also explores the politics of different experiences of theoretical publishing for social movements audiences. This discussion focuses on the control of the “means of mental production” (Marx, 1965, and the politics of distribution. The conclusion explores the broader implications of these experiences for the relationship between movements and research.
Yeung, H Henny; Werker, Janet F
Speech is robustly audiovisual from early in infancy. Here we show that audiovisual speech perception in 4.5-month-old infants is influenced by sensorimotor information related to the lip movements they make while chewing or sucking. Experiment 1 consisted of a classic audiovisual matching procedure, in which two simultaneously displayed talking faces (visual [i] and [u]) were presented with a synchronous vowel sound (audio /i/ or /u/). Infants' looking patterns were selectively biased away from the audiovisual matching face when the infants were producing lip movements similar to those needed to produce the heard vowel. Infants' looking patterns returned to those of a baseline condition (no lip movements, looking longer at the audiovisual matching face) when they were producing lip movements that did not match the heard vowel. Experiment 2 confirmed that these sensorimotor effects interacted with the heard vowel, as looking patterns differed when infants produced these same lip movements while seeing and hearing a talking face producing an unrelated vowel (audio /a/). These findings suggest that the development of speech perception and speech production may be mutually informative.
Full Text Available A recent hierarchical model of numerical processing, initiated by Fischer and Brugger (2011 and Fisher (2012, suggested that situated factors, such as different body postures and body movements, can influence the magnitude representation and bias numerical processing. Indeed, Loetscher and colleagues (2008 found that participants’ behavior in a random number generation (RNG task was biased by head rotations. More small numbers were reported after leftward than rightward head turns, i.e. a motion–numerical compatibility effect. Here, by carrying out two experiments, we explored whether similar motion–numerical compatibility effects exist for movements of other important body components, e.g. arms, and for composite body movements as well, which are basis for complex human activities in many ecologically meaningful situations. In Experiment 1, a motion-numerical compatibility effect was observed for lateral rotations of two body components, i.e., the head and arms. Relatively large numbers were reported after making rightward compared to leftward movements for both lateral head and arm turns. The motion-numerical compatibility effect was observed again in Experiment 2 when participants were asked to perform composite body movements of congruent movement directions, e.g., simultaneous head left turns and arm left turns. However, it disappeared when the movement directions were incongruent, e.g., simultaneous head left turns and arm right turns. Taken together, our results extended Loetscher et al.'s (2008 finding by demonstrating that their effect is effector-general and exists for arm movements. Moreover, our study reveals for the first time that the impact of spatial information on numerical processing induced by each of the two sensorimotor-based situated factors, e.g., a lateral head turn and a lateral arm turn, can cancel each other out.
Full Text Available A salient feature of human motor skill learning is the ability to exploitsimilarities across related tasks.In biological motor control, it has been hypothesized that muscle synergies,coherent activations of groups of muscles, allow for exploiting shared knowledge.Recent studies have shown that a rich set of complex motor skills can be generated bya combination of a small number of muscle synergies.In robotics, dynamic movement primitives are commonlyused for motor skill learning. This machine learning approach implements a stable attractor systemthat facilitates learning and it can be used in high-dimensional continuous spaces. However, it does not allow for reusing shared knowledge, i.e. for each task an individual set of parameters has to be learned.We propose a novel movement primitive representationthat employs parametrized basis functions, which combines the benefits of muscle synergiesand dynamic movement primitives. For each task asuperposition of synergies modulates a stable attractor system.This approach leads to a compact representation of multiple motor skills andat the same time enables efficient learning in high-dimensional continuous systems.The movement representation supports discrete and rhythmic movements andin particular includes the dynamic movement primitive approach as a special case.We demonstrate the feasibility of the movement representation in three multi-task learning simulated scenarios.First, the characteristics of the proposed representation are illustrated in a point-mass task.Second, in complex humanoid walking experiments,multiple walking patterns with different step heights are learned robustly and efficiently.Finally, in a multi-directional reaching task simulated with a musculoskeletal modelof the human arm, we show how the proposed movement primitives can be used tolearn appropriate muscle excitation patterns and to generalize effectively to new reaching skills.
Okada, Yamato; Shiga, Hiroshi
The purpose of this study was to clarify the effect of the bitterness of food on muscular activity and masticatory movement. Twenty healthy subjects were asked to chew a non-bitter gummy jelly and a bitter gummy jelly on their habitual chewing side. The masseter muscular activity and the movement of mandibular incisal point were recorded simultaneously. For all cycles excluding the first cycle, parameters representing the muscular activity (total integral value and integral value per cycle) and masticatory movement (path, rhythm, and stability) were calculated and compared between the two types of gummy jellies. The total integral value of masseter muscular activity during the chewing of bitter gummy jelly was significantly smaller than during the chewing of non-bitter gummy jelly, however, no definite trends in the integral value per cycle and the stability of movement were observed. The parameters representing the movement path tended to be small during the chewing of bitter gummy jelly than during the chewing of non-bitter gummy jelly. The masticatory width was significantly smaller during the chewing of bitter gummy jelly. The parameters representing the rhythm of movement were significantly longer during the chewing of bitter gummy jelly than during the chewing of non-bitter gummy jelly. From these results it was suggested that the bitterness of food does not affect the integral value per cycle or the stability of the masticatory movement, but it does affect the movement path and rhythm, with narrowing of the path and slowing of the rhythm. Copyright © 2017 Japan Prosthodontic Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Pia, Lorenzo; Spinazzola, Lucia; Rabuffetti, Marco; Ferrarin, Maurizio; Garbarini, Francesca; Piedimonte, Alessandro; Driver, Jon; Berti, Anna
In anosognosia for hemiplegia, patients may claim having performed willed actions with the paralyzed limb despite unambiguous evidence to the contrary. Does this false belief of having moved reflect the functioning of the same mechanisms that govern normal motor performance? Here, we examined whether anosognosics show the same temporal constraints known to exist during bimanual movements in healthy subjects. In these paradigms, when participants simultaneously reach for two targets of different difficulties, the motor programs of one hand affect the execution of the other. In detail, the movement time of the hand going to an easy target (i.e., near and large), while the other is going to a difficult target (i.e., far and small), is slowed with respect to unimanual movements (temporal coupling effect). One right-brain-damaged patient with left hemiplegia and anosognosia, six right-brain-damaged patients with left hemiplegia without anosognosia, and twenty healthy subjects were administered such a bimanual task. We recorded the movement times for easy and difficult targets, both in unimanual (one target) and bimanual (two targets) conditions. We found that, as healthy subjects, the anosognosic patient showed coupling effect. In bimanual asymmetric conditions (when one hand went to the easy target and the other went to the difficult target), the movement time of the non-paralyzed hand going to the easy target was slowed by the 'pretended' movement of the paralyzed hand going to the difficult target. This effect was not present in patients without anosognosia. We concluded that in anosognosic patients, the illusory movements of the paralyzed hand impose to the non-paralyzed hand the same motor constraints that emerge during the actual movements. Our data also support the view that coupling relies on central operations (i.e., activation of intention/programming system), rather than on online information from the periphery. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights
Takekawa, John Y.; Heath, Shane R.; Iverson, S.R.L.; Gaidet, Nicolas; Cappelle, Julien; Dodman, Tim; Hagemeijer, Ward; Eldridge, William D.; Petrie, Scott A.; Yarris, Gregory S.; Manu, Shiiwua; Olsen, Glenn H.; Prosser, Diann J.; Spragens, Kyle A.; Douglas, David C.; Newman, Scott H.
Habitat availability for Afrotropical waterbirds is highly dynamic with unpredictable rainfall patterns and ephemeral wetlands resulting in diverse movement strategies among different species. Movement strategies among waterfowl encompass resident, regional and intercontinental migrants, but little quantitative information exists on their specific movement patterns. We studied the movement ecology of five Afrotropical waterfowl species marked with satellite transmitters in Malawi, Mali and Nigeria. Resident species, including White-faced Whistling Ducks Dendrocygna viduata, Fulvous Whistling Ducks Dendrocygna bicolor and Spur-winged Geese Plectropterus gambensis, remained sedentary during the rainy season and only flew limited distances during other months. In contrast, Knob-billed Ducks Sarkidiornis melanotos made short regional movements >50 km in all months and showed little site fidelity to previously used habitats in subsequent years. Garganey Anas quequedula followed an intercontinental strategy and made long-distance jumps across the Sahara and Mediterranean to their Eurasian breeding grounds. Most species flew farthest during the dry season, as mean daily movements varied from 1.5 to 14.2 km and was greatest in the winter months (January-March). Total distance moved varied from 9.5 km for White-faced Whistling Ducks (October-December) to 45.6 km for Knob-billed Ducks (April-June). Nomadic behaviour by Knob-billed Ducks was evidenced by long exploratory flights, but small mean daily movements suggested that they were relying on previous experience. Improving our understanding of these movement strategies increases our ability to assess connectivity of wetland resources that support waterfowl throughout their annual cycle and focuses conservation efforts on their most important habitats.
Hateren, J.H. van
Both the insect brain and the vertebrate retina detect visual movement with neurons having broad, cosine-shaped directional tuning curves oriented in either of two perpendicular directions. This article shows that this arrangement can lead to isotropic estimates of the direction of movement: for any
In recent years academic interest in social movement learning (SML) has flourished. "Studies in the Education of Adults" has arguably emerged as the premier international forum for exploring the links between adult learning and movements for progressive change. In parallel to this subfield, yet largely in isolation from it,…
Kwak, M.; Frens, J.W.
This one-day studio revolves around the exploration of expressive movement qualities in shape-change by means of physical sketching and prototyping. It is a hands-on studio where participants first explore expressive movement qualities and interaction scenarios with a generic shape-changing platform
Cancer - lung - small cell; Small cell lung cancer; SCLC ... About 15% of all lung cancer cases are SCLC. Small cell lung cancer is slightly more common in men than women. Almost all cases of SCLC are ...
consumption of small millets, mainly due to limited productivity, high ... for effective integration of small millets in the ... replicated in other cities. ... to micro-, small- and medium-entrepreneurs producing millet-based ... and Activities Network,.
Catalin Mihail BARBU; Radu Florin OGARCA; Mihai Razvan Constantin BARBU
In this paper we analyzed the branding in small business. Using a desk research on Internet and the press we have identified the practices small businesses use to enhance their brand and the brand dynamics in small business. Our main contribution is that we tried to figure out the strategy of branding in small business. This need further to be investigated in order to understand how branding works in small business and to better capture the role of branding in small business.
Elena Márquez Segura
Full Text Available After a decade of movement-based interaction in human–computer interaction, designing for the moving body still remains a challenge. Research in this field requires methods to help access, articulate, and harness embodied experiences in ways that can inform the design process. To address this challenge, this article appropriates bodystorming, an embodied ideation method for movement-based interaction design. The proposed method allows for early consideration of the physical, collocated, and social aspects of a designed activity as illustrated with two explorative workshops in different application domains: interactive body games and interactive performances. Using a qualitative methods approach, we used video material from the workshops, feedback from participants, and our own experience as participants and facilitators to outline important characteristics of the bodystorming method in the domain of movement-based interaction. The proposed method is compared with previous ones and application implications are discussed.
Fedotov, A. I.; Tikhov-Tinnikov, D. A.; Ovchinnikova, N. I.; Lysenko, A. V.
Under operating conditions, suspension system performance changes which negatively affects vehicle stability and handling. The paper aims to simulate the impact of changes in suspension system performance on vehicle stability and handling. Methods. The paper describes monitoring of suspension system performance, testing of vehicle stability and handling, analyzes methods of suspension system performance monitoring under operating conditions. The mathematical model of a car movement along a circular path was developed. Mathematical tools describing a circular movement of a vehicle along a horizontal road were developed. Turning car movements were simulated. Calculation and experiment results were compared. Simulation proves the applicability of a mathematical model for assessment of the impact of suspension system performance on vehicle stability and handling.
Siti Sarah Aulia Amrullah
Full Text Available Orthodontic tooth movement is basically a biological response to mechanical forces given to the teeth in orthodontic treatment, which involving the periodontal tissue and alveolar bone, resulting in the release of numerous substances from the dental tissues and surrounding structure. Remodeling changes in periodontal tissues are considered to be essential in effecting orthodontic tooth movement which is the base of orthodontic correction. Molecules produced in various diseased tissues or drugs and nutrients consumed regularly by patients, can influence mechanically stressed periodontal tissue through the circulation and interact with target cell combination of which may be inhibitory, additive or synergize. Medications might have an important influence on the rate of tooth movement, and information on their consumption is essential to adequately discuss treatment planning with patients. Therefore it is imperative to the practitioners being in medical profession, must pay close attention to the drug consumption history of every patient before and during the course of treatment.
Renninger, Laura Walker; Coughlan, James; Verghese, Preeti; Malik, Jitendra
We propose a sequential information maximization model as a general strategy for programming eye movements. The model reconstructs high-resolution visual information from a sequence of fixations, taking into account the fall-off in resolution from the fovea to the periphery. From this framework we get a simple rule for predicting fixation sequences: after each fixation, fixate next at the location that minimizes uncertainty (maximizes information) about the stimulus. By comparing our model performance to human eye movement data and to predictions from a saliency and random model, we demonstrate that our model is best at predicting fixation locations. Modeling additional biological constraints will improve the prediction of fixation sequences. Our results suggest that information maximization is a useful principle for programming eye movements.
James J. FitzGerald
Full Text Available Until recently the assessment of many movement disorders has relied on clinical rating scales that despite careful design are inherently subjective and non-linear. This makes accurate and truly observer-independent quantification difficult and limits the use of sensitive parametric statistical methods. At last, devices capable of measuring neurological problems quantitatively are becoming readily available. Examples include the use of oculometers to measure eye movements and accelerometers to measure tremor. Many applications are being developed for use on smartphones. The benefits include not just more accurate disease quantification, but also consistency of data for longitudinal studies, accurate stratification of patients for entry into trials, and the possibility of automated data capture for remote follow-up. In this mini review, we will look at movement disorders with a particular focus on Parkinson's disease, describe some of the limitations of existing clinical evaluation tools, and illustrate the ways in which objective metrics have already been successful.
FitzGerald, James J; Lu, Zhongjiao; Jareonsettasin, Prem; Antoniades, Chrystalina A
Until recently the assessment of many movement disorders has relied on clinical rating scales that despite careful design are inherently subjective and non-linear. This makes accurate and truly observer-independent quantification difficult and limits the use of sensitive parametric statistical methods. At last, devices capable of measuring neurological problems quantitatively are becoming readily available. Examples include the use of oculometers to measure eye movements and accelerometers to measure tremor. Many applications are being developed for use on smartphones. The benefits include not just more accurate disease quantification, but also consistency of data for longitudinal studies, accurate stratification of patients for entry into trials, and the possibility of automated data capture for remote follow-up. In this mini review, we will look at movement disorders with a particular focus on Parkinson's disease, describe some of the limitations of existing clinical evaluation tools, and illustrate the ways in which objective metrics have already been successful.
Ane Larrinaga Renteria
Full Text Available This article is a reflection on some of the functions that the emotions perform in constructing and maintaining the collective action of social movements in the long term. Based on a case study, we applied the conceptual instrument known as “Frame Analysis” to the successive discursive frames produced by the linguistic movement of the Basque Country between the 1980s and the first decade of 2000. With the aid of qualitative techniques, consisting in in-depth interviews conducted with qualified activists of the movement and an analysis of documents it produced, we identified the emotional contexts associated with the discourses and meanings generated by the movement at different times. Activation of the emotional components aided both the movement’s internal solidarity and external adhesion and, in short, favored the long-term sustainability of an increasingly institutionalized and professionalized movement.
Liu, D; Usmani, N; Sloboda, R [Cross Cancer Institute, Edmonton, Alberta (Canada); University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta (Canada); Meyer, T; Husain, S; Angyalfi, S [Tom Baker Cancer Centre, Calgary, Alberta (Canada); University of Calgary, Calgary, Alberta (Canada); Kay, I [Canterbury District Health Board, Christchurch (New Zealand)
Purpose: To characterize the movement of implanted brachytherapy seeds due to transrectal ultrasound probe-induced prostate deformation and to estimate the effects on prostate dosimetry. Methods: Implanted probe-in and probe-removed seed distributions were reconstructed for 10 patients using C-arm fluoroscopy imaging. The prostate was delineated on ultrasound and registered to the fluoroscopy seeds using a visible subset of seeds and residual needle tracks. A linear tensor and shearing model correlated the seed movement with position. The seed movement model was used to infer the underlying prostate deformation and to simulate the prostate contour without probe compression. Changes in prostate and surrogate urethra dosimetry were calculated. Results: Seed movement patterns reflecting elastic decompression, lateral shearing, and rectal bending were observed. Elastic decompression was characterized by anterior-posterior expansion and superior-inferior and lateral contractions. For lateral shearing, anterior movement up to 6 mm was observed for extraprostatic seeds in the lateral peripheral region. The average intra-prostatic seed movement was 1.3 mm, and the residual after linear modeling was 0.6 mm. Prostate D90 increased by 4 Gy on average (8 Gy max) and was correlated with elastic decompression. For selected patients, lateral shearing resulted in differential change in D90 of 7 Gy between anterior and posterior quadrants, and increase in whole prostate D90 of 4 Gy. Urethra D10 increased by 4 Gy. Conclusion: Seed movement upon probe removal was characterized. The proposed model captured the linear correlation between seed movement and position. Whole prostate dose coverage increased slightly, due to the small but systematic seed movement associated with elastic decompression. Lateral shearing movement increased dose coverage in the anterior-lateral region, at the expense of the posterior-lateral region. The effect on whole prostate D90 was smaller due to the subset
Full Text Available Although there is a consensus of opinion that habitat fragmentation has deleterious effects on animal populations, primarily by inhibiting dispersal among remaining patches, there have been few explicit demonstrations of the ways by which degraded habitats actually constrain individual movement. Two impediments are primarily responsible for this paucity: it is difficult to separate the effects of habitat fragmentation (configuration from habitat loss (composition, and conventional measures of fragmented habitats are assumed to be, but probably are not, isotropic. We addressed these limitations by standardizing differences in forest cover in a clearly anisotropic configuration of habitat fragmentation by conducting a homing experiment with three species of forest birds in the Bow Valley of Banff National Park, Canada. Birds were translocated (1.2-3.5 km either parallel or perpendicular to four/five parallel barriers that are assumed to impede the cross-valley travel of forest-dependent animals. Taken together, individuals exhibited longer return times when they were translocated across these barriers, but differences among species suggest a more complex interpretation. A long-distance migrant (Yellow-rumped Warbler, Dendroica coronata behaved as predicted, but a short-distance migrant (Golden-crowned Kinglet, Regulus satrapa was indifferent to barrier configuration. A resident (Red-breasted Nuthatch, Sitta canadensis exhibited longer return times when it was translocated parallel to the barriers. Our results suggest that an anisotropic arrangement of small, open areas in fragmented landscapes can have a cumulative barrier effect on the movement of forest animals, but that both modelers and managers will have to acknowledge potentially counterintuitive differences among species to predict the effect that these may have on individual movement and, ultimately, dispersal.
Ausband, David E.; Mitchell, Michael S.; Bassing, Sarah B.; White, Craig
Context: Conserving large carnivores can be challenging because of conflicts with human land use and competition with humans for resources. Predation on domestic stock can have negative economic impacts particularly for owners of small herds, and tools for minimising carnivore depredation of livestock are needed. Canids use scent marking to establish territories and avoid intraspecific conflict. Exploiting scent-marking behaviour may provide a means for manipulating canid movements. Aims: We hypothesised that human-deployed scent marks (i.e. ‘biofence’) could be used to manipulate the movements of grey wolves (Canis lupus) in Idaho, USA. Methods: We deployed 65 km of biofence within three wolf-pack territories during summer 2010 and 2011 and used location data from satellite-collared wolves and sign surveys to assess the effectiveness of biofencing. Key results: Location data provided by satellite-collared wolves and sign surveys in 2010 showed little to no trespass of the biofence, even though the excluded areas were used by the packs in previous summers. We also opportunistically deployed a biofence in between a rendezvous site of a resident pack and a nearby sheep grazing allotment; the pack was not implicated in any depredations in summer 2010, even though they had killed sheep every year since 2006. Location data provided by satellite-collared wolves in summer 2011 showed that wolves did trespass biofences. Conclusions: Biofencing effectively manipulated the movements of wolves in the first year of our study, but not the second. Implications: Our work suggests that biofencing may be most limited by the apparent necessity to maintain a continuous presence once the biofence is established. The inherent labour and costs associated with such efforts may limit the usefulness of biofencing. Our work can be improved on through further testing that maintains biofencing over a longer timeframe (>3 months), samples several animals per treatment pack, and uses a
Livestock movement patterns indicated that forage is the motivation for winter movements and water is the motivation for summer. The movement followed a predictable ... The latter can be considered as a 'key resource' area to sustain animal numbers through critical periods of low rainfall. Overall, seasonal movement ...
Laehde, S.; Vuoria, P.
The practical results of linear and circular tomography with angles of 6, 20, 30 and 45 degrees and spiral tomography were compared. The spiral proved to be suitable as a tomographic movement for different purposes. In zonography, circular movement with 6 degrees of deviation proved suitable. The linear movement presented no advantages when compared with the multidirectional movements. ( orig.) [de
Armeniox, Leslie Flint
Dance and movement therapy is a form of psychotherapy that uses the body, dance, and movement as the primary mediums for the therapeutic process. Dance is a fundamental art form that involves the body as an instrument of self-expression; movement is a universal means of learning and communicating. Dance and movement therapy is the…
Examines how the contemporary women's movement in India (1975-present) has addressed the issue of women's education. Highlights contributions of the 19th-century social-reformist movement and the nationalist movement. Details the role of the contemporary women's movement in redefining knowledge and the curriculum. Concludes with challenges facing…
Small Business Administration — Certain government programs, such as SBA loan programs and contracting opportunities, are reserved for small business concerns. In order to qualify, businesses must...
Mori, Tamiharu; Shimomura, Chikako; Ishibashi, Hiroshi; Tsujihata, Mitsuhiro; Nagataki, Shigenobu.
A 65-year-old man developed abruptly choreiform movements involving the left face, arm and leg one day prior to admission. Physical examination revealed red face and palms, hyperemic conjunctivae and atrial fibrillations. Blood pressure was 168/90. Spleen was not palpable. Hemichoreiform movements of the left face and limbs were observed. There was no other neurological abnormalities. Laboratory studies showed RBC 880x10 4 , Hb 22.4g/dl, Hct 63%, WBC 8,100, platelets 22.9x10 4 , ESR 0mm/hr, RBC oxygen saturation 97%, serum iron 67 μg/dl, LDH 593 units, uric acid 14mg/dl, and erythropoietine (HI method) 19mIU/ml (normal 28-88). Bone marrow showed myeloid nucleated cell count 38.6x10 4 . ECG showed atrial fibrillations. Chest X-ray and scintigrams of liver and spleen were normal. CSF was normal. Brain CT scan on admission disclosed a low density area in right caudate nucleus. The choreiform movements were rapidly mitigated by venesection and by oral administration of haloperidol(3mg daily). There weeks after discontinuing haloperidol, the hemichorea returned. The routine hematology showed RBC 870x10 4 , Hb 19.8g/dl, Hct 62%, WBC 10,200, and plateret 37.4x10 4 . Another venesection reduced the chorea. Pipobroman was administered to control the polycythemia vera. He has been free of choreic movements thereafter. Choreiform movement is rarely observed in polycythemia vera. The pathogenesis is still unknown. The venous congestion, however, may play a role in this case because the choreic movements disappeared by venesection. (author)
The national Main Street movement is building momentum. Over 1,200 small : communities across America have rediscovered their Main Streets with impressive : investment in time, energy and money. The tangible measures of return include: : economic gro...
Hall, C R; Buckolz, E
Whether repetition and lag improve the recognition of movement patterns was investigated. Recognition memory was tested for one repetition, two-repetitions massed, and two-repetitions distributed with movement patterns at lags of 3, 5, 7, and 13. Recognition performance was examined both immediately afterwards and following a 48 hour delay. Both repetition and lag effects failed to be demonstrated, providing some support for the claim that memory is unaffected by repetition at a constant level of processing (Craik & Lockhart, 1972). There was, as expected, a significant decrease in recognition memory following the retention interval, but this appeared unrelated to repetition or lag.
Harris, Christopher M
How should robotic or prosthetic arms be programmed to move? Copying human smooth movements is popular in synthetic systems, but what does this really achieve? We cannot address these biomimetic issues without a deep understanding of why natural movements are so stereotyped. In this article, we distinguish between 'functional' and 'aesthetic' biomimetics. Functional biomimetics requires insight into the problem that nature has solved and recognition that a similar problem exists in the synthetic system. In aesthetic biomimetics, nature is copied for its own sake and no insight is needed. We examine the popular minimum jerk (MJ) model that has often been used to generate smooth human-like point-to-point movements in synthetic arms. The MJ model was originally justified as maximizing 'smoothness'; however, it is also the limiting optimal trajectory for a wide range of cost functions for brief movements, including the minimum variance (MV) model, where smoothness is a by-product of optimizing the speed-accuracy trade-off imposed by proportional noise (PN: signal-dependent noise with the standard deviation proportional to mean). PN is unlikely to be dominant in synthetic systems, and the control objectives of natural movements (speed and accuracy) would not be optimized in synthetic systems by human-like movements. Thus, employing MJ or MV controllers in robotic arms is just aesthetic biomimetics. For prosthetic arms, the goal is aesthetic by definition, but it is still crucial to recognize that MV trajectories and PN are deeply embedded in the human motor system. Thus, PN arises at the neural level, as a recruitment strategy of motor units and probably optimizes motor neuron noise. Human reaching is under continuous adaptive control. For prosthetic devices that do not have this natural architecture, natural plasticity would drive the system towards unnatural movements. We propose that a truly neuromorphic system with parallel force generators (muscle fibres) and noisy
Mansard, Nicolas; Lasserre, Jean-Bernard
This book aims at gathering roboticists, control theorists, neuroscientists, and mathematicians, in order to promote a multidisciplinary research on movement analysis. It follows the workshop “ Geometric and Numerical Foundations of Movements ” held at LAAS-CNRS in Toulouse in November 2015. Its objective is to lay the foundations for a mutual understanding that is essential for synergetic development in motion research. In particular, the book promotes applications to robotics --and control in general-- of new optimization techniques based on recent results from real algebraic geometry.
Garcia, Antonio A.; Egatz-Gomez, Ana; Lindsay, Solitaire A.; Dominguez-Garcia, P.; Melle, Sonia; Marquez, Manuel; Rubio, Miguel A.; Picraux, S.T.; Yang, Dongqing; Aella, P.; Hayes, Mark A.; Gust, Devens; Loyprasert, Suchera; Vazquez-Alvarez, Terannie; Wang, Joseph
Magnetic fields can be used to control the movement of aqueous drops on non-patterned, silicon nanowire superhydrophobic surfaces. Drops of aqueous and biological fluids are controlled by introducing magnetizable carbonyl iron microparticles into the liquid. Key elements of operations such as movement, coalescence, and splitting of water and biological fluid drops, as well as electrochemical measurement of an analyte are demonstrated. Superhydrophobic surfaces were prepared using vapor-liquid-solid (VLS) growth systems followed by coating with a perfluorinated hydrocarbon molecule. Drops were made from aqueous and biological fluid suspensions with magnetizable microparticle concentrations ranging from 0.1 to 10 wt%
Petley, D.; Murphy, W.; Bulmer, M. H.; Keefer, D.
There is growing evidence that there is a significant element of cross-slope movement in many large landslide systems. These movements may result in changing states of stress between landslide blocks that can establish complex displacement patterns. Such motions, which are not considered in traditional two-dimensional limit-equilibrium analyses, are important in the investigation of a variety of landslide types, such as those triggered by earthquakes. In addition, these movements may introduce considerable errors into the interpretation of strain patterns as derived from InSAR studies. Finally, even traditional interpretation techniques may lead to the amount of total displacement being underestimated. These observations suggest that a three dimensional form of analysis may be more appropriate for large landslide complexes. The significance of such cross-slope movements are being investigated using a detailed investigation of the Lishan landslide complex in Central Taiwan. This landslide system, which was reactivated in 1990 related to the construction of a hotel. The total recorded movements have been approximately 1.5 m over an area of sliding that is estimated to be 450 m wide and 200 m long. Extensive damage has been caused to roads and buildings within the town. Remediation work has resulted largely in the stabilization of the landslide complex. Detailed geomorphological mapping has revealed that the landslide complex is composed of two main components. The first, immediately upslope of the hotel construction site, is a relatively shallow earthflow. The second, which has formed a large headscarp upslope from the main road in the centre of the town, is a deeper translational slide. Both appear to have been reactivations of previous failures. While the displacement patterns of the earthflow indicate a relatively simple downslope movement, the vectors derived from kinematic analysis of surface features have indicated that the movement of the deeper
Zhang, C.; Mitra, R.; Oh, J.; Hebblewhite, B.
Valley closure movements have been observed for decades in Australia and overseas when underground mining occurred beneath or in close proximity to valleys and other forms of irregular topographies. Valley closure is defined as the inward movements of the valley sides towards the valley centreline. Due to the complexity of the local geology and the interplay between several geological, topographical and mining factors, the underlying mechanisms that actually cause this behaviour are not completely understood. A comprehensive programme of numerical modelling investigations has been carried out to further evaluate and quantify the influence of a number of these mining and geological factors and their inter-relationships. The factors investigated in this paper include longwall positional factors, horizontal stress, panel width, depth of cover and geological structures around the valley. It is found that mining in a series passing beneath the valley dramatically increases valley closure, and mining parallel to valley induces much more closure than other mining orientations. The redistribution of horizontal stress and influence of mining activity have also been recognised as important factors promoting valley closure, and the effect of geological structure around the valley is found to be relatively small. This paper provides further insight into both the valley closure mechanisms and how these mechanisms should be considered in valley closure prediction models.
Pernier, C M; Jablonska-Mazanek, E D; Ponsonnet, L; Grosgogeat, B
It is essential for orthodontists to control the complex phenomenon of friction. The in vitro techniques, usually dynamometers or tensile testing machines, used to measure the frictional resistance between arch wires and brackets are linear and unidirectional and can be criticised because tooth movements, such as tipping and uprighting, as well everyday oral activities, primarily chewing, are not uni-dimensional but more closely resemble the small amplitude oscillatory phenomena known as fretting. We therefore decided to develop a fretting machine not with linear but with alternating movements better suited to evaluate the frictional behaviour of orthodontic bracket-wire combinations. Once we had completed construction of this device, we proceeded to measure the frictional resistance between one stainless steel bracket (MicroArch GAC) and five wires currently used in orthodontics (Two nickel-titanium shape memory alloys: Neo Sentalloy and Neo Sentalloy with Ionguard GAC--Three titanium-molybdenum alloys: TMA and Low Friction TMA Ormco and Resolve GAC). We were able to set up a classification of the wires according to their coefficient of friction, demonstrating the inefficacy of ion implantation and quantifying the increase in the coefficient of friction which occurs when Resolve wires are placed in the oral environment for approximately one year.
Ke, Sally R; Lam, Jessica; Pai, Dinesh K; Spering, Miriam
Humans make smooth pursuit eye movements to bring the image of a moving object onto the fovea. Although pursuit accuracy is critical to prevent motion blur, the eye often falls behind the target. Previous studies suggest that pursuit accuracy differs between motion directions. Here, we systematically assess asymmetries in smooth pursuit. In experiment 1, binocular eye movements were recorded while observers (n = 20) tracked a small spot of light moving along one of four cardinal or diagonal axes across a featureless background. We analyzed pursuit latency, acceleration, peak velocity, gain, and catch-up saccade latency, number, and amplitude. In experiment 2 (n = 22), we examined the effects of spatial location and constrained stimulus motion within the upper or lower visual field. Pursuit was significantly faster (higher acceleration, peak velocity, and gain) and smoother (fewer and later catch-up saccades) in response to downward versus upward motion in both the upper and the lower visual fields. Pursuit was also more accurate and smoother in response to horizontal versus vertical motion. CONCLUSIONS. Our study is the first to report a consistent up-down asymmetry in human adults, regardless of visual field. Our findings suggest that pursuit asymmetries are adaptive responses to the requirements of the visual context: preferred motion directions (horizontal and downward) are more critical to our survival than nonpreferred ones.
L. Danielle. Todd
Full Text Available Dispersal is a fundamental aspect of population dynamics, and can have direct implications on processes such as the colonization of habitat patches. Pre-migratory movements, landscape fragmentation, and body condition have all been hypothesized as key factors influencing dispersal in birds, but little direct evidence exists to support these ideas. We used radio-telemetry and supplementary feeding to test if body condition or landscape pattern influenced pre-migratory movements of juvenile Burrowing Owls (Athene cunicularia in a fragmented landscape. We categorized grassland patches as either large (â¥95 ha or small and isolated (â¤58 ha and â¥1.5 km to next nearest grassland patch, and young owls were either provided supplemental food as nestlings or not. Owlets receiving supplemental food and residing in large grassland patches moved a greater maximum distance from their nest than similarly fed owlets residing in small patches (large = 1605 ± 443 m; small = 373 ± 148 m. In contrast, non-supplemented owlets from large and small patches did not differ in their maximum distance moved from the nest (large = 745 ± 307 m; small 555 ± 286 m. Only two of 32 individuals from small patches moved >800 m, whereas ten of 23 owlets from large patches moved >800 m. In addition, owlets from large patches continued to move farther and farther from their nest before migration, whereas owlets in small, isolated patches ultimately moved
Siniscalchi, Antonio; Gallelli, Luca; Labate, Angelo; Malferrari, Giovanni; Palleria, Caterina; Sarro, Giovambattista De
Involuntary abnormal movements have been reported after ischaemic and haemorrhagic stroke. Post stroke movement disorders can appear as acute or delayed sequel. At the moment, for many of these disorders the knowledge of pharmacological treatment is still inadequate. Dopaminergic and GABAergic systems may be mainly involved in post-stroke movement disorders. This article provides a review on drugs commonly used in post-stroke movement disorders, given that some post-stroke movement disorders have shown a partial benefit with pharmacological approach.
Siniscalchi, Antonio; Gallelli, Luca; Labate, Angelo; Malferrari, Giovanni; Palleria, Caterina; Sarro, Giovambattista De
Involuntary abnormal movements have been reported after ischaemic and haemorrhagic stroke. Post stroke movement disorders can appear as acute or delayed sequel. At the moment, for many of these disorders the knowledge of pharmacological treatment is still inadequate. Dopaminergic and GABAergic systems may be mainly involved in post-stroke movement disorders. This article provides a review on drugs commonly used in post-stroke movement disorders, given that some post-stroke movement disorders ...
Full Text Available Cleaner Production (CP is gaining emphasis in both world and Brazilian production sectors. Nature’s warnings indicating the exhaustion of any capacity to absorb and regenerate waste, stricter legislation regarding pollution emitters, market competitiveness associated with environmental and social responsibility cause concerns and lead to actions to reduce aggressions against the environment. This paper shows evidence of this concern and presents cases in which a large automotive industry, acting as a partner to suppliers, promotes changes in how it delivers its products, eliminating large cardboard, plastic and wood packaging. A small company had a similar initiative, reducing the use of cardboard and plastic packaging. More important is the revelation of a widely dispersed, yet growing and incremental movement of responsibilities among companies.The benefits of cleaner production implementation were evaluated by confronting environmental and financial assessment. For the ambient evaluation, it will be used methodology of Material Intensity (Wuppertal Institute, a.
Urbanski, T.; Kohman, L.; Strzelecki, M.; Chojecki, M.; Kaczynska, R.; Wieclaw, B.
A method was developed and introduced for monitoring the movement of silver-containing anodic slimes in copper electrorefining baths. Radioactive 111 Ag was used as tracer and copper plates labelled with the tracer were inserted into the anodes. During electrorefining the slime produced was continuously marked by the tracer. The activity of 111 Ag was measured at various points inside the bath by sampling and continuously registered with the aid of integrators. It was found that more than 99 percent of the slime slipped to the bottom of the bath close to the anode surface and did not migrate even at highest electrolyte flow rates. Small quantities of suspended slime contained an insignificant concentration of silver and should not be a source of cathode contamination. (author)
Full Text Available We are investigating change detection techniques to automatically detect mass movements at the steep north polar scarps of Mars, in order to improve our understanding of these dynamic processes. Here we focus on movements of blocks specifically. The precise detection of such small changes requires an accurate co-registration of the images, which is achieved by ortho-rectifying them using High Resolution Imaging Science Experiment (HiRISE Digital Terrain Models (DTMs. Moreover, we deal with the challenge of deriving the true shape of the moved blocks. In a next step, these results are combined with findings based on HiRISE DTMs from different points in time in order to estimate the volume of mass movements.
Grooming was observed in 11 wild chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes schweinfurthii) in Mahale, Tanzania, and the number of removal and stroke movements and grooming duration were recorded. Removal movements were more frequent during social grooming than during self-grooming. Chimpanzees used one or both hands for grooming, and grooming using both hands was more efficient for removing small objects. Due to physical constraints, self-grooming of the arms was almost always done using only one hand. The removal movement frequency during arm grooming was lower when self-grooming than when grooming another. They were more likely to use both hands during grooming another than during self-grooming, and fewer physical constraints during social grooming enabled a higher level of hygienic grooming.
McHenry, Stewart G.
Factors associated with the chosen occupation (door to door peddling) of many Syrians account for the initial movement of Syrians into and throughout New York State in the early 1900s. Variations in Syrian population density are explained in this article. (Author/GC)
Saradjian, A H
During voluntary movement, there exists a well known functional sensory attenuation of afferent inputs, which allows us to discriminate between information related to our own movements and those arising from the external environment. This attenuation or 'gating' prevents some signals from interfering with movement elaboration and production. However, there are situations in which certain task-relevant sensory inputs may not be gated. This review begins by identifying the prevalent findings in the literature with specific regard to the somatosensory modality, and reviews the many cases of classical sensory gating phenomenon accompanying voluntary movement and their neural basis. This review also focuses on the newer axes of research that demonstrate that task-specific sensory information may be disinhibited or even facilitated during engagement in voluntary actions. Finally, a particular emphasis will be placed on postural and/or locomotor tasks involving strong somatosensory demands, especially for the setting of the anticipatory postural adjustments observed prior the initiation of locomotion. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.
Liebst, Lasse Suonperä
The theory of cities as movement economies constitutes a the¬oretical cornerstone of the space syntax paradigm, and the urban morphology literature offers considerable empirical evidence to support the theory’s key proposition that spatial accessibility correlates with economic land use values...
Horne, Jon S; Garton, Edward O; Krone, Stephen M; Lewis, Jesse S
By studying animal movements, researchers can gain insight into many of the ecological characteristics and processes important for understanding population-level dynamics. We developed a Brownian bridge movement model (BBMM) for estimating the expected movement path of an animal, using discrete location data obtained at relatively short time intervals. The BBMM is based on the properties of a conditional random walk between successive pairs of locations, dependent on the time between locations, the distance between locations, and the Brownian motion variance that is related to the animal's mobility. We describe two critical developments that enable widespread use of the BBMM, including a derivation of the model when location data are measured with error and a maximum likelihood approach for estimating the Brownian motion variance. After the BBMM is fitted to location data, an estimate of the animal's probability of occurrence can be generated for an area during the time of observation. To illustrate potential applications, we provide three examples: estimating animal home ranges, estimating animal migration routes, and evaluating the influence of fine-scale resource selection on animal movement patterns.
Eddy, Colleen M.; Quebec Fuentes, Sarah; Ward, Elizabeth K.; Parker, Yolanda A.; Cooper, Sandi; Jasper, William A.; Mallam, Winifred A.; Sorto, M. Alejandra; Wilkerson, Trena L.
There exists an increased focus on school mathematics, especially first-year algebra, due to recent efforts for all students to be college and career ready. In addition, there are calls, policies, and legislation advocating for all students to study algebra epitomized by four rationales of the "Algebra for All" movement. In light of this…
Funase, Arao; Kuno, Yoshiaki; Okuma, Shigeru; Yagi, Tohru
Our final goal is to establish the model for saccadic eye movement that connects the saccade and the electroencephalogram(EEG). As the first step toward this goal, we recorded and analyzed the saccade-related EEG. In the study recorded in this paper, we tried detecting a certain EEG that is peculiar to the eye movement. In these experiments, each subject was instructed to point their eyes toward visual targets (LEDs) or the direction of the sound sources (buzzers). In the control cases, the EEG was recorded in the case of no eye movemens. As results, in the visual experiments, we found that the potential of EEG changed sharply on the occipital lobe just before eye movement. Furthermore, in the case of the auditory experiments, similar results were observed. In the case of the visual experiments and auditory experiments without eye movement, we could not observed the EEG changed sharply. Moreover, when the subject moved his/her eyes toward a right-side target, a change in EEG potential was found on the right occipital lobe. On the contrary, when the subject moved his/her eyes toward a left-side target, a sharp change in EEG potential was found on the left occipital lobe.
Kwakkel, G.; Veerbeek, J.M.; van Wegen, E.E.H.; Wolf, S.L.
Constraint-induced movement therapy (CIMT) was developed to overcome upper limb impairments after stroke and is the most investigated intervention for the rehabilitation of patients. Original CIMT includes constraining of the non-paretic arm and task-oriented training. Modified versions also apply
This study was performed to investigate the effect of age on the efficiency of orthodontic tooth movement based on critical literature reviews, studies on a standardized orthodontic animal model and a non-invasive clinical investigation. A systematic review was performed on the optimum force for
In the Western Cape, Southern Cape and Eastern Cape, few sharks were tagged during the autumn/winter months, whereas in KwaZulu-Natal and Transkei sharks were tagged throughout the year. Large-scale directional movements observed may have been migrations in response to seasonal sea surface temperature ...
Blankenship, Philip A; Cherep, Lucia A; Donaldson, Tia N; Brockman, Sarah N; Trainer, Alexandria D; Yoder, Ryan M; Wallace, Douglas G
The organization of rodent exploratory behavior appears to depend on self-movement cue processing. As of yet, however, no studies have directly examined the vestibular system's contribution to the organization of exploratory movement. The current study sequentially segmented open field behavior into progressions and stops in order to characterize differences in movement organization between control and otoconia-deficient tilted mice under conditions with and without access to visual cues. Under completely dark conditions, tilted mice exhibited similar distance traveled and stop times overall, but had significantly more circuitous progressions, larger changes in heading between progressions, and less stable clustering of home bases, relative to control mice. In light conditions, control and tilted mice were similar on all measures except for the change in heading between progressions. This pattern of results is consistent with otoconia-deficient tilted mice using visual cues to compensate for impaired self-movement cue processing. This work provides the first empirical evidence that signals from the otolithic organs mediate the organization of exploratory behavior, based on a novel assessment of spatial orientation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Haiganoush K. Preisler; Alan A. Ager; Bruce K. Johnson; John G. Kie
We describe the use of bivariate stochastic differential equations (SDE) for modeling movements of 216 radiocollared female Rocky Mountain elk at the Starkey Experimental Forest and Range in northeastern Oregon. Spatially and temporally explicit vector fields were estimated using approximating difference equations and nonparametric regression techniques. Estimated...
Svendler Nielsen, Charlotte
The focus of this article is to give insights into how videography and phenomenological philosophy and methods (GENDLIN, 1997; TODRES, 2007; SHEETS-JOHNSTONE, 1999; VAN MANEN, 1990) are used in combination to explore how embodied learning as a phenomenon can be understood in dance and movement...
... Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY (CONTINUED) LAW ENFORCEMENT AND CRIMINAL... movements. (a) U-turns are prohibited on all streets in the cantonment area. (b) Right-turns will be made from a position as close to the right edge or right curb of the roadway as possible. (c) Left-turns...
The author feels that, with electric demand growth of 4.5 to 5% per year expected, it will be only a matter of time before stepping-up the stream of utility capacity additions becomes an important issue. If demand grows 4.5% per year instead of 2.8% as projected by NERC, demand will be 10% higher and peak reserve margins about 12 percentage points lower than envisioned by the NERC projections after five years. By 1988 or 1989, little or no excess capacity will remain, and the utilities will be faced with adding twice as much capacity annually as now planned to avoid service deterioration. As questions about the adequacy of current utility capacity plans and concerns about service quality move toward center stage, the antinuclear movement should find it increasingly difficult to garner the broad support it now enjoys. Capacity represented by any uncompleted nuclear plants will appear increasingly beneficial, and those who do not have strong antinuclear sentiments should become increasingly hesitant about lending support to the movement. Accordingly, electric demand growth in due course can be expected to drain marginal supporters from the antinuclear movement and thereby erode the movement's vitality
Blicher, Jakob; Near, Jamie; Næss-Schmidt, Erhard
In healthy subjects, decreasing GABA facilitates motor learning. Recent studies, using PET, TMS[3-5], and pharmacological challenges, have pointed indirectly to a decrease in neuronal inhibitory activity after stroke. Therefore, we hypothesize that a suppression of GABA levels post strok...... might be beneficial to motor recovery during Constraint-Induced Movement Therapy (CIMT)....
Ireland\\'s ageing population will result in a substantial increase in neurodegenerative disease with a projected increase in prevalence of Idiopathic Parkinson\\'s disease (IPD) to 9,000 by 2021. There are few published audits of neurology services to assist care planning. As a first step towards evaluating future service needs for this group of patients, we audited a single tertiary referral IPD and Other Movement Disorders clinic for 2006. A total of 497 patients from all counties in Ireland were seen; 225 (59%) of patients had IPD, 32 (8.2%) had atypical parkinsonism, and 22 (5.8%) dystonia. In a subset of 275 patients, 151 (55%) were referred by GPs, 74 (27%) by other consultants, and 49 (18%) by other consultant neurologists. Diagnosis was changed in 22 (38%) and medication was adjusted in 203 (74%). A telephone survey of 50 patients demonstrated 100% satisfaction with the improved access to the clinical nurse specialist, telephone support and improved continuity of care. The IPD and Other Movement Disorders clinic provides an important local, regional, and national diagnostic and therapeutic service for complex movement disorders. It is proposed that a national registry of IPD and audit of the delivery of care to patients with movement disorders is needed.
Levy, Fran J.
This book examines the field of dance therapy from its inception in the 1940's to the present. A detailed analysis is conducted of the theory and practice of the major pioneers. The book covers biographical reports and the influence of many dance therapy leaders. Laban Movement Analysis (LMA) is discussed as well as dance therapy in specific…
This article explores the sensorial and conceptual perception of space and time, in an urbanity defined by urban life and urban form in movement and flux. Particularly regarding what public spaces and domains can be in contemporary societies and how these can be designed and developed....
van den Dobbelsteen, John; Brenner, Eli; Smeets, Jeroen B J
Reaching out for objects with an unseen arm involves using both visual and kinesthetic information. Neither visual nor kinesthetic information is perfect. Each is subject to both constant and variable errors. To evaluate how such errors influence performance in natural goal-directed movements, we
Kolupaev Vladimir Evgen'yevich
Full Text Available Publication of archival documents, i.e. manuscripts of Marc Popovski, a famous writer, journalist, human rights activist, dissident, and vice president of the organization “Writers in Exile” American branch of PEN. The manuscript is dedicated to the fate of Russian religious philosophical sect, Tolstoyan movement, in the Soviet period, its repressions and its eventual destruction.
Twining, Mary Arnold
Describes the role of movement and dance in the lives of Blacks living on the Sea Islands off the coasts of South Carolina and Georgia. Claims that the isolation of this area helps preserve its Africanicity and culture. Focuses particularly on the uses of rhythmic chanting in worship and in children's games. (KH)
Radaelli, Laura; Sabonis, Dovydas; Lu, Hua
With the proliferation of mobile computing, positioning systems are becoming available that enable indoor location-based services. As a result, indoor tracking data is also becoming available. This paper puts focus on one use of such data, namely the identification of typical movement patterns...
Feldman, Anatol G
Postural stabilization is provided by stretch reflexes, intermuscular reflexes, and intrinsic muscle properties. Taken together, these posture-stabilizing mechanisms resist deflections from the posture at which balance of muscle and external forces is maintained. Empirical findings suggest that for each muscle, these mechanisms become functional at a specific, spatial threshold-the muscle length or respective joint angle at which motor units begin to be recruited. Empirical data suggest that spinal and supraspinal centers can shift the spatial thresholds for a group of muscles that stabilized the initial posture. As a consequence, the same stabilizing mechanisms, instead of resisting motion from the initial posture, drive the body to another stable posture. In other words by shifting spatial thresholds, the nervous system converts movement resisting to movement-producing mechanisms. It is illustrated that, contrary to conventional view, this control strategy allows the system to transfer body balance to produce locomotion and other actions without loosing stability at any point of them. It also helps orient posture and movement with the direction of gravity. It is concluded that postural and movement stability is provided by a common mechanism.
Zoetmulder, Marielle; Jennum, Poul
Rapid eye movement (REM) sleep behaviour disorder (RBD) is characterized by loss of REM sleep and related electromyographic atonia with marked muscular activity and dream enactment behaviour. RBD is seen in 0.5% of the population. It occurs in an idiopathic form and secondarily to medical...
Barnett, Lisa M.; Stodden, David; Cohen, Kristen E.; Smith, Jordan J.; Lubans, David Revalds; Lenoir, Matthieu; Iivonen, Susanna; Miller, Andrew D.; Laukkanen, Arto; Dudley, Dean; Lander, Natalie J.; Brown, Helen; Morgan, Philip J.
Purpose: Recent international conference presentations have critiqued the promotion of fundamental movement skills (FMS) as a primary pedagogical focus. Presenters have called for a debate about the importance of, and rationale for teaching FMS, and this letter is a response to that call. The authors of this letter are academics who actively…
This unit is designed to be used in a history or government class in grades 5-12. It introduces students to individuals, organizations, and the political processes of the women's suffrage movement. In addition, the guide links past women's organizations to today's womens organizations, and helps students understand political strategies used in…
Ella, Bruno; Ghorayeb, Imad; Burbaud, Pierre; Guehl, Dominique
Bruxism is an abnormal repetitive movement disorder characterized by jaw clenching and tooth gnashing or grinding. It is classified into two overlapping types: awake bruxism (AB) and sleep bruxism (SB). Theories on factors causing bruxism are a matter of controversy, but a line of evidence suggests that it may to some extent be linked to basal ganglia dysfunction although so far, this topic has received little attention. The purpose of this article was to review cases of bruxism reported in various movement disorders. The biomedical literature was searched for publications reporting the association of bruxism with various types of movement disorders. As a whole, very few series were found, and most papers corresponded to clinical reports. In Parkinsonian syndromes, AB was rarely reported, but seems to be exacerbated by medical treatment, whereas SB is mainly observed during non-REM sleep, as in restless leg syndrome. AB is occasionally reported in Huntington's disease, primary dystonia, and secondary dystonia; however, its highest incidence and severity is reported in syndromes combining stereotypies and cognitive impairment, such as Rett's syndrome (97%), Down syndrome (42%), and autistic spectrum disorders (32%). Taken as a whole, AB seems to be more frequent in hyperkinetic movement disorders, notably those with stereotypies, and is influenced by anxiety, suggesting an involvement of the limbic part of the basal ganglia in its pathophysiology. © 2016 by the American College of Prosthodontists.
Hoppe, David; Rothkopf, Constantin A
During active behavior humans redirect their gaze several times every second within the visual environment. Where we look within static images is highly efficient, as quantified by computational models of human gaze shifts in visual search and face recognition tasks. However, when we shift gaze is mostly unknown despite its fundamental importance for survival in a dynamic world. It has been suggested that during naturalistic visuomotor behavior gaze deployment is coordinated with task-relevant events, often predictive of future events, and studies in sportsmen suggest that timing of eye movements is learned. Here we establish that humans efficiently learn to adjust the timing of eye movements in response to environmental regularities when monitoring locations in the visual scene to detect probabilistically occurring events. To detect the events humans adopt strategies that can be understood through a computational model that includes perceptual and acting uncertainties, a minimal processing time, and, crucially, the intrinsic costs of gaze behavior. Thus, subjects traded off event detection rate with behavioral costs of carrying out eye movements. Remarkably, based on this rational bounded actor model the time course of learning the gaze strategies is fully explained by an optimal Bayesian learner with humans' characteristic uncertainty in time estimation, the well-known scalar law of biological timing. Taken together, these findings establish that the human visual system is highly efficient in learning temporal regularities in the environment and that it can use these regularities to control the timing of eye movements to detect behaviorally relevant events.
Fitzgerald, Thomas K.
Discusses educational implications of the multicultural movement, highlighting: relativism versus anti-relativism; consequences of institutionalizing differences; implications of confusing culture with identity; tensions involved in cultural identification; African Americans as an example of race, class, and education; the neglected variable of…
Cudzik, Jan; Nyka, Lucyna
The paper gives insights into different forms of movement in contemporary architecture and examines them based on the reasons for their implementation. The main objective of the paper is to determine: the degree to which the complexity of kinematic architecture results from functional and spatial needs and what other motivations there are. The method adopted to investigate these questions involves theoretical studies and comparative analyses of architectural objects with different forms of movement imbedded in their structure. Using both methods allowed delving into reasons that lie behind the implementation of movement in contemporary kinetic architecture. As research shows, there is a constantly growing range of applications with kinematic solutions inserted in buildings’ structures. The reasons for their implementation are manifold and encompass pursuits of functional qualities, environmental performance, spatial effects, social interactions and new aesthetics. In those early projects based on simple mechanisms, the main motives were focused on functional values and in later experiments - on improving buildings’ environmental performance. Additionally, in recent proposals, a significant quest could be detected toward kinematic solutions that are focused on factors related to alternative aesthetics and innovative spatial effects. Research reveals that the more complicated form of movement, the more often the reason for its implementation goes beyond the traditionally understood “function”. However, research also shows that the effects resulting from investigations on spatial qualities of architecture and new aesthetics often appear to provide creative insights into new functionalities in architecture.
Murdach, Allison D.
This article examines a forgotten episode in social work history: the involvement of the profession in the temperance movement in the late 19th and early 20th centuries. Though some notable social workers such as Jane Addams, Robert A. Woods, and Representative Jeannette Rankin (the first woman elected to the U.S. Congress), championed the…
duration and velocity. Neurology, 1975, 25, 1065-1070. EYM, SAC 40 Bard, C.; Fleury, M.; Carriere, L.; Halle, M. Analysis of Gymnastics Judges’ Visual...Nodine, C.F.; Carmody, D.P.; Herman, E. Eye Movements During Search for Artistically Embedded Targets. Bulletin of the Psychonomic Society, 1979, 13
Al-Yaqout, Anwar F; Hamoda, Mohamed F
As organic solid waste is decomposed in a landfill and mass is lost due to gas and leachate formation, the landfill settles. Settlement of a landfill interferes with the rehabilitation and subsequent use of the landfill site after closure. This study examined the soil/solid waste movement at the Al-Qurain landfill in Kuwait after 15 years of closure as plans are underway for redevelopment of the landfill site that occupies about a km(2) with an average depth of 8-15m. Field experiments were conducted for 6 mo to measure soil/solid waste movement and water behavior within the landfill using two settlement plates with a level survey access, Casagrande-type piezometers, pneumatic piezometers, and magnetic probe extensometers. Previous results obtained indicated that biological decomposition of refuse continued after closure of the landfill site. The subsurface water rise enhanced the biological activities, which resulted in the production of increasing quantities of landfill gas. The refuse fill materials recorded a high movement rate under the imposed preloading as a result of an increase in the stress state. Up to 55% of the total movement was observed during the first 2 weeks of fill placement and increased to 80% within the first month of the 6-mo preloading test. Pneumatic piezometers showed an increase in water head, which is attributed to the developed pressure of gases escaping during the preloading period.
Full Text Available ABSTRACT Given the importance of fish movement to the dynamics and maintenance of stream dwelling fish communities from the Atlantic Forest, we analysed patterns of fish movement in a coastal stream from Southeastern Brazil, using mark-recapture technique. Displacement distance of each species were presented and discussed considering seasonal (rainy and dry and body size patterns. We marked 10 species along the stream and recaptured 440 (34.6% of the 1,270 marked fishes. The species with significant number of upstream moving individuals were Astyanax janeiroensis, Characidium interruptum, Astyanax hastatus, Parotocinclus maculicauda and Awaous tajasica. Only Pimelodella lateristriga presented significant differences between resident and moving individuals. Characidium interruptum and A. tajasica demonstrated greater downstream and upstream movement, respectively, moving up to 2,100 m. Even after controlling for species identity we found no significant correlation between fish length and individual displacement distance. Fishes moved longer distances during the rainy season, in accordance to the breeding season. Patterns of fish movement were in agreement to life-history traits of many of the studied species and can be reflecting specific behaviour and morphologies.
Dorneich, Michael C; Hamblin, Christopher J; Lancaster, Jeff A; Olofinboba, Olu
Two studies were conducted to develop an understanding of factors that drive user expectations when navigating between discrete elements on a display via a limited degree-of-freedom cursor control device. For the Orion Crew Exploration Vehicle spacecraft, a free-floating cursor with a graphical user interface (GUI) would require an unachievable level of accuracy due to expected acceleration and vibration conditions during dynamic phases of flight. Therefore, Orion program proposed using a "caged" cursor to "jump" from one controllable element (node) on the GUI to another. However, nodes are not likely to be arranged on a rectilinear grid, and so movements between nodes are not obvious. Proximity between nodes, direction of nodes relative to each other, and context features may all contribute to user cursor movement expectations. In an initial study, we examined user expectations based on the nodes themselves. In a second study, we examined the effect of context features on user expectations. The studies established that perceptual grouping effects influence expectations to varying degrees. Based on these results, a simple rule set was developed to support users in building a straightforward mental model that closely matches their natural expectations for cursor movement. The results will help designers of display formats take advantage of the natural context-driven cursor movement expectations of users to reduce navigation errors, increase usability, and decrease access time. The rules set and guidelines tie theory to practice and can be applied in environments where vibration or acceleration are significant, including spacecraft, aircraft, and automobiles.
The movement behaviour of largemouth bass Micropterus salmoides in the estuarine headwater region of the Kowie River, South Africa, was investigated using passive acoustic telemetry. Ten adult fish were tagged and released in four discrete pools below a weir that precluded possible upriver migration. Their residency ...
Gowen, E.; Stanley, J.; Miall, R. C.
Movement interference occurs when concurrently observing and executing incompatible actions and is believed to be due to co-activation of conflicting populations of mirror neurons. It has also been suggested that mirror neurons contribute towards the imitation of observed actions. However, the exact neural substrate of imitation may depend on task…
Berger, Alfons; Gnos, E.; Janots, E.
stress axis, which is characteristic for strike slip deformation. The inferred stress situation is consistent with observed kinematics and the opening of such clefts. Therefore, the investigated monazite-bearing cleft formed at the end of D2 and/or D3, and dextral movements along NNW dipping planes...
Lin, Chiuhsiang Joe; Chang, Chi-Chan; Lee, Yung-Hui
This study investigates the characteristics of eye movements during a camouflaged target search task. Camouflaged targets were randomly presented on two natural landscapes. The performance of each camouflage design was assessed by target detection hit rate, detection time, number of fixations on display, first saccade amplitude to target, number of fixations on target, fixation duration on target, and subjective ratings of search task difficulty. The results showed that the camouflage patterns could significantly affect the eye-movement behavior, especially first saccade amplitude and fixation duration, and the findings could be used to increase the sensitivity of the camouflage assessment. We hypothesized that the assessment could be made with regard to the differences in detectability and discriminability of the camouflage patterns. These could explain less efficient search behavior in eye movements. Overall, data obtained from eye movements can be used to significantly enhance the interpretation of the effects of different camouflage design. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd and The Ergonomics Society. All rights reserved.
Ramakrishnan, Arjun; Ifft, Peter J; Pais-Vieira, Miguel; Byun, Yoon Woo; Zhuang, Katie Z; Lebedev, Mikhail A; Nicolelis, Miguel A L
Traditionally, brain-machine interfaces (BMIs) extract motor commands from a single brain to control the movements of artificial devices. Here, we introduce a Brainet that utilizes very-large-scale brain activity (VLSBA) from two (B2) or three (B3) nonhuman primates to engage in a common motor behaviour. A B2 generated 2D movements of an avatar arm where each monkey contributed equally to X and Y coordinates; or one monkey fully controlled the X-coordinate and the other controlled the Y-coordinate. A B3 produced arm movements in 3D space, while each monkey generated movements in 2D subspaces (X-Y, Y-Z, or X-Z). With long-term training we observed increased coordination of behavior, increased correlations in neuronal activity between different brains, and modifications to neuronal representation of the motor plan. Overall, performance of the Brainet improved owing to collective monkey behaviour. These results suggest that primate brains can be integrated into a Brainet, which self-adapts to achieve a common motor goal.
Kolar, Radim; Tornow, Ralf P; Odstrcilik, Jan
This paper describes a novel methodology for eye fixation measurement using a unique videoophthalmoscope setup and advanced image registration approach. The representation of the eye movements via Poincare plot is also introduced. The properties, limitations and perspective of this methodology are finally discussed.
Leuenberger, John A.; Whitaker, Sheldon V., Jr.
The total quality movement began as a result of the desire of W. Edwards Deming, an American statistician, to permit the economic system to maintain its edge in a growing global market. The 14 points Deming listed as essential to "total quality management" have recently been adapted to the field of education. The success of the total…
Spering, Miriam; Gegenfurtner, Karl R.; Kerzel, Dirk
When 2 targets for pursuit eye movements move in different directions, the eye velocity follows the vector average (S. G. Lisberger & V. P. Ferrera, 1997). The present study investigates the mechanisms of target selection when observers are instructed to follow a predefined horizontal target and to ignore a moving distractor stimulus. Results show…
Heuvelink, E.; Kierkels, T.
Plants in the greenhouse are increasingly on the move. More attention is being paid to air circulation and mobile cultivation is on the rise. Research shows that movement and touch (also as plants rub against each other) slow down growth. That can be frustrating but you can also use it to your
Hansen, Frederik Nørgaard; Hunka, Agnieszka; Mälgand, Miina
The Transition Movement, originating in Ireland and the United Kingdom, gathers and supports community-led actions to meet the global challenges of climate change, peak oil and energy descent. In our study we analysed a Transition Network project, a Danish village built from scratch by its...
Shafir, Tal; Tsachor, Rachelle P; Welch, Kathleen B
We have recently demonstrated that motor execution, observation, and imagery of movements expressing certain emotions can enhance corresponding affective states and therefore could be used for emotion regulation. But which specific movement(s) should one use in order to enhance each emotion? This study aimed to identify, using Laban Movement Analysis (LMA), the Laban motor elements (motor characteristics) that characterize movements whose execution enhances each of the basic emotions: anger, fear, happiness, and sadness. LMA provides a system of symbols describing its motor elements, which gives a written instruction (motif) for the execution of a movement or movement-sequence over time. Six senior LMA experts analyzed a validated set of video clips showing whole body dynamic expressions of anger, fear, happiness and sadness, and identified the motor elements that were common to (appeared in) all clips expressing the same emotion. For each emotion, we created motifs of different combinations of the motor elements common to all clips of the same emotion. Eighty subjects from around the world read and moved those motifs, to identify the emotion evoked when moving each motif and to rate the intensity of the evoked emotion. All subjects together moved and rated 1241 motifs, which were produced from 29 different motor elements. Using logistic regression, we found a set of motor elements associated with each emotion which, when moved, predicted the feeling of that emotion. Each emotion was predicted by a unique set of motor elements and each motor element predicted only one emotion. Knowledge of which specific motor elements enhance specific emotions can enable emotional self-regulation through adding some desired motor qualities to one's personal everyday movements (rather than mimicking others' specific movements) and through decreasing motor behaviors which include elements that enhance negative emotions.
Full Text Available We have recently demonstrated that motor execution, observation and imagery of movements expressing certain emotions can enhance corresponding affective states and therefore could be used for emotion regulation. But which specific movement(s should one use in order to enhance each emotion? This study aimed to identify, using Laban Movement Analysis (LMA, the Laban motor elements (motor characteristics that characterize movements whose execution enhances each of the basic emotions: anger, fear happiness, and sadness. LMA provides a system of symbols describing its motor elements, which gives a written instruction (motif for the execution of a movement or movement-sequence over time. Six senior LMA experts analyzed a validated set of video clips showing whole body dynamic expressions of anger, fear, happiness and sadness, and identified the motor elements that were common to (appeared in all clips expressing the same emotion. For each emotion, we created motifs of different combinations of the motor elements common to all clips of the same emotion. Eighty subjects from around the world read and moved those motifs, to identify the emotion evoked when moving each motif and to rate the intensity of the evoked emotion. All subjects together moved and rated 1241 motifs, which were produced from 29 different motor elements. Using logistic regression, we found a set of motor elements associated with each emotion which, when moved, predicted the feeling of that emotion. Each emotion was predicted by a unique set of motor elements and each motor element predicted only one emotion. Knowledge of which specific motor elements enhance specific emotions can enable emotional self-regulation through adding some desired motor qualities to one’s personal everyday movements (rather than mimicking others’ specific movements and through decreasing motor behaviors which include elements that enhance negative emotions.
Full Text Available In-situ oil sands development (ISD involves a network of facilities, wells, roads and pipelines to extract and transport subsurface bitumen. This technology is rapidly expanding and there is uncertainty whether ISDs restrict animal movement, leading to increased extinction probabilities for some wide-ranging species. Here we test for effects of simulated future (i.e., 50 years from now and current ISDs on simulated movements of woodland caribou (Rangifer tarandus, a threatened species across North America. In simulations of future scenarios, we varied the spacing and permeability of ISDs and the presence/absence of protected areas. Permeability was measured as the number of times simulated caribou crossed ISDs with different levels of modelled permeability. We estimated the effects of these factors on caribou step length and annual home range size, key metrics of small and large spatiotemporal scales of movement, respectively. Current caribou crossings of above-ground pipeline features of ISDs were measured using camera traps and compared to expected caribou crossing rates based on present-day caribou movement simulations. Current crossing rates were evaluated within the context of predicted future crossing success rates necessary to maintain caribou step lengths and home ranges. With few exceptions, permeability across ISDs was the main factor affecting caribou movement, more so than spacing between developments or the presence of protected areas. However, minimal permeability (crossing rates of c. 15% to 60%, relative to an undisturbed site was needed to maintain existing home range size and step lengths. The effect of permeability on home range size and step length was non-linear, suggesting that small increases in permeability would provide a disproportionately greater benefit to caribou movement. Our predictions demonstrate that maintaining permeability across ISDs is more important than spacing between leases or including protected areas
Hanlon, R E; Mattson, D; Demery, J A; Dromerick, A W
Apraxia is commonly manifested during the acute stage following left hemisphere cerebrovascular accident and typically co-occurs with aphasia. We examined 30 acute stroke patients with aphasia and apraxia in order to determine if such patients show evidence of preservation of selective subclasses of movements. Although Geschwind noted the preservation of axial movements to command in aphasic apraxic patients, his views were subsequently refuted. However, we found that aphasic apraxic patients of varying degrees of severity, including patients with global aphasia, showed relative preservation of axial movements to command and imitation. Theoretical interpretations and implications for acute neurologic rehabilitation are discussed.
Mahmud, Tareq Uddin
We are living in the era of digital revolution. Everything we do, everywhere go, there is always a footprint of digitization in our day to day life. Large and small companies are also finding their way to this digitalization movement and connect to their potential customers. Primarily motivation behind this thesis came from writer’s own interest in setting up a small restaurant business. This could potentially guide other new entrepreneurs regarding digital marketing option for their busi...
Dressler, D; Benecke, R
Most movement disorders, reflecting degenerative disorders, develop in a slowly progressive fashion. Some movement disorders, however, manifest with an acute onset. We wish to give an overview of the management and therapy of those acute-onset movement disorders.Drug-induced movement disorders are mainly caused by dopamine-receptor blockers (DRB) as used as antipsychotics (neuroleptics) and antiemetics. Acute dystonic reactions usually occur within the first four days of treatment. Typically, cranial pharyngeal and cervical muscles are affected. Anticholinergics produce a prompt relief. Akathisia is characterized by an often exceedingly bothersome feeling of restlessness and the inability to remain still. It is a common side effect of DRB and occurs within few days after their initiation. It subsides when DRB are ceased. Neuroleptic Malignant Syndrome is a rare, but life-threatening adverse reaction to DRB which may occur at any time during DRB application. It is characterised by hyperthermia, rigidity, reduced consciousness and autonomic failure. Therapeutically immediate DRB withdrawal is crucial. Additional dantrolene or bromocriptine application together with symptomatic treatment may be necessary. Paroxysmal dyskinesias are childhood onset disorders characterised by dystonic postures, chorea, athetosis and ballism occurring at irregular intervals. In Paroxysmal Kinesigenic Dyskinesia they are triggered by rapid movements, startle reactions or hyperventilation. They last up to 5 minutes, occur up to 100 times per day and are highly sensitive to anticonvulsants. In Paroxysmal Non-Kinesiogenic Dyskinesia they cannot be triggered, occur less frequently and last longer. Other paroxysmal dyskinesias include hypnogenic paroxysmal dyskinesias, paroxysmal exertional dyskinesia, infantile paroxysmal dystonias, Sandifer's syndrome and symptomatic paroxysmal dyskinesias. In Hereditary Episodic Ataxia Type 1 attacks of ataxia last for up to two minutes, may be accompanied
Carpi, Federico; Erb, Rainer; Jeronimidis, George
Movement in biology is an essential aspect of survival for many organisms, animals and plants. Implementing movement efficiently to meet specific needs is a key attribute of natural living systems, and can provide ideas for man-made developments. If we had to find a subtitle able to essentially convey the aim of this special section, it could read as follows: 'taking inspiration from nature for new materials, actuators, structures and controls for systems that move'. Our world is characterized by a huge variety of technical, engineering systems that move. They surround us in countless products that integrate actuators for different kinds of purposes. Basically, any kind of mechatronic system, such as those used for consumer products, machines, vehicles, industrial systems, robots, etc, is based on one or more devices that move, according to different implementations and motion ranges, often in response to external and internal stimuli. Despite this, technical solutions to develop systems that move do not evolve very quickly as they rely on traditional and well consolidated actuation technologies, which are implemented according to known architectures and with established materials. This fact limits our capability to overcome challenges related to the needs continuously raised by new fields of application, either at small or at large scales. Biomimetics-based approaches may provide innovative thinking and technologies in the field, taking inspiration from nature for smart and effective solutions. In an effort to disseminate current advances in this field, this special section collects some papers that cover different topics. A brief synopsis of the content of each contribution is presented below. The first paper, by Lienhard et al , deals with bioinspiration for the realization of structural parts in systems that passively move. It presents a bioinspired hingeless flapping mechanism, considered as a solution to the kinematics of deployable systems for
Lohmann, Amanda C; Evangelista, Dennis; Waldrop, Lindsay D; Mah, Christopher L; Hedrick, Tyson L
The paths animals take while moving through their environments affect their likelihood of encountering food and other resources; thus, models of foraging behavior abound. To collect movement data appropriate for comparison with these models, we used time-lapse photography to track movements of a small, hardy, and easy-to-obtain organism, Aquilonastra anomala sea stars. We recorded the sea stars in a tank over many hours, with and without a food cue. With food present, they covered less distance, as predicted by theory; this strategy would allow them to remain near food. We then compared the paths of the sea stars to three common models of animal movement: Brownian motion, Lévy walks, and correlated random walks; we found that the sea stars' movements most closely resembled a correlated random walk. Additionally, we compared the search performance of models of Brownian motion, a Lévy walk, and a correlated random walk to that of a model based on the sea stars' movements. We found that the behavior of the modeled sea star walk was similar to that of the modeled correlated random walk and the Brownian motion model, but that the sea star walk was slightly more likely than the other walks to find targets at intermediate distances. While organisms are unlikely to follow an idealized random walk in all details, our data suggest that comparing the effectiveness of an organism's paths to those from theory can give insight into the organism's actual movement strategy. Finally, automated optical tracking of invertebrates proved feasible, and A. anomala was revealed to be a tractable, 2D-movement study system.
Janet H Bultitude
Full Text Available It has been suggested that incongruence between signals for motor intention and sensory input can cause pain and other sensory abnormalities. This claim is supported by reports that moving in an environment of induced sensorimotor conflict leads to elevated pain and sensory symptoms in those with certain painful conditions. Similar procedures can lead to reports of anomalous sensations in healthy volunteers too. In the present study, we used mirror visual feedback to investigate the effects of sensorimotor incongruence on responses to stimuli that arise from sources external to the body, in particular, touch. Incongruence between the sensory and motor signals for the right arm was manipulated by having the participants make symmetrical or asymmetrical movements while watching a reflection of their left arm in a parasagittal mirror, or the left hand surface of a similarly positioned opaque board. In contrast to our prediction, sensitivity to the presence of gaps in tactile stimulation of the right forearm was not reduced when participants made asymmetrical movements during mirror visual feedback, as compared to when they made symmetrical or asymmetrical movements with no visual feedback. Instead, sensitivity was reduced when participants made symmetrical movements during mirror visual feedback relative to the other three conditions. We suggest that small discrepancies between sensory and motor information, as they occur during mirror visual feedback with symmetrical movements, can impair tactile processing. In contrast, asymmetrical movements with mirror visual feedback may not impact tactile processing because the larger discrepancies between sensory and motor information may prevent the integration of these sources of information. These results contrast with previous reports of anomalous sensations during exposure to both low and high sensorimotor conflict, but are nevertheless in agreement with a forward model interpretation of perceptual
Duann, Jeng-Ren; Chiou, Jin-Chern
Electroencephalographic (EEG) event-related desynchronization (ERD) induced by movement imagery or by observing biological movements performed by someone else has recently been used extensively for brain-computer interface-based applications, such as applications used in stroke rehabilitation training and motor skill learning. However, the ERD responses induced by the movement imagery and observation might not be as reliable as the ERD responses induced by movement execution. Given that studies on the reliability of the EEG ERD responses induced by these activities are still lacking, here we conducted an EEG experiment with movement imagery, movement observation, and movement execution, performed multiple times each in a pseudorandomized order in the same experimental runs. Then, independent component analysis (ICA) was applied to the EEG data to find the common motor-related EEG source activity shared by the three motor tasks. Finally, conditional EEG ERD responses associated with the three movement conditions were computed and compared. Among the three motor conditions, the EEG ERD responses induced by motor execution revealed the alpha power suppression with highest strengths and longest durations. The ERD responses of the movement imagery and movement observation only partially resembled the ERD pattern of the movement execution condition, with slightly better detectability for the ERD responses associated with the movement imagery and faster ERD responses for movement observation. This may indicate different levels of involvement in the same motor-related brain circuits during different movement conditions. In addition, because the resulting conditional EEG ERD responses from the ICA preprocessing came with minimal contamination from the non-related and/or artifactual noisy components, this result can play a role of the reference for devising a brain-computer interface using the EEG ERD features of movement imagery or observation.
Full Text Available Study of movement observations is becoming more popular in several applications. Particularly, analyzing sport movement time series has been considered as a demanding area. However, most of the attempts made on analyzing movement sport data have focused on spatial aspects of movement to extract some movement characteristics, such as spatial patterns and similarities. This paper proposes statistical analysis of sport movement observations, which refers to analyzing changes in the spatial movement attributes (e.g. distance, altitude and slope and non-spatial movement attributes (e.g. speed and heart rate of athletes. As the case study, an example dataset of movement observations acquired during the “orienteering” sport is presented and statistically analyzed.
Amouzandeh, K.; Karimipour, F.
Study of movement observations is becoming more popular in several applications. Particularly, analyzing sport movement time series has been considered as a demanding area. However, most of the attempts made on analyzing movement sport data have focused on spatial aspects of movement to extract some movement characteristics, such as spatial patterns and similarities. This paper proposes statistical analysis of sport movement observations, which refers to analyzing changes in the spatial movement attributes (e.g. distance, altitude and slope) and non-spatial movement attributes (e.g. speed and heart rate) of athletes. As the case study, an example dataset of movement observations acquired during the "orienteering" sport is presented and statistically analyzed.
Full Text Available The Slovenian territory is, geologically speaking, very diverse and mainly composed of sediments or sedimentary rocks. Slope mass movements occur almost in all parts of the country. In the Alpine carbonate areas of the northern part of Slovenia rock falls, rock slides and even debris flows can be triggered.In the mountainous regions of central Slovenia composed from different clastic rocks, large soil landslides are quite usual, and in the young soil sediments of eastern part of Slovenia there is a large density of small soil landslides.The damage caused by slope mass movements is high, but still no common strategy and regulations to tackle this unwanted event, especially from the aspect of prevention, have been developed. One of the first steps towards an effective strategy of struggling against landslides and other slope mass movements is a central landslide database, where (ideally all known landslide occurrences would be reported, and described in as much detail as possible. At the end of the project of National Landslide Database construction which ended in May 2005 there were more than 6600 registered landslides, of which almost half occurred at a known location and were accompanied with the main characteristic descriptions.The erected database is a chance for Slovenia to once and for all start a solid slope mass movement prevention plan. The only part which is missing and which is the most important one is adopting a legal act that will legalise the obligation of reporting slope mass movement events to the database.
Chase, Nathan M.; Caldwell, Colleen A.; Carleton, Scott A.; Gould, William R.; Hobbs, James A.
Natal origin and dispersal potential of the federally threatened Pecos bluntnose shiner (Notropis simus pecosensis) were successfully characterized using otolith microchemistry and swimming performance trials. Strontium isotope ratios (87Sr:86Sr) of otoliths within the resident plains killifish (Fundulus zebrinus) were successfully used as a surrogate for strontium isotope ratios in water and revealed three isotopically distinct reaches throughout 297 km of the Pecos River, New Mexico, USA. Two different life history movement patterns were revealed in Pecos bluntnose shiner. Eggs and fry were either retained in upper river reaches or passively dispersed downriver followed by upriver movement during the first year of life, with some fish achieving a minimum movement of 56 km. Swimming ability of Pecos bluntnose shiner confirmed upper critical swimming speeds (Ucrit) as high as 43.8 cm·s−1 and 20.6 body lengths·s−1 in 30 days posthatch fish. Strong swimming ability early in life supports our observations of upriver movement using otolith microchemistry and confirms movement patterns that were previously unknown for the species. Understanding patterns of dispersal of this and other small-bodied fishes using otolith microchemistry may help redirect conservation and management efforts for Great Plains fishes.
Full Text Available It is well established that the basis for flagellar and ciliary movements is ATP-dependent sliding between adjacent doublet microtubules. However, the mechanism for converting microtubule sliding into flagellar and ciliary movements has long remained unresolved. The author has developed new sperm models that use bull spermatozoa divested of their plasma membrane and midpiece mitochondrial sheath by Triton X-100 and dithiothreitol. These models enable the observation of both the oscillatory sliding movement of activated doublet microtubules and flagellar bend formation in the presence of ATP. A long fiber of doublet microtubules extruded by synchronous sliding of the sperm flagella and a short fiber of doublet microtubules extruded by metachronal sliding exhibited spontaneous oscillatory movements and constructed a one beat cycle of flagellar bending by alternately actuating. The small sliding displacement generated by metachronal sliding formed helical bends, whereas the large displacement by synchronous sliding formed planar bends. Therefore, the resultant waveform is a half-funnel shape, which is similar to ciliary movements.
Inaba, Toru; Sakazume, Taku; Yamashita, Yoshihiro; Matsuoka, Shinya
We developed an analysis program for predicting the movement of magnetic particles in flow and magnetic fields. This magnetic particle movement simulation was applied to a capturing process in a flow cell and a magnetic separation process in a small vessel of an in-vitro diagnostic system. The distributions of captured magnetic particles on a wall were calculated and compared with experimentally obtained distributions. The calculations involved evaluating not only the drag, pressure gradient, gravity, and magnetic force in a flow field but also the friction force between the particle and the wall, and the calculated particle distributions were in good agreement with the experimental distributions. Friction force was simply modeled as static and kinetic friction forces. The coefficients of friction were determined by comparing the calculated and measured results. This simulation method for solving multiphysics problems is very effective at predicting the movements of magnetic particles and is an excellent tool for studying the design and application of devices. - Highlights: ●We developed magnetic particles movement program in flow and magnetic fields. ●Friction force on wall is simply modeled as static and kinetic friction force. ●This program was applied for capturing and separation of an in-vitro diagnostic system. ●Predicted particle distributions on wall were agreed with experimental ones. ●This method is very effective at predicting movements of magnetic particles
Full Text Available The mechanisms that can contribute in the fish movement strategies and the associated behaviour can be complex and related to the physiology, genetic and ecology of each species. In the case of the brown trout (Salmo trutta, in recent research works, individual differences in mobility have been observed in a population living in a high mountain river reach (Pyrenees, NE Spain. The population is mostly sedentary but a small percentage of individuals exhibit a mobile behavior, mainly upstream movements. Metabolomics can reflect changes in the physiological process and can determine different profiles depending on behaviour. Here, a non-targeted metabolomics approach was used to find possible changes in the blood metabolomic profile of S. trutta related to its movement behaviour, using a minimally invasive sampling. Results showed a differentiation in the metabolomic profiles of the trouts and different level concentrations of some metabolites (e.g. cortisol according to the home range classification (pattern of movements: sedentary or mobile. The change in metabolomic profiles can generally occur during the upstream movement and probably reflects the changes in metabolite profile from the non-mobile season to mobile season. This study reveals the contribution of the metabolomic analyses to better understand the behaviour of organisms.
Oromi, Neus; Jové, Mariona; Pascual-Pons, Mariona; Royo, Jose Luis; Rocaspana, Rafel; Aparicio, Enric; Pamplona, Reinald; Palau, Antoni; Sanuy, Delfi; Fibla, Joan; Portero-Otin, Manuel
The mechanisms that can contribute in the fish movement strategies and the associated behaviour can be complex and related to the physiology, genetic and ecology of each species. In the case of the brown trout (Salmo trutta), in recent research works, individual differences in mobility have been observed in a population living in a high mountain river reach (Pyrenees, NE Spain). The population is mostly sedentary but a small percentage of individuals exhibit a mobile behavior, mainly upstream movements. Metabolomics can reflect changes in the physiological process and can determine different profiles depending on behaviour. Here, a non-targeted metabolomics approach was used to find possible changes in the blood metabolomic profile of S. trutta related to its movement behaviour, using a minimally invasive sampling. Results showed a differentiation in the metabolomic profiles of the trouts and different level concentrations of some metabolites (e.g. cortisol) according to the home range classification (pattern of movements: sedentary or mobile). The change in metabolomic profiles can generally occur during the upstream movement and probably reflects the changes in metabolite profile from the non-mobile season to mobile season. This study reveals the contribution of the metabolomic analyses to better understand the behaviour of organisms.
Full Text Available In recent years, attention has been increasingly devoted to the development of rescue robots that can protect humans from the inherent risks of rescue work. Particularly, anticipated is the development of a robot that can move deeply through small spaces. We have devoted our attention to peristalsis, the movement mechanism used by earthworms. A reinforcement learning technique used for the derivation of the robot movement pattern, Q-learning, was used to develop a three-segmented peristaltic crawling robot with a motor drive. Characteristically, peristalsis can provide movement capability if at least three segments work, even if a segmented part does not function. Therefore, we had intended to derive the movement pattern of many-segmented peristaltic crawling robots using Q-learning. However, because of the necessary increase in calculations, in the case of many segments, Q-learning cannot be used because of insufficient memory. Therefore, we devoted our attention to a learning method called Actor–Critic, which can be implemented with low memory. Because Actor-Critic methods are TD methods that have a separate memory structure to explicitly represent the policy independent of the value function. Using it, we examined the movement patterns of six-segmented peristaltic crawling robots.
Valenti Erica E
Full Text Available Abstract Background The literature indicated that the majority of professional ballet dancers present static and active dynamic range of motion difference between left and right lower limbs, however, no previous study focused this difference in non-professional ballet dancers. In this study we aimed to evaluate active movements of the hip in non-professional classical dancers. Methods We evaluated 10 non professional ballet dancers (16-23 years old. We measured the active range of motion and flexibility through Well Banks. We compared active range of motion between left and right sides (hip flexion and abduction and performed correlation between active movements and flexibility. Results There was a small difference between the right and left sides of the hip in relation to the movements of flexion and abduction, which suggest the dominant side of the subjects, however, there was no statistical significance. Bank of Wells test revealed statistical difference only between the 1st and the 3rd measurement. There was no correlation between the movements of the hip (abduction and flexion, right and left sides with the three test measurements of the bank of Wells. Conclusion There is no imbalance between the sides of the hip with respect to active abduction and flexion movements in non-professional ballet dancers.
Background The literature indicated that the majority of professional ballet dancers present static and active dynamic range of motion difference between left and right lower limbs, however, no previous study focused this difference in non-professional ballet dancers. In this study we aimed to evaluate active movements of the hip in non-professional classical dancers. Methods We evaluated 10 non professional ballet dancers (16-23 years old). We measured the active range of motion and flexibility through Well Banks. We compared active range of motion between left and right sides (hip flexion and abduction) and performed correlation between active movements and flexibility. Results There was a small difference between the right and left sides of the hip in relation to the movements of flexion and abduction, which suggest the dominant side of the subjects, however, there was no statistical significance. Bank of Wells test revealed statistical difference only between the 1st and the 3rd measurement. There was no correlation between the movements of the hip (abduction and flexion, right and left sides) with the three test measurements of the bank of Wells. Conclusion There is no imbalance between the sides of the hip with respect to active abduction and flexion movements in non-professional ballet dancers. PMID:21819566
Liu, Quan-Xing; Rietkerk, Max; Herman, Peter M J; Piersma, Theunis; Fryxell, John M; van de Koppel, Johan
Many ecosystems develop strikingly regular spatial patterns because of small-scale interactions between organisms, a process generally referred to as spatial self-organization. Self-organized spatial patterns are important determinants of the functioning of ecosystems, promoting the growth and survival of the involved organisms, and affecting the capacity of the organisms to cope with changing environmental conditions. The predominant explanation for self-organized pattern formation is spatial heterogeneity in establishment, growth and mortality, resulting from the self-organization processes. A number of recent studies, however, have revealed that movement of organisms can be an important driving process creating extensive spatial patterning in many ecosystems. Here, we review studies that detail movement-based pattern formation in contrasting ecological settings. Our review highlights that a common principle, where movement of organisms is density-dependent, explains observed spatial regular patterns in all of these studies. This principle, well known to physics as the Cahn-Hilliard principle of phase separation, has so-far remained unrecognized as a general mechanism for self-organized complexity in ecology. Using the examples presented in this paper, we explain how this movement principle can be discerned in ecological settings, and clarify how to test this mechanism experimentally. Our study highlights that animal movement, both in isolation and in unison with other processes, is an important mechanism for regular pattern formation in ecosystems. Copyright Â© 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Bentley, Kale T; Schindler, Daniel E; Cline, Timothy J; Armstrong, Jonathan B; Macias, Daniel; Ciepiela, Lindsy R; Hilborn, Ray
Daily movements of mobile organisms between habitats in response to changing trade-offs between predation risk and foraging gains are well established; however, less in known about whether similar tactics are used during reproduction, a time period when many organisms are particularly vulnerable to predators. We investigated the reproductive behaviour of adult sockeye salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka) and the activity of their principal predator, brown bears (Ursus arctos), on streams in south-western Alaska. Specifically, we continuously monitored movements of salmon between lake habitat, where salmon are invulnerable to bears, and three small streams, where salmon spawn and are highly vulnerable to bears. We conducted our study across 2 years that offered a distinct contrast in bear activity and predation rates. Diel movements by adult sockeye salmon between stream and lake habitat were observed in 51.3% ± 17.7% (mean ± SD) of individuals among years and sites. Fish that moved tended to hold in the lake for most of the day and then migrated into spawning streams during the night, coincident with when bear activity on streams tended to be lowest. Additionally, cyclic movements between lakes and spawning streams were concentrated earlier in the spawning season. Individuals that exhibited diel movements had longer average reproductive life spans than those who made only one directed movement into a stream. However, the relative effect was dependent on the timing of bear predation, which varied between years. When predation pressure primarily occurred early in the spawning run (i.e., during the height of the diel movements), movers lived 120-310% longer than non-movers. If predation pressure was concentrated later in the spawning run (i.e. when most movements had ceased), movers only lived 10-60% longer. Our results suggest a dynamic trade-off in reproductive strategies of sockeye salmon; adults must be in the stream to reproduce, but must also avoid predation long
Grunwald, G.; Liewers, P.; Schumann, P.; Weiss, F.P.
The possibility has been reported of separating a single noise component due to flow-induced vibrations of a certain control element from a complex neutron signal which also contained contributions of many other control elements vibrating similarly. One of the basic assumptions for the different methods applied was that the body sound signal originating from touch events with the channel wall is closely correlated with the control-element movement. Some discrepancies between the results of the different methods showed that this assumption may not be entirely fulfilled. This paper investigates this correlation more accurately by measurements of an air flow model of the control-element channel. The pendulum movement of the element, and the body-sound signal due to the touch events with the channel wall, were measured at different flow-rates. The result is that the correlation is not an ideal one. For a constant flow-rate the touch events happen mainly within a small angle region, which means that the touch event marks a certain phase of the movement period and is therefore correlated with the movement. The dispersion of the touch events' angle distribution explains the small discrepancy between the so-called modified averaging method, which uses the sound signal to trigger the averaging procedure, and the partial spectral density method. But not all discrepancies can be explained by these results; they await further investigation. (author)
Massing, Matthias; Blandin, Yannick; Panzer, Stefan
An experiment investigated the influence of eye movements on learning a simple motor sequence task when the visual display was magnified. The task was to reproduce a 1300 ms spatial-temporal pattern of elbow flexions and extensions. The spatial-temporal pattern was displayed in front of the participants. Participants were randomly assigned to four groups differing on eye movements (free to use their eyes/instructed to fixate) and the visual display (small/magnified). All participants had to perform a pre-test, an acquisition phase, a delayed retention test, and a transfer test. The results indicated that participants in each practice condition increased their performance during acquisition. The participants who were permitted to use their eyes in the magnified visual display outperformed those who were instructed to fixate on the magnified visual display. When a small visual display was used, the instruction to fixate induced no performance decrements compared to participants who were permitted to use their eyes during acquisition. The findings demonstrated that a spatial-temporal pattern can be learned without eye movements, but being permitting to use eye movements facilitates the response production when the visual angle is increased. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Harrison, Adrian Paul; Wandall, Kirsten; Thorball, Jørgen
Accurate ECG signal analysis can be confounded by electric lead, and/or electrode movements varying in origin from, for example, hiccups, tremor or patient restlessness. ECG signals recorded using either a conventional electrode holder or with the aid of an electrode holder capable of absorbing...... movement artefacts, were measured on a healthy human subject. Results show a greatly improved stability of the ECG signal recorded using an electrode holder capable of absorbing movement artefacts during periods of lead disturbance, and highlight the movement artefacts that develop when the recording lead...... of a conventional ECG electrode holder is tugged or pulled during theperiod of monitoring. It is concluded that the new design of ECG electrode holder will not only enable clearer signal recordings for clinical assessment, but will reduce the ECG artefacts associated with the transportation of patients, and may...
Full Text Available Hong Kong student movements before the Umbrella Movement showed a political outlook of voicing within norm of the establishment, using “peaceful, rational and non-violent” approaches, acknowledging the authorities of the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region (HKSAR and mainland Chinese governments and recognizing attachment to the motherland China. Today’s new emerging political outlook of the Hong Kong student movement has a profile of anti-establishment, using more assertive means and not excluding radical behaviour, distrust of the HKSAR and mainland authorities and assertion of radical localism. In the last two years, Hong Kong students have undergone a rapid change in their orientation, resulting in today’s outlook. This paper argues that the Umbrella Movement is the key for the turnaround and it testifies to the birth of a new social and political consciousness amongst Hong Kong students.
Full Text Available Motion of the upper limbs is often coupled to that of the lower limbs in human bipedal locomotion. It is unclear, however, whether the functional coupling between upper and lower limbs is bi-directional, i.e. whether arm movements can affect the lumbosacral locomotor circuitry. Here we tested the effects of voluntary rhythmic arm movements on the lower limbs. Participants lay horizontally on their side with each leg suspended in an unloading exoskeleton. They moved their arms on an overhead treadmill as if they walked on their hands. Hand-walking in the antero-posterior direction resulted in significant locomotor-like movements of the legs in 58% of the participants. We further investigated quantitatively the responses in a subset of the responsive subjects. We found that the electromyographic (EMG activity of proximal leg muscles was modulated over each cycle with a timing similar to that of normal locomotion. The frequency of kinematic and EMG oscillations in the legs typically differed from that of arm oscillations. The effect of hand-walking was direction specific since medio-lateral arm movements did not evoke appreciably leg air-stepping. Using externally imposed trunk movements and biomechanical modelling, we ruled out that the leg movements associated with hand-walking were mainly due to the mechanical transmission of trunk oscillations. EMG activity in hamstring muscles associated with hand-walking often continued when the leg movements were transiently blocked by the experimenter or following the termination of arm movements. The present results reinforce the idea that there exists a functional neural coupling between arm and legs.
Full Text Available This study 1 examined the influence of lower limb movement on upper limb movement symmetry, 2 determined the part of the propulsion phase displaying the greatest hand movement asymmetry, 3 diagnosed the range of upper limb propulsion phase which is the most prone to the influence of the lower limbs while swimming the breaststroke. Twenty-four participants took part in two tests. Half of them performed an asymmetrical leg movement. The propulsion in the first test was generated by four limbs while in the second one only by the upper limbs. The pressure differentials exerted by the water on the back and on the palm of the right and left hand were measured. Then, the asymmetry coefficient of the hand movement was determined. No changes in the level of the asymmetry index in participants performing correct (symmetrical lower limb movement were observed. Incorrect (asymmetrical leg motion resulted in an increase of hand asymmetry. It could be concluded that lower limb faults neutralize upper limb performance when swimming on a rectilinear path. However, most asymmetrical arm performance should be identified with the conversion of propulsion into recovery. Nevertheless, its proneness to influence improper leg performance might be expected at the beginning of arm propulsion.
Sha, Daohang; France, Christopher R; Thomas, James S
The effect of target location, speed, and handedness on the average total mechanical energy and movement efficiency is studied in 15 healthy subjects (7 males and 8 females with age 22.9 +/- 1.79 years old) performing full body reaching movements. The average total mechanical energy is measured as the time average of integration of joint power, potential energy, and kinetic energy respectively. Movement efficiency is calculated as the ratio of total kinetic energy to the total joint power and potential energy. Results show that speed and target location have significant effects on total mechanical energy and movement efficiency, but reaching hand only effects kinetic energy. From our findings we conclude that (1) efficiency in whole body reaching is dependent on whether the height of the body center of mass is raised or lowered during the task; (2) efficiency is increased as movement speed is increased, in part because of greater changes in potential energy; and (3) the CNS does not appear to use movement efficiency as a primary planning variable in full body reaching. It may be dependent on a combination of other factors or constraints.
Franz, E A; Fu, Y
Pre-movement processes were investigated in people with Congenital mirrormovement (CMM), a rare disorder in which bilateral movement (mirroring) occurs in the upper distal extremities (primarily the hands and fingers) during intended unilateral movements. Abnormal density of ipsilateral corticospinal projections is an established hallmark of CMM. This study tested whether the Lateralised Readiness Potential (LRP), which reflects movement planning and readiness, is also abnormal in people with CMM. Twenty-eight neurologically-normal controls and 8 people with CMM were tested on a unimanual Go/No-go task while electroencephalography (EEG) was recorded to assess the LRP. No significant group differences were found in reaction time (RT). However, significantly smaller LRP amplitudes were found, on average, in the CMM group compared to Controls at central-motor (C3,C4) sites in stimulus-locked and response-locked epochs; similar group differences were also found at further frontal sites (F3,F4) during response-locked epochs. Abnormal brain activity in pre-movement processes associated with response planning and preparation is present in people with CMM. Aberrant bilateral activity during pre-movement processes is clearly implicated; whether part of the etiology of CMM, or as a mechanism of neuro-compensation, is not yet known. Copyright © 2017 International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available The movement-related cortical potential (MRCP is a low-frequency negative shift in the electroencephalography (EEG recording that takes place about 2 seconds prior to voluntary movement production. MRCP replicates the cortical processes employed in planning and preparation of movement. In this study, we recapitulate the features such as signal’s acquisition, processing, and enhancement and different electrode montages used for EEG data recoding from different studies that used MRCPs to predict the upcoming real or imaginary movement. An authentic identification of human movement intention, accompanying the knowledge of the limb engaged in the performance and its direction of movement, has a potential implication in the control of external devices. This information could be helpful in development of a proficient patient-driven rehabilitation tool based on brain-computer interfaces (BCIs. Such a BCI paradigm with shorter response time appears more natural to the amputees and can also induce plasticity in brain. Along with different training schedules, this can lead to restoration of motor control in stroke patients.
Daluja, Sachin; Golenberg, Lavie; Cao, Alex; Pandya, Abhilash K; Auner, Gregory W; Klein, Michael D
Robotic surgery has gradually gained acceptance due to its numerous advantages such as tremor filtration, increased dexterity and motion scaling. There remains, however, a significant scope for improvement, especially in the areas of surgeon-robot interface and autonomous procedures. Previous studies have attempted to identify factors affecting a surgeon's performance in a master-slave robotic system by tracking hand movements. These studies relied on conventional optical or magnetic tracking systems, making their use impracticable in the operating room. This study concentrated on building an intrinsic movement capture platform using microcontroller based hardware wired to a surgical robot. Software was developed to enable tracking and analysis of hand movements while surgical tasks were performed. Movement capture was applied towards automated movements of the robotic instruments. By emulating control signals, recorded surgical movements were replayed by the robot's end-effectors. Though this work uses a surgical robot as the platform, the ideas and concepts put forward are applicable to telerobotic systems in general.
Wiseman, Samuel R
In the wake of growing public concerns over salmonella outbreaks and other highly publicized food safety issues, Congress passed the FDA Food Safety Modernization Act in 2011, which placed more stringent standards on food growing and packaging operations. In negotiations preceding the Act's passage, farmers of local, sustainable food argued that these rules would unduly burden local agricultural operations or, at the extreme, drive them out of business by creating overly burdensome rules. These objections culminated in the addition of the Tester-Hagan Amendment to the Food Safety Modernization Act, which created certain exemptions for small farms. Proposed Food and Drug Administration (FDA) rules to implement the Act threatened to weaken this victory for small farm groups, however, prompting a loud response from small farmers and local food proponents. The FDA's second set of proposed rules, issued in September 2014 in response to these and other complaints, were, perhaps surprisingly, responsive to small farmers' concerns. Using comments submitted to the FDA, this article explores the responses of the agriculture industry and public health organizations, as well as small farm groups, consumers of local food, and sustainable agriculture interests (which, for simplicity, I alternately describe as comprising the "sustainable agriculture" or "small farm" movement), to three aspects of the FDA's proposed rules--involving manure application, on-farm packing activities, and exemptions for very small farms--to assess the strength of the sustainable agriculture movement. The rules involving manure application and on-farm packing, it turns out, reveal little about the independent political strength of the local food movement, as large industry groups also objected to these provisions. But for the third issue discussed here--exemptions for very small farms--the interests of sustainable agriculture groups were directly opposed to both industry and public health organizations
Steve Kwok-Leung Chan
Full Text Available Occupation, blockage and storming are not rare in social movements a decade after China resuming sovereignty in Hong Kong. The organizers and participants usually involve locally born young people. Some of them are secondary school students in their teens. They are known as the fourth generation or post-1980s born Hongkongers. The paper examines the cultural context of social movements involving these youth activists. It mainly studied the campaign against the Sino-Hong Kong Express Railway development project. The project called for the demolition of the Tsoi Yuen Village, a small rural village located on its designed route. Since then, the role of younger generation in social movements has been generally recognized. Social media are widely employed in all stages of the movements with citizen journalists actively involved. The impressive ‘prostrating walk’ imitating Tibetan pilgrims becomes the symbol of these youth activists. It keeps appearing in other campaigns including Occupy Central in Hong Kong in 2014. This paper argues that the rise of nativism, advancement in ICT technology and shifting towards new social movements contribute to the dominant role of youth in recent social movements of Hong Kong. Collective identity of Hongkonger in response to the top-down assimilation by China, strengthens the movement.
Fleming, Chris H; Subaşı, Yiğit; Calabrese, Justin M
We introduce a class of maximum-entropy states that naturally includes within it all of the major continuous-time stochastic processes that have been applied to animal movement, including Brownian motion, Ornstein-Uhlenbeck motion, integrated Ornstein-Uhlenbeck motion, a recently discovered hybrid of the previous models, and a new model that describes central-place foraging. We are also able to predict a further hierarchy of new models that will emerge as data quality improves to better resolve the underlying continuity of animal movement. Finally, we also show that Langevin equations must obey a fluctuation-dissipation theorem to generate processes that fall from this class of maximum-entropy distributions when the constraints are purely kinematic.
Mixed Movements is a research project engaged in performance-based architectural drawing. The project experiments with drawing-series as montages of materials and forces, making the drawing appear in its changing character. The moving components are conditioned by different circumstances...... that question each other, working as well with space-time motives as with expressions and techniques. A series poses questions both to the kind of forces it raises as well as to the kind of sensual affects it produces – to how the body resonates with the rhythms and tensions that appear in the drawing....... A drawing-series is then both a machine, a diagram, and an appearance, what we call a resonance-model, creating links between tectonic and drawing constructions, kinaesthetic competences and actual body-movements....