WorldWideScience

Sample records for small dorsal root

  1. Increased response to glutamate in small diameter dorsal root ganglion neurons after sciatic nerve injury.

    Kerui Gong

    Full Text Available Glutamate in the peripheral nervous system is involved in neuropathic pain, yet we know little how nerve injury alters responses to this neurotransmitter in primary sensory neurons. We recorded neuronal responses from the ex-vivo preparations of the dorsal root ganglia (DRG one week following a chronic constriction injury (CCI of the sciatic nerve in adult rats. We found that small diameter DRG neurons (30 µm were unaffected. Puff application of either glutamate, or the selective ionotropic glutamate receptor agonists alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid (AMPA and kainic acid (KA, or the group I metabotropic receptor (mGluR agonist (S-3,5-dihydroxyphenylglycine (DHPG, induced larger inward currents in CCI DRGs compared to those from uninjured rats. N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA-induced currents were unchanged. In addition to larger inward currents following CCI, a greater number of neurons responded to glutamate, AMPA, NMDA, and DHPG, but not to KA. Western blot analysis of the DRGs revealed that CCI resulted in a 35% increase in GluA1 and a 60% decrease in GluA2, the AMPA receptor subunits, compared to uninjured controls. mGluR1 receptor expression increased by 60% in the membrane fraction, whereas mGluR5 receptor subunit expression remained unchanged after CCI. These results show that following nerve injury, small diameter DRG neurons, many of which are nociceptive, have increased excitability and an increased response to glutamate that is associated with changes in receptor expression at the neuronal membrane. Our findings provide further evidence that glutamatergic transmission in the periphery plays a role in nociception.

  2. [Effects of small needle knife on the substance P in the dorsal root ganglion and spinal cord of rats].

    Wang, Jin-Rong; Wang, Yong-Zhi; Dong, Fu-Hui; Zhong, Hong-Gang; Wang, De-Long; Wang, Xuan

    2010-09-01

    To study the mechanism of synthesis of substance P (SP) in the dorsal root ganglion (DRG) and the release of it in the dorsal horn of the spinal cord of rats after compression of skeletal muscle, and to observe the influence of small needle knife. Sustained pressure of 70 kPa was applied to rats, muscular tissues for 2 hours. The rats were divided into three groups: normal, control and experiment group respectively. In all rats except the six normal ones, the lower legs were compressed once one day. The left leg was considered as the control group, the right left was experiment group, which were divided into the 1st day, the 2nd day and the 3rd day within the two groups. Experiment group was treated with small needle knife after the muscular tissue was compressed. After completing the stimulation, the DRG related to the muscle and part of spinal cord were removed for the qualification of SP-like immunoreactivity using immunohistochemistry. The dark brown stains on the DRG and on the REXed laminae I and II in the dorsal horn of the spinal cord were counted by Image-Pro Plus software. SP-like immunoreactivity in the side treated by the small needle knife was enhanced comparing with the counterpart in DRG in normal group (P DRG in the experiment group were significantly reduced compared with the control group (P DRG, and shows no effects on the release of SP from the spinal cord in short-term (3 days).

  3. DORSAL ROOT REGENERATION INTO TRANSPLANTS OF DORSAL OR VENTRAL HALF OF EMBRYONIC SPINAL CORD

    Ohta, Tohru; Itoh, Yasunobu; Tessler, Alan; Mizoi, Kazuo

    2009-01-01

    Adult cut dorsal root axons regenerate into the transplants of embryonic spinal cord (ESC) and form functional synapses within the transplants. It is unknown whether the growth is specific to transplants of dorsal half of ESC, a normal target of most dorsal root axons, or whether it is due to properties shared by transplants of ventral half of ESC. We used calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) immunohistochemistry to label to the subpopulations of regenerated adult dorsal root axons, quantit...

  4. Endogenous neurotrophin-3 promotes neuronal sprouting from dorsal root ganglia.

    Wang, Xu-Yang; Gu, Pei-Yuan; Chen, Shi-Wen; Gao, Wen-Wei; Tian, Heng-Li; Lu, Xiang-He; Zheng, Wei-Ming; Zhuge, Qi-Chuan; Hu, Wei-Xing

    2015-11-01

    In the present study, we investigated the role of endogenous neurotrophin-3 in nerve terminal sprouting 2 months after spinal cord dorsal root rhizotomy. The left L1-5 and L7-S2 dorsal root ganglia in adult cats were exposed and removed, preserving the L6 dorsal root ganglia. Neurotrophin-3 was mainly expressed in large neurons in the dorsal root ganglia and in some neurons in spinal lamina II. Two months after rhizotomy, the number of neurotrophin-3-positive neurons in the spared dorsal root ganglia and the density of neurite sprouts emerging from these ganglia were increased. Intraperitoneal injection of an antibody against neurotrophin-3 decreased the density of neurite sprouts. These findings suggest that endogenous neurotrophin-3 is involved in spinal cord plasticity and regeneration, and that it promotes axonal sprouting from the dorsal root ganglia after spinal cord dorsal root rhizotomy.

  5. Expression of interleukin-1 beta in rat dorsal root ganglia

    Copray, JCVM; Mantingh, [No Value; Brouwer, N; Biber, K; Kust, BM; Liem, RSB; Huitinga, [No Value; Tilders, FJH; Van Dam, AM; Boddeke, HWGM

    2001-01-01

    The expression of interleukin-lp was examined in dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons from adult rats using non-radioactive in Situ hybridization and immunocytochemistry. At all spinal levels, approximately 70% of the DRG neurons appeared to express IL-1 beta mRNA: about 80% of these DRG neurons

  6. Retinal glia promote dorsal root ganglion axon regeneration.

    Barbara Lorber

    Full Text Available Axon regeneration in the adult central nervous system (CNS is limited by several factors including a lack of neurotrophic support. Recent studies have shown that glia from the adult rat CNS, specifically retinal astrocytes and Müller glia, can promote regeneration of retinal ganglion cell axons. In the present study we investigated whether retinal glia also exert a growth promoting effect outside the visual system. We found that retinal glial conditioned medium significantly enhanced neurite growth and branching of adult rat dorsal root ganglion neurons (DRG in culture. Furthermore, transplantation of retinal glia significantly enhanced regeneration of DRG axons past the dorsal root entry zone after root crush in adult rats. To identify the factors that mediate the growth promoting effects of retinal glia, mass spectrometric analysis of retinal glial conditioned medium was performed. Apolipoprotein E and secreted protein acidic and rich in cysteine (SPARC were found to be present in high abundance, a finding further confirmed by western blotting. Inhibition of Apolipoprotein E and SPARC significantly reduced the neuritogenic effects of retinal glial conditioned medium on DRG in culture, suggesting that Apolipoprotein E and SPARC are the major mediators of this regenerative response.

  7. Anatomic investigation of the lumbosacral nerve roots and dorsal root ganglia by MRI

    Hasegawa, Toru; Fuse, Kenzo; Mikawa, Yoshihiro; Watanabe, Ryo

    1995-01-01

    The morphology of the lumbosacral nerve roots and dorsal root ganglia (DRG) was examined by using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in 11 healthy male volunteers aged 20-40 years. One hundred and twenty-three nerve roots (15 at the L1 level, 22 each at the L2-L5 levels, and 20 at the S1 level) were examined in terms of the position and angle of the bifurcation of the nerve roots, length of the nerve root, and the position and width of DRG. The nerve roots at the lower levels showed more cephalad position and smaller angle of bifurcation on MRI. The distance from the bifurcation of nerve roots to the cephalad edge of DRG was significantly longer in the upper root levels and was significantly shorter in the L5 roots than the S1 roots. The positions of DRG at the S1 level tended to become cephalad. DRG that was positioned toward more caudal direction was larger and more elliptic. MRI provided useful information concerning morphology and anatomical position of nerve roots and DRG, thereby allowing accurate diagnosis and the determination of surgical indications. (N.K.)

  8. The Molecular Fingerprint of Dorsal Root and Trigeminal Ganglion Neurons

    Douglas M. Lopes

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The dorsal root ganglia (DRG and trigeminal ganglia (TG are clusters of cell bodies of highly specialized sensory neurons which are responsible for relaying information about our environment to the central nervous system. Despite previous efforts to characterize sensory neurons at the molecular level, it is still unknown whether those present in DRG and TG have distinct expression profiles and therefore a unique molecular fingerprint. To address this question, we isolated lumbar DRG and TG neurons using fluorescence-activated cell sorting from Advillin-GFP transgenic mice and performed RNA sequencing. Our transcriptome analyses showed that, despite being overwhelmingly similar, a number of genes are differentially expressed in DRG and TG neurons. Importantly, we identified 24 genes which were uniquely expressed in either ganglia, including an arginine vasopressin receptor and several homeobox genes, giving each population a distinct molecular fingerprint. We compared our findings with published studies to reveal that many genes previously reported to be present in neurons are in fact likely to originate from other cell types in the ganglia. Additionally, our neuron-specific results aligned well with a dataset examining whole human TG and DRG. We propose that the data can both improve our understanding of primary afferent biology and help contribute to the development of drug treatments and gene therapies which seek targets with unique or restricted expression patterns.

  9. Clinical results of a brindley procedure: sacral anterior root stimulation in combination with a rhizotomy of the dorsal roots

    Martens, F.M.J.; Heesakkers, J.P.F.A.

    2011-01-01

    The Brindley procedure consists of a stimulator for sacral anterior-root stimulation and a rhizotomy of the dorsal sacral roots to abolish neurogenic detrusor overactivity. Stimulation of the sacral anterior roots enables micturition, defecation, and erections. This overview discusses the technique,

  10. Polysensory response characteristics of dorsal root ganglion neurones that may serve sensory functions during myocardial ischaemia.

    Huang, M H; Horackova, M; Negoescu, R M; Wolf, S; Armour, J A

    1996-09-01

    To determine the response characteristics of dorsal root ganglion neurones that may serve sensory functions during myocardial ischaemia. Extracellular recordings were made from 54 spontaneously active and 5 normally quiescent dorsal root ganglion neurones (T2-T5) in 22 anaesthetized open-chest dogs under control conditions and during epicardial mechanical or chemical stimulation and myocardial ischaemia. The activity of 78% of spontaneously active and all quiescent neurones with left ventricular sensory fields was modified by left ventricular ischaemia. Forty-six spontaneously active neurones (85%) were polysensory with respect to mechanical and chemical stimuli. The 5 quiescent neurones responded only to chemical stimuli. Spontaneously active neurones associated with left ventricular mechanosensory endings (37 neurones) generated four different activity patterns in response to similar mechanical stimuli (high or low pressure active, high-low pressure active, high-low pressure inactive). A fifth group generated activity which was not related to chamber dynamics. Adenosine, adenosine 5'-triphosphate, substance P and bradykinin modified 72, 61, 65 and 63% of the spontaneously active neurones, respectively. Maximum local mechanical or chemical stimuli enhanced activity to similar degrees, as did ischaemia. Each ischaemia-sensitive neurone displayed unique activity patterns in response to similar mechanical or chemical stimuli. Most myocardial ischemia-sensitive dorsal root ganglion neurones associated with epicardial neurites sense mechanical and multiple chemical stimuli, a small population sensing only mechanical or chemical stimuli. Activity patterns generated by these neurones depend on their primary sensory characteristics or those of other neurones that may converge on them, as well as the type and magnitude of the stimuli that impinge upon their sensory fields, both normally and during ischaemia.

  11. Calcium activity of upper thoracic dorsal root ganglion neurons in zucker diabetic Fatty rats

    Ghorbani, Marie Louise; Nyborg, Niels C B; Fjalland, Bjarne

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to examine the calcium activity of C8-T5 dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons from Zucker diabetic fatty rats. In total, 8 diabetic ZDF fatty animals and 8 age-matched control ZDF lean rats were employed in the study. C8-T5 dorsal root ganglia were isolated bilatera......The aim of the present study was to examine the calcium activity of C8-T5 dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons from Zucker diabetic fatty rats. In total, 8 diabetic ZDF fatty animals and 8 age-matched control ZDF lean rats were employed in the study. C8-T5 dorsal root ganglia were isolated...... in calcium activity of the DRG neurons were found, potentially indicating altered neuronal responses during myocardial ischemia....

  12. Modified dorsal root entry zone lesioning for intractable pain relief in patients with root avulsion injury.

    Takai, Keisuke; Taniguchi, Makoto

    2017-08-01

    OBJECTIVE Dorsal root entry zone (DREZ) lesioning has been the most effective surgical treatment for the relief of intractable pain due to root avulsion injury, but residual pain and a decrease in pain relief in the follow-up period have been reported in 23%-70% of patients. Based on pain topography in the most recent studies on neuropathic pain, the authors modified the conventional DREZ lesioning procedure to improve clinical outcomes. The presumed rationale for this procedure is to eliminate the spontaneous discharges of neurons in the superficial spinal dorsal horn as well as wide dynamic range neurons in the deep spinal dorsal horn. METHODS Ten patients with avulsion-related pain underwent surgery between 2011 and 2015. The surgical procedure was described and postoperative pain relief was assessed as follows: excellent (residual pain never exceeded 3 on the visual analog scale [VAS] without medication), good (residual pain never exceeded 5 on the VAS with medication), and poor (residual pain was greater than 5 with medication). Specific perioperative complications were assessed. RESULTS The aim of this surgical procedure was to destroy the deeper layers of the posterior horn of spinal gray matter, which was in contrast to the procedures of Nashold and Sindou, which were to destroy the superficial layers. All patients achieved excellent (n = 7, pain relief without medication) or good (n = 3, pain relief with medication) pain relief postoperatively, and the recurrence of pain was not reported in any patients (median 29 months after surgery, range 12-64 months). Nine patients (90%) achieved complete pain relief (a score of 0 or 1 on the VAS) with or without medication. No surgical site complications such as infection or CSF leakage were noted. No motor deficit was observed in any patient. A sensory deficit was observed in 2 patients and disappeared within 1 month in 1 patient. New pain at the adjacent level of DREZ lesioning was observed in 3 patients and

  13. Axotomy increases NADPH-diaphorase activity in the dorsal root ganglia and lumbar spinal cord of the turtle Trachemys dorbigni

    Partata W.A.

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Seven days after transection of the sciatic nerve NADPH-diaphorase activity increased in the small and medium neurons of the dorsal root ganglia of the turtle. However, this increase was observed only in medium neurons for up to 90 days. At this time a bilateral increase of NADPH-diaphorase staining was observed in all areas and neuronal types of the dorsal horn, and in positive motoneurons in the lumbar spinal cord, ipsilateral to the lesion. A similar increase was also demonstrable in spinal glial and endothelial cells. These findings are discussed in relation to the role of nitric oxide in hyperalgesia and neuronal regeneration or degeneration.

  14. Axotomy increases NADPH-diaphorase activity in the dorsal root ganglia and lumbar spinal cord of the turtle Trachemys dorbigni

    Partata,W.A.; Krepsky,A.M.R.; Marques,M.; Achaval,M.

    1999-01-01

    Seven days after transection of the sciatic nerve NADPH-diaphorase activity increased in the small and medium neurons of the dorsal root ganglia of the turtle. However, this increase was observed only in medium neurons for up to 90 days. At this time a bilateral increase of NADPH-diaphorase staining was observed in all areas and neuronal types of the dorsal horn, and in positive motoneurons in the lumbar spinal cord, ipsilateral to the lesion. A similar increase was also demonstrable in spina...

  15. Axotomy increases NADPH-diaphorase activity in the dorsal root ganglia and lumbar spinal cord of the turtle Trachemys dorbigni.

    Partata, W A; Krepsky, A M; Marques, M; Achaval, M

    1999-04-01

    Seven days after transection of the sciatic nerve NADPH-diaphorase activity increased in the small and medium neurons of the dorsal root ganglia of the turtle. However, this increase was observed only in medium neurons for up to 90 days. At this time a bilateral increase of NADPH-diaphorase staining was observed in all areas and neuronal types of the dorsal horn, and in positive motoneurons in the lumbar spinal cord, ipsilateral to the lesion. A similar increase was also demonstrable in spinal glial and endothelial cells. These findings are discussed in relation to the role of nitric oxide in hyperalgesia and neuronal regeneration or degeneration.

  16. Identification of dorsal root synaptic terminals on monkey ventral horn cells by electron microscopic autoradiography

    Ralston, H.J.; Ralston, D.D.

    1979-01-01

    The projection of dorsal root fibres to the motor nucleus of the macaque monkey spinal cord has been examined utilizing light and electron microscopic autoradiography. Light microscopy demonstrates a very sparse labelling of primary afferent fibres in the ventral horn. Silver grains overlying radioactive sources are frequently clustered into small groups, often adjacent to dendritic profiles. Under the electron microscope, myelinated axons and a few large synaptic profiles containing rounded synaptic vesicles were overlain by numerous silver grains. These labelled profiles made synaptic contact with dendrites 1 - 3 micrometers in diameter. The labelled profiles did not contact cell bodies or large proximal dendrites of ventral horn neutrons. Frequently, small synaptic profiles containing flattened vesicles were presynaptic to the large labelled terminals and it is suggested that these axoaxonal synapses may mediate presynaptic inhibition of the primary afferent fibres. The relationship of the present findings to previously published physiological and anatomical studies is discussed. (author)

  17. Development of mouse dorsal root ganglia: an autoradiographic and quantitative study

    Lawson, S.N.; Biscoe, T.J.

    1979-01-01

    Pulse labelling with tritiated thymidine was used to determine the cell birthdays of dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons in foetal mice. The peak number of cell birthdays occurred at 11.5 days foetal age in cervical DRGs, and at 12.5 days in lumbar DRGs. The satellite cells were becoming heavily labelled by day 13.5 in lumbar and some hours earlier in cervical regions. A very sharp peak of satellite cell labelling was seen at 13 days in the lumbar region. Evidence for the existence of more than one neuronal cell type is presented. The earliest cells to stop dividing were part of a widely spread distribution which included all the large neurons. The birthdays of the population of small neurons began later and continued for at least 48 h after division of the large cells had ceased. (author)

  18. Homeobox gene expression in adult dorsal root ganglia: Is regeneration a recapitulation of development?

    Vogelaar, C.F.

    2003-01-01

    Neurons of the peripheral nervous system are able to regenerate their peripheral axons after injury, leading to complete recovery of sensory and motor function. The sciatic nerve crush model is frequently used to study peripheral nerve regeneration. Sensory neurons in the dorsal root ganglia (DRGs)

  19. MRI of enlarged dorsal ganglia, lumbar nerve roots, and cranial nerves in polyradiculoneuropathies

    Castillo, M.; Mukherji, S.K.

    1996-01-01

    This paper describes the MRI findings in four patients with a clinical diagnosis of hypertrophic polyradiculoneuropathies. In two examination of the lumbar spine showed enlarged nerve roots and dorsal ganglia, and similar findings were present in the cervical spine in a third. The cisternal portions of the cranial nerves were enlarged in another patient. MRI allows identification of enlarged nerves in hypertrophic polyradiculopathies. (orig.)

  20. Suramin affects capsaicin responses and capsaicin-noxious heat interactions in rat dorsal root ganglia neurones

    Vlachová, Viktorie; Lyfenko, Alla; Vyklický st., Ladislav; Orkand, R. K.

    2002-01-01

    Roč. 51, č. 2 (2002), s. 193-198 ISSN 0862-8408 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA305/00/1639; GA MŠk LN00B122 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z5011922 Keywords : dorsal root ganglia neurones * vanilloid receptor * capsaicin-noxious heat Subject RIV: ED - Physiology Impact factor: 0.984, year: 2002

  1. Dorsal root potential produced by a TTX-insensitive micro-circuitry in the turtle spinal cord

    Russo, R E; Delgado-Lezama, R; Hounsgaard, J

    2000-01-01

    1, The mechanisms underlying the dorsal root potential (DRP) were studied in transverse slices of turtle spinal cord. DRPs were evoked by stimulating one filament in a dorsal root and were recorded from another such filament. 2. The DRP evoked at supramaximal stimulus intensity was reduced....... 5. Our results show that part of the DRP is generated by a TTX-resistant, probably non-spiking micro-circuit with separate components mediated by GABA and glutamate....

  2. Inflammatory mediators potentiate high affinity GABA(A) currents in rat dorsal root ganglion neurons.

    Lee, Kwan Yeop; Gold, Michael S

    2012-06-19

    Following acute tissue injury action potentials may be initiated in afferent processes terminating in the dorsal horn of the spinal cord that are propagated back out to the periphery, a process referred to as a dorsal root reflex (DRR). The DRR is dependent on the activation of GABA(A) receptors. The prevailing hypothesis is that DRR is due to a depolarizing shift in the chloride equilibrium potential (E(Cl)) following an injury-induced activation of the Na(+)-K(+)-Cl(-)-cotransporter. Because inflammatory mediators (IM), such as prostaglandin E(2) are also released in the spinal cord following tissue injury, as well as evidence that E(Cl) is already depolarized in primary afferents, an alternative hypothesis is that an IM-induced increase in GABA(A) receptor mediated current (I(GABA)) could underlie the injury-induced increase in DRR. To test this hypothesis, we explored the impact of IM (prostaglandin E(2) (1 μM), bradykinin (10 μM), and histamine (1 μM)) on I(GABA) in dissociated rat dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons with standard whole cell patch clamp techniques. IM potentiated I(GABA) in a subpopulation of medium to large diameter capsaicin insensitive DRG neurons. This effect was dependent on the concentration of GABA, manifest only at low concentrations (emergence of injury-induced DRR. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. A role for Runx transcription factor signaling in dorsal root ganglion sensory neuron diversification.

    Kramer, Ina; Sigrist, Markus; de Nooij, Joriene C; Taniuchi, Ichiro; Jessell, Thomas M; Arber, Silvia

    2006-02-02

    Subpopulations of sensory neurons in the dorsal root ganglion (DRG) can be characterized on the basis of sensory modalities that convey distinct peripheral stimuli, but the molecular mechanisms that underlie sensory neuronal diversification remain unclear. Here, we have used genetic manipulations in the mouse embryo to examine how Runx transcription factor signaling controls the acquisition of distinct DRG neuronal subtype identities. Runx3 acts to diversify an Ngn1-independent neuronal cohort by promoting the differentiation of proprioceptive sensory neurons through erosion of TrkB expression in prospective TrkC+ sensory neurons. In contrast, Runx1 controls neuronal diversification within Ngn1-dependent TrkA+ neurons by repression of neuropeptide CGRP expression and controlling the fine pattern of laminar termination in the dorsal spinal cord. Together, our findings suggest that Runx transcription factor signaling plays a key role in sensory neuron diversification.

  4. Mechanisms of Dorsal Root Ganglion Stimulation in Pain Suppression: A Computational Modeling Analysis.

    Kent, Alexander R; Min, Xiaoyi; Hogan, Quinn H; Kramer, Jeffery M

    2018-04-01

    The mechanisms of dorsal root ganglion (DRG) stimulation for chronic pain remain unclear. The objective of this work was to explore the neurophysiological effects of DRG stimulation using computational modeling. Electrical fields produced during DRG stimulation were calculated with finite element models, and were coupled to a validated biophysical model of a C-type primary sensory neuron. Intrinsic neuronal activity was introduced as a 4 Hz afferent signal or somatic ectopic firing. The transmembrane potential was measured along the neuron to determine the effect of stimulation on intrinsic activity across stimulation parameters, cell location/orientation, and membrane properties. The model was validated by showing close correspondence in action potential (AP) characteristics and firing patterns when compared to experimental measurements. Subsequently, the model output demonstrated that T-junction filtering was amplified with DRG stimulation, thereby blocking afferent signaling, with cathodic stimulation at amplitudes of 2.8-5.5 × stimulation threshold and frequencies above 2 Hz. This amplified filtering was dependent on the presence of calcium and calcium-dependent small-conductance potassium channels, which produced a hyperpolarization offset in the soma, stem, and T-junction with repeated somatic APs during stimulation. Additionally, DRG stimulation suppressed somatic ectopic activity by hyperpolarizing the soma with cathodic or anodic stimulation at amplitudes of 3-11 × threshold and frequencies above 2 Hz. These effects were dependent on the stem axon being relatively close to and oriented toward a stimulating contact. These results align with the working hypotheses on the mechanisms of DRG stimulation, and indicate the importance of stimulation amplitude, polarity, and cell location/orientation on neuronal responses. © 2018 International Neuromodulation Society.

  5. Enrichment and proteomic analysis of plasma membrane from rat dorsal root ganglions

    Lin Yong

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Dorsal root ganglion (DRG neurons are primary sensory neurons that conduct neuronal impulses related to pain, touch and temperature senses. Plasma membrane (PM of DRG cells plays important roles in their functions. PM proteins are main performers of the functions. However, mainly due to the very low amount of DRG that leads to the difficulties in PM sample collection, few proteomic analyses on the PM have been reported and it is a subject that demands further investigation. Results By using aqueous polymer two-phase partition in combination with high salt and high pH washing, PMs were efficiently enriched, demonstrated by western blot analysis. A total of 954 non-redundant proteins were identified from the plasma membrane-enriched preparation with CapLC-MS/MS analysis subsequent to protein separation by sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE or shotgun digestion. 205 (21.5% of the identified proteins were unambiguously assigned as PM proteins, including a large number of signal proteins, receptors, ion channel and transporters. Conclusion The aqueous polymer two-phase partition is a simple, rapid and relatively inexpensive method. It is well suitable for the purification of PMs from small amount of tissues. Therefore, it is reasonable for the DRG PM to be enriched by using aqueous two-phase partition as a preferred method. Proteomic analysis showed that DRG PM was rich in proteins involved in the fundamental biological processes including material exchange, energy transformation and information transmission, etc. These data would help to our further understanding of the fundamental DRG functions.

  6. Adrenergic receptors inhibit TRPV1 activity in the dorsal root ganglion neurons of rats.

    Matsushita, Yumi; Manabe, Miki; Kitamura, Naoki; Shibuya, Izumi

    2018-01-01

    Transient receptor potential vanilloid type 1 (TRPV1) is a polymodal receptor channel that responds to multiple types of stimuli, such as heat, acid, mechanical pressure and some vanilloids. Capsaicin is the most commonly used vanilloid to stimulate TRPV1. TRPV1 channels are expressed in dorsal root ganglion neurons that extend to Aδ- and C-fibers and have a role in the transduction of noxious inputs to the skin into the electrical signals of the sensory nerve. Although noradrenergic nervous systems, including the descending antinociceptive system and the sympathetic nervous system, are known to modulate pain sensation, the functional association between TRPV1 and noradrenaline in primary sensory neurons has rarely been examined. In the present study, we examined the effects of noradrenaline on capsaicin-evoked currents in cultured dorsal root ganglion neurons of the rat by the whole-cell voltage clamp method. Noradrenaline at concentrations higher than 0.1 pM significantly reduced the amplitudes of the inward capsaicin currents recorded at -60 mV holding potential. This inhibitory action was reversed by either yohimbine (an α2 antagonist, 10 nM) or propranolol (a β antagonist, 10 nM). The α2 agonists, clonidine (1 pM) and dexmedetomidine (1 pM) inhibited capsaicin currents, and yohimbine (1 nM) reversed the effects of clonidine. The inhibitory action of noradrenaline was not seen in the neurons pretreated with pertussis toxin (100 μg/ml for 24 h) and the neurons dialyzed intracellularly with guanosine 5'- [β-thio] diphosphate (GDPβS, 200 μM), the catalytic subunit of protein kinase A (250 U/ml) or okadaic acid (1 μM). These results suggest that noradrenaline directly acts on dorsal root ganglion neurons to inhibit the activity of TRPV1 depending on the activation of α2-adrenoceptors followed by the inhibition of the adenylate cyclase/cAMP/protein kinase A pathway.

  7. Postoperative visual loss following dorsal root entry zone rhizotomy: A dreaded complication after a benign procedure

    R K Mishra

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Postoperative visual loss (POVL is a rare but grave postoperative complication. It has been mainly reported in patients undergoing cardiac and spinal surgeries. Dorsal root entry zone (DREZ is pain relieving procedure performed in patients with refractory neuropathic pain with minimal complication rate. We present a case of unilateral POVL following DREZ rhizotomy in prone position in a patient having brachial plexus neuropathy. Exact etiology of vision loss was though not clear; hypotension, use of vasopressors and hemodilution may have led to vision loss in this patient. This case report highlights the associated risk factors for development of this hazardous complication.

  8. Morphological evaluation of lumbar dorsal root ganglion on three-dimensional magnetic resonance imaging

    Shen Jun; Chen Jianyu; Zhou Cuiping; Liang Biling; Xu Xiaomao

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the morphological features of normal lumbar dorsal root ganglia using a three-dimensional (3D) coronal MR imaging. Methods: One hundred and fifteen volunteers were included. Ages ranged from 15 to 75 years, with a mean of 40 years. Coronal 3D fast field echo (FFE) with water selective excitation (Proset) MR examination of 1150 dorsal root ganglia were underwent at nerve root levels from L1 to L5. The source coronal images were further reconstructed into a series of rotational alignment coronal images with an interval angel of 12 degree using maximum intensity projection (MIP) technique. All DRGs of bilateral spinal nerve from L1 to L5 were morphologically analyzed on the original and MIP images including qualitative evaluation of the location, signal intensity, architecture and quantitative dimensional measurement. Results: There were 225, 225, 219, 210 and 160 foraminal ganglia from L1 to L5 level, respectively. The incidence of intraspinal ganglia from L3 to L5 gradually increased with a maximum at L5 level of 29.1% (X 2 =188.371, P<0.01). One thousand one hundred and thirteen (96.8%) DRGs were intermediate intensity on MIP images. The width and length of L1 DRGs were from 2. 00 to 5.50 mm (3.38±0.77) mm, 2.00 to 7.00 mm (4.35±0.89) mm, respectively. The width and length of L5 DRGs were from 3.50 to 9.00 mm (6.40±0.91) mm, 6.00 to 19.00 mm [(11.58± 2.25) mm], respectively. There was statistically significant difference in the dimension of DRGs from L5 to L1 (F=41.527-205.998, P<0.01). In 1150 DRGs, three types of architecture of DRGs including 822 singular, 317 bi- and 11 tri-ganglion DRGs could be found with a high prevalence of the bi-ganglia in L4 and L3 DRGs and a higher incidence of the singular ganglia in the L5 and L2 and L1 DRGs. Conclusions: The normal anatomy and variant of the lumbar dorsal root ganglia could be clearly demonstrated by 3D FFE MR imaging with Proset. As the level of the nerve root traveled down caudally

  9. The effect of collagenase on nerve conduction velocity of dorsal root ganglion in rats

    Zhuang Wenquan; Li Heping; Yang Jianyong; Chen Wei; Huang Yonghui; Guo Wenbo

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To study the functional effects of collagenase on dorsal root ganglion (DRG) in rats by evoked potential conduction velocity measurement. Methods: A total of 57 male healthy Sprague-Dawley rats were randomized into 7 groups: normal group, acute collagenase group, subacute collagenase group, chronic collagenase group, acute pseudo-operation group, subacute pseudo-operation group, chronic pseudo-operation group. 1200 units of collagenase was reconstituted in 4 ml isotonic saline prior for the experimental application. The left fifth lumbar DRG was exposed in each rat and followed by 1 ml collagenase solution (300 units) dropping on the exposed DRG in collagenase groups; and similarly 1 ml isotonic saline was applied to each of the exposed DRG in pseudo-operation groups. the effects of collagenase on nerve conduction velocity (NCV) were analyzed 1 hour, 1 week or 1 month after the procedure. The statistical analysis was carried out by software SPSS11.0. Results: The differences of NCV measured by evoked potential method between all groups including the normal group, collagenase groups, and pseudo-operation groups were not significant (P>0.05). Conclusion: The Neuroelectricity physiologic function of dorsal root ganglion and nerve would not be damaged by collagenase used in therapeutic concentration. (authors)

  10. Long term effects of lipopolysaccharide on satellite glial cells in mouse dorsal root ganglia

    Blum, E. [Laboratory of Experimental Surgery, Hadassah-Hebrew University Medical Center, Mount Scopus, Jerusalem 91240 (Israel); Procacci, P.; Conte, V.; Sartori, P. [Dipartimento di Scienze Biomediche per la Salute, University of Milan, via Mangiagalli 14, I-20133 Milano (Italy); Hanani, M., E-mail: hananim@cc.huji.ac.il [Laboratory of Experimental Surgery, Hadassah-Hebrew University Medical Center, Mount Scopus, Jerusalem 91240 (Israel)

    2017-01-01

    Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) has been used extensively to study neuroinflammation, but usually its effects were examined acutely (24 h<). We have shown previously that a single intraperitoneal LPS injection activated satellite glial cells (SGCs) in mouse dorsal root ganglia (DRG) and altered several functional parameters in these cells for at least one week. Here we asked whether the LPS effects would persist for 1 month. We injected mice with a single LPS dose and tested pain behavior, assessed SGCs activation in DRG using glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) immunostaining, and injected a fluorescent dye intracellularly to study intercellular coupling. Electron microscopy was used to quantitate changes in gap junctions. We found that at 30 days post-LPS the threshold to mechanical stimulation was lower than in controls. GFAP expression, as well as the magnitude of dye coupling among SGCs were greater than in controls. Electron microscopy analysis supported these results, showing a greater number of gap junctions and an abnormal growth of SGC processes. These changes were significant, but less prominent than at 7 days post-LPS. We conclude that a single LPS injection exerts long-term behavioral and cellular changes. The results are consistent with the idea that SGC activation contributes to hyperalgesia. - Highlights: • A single lipopolysaccharides injection activated glia in mouse dorsal root ganglia for 30 days. • This was accompanied by increased communications by gap junctions among glia and by hyperalgesia. • Glial activation and coupling may contribute to chronic pain.

  11. Neuronal calcium-binding proteins 1/2 localize to dorsal root ganglia and excitatory spinal neurons and are regulated by nerve injury

    Zhang, Ming Dong; Tortoriello, Giuseppe; Hsueh, Brian

    2014-01-01

    , and nerve injury-induced regulation of NECAB1/NECAB2 in mouse dorsal root ganglia (DRGs) and spinal cord. In DRGs, NECAB1/2 are expressed in around 70% of mainly small- and medium-sized neurons. Many colocalize with calcitonin gene-related peptide and isolectin B4, and thus represent nociceptors. NECAB1....../2 neurons are much more abundant in DRGs than the Ca2+-binding proteins (parvalbumin, calbindin, calretinin, and secretagogin) studied to date. In the spinal cord, the NECAB1/2 distribution is mainly complementary. NECAB1 labels interneurons and a plexus of processes in superficial layers of the dorsal horn....... In the dorsal horn, most NECAB1/2 neurons are glutamatergic. Both NECAB1/2 are transported into dorsal roots and peripheral nerves. Peripheral nerve injury reduces NECAB2, but not NECAB1, expression in DRG neurons. Our study identifies NECAB1/2 as abundant Ca2+-binding proteins in pain-related DRG neurons...

  12. Whole transcriptome expression of trigeminal ganglia compared to dorsal root ganglia in Rattus Norvegicus

    Kogelman, Lisette Johanna Antonia; Christensen, Rikke Elgaard; Pedersen, Sara Hougaard

    2017-01-01

    The trigeminal ganglia (TG) subserving the head and the dorsal root ganglia (DRG) subserving the rest of the body are homologous handling sensory neurons. Differences exist, as a number of signaling substances cause headache but no pain in the rest of the body. To date, very few genes involved...... in this difference have been identified. We aim to reveal basal gene expression levels in TG and DRG and detect genes that are differentially expressed (DE) between TG and DRG. RNA-Sequencing from six naïve rats describes the whole transcriptome expression profiles of TG and DRG. Differential expression analysis...... was followed by pathway analysis to identify DE processes between TG and DRG. In total, 64 genes had higher and 55 genes had lower expressed levels in TG than DRG. Higher expressed genes, including S1pr5 and Gjc2, have been related to phospholipase activity. The lower expressed genes, including several Hox...

  13. Immunization Elicits Antigen-Specific Antibody Sequestration in Dorsal Root Ganglia Sensory Neurons

    Gunasekaran, Manojkumar; Chatterjee, Prodyot K.; Shih, Andrew; Imperato, Gavin H.; Addorisio, Meghan; Kumar, Gopal; Lee, Annette; Graf, John F.; Meyer, Dan; Marino, Michael; Puleo, Christopher; Ashe, Jeffrey; Cox, Maureen A.; Mak, Tak W.; Bouton, Chad; Sherry, Barbara; Diamond, Betty; Andersson, Ulf; Coleman, Thomas R.; Metz, Christine N.; Tracey, Kevin J.; Chavan, Sangeeta S.

    2018-01-01

    The immune and nervous systems are two major organ systems responsible for host defense and memory. Both systems achieve memory and learning that can be retained, retrieved, and utilized for decades. Here, we report the surprising discovery that peripheral sensory neurons of the dorsal root ganglia (DRGs) of immunized mice contain antigen-specific antibodies. Using a combination of rigorous molecular genetic analyses, transgenic mice, and adoptive transfer experiments, we demonstrate that DRGs do not synthesize these antigen-specific antibodies, but rather sequester primarily IgG1 subtype antibodies. As revealed by RNA-seq and targeted quantitative PCR (qPCR), dorsal root ganglion (DRG) sensory neurons harvested from either naïve or immunized mice lack enzymes (i.e., RAG1, RAG2, AID, or UNG) required for generating antibody diversity and, therefore, cannot make antibodies. Additionally, transgenic mice that express a reporter fluorescent protein under the control of Igγ1 constant region fail to express Ighg1 transcripts in DRG sensory neurons. Furthermore, neural sequestration of antibodies occurs in mice rendered deficient in neuronal Rag2, but antibody sequestration is not observed in DRG sensory neurons isolated from mice that lack mature B cells [e.g., Rag1 knock out (KO) or μMT mice]. Finally, adoptive transfer of Rag1-deficient bone marrow (BM) into wild-type (WT) mice or WT BM into Rag1 KO mice revealed that antibody sequestration was observed in DRG sensory neurons of chimeric mice with WT BM but not with Rag1-deficient BM. Together, these results indicate that DRG sensory neurons sequester and retain antigen-specific antibodies released by antibody-secreting plasma cells. Coupling this work with previous studies implicating DRG sensory neurons in regulating antigen trafficking during immunization raises the interesting possibility that the nervous system collaborates with the immune system to regulate antigen-mediated responses. PMID:29755449

  14. Immunization Elicits Antigen-Specific Antibody Sequestration in Dorsal Root Ganglia Sensory Neurons

    Manojkumar Gunasekaran

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The immune and nervous systems are two major organ systems responsible for host defense and memory. Both systems achieve memory and learning that can be retained, retrieved, and utilized for decades. Here, we report the surprising discovery that peripheral sensory neurons of the dorsal root ganglia (DRGs of immunized mice contain antigen-specific antibodies. Using a combination of rigorous molecular genetic analyses, transgenic mice, and adoptive transfer experiments, we demonstrate that DRGs do not synthesize these antigen-specific antibodies, but rather sequester primarily IgG1 subtype antibodies. As revealed by RNA-seq and targeted quantitative PCR (qPCR, dorsal root ganglion (DRG sensory neurons harvested from either naïve or immunized mice lack enzymes (i.e., RAG1, RAG2, AID, or UNG required for generating antibody diversity and, therefore, cannot make antibodies. Additionally, transgenic mice that express a reporter fluorescent protein under the control of Igγ1 constant region fail to express Ighg1 transcripts in DRG sensory neurons. Furthermore, neural sequestration of antibodies occurs in mice rendered deficient in neuronal Rag2, but antibody sequestration is not observed in DRG sensory neurons isolated from mice that lack mature B cells [e.g., Rag1 knock out (KO or μMT mice]. Finally, adoptive transfer of Rag1-deficient bone marrow (BM into wild-type (WT mice or WT BM into Rag1 KO mice revealed that antibody sequestration was observed in DRG sensory neurons of chimeric mice with WT BM but not with Rag1-deficient BM. Together, these results indicate that DRG sensory neurons sequester and retain antigen-specific antibodies released by antibody-secreting plasma cells. Coupling this work with previous studies implicating DRG sensory neurons in regulating antigen trafficking during immunization raises the interesting possibility that the nervous system collaborates with the immune system to regulate antigen-mediated responses.

  15. Differential effects of methylmercury on the synthesis of protein species in dorsal root ganglia of the rat

    Kasama, Hidetaka; Itoh, Kazuo; Omata, Saburo; Sugano, Hiroshi

    1989-01-01

    Dorsal root ganglia from control and methylmercury(MeHg)-treated rats were incubated in vitro with 35 S-methionine and the proteins synthesized were analyzed by two-dimensional electrophoresis. The double labelling method, in which proteins of control dorsal root ganglia labelled in vitro with 3 H-leucine were added to each of the two samples as an internal standard, was used to minimize unavoidable errors arising from the resolving procedure itself. The results obtained showed that the effect of MeHg on the synthesis of proteins in dorsal root ganglia was not uniform for individual protein species in the latent period of MeHg intoxication. Among 200 protein species investigated, 157 showed inhibition of synthesis close to that of the total proteins in the tissue (68% of the control). Among the remaining protein species, 20 showed real stimulation of synthesis, whereas 7 were moderately inhibited and 16 were inhibited more strongly than the total proteins in the tissue. These results suggest that the effect of MeHg on the synthetic rates for protein species in dorsal root ganglia differs with the species, and that unusual elevation or reduction of the synthesis of some protein species caused by MeHg may lead to impairment of normal nerve functions. (orig.)

  16. No further loss of dorsal root ganglion cells after axotomy in p75 neurotrophin receptor knockout mice

    Sørensen, B.; Lamm, Trine Tandrup; Koltzenburg, M.

    2003-01-01

    The role of the p75 neurotrophin receptor for neuronal survival after nerve crush was studied in L5 dorsal root ganglia (DRG) of knockout mice and controls with assumption-free stereological methods. Numbers of neuronal A- and B-cells were obtained using the optical fractionator and optical...

  17. The effects of capsaicin and acidity on currents generated by noxious heat in cultured neonatal rat dorsal root ganglion neurones

    Vlachová, Viktorie; Lyfenko, Alla; Orkand, R. K.; Vyklický st., Ladislav

    2001-01-01

    Roč. 533, č. 3 (2001), s. 717-728 ISSN 0022-3751 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA305/00/1639; GA MŠk LN00B122 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z5011922 Keywords : capsaicin * dorsal root ganglion neurones * neonatal rat Subject RIV: FH - Neurology Impact factor: 4.476, year: 2001

  18. A compact dual promoter adeno-associated viral vector for efficient delivery of two genes to dorsal root ganglion neurons

    Fagoe, N D; Eggers, R; Verhaagen, J; Mason, M R J

    Adeno-associated viral (AAV) vectors based on serotype 5 are an efficient means to target dorsal root ganglia (DRG) to study gene function in the primary sensory neurons of the peripheral nervous system. In this study, we have developed a compact AAV dual promoter vector composed of the

  19. Expression profile of vesicular nucleotide transporter (VNUT, SLC17A9) in subpopulations of rat dorsal root ganglion neurons.

    Nishida, Kentaro; Nomura, Yuka; Kawamori, Kanako; Moriyama, Yoshinori; Nagasawa, Kazuki

    2014-09-05

    ATP plays an important role in the signal transduction between sensory neurons and satellite cells in dorsal root ganglia (DRGs). In primary cultured DRG neurons, ATP is known to be stored in lysosomes via a vesicular nucleotide transporter (VNUT), and to be released into the intercellular space through exocytosis. DRGs consist of large-, medium- and small-sized neurons, which play different roles in sensory transmission, but there is no information on the expression profiles of VNUT in DRG subpopulations. Here, we obtained detailed expression profiles of VNUT in isolated rat DRG tissues. On immunohistochemical analysis, VNUT was found in DRG neurons, and was predominantly expressed by the small- and medium-sized DRG ones, as judged upon visual inspection, and this was compatible with the finding that the number of VNUT-positive DRG neurons in IB4-positive cells was greater than that in NF200-positive ones. These results suggest that VNUT play a role in ATP accumulation in DRG neurons, especially in small- and medium-sized ones, and might be involved in ATP-mediated nociceptive signaling in DRGs. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Neuroimmune and Neuropathic Responses of Spinal Cord and Dorsal Root Ganglia in Middle Age

    Galbavy, William; Kaczocha, Martin; Puopolo, Michelino; Liu, Lixin; Rebecchi, Mario J.

    2015-01-01

    Prior studies of aging and neuropathic injury have focused on senescent animals compared to young adults, while changes in middle age, particularly in the dorsal root ganglia (DRG), have remained largely unexplored. 14 neuroimmune mRNA markers, previously associated with peripheral nerve injury, were measured in multiplex assays of lumbar spinal cord (LSC), and DRG from young and middle-aged (3, 17 month) naïve rats, or from rats subjected to chronic constriction injury (CCI) of the sciatic nerve (after 7 days), or from aged-matched sham controls. Results showed that CD2, CD3e, CD68, CD45, TNF-α, IL6, CCL2, ATF3 and TGFβ1 mRNA levels were substantially elevated in LSC from naïve middle-aged animals compared to young adults. Similarly, LSC samples from older sham animals showed increased levels of T-cell and microglial/macrophage markers. CCI induced further increases in CCL2, and IL6, and elevated ATF3 mRNA levels in LSC of young and middle-aged adults. Immunofluorescence images of dorsal horn microglia from middle-aged naïve or sham rats were typically hypertrophic with mostly thickened, de-ramified processes, similar to microglia following CCI. Unlike the spinal cord, marker expression profiles in naïve DRG were unchanged across age (except increased ATF3); whereas, levels of GFAP protein, localized to satellite glia, were highly elevated in middle age, but independent of nerve injury. Most neuroimmune markers were elevated in DRG following CCI in young adults, yet middle-aged animals showed little response to injury. No age-related changes in nociception (heat, cold, mechanical) were observed in naïve adults, or at days 3 or 7 post-CCI. The patterns of marker expression and microglial morphologies in healthy middle age are consistent with development of a para-inflammatory state involving microglial activation and T-cell marker elevation in the dorsal horn, and neuronal stress and satellite cell activation in the DRG. These changes, however, did not

  1. Synaptic plasticity and sensory-motor improvement following fibrin sealant dorsal root reimplantation and mononuclear cell therapy

    Benitez, Suzana U.; Barbizan, Roberta; Spejo, Aline B.; Ferreira, Rui S.; Barraviera, Benedito; Góes, Alfredo M.; de Oliveira, Alexandre L. R.

    2014-01-01

    Root lesions may affect both dorsal and ventral roots. However, due to the possibility of generating further inflammation and neuropathic pain, surgical procedures do not prioritize the repair of the afferent component. The loss of such sensorial input directly disturbs the spinal circuits thus affecting the functionality of the injuried limb. The present study evaluated the motor and sensory improvement following dorsal root reimplantation with fibrin sealant (FS) plus bone marrow mononuclear cells (MC) after dorsal rhizotomy. MC were used to enhance the repair process. We also analyzed changes in the glial response and synaptic circuits within the spinal cord. Female Lewis rats (6–8 weeks old) were divided in three groups: rhizotomy (RZ group), rhizotomy repaired with FS (RZ+FS group) and rhizotomy repaired with FS and MC (RZ+FS+MC group). The behavioral tests electronic von-Frey and Walking track test were carried out. For immunohistochemistry we used markers to detect different synapse profiles as well as glial reaction. The behavioral results showed a significant decrease in sensory and motor function after lesion. The reimplantation decreased glial reaction and improved synaptic plasticity of afferent inputs. Cell therapy further enhanced the rewiring process. In addition, both reimplanted groups presented twice as much motor control compared to the non-treated group. In conclusion, the reimplantation with FS and MC is efficient and may be considered an approach to improve sensory-motor recovery following dorsal rhizotomy. PMID:25249946

  2. Effect of low level laser therapy on chronic compression of the dorsal root ganglion.

    Yi-Jen Chen

    Full Text Available Dorsal root ganglia (DRG are vulnerable to physical injury of the intervertebral foramen, and chronic compression of the DRG (CCD an result in nerve root damage with persistent morbidity. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of low level laser therapy (LLLT on the DRG in a CCD model and to determine the mechanisms underlying these effects. CCD rats had L-shaped stainless-steel rods inserted into the fourth and fifth lumbar intervertebral foramen, and the rats were then subjected to 0 or 8 J/cm2 LLLT for 8 consecutive days following CCD surgery. Pain and heat stimuli were applied to test for hyperalgesia following CCD. The levels of TNF-α, IL-1β and growth-associated protein-43 (GAP-43 messenger RNA (mRNA expression were measured via real-time PCR, and protein expression levels were analyzed through immunohistochemical analyses. Our data indicate that LLLT significantly decreased the tolerable sensitivity to pain and heat stimuli in the CCD groups. The expression levels of the pro-inflammatory cytokines TNF-α and IL-1β were increased following CCD, and we found that these increases could be reduced by the application of LLLT. Furthermore, the expression of GAP-43 was enhanced by LLLT. In conclusion, LLLT was able to enhance neural regeneration in rats following CCD and improve rat ambulatory behavior. The therapeutic effects of LLLT on the DRG during CCD may be exerted through suppression of the inflammatory response and induction of neuronal repair genes. These results suggest potential clinical applications for LLLT in the treatment of compression-induced neuronal disorders.

  3. Chronic monitoring of lower urinary tract activity via a sacral dorsal root ganglia interface

    Khurram, Abeer; Ross, Shani E.; Sperry, Zachariah J.; Ouyang, Aileen; Stephan, Christopher; Jiman, Ahmad A.; Bruns, Tim M.

    2017-06-01

    Objective. Our goal is to develop an interface that integrates chronic monitoring of lower urinary tract (LUT) activity with stimulation of peripheral pathways. Approach. Penetrating microelectrodes were implanted in sacral dorsal root ganglia (DRG) of adult male felines. Peripheral electrodes were placed on or in the pudendal nerve, bladder neck and near the external urethral sphincter. Supra-pubic bladder catheters were implanted for saline infusion and pressure monitoring. Electrode and catheter leads were enclosed in an external housing on the back. Neural signals from microelectrodes and bladder pressure of sedated or awake-behaving felines were recorded under various test conditions in weekly sessions. Electrodes were also stimulated to drive activity. Main results. LUT single- and multi-unit activity was recorded for 4-11 weeks in four felines. As many as 18 unique bladder pressure single-units were identified in each experiment. Some channels consistently recorded bladder afferent activity for up to 41 d, and we tracked individual single-units for up to 23 d continuously. Distension-evoked and stimulation-driven (DRG and pudendal) bladder emptying was observed, during which LUT sensory activity was recorded. Significance. This chronic implant animal model allows for behavioral studies of LUT neurophysiology and will allow for continued development of a closed-loop neuroprosthesis for bladder control.

  4. Effects of 4-aminopyridine on organelle movement in cultured mouse dorsal root ganglion neurites.

    Hiruma, Hiromi; Kawakami, Tadashi

    2010-03-01

    Aminopyridines, widely used as a K(+) channel blocker, are membrane-permeable weak bases and have the ability to form vacuoles in the cytoplasm. The vacuoles originate from acidic organelles such as lysosomes. Here, we investigated the effects of 4-aminopyridine (4-AP) on organelle movement in neurites of cultured mouse dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons by using video-enhanced microscopy. Some experiments were carried out using fluorescent dyes for lysosomes and mitochondria and confocal microscopy. Treatment of DRG neurons with 4 mM 4-AP caused Brownian movement of some lysosomes within 5 min. The Brownian movement gradually became rapid and vacuoles were formed around individual lysosomes 10-20 min after the start of treatment. Axonal transport of organelles was inhibited by 4-AP. Lysosomes showing Brownian movement were not transported in longitudinal direction of the neurite and the transport of mitochondria was interrupted by vacuoles. The 4-AP-induced Brownian movement of lysosomes with vacuole formation and inhibition of axonal transport were prevented by the simultaneous treatment with vacuolar H(+) ATPase inhibitor bafilomycin A1 or in Cl(-)-free SO(4)(2-) medium. These results indicate that changes in organelle movement by 4-AP are related to vacuole formation and the vacuolar H(+) ATPase and Cl(-) are required for the effects of 4-AP.

  5. Cervical Spinal Cord and Dorsal Nerve Root Stimulation for Neuropathic Upper Limb Pain.

    Levine, Adrian B; Parrent, Andrew G; MacDougall, Keith W

    2017-01-01

    Spinal cord stimulation (SCS) is a well-established treatment for chronic neuropathic pain in the lower limbs. Upper limb pain comprises a significant proportion of neuropathic pain patients, but is often difficult to target specifically and consistently with paresthesias. We hypothesized that the use of dorsal nerve root stimulation (DNRS), as an option along with SCS, would help us better relieve pain in these patients. All 35 patients trialed with spinal stimulation for upper limb pain between July 1, 2011, and October 31, 2013, were included. We performed permanent implantation in 23/35 patients based on a visual analogue scale pain score decrease of ≥50% during trial stimulation. Both the SCS and DNRS groups had significant improvements in average visual analogue scale pain scores at 12 months compared with baseline, and the majority of patients in both groups obtained ≥50% pain relief. The majority of patients in both groups were able to reduce their opioid use, and on average had improvements in Short Form-36 quality of life scores. Complication rates did not differ significantly between the two groups. Treatment with SCS or DNRS provides meaningful long-term relief of chronic neuropathic pain in the upper limbs.

  6. The role of the transcription factor Rbpj in the development of dorsal root ganglia

    Chen Jia-Yin

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The dorsal root ganglion (DRG is composed of well-characterized populations of sensory neurons and glia derived from a common pool of neural crest stem cells (NCCs, and is a good system to study the mechanisms of neurogenesis and gliogenesis. Notch signaling is known to play important roles in DRG development, but the full scope of Notch functions in mammalian DRG development remains poorly understood. Results In the present study, we used Wnt1-Cre to conditionally inactivate the transcription factor Rbpj, a critical integrator of activation signals from all Notch receptors, in NCCs and their derived cells. Deletion of Rbpj caused the up-regulation of NeuroD1 and precocious neurogenesis in DRG early development but led to an eventual deficit of sensory neurons at later stages, due to reduced cell proliferation and abnormal cell death. In addition, gliogenesis was delayed initially, but a near-complete loss of glia was observed finally in Rbpj-deficient DRG. Furthermore, we found P75 and Sox10, which are normally expressed exclusively in neuronal and glial progenitors of the DRG after the NCCs have completed their migration, were co-expressed in many cells of the DRG of Rbpj conditional knock-out mice. Conclusions Our data indicate that Rbpj-mediated canonical Notch signaling inhibits DRG neuronal differentiation, possibly by regulating NeuroD1 expression, and is required for DRG gliogenesis in vivo.

  7. Differential transcriptional profiling of damaged and intact adjacent dorsal root ganglia neurons in neuropathic pain.

    A K Reinhold

    Full Text Available Neuropathic pain, caused by a lesion in the somatosensory system, is a severely impairing mostly chronic disease. While its underlying molecular mechanisms are not thoroughly understood, neuroimmune interactions as well as changes in the pain pathway such as sensitization of nociceptors have been implicated. It has been shown that not only are different cell types involved in generation and maintenance of neuropathic pain, like neurons, immune and glial cells, but, also, intact adjacent neurons are relevant to the process. Here, we describe an experimental approach to discriminate damaged from intact adjacent neurons in the same dorsal root ganglion (DRG using differential fluorescent neuronal labelling and fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS. Two fluorescent tracers, Fluoroemerald (FE and 1-dioctadecyl-3,3,3,3-tetramethylindocarbocyanine perchlorate (DiI, were used, whose properties allow us to distinguish between damaged and intact neurons. Subsequent sorting permitted transcriptional analysis of both groups. Results and qPCR validation show a strong regulation in damaged neurons versus contralateral controls as well as a moderate regulation in adjacent neurons. Data for damaged neurons reveal an mRNA expression pattern consistent with established upregulated genes like galanin, which supports our approach. Moreover, novel genes were found strongly regulated such as corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH, providing novel targets for further research. Differential fluorescent neuronal labelling and sorting allows for a clear distinction between primarily damaged neuropathic neurons and "bystanders," thereby facilitating a more detailed understanding of their respective roles in neuropathic processes in the DRG.

  8. RNA-Seq Analysis of Human Trigeminal and Dorsal Root Ganglia with a Focus on Chemoreceptors.

    Caroline Flegel

    Full Text Available The chemosensory capacity of the somatosensory system relies on the appropriate expression of chemoreceptors, which detect chemical stimuli and transduce sensory information into cellular signals. Knowledge of the complete repertoire of the chemoreceptors expressed in human sensory ganglia is lacking. This study employed the next-generation sequencing technique (RNA-Seq to conduct the first expression analysis of human trigeminal ganglia (TG and dorsal root ganglia (DRG. We analyzed the data with a focus on G-protein coupled receptors (GPCRs and ion channels, which are (potentially involved in chemosensation by somatosensory neurons in the human TG and DRG. For years, transient receptor potential (TRP channels have been considered the main group of receptors for chemosensation in the trigeminal system. Interestingly, we could show that sensory ganglia also express a panel of different olfactory receptors (ORs with putative chemosensory function. To characterize OR expression in more detail, we performed microarray, semi-quantitative RT-PCR experiments, and immunohistochemical staining. Additionally, we analyzed the expression data to identify further known or putative classes of chemoreceptors in the human TG and DRG. Our results give an overview of the major classes of chemoreceptors expressed in the human TG and DRG and provide the basis for a broader understanding of the reception of chemical cues.

  9. Tlx3 Function in the Dorsal Root Ganglion is Pivotal to Itch and Pain Sensations

    Chengcheng Huang

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Itch, a sensation eliciting a desire to scratch, is distinct from but not completely independent of pain. Inspiring achievements have been made in the characterization of itch-related receptors and neurotransmitters, but the molecular mechanisms controlling the development of pruriceptors remain poorly understood. Here, our RNAseq and in situ hybridization data show that the transcription factor Tlx3 is required for the expression of a majority of itch-related molecules in the dorsal root ganglion (DRG. As a result, Tlx3F/F;Nav1.8-cre mice exhibit significantly attenuated acute and dry skin-induced chronic itch. Furthermore, our study indicates that TRPV1 plays a pivotal role in the chronic itch evoked by dry skin and allergic contact dermatitis (ACD. The mutants also display impaired response to cold and inflammatory pain and elevated response to capsaicin, whereas the responses to acute mechanical, thermal stimuli and neuropathic pain remain normal. In Tlx3F/F;Nav1.8-cre mice, TRPV1 is derepressed and expands predominantly into IB4+ non-peptidergic (NP neurons. Collectively, our data reveal a molecular mechanism in regulating the development of pruriceptors and controlling itch and pain sensations.

  10. Comprehensive Method for Culturing Embryonic Dorsal Root Ganglion Neurons for Seahorse Extracellular Flux XF24 Analysis.

    Lange, Miranda; Zeng, Yan; Knight, Andrew; Windebank, Anthony; Trushina, Eugenia

    2012-01-01

    Changes in mitochondrial dynamics and function contribute to progression of multiple neurodegenerative diseases including peripheral neuropathies. The Seahorse Extracellular Flux XF24 analyzer provides a comprehensive assessment of the relative state of glycolytic and aerobic metabolism in live cells making this method instrumental in assessing mitochondrial function. One of the most important steps in the analysis of mitochondrial respiration using the Seahorse XF24 analyzer is plating a uniform monolayer of firmly attached cells. However, culturing of primary dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons is associated with multiple challenges, including their propensity to form clumps and detach from the culture plate. This could significantly interfere with proper analysis and interpretation of data. We have tested multiple cell culture parameters including coating substrates, culture medium, XF24 microplate plastics, and plating techniques in order to optimize plating conditions. Here we describe a highly reproducible method to obtain neuron-enriched monolayers of securely attached dissociated primary embryonic (E15) rat DRG neurons suitable for analysis with the Seahorse XF24 platform.

  11. Comprehensive method for culturing embryonic dorsal root ganglion neurons for Seahorse Extracellular Flux XF24 Analysis

    Miranda L. Lange

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Changes in mitochondrial dynamics and function contribute to progression of multiple neurodegenerative diseases including peripheral neuropathies. The Seahorse Extracellular Flux XF24 analyzer provides a comprehensive assessment of the relative state of glycolytic and aerobic metabolism in live cells making this method instrumental in assessing mitochondrial function. One of the most important steps in the analysis of mitochondrial respiration using the Seahorse XF24 analyzer is plating a uniform monolayer of firmly attached cells. However, culturing of primary dorsal root ganglion (DRG neurons is associated with multiple challenges, including their propensity to form clumps and detach from the culture plate. This could significantly interfere with proper analysis and interpretation of data. We have tested multiple cell culture parameters including coating substrates, culture medium, XF24 microplate plastics, and plating techniques in order to optimize plating conditions. Here we describe a highly reproducible method to obtain neuron-enriched monolayers of securely attached dissociated primary embryonic (E15 rat DRG neurons suitable for analysis with the Seahorse XF24 platform.

  12. PKA-induced internalization of slack KNa channels produces dorsal root ganglion neuron hyperexcitability.

    Nuwer, Megan O; Picchione, Kelly E; Bhattacharjee, Arin

    2010-10-20

    Inflammatory mediators through the activation of the protein kinase A (PKA) pathway sensitize primary afferent nociceptors to mechanical, thermal, and osmotic stimuli. However, it is unclear which ion conductances are responsible for PKA-induced nociceptor hyperexcitability. We have previously shown the abundant expression of Slack sodium-activated potassium (K(Na)) channels in nociceptive dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons. Here we show using cultured DRG neurons, that of the total potassium current, I(K), the K(Na) current is predominantly inhibited by PKA. We demonstrate that PKA modulation of K(Na) channels does not happen at the level of channel gating but arises from the internal trafficking of Slack channels from DRG membranes. Furthermore, we found that knocking down the Slack subunit by RNA interference causes a loss of firing accommodation analogous to that observed during PKA activation. Our data suggest that the change in nociceptive firing occurring during inflammation is the result of PKA-induced Slack channel trafficking.

  13. Plasticity of Select Primary Afferent Projections to the Dorsal Horn after a Lumbosacral Ventral Root Avulsion Injury and Root Replantation in Rats

    Allison J. Bigbee

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Injuries to the conus medullaris and cauda equina portions of the spinal cord result in neurological impairments, including paralysis, autonomic dysfunction, and pain. In experimental studies, earlier investigations have shown that a lumbosacral ventral root avulsion (VRA injury results in allodynia, which may be ameliorated by surgical replantation of the avulsed ventral roots. Here, we investigated the long-term effects of an L6 + S1 VRA injury on the plasticity of three populations of afferent projections to the dorsal horn in rats. At 8 weeks after a unilateral L6 + S1 VRA injury, quantitative morphological studies of the adjacent L5 dorsal horn showed reduced immunoreactivity (IR for the vesicular glutamate transporter, VGLUT1 and isolectin B4 (IB4 binding, whereas IR for calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP was unchanged. The IR for VGLUT1 and CGRP as well as IB4 binding was at control levels in the L5 dorsal horn at 8 weeks following an acute surgical replantation of the avulsed L6 + S1 ventral roots. Quantitative morphological studies of the L5 dorsal root ganglia (DRGs showed unchanged neuronal numbers for both the VRA and replanted series compared to shams. The portions of L5 DRG neurons expressing IR for VGLUT1 and CGRP, and IB4 binding were also the same between the VRA, replanted, and sham-operated groups. We conclude that the L5 dorsal horn shows selective plasticity for VGLUT1 and IB4 primary afferent projections after an L6 + S1 VRA injury and surgical repair.

  14. Advanced type 1 diabetes is associated with ASIC alterations in mouse lower thoracic dorsal root ganglia neurons.

    Radu, Beatrice Mihaela; Dumitrescu, Diana Ionela; Marin, Adela; Banciu, Daniel Dumitru; Iancu, Adina Daniela; Selescu, Tudor; Radu, Mihai

    2014-01-01

    Acid-sensing ion channels (ASICs) from dorsal root ganglia (DRG) neurons are proton sensors during ischemia and inflammation. Little is known about their role in type 1 diabetes (T1D). Our study was focused on ASICs alterations determined by advanced T1D status. Primary neuronal cultures were obtained from lower (T9-T12) thoracic DRG neurons from Balb/c and TCR-HA(+/-)/Ins-HA(+/-) diabetic male mice (16 weeks of age). Patch-clamp recordings indicate a change in the number of small DRG neurons presenting different ASIC-type currents. Multiple molecular sites of ASICs are distinctly affected in T1D, probably due to particular steric constraints for glycans accessibility to the active site: (i) ASIC1 current inactivates faster, while ASIC2 is slower; (ii) PcTx1 partly reverts diabetes effects against ASIC1- and ASIC2-inactivations; (iii) APETx2 maintains unaltered potency against ASIC3 current amplitude, but slows ASIC3 inactivation. Immunofluorescence indicates opposite regulation of different ASIC transcripts while qRT-PCR shows that ASIC mRNA ranking (ASIC2 > ASIC1 > ASIC3) remains unaltered. In conclusion, our study has identified biochemical and biophysical ASIC changes in lower thoracic DRG neurons due to advanced T1D. As hypoalgesia is present in advanced T1D, ASICs alterations might be the cause or the consequence of diabetic insensate neuropathy.

  15. Transient Sensory Recovery in Stroke Patients After Pulsed Radiofrequency Electrical Stimulation on Dorsal Root Ganglia: A Case Series.

    Apiliogullari, Seza; Gezer, Ilknur A; Levendoglu, Funda

    2017-01-01

    The integrity of the somatosensory system is important for motor recovery and neuroplasticity after strokes. Peripheral stimulation or central stimulation in patients with central nervous system lesions can be an effective modality in improving function and in facilitating neuroplasticity. We present 2 hemiplegic cases with sensory motor deficit and the result of the pulsed radiofrequency (PRF) electrical stimulation to the dorsal root ganglia. After PRF electrical stimulation, significant improvement was achieved in the examination of patients with superficial and deep sensation. However, during the follow-up visits were observed that the effect of PRF electrical stimulation disappeared. We believe that these preliminary results could be used in the development of future prospective cohort studies and randomized controlled trials that focus on the effect of PRF electrical stimulation on dorsal root ganglia to treat sensory deficits in poststroke patients.

  16. Neurons and satellite glial cells in adult rat lumbar dorsal root ganglia express connexin 36.

    Pérez Armendariz, E Martha; Norcini, Monica; Hernández-Tellez, Beatriz; Castell-Rodríguez, Andrés; Coronel-Cruz, Cristina; Alquicira, Raquel Guerrero; Sideris, Alexandra; Recio-Pinto, Esperanza

    2018-04-01

    Previous studies have shown that following peripheral nerve injury there was a downregulation of the gap junction protein connexin 36 (Cx36) in the spinal cord; however, it is not known whether Cx36 protein is expressed in the dorsal root ganglia (DRGs), nor if its levels are altered following peripheral nerve injuries. Here we address these aspects in the adult rat lumbar DRG. Cx36 mRNA was detected using qRT-PCR, and Cx36 protein was identified in DRG sections using immunohistochemistry (IHC) and immunofluorescence (IF). Double staining revealed that Cx36 co-localizes with both anti-β-III tubulin, a neuronal marker, and anti-glutamine synthetase, a satellite glial cell (SGC) marker. In neurons, Cx36 staining was mostly uniform in somata and fibers of all sizes and its intensity increased at the cell membranes. This labeling pattern was in contrast with Cx36 IF dots mainly found at junctional membranes in islet beta cells used as a control tissue. Co-staining with anti-Cx43 and anti-Cx36 showed that whereas mostly uniform staining of Cx36 was found throughout neurons and SGCs, Cx43 IF puncta were localized to SGCs. Cx36 mRNA was expressed in normal lumbar DRG, and it was significantly down-regulated in L4 DRG of rats that underwent sciatic nerve injury resulting in persistent hypersensitivity. Collectively, these findings demonstrated that neurons and SGCs express Cx36 protein in normal DRG, and suggested that perturbation of Cx36 levels may contribute to chronic neuropathic pain resulting from a peripheral nerve injury. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  17. PKCɛ mediates substance P inhibition of GABAA receptors-mediated current in rat dorsal root ganglion.

    Li, Li; Zhao, Lei; Wang, Yang; Ma, Ke-tao; Shi, Wen-yan; Wang, Ying-zi; Si, Jun-qiang

    2015-02-01

    The mechanism underlying the modulatory effect of substance P (SP) on GABA-activated response in rat dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons was investigated. In freshly dissociated rat DRG neurons, whole-cell patch-clamp technique was used to record GABA-activated current and sharp electrode intracellular recording technique was used to record GABA-induced membrane depolarization. Application of GABA (1-1000 μmol/L) induced an inward current in a concentration-dependent manner in 114 out of 127 DRG neurons (89.8 %) examined with whole-cell patch-clamp recordings. Bath application of GABA (1-1000 μmol/L) evoked a depolarizing response in 236 out of 257 (91.8%) DRG neurons examined with intracellular recordings. Application of SP (0.001-1 μmol/L) suppressed the GABA-activated inward current and membrane depolarization. The inhibitory effects were concentration-dependent and could be blocked by the selective neurokinin 1 (NK1) receptors antagonist spantide but not by L659187 and SR142801 (1 μmol/L, n=7), selective antagonists of NK2 and NK3. The inhibitory effect of SP was significantly reduced by the calcium chelator BAPTA-AM, phospholipase C (PLC) inhibitor U73122, and PKC inhibitor chelerythrine, respectively. The PKA inhibitor H-89 did not affect the SP effect. Remarkably, the inhibitory effect of SP on GABA-activated current was nearly completely removed by a selective PKCε inhibitor epilon-V1-2 but not by safingol and LY333531, selective inhibitors of PKCα and PKCβ. Our results suggest that NK1 receptor mediates SP-induced inhibition of GABA-activated current and membrane depolarization by activating intracellular PLC-Ca²⁺-PKCε cascade. SP might regulate the excitability of peripheral nociceptors through inhibition of the "pre-synaptic inhibition" evoked by GABA, which may explain its role in pain and neurogenic inflammation.

  18. Role of TRPM8 in dorsal root ganglion in nerve injury-induced chronic pain

    Su Lin

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Chronic neuropathic pain is an intractable pain with few effective treatments. Moderate cold stimulation can relieve pain, and this may be a novel train of thought for exploring new methods of analgesia. Transient receptor potential melastatin 8 (TRPM8 ion channel has been proposed to be an important molecular sensor for cold. Here we investigate the role of TRPM8 in the mechanism of chronic neuropathic pain using a rat model of chronic constriction injury (CCI to the sciatic nerve. Results Mechanical allodynia, cold and thermal hyperalgesia of CCI rats began on the 4th day following surgery and maintained at the peak during the period from the 10th to 14th day after operation. The level of TRPM8 protein in L5 dorsal root ganglion (DRG ipsilateral to nerve injury was significantly increased on the 4th day after CCI, and reached the peak on the 10th day, and remained elevated on the 14th day following CCI. This time course of the alteration of TRPM8 expression was consistent with that of CCI-induced hyperalgesic response of the operated hind paw. Besides, activation of cold receptor TRPM8 of CCI rats by intrathecal application of menthol resulted in the inhibition of mechanical allodynia and thermal hyperalgesia and the enhancement of cold hyperalgesia. In contrast, downregulation of TRPM8 protein in ipsilateral L5 DRG of CCI rats by intrathecal TRPM8 antisense oligonucleotide attenuated cold hyperalgesia, but it had no effect on CCI-induced mechanical allodynia and thermal hyperalgesia. Conclusions TRPM8 may play different roles in mechanical allodynia, cold and thermal hyperalgesia that develop after nerve injury, and it is a very promising research direction for the development of new therapies for chronic neuroapthic pain.

  19. Spike propagation through the dorsal root ganglia in an unmyelinated sensory neuron: a modeling study.

    Sundt, Danielle; Gamper, Nikita; Jaffe, David B

    2015-12-01

    Unmyelinated C-fibers are a major type of sensory neurons conveying pain information. Action potential conduction is regulated by the bifurcation (T-junction) of sensory neuron axons within the dorsal root ganglia (DRG). Understanding how C-fiber signaling is influenced by the morphology of the T-junction and the local expression of ion channels is important for understanding pain signaling. In this study we used biophysical computer modeling to investigate the influence of axon morphology within the DRG and various membrane conductances on the reliability of spike propagation. As expected, calculated input impedance and the amplitude of propagating action potentials were both lowest at the T-junction. Propagation reliability for single spikes was highly sensitive to the diameter of the stem axon and the density of voltage-gated Na(+) channels. A model containing only fast voltage-gated Na(+) and delayed-rectifier K(+) channels conducted trains of spikes up to frequencies of 110 Hz. The addition of slowly activating KCNQ channels (i.e., KV7 or M-channels) to the model reduced the following frequency to 30 Hz. Hyperpolarization produced by addition of a much slower conductance, such as a Ca(2+)-dependent K(+) current, was needed to reduce the following frequency to 6 Hz. Attenuation of driving force due to ion accumulation or hyperpolarization produced by a Na(+)-K(+) pump had no effect on following frequency but could influence the reliability of spike propagation mutually with the voltage shift generated by a Ca(2+)-dependent K(+) current. These simulations suggest how specific ion channels within the DRG may contribute toward therapeutic treatments for chronic pain. Copyright © 2015 the American Physiological Society.

  20. Dorsal Root Ganglion (DRG) Stimulation in the Treatment of Phantom Limb Pain (PLP).

    Eldabe, Sam; Burger, Katja; Moser, Heinrich; Klase, Daniel; Schu, Stefan; Wahlstedt, Anders; Vanderick, Bernard; Francois, Eric; Kramer, Jeffery; Subbaroyan, Jeyakumar

    2015-10-01

    Phantom limb pain (PLP) is a neuropathic condition in which pain is perceived as arising from an amputated limb. PLP is distinct from, although associated with, pain in the residual limb and nonpainful phantom sensations of the missing limb. Its treatment is extremely challenging; pharmaceutical options, while commonly employed, may be insufficient or intolerable. Neuromodulatory interventions such as spinal cord stimulation have generated mixed results and may be limited by poor somatotopic specificity. It was theorized that dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neuromodulation may be more effective. Patients trialed a DRG neurostimulation system for their PLP and were subsequently implanted if results were positive. Retrospective chart review was completed, including pain ratings on a 100-mm visual analogue scale (VAS) and patient-reported outcomes. Across eight patients, the average baseline pain rating was 85.5 mm. At follow-up (mean of 14.4 months), pain was rated at 43.5 mm. Subjective ratings of quality of life and functional capacity improved. Some patients reduced or eliminated pain medications. Patients reported precise concordance of the paresthesia with painful regions, including in their phantom limbs; in one case, stimulation eliminated PLP as well as nonpainful phantom sensations. Three patients experienced a diminution of pain relief, despite good initial outcomes. DRG neuromodulation may be an effective tool in treating this pain etiology. Clinical outcomes in this report support recent converging evidence suggesting that the DRG may be the site of PLP generation and/or maintenance. Further research is warranted to elucidate mechanisms and optimal treatment pathways. © 2015 International Neuromodulation Society.

  1. Lentiviral gene transfer into the dorsal root ganglion of adult rats

    Park Frank

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Lentivector-mediated gene delivery into the dorsal root ganglion (DRG is a promising method for exploring pain pathophysiology and for genetic treatment of chronic neuropathic pain. In this study, a series of modified lentivector particles with different cellular promoters, envelope glycoproteins, and viral accessory proteins were generated to evaluate the requirements for efficient transduction into neuronal cells in vitro and adult rat DRG in vivo. Results In vitro, lentivectors expressing enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP under control of the human elongation factor 1α (EF1α promoter and pseudotyped with the conventional vesicular stomatitis virus G protein (VSV-G envelope exhibited the best performance in the transfer of EGFP into an immortalized DRG sensory neuron cell line at low multiplicities of infection (MOIs, and into primary cultured DRG neurons at higher MOIs. In vivo, injection of either first or second-generation EF1α-EGFP lentivectors directly into adult rat DRGs led to transduction rates of 19 ± 9% and 20 ± 8% EGFP-positive DRG neurons, respectively, detected at 4 weeks post injection. Transduced cells included a full range of neuronal phenotypes, including myelinated neurons as well as both non-peptidergic and peptidergic nociceptive unmyelinated neurons. Conclusion VSV-G pseudotyped lentivectors containing the human elongation factor 1α (EF1α-EGFP expression cassette demonstrated relatively efficient transduction to sensory neurons following direct injection into the DRG. These results clearly show the potential of lentivectors as a viable system for delivering target genes into DRGs to explore basic mechanisms of neuropathic pain, with the potential for future clinical use in treating chronic pain.

  2. Characterization of Na+ and Ca2+ channels in zebrafish dorsal root ganglion neurons.

    Yu-Jin Won

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Dorsal root ganglia (DRG somata from rodents have provided an excellent model system to study ion channel properties and modulation using electrophysiological investigation. As in other vertebrates, zebrafish (Danio rerio DRG are organized segmentally and possess peripheral axons that bifurcate into each body segment. However, the electrical properties of zebrafish DRG sensory neurons, as compared with their mammalian counterparts, are relatively unexplored because a preparation suitable for electrophysiological studies has not been available. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We show enzymatically dissociated DRG neurons from juvenile zebrafish expressing Isl2b-promoter driven EGFP were easily identified with fluorescence microscopy and amenable to conventional whole-cell patch-clamp studies. Two kinetically distinct TTX-sensitive Na(+ currents (rapidly- and slowly-inactivating were discovered. Rapidly-inactivating I(Na were preferentially expressed in relatively large neurons, while slowly-inactivating I(Na was more prevalent in smaller DRG neurons. RT-PCR analysis suggests zscn1aa/ab, zscn8aa/ab, zscn4ab and zscn5Laa are possible candidates for these I(Na components. Voltage-gated Ca(2+ currents (I(Ca were primarily (87% comprised of a high-voltage activated component arising from ω-conotoxin GVIA-sensitive Ca(V2.2 (N-type Ca(2+ channels. A few DRG neurons (8% displayed a miniscule low-voltage-activated component. I(Ca in zebrafish DRG neurons were modulated by neurotransmitters via either voltage-dependent or -independent G-protein signaling pathway with large cell-to-cell response variability. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our present results indicate that, as in higher vertebrates, zebrafish DRG neurons are heterogeneous being composed of functionally distinct subpopulations that may correlate with different sensory modalities. These findings provide the first comparison of zebrafish and rodent DRG neuron electrical properties and

  3. Citral sensing by Transient [corrected] receptor potential channels in dorsal root ganglion neurons.

    Stephanie C Stotz

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Transient receptor potential (TRP ion channels mediate key aspects of taste, smell, pain, temperature sensation, and pheromone detection. To deepen our understanding of TRP channel physiology, we require more diverse pharmacological tools. Citral, a bioactive component of lemongrass, is commonly used as a taste enhancer, as an odorant in perfumes, and as an insect repellent. Here we report that citral activates TRP channels found in sensory neurons (TRPV1 and TRPV3, TRPM8, and TRPA1, and produces long-lasting inhibition of TRPV1-3 and TRPM8, while transiently blocking TRPV4 and TRPA1. Sustained citral inhibition is independent of internal calcium concentration, but is state-dependent, developing only after TRP channel opening. Citral's actions as a partial agonist are not due to cysteine modification of the channels nor are they a consequence of citral's stereoisoforms. The isolated aldehyde and alcohol cis and trans enantiomers (neral, nerol, geranial, and geraniol each reproduce citral's actions. In juvenile rat dorsal root ganglion neurons, prolonged citral inhibition of native TRPV1 channels enabled the separation of TRPV2 and TRPV3 currents. We find that TRPV2 and TRPV3 channels are present in a high proportion of these neurons (94% respond to 2-aminoethyldiphenyl borate, consistent with our immunolabeling experiments and previous in situ hybridization studies. The TRPV1 activation requires residues in transmembrane segments two through four of the voltage-sensor domain, a region previously implicated in capsaicin activation of TRPV1 and analogous menthol activation of TRPM8. Citral's broad spectrum and prolonged sensory inhibition may prove more useful than capsaicin for allodynia, itch, or other types of pain involving superficial sensory nerves and skin.

  4. Citral Sensing by TRANSient Receptor Potential Channels in Dorsal Root Ganglion Neurons

    Stotz, Stephanie C.; Vriens, Joris; Martyn, Derek; Clardy, Jon; Clapham, David E.

    2008-01-01

    Transient receptor potential (TRP) ion channels mediate key aspects of taste, smell, pain, temperature sensation, and pheromone detection. To deepen our understanding of TRP channel physiology, we require more diverse pharmacological tools. Citral, a bioactive component of lemongrass, is commonly used as a taste enhancer, as an odorant in perfumes, and as an insect repellent. Here we report that citral activates TRP channels found in sensory neurons (TRPV1 and TRPV3, TRPM8, and TRPA1), and produces long-lasting inhibition of TRPV1–3 and TRPM8, while transiently blocking TRPV4 and TRPA1. Sustained citral inhibition is independent of internal calcium concentration, but is state-dependent, developing only after TRP channel opening. Citral's actions as a partial agonist are not due to cysteine modification of the channels nor are they a consequence of citral's stereoisoforms. The isolated aldehyde and alcohol cis and trans enantiomers (neral, nerol, geranial, and geraniol) each reproduce citral's actions. In juvenile rat dorsal root ganglion neurons, prolonged citral inhibition of native TRPV1 channels enabled the separation of TRPV2 and TRPV3 currents. We find that TRPV2 and TRPV3 channels are present in a high proportion of these neurons (94% respond to 2-aminoethyldiphenyl borate), consistent with our immunolabeling experiments and previous in situ hybridization studies. The TRPV1 activation requires residues in transmembrane segments two through four of the voltage-sensor domain, a region previously implicated in capsaicin activation of TRPV1 and analogous menthol activation of TRPM8. Citral's broad spectrum and prolonged sensory inhibition may prove more useful than capsaicin for allodynia, itch, or other types of pain involving superficial sensory nerves and skin. PMID:18461159

  5. Citral sensing by Transient [corrected] receptor potential channels in dorsal root ganglion neurons.

    Stotz, Stephanie C; Vriens, Joris; Martyn, Derek; Clardy, Jon; Clapham, David E

    2008-05-07

    Transient receptor potential (TRP) ion channels mediate key aspects of taste, smell, pain, temperature sensation, and pheromone detection. To deepen our understanding of TRP channel physiology, we require more diverse pharmacological tools. Citral, a bioactive component of lemongrass, is commonly used as a taste enhancer, as an odorant in perfumes, and as an insect repellent. Here we report that citral activates TRP channels found in sensory neurons (TRPV1 and TRPV3, TRPM8, and TRPA1), and produces long-lasting inhibition of TRPV1-3 and TRPM8, while transiently blocking TRPV4 and TRPA1. Sustained citral inhibition is independent of internal calcium concentration, but is state-dependent, developing only after TRP channel opening. Citral's actions as a partial agonist are not due to cysteine modification of the channels nor are they a consequence of citral's stereoisoforms. The isolated aldehyde and alcohol cis and trans enantiomers (neral, nerol, geranial, and geraniol) each reproduce citral's actions. In juvenile rat dorsal root ganglion neurons, prolonged citral inhibition of native TRPV1 channels enabled the separation of TRPV2 and TRPV3 currents. We find that TRPV2 and TRPV3 channels are present in a high proportion of these neurons (94% respond to 2-aminoethyldiphenyl borate), consistent with our immunolabeling experiments and previous in situ hybridization studies. The TRPV1 activation requires residues in transmembrane segments two through four of the voltage-sensor domain, a region previously implicated in capsaicin activation of TRPV1 and analogous menthol activation of TRPM8. Citral's broad spectrum and prolonged sensory inhibition may prove more useful than capsaicin for allodynia, itch, or other types of pain involving superficial sensory nerves and skin.

  6. Low voltage-activated calcium channels gate transmitter release at the dorsal root ganglion sandwich synapse.

    Rozanski, Gabriela M; Nath, Arup R; Adams, Michael E; Stanley, Elise F

    2013-11-15

    A subpopulation of dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons are intimately attached in pairs and separated solely by thin satellite glial cell membrane septa. Stimulation of one neuron leads to transglial activation of its pair by a bi-, purinergic/glutamatergic synaptic pathway, a transmission mechanism that we term sandwich synapse (SS) transmission. Release of ATP from the stimulated neuron can be attributed to a classical mechanism involving Ca(2+) entry via voltage-gated calcium channels (CaV) but via an unknown channel type. Specific blockers and toxins ruled out CaV1, 2.1 and 2.2. Transmission was, however, blocked by a moderate depolarization (-50 mV) or low-concentration Ni(2+) (0.1 mM). Transmission persisted using a voltage pulse to -40 mV from a holding potential of -80 mV, confirming the involvement of a low voltage-activated channel type and limiting the candidate channel type to either CaV3.2 or a subpopulation of inactivation- and Ni(2+)-sensitive CaV2.3 channels. Resistance of the neuron calcium current and SS transmission to SNX482 argue against the latter. Hence, we conclude that inter-somatic transmission at the DRG SS is gated by CaV3.2 type calcium channels. The use of CaV3 family channels to gate transmission has important implications for the biological function of the DRG SS as information transfer would be predicted to occur not only in response to action potentials but also to sub-threshold membrane voltage oscillations. Thus, the SS synapse may serve as a homeostatic signalling mechanism between select neurons in the DRG and could play a role in abnormal sensation such as neuropathic pain.

  7. Transglial transmission at the dorsal root ganglion sandwich synapse: glial cell to postsynaptic neuron communication.

    Rozanski, Gabriela M; Li, Qi; Stanley, Elise F

    2013-04-01

    The dorsal root ganglion (DRG) contains a subset of closely-apposed neuronal somata (NS) separated solely by a thin satellite glial cell (SGC) membrane septum to form an NS-glial cell-NS trimer. We recently reported that stimulation of one NS with an impulse train triggers a delayed, noisy and long-lasting response in its NS pair via a transglial signaling pathway that we term a 'sandwich synapse' (SS). Transmission could be unidirectional or bidirectional and facilitated in response to a second stimulus train. We have shown that in chick or rat SS the NS-to-SGC leg of the two-synapse pathway is purinergic via P2Y2 receptors but the second SGC-to-NS synapse mechanism remained unknown. A noisy evoked current in the target neuron, a reversal potential close to 0 mV, and insensitivity to calcium scavengers or G protein block favored an ionotropic postsynaptic receptor. Selective block by D-2-amino-5-phosphonopentanoate (AP5) implicated glutamatergic transmission via N-methyl-d-aspartate receptors. This agent also blocked NS responses evoked by puff of UTP, a P2Y2 agonist, directly onto the SGC cell, confirming its action at the second synapse of the SS transmission pathway. The N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor NR2B subunit was implicated by block of transmission with ifenprodil and by its immunocytochemical localization to the NS membrane, abutting the glial septum P2Y2 receptor. Isolated DRG cell clusters exhibited daisy-chain and branching NS-glial cell-NS contacts, suggestive of a network organization within the ganglion. The identification of the glial-to-neuron transmitter and receptor combination provides further support for transglial transmission and completes the DRG SS molecular transmission pathway. © 2013 Federation of European Neuroscience Societies and Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  8. Purinergic transmission and transglial signaling between neuron somata in the dorsal root ganglion.

    Rozanski, Gabriela M; Li, Qi; Kim, Hyunhee; Stanley, Elise F

    2013-02-01

    Most dorsal root ganglion neuronal somata (NS) are isolated from their neighbours by a satellite glial cell (SGC) sheath. However, some NS are associated in pairs, separated solely by the membrane septum of a common SGC to form a neuron-glial cell-neuron (NGlN) trimer. We reported that stimulation of one NS evokes a delayed, noisy and long-duration inward current in both itself and its passive partner that was blocked by suramin, a general purinergic antagonist. Here we test the hypothesis that NGlN transmission involves purinergic activation of the SGC. Stimulation of the NS triggered a sustained current noise in the SGC. Block of transmission through the NGlN by reactive blue 2 or thapsigargin, a Ca(2+) store-depletion agent, implicated a Ca(2+) store discharge-linked P2Y receptor. P2Y2 was identified by simulation of the NGlN-like transmission by puffing UTP onto the SGC and by immunocytochemical localization to the SGC membrane septum. Block of the UTP effect by BAPTA, an intracellular Ca(2+) scavenger, supported the involvement of SGC Ca(2+) stores in the signaling pathway. We infer that transmission through the NGlN trimer involves secretion of ATP from the NS and triggering of SGC Ca(2+) store discharge via P2Y2 receptors. Presumably, cytoplasmic Ca(2+) elevation leads to the release of an as-yet unidentified second transmitter from the glial cell to complete transmission. Thus, the two NS of the NGlN trimer communicate via a 'sandwich synapse' transglial pathway, a novel signaling mechanism that may contribute to information transfer in other regions of the nervous system. © 2012 Federation of European Neuroscience Societies and Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  9. A Multicenter, Prospective Trial to Assess the Safety and Performance of the Spinal Modulation Dorsal Root Ganglion Neurostimulator System in the Treatment of Chronic Pain

    A.L. Liem (Liong); M. Russo (Marc); F.J.P.M. Huygen (Frank); J.P. Van Buyten (Jean-Pierre); I. Smets (Ilse); P. Verrills (Paul); M. Cousins (Michael); C. Brooker (Charles); R. Levy (Richard); T. Deer (Timothy); J. Kramer (Jeffery)

    2013-01-01

    textabstractObjectives: This multicenter prospective trial was conducted to evaluate the clinical performance of a new neurostimulation system designed to treat chronic pain through the electrical neuromodulation of the dorsal root ganglia (DRG) neurophysiologically associated with painful regions

  10. Orexin A and Orexin Receptor 1 axonal traffic in dorsal roots at the CNS/PNS interface

    Damien eColas

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Hypothalamic orexin/hypocretin neurons send long axonal projections through the dorsal spinal cord in lamina I-II of the dorsal horn at the interface with the peripheral nervous system (PNS. We show that in the dorsal horn OXA fibers colocalize with substance P (SP positive afferents of dorsal root ganglia (DRG neurons known to mediate sensory processing. Further, OR1 is expressed in p75NTR and SP positive DRG neurons, suggesting a potential signaling pathway between orexin and DRG neurons. Interestingly, DRG sensory neurons have a distinctive bifurcating axon where one branch innervates the periphery and the other one the spinal cord (pseudo-unipolar neurons, allowing for potential functional coupling of distinct targets. We observe that OR1 is transported selectively from DRG toward the spinal cord, while OXA is accumulated retrogradely toward the DRG. We hence report a rare situation of asymmetrical neuropeptide receptor distribution between axons projected by a single neuron. This molecular and cellular data are consistent with the role of OXA/OR1 in sensory processing, including DRG neuronal modulation, and support the potential existence of an OX/HCRT circuit between CNS and PNS.

  11. Dorsal root ganglia hypertrophy as in vivo correlate of oxaliplatin-induced polyneuropathy.

    Leonidas Apostolidis

    Full Text Available To investigate in vivo morphological and functional correlates of oxaliplatin-induced peripheral neuropathy (OXA-PNP by magnetic resonance neurography (MRN.Twenty patients (7 female, 13 male, 58.9±10.0 years with mild to moderate OXA-PNP and 20 matched controls (8 female, 12 male, 55.7±15.6 years were prospectively enrolled. All patients underwent a detailed neurophysiological examination prior to neuroimaging. A standardized imaging protocol at 3.0 Tesla included the lumbosacral plexus and both sciatic nerves and their branches using T2-weighted fat-saturated sequences and diffusion tensor imaging. Quantitative assessment included volumetry of the dorsal root ganglia (DRG, sciatic nerve normalized T2 (nT2 signal and caliber, and fractional anisotropy (FA, mean diffusivity (MD, axial (AD and radial diffusivity (RD. Additional qualitative evaluation of sciatic, peroneal, and tibial nerves evaluated the presence, degree, and distribution of nerve lesions.DRG hypertrophy in OXA-PNP patients (207.3±47.7mm3 vs. 153.0±47.1mm3 in controls, p = 0.001 was found as significant morphological correlate of the sensory neuronopathy. In contrast, peripheral nerves only exhibited minor morphological alterations qualitatively. Quantitatively, sciatic nerve caliber (27.3±6.7mm2 vs. 27.4±7.4mm2, p = 0.80 and nT2 signal were not significantly changed in patients (1.32±0.22 vs. 1.22±0.26, p = 0.16. AD, RD, and MD showed a non-significant decrease in patients, while FA was unchanged.OXA-PNP manifests with morphological and functional correlates that can be detected in vivo by MRN. We report hypertrophy of the DRG that stands in contrast to experimental and postmortem studies. DRG volume should be further investigated as a biomarker in other sensory peripheral neuropathies and ganglionopathies.

  12. Quantitative Analysis of Rat Dorsal Root Ganglion Neurons Cultured on Microelectrode Arrays Based on Fluorescence Microscopy Image Processing.

    Mari, João Fernando; Saito, José Hiroki; Neves, Amanda Ferreira; Lotufo, Celina Monteiro da Cruz; Destro-Filho, João-Batista; Nicoletti, Maria do Carmo

    2015-12-01

    Microelectrode Arrays (MEA) are devices for long term electrophysiological recording of extracellular spontaneous or evocated activities on in vitro neuron culture. This work proposes and develops a framework for quantitative and morphological analysis of neuron cultures on MEAs, by processing their corresponding images, acquired by fluorescence microscopy. The neurons are segmented from the fluorescence channel images using a combination of segmentation by thresholding, watershed transform, and object classification. The positioning of microelectrodes is obtained from the transmitted light channel images using the circular Hough transform. The proposed method was applied to images of dissociated culture of rat dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neuronal cells. The morphological and topological quantitative analysis carried out produced information regarding the state of culture, such as population count, neuron-to-neuron and neuron-to-microelectrode distances, soma morphologies, neuron sizes, neuron and microelectrode spatial distributions. Most of the analysis of microscopy images taken from neuronal cultures on MEA only consider simple qualitative analysis. Also, the proposed framework aims to standardize the image processing and to compute quantitative useful measures for integrated image-signal studies and further computational simulations. As results show, the implemented microelectrode identification method is robust and so are the implemented neuron segmentation and classification one (with a correct segmentation rate up to 84%). The quantitative information retrieved by the method is highly relevant to assist the integrated signal-image study of recorded electrophysiological signals as well as the physical aspects of the neuron culture on MEA. Although the experiments deal with DRG cell images, cortical and hippocampal cell images could also be processed with small adjustments in the image processing parameter estimation.

  13. Optimization of micropatterned poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid films for enhancing dorsal root ganglion cell orientation and extension

    Ching-Wen Li

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Nerve conduits have been a viable alternative to the ‘gold standard’ autograft for treating small peripheral nerve gap injuries. However, they often produce inadequate functional recovery outcomes and are ineffective in large gap injuries. Ridge/groove surface micropatterning has been shown to promote neural cell orientation and guide growth. However, optimization of the ratio of ridge/groove parameters to promote orientation and extension for dorsal root ganglion (DRG cells on poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid (PLGA films has not been previously conducted. Photolithography and micro-molding were used to define various combinations of ridge/groove dimensions on PLGA films. The DRG cells obtained from chicken embryos were cultured on micropatterned PLGA films for cell orientation and migration evaluation. Biodegradation of the films occurred during the test period, however, this did not cause deformation or distortion of the micropatterns. Results from the DRG cell orientation test suggest that when the ridge/groove ratio equals 1 (ridge/groove width parameters are equal, i.e., 10 μm/10 μm (even, the degree of alignment depends on the size of the ridges and grooves, when the ratio is smaller than 1 (groove controlled the alignment increases as the ridge size decreases, and when the ratio is larger than 1 (ridge controlled, the alignment is reduced as the width of the grooves decreases. The migration rate and neurite extension of DRG neurons were greatest on 10 μm/10 μm and 30 μm/30 μm micropatterned PLGA films. Based on the data, the 10 μm/10 μm and 30 μm/30 μm micropatterned PLGA films are the optimized ridge/groove surface patterns for the construction of nerve repair devices.

  14. Development and degeneration of dorsal root ganglia in the absence of the HMG-domain transcription factor Sox10

    Sonnenberg-Riethmacher, Eva; Miehe, Michaela; Stolt, Claus C.

    2001-01-01

    neurogenesis seemed initially normal. A degeneration of motoneurons and sensory neurons occurred later in development. The mechanism that leads to the dramatic effects on the neural crest derived cell lineages in the dorsal root ganglia (DRG), however, has not been examined up to now. Here, we provide...... a detailed analysis of proliferation and apoptosis in the DRG during the time of their generation and lineage segregation (between E 9.5 and E 11.5). We show that both increased apoptosis as well as decreased proliferation of neural crest cells contribute to the observed hypomorphism....

  15. A SAGE-based screen for genes expressed in sub-populations of neurons in the mouse dorsal root ganglion

    Garces Alain

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The different sensory modalities temperature, pain, touch and muscle proprioception are carried by somatosensory neurons of the dorsal root ganglia. Study of this system is hampered by the lack of molecular markers for many of these neuronal sub-types. In order to detect genes expressed in sub-populations of somatosensory neurons, gene profiling was carried out on wild-type and TrkA mutant neonatal dorsal root ganglia (DRG using SAGE (serial analysis of gene expression methodology. Thermo-nociceptors constitute up to 80 % of the neurons in the DRG. In TrkA mutant DRGs, the nociceptor sub-class of sensory neurons is lost due to absence of nerve growth factor survival signaling through its receptor TrkA. Thus, comparison of wild-type and TrkA mutants allows the identification of transcripts preferentially expressed in the nociceptor or mechano-proprioceptor subclasses, respectively. Results Our comparison revealed 240 genes differentially expressed between the two tissues (P Conclusion We have identified and characterized the detailed expression patterns of three genes in the developing DRG, placing them in the context of the known major neuronal sub-types defined by molecular markers. Further analysis of differentially expressed genes in this tissue promises to extend our knowledge of the molecular diversity of different cell types and forms the basis for understanding their particular functional specificities.

  16. S3 Dorsal Root Ganglion/Nerve Root Stimulation for Refractory Postsurgical Perineal Pain: Technical Aspects of Anchorless Sacral Transforaminal Lead Placement

    X. Zuidema

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Chronic perineal pain limits patients in physical and sexual activities, leading to social and psychological distress. In most cases, this pain develops after surgery in the urogenital area or as a consequence of trauma. Neuromodulation is one of the options in chronic postsurgical perineal pain treatment. We present a case of refractory perineal pain after right sided surgical resection of a Bartholin’s cyst which was treated with third sacral nerve root/dorsal root ganglion stimulation using the transforaminal approach. We describe a new anchorless lead placement technique using a unique curved lead delivery sheath. We postulate that this new posterior foraminal technique of lead placement is simple, safe, and reversible and may lower the occurrence of lead related complications.

  17. Kv4 channels underlie the subthreshold-operating A-type K+-current in nociceptive dorsal root ganglion neurons

    Thanawath R Na Phuket

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available The dorsal root ganglion (DRG contains heterogeneous populations of sensory neurons including primary nociceptive neurons and C-fibers implicated in pain signaling.  Recent studies have demonstrated DRG hyperexcitability associated with downregulation of A-type K+ channels; however, the molecular correlate of the corresponding A-type K+ current (IA has remained hypothetical.  Kv4 channels may underlie the IA in DRG neurons.  We combined electrophysiology, molecular biology (whole-tissue and single-cell RT-PCR and immunohistochemistry to investigate the molecular basis of the IA in acutely dissociated DRG neurons from 7-8 day-old rats.  Whole-cell recordings demonstrate a robust tetraethylammonium-resistant (20 mM and 4-aminopyridine-sensitive (5 mM IA.  Matching Kv4 channel properties, activation and inactivation of this IA occur in the subthreshold range of membrane potentials and the rate of recovery from inactivation is rapid and voltage-dependent.  Among Kv4 transcripts, the DRG expresses significant levels of Kv4.1 and Kv4.3 mRNAs.  Also, single small-medium diameter DRG neurons (~30 mm exhibit correlated frequent expression of mRNAs encoding Kv4.1 and Nav1.8, a known nociceptor marker.  In contrast, the expressions of Kv1.4 and Kv4.2 mRNAs at the whole-tissue and single-cell levels are relatively low and infrequent.  Kv4 protein expression in nociceptive DRG neurons was confirmed by immunohistochemistry, which demonstrates colocalization of Kv4.3 and Nav1.8, and negligible expression of Kv4.2.  Furthermore, specific dominant-negative suppression and overexpression strategies confirmed the contribution of Kv4 channels to IA in DRG neurons.  Contrasting the expression patterns of Kv4 channels in the central and peripheral nervous systems, we discuss possible functional roles of these channels in primary sensory neurons.

  18. Lack of body positional effects on paresthesias when stimulating the dorsal root ganglion (DRG) in the treatment of chronic pain.

    Kramer, Jeffery; Liem, Liong; Russo, Marc; Smet, Iris; Van Buyten, Jean-Pierre; Huygen, Frank

    2015-01-01

    One prominent side effect from neurostimulation techniques, and in particular spinal cord stimulation (SCS), is the change in intensity of stimulation when moving from an upright (vertical) to a recumbent or supine (horizontal) position and vice versa. It is well understood that the effects of gravity combined with highly conductive cerebrospinal fluid provide the mechanism by which changes in body position can alter the intensity of stimulation-induced paresthesias. While these effects are well established for leads that are placed within the more medial aspects of the spinal canal, little is known about these potential effects in leads placed in the lateral epidural space and in particular within the neural foramina near the dorsal root ganglion (DRG). We prospectively validated a newly developed paresthesia intensity rating scale and compared perceived paresthesia intensities when subjects assumed upright vs. supine bodily positions during neuromodulation of the DRG. On average, the correlation coefficient between stimulation intensity (pulse amplitude) and perceived paresthesia intensity was 0.83, demonstrating a strong linear relationship. No significant differences in paresthesia intensities were reported within subjects when moving from an upright (4.5 ± 0.14) to supine position 4.5 (± 0.12) (p > 0.05). This effect persisted through 12 months following implant. Neuromodulation of the DRG produces paresthesias that remain consistent across body positions, suggesting that this paradigm may be less susceptible to positional effects than dorsal column stimulation. © 2014 International Neuromodulation Society.

  19. Accumulation of Misfolded SOD1 in Dorsal Root Ganglion Degenerating Proprioceptive Sensory Neurons of Transgenic Mice with Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis

    Javier Sábado

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS is an adult-onset progressive neurodegenerative disease affecting upper and lower motoneurons (MNs. Although the motor phenotype is a hallmark for ALS, there is increasing evidence that systems other than the efferent MN system can be involved. Mutations of superoxide dismutase 1 (SOD1 gene cause a proportion of familial forms of this disease. Misfolding and aggregation of mutant SOD1 exert neurotoxicity in a noncell autonomous manner, as evidenced in studies using transgenic mouse models. Here, we used the SOD1G93A mouse model for ALS to detect, by means of conformational-specific anti-SOD1 antibodies, whether misfolded SOD1-mediated neurotoxicity extended to neuronal types other than MNs. We report that large dorsal root ganglion (DRG proprioceptive neurons accumulate misfolded SOD1 and suffer a degenerative process involving the inflammatory recruitment of macrophagic cells. Degenerating sensory axons were also detected in association with activated microglial cells in the spinal cord dorsal horn of diseased animals. As large proprioceptive DRG neurons project monosynaptically to ventral horn MNs, we hypothesise that a prion-like mechanism may be responsible for the transsynaptic propagation of SOD1 misfolding from ventral horn MNs to DRG sensory neurons.

  20. The effects of canine bone marrow stromal cells on neuritogenesis from dorsal root ganglion neurons in vitro.

    Kamishina, Hiroaki; Cheeseman, Jennifer A; Clemmons, Roger M

    2009-10-01

    The present in vitro study was designed to evaluate whether canine bone marrow stromal cells (BMSCs) promote neurite outgrowth from dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons. Bone marrow aspirates were collected from iliac crests of three young adult dogs. DRG neurons were cultured on BMSCs, fibroblasts, or laminin substrates. DRG neurons were also cultured in BMSC- or fibroblast-conditioned media. DRG neurons grown on BMSCs extended longer neurites and developed a much more elaborate conformation of branching neurites compared to those on fibroblasts or laminin. Quantitative analysis revealed that these effects were associated with the emergence of increased numbers of primary and branching neurites. The effect appears to be dependent upon cell-cell interactions rather than by elaboration of diffusible molecules. With more extensive investigations into the basic biology of canine BMSCs, their ability for promoting neurite outgrowth may be translated into a novel therapeutic strategy for dogs with a variety of neurological disorders.

  1. Growth of rat dorsal root ganglion neurons on a novel self-assembling scaffold containing IKVAV sequence

    Zou Zhenwei; Zheng Qixin [Department of Orthopaedics, Union Hospital, Tongji Medical college of Huazhong University of science and technology, Wuhan, 430022 (China); Wu Yongchao, E-mail: wuyongchao@hotmail.com [Department of Orthopaedics, Union Hospital, Tongji Medical college of Huazhong University of science and technology, Wuhan, 430022 (China); Song Yulin; Wu Bin [Department of Orthopaedics, Union Hospital, Tongji Medical college of Huazhong University of science and technology, Wuhan, 430022 (China)

    2009-08-31

    The potential benefits of self-assembly in synthesizing materials for the treatment of both peripheral and central nervous system disorders are tremendous. In this study, we synthesized peptide-amphiphile (PA) molecules containing IKVAV sequence and induced self-assembly of the PA solutions in vitro to form nanofiber gels. Then, we tested the characterization of gels by transmission electron microscopy and demonstrated the biocompatibility of this gel towards rat dorsal root ganglion neurons. The nanofiber gel was formed by self-assembly of IKVAV PA molecules, which was triggered by metal ions. The fibers were 7-8 nm in diameter and with lengths of hundreds of nanometers. Gels were shown to be non-toxic to neurons and able to promote neurons adhesion and neurite sprouting. The results indicated that the self-assembling scaffold containing IKVAV sequence had excellent biocompatibility with adult sensory neurons and could be useful in nerve tissue engineering.

  2. The effects of anticonvulsants on 4-aminopyridine-induced bursting: in vitro studies on rat peripheral nerve and dorsal roots.

    Lees, G.

    1996-01-01

    1. Aminopyridines have been used as beneficial symptomatic treatments in a variety of neurological conditions including multiple sclerosis but have been associated with considerable toxicity in the form of abdominal pain, paraesthesias and (rarely) convulsions. 2. Extracellular and intracellular recording was used to characterize action potentials in rat sciatic nerves and dorsal roots and the effects of 4-aminopyridine (4-AP). 3. In sciatic nerve trunks, 1 mM 4-AP produced pronounced after potentials at room temperature secondary to regenerative firing in affected axons (5-10 spikes per stimulus). At physiological temperatures, after potentials (2-3 spikes) were greatly attenuated in peripheral axons. 4. 4-AP evoked more pronounced and prolonged after discharges in isolated dorsal roots at 37 degrees C (3-5.5 mV and 80-100 ms succeeded by a smaller inhibitory/depolarizing voltage shift) which were used to assess the effects of anticonvulsants. 5. Phenytoin, carbamazepine and lamotrigine dose-dependently reduced the area of 4-AP-induced after potentials at 100 and 320 microM but the amplitude of compound action potentials (evoked at 0.5 Hz) was depressed in parallel. 6. The tonic block of sensory action potentials by all three drugs (at 320 microM) was enhanced by high frequency stimulation (5-500 Hz). 7. The lack of selectivity of these frequency-dependent Na+ channel blockers for burst firing compared to low-frequency spikes, is discussed in contrast to their effects on 4-AP-induced seizures and paroxysmal activity in CNS tissue (which is associated with large and sustained depolarizing plateau potentials). 8. In conclusion, these in vitro results confirm the marked sensitivity of sensory axons to 4-AP (the presumptive basis for paraesthesias). Burst firing was not preferentially impaired at relatively high concentrations suggesting that anticonvulsants will not overcome the toxic peripheral actions of 4-AP in neurological patients. PMID:8821551

  3. Changes in galanin immunoreactivity in rat lumbosacral spinal cord and dorsal root ganglia after spinal cord injury.

    Zvarova, K; Murray, E; Vizzard, M A

    2004-08-02

    Alterations in the expression of the neuropeptide galanin were examined in micturition reflex pathways 6 weeks after complete spinal cord transection (T8). In control animals, galanin expression was present in specific regions of the gray matter in the rostral lumbar and caudal lumbosacral spinal cord, including: (1) the dorsal commissure; (2) the superficial dorsal horn; (3) the regions of the intermediolateral cell column (L1-L2) and the sacral parasympathetic nucleus (L6-S1); and (4) the lateral collateral pathway in lumbosacral spinal segments. Densitometry analysis demonstrated significant increases (P < or = 0.001) in galanin immunoreactivity (IR) in these regions of the S1 spinal cord after spinal cord injury (SCI). Changes in galanin-IR were not observed at the L4-L6 segments except for an increase in galanin-IR in the dorsal commissure in the L4 segment. In contrast, decreases in galanin-IR were observed in the L1 segment. The number of galanin-IR cells increased (P < or = 0.001) in the L1 and S1 dorsal root ganglia (DRG) after SCI. In all DRG examined (L1, L2, L6, and S1), the percentage of bladder afferent cells expressing galanin-IR significantly increased (4-19-fold) after chronic SCI. In contrast, galanin expression in nerve fibers in the urinary bladder detrusor and urothelium was decreased or eliminated after SCI. Expression of the neurotrophic factors nerve growth factor (NGF) and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) was altered in the spinal cord after SCI. A significant increase in BDNF expression was present in spinal cord segments after SCI. In contrast, NGF expression was only increased in the spinal segments adjacent and rostral to the transection site (T7-T8), whereas spinal segments (T13-L1; L6-S1), distal to the transection site exhibited decreased NGF expression. Changes in galanin expression in micturition pathways after SCI may be mediated by changing neurotrophic factor expression, particularly BDNF. These changes may contribute to

  4. EXPRESSION OF CALCIUM-BINDING PROTEINS IN THE NEUROTROPHIN-3-DEPENDENT SUBPOPULATION OF RAT EMBRYONIC DORSAL-ROOT GANGLION-CELLS IN CULTURE

    COPRAY, JCVM; MANTINGHOTTER, IJ; BROUWER, N

    1994-01-01

    In this study we have examined the calcium-binding protein expression in rat embryonic (E16) dorsal root ganglia (DRG) neurons in vitro in the presence of neurotrophin-3 (NT-3). A comparison was made with the expression of calcium-binding proteins in DRG subpopulations that depended in vitro on

  5. Inhibitory Activity of Yokukansankachimpihange against Nerve Growth Factor-Induced Neurite Growth in Cultured Rat Dorsal Root Ganglion Neurons

    Chiaki Murayama

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Chronic pruritus is a major and distressing symptom of many cutaneous diseases, however, the treatment remains a challenge in the clinic. The traditional Chinese-Japanese medicine (Kampo medicine is a conservative and increasingly popular approach to treat chronic pruritus for both patients and medical providers. Yokukansankachimpihange (YKH, a Kampo formula has been demonstrated to be effective in the treatment of itching of atopic dermatitis in Japan although its pharmacological mechanism is unknown clearly. In an attempt to clarify its pharmacological actions, in this study, we focused on the inhibitory activity of YKH against neurite growth induced with nerve growth factor (NGF in cultured rat dorsal root ganglion (DRG neurons because epidermal hyperinnervation is deeply related to itch sensitization. YKH showed approximately 200-fold inhibitory activity against NGF-induced neurite growth than that of neurotropin (positive control, a drug used clinically for treatment of chronic pruritus. Moreover, it also found that Uncaria hook, Bupleurum root and their chemical constituents rhynchophylline, hirsutine, and saikosaponin a, d showed inhibitory activities against NGF-induced neurite growth, suggesting they should mainly contribute to the inhibitory activity of YKH. Further study on the effects of YKH against epidermal nerve density in “itch-scratch” animal models is under investigation.

  6. eIF4E Phosphorylation Influences Bdnf mRNA Translation in Mouse Dorsal Root Ganglion Neurons

    Jamie K. Moy

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Plasticity in dorsal root ganglion (DRG neurons that promotes pain requires activity-dependent mRNA translation. Protein synthesis inhibitors block the ability of many pain-promoting molecules to enhance excitability in DRG neurons and attenuate behavioral signs of pain plasticity. In line with this, we have recently shown that phosphorylation of the 5′ cap-binding protein, eIF4E, plays a pivotal role in plasticity of DRG nociceptors in models of hyperalgesic priming. However, mRNA targets of eIF4E phosphorylation have not been elucidated in the DRG. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF signaling from nociceptors in the DRG to spinal dorsal horn neurons is an important mediator of hyperalgesic priming. Regulatory mechanisms that promote pain plasticity via controlling BDNF expression that is involved in promoting pain plasticity have not been identified. We show that phosphorylation of eIF4E is paramount for Bdnf mRNA translation in the DRG. Bdnf mRNA translation is reduced in mice lacking eIF4E phosphorylation (eIF4ES209A and pro-nociceptive factors fail to increase BDNF protein levels in the DRGs of these mice despite robust upregulation of Bdnf-201 mRNA levels. Importantly, bypassing the DRG by giving intrathecal injection of BDNF in eIF4ES209A mice creates a strong hyperalgesic priming response that is normally absent or reduced in these mice. We conclude that eIF4E phosphorylation-mediated translational control of BDNF expression is a key mechanism for nociceptor plasticity leading to hyperalgesic priming.

  7. A Combinatorial Approach to Induce Sensory Axon Regeneration into the Dorsal Root Avulsed Spinal Cord

    Hoeber, Jan; Konig, Niclas; Trolle, Carl

    2017-01-01

    Spinal root injuries result in newly formed glial scar formation, which prevents regeneration of sensory axons causing permanent sensory loss. Previous studies showed that delivery of trophic factors or implantation of human neural progenitor cells supports sensory axon regeneration and partly......MIM), supported sensory axon regeneration. However, when hscNSPC and MesoMIM were combined, sensory axon regeneration failed. Morphological and tracing analysis showed that sensory axons grow through the newly established glial scar along “bridges” formed by migrating stem cells. Coimplantation of Meso...... their level of differentiation. Our data show that (1) the ability of stem cells to migrate into the spinal cord and organize cellular “bridges” in the newly formed interface is crucial for successful sensory axon regeneration, (2) trophic factor mimetics delivered by mesoporous silica may be a convenient...

  8. Percutaneous radiofrequency lesions adjacent to the dorsal root ganglion alleviate spasticity and pain in children with cerebral palsy: pilot study in 17 patients

    van Rhijn Lodewijk W

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cerebral palsy (CP may cause severe spasticity, requiring neurosurgical procedures. The most common neurosurgical procedures are continuous infusion of intrathecal baclofen and selective dorsal rhizotomy. Both are invasive and complex procedures. We hypothesized that a percutaneous radiofrequency lesion of the dorsal root ganglion (RF-DRG could be a simple and safe alternative treatment. We undertook a pilot study to test this hypothesis. Methods We performed an RF-DRG procedure in 17 consecutive CP patients with severe hip flexor/adductor spasms accompanied by pain or care-giving difficulties. Six children were systematically evaluated at baseline, and 1 month and 6 months after treatment by means of the Modified Ashworth Scale (MAS, Gross Motor Function Measure (GMFM and a self-made caregiver's questionnaire. Eleven subsequent children were evaluated using a Visual Analogue Scale (VAS for spasticity, pain and ease of care. Results A total of 19 RF-DRG treatments were performed in 17 patients. We found a small improvement in muscle tone measured by MAS, but no effect on the GMFM scale. Despite this, the caregivers of these six treated children unanimously stated that the quality of life of their children had indeed improved after the RF-DRG. In the subsequent 11 children we found improvements in all VAS scores, in a range comparable to the conventional treatment options. Conclusion RF-DRG is a promising new treatment option for severe spasticity in CP patients, and its definitive effectiveness remains to be defined in a randomised controlled trial.

  9. Upregulation of adrenomedullin in the spinal cord and dorsal root ganglia in the early phase of CFA-induced inflammation in rats.

    Hong, Yanguo; Liu, Yushan; Chabot, Jean-Guy; Fournier, Alain; Quirion, Rémi

    2009-11-01

    Adrenomedullin (AM), a member of calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) family, has been demonstrated to be a pronociceptive mediator [28]. This study was undertaken to investigate the role of AM in a model of complete Freund's adjuvant (CFA)-induced inflammatory pain. Injection of CFA, but not of saline, in the unilateral hindpaw produced an increase in the expression of AM-like immunoreactivity (AM-IR) in laminae I-II of the spinal cord as well as in small- and medium-sized dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons at 48 h. The content of AM in DRG on the side ipsilateral to CFA injection started to increase at 4 h and remained at high levels at 24 and 48 h. The selective antagonist of AM receptors, AM(22-52), administered intrathecally (i.t.) 24 h after CFA injection inhibited inflammation-associated hyperalgesia in a dose-dependent manner (2, 5 and 10 nmol). Impressively, this anti-hyperalgesic effect lasted for at least 24 h. I.t. administration of AM(22-52) (10 nmol) also reversed CFA-induced increase in AM-IR in the spinal dorsal horn and DRG. Furthermore, blockade of AM receptors abolished CFA-induced changes in the expression and content of CGRP-like immunoreactivity in these regions. Taken together, our results suggest that the upregulation of AM in DRG neurons contributes to the development of inflammatory pain, and this effect is mediated, at least in part, by enhancing the expression and release of CGRP. Blocking AM receptor downstream signaling effects using antagonists has the potential of relieving pain following the induction of inflammation.

  10. A SCN9A gene-encoded dorsal root ganglia sodium channel polymorphism associated with severe fibromyalgia

    Vargas-Alarcon Gilberto

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A consistent line of investigation suggests that autonomic nervous system dysfunction may explain the multi-system features of fibromyalgia (FM; and that FM is a sympathetically maintained neuropathic pain syndrome. Dorsal root ganglia (DRG are key sympathetic-nociceptive short-circuit sites. Sodium channels located in DRG (particularly Nav1.7 act as molecular gatekeepers for pain detection. Nav1.7 is encoded in gene SCN9A of chromosome 2q24.3 and is predominantly expressed in the DRG pain-sensing neurons and sympathetic ganglia neurons. Several SCN9A sodium channelopathies have been recognized as the cause of rare painful dysautonomic syndromes such as paroxysmal extreme pain disorder and primary erythromelalgia. The aim of this study was to search for an association between fibromyalgia and several SCN9A sodium channels gene polymorphisms. Methods We studied 73 Mexican women suffering from FM and 48 age-matched women who considered themselves healthy. All participants filled out the Fibromyalgia Impact Questionnaire (FIQ. Genomic DNA from whole blood containing EDTA was extracted by standard techniques. The following SCN9A single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP were determined by 5' exonuclease TaqMan assays: rs4371369; rs4387806; rs4453709; rs4597545; rs6746030; rs6754031; rs7607967; rs12620053; rs12994338; and rs13017637. Results The frequency of the rs6754031 polymorphism was significantly different in both groups (P = 0.036 mostly due to an absence of the GG genotype in controls. Interestingly; patients with this rs6754031 GG genotype had higher FIQ scores (median = 80; percentile 25/75 = 69/88 than patients with the GT genotype (median = 63; percentile 25/75 = 58/73; P = 0.002 and the TT genotype (median = 71; percentile 25/75 = 64/77; P = 0.001. Conclusion In this ethnic group; a disabling form of FM is associated to a particular SCN9A sodium channel gene variant. These preliminary results raise the possibility that

  11. Upregulation of EMMPRIN (OX47 in Rat Dorsal Root Ganglion Contributes to the Development of Mechanical Allodynia after Nerve Injury

    Qun Wang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs are widely implicated in inflammation and tissue remodeling associated with various neurodegenerative diseases and play an important role in nociception and allodynia. Extracellular Matrix Metalloproteinase Inducer (EMMPRIN plays a key regulatory role for MMP activities. However, the role of EMMPRIN in the development of neuropathic pain is not clear. Western blotting, real-time quantitative RT-PCR (qRT-PCR, and immunofluorescence were performed to determine the changes of messenger RNA and protein of EMMPRIN/OX47 and their cellular localization in the rat dorsal root ganglion (DRG after nerve injury. Paw withdrawal threshold test was examined to evaluate the pain behavior in spinal nerve ligation (SNL model. The lentivirus containing OX47 shRNA was injected into the DRG one day before SNL. The expression level of both mRNA and protein of OX47 was markedly upregulated in ipsilateral DRG after SNL. OX47 was mainly expressed in the extracellular matrix of DRG. Administration of shRNA targeted against OX47 in vivo remarkably attenuated mechanical allodynia induced by SNL. In conclusion, peripheral nerve injury induced upregulation of OX47 in the extracellular matrix of DRG. RNA interference against OX47 significantly suppressed the expression of OX47 mRNA and the development of mechanical allodynia. The altered expression of OX47 may contribute to the development of neuropathic pain after nerve injury.

  12. Tang-Luo-Ning Improves Mitochondrial Antioxidase Activity in Dorsal Root Ganglia of Diabetic Rats: A Proteomics Study

    Taojing Zhang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Tang-luo-ning (TLN is a traditional Chinese herbal recipe for treating diabetic peripheral neuropathy (DPN. In this study, we investigated mitochondrial protein profiles in a diabetic rat model and explored the potential protective effect of TLN. Diabetic rats were established by injection of streptozocin (STZ and divided into model, alpha lipoic acid (ALA, and TLN groups. Mitochondrial proteins were isolated from dorsal root ganglia and proteomic analysis was used to quantify the differentially expressed proteins. Tang-luo-ning mitigated STZ-induced diabetic symptoms and blood glucose level, including response time to cold or hot stimulation and nerve conductive velocity. As compared to the normal, there were 388 differentially expressed proteins in the TLN group, 445 in ALA group, and 451 in model group. As compared to the model group, there were 275 differential proteins in TLN group and 251 in ALA group. As compared to model group, mitochondrial complex III was significantly decreased, while glutathione peroxidase and peroxidase were increased in TLN group. When compared with ALA group, the mitochondrial complex III was increased, and mitochondrial complex IV was decreased in TLN group. Together, TLN should have a strong antioxidative activity, which appears to be modulated through regulation of respiratory complexes and antioxidases.

  13. High concentrations of morphine sensitize and activate mouse dorsal root ganglia via TRPV1 and TRPA1 receptors

    Messlinger Karl

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Morphine and its derivatives are key drugs in pain control. Despite its well-known analgesic properties morphine at high concentrations may be proalgesic. Particularly, short-lasting painful sensations have been reported upon dermal application of morphine. To study a possible involvement of TRP receptors in the pro-nociceptive effects of morphine (0.3 – 10 mM, two models of nociception were employed using C57BL/6 mice and genetically related TRPV1 and TRPA1 knockout animals, which were crossed and generated double knockouts. Hindpaw skin flaps were used to investigate the release of calcitonin gene-related peptide indicative of nociceptive activation. Results Morphine induced release of calcitonin gene-related peptide and sensitized the release evoked by heat or the TRPA1 agonist acrolein. Morphine activated HEK293t cells transfected with TRPV1 or TRPA1. Activation of C57BL/6 mouse dorsal root ganglion neurons in culture was investigated with calcium imaging. Morphine induced a dose-dependent rise in intracellular calcium in neurons from wild-type animals. In neurons from TRPV1 and TRPA1 knockout animals activation by morphine was markedly reduced, in the TRPV1/A1 double knockout animals this morphine effect was abrogated. Naloxone induced an increase in calcium levels similar to morphine. The responses to both morphine and naloxone were sensitized by bradykinin. Conclusion Nociceptor activation and sensitization by morphine is conveyed by TRPV1 and TRPA1.

  14. Neuron-glial communication mediated by TNF-α and glial activation in dorsal root ganglia in visceral inflammatory hypersensitivity.

    Song, Dan-dan; Li, Yong; Tang, Dong; Huang, Li-ya; Yuan, Yao-zong

    2014-05-01

    Communication between neurons and glia in the dorsal root ganglia (DRG) and the central nervous system is critical for nociception. Both glial activation and proinflammatory cytokine induction underlie this communication. We investigated whether satellite glial cell (SGC) and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) activation in DRG participates in a 2,4,6-trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid (TNBS)-induced rat model of visceral hyperalgesia. In TNBS-treated rats, TNF-α expression increased in DRG and was colocalized to SGCs enveloping a given neuron. These SGCs were activated as visualized under electron microscopy: they had more elongated processes projecting into the connective tissue space and more gap junctions. When nerves attached to DRG (L6-S1) were stimulated with a series of electrical stimulations, TNF-α were released from DRG in TNBS-treated animals compared with controls. Using a current clamp, we noted that exogenous TNF-α (2.5 ng/ml) increased DRG neuron activity, and visceral pain behavioral responses were reversed by intrathecal administration of anti-TNF-α (10 μg·kg(-1)·day(-1)). Based on our findings, TNF-α and SGC activation in neuron-glial communication are critical in inflammatory visceral hyperalgesia.

  15. Inhibition of acid-sensing ion channels by levo-tetrahydropalmatine in rat dorsal root ganglion neurons.

    Liu, Ting-Ting; Qu, Zu-Wei; Qiu, Chun-Yu; Qiu, Fang; Ren, Cuixia; Gan, Xiong; Peng, Fang; Hu, Wang-Ping

    2015-02-01

    Levo-tetrahydropalmatine (l-THP), a main bioactive Chinese herbal constituent from the genera Stephania and Corydalis, has been in use in clinical practice for years in China as a traditional analgesic agent. However, the mechanism underlying the analgesic action of l-THP is poorly understood. This study shows that l-THP can exert an inhibitory effect on the functional activity of native acid-sensing ion channels (ASICs), which are believed to mediate pain caused by extracellular acidification. l-THP dose dependently decreased the amplitude of proton-gated currents mediated by ASICs in rat dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons. l-THP shifted the proton concentration-response curve downward, with a decrease of 40.93% ± 8.45% in the maximum current response to protons, with no significant change in the pH0.5 value. Moreover, l-THP can alter the membrane excitability of rat DRG neurons to acid stimuli. It significantly decreased the number of action potentials and the amplitude of the depolarization induced by an extracellular pH drop. Finally, peripherally administered l-THP inhibited the nociceptive response to intraplantar injection of acetic acid in rats. These results indicate that l-THP can inhibit the functional activity of ASICs in dissociated primary sensory neurons and relieve acidosis-evoked pain in vivo, which for the first time provides a novel peripheral mechanism underlying the analgesic action of l-THP. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. FGF and BMP derived from dorsal root ganglia regulate blastema induction in limb regeneration in Ambystoma mexicanum.

    Satoh, Akira; Makanae, Aki; Nishimoto, Yurie; Mitogawa, Kazumasa

    2016-09-01

    Urodele amphibians have a remarkable organ regeneration ability that is regulated by neural inputs. The identification of these neural inputs has been a challenge. Recently, Fibroblast growth factor (Fgf) and Bone morphogenic protein (Bmp) were shown to substitute for nerve functions in limb and tail regeneration in urodele amphibians. However, direct evidence of Fgf and Bmp being secreted from nerve endings and regulating regeneration has not yet been shown. Thus, it remained uncertain whether they were the nerve factors responsible for successful limb regeneration. To gather experimental evidence, the technical difficulties involved in the usage of axolotls had to be overcome. We achieved this by modifying the electroporation method. When Fgf8-AcGFP or Bmp7-AcGFP was electroporated into the axolotl dorsal root ganglia (DRG), GFP signals were detectable in the regenerating limb region. This suggested that Fgf8 and Bmp7 synthesized in neural cells in the DRG were delivered to the limbs through the long axons. Further knockdown experiments with double-stranded RNA interference resulted in impaired limb regeneration ability. These results strongly suggest that Fgf and Bmp are the major neural inputs that control the organ regeneration ability. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Tentonin 3/TMEM150c Confers Distinct Mechanosensitive Currents in Dorsal-Root Ganglion Neurons with Proprioceptive Function.

    Hong, Gyu-Sang; Lee, Byeongjun; Wee, Jungwon; Chun, Hyeyeon; Kim, Hyungsup; Jung, Jooyoung; Cha, Joo Young; Riew, Tae-Ryong; Kim, Gyu Hyun; Kim, In-Beom; Oh, Uhtaek

    2016-07-06

    Touch sensation or proprioception requires the transduction of mechanical stimuli into electrical signals by mechanoreceptors in the periphery. These mechanoreceptors are equipped with various transducer channels. Although Piezo1 and 2 are mechanically activated (MA) channels with rapid inactivation, MA molecules with other inactivation kinetics have not been identified. Here we report that heterologously expressed Tentonin3 (TTN3)/TMEM150C is activated by mechanical stimuli with distinctly slow inactivation kinetics. Genetic ablation of Ttn3/Tmem150c markedly reduced slowly adapting neurons in dorsal-root ganglion neurons. The MA TTN3 currents were inhibited by known blockers of mechanosensitive ion channels. Moreover, TTN3 was localized in muscle spindle afferents. Ttn3-deficient mice exhibited the loss of coordinated movements and abnormal gait. Thus, TTN3 appears to be a component of a mechanosensitive channel with a slow inactivation rate and contributes to motor coordination. Identification of this gene advances our understanding of the various types of mechanosensations, including proprioception. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Effective gene expression in the rat dorsal root ganglia with a non-viral vector delivered via spinal nerve injection

    Chang, Ming-Fong; Hsieh, Jung-Hsien; Chiang, Hao; Kan, Hung-Wei; Huang, Cho-Min; Chellis, Luke; Lin, Bo-Shiou; Miaw, Shi-Chuen; Pan, Chun-Liang; Chao, Chi-Chao; Hsieh, Sung-Tsang

    2016-01-01

    Delivering gene constructs into the dorsal root ganglia (DRG) is a powerful but challenging therapeutic strategy for sensory disorders affecting the DRG and their peripheral processes. The current delivery methods of direct intra-DRG injection and intrathecal injection have several disadvantages, including potential injury to DRG neurons and low transfection efficiency, respectively. This study aimed to develop a spinal nerve injection strategy to deliver polyethylenimine mixed with plasmid (PEI/DNA polyplexes) containing green fluorescent protein (GFP). Using this spinal nerve injection approach, PEI/DNA polyplexes were delivered to DRG neurons without nerve injury. Within one week of the delivery, GFP expression was detected in 82.8% ± 1.70% of DRG neurons, comparable to the levels obtained by intra-DRG injection (81.3% ± 5.1%, p = 0.82) but much higher than those obtained by intrathecal injection. The degree of GFP expression by neurofilament(+) and peripherin(+) DRG neurons was similar. The safety of this approach was documented by the absence of injury marker expression, including activation transcription factor 3 and ionized calcium binding adaptor molecule 1 for neurons and glia, respectively, as well as the absence of behavioral changes. These results demonstrated the efficacy and safety of delivering PEI/DNA polyplexes to DRG neurons via spinal nerve injection. PMID:27748450

  19. Vascularization of the dorsal root ganglia and peripheral nerve of the mouse: Implications for chemical-induced peripheral sensory neuropathies

    Melemedjian Ohannes K

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Although a variety of industrial chemicals, as well as several chemotherapeutic agents used to treat cancer or HIV, preferentially induce a peripheral sensory neuropathy what remains unclear is why these agents induce a sensory vs. a motor or mixed neuropathy. Previous studies have shown that the endothelial cells that vascularize the dorsal root ganglion (DRG, which houses the primary afferent sensory neurons, are unique in that they have large fenestrations and are permeable to a variety of low and high molecular weight agents. In the present report we used whole-mount preparations, immunohistochemistry, and confocal laser scanning microscopy to show that the cell body-rich area of the L4 mouse DRG has a 7 fold higher density of CD31+ capillaries than cell fiber rich area of the DRG or the distal or proximal aspect of the sciatic nerve. This dense vascularization, coupled with the high permeability of these capillaries, may synergistically contribute, and in part explain, why many potentially neurotoxic agents preferentially accumulate and injure cells within the DRG. Currently, cancer survivors and HIV patients constitute the largest and most rapidly expanding groups that have chemically induced peripheral sensory neuropathy. Understanding the unique aspects of the vascularization of the DRG and closing the endothelial fenestrations of the rich vascular bed of capillaries that vascularize the DRG before intravenous administration of anti-neoplastic or anti-HIV therapies, may offer a mechanism based approach to attenuate these chemically induced peripheral neuropathies in these patients.

  20. P2X₇ receptor of rat dorsal root ganglia is involved in the effect of moxibustion on visceral hyperalgesia.

    Liu, Shuangmei; Shi, Qingming; Zhu, Qicheng; Zou, Ting; Li, Guilin; Huang, An; Wu, Bing; Peng, Lichao; Song, Miaomiao; Wu, Qin; Xie, Qiuyu; Lin, Weijian; Xie, Wei; Wen, Shiyao; Zhang, Zhedong; Lv, Qiulan; Zou, Lifang; Zhang, Xi; Ying, Mofeng; Li, Guodong; Liang, Shangdong

    2015-06-01

    Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) and inflammatory bowel disease often display visceral hypersensitivity. Visceral nociceptors after inflammatory stimulation generate afferent nerve impulses through dorsal root ganglia (DRG) transmitting to the central nervous system. ATP and its activated-purinergic 2X7 (P2X7) receptor play an important role in the transmission of nociceptive signal. Purinergic signaling is involved in the sensory transmission of visceral pain. Moxibustion is a therapy applying ignited mugwort directly or indirectly at acupuncture points or other specific parts of the body to treat diseases. Heat-sensitive acupoints are the corresponding points extremely sensitive to moxa heat in disease conditions. In this study, we aimed to investigate the relationship between the analgesic effect of moxibustion on a heat-sensitive acupoint "Dachangshu" and the expression levels of P2X7 receptor in rat DRG after chronic inflammatory stimulation of colorectal distension. Heat-sensitive moxibustion at Dachangshu acupoint inhibited the nociceptive signal transmission by decreasing the upregulated expression levels of P2X7 mRNA and protein in DRG induced by visceral pain, and reversed the abnormal expression of glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP, a marker of satellite glial cells) in DRG. Consequently, abdominal withdrawal reflex (AWR) score in a visceral pain model was reduced, and the pain threshold was elevated. Therefore, heat-sensitive moxibustion at Dachangshu acupoint can produce a therapeutic effect on IBS via inhibiting the nociceptive transmission mediated by upregulated P2X7 receptor.

  1. Effects of 4-phenyl butyric acid on high glucose-induced alterations in dorsal root ganglion neurons.

    Sharma, Dilip; Singh, Jitendra Narain; Sharma, Shyam S

    2016-12-02

    Mechanisms and pathways involving in diabetic neuropathy are still not fully understood but can be unified by the process of overproduction of reactive oxygen species (ROS) such as superoxide, endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress, downstream intracellular signaling pathways and their modulation. Susceptibility of dorsal root ganglion (DRG) to internal/external hyperglycemic environment stress contributes to the pathogenesis and progression of diabetic neuropathy. ER stress leads to abnormal ion channel function, gene expression, transcriptional regulation, metabolism and protein folding. 4-phenyl butyric acid (4-PBA) is a potent and selective chemical chaperone; which may inhibit ER stress. It may be hypothesized that 4-PBA could attenuate via channels in DRG in diabetic neuropathy. Effects of 4-PBA were determined by applying different parameters of oxidative stress, cell viability, apoptosis assays and channel expression in cultured DRG neurons. Hyperglycemia-induced apoptosis in the DRG neuron was inhibited by 4-PBA. Cell viability of DRG neurons was not altered by 4-PBA. Oxidative stress was significantly blocked by the 4-PBA. Sodium channel expression was not altered by the 4-PBA. Our data provide evidence that the hyperglycemia-induced alteration may be reduced by the 4-PBA without altering the sodium channel expression. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Bromodomain-containing Protein 4 Activates Voltage-gated Sodium Channel 1.7 Transcription in Dorsal Root Ganglia Neurons to Mediate Thermal Hyperalgesia in Rats.

    Hsieh, Ming-Chun; Ho, Yu-Cheng; Lai, Cheng-Yuan; Wang, Hsueh-Hsiao; Lee, An-Sheng; Cheng, Jen-Kun; Chau, Yat-Pang; Peng, Hsien-Yu

    2017-11-01

    Bromodomain-containing protein 4 binds acetylated promoter histones and promotes transcription; however, the role of bromodomain-containing protein 4 in inflammatory hyperalgesia remains unclear. Male Sprague-Dawley rats received hind paw injections of complete Freund's adjuvant to induce hyperalgesia. The dorsal root ganglia were examined to detect changes in bromodomain-containing protein 4 expression and the activation of genes involved in the expression of voltage-gated sodium channel 1.7, which is a key pain-related ion channel. The intraplantar complete Freund's adjuvant injections resulted in thermal hyperalgesia (4.0 ± 1.5 s; n = 7). The immunohistochemistry and immunoblotting results demonstrated an increase in the bromodomain-containing protein 4-expressing dorsal root ganglia neurons (3.78 ± 0.38 fold; n = 7) and bromodomain-containing protein 4 protein levels (2.62 ± 0.39 fold; n = 6). After the complete Freund's adjuvant injection, histone H3 protein acetylation was enhanced in the voltage-gated sodium channel 1.7 promoter, and cyclin-dependent kinase 9 and phosphorylation of RNA polymerase II were recruited to this area. Furthermore, the voltage-gated sodium channel 1.7-mediated currents were enhanced in neurons of the complete Freund's adjuvant rats (55 ± 11 vs. 19 ± 9 pA/pF; n = 4 to 6 neurons). Using bromodomain-containing protein 4-targeted antisense small interfering RNA to the complete Freund's adjuvant-treated rats, the authors demonstrated a reduction in the expression of bromodomain-containing protein 4 (0.68 ± 0.16 fold; n = 7), a reduction in thermal hyperalgesia (7.5 ± 1.5 s; n = 7), and a reduction in the increased voltage-gated sodium channel 1.7 currents (21 ± 4 pA/pF; n = 4 to 6 neurons). Complete Freund's adjuvant triggers enhanced bromodomain-containing protein 4 expression, ultimately leading to the enhanced excitability of nociceptive neurons and thermal hyperalgesia. This effect is

  3. Effects of curcumin on TTX-R sodium currents of dorsal root ganglion neurons in type 2 diabetic rats with diabetic neuropathic pain.

    Meng, Bo; Shen, Lu-Lu; Shi, Xiao-Ting; Gong, Yong-Sheng; Fan, Xiao-Fang; Li, Jun; Cao, Hong

    2015-09-25

    Type 2 diabetic mellitus (T2DM) has reached pandemic status and shows no signs of abatement. Diabetic neuropathic pain (DNP) is generally considered to be one of the most common complications of T2DM, which is also recognized as one of the most difficult types of pain to treat. As one kind of peripheral neuropathic pain, DNP manifests typical chronic neuralgia symptoms, including hyperalgesia, allodynia, autotomy, and so on. The injured dorsal root ganglion (DRG) is considered as the first stage of the sensory pathway impairment, whose neurons display increased frequency of action potential generation and increased spontaneous activities. These are mainly due to the changed properties of voltage-gated sodium channels (VGSCs) and the increased sodium currents, especially TTX-R sodium currents. Curcumin, one of the most important phytochemicals from turmeric, has been demonstrated to effectively prevent and/or ameliorate diabetic mellitus and its complications including DNP. The present study demonstrates that the TTX-R sodium currents of small-sized DRG neurons isolated from DNP rats are significantly increased. Such abnormality can be efficaciously ameliorated by curcumin. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. 7, 8, 3′-Trihydroxyflavone Promotes Neurite Outgrowth and Protects Against Bupivacaine-Induced Neurotoxicity in Mouse Dorsal Root Ganglion Neurons

    Shi, Haohong; Luo, Xingjing

    2016-01-01

    Background 7, 8, 3′-trihydroxyflavone (THF) is a novel pro-neuronal small molecule that acts as a TrkB agonist. In this study, we examined the effect of THF on promoting neuronal growth and protecting anesthetics-induced neurotoxicity in dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons in vitro. Material/Methods Neonatal mouse DRG neurons were cultured in vitro and treated with various concentrations of THF. The effect of THF on neuronal growth was investigated by neurite outgrowth assay and Western blot. In addition, the protective effects of THF on bupivacaine-induced neurotoxicity were investigated by apoptosis TUNEL assay, neurite outgrowth assay, and Western blot, respectively. Results THF promoted neurite outgrowth of DRG neurons in dose-dependent manner, with an EC50 concentration of 67.4 nM. Western blot analysis showed THF activated TrkB signaling pathway by inducing TrkB phosphorylation. THF also rescued bupivacaine-induced neurotoxicity by reducing apoptosis and protecting neurite retraction in DRG neurons. Furthermore, the protection of THF in bupivacaine-injured neurotoxicity was directly associated with TrkB phosphorylation in a concentration-dependent manner in DRG neurons. Conclusions THF has pro-neuronal effect on DRG neurons by promoting neurite growth and protecting against bupivacaine-induced neurotoxicity, likely through TrkB activation. PMID:27371503

  5. Selective plasticity of primary afferent innervation to the dorsal horn and autonomic nuclei following lumbosacral ventral root avulsion and reimplantation in long term studies.

    Wu, Lisa; Wu, Jun; Chang, Huiyi H; Havton, Leif A

    2012-02-01

    Previous studies involving injuries to the nerves of the cauda equina and the conus medullaris have shown that lumbosacral ventral root avulsion in rat models results in denervation and dysfunction of the lower urinary tract, retrograde and progressive cell death of the axotomized motor and parasympathetic neurons, as well as the emergence of neuropathic pain. Root reimplantation has also been shown to ameliorate several of these responses, but experiments thus far have been limited to studying the effects of lesion and reimplantation local to the lumbosacral region. Here, we have expanded the region of investigation after lumbosacral ventral root avulsion and reimplantation to include the thoracolumbar sympathetic region of the spinal cord. Using a retrograde tracer injected into the major pelvic ganglion, we were able to define the levels of the spinal cord that contain sympathetic preganglionic neurons innervating the lower urinary tract. We have conducted studies on the effects of the lumbosacral ventral root avulsion and reimplantation models on the afferent innervation of the dorsal horn and autonomic nuclei at both thoracolumbar and lumbosacral levels through immunohistochemistry for the markers calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) and vesicular glutamate transporter 1 (VGLUT1). Surprisingly, our experiments reveal a selective and significant decrease of CGRP-positive innervation in the dorsal horn at thoracolumbar levels that is partially restored with root reimplantation. However, no similar changes were detected at the lumbosacral levels despite the injury and repair targeting efferent neurons, and being performed at the lumbosacral levels. Despite the changes evident in the thoracolumbar dorsal horn, we find no changes in afferent innervation of the autonomic nuclei at either sympathetic or parasympathetic segmental levels by CGRP or VGLUT1. We conclude that even remote, efferent root injuries and repair procedures can have an effect on remote and non

  6. Clinical significance of the position of dorsal root ganglia in degenerative lumbar diseases. Correlation between anatomic study and imaging study with MRI

    Seki, Masahiro; Kikuchi, Tomiichi [Fukushima Medical Coll., Matsuoka (Japan)

    1995-06-01

    In order to estimate the ralationship between the position of dorsal root ganglia (DRG) and radicular symptoms, anatomical study was done on 81 cadavers, and a clinical study with MRI was done on 20 cases of lumbar disc herniation and 20 of lumbar spondylosis with L{sub 5} radiculopathy. The position of DRG is not related to the occurrence of radicular symptoms in disc herniation, while in lumbar spondylosis proximally placed DRG are related to both of unilateral and bilateral occurrence of redicular symptoms. Unilateral occurrence of radicular symptoms is influenced by surrounding tissues of the nerve root, rather than the position of DRG. (author).

  7. Clinical significance of the position of dorsal root ganglia in degenerative lumbar diseases. Correlation between anatomic study and imaging study with MRI

    Seki, Masahiro; Kikuchi, Tomiichi

    1995-01-01

    In order to estimate the ralationship between the position of dorsal root ganglia (DRG) and radicular symptoms, anatomical study was done on 81 cadavers, and a clinical study with MRI was done on 20 cases of lumbar disc herniation and 20 of lumbar spondylosis with L 5 radiculopathy. The position of DRG is not related to the occurrence of radicular symptoms in disc herniation, while in lumbar spondylosis proximally placed DRG are related to both of unilateral and bilateral occurrence of redicular symptoms. Unilateral occurrence of radicular symptoms is influenced by surrounding tissues of the nerve root, rather than the position of DRG. (author)

  8. Elevated expression of transient receptor potential vanilloid type 1 in dorsal root ganglia of rats with endometriosis

    Lian, Yu-Ling; Cheng, Ming-Jun; Zhang, Xian-Xia; Wang, Li

    2017-01-01

    Pain is the most pronounced complaint of women with endometriosis, however the underlying mechanism is still poorly understood. In the present study, the authors evaluate the effect of transient receptor potential vanilloid type 1 (TRPV1) of dorsal root ganglia (DRG) on endometriosis-associated pain. A total of 36 SD rats were randomly divided into a sham group (n=9) and a Model group (n=27), accepted auto-transplanted pieces of fat or uterus to the pelvic cavity. At 4 weeks, the Model group was randomly subdivided into the following groups: ENDO group (no treatment, n=9), BCTC group (Model + BCTC, an antagonist of TRPV1, n=9), Vehicle group (Model + cyclodextrin, the vehicle of BCTC, n=9). Tail-flick test was performed prior to surgery, 1 h prior to and following treatment of BCTC or cyclodextrin. The expression of TRPV1, substance P (SP), calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) in L1-L6 DRG was measured via immunohistochemistry, western blotting and RT-qPCR. The results indicated that the Model group exhibited a significant decrease in tail flick latency compared to pre-surgical baseline, and the expression of TRPV1, SP, CGRP protein and mRNA in L1-L6 DRG significantly increased compared to the sham group. BCTC significantly improved tail flick latency, and downregulated the expression of TRPV1, SP and CGRP protein and mRNA levels in L1-L6 DRG compared to ENDO group. However, there were no significant differences of those in Vehicle group compared with the ENDO group. Taken together, the current study provides evidence that TRPV1 expressed in DRG may serve an important role in endometriosis-associated pain. PMID:28627595

  9. Histology study on the dorsal root ganglia of rats with 125I seed brachytherapy at intervertebral foramen

    Zhang Wenyi; Wang Huixing; Ding Yanqiu; Qu Ximei; Wang Liqin; Liu Zhongchao; Cui Songye; Jiao Ling

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the effect of the histological changes on rat dorsal root ganglia (DRG) after 125 I seed brachytherapy.Methods Twelve adult male Sprague-Dawley rats (150-180 g each) were randomly divided into 6 groups, 125 I seeds with different activities of 0 (Titanium shell), 14.8, 18.5, 22.2, 25.9 and 29.6 MBq were implanted to 6 groups of rats respectively and the behavioral changes of rats were observed. The rats were killed in different periods after implantation,the morphological changes in DRG and surrounding muscle tissue were observed with an Olympus BX51 optical microscope and then the irradiation doses were estimated. Results: After 125 I seed implantation, the movement function of rats was not affected and the weight of rats gained after 7 days. After the titanium shell implantation, very few mild swelling was induced in neuroganglion cells that still had clear nucleolus and normal cytoplasm. At 14 days after 18.5 MBq seed implantation, cell swelling was more serious and cell dehydrating, nuclear condensation and nuclear fragmentation appeared after 30 days. At 60 days after 29.6 MBq of seed implantation, nuclear dissolution and cytoplasmic shrinkage were induced in a large number of cells.In general, the severity of fibrosis was aggravated with the time post-irradiation and the dose in the muscles around the ganglion. Conclusions: After 125 I seed implantation,the injury degree of DRG tissue is dose-dependent, and the 125 I seed irradiation would have analgesic effect on releasing intractable pain. (authors)

  10. Dync1h1 Mutation Causes Proprioceptive Sensory Neuron Loss and Impaired Retrograde Axonal Transport of Dorsal Root Ganglion Neurons.

    Zhao, Jing; Wang, Yi; Xu, Huan; Fu, Yuan; Qian, Ting; Bo, Deng; Lu, Yan-Xin; Xiong, Yi; Wan, Jun; Zhang, Xiang; Dong, Qiang; Chen, Xiang-Jun

    2016-07-01

    Sprawling (Swl) is a radiation-induced mutation which has been identified to have a nine base pair deletion in dynein heavy chain 1 (DYNC1H1: encoded by a single gene Dync1h1). This study is to investigate the phenotype and the underlying mechanism of the Dync1h1 mutant. To display the phenotype of Swl mutant mice, we examined the embryos of homozygous (Swl/Swl) and heterozygous (Swl/+) mice and their postnatal dorsal root ganglion (DRG) of surviving Swl/+ mice. The Swl/+ mice could survive for a normal life span, while Swl/Swl could only survive till embryonic (E) 8.5 days. Excessive apoptosis of Swl/+ DRG neurons was revealed during E11.5-E15.5 days, and the peak rate was at E13.5 days. In vitro study of mutated DRG neurons showed impaired retrograde transport of dynein-driven nerve growth factor (NGF). Mitochondria, another dynein-driven cargo, demonstrated much slower retrograde transport velocity in Swl/+ neurons than in wild-type (WT) neurons. Nevertheless, the Swl, Loa, and Cra mutations did not affect homodimerization of DYNC1H1. The Swl/Swl mutation of Dync1h1 gene led to embryonic mal-development and lethality, whereas the Swl/+ DRG neurons demonstrated deficient retrograde transport in dynein-driven cargos and excessive apoptosis during mid- to late-developmental stages. The underlying mechanism of the mutation may not be due to impaired homodimerization of DYNC1H1. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Shp-1 dephosphorylates TRPV1 in dorsal root ganglion neurons and alleviates CFA-induced inflammatory pain in rats.

    Xiao, Xing; Zhao, Xiao-Tao; Xu, Ling-Chi; Yue, Lu-Peng; Liu, Feng-Yu; Cai, Jie; Liao, Fei-Fei; Kong, Jin-Ge; Xing, Guo-Gang; Yi, Ming; Wan, You

    2015-04-01

    Transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 (TRPV1) receptors are expressed in nociceptive neurons of rat dorsal root ganglions (DRGs) and mediate inflammatory pain. Nonspecific inhibition of protein-tyrosine phosphatases (PTPs) increases the tyrosine phosphorylation of TRPV1 and sensitizes TRPV1. However, less is known about tyrosine phosphorylation's implication in inflammatory pain, compared with that of serine/threonine phosphorylation. Src homology 2 domain-containing tyrosine phosphatase 1 (Shp-1) is a key phosphatase dephosphorylating TRPV1. In this study, we reported that Shp-1 colocalized with and bound to TRPV1 in nociceptive DRG neurons. Shp-1 inhibitors, including sodium stibogluconate and PTP inhibitor III, sensitized TRPV1 in cultured DRG neurons. In naive rats, intrathecal injection of Shp-1 inhibitors increased both TRPV1 and tyrosine-phosphorylated TRPV1 in DRGs and induced thermal hyperalgesia, which was abolished by pretreatment with TRPV1 antagonists capsazepine, BCTC, or AMG9810. Complete Freund's adjuvant (CFA)-induced inflammatory pain in rats significantly increased the expression of Shp-1, TRPV1, and tyrosine-phosphorylated TRPV1, as well as the colocalization of Shp-1 and TRPV1 in DRGs. Intrathecal injection of sodium stibogluconate aggravated CFA-induced inflammatory pain, whereas Shp-1 overexpression in DRG neurons alleviated it. These results suggested that Shp-1 dephosphorylated and inhibited TRPV1 in DRG neurons, contributing to maintain thermal nociceptive thresholds in normal rats, and as a compensatory mechanism, Shp-1 increased in DRGs of rats with CFA-induced inflammatory pain, which was involved in protecting against excessive thermal hyperalgesia.

  12. The subacute damage of the dorsal root ganglion induced by collagenase in rats: a study on the ultrastructure of neurons

    Li Heping; Zhuang Wenquan; Yang Jianyong; Chen Wei

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To study the effects of collagenase on the ultrastructure of dorsal root ganglion (DRG) in rats. The safety of collagenase on nerve tissue was investigated. Additionally, the safety of percutaneous collagenase chemonucleolysis (PCCN) on nerve tissue was evaluated. Methods: In total 27 male, healthy SD rats were enrolled. All rats were randomized into 3 groups: normal group (9 rats), subacute damage of collagenase group (9 rats), subacute intervention-analogue group (9 rats). The left L5 DRG was exposed in each rat. One milliliter of the collagenase solution (300 units) was carefully applied to the exposed DRG in collagenase group, and one milliliter of the isotonic saline was applied to the exposed DRG in intervention-analogue group. The morphology of the DRG under electron microscope were analyzed 7-9 days after the procedures. Results: The types, number, and morphology of cells; the membrane of neutrons; the nerve fibers and blood vessels in DRG had not been changed in all groups observed under optic microscope. The difference of the ultrastructure of neutrons in DRG among the normal groups, intervention-analogue group and collagenase group was significant: 1) The eccentric nucleolus were revealed; 2) Swelling mitochondria and absence of mitochondria crests and vesicles. Cytoclasis and apoptosis of neutrons had not been observed under electron microscope. Conclusion: The collagenase used in PCCN dose have a certain damage to the neutreons in DRG. In the procedure of PCCN, the volume and dosage of collagenase should be carefully selected and the intervention should be precisely performed by experienced hands. (authors)

  13. Standardized Profiling of The Membrane-Enriched Proteome of Mouse Dorsal Root Ganglia (DRG) Provides Novel Insights Into Chronic Pain.

    Rouwette, Tom; Sondermann, Julia; Avenali, Luca; Gomez-Varela, David; Schmidt, Manuela

    2016-06-01

    Chronic pain is a complex disease with limited treatment options. Several profiling efforts have been employed with the aim to dissect its molecular underpinnings. However, generated results are often inconsistent and nonoverlapping, which is largely because of inherent technical constraints. Emerging data-independent acquisition (DIA)-mass spectrometry (MS) has the potential to provide unbiased, reproducible and quantitative proteome maps - a prerequisite for standardization among experiments. Here, we designed a DIA-based proteomics workflow to profile changes in the abundance of dorsal root ganglia (DRG) proteins in two mouse models of chronic pain, inflammatory and neuropathic. We generated a DRG-specific spectral library containing 3067 DRG proteins, which enables their standardized quantification by means of DIA-MS in any laboratory. Using this resource, we profiled 2526 DRG proteins in each biological replicate of both chronic pain models and respective controls with unprecedented reproducibility. We detected numerous differentially regulated proteins, the majority of which exhibited pain model-specificity. Our approach recapitulates known biology and discovers dozens of proteins that have not been characterized in the somatosensory system before. Functional validation experiments and analysis of mouse pain behaviors demonstrate that indeed meaningful protein alterations were discovered. These results illustrate how the application of DIA-MS can open new avenues to achieve the long-awaited standardization in the molecular dissection of pathologies of the somatosensory system. Therefore, our findings provide a valuable framework to qualitatively extend our understanding of chronic pain and somatosensation. © 2016 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  14. Prostaglandin E2 potentiation of P2X3 receptor mediated currents in dorsal root ganglion neurons

    Huang Li-Yen

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Prostaglandin E2 (PGE2 is a well-known inflammatory mediator that enhances the excitability of DRG neurons. Homomeric P2X3 and heteromeric P2X2/3 receptors are abundantly expressed in dorsal root ganglia (DRG neurons and participate in the transmission of nociceptive signals. The interaction between PGE2 and P2X3 receptors has not been well delineated. We studied the actions of PGE2 on ATP-activated currents in dissociated DRG neurons under voltage-clamp conditions. PGE2 had no effects on P2X2/3 receptor-mediated responses, but significantly potentiated fast-inactivating ATP currents mediated by homomeric P2X3 receptors. PGE2 exerted its action by activating EP3 receptors. To study the mechanism underlying the action of PGE2, we found that the adenylyl cyclase activator, forskolin and the membrane-permeable cAMP analogue, 8-Br-cAMP increased ATP currents, mimicking the effect of PGE2. In addition, forskolin occluded the enhancement produced by PGE2. The protein kinase A (PKA inhibitors, H89 and PKA-I blocked the PGE2 effect. In contrast, the PKC inhibitor, bisindolymaleimide (Bis did not change the potentiating action of PGE2. We further showed that PGE2 enhanced α,β-meATP-induced allodynia and hyperalgesia and the enhancement was blocked by H89. These observations suggest that PGE2 binds to EP3 receptors, resulting in the activation of cAMP/PKA signaling pathway and leading to an enhancement of P2X3 homomeric receptor-mediated ATP responses in DRG neurons.

  15. Nanoparticle-Encapsulated Curcumin Inhibits Diabetic Neuropathic Pain Involving the P2Y12 Receptor in the Dorsal Root Ganglia

    Tianyu Jia

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Diabetic peripheral neuropathy results in diabetic neuropathic pain (DNP. Satellite glial cells (SGCs enwrap the neuronal soma in the dorsal root ganglia (DRG. The purinergic 2 (P2 Y12 receptor is expressed on SGCs in the DRG. SGC activation plays an important role in the pathogenesis of DNP. Curcumin has anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties. Because curcumin has poor metabolic stability in vivo and low bioavailability, nanoparticle-encapsulated curcumin was used to improve its targeting and bioavailability. In the present study, our aim was to investigate the effects of nanoparticle-encapsulated curcumin on DNP mediated by the P2Y12 receptor on SGCs in the rat DRG. Diabetic peripheral neuropathy increased the expression levels of the P2Y12 receptor on SGCs in the DRG and enhanced mechanical and thermal hyperalgesia in rats with diabetes mellitus (DM. Up-regulation of the P2Y12 receptor in SGCs in the DRG increased the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines. Up-regulation of interleukin-1β (IL-1β and connexin43 (Cx43 resulted in mechanical and thermal hyperalgesia in rats with DM. The nanoparticle-encapsulated curcumin decreased up-regulated IL-1β and Cx43 expression and reduced levels of phosphorylated-Akt (p-Akt in the DRG of rats with DM. The up-regulation of P2Y12 on SGCs and the up-regulation of the IL-1β and Cx43 in the DRG indicated the activation of SGCs in the DRG. The nano-curcumin treatment inhibited the activation of SGCs accompanied by its anti-inflammatory effect to decrease the up-regulated CGRP expression in the DRG neurons. Therefore, the nanoparticle-encapsulated curcumin treatment decreased the up-regulation of the P2Y12 receptor on SGCs in the DRG and decreased mechanical and thermal hyperalgesia in rats with DM.

  16. Activation of KCNQ Channels Suppresses Spontaneous Activity in Dorsal Root Ganglion Neurons and Reduces Chronic Pain after Spinal Cord Injury.

    Wu, Zizhen; Li, Lin; Xie, Fuhua; Du, Junhui; Zuo, Yan; Frost, Jeffrey A; Carlton, Susan M; Walters, Edgar T; Yang, Qing

    2017-03-15

    A majority of people who have sustained spinal cord injury (SCI) experience chronic pain after injury, and this pain is highly resistant to available treatments. Contusive SCI in rats at T10 results in hyperexcitability of primary sensory neurons, which contributes to chronic pain. KCNQ channels are widely expressed in nociceptive dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons, are important for controlling their excitability, and their activation has proven effective in reducing pain in peripheral nerve injury and inflammation models. The possibility that activators of KCNQ channels could be useful for treating SCI-induced chronic pain is strongly supported by the following findings. First, SCI, unlike peripheral nerve injury, failed to decrease the functional or biochemical expression of KCNQ channels in DRG as revealed by electrophysiology, real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction, and Western blot; therefore, these channels remain available for pharmacological targeting of SCI pain. Second, treatment with retigabine, a specific KCNQ channel opener, profoundly decreased spontaneous activity in primary sensory neurons of SCI animals both in vitro and in vivo without changing the peripheral mechanical threshold. Third, retigabine reversed SCI-induced reflex hypersensitivity, adding to our previous demonstration that retigabine supports the conditioning of place preference after SCI (an operant measure of spontaneous pain). In contrast to SCI animals, naïve animals showed no effects of retigabine on reflex sensitivity or conditioned place preference by pairing with retigabine, indicating that a dose that blocks chronic pain-related behavior has no effect on normal pain sensitivity or motivational state. These results encourage the further exploration of U.S. Food and Drug Administration-approved KCNQ activators for treating SCI pain, as well as efforts to develop a new generation of KCNQ activators that lack central side effects.

  17. Oxaliplatin-Induced Peripheral Neuropathy via TRPA1 Stimulation in Mice Dorsal Root Ganglion Is Correlated with Aluminum Accumulation.

    Jin-Hee Park

    Full Text Available Oxaliplatin is a platinum-based anticancer drug used to treat metastatic colorectal, breast, and lung cancers. While oxaliplatin kills cancer cells effectively, it exhibits several side effects of varying severity. Neuropathic pain is commonly experienced during treatment with oxaliplatin. Patients describe symptoms of paresthesias or dysesthesias that are triggered by cold (acute neuropathy, or as abnormal sensory or motor function (chronic neuropathy. In particular, we found that aluminum levels were relatively high in some cancer patients suffering from neuropathic pain based on clinical observations. Based on these findings, we hypothesized that aluminum accumulation in the dorsal root ganglion (DRG in the course of oxaliplatin treatment exacerbates neuropathic pain. In mice injected with oxaliplatin (three cycles of 3 mg/kg i.p. daily for 5 days, followed by 5 days of rest, we detected cold allodynia using the acetone test, but not heat hyperalgesia using a hot plate. However, co-treatment with aluminum chloride (AlCl3∙6H2O; 7 mg/kg i.p. for 14 days: equivalent 0.78 mg/kg of elemental Al and oxaliplatin (1 cycle of 3 mg/kg i.p. daily for 5 days, followed by 5 days of rest synergistically induced cold allodynia as well as increased TRPAl mRNA and protein expression. Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry (ICP-MS analysis showed a significant increase in aluminum concentrations in the DRG of mice treated with aluminum chloride and oxaliplatin compared to aluminum chloride alone. Similarly, in a mouse induced-tumor model, aluminum concentrations were increased in DRG tissue and tumor cells after oxaliplatin treatment. Taken together, these findings suggest that aluminum accumulation in the DRG may exacerbate neuropathic pain in oxaliplatin-treated mice.

  18. Sex differences in pain-related behavior and expression of calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II in dorsal root ganglia of rats with diabetes type 1 and type 2.

    Ferhatovic, Lejla; Banozic, Adriana; Kostic, Sandra; Sapunar, Damir; Puljak, Livia

    2013-06-01

    Sex differences in pain-related behavior and expression of calcium/calmodulin dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII) in dorsal root ganglia were studied in rat models of Diabetes mellitus type 1 (DM1) and type 2 (DM2). DM1 was induced with 55mg/kg streptozotocin, and DM2 with a combination of high-fat diet and 35mg/kg of streptozotocin. Pain-related behavior was analyzed using thermal and mechanical stimuli. The expression of CaMKII was analyzed with immunofluorescence. Sexual dimorphism in glycemia, and expression of CaMKII was observed in the rat model of DM1, but not in DM2 animals. Increased expression of total CaMKII (tCaMKII) in small-diameter dorsal root ganglia neurons, which are associated with nociception, was found only in male DM1 rats. None of the animals showed increased expression of the phosphorylated alpha CaMKII isoform in small-diameter neurons. The expression of gamma and delta isoforms of CaMKII remained unchanged in all analyzed animal groups. Different patterns of glycemia and tCaMKII expression in male and female model of DM1 were not associated with sexual dimorphism in pain-related behavior. The present findings do not suggest sex-related differences in diabetic painful peripheral neuropathy in male and female diabetic rats. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  19. Identification of key genes and pathways associated with neuropathic pain in uninjured dorsal root ganglion by using bioinformatic analysis

    Chen CJ

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Chao-Jin Chen,* De-Zhao Liu,* Wei-Feng Yao, Yu Gu, Fei Huang, Zi-Qing Hei, Xiang Li Department of Anesthesiology, The Third Affiliated Hospital of Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou, People’s Republic of China *These authors contributed equally to this work Purpose: Neuropathic pain is a complex chronic condition occurring post-nervous system damage. The transcriptional reprogramming of injured dorsal root ganglia (DRGs drives neuropathic pain. However, few comparative analyses using high-throughput platforms have investigated uninjured DRG in neuropathic pain, and potential interactions among differentially expressed genes (DEGs and pathways were not taken into consideration. The aim of this study was to identify changes in genes and pathways associated with neuropathic pain in uninjured L4 DRG after L5 spinal nerve ligation (SNL by using bioinformatic analysis.Materials and methods: The microarray profile GSE24982 was downloaded from the Gene Expression Omnibus database to identify DEGs between DRGs in SNL and sham rats. The prioritization for these DEGs was performed using the Toppgene database followed by gene ontology and pathway enrichment analyses. The relationships among DEGs from the protein interactive perspective were analyzed using protein–protein interaction (PPI network and module analysis. Real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR and Western blotting were used to confirm the expression of DEGs in the rodent neuropathic pain model.Results: A total of 206 DEGs that might play a role in neuropathic pain were identified in L4 DRG, of which 75 were upregulated and 131 were downregulated. The upregulated DEGs were enriched in biological processes related to transcription regulation and molecular functions such as DNA binding, cell cycle, and the FoxO signaling pathway. Ctnnb1 protein had the highest connectivity degrees in the PPI network. The in vivo studies also validated that mRNA and protein levels of Ctnnb1 were

  20. Differential expression of ATP7A, ATP7B and CTR1 in adult rat dorsal root ganglion tissue

    Ip Virginia

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background ATP7A, ATP7B and CTR1 are metal transporting proteins that control the cellular disposition of copper and platinum drugs, but their expression in dorsal root ganglion (DRG tissue and their role in platinum-induced neurotoxicity are unknown. To investigate the DRG expression of ATP7A, ATP7B and CTR1, lumbar DRG and reference tissues were collected for real time quantitative PCR, RT-PCR, immunohistochemistry and Western blot analysis from healthy control adult rats or from animals treated with intraperitoneal oxaliplatin (1.85 mg/kg or drug vehicle twice weekly for 8 weeks. Results In DRG tissue from healthy control animals, ATP7A mRNA was clearly detectable at levels similar to those found in the brain and spinal cord, and intense ATP7A immunoreactivity was localised to the cytoplasm of cell bodies of smaller DRG neurons without staining of satellite cells, nerve fibres or co-localisation with phosphorylated heavy neurofilament subunit (pNF-H. High levels of CTR1 mRNA were detected in all tissues from healthy control animals, and strong CTR1 immunoreactivity was associated with plasma membranes and vesicular cytoplasmic structures of the cell bodies of larger-sized DRG neurons without co-localization with ATP7A. DRG neurons with strong expression of ATP7A or CTR1 had distinct cell body size profiles with minimal overlap between them. Oxaliplatin treatment did not alter the size profile of strongly ATP7A-immunoreactive neurons but significantly reduced the size profile of strongly CTR1-immunoreactive neurons. ATP7B mRNA was barely detectable, and no specific immunoreactivity for ATP7B was found, in DRG tissue from healthy control animals. Conclusions In conclusion, adult rat DRG tissue exhibits a specific pattern of expression of copper transporters with distinct subsets of peripheral sensory neurons intensely expressing either ATP7A or CTR1, but not both or ATP7B. The neuron subtype-specific and largely non

  1. Temporal mechanically-induced signaling events in bone and dorsal root ganglion neurons after in vivo bone loading.

    Jason A Bleedorn

    Full Text Available Mechanical signals play an integral role in the regulation of bone mass and functional adaptation to bone loading. The osteocyte has long been considered the principle mechanosensory cell type in bone, although recent evidence suggests the sensory nervous system may play a role in mechanosensing. The specific signaling pathways responsible for functional adaptation of the skeleton through modeling and remodeling are not clearly defined. In vitro studies suggest involvement of intracellular signaling through mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK, phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K/protein kinase B (Akt, and mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR. However, anabolic signaling responses to bone loading using a whole animal in vivo model have not been studied in detail. Therefore, we examined mechanically-induced signaling events at five time points from 0 to 24 hours after loading using the rat in vivo ulna end-loading model. Western blot analysis of bone for MAPK's, PI3K/Akt, and mTOR signaling, and quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR to estimate gene expression of calcitonin gene-related protein alpha (CGRP-α, brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF, nerve growth factor (NGF, c-jun, and c-fos in dorsal root ganglion (DRG of the brachial intumescence were performed. There was a significant increase in signaling through MAPK's including extracellular signal-related kinase (ERK and c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK in loaded limbs at 15 minutes after mechanical loading. Ulna loading did not significantly influence expression of the genes of interest in DRG neurons. Bone signaling and DRG gene expression from the loaded and contralateral limbs was correlated (SR>0.40, P<0.05. However, bone signaling did not correlate with expression of the genes of interest in DRG neurons. These results suggest that signaling through the MAPK pathway may be involved in load-induced bone formation in vivo. Further characterization of the

  2. Assessing the effectiveness of ‘pulse radiofrequency treatment of dorsal root ganglion’ in patients with chronic lumbar radicular pain: study protocol for a randomized control trial

    Shanthanna Harsha

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Chronic lumbar radicular pain can be described as neuropathic pain along the distribution of a particular nerve root. The dorsal root ganglion has been implicated in its pathogenesis by giving rise to abnormal impulse generation as a result of irritation, direct compression and sensitization. Chronic lumbar radicular pain is commonly treated with medications, physiotherapy and epidural steroid injections. Epidural steroid injections are associated with several common and rarer side effects such as spinal cord infarction and death. It is essential and advantageous to look for alternate interventions which could be effective with fewer side effects. Pulse radio frequency is a relatively new technique and is less destructive then conventional radiofrequency. Safety and effectiveness of pulse radio frequency in neuropathic pain has been demonstrated in animal and humans studies. Although its effects on dorsal root ganglion have been studied in animals there is only one randomized control trial in literature demonstrating its effectiveness in cervical radicular pain and none in lumbar radicular pain. Our primary objective is to study the feasibility of a larger trial in terms of recruitment and methodology. Secondary objectives are to compare the treatment effects and side effects. Methods/designs This is a single-center, parallel, placebo-controlled, triple-blinded (patients, care-givers, and outcome assessors, randomized control trial. Participants will have a history of chronic lumbar radicular pain for at least 4 months in duration. Once randomized, all patients will have an intervention involving fluoroscopy guided needle placement to appropriate dorsal root ganglion. After test stimulation in both groups; the study group will have a pulse radio frequency treatment at 42°C for 120 s to the dorsal root ganglion, with the control group having only low intensity test stimulation for the same duration. Primary outcome is to

  3. Direct effects of HIV-1 Tat on excitability and survival of primary dorsal root ganglion neurons: possible contribution to HIV-1-associated pain.

    Xianxun Chi

    Full Text Available The vast majority of people living with human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1 have pain syndrome, which has a significant impact on their quality of life. The underlying causes of HIV-1-associated pain are not likely attributable to direct viral infection of the nervous system due to the lack of evidence of neuronal infection by HIV-1. However, HIV-1 proteins are possibly involved as they have been implicated in neuronal damage and death. The current study assesses the direct effects of HIV-1 Tat, one of potent neurotoxic viral proteins released from HIV-1-infected cells, on the excitability and survival of rat primary dorsal root ganglion (DRG neurons. We demonstrated that HIV-1 Tat triggered rapid and sustained enhancement of the excitability of small-diameter rat primary DRG neurons, which was accompanied by marked reductions in the rheobase and resting membrane potential (RMP, and an increase in the resistance at threshold (R(Th. Such Tat-induced DRG hyperexcitability may be a consequence of the inhibition of cyclin-dependent kinase 5 (Cdk5 activity. Tat rapidly inhibited Cdk5 kinase activity and mRNA production, and roscovitine, a well-known Cdk5 inhibitor, induced a very similar pattern of DRG hyperexcitability. Indeed, pre-application of Tat prevented roscovitine from having additional effects on the RMP and action potentials (APs of DRGs. However, Tat-mediated actions on the rheobase and R(Th were accelerated by roscovitine. These results suggest that Tat-mediated changes in DRG excitability are partly facilitated by Cdk5 inhibition. In addition, Cdk5 is most abundant in DRG neurons and participates in the regulation of pain signaling. We also demonstrated that HIV-1 Tat markedly induced apoptosis of primary DRG neurons after exposure for longer than 48 h. Together, this work indicates that HIV-1 proteins are capable of producing pain signaling through direct actions on excitability and survival of sensory neurons.

  4. [Effect of bee venom injection on TrkA and TRPV1 expression in the dorsal root ganglion of rats with collagen-induced arthritis].

    Xian, Pei-Feng; Chen, Ying; Yang, Lu; Liu, Guo-Tao; Peng, Peng; Wang, Sheng-Xu

    2016-06-01

    To investigate the therapeutic effect of acupoint injection of bee venom on collagen-induced arthritis (CIA) in rats and explore the mechanism of bee venom therapy in the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis. Fifteen male Wistar rats were randomly divided into bee venom treatment group (BV group), CIA model group, and control group. In the former two groups, CIA was induced by injections of collagen II+IFA (0.2 mL) via the tail vein, and in the control group, normal saline was injected instead. The rats in BV group received daily injection of 0.1 mL (3 mg/mL) bee venom for 7 consecutive days. All the rats were assessed for paw thickness and arthritis index from days 14 to 21, and the pain threshold was determined on day 21. The expressions of TRPV1 and TrkA in the dorsal root ganglion at the level of L4-6 were detected using immunohistochemistry and Western blotting, respectively. The rats in CIA model group started to show paw swelling on day 10, and by day 14, all the rats in this group showed typical signs of CIA. In BV group, the rats receiving been venom therapy for 7 days showed a significantly smaller paw thickness and a low arthritis index than those in the model group. The pain threshold was the highest in the control group and the lowest in the model group. TRPV1-positive cells and TrkA expression in the dorsal root ganglion was significantly reduced in BV group as compared with that in the model group. s Injection of bee venom can decrease expression of TRPV1 and TrkA in the dorsal root ganglion to produce anti-inflammatory and analgesic effects, suggesting the potential value of bee venom in the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis.

  5. Inhibition of calcineurin inhibits the desensitization of capsaicin evoked currents in cultured dorsal root ganglion neurones from adult rats

    Docherty, RJ; Yeats, JC; Bevan, S; Boddeke, HWGM

    Capsaicin activates a non-specific cation conductance in mammalian sensory neurones. If capsaicin is applied continuously or repeatedly then there is a progressive decline in responsiveness. We have studied the mechanism of this desensitization using electrophysiological methods in cultured dorsal

  6. Dorsal root ganglion neurons innervating skeletal muscle respond to physiological combinations of protons, ATP, and lactate mediated by ASIC, P2X, and TRPV1.

    Light, Alan R; Hughen, Ronald W; Zhang, Jie; Rainier, Jon; Liu, Zhuqing; Lee, Jeewoo

    2008-09-01

    The adequate stimuli and molecular receptors for muscle metaboreceptors and nociceptors are still under investigation. We used calcium imaging of cultured primary sensory dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons from C57Bl/6 mice to determine candidates for metabolites that could be the adequate stimuli and receptors that could detect these stimuli. Retrograde DiI labeling determined that some of these neurons innervated skeletal muscle. We found that combinations of protons, ATP, and lactate were much more effective than individually applied compounds for activating rapid calcium increases in muscle-innervating dorsal root ganglion neurons. Antagonists for P2X, ASIC, and TRPV1 receptors suggested that these three receptors act together to detect protons, ATP, and lactate when presented together in physiologically relevant concentrations. Two populations of muscle-innervating DRG neurons were found. One responded to low metabolite levels (likely nonnoxious) and used ASIC3, P2X5, and TRPV1 as molecular receptors to detect these metabolites. The other responded to high levels of metabolites (likely noxious) and used ASIC3, P2X4, and TRPV1 as their molecular receptors. We conclude that a combination of ASIC, P2X5 and/or P2X4, and TRPV1 are the molecular receptors used to detect metabolites by muscle-innervating sensory neurons. We further conclude that the adequate stimuli for muscle metaboreceptors and nociceptors are combinations of protons, ATP, and lactate.

  7. Dorsal Root Ganglion Stimulation for Complex Regional Pain Syndrome (CRPS) Recurrence after Amputation for CRPS, and Failure of Conventional Spinal Cord Stimulation.

    Goebel, Andreas; Lewis, Sarah; Phillip, Rhodri; Sharma, Manohar

    2018-01-01

    Limb amputation is sometimes being performed in long-standing complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS), although little evidence is available guiding management decisions, including how CRPS recurrence should be managed. This report details the management of a young soldier with CRPS recurrence 2 years after midtibial amputation for CRPS. Conventional spinal cord stimulation did not achieve paraesthetic coverage, or pain relief in the stump, whereas L4 dorsal root ganglion stimulation achieved both coverage and initially modest pain relief, and over time, substantial pain relief. Current evidence does not support the use of amputation to improve either pain or function in CRPS. Before a decision is made, in exceptional cases, about referral for amputation, dorsal root ganglion stimulation should be considered as a potentially effective treatment, even where conventional spinal cord stimulator treatment has failed to achieve reliable paraesthetic cover. Furthermore, this treatment may provide pain relief in those patients with CRPS recurrence in the stump after amputation. © 2017 World Institute of Pain.

  8. In Vitro Analysis of the Role of Schwann Cells on Axonal Degeneration and Regeneration Using Sensory Neurons from Dorsal Root Ganglia.

    López-Leal, Rodrigo; Diaz, Paula; Court, Felipe A

    2018-01-01

    Sensory neurons from dorsal root ganglion efficiently regenerate after peripheral nerve injuries. These neurons are widely used as a model system to study degenerative mechanisms of the soma and axons, as well as regenerative axonal growth in the peripheral nervous system. This chapter describes techniques associated to the study of axonal degeneration and regeneration using explant cultures of dorsal root ganglion sensory neurons in vitro in the presence or absence of Schwann cells. Schwann cells are extremely important due to their involvement in tissue clearance during axonal degeneration as well as their known pro-regenerative effect during regeneration in the peripheral nervous system. We describe methods to induce and study axonal degeneration triggered by axotomy (mechanical separation of the axon from its soma) and treatment with vinblastine (which blocks axonal transport), which constitute clinically relevant mechanical and toxic models of axonal degeneration. In addition, we describe three different methods to evaluate axonal regeneration using quantitative methods. These protocols constitute a valuable tool to analyze in vitro mechanisms associated to axonal degeneration and regeneration of sensory neurons and the role of Schwann cells in these processes.

  9. Lumbar dorsal ramus syndrome.

    Bogduk, N

    1980-11-15

    Low back pain, referred pain in the lower limbs, and spasm of the back, gluteal, and hamstring muscles are clinical features which can be induced in normal volunteers by stimulating structures which are innervated by the lumbar dorsal rami. Conversely, they can be relieved in certain patients by selective interruption of conduction along dorsal rami. These facts permit the definition of a lumbar dorsal ramus syndrome, which can be distinguished from the intervertebral disc syndrome and other forms of low back pain. The distinguishing feature is that, in lumbar dorsal ramus syndrome, all the clinical features are exclusively mediated by dorsal rami and do not arise from nerve-root compression. The pathophysiology, pathology, and treatment of this syndrome are described. Recognition of this syndrome, and its treatment with relatively minor procedures, can obviate the need for major surgery which might otherwise be undertaken.

  10. Bilateral downregulation of Nav1.8 in dorsal root ganglia of rats with bone cancer pain induced by inoculation with Walker 256 breast tumor cells

    Miao, Xue-Rong; Gao, Xiao-Fei; Wu, Jing-Xiang; Lu, Zhi-Jie; Huang, Zhang-Xiang; Li, Xiao-Qing; He, Cheng; Yu, Wei-Feng

    2010-01-01

    Rapid and effective treatment of cancer-induced bone pain remains a clinical challenge and patients with bone metastasis are more likely to experience severe pain. The voltage-gated sodium channel Nav1.8 plays a critical role in many aspects of nociceptor function. Therefore, we characterized a rat model of cancer pain and investigated the potential role of Nav1.8. Adult female Wistar rats were used for the study. Cancer pain was induced by inoculation of Walker 256 breast carcinosarcoma cells into the tibia. After surgery, mechanical and thermal hyperalgesia and ambulation scores were evaluated to identify pain-related behavior. We used real-time RT-PCR to determine Nav1.8 mRNA expression in bilateral L4/L5 dorsal root ganglia (DRG) at 16-19 days after surgery. Western blotting and immunofluorescence were used to compare the expression and distribution of Nav1.8 in L4/L5 DRG between tumor-bearing and sham rats. Antisense oligodeoxynucleotides (ODNs) against Nav1.8 were administered intrathecally at 14-16 days after surgery to knock down Nav1.8 protein expression and changes in pain-related behavior were observed. Tumor-bearing rats exhibited mechanical hyperalgesia and ambulatory-evoked pain from day 7 after inoculation of Walker 256 cells. In the advanced stage of cancer pain (days 16-19 after surgery), normalized Nav1.8 mRNA levels assessed by real-time RT-PCR were significantly lower in ipsilateral L4/L5 DRG of tumor-bearing rats compared with the sham group. Western-blot showed that the total expression of Nav1.8 protein significantly decreased bilaterally in DRG of tumor-bearing rats. Furthermore, as revealed by immunofluorescence, only the expression of Nav1.8 protein in small neurons down regulated significantly in bilateral DRG of cancer pain rats. After administration of antisense ODNs against Nav1.8, Nav1.8 protein expression decreased significantly and tumor-bearing rats showed alleviated mechanical hyperalgesia and ambulatory-evoked pain. These

  11. Neuronal and glial expression of inward rectifier potassium channel subunits Kir2.x in rat dorsal root ganglion and spinal cord.

    Murata, Yuzo; Yasaka, Toshiharu; Takano, Makoto; Ishihara, Keiko

    2016-03-23

    Inward rectifier K(+) channels of the Kir2.x subfamily play important roles in controlling the neuronal excitability. Although their cellular localization in the brain has been extensively studied, only a few studies have examined their expression in the spinal cord and peripheral nervous system. In this study, immunohistochemical analyses of Kir2.1, Kir2.2, and Kir2.3 expression were performed in rat dorsal root ganglion (DRG) and spinal cord using bright-field and confocal microscopy. In DRG, most ganglionic neurons expressed Kir2.1, Kir2.2 and Kir2.3, whereas satellite glial cells chiefly expressed Kir2.3. In the spinal cord, Kir2.1, Kir2.2 and Kir2.3 were all expressed highly in the gray matter of dorsal and ventral horns and moderately in the white matter also. Within the gray matter, the expression was especially high in the substantia gelatinosa (lamina II). Confocal images obtained using markers for neuronal cells, NeuN, and astrocytes, Sox9, showed expression of all three Kir2 subunits in both neuronal somata and astrocytes in lamina I-III of the dorsal horn and the lateral spinal nucleus of the dorsolateral funiculus. Immunoreactive signals other than those in neuronal and glial somata were abundant in lamina I and II, which probably located mainly in nerve fibers or nerve terminals. Colocalization of Kir2.1 and 2.3 and that of Kir2.2 and 2.3 were present in neuronal and glial somata. In the ventral horn, motor neurons and interneurons were also immunoreactive with the three Kir2 subunits. Our study suggests that Kir2 channels composed of Kir2.1-2.3 subunits are expressed in neuronal and glial cells in the DRG and spinal cord, contributing to sensory transduction and motor control. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. First report of important causal relationship between the Adamkiewicz artery vasospasm and dorsal root ganglion cell degeneration in spinal subarachnoid hemorrhage: An experimental study using a rabbit model.

    Turkmenoglu, Osman N; Kanat, Ayhan; Yolas, Coskun; Aydin, Mehmet Dumlu; Ezirmik, Naci; Gundogdu, Cemal

    2017-01-01

    The blood supply of the lower spinal cord is heavily dependent on the artery of Adamkiewicz. The goal of this study was to elucidate the effects of lumbar subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) on the lumbar 4 dorsal root ganglion (L4DRG) cells secondary to Adamkiewicz artery (AKA) vasospasm. This study was conducted on 20 rabbits, which were randomly divided into three groups: Spinal SAH ( n = 8), serum saline (SS) (SS; n = 6) and control ( n = 6) groups. Experimental spinal SAH was performed. After 20 days, volume values of AKA and neuron density of L4DRG were analyzed. The mean alive neuron density of the L4DRG was 15420 ± 1240/mm 3 and degenerated neuron density was 1045 ± 260/mm 3 in the control group. Whereas, the density of living and degenerated neurons density were 12930 ± 1060/mm 3 and 1365 ± 480/mm 3 in serum saline (SS), 9845 ± 1028/mm 3 and 4560 ± 1340/mm 3 in the SAH group. The mean volume of imaginary AKAs was estimated as 1,250 ± 0,310 mm 3 in the control group and 1,030 ± 0,240 mm 3 in the SF group and 0,910 ± 0,170 mm 3 in SAH group. Volume reduction of the AKAs and neuron density L4DRG were significantly different between the SAH and other two groups ( P < 0.05). Decreased volume of the lumen of the artery of Adamkiewicz was observed in animals with SAH compared with controls. Increased degeneration the L4 dorsal root ganglion in animals with SAH was also noted. Our findings will aid in the planning of future experimental studies and determining the clinical relevance on such studies.

  13. Pulsed Radiofrequency of Dorsal Root Ganglia for the Treatment of Complex Regional Pain Syndrome in an Adolescent with Poliomyelitis Sequel: A Case Report.

    Apiliogullari, Seza; Aydin, Bahattin Kerem; Onal, Ozkan; Kirac, Yunus; Celik, Jale Bengi

    2015-07-01

    Complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS) is a painful and disabling syndrome in which the patient presents with neuropathic pain, edema, or vasomotor or pseudomotor abnormalities that are often refractory to treatment. Polio paralysis is caused by the damage or destruction of motor neurons in the spine, which lead to corresponding muscle paralysis. This report is a case report on the application of a pulsed radiofrequency (PRF) current to dorsal root ganglia (DRG) for the treatment of CRPS type 1 in an adolescent patient. Single case report. Selcuk University Hospital. A 16-year-old girl who suffered from CRPS type 1 secondary to surgeries for the sequelae of poliomyelitis. PRF current application to the lumbar 4 and lumbar 5 DRG. Pain reduction. The patient had complete resolution of her symptoms, which was maintained at a 6-month follow-up. This case illustrates that PRF applied to lumbar 4 and lumbar 5 DRG may play a significant role in CRPS type 1 management after the surgical treatment of poliomyelitis sequelae in adolescent patients. Further randomized, controlled studies are needed to support this argument. Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. An oral form of methylglyoxal-bis-guanylhydrazone reduces monocyte activation and traffic to the dorsal root ganglia in a primate model of HIV-peripheral neuropathy.

    Lakritz, Jessica R; Yalamanchili, Samshita; Polydefkis, Michael J; Miller, Andrew D; McGrath, Michael S; Williams, Kenneth C; Burdo, Tricia H

    2017-08-01

    Peripheral neuropathy (PN) is a major comorbidity of HIV infection that is caused in part by chronic immune activation. HIV-PN is associated with infiltration of monocytes/macrophages to the dorsal root ganglia (DRG) causing neuronal loss and formation of Nageotte nodules. Here, we used an oral form of methylglyoxal-bis-guanylhydrazone (MGBG), a polyamine biosynthesis inhibitor, to specifically reduce activation of myeloid cells. MGBG is selectively taken up by monocyte/macrophages in vitro and inhibits HIV p24 expression and DNA viral integration in macrophages. Here, MGBG was administered to nine SIV-infected, CD8-depleted rhesus macaques at 21 days post-infection (dpi). An additional nine SIV-infected, CD8-depleted rhesus macaques were used as untreated controls. Cell traffic to tissues was measured by in vivo BrdU pulse labeling. MGBG treatment significantly diminished DRG histopathology and reduced the number of CD68+ and CD163+ macrophages in DRG tissue. The number of recently trafficked BrdU+ cells in the DRG was significantly reduced with MGBG treatment. Despite diminished DRG pathology, intraepidermal nerve fiber density (IENFD) did not recover after treatment with MGBG. These data suggest that MGBG alleviated DRG pathology and inflammation.

  15. Radiotherapy Suppresses Bone Cancer Pain through Inhibiting Activation of cAMP Signaling in Rat Dorsal Root Ganglion and Spinal Cord

    Guiqin Zhu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Radiotherapy is one of the major clinical approaches for treatment of bone cancer pain. Activation of cAMP-PKA signaling pathway plays important roles in bone cancer pain. Here, we examined the effects of radiotherapy on bone cancer pain and accompanying abnormal activation of cAMP-PKA signaling. Female Sprague-Dawley rats were used and received tumor cell implantation (TCI in rat tibia (TCI cancer pain model. Some of the rats that previously received TCI treatment were treated with X-ray radiation (radiotherapy. Thermal hyperalgesia and mechanical allodynia were measured and used for evaluating level of pain caused by TCI treatment. PKA mRNA expression in dorsal root ganglion (DRG was detected by RT-PCR. Concentrations of cAMP, IL-1β, and TNF-α as well as PKA activity in DRG and the spinal cord were measured by ELISA. The results showed that radiotherapy significantly suppressed TCI-induced thermal hyperalgesia and mechanical allodynia. The level of PKA mRNA in DRG, cAMP concentration and PKA activity in DRG and in the spinal cord, and concentrations of IL-1β and TNF-α in the spinal cord were significantly reduced by radiotherapy. In addition, radiotherapy also reduced TCI-induced bone loss. These findings suggest that radiotherapy may suppress bone cancer pain through inhibition of activation of cAMP-PKA signaling pathway in DRG and the spinal cord.

  16. Low Frequency Electroacupuncture Alleviated Spinal Nerve Ligation Induced Mechanical Allodynia by Inhibiting TRPV1 Upregulation in Ipsilateral Undamaged Dorsal Root Ganglia in Rats

    Yong-Liang Jiang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Neuropathic pain is an intractable problem in clinical practice. Accumulating evidence shows that electroacupuncture (EA with low frequency can effectively relieve neuropathic pain. Transient receptor potential vanilloid type 1 (TRPV1 plays a key role in neuropathic pain. The study aimed to investigate whether neuropathic pain relieved by EA administration correlates with TRPV1 inhibition. Neuropathic pain was induced by right L5 spinal nerve ligation (SNL in rats. 2 Hz EA stimulation was administered. SNL induced mechanical allodynia in ipsilateral hind paw. SNL caused a significant reduction of TRPV1 expression in ipsilateral L5 dorsal root ganglia (DRG, but a significant up-regulation in ipsilateral L4 and L6 DRGs. Calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP change was consistent with that of TRPV1. EA alleviated mechanical allodynia, and inhibited TRPV1 and CGRP overexpressions in ipsilateral L4 and L6 DRGs. SNL did not decrease pain threshold of contralateral hind paw, and TRPV1 expression was not changed in contralateral L5 DRG. 0.001, 0.01 mg/kg TRPV1 agonist 6′-IRTX fully blocked EA analgesia in ipsilateral hind paw. 0.01 mg/kg 6′-IRTX also significantly decreased pain threshold of contralateral paw. These results indicated that inhibition of TRPV1 up-regulation in ipsilateral adjacent undamaged DRGs contributed to low frequency EA analgesia for mechanical allodynia induced by spinal nerve ligation.

  17. Effects of serum immunoglobulins from patients with complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS) on depolarisation-induced calcium transients in isolated dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons.

    Reilly, Joanne M; Dharmalingam, Backialakshmi; Marsh, Stephen J; Thompson, Victoria; Goebel, Andreas; Brown, David A

    2016-03-01

    Complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS) is thought to have an auto-immune component. One such target recently proposed from the effects of auto-immune IgGs on Ca(2+) transients in cardiac myocytes and cell lines is the α1-adrenoceptor. We have tested whether such IgGs exerted comparable effects on nociceptive sensory neurons isolated from rat dorsal root ganglia. Depolarisation-induced [Ca(2+)]i transients were generated by applying 30 mM KCl for 2 min and monitored by Fura-2 fluorescence imaging. No IgGs tested (including 3 from CRPS patients) had any significant effect on these [Ca(2+)]i transients. However, IgG from one CRPS patient consistently and significantly reduced the K(+)-induced response of cells that had been pre-incubated for 24h with a mixture of inflammatory mediators (1 μM histamine, 5-hydroxytryptamine, bradykinin and PGE2). Since this pre-incubation also appeared to induce a comparable inhibitory response to the α1-agonist phenylephrine, this is compatible with the α1-adrenoceptor as a target for CRPS auto-immunity. A mechanism whereby this might enhance pain is suggested. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  18. Neuro-fuzzy decoding of sensory information from ensembles of simultaneously recorded dorsal root ganglion neurons for functional electrical stimulation applications

    Rigosa, J.; Weber, D. J.; Prochazka, A.; Stein, R. B.; Micera, S.

    2011-08-01

    Functional electrical stimulation (FES) is used to improve motor function after injury to the central nervous system. Some FES systems use artificial sensors to switch between finite control states. To optimize FES control of the complex behavior of the musculo-skeletal system in activities of daily life, it is highly desirable to implement feedback control. In theory, sensory neural signals could provide the required control signals. Recent studies have demonstrated the feasibility of deriving limb-state estimates from the firing rates of primary afferent neurons recorded in dorsal root ganglia (DRG). These studies used multiple linear regression (MLR) methods to generate estimates of limb position and velocity based on a weighted sum of firing rates in an ensemble of simultaneously recorded DRG neurons. The aim of this study was to test whether the use of a neuro-fuzzy (NF) algorithm (the generalized dynamic fuzzy neural networks (GD-FNN)) could improve the performance, robustness and ability to generalize from training to test sets compared to the MLR technique. NF and MLR decoding methods were applied to ensemble DRG recordings obtained during passive and active limb movements in anesthetized and freely moving cats. The GD-FNN model provided more accurate estimates of limb state and generalized better to novel movement patterns. Future efforts will focus on implementing these neural recording and decoding methods in real time to provide closed-loop control of FES using the information extracted from sensory neurons.

  19. Creating a Strain Relief Loop during S1 Transforaminal Lead Placement for Dorsal Root Ganglion Stimulation for Foot Pain: A Technical Note.

    van Velsen, Valery; van Helmond, Noud; Chapman, Kenneth B

    2018-04-01

    Chronic neuropathic pain is often refractory to conventional medical treatments and leads to significant disability and socio-economic burden. Dorsal root ganglion (DRG) stimulation has recently emerged as a treatment for persistent neuropathic pain, but creating a strain relief loop at the S1 level has thus far been a challenging technical component of DRG lead placement. We describe a refined technique for strain relief loop formation at the S1 level using a transforaminal approach that we employed in a 45-year-old patient with intractable foot pain. We successfully placed a strain relief loop in the sacral space in a predictable and easily reproducible manner using a transforaminal anchorless approach. The patient experienced a decrease in visual analog pain score (85%), and improvement in function during the trial period, and proceeded with permanent implantation. The described sacral transforaminal strain relief loop formation technique appears to be a more reliable and predictable technique of DRG lead placement in the sacrum than those previously documented. © 2017 World Institute of Pain.

  20. Neuro-fuzzy decoding of sensory information from ensembles of simultaneously recorded dorsal root ganglion neurons for functional electrical stimulation applications.

    Rigosa, J; Weber, D J; Prochazka, A; Stein, R B; Micera, S

    2011-08-01

    Functional electrical stimulation (FES) is used to improve motor function after injury to the central nervous system. Some FES systems use artificial sensors to switch between finite control states. To optimize FES control of the complex behavior of the musculo-skeletal system in activities of daily life, it is highly desirable to implement feedback control. In theory, sensory neural signals could provide the required control signals. Recent studies have demonstrated the feasibility of deriving limb-state estimates from the firing rates of primary afferent neurons recorded in dorsal root ganglia (DRG). These studies used multiple linear regression (MLR) methods to generate estimates of limb position and velocity based on a weighted sum of firing rates in an ensemble of simultaneously recorded DRG neurons. The aim of this study was to test whether the use of a neuro-fuzzy (NF) algorithm (the generalized dynamic fuzzy neural networks (GD-FNN)) could improve the performance, robustness and ability to generalize from training to test sets compared to the MLR technique. NF and MLR decoding methods were applied to ensemble DRG recordings obtained during passive and active limb movements in anesthetized and freely moving cats. The GD-FNN model provided more accurate estimates of limb state and generalized better to novel movement patterns. Future efforts will focus on implementing these neural recording and decoding methods in real time to provide closed-loop control of FES using the information extracted from sensory neurons.

  1. Replicate high-density rat genome oligonucleotide microarrays reveal hundreds of regulated genes in the dorsal root ganglion after peripheral nerve injury.

    Mannion James W

    2002-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Rat oligonucleotide microarrays were used to detect changes in gene expression in the dorsal root ganglion (DRG 3 days following sciatic nerve transection (axotomy. Two comparisons were made using two sets of triplicate microarrays, naïve versus naïve and naïve versus axotomy. Results Microarray variability was assessed using the naïve versus naïve comparison. These results support use of a P 1.5-fold expression change and P 1.5-fold and P in situ hybridization verified the expression of 24 transcripts. These data showed an 83% concordance rate with the arrays; most mismatches represent genes with low expression levels reflecting limits of array sensitivity. A significant correlation was found between actual mRNA differences and relative changes between microarrays (r2 = 0.8567. Temporal patterns of individual genes regulation varied. Conclusions We identify parameters for microarray analysis which reduce error while identifying many putatively regulated genes. Functional classification of these genes suggest reorganization of cell structural components, activation of genes expressed by immune and inflammatory cells and down-regulation of genes involved in neurotransmission.

  2. Effects of (−-Gallocatechin-3-Gallate on Tetrodotoxin-Resistant Voltage-Gated Sodium Channels in Rat Dorsal Root Ganglion Neurons

    Jian-Min Jiang

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The (−-gallocatechin-3-gallate (GCG concentration in some tea beverages can account for as much as 50% of the total catechins. It has been shown that catechins have analgesic properties. Voltage-gated sodium channels (Nav mediate neuronal action potentials. Tetrodotoxin inhibits all Nav isoforms, but Nav1.8 and Nav1.9 are relatively tetrodotoxin-resistant compared to other isoforms and functionally linked to nociception. In this study, the effects of GCG on tetrodotoxin-resistant Na+ currents were investigated in rat primary cultures of dorsal root ganglion neurons via the whole-cell patch-clamp technique. We found that 1 μM GCG reduced the amplitudes of peak current density of tetrodotoxin-resistant Na+ currents significantly. Furthermore, the inhibition was accompanied by a depolarizing shift of the activation voltage and a hyperpolarizing shift of steady-state inactivation voltage. The percentage block of GCG (1 μM on tetrodotoxin-resistant Na+ current was 45.1% ± 1.1% in 10 min. In addition, GCG did not produce frequency-dependent block of tetrodotoxin-resistant Na+ currents at stimulation frequencies of 1 Hz, 2 Hz and 5 Hz. On the basis of these findings, we propose that GCG may be a potential analgesic agent.

  3. Augmentation of glycolytic metabolism by meclizine is indispensable for protection of dorsal root ganglion neurons from hypoxia-induced mitochondrial compromise.

    Zhuo, Ming; Gorgun, Murat F; Englander, Ella W

    2016-10-01

    To meet energy demands, dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons harbor high mitochondrial content, which renders them acutely vulnerable to disruptions of energy homeostasis. While neurons typically rely on mitochondrial energy production and have not been associated with metabolic plasticity, new studies reveal that meclizine, a drug, recently linked to modulations of energy metabolism, protects neurons from insults that disrupt energy homeostasis. We show that meclizine rapidly enhances glycolysis in DRG neurons and that glycolytic metabolism is indispensable for meclizine-exerted protection of DRG neurons from hypoxic stress. We report that supplementation of meclizine during hypoxic exposure prevents ATP depletion, preserves NADPH and glutathione stores, curbs reactive oxygen species (ROS) and attenuates mitochondrial clustering in DRG neurites. Using extracellular flux analyzer, we show that in cultured DRG neurons meclizine mitigates hypoxia-induced loss of mitochondrial respiratory capacity. Respiratory capacity is a measure of mitochondrial fitness and cell ability to meet fluctuating energy demands and therefore, a key determinant of cellular fate. While meclizine is an 'old' drug with long record of clinical use, its ability to modulate energy metabolism has been uncovered only recently. Our findings documenting neuroprotection by meclizine in a setting of hypoxic stress reveal previously unappreciated metabolic plasticity of DRG neurons as well as potential for pharmacological harnessing of the newly discovered metabolic plasticity for protection of peripheral nervous system under mitochondria compromising conditions. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Avaliação da hiperalgesia e alterações histológicas do gânglio da raiz dorsal induzidas pelo núcleo pulposo Evaluation of hyperalgesia and histological changes of dorsal root ganglion induced by nucleus pulposus

    André Luiz de Souza Grava

    2010-01-01

    estruturas do gânglio da raiz dorsal e apresentaram aumento da intensidade nos períodos mais longos de observação.OBJECTIVE: To evaluate hyperalgesia and histological changes of dorsal root ganglia induced by nucleus pulposus (NP contact. METHODS: Twenty Wistar rats were used, divided into two experimental groups. In one of the groups, a fragment of the autologous NP was removed from the sacroccocigeal region and deposited on the L5 dorsal root ganglia. In the control group, the NP was removed from the sacrococcygeal region, L5 dorsal root ganglia were exposed and covered by a piece of adipous fat tissue. Hyperalgesia was evaluated by the von Frey electronic test and Hargreaves test, and histological changes of the dorsal root ganglia by HE staining and immunohistochemistry using iNOS. The evaluation of hyperalgesia and histological changes of the dorsal root ganglia were performed on the third postoperative day and after 1, 3, 5, and 7 weeks. RESULTS: NP induced higher intensity mechanical and thermal hyperalgesia. Dorsal root ganglia in contact with nucleus pulposus presented histological changes and the intensity of these changes were proportional to the length of time in contact. The expression of iNOS was higher in the glial cells in contact with the nucleus pulposus. CONCLUSION: The contact of nucleus pulposus with dorsal root ganglia induced histological changes and mechanical and thermal hyperalgesia. These changes were more intense after longer period of evaluation.

  5. New Treatments for Spinal Nerve Root Avulsion Injury

    Thomas Carlstedt

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Further progress in the treatment of the longitudinal spinal cord injury has been made. In an inverted translational study, it has been demonstrated that return of sensory function can be achieved by bypassing the avulsed dorsal root ganglion neurons. Dendritic growth from spinal cord sensory neurons could replace dorsal root ganglion axons and re-establish a reflex arch. Another research avenue has led to the development of adjuvant therapy for regeneration following dorsal root to spinal cord implantation in root avulsion injury. A small, lipophilic molecule that can be given orally acts on the retinoic acid receptor system as an agonist. Upregulation of dorsal root ganglion regenerative ability and organization of glia reaction to injury were demonstrated in treated animals. The dual effect of this substance may open new avenues for the treatment of root avulsion and spinal cord injuries.

  6. Up-regulation of p55 TNF alpha-receptor in dorsal root ganglia neurons following lumbar facet joint injury in rats.

    Sakuma, Yoshihiro; Ohtori, Seiji; Miyagi, Masayuki; Ishikawa, Tetsu; Inoue, Gen; Doya, Hideo; Koshi, Takana; Ito, Toshinori; Yamashita, Masaomi; Yamauchi, Kazuyo; Suzuki, Munetaka; Moriya, Hideshige; Takahashi, Kazuhisa

    2007-08-01

    The rat L5/6 facet joint is multisegmentally innervated from the L1 to L6 dorsal root ganglia (DRG). Tumor necrosis factor (TNF) is a known mediator of inflammation. It has been reported that satellite cells are activated, produce TNF and surround DRG neurons innervating L5/6 facet joints after facet injury. In the current study, changes in TNF receptor (p55) expression in DRG neurons innervating the L5/6 facet joint following facet joint injury were investigated in rats using a retrograde neurotransport method followed by immunohistochemistry. Twenty rats were used for this study. Two crystals of Fluorogold (FG; neurotracer) were applied into the L5/6 facet joint. Seven days after surgery, the dorsal portion of the capsule was cut in the injured group (injured group n = 10). No injury was performed in the non-injured group (n = 10). Fourteen days after the first application of FG, bilateral DRGs from T13 to L6 levels were resected and sectioned. They were subsequently processed for p55 immunohistochemistry. The number of FG labeled neurons and number of FG labeled p55-immunoreactive (IR) neurons were counted. FG labeled DRG neurons innervating the L5/6 facet joint were distributed from ipsilateral L1 to L6 levels. Of FG labeled neurons, the ratio of DRG neurons immunoreactive for p55 in the injured group (50%) was significantly higher than that in the non-injured group (13%). The ratio of p55-IR neurons of FG labeled DRG neurons was significantly higher in total L1 and L2 DRGs than that in total L3, 4, 5 and 6 DRGs in the injured group (L1 and 2 DRG, 67%; L3, 4, 5 and 6 DRG, 37%, percentages of the total number of p55-IR neurons at L1 and L2 level or L3-6 level/the total number of FG-labeled neurons at L1 and L2 level or L3-6 level). These data suggest that up-regulation of p55 in DRG neurons may be involved in the sensory transmission from facet joint injury. Regulation of p55 in DRG neurons innervating the facet joint was different between upper DRG innervated

  7. Uso terapêutico da radiofrequência pulsátil no gânglio dorsal da raiz de L2 na lombalgia discogênica Uso terapéutico de la radiofrecuencia pulsátil en el ganglio dorsal de la raíz de L2 en la lumbalgia discogénica Pulsed radiofrequency on L2 dorsal root ganglion as a therapeutic method for lumbar discogenic pain

    Fabrício Dias Assis

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Avaliar a eficácia da radiofrequência pulsátil sobre o gânglio da raiz dorsal de L2 no tratamento dos pacientes com lombalgia discogênica. MÉTODOS: Realizou-se análise retrospectiva de 50 pacientes portadores de lombalgia crônica discogênica atendidos no período de janeiro de 2004 a julho de 2007. O processo diagnóstico foi constituído por exame físico, ressonância magnética e bloqueio diagnóstico do gânglio da raiz dorsal de L2. Todos os pacientes foram submetidos à radiofrequência pulsátil no gânglio da raiz dorsal de L2 e acompanhados por, no mínimo, 12 meses. A intensidade de dor foi medida pela escala visual analógica (EVA de dor. RESULTADOS: A análise estatística mostrou melhora significativa da intensidade de dor (pOBJETIVO: evaluar la eficacia de la radiofrecuencia pulsátil sobre el ganglio de la raíz dorsal de L2 en el tratamiento de los pacientes con lumbalgia discogénica. MÉTODOS: fue realizado un análisis retrospectivo de 50 pacientes portadores de lumbalgia crónica discogénica, atendidos en el periodo de Enero de 2004 a Julio de 2007. El proceso diagnóstico constó de un examen físico, resonancia magnética y bloqueo diagnóstico del ganglio de la raíz dorsal de L2. Todos los pacientes fueron sometidos a la radiofrecuencia pulsátil en el ganglio de la raíz dorsal de L2 y seguidos por 12 meses, como mínimo. La intensidad del dolor fue medida por la escala visual analógica del dolor. RESULTADOS: el análisis estadístico mostró mejoría significativa de la intensidad del dolor (pOBJECTIVE: to evaluate the effectiveness of pulsate radio-frequency on L2 dorsal root ganglion for chronic discogenic low back pain. Of L2 in the treatment of the patient with discogenic low back pain. METHODS: Between January 2004 and July 2007, 50 patients with diagnosis of low back discogenic pain were retrospectively assessed based on physical examination, magnetic resonance imaging findings and selective L

  8. Genome-wide transcriptional profiling of skin and dorsal root ganglia after ultraviolet-B-induced inflammation.

    John M Dawes

    Full Text Available Ultraviolet-B (UVB-induced inflammation produces a dose-dependent mechanical and thermal hyperalgesia in both humans and rats, most likely via inflammatory mediators acting at the site of injury. Previous work has shown that the gene expression of cytokines and chemokines is positively correlated between species and that these factors can contribute to UVB-induced pain. In order to investigate other potential pain mediators in this model we used RNA-seq to perform genome-wide transcriptional profiling in both human and rat skin at the peak of hyperalgesia. In addition we have also measured transcriptional changes in the L4 and L5 DRG of the rat model. Our data show that UVB irradiation produces a large number of transcriptional changes in the skin: 2186 and 3888 genes are significantly dysregulated in human and rat skin, respectively. The most highly up-regulated genes in human skin feature those encoding cytokines (IL6 and IL24, chemokines (CCL3, CCL20, CXCL1, CXCL2, CXCL3 and CXCL5, the prostanoid synthesising enzyme COX-2 and members of the keratin gene family. Overall there was a strong positive and significant correlation in gene expression between the human and rat (R = 0.8022. In contrast to the skin, only 39 genes were significantly dysregulated in the rat L4 and L5 DRGs, the majority of which had small fold change values. Amongst the most up-regulated genes in DRG were REG3B, CCL2 and VGF. Overall, our data shows that numerous genes were up-regulated in UVB irradiated skin at the peak of hyperalgesia in both human and rats. Many of the top up-regulated genes were cytokines and chemokines, highlighting again their potential as pain mediators. However many other genes were also up-regulated and might play a role in UVB-induced hyperalgesia. In addition, the strong gene expression correlation between species re-emphasises the value of the UVB model as translational tool to study inflammatory pain.

  9. Community-Weighted Mean Plant Traits Predict Small Scale Distribution of Insect Root Herbivore Abundance.

    Ilja Sonnemann

    Full Text Available Small scale distribution of insect root herbivores may promote plant species diversity by creating patches of different herbivore pressure. However, determinants of small scale distribution of insect root herbivores, and impact of land use intensity on their small scale distribution are largely unknown. We sampled insect root herbivores and measured vegetation parameters and soil water content along transects in grasslands of different management intensity in three regions in Germany. We calculated community-weighted mean plant traits to test whether the functional plant community composition determines the small scale distribution of insect root herbivores. To analyze spatial patterns in plant species and trait composition and insect root herbivore abundance we computed Mantel correlograms. Insect root herbivores mainly comprised click beetle (Coleoptera, Elateridae larvae (43% in the investigated grasslands. Total insect root herbivore numbers were positively related to community-weighted mean traits indicating high plant growth rates and biomass (specific leaf area, reproductive- and vegetative plant height, and negatively related to plant traits indicating poor tissue quality (leaf C/N ratio. Generalist Elaterid larvae, when analyzed independently, were also positively related to high plant growth rates and furthermore to root dry mass, but were not related to tissue quality. Insect root herbivore numbers were not related to plant cover, plant species richness and soil water content. Plant species composition and to a lesser extent plant trait composition displayed spatial autocorrelation, which was not influenced by land use intensity. Insect root herbivore abundance was not spatially autocorrelated. We conclude that in semi-natural grasslands with a high share of generalist insect root herbivores, insect root herbivores affiliate with large, fast growing plants, presumably because of availability of high quantities of food. Affiliation of

  10. Differential effects of temperature on acid-activated currents mediated by TRPV1 and ASIC channels in rat dorsal root ganglion neurons.

    Neelands, Torben R; Zhang, Xu-Feng; McDonald, Heath; Puttfarcken, Pamela

    2010-05-06

    Elevated temperature and decreased extracellular pH are hallmarks of inflammatory pain states. Dorsal root ganglia (DRG) neurons are integral in transferring painful stimuli from the periphery to central sites. This study investigated the effect of elevated temperatures on the response of DRG neurons to acute application of acidic solutions. At room temperature (22 degrees C), in response to pH 5.5, there were a variety of kinetic responses consistent with differential expression of TRPV1 and ASIC channels. Increasing the temperature resulted in a significant increase in the peak and total current mediated by TRPV1 in response to an acidic solution. In contrast, the amplitude of a fast activating, rapidly inactivating ASIC1-like current was not affected by increasing the temperature but did result in an increased rate of desensitization that reduced the total current level. This effect on the rate of desensitization was temperature-dependent and could be reversed by returning to 22 degrees C. Likewise, cells exhibiting slowly inactivating ASIC2-like responses also had temperature-dependent increase in the rate of desensitization. The ASIC2-like responses and the TRPV1 responses tended to decrease in amplitude with repetitive application of pH 5.5 even at 22 degrees C. The rate of desensitization of ASIC-like currents activated by less acidic solutions (pH 6.8) was also increased in a temperature-dependent manner. Finally, acidic pH reduced threshold to trigger action potentials, however, the pattern of action potential firing was shaped by the distribution of ASIC and TRPV1 channels. These results indicate that the ambient temperature at which acidosis occurs has a profound effect on the contribution of ASIC and TRPV1 channels, therefore, altering the neuronal excitability. Copyright 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Biological constraints limit the use of rapamycin-inducible FKBP12-Inp54p for depleting PIP2 in dorsal root ganglia neurons.

    Coutinho-Budd, Jaeda C; Snider, Samuel B; Fitzpatrick, Brendan J; Rittiner, Joseph E; Zylka, Mark J

    2013-09-08

    Rapamycin-induced translocation systems can be used to manipulate biological processes with precise temporal control. These systems are based on rapamycin-induced dimerization of FK506 Binding Protein 12 (FKBP12) with the FKBP Rapamycin Binding (FRB) domain of mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR). Here, we sought to adapt a rapamycin-inducible phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate (PIP2)-specific phosphatase (Inp54p) system to deplete PIP2 in nociceptive dorsal root ganglia (DRG) neurons. We genetically targeted membrane-tethered CFP-FRBPLF (a destabilized FRB mutant) to the ubiquitously expressed Rosa26 locus, generating a Rosa26-FRBPLF knockin mouse. In a second knockin mouse line, we targeted Venus-FKBP12-Inp54p to the Calcitonin gene-related peptide-alpha (CGRPα) locus. We hypothesized that after intercrossing these mice, rapamycin treatment would induce translocation of Venus-FKBP12-Inp54p to the plasma membrane in CGRP+ DRG neurons. In control experiments with cell lines, rapamycin induced translocation of Venus-FKBP12-Inp54p to the plasma membrane, and subsequent depletion of PIP2, as measured with a PIP2 biosensor. However, rapamycin did not induce translocation of Venus-FKBP12-Inp54p to the plasma membrane in FRBPLF-expressing DRG neurons (in vitro or in vivo). Moreover, rapamycin treatment did not alter PIP2-dependent thermosensation in vivo. Instead, rapamycin treatment stabilized FRBPLF in cultured DRG neurons, suggesting that rapamycin promoted dimerization of FRBPLF with endogenous FKBP12. Taken together, our data indicate that these knockin mice cannot be used to inducibly deplete PIP2 in DRG neurons. Moreover, our data suggest that high levels of endogenous FKBP12 could compete for binding to FRBPLF, hence limiting the use of rapamycin-inducible systems to cells with low levels of endogenous FKBP12.

  12. Pulsed Radiofrequency Applied to the Sciatic Nerve Improves Neuropathic Pain by Down-regulating The Expression of Calcitonin Gene-related Peptide in the Dorsal Root Ganglion

    Ren, Hao; Jin, Hailong; Jia, Zipu; Ji, Nan; Luo, Fang

    2018-01-01

    Background: Clinical studies have shown that applying pulsed radiofrequency (PRF) to the neural stem could relieve neuropathic pain (NP), albeit through an unclear analgesic mechanism. And animal experiments have indicated that calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) expressed in the dorsal root ganglion (DRG) is involved in generating and maintaining NP. In this case, it is uncertain whether PRF plays an analgesic role by affecting CGRP expression in DRG. Methods: Rats were randomly divided into four groups: Groups A, B, C, and D. In Groups C and D, the right sciatic nerve was ligated to establish the CCI model, while in Groups A and B, the sciatic nerve was isolated without ligation. After 14 days, the right sciatic nerve in Groups B and D re-exposed and was treated with PRF on the ligation site. Thermal withdrawal latency (TWL) and hindpaw withdrawal threshold (HWT) were measured before PRF treatment (Day 0) as well as after 2, 4, 8, and 14 days of treatment. At the same time points of the behavioral tests, the right L4-L6 DRG was sampled and analyzed for CGRP expression using RT-qPCR and an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Results: Fourteen days after sciatic nerve ligation, rats in Groups C and D had a shortened TWL (P 0.05). On the 8th and 14th days, the mRNA levels in Group D were restored to those of Groups A and B. Meanwhile, the CGRP content of Group D gradually dropped over time, from 76.4 pg/mg (Day 0) to 57.5 pg/mg (Day 14). Conclusions: In this study, we found that, after sciatic nerve ligation, rats exhibited apparent hyperalgesia and allodynia, and CGRP mRNA and CGRP contents in the L4-L6 DRG increased significantly. Through lowering CGRP expression in the DRG, PRF treatment might relieve the pain behaviors of NP. PMID:29333099

  13. Demethylation regulation of BDNF gene expression in dorsal root ganglion neurons is implicated in opioid-induced pain hypersensitivity in rats.

    Chao, Yu-Chieh; Xie, Fang; Li, Xueyang; Guo, Ruijuan; Yang, Ning; Zhang, Chen; Shi, Rong; Guan, Yun; Yue, Yun; Wang, Yun

    2016-07-01

    Repeated administration of morphine may result in opioid-induced hypersensitivity (OIH), which involves altered expression of numerous genes, including brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) in dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons. Yet, it remains unclear how BDNF expression is increased in DRG neurons after repeated morphine treatment. DNA methylation is an important mechanism of epigenetic control of gene expression. In the current study, we hypothesized that the demethylation regulation of certain BDNF gene promoters in DRG neurons may contribute to the development of OIH. Real-time RT-PCR was used to assess changes in the mRNA transcription levels of major BDNF exons including exon I, II, IV, VI, as well as total BDNF mRNA in DRGs from rats after repeated morphine administration. The levels of exon IV and total BDNF mRNA were significantly upregulated by repeated morphine administration, as compared to that in saline control group. Further, ELISA array and immunocytochemistry study revealed a robust upregulation of BDNF protein expression in DRG neurons after repeated morphine exposure. Correspondingly, the methylation levels of BDNF exon IV promoter showed a significant downregulation by morphine treatment. Importantly, intrathecal administration of a BDNF antibody, but not control IgG, significantly inhibited mechanical hypersensitivity that developed in rats after repeated morphine treatment. Conversely, intrathecal administration of an inhibitor of DNA methylation, 5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine (5-aza-dC) markedly upregulated the BDNF protein expression in DRG neurons and enhanced the mechanical allodynia after repeated morphine exposure. Together, our findings suggest that demethylation regulation of BDNF gene promoter may be implicated in the development of OIH through epigenetic control of BDNF expression in DRG neurons. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Upregulation of miR-375 level ameliorates morphine analgesic tolerance in mouse dorsal root ganglia by inhibiting the JAK2/STAT3 pathway

    Li HQ

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Haiqin Li, Rong Tao, Jing Wang, Lingjie Xia Department of Clinical Pain, The People’s Hospital of Henan Province, Zhengzhou, People’s Republic of China Abstract: Several lines of evidence indicate that microRNAs (miRNAs modulate tolerance to the analgesic effects of morphine via regulation of pain-related genes, making dysregulation of miRNA levels a clinical target for controlling opioid tolerance. However, the precise mechanisms by which miRNAs regulate opioid tolerance are unclear. In the present study, we noted that the miR-375 level was downregulated but the expression of Janus kinase 2 (JAK2 was upregulated in mouse dorsal root ganglia (DRG following chronic morphine treatment. The miR-375 levels and JAK2 expression were correlated with the progression of morphine tolerance, and upregulation of miR-375 level could significantly hinder morphine tolerance. This was ameliorated by JAK2 knockdown. Prolonged morphine exposure induced the expression of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF in a time-dependent manner in the DRG. This was regulated by the miR-375 and JAK2–signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3 pathway, and inhibition of this pathway decreased BDNF production, and thus, attenuated morphine tolerance. More importantly, we found that miR-375 could target JAK2 and increase BDNF expression in a JAK2/STAT3 pathway-dependent manner. Keywords: morphine tolerance, miR-375, JAK2, BDNF

  15. Systematic and quantitative mRNA expression analysis of TRP channel genes at the single trigeminal and dorsal root ganglion level in mouse

    Vandewauw Ine

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Somatosensory nerve fibres arising from cell bodies within the trigeminal ganglia (TG in the head and from a string of dorsal root ganglia (DRG located lateral to the spinal cord convey endogenous and environmental stimuli to the central nervous system. Although several members of the transient receptor potential (TRP superfamily of cation channels have been implicated in somatosensation, the expression levels of TRP channel genes in the individual sensory ganglia have never been systematically studied. Results Here, we used quantitative real-time PCR to analyse and compare mRNA expression of all TRP channels in TG and individual DRGs from 27 anatomically defined segments of the spinal cord of the mouse. At the mRNA level, 17 of the 28 TRP channel genes, TRPA1, TRPC1, TRPC3, TRPC4, TRPC5, TRPM2, TRPM3, TRPM4, TRPM5, TRPM6, TRPM7, TRPM8, TRPV1, TRPV2, TRPV4, TRPML1 and TRPP2, were detectable in every tested ganglion. Notably, four TRP channels, TRPC4, TRPM4, TRPM8 and TRPV1, showed statistically significant variation in mRNA levels between DRGs from different segments, suggesting ganglion-specific regulation of TRP channel gene expression. These ganglion-to-ganglion differences in TRP channel transcript levels may contribute to the variability in sensory responses in functional studies. Conclusions We developed, compared and refined techniques to quantitatively analyse the relative mRNA expression of all TRP channel genes at the single ganglion level. This study also provides for the first time a comparative mRNA distribution profile in TG and DRG along the entire vertebral column for the mammalian TRP channel family.

  16. Antidepressant Imipramine Protects Bupivacaine-Induced Neurotoxicity in Dorsal Root Ganglion Neurons Through Coactivation of TrkA and TrkB.

    Guo, Jianrong; Wang, Huan; Tao, Qiang; Sun, Shiyu; Liu, Li; Zhang, Jianping; Yang, Dawei

    2017-11-01

    In our work, we used an in vitro culture model to investigate whether antidepressant imipramine (Ip) may protect bupivacaine (Bv)-induced neurotoxicity in mouse dorsal root ganglion (DRG). Adult mouse DRG was treated with 5 mM Bv in vitro to induce neurotoxicity. DRG was then pre-treated with Ip, prior to Bv, to examine its effects on protecting Bv-induced DRG apoptosis and neurite degeneration. Ip-induced dynamic changes in Trk receptors, including TrkA/B/C and phosphor (p-)TrkA/B/C, were examined by qPCR and Western blot. TrkA and TrkB were inhibited by siRNAs to further investigate their functional role in Ip- and Bv-treated DRG. Ip protected Bv-induced apoptosis and neurite loss in DRG. Ip did not alter TrkA/B/C expressions, whereas significantly augmented protein productions of p-TrkA and p-TrkB, but not p-TrkC. SiRNA-mediated TrkA or TrkB downregulation inhibited Trk receptors, and reduced p-TrkA and p-TrkB in DRG. TrkA or TrkB downregulation alone had no effect on Ip-induced protection in Bv-injured DRG. However, co-inhibition of TrkA and TrkB significantly ameliorated the protective effect of Ip on Bv-induced apoptosis and neurite loss in DRG. Imipramine protected bupivacaine-induced neurotoxicity in DRG, likely via the co-activation of TrkA and TrkB signaling pathways. J. Cell. Biochem. 118: 3960-3967, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Extracellular Nm23H1 stimulates neurite outgrowth from dorsal root ganglia neurons in vitro independently of nerve growth factor supplementation or its nucleoside diphosphate kinase activity

    Wright, K.T.; Seabright, R.; Logan, A.; Lilly, A.J.; Khanim, F.; Bunce, C.M.; Johnson, W.E.B.

    2010-01-01

    Research highlights: → Extracellular Nm23H1 stimulates nerve growth. → Extracellular Nm23H1 provides pathfinding cues to growth cones. → The neurotrophic activity of Nm23H1 is independent of NDP kinase activity. → The neurotrophic activity of Nm23H1 is independent of NGF. -- Abstract: The nucleoside diphosphate (NDP) kinase, Nm23H1, is a highly expressed during neuronal development, whilst induced over-expression in neuronal cells results in increased neurite outgrowth. Extracellular Nm23H1 affects the survival, proliferation and differentiation of non-neuronal cells. Therefore, this study has examined whether extracellular Nm23H1 regulates nerve growth. We have immobilised recombinant Nm23H1 proteins to defined locations of culture plates, which were then seeded with explants of embryonic chick dorsal root ganglia (DRG) or dissociated adult rat DRG neurons. The substratum-bound extracellular Nm23H1 was stimulatory for neurite outgrowth from chick DRG explants in a concentration-dependent manner. On high concentrations of Nm23H1, chick DRG neurite outgrowth was extensive and effectively limited to the location of the Nm23H1, i.e. neuronal growth cones turned away from adjacent collagen-coated substrata. Nm23H1-coated substrata also significantly enhanced rat DRG neuronal cell adhesion and neurite outgrowth in comparison to collagen-coated substrata. These effects were independent of NGF supplementation. Recombinant Nm23H1 (H118F), which does not possess NDP kinase activity, exhibited the same activity as the wild-type protein. Hence, a novel neuro-stimulatory activity for extracellular Nm23H1 has been identified in vitro, which may function in developing neuronal systems.

  18. Comparative study of the distribution of the alpha-subunits of voltage-gated sodium channels in normal and axotomized rat dorsal root ganglion neurons.

    Fukuoka, Tetsuo; Kobayashi, Kimiko; Yamanaka, Hiroki; Obata, Koichi; Dai, Yi; Noguchi, Koichi

    2008-09-10

    We compared the distribution of the alpha-subunit mRNAs of voltage-gated sodium channels Nav1.1-1.3 and Nav1.6-1.9 and a related channel, Nax, in histochemically identified neuronal subpopulations of the rat dorsal root ganglia (DRG). In the naïve DRG, the expression of Nav1.1 and Nav1.6 was restricted to A-fiber neurons, and they were preferentially expressed by TrkC neurons, suggesting that proprioceptive neurons possess these channels. Nav1.7, -1.8, and -1.9 mRNAs were more abundant in C-fiber neurons compared with A-fiber ones. Nax was evenly expressed in both populations. Although Nav1.8 and -1.9 were preferentially expressed by TrkA neurons, other alpha-subunits were expressed independently of TrkA expression. Actually, all IB4(+) neurons expressed both Nav1.8 and -1.9, and relatively limited subpopulations of IB4(+) neurons (3% and 12%, respectively) expressed Nav1.1 and/or Nav1.6. These findings provide useful information in interpreting the electrophysiological characteristics of some neuronal subpopulations of naïve DRG. After L5 spinal nerve ligation, Nav1.3 mRNA was up-regulated mainly in A-fiber neurons in the ipsilateral L5 DRG. Although previous studies demonstrated that nerve growth factor (NGF) and glial cell-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) reversed this up-regulation, the Nav1.3 induction was independent of either TrkA or GFRalpha1 expression, suggesting that the induction of Nav1.3 may be one of the common responses of axotomized DRG neurons without a direct relationship to NGF/GDNF supply. (c) 2008 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  19. Role of PAF receptor in proinflammatory cytokine expression in the dorsal root ganglion and tactile allodynia in a rodent model of neuropathic pain.

    Shigeo Hasegawa

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Neuropathic pain is a highly debilitating chronic pain following damage to peripheral sensory neurons and is often resistant to all treatments currently available, including opioids. We have previously shown that peripheral nerve injury induces activation of cytosolic phospholipase A(2 (cPLA(2 in injured dorsal root ganglion (DRG neurons that contribute to tactile allodynia, a hallmark of neuropathic pain. However, lipid mediators downstream of cPLA(2 activation to produce tactile allodynia remain to be determined. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Here we provide evidence that platelet-activating factor (PAF is a potential candidate. Pharmacological blockade of PAF receptors (PAFRs reduced the development and expression of tactile allodynia following nerve injury. The expression of PAFR mRNA was increased in the DRG ipsilateral to nerve injury, which was seen mainly in macrophages. Furthermore, mice lacking PAFRs showed a reduction of nerve injury-induced tactile allodynia and, interestingly, a marked suppression of upregulation of tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFalpha and interleukin-1beta (IL-1beta expression in the injured DRG, crucial proinflammatory cytokines involved in pain hypersensitivity. Conversely, a single injection of PAF near the DRG of naïve rats caused a decrease in the paw withdrawal threshold to mechanical stimulation in a dose-dependent manner and an increase in the expression of mRNAs for TNFalpha and IL-1beta, both of which were inhibited by pretreatment with a PAFR antagonist. CONCLUSIONS: Our results indicate that the PAF/PAFR system has an important role in production of TNFalpha and IL-1beta in the DRG and tactile allodynia following peripheral nerve injury and suggest that blocking PAFRs may be a viable therapeutic strategy for treating neuropathic pain.

  20. Effects of antagonists and heat on TRPM8 channel currents in dorsal root ganglion neuron activated by nociceptive cold stress and menthol.

    Naziroğlu, Mustafa; Ozgül, Cemil

    2012-02-01

    Transient receptor potential ion channel melastatin subtype 8 (TRPM8) is activated by cold temperature and cooling agents, such as menthol and icilin. Compounds containing peppermint are reported to reduce symptoms of environmental cold stress such as cold allodynia in dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neuron; however, the underlying mechanisms of action are unclear. We tested the effects of physiological heat (37°C), anthralic acid (ACA and 0.025 mM), 2-aminoethyl diphenylborinate (2-APB and 0.05) on noxious cold (10°C) and menthol (0.1 mM)-induced TRPM8 cation channel currents in the DRG neurons of rats. DRG neurons were freshly isolated from rats. In whole-cell patch clamp experiments, TRPM8 currents were consistently induced by noxious cold or menthol. TRPM8 channels current densities of the neurons were higher in cold and menthol groups than in control. When the physiological heat is introduced by chamber TRPM8 channel currents were inhibited by the heat. Noxious cold-induced Ca(2+) gates were blocked by the ACA although menthol-induced TRPM8 currents were not blocked by ACA and 2-APB. In conclusion, the results suggested that activation of TRPM8 either by menthol or nociceptive cold can activate TRPM8 channels although we observed the protective role of heat, ACA and 2-APB through a TRPM8 channel in nociceptive cold-activated DRG neurons. Since cold allodynia is a common feature of neuropathic pain and diseases of sensory neuron, our findings are relevant to the etiology of neuropathology in DRG neurons.

  1. Dorsal root ganglion stimulation attenuates the BOLD signal response to noxious sensory input in specific brain regions: Insights into a possible mechanism for analgesia.

    Pawela, Christopher P; Kramer, Jeffery M; Hogan, Quinn H

    2017-02-15

    Targeted dorsal root ganglion (DRG) electrical stimulation (i.e. ganglionic field stimulation - GFS) is an emerging therapeutic approach to alleviate chronic pain. Here we describe blood oxygen-level dependent (BOLD) functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) responses to noxious hind-limb stimulation in a rat model that replicates clinical GFS using an electrode implanted adjacent to the DRG. Acute noxious sensory stimulation in the absence of GFS caused robust BOLD fMRI response in brain regions previously associated with sensory and pain-related response, such as primary/secondary somatosensory cortex, retrosplenial granular cortex, thalamus, caudate putamen, nucleus accumbens, globus pallidus, and amygdala. These regions differentially demonstrated either positive or negative correlation to the acute noxious stimulation paradigm, in agreement with previous rat fMRI studies. Therapeutic-level GFS significantly attenuated the global BOLD response to noxious stimulation in these regions. This BOLD signal attenuation persisted for 20minutes after the GFS was discontinued. Control experiments in sham-operated animals showed that the attenuation was not due to the effect of repetitive noxious stimulation. Additional control experiments also revealed minimal BOLD fMRI response to GFS at therapeutic intensity when presented in a standard block-design paradigm. High intensity GFS produced a BOLD signal map similar to acute noxious stimulation when presented in a block-design. These findings are the first to identify the specific brain region responses to neuromodulation at the DRG level and suggest possible mechanisms for GFS-induced treatment of chronic pain. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Acute morphine activates satellite glial cells and up-regulates IL-1β in dorsal root ganglia in mice via matrix metalloprotease-9

    Berta Temugin

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Activation of spinal cord glial cells such as microglia and astrocytes has been shown to regulate chronic opioid-induced antinociceptive tolerance and hyperalgesia, due to spinal up-regulation of the proinflammatory cytokines such as interleukin-1 beta (IL-1β. Matrix metalloprotease-9 (MMP-9 has been implicated in IL-1β activation in neuropathic pain. However, it is unclear whether acute opioid treatment can activate glial cells in the peripheral nervous system. We examined acute morphine-induced activation of satellite glial cells (SGCs and up-regulation of IL-1β in dorsal root ganglia (DRGs, and further investigated the involvement of MMP-9 in these opioid-induced peripheral changes. Results Subcutaneous morphine injection (10 mg/kg induced robust peripheral glial responses, as evidenced by increased GFAP expression in DRGs but not in spinal cords. The acute morphine-induced GFAP expression is transient, peaking at 2 h and declining after 3 h. Acute morphine treatment also increased IL-1β immunoreactivity in SGCs and IL-1β activation in DRGs. MMP-9 and GFAP are expressed in DRG neurons and SGCs, respectively. Confocal analysis revealed a close proximity of MMP-9 and GFAP immunostaining. Importantly, morphine-induced DRG up-regulation of GFAP expression and IL-1β activation was abolished after Mmp9 deletion or naloxone pre-treatment. Finally, intrathecal injections of IL-1β-selective siRNA not only reduced DRG IL-1β expression but also prolonged acute morphine-induced analgesia. Conclusions Acute morphine induces opioid receptors- and MMP-9-dependent up-regulation of GFAP expression and IL-1β activation in SGCs of DRGs. MMP-9 could mask and shorten morphine analgesia via peripheral neuron-glial interactions. Targeting peripheral glial activation might prolong acute opioid analgesia.

  3. Extracellular Nm23H1 stimulates neurite outgrowth from dorsal root ganglia neurons in vitro independently of nerve growth factor supplementation or its nucleoside diphosphate kinase activity

    Wright, K.T. [Keele University at the RJAH Orthopaedic Hospital, Oswestry, Shropshire (United Kingdom); Seabright, R.; Logan, A. [Neuropharmacology and Neurobiology, School of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Birmingham University, Birmingham (United Kingdom); Lilly, A.J.; Khanim, F.; Bunce, C.M. [Biosciences, Birmingham University, Birmingham (United Kingdom); Johnson, W.E.B., E-mail: w.e.johnson@aston.ac.uk [Life and Health Sciences, Aston University, Birmingham (United Kingdom)

    2010-07-16

    Research highlights: {yields} Extracellular Nm23H1 stimulates nerve growth. {yields} Extracellular Nm23H1 provides pathfinding cues to growth cones. {yields} The neurotrophic activity of Nm23H1 is independent of NDP kinase activity. {yields} The neurotrophic activity of Nm23H1 is independent of NGF. -- Abstract: The nucleoside diphosphate (NDP) kinase, Nm23H1, is a highly expressed during neuronal development, whilst induced over-expression in neuronal cells results in increased neurite outgrowth. Extracellular Nm23H1 affects the survival, proliferation and differentiation of non-neuronal cells. Therefore, this study has examined whether extracellular Nm23H1 regulates nerve growth. We have immobilised recombinant Nm23H1 proteins to defined locations of culture plates, which were then seeded with explants of embryonic chick dorsal root ganglia (DRG) or dissociated adult rat DRG neurons. The substratum-bound extracellular Nm23H1 was stimulatory for neurite outgrowth from chick DRG explants in a concentration-dependent manner. On high concentrations of Nm23H1, chick DRG neurite outgrowth was extensive and effectively limited to the location of the Nm23H1, i.e. neuronal growth cones turned away from adjacent collagen-coated substrata. Nm23H1-coated substrata also significantly enhanced rat DRG neuronal cell adhesion and neurite outgrowth in comparison to collagen-coated substrata. These effects were independent of NGF supplementation. Recombinant Nm23H1 (H118F), which does not possess NDP kinase activity, exhibited the same activity as the wild-type protein. Hence, a novel neuro-stimulatory activity for extracellular Nm23H1 has been identified in vitro, which may function in developing neuronal systems.

  4. Selective Radiofrequency Stimulation of the Dorsal Root Ganglion (DRG) as a Method for Predicting Targets for Neuromodulation in Patients With Post Amputation Pain: A Case Series.

    Hunter, Corey W; Yang, Ajax; Davis, Tim

    2017-10-01

    While spinal cord stimulation (SCS) has established itself as an accepted and validated treatment for neuropathic pain, there are a number of conditions where it has experienced less, long-term success: post amputee pain (PAP) being one of them. Dorsal root ganglion (DRG) stimulation has shown great promise, particularly in conditions where traditional SCS has fallen short. One major difference between DRG stimulation and traditional SCS is the ability to provide focal stimulation over targeted areas. While this may be a contributing factor to its superiority, it can also be a limitation insofar stimulating the wrong DRG(s) can lead to failure. This is particularly relevant in conditions like PAP where neuroplastic maladaptation occurs causing the pain to deviate from expected patterns, thus creating uncertainty and variability in predicting targets for stimulation. We propose selective radiofrequency (RF) stimulation of the DRG as a method for preoperatively predicting targets for neuromodulation in patients with PAP. We present four patients with PAP of the lower extremities. RF stimulation was used to selectively stimulate individual DRG's, creating areas of paresthesias to see which most closely correlated/overlapped with the painful area(s). RF stimulation to the DRG's that resulted in the desirable paresthesia coverage in the residual or the missing limb(s) was recorded as "positive." Trial DRG leads were placed based on the positive RF stimulation findings. In each patient, stimulating one or more DRG(s) produced paresthesias patterns that were contradictory to know dermatomal patterns. Upon completion of a one-week trial all four patients reported 60-90% pain relief, with coverage over the painful areas, and opted for permanent implant. Mapping the DRG via RF stimulation appears to provide improved accuracy for determining lead placement in the setting of PAP where pain patterns are known to deviate from conventional dermatomal mapping. © 2017

  5. Effects of sciatic nerve transection on glucose uptake in the presence and absence of lactate in the frog dorsal root ganglia and spinal cord

    F Rigon

    Full Text Available Frogs have been used as an alternative model to study pain mechanisms because the simplicity of their nervous tissue and the phylogenetic aspect of this question. One of these models is the sciatic nerve transection (SNT, which mimics the clinical symptoms of “phantom limb”, a condition that arises in humans after amputation or transverse spinal lesions. In mammals, the SNT increases glucose metabolism in the central nervous system, and the lactate generated appears to serve as an energy source for nerve cells. An answerable question is whether there is elevated glucose uptake in the dorsal root ganglia (DRG after peripheral axotomy. As glucose is the major energy substrate for frog nervous tissue, and these animals accumulate lactic acid under some conditions, bullfrogs Lithobates catesbeianus were used to demonstrate the effect of SNT on DRG and spinal cord 1-[14C] 2-deoxy-D-glucose (14C-2-DG uptake in the presence and absence of lactate. We also investigated the effect of this condition on the formation of 14CO2 from 14C-glucose and 14C-L-lactate, and plasmatic glucose and lactate levels. The 3-O-[14C] methyl-D-glucose (14C-3-OMG uptake was used to demonstrate the steady-state tissue/medium glucose distribution ratio under these conditions. Three days after SNT, 14C-2-DG uptake increased, but 14C-3-OMG uptake remained steady. The increase in 14C-2-DG uptake was lower when lactate was added to the incubation medium. No change was found in glucose and lactate oxidation after SNT, but lactate and glucose levels in the blood were reduced. Thus, our results showed that SNT increased the glucose metabolism in the frog DRG and spinal cord. The effect of lactate on this uptake suggests that glucose is used in glycolytic pathways after SNT.

  6. Effects of electroacupuncture at 2 and 100 Hz on rat type 2 diabetic neuropathic pain and hyperalgesia-related protein expression in the dorsal root ganglion.

    He, Xiao-Fen; Wei, Jun-Jun; Shou, Sheng-Yun; Fang, Jian-Qiao; Jiang, Yong-Liang

    To investigate the analgesic effects of electroacupuncture (EA) at 2 and 100 Hz on type 2 diabetic neuropathic pain (DNP) and on the expressions of the P2X3 receptor and calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) in the dorsal root ganglion (DRG). Rat type 2 DNP was induced by a high calorie and high sugar diet fed for 7 weeks, plus a single intraperitoneal injection of streptozotocin (STZ) after 5 weeks. EA at 2 and 100 Hz was carried out once every day after 7 weeks for 7 consecutive days. Body weight, serum fasting insulin (FINS), fasting blood glucose (FBG), insulin sensitivity index (ISI), and paw withdrawal latency (PWL) were measured. The expressions of L4-L6 DRG P2X3 receptors and CGRP were assessed by immunofluorescence. Type 2 DNP was successfully induced as shown by the increased body weight, FINS, and FBG, as well as the reduced ISI and PWL. Expressions of P2X3 receptors and CGRP in L4-L6 DRGs increased. EA at both 2 and 100 Hz relieved type 2 DNP, but the analgesic effect of EA was stronger at 2 Hz. P2X3 receptor expression decreased in L4-L6 DRGs following EA at 2 Hz and in L5 and L6 DRGs following EA at 100 Hz. EA at both 2 and 100 Hz down-regulated CGRP overexpression in L4-L6 DRGs. These findings indicate that EA at 2 Hz is a good option for the management of type 2 DNP. The EA effect may be related to its down-regulation of the overexpressions of the DRG P2X3 receptors and CGRP in this condition.

  7. Long-term activation of group I metabotropic glutamate receptors increases functional TRPV1-expressing neurons in mouse dorsal root ganglia

    Takayoshi eMasuoka

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Damaged tissues release glutamate and other chemical mediators for several hours. These chemical mediators contribute to modulation of pruritus and pain. Herein, we investigated the effects of long-term activation of excitatory glutamate receptors on functional expression of transient receptor potential vaniloid type 1 (TRPV1 in dorsal root ganglion (DRG neurons and then on thermal pain behavior. In order to detect the TRPV1-mediated responses in cultured DRG neurons, we monitored intracellular calcium responses to capsaicin, a TRPV1 agonist, with Fura-2. Long-term (4 h treatment with glutamate receptor agonists (glutamate, quisqualate or DHPG increased the proportion of neurons responding to capsaicin through activation of metabotropic glutamate receptor mGluR1, and only partially through the activation of mGluR5; engagement of these receptors was evident in neurons responding to allylisothiocyanate (AITC, a transient receptor potential ankyrin type 1 (TRPA1 agonist. Increase in the proportion was suppressed by phospholipase C, protein kinase C, mitogen/extracellular signal-regulated kinase, p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase or transcription inhibitors. Whole-cell recording was performed to record TRPV1-mediated membrane current; TRPV1 current density significantly increased in the AITC-sensitive neurons after the quisqualate treatment. To elucidate the physiological significance of this phenomenon, a hot plate test was performed. Intraplantar injection of quisqualate or DHPG induced heat hyperalgesia that lasted for 4 h post injection. This chronic hyperalgesia was attenuated by treatment with either mGluR1 or mGluR5 antagonists. These results suggest that long-term activation of mGluR1/5 by peripherally released glutamate may increase the number of neurons expressing functional TRPV1 in DRG, which may be strongly associated with chronic hyperalgesia.

  8. Neurotoxicity of cytarabine (Ara-C) in dorsal root ganglion neurons originates from impediment of mtDNA synthesis and compromise of mitochondrial function.

    Zhuo, Ming; Gorgun, Murat F; Englander, Ella W

    2018-06-01

    Peripheral Nervous System (PNS) neurotoxicity caused by cancer drugs hinders attainment of chemotherapy goals. Due to leakiness of the blood nerve barrier, circulating chemotherapeutic drugs reach PNS neurons and adversely affect their function. Chemotherapeutic drugs are designed to target dividing cancer cells and mechanisms underlying their toxicity in postmitotic neurons remain to be fully clarified. The objective of this work was to elucidate progression of events triggered by antimitotic drugs in postmitotic neurons. For proof of mechanism study, we chose cytarabine (ara-C), an antimetabolite used in treatment of hematological cancers. Ara-C is a cytosine analog that terminates DNA synthesis. To investigate how ara-C affects postmitotic neurons, which replicate mitochondrial but not genomic DNA, we adapted a model of Dorsal Root Ganglion (DRG) neurons. We showed that DNA polymerase γ, which is responsible for mtDNA synthesis, is inhibited by ara-C and that sublethal ara-C exposure of DRG neurons leads to reduction in mtDNA content, ROS generation, oxidative mtDNA damage formation, compromised mitochondrial respiration and diminution of NADPH and GSH stores, as well as, activation of the DNA damage response. Hence, it is plausible that in ara-C exposed DRG neurons, ROS amplified by the high mitochondrial content shifts from physiologic to pathologic levels signaling stress to the nucleus. Combined, the findings suggest that ara-C neurotoxicity in DRG neurons originates in mitochondria and that continuous mtDNA synthesis and reliance on oxidative phosphorylation for energy needs sensitize the highly metabolic neurons to injury by mtDNA synthesis terminating cancer drugs. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Anti-oxidative and anti-inflammatory effects of cinnamaldehyde on protecting high glucose-induced damage in cultured dorsal root ganglion neurons of rats.

    Yang, Dan; Liang, Xiao-Chun; Shi, Yue; Sun, Qing; Liu, Di; Liu, Wei; Zhang, Hong

    2016-01-01

    To examine the mechanism underlying the beneficial role of cinnamaldehyde on oxidative damage and apoptosis in high glucose (HG)-induced dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons in vitro. HG-treated DRG neurons were developed as an in vitro model of diabetic neuropathy. The neurons were randomly divided into five groups: the control group, the HG group and the HG groups treated with 25, 50 and 100 nmol/L cinnamaldehyde, respectively. Cell viability was examined by 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay and apoptosis rate was evaluated by the in situ TdT-mediated dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL) assay. The intracellular level of reactive oxygen species (ROS) was measured with flow cytometry. Expression of nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB), inhibitor of κB (IκB), phosphorylated IκB (p-IκB), tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, interleukin-6 (IL-6) and caspase-3 were determined by western blotting and real-time quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Expression of nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) and hemeoxygenase-1 (HO-1) were also measured by western blotting. Cinnamaldehyde reduced HG-induced loss of viability, apoptosis and intracellular generation of ROS in the DRG neurons via inhibiting NF-κB activity. The western blot assay results showed that the HG-induced elevated expressions of NF-κB, IκB and p-IκB were remarkably reduced by cinnamaldehyde treatment in a dose-dependent manner (P neurons, but also lowered the elevated IL-6, TNF-α, cyclo-oxygenase and inducible nitric oxide synthase levels, indicating a reduction in inflammatory damage. Cinnamaldehyde protected DRG neurons from the deleterious effects of HG through inactivation of NF-κB pathway but not through activation of Nrf2/HO-1. And thus cinnamaldehyde may have potential application as a treatment for DPN.

  10. Nitrogen modulation of legume root architecture signaling pathways involves phytohormones and small regulatory molecules.

    Mohd-Radzman, Nadiatul A; Djordjevic, Michael A; Imin, Nijat

    2013-10-01

    Nitrogen, particularly nitrate is an important yield determinant for crops. However, current agricultural practice with excessive fertilizer usage has detrimental effects on the environment. Therefore, legumes have been suggested as a sustainable alternative for replenishing soil nitrogen. Legumes can uniquely form nitrogen-fixing nodules through symbiotic interaction with specialized soil bacteria. Legumes possess a highly plastic root system which modulates its architecture according to the nitrogen availability in the soil. Understanding how legumes regulate root development in response to nitrogen availability is an important step to improving root architecture. The nitrogen-mediated root development pathway starts with sensing soil nitrogen level followed by subsequent signal transduction pathways involving phytohormones, microRNAs and regulatory peptides that collectively modulate the growth and shape of the root system. This review focuses on the current understanding of nitrogen-mediated legume root architecture including local and systemic regulations by different N-sources and the modulations by phytohormones and small regulatory molecules.

  11. Spinal cord injury below-level neuropathic pain relief with dorsal root entry zone microcoagulation performed caudal to level of complete spinal cord transection.

    Falci, Scott; Indeck, Charlotte; Barnkow, Dave

    2018-06-01

    OBJECTIVE Surgically created lesions of the spinal cord dorsal root entry zone (DREZ) to relieve central pain after spinal cord injury (SCI) have historically been performed at and cephalad to, but not below, the level of SCI. This study was initiated to investigate the validity of 3 proposed concepts regarding the DREZ in SCI central pain: 1) The spinal cord DREZ caudal to the level of SCI can be a primary generator of SCI below-level central pain. 2) Neuronal transmission from a DREZ that generates SCI below-level central pain to brain pain centers can be primarily through sympathetic nervous system (SNS) pathways. 3) Perceived SCI below-level central pain follows a unique somatotopic map of DREZ pain-generators. METHODS Three unique patients with both intractable SCI below-level central pain and complete spinal cord transection at the level of SCI were identified. All 3 patients had previously undergone surgical intervention to their spinal cords-only cephalad to the level of spinal cord transection-with either DREZ microcoagulation or cyst shunting, in failed attempts to relieve their SCI below-level central pain. Subsequent to these surgeries, DREZ lesioning of the spinal cord solely caudal to the level of complete spinal cord transection was performed using electrical intramedullary guidance. The follow-up period ranged from 1 1/2 to 11 years. RESULTS All 3 patients in this study had complete or near-complete relief of all below-level neuropathic pain. The analyzed electrical data confirmed and enhanced a previously proposed somatotopic map of SCI below-level DREZ pain generators. CONCLUSIONS The results of this study support the following hypotheses. 1) The spinal cord DREZ caudal to the level of SCI can be a primary generator of SCI below-level central pain. 2) Neuronal transmission from a DREZ that generates SCI below-level central pain to brain pain centers can be primarily through SNS pathways. 3) Perceived SCI below-level central pain follows a unique

  12. Electromagnetic radiation (Wi-Fi) and epilepsy induce calcium entry and apoptosis through activation of TRPV1 channel in hippocampus and dorsal root ganglion of rats.

    Ghazizadeh, Vahid; Nazıroğlu, Mustafa

    2014-09-01

    Incidence rates of epilepsy and use of Wi-Fi worldwide have been increasing. TRPV1 is a Ca(2+) permeable and non-selective channel, gated by noxious heat, oxidative stress and capsaicin (CAP). The hyperthermia and oxidant effects of Wi-Fi may induce apoptosis and Ca(2+) entry through activation of TRPV1 channel in epilepsy. Therefore, we tested the effects of Wi-Fi (2.45 GHz) exposure on Ca(2+) influx, oxidative stress and apoptosis through TRPV1 channel in the murine dorsal root ganglion (DRG) and hippocampus of pentylentetrazol (PTZ)-induced epileptic rats. Rats in the present study were divided into two groups as controls and PTZ. The PTZ groups were divided into two subgroups namely PTZ + Wi-Fi and PTZ + Wi-Fi + capsazepine (CPZ). The hippocampal and DRG neurons were freshly isolated from the rats. The DRG and hippocampus in PTZ + Wi-Fi and PTZ + Wi-Fi + CPZ groups were exposed to Wi-Fi for 1 hour before CAP stimulation. The cytosolic free Ca(2+), reactive oxygen species production, apoptosis, mitochondrial membrane depolarization, caspase-3 and -9 values in hippocampus were higher in the PTZ group than in the control although cell viability values decreased. The Wi-Fi exposure induced additional effects on the cytosolic Ca(2+) increase. However, pretreatment of the neurons with CPZ, results in a protection against epilepsy-induced Ca(2+) influx, apoptosis and oxidative damages. In results of whole cell patch-clamp experiments, treatment of DRG with Ca(2+) channel antagonists [thapsigargin, verapamil + diltiazem, 2-APB, MK-801] indicated that Wi-Fi exposure induced Ca(2+) influx via the TRPV1 channels. In conclusion, epilepsy and Wi-Fi in our experimental model is involved in Ca(2+) influx and oxidative stress-induced hippocampal and DRG death through activation of TRPV1 channels, and negative modulation of this channel activity by CPZ pretreatment may account for the neuroprotective activity against oxidative stress.

  13. Increased Hyperalgesia and Proinflammatory Cytokines in the Spinal Cord and Dorsal Root Ganglion After Surgery and/or Fentanyl Administration in Rats.

    Chang, Lu; Ye, Fang; Luo, Quehua; Tao, Yuanxiang; Shu, Haihua

    2018-01-01

    Perioperative fentanyl has been reported to induce hyperalgesia and increase postoperative pain. In this study, we tried to investigate behavioral hyperalgesia, the expression of proinflammatory cytokines, such as interleukin-1β (IL-1β), interleukin-6 (IL-6), and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), and the activation of microglia in the spinal cord and dorsal root ganglion (DRG) in a rat model of surgical plantar incision with or without perioperative fentanyl. Four groups of rats (n = 32 for each group) were subcutaneously injected with fentanyl at 60 μg/kg or normal saline for 4 times with 15-minute intervals. Plantar incisions were made to rats in 2 groups after the second drug injection. Mechanical and thermal nociceptive thresholds were assessed by the tail pressure test and paw withdrawal test on the day before, at 1, 2, 3, 4 hours, and on the days 1-7 after drug injection. The lumbar spinal cord, bilateral DRG, and cerebrospinal fluid of 4 rats in each group were collected to measure IL-1β, IL-6, and TNF-α on the day before, at the fourth hour, and on the days 1, 3, 5, and 7 after drug injection. The lumbar spinal cord and bilateral DRG were removed to detect the ionized calcium-binding adapter molecule 1 on the day before and on the days 1 and 7 after drug injection. Rats injected with normal saline only demonstrated no significant mechanical or thermal hyperalgesia or any increases of IL-1β, IL-6, and TNF-α in the spinal cord or DRG. However, injection of fentanyl induced analgesia within as early as 4 hours and a significant delayed tail mechanical and bilateral plantar thermal hyperalgesia after injections lasting for 2 days, while surgical plantar incision induced a significant mechanical and thermal hyperalgesia lasting for 1-4 days. The combination of fentanyl and incision further aggravated the hyperalgesia and prolonged the duration of hyperalgesia. The fentanyl or surgical incision upregulated the expression of IL-1β, IL-6, and TNF-α in the

  14. Comparison of efficacy of continuous epidural block and pulsed radiofrequency to the dorsal root ganglion for management of pain persisting beyond the acute phase of herpes zoster.

    Eung Don Kim

    Full Text Available There is little evidence regarding the effectiveness of intervention methods in the treatment of zoster-related pain (ZAP after the acute phase of zoster. Generally, if ZAP remains after more than 180 days from its onset, the likelihood of pain reduction is very low; this condition is considered as a "well established" post-herpetic neuralgia (PHN. Although the clinical efficacy of intrathecal steroid injection and spinal cord stimulation (SCS for ZAP management has been reported, these interventions are not widely used due to inherent disadvantages. Continuous epidural block is widely used in clinical practice, and the effectiveness of pulsed radiofrequency (PRF to the dorsal root ganglion (DRG in the treatment of ZAP already has been reported.The purpose of this study was to compare the clinical efficacy of continuous epidural block and DRG PRF beyond acute phase of zoster, bur before PHN was well established (from 30 days to180 days after zoster onset.Retrospective comparative study.A total of 42 medical records were analyzed. Patients were divided into two groups according to the type of procedure utilized: continuous epidural block (continuous epidural group and DRG PRF (PRF group. The clinical efficacy of the procedure was evaluated using a numeric rating scale (NRS and the medication dose before and 1 to 6 months after the procedure.There was a significant decrease in the NRS value with time in both groups. However, this decrease was more significant in the PRF group than in the continuous epidural group. The medication doses decreased significantly in the PRF group over time, but not in the continuous epidural group. The rate of clinically meaningful PHN (NRS≥3 was also lower in the PRF group than in the continuous epidural group.This study revealed that DRG PRF was more effective than a continuous epidural block in treating ZAP after the acute phase of zoster. A neuromodulation method such as DRG PRF may be a useful option for

  15. P2X7 receptors in satellite glial cells mediate high functional expression of P2X3 receptors in immature dorsal root ganglion neurons

    Chen Yong

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The purinergic P2X3 receptor (P2X3R expressed in the dorsal root ganglion (DRG sensory neuron and the P2X7 receptor (P2X7R expressed in the surrounding satellite glial cell (SGC are two major receptors participating in neuron-SGC communication in adult DRGs. Activation of P2X7Rs was found to tonically reduce the expression of P2X3Rs in DRGs, thus inhibiting the abnormal pain behaviors in adult rats. P2X receptors are also actively involved in sensory signaling in developing rodents. However, very little is known about the developmental change of P2X7Rs in DRGs and the interaction between P2X7Rs and P2X3Rs in those animals. We therefore examined the expression of P2X3Rs and P2X7Rs in postnatal rats and determined if P2X7R-P2X3R control exists in developing rats. Findings We immunostained DRGs of immature rats and found that P2X3Rs were expressed only in neurons and P2X7Rs were expressed only in SGCs. Western blot analyses indicated that P2X3R expression decreased while P2X7R expression increased with the age of rats. Electrophysiological studies showed that the number of DRG neurons responding to the stimulation of the P2XR agonist, α,β-meATP, was higher and the amplitudes of α,β-meATP-induced depolarizations were larger in immature DRG neurons. As a result, P2X3R-mediated flinching responses were much more pronounced in immature rats than those found in adult rats. When we reduced P2X7R expression with P2X7R-siRNA in postnatal and adult rats, P2X3R-mediated flinch responses were greatly enhanced in both rat populations. Conclusions These results show that the P2X7R expression increases as rats age. In addition, P2X7Rs in SGCs exert inhibitory control on the P2X3R expression and function in sensory neurons of immature rats, just as observed in adult rats. Regulation of P2X7R expression is likely an effective way to control P2X3R activity and manage pain relief in infants.

  16. Effect of nerve injury on the number of dorsal root ganglion neurons and autotomy behavior in adult Bax-deficient mice

    Lyu C

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Chuang Lyu,1,2 Gong-Wei Lyu,3 Aurora Martinez,4 Tie-Jun Sten Shi4 1State Key Laboratory of Veterinary Biotechnology, Harbin Veterinary Research Institute of Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Harbin, People’s Republic of China; 2Department of Neuroscience, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden; 3Department of Neurology, 1st Hospital of Harbin Medical University, Harbin, People’s Republic of China; 4Department of Biomedicine, University of Bergen, Bergen, Norway Background: The proapoptotic molecule BAX, plays an important role in mitochondrial apoptotic pathway. Dorsal root ganglion (DRG neurons depend on neurotrophic factors for survival at early developmental stages. Withdrawal of neurotrophic factors will induce apoptosis in DRG neurons, but this type of cell death can be delayed or prevented in neonatal Bax knockout (KO mice. In adult animals, evidence also shows that DRG neurons are less dependent upon neurotrophic factors for survival. However, little is known about the effect of Bax deletion on the survival of normal and denervated DRG neurons in adult mice. Methods: A unilateral sciatic nerve transection was performed in adult Bax KO mice and wild-type (WT littermates. Stereological method was employed to quantify the number of lumbar-5 DRG neurons 1 month post-surgery. Nerve injury-induced autotomy behavior was also examined on days 1, 3, and 7 post-surgery. Results: There were significantly more neurons in contralateral DRGs of KO mice as compared with WT mice. The number of neurons was reduced in ipsilateral DRGs in both KO and WT mice. No changes in size distributions of DRG neuron profiles were detected before or after nerve injury. Injury-induced autotomy behavior developed much earlier and was more serious in KO mice. Conclusion: Although postnatal death or loss of DRG neurons is partially prevented by Bax deletion, this effect cannot interfere with long-term nerve injury-induced neuronal loss. The exaggerated self

  17. The Locus Coeruleus–Norepinephrine System Mediates Empathy for Pain through Selective Up-Regulation of P2X3 Receptor in Dorsal Root Ganglia in Rats

    Yun-Fei Lü

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Empathy for pain (vicariously felt pain, an ability to feel, recognize, understand and share the painful emotions of others, has been gradually accepted to be a common identity in both humans and rodents, however, the underlying neural and molecular mechanisms are largely unknown. Recently, we have developed a rat model of empathy for pain in which pain can be transferred from a cagemate demonstrator (CD in pain to a naïve cagemate observer (CO after 30 min dyadic priming social interaction. The naïve CO rats display both mechanical pain hypersensitivity (hyperalgesia and enhanced spinal nociception. Chemical lesions of bilateral medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC abolish the empathic pain response completely, suggesting existence of a top-down facilitation system in production of empathy for pain. However, the social transfer of pain was not observed in non-cagemate observer (NCO after dyadic social interaction with a non-cagemate demonstrator (NCD in pain. Here we showed that dyadic social interaction with a painful CD resulted in elevation of circulating norepinephrine (NE and increased neuronal activity in the locus coeruleus (LC in the CO rats. Meanwhile, CO rats also had over-expression of P2X3, but not TRPV1, in the dorsal root ganglia (DRG. Chemical lesion of the LC-NE neurons by systemic DSP-4 and pharmacological inhibition of central synaptic release of NE by clonidine completely abolished increase in circulating NE and P2X3 receptor expression, as well as the sympathetically-maintained development of empathic mechanical hyperalgesia. However, in the NCO rats, neither the LC-NE neuronal activity nor the P2X3 receptor expression was altered after dyadic social interaction with a painful NCD although the circulating corticosterone and NE were elevated. Finally, in the periphery, both P2X3 receptor and α1 adrenergic receptor were found to be involved in the development of empathic mechanical hyperalgesia. Taken together with our previous

  18. Insulin-like growth factor-1 prevents dorsal root ganglion neuronal tyrosine kinase receptor expression alterations induced by dideoxycytidine in vitro.

    Liu, Huaxiang; Lu, Jing; He, Yong; Yuan, Bin; Li, Yizhao; Li, Xingfu

    2014-03-01

    Dideoxycytidine (zalcitabine, ddC) produces neurotoxic effects. It is particularly important to understand the toxic effects of ddC on different subpopulations of dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons which express distinct tyrosine kinase receptor (Trk) and to find therapeutic factors for prevention and therapy for ddC-induced peripheral sensory neuropathy. Insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) has been shown to have neurotrophic effects on DRG sensory neurons. However, little is known about the effects of ddC on distinct Trk (TrkA, TrkB, and TrkC) expression in DRG neurons and the neuroprotective effects of IGF-1 on ddC-induced neurotoxicity. Here, we have tested the extent to which the expression of TrkA, TrkB, and TrkC receptors in primary cultured DRG neurons is affected by ddC in the presence or absence of IGF-1. In this experiment, we found that exposure of 5, 25, and 50 μmol/L ddC caused a dose-dependent decrease of the mRNA, protein, and the proportion of TrkA-, TrkB-, and TrkC-expressing neurons. IGF-1 (20 nmol/L) could partially reverse the decrease of TrkA and TrkB, but not TrkC, expression with ddC exposure. The phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) inhibitor LY294002 (10 μmol/L) blocked the effects of IGF-1. These results suggested that the subpopulations of DRG neurons which express distinct TrkA, TrkB, and TrkC receptors were affected by ddC exposure. IGF-1 might relieve the ddC-induced toxicity of TrkA- and TrkB-, but not TrkC-expressing DRG neurons. These data offer new clues for a better understanding of the association of ddC with distinct Trk receptor expression and provide new evidence of the potential therapeutic role of IGF-1 on ddC-induced neurotoxicity.

  19. [Selective cervical dorsal root cutting off part of the vertebral lateral mass fixation combined with exercise therapy for treating spastic cerebral paralysis of the upper limbs caused by cerebral palsy].

    Zhang, Peng; Hu, Wei; Cao, Xu; Xu, Shi-gang; Li, De-kui; Xu, Lin

    2009-10-01

    To explore the feasibility and the result for the surgical treatment of spastic cerebral paralysis of the upper limbs in patients who underwent the selective cervical dorsal root cutting off part of the vertebral lateral mass fixation combined with exercise therapy. From March 2004 to April 2008, 27 patients included 19 boys and 8 girls, aging 13-21 years with an average of 15 years underwent selective cervical dorsal root cutting off part of the vertebral lateral mass fixation with exercise therapy. The AXIS 8 holes titanium plate was inserted into the lateral mass of spinous process through guidance of the nerve stimulator, choosed fasciculus of low-threshold nerve dorsal root and cut off its 1.5 cm. After two weeks, training exercise therapy was done in patients. Training will include lying position, turning body, sitting position, crawling, kneeling and standing position, walking and so on. Spastic Bobath inhibiting abnormal pattern was done in the whole process of training. The muscular tension, motor function (GMFM), functional independence (WeeFIM) were observed after treatment. All patients were followed up from 4 to 16 months with an average of 6 months. Muscular tension score were respectively 3.30 +/- 0.47 and 1.25 +/- 0.44 before and after treatment;GMFM score were respectively 107.82 +/- 55.17 and 131.28 +/- 46.45; WeeFIM score were respectively 57.61 +/- 25.51 and 87.91 +/- 22.39. There was significant improvement before and after treatment (P cerebral paralysis of the upper limbs is safe and effective method, which can decrease muscular tension and improve motor function, which deserves more wide use.

  20. Use of small scale electrical resistivity tomography to identify soil-root interactions during deficit irrigation

    Vanella, D.; Cassiani, G.; Busato, L.; Boaga, J.; Barbagallo, S.; Binley, A.; Consoli, S.

    2018-01-01

    Plant roots activity affect the exchanges of mass and energy between the soil and atmosphere. However, it is challenging to monitor the activity of the root-zone because roots are not visible from the soil surface, and root systems undergo spatial and temporal variations in response to internal and external conditions. Therefore, measurements of the activity of root systems are interesting to ecohydrologists in general, and are especially important for specific applications, such as irrigation water management. This study demonstrates the use of small scale three-dimensional (3-D) electrical resistivity tomography (ERT) to monitor the root-zone of orange trees irrigated by two different regimes: (i) full rate, in which 100% of the crop evapotranspiration (ETc) is provided; and (ii) partial root-zone drying (PRD), in which 50% of ETc is supplied to alternate sides of the tree. We performed time-lapse 3-D ERT measurements on these trees from 5 June to 24 September 2015, and compared the long-term and short-term changes before, during, and after irrigation events. Given the small changes in soil temperature and pore water electrical conductivity, we interpreted changes of soil electrical resistivity from 3-D ERT data as proxies for changes in soil water content. The ERT results are consistent with measurements of transpiration flux and soil temperature. The changes in electrical resistivity obtained from ERT measurements in this case study indicate that root water uptake (RWU) processes occur at the 0.1 m scale, and highlight the impact of different irrigation schemes.

  1. Nitrogen modulation of legume root architecture signalling pathways involves phytohormones and small regulatory molecules

    Nadiatul Akmal Mohd-Radzman

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Nitrogen, particularly nitrate is an important yield determinant for crops. However, current agricultural practice with excessive fertilizer usage has detrimental effects on the environment. Therefore, legumes have been suggested as a sustainable alternative for replenishing soil nitrogen. Legumes can uniquely form nitrogen-fixing nodules through symbiotic interaction with specialized soil bacteria. Legumes possess a highly plastic root system which modulates its architecture according to the nitrogen availability in the soil. Understanding how legumes regulate root development in response to nitrogen availability is an important step to improving root architecture. The nitrogen-mediated root development pathway starts with sensing soil nitrogen level followed by subsequent signal transduction pathways involving phytohormones, microRNAs and regulatory peptides that collectively modulate the growth and shape of the root system. This review focuses on the current understanding of nitrogen-mediated legume root architecture including local and systemic regulations by different N-sources and the modulations by phytohormones and small regulatory molecules.

  2. Bay11-7082 attenuates neuropathic pain via inhibition of nuclear factor-kappa B and nucleotide-binding domain-like receptor protein 3 inflammasome activation in dorsal root ganglions in a rat model of lumbar disc herniation

    Zhang AL

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Ailiang Zhang, Kun Wang, Lianghua Ding, Xinnan Bao, Xuan Wang, Xubin Qiu, Jinbo Liu Spine Surgery, Third Affiliated Hospital of Soochow University, Changzhou, People’s Republic of China Abstract: Lumbar disc herniation (LDH is an important cause of radiculopathy, but the underlying mechanisms are incompletely understood. Many studies suggested that local inflammation, rather than mechanical compression, results in radiculopathy induced by LDH. On the molecular and cellular level, nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB and nucleotide-binding domain-like receptor protein 3 (NLRP3 inflammasome have been implicated in the regulation of neuroinflammation formation and progression. In this study, the autologous nucleus pulposus (NP was implanted in the left L5 dorsal root ganglion (DRG to mimic LDH in rats. We investigated the expression of NF-κB and the components of NLRP3 inflammasome in the DRG neurons in rats. Western blotting and immunofluorescence for the related molecules, including NLRP3, apoptosis-associated speck-like protein containing caspase-1 activator domain (ASC, caspase-1, interleukin (IL-1β, IL-18, IκBα, p-IκBα, p65, p-p65, and calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP were examined. In the NP-treated group, the activations of NLRP3, ASC, caspase-1, IL-1β, IL-18, p-IκBα, and p-p65 in DRG neurons in rats were elevated at 1 day after surgery, and the peak occurred at 7 days. Treatment with Bay11-7082, an inhibitor of the actions of IKK-β, was able to inhibit expression and activation of the molecules (NLRP3, ASC, caspase-1, IL-1β, IL-18, p-IκBα, and p-p65 and relieve the pain in rats. Our study shows that NF-κB and NLRP3 inflammasome are involved in the maintenance of NP-induced pain, and that Bay11-7082 could alleviate mechanical allodynia and thermal hyperalgesia by inhibiting NF-κB and NLRP3 inflammasome activation. Keywords: pain, NLRP3, NF-κB, dorsal root ganglion, nucleus pulposus

  3. The sea anemone Bunodosoma caissarum toxin BcIII modulates the sodium current kinetics of rat dorsal root ganglia neurons and is displaced in a voltage-dependent manner.

    Salceda, Emilio; López, Omar; Zaharenko, André J; Garateix, Anoland; Soto, Enrique

    2010-03-01

    Sea anemone toxins bind to site 3 of the sodium channels, which is partially formed by the extracellular linker connecting S3 and S4 segments of domain IV, slowing down the inactivation process. In this work we have characterized the actions of BcIII, a sea anemone polypeptide toxin isolated from Bunodosoma caissarum, on neuronal sodium currents using the patch clamp technique. Neurons of the dorsal root ganglia of Wistar rats (P5-9) in primary culture were used for this study (n=65). The main effects of BcIII were a concentration-dependent increase in the sodium current inactivation time course (IC(50)=2.8 microM) as well as an increase in the current peak amplitude. BcIII did not modify the voltage at which 50% of the channels are activated or inactivated, nor the reversal potential of sodium current. BcIII shows a voltage-dependent action. A progressive acceleration of sodium current fast inactivation with longer conditioning pulses was observed, which was steeper as more depolarizing were the prepulses. The same was observed for other two anemone toxins (CgNa, from Condylactis gigantea and ATX-II, from Anemonia viridis). These results suggest that the binding affinity of sea anemone toxins may be reduced in a voltage-dependent manner, as has been described for alpha-scorpion toxins. (c) 2009 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. WenTong HuoXue Cream Can Inhibit the Reduction of the Pain-Related Molecule PLC-β3 in the Dorsal Root Ganglion of a Rat Model of Diabetic Peripheral Neuropathy.

    Feng, Chengcheng; Xu, Lijuan; Guo, Shiyun; Chen, Qian; Shen, Yuguo; Zang, Deng; Ma, Li

    2018-01-01

    WenTong HuoXue Cream (WTHX-Cream) has been shown to effectively alleviate clinical symptoms of diabetic peripheral neuropathy (DPN). This study investigated the gene and protein expression of the pain-related molecule PLC- β 3 in the dorsal root ganglion (DRG) of DPN rats. 88 specific pathogen-free male Wistar rats were randomly divided into placebo (10 rats) and DPN model (78 rats) groups, and the 78 model rats were used to establish the DPN model by intraperitoneal injection of streptozotocin and were then fed a high-fat diet for 8 weeks. These rats were randomly divided into the model group, the high-, medium-, and low-dose WTHX-Cream + metformin groups, the metformin group, the capsaicin cream group, and the capsaicin cream + metformin group. After 4 weeks of continuous drug administration, the blood glucose, body weight, behavioral indexes, and sciatic nerve conduction velocity were measured. The pathological structure of the DRG and the sciatic nerve were observed. PLC- β 3 mRNA and protein levels in the DRG of rats were measured. Compared with the model group, the high-dose WTHX-Cream group showed increased sciatic nerve conduction velocity, improved sciatic nerve morphological changes, and increased expression of PLC- β 3 mRNA and protein in the DRG. This study showed that WTHX-Cream improves hyperalgesia symptoms of DPN by inhibiting the reduction of PLC- β 3 mRNA and protein expression in the diabetic DRG of DPN rats.

  5. Electroacupuncture Reduces Carrageenan- and CFA-Induced Inflammatory Pain Accompanied by Changing the Expression of Nav1.7 and Nav1.8, rather than Nav1.9, in Mice Dorsal Root Ganglia.

    Huang, Chun-Ping; Chen, Hsiang-Ni; Su, Hong-Lin; Hsieh, Ching-Liang; Chen, Wei-Hsin; Lai, Zhen-Rung; Lin, Yi-Wen

    2013-01-01

    Several voltage-gated sodium channels (Navs) from nociceptive nerve fibers have been identified as important effectors in pain signaling. The objective of this study is to investigate the electroacupuncture (EA) analgesia mechanism by changing the expression of Navs in mice dorsal root ganglia (DRG). We injected carrageenan and complete Freund's adjuvant (CFA) into the mice plantar surface of the hind paw to induce inflammation and examined the antinociception effect of EA at the Zusanli (ST36) acupoint at 2 Hz low frequency. Mechanical hyperalgesia was evaluated by using electronic von Frey filaments, and thermal hyperalgesia was assessed using Hargreaves' test. Furthermore, we observed the expression and quality of Navs in DRG neurons. Our results showed that EA reduced mechanical and thermal pain in inflammatory animal model. The expression of Nav1.7 and Nav1.8 was increased after 4 days of carrageenan- and CFA-elicited inflammatory pain and further attenuated by 2 Hz EA stimulation. The attenuation cannot be observed in Nav1.9 sodium channels. We demonstrated that EA at Zusanli (ST36) acupoint at 2 Hz low-frequency stimulation attenuated inflammatory pain accompanied by decreasing the expression of Nav1.7 and 1.8, rather than Nav1.9, sodium channels in peripheral DRG neurons.

  6. Elevated Expression of Fractalkine (CX3CL1 and Fractalkine Receptor (CX3CR1 in the Dorsal Root Ganglia and Spinal Cord in Experimental Autoimmune Encephalomyelitis: Implications in Multiple Sclerosis-Induced Neuropathic Pain

    Wenjun Zhu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Multiple sclerosis (MS is a central nervous system (CNS disease resulting from a targeted autoimmune-mediated attack on myelin proteins in the CNS. The release of Th1 inflammatory mediators in the CNS activates macrophages, antibodies, and microglia resulting in myelin damage and the induction of neuropathic pain (NPP. Molecular signaling through fractalkine (CX3CL1, a nociceptive chemokine, via its receptor (CX3CR1 is thought to be associated with MS-induced NPP. An experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE model of MS was utilized to assess time dependent gene and protein expression changes of CX3CL1 and CX3CR1. Results revealed significant increases in mRNA and the protein expression of CX3CL1 and CX3CR1 in the dorsal root ganglia (DRG and spinal cord (SC 12 days after EAE induction compared to controls. This increased expression correlated with behavioural thermal sensory abnormalities consistent with NPP. Furthermore, this increased expression correlated with the peak neurological disability caused by EAE induction. This is the first study to identify CX3CL1 signaling through CX3CR1 via the DRG /SC anatomical connection that represents a critical pathway involved in NPP induction in an EAE model of MS.

  7. Metabotropic glutamate receptor-5 and protein kinase C-epsilon increase in dorsal root ganglion neurons and spinal glial activation in an adolescent rat model of painful neck injury.

    Weisshaar, Christine L; Dong, Ling; Bowman, Alex S; Perez, Federico M; Guarino, Benjamin B; Sweitzer, Sarah M; Winkelstein, Beth A

    2010-12-01

    There is growing evidence that neck pain is common in adolescence and is a risk factor for the development of chronic neck pain in adulthood. The cervical facet joint and its capsular ligament is a common source of pain in the neck in adults, but its role in adolescent pain remains unknown. The aim of this study was to define the biomechanics, behavioral sensitivity, and indicators of neuronal and glial activation in an adolescent model of mechanical facet joint injury. A bilateral C6-C7 facet joint distraction was imposed in an adolescent rat and biomechanical metrics were measured during injury. Following injury, forepaw mechanical hyperalgesia was measured, and protein kinase C-epsilon (PKCɛ) and metabotropic glutamate receptor-5 (mGluR5) expression in the dorsal root ganglion and markers of spinal glial activation were assessed. Joint distraction induced significant mechanical hyperalgesia during the 7 days post-injury (p capsule during injury were 32.8 ± 12.9%, which were consistent with the strains associated with comparable degrees of hypersensitivity in the adult rat. These results suggest that adolescents may have a lower tissue tolerance to induce pain and associated nociceptive response than do adults.

  8. Y-type congenital urethral duplication with normal dorsal urethra and small ventral fistula to perineal skin – 28th reported case

    Donald E. Meier

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available There are numerous types of urethral duplication previously described in the literature including a Type IIA2Y where a large ventral channel branches from the hypoplastic, dorsal, orthotopic urethra. There have been 27 previously reported cases of a similar defect, called “congenital posterior urethrocutaneous fistula” (CUPF with the only difference being that the ventral urethra is hypoplastic and the dorsal, orthotopic one normal. The difference in treatment for these 2 entities is markedly different, and preoperative identification of the appropriate abnormality is essential. Treatment of CUPF requires only safe excision of the ventral segment, but treatment for a Type IIA2Y duplication requires resection of the hypoplastic, orthotopic urethra and transposition of the larger ventral segment into the dorsal orthotopic position. The outcome for treatment of CUPF is much better than for treatment of Type IIA2Y entities. We herein present the 28th case of CUPF in the English literature with discussion of the anatomy, appropriate diagnostic criteria, and safe method of treatment for these entities.

  9. WenTong HuoXue Cream Can Inhibit the Reduction of the Pain-Related Molecule PLC-β3 in the Dorsal Root Ganglion of a Rat Model of Diabetic Peripheral Neuropathy

    Chengcheng Feng

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available WenTong HuoXue Cream (WTHX-Cream has been shown to effectively alleviate clinical symptoms of diabetic peripheral neuropathy (DPN. This study investigated the gene and protein expression of the pain-related molecule PLC-β3 in the dorsal root ganglion (DRG of DPN rats. 88 specific pathogen-free male Wistar rats were randomly divided into placebo (10 rats and DPN model (78 rats groups, and the 78 model rats were used to establish the DPN model by intraperitoneal injection of streptozotocin and were then fed a high-fat diet for 8 weeks. These rats were randomly divided into the model group, the high-, medium-, and low-dose WTHX-Cream + metformin groups, the metformin group, the capsaicin cream group, and the capsaicin cream + metformin group. After 4 weeks of continuous drug administration, the blood glucose, body weight, behavioral indexes, and sciatic nerve conduction velocity were measured. The pathological structure of the DRG and the sciatic nerve were observed. PLC-β3 mRNA and protein levels in the DRG of rats were measured. Compared with the model group, the high-dose WTHX-Cream group showed increased sciatic nerve conduction velocity, improved sciatic nerve morphological changes, and increased expression of PLC-β3 mRNA and protein in the DRG. This study showed that WTHX-Cream improves hyperalgesia symptoms of DPN by inhibiting the reduction of PLC-β3 mRNA and protein expression in the diabetic DRG of DPN rats.

  10. Root reinforcement and its implications in shallow landsliding susceptibility on a small alpine catchment

    Morandi, M. C.; Farabegoli, E.; Onorevoli, G.

    2012-04-01

    Roots shear resistance offers a considerable contribution to hill-slope stability on vegetated terrains. Through the pseudo-cohesion of shrubs, trees and turf's roots, the geomechanical properties of soils can be drastically increased, exerting a positive influence on the hillslope stability. We analysed the shallow landsliding susceptibility of a small alpine catchment (Duron valley, Central Dolomites, Italy) that we consider representative of a wide altitude belt of the Dolomites (1800 - 2400 m a.s.l). The catchment is mostly mantled by grass (Nardetum strictae s.l.), with clustered shrubs (Rhododendron hirsutum and Juniperus nana), and trees (Pinus cembra, Larix decidua and Picea abies). The soil depth, investigated with direct and indirect methods, ranges from 0 to 180 cm, with its peak at the hollow axes. Locally, the bedrock, made of Triassic volcanic rocks, is deeply incised by the Holocene drainage network. Intensive grazing of cows and horses pervades the catchment area and cattle-trails occupy ca 20% of the grass cover. We used laboratory and field tests to characterize the geotechnical properties of these alpine soils; moreover we designed and tested an experimental device that measures, in situ, the shear strengths of the grass mantle. In the study area we mapped 18 shallow landslides, mostly related to road cuts and periodically reactivated as retrogressive landslides. The triggering mechanisms of these shallow landslides were qualitatively analysed at large scale and modelled at smaller scale. We used SHALSTAB to model the shallow landsliding susceptibility of the catchment at the basin scale and SLIDE (RocScience) to compute the Safety Factor at the versant scale. Qualitative management solutions are provided, in order to reduce the shallow landsliding susceptibility risk in this alpine context.

  11. Effect of electroacupuncture on thermal pain threshold and expression of calcitonin-gene related peptide, substance P and γ-aminobutyric acid in the cervical dorsal root ganglion of rats with incisional neck pain.

    Qiao, Li-Na; Liu, Jun-Ling; Tan, Lian-Hong; Yang, Hai-Long; Zhai, Xu; Yang, Yong-Sheng

    2017-08-01

    Acupuncture therapy effectively reduces post-surgical pain, but its mechanism of action remains unclear. The aim of this study was to investigate whether expression of γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) and the neuropeptides substance P (SP) and calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) in the primary sensory neurons of cervical dorsal root ganglia (DRG) are involved in electroacupuncture (EA)-induced analgesia in a rat model of incisional neck pain. The pain model was established by making a longitudinal midline neck incision in 60 rats. Another 15 rats underwent sham surgery (normal group). Post-incision, 15 rats remained untreated (model group) and 45 rats underwent EA (frequency 2/100 Hz, intensity 1 mA) at bilateral LI18, LI4-PC6 or ST36-GB34 (n=15 each) for 30 min at 4 hours, 24 hours, and 48 hours post-surgery, followed by thermal pain threshold (PT) measurement. 30 min later, the rats were euthanased and cervical (C3-6) DRGs removed for measurement of immunoreactivity and mRNA expression of SP/CGRP and the GABAergic neuronal marker glutamic acid decarboxylase 67 (GAD67). Thermal PT was significantly lower in the model group versus the normal group and increased in the LI18 and LI4-PC6 groups but not the ST36-GB34 group compared with the model group. Additionally, EA at LI18 and LI4-PC6 markedly suppressed neck incision-induced upregulation of mRNA/protein expression of SP/CGRP, and upregulated mRNA/protein expression of GAD67 in the DRGs of C3-6 segments. EA at LI18/LI4-PC6 increases PT in rats with incisional neck pain, which is likely related to downregulation of pronociceptive mediators SP/CGRP and upregulation of the inhibitory transmitter GABA in the primary sensory neurons of cervical DRGs. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  12. Elevated CO[sub 2] alters deployment of roots in small growth containers

    Berntson, G M; McConnaughay, K D.M.; Bazzaz, F A [Harvard University, Cambridge, MA (United States). Dept. of Organismic and Evolutionary Biology

    1993-07-01

    Previously the authors examined how limited rooting space and nutrient supply influenced plant growth under elevated atmospheric CO[sub 2] concentrations. To gain insight into how elevated CO[sub 2] atmospheres affect how plants utilize available belowground space, when rooting space and nutrient supply are limited, they measured the deployment of roots within pots through time. Contrary to aboveground responses, patterns of belowground deployment were most strongly influenced by elevated CO[sub 2] in pots of different volume and shape. Further, elevated CO[sub 2] conditions interacted differently with limited belowground space for the two species studied, Abutilon theophrasti, a C[sub 3] dicot with a deep taproot, and Setaria faberii, a C4 monocot with a shallow fibrous root system. For Setaria, elevated CO[sub 2] increased the size of the largest region of low root density at the pot surface in larger rooting volumes independent of nutrient content, thereby decreasing their efficiency of deployment. For Abutilon, plants responded to elevated CO[sub 2] concentrations by equalizing the pattern of deployment in all the pots. Nutrient concentration, and not pot size or shape, greatly influenced the density of root growth. Root densities for Abutilon and Setaria were similar to those observed in field conditions, for annual dicots and monocots respectively, suggesting that studies using pots may successfully mimic natural conditions.

  13. Variability of rooting in a small second-generation population of the hybrid Pinus attenuradiata

    J. W. Duffield; A. R. Liddicoet

    1949-01-01

    Propagation of conifers by rooting of cuttings is an old art that has recently benefited by the findings of the plant physiologist. The forest tree breeder may now use rooting as a tool in his efforts to evaluate the heredity of his trees. In a study undertaken to use vegetative propagation of members of a variable hybrid population as a guide for selecting superior...

  14. The preventive Control of White Root Rot Disease in Small Holder Rubber Plantation Using Botanical, Biological and Chemical Agents

    Joko Prasetyo

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The preventive control of white root rot disease in small holder plantation using botanical, biological, and chemical agents. A field and laboratory experiment were conducted from June 2008 to December 2009 in Panumangan, Tulang Bawang - Lampung. The  field experiment was intended to evaluate the effect of  botanical plants (Alpinia galanga, Sansiviera auranthii, and Marantha arundinacea, biological agents (organic matter and Trichoderma spp., and chemical agents (lime and natural sulphur on the incidence of white root rot disease and population of some soil microbes. The laboratory experiment was conducted  to observe the mechanism of botanical agents  in controlling white root rot disease. In the field experiment, the treatments were applied  in the experimental plot with cassava plant infection as the indicator. The variables  examined were the incidence of  white root rot and population of soil microbes. In the laboratory experiment, culture of R. microporus was grown in PDA containing root exudate of the antagonistic plant (botanical agent. The variable examined was colony diameter of R. microporus growing in the PDA plates. The results of the  field experiment  showed that planting of the botanical agents, and application of Trichoderma spp., as well as natural sulphur, decreased the incidence of white root rot disease. The effectiveness of M. arundinacea and Trichoderma spp. was comparable to natural  sulphur. The laboratory experiment showed only root exudate of  A. galanga and  S. auranthii that were significantly inhibit the growth of R. microporus.

  15. Lectin Ulex europaeus agglutinin I specifically labels a subset of primary afferent fibers which project selectively to the superficial dorsal horn of the spinal cord.

    Mori, K

    1986-02-19

    To examine differential carbohydrate expression among different subsets of primary afferent fibers, several fluorescein-isothiocyanate conjugated lectins were used in a histochemical study of the dorsal root ganglion (DRG) and spinal cord of the rabbit. The lectin Ulex europaeus agglutinin I specifically labeled a subset of DRG cells and primary afferent fibers which projected to the superficial laminae of the dorsal horn. These results suggest that specific carbohydrates containing L-fucosyl residue is expressed selectively in small diameter primary afferent fibers which subserve nociception or thermoception.

  16. Small RNA Deep Sequencing and the Effects of microRNA408 on Root Gravitropic Bending in Arabidopsis

    Li, Huasheng; Lu, Jinying; Sun, Qiao; Chen, Yu; He, Dacheng; Liu, Min

    2015-11-01

    MicroRNA (miRNA) is a non-coding small RNA composed of 20 to 24 nucleotides that influences plant root development. This study analyzed the miRNA expression in Arabidopsis root tip cells using Illumina sequencing and real-time PCR before (sample 0) and 15 min after (sample 15) a 3-D clinostat rotational treatment was administered. After stimulation was performed, the expression levels of seven miRNA genes, including Arabidopsis miR160, miR161, miR394, miR402, miR403, miR408, and miR823, were significantly upregulated. Illumina sequencing results also revealed two novel miRNAsthat have not been previously reported, The target genes of these miRNAs included pentatricopeptide repeat-containing protein and diadenosine tetraphosphate hydrolase. An overexpression vector of Arabidopsis miR408 was constructed and transferred to Arabidopsis plant. The roots of plants over expressing miR408 exhibited a slower reorientation upon gravistimulation in comparison with those of wild-type. This result indicate that miR408 could play a role in root gravitropic response.

  17. Conjoined lumbosacral nerve roots

    Kyoshima, Kazumitsu; Nishiura, Iwao; Koyama, Tsunemaro

    1986-01-01

    Several kinds of the lumbosacral nerve root anomalies have already been recognized, and the conjoined nerve roots is the most common among them. It does not make symptoms by itself, but if there is a causation of neural entrapment, for example, disc herniation, lateral recessus stenosis, spondylolisthesis, etc., so called ''biradicular syndrome'' should occur. Anomalies of the lumbosacral nerve roots, if not properly recognized, may lead to injury of these nerves during operation of the lumbar spine. Recently, the chance of finding these anomalous roots has been increased more and more with the use of metrizamide myelography and metrizamide CT, because of the improvement of the opacification of nerve roots. We describe the findings of the anomalous roots as revealed by these two methods. They demonstrate two nerve roots running parallel and the asymmetrical wide root sleeve. Under such circumstances, it is important to distinguish the anomalous roots from the normal ventral and dorsal roots. (author)

  18. Computational investigation of small RNAs in the establishment of root nodules and arbuscular mycorrhiza in leguminous plants.

    Jin, Danfeng; Meng, Xianwen; Wang, Yue; Wang, Jingjing; Zhao, Yuhua; Chen, Ming

    2018-01-03

    Many small RNAs have been confirmed to play important roles in the development of root nodules and arbuscular mycorrhiza. In this study, we carried out the identification of certain small RNAs in leguminous plants (Medicago truncatula, soybean, peanut and common bean), such as miRNAs, tRFs and srRNAs, as well as the computational investigation of their regulations. Thirty miRNAs were predicted to be involved in establishing root nodules and mycorrhiza, and 12 of them were novel in common bean and peanut. The generation of tRFs in M. truncatula was not associated with tRNA gene frequencies and codon usage. Six tRFs exhibited different expressions in mycorrhiza and root nodules. Moreover, srRNA 5.8S in M. truncatula was generated from the regions with relatively low conservation at the rRNA 3' terminal. The protein-protein interactions between the proteins encoded by the target genes of miRNAs, tRFs and srRNAs were computed. The regulation of these three types of sRNAs in the symbiosis between leguminous plants and microorganisms is not a single regulation of certain signaling or metabolic pathways but a global regulation for the plants to own growth or specific events in symbiosis.

  19. Soil respiration patterns in root gaps 27 years after small scale experimental disturbance in Pinus contorta forests

    Baker, S.; Berryman, E.; Hawbaker, T. J.; Ewers, B. E.

    2015-12-01

    While much attention has been focused on large scale forest disturbances such as fire, harvesting, drought and insect attacks, small scale forest disturbances that create gaps in forest canopies and below ground root and mycorrhizal networks may accumulate to impact regional scale carbon budgets. In a lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta) forest near Fox Park, WY, clusters of 15 and 30 trees were removed in 1988 to assess the effect of tree gap disturbance on fine root density and nitrogen transformation. Twenty seven years later the gaps remain with limited regeneration present only in the center of the 30 tree plots, beyond the influence of roots from adjacent intact trees. Soil respiration was measured in the summer of 2015 to assess the influence of these disturbances on carbon cycling in Pinus contorta forests. Positions at the centers of experimental disturbances were found to have the lowest respiration rates (mean 2.45 μmol C/m2/s, standard error 0.17 C/m2/s), control plots in the undisturbed forest were highest (mean 4.15 μmol C/m2/s, standard error 0.63 C/m2/s), and positions near the margin of the disturbance were intermediate (mean 3.7 μmol C/m2/s, standard error 0.34 C/m2/s). Fine root densities, soil nitrogen, and microclimate changes were also measured and played an important role in respiration rates of disturbed plots. This demonstrates that a long-term effect on carbon cycling occurs when gaps are created in the canopy and root network of lodgepole forests.

  20. Posture does not matter! Paw usage and grasping paw preference in a small-bodied rooting quadrupedal mammal.

    Joly, Marine; Scheumann, Marina; Zimmermann, Elke

    2012-01-01

    Recent results in birds, marsupials, rodents and nonhuman primates suggest that phylogeny and ecological factors such as body size, diet and postural habit of a species influence limb usage and the direction and strength of limb laterality. To examine to which extent these findings can be generalised to small-bodied rooting quadrupedal mammals, we studied trees shrews (Tupaia belangeri). We established a behavioural test battery for examining paw usage comparable to small-bodied primates and tested 36 Tupaia belangeri. We studied paw usage in a natural foraging situation (simple food grasping task) and measured the influence of varying postural demands (triped, biped, cling, sit) on paw preferences by applying a forced-food grasping task similar to other small-bodied primates. Our findings suggest that rooting tree shrews prefer mouth over paw usage to catch food in a natural foraging situation. Moreover, we demonstrated that despite differences in postural demand, tree shrews show a strong and consistent individual paw preference for grasping across different tasks, but no paw preference at a population level. Tree shrews showed less paw usage than small-bodied quadrupedal and arboreal primates, but the same paw preference. Our results confirm that individual paw preferences remain constant irrespective of postural demand in some small-bodied quadrupedal non primate and primate mammals which do not require fine motoric control for manipulating food items. Our findings suggest that the lack of paw/hand preference for grasping food at a population level is a universal pattern among those species and that the influence of postural demand on manual lateralisation in quadrupeds may have evolved in large-bodied species specialised in fine manipulations of food items.

  1. Posture does not matter! Paw usage and grasping paw preference in a small-bodied rooting quadrupedal mammal.

    Marine Joly

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Recent results in birds, marsupials, rodents and nonhuman primates suggest that phylogeny and ecological factors such as body size, diet and postural habit of a species influence limb usage and the direction and strength of limb laterality. To examine to which extent these findings can be generalised to small-bodied rooting quadrupedal mammals, we studied trees shrews (Tupaia belangeri. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We established a behavioural test battery for examining paw usage comparable to small-bodied primates and tested 36 Tupaia belangeri. We studied paw usage in a natural foraging situation (simple food grasping task and measured the influence of varying postural demands (triped, biped, cling, sit on paw preferences by applying a forced-food grasping task similar to other small-bodied primates. Our findings suggest that rooting tree shrews prefer mouth over paw usage to catch food in a natural foraging situation. Moreover, we demonstrated that despite differences in postural demand, tree shrews show a strong and consistent individual paw preference for grasping across different tasks, but no paw preference at a population level. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Tree shrews showed less paw usage than small-bodied quadrupedal and arboreal primates, but the same paw preference. Our results confirm that individual paw preferences remain constant irrespective of postural demand in some small-bodied quadrupedal non primate and primate mammals which do not require fine motoric control for manipulating food items. Our findings suggest that the lack of paw/hand preference for grasping food at a population level is a universal pattern among those species and that the influence of postural demand on manual lateralisation in quadrupeds may have evolved in large-bodied species specialised in fine manipulations of food items.

  2. Monosynaptic connections between primary afferents and giant neurons in the turtle spinal dorsal horn

    Fernández, A; Radmilovich, M; Russo, R E

    1996-01-01

    This paper reports the occurrence of monosynaptic connections between dorsal root afferents and a distinct cell type-the giant neuron-deep in the dorsal horn of the turtle spinal cord. Light microscope studies combining Nissl stain and transganglionic HRP-labeling of the primary afferents have...

  3. Aortic valve replacement with 17-mm St. Jude Medical prostheses for a small aortic root in elderly patients.

    Takaseya, Tohru; Kawara, Takemi; Tokunaga, Shigehiko; Kohno, Michitaka; Oishi, Yasuhisa; Morita, Shigeki

    2007-06-01

    There are few reports about the optimal prosthesis for elderly patients who have small aortic roots with an aortic annular size of less than 19 mm. From October 2004 to October 2006, 11 women aged 70 years or older (mean age, 74.9 +/- 3.5 years) underwent aortic valve replacement with a 17-mm Regent prosthesis (St. Jude Medical, St. Paul, MN), with the size determined using the manufacturer's sizer. Clinical status and the results of preoperative and postoperative echocardiography were evaluated. The patients had a mean body surface area of 1.33 +/- 0.13 m2. Preoperative average New York Heart Association (NYHA) functional class was 2.5 +/- 0.7. Preoperative echocardiography showed a mean indexed effective orifice area of 0.33 +/- 0.14 cm2/m2 and a left ventricular mass index of 175 +/- 63 g/m2. Seven patients underwent associated procedures. Postoperative ventilation time was 14 +/- 5.6 hours, and the intensive care unit stay was 1.0 +/- 0.4 days. No patients died perioperatively. The NYHA functional class improved to class I in 9 patients. No obstruction of valve opening was observed. A significant increase in the mean indexed effective orifice area (0.87 +/- 0.10 cm2/m2) and regression of left ventricular mass index were found (114 +/- 46 cm2/m2) on postoperative echocardiography. Aortic valve replacement in elderly patients with small aortic roots (less than 19 mm) using a 17-mm Regent prosthesis showed satisfactory clinical and hemodynamic results.

  4. Description of Meloidogyne minor n.sp. (Nematoda: Meloidogynidae), a root-knot nematode associated with yellow patch disease in golf courses

    Karssen, G.; Bolk, R.J.; Aelst, van A.C.; Beld, van den I.; Kox, L.F.F.; Korthals, G.W.; Molendijk, L.P.G.; Zijlstra, C.; Hoof, van R.A.; Cook, R.

    2004-01-01

    A relatively small root-knot nematode, Meloidogyne minor n. sp., is described and illustrated from tomato from the Netherlands. This new species is characterised by the following features: female with dorsally curved stylet, 14 Pm long, with transversely ovoid knobs slightly sloping backwards from

  5. Agenesis of the dorsal mesentery presenting in an adolescent

    Anith Chacko

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Agenesis of the dorsal mesentery is a rare occurrence that usually presents in children. It is associated with proximal small bowel malrotation as well as high jejunal atresia with discontinuity of the small bowel. We present a case report of an adolescent presenting with clinical features of proximal small bowel obstruction (confirmed on imaging as well as acute pancreatitis. At laparotomy, he was found to have no dorsal mesentery, without small bowel atresia, and the duodenum was fixed to the posterior abdominal wall. The patient recovered well and remained symptom-free.

  6. Nav1.7-related small fiber neuropathy: impaired slow-inactivation and DRG neuron hyperexcitability.

    Han, C.; Hoeijmakers, J.G.; Ahn, H.S.; Zhao, P.; Shah, P.; Lauria, G.; Gerrits, M.M.; Morsche, R.H.M. te; Dib-Hajj, S.D.; Drenth, J.P.H.; Faber, C.G.; Merkies, I.S.; Waxman, S.G.

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Although small fiber neuropathy (SFN) often occurs without apparent cause, the molecular etiology of idiopathic SFN (I-SFN) has remained enigmatic. Sodium channel Na(v)1.7 is preferentially expressed within dorsal root ganglion (DRG) and sympathetic ganglion neurons and their

  7. Control of spread of Augusta disease caused by tobacco necrosis virus in tulip by composting residual waste of small bulbs, tunics, roots and soil debris

    Asjes, C.J.; Barnhoorn, G.J.

    2002-01-01

    In this study the elimination of the infectious virus/fungus complex of tobacco necrosis virus (TNV; cause of Augusta disease in tulip) and Olpidium brassicae in different soil types and residual waste material of soil debris, small tulip bulbs, roots and tunics by temperature treatments of

  8. Slack KNa Channels Influence Dorsal Horn Synapses and Nociceptive Behavior.

    Evely, Katherine M; Pryce, Kerri D; Bausch, Anne E; Lukowski, Robert; Ruth, Peter; Haj-Dahmane, Samir; Bhattacharjee, Arin

    2017-01-01

    The sodium-activated potassium channel Slack (Kcnt1, Slo2.2) is highly expressed in dorsal root ganglion neurons where it regulates neuronal firing. Several studies have implicated the Slack channel in pain processing, but the precise mechanism or the levels within the sensory pathway where channels are involved remain unclear. Here, we furthered the behavioral characterization of Slack channel knockout mice and for the first time examined the role of Slack channels in the superficial, pain-processing lamina of the dorsal horn. We performed whole-cell recordings from spinal cord slices to examine the intrinsic and synaptic properties of putative inhibitory and excitatory lamina II interneurons. Slack channel deletion altered intrinsic properties and synaptic drive to favor an overall enhanced excitatory tone. We measured the amplitudes and paired pulse ratio of paired excitatory post-synaptic currents at primary afferent synapses evoked by electrical stimulation of the dorsal root entry zone. We found a substantial decrease in the paired pulse ratio at synapses in Slack deleted neurons compared to wildtype, indicating increased presynaptic release from primary afferents. Corroborating these data, plantar test showed Slack knockout mice have an enhanced nociceptive responsiveness to localized thermal stimuli compared to wildtype mice. Our findings suggest that Slack channels regulate synaptic transmission within the spinal cord dorsal horn and by doing so establishes the threshold for thermal nociception.

  9. Hypogeous ectomycorrhizal fungal species on roots and in small mammal diet in a mixed-conifer forest

    Antonio D. Izzo; Marc Meyer; James M. Trappe; Malcolm North; Thomas D. Bruns

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to estimate the portion of an ectomycorrhizal (ECM) fungi root community with a hypogeous fruiting habit. We used molecular methods (DNA sequence analysis of the internally transcribed spacer [ITS] region of rDNA) to compare three viewpoints: ECM fungi on the roots in a southern Sierra Nevada Abies-dominated old-growth...

  10. Agenesis of the dorsal pancreas

    Schnedl, Wolfgang J; Piswanger-Soelkner, Claudia; Wallner, Sandra J; Krause, Robert; Lipp, Rainer W

    2009-01-01

    During the last 100 years in medical literature, there are only 54 reports, including the report of Pasaoglu et al (World J Gastroenterol 2008; 14: 2915-2916), with clinical descriptions of agenesis of the dorsal pancreas in humans. Agenesis of the dorsal pancreas, a rare congenital pancreatic malformation, is associated with some other medical conditions such as hyperglycemia, abdominal pain, pancreatitis and a few other diseases. In approximately 50% of reported patients with this congenital malformation, hyperglycemia was demonstrated. Evaluation of hyperglycemia and diabetes mellitus in all patients with agenesis of the dorsal pancreas including description of fasting blood glucose, oral glucose tolerance test, glycated hemoglobin and medical treatment would be a future goal. Since autosomal dominant transmission has been suggested in single families, more family studies including imaging technologies with demonstration of the pancreatic duct system are needed for evaluation of this disease. With this letter to the editor, we aim to increase available information for the better understanding of this rare disease. PMID:19140241

  11. Torsional Performance of ProTaper Gold Rotary Instruments during Shaping of Small Root Canals after 2 Different Glide Path Preparations.

    Arias, Ana; de Vasconcelos, Rafaela Andrade; Hernández, Alexis; Peters, Ove A

    2017-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the ex vivo torsional performance of a novel rotary system in small root canals after 2 different glide path preparations. Each independent canal of 8 mesial roots of mandibular molars was randomly assigned to achieve a reproducible glide path with a new set of either PathFile #1 (Dentsply Maillefer, Ballaigues, Switzerland) and #2 or ProGlider (Dentsply Maillefer) after negotiation with a 10 K-file. After glide path preparation, root canals in both groups were shaped with the same sequence of ProTaper Gold (Dentsply Tulsa Dental Specialties, Tulsa, OK) following the directions for use recommended by the manufacturer. A total of 16 new sets of each instrument of the ProTaper Gold (PTG) system were used. The tests were run in a standardized fashion in a torque-testing platform. Peak torque (Ncm) and force (N) were registered during the shaping procedure and compared with Student t tests after normal distribution of data was confirmed. No significant differences were found for any of the instruments in peak torque or force after the 2 different glide path preparations (P > .05). Data presented in this study also serve as a basis for the recommended torque for the use of PTG instruments. Under the conditions of this study, differences in the torsional performance of PTG rotary instruments after 2 different glide path preparations could not be shown. The different geometry of glide path rotary systems seemed to have no effect on peak torque and force induced by PTG rotary instruments when shaping small root canals in extracted teeth. Copyright © 2016 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Primary afferent terminal sprouting after a cervical dorsal rootlet section in the macaque monkey.

    Darian-Smith, Corinna

    2004-03-01

    We examined the role of primary afferent neurons in the somatosensory cortical "reactivation" that occurs after a localized cervical dorsal root lesion (Darian-Smith and Brown [2000] Nat. Neurosci. 3:476-481). After section of the dorsal rootlets that enervate the macaque's thumb and index finger (segments C6-C8), the cortical representation of these digits was initially silenced but then re-emerged for these same digits over 2-4 postlesion months. Cortical reactivation was accompanied by the emergence of physiologically detectable input from these same digits within dorsal rootlets bordering the lesion site. We investigated whether central axonal sprouting of primary afferents spared by the rhizotomy could mediate this cortical reactivation. The cortical representation of the hand was mapped electrophysiologically 15-25 weeks after the dorsal rootlet section to define this reactivation. Cholera toxin subunit B conjugated to horseradish peroxidase was then injected into the thumb and index finger pads bilaterally to label the central terminals of any neurons that innervated these digits. Primary afferent terminal proliferation was assessed in the spinal dorsal horn and cuneate nucleus at 7 days and 15-25 postlesion weeks. Labeled terminal bouton distributions were reconstructed and the "lesion" and control sides compared within each monkey. Distributions were significantly larger on the side of the lesion in the dorsal horn and cuneate nucleus at 15-25 weeks after the dorsal rootlet section, than those mapped only 7 days postlesion. Our results provide direct evidence for localized sprouting of spared (uninjured) primary afferent terminals in the dorsal horn and cuneate nucleus after a restricted dorsal root injury. Copyright 2004 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  13. Testing for Unit Roots in Small Panels with Short-run and Long-run Cross-sectional Dependencies

    Yoosoon Chang; Wonho Song

    2009-01-01

    An IV approach, using as instruments non-linear transformations of the lagged levels, is explored to test for unit roots in panels with general dependency and heterogeneity across cross-sectional units. We allow not only for the cross-sectional dependencies of innovations, but also for the presence of co-integration across cross-sectional levels. Unbalanced panels and panels with differing individual short-run dynamics and cross-sectionally related dynamics are also permitted. We also more ca...

  14. Root rots

    Kathryn Robbins; Philip M. Wargo

    1989-01-01

    Root rots of central hardwoods are diseases caused by fungi that infect and decay woody roots and sometimes also invade the butt portion of the tree. By killing and decaying roots, root rotting fungi reduce growth, decrease tree vigor, and cause windthrow and death. The most common root diseases of central hardwoods are Armillaria root rot, lnonotus root rot, and...

  15. [Disseminated metastatic tumor at dorsal surface of medulla oblongata presenting intractable hiccups. A case report].

    Arishima, Hidetaka; Kikuta, Ken-ichirou

    2011-04-01

    We report the case of disseminated metastatic tumor at dorsal surface of medulla oblongata presenting intractable hiccups. A 73-year-old man has a history of for metastatic lung tumor of the left tempral lobe. Although 3 surgeries and 4 radiotherapies were performed in the last 8 years, residual tumor grew slowly. He presented with intractable hiccups. His hiccups continued for 30 minutes, sometimes for 3 hours with obstruction of eating. Contrast-enhanced Magnetic resonance (MR) imaging demonstrated the dissemination of metastatic lung tumor at dorsal surface of medulla oblongata and ventral surface of midbrain. Some literatures reported the patients with intractable hiccups caused by dorsal medullary lesions. Therefore, we thought that the small disseminated tumor at dorsal surface of medulla oblongata caused the hiccups. Evaluation of dorsal medullay area by MR imaging is important to reveal the cause of intractable hiccups.

  16. Liposarcome dorsal: aspect clinique rare

    Agbessi, Odry; Arrob, Adil; Fiqhi, Kamal; Khalfi, Lahcen; Nassih, Mohammed; El Khatib, Karim

    2015-01-01

    Décrit la première fois par Virchow en 1860, le liposarcome est une tumeur mésenchymateuse rare. Cette rareté est relative car les liposarcomes représentent quand même 14 à 18% de l'ensemble des tumeurs malignes des parties molles et ils constituent le plus fréquent des sarcomes des parties molles. Pour la majorité des auteurs, il ne se développerait jamais sur un lipome ou une lipomatose préexistant. Nous rapportons un cas de volumineux liposarcome de la face dorsale du tronc. L'histoire de la maladie, l'aspect clinique inhabituel « de tumeur dans tumeur », l'aspect de la pièce opératoire nous fait évoquer la possibilité de la transformation maligne d'un lipome bénin préexistant. PMID:26113914

  17. Dorsal skinfold chamber models in mice

    Schreiter, Jeannine

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Background/purpose: The use of dorsal skinfold chamber models has substantially improved the understanding of micro-vascularisation in pathophysiology over the last eight decades. It allows pathophysiological studies of vascularisation over a continuous period of time. The dorsal skinfold chamber is an attractive technique for monitoring the vascularisation of autologous or allogenic transplants, wound healing, tumorigenesis and compatibility of biomaterial implants. To further reduce the animals’ discomfort while carrying the dorsal skinfold chamber, we developed a smaller chamber (the Leipzig Dorsal Skinfold Chamber and summarized the commercial available chamber models. In addition we compared our model to the common chamber. Methods: The Leipzig Dorsal Skinfold Chamber was applied to female mice with a mean weight of 22 g. Angiogenesis within the dorsal skinfold chamber was evaluated after injection of fluorescein isothiocyanate dextran with an Axio Scope microscope. The mean vessel density within the dorsal skinfold chamber was assessed over a period of 21 days at five different time points. The gained data were compared to previous results using a bigger and heavier dorsal skinfold model in mice. A PubMed and a patent search were performed and all papers related to “dorsal skinfold chamber” from 1 of January 2006 to 31 of December 2015 were evaluated regarding the dorsal skinfold chamber models and their technical improvements. The main models are described and compared to our titanium Leipzig Dorsal Skinfold Chamber model.Results: The Leipzig Dorsal Skinfold Chamber fulfils all requirements of continuous models known from previous chamber models while reducing irritation to the mice. Five different chamber models have been identified showing substantial regional diversity. The newly elaborated titanium dorsal skinfold chamber may replace the pre-existing titanium chamber model used in Germany so far, as it is smaller and lighter

  18. Dorsal rhizotomy for children with spastic diplegia of cerebral palsy origin: usefulness of intraoperative monitoring.

    Georgoulis, George; Brînzeu, Andrei; Sindou, Marc

    2018-04-13

    OBJECTIVE The utility of intraoperative neuromonitoring (ION), namely the study of muscle responses to radicular stimulation, remains controversial. The authors performed a prospective study combining ventral root (VR) stimulation for mapping anatomical levels and dorsal root (DR) stimulation as physiological testing of metameric excitability. The purpose was to evaluate to what extent the intraoperative data led to modifications in the initial decisions for surgical sectioning established by the pediatric multidisciplinary team (i.e., preoperative chart), and thus estimate its practical usefulness. METHODS Thirteen children with spastic diplegia underwent the following surgical protocol. First, a bilateral intradural approach was made to the L2-S2 VRs and DRs at the exit from or entry to their respective dural sheaths, through multilevel interlaminar enlarged openings. Second, stimulation-just above the threshold-of the VR at 2 Hz to establish topography of radicular myotome distribution, and then of the DR at 50 Hz as an excitability test of root circuitry, with independent identification of muscle responses by the physiotherapist and by electromyographic recordings. The study aimed to compare the final amounts of root sectioning-per radicular level, established after intraoperative neuromonitoring guidance-with those determined by the multidisciplinary team in the presurgical chart. RESULTS The use of ION resulted in differences in the final percentage of root sectioning for all root levels. The root levels corresponding to the upper lumbar segments were modestly excitable under DR stimulation, whereas progressively lower root levels displayed higher excitability. The difference between root levels was highly significant, as evaluated by electromyography (p = 0.00004) as well as by the physiotherapist (p = 0.00001). Modifications were decided in 11 of the 13 patients (84%), and the mean absolute difference in the percentage of sectioning quantity per radicular

  19. Personal authentication through dorsal hand vein patterns

    Hsu, Chih-Bin; Hao, Shu-Sheng; Lee, Jen-Chun

    2011-08-01

    Biometric identification is an emerging technology that can solve security problems in our networked society. A reliable and robust personal verification approach using dorsal hand vein patterns is proposed in this paper. The characteristic of the approach needs less computational and memory requirements and has a higher recognition accuracy. In our work, the near-infrared charge-coupled device (CCD) camera is adopted as an input device for capturing dorsal hand vein images, it has the advantages of the low-cost and noncontact imaging. In the proposed approach, two finger-peaks are automatically selected as the datum points to define the region of interest (ROI) in the dorsal hand vein images. The modified two-directional two-dimensional principal component analysis, which performs an alternate two-dimensional PCA (2DPCA) in the column direction of images in the 2DPCA subspace, is proposed to exploit the correlation of vein features inside the ROI between images. The major advantage of the proposed method is that it requires fewer coefficients for efficient dorsal hand vein image representation and recognition. The experimental results on our large dorsal hand vein database show that the presented schema achieves promising performance (false reject rate: 0.97% and false acceptance rate: 0.05%) and is feasible for dorsal hand vein recognition.

  20. Synaptically evoked glutamate transporter currents in Spinal Dorsal Horn Astrocytes

    Dougherty Patrick M

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Removing and sequestering synaptically released glutamate from the extracellular space is carried out by specific plasma membrane transporters that are primarily located in astrocytes. Glial glutamate transporter function can be monitored by recording the currents that are produced by co-transportation of Na+ ions with the uptake of glutamate. The goal of this study was to characterize glutamate transporter function in astrocytes of the spinal cord dorsal horn in real time by recording synaptically evoked glutamate transporter currents. Results Whole-cell patch clamp recordings were obtained from astrocytes in the spinal substantia gelatinosa (SG area in spinal slices of young adult rats. Glutamate transporter currents were evoked in these cells by electrical stimulation at the spinal dorsal root entry zone in the presence of bicuculline, strychnine, DNQX and D-AP5. Transporter currents were abolished when synaptic transmission was blocked by TTX or Cd2+. Pharmacological studies identified two subtypes of glutamate transporters in spinal astrocytes, GLAST and GLT-1. Glutamate transporter currents were graded with stimulus intensity, reaching peak responses at 4 to 5 times activation threshold, but were reduced following low-frequency (0.1 – 1 Hz repetitive stimulation. Conclusion These results suggest that glutamate transporters of spinal astrocytes could be activated by synaptic activation, and recording glutamate transporter currents may provide a means of examining the real time physiological responses of glial cells in spinal sensory processing, sensitization, hyperalgesia and chronic pain.

  1. Root fractures

    Andreasen, Jens Ove; Christensen, Søren Steno Ahrensburg; Tsilingaridis, Georgios

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to analyze tooth loss after root fractures and to assess the influence of the type of healing and the location of the root fracture. Furthermore, the actual cause of tooth loss was analyzed....

  2. A Comparative Study of Dorsal Buccal Mucosa Graft Substitution Urethroplasty by Dorsal Urethrotomy Approach versus Ventral Sagittal Urethrotomy Approach

    Pahwa, Mrinal; Gupta, Sanjeev; Pahwa, Mayank; Jain, Brig D. K.; Gupta, Manu

    2013-01-01

    Objectives. To compare the outcome of dorsal buccal mucosal graft (BMG) substitution urethroplasty by dorsal urethrotomy approach with ventral urethrotomy approach in management of stricture urethra. Methods and Materials. A total of 40 patients who underwent dorsal BMG substitution urethroplasty were randomized into two groups. 20 patients underwent dorsal onlay BMG urethroplasty as described by Barbagli, and the other 20 patients underwent dorsal BMG urethroplasty by ventral urethrotomy as ...

  3. Neuroradiological evaluation of dorsal cyst malformations

    Utsunomiya, Hidetsuna; Hayashi, Takashi; Hashimoto, Takeo; Matsuishi, Toyojiro; Okudera, Toshio.

    1988-01-01

    We discussed six cases with dorsal cyst malformations listing their neuroradiological observations and proposed to differentiate between the holosphere and hemisphere as defined by Yokota (1984). The cases were divided into holospheric and hemispheric groups depending on the continuity of their frontal lobe midlines. Cases 1, 2 and 3 were placed in the holospheric group because of their unseparated frontal lobe sbeneath the partially formed anterior interhemispheric fissures. Cases 4, 5 and 6 were grouped in the hemisphere due to the completion of the interhemispheric fissures. There has been a tendency in recent years for most cases of cerebral malformations having an endogenous dorsal cyst with monoventricular configuration to be diagnosed as holoprosencephaly. However, we believe that only patients who have a dorsal cyst in the holospheric brain should be included, and the others in the hemispheric brain, which is capable of completing hemispheric cleavage, should not. Therefore, we emphasize the importance of correctly identifying the holospheric state in the dorsal cyst malformations for diagnosing holoprosencephaly. (author)

  4. A case of dorsal oblique fingertip amputation.

    Takeda, Shinsuke; Tatebe, Masahiro; Morita, Akimasa; Yoneda, Hidemasa; Iwatsuki, Katsuyuki; Hirata, Hitoshi

    2017-01-01

    This study reports successful finger replantation in a patient with a dorsal oblique fingertip amputation. When repairing this unique type of injury, an evaluation of the remaining vessels is more useful for successful replantation than the anatomical zone classification. We propose that Kasai's classification is appropriate for guiding treatment.

  5. A case of dorsal oblique fingertip amputation

    Takeda, Shinsuke; Tatebe, Masahiro; Morita, Akimasa; Yoneda, Hidemasa; Iwatsuki, Katsuyuki; Hirata, Hitoshi

    2017-01-01

    Abstract This study reports successful finger replantation in a patient with a dorsal oblique fingertip amputation. When repairing this unique type of injury, an evaluation of the remaining vessels is more useful for successful replantation than the anatomical zone classification. We propose that Kasai?s classification is appropriate for guiding treatment.

  6. Posture And Dorsal Shape At A Sitted Workstation

    Lepoutre, F. X.; Cloup, P.; Guerra, T. M.

    1986-07-01

    The ergonomic analysis of a control or a supervision workstation for a vehicle or a process, necessitates to take into account the biomecanical visuo-postural system. The measurements, which are necessary to do, must give informations about the spatial direction of the limbs, the dorsal shape, eventually the eyes direction, and the postural evolution during the working time. More, the smallness of the work station, the backrest and sometime a vibratory environment made use specific, strong and small devices wich do not disturb the operator. The measurement system which we propose is made of an optical device. This system is studied in relation with the french "Institute de Recherche pour les Transports" for an ergonomic analysis of a truck cabin. The optical device consists on placing on the body of the driver on particular places materializing specially members and trunck joint points, some drops which reflect the infra-red raies coming from a specific light. Several cameras whose relative positions depend on the experiment site, transmit video signals to the associated treatment systems which extract the coordinates (Xi, Yi) of each drop in the observation scope of any camera. By regrouping the informations obtained from every view, it is possible to obtain the spatial drop position and then to restore the individual's posture in three dimensions. Therefore, this device doesn't enable us, in consideration of the backrest, to analyse the dorsal posture, which is important with regard to dorsal pains frequency. For that reason, we complete the measurements by using a "curvometer". This device consists of a flexible stick fixed upon the individual back with elastic belts, whose distorsions (curvature in m-1) are measured, in the individual's sagittal plane, with 4 strain gauges pairs; located approximately at the level of vertebra D1, D6, D10 and L3. A fifth measurement, concerning the inclination (in degree) of the lower part of the stick, makes it is possible to

  7. Characterizing pathways by which gravitropic effectors could move from the root cap to the root of primary roots of Zea mays

    Moore, R.; McClelen, C. E.

    1989-01-01

    Plasmodesmata linking the root cap and root in primary roots Zea mays are restricted to approx. 400 protodermal cells bordering approx. 110000 microns2 of the calyptrogen of the root cap. This area is less than 10% of the cross-sectional area of the root-tip at the cap junction. Therefore, gravitropic effectors moving from the root cap to the root can move symplastically only through a relatively small area in the centre of the root. Decapped roots are non-responsive to gravity. However, decapped roots whose caps are replaced immediately after decapping are strongly graviresponsive. Thus, gravicurvature occurs only when the root cap contacts the root, and symplastic continuity between the cap and root is not required for gravicurvature. Completely removing mucilage from the root tip renders the root non-responsive to gravity. Taken together, these data suggest that gravitropic effectors move apoplastically through mucilage from the cap to the root.

  8. Roots & Hollers

    Kollman, Patrick L; Gorman, Thomas A

    2011-01-01

    Roots & Hollers, 2011 A documentary by Thomas Gorman & Patrick Kollman Master’s Project Abstract: Roots & Hollers uncovers the wild American ginseng trade, revealing a unique intersection between Asia and rural America. Legendary in Asia for its healing powers, ginseng helps sustain the livelihoods of thousands in Appalachia. A single root can sell for thousands of dollars at auction. Shot on-location in the mountains of Kentucky and West Virginia, this student doc...

  9. Shape representations in the primate dorsal visual stream

    Tom eTheys

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The primate visual system extracts object shape information for object recognition in the ventral visual stream. Recent research has demonstrated that object shape is also processed in the dorsal visual stream, which is specialized for spatial vision and the planning of actions. A number of studies have investigated the coding of 2D shape in the anterior intraparietal area (AIP, one of the end-stage areas of the dorsal stream which has been implicated in the extraction of affordances for the purpose of grasping. These findings challenge the current understanding of area AIP as a critical stage in the dorsal stream for the extraction of object affordances. The representation of three-dimensional (3D shape has been studied in two interconnected areas known to be critical for object grasping: area AIP and area F5a in the ventral premotor cortex (PMv, to which AIP projects. In both areas neurons respond selectively to 3D shape defined by binocular disparity, but the latency of the neural selectivity is approximately 10 ms longer in F5a compared to AIP, consistent with its higher position in the hierarchy of cortical areas. Furthermore F5a neurons were more sensitive to small amplitudes of 3D curvature and could detect subtle differences in 3D structure more reliably than AIP neurons. In both areas, 3D-shape selective neurons were co-localized with neurons showing motor-related activity during object grasping in the dark, indicating a close convergence of visual and motor information on the same clusters of neurons.

  10. Root canal treatment of a maxillary first premolar with three roots

    Mathew, Josey; Devadathan, Aravindan; Syriac, Gibi; Shamini, Sai

    2015-01-01

    Successful root canal treatment needs a thorough knowledge of both internal and external anatomy of a tooth. Variations in root canal anatomy constitute an impressive challenge to the successful completion of endodontic treatment. Undetected extra roots and canals are a major reason for failed root canal treatment. Three separate roots in a maxillary first premolar have a very low incidence of 0.5?6%. Three rooted premolars are anatomically similar to molars and are sometimes called ?small mo...

  11. Role of motor-evoked potential monitoring in conjunction with temporary clipping of spinal nerve roots in posterior thoracic spine tumor surgery.

    Eleraky, Mohammed A; Setzer, Matthias; Papanastassiou, Ioannis D; Baaj, Ali A; Tran, Nam D; Katsares, Kiesha M; Vrionis, Frank D

    2010-05-01

    The vascular supply of the thoracic spinal cord depends on the thoracolumbar segmental arteries. Because of the small size and ventral course of these arteries in relation to the dorsal root ganglion and ventral root, they cannot be reliably identified during surgery by anatomic or morphologic criteria. Sacrificing them will most likely result in paraplegia. The goal of this study was to evaluate a novel method of intraoperative testing of a nerve root's contribution to the blood supply of the thoracic spinal cord. This is a clinical retrospective study of 49 patients diagnosed with thoracic spine tumors. Temporary nerve root clipping combined with motor-evoked potential (MEP) and somatosensory-evoked potential (SSEP) monitoring was performed; additionally, postoperative clinical evaluation was done and reported in all cases. All cases were monitored by SSEP and MEPs. The nerve root to be sacrificed was temporarily clipped using standard aneurysm clips, and SSEP/MEP were assessed before and after clipping. Four nerve roots were sacrificed in four cases, three nerve roots in eight cases, and two nerve roots in 22 cases. Nerve roots were sacrificed bilaterally in 12 cases. Most patients (47/49) had no changes in MEP/SSEP and had no neurological deficit postoperatively. One case of a spinal sarcoma demonstrated changes in MEP after temporary clipping of the left T11 nerve root. The nerve was not sacrificed, and the patient was neurologically intact after surgery. In another case of a sarcoma, MEPs changed in the lower limbs after ligation of left T9 nerve root. It was felt that it was a global event because of anesthesia. Postoperatively, the patient had complete paraplegia but recovered almost completely after 6 months. Temporary nerve root clipping combined with MEP and SSEP monitoring may enhance the impact of neuromonitoring in the intraoperative management of patients with thoracic spine tumors and favorably influence neurological outcome. Copyright 2010 Elsevier

  12. The dorsal shell wall structure of Mesozoic ammonoids

    Gregor Radtke

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The study of pristine preserved shells of Mesozoic Ammonoidea shows different types of construction and formation of the dorsal shell wall. We observe three major types: (i The vast majority of Ammonoidea, usually planispirally coiled, has a prismatic reduced dorsal shell wall which consists of an outer organic component (e.g., wrinkle layer, which is the first layer to be formed, and the subsequently formed dorsal inner prismatic layer. The dorsal mantle tissue suppresses the formation of the outer prismatic layer and nacreous layer. With the exception of the outer organic component, secretion of a shell wall is omitted at the aperture. A prismatic reduced dorsal shell wall is always secreted immediately after the hatching during early teleoconch formation. Due to its broad distribution in (planispiral Ammonoidea, the prismatic reduced dorsal shell wall is probably the general state. (ii Some planispirally coiled Ammonoidea have a nacreous reduced dorsal shell wall which consists of three mineralized layers: two prismatic layers (primary and secondary dorsal inner prismatic layer and an enclosed nacreous layer (secondary dorsal nacreous layer. The dorsal shell wall is omitted at the aperture and was secreted in the rear living chamber. Its layers are a continuation of an umbilical shell doubling (reinforcement by additional shell layers that extends towards the ventral crest of the preceding whorl. The nacreous reduced dorsal shell wall is formed in the process of ontogeny following a prismatic reduced dorsal shell wall. (iii Heteromorph and some planispirally coiled taxa secrete a complete dorsal shell wall which forms a continuation of the ventral and lateral shell layers. It is formed during ontogeny following a prismatic reduced dorsal shell wall or a priori. The construction is identical with the ventral and lateral shell wall, including a dorsal nacreous layer. The wide distribution of the ability to form dorsal nacre indicates that it is

  13. Root patterning

    Scheres, Ben; Laskowski, Marta

    2016-01-01

    The mechanisms that pattern lateral root primordial are essential for the elaboration of root system architecture, a trait of key importance for future crop breeding. But which are most important: periodic or local cues? In this issue of Journal of Experimental Botany (pages 1411-1420), Kircher

  14. Dissociated repetition deficits in aphasia can reflect flexible interactions between left dorsal and ventral streams and gender-dimorphic architecture of the right dorsal stream.

    Berthier, Marcelo L; Froudist Walsh, Seán; Dávila, Guadalupe; Nabrozidis, Alejandro; Juárez Y Ruiz de Mier, Rocío; Gutiérrez, Antonio; De-Torres, Irene; Ruiz-Cruces, Rafael; Alfaro, Francisco; García-Casares, Natalia

    2013-01-01

    Assessment of brain-damaged subjects presenting with dissociated repetition deficits after selective injury to either the left dorsal or ventral auditory pathways can provide further insight on their respective roles in verbal repetition. We evaluated repetition performance and its neural correlates using multimodal imaging (anatomical MRI, DTI, fMRI, and(18)FDG-PET) in a female patient with transcortical motor aphasia (TCMA) and in a male patient with conduction aphasia (CA) who had small contiguous but non-overlapping left perisylvian infarctions. Repetition in the TCMA patient was fully preserved except for a mild impairment in nonwords and digits, whereas the CA patient had impaired repetition of nonwords, digits and word triplet lists. Sentence repetition was impaired, but he repeated novel sentences significantly better than clichés. The TCMA patient had tissue damage and reduced metabolism in the left sensorimotor cortex and insula. DTI showed damage to the left temporo-frontal and parieto-frontal segments of the arcuate fasciculus (AF) and part of the left ventral stream together with well-developed right dorsal and ventral streams, as has been reported in more than one-third of females. The CA patient had tissue damage and reduced metabolic activity in the left temporoparietal cortex with additional metabolic decrements in the left frontal lobe. DTI showed damage to the left temporo-parietal and temporo-frontal segments of the AF, but the ventral stream was spared. The direct segment of the AF in the right hemisphere was also absent with only vestigial remains of the other dorsal subcomponents present, as is often found in males. fMRI during word and nonword repetition revealed bilateral perisylvian activation in the TCMA patient suggesting recruitment of spared segments of the left dorsal stream and right dorsal stream with propagation of signals to temporal lobe structures suggesting a compensatory reallocation of resources via the ventral streams. The

  15. Crucial roles of NGF in dorsal horn plasticity in partially deafferentated cats.

    Liu, Jia; Chen, Shan-Shan; Dan, Qi-Qin; Rong, Rong; Zhou, Xue; Zhang, Lian-Feng; Wang, Ting-Hua

    2011-04-01

    Though exogenous nerve growth factor (NGF) has been implicated in spinal cord plasticity, whether endogenous NGF plays a crucial role has not been established in vivo. This study investigated first the role of endogenous NGF in spinal dorsal horn (DH) plasticity following removal of L1-L5 and L7-S2 dorsal root ganglions (DRGs) in cats. Co-culture of chick embryo DRG with DH condition media, protein band fishing by cells as well as western blot showed that NGF could promote neurite growth in vitro. Immunohistochemistry and in situ hybridization technique revealed an increase in the NGF and NGF mRNA immunoreactive cells in the DH after partial deafferentation. Lastly, after blocking with NGF antibody, choleragen subunit B horseradish peroxidase (CB-HRP) tracing showed a reduction in the neuronal sprouting observed in the DH. Our results demonstrated that in the cat, endogenous NGF plays a crucial role in DH plasticity after partial deafferentation.

  16. Genetic ablation of root cap cells in Arabidopsis

    Tsugeki, Ryuji; Fedoroff, Nina V.

    1999-01-01

    The root cap is increasingly appreciated as a complex and dynamic plant organ. Root caps sense and transmit environmental signals, synthesize and secrete small molecules and macromolecules, and in some species shed metabolically active cells. However, it is not known whether root caps are essential for normal shoot and root development. We report the identification of a root cap-specific promoter and describe its use to genetically ablate root caps by directing root cap-specific expression of...

  17. Root resorption

    Kjaer, Inger

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: This paper summarizes the different conditions, which have a well-known influence on the resorption of tooth roots, exemplified by trauma and orthodontic treatment. The concept of the paper is to summarize and explain symptoms and signs of importance for avoiding resorption during...... orthodontic treatment. The Hypothesis: The hypothesis in this paper is that three different tissue layers covering the root in the so-called periroot sheet can explain signs and symptoms of importance for avoiding root resorption during orthodontic treatment. These different tissue layers are; outermost...... processes provoked by trauma and orthodontic pressure. Inflammatory reactions are followed by resorptive processes in the periroot sheet and along the root surface. Evaluation of the Hypothesis: Different morphologies in the dentition are signs of abnormal epithelium or an abnormal mesodermal layer. It has...

  18. Radiographic Outcomes of Dorsal Distraction Distal Radius Plating for Fractures With Dorsal Marginal Impaction.

    Huish, Eric G; Coury, John G; Ibrahim, Mohamed A; Trzeciak, Marc A

    2017-04-01

    The purpose of this study is to compare radiographic outcomes of patients treated with dorsal spanning plates with previously reported normal values of radiographic distal radius anatomy and compare the results with prior publications for both external fixation and internal fixation with volar locked plates. Patients with complex distal radius fractures including dorsal marginal impaction pattern necessitating dorsal distraction plating at the discretion of the senior authors (M.A.T. and M.A.I.) from May 30, 2013, to December 29, 2015, were identified and included in the study. Retrospective chart and radiograph review was performed on 19 patients, 11 male and 8 female, with mean age of 47.83 years (22-82). No patients were excluded from the study. All fractures united prior to plate removal. The average time the plate was in place was 80.5 days (49-129). Follow-up radiographs showed average radial inclination of 20.5° (13.2°-25.5°), radial height of 10.7 mm (7.5-14 mm), ulnar variance of -0.3 mm (-2.1 to 3.1 mm), and volar tilt of 7.9° (-3° to 15°). One patient had intra-articular step-off greater than 2 mm. Dorsal distraction plating of complex distal radius fractures yields good radiographic results with minimal complications. In cases of complex distal radius fractures including dorsal marginal impaction where volar plating is not considered adequate, a dorsal distraction plate should be considered as an alternative to external fixation due to reduced risk for infection and better control of volar tilt.

  19. Right dorsal colon ultrasonography in normal adult ponies and miniature horses

    Zak, Agnieszka; Baron, Monika; Cylna, Marta; Borowicz, Hieronim

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the normal location, wall thickness and motility of the right dorsal colon in adult ponies and miniature horses. The abdominal ultrasonography examination was performed in a study group consisting of 23 ponies and miniature horses and in a control group comprising ten Thoroughbred horses. The procedure was performed in unsedated standing animals. The location and the thickness of the right dorsal colonic wall was examined on the right side of the abdomen between the 10th and the 14th intercostal space. The contractility was recorded in the 12th intercostal space. A comparative analysis between the study group and control group was carried out using the Student’s t-test. Pearson’s linear correlation coefficient was used to calculate the correlation between the thickness of the colonic wall as well as the number of peristaltic movements and age, wither height and body mass of the animals. The right dorsal colon was identified in all the horses in the 12th intercostal space. In all the intercostal spaces the mean ± standard deviation (SD) wall thickness of the right dorsal colon was 0.27 ± 0.03 cm in the horses from the study group and 0.37 ± 0.03 cm in the control horses. The mean number of peristaltic contractions was 4.05 ± 1.07 per minute in the animals from the study group and 1.7 ± 0.46 contractions per minute in the control group. The values of the ultrasonographic wall thickness and peristaltic motility in small breed horses in the present study were different from the values obtained for large breed horses. The study also found that the right dorsal colon in small breed horses is physiologically located in the 12th intercostal space. This suggests that different reference values should be used in small horse breeds when performing an ultrasound examination. PMID:29065146

  20. Dorsal and ventral streams across sensory modalities

    Anna Sedda; Federica Scarpina

    2012-01-01

    In this review,we describe the current models of dorsal and ventral streams in vision,audition and touch.Available theories take their first steps from the model of Milner and Goodale,which was developed to explain how human actions can be efficiently carried out using visual information.Since then,similar concepts have also been applied to other sensory modalities.We propose that advances in the knowledge of brain functioning can be achieved through models explaining action and perception patterns independently from sensory modalities.

  1. PROJECTIONS OF DORSAL AND MEDIAN RAPHE NUCLEI TO DORSAL AND VENTRAL STRIATUM

    G. R. Hassanzadeh G. Behzadi

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available The ascending serotonergic projections are derived mainly from mesencephalic raphe nuclei. Topographical projections from mesencephalic raphe nuclei to the striatum were examined in the rat by the retrograde transport technique of HRP (horseradish peroxidase. In 29 rats stereotaxically injection of HRP enzyme were performed in dorsal and ventral parts of striatum separately. The extent of the injection sites and distribution of retrogradely labeled neuronal cell bodies were drawed on representative sections using a projection microscope. Following ipsilateral injection of HRP into the dorsal striatum, numerous labeled neurons were seen in rostral portion of dorsal raphe (DR nucleus. In the same level the cluster of labeled neurons were hevier through caudal parts of DR. A few neurons were also located in lateral wing of DR. More caudally some labeled neurons were found in lateral, medial line of DR. In median raphe nucleus (MnR the labeled neurons were scattered only in median portion of this nucleus. The ipsilateral injection of HRP into the ventral region of striatum resulted on labeling of numerous neurons in rostral, caudal and lateral portions of DR. Through the caudal extension of DR on 4th ventricle level, a large number of labeled neurons were distributed along the ventrocaudal parts of DR. In MnR, labeled neurons were observed only in median part of this nucleus. These findings suggest the mesencephalic raphe nuclei projections to caudo-putamen are topographically organized. In addition dorsal and median raphe nuclei have a stronger projection to the ventral striatum.

  2. Hair Growth Promotant Activity of Petroleum Ether Root Extract of ...

    Purpose: To investigate the effect of Glycyrrhiza glabra root extract on hair growth in female Wistar rats. Methods: Female Wistar rats were used for the hair growth promotion studies. They were divided into three groups(n = 6) and their dorsal skin was completely denuded to completely remove hair. Paraffin oil (control), 2 ...

  3. Intrathecal ligaments and nerve root tension: possible sources of lumbar pain during spaceflight.

    Kershner, David; Binhammer, Robert

    2004-04-01

    Lumbar intrathecal ligaments have recently been demonstrated to randomly bind dorsal nerve roots to the dura within the lumbar vertebral column. Lengthening of the vertebral column and associated lumbar back pain experienced by astronauts is common in microgravity. This study was designed to investigate the relationship of lumbar intrathecal ligaments in spinal lengthening as a possible mechanism for back pain. A two-part study was designed using 36 vertebral columns from embalmed cadavers. There were 12 vertebral columns studied in mid-sagittal section to demonstrate the possible movement of the spinal cord during lengthening of the vertebral column. The remainder were assessed for the amount of tension placed on a dorsal nerve root by the lumbar intrathecal ligament during lengthening of the vertebral column. The spinal cord moves in a cephalic direction approximately 2.8 mm with 4 cm lengthening of the vertebral column. During lengthening, a loss of thoracic and lordotic curvature was noted with an increase in disk height. Tension was significantly increased on the dorsal nerve roots being tethered by the lumbar intrathecal ligaments in comparison to non-tethered nerve roots during lengthening of the vertebral column. A significant amount of tension is placed on dorsal nerve roots tethered by intrathecal ligaments within the lumbar spine during spinal lengthening. These ligaments randomly bind dorsal nerve roots in the lumbar spine and may be involved in the back pain experienced by astronauts in microgravity.

  4. Root (Botany)

    Robert R. Ziemer

    1981-01-01

    Plant roots can contribute significantly to the stability of steep slopes. They can anchor through the soil mass into fractures in bedrock, can cross zones of weakness to more stable soil, and can provide interlocking long fibrous binders within a weak soil mass. In deep soil, anchoring to bedrock becomes negligible, and lateral reinforcement predominates

  5. Automated Root Tracking with "Root System Analyzer"

    Schnepf, Andrea; Jin, Meina; Ockert, Charlotte; Bol, Roland; Leitner, Daniel

    2015-04-01

    Crucial factors for plant development are water and nutrient availability in soils. Thus, root architecture is a main aspect of plant productivity and needs to be accurately considered when describing root processes. Images of root architecture contain a huge amount of information, and image analysis helps to recover parameters describing certain root architectural and morphological traits. The majority of imaging systems for root systems are designed for two-dimensional images, such as RootReader2, GiA Roots, SmartRoot, EZ-Rhizo, and Growscreen, but most of them are semi-automated and involve mouse-clicks in each root by the user. "Root System Analyzer" is a new, fully automated approach for recovering root architectural parameters from two-dimensional images of root systems. Individual roots can still be corrected manually in a user interface if required. The algorithm starts with a sequence of segmented two-dimensional images showing the dynamic development of a root system. For each image, morphological operators are used for skeletonization. Based on this, a graph representation of the root system is created. A dynamic root architecture model helps to determine which edges of the graph belong to an individual root. The algorithm elongates each root at the root tip and simulates growth confined within the already existing graph representation. The increment of root elongation is calculated assuming constant growth. For each root, the algorithm finds all possible paths and elongates the root in the direction of the optimal path. In this way, each edge of the graph is assigned to one or more coherent roots. Image sequences of root systems are handled in such a way that the previous image is used as a starting point for the current image. The algorithm is implemented in a set of Matlab m-files. Output of Root System Analyzer is a data structure that includes for each root an identification number, the branching order, the time of emergence, the parent

  6. Versatility of the ventral approach in bulbar urethroplasty using dorsal, ventral or dorsal plus ventral oral grafts

    Palminteri, Enzo; Berdondini, Elisa; Fusco, Ferdinando; Nunzio, Cosimo De; Giannitsas, Kostas; Shokeir, Ahmed A.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives To investigate the versatility of the ventral urethrotomy approach in bulbar reconstruction with buccal mucosa (BM) grafts placed on the dorsal, ventral or dorsal plus ventral urethral surface. Patients and methods Between 1999 and 2008, 216 patients with bulbar strictures underwent BM graft urethroplasty using the ventral-sagittal urethrotomy approach. Of these patients, 32 (14.8%; mean stricture 3.2?cm, range 1.5?5) had a dorsal graft urethroplasty (DGU), 121 (56%; mean stricture...

  7. Characterization of Root and Shoot Traits in Wheat Cultivars with Putative Differences in Root System Size

    Victoria Figueroa-Bustos

    2018-07-01

    Full Text Available Root system size is a key trait for improving water and nitrogen uptake efficiency in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.. This study aimed (i to characterize the root system and shoot traits of five wheat cultivars with apparent differences in root system size; (ii to evaluate whether the apparent differences in root system size observed at early vegetative stages in a previous semi-hydroponic phenotyping experiment are reflected at later phenological stages in plants grown in soil using large rhizoboxes. The five wheat cultivars were grown in a glasshouse in rhizoboxes filled to 1.0 m with field soil. Phenology and shoot traits were measured and root growth and proliferation were mapped to quantify root length density (RLD, root length per plant, root biomass and specific root length (SRL. Wheat cultivars with large root systems had greater root length, more root biomass and thicker roots, particularly in the top 40 cm, than those with small root systems. Cultivars that reached anthesis later had larger root system sizes than those that reached anthesis earlier. Later anthesis allowed more time for root growth and proliferation. Cultivars with large root systems had 25% more leaf area and biomass than those with small root systems, which presumably reflects high canopy photosynthesis to supply the demand for carbon assimilates to roots. Wheat cultivars with contrasting root system sizes at the onset of tillering (Z2.1 in a semi-hydroponic phenotyping system maintained their size ranking at booting (Z4.5 when grown in soil. Phenology, particularly time to anthesis, was associated with root system size.

  8. Measuring and Modeling Root Distribution and Root Reinforcement in Forested Slopes for Slope Stability Calculations

    Cohen, D.; Giadrossich, F.; Schwarz, M.; Vergani, C.

    2016-12-01

    Roots provide mechanical anchorage and reinforcement of soils on slopes. Roots also modify soil hydrological properties (soil moisture content, pore-water pressure, preferential flow paths) via subsurface flow path associated with root architecture, root density, and root-size distribution. Interactions of root-soil mechanical and hydrological processes are an important control of shallow landslide initiation during rainfall events and slope stability. Knowledge of root-distribution and root strength are key components to estimate slope stability in vegetated slopes and for the management of protection forest in steep mountainous area. We present data that show the importance of measuring root strength directly in the field and present methods for these measurements. These data indicate that the tensile force mobilized in roots depends on root elongation (a function of soil displacement), root size, and on whether roots break in tension of slip out of the soil. Measurements indicate that large lateral roots that cross tension cracks at the scarp are important for slope stability calculations owing to their large tensional resistance. These roots are often overlooked and when included, their strength is overestimated because extrapolated from measurements on small roots. We present planned field experiments that will measure directly the force held by roots of different sizes during the triggering of a shallow landslide by rainfall. These field data are then used in a model of root reinforcement based on fiber-bundle concepts that span different spacial scales, from a single root to the stand scale, and different time scales, from timber harvest to root decay. This model computes the strength of root bundles in tension and in compression and their effect on soil strength. Up-scaled to the stand the model yields the distribution of root reinforcement as a function of tree density, distance from tree, tree species and age with the objective of providing quantitative

  9. The issue of ventral versus dorsal approach in bulbar urethral ...

    E. Palminteri

    From surgical point of view, the Barbagli Dorsal Grafting by Dor- sal approach [8] gives a good support for the graft; Barbagli stated that his technique offers a wider augmentation than ventral or dorsal grafting using the ventral approach. The good spongiosum covering seems reduce the risk of fistula; in reality there is a ...

  10. Dorsal finger texture recognition: Investigating fixed-length SURF

    Hartung, Daniel; Kückelhahn, Jesper

    2012-01-01

    We seek to create fixed-length features from dorsal finger skin images extracted by the SURF interest point detector to combine it in the privacy enhancing helper data scheme. The source of the biometric samples is the GUC45 database which features finger vein, fingerprint and dorsal finger skin...

  11. Sunscreen Use on the Dorsal Hands at the Beach

    Warren, D. B.; Hobbs, J. B.; Jr, R. F. W.; Riahi, R. R.

    2013-01-01

    Since skin of the dorsal hands is a known site for the development of cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma, an epidemiologic investigation was needed to determine if beachgoers apply sunscreen to the dorsal aspect of their hands as frequently as they apply it to other skin sites. Aim. The aim of the current study was to compare the use of sunscreen on the dorsal hands to other areas of the body during subtropical late spring and summer sunlight exposure at the beach. Materials and Methods. A cross-sectional survey from a convenience sample of beachgoers was designed to evaluate responded understanding and protective measures concerning skin cancer on the dorsal hands in an environment with high natural UVR exposure. Results. A total of 214 surveys were completed and analyzed. Less than half of subjects (105, 49%) applied sunscreen to their dorsal hands. Women applied sunscreen to the dorsal hands more than men (55% women versus 40% men, ρ=0.04 ). Higher Fitzpatrick Skin Type respondents were less likely to protect their dorsal hands from ultraviolet radiation (ρ=0.001 ). Conclusions. More public education focused on dorsal hand protection from ultraviolet radiation damage is necessary to reduce the risk for squamous cell carcinomas of the hands.

  12. Evaluating the bioreducing potential of the leaves, knobs and roots of Zanthoxylum capense (small knobwood) for the synthesis of silver nanoparticles, applicable to in vitro fungal contamination control

    Bodede, Olusola; Shaik, Shakira; Govinden, Roshini; Moodley, Roshila

    2017-12-01

    In this study we report on the green synthesis of silver nanoparticles using extracts from selected morphological parts of Zanthoxylum capense. UV-vis spectra of the biosynthesised silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) revealed absorption peaks at around 450 nm, indicative of the nanoparticles’ surface plasmon resonance, whilst infrared vibrational frequencies indicated the presence of flavonoids, alkaloids, and free and bonded sugars which could be responsible for the reduction and stabilisation of the AgNPs. 1H-NMR fingerprinting of the aqueous knob extract confirmed the active bio-reducing phytochemical of the knobs to be 6-O-p-coumaroyl-β-D-glucopyranoside. The nature, shape and morphology of the biosynthesised AgNPs were examined using transmission electron microscopy (TEM), selected area electron diffraction (SAED), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy dispersive x-ray (EDX) analysis. Z. capense AgNPs were mostly spherical in shape with particle sizes in the range of 4-28 nm, 7-20 nm and 4-32 nm for leaves, knobs and roots, respectively. Leaf extracts were the most efficient in the synthesis of AgNPs with an average yield of 0.027 g AgNPs per g of plant (dry mass). The AgNPs were more effective than sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl) and sodium dichloroisocyanurate (NaDCC) in the control of in vitro fungal contamination in nodal explants of Z. capense up to two weeks. Shoots induced from the surface sterilised explants were further used for shoot multiplication on benzyl aminopurine (BAP) and kinetin (KIN). BAP at 0.5 mg l-1 gave the highest percentage (88.6%) of explants bearing shoots with an average of 4.78 shoots per explant. A total of 15 fungal endophyte strains associated with Z. capense were identified using molecular methods.

  13. Versatility of the ventral approach in bulbar urethroplasty using dorsal, ventral or dorsal plus ventral oral grafts.

    Palminteri, Enzo; Berdondini, Elisa; Fusco, Ferdinando; De Nunzio, Cosimo; Giannitsas, Kostas; Shokeir, Ahmed A

    2012-06-01

    To investigate the versatility of the ventral urethrotomy approach in bulbar reconstruction with buccal mucosa (BM) grafts placed on the dorsal, ventral or dorsal plus ventral urethral surface. Between 1999 and 2008, 216 patients with bulbar strictures underwent BM graft urethroplasty using the ventral-sagittal urethrotomy approach. Of these patients, 32 (14.8%; mean stricture 3.2 cm, range 1.5-5) had a dorsal graft urethroplasty (DGU), 121 (56%; mean stricture 3.7, range 1.5-8) a ventral graft urethroplasty (VGU), and 63 (29.2%; mean stricture 3.4, range 1.5-10) a dorsal plus ventral graft urethroplasty (DVGU). The strictured urethra was opened by a ventral-sagittal urethrotomy and BM graft was inserted dorsally or ventrally or dorsal plus ventral to augment the urethral plate. The median follow-up was 37 months. The overall 5-year actuarial success rate was 91.4%. The 5-year actuarial success rates were 87.8%, 95.5% and 86.3% for the DGU, VGU and DVGU, respectively. There were no statistically significant differences among the three groups. Success rates decreased significantly only with a stricture length of >4 cm. In BM graft bulbar urethroplasties the ventral urethrotomy access is simple and versatile, allowing an intraoperative choice of dorsal, ventral or combined dorsal and ventral grafting, with comparable success rates.

  14. Locally Finite Root Supersystems

    Yousofzadeh, Malihe

    2013-01-01

    We introduce the notion of locally finite root supersystems as a generalization of both locally finite root systems and generalized root systems. We classify irreducible locally finite root supersystems.

  15. Embryonic origin of the Arabidopsis primary root and root meristem initials

    Scheres, B.J.G.; Wolkenfelt, H.; Willemsen, V.; Terlouw, M.; Lawson, E.; Dean, C.; Weisbeek, P.

    1994-01-01

    The embryonic origin of the Arabidopsis root and hypocotyl region has been investigated using histological techniques and clonal analysis. Our data reveal the pattern of cell division in the embryo giving rise to the various initials within the root promeristem. A small region of the root at its

  16. A deepwater fish with 'lightsabers'--dorsal spine-associated luminescence in a counterilluminating lanternshark.

    Claes, Julien M; Dean, Mason N; Nilsson, Dan-Eric; Hart, Nathan S; Mallefet, Jérôme

    2013-01-01

    We report the discovery of light organs (photophores) adjacent to the dorsal defensive spines of a small deep-sea lanternshark (Etmopterus spinax). Using a visual modeling based on in vivo luminescence recordings we show that this unusual light display would be detectable by the shark's potential predators from several meters away. We also demonstrate that the luminescence from the spine-associated photophores (SAPs) can be seen through the mineralized spines, which are partially translucent. These results suggest that the SAPs function, either by mimicking the spines' shape or by shining through them, as a unique visual deterrent for predators. This conspicuous dorsal warning display is a surprising complement to the ventral luminous camouflage (counterillumination) of the shark.

  17. Local Roots, Global aspirations: Impact of culture on work environment and organizational culture in Malaysian Small and Medium Enterprises in the Information Technology Sector

    Saxena Vandana

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the role of culture in hiring, team formations and workplace interactions in Malaysian small and medium enterprises (SME in the Information and Communication Technology (ICT sector. This research used the case study approach, with multimethod data collecting instruments like observation, interviews, and analysis of the data available on the websites of the two ICT SMEs under study. The participants selected for the study were the owners, managers and senior employees of both firms. While both firms operated in similar fields, the workforce of one consisted largely of Malaysian employees, while that of second company consisted largely of foreigners. The findings revealed a considerable bias and preference towards cultural homogeneity.

  18. A Comparative Study of Dorsal Buccal Mucosa Graft Substitution Urethroplasty by Dorsal Urethrotomy Approach versus Ventral Sagittal Urethrotomy Approach

    Mrinal Pahwa

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. To compare the outcome of dorsal buccal mucosal graft (BMG substitution urethroplasty by dorsal urethrotomy approach with ventral urethrotomy approach in management of stricture urethra. Methods and Materials. A total of 40 patients who underwent dorsal BMG substitution urethroplasty were randomized into two groups. 20 patients underwent dorsal onlay BMG urethroplasty as described by Barbagli, and the other 20 patients underwent dorsal BMG urethroplasty by ventral urethrotomy as described by Asopa. Operative time, success rate, satisfaction rate, and complications were compared between the two groups. Mean follow-up was 12 months (6–24 months. Results. Ventral urethrotomy group had considerably lesser operative time although the difference was not statistically significant. Patients in dorsal group had mean maximum flow rate of 19.6 mL/min and mean residual urine of 27 mL, whereas ventral group had a mean maximum flow rate of 18.8 and residual urine of 32 mL. Eighteen out of twenty patients voided well in each group, and postoperative imaging study in these patients showed a good lumen with no evidence of leak or extravasation. Conclusion. Though ventral sagittal urethrotomy preserves the blood supply of urethra and intraoperative time was less than dorsal urethrotomy technique, there was no statistically significant difference in final outcome using either technique.

  19. A Comparative Study of Dorsal Buccal Mucosa Graft Substitution Urethroplasty by Dorsal Urethrotomy Approach versus Ventral Sagittal Urethrotomy Approach.

    Pahwa, Mrinal; Gupta, Sanjeev; Pahwa, Mayank; Jain, Brig D K; Gupta, Manu

    2013-01-01

    Objectives. To compare the outcome of dorsal buccal mucosal graft (BMG) substitution urethroplasty by dorsal urethrotomy approach with ventral urethrotomy approach in management of stricture urethra. Methods and Materials. A total of 40 patients who underwent dorsal BMG substitution urethroplasty were randomized into two groups. 20 patients underwent dorsal onlay BMG urethroplasty as described by Barbagli, and the other 20 patients underwent dorsal BMG urethroplasty by ventral urethrotomy as described by Asopa. Operative time, success rate, satisfaction rate, and complications were compared between the two groups. Mean follow-up was 12 months (6-24 months). Results. Ventral urethrotomy group had considerably lesser operative time although the difference was not statistically significant. Patients in dorsal group had mean maximum flow rate of 19.6 mL/min and mean residual urine of 27 mL, whereas ventral group had a mean maximum flow rate of 18.8 and residual urine of 32 mL. Eighteen out of twenty patients voided well in each group, and postoperative imaging study in these patients showed a good lumen with no evidence of leak or extravasation. Conclusion. Though ventral sagittal urethrotomy preserves the blood supply of urethra and intraoperative time was less than dorsal urethrotomy technique, there was no statistically significant difference in final outcome using either technique.

  20. SPINAL DEFORMITIES AFTER SELECTIVE DORSAL RHIZOTOMY

    PATRICIO PABLO MANZONE

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objective: Selective dorsal rhizotomy (SDR used for spasticity treatment could worsen or develop spinal deformities. Our goal is to describe spinal deformities seen in patients with cerebral palsy (CP after being treated by SDR. Methods: Retrospective study of patients operated on (SDR between January/1999 and June/2012. Inclusion criteria: spinal Rx before SDR surgery, spinography, and assessment at follow-up. We evaluated several factors emphasizing level and type of SDR approach, spinal deformity and its treatment, final Risser, and follow-up duration. Results: We found 7 patients (6 males: mean age at SDR 7.56 years (4.08-11.16. Mean follow-up: 6.64 years (2.16-13, final age: 14.32 years (7.5-19. No patient had previous deformity. GMFCS: 2 patients level IV, 2 level III, 3 level II. Initial walking status: 2 community walkers, 2 household walkers, 2 functional walkers, 1 not ambulant, at the follow-up, 3 patients improved, and 4 kept their status. We found 4 TL/L laminotomies, 2 L/LS laminectomies, and 1 thoracic laminectomy. Six spinal deformities were observed: 2 sagittal, 3 mixed, and 1 scoliosis. There was no association among the type of deformity, final gait status, topographic type, GMFCS, age, or SDR approach. Three patients had surgery indication for spinal deformity at skeletal maturity, while those patients with smaller deformities were still immature (Risser 0 to 2/3 although with progressive curves. Conclusions: After SDR, patients should be periodically evaluated until they reach Risser 5. The development of a deformity does not compromise functional results but adds morbidity because it may require surgical treatment.

  1. Myelography for nerve root avulsion in birth palsy

    Hashimoto, Tsutomu; Mitomo, Masanori; Hirabuki, Norio; Miura, Takashi; Kawai, Ryuji; Imakita, Satoshi; Harada, Koshi; Nakamura, Hironobu; Kozuka, Takahiro (Osaka Univ. (Japan). Faculty of Medicine)

    1990-04-01

    Myelography and CT myelography (CMT) were reviewed in 18 cases of birth palsy with clinically suspected avulsion injury. Root-somatosensory evoked potential (root-SEP) was also reviewed for myelographic evaluation of the nerve root avolusion in birth palsy. Root-SEP is not induced in case of avulsed nerve roots, but is induced in case of both normal and incompletely avulsed roots. Myelography demonstrated 58 abnormal nerve roots in 18 cases (19 limbs); 45 (78%) complete and 13 (22%) incomplete nerve root avulsions. Each of complete and incomplete avulsions was defined as total absence and partial presence of rootlets on myelography, respectively. Traumatic meningoceles were detected at 46 roots (79%) on myelography and/or CTM; 35 roots on myelography and 45 roots on CTM. CTM could not detect only a very small meningocele at one root. At 11 roots CTM was superior to myelography in delineating a meningocele because CTM is sensitive to a poorly enhanced meningocele. CTM, however, could not diagnose nerve root avulsions so accurately as myelography, since myelography detected 12 (7 completely and 5 incompletely) avulsed roots without meningocele, whereas CTM could not delineate the nerve roots clearly. Thus, myelography is indispensable to evaluate nerve root avulsions without meningocele. Root-SEP was examined in 9 patients who underwent branchial plexus exploration. SEP was negative at 22/25 roots with complete avulsion and was positive at 7/7 roots with myelographically incomplete avulsion, regardless of presence or absence of any traumatic meningocele. Myelography and root-SEP correlated well at 29 (92%) out of 32 roots in evaluating complete and incomplete avulsion injuries. Myelography and root-SEP were not considered in 3 roots. Though myelography demonstrated complete avulsions with traumatic meningocele, SEP was positive in these three roots, which were interpreted as partially avulsed roots. (J.P.N.).

  2. Myelography for nerve root avulsion in birth palsy

    Hashimoto, Tsutomu; Mitomo, Masanori; Hirabuki, Norio; Miura, Takashi; Kawai, Ryuji; Imakita, Satoshi; Harada, Koshi; Nakamura, Hironobu; Kozuka, Takahiro

    1990-01-01

    Myelography and CT myelography (CMT) were reviewed in 18 cases of birth palsy with clinically suspected avulsion injury. Root-somatosensory evoked potential (root-SEP) was also reviewed for myelographic evaluation of the nerve root avolusion in birth palsy. Root-SEP is not induced in case of avulsed nerve roots, but is induced in case of both normal and incompletely avulsed roots. Myelography demonstrated 58 abnormal nerve roots in 18 cases (19 limbs); 45 (78%) complete and 13 (22%) incomplete nerve root avulsions. Each of complete and incomplete avulsions was defined as total absence and partial presence of rootlets on myelography, respectively. Traumatic meningoceles were detected at 46 roots (79%) on myelography and/or CTM; 35 roots on myelography and 45 roots on CTM. CTM could not detect only a very small meningocele at one root. At 11 roots CTM was superior to myelography in delineating a meningocele because CTM is sensitive to a poorly enhanced meningocele. CTM, however, could not diagnose nerve root avulsions so accurately as myelography, since myelography detected 12 (7 completely and 5 incompletely) avulsed roots without meningocele, whereas CTM could not delineate the nerve roots clearly. Thus, myelography is indispensable to evaluate nerve root avulsions without meningocele. Root-SEP was examined in 9 patients who underwent branchial plexus exploration. SEP was negative at 22/25 roots with complete avulsion and was positive at 7/7 roots with myelographically incomplete avulsion, regardless of presence or absence of any traumatic meningocele. Myelography and root-SEP correlated well at 29 (92%) out of 32 roots in evaluating complete and incomplete avulsion injuries. Myelography and root-SEP were not considered in 3 roots. Though myelography demonstrated complete avulsions with traumatic meningocele, SEP was positive in these three roots, which were interpreted as partially avulsed roots. (J.P.N.)

  3. Dorsal onlay graft bulbar urethroplasty using buccal mucosa

    G. Barbagli

    2015-12-02

    Dec 2, 2015 ... promote the transformation of the urethral mucosa plate into a tube, according to ... Allen stirrups and sequential inflatable compression sleeves. Figure 2 .... the ventral, dorsal or lateral surface of the urethra, we investigated if.

  4. Functional connectivity of the dorsal striatum in female musicians

    Shoji eTanaka

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The dorsal striatum (caudate/putamen is a node of the cortico-striato-pallido-thalamo-cortical (CSPTC motor circuit, which plays a central role in skilled motor learning, a critical feature of musical performance. The dorsal striatum receives input from a large part of the cerebral cortex, forming a hub in the cortical-subcortical network. This study sought to examine how the functional network of the dorsal striatum differs between musicians and nonmusicians.Resting state functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI data were acquired from female university students majoring in music and nonmusic disciplines. The data were subjected to graph theoretical analysis and functional connectivity analysis. The graph theoretical analysis of the entire brain revealed that the degree, which represents the number of connections, of the bilateral putamen was significantly lower in musicians than in nonmusicians. The functional connectivity analysis indicated that compared with nonmusicians, musicians had significantly decreased connectivity between the left putamen and bilateral frontal operculum and between the left caudate nucleus and cerebellum. In conclusion, compared with nonmusicians, female musicians have a smaller functional network of the dorsal striatum, with decreased connectivity. These data are consistent with previous anatomical studies reporting a reduced volume of the dorsal striatum in musicians and ballet dancers. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study suggesting that long-term musical training results in a less extensive or selective functional network of the dorsal striatum.

  5. The dorsal skinfold chamber: window into the dynamic interaction of biomaterials with their surrounding host tissue

    MW Laschke

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The implantation of biomaterials into the human body has become an indispensable part of almost all fields of modern medicine. Accordingly, there is an increasing need for appropriate approaches, which can be used to evaluate the suitability of different biomaterials for distinct clinical indications. The dorsal skinfold chamber is a sophisticated experimental model, which has been proven to be extremely valuable for the systematic in vivo analysis of the dynamic interaction of small biomaterial implants with the surrounding host tissue in rats, hamsters and mice. By means of intravital fluorescence microscopy, this chronic model allows for repeated analyses of various cellular, molecular and microvascular mechanisms, which are involved in the early inflammatory and angiogenic host tissue response to biomaterials during the initial 2-3 weeks after implantation. Therefore, the dorsal skinfold chamber has been broadly used during the last two decades to assess the in vivo performance of prosthetic vascular grafts, metallic implants, surgical meshes, bone substitutes, scaffolds for tissue engineering, as well as for locally or systemically applied drug delivery systems. These studies have contributed to identify basic material properties determining the biocompatibility of the implants and vascular ingrowth into their surface or internal structures. Thus, the dorsal skinfold chamber model does not only provide deep insights into the complex interactions of biomaterials with the surrounding soft tissues of the host but also represents an important tool for the future development of novel biomaterials aiming at an optimisation of their biofunctionality in clinical practice.

  6. Seedling root targets

    Diane L. Haase

    2011-01-01

    Roots are critical to seedling performance after outplanting. Although root quality is not as quick and simple to measure as shoot quality, target root characteristics should be included in any seedling quality assessment program. This paper provides a brief review of root characteristics most commonly targeted for operational seedling production. These are: root mass...

  7. Up-regulation of Robo1 in dorsal root ganglia after sciatic nerve ...

    Yomi

    2012-01-05

    Jan 5, 2012 ... bers of the immunoglobulin superfamily of cell adhesion molecules (CAM). .... 20 g) were used (Xiangya Center of Experimental Animals, Central .... Expression of Robo1 was detected in large (25 to 40 µm), medium (25 to 15 ...

  8. α-Dendrotoxin inhibits the ASIC current in dorsal root ganglion neurons from rat.

    Báez, Adriana; Salceda, Emilio; Fló, Martín; Graña, Martín; Fernández, Cecilia; Vega, Rosario; Soto, Enrique

    2015-10-08

    Dendrotoxins are a group of peptide toxins purified from the venom of several mamba snakes. α-Dendrotoxin (α-DTx, from the Eastern green mamba Dendroaspis angusticeps) is a well-known blocker of voltage-gated K(+) channels and specifically of K(v)1.1, K(v)1.2 and K(v)1.6. In this work we show that α-DTx inhibited the ASIC currents in DRG neurons (IC50=0.8 μM) when continuously perfused during 25 s (including a 5 s pulse to pH 6.1), but not when co-applied with the pH drop. Additionally, we show that α-DTx abolished a transient component of the outward current that, in some experiments, appeared immediately after the end of the acid pulse. Our data indicate that α-DTx inhibits ASICs in the high nM range while some Kv are inhibited in the low nM range. The α-DTx selectivity and its potential interaction with ASICs should be taken in consideration when DTx is used in the high nM range. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Cisplatin-induced DNA-platination in experimental dorsal root ganglia neuronopathy

    Meijer, C; de Vries, EGE; Marmiroli, P; Tredici, G; Frattola, L; Cavaletti, G

    1999-01-01

    The mechanism(s) and site(s) of the neurotoxic effect of cisplatin (CDDP) are still not entirely elucidated. A more detailed knowledge of these aspects of CDDP treatment might be useful to obtain a better understanding of the pathogenesis of its peripheral neurotoxicity, which is the dose-limiting

  10. Parvalbumin and TRPV1 receptor expression in dorsal root ganglion neurons after acute peripheral inflammation

    Zachařová, Gisela; Paleček, Jiří

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 58, č. 2 (2009), s. 305-309 ISSN 0862-8408 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA305/06/1115; GA ČR(CZ) GA305/09/1228; GA ČR(CZ) GA304/08/0256; GA MŠk(CZ) LC554 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50110509 Keywords : pain * arthritis * DRG Subject RIV: FH - Neurology Impact factor: 1.430, year: 2009

  11. Spinal Cord Stimulation of the Dorsal Root Ganglion for Groin Pain-A Retrospective Review

    Schu, S. (Stefan); Gulve, A. (Ashish); Eldabe, S. (Sam); Baranidharan, G. (Ganesan); Wolf, K. (Katharina); Demmel, W. (Walter); Rasche, D. (Dirk); Sharma, M. (Manohar); Klase, D. (Daniel); Jahnichen, G. (Gunnar); Wahlstedt, A. (Anders); Nijhuis, H. (Harold); A.L. Liem (Liong)

    2015-01-01

    textabstractBackground: Spinal cord stimulation (SCS) is a standard treatment option for chronic neuropathic pain. However, some anatomical pain distributions are known to be difficult to cover with traditional SCS-induced paresthesias and/or may also induce additional, unwanted stimulation. We

  12. Voltage-gated Na+ currents in human dorsal root ganglion neurons

    Zhang, Xiulin; Priest, Birgit T; Belfer, Inna; Gold, Michael S

    2017-01-01

    Available evidence indicates voltage-gated Na+ channels (VGSCs) in peripheral sensory neurons are essential for the pain and hypersensitivity associated with tissue injury. However, our understanding of the biophysical and pharmacological properties of the channels in sensory neurons is largely based on the study of heterologous systems or rodent tissue, despite evidence that both expression systems and species differences influence these properties. Therefore, we sought to determine the extent to which the biophysical and pharmacological properties of VGSCs were comparable in rat and human sensory neurons. Whole cell patch clamp techniques were used to study Na+ currents in acutely dissociated neurons from human and rat. Our results indicate that while the two major current types, generally referred to as tetrodotoxin (TTX)-sensitive and TTX-resistant were qualitatively similar in neurons from rats and humans, there were several differences that have important implications for drug development as well as our understanding of pain mechanisms. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.23235.001 PMID:28508747

  13. Sialic acid accelerates the electrophoretic velocity of injured dorsal root ganglion neurons

    Chen-xu Li

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Peripheral nerve injury has been shown to result in ectopic spontaneous discharges on soma and injured sites of sensory neurons, thereby inducing neuropathic pain. With the increase of membrane proteins on soma and injured site neurons, the negatively charged sialic acids bind to the external domains of membrane proteins, resulting in an increase of this charge. We therefore speculate that the electrophoretic velocity of injured neurons may be faster than non-injured neurons. The present study established rat models of neuropathic pain via chronic constriction injury. Results of the cell electrophoresis test revealed that the electrophoretic velocity of injured neuronal cells was faster than that of non-injured (control cells. We then treated cells with divalent cations of Ca 2+ and organic compounds with positive charges, polylysine to counteract the negatively charged sialic acids, or neuraminidase to specifically remove sialic acids from the membrane surface of injured neurons. All three treatments significantly reduced the electrophoretic velocity of injured neuronal cells. These findings suggest that enhanced sialic acids on injured neurons may accelerate the electrophoretic velocity of injured neurons.

  14. A new class of ubiquitin extension proteins secreted by the dorsal pharyngeal gland in plant parasitic cyst nematodes.

    Tytgat, Tom; Vanholme, Bartel; De Meutter, Jan; Claeys, Myriam; Couvreur, Marjolein; Vanhoutte, Isabelle; Gheysen, Greetje; Van Criekinge, Wim; Borgonie, Gaetan; Coomans, August; Gheysen, Godelieve

    2004-08-01

    By performing cDNA AFLP on pre- and early parasitic juveniles, we identified genes encoding a novel type of ubiquitin extension proteins secreted by the dorsal pharyngeal gland in the cyst nematode Heterodera schachtii. The proteins consist of three domains, a signal peptide for secretion, a mono-ubiquitin domain, and a short C-terminal positively charged domain. A gfp-fusion of this protein is targeted to the nucleolus in tobacco BY-2 cells. We hypothesize that the C-terminal peptide might have a regulatory function during syncytium formation in plant roots.

  15. Emergent properties during dorsal closure in Drosophila morphogenesis

    Peralta, X G; Toyama, Y; Edwards, G S; Kiehart, D P

    2008-01-01

    Dorsal closure is an essential stage of Drosophila development that is a model system for research in morphogenesis and biological physics. Dorsal closure involves an orchestrated interplay between gene expression and cell activities that produce shape changes, exert forces and mediate tissue dynamics. We investigate the dynamics of dorsal closure based on confocal microscopic measurements of cell shortening in living embryos. During the mid-stages of dorsal closure we find that there are fluctuations in the width of the leading edge cells but the time-averaged analysis of measurements indicate that there is essentially no net shortening of cells in the bulk of the leading edge, that contraction predominantly occurs at the canthi as part of the process for zipping together the two leading edges of epidermis and that the rate constant for zipping correlates with the rate of movement of the leading edges. We characterize emergent properties that regulate dorsal closure, i.e., a velocity governor and the coordination and synchronization of tissue dynamics

  16. Structural and molecular alterations of primary afferent fibres in the spinal dorsal horn in vincristine-induced neuropathy in rat.

    Thibault, Karine; Rivals, Isabelle; M'Dahoma, Saïd; Dubacq, Sophie; Pezet, Sophie; Calvino, Bernard

    2013-11-01

    Vincristine is one of the most common anti-cancer drug therapies administered for the treatment of many types of cancer. Its dose-limiting side effect is the emergence of peripheral neuropathy, resulting in chronic neuropathic pain in many patients. This study sought to understand the mechanisms underlying the development of neuropathic pain by vincristine-induced neurotoxicity. We focused on signs of functional changes and revealed that deep layers of the spinal cord (III-IV) experience increased neuronal activity both in the absence of peripheral stimulation and, as a result of tactile mechanical stimulations. These laminae and superficial laminae I-II were also subject to structural changes as evidenced by an increase in immunoreactivity of Piccolo, a marker of active presynaptic elements. Further investigations performed, using DNA microarray technology, describe a large number of genes differentially expressed in dorsal root ganglions and in the spinal dorsal horn after vincristine treatment. Our study describes an important list of genes differentially regulated by vincristine treatment that will be useful for future studies and brings forward evidence for molecular and anatomical modifications of large diameter sensory neurons terminating in deep dorsal horn laminae, which could participate in the development of tactile allodynia.

  17. ROOT Reference Documentation

    Fuakye, Eric Gyabeng

    2017-01-01

    A ROOT Reference Documentation has been implemented to generate all the lists of libraries needed for each ROOT class. Doxygen has no option to generate or add the lists of libraries for each ROOT class. Therefore shell scripting and a basic C++ program was employed to import the lists of libraries needed by each ROOT class.

  18. Complete dorsal pancreatic agenesis and unilateral renal agenesis.

    Moreira, Adriana; Carvalho, André; Portugal, Inês; Jesus, José Miguel

    2018-02-01

    Dorsal pancreatic agenesis is a very rare congenital anomaly. Unilateral renal agenesis, on the other hand, is a relatively common congenital anomaly, although its etiology is not fully understood. Renal and pancreatic embryologic development appears to be nonrelated. We report a case of a 34-year-old man who was referred to our hospital for evaluation of cholestasis and microalbuminuria. Ultrasound and magnetic resonance imaging examinations showed empty right renal fossa and absence of the pancreatic neck, body, and tail. Our case report is the second case of a dorsal pancreatic agenesis and unilateral renal agenesis in a young male patient.

  19. Dorsal buccal mucosal graft urethroplasty by a ventral sagittal urethrotomy and minimal-access perineal approach for anterior urethral stricture.

    Gupta, N P; Ansari, M S; Dogra, P N; Tandon, S

    2004-06-01

    To present the technique of dorsal buccal mucosal graft urethroplasty through a ventral sagittal urethrotomy and minimal access perineal approach for anterior urethral stricture. From July 2001 to December 2002, 12 patients with a long anterior urethral stricture had the anterior urethra reconstructed, using a one-stage urethroplasty with a dorsal onlay buccal mucosal graft through a ventral sagittal urethrotomy. The urethra was approached via a small perineal incision irrespective of the site and length of the stricture. The penis was everted through the perineal wound. No urethral dissection was used on laterally or dorsally, so as not to jeopardize the blood supply. The mean (range) length of the stricture was 5 (3-16) cm and the follow-up 12 (10-16) months. The results were good in 11 of the 12 patients. One patient developed a stricture at the proximal anastomotic site and required optical internal urethrotomy. Dorsal buccal mucosal graft urethroplasty via a minimal access perineal approach is a simple technique with a good surgical outcome; it does not require urethral dissection and mobilization and hence preserves the blood supply.

  20. Root canal irrigants

    Kandaswamy, Deivanayagam; Venkateshbabu, Nagendrababu

    2010-01-01

    Successful root canal therapy relies on the combination of proper instrumentation, irrigation, and obturation of the root canal. Of these three essential steps of root canal therapy, irrigation of the root canal is the most important determinant in the healing of the periapical tissues. The primary endodontic treatment goal must thus be to optimize root canal disinfection and to prevent reinfection. In this review of the literature, various irrigants and the interactions between irrigants are...

  1. Expression of Nav1.7 in DRG neurons extends from peripheral terminals in the skin to central preterminal branches and terminals in the dorsal horn

    Black Joel A

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Sodium channel Nav1.7 has emerged as a target of considerable interest in pain research, since loss-of-function mutations in SCN9A, the gene that encodes Nav1.7, are associated with a syndrome of congenital insensitivity to pain, gain-of-function mutations are linked to the debiliting chronic pain conditions erythromelalgia and paroxysmal extreme pain disorder, and upregulated expression of Nav1.7 accompanies pain in diabetes and inflammation. Since Nav1.7 has been implicated as playing a critical role in pain pathways, we examined by immunocytochemical methods the expression and distribution of Nav1.7 in rat dorsal root ganglia neurons, from peripheral terminals in the skin to central terminals in the spinal cord dorsal horn. Results Nav1.7 is robustly expressed within the somata of peptidergic and non-peptidergic DRG neurons, and along the peripherally- and centrally-directed C-fibers of these cells. Nav1.7 is also expressed at nodes of Ranvier in a subpopulation of Aδ-fibers within sciatic nerve and dorsal root. The peripheral terminals of DRG neurons within skin, intraepidermal nerve fibers (IENF, exhibit robust Nav1.7 immunolabeling. The central projections of DRG neurons in the superficial lamina of spinal cord dorsal horn also display Nav1.7 immunoreactivity which extends to presynaptic terminals. Conclusions The expression of Nav1.7 in DRG neurons extends from peripheral terminals in the skin to preterminal central branches and terminals in the dorsal horn. These data support a major contribution for Nav1.7 in pain pathways, including action potential electrogenesis, conduction along axonal trunks and depolarization/invasion of presynaptic axons. The findings presented here may be important for pharmaceutical development, where target engagement in the right compartment is essential.

  2. A radiologic study on the urinary bladder following dorsal and ...

    Pneumocystography and positive contrast cystography using solutrast® were carried out immediately after surgery and on the second operative day following dorsal and ventral cystotomy in 22 adult mongrel dogs. In all the radiographs, there was no contrast observed in the abdominal cavity and the apex of the bladder had ...

  3. Attention modulates the dorsal striatum response to love stimuli.

    Langeslag, Sandra J E; van der Veen, Frederik M; Röder, Christian H

    2014-02-01

    In previous functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) studies concerning romantic love, several brain regions including the caudate and putamen have consistently been found to be more responsive to beloved-related than control stimuli. In those studies, infatuated individuals were typically instructed to passively view the stimuli or to think of the viewed person. In the current study, we examined how the instruction to attend to, or ignore the beloved modulates the response of these brain areas. Infatuated individuals performed an oddball task in which pictures of their beloved and friend served as targets and distractors. The dorsal striatum showed greater activation for the beloved than friend, but only when they were targets. The dorsal striatum actually tended to show less activation for the beloved than the friend when they were distractors. The longer the love and relationship duration, the smaller the response of the dorsal striatum to beloved-distractor stimuli was. We interpret our findings in terms of reinforcement learning. By virtue of using a cognitive task with a full factorial design, we show that the dorsal striatum is not activated by beloved-related information per se, but only by beloved-related information that is attended. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Dorsal hand coverage with free serratus fascia flap

    Fotopoulos, Peter; Holmer, Per; Leicht, Pernille

    2003-01-01

    in the flap, leaving the long thoracic nerve intact on the serratus muscle. Coverage of the flap with split-thickness skin graft is done immediately. The free serratus fascia flap is an ideal flap for dorsal hand coverage when the extensor tendons are exposed, especially because of low donor-site morbidity....

  5. Treatment of acute and subacute dorsal perilunate fracture dislocations

    Levent Kucuk

    2014-04-01

    Outcomes: Results of the perilunate fracture dislocations treated in acute or subacute phase by open reduction and internal fixation via dorsal approach are satisfactory. There is a strong demand for prospective, randomized studies to compare the results of different treatment modalities. [Hand Microsurg 2014; 3(1.000: 1-7

  6. A study of dorsal vein pattern for biometric security

    Nafiisah

    ensure more reliable security, many biometric verification techniques have been developed .... 3.0 HA D DORSAL VEI PATTER AS A BIOMETRIC ... image for the back of the hand, and converted by a computer into a digital image that can be.

  7. [Curcumin down-regulates CX3CR1 expression in spinal cord dorsal horn and DRG in neuropathic pain rats].

    Zheng, Jinwei; Zheng, Changjian; Cao, Hong; Li, Jun; Lian, Qingquan

    2011-09-01

    To investigate the effects of curcumin on the behavior of chronic constrictive injury (CCI) rats and the CX3CR1 expression in spinal cord dorsal horn and dorsal root ganglia (DRG). Seventy-two male SD rats were randomly divided into 4 groups: 1) Sham operation group (Sham); 2) Chronic constrictive injury group (CCI); 3) Curcumin treated group (Cur), administrated with curcumin 100 mg x kg(-1) x d(-1) ip for 14 days after CCI; 4) Solvent contrast group (SC), administrated with an equal volume of solvent for 14 days after CCI. Paw thermal withdrawal (PTWL) and paw mechanical withdrawal threshold (PMWT) were measured on 2 pre-operative and 1, 3, 5, 7, 10, 14 post-operative days respectively. The lumbar segments L4-5 of the spinal cord and the L4, L5 DRG were removed at 3, 7, 14 days after surgery. The expression of CX3CR1 was determined by immunohistochemical staining. Compared with Sham group, PTWL and PMWT in CCI group were significantly lower on each post-operative day (PDRG. In Cur group, PTWL were higher than in CCI group on 7, 10, 14 post-operative day (Pdorsal root ganglia.

  8. Dorsal Phalloplasty to Preserve Penis Length after Penile Prosthesis Implantation

    Osama Shaeer

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Following penile prosthesis implantation (PPI, patients may complain of a decrease in visible penis length. A dorsal phalloplasty defines the penopubic junction by tacking pubic skin to the pubis, revealing the base of the penis. This study aimed to evaluate the efficacy of a dorsal phalloplasty in increasing the visible penis length following PPI. Methods: An inflatable penile prosthesis was implanted in 13 patients with severe erectile dysfunction (ED at the Kamal Shaeer Hospital, Cairo, Egypt, from January 2013 to May 2014. During the surgery, nonabsorbable tacking sutures were used to pin the pubic skin to the pubis through the same penoscrotal incision. Intraoperative penis length was measured before and after the dorsal phalloplasty. Overall patient satisfaction was measured on a 5-point rating scale and patients were requested to subjectively compare their postoperative penis length with memories of their penis length before the onset of ED. Results: Intraoperatively, the dorsal phalloplasty increased the visible length of the erect penis by an average of 25.6%. The average length before and after tacking was 10.2 ± 2.9 cm and 13.7 ± 2.8 cm, respectively (P <0.002. Postoperatively, seven patients (53.8% reported a longer penis, five patients (38.5% reported no change in length and one patient (7.7% reported a slightly shorter penis. The mean overall patient satisfaction score was 4.9 ± 0.3. None of the patients developed postoperative complications. Conclusion: A dorsal phalloplasty during PPI is an effective method of increasing visible penis length, therefore minimising the impression of a shorter penis after implantation.

  9. Usefulness of Cross-Linked Human Acellular Dermal Matrix as an Implant for Dorsal Augmentation in Rhinoplasty.

    Yang, Chae Eun; Kim, Soo Jung; Kim, Ji Hee; Lee, Ju Hee; Roh, Tai Suk; Lee, Won Jai

    2018-02-01

    Asian noses are relatively small and flat compared to Caucasians; therefore, rhinoplasty procedures often focus on dorsal augmentation and tip projection rather than reduction in the nasal framework. Various autologous and alloplastic implant materials have been used for dorsal augmentation. Recently, human acellular dermal matrices have been introduced as an implant material for dorsal augmentation, camouflaging autologous implants without an additional donor site. Here, we introduce a cross-linked human acellular dermal matrix as an implant material in augmentation rhinoplasty and share the clinical experiences. Eighteen patients who underwent augmentation rhinoplasty using acellular dermal matrix from April 2014 to November 2015 were reviewed retrospectively. Clinical outcomes and complications were assessed at the outpatient clinic during the follow-up period ranging from 8 to 38 months. Contour changes were assessed through comparison of preoperative and postoperative photographs by two independent plastic surgeons. Patient satisfaction was assessed at the outpatient clinic by six questions regarding aesthetic and functional aspects. Postoperative photographs demonstrated the height of the nasal dorsum did not decrease over time except two patients whose ADM was grafted into a subperiosteal pocket. Others who underwent supraperiosteal implantation showed acceptable maintenance of dorsal height. No major complication was reported. Overall, patient satisfaction scored 81.02 out of 100. Cross-linked human ADM has advantages of both autogenous and alloplastic materials. The surgical results remain stable without complications. Therefore, it is a suitable alternative implant material for dorsal augmentation in rhinoplasty. This journal requires that authors assign a level of evidence to each article. For a full description of these Evidence-Based Medicine ratings, please refer to the Table of Contents or the online Instructions to Authors www.springer.com/00266 .

  10. A Way to Avoid Muscular Fibrosis in the First Dorsal Interosseous Muscle after Acupuncture Injection Therapy

    Yiu Ming Wong

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Fibrosis of skeletal muscle following acupuncture is an iatrogenic disorder. The present case illustrates a patient with a unilateral fibrotic formation on a thumb muscle after acupuncture injection therapy with red sage. The patient in the present case was a counter-terrorism police officer with right-handedness; he noted a palpable nodule three months after injection therapy at his left first dorsal interosseous in which the acupuncture point LI4 (He Gu is located. He also found a reduction in the strength of his left pinch grip that noticeably affected his left handgun marksmanship. However, being ambidextrous in single-hand pistol shooting is an essential requirement for counter-terrorism police officers. Based on the patient’s medical history and claims, no underlying disease or trauma was found to be associated with his current complaint. During physical examination, a fibrotic formation in his left first dorsal interosseous muscle was visualized by using diagnostic ultrasound; also, as confirmed with dynamometry, the strength of his left pinch grip was significantly lower than that of the right counterpart. Because acupuncture injection therapy has three components, antiseptic practices, the mechanical action of syringe insertion, and the pharmacological effect of the sterile herb extract, any one of the components may have contributed to the present adverse event. The first dorsal interosseous muscle is small in dimension and rather vascular; thus, it is not an ideal site for intramuscular injection. When a clinician needs to treat a patient by performing acupuncture at the LI4 acupoint and injecting a herbal extract simultaneously, the clinician should only mechanically stimulate the LI4 acupoint while injecting the herbal medicine into the LI14 (Bi Noe acupoint on the same meridian, the LI14 acupoint being located in the distal portion of the deltoid muscle and being fairly close to the universally agreed upon site on the upper arm

  11. Dorsal border periaqueductal gray neurons project to the area directly adjacent to the central canal ependyma of the C4-T8 spinal cord in the cat

    Mouton, LJ; Kerstens, L; VanderWant, J; Holstege, G

    In a previous study horseradish peroxidase (HRP) injections in the upper thoracic and cervical spinal cord revealed some faintly labeled small neurons at the dorsal border of the periaqueductal gray (PAG). The present light microscopic and electronmicroscopic tracing study describes the precise

  12. Highly efficient methods to obtain homogeneous dorsal neural progenitor cells from human and mouse embryonic stem cells and induced pluripotent stem cells.

    Zhang, Meixiang; Ngo, Justine; Pirozzi, Filomena; Sun, Ying-Pu; Wynshaw-Boris, Anthony

    2018-03-15

    Embryonic stem cells (ESCs) and induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) have been widely used to generate cellular models harboring specific disease-related genotypes. Of particular importance are ESC and iPSC applications capable of producing dorsal telencephalic neural progenitor cells (NPCs) that are representative of the cerebral cortex and overcome the challenges of maintaining a homogeneous population of cortical progenitors over several passages in vitro. While previous studies were able to derive NPCs from pluripotent cell types, the fraction of dorsal NPCs in this population is small and decreases over several passages. Here, we present three protocols that are highly efficient in differentiating mouse and human ESCs, as well as human iPSCs, into a homogeneous and stable population of dorsal NPCs. These protocols will be useful for modeling cerebral cortical neurological and neurodegenerative disorders in both mouse and human as well as for high-throughput drug screening for therapeutic development. We optimized three different strategies for generating dorsal telencephalic NPCs from mouse and human pluripotent cell types through single or double inhibition of bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) and/or SMAD pathways. Mouse and human pluripotent cells were aggregated to form embryoid bodies in suspension and were treated with dorsomorphin alone (BMP inhibition) or combined with SB431542 (double BMP/SMAD inhibition) during neural induction. Neural rosettes were then selected from plated embryoid bodies to purify the population of dorsal NPCs. We tested the expression of key dorsal NPC markers as well as nonectodermal markers to confirm the efficiency of our three methods in comparison to published and commercial protocols. Single and double inhibition of BMP and/or SMAD during neural induction led to the efficient differentiation of dorsal NPCs, based on the high percentage of PAX6-positive cells and the NPC gene expression profile. There were no statistically

  13. Untangling the effects of root age and tissue nitrogen on root respiration in Populus tremuloides at different nitrogen supply.

    Ceccon, Christian; Tagliavini, Massimo; Schmitt, Armin Otto; Eissenstat, David M

    2016-05-01

    Root respiration is a major contributor to terrestrial carbon flux. Many studies have shown root respiration to increase with an increase in root tissue nitrogen (N) concentration across species and study sites. Studies have also shown that both root respiration and root N concentration typically decrease with root age. The effects of added N may directly increase respiration of existing roots or may affect respiration by shifting the age structure of a root population by stimulating growth. To the best of our knowledge, no study has ever examined the effect of added N as a function of root age on root respiration. In this study, root respiration of 13-year-old Populus tremuloides Michx. trees grown in the field and 1-year-old P. tremuloides seedlings grown in containers was analyzed for the relative influence of root age and root N concentration independent of root age on root respiration. Field roots were first tracked using root windows and then sampled at known age. Nitrogen was either applied or not to small patches beneath the windows. In a pot experiment, each plant was grown with its root system split between two separate pots and N was applied at three different levels, either at the same or at different rates between pots. Root N concentration ranged between 1.4 and 1.7% in the field experiment and 1.8 and 2.6% in the seedling experiment. We found that addition of N increased root N concentration of only older roots in the field but of roots of all ages in the potted seedlings. In both experiments, the age-dependent decline in root respiration was largely consistent, and could be explained by a negative power function. Respiration decreased ∼50% by 3 weeks of age. Although root age was the dominant factor affecting respiration in both experiments, in the field experiment, root N also contributed to root respiration independent of root age. These results add further insight into respiratory responses of roots to N addition and mechanisms underlying the

  14. Why rooting fails

    Creutz, Michael

    2007-01-01

    I explore the origins of the unphysical predictions from rooted staggered fermion algorithms. Before rooting, the exact chiral symmetry of staggered fermions is a flavored symmetry among the four "tastes." The rooting procedure averages over tastes of different chiralities. This averaging forbids the appearance of the correct 't Hooft vertex for the target theory.

  15. Rooting gene trees without outgroups: EP rooting.

    Sinsheimer, Janet S; Little, Roderick J A; Lake, James A

    2012-01-01

    Gene sequences are routinely used to determine the topologies of unrooted phylogenetic trees, but many of the most important questions in evolution require knowing both the topologies and the roots of trees. However, general algorithms for calculating rooted trees from gene and genomic sequences in the absence of gene paralogs are few. Using the principles of evolutionary parsimony (EP) (Lake JA. 1987a. A rate-independent technique for analysis of nucleic acid sequences: evolutionary parsimony. Mol Biol Evol. 4:167-181) and its extensions (Cavender, J. 1989. Mechanized derivation of linear invariants. Mol Biol Evol. 6:301-316; Nguyen T, Speed TP. 1992. A derivation of all linear invariants for a nonbalanced transversion model. J Mol Evol. 35:60-76), we explicitly enumerate all linear invariants that solely contain rooting information and derive algorithms for rooting gene trees directly from gene and genomic sequences. These new EP linear rooting invariants allow one to determine rooted trees, even in the complete absence of outgroups and gene paralogs. EP rooting invariants are explicitly derived for three taxon trees, and rules for their extension to four or more taxa are provided. The method is demonstrated using 18S ribosomal DNA to illustrate how the new animal phylogeny (Aguinaldo AMA et al. 1997. Evidence for a clade of nematodes, arthropods, and other moulting animals. Nature 387:489-493; Lake JA. 1990. Origin of the metazoa. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 87:763-766) may be rooted directly from sequences, even when they are short and paralogs are unavailable. These results are consistent with the current root (Philippe H et al. 2011. Acoelomorph flatworms are deuterostomes related to Xenoturbella. Nature 470:255-260).

  16. Prevention of root caries with dentin adhesives.

    Grogono, A L; Mayo, J A

    1994-04-01

    This in vitro investigation determined the feasibility of using dentin adhesives to protect root surfaces against caries. The roots of 22 recently extracted human teeth were all painted with a protective lacquer leaving two unprotected small windows. On each specimen, one window (control) was left untreated and the other window (experimental) was treated using a dentin adhesive (Scotchbond Multi-Purpose). The roots were then immersed in an in vitro acetate/calcium/phosphate demineralization model at pH 4.3. After 70 days, the samples were removed and sectioned through the windows. The undecalcified ground sections were examined under transmitted and polarized light. Lesions characteristic of natural root caries were seen in the untreated control windows. No such lesions were apparent in the experimental windows. The results of this preliminary study suggest that dentin adhesives may provide protection against root caries.

  17. Bilateral axillary skin fold flaps used for dorsal thoracic skin wound closure in a dog : clinical communication

    B. G. Nevill

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available A 10-year-old greyhound-cross dog was presented with a large, chronic skin wound extending over the interscapular region. The substantial skin defect was closed by making use of bilateral axillary skin fold flaps. It was possible to elevate the 2 skin flaps sufficiently to allow them to meet at the dorsal midline and thus facilitate complete closure of a large and awkwardly positioned wound. Small dorsal areas of the skin flaps underwent necrosis, but the resulting defects were closed without difficulty in a subsequent procedure. To the author's knowledge, this is the 1st clinical report of the use of bilateral axillary skin fold flaps in this fashion and describes an additional use of a versatile skin flap procedure.

  18. Predicting Early Reading Skills from Pre-Reading Measures of Dorsal Stream Functioning

    Kevan, Alison; Pammer, Kristen

    2009-01-01

    It is well documented that good reading skills may be dependent upon adequate dorsal stream processing. However, the degree to which dorsal stream deficits play a causal role in reading failure has not been established. This study used coherent motion and visual frequency doubling to examine whether dorsal stream sensitivity measured before the…

  19. Virtual water maze learning in human increases functional connectivity between posterior hippocampus and dorsal caudate.

    Woolley, Daniel G; Mantini, Dante; Coxon, James P; D'Hooge, Rudi; Swinnen, Stephan P; Wenderoth, Nicole

    2015-04-01

    Recent work has demonstrated that functional connectivity between remote brain regions can be modulated by task learning or the performance of an already well-learned task. Here, we investigated the extent to which initial learning and stable performance of a spatial navigation task modulates functional connectivity between subregions of hippocampus and striatum. Subjects actively navigated through a virtual water maze environment and used visual cues to learn the position of a fixed spatial location. Resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging scans were collected before and after virtual water maze navigation in two scan sessions conducted 1 week apart, with a behavior-only training session in between. There was a large significant reduction in the time taken to intercept the target location during scan session 1 and a small significant reduction during the behavior-only training session. No further reduction was observed during scan session 2. This indicates that scan session 1 represented initial learning and scan session 2 represented stable performance. We observed an increase in functional connectivity between left posterior hippocampus and left dorsal caudate that was specific to scan session 1. Importantly, the magnitude of the increase in functional connectivity was correlated with offline gains in task performance. Our findings suggest cooperative interaction occurs between posterior hippocampus and dorsal caudate during awake rest following the initial phase of spatial navigation learning. Furthermore, we speculate that the increase in functional connectivity observed during awake rest after initial learning might reflect consolidation-related processing. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Dorsal onlay (Barbagli technique) versus dorsal inlay (Asopa technique) buccal mucosal graft urethroplasty for anterior urethral stricture: a prospective randomized study.

    Aldaqadossi, Hussein; El Gamal, Samir; El-Nadey, Mohamed; El Gamal, Osama; Radwan, Mohamed; Gaber, Mohamed

    2014-02-01

    To compare both the dorsal onlay technique of Barbagli and the dorsal inlay technique of Asopa for the management of long anterior urethral stricture. From January 2010 to May 2012, a total of 47 patients with long anterior urethral strictures were randomized into two groups. The first group included 25 patients who were managed by dorsal onlay buccal mucosal graft urethroplasty. The second group included 22 patients who were managed by dorsal inlay buccal mucosal graft urethroplasty. Different clinical parameters, postoperative complications and success rates were compared between both groups. The overall success rate in the dorsal onlay group was 88%, whereas in the dorsal inlay group the success rate was 86.4% during the follow-up period. The mean operative time was significantly longer in the dorsal onlay urethroplasty group (205 ± 19.63 min) than in the dorsal inlay urethroplasty group (128 ± 4.9 min, P-value <0.0001). The average blood loss was significantly higher in the dorsal onlay urethroplasty group (228 ± 5.32 mL) than in the dorsal inlay urethroplasty group (105 ± 12.05 mL, P-value <0.0001). The dorsal onlay technique of Barbagli and the dorsal inlay technique of Asopa buccal mucosal graft urethroplasty provide similar success rates. The Asopa technique is easy to carry out, provides shorter operative time and less blood loss, and it is associated with fewer complications for anterior urethral stricture repair. © 2013 The Japanese Urological Association.

  1. Dorsal approaches to intradural extramedullary tumors of the craniovertebral junction

    D Refai

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Tumors of the craniovertebral junction (CVJ pose significant challenges to cranial and spine surgeons. Familiarity with the complex anatomy and avoidance of injury to neurologic and vascular structures are essential to success. Multiple surgical approaches to address lesions at the CVJ have been promoted, including ventral and dorsal-based trajectories. However, optimal selection of the surgical vector to manage the pathology requires a firm understanding of the limitations and advantages of each approach. The selection of the best surgical trajectory must include several factors, such as obtaining the optimal exposure of the region of interest, avoiding injury to critical neurologic or vascular structures, identification of normal anatomical landmarks, the familiarity and comfort level of the surgeon to the approach, and the need for fixation. This review article focuses on dorsal approaches to the CVJ and the advantages and limitations in managing intradural extramedullary tumors.

  2. Dorsal and ventral changes of the occipital vertebrae

    Banki, Z.

    1981-01-01

    Based on his own observation and on the literature, the author discusses various types of calcification in the occipital-cervical region, beginning with those situated dorsally and followed by ventral forms. An attempt is made to classify these changes, depending on their morphology and situation, from an embryological point of view. The pro-atlantal and ante pro-atlanto origin of the occipital vertebrae is discussed. Differentiation depends on appearances. (orig.) [de

  3. Root traits contributing to plant productivity under drought

    Louise eComas

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Geneticists and breeders are positioned to breed plants with root traits that improve productivity under drought. However, a better understanding of root functional traits and how traits are related to whole plant strategies to increase crop productivity under different drought conditions is needed. Root traits associated with maintaining plant productivity under drought include small fine root diameters, long specific root length (SRL, and considerable root length density, especially at depths in soil with available water. In environments with late season water deficits, small xylem diameters in targeted seminal roots save soil water deep in the soil profile for use during crop maturation and result in improved yields. Capacity for deep root growth and large xylem diameters in deep roots may also improve root acquisition of water when ample water at depth is available. Xylem pit anatomy that makes xylem less ‘leaky’ and prone to cavitation warrants further exploration holding promise that such traits may improve plant productivity in water-limited environments without negatively impacting yield under adequate water conditions. Rapid resumption of root growth following soil rewetting may improve plant productivity under episodic drought. Genetic control of many of these traits through breeding appears feasible. Several recent reviews have covered methods for screening root traits but an appreciation for the complexity of root systems (e.g. functional differences between fine and coarse roots needs to be paired with these methods to successfully identify relevant traits for crop improvement. Screening of root traits at early stages in plant development can proxy traits at mature stages but verification is needed on a case by case basis that traits are linked to increased crop productivity under drought. Examples in lesquerella (Physaria and rice (Oryza show approaches to phenotyping of root traits and current understanding of root trait

  4. Bulbar urethroplasty using the dorsal approach: current techniques

    Barbagli Guido

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: The use of flaps or grafts is mandatory in patients with longer and complex strictures. In 1995-96 we described a new dorsal onlay graft urethroplasty. Over time, our original technique was better defined and changed. Now this procedure (also named Barbagli technique has been greeted with a fair amount of enthusiasm in Europe and in the United States. SURGICAL TECHNIQUE: The patient is placed in normal lithotomy position, and a midline perineo-scrotal incision is made. The bulbar urethra is then free from the bulbo-cavernous muscles, and is dissected from the corpora cavernosa. The urethra is completely mobilized from the corpora cavernosa, it is rotated 180 degrees, and is incised along its dorsal surface. The graft (preputial skin or buccal mucosa or the flap is fixed and quilted to the tunica albuginea of the corporal bodies. The right mucosal margin of the opened urethra is sutured to the right side of the patch-graft. The urethra is rotated back into its original position. The left urethral margin is sutured to the left side of the patch graft and to the corporal bodies, and the grafted area is entirely covered by the urethral plate. The bulbo-cavernous muscles are approximated over the grafted area. A 16F silicone Foley catheter is left in place. COMMENTS: Dorsal onlay graft urethroplasty is a versatile procedure that may be combined with various substitute materials like preputial skin, buccal mucosa grafts or pedicled flaps.

  5. Diagnosis of dorsal inter osseous pseudotumours by magnetic resonance imaging

    Peh, W.C.G.; Wong, L.L.S.; Ip, W.Y.

    1999-01-01

    Two middle-aged-patients each presenting with a progressively enlarging mass in the first dorsal web space of their hands are reported. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) demonstrated the cause to be a hypertrophic first dorsal inter osseous muscle, with normal T1, T2 and post-gadopentetate dimeglumine signal characteristics. The ability of MRI to diagnose anatomical variants of hand muscles is important in the clinical management of patients with these pseudotumours. The usefulness of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in evaluation of soft tissue tumours of the musculoskeletal system is now widely accepted. Its ability to maximize contrast between tumour and adjacent normal tissue in a multiplanar manner makes it the imaging modality of choice in pre-operative staging of soft tissue masses. In the hand and wrist, where benign tumours predominate, MRI may provide a specific diagnosis. We describe two cases in which MRI demonstrated the cause of a hand pseudotumour to be due to hypertrophy of the first dorsal inter osseous muscle. Copyright (1999) Blackwell Science Pty Ltd

  6. Diagnosis of dorsal inter osseous pseudotumours by magnetic resonance imaging

    Peh, W.C.G.; Wong, L.L.S. [The University of Hong Kong, Queen Mary Hospital, (Hong Kong). Hand Surgery Division, Department of Diagnotic Radiology; Ip, W.Y. [The University of Hong Kong, Queen Mary Hospital, (Hong Kong). Hand Surgery Division, Department of Orthopaedic Surgery

    1999-08-01

    Two middle-aged-patients each presenting with a progressively enlarging mass in the first dorsal web space of their hands are reported. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) demonstrated the cause to be a hypertrophic first dorsal inter osseous muscle, with normal T1, T2 and post-gadopentetate dimeglumine signal characteristics. The ability of MRI to diagnose anatomical variants of hand muscles is important in the clinical management of patients with these pseudotumours. The usefulness of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in evaluation of soft tissue tumours of the musculoskeletal system is now widely accepted. Its ability to maximize contrast between tumour and adjacent normal tissue in a multiplanar manner makes it the imaging modality of choice in pre-operative staging of soft tissue masses. In the hand and wrist, where benign tumours predominate, MRI may provide a specific diagnosis. We describe two cases in which MRI demonstrated the cause of a hand pseudotumour to be due to hypertrophy of the first dorsal inter osseous muscle. Copyright (1999) Blackwell Science Pty Ltd 20 refs., 3 figs.

  7. Compound dorsal dislocation of lunate with trapezoid fracture

    Bong-Sung Kim

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available We report about a dorsal dislocation of the lunate accompanied by a trapezoid fracture in a 41-year old male patient after a motorcycle accident. The lunate dislocation with no dorsal or volar intercalated segment instability (DISI, VISI was diagnosed by x-ray whereas the trapezoid fracture was only diagnosable by computed tomography. A closed reduction and internal fixation of the lunate by two Kirschner wires was performed, the trapezoid fracture was conservatively treated. Surgery was followed by immobilization, intense physiotherapy and close follow-up. Even though complaints such as swelling and pain subsided during the course of rehabilitation, partial loss of strength and range of motion remained even after 16 months. In conclusion, a conservative treatment of trapezoid fractures seems to be sufficient in most cases. Closed reduction with Kwire fixation led to an overall satisfactory result in our case. For dorsal lunate dislocations in general, open reduction should be performed when close reduction is unsuccessful or DISI/VISI are observed in radiographs after attempted close reduction.

  8. Alzheimer disease: functional abnormalities in the dorsal visual pathway.

    Bokde, Arun L W

    2012-02-01

    PURPOSE: To evaluate whether patients with Alzheimer disease (AD) have altered activation compared with age-matched healthy control (HC) subjects during a task that typically recruits the dorsal visual pathway. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The study was performed in accordance with the Declaration of Helsinki, with institutional ethics committee approval, and all subjects provided written informed consent. Two tasks were performed to investigate neural function: face matching and location matching. Twelve patients with mild AD and 14 age-matched HC subjects were included. Brain activation was measured by using functional magnetic resonance imaging. Group statistical analyses were based on a mixed-effects model corrected for multiple comparisons. RESULTS: Task performance was not statistically different between the two groups, and within groups there were no differences in task performance. In the HC group, the visual perception tasks selectively activated the visual pathways. Conversely in the AD group, there was no selective activation during performance of these same tasks. Along the dorsal visual pathway, the AD group recruited additional regions, primarily in the parietal and frontal lobes, for the location-matching task. There were no differences in activation between groups during the face-matching task. CONCLUSION: The increased activation in the AD group may represent a compensatory mechanism for decreased processing effectiveness in early visual areas of patients with AD. The findings support the idea that the dorsal visual pathway is more susceptible to putative AD-related neuropathologic changes than is the ventral visual pathway.

  9. Dorsal onlay vaginal graft urethroplasty for female urethral stricture

    Manmeet Singh

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Female urethral stricture is an underdiagnosed and overlooked cause of female bladder outlet obstruction. The possible etiologies may be infection, prior dilation, difficult catheterization with subsequent fibrosis, urethral surgery, trauma, or idiopathic. We present our technique and results of dorsal onlay full thickness vaginal graft urethroplasty for female urethral stricture. Materials and Methods: A retrospective review was performed on 16 female patients with mid-urethral stricture who underwent dorsal onlay vaginal graft urethroplasty from January 2007 to June 2011.Of these, 13 patients had previously undergone multiple Hegar dilatations, three had previous internal urethrotomies. The preoperative work up included detailed voiding history, local examination, uroflowmetry, calibration, and micturating cystourethrogram. Results: All patients had mid-urethral stricture. Mean age was 47.5 years. Mean Q max improved from 6.2 to 27.6 ml/s. Mean residual volume decreased from 160 to 20 ml. Mean duration of follow-up was 24.5 months (6 months to 3 years. Only one patient required self-calibration for 6 months after which her stricture stabilized. None of the patient was incontinent. Conclusion: Dorsal vaginal onlay graft urethroplasty could be considered as an effective way to treat female urethral stricture.

  10. Harmane inhibits serotonergic dorsal raphe neurons in the rat.

    Touiki, Khalid; Rat, Pascal; Molimard, Robert; Chait, Abderrahman; de Beaurepaire, Renaud

    2005-11-01

    Harmane and norharmane (two beta-carbolines) are tobacco components or products. The effects of harmane and norharmane on serotonergic raphe neurons remain unknown. Harmane and norharmane are inhibitors of the monoamine oxidases A (MAO-A) and B (MAO-B), respectively. To study the effects of harmane, norharmane, befloxatone (MAOI-A), and selegiline (MAOI-B) on the firing of serotonergic neurons. To compare the effects of these compounds to those of nicotine (whose inhibitory action on serotonergic neurons has been previously described). The effects of cotinine, a metabolite of nicotine known to interact with serotonergic systems, are also tested. In vivo electrophysiological recordings of serotonergic dorsal raphe neurons in the anaesthetized rat. Nicotine, harmane, and befloxatone inhibited serotonergic dorsal raphe neurons. The other compounds had no effects. The inhibitory effect of harmane (rapid and long-lasting inhibition) differed from that of nicotine (short and rapidly reversed inhibition) and from that of befloxatone (slow, progressive, and long-lasting inhibition). The inhibitory effects of harmane and befloxatone were reversed by the 5-HT1A antagonist WAY 100 635. Pretreatment of animals with p-chlorophenylalanine abolished the inhibitory effect of befloxatone, but not that of harmane. Nicotine, harmane, and befloxatone inhibit the activity of raphe serotonergic neurons. Therefore, at least two tobacco compounds, nicotine and harmane, inhibit the activity of serotonergic neurons. The mechanism by which harmane inhibits serotonergic dorsal raphe neurons is likely unrelated to a MAO-A inhibitory effect.

  11. Modelling root reinforcement in shallow forest soils

    Skaugset, Arne E.

    1997-01-01

    A hypothesis used to explain the relationship between timber harvesting and landslides is that tree roots add mechanical support to soil, thus increasing soil strength. Upon harvest, the tree roots decay which reduces soil strength and increases the risk of management -induced landslides. The technical literature does not adequately support this hypothesis. Soil strength values attributed to root reinforcement that are in the technical literature are such that forested sites can't fail and all high risk, harvested sites must fail. Both unstable forested sites and stable harvested sites exist, in abundance, in the real world thus, the literature does not adequately describe the real world. An analytical model was developed to calculate soil strength increase due to root reinforcement. Conceptually, the model is composed of a reinforcing element with high tensile strength, i.e. a conifer root, embedded in a material with little tensile strength, i.e. a soil. As the soil fails and deforms, the reinforcing element also deforms and stretches. The lateral deformation of the reinforcing element is treated analytically as a laterally loaded pile in a flexible foundation and the axial deformation is treated as an axially loaded pile. The governing differential equations are solved using finite-difference approximation techniques. The root reinforcement model was tested by comparing the final shape of steel and aluminum rods, parachute cord, wooden dowels, and pine roots in direct shear with predicted shapes from the output of the root reinforcement model. The comparisons were generally satisfactory, were best for parachute cord and wooden dowels, and were poorest for steel and aluminum rods. A parameter study was performed on the root reinforcement model which showed reinforced soil strength increased with increasing root diameter and soil depth. Output from the root reinforcement model showed a strain incompatibility between large and small diameter roots. The peak

  12. Meloidogyne luci n. sp. (Nematoda: Meloidogynidae), a root-knot nematode parasitising different crops in Brazil, Chile and Iran

    Carneiro, R.M.D.G.; Correa, V.R.; Almeida, M.R.A.; Gomes, A.C.M.M.; Deimi, A.M.; Castagnone-Sereno, P.; Karssen, G.

    2014-01-01

    A new root-knot nematode parasitising vegetables, flowers and fruits in Brazil, Iran and Chile, is described as Meloidogyne luci n. sp. The female has an oval to squarish perineal pattern with a low to moderately high dorsal arc and without shoulders, similar to M. ethiopica. The female stylet is

  13. Genetic association among root morphology, root quality and root yield in ashwagandha (Withania somnifera)

    Kumar Ramesh R.; Reddy Anjaneya Prasanna L.; Subbaiah Chinna J.; Kumar Niranjana A.; Prasad Nagendra H.N.; Bhukya Balakishan

    2011-01-01

    Ashwagandha (Withania somnifera) is a dryland medicinal crop and roots are used as valuable drug in traditional systems of medicine. Morphological variants (morphotypes) and the parental populations were evaluated for root - morphometric, quality and yield traits to study genetic association among them. Root morphometric traits (root length, root diameter, number of secondary roots/ plant) and crude fiber content exhibited strong association among them and ...

  14. Endoscopic root canal treatment.

    Moshonov, Joshua; Michaeli, Eli; Nahlieli, Oded

    2009-10-01

    To describe an innovative endoscopic technique for root canal treatment. Root canal treatment was performed on 12 patients (15 teeth), using a newly developed endoscope (Sialotechnology), which combines an endoscope, irrigation, and a surgical microinstrument channel. Endoscopic root canal treatment of all 15 teeth was successful with complete resolution of all symptoms (6-month follow-up). The novel endoscope used in this study accurately identified all microstructures and simplified root canal treatment. The endoscope may be considered for use not only for preoperative observation and diagnosis but also for active endodontic treatment.

  15. RUNTIME DICTIONARIES FOR ROOT

    Wind, David Kofoed

    2013-01-01

    ROOT is the LHC physicists' common tool for data analysis; almost all data is stored using ROOT's I/O system. This system benefits from a custom description of types (a so-called dictionary) that is optimised for the I/O. Until now, the dictionary cannot be provided at run-time; it needs to be prepared in a separate prerequisite step. This project will move the generation of the dictionary to run-time, making use of ROOT 6's new just-in-time compiler. It allows a more dynamic and natural access to ROOT's I/O features especially for user code.

  16. Cotterillia bromelicola nov. gen., nov. spec., a gonostomatid ciliate (Ciliophora, Hypotricha) from tank bromeliads (Bromeliaceae) with de novo originating dorsal kineties.

    Foissner, Wilhelm; Stoeck, Thorsten

    2011-01-01

    Cotterillia bromelicola nov. gen., nov. spec. was discovered in the tanks of the Mexican bromeliad Tillandsia heterophylla. Its morphology, ontogenesis, and 18S rDNA were studied with standard methods. Cotterillia has many cirral rows on both sides of the body. Uniquely, and thus used to diagnose the new genus Cotterillia, it has dorsal kineties originating de novo, producing neokinetal waves where the parental dorsal kineties reorganize to "combined rows", consisting of dorsal bristles anteriorly and of cirri posteriorly. Thus, up to four generations of bristles and cirri occur on the dorsal body surface. Cotterillia bromelicola has a gonostomatid body and adoral zone of membranelles, while the dense ciliature and the neokinetal waves resemble kahliellid hypotrichs. However, the de novo origin of anlage 1 and the molecular analyses show convincingly that Cotterillia belongs to the GonostomatidaeSmall and Lynn, 1985, for which an improved diagnosis is provided. Thus, neokinetal waves originated several times independently. The molecular differences between Trachelostyla, Gonostomum, and Cotterillia are small (≤ 5%) compared to their distinct morphologies and ontogeneses, suggesting that the 18S rDNA underestimates generic diversity. Our study emphasizes the need of combined morphological, ontogenetic, and molecular investigations to unravel the complex phylogeny and evolution of hypotrich ciliates. Published by Elsevier GmbH.

  17. Rare patterns of dorsal puncture in Pterostichus oblongopunctatus (Coleoptera: Carabidae

    Axel Schwerk

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Background The carabid beetle species Pterostichus oblongopunctatus is common in different types of forests in Poland and Europe. With respect to this species, some unclarities exist concerning the morphological feature of punctures on the elytra. P. oblongopunctatus has dorsal pits in the third interval of the elytra, the available identification keys, however, provide inconsistent information concerning the puncture in other intervals. During long-term studies at different study sites in Poland, the first author rarely but regularly discovered individuals with unusual dorsal puncture patterns, i.e., pits in the fifth and even in the seventh interval of the elytra. Since such rare patterns might be connected with special habitat characteristics, and thus have a potential as an indicator, the aim of the study was to test if they are connected with specific subpopulations (interaction groups, if they are related to the sex or size of the beetles, and if they are related to specific habitat conditions. Material and Methods We counted the pits on the elytra, determined the sex, and measured the length of the right elytron of individuals of P. oblongopunctatus collected at numerous study sites located within the borders of the Regional Directory of National Forests in Piła (Western Poland over the period 2014–2016. Results Altogether, 1,058 individuals of P. oblongopunctatus were subjected to statistical analysis. Almost 19% of the individuals had a dorsal puncture in the fifth interval of the elytra and about 0.7% had a dorsal puncture in the seventh interval of the elytra. In 2014 and 2015, significantly more females exhibited such unusual patterns of dorsal puncture than males. Even if not statistically significant, in 2016 also relatively more females showed such a pattern. Neither males nor females of the analysed individuals with usual puncture patterns showed a significant difference in the length of the right elytron from those with

  18. Automatic phoneme category selectivity in the dorsal auditory stream.

    Chevillet, Mark A; Jiang, Xiong; Rauschecker, Josef P; Riesenhuber, Maximilian

    2013-03-20

    Debates about motor theories of speech perception have recently been reignited by a burst of reports implicating premotor cortex (PMC) in speech perception. Often, however, these debates conflate perceptual and decision processes. Evidence that PMC activity correlates with task difficulty and subject performance suggests that PMC might be recruited, in certain cases, to facilitate category judgments about speech sounds (rather than speech perception, which involves decoding of sounds). However, it remains unclear whether PMC does, indeed, exhibit neural selectivity that is relevant for speech decisions. Further, it is unknown whether PMC activity in such cases reflects input via the dorsal or ventral auditory pathway, and whether PMC processing of speech is automatic or task-dependent. In a novel modified categorization paradigm, we presented human subjects with paired speech sounds from a phonetic continuum but diverted their attention from phoneme category using a challenging dichotic listening task. Using fMRI rapid adaptation to probe neural selectivity, we observed acoustic-phonetic selectivity in left anterior and left posterior auditory cortical regions. Conversely, we observed phoneme-category selectivity in left PMC that correlated with explicit phoneme-categorization performance measured after scanning, suggesting that PMC recruitment can account for performance on phoneme-categorization tasks. Structural equation modeling revealed connectivity from posterior, but not anterior, auditory cortex to PMC, suggesting a dorsal route for auditory input to PMC. Our results provide evidence for an account of speech processing in which the dorsal stream mediates automatic sensorimotor integration of speech and may be recruited to support speech decision tasks.

  19. Fat opacities dorsal to the equine antebrachiocarpal joint

    Dietze, A.E.; Rendano, V.T.

    1984-01-01

    Radiolucencies due to fat in the soft tissues dorsal to the equine antebrachiocarpal joint were studied in 12 necropsy specimens. In lateral-to-medial xeroradiographs of these 12 specimens, focal radiolucencies were present in ten, one focal radiolucency was present in one, and no focal radiolucencies were present in ten, one focal radiolucency was present in one, and no focal radiolucencies were in another. These radiolucencies were identified as fat in the antebrachiocarpal joint capsule. The fat was in two locations within this joint capsule. It was associated with the synovial membrane of the extensor carpi radialis tendon sheath and the synovial membrane of the antebrachiocarpal joint

  20. Covering the Dorsal Finger Defect with Reverse Cross Finger Flap

    Kaan Gurbuz

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Reconstruction of finger extensor zone defects with or without tendon gaps still remains a challenge for surgeons. Although surgical treatments may differ, and range from the use of local, regional, to free flaps, the outcomes for all cases are not satisfactory. In this case report, we present a case of a 3rd finger extensor side crush injury including a defect of Dd (Digit Dorsal 1, Dd2 and Dd3 defects of extensor zones with tendon gap. Tendon gap was reconstructed using m. palmaris longus tendon graft and the defect was covered with reversed cross-finger flap (random pattern with good cosmetic and excellent functional results.

  1. Sorghum root-system classification in contrasting P environments reveals three main rooting types and root-architecture-related marker-trait associations.

    Parra-Londono, Sebastian; Kavka, Mareike; Samans, Birgit; Snowdon, Rod; Wieckhorst, Silke; Uptmoor, Ralf

    2018-02-12

    Roots facilitate acquisition of macro- and micronutrients, which are crucial for plant productivity and anchorage in the soil. Phosphorus (P) is rapidly immobilized in the soil and hardly available for plants. Adaptation to P scarcity relies on changes in root morphology towards rooting systems well suited for topsoil foraging. Root-system architecture (RSA) defines the spatial organization of the network comprising primary, lateral and stem-derived roots and is important for adaptation to stress conditions. RSA phenotyping is a challenging task and essential for understanding root development. In this study, 19 traits describing RSA were analysed in a diversity panel comprising 194 sorghum genotypes, fingerprinted with a 90-k single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) array and grown under low and high P availability. Multivariate analysis was conducted and revealed three different RSA types: (1) a small root system; (2) a compact and bushy rooting type; and (3) an exploratory root system, which might benefit plant growth and development if water, nitrogen (N) or P availability is limited. While several genotypes displayed similar rooting types in different environments, others responded to P scarcity positively by developing more exploratory root systems, or negatively with root growth suppression. Genome-wide association studies revealed significant quantitative trait loci (P root-system development on chromosomes SBI-02 and SBI-03. Sorghum genotypes with a compact, bushy and shallow root system provide potential adaptation to P scarcity in the field by allowing thorough topsoil foraging, while genotypes with an exploratory root system may be advantageous if N or water is the limiting factor, although such genotypes showed highest P uptake levels under the artificial conditions of the present study. © The Author(s) 2018. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Annals of Botany Company. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  2. Self-similar continued root approximants

    Gluzman, S.; Yukalov, V.I.

    2012-01-01

    A novel method of summing asymptotic series is advanced. Such series repeatedly arise when employing perturbation theory in powers of a small parameter for complicated problems of condensed matter physics, statistical physics, and various applied problems. The method is based on the self-similar approximation theory involving self-similar root approximants. The constructed self-similar continued roots extrapolate asymptotic series to finite values of the expansion parameter. The self-similar continued roots contain, as a particular case, continued fractions and Padé approximants. A theorem on the convergence of the self-similar continued roots is proved. The method is illustrated by several examples from condensed-matter physics.

  3. Diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging of symptomatic nerve root of patients with lumbar disk herniation

    Eguchi, Yawara; Ohtori, Seiji; Yamashita, Masaomi; Yamauchi, Kazuyo; Suzuki, Munetaka; Orita, Sumihisa; Kamoda, Hiroto; Arai, Gen; Ishikawa, Tetsuhiro; Miyagi, Masayuki; Ochiai, Nobuyasu; Kishida, Shunji; Inoue, Gen; Takahashi, Kazuhisa; Masuda, Yoshitada; Ochi, Shigehiro; Kikawa, Takashi; Toyone, Tomoaki; Takaso, Masashi; Aoki, Yasuchika

    2011-01-01

    Diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) can provide valuable structural information that may be useful for evaluating pathological changes of the lumbar nerve root. Diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance (MR) neurography has recently been introduced as an alternative way to visualize nerves, but to date, quantitative DWI and MR neurography have not been applied to evaluate the pathology of lumbar nerve roots. Our purpose was to visualize lumbar nerve roots and to analyze their morphology by MR neurography, and to measure the apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) of lumbar nerve roots compressed by herniated disks using 1.5-T MR imaging. Ten consecutive patients (median age, 48.0 and range, 20-72 years) with monoradicular symptoms caused by a lumbar herniated disk and 14 healthy volunteers were studied. Regions of interests were placed on the lumbar roots at dorsal root ganglia (DRG) and distal spinal nerves on DWI to quantify mean ADC values. The spinal nerve roots were also visualized by MR neurography. In the patients, mean ADC values were significantly greater in the compressed DRG and distal spinal nerves than in intact nerves. MR neurography also showed abnormalities such as nerve swelling at and below the compression in the symptomatic nerve root. Increased ADC values were considered to be because of edema and Wallerian degeneration of compressed nerve roots. DWI is a potential tool for analysis of the pathophysiology of lumbar nerve roots compressed by herniated disks. (orig.)

  4. Diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging of symptomatic nerve root of patients with lumbar disk herniation

    Eguchi, Yawara; Ohtori, Seiji; Yamashita, Masaomi; Yamauchi, Kazuyo; Suzuki, Munetaka; Orita, Sumihisa; Kamoda, Hiroto; Arai, Gen; Ishikawa, Tetsuhiro; Miyagi, Masayuki; Ochiai, Nobuyasu; Kishida, Shunji; Inoue, Gen; Takahashi, Kazuhisa [Chiba University, Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Graduate School of Medicine, Chiba (Japan); Masuda, Yoshitada; Ochi, Shigehiro; Kikawa, Takashi [Chiba University Hospital, Department of Radiology, Chiba (Japan); Toyone, Tomoaki [Teikyo University Chiba Medical Center, Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Chiba (Japan); Takaso, Masashi [Kitasato University, Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, School of Medicine, Sagamihara City, Kanagawa (Japan); Aoki, Yasuchika [Chiba Rosai Hospital, Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Ichihara, Chiba (Japan)

    2011-09-15

    Diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) can provide valuable structural information that may be useful for evaluating pathological changes of the lumbar nerve root. Diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance (MR) neurography has recently been introduced as an alternative way to visualize nerves, but to date, quantitative DWI and MR neurography have not been applied to evaluate the pathology of lumbar nerve roots. Our purpose was to visualize lumbar nerve roots and to analyze their morphology by MR neurography, and to measure the apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) of lumbar nerve roots compressed by herniated disks using 1.5-T MR imaging. Ten consecutive patients (median age, 48.0 and range, 20-72 years) with monoradicular symptoms caused by a lumbar herniated disk and 14 healthy volunteers were studied. Regions of interests were placed on the lumbar roots at dorsal root ganglia (DRG) and distal spinal nerves on DWI to quantify mean ADC values. The spinal nerve roots were also visualized by MR neurography. In the patients, mean ADC values were significantly greater in the compressed DRG and distal spinal nerves than in intact nerves. MR neurography also showed abnormalities such as nerve swelling at and below the compression in the symptomatic nerve root. Increased ADC values were considered to be because of edema and Wallerian degeneration of compressed nerve roots. DWI is a potential tool for analysis of the pathophysiology of lumbar nerve roots compressed by herniated disks. (orig.)

  5. Irrational Square Roots

    Misiurewicz, Michal

    2013-01-01

    If students are presented the standard proof of irrationality of [square root]2, can they generalize it to a proof of the irrationality of "[square root]p", "p" a prime if, instead of considering divisibility by "p", they cling to the notions of even and odd used in the standard proof?

  6. Hydrodynamic function of dorsal fins in spiny dogfish and bamboo sharks during steady swimming.

    Maia, Anabela; Lauder, George V; Wilga, Cheryl D

    2017-11-01

    A key feature of fish functional design is the presence of multiple fins that allow thrust vectoring and redirection of fluid momentum to contribute to both steady swimming and maneuvering. A number of previous studies have analyzed the function of dorsal fins in teleost fishes in this context, but the hydrodynamic function of dorsal fins in freely swimming sharks has not been analyzed, despite the potential for differential functional roles between the anterior and posterior dorsal fins. Previous anatomical research has suggested a primarily stabilizing role for shark dorsal fins. We evaluated the generality of this hypothesis by using time-resolved particle image velocimetry to record water flow patterns in the wake of both the anterior and posterior dorsal fins in two species of freely swimming sharks: bamboo sharks ( Chiloscyllium plagiosum ) and spiny dogfish ( Squalus acanthias ). Cross-correlation analysis of consecutive images was used to calculate stroke-averaged mean longitudinal and lateral velocity components, and vorticity. In spiny dogfish, we observed a velocity deficit in the wake of the first dorsal fin and flow acceleration behind the second dorsal fin, indicating that the first dorsal fin experiences net drag while the second dorsal fin can aid in propulsion. In contrast, the wake of both dorsal fins in bamboo sharks displayed increased net flow velocity in the majority of trials, reflecting a thrust contribution to steady swimming. In bamboo sharks, fluid flow in the wake of the second dorsal fin had higher absolute average velocity than that for first dorsal fin, and this may result from a positive vortex interaction between the first and second dorsal fins. These data suggest that the first dorsal fin in spiny dogfish has primarily a stabilizing function, while the second dorsal fin has a propulsive function. In bamboo sharks, both dorsal fins can contribute thrust and should be considered as propulsive adjuncts to the body during steady

  7. High plasticity in epithelial morphogenesis during insect dorsal closure

    Kristen A. Panfilio

    2013-09-01

    Insect embryos complete the outer form of the body via dorsal closure (DC of the epidermal flanks, replacing the transient extraembryonic (EE tissue. Cell shape changes and morphogenetic behavior are well characterized for DC in Drosophila, but these data represent a single species with a secondarily reduced EE component (the amnioserosa that is not representative across the insects. Here, we examine DC in the red flour beetle, Tribolium castaneum, providing the first detailed, functional analysis of DC in an insect with complete EE tissues (distinct amnion and serosa. Surprisingly, we find that differences between Drosophila and Tribolium DC are not restricted to the EE tissue, but also encompass the dorsal epidermis, which differs in cellular architecture and method of final closure (zippering. We then experimentally manipulated EE tissue complement via RNAi for Tc-zen1, allowing us to eliminate the serosa and still examine viable DC in a system with a single EE tissue (the amnion. We find that the EE domain is particularly plastic in morphogenetic behavior and tissue structure. In contrast, embryonic features and overall kinetics are robust to Tc-zen1RNAi manipulation in Tribolium and conserved with a more distantly related insect, but remain substantially different from Drosophila. Although correct DC is essential, plasticity and regulative, compensatory capacity have permitted DC to evolve within the insects. Thus, DC does not represent a strong developmental constraint on the nature of EE development, a property that may have contributed to the reduction of the EE component in the fly lineage.

  8. Kinesthetic working memory and action control within the dorsal stream.

    Fiehler, Katja; Burke, Michael; Engel, Annerose; Bien, Siegfried; Rösler, Frank

    2008-02-01

    There is wide agreement that the "dorsal (action) stream" processes visual information for movement control. However, movements depend not only on vision but also on tactile and kinesthetic information (=haptics). Using functional magnetic resonance imaging, the present study investigates to what extent networks within the dorsal stream are also utilized for kinesthetic action control and whether they are also involved in kinesthetic working memory. Fourteen blindfolded participants performed a delayed-recognition task in which right-handed movements had to be encoded, maintained, and later recognized without any visual feedback. Encoding of hand movements activated somatosensory areas, superior parietal lobe (dorsodorsal stream), anterior intraparietal sulcus (aIPS) and adjoining areas (ventrodorsal stream), premotor cortex, and occipitotemporal cortex (ventral stream). Short-term maintenance of kinesthetic information elicited load-dependent activity in the aIPS and adjacent anterior portion of the superior parietal lobe (ventrodorsal stream) of the left hemisphere. We propose that the action representation system of the dorsodorsal and ventrodorsal stream is utilized not only for visual but also for kinesthetic action control. Moreover, the present findings demonstrate that networks within the ventrodorsal stream, in particular the left aIPS and closely adjacent areas, are also engaged in working memory maintenance of kinesthetic information.

  9. Patella dislocation with vertical axis rotation: the "dorsal fin" patella.

    Gamble, David; Otto, Quentin; Carrothers, Andrew D; Khanduja, Vikas

    2015-01-01

    A 44-year-old woman presented following minor trauma to her right knee. While dancing she externally rotated around a planted foot and felt sudden pain in her right knee. She presented with her knee locked in extension with a "dorsal fin" appearance of the soft tissues tented over the patella. This was diagnosed as a rare case of an intraarticular patella dislocation, which was rotated 90 degrees about the vertical axis. Closed reduction in the emergency room was unsuccessful but was achieved in theatre under general anaesthetic with muscle relaxation. Postreduction arthroscopy demonstrated that no osteochondral or soft tissue damage to the knee had been sustained. In patients presenting with a knee locked in extension with tenting of skin over the patella (the "dorsal fin" appearance), intra-articular patella dislocation should be suspected. Attempts to reduce vertical patella dislocations under sedation with excessive force or repeatedly without success should be avoided to prevent unnecessary damage to the patellofemoral joint. In this clinical situation we recommend closed reduction under general anaesthetic followed by immediate knee arthroscopy under the same anaesthetic to ensure that there is no chondral damage to the patella or femoral trochlea and to rule out an osteochondral fracture.

  10. Morphology of the dorsal and lateral calcaneocuboid ligaments.

    Dorn-Lange, Nadja V; Nauck, Tanja; Lohrer, Heinz; Arentz, Sabine; Konerding, Moritz A

    2008-09-01

    The dorsolateral calcaneocuboid ligaments have different configurations. In the literature they are only described as either the dorsal or lateral calcaneocuboid ligament. However, recent reconstructive surgical techniques may benefit from a better understanding of the anatomy. The aims of this study were to classify the morphology and attachments of the dorso-lateral calcaneocuboid ligaments and to determine their dimensions. The dorso-lateral aspects of the calcaneocuboid joint of 30 cadaver feet were dissected to expose the associated ligaments. Further, we evaluated possible bony landmarks of the calcaneus that could imply which shape or course the ligament would have in a specific individual. Our findings showed a wide variety of configurations in shape, number, and attachment sites. A constant dorsal ligament and an additional narrower lateral ligament was detectable in half of the cases. The majority of the dorso-lateral calcaneocuboid ligament-complex had an upward course and fanning out from proximal to distal. No bony predictor for the ligaments' shape or course was found. The dorso-lateral ligament-complex of the calcaneocuboid joint revealed a wide variety of configurations. Better understanding of the anatomy of these ligaments may aid in the anatomic reconstruction of these ligaments.

  11. Environmental enrichment increases transcriptional and epigenetic differentiation between mouse dorsal and ventral dentate gyrus.

    Zhang, Tie-Yuan; Keown, Christopher L; Wen, Xianglan; Li, Junhao; Vousden, Dulcie A; Anacker, Christoph; Bhattacharyya, Urvashi; Ryan, Richard; Diorio, Josie; O'Toole, Nicholas; Lerch, Jason P; Mukamel, Eran A; Meaney, Michael J

    2018-01-19

    Early life experience influences stress reactivity and mental health through effects on cognitive-emotional functions that are, in part, linked to gene expression in the dorsal and ventral hippocampus. The hippocampal dentate gyrus (DG) is a major site for experience-dependent plasticity associated with sustained transcriptional alterations, potentially mediated by epigenetic modifications. Here, we report comprehensive DNA methylome, hydroxymethylome and transcriptome data sets from mouse dorsal and ventral DG. We find genome-wide transcriptional and methylation differences between dorsal and ventral DG, including at key developmental transcriptional factors. Peripubertal environmental enrichment increases hippocampal volume and enhances dorsal DG-specific differences in gene expression. Enrichment also enhances dorsal-ventral differences in DNA methylation, including at binding sites of the transcription factor NeuroD1, a regulator of adult neurogenesis. These results indicate a dorsal-ventral asymmetry in transcription and methylation that parallels well-known functional and anatomical differences, and that may be enhanced by environmental enrichment.

  12. Chromatic roots and hamiltonian paths

    Thomassen, Carsten

    2000-01-01

    We present a new connection between colorings and hamiltonian paths: If the chromatic polynomial of a graph has a noninteger root less than or equal to t(n) = 2/3 + 1/3 (3)root (26 + 6 root (33)) + 1/3 (3)root (26 - 6 root (33)) = 1.29559.... then the graph has no hamiltonian path. This result...

  13. Aortic Root Enlargement or Sutureless Valve Implantation?

    Nikolaos G. Baikoussis

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Aortic valve replacement (AVR in patients with a small aortic annulus is a challenging issue. The importance of prosthesis–patient mismatch (PPM post aortic valve replacement (AVR is controversial but has to be avoided. Many studies support the fact that PPM has a negative impact on short and long term survival. In order to avoid PPM, aortic root enlargement may be performed. Alternatively and keeping in mind that often some comorbidities are present in old patients with small aortic root, the Perceval S suturelles valve implantation could be a perfect solution. The Perceval sutureless bioprosthesis provides reasonable hemodynamic performance avoiding the PPM and providing the maximum of aortic orifice area. We would like to see in the near future the role of the aortic root enlargement techniques in the era of surgical implantation of the sutureless valve (SAVR and the transcatheter valve implantation (TAVI.

  14. Coarse and fine root plants affect pore size distributions differently

    Bodner, G.; Leitner, D.; Kaul, H.-P.

    2014-01-01

    Aims Small scale root-pore interactions require validation of their impact on effective hydraulic processes at the field scale. Our objective was to develop an interpretative framework linking root effects on macroscopic pore parameters with knowledge at the rhizosphere scale. Methods A field experiment with twelve species from different families was conducted. Parameters of Kosugi?s pore size distribution (PSD) model were determined inversely from tension infiltrometer data. Measured root tr...

  15. Inducing gravitropic curvature of primary roots of Zea mays cv Ageotropic

    Moore, R.; Evans, M. L.; Fondren, W. M.

    1990-01-01

    Primary roots of the mutant 'Ageotropic' cultivar of Zea mays are nonresponsive to gravity. Their root caps secrete little or no mucilage and touch the root only at the extreme apex. A gap separates the cap and root at the periphery of the cap. Applying mucilage from normal roots or substances with a consistency similar to that of mucilage to tips of mutant roots causes these roots to become strongly graviresponsive. Gravicurvature stops when these substances are removed. Caps of some mutants secrete small amounts of mucilage and are graviresponsive. These results indicate that (a) the lack of graviresponsiveness in the mutant results from disrupting the transport pathway between the cap and root, (b) movement of the growth-modifying signal from the cap to the root occurs via an apoplastic pathway, and (c) mucilage is necessary for normal communication between the root cap and root in Zea mays cv Ageotropic.

  16. Root phenology at Harvard Forest and beyond

    Abramoff, R. Z.; Finzi, A.

    2013-12-01

    maximum growth period. In contrast, root growth was characterized by multiple production peaks. Q. rubra root growth experienced many small flushes around day of year (DOY) 156 (early June) and one large peak on 234 (late August). T. canadensis root growth peaked on DOY 188 (early July), 234.5 (late August) and 287 (mid-October). However, particular phenological patterns varied widely from site to site. Despite large spatial heterogeneity, it appears that Q. rubra experiences greater overall root production as well as more allocation to roots during the growing season. The storage pool of nonstructural carbohydrates experiences a mid-summer drawdown in Q. rubra but not T. canadensis roots. Timing of belowground C allocation to root growth and nonstructural carbohydrate accumulation may be regulated by climate factors as well as endogenous factors such as vessel size, growth form, or tradeoffs in C allocated between plant organs. Plant roots supply substrate to microbial communities and hence their production feeds back to other plant and soil processes that affect ecosystem C fluxes.

  17. Gender-related Changes in Dorsal Hand and Foot Vein Function Following 60 Days of Head Down Bed Rest

    Westby, Christian M.; Phillips, Tiffany; Stenger, Michael B.; Platts, Steven H.

    2009-01-01

    It is well known that female astronauts are more likely to experience post-flight orthostatic hypotension and presyncope compared to male astronauts. It has been suggested that the disproportionally higher incidence of presyncope (83% of female vs. 20% male crewmembers) may be due to sex-related differences in vascular function between the upper and lower limbs. However, much of this evidence is specific to changes in resistance vessels. Given that more than 70% of the circulating blood volume resides in compliance vessels, it is conceivable that even small changes in venous function may contribute to post-flight orthostatic hypotension. In spite of this, little is currently known regarding the influence of microgravity exposure on venous function between males and females. PURPOSE: To determine the influence of 60 days of HDBR on dorsal foot and hand vein function between healthy males (M) and females (F). METHODS: Using 2-D ultrasound, dorsal hand and foot vein diameter responses to intravenous infusions phenylephrine (PE), acetylcholine (ACh), and nitroglycerine (NTG) were determined in 26 adults; 10 females (age:37 +/- 2 yr ) and 16 males (age:34 +/- 2 yr ). Changes in venous function were calculated as the difference between diameter at baseline and following each venoactive drug. Differences in venous function between limb and sexes across HDBR were determined using mixed-effects linear regression. RESULTS: In response to 60 days of HDBR, the change in venousconstrictor response to PE in the dorsal hand veins was not significantly different between M and F. Interestingly, the change in constrictor response in the dorsal foot veins (compared to pre HDBR) was approximately 30% greater in the F, whereas the constrictor response was approximately 45% less in the M (p=0.026). HDBR had no influence on the change in dilator response to ACh, or NTG between M and F and between vascular beds. CONCLUSION: These results demonstrate that 60 days of HDBR contributes to sex

  18. Arabidopsis: an adequate model for dicot root systems

    In the search for answers to pressing root developmental genetic issues, plant science has turned to a small genome dicot plant (Arabidopsis) to be used as a model to study and use to develop hypotheses for testing other species. Through out the published research only three classes of root are des...

  19. Hypotensive Activity of Moringa oleifera Lam (Moringaceae) Root ...

    Purpose: To explore the hypotensive activity and chemical composition of Moringa oleifera Lam (Moringaceae) roots. Methods: The fresh roots of M. oleifera was cut into small pieces and successively extracted with petroleum ether (PE) and dichloromethane (DC). PE extract was further divided into MRP and MRP -1.

  20. [The crooked nose: correction of dorsal and caudal septal deviations].

    Foda, H M T

    2010-09-01

    The deviated nose represents a complex cosmetic and functional problem. Septal surgery plays a central role in the successful management of the externally deviated nose. This study included 800 patients seeking rhinoplasty to correct external nasal deviations; 71% of these suffered from variable degrees of nasal obstruction. Septal surgery was necessary in 736 (92%) patients, not only to improve breathing, but also to achieve a straight, symmetric external nose. A graduated surgical approach was adopted to allow correction of the dorsal and caudal deviations of the nasal septum without weakening its structural support to the nasal dorsum or nasal tip. The approach depended on full mobilization of deviated cartilage, followed by straightening of the cartilage and its fixation in the corrected position by using bony splinting grafts through an external rhinoplasty approach.

  1. Direct dorsal hippocampal-prelimbic cortex connections strengthen fear memories.

    Ye, Xiaojing; Kapeller-Libermann, Dana; Travaglia, Alessio; Inda, M Carmen; Alberini, Cristina M

    2017-01-01

    The ability to regulate the consolidation and strengthening of memories for threatening experiences is critical for mental health, and its dysregulation may lead to psychopathologies. Re-exposure to the context in which the threat was experienced can either increase or decrease fear response through distinct processes known, respectively, as reconsolidation or extinction. Using a context retrieval-dependent memory-enhancement model in rats, we report that memory strengthens through activation of direct projections from dorsal hippocampus to prelimbic (PL) cortex and activation of critical PL molecular mechanisms that are not required for extinction. Furthermore, while sustained PL brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) expression is required for memory consolidation, retrieval engages PL BDNF to regulate excitatory and inhibitory synaptic proteins neuroligin 1 and neuroligin 2, which promote memory strengthening while inhibiting extinction. Thus, context retrieval-mediated fear-memory enhancement results from a concerted action of mechanisms that strengthen memory through reconsolidation while suppressing extinction.

  2. Dorsal Raphe Dopamine Neurons Represent the Experience of Social Isolation

    Matthews, Gillian A.; Nieh, Edward H.; Vander Weele, Caitlin M.; Halbert, Sarah A.; Pradhan, Roma V.; Yosafat, Ariella S.; Glober, Gordon F.; Izadmehr, Ehsan M.; Thomas, Rain E.; Lacy, Gabrielle D.; Wildes, Craig P.; Ungless, Mark A.; Tye, Kay M.

    2016-01-01

    Summary The motivation to seek social contact may arise from either positive or negative emotional states, as social interaction can be rewarding and social isolation can be aversive. While ventral tegmental area (VTA) dopamine (DA) neurons may mediate social reward, a cellular substrate for the negative affective state of loneliness has remained elusive. Here, we identify a functional role for DA neurons in the dorsal raphe nucleus (DRN), in which we observe synaptic changes following acute social isolation. DRN DA neurons show increased activity upon social contact following isolation, revealed by in vivo calcium imaging. Optogenetic activation of DRN DA neurons increases social preference but causes place avoidance. Furthermore, these neurons are necessary for promoting rebound sociability following an acute period of isolation. Finally, the degree to which these neurons modulate behavior is predicted by social rank, together supporting a role for DRN dopamine neurons in mediating a loneliness-like state. PaperClip PMID:26871628

  3. Spinal dorsal horn astrocytes: New players in chronic itch

    Makoto Tsuda

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Chronic itch is a debilitating symptom of inflammatory skin conditions, such as atopic dermatitis, and systemic diseases, for which existing treatment is largely ineffective. Recent studies have revealed the selective neuronal pathways that are involved in itch sensations; however, the mechanisms by which itch turns into a pathological chronic state are poorly understood. Recent advances in our understanding of the mechanisms producing chronic itch have been made by defining causal roles for astrocytes in the spinal dorsal horn in mouse models of chronic itch including atopic dermatitis. Understanding the key roles of astrocytes may provide us with exciting insights into the mechanisms for itch chronicity and lead to a previously unrecognized target for treating chronic itch.

  4. The presence of nuclear cactus in the early Drosophila embryo may extend the dynamic range of the dorsal gradient.

    Michael D O'Connell

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available In a developing embryo, the spatial distribution of a signaling molecule, or a morphogen gradient, has been hypothesized to carry positional information to pattern tissues. Recent measurements of morphogen distribution have allowed us to subject this hypothesis to rigorous physical testing. In the early Drosophila embryo, measurements of the morphogen Dorsal, which is a transcription factor responsible for initiating the earliest zygotic patterns along the dorsal-ventral axis, have revealed a gradient that is too narrow to pattern the entire axis. In this study, we use a mathematical model of Dorsal dynamics, fit to experimental data, to determine the ability of the Dorsal gradient to regulate gene expression across the entire dorsal-ventral axis. We found that two assumptions are required for the model to match experimental data in both Dorsal distribution and gene expression patterns. First, we assume that Cactus, an inhibitor that binds to Dorsal and prevents it from entering the nuclei, must itself be present in the nuclei. And second, we assume that fluorescence measurements of Dorsal reflect both free Dorsal and Cactus-bound Dorsal. Our model explains the dynamic behavior of the Dorsal gradient at lateral and dorsal positions of the embryo, the ability of Dorsal to regulate gene expression across the entire dorsal-ventral axis, and the robustness of gene expression to stochastic effects. Our results have a general implication for interpreting fluorescence-based measurements of signaling molecules.

  5. Grass Rooting the System

    Perlman, Janice E.

    1976-01-01

    Suggests a taxonomy of the grass roots movement and gives a general descriptive over view of the 60 groups studied with respect to origin, constituency, size, funding, issues, and ideology. (Author/AM)

  6. Selective resection of dorsal nerves of penis for premature ejaculation.

    Zhang, G-X; Yu, L-P; Bai, W-J; Wang, X-F

    2012-12-01

    Premature ejaculation (PE) is one of the most prevalent male sexual dysfunctions. Selective resection of the dorsal nerve (SRDN) of penis has recently been used for the treatment of PE and has shown some efficacy. To further clarify the efficacy and safety of SRDN on PE, we performed a preliminary, randomized, placebo-controlled clinical observational study. Persons with the complaints of rapid ejaculation, asking for circumcision because of redundant foreskin, intravaginal ejaculation latency time (IELT) within 2 min, not responding to antidepressant medication or disliking oral medication were randomly enrolled in two groups. From April 2007 to August 2010, a total of 101 eligible persons were enrolled, 40 of them received SRDN which dorsal nerves of the penis were selectively resected, and those (n = 61) enrolled in the control group were circumcised only. IELT and the Brief Male Sexual Function Inventory (BMSFI) questionnaire were implemented pre- and post-operatively for the evaluation of the effect and safety of the surgery. There are no statistically significant differences in the baseline data including mean ages, mean IELTs, perceived control abilities and the BMSFI mean scores between the two groups. With regard to the post-operative data of the surgery, both IELTs and perceived control abilities were significantly increased after SRDN (1.1 ± 0.9 min vs. 3.8 ± 3.1 min for pre- and post-operative IELT, respectively, p 0.05). Also, there were no statistically significant differences both in BMSFI composite and subscale scores between the two groups after surgery. Hence, we conclude that SRDN is effective in delaying ejaculation and improving ejaculatory control, whereas erectile function is not affected. The results imply that SRDN may be an alternative method for the treatment of PE for some patients. © 2012 The Authors. International Journal of Andrology © 2012 European Academy of Andrology.

  7. Rooting an Android Device

    2015-09-01

    1. Overview The purpose of this document is to demonstrate how to gain administrative privileges on an Android device. The term “rooting” is...is applicable for the Samsung Galaxy S3 as well as many other Android devices, but there are several steps involved in rooting an Android device (as...root access has been granted. 4. Conclusion This document serves as a tutorial on how to grant user administrative privilege to an Android device by

  8. Cyto- and chemoarchitecture of the dorsal thalamus of the monotreme Tachyglossus aculeatus, the short beaked echidna.

    Ashwell, Ken W S; Paxinos, George

    2005-12-01

    We have examined the cyto- and chemoarchitecture of the dorsal thalamus of the short beaked echidna (Tachyglossus aculeatus), using Nissl and myelin staining, immunoreactivity for parvalbumin, calbindin, calretinin and non-phosphorylated neurofilament protein (SMI-32 antibody), and histochemistry for acetylcholinesterase and NADPH diaphorase. Immunohistochemical methods revealed many nuclear boundaries, which were difficult to discern with Nissl staining. Parvalbumin immunoreactive somata were concentrated in the ventral posterior, reticular, posterior, lateral and medial geniculate nuclei, while parvalbumin immunoreactivity of the neuropil was present throughout all but the midline nuclei. Large numbers of calbindin immunoreactive somata were also found within the midline thalamic nuclei, and thalamic sensory relay nuclei. Immunoreactivity for calretinin was found in many small somata within the lateral geniculate "a" nucleus, with other labelled somata found in the lateral geniculate "b" nucleus, ventral posterior medial and ventral posterior lateral nuclei. Immunoreactivity with the SMI-32 antibody was largely confined to somata and neuropil within the thalamocortical relay nuclei (ventral posterior medial and lateral nuclei, lateral and medial geniculate nuclei and the posterior thalamic nucleus). In broad terms there were many similarities between the thalamus of this monotreme and that of eutheria (e.g. disposition of somatosensory thalamus, complementarity of parvalbumin and calbindin immunoreactive structures), but there were some unique features of the thalamus of the echidna. These include the relatively small size of the thalamic reticular nucleus and the preponderance of calbindin immunoreactive neurons over parvalbumin immunoreactive neurons in the ventral posterior nucleus.

  9. effects of different concentrations of auxins on rooting and root

    Preferred Customer

    ABSTRACT: The effect of auxins and their different concentrations on rooting and root ... primary root length and the longest primary root was recorded with the ... ceuticals, lubricants, foods, electrical insulators, .... stem cuttings of jojoba treated with IBA and NAA, .... increasing cell division and enlargement at each.

  10. Motor deficits following dorsal corticospinal tract transection in rats: voluntary versus skilled locomotion readouts

    Lara Bieler

    2018-02-01

    The functional relevance of the dorsal CST in locomotion of rats is not as prominent as compared to in humans and thus challenging the motor execution is mandatory to reliably investigate CST function. A detailed analysis of voluntary walking using the CatWalk XT is not adequate to detect deficits following dorsal CST lesion in rats.

  11. The function of the long dorsal sacroiliac ligament : its implications for understanding low back pain

    Pool-Goudzwaard, A.L.; Vleeming, A; Hammudoghlu, D; Stoeckart, R.; Snijders, C.; Mens, Jan M A

    1996-01-01

    STUDY DESIGN: In embalmed human bodies the tension of the long dorsal sacroiliac ligament was measured during incremental loading of anatomical structures that are biomechanically relevant. OBJECTIVES: To assess the function of the long dorsal sacroiliac ligament. SUMMARY OF BACKGROUND DATA: In many

  12. Role of the right dorsal anterior insula in the urge to tic in Tourette syndrome.

    Tinaz, Sule; Malone, Patrick; Hallett, Mark; Horovitz, Silvina G

    2015-08-01

    The mid-posterior part of the insula is involved in processing bodily sensations and urges and is activated during tic generation in Tourette syndrome. The dorsal anterior part of the insula, however, integrates sensory and emotional information with cognitive valuation and is implicated in interoception. The right dorsal anterior insula also participates in urge suppression in healthy subjects. This study examined the role of the right dorsal anterior insula in the urge to tic in Tourette syndrome. Resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging was performed in 13 adult Tourette patients and 13 matched controls. The role of the right dorsal anterior insula within the urge-tic network was investigated using graph theory-based neural network analysis. The functional connectivity of the right dorsal anterior insula was also correlated with urge and tic severity. Even though the patients did not exhibit any overt tics, the right dorsal anterior insula demonstrated higher connectivity, especially with the frontostriatal nodes of the urge-tic network in patients compared with controls. The functional connectivity between the right dorsal anterior insula and bilateral supplementary motor area also correlated positively with urge severity in patients. These results suggest that the right dorsal anterior insula is part of the urge-tic network and could influence the urge- and tic-related cortico-striato-thalamic regions even during rest in Tourette syndrome. It might be responsible for heightened awareness of bodily sensations generating premonitory urges in Tourette syndrome. © 2015 International Parkinson and Movement Disorder Society.

  13. The ventral stream offers more affordance and the dorsal stream more memory than believed

    Postma, Albert; van der Lubbe, Robert Henricus Johannes; Zuidhoek, Sander

    2002-01-01

    Opposed to Norman's proposal, processing of affordance is likely to occur not solely in the dorsal stream but also in the ventral stream. Moreover, the dorsal stream might do more than just serve an important role in motor actions. It supports egocentric location coding as well. As such, it would

  14. The inflow of Cs-137 in soil with root litter and root exudates of Scots pine

    Shcheglov, Alexey; Tsvetnova, Olga; Popova, Evgenia

    2017-04-01

    In the model experiment on evaluation of Cs-137 inflow in the soil with litter of roots and woody plants root exudates on the example of soil and water cultures of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) was shown, that through 45 days after the deposit Cs-137 solution on pine needles (specific activity of solution was 3.718*106 Bk) of the radionuclide in all components of model systems has increased significantly: needles, small branches and trunk by Cs-137 surface contamination during the experiment; roots as a result of the internal distribution of the radionuclide in the plant; soil and soil solution due to the of receipt Cs-137 in the composition of root exudates and root litter. Over 99% of the total reserve of Cs-137 accumulated in the components of the soil and water systems, accounted for bodies subjected to external pollution (needles and small branches) and soil solution, haven't been subjected to surface contamination. At the same contamination of soil and soil solution by Cs-137 in the model experiment more than a> 99.9% was due to root exudates

  15. Amnioserosa cell constriction but not epidermal actin cable tension autonomously drives dorsal closure.

    Pasakarnis, Laurynas; Frei, Erich; Caussinus, Emmanuel; Affolter, Markus; Brunner, Damian

    2016-11-01

    Tissue morphogenesis requires coordination of multiple force-producing components. During dorsal closure in fly embryogenesis, an epidermis opening closes. A tensioned epidermal actin/MyosinII cable, which surrounds the opening, produces a force that is thought to combine with another MyosinII force mediating apical constriction of the amnioserosa cells that fill the opening. A model proposing that each force could autonomously drive dorsal closure was recently challenged by a model in which the two forces combine in a ratchet mechanism. Acute force elimination via selective MyosinII depletion in one or the other tissue shows that the amnioserosa tissue autonomously drives dorsal closure while the actin/MyosinII cable cannot. These findings exclude both previous models, although a contribution of the ratchet mechanism at dorsal closure onset remains likely. This shifts the current view of dorsal closure being a combinatorial force-component system to a single tissue-driven closure event.

  16. Changes in motor unit behavior following isometric fatigue of the first dorsal interosseous muscle

    Rymer, William Z.; Lowery, Madeleine M.; Suresh, Nina L.

    2015-01-01

    The neuromuscular strategies employed to compensate for fatigue-induced muscle force deficits are not clearly understood. This study utilizes surface electromyography (sEMG) together with recordings of a population of individual motor unit action potentials (MUAPs) to investigate potential compensatory alterations in motor unit (MU) behavior immediately following a sustained fatiguing contraction and after a recovery period. EMG activity was recorded during abduction of the first dorsal interosseous in 12 subjects at 20% maximum voluntary contraction (MVC), before and directly after a 30% MVC fatiguing contraction to task failure, with additional 20% MVC contractions following a 10-min rest. The amplitude, duration and mean firing rate (MFR) of MUAPs extracted with a sEMG decomposition system were analyzed, together with sEMG root-mean-square (RMS) amplitude and median frequency (MPF). MUAP duration and amplitude increased immediately postfatigue and were correlated with changes to sEMG MPF and RMS, respectively. After 10 min, MUAP duration and sEMG MPF recovered to prefatigue values but MUAP amplitude and sEMG RMS remained elevated. MU MFR and recruitment thresholds decreased postfatigue and recovered following rest. The increase in MUAP and sEMG amplitude likely reflects recruitment of larger MUs, while recruitment compression is an additional compensatory strategy directly postfatigue. Recovery of MU MFR in parallel with MUAP duration suggests a possible role for metabolically sensitive afferents in MFR depression postfatigue. This study provides insight into fatigue-induced neuromuscular changes by examining the properties of a large population of concurrently recorded single MUs and outlines possible compensatory strategies involving alterations in MU recruitment and MFR. PMID:25761952

  17. The "Green" Root Beer Laboratory

    Clary, Renee; Wandersee, James

    2010-01-01

    No, your students will not be drinking green root beer for St. Patrick's Day--this "green" root beer laboratory promotes environmental awareness in the science classroom, and provides a venue for some very sound science content! While many science classrooms incorporate root beer-brewing activities, the root beer lab presented in this article has…

  18. Dorsal clitoral nerve injury following transobturator midurethral sling

    Moss CF

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Chailee F Moss,1 Lynn A Damitz,2 Richard H Gracely,3 Alice C Mintz,3 Denniz A Zolnoun,2–4 A Lee Dellon5 1Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Ohio State University School of Medicine, Columbus, OH, USA; 2Department of Surgery, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, NC, USA; 3Department of Endodontics, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, NC, USA; 4Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill School of Medicine, Chapel Hill, NC, USA; 5Department of Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD, USA Introduction: Transobturator slings can be successfully used to treat stress urinary incontinence and improve quality of life through a minimally invasive vaginal approach. Persistent postoperative pain can occur and pose diagnostic and therapeutic dilemmas. Following a sling procedure, a patient complained of pinching clitoral and perineal pain. Her symptoms of localized clitoral pinching and pain became generalized over the ensuing years, eventually encompassing the entire left vulvovaginal region.Aim: The aim of this study was to highlight the clinical utility of conventional pain management techniques used for the evaluation and management of patients with postoperative pain following pelvic surgery. Methods: We described a prototypical patient with persistent pain in and around the clitoral region complicating the clinical course of an otherwise successful sling procedure. We specifically discussed the utility of bedside sensory assessment techniques and selective nerve blocks in the evaluation and management of this prototypical patient. Results: Neurosensory assessments and a selective nerve block enabled us to trace the source of the patient’s pain to nerve entrapment along the dorsal nerve of the clitoris. We then utilized a nerve stimulator-guided hydrodissection technique to release the scar contracture Conclusion: This case

  19. The unique dorsal brood pouch of Thermosbaenacea (Crustacea, Malacostraca) and description of an advanced developmental stage of Tulumella unidens from the Yucatan Peninsula (Mexico), with a discussion of mouth part homologies to other Malacostraca

    Olesen, Jørgen; Boesgaard, Tom; Iliffe, Thomas M.

    2015-01-01

    The Thermosbaenacea, a small taxon of crustaceans inhabiting subterranean waters, are unique among malacostracans as they brood their offspring dorsally under the carapace. This habit is of evolutionary interest but the last detailed report on thermosbaenacean development is more than 40 years ol...

  20. Effect of injury on S1 dorsal root ganglia in an experimental model of neuropathic faecal incontinence.

    Peirce, C

    2011-08-01

    An experimental model of neuropathic faecal incontinence has recently been established. This study aimed to quantify and compare the effect of crush and compression injury on first-order sensory neurones of the inferior rectal nerve (IRN) using a nuclear marker of axonal injury, activating transcription factor (ATF) 3.

  1. Signaling proteins in spinal parenchyma and dorsal root ganglion in rat with spinal injury-induced spasticity

    Kupcová Skalníková, Helena; Navarro, R.; Marsala, S.; Hrabáková, Rita; Vodička, Petr; Gadher, S. J.; Kovářová, Hana; Marsala, M.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 91, č. 1 (2013), s. 41-57 ISSN 1874-3919 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) ME10044; GA TA ČR TA01011466; GA MŠk ED2.1.00/03.0124 Institutional support: RVO:67985904 Keywords : spinal cord trauma * spasticity * hyper-reflexia Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 3.929, year: 2013

  2. Differential neurotoxicity of tricyclic antidepressants and novel derivatives in vitro in a dorsal root ganglion cell culture model

    Haller, I.; Lirk, P.; Keller, C.; Wang, G. K.; Gerner, P.; Klimaschewski, L.

    2007-01-01

    Tricyclic antidepressants are commonly employed orally to treat major depressive disorders and have been shown to be of substantial benefit in various chronic pain conditions. Among other properties they are potent Na+ channel blockers in vitro and show local anaesthetic properties in vivo. The

  3. Unbiased estimates of number and size of rat dorsal root ganglion cells in studies of structure and cell survival

    Lamm, Trine Tandrup

    Neurodegenerative sygdomme er karakteriseret ved tab af nervefibre og nervecellelegemer. Tilstande med fysiske eller toksikologiske beskadigelser af de primære sensoriske nerveceller hos rotten har ofte været anvendt som model for forståelse af de processer, der fører til celledød eller -overleve...

  4. The critical period for peripheral specification of dorsal root ganglion neurons is related to the period of sensory neurogenesis

    Smith, C.L.

    1990-01-01

    Thoracic sensory neurons in bullfrog tadpoles can be induced to form connections typical of brachial sensory neurons by transplanting thoracic ganglia to the branchial level at stages when some thoracic sensory neurons already have formed connections. In order to find out how many postmitotic sensory neurons survive transplantation, [ 3 H]thymidine was administered to tadpoles in which thoracic ganglia were transplanted to the brachial level unilaterally at stages VII to IX. Between 16 and 37% of the neurons in transplanted ganglia were unlabeled, as compared to 46 to 60% in unoperated ganglia. Transplanted ganglia contained fewer unlabeled neurons than corresponding unoperated ganglia, indicating that transplantation caused degeneration of postmitotic neurons. Therefore, a large fraction of the neurons that formed connections typical of brachial sensory neurons probably differentiated while they were at the brachial level

  5. Distinct membrane effects of spinal nerve ligation on injured and adjacent dorsal root ganglion neurons in rats

    Sapunar, Damir; Ljubkovic, Marko; Lirk, Philipp; McCallum, J. Bruce; Hogan, Quinn H.

    2005-01-01

    Painful peripheral nerve injury results in disordered sensory neuron function that contributes to the pathogenesis of neuropathic pain. However, the relative roles of neurons with transected axons versus intact adjacent neurons have not been resolved. An essential first step is identification of

  6. Lack of body positional effects on paresthesias when stimulating the dorsal root ganglion (DRG) in the treatment of chronic pain

    J. Kramer (Jeffery); A.L. Liem (Liong); M. Russo (Marc); I. Smet (Iris); J.P. Van Buyten (Jean-Pierre); F.J.P.M. Huygen (Frank)

    2015-01-01

    textabstractObjectives: One prominent side effect from neurostimulation techniques, and in particular spinal cord stimulation (SCS), is the change in intensity of stimulation when moving from an upright (vertical) to a recumbent or supine (horizontal) position and vice versa. It is well understood

  7. Vasopressin-induced intracellular Ca2+ concentration responses in non-neuronal cells of the rat dorsal root ganglion

    Moriya, T.; Kayano, T.; Kitamura, N.; Hosaka, Y. Z.; Asano, A.; Forostyak, Oksana; Verkhratsky, Alexei; Viero, C.; Dayanithi, Govindan; Toescu, E.C.; Shibuya, I.

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 1483, 5 NOV (2012), s. 1-12 ISSN 0006-8993 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP303/11/0192 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50390703 Institutional support: RVO:68378041 Keywords : neuropeptides * peripheral nervous system * glia Subject RIV: FH - Neurology Impact factor: 2.879, year: 2012

  8. Expression of growth-associated protein B-50/GAP43 in dorsal root ganglia and sciatic nerve during regenerative sprouting

    Gispen, W.H.; Zee, C.E.E.M. van der; Nielander, H.B.; Vos, J.P.; Lopes da Silva, S.; Verhaagen, J.; Oestreicher, J.; Schrama, L.H.

    1989-01-01

    Recently it has been shown that B-50 is identical to the neuron- specific, growth-associated protein GAP43. The present study reports on the fate of B-50/GAP43 mRNA and B-50/GAP43 protein, determined by radioimmunoassay, in a rat model of peripheral nerve regeneration (sciatic nerve crush) over a

  9. The effects of excessive heat on heat-activated membrane currents in cultured dorsal root ganglia neurons from neonatal rat

    Lyfenko, Alla; Vlachová, Viktorie; Vyklický st., Ladislav; Dittert, Ivan; Kress, M.; Reeh, P. W.

    2002-01-01

    Roč. 95, č. 3 (2002), s. 207-214 ISSN 0304-3959 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA305/00/1639; GA MŠk LN00B122 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z5011922 Keywords : nociception * noxious heat * capsacin Subject RIV: ED - Physiology Impact factor: 4.829, year: 2002

  10. Do dorsal raphe 5-HT neurons encode "beneficialness"?

    Luo, Minmin; Li, Yi; Zhong, Weixin

    2016-11-01

    The neurotransmitter serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine; 5-HT) affects numerous behavioral and physiological processes. Drugs that alter 5-HT signaling treat several major psychiatric disorders and may lead to widespread abuse. The dorsal raphe nucleus (DRN) in the midbrain provides a majority of 5-HT for the forebrain. The importance of 5-HT signaling propels the search for a general theoretical framework under which the diverse functions of the DRN 5-HT neurons can be interpreted and additional therapeutic solutions may be developed. However, experimental data so far support several seeming irreconcilable theories, suggesting that 5-HT neurons mediate behavioral inhibition, aversive processing, or reward signaling. Here, we review recent progresses and propose that DRN 5-HT neurons encode "beneficialness" - how beneficial the current environmental context represents for an individual. Specifically, we speculate that the activity of these neurons reflects the possible net benefit of the current context as determined by p·R-C, in which p indicates reward probability, R the reward value, and C the cost. Through the widespread projections of these neurons to the forebrain, the beneficialness signal may reconfigure neural circuits to bias perception, boost positive emotions, and switch behavioral choices. The "beneficialness" hypothesis can explain many conflicting observations, and at the same time raises new questions. We suggest additional experiments that will help elucidate the exact computational functions of the DRN 5-HT neurons. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Dorsal bridge plating or transarticular screws for Lisfranc fracture dislocations.

    Kirzner, N; Zotov, P; Goldbloom, D; Curry, H; Bedi, H

    2018-04-01

    Aims The aim of this retrospective study was to compare the functional and radiological outcomes of bridge plating, screw fixation, and a combination of both methods for the treatment of Lisfranc fracture dislocations. Patients and Methods A total of 108 patients were treated for a Lisfranc fracture dislocation over a period of nine years. Of these, 38 underwent transarticular screw fixation, 45 dorsal bridge plating, and 25 a combination technique. Injuries were assessed preoperatively according to the Myerson classification system. The outcome measures included the American Orthopaedic Foot and Ankle Society (AOFAS) score, the validated Manchester Oxford Foot Questionnaire (MOXFQ) functional tool, and the radiological Wilppula classification of anatomical reduction. Results Significantly better functional outcomes were seen in the bridge plate group. These patients had a mean AOFAS score of 82.5 points, compared with 71.0 for the screw group and 63.3 for the combination group (p bridge plate group, 38.1 in the screw group, and 45.5 in the combination group (p bridge plating have better functional and radiological outcomes than those treated with transarticular screws or a combination technique. Cite this article: Bone Joint J 2018;100-B:468-74.

  12. Dorsal raphe nucleus projecting retinal ganglion cells: Why Y cells?

    Pickard, Gary E.; So, Kwok-Fai; Pu, Mingliang

    2015-01-01

    Retinal ganglion Y (alpha) cells are found in retinas ranging from frogs to mice to primates. The highly conserved nature of the large, fast conducting retinal Y cell is a testament to its fundamental task, although precisely what this task is remained ill-defined. The recent discovery that Y-alpha retinal ganglion cells send axon collaterals to the serotonergic dorsal raphe nucleus (DRN) in addition to the lateral geniculate nucleus (LGN), medial interlaminar nucleus (MIN), pretectum and the superior colliculus (SC) has offered new insights into the important survival tasks performed by these cells with highly branched axons. We propose that in addition to its role in visual perception, the Y-alpha retinal ganglion cell provides concurrent signals via axon collaterals to the DRN, the major source of serotonergic afferents to the forebrain, to dramatically inhibit 5-HT activity during orientation or alerting/escape responses, which dis-facilitates ongoing tonic motor activity while dis-inhibiting sensory information processing throughout the visual system. The new data provide a fresh view of these evolutionarily old retinal ganglion cells. PMID:26363667

  13. Efflux of inorganic substances from young barley roots. II. Movement in roots and efflux of sodium in plants with divided root systems

    Fujimoto, H; Kojima, S [Radiation Center of Osaka Prefecture, Sakai (Japan)

    1977-09-01

    The root system of young barley was almost halved, and the two portions were planted in culture grounds with different composition after severing the capillary connection between both root groups. With one portion in the acid medium solution of various compositions and the other in the /sup 22/Na-absorbing medium solution, the sodium absorbed from one root group moved to and flowed out from the other root group, and this state was observed. Also, the efflux of potassium from the root was observed. (1) The Na efflux was small in the culture ground with dilute hydrochloric acid, and larger in that with AlCl/sub 3/ or phosphate. (2) The K efflux was large under short-day condition. (3) Under short-day condition, in the culture ground with soluble Al, the K efflux was promoted by nitrogen-source addition, but the Na efflux was suppressed.

  14. A biomechanical comparison of four fixed-angle dorsal plates in a finite element model of dorsally-unstable radius fracture.

    Knežević, Josip; Kodvanj, Janoš; Čukelj, Fabijan; Pamuković, Frane; Pavić, Arsen

    2017-11-01

    To compare the finite element models of two different composite radius fracture patterns, reduced and stabilised with four different fixed-angle dorsal plates during axial, dorsal and volar loading conditions. Eight different plastic models representing four AO/ASIF type 23-A3 distal radius fractures and four AO/ASIF 23-C2 distal radius fractures were obtained and fixed each with 1 of 4 methods: a standard dorsal non-anatomical fixed angle T-plate (3.5mm Dorsal T-plate, Synthes), anatomical fixed-angle double plates (2.4mm LCP Dorsal Distal Radius, Synthes), anatomical fixed angle T-plate (2.4mm Acu-Loc Dorsal Plate, Acumed) or anatomical variable-angle dorsal T-plate (3.5mm, Dorsal Plate, Zrinski). Composite radius with plate and screws were scanned with a 3D optical scanner and later processed in Abaqus Software to generate the finite element model. All models were axially loaded at 3 points (centrally, volarly and dorsally) with 50 N forces to avoid the appearance of plastic deformations of the models. Total displacements at the end of the bone and the stresses in the bones and plates were determined and compared. Maximal von Mises stress in bone for 3-part fracture models was very similar to that in 2-part fracture models. The biggest difference between models and the largest displacements were seen during volar loading. The stresses in all models were the highest above the fracture gap. The best performance in all parameters tested was with the Zrinski plate and the most modest results were with the Synthes T-plate. There was no significant difference between 2-part (AO/ASIF type 23-A3) and 3-part (AO/ASIF 23-C2) fracture models. Maximal stresses in the plates appeared above the fracture gap; therefore, it is worth considering the development of plates without screw holes above the gap. © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Basal Cell Carcinoma of the Dorsal Hand: An Update and Comprehensive Review of the Literature.

    Loh, Tiffany Y; Rubin, Ashley G; Brian Jiang, Shang I

    2016-04-01

    Excessive ultraviolet radiation (UVR) exposure is the primary predisposing factor for basal cell carcinoma (BCC). However, surprisingly, BCCs occur very rarely on the dorsal hand, which is subject to intense sun exposure, and their infrequent presentation in this location suggests that other factors besides UVR may play a role in BCC pathogenesis. Because dorsal hand BCCs are uncommon, knowledge of their characteristics is limited, and more data are needed to describe their clinical presentation and treatment. To perform an updated review of the literature on the management of dorsal hand BCCs. The authors conducted a comprehensive literature review by searching the PubMed database with the key phrases "basal cell carcinoma dorsal hand," "basal cell carcinoma hand," and "basal cell carcinoma finger," and "basal cell carcinoma thumb." The authors identified 176 cases of dorsal hand BCCs in the literature, 120 of which had sufficient data for analysis. Only 4 cases were treated with Mohs micrographic surgery (MMS). The authors present 14 additional cases of dorsal hand BCCs treated with MMS. Basal cell carcinomas on the dorsal hand occur infrequently, and potential risk factors include being a male of white descent and personal history of skin cancer. Mohs micrographic surgery seems to be an effective treatment method.

  16. Basal Cell Carcinoma of the Dorsal Foot: An Update and Comprehensive Review of the Literature.

    Loh, Tiffany Y; Rubin, Ashley G; Jiang, Shang I Brian

    2017-01-01

    Ultraviolet radiation is a well-known risk factor for basal cell carcinoma (BCC). Therefore, the high incidence of BCCs in sun-exposed areas such as the head and neck is unsurprising. However, unexpectedly, BCCs on the sun-protected dorsal foot have also been reported, and tumor occurrence here suggests that other factors besides ultraviolet radiation may play a role in BCC pathogenesis. Because only few dorsal foot BCCs have been reported, data on their clinical features and management are limited. To perform an updated review of the literature on clinical characteristics and treatment of dorsal foot BCCs. We conducted a comprehensive literature review by searching the PubMed database with the key phrases "basal cell carcinoma dorsal foot," "basal cell carcinoma foot," and "basal cell carcinoma toe." We identified 20 cases of dorsal foot BCCs in the literature, 17 of which had sufficient data for analysis. Only 1 case was treated with Mohs micrographic surgery. We present 8 additional cases of dorsal foot BCCs treated with Mohs micrographic surgery. Basal cell carcinomas on the dorsal foot are rare, and potential risk factors include Caucasian descent and personal history of skin cancer. Mohs micrographic surgery seems to be an effective treatment option.

  17. Responses of spinal dorsal horn neurons to foot movements in rats with a sprained ankle

    Kim, Jae Hyo; Kim, Hee Young; Chung, Kyungsoon

    2011-01-01

    Acute ankle injuries are common problems and often lead to persistent pain. To investigate the underlying mechanism of ankle sprain pain, the response properties of spinal dorsal horn neurons were examined after ankle sprain. Acute ankle sprain was induced manually by overextending the ankle of a rat hindlimb in a direction of plantarflexion and inversion. The weight-bearing ratio (WBR) of the affected foot was used as an indicator of pain. Single unit activities of dorsal horn neurons in response to plantarflexion and inversion of the foot or ankle compression were recorded from the medial part of the deep dorsal horn, laminae IV-VI, in normal and ankle-sprained rats. One day after ankle sprain, rats showed significantly reduced WBRs on the affected foot, and this reduction was partially restored by systemic morphine. The majority of deep dorsal horn neurons responded to a single ankle stimulus modality. After ankle sprain, the mean evoked response rates were significantly increased, and afterdischarges were developed in recorded dorsal horn neurons. The ankle sprain-induced enhanced evoked responses were significantly reduced by morphine, which was reversed by naltrexone. The data indicate that movement-specific dorsal horn neuron responses were enhanced after ankle sprain in a morphine-dependent manner, thus suggesting that hyperactivity of dorsal horn neurons is an underlying mechanism of pain after ankle sprain. PMID:21389306

  18. Comparison of biochemical and cytotoxic activities of extracts obtained from dorsal spines and caudal fin of adult and juvenile non-native Caribbean lionfish (Pterois volitans/miles).

    Sáenz, Aránzazu; Ortiz, Natalia; Lomonte, Bruno; Rucavado, Alexandra; Díaz, Cecilia

    2017-10-01

    Pterois volitans/miles lionfish (adult and juvenile) dorsal spines and caudal fin extracts were compared in their general composition, enzymatic activities and hemolytic and cytotoxic effects on bovine aortic endothelial cells and murine myoblasts, to distinguish between the activities present in the venom and epidermal mucus. Intradermal and intramuscular injections were also administered in mice to determine in vivo effects. This work shows that crude venom of Caribbean species of lionfish, present in dorsal spines, induces several in vitro effects including hemolysis, weak cytotoxicity, proteolytic and hyaluronidase activities, whereas in vivo, it is not hemorrhagic nor myotoxic, but causes edema, plasma extravasation and a thrombotic-associated lesion on the skin. Some small differences were observed between adult and juvenile venomous secretions. Gelatinolytic activity of the epidermal mucus, the only activity found in caudal fin extracts, could contribute to the in vivo toxicity of the venom. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. "Roots": Medium and Message.

    Kinnamon, Keneth

    A national telephone survey indicated that audiences rated the television production of "Roots" positively in terms of the following: realistic portrayal of the people and the times; relevance for contemporary race relations; perceived emotional effect; and increased understanding of the psychology of black people. However, a comparison…

  20. Armillaria Root Disease

    R.E. Williams; C.G. III Shaw; P.M. Wargo; W.H. Sites

    1986-01-01

    Armillaria root disease is found throughout temperate and tropical regions of the world. In the continental United States, the disease has been reported in nearly every State. Hosts include hundreds of species of trees, shrubs, vines, and forbs growing in forests, along roadsides, and in cultivated areas. The disease is caused by fungi, which live as parasites on...

  1. computer-aided root aided root aided root aided root-locus

    User

    m, stability, transient response, root-locus, iteration he means by which any a machine, mechanism or d or altered in accordance. Introduction of feedback has the advantages of f system performance to in system parameters, ponse and minimizing the ignals. However, feedback of components, increases ain and introduces ...

  2. (Lamiaceae) root extracts

    Purpose: To evaluate the larvicidal, nematicidal, antifeedant, and antifungal effects of 10 solvent extracts of Mentha spicata root. Methods: Ten solvent extracts were investigated for their total flavonoid and phenolic content and screened for larvicidal, nematicidal, antifeedant, and antifungal activities. The total phenolic ...

  3. Persistent dorsal ophthalmic artery arising from the internal carotid artery: Report of three cases

    Shin, Jae Hwan; Lee, Ghi Jai; Shim, Jae Chan; Lee, Kyoung Eun; Kim, Ho Kyun; Suh, Jung Ho [Dept. of Radiology, Seoul Paik Hospital, Inje University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-12-15

    Normally, the ophthalmic artery (OA) arises from the supraclinoid segment of the internal carotid artery (ICA) and enters the orbit via the optic canal. A persistent dorsal OA is a rare variation that originates from the cavernous segment of the ICA and enters the orbit via the superior orbital fissure. To the best of our knowledge, persistent dorsal OA has not been described in the Korean literature. In this paper, we report three cases of persistent dorsal OA with review of the literature on embryogenesis and other origins of the OA.

  4. Effect of dorsal hippocampal lesion compared to dorsal hippocampal blockade by atropine on reference memory in vision deprived rats.

    Dhume, R A; Noronha, A; Nagwekar, M D; Mascarenhas, J F

    1989-10-01

    In order to study the primacy of the hippocampus in place learning function 24 male adult albino rats were hippocampally-lesioned in dorsal hippocampus involving fornical damage (group I); sham operated for comparison with group I (group II); cannulated for instillation of atropine sulphate in the same loci as group I (group III); and cannulated for instillation of saline which served as control for group III (group IV). All the animals were enucleated and their reference memory (long-term memory) was tested, using open 4-arm radial maze. There was loss of reference memory in groups I and III. However, hippocampally-lesioned animals, showed recovery of reference memory deficit within a short period of 10 days or so. Whereas atropinized animals showed persistent reference memory deficit as long as the instillation effect continued. The mechanism involved in the recovery of reference memory in hippocampally-lesioned animals and persistent deficit of reference memory in atropinized animals has been postulated to explain the primacy of hippocampus in the place learning function under normal conditions.

  5. The role of Gd-enhanced three-dimensional MRI fast low-angle shot (FLASH) in the evaluation of symptomatic lumbosacral nerve roots

    Kikkawa, Ichiro; Sugimoto, Hideharu; Saita, Kazuo; Ookami, Hitoshi; Nakama, Sueo; Hoshino, Yuichi [Jichi Medical School, Minamikawachi, Tochigi (Japan)

    2001-07-01

    In the field of lumbar spine disorders, three-dimensional (3-D) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) can clearly depict a lumbar nerve root from the distal region to the dorsal root ganglion. In this study, we used a gadoliniumdiethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (Gd-DTPA) enhanced-three-dimensional (3-D) fast low-angle shot (FLASH) sequence when examining lumbosacral disorders. The subjects were 33 patients (14 men and 19 women) in whom lumbosacral neural compression had been diagnosed clinically. Twenty-one patients had lumbar disc herniation, 11 had lumbar spinal stenosis, and 1 had lumbar radiculopathy caused by rheumatoid arthritis. Five subjects with low back pain were also studied as a control group. In all patients and in all 5 of the controls, the dorsal root ganglion of every root was enhanced clearly. There was no root enhancement in the 5 controls. Enhancement of the symptomatic nerve roots, caused by compression, was found in 11 of the 33 patients. All 11 patients had rediculopathy, and muscle weakness was more frequent in patients with enhanced nerve roots than in those without enhancement. There was no enhancement of the cauda equina, even in the patients with cauda syndrome. The enhancement effect may reflect some pathological condition of the compressed nerve root and needs to be studied further. (author)

  6. The role of Gd-enhanced three-dimensional MRI fast low-angle shot (FLASH) in the evaluation of symptomatic lumbosacral nerve roots

    Kikkawa, Ichiro; Sugimoto, Hideharu; Saita, Kazuo; Ookami, Hitoshi; Nakama, Sueo; Hoshino, Yuichi

    2001-01-01

    In the field of lumbar spine disorders, three-dimensional (3-D) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) can clearly depict a lumbar nerve root from the distal region to the dorsal root ganglion. In this study, we used a gadoliniumdiethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (Gd-DTPA) enhanced-three-dimensional (3-D) fast low-angle shot (FLASH) sequence when examining lumbosacral disorders. The subjects were 33 patients (14 men and 19 women) in whom lumbosacral neural compression had been diagnosed clinically. Twenty-one patients had lumbar disc herniation, 11 had lumbar spinal stenosis, and 1 had lumbar radiculopathy caused by rheumatoid arthritis. Five subjects with low back pain were also studied as a control group. In all patients and in all 5 of the controls, the dorsal root ganglion of every root was enhanced clearly. There was no root enhancement in the 5 controls. Enhancement of the symptomatic nerve roots, caused by compression, was found in 11 of the 33 patients. All 11 patients had rediculopathy, and muscle weakness was more frequent in patients with enhanced nerve roots than in those without enhancement. There was no enhancement of the cauda equina, even in the patients with cauda syndrome. The enhancement effect may reflect some pathological condition of the compressed nerve root and needs to be studied further. (author)

  7. Long-term outcomes five years after selective dorsal rhizotomy

    Lagergren Jan

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Selective dorsal rhizotomy (SDR is a well accepted neurosurgical procedure performed for the relief of spasticity interfering with motor function in children with spastic cerebral palsy (CP. The goal is to improve function, but long-term outcome studies are rare. The aims of this study were to evaluate long-term functional outcomes, safety and side effects during five postoperative years in all children with diplegia undergoing SDR combined with physiotherapy. Methods This study group consisted of 35 children, consecutively operated, with spastic diplegia, of which 26 were Gross Motor Function Classification System (GMFCS levels III–V. Mean age was 4.5 years (range 2.5–6.6. They were all assessed by the same multidisciplinary team at pre- and at 6, 12, 18 months, 3 and 5 years postoperatively. Clinical and demographic data, complications and number of rootlets cut were prospectively registered. Deep tendon reflexes and muscle tone were examined, the latter graded with the modified Ashworth scale. Passive range of motion (PROM was measured with a goniometer. Motor function was classified according to the GMFCS and measured with the Gross Motor Function Measure (GMFM-88 and derived into GMFM-66. Parent's opinions about the children's performance of skills and activities and the amount of caregiver assistance were measured with Pediatric Evaluation Disability Inventory (PEDI. Results The mean proportion of rootlets cut in S2-L2 was 40%. Muscle tone was immediately reduced in adductors, hamstrings and dorsiflexors (p Conclusion SDR is a safe and effective method for reducing spasticity permanently without major negative side effects. In combination with physiotherapy, in a group of carefully selected and systematically followed young children with spastic diplegia, it provides lasting functional benefits over a period of at least five years postoperatively.

  8. Neurochemical characterization of the tree shrew dorsal striatum

    MATTHEW W RICE

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available The striatum is a major component of the basal ganglia and is associated with motor and cognitive functions. Striatal pathologies have been linked to several disorders, including Huntington's, Tourette's syndrome, obsessive-compulsive disorders and schizophrenia. For the study of these striatal pathologies different animal models have been used, including rodents and non-human primates. Rodents lack on morphological complexity (for example, the lack of well defined caudate and putamen nuclei, which makes it difficult to translate data to the human paradigm. Primates, and especially higher primates, are the closest model to humans, but there are ever-increasing restrictions to the use of these animals for research. In our search for a non-primate animal model with a striatum that anatomically (and perhaps functionally can resemble that of humans, we turned our attention to the tree shrew. Evolutionary genetic studies have provided strong data supporting that the tree shrews (Scadentia are one of the closest groups to primates, although their brain anatomy has only been studied in detail for specific brain areas. Morphologically, the tree shrew striatum resembles the primate striatum with the presence of an internal capsule separating the caudate and putamen, but little is known about its neurochemical composition. Here we analyzed the expression of calcium-binding proteins, the presence and distribution of the striosome and matrix compartments (by the use of calbindin, tyrosine hydroxylase and acetylcholinesterase immunohistochemistry, and the GABAergic system by immunohistochemistry against glutamic acid decarboxylase and Golgi impregnation. In summary, our results show that when compared to primates, the tree shrew dorsal striatum presents striking similarities in the distribution of most of the markers studied, while presenting some marked divergences when compared to the rodent striatum.

  9. Dorsal hippocampus is necessary for visual categorization in rats.

    Kim, Jangjin; Castro, Leyre; Wasserman, Edward A; Freeman, John H

    2018-02-23

    The hippocampus may play a role in categorization because of the need to differentiate stimulus categories (pattern separation) and to recognize category membership of stimuli from partial information (pattern completion). We hypothesized that the hippocampus would be more crucial for categorization of low-density (few relevant features) stimuli-due to the higher demand on pattern separation and pattern completion-than for categorization of high-density (many relevant features) stimuli. Using a touchscreen apparatus, rats were trained to categorize multiple abstract stimuli into two different categories. Each stimulus was a pentagonal configuration of five visual features; some of the visual features were relevant for defining the category whereas others were irrelevant. Two groups of rats were trained with either a high (dense, n = 8) or low (sparse, n = 8) number of category-relevant features. Upon reaching criterion discrimination (≥75% correct, on 2 consecutive days), bilateral cannulas were implanted in the dorsal hippocampus. The rats were then given either vehicle or muscimol infusions into the hippocampus just prior to various testing sessions. They were tested with: the previously trained stimuli (trained), novel stimuli involving new irrelevant features (novel), stimuli involving relocated features (relocation), and a single relevant feature (singleton). In training, the dense group reached criterion faster than the sparse group, indicating that the sparse task was more difficult than the dense task. In testing, accuracy of both groups was equally high for trained and novel stimuli. However, both groups showed impaired accuracy in the relocation and singleton conditions, with a greater deficit in the sparse group. The testing data indicate that rats encode both the relevant features and the spatial locations of the features. Hippocampal inactivation impaired visual categorization regardless of the density of the category-relevant features for

  10. Introduction to the ROOT System

    CERN. Geneva

    2008-01-01

    Introduction to the ROOT data handling system. ROOT is used in some for or another by all LHC experiments and will be used by all for final data analysis. The introduction gives an overview of the system. Prerequisite knowledge: C++

  11. Variation in root wood anatomy

    Cutler, D.F.

    1976-01-01

    Variability in the anatomy of root wood of selected specimens particularly Fraxinus excelsior L. and Acer pseudoplatanus L. in the Kew reference microscope slide collection is discussed in relation to generalised statements in the literature on root wood anatomy.

  12. Agenesis of dorsal pancreas with eventration of diaphragm and intrapancreatic pseudocyst: a rare entity

    Poras Chaudhary

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available A case of acute pancreatitis in a 43-year-old male patient, which was eventually diagnosed as agenesis of dorsal pancreas with eventration of left hemidiaphragm and intrapancreatic pseudocyst is being reported.

  13. Transcallosal connection patterns of opposite dorsal premotor regions support a lateralized specialization for action and perception

    van der Hoorn, Anouk; Potgieser, Adriaan R. E.; de Jong, Bauke M.

    Lateralization of higher brain functions requires that a dominant hemisphere collects relevant information from both sides. The right dorsal premotor cortex (PMd), particularly implicated in visuomotor transformations, was hypothesized to be optimally located to converge visuospatial information

  14. Human dorsal striatum encodes prediction errors during observational learning of instrumental actions.

    Cooper, Jeffrey C; Dunne, Simon; Furey, Teresa; O'Doherty, John P

    2012-01-01

    The dorsal striatum plays a key role in the learning and expression of instrumental reward associations that are acquired through direct experience. However, not all learning about instrumental actions require direct experience. Instead, humans and other animals are also capable of acquiring instrumental actions by observing the experiences of others. In this study, we investigated the extent to which human dorsal striatum is involved in observational as well as experiential instrumental reward learning. Human participants were scanned with fMRI while they observed a confederate over a live video performing an instrumental conditioning task to obtain liquid juice rewards. Participants also performed a similar instrumental task for their own rewards. Using a computational model-based analysis, we found reward prediction errors in the dorsal striatum not only during the experiential learning condition but also during observational learning. These results suggest a key role for the dorsal striatum in learning instrumental associations, even when those associations are acquired purely by observing others.

  15. The dorsal thoracic fascia: anatomic significance with clinical applications in reconstructive microsurgery.

    Kim, P S; Gottlieb, J R; Harris, G D; Nagle, D J; Lewis, V L

    1987-01-01

    The anatomic distribution and potential arterial flow patterns of the circumflex scapular artery were investigated by Microfil injection. These studies demonstrated that the circumflex scapular artery lies within the dorsal thoracic fascia, which plays a significant role in the circulation of the overlying skin and subcutaneous tissue. We conclude that scapular/parascapular flaps are fasciocutaneous flaps, the dorsal thoracic fascia can be transferred as a free flap without its overlying skin and subcutaneous tissue, and intercommunication exists between the myocutaneous perforators of the latissimus dorsi myocutaneous flap and the vascular plexus of the dorsal thoracic fascia. We present microvascular cases in which the vascular properties of the dorsal thoracic fascia facilitated wound closure with free fascia flaps or expanded cutaneous or myocutaneous flaps.

  16. γ-diketone central neuropathy: quantitative morphometric analysis of axons in rat spinal cord white matter regions and nerve roots

    LoPachin, Richard M.; Jortner, Bernard S.; Reid, Maria L.; Das, Soma

    2003-01-01

    A quantitative analytical method was used to measure myelinated axon morphometric parameters (e.g., axon area, ratio of axon area/fiber area, and index of circularity) in rat nervous tissue during intoxication with 2,5-hexanedione (HD). Parameters were assessed in nerve roots (dorsal and ventral) and in ascending (gracile fasciculus and spinocerebellar tract) and descending (corticospinal and rubrospinal tracts) spinal cord white matter tracts (L4-L5) of rats intoxicated with HD at two different daily dose-rates (175 or 400 mg HD/kg/day, gavage). For each dose-rate, tissue was sampled at four neurological endpoints: unaffected, slight, moderate, and severe toxicity, as determined by gait analysis and measurements of grip strength. Results indicate that, regardless of the HD dose-rate, axon atrophy (reduced axon area) was a widespread, abundant effect that developed in concert with neurological deficits. The atrophy response occurred contemporaneously in both ascending and descending spinal tracts, which suggests that loss of caliber developed simultaneously along the proximodistal axon axis. In contrast, swollen axons were a numerically small component and were present in nerve roots and spinal tracts only during subchronic intoxication at the lower HD dose-rate (i.e., 175 mg/kg/day). Intoxication at the higher dose-rate (400 mg/kg/day) produced neurological deficits in the absence of axonal swellings. These observations in conjunction with our previous studies of HD-induced peripheral neuropathy (Toxicol. Appl. Pharmacol. 135 (1995) 58; and Toxicol. Appl. Pharmacol. 165 (2000) 127) indicate that axon atrophy, and not axonal swelling, is a primary neuropathic phenomenon

  17. Responses of spinal dorsal horn neurons to foot movements in rats with a sprained ankle

    Kim, Jae Hyo; Kim, Hee Young; Chung, Kyungsoon; Chung, Jin Mo

    2011-01-01

    Acute ankle injuries are common problems and often lead to persistent pain. To investigate the underlying mechanism of ankle sprain pain, the response properties of spinal dorsal horn neurons were examined after ankle sprain. Acute ankle sprain was induced manually by overextending the ankle of a rat hindlimb in a direction of plantarflexion and inversion. The weight-bearing ratio (WBR) of the affected foot was used as an indicator of pain. Single unit activities of dorsal horn neurons in res...

  18. Dorsal buccal mucosal graft urethroplasty for anterior urethral stricture by Asopa technique.

    Pisapati, V L N Murthy; Paturi, Srimannarayana; Bethu, Suresh; Jada, Srikanth; Chilumu, Ramreddy; Devraj, Rahul; Reddy, Bhargava; Sriramoju, Vidyasagar

    2009-07-01

    Buccal mucosal graft (BMG) substitution urethroplasty has become popular in the management of intractable anterior urethral strictures with good results. Excellent long-term results have been reported by both dorsal and ventral onlay techniques. Asopa reported a successful technique for dorsal placement of BMG in long anterior urethral strictures through a ventral sagittal approach. To evaluate prospectively the results and advantages of dorsal BMG urethroplasty for recurrent anterior urethral strictures by a ventral sagittal urethrotomy approach (Asopa technique). From December 2002 to December 2007, a total of 58 men underwent dorsal BMG urethroplasty by a ventral sagittal urethrotomy approach for recurrent urethral strictures. Forty-five of these patients with a follow-up period of 12-60 mo were prospectively evaluated, and the results were analysed. The urethra was split twice at the site of the stricture both ventrally and dorsally without mobilising it from its bed, and the buccal mucosal graft was secured in the dorsal urethral defect. The urethra was then retubularised in one stage. The overall results were good (87%), with a mean follow-up period of 42 mo. Seven patients developed minor wound infection, and five patients developed fistulae. There were six recurrences (6:45, 13%) during the follow-up period of 12-60 mo. Two patients with a panurethral stricture and four with bulbar or penobulbar strictures developed recurrences and were managed by optical urethrotomy and self-dilatation. The medium-term results were as good as those reported with the dorsal urethrotomy approach. Long-term results from this and other series are awaited. More randomised trials and meta-analyses are needed to establish this technique as a procedure of choice in future. The ventral sagittal urethrotomy approach is easier to perform than the dorsal urethrotomy approach, has good results, and is especially useful in long anterior urethral strictures.

  19. Thermal effects of dorsal head immersion in cold water on nonshivering humans.

    Giesbrecht, Gordon G; Lockhart, Tamara L; Bristow, Gerald K; Steinman, Allan M

    2005-11-01

    Personal floatation devices maintain either a semirecumbent flotation posture with the head and upper chest out of the water or a horizontal flotation posture with the dorsal head and whole body immersed. The contribution of dorsal head and upper chest immersion to core cooling in cold water was isolated when the confounding effect of shivering heat production was inhibited with meperidine (Demerol, 2.5 mg/kg). Six male volunteers were immersed four times for up to 60 min, or until esophageal temperature = 34 degrees C. An insulated hoodless dry suit or two different personal floatation devices were used to create four conditions: 1) body insulated, head out; 2) body insulated, dorsal head immersed; 3) body exposed, head (and upper chest) out; and 4) body exposed, dorsal head (and upper chest) immersed. When the body was insulated, dorsal head immersion did not affect core cooling rate (1.1 degrees C/h) compared with head-out conditions (0.7 degrees C/h). When the body was exposed, however, the rate of core cooling increased by 40% from 3.6 degrees C/h with the head out to 5.0 degrees C/h with the dorsal head and upper chest immersed (P immersed (approximately 10%). The exaggerated core cooling during dorsal head immersion (40% increase) may result from the extra heat loss affecting a smaller thermal core due to intense thermal stimulation of the body and head and resultant peripheral vasoconstriction. Dorsal head and upper chest immersion in cold water increases the rate of core cooling and decreases potential survival time.

  20. SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY STUDY OF THE DORSAL SURFACE OF THE TONGUE IN Chaetophractus vellerosus (MAMMALIA, DASYPODIDAE)

    Estecondo, Silvia; Codón, Stella Maris; Casanave, Emma Beatriz

    2001-01-01

    The characteristics of the dorsal surface of Chaetophractus vellerosus tongue were studied by scanning electron microscopy. Simple or branched filiform, fungiform and vallate papillae are described. Simple conical filiform papillae appear in the apex, lateral edges and posterior third, caudally to the circumvallated ones. The branched papillae are densely distributed all over the dorsal surface of the lingual body. Fungiform ones are scattered among the branched filiform papillae. In the post...

  1. Propagation of a dorsal cortical fracture of the third metacarpal bone in two horses

    Spurlock, G.H.

    1988-01-01

    Seemingly, propagation of a dorsal cortical fracture in the third metacarpal bone developed after continued race performance in 2 horses. Historically, both horses had intermittent lameness that had responded to nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and brief rest periods. However, lameness in both horses had increased in severity. Radiography revealed a dorsal cortical fracture of the third metacarpal bone, with propagation of the fracture plane proximally. Fractures were incomplete and healed with stall rest in both horses

  2. Heterotaxy syndrome with associated agenesis of dorsal pancreas and polysplenia: A case report

    Syed Althaf Ali1

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Heterotaxy syndrome is a rare embryological disorder comprising of polysplenia, partial agenesis of dorsal pancreas, malrotation of gut, cardiac and vascular anomalies resulting from failure of development of the usual left–right asymmetry of organs. We report a rare case of heterotaxy syndrome with polysplenia, partial agenesis of dorsal pancreas and malrotation of gut in a 28 year female presenting with subacute intestinal obstruction along with imaging illustrations, brief discussion and thorough review of literature.

  3. Rooted in Movement

    The result of the synergy between four doctoral projects and an advanced MA-level course on Bronze Age Europe, this integrated assemblage of articles represents a variety of different subjects united by a single theme: movement. Ranging from theoretical discussion of the various responses to and ...... period of European prehistory. In so doing, the text not only addresses transmission and reception, but also the conceptualization of mobility within a world which was literally Rooted in Movement....

  4. Aquaporins and root water uptake

    Water is one of the most critical resources limiting plant growth and crop productivity, and root water uptake is an important aspect of plant physiology governing plant water use and stress tolerance. Pathways of root water uptake are complex and are affected by root structure and physiological res...

  5. Efflux of inorganic substances from young barley roots, (2)

    Fujimoto, Hiroshi; Kojima, Shigeru

    1977-01-01

    The root system of young barley was almost halved, and the two portions were planted in culture grounds with different composition after severing the capillary connection between both root groups. With one portion in the acid medium solution of various compositions and the other in the 22 Na-absorbing medium solution, the sodium absorbed from one root group moved to and flowed out from the other root group, and this state was observed. Also, the efflux of potassium from the root was observed. (1) The Na efflux was small in the culture ground with dilute hydrochloric acid, and larger in that with AlCl 3 or phosphate. (2) The K efflux was large under short-day condition. (3) Under short-day condition, in the culture ground with soluble Al, the K efflux was promoted by nitrogen-source addition, but the Na efflux was suppressed. (Mori, K.)

  6. Expressing Parallelism with ROOT

    Piparo, D. [CERN; Tejedor, E. [CERN; Guiraud, E. [CERN; Ganis, G. [CERN; Mato, P. [CERN; Moneta, L. [CERN; Valls Pla, X. [CERN; Canal, P. [Fermilab

    2017-11-22

    The need for processing the ever-increasing amount of data generated by the LHC experiments in a more efficient way has motivated ROOT to further develop its support for parallelism. Such support is being tackled both for shared-memory and distributed-memory environments. The incarnations of the aforementioned parallelism are multi-threading, multi-processing and cluster-wide executions. In the area of multi-threading, we discuss the new implicit parallelism and related interfaces, as well as the new building blocks to safely operate with ROOT objects in a multi-threaded environment. Regarding multi-processing, we review the new MultiProc framework, comparing it with similar tools (e.g. multiprocessing module in Python). Finally, as an alternative to PROOF for cluster-wide executions, we introduce the efforts on integrating ROOT with state-of-the-art distributed data processing technologies like Spark, both in terms of programming model and runtime design (with EOS as one of the main components). For all the levels of parallelism, we discuss, based on real-life examples and measurements, how our proposals can increase the productivity of scientists.

  7. Expressing Parallelism with ROOT

    Piparo, D.; Tejedor, E.; Guiraud, E.; Ganis, G.; Mato, P.; Moneta, L.; Valls Pla, X.; Canal, P.

    2017-10-01

    The need for processing the ever-increasing amount of data generated by the LHC experiments in a more efficient way has motivated ROOT to further develop its support for parallelism. Such support is being tackled both for shared-memory and distributed-memory environments. The incarnations of the aforementioned parallelism are multi-threading, multi-processing and cluster-wide executions. In the area of multi-threading, we discuss the new implicit parallelism and related interfaces, as well as the new building blocks to safely operate with ROOT objects in a multi-threaded environment. Regarding multi-processing, we review the new MultiProc framework, comparing it with similar tools (e.g. multiprocessing module in Python). Finally, as an alternative to PROOF for cluster-wide executions, we introduce the efforts on integrating ROOT with state-of-the-art distributed data processing technologies like Spark, both in terms of programming model and runtime design (with EOS as one of the main components). For all the levels of parallelism, we discuss, based on real-life examples and measurements, how our proposals can increase the productivity of scientists.

  8. Periostite metacarpiana dorsal: incidência e fatores pré-disponentes

    Flávio Gomes de Oliveira

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Forty two 2-year-old thoroughbreds were examined clinically at intervals of 15 days during their training for the first race to determine the incidence and the predisposing factors of dorsal metacarpal disease. During the first year 25 horses were followed during 2 months and in the second year the follow up was done for 4 months in 17 . Horses' data like gender, average speed, speed exercise work and trainer were also collected. Dorsal metacarpal disease was diagnosed in 28% and 70,6% of the 2 year-old thoroughbreds in the first and second year of the study, respectively. Total incidence was 45%. The incidence and average speed was not affected by gender. The average speed achieved by affected and none affected horses remained between 16 and 18m/s. On 500 and 700m speed exercise, the average speed of affected horses was higher than of none affected ones (p<0,05. Ten out of 19 horses showed dorsal metacarpal disease signs at the distance of 700m. There was significant difference between trainers regarding the incidence of dorsal metacarpal disease and average speed of their horses. 2-year-olds under care of trainers whose horses had the highest incidence o dorsal metacarpal disease also were the fastest one's. Therefore, fast speed associated with longer distances (700m and trainer are factors that predispose young horses to dorsal metacarpal disease.

  9. The human dorsal action control system develops in the absence of vision.

    Fiehler, Katja; Burke, Michael; Bien, Siegfried; Röder, Brigitte; Rösler, Frank

    2009-01-01

    The primate dorsal pathway has been proposed to compute vision for action. Although recent findings suggest that dorsal pathway structures contribute to somatosensory action control as well, it is yet not clear whether or not the development of dorsal pathway functions depends on early visual experience. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging, we investigated the pattern of cortical activation in congenitally blind and matched blindfolded sighted adults while performing kinesthetically guided hand movements. Congenitally blind adults activated similar dorsal pathway structures as sighted controls. Group-specific activations were found in the extrastriate cortex and the auditory cortex for congenitally blind humans and in the precuneus and the presupplementary motor area for sighted humans. Dorsal pathway activity was in addition observed for working memory maintenance of kinesthetic movement information in both groups. Thus, the results suggest that dorsal pathway functions develop in the absence of vision. This favors the idea of a general mechanism of movement control that operates regardless of the sensory input modality. Group differences in cortical activation patterns imply different movement control strategies as a function of visual experience.

  10. Dorsal stream involvement in recognition of objects with transient onset but not with ramped onset

    Lourenco Tomas

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although the ventral visual stream is understood to be responsible for object recognition, it has been proposed that the dorsal stream may contribute to object recognition by rapidly activating parietal attention mechanisms, prior to ventral stream object processing. Methods To investigate the relative contribution of the dorsal visual stream to object recognition a group of tertiary students were divided into good and poor motion coherence groups and assessed on tasks classically assumed to rely on ventral stream processing. Participants were required to identify simple line drawings in two tasks, one where objects were presented abruptly for 50 ms followed by a white-noise mask, the other where contrast was linearly ramped on and off over 325 ms and replaced with a mask. Results Although both groups only differed in motion coherence performance (a dorsal stream measure, the good motion coherence group showed superior contrast sensitivity for object recognition on the abrupt, but not the ramped presentation tasks. Conclusions We propose that abrupt presentation of objects activated attention mechanisms fed by the dorsal stream, whereas the ramped presentation had reduced transience and thus did not activate dorsal attention mechanisms as well. The results suggest that rapid dorsal stream activation may be required to assist with ventral stream object processing.

  11. Characterization of a chondroitin sulfate hydrogel for nerve root regeneration

    Conovaloff, Aaron; Panitch, Alyssa

    2011-10-01

    Brachial plexus injury is a serious medical problem that affects many patients annually, with most cases involving damage to the nerve roots. Therefore, a chondroitin sulfate hydrogel was designed to both serve as a scaffold for regenerating root neurons and deliver neurotrophic signals. Capillary electrophoresis showed that chondroitin sulfate has a dissociation constant in the micromolar range with several common neurotrophins, and this was determined to be approximately tenfold stronger than with heparin. It was also revealed that nerve growth factor exhibits a slightly stronger affinity for hyaluronic acid than for chondroitin sulfate. However, E8 chick dorsal root ganglia cultured in the presence of nerve growth factor revealed that ganglia cultured in chondroitin sulfate scaffolds showed more robust growth than those cultured in control gels of hyaluronic acid. It is hypothesized that, despite the stronger affinity of nerve growth factor for hyaluronic acid, chondroitin sulfate serves as a better scaffold for neurite outgrowth, possibly due to inhibition of growth by hyaluronic acid chains.

  12. Dorsal premotor cortex is involved in switching motor plans

    Pastor-Bernier, Alexandre; Tremblay, Elsa; Cisek, Paul

    2012-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that neural activity in primate dorsal premotor cortex (PMd) can simultaneously represent multiple potential movement plans, and that activity related to these movement options is modulated by their relative subjective desirability. These findings support the hypothesis that decisions about actions are made through a competition within the same circuits that guide the actions themselves. This hypothesis further predicts that the very same cells that guide initial decisions will continue to update their activities if an animal changes its mind. For example, if a previously selected movement option suddenly becomes unavailable, the correction will be performed by the same cells that selected the initial movement, as opposed to some different group of cells responsible for online guidance. We tested this prediction by recording neural activity in the PMd of a monkey performing an instructed-delay reach selection task. In the task, two targets were simultaneously presented and their border styles indicated whether each would be worth 1, 2, or 3 juice drops. In a random subset of trials (FREE), the monkey was allowed a choice while in the remaining trials (FORCED) one of the targets disappeared at the time of the GO signal. In FORCED-LOW trials the monkey was forced to move to the less valuable target and started moving either toward the new target (Direct) or toward the target that vanished and then curved to reach the remaining one (Curved). Prior to the GO signal, PMd activity clearly reflected the monkey's subjective preference, predicting his choices in FREE trials even with equally valued options. In FORCED-LOW trials, PMd activity reflected the switch of the monkey's plan as early as 100 ms after the GO signal, well before movement onset (MO). This confirms that the activity is not related to feedback from the movement itself, and suggests that PMd continues to participate in action selection even when the animal changes its mind on

  13. A monitoring program of the histograms based on ROOT package

    Zhou Yongzhao; Liang Hao; Chen Yixin; Xue Jundong; Yang Tao; Gong Datao; Jin Ge; Yu Xiaoqi

    2002-01-01

    KHBOOK is a histogram monitor and browser based on ROOT package, which reads the histogram file in HBOOK format from Physmon, converts it into ROOT format, and browses the histograms in Repeat and Overlap modes to monitor and trace the quality of the data from DAQ. KHBOOK is a program of small memory, easy maintenance and fast running as well, using mono-behavior classes and a communication class of C ++

  14. Three root canals in the maxillary second premolar

    de Almeida-Gomes Fabio

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we report an endodontic treatment of the maxillary second premolar with three root canals and distinct foramens. The possibility of three root canals in this tooth is quite small; however, it must be taken into account in clinical and radiographic evaluation during endodontic treatment. Many times, their presence is noticed only after canal treatment due to continuing post-operative discomfort.

  15. Laser scanning dental probe for endodontic root canal treatment

    Blank, Molly A. B.; Friedrich, Michal; Hamilton, Jeffrey D.; Lee, Peggy; Berg, Joel; Seibel, Eric J.

    2011-03-01

    Complications that arise during endodontic procedures pose serious threats to the long-term integrity and health of the tooth. Potential complexities of root canals include residual pulpal tissue, cracks, mesial-buccal 2 and accessory canals. In the case of a failed root canal, a successful apicoectomy can be jeopardized by isthmuses, accessory canals, and root microfracture. Confirming diagnosis using a small imaging probe would allow proper treatment and prevent retreatment of endodontic procedures. An ultrathin and flexible laser scanning endoscope of 1.2 to 1.6mm outer diameter was used in vitro to image extracted teeth with varied root configurations. Teeth were opened using a conventional bur and high speed drill. Imaging within the opened access cavity clarified the location of the roots where canal filing would initiate. Although radiographs are commonly used to determine the root canal size, position, and shape, the limited 2D image perspective leaves ambiguity that could be clarified if used in conjunction with a direct visual imaging tool. Direct visualization may avoid difficulties in locating the root canal and reduce the number of radiographs needed. A transillumination imaging device with the separated illumination and light collection functions rendered cracks visible in the prepared teeth that were otherwise indiscernible using reflected visible light. Our work demonstrates that a small diameter endoscope with high spatial resolution may significantly increase the efficiency and success of endodontic procedures.

  16. Upregulation of calcium channel alpha-2-delta-1 subunit in dorsal horn contributes to spinal cord injury-induced tactile allodynia.

    Kusuyama, Kazuki; Tachibana, Toshiya; Yamanaka, Hiroki; Okubo, Masamichi; Yoshiya, Shinichi; Noguchi, Koichi

    2018-01-31

    Spinal cord injury (SCI) commonly results not only in motor paralysis but also in the emergence of neuropathic pain (NeuP), both of which can impair the quality of life for patients with SCI. In the clinical field, it is well known that pregabalin, which binds to the voltage-gated calcium channel alpha-2-delta-1 (α 2 δ-1) subunit has therapeutic effects on NeuP after SCI. A previous study has demonstrated that SCI increased α 2 δ-1 in the L4-L6 dorsal spinal cord of SCI rats by Western blot analysis and that the increase of α 2 δ-1 was correlated with tactile allodynia of the hind paw. However, the detailed feature of an increase in α 2 δ-1 protein in the spinal dorsal horn and the mechanism of pregabalin effect on SCI-induced NeuP have not been fully examined. This study aimed to examine the detailed distribution of α 2 δ-1 expression in the lumbar spinal cord after thoracic SCI in rats and the correlation of the therapeutic effect of pregabalin in SCI rats. Male Sprague-Dawley rats underwent thoracic (T10) spinal cord contusion injury using the IH impactor device. Spinal cord injury rats received pregabalin (30 mg/kg) once a day for 2 weeks over a 4-week period after SCI. The mechanical threshold in the rat hind paw was measured over 4 weeks. Alpha-2-delta-1 expression in the lumbar spinal cord and in the dorsal root ganglion (DRG) was analyzed using immunohistochemistry and in situ hybridization histochemistry. A significant reduction of the withdrawal threshold of mechanical stimuli to the hind paw was observed for 2 weeks and continued at least 4 weeks after SCI. In the control rats, expression of α 2 δ-1 immunoreactivity was detected mainly in laminae I and II in the lumbar dorsal horn. Thoracic SCI significantly increased α 2 δ-1 immunoreactivity in laminae I and II in the lumbar dorsal horn 4 weeks after SCI; however, thoracic SCI did not affect the expression of α 2 δ-1 mRNA in the L4 and L5 DRGs. Meanwhile, the signal intensity of α 2

  17. Root tips moving through soil

    Curlango-Rivera, Gilberto

    2011-01-01

    Root elongation occurs by the generation of new cells from meristematic tissue within the apical 1–2 mm region of root tips. Therefore penetration of the soil environment is carried out by newly synthesized plant tissue, whose cells are inherently vulnerable to invasion by pathogens. This conundrum, on its face, would seem to reflect an intolerable risk to the successful establishment of root systems needed for plant life. Yet root tip regions housing the meristematic tissues repeatedly have been found to be free of microbial infection and colonization. Even when spore germination, chemotaxis, and/or growth of pathogens are stimulated by signals from the root tip, the underlying root tissue can escape invasion. Recent insights into the functions of root border cells, and the regulation of their production by transient exposure to external signals, may shed light on long-standing observations. PMID:21455030

  18. Philosophical Roots of Cosmology

    Ivanovic, M.

    2008-10-01

    We shall consider the philosophical roots of cosmology in the earlier Greek philosophy. Our goal is to answer the question: Are earlier Greek theories of pure philosophical-mythological character, as often philosophers cited it, or they have scientific character. On the bases of methodological criteria, we shall contend that the latter is the case. In order to answer the question about contemporary situation of the relation philosophy-cosmology, we shall consider the next question: Is contemporary cosmology completely independent of philosophical conjectures? The answer demands consideration of methodological character about scientific status of contemporary cosmology. We also consider some aspects of the relation contemporary philosophy-cosmology.

  19. The Roots of Beowulf

    Fischer, James R.

    2014-01-01

    The first Beowulf Linux commodity cluster was constructed at NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center in 1994 and its origins are a part of the folklore of high-end computing. In fact, the conditions within Goddard that brought the idea into being were shaped by rich historical roots, strategic pressures brought on by the ramp up of the Federal High-Performance Computing and Communications Program, growth of the open software movement, microprocessor performance trends, and the vision of key technologists. This multifaceted story is told here for the first time from the point of view of NASA project management.

  20. Dorsal column sensory axons degenerate due to impaired microvascular perfusion after spinal cord injury in rats

    Muradov, Johongir M.; Ewan, Eric E.; Hagg, Theo

    2013-01-01

    The mechanisms contributing to axon loss after spinal cord injury (SCI) are largely unknown but may involve microvascular loss as we have previously suggested. Here, we used a mild contusive injury (120 kdyn IH impactor) at T9 in rats focusing on ascending primary sensory dorsal column axons, anterogradely traced from the sciatic nerves. The injury caused a rapid and progressive loss of dorsal column microvasculature and oligodendrocytes at the injury site and penumbra and a ~70% loss of the sensory axons, by 24 hours. To model the microvascular loss, focal ischemia of the T9 dorsal columns was achieved via phototoxic activation of intravenously injected rose bengal. This caused an ~53% loss of sensory axons and an ~80% loss of dorsal column oligodendrocytes by 24 hours. Axon loss correlated with the extent and axial length of microvessel and oligodendrocyte loss along the dorsal column. To determine if oligodendrocyte loss contributes to axon loss, the glial toxin ethidium bromide (EB; 0.3 µg/µl) was microinjected into the T9 dorsal columns, and resulted in an ~88% loss of dorsal column oligodendrocytes and an ~56% loss of sensory axons after 72 hours. EB also caused an ~72% loss of microvessels. Lower concentrations of EB resulted in less axon, oligodendrocyte and microvessel loss, which were highly correlated (R2 = 0.81). These data suggest that focal spinal cord ischemia causes both oligodendrocyte and axon degeneration, which are perhaps linked. Importantly, they highlight the need of limiting the penumbral spread of ischemia and oligodendrocyte loss after SCI in order to protect axons. PMID:23978615

  1. Differentiation of chondrocytes and scleroblasts during dorsal fin skeletogenesis in flounder larvae.

    Suzuki, Tohru; Haga, Yutaka; Takeuchi, Toshio; Uji, Susumu; Hashimoto, Hisashi; Kurokawa, Tadahide

    2003-01-01

    In teleosts, the embryonic fin fold consists of a peridermis, an underlying epidermis and a small number of mesenchymal cells. Beginning from such a simple structure, the fin skeletons, including the proximal and distal radials and lepidotrichia (finrays), develop in the dorsal fin fold at the larval stage. Their process of skeletogenesis and embryonic origin are unclear. Using flounder larvae, we report the differentiation process for chondrocytes and scleroblasts prior to fin skeletogenesis and the effects of retinoic acid (RA) on it. In early larvae, the mesenchymal cells grow between the epidermis and spinal cord to form a line of periodical condensations, which are proximal radial primordia, to produce chondrocytes. The prescleroblasts, which ossify the proximal radial cartilages, differentiate in the mesenchymal cells remaining between the cartilages. Then, mesenchymal condensations occur between the distal ends of the proximal radials, forming distal radial primordia, to produce chondrocytes. Simultaneously, condensations occur between the distal radial primordia and peridermis, which are lepidotrichia primordia, to produce prescleroblasts. Exogenous RA specifically inhibits the mesenchymal condensation prior to the proximal radial formation together with the down-regulation of sonic hedgehog (shh) and patched (pta) expression, resulting in the loss of proximal radials. Thus, it was indicated that differentiation of the precursor cells of radials and lepidotrichia begins in the proximal part of the fin fold and that the initial mesenchymal condensation prior to the proximal radial formation is highly susceptible to the effects of RA. Lepidotrichia formation does not occur where proximal radials are absent, indicating that lepidotrichia differentiation requires interaction with the radial cartilages. To examine the suggestion that neural crest cells contribute to the medial fin skeletons, we localized the HNK-1 positive cells in flounder embryos and slug and

  2. The role of the dorsal raphé nucleus in reward-seeking behavior

    Kae eNakamura

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Pharmacological experiments have shown that the modulation of brain serotonin levels has a strong impact on value-based decision making. Anatomical and physiological evidence also revealed that the dorsal raphé nucleus (DRN, a major source of serotonin, and the dopamine system receive common inputs from brain regions associated with appetitive and aversive information processing. The serotonin and dopamine systems also have reciprocal functional influences on each other. However, the specific mechanism by which serotonin affects value-based decision making is not clear.To understand the information carried by the DRN for reward-seeking behavior, we measured single neuron activity in the primate DRN during the performance of saccade tasks to obtain different amounts of a reward. We found that DRN neuronal activity was characterized by tonic modulation that was altered by the expected and received reward value. Consistent reward-dependent modulation across different task periods suggested that DRN activity kept track of the reward value throughout a trial. The DRN was also characterized by modulation of its activity in the opposite direction by different neuronal subgroups, one firing strongly for the prediction and receipt of large rewards, with the other firing strongly for small rewards. Conversely, putative dopamine neurons showed positive phasic responses to reward-indicating cues and the receipt of an unexpected reward amount, which supports the reward prediction error signal hypothesis of dopamine.I suggest that the tonic reward monitoring signal of the DRN, possibly together with its interaction with the dopamine system, reports a continuous level of motivation throughout the performance of a task. Such a signal may provide reward context information to the targets of DRN projections, where it may be integrated further with incoming motivationally salient information.

  3. Vascularization and odontode structure of a dorsal ridge spine of Romundina stellina Ørvig 1975.

    Anna Jerve

    Full Text Available There are two types of dermal skeletons in jawed vertebrates: placoderms and osteichthyans carry large bony plates (macromery, whereas chondrichthyans and acanthodians are covered by small scales (micromery. Fin spines are one of the last large dermal structures found on micromeric taxa and offer a potential source of histology and morphology that can be compared to those found on macromeric groups. Dermal fin spines offer a variety of morphology but aspects of their growth modes and homology are unclear. Here, we provide detailed descriptions of the microstructure and growth of a dorsal ridge spine from the acanthothoracid placoderm, Romundina stellina, using virtual three-dimensional paleohistological datasets. From these data we identify several layers of dentine ornamentation covering the lateral surfaces of the spine and reconstructed their growth pattern. We show that this spine likely grew posteriorly and proximally from a narrow portion of bone located along the leading edge of the spine. The spine is similarly constructed to the scales with a few exceptions, including the absence of polarized fibers distributed throughout the bone and the presence of a thin layer of perichondral bone. The composition of the spine (semidentine odontodes, dermal bone, perichondral bone is identical to that of the Romundina dermal plates. These results illustrate the similarities and differences between the dermal tissues in Romundina and indicate that the spine grew differently from the dentinous fin spines from extant and fossil chondrichthyans. The morphology and histology of Romundina is most similar to the fin spine of the probable stem osteichthyan Lophosteus, with a well-developed inner cellular bony base and star-shaped odontodes on the surface. Results from these studies will undoubtedly have impact on our understanding of fossil fin spine histology and evolution, contributing to the on-going revision of early gnathostome phylogeny.

  4. Effects of elevated carbon dioxide and sucrose concentrations on Arabidopsis thaliana root architecture and anatomy

    Lee-Ho, E.; Walton, L.J.; Reid, D.M.; Yeung, E.C.; Kurepin, L.V.

    2007-01-01

    Plant root growth is known to be influenced by higher levels of atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO 2 ). Roots of some species grown in hydroponics under elevated CO 2 concentrations may be more competitive sinks for photosynthetic assimilates than roots grown under lower CO 2 conditions. Root branching patterns may also be influenced by elevated CO 2 concentrations. Studies have also shown that factors such as soil compaction, salinity and the availability of nitrate, phosphorous, oxygen and water also influence root growth, and the effects of higher CO 2 on roots can be confounded by such environmental factors. This study evaluated the effects of elevated carbon dioxide and sucrose concentrations on Arabidopsis thaliana root growth, morphology, and architecture. Both ambient and elevated CO 2 levels were used along with various sucrose concentrations. The study revealed that A. thaliana plants grown on a phytagar medium in small chambers with elevated CO 2 had longer roots, more lateral root growth than plants grown in ambient CO 2 . Roots in elevated CO 2 were found to have wider root diameters, and more secondary growth. The addition of sucrose to the media closely resembled the effects of elevated CO 2 . In addition, the increase in sucrose concentration had a bigger effect on root morphology under ambient, than elevated CO 2 . Therefore, both elevated CO 2 and increased sucrose concentrations promote root growth by increasing their number, length, and diameter. The dichotomy branching index (DBI) also dropped resulting in a more dichotomous branching pattern. 34 refs., 5 figs

  5. Water flow and solute transport in floating fen root mats

    Stofberg, Sija F.; EATM van der Zee, Sjoerd

    2015-04-01

    Floating fens are valuable wetlands, found in North-Western Europe, that are formed by floating root mats when old turf ponds are colonized by plants. These terrestrialization ecosystems are known for their biodiversity and the presence of rare plant species, and the root mats reveal different vegetation zones at a small scale. The vegetation zones are a result of strong gradients in abiotic conditions, including groundwater dynamics, nutrients and pH. To prevent irreversible drought effects such as land subsidence and mineralization of peat, water management involves import of water from elsewhere to maintain constant surface water levels. Imported water may have elevated levels of salinity during dry summers, and salt exposure may threaten the vegetation. To assess the risk of exposure of the rare plant species to salinity, the hydrology of such root mats must be understood. Physical properties of root mats have scarcely been investigated. We have measured soil characteristics, hydraulic conductivity, vertical root mat movement and groundwater dynamics in a floating root mat in the nature reserve Nieuwkoopse Plassen, in the Netherlands. The root mat mostly consists of roots and organic material, in which the soil has a high saturated water content, and strongly varies in its stage of decomposition. We have found a distinct negative correlation between degree of decomposition and hydraulic conductivity, similar to observations for bogs in the literature. Our results show that the relatively young, thin edge of the root mat that colonizes the surface water has a high hydraulic conductivity and floats in the surface water, resulting in very small groundwater fluctuations within the root mat. The older part of the root mat, that is connected to the deeper peat layers is hydrologically more isolated and the material has a lower conductivity. Here, the groundwater fluctuates strongly with atmospheric forcing. The zones of hydraulic properties and vegetation, appear to

  6. Electroacupuncture reduces the evoked responses of the spinal dorsal horn neurons in ankle-sprained rats

    Kim, Jae Hyo; Kim, Hee Young; Chung, Kyungsoon

    2011-01-01

    Acupuncture is shown to be effective in producing analgesia in ankle sprain pain in humans and animals. To examine the underlying mechanisms of the acupuncture-induced analgesia, the effects of electroacupuncture (EA) on weight-bearing forces (WBR) of the affected foot and dorsal horn neuron activities were examined in a rat model of ankle sprain. Ankle sprain was induced manually by overextending ligaments of the left ankle in the rat. Dorsal horn neuron responses to ankle movements or compression were recorded from the lumbar spinal cord using an in vivo extracellular single unit recording setup 1 day after ankle sprain. EA was applied to the SI-6 acupoint on the right forelimb (contralateral to the sprained ankle) by trains of electrical pulses (10 Hz, 1-ms pulse width, 2-mA intensity) for 30 min. After EA, WBR of the sprained foot significantly recovered and dorsal horn neuron activities were significantly suppressed in ankle-sprained rats. However, EA produced no effect in normal rats. The inhibitory effect of EA on hyperactivities of dorsal horn neurons of ankle-sprained rats was blocked by the α-adrenoceptor antagonist phentolamine (5 mg/kg ip) but not by the opioid receptor antagonist naltrexone (10 mg/kg ip). These data suggest that EA-induced analgesia in ankle sprain pain is mediated mainly by suppressing dorsal horn neuron activities through α-adrenergic descending inhibitory systems at the spinal level. PMID:21389301

  7. Opposing dorsal/ventral stream dynamics during figure-ground segregation.

    Wokke, Martijn E; Scholte, H Steven; Lamme, Victor A F

    2014-02-01

    The visual system has been commonly subdivided into two segregated visual processing streams: The dorsal pathway processes mainly spatial information, and the ventral pathway specializes in object perception. Recent findings, however, indicate that different forms of interaction (cross-talk) exist between the dorsal and the ventral stream. Here, we used TMS and concurrent EEG recordings to explore these interactions between the dorsal and ventral stream during figure-ground segregation. In two separate experiments, we used repetitive TMS and single-pulse TMS to disrupt processing in the dorsal (V5/HMT⁺) and the ventral (lateral occipital area) stream during a motion-defined figure discrimination task. We presented stimuli that made it possible to differentiate between relatively low-level (figure boundary detection) from higher-level (surface segregation) processing steps during figure-ground segregation. Results show that disruption of V5/HMT⁺ impaired performance related to surface segregation; this effect was mainly found when V5/HMT⁺ was perturbed in an early time window (100 msec) after stimulus presentation. Surprisingly, disruption of the lateral occipital area resulted in increased performance scores and enhanced neural correlates of surface segregation. This facilitatory effect was also mainly found in an early time window (100 msec) after stimulus presentation. These results suggest a "push-pull" interaction in which dorsal and ventral extrastriate areas are being recruited or inhibited depending on stimulus category and task demands.

  8. Detection of genes regulated by Lmx1b during limb dorsalization.

    Feenstra, Jennifer M; Kanaya, Kohei; Pira, Charmaine U; Hoffman, Sarah E; Eppey, Richard J; Oberg, Kerby C

    2012-05-01

    Lmx1b is a homeodomain transcription factor that regulates dorsal identity during limb development. Lmx1b knockout (KO) mice develop distal ventral-ventral limbs. Although induction of Lmx1b is linked to Wnt7a expression in the dorsal limb ectoderm, the downstream targets of Lmx1b that accomplish limb dorsalization are unknown. To identify genes targeted by Lmx1b, we compared gene arrays from Lmx1b KO and wild type mouse limbs during limb dorsalization, i.e., 11.5, 12.5, and 13.5 days post coitum. We identified 54 target genes that were differentially expressed in all three stages. Several skeletal targets, including Emx2, Matrilin1 and Matrilin4, demonstrated a loss of scapular expression in the Lmx1b KO mice, supporting a role for Lmx1b in scapula development. Furthermore, the relative abundance of extracellular matrix-related soft tissue targets regulated by Lmx1b, such as collagens and proteoglycans, suggests a mechanism that includes changes in the extracellular matrix composition to accomplish limb dorsalization. Our study provides the most comprehensive characterization of genes regulated by Lmx1b during limb development to-date and provides targets for further investigation. © 2012 The Authors. Development, Growth & Differentiation © 2012 Japanese Society of Developmental Biologists.

  9. Spiny Prey, Fortunate Prey. Dorsal Spines Are an Asset in Intraguild Interactions among Lady Beetles

    Louis Hautier

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The Multicolored Asian Ladybird, Harmonia axyridis, is an extremely successful invasive species. Here we suggest that, in addition to many other traits, the dorsal spines of its larvae contribute to their success, as suggested by behavioral observations of agonistic interactions between H. axyridis and European coccinellids. In coccinellids, the role of dorsal spines in these interactions has been poorly studied and they could be a physical protection against intraguild predators. Dorsal spines of second instar H. axyridis larvae were removed with micro-scissors, which resulted in spineless larvae after molting (spineless group. These larvae were then exposed to starved Coccinella septempunctata larvae. Two control categories were also submitted to interactions: H. axyridis larvae with all their spines (control group and with their spines, but injured by pin stings (injured group. Spine removal at the second instar did not hamper H. axyridis development. The bite rate by C. septempunctata was significantly higher on the spineless H. axyridis and more dorsally located compared to the control and injured groups, while no bite rate difference was observed between the injured and the control group. Our results suggest that in addition to behavioral and chemical defenses, the dorsal spines play a significant protective role against bites. Therefore, spines in ladybirds could be considered as a morphological defense against intraguild predation. In H. axyridis, these defenses might contribute to its success in food resources already exploited by other guild members and thus further facilitate the invasion of new areas.

  10. ROOT Tutorial for Summer Students

    CERN. Geneva; Piparo, Danilo

    2015-01-01

    ROOT is a "batteries-included" tool kit for data analysis, storage and visualization. It is widely used in High Energy Physics and other disciplines such as Biology, Finance and Astrophysics. This event is an introductory tutorial to ROOT and comprises a front lecture and hands on exercises. IMPORTANT NOTE: The tutorial is based on ROOT 6.04 and NOT on the ROOT5 series.  IMPORTANT NOTE: if you have ROOT 6.04 installed on your laptop, you will not need to install any virtual machine. The instructions showing how to install the virtual machine on which you can find ROOT 6.04 can be found under "Material" on this page.

  11. Removal of root filling materials.

    Duncan, H.F. Chong, B.S.

    2011-05-01

    Safe, successful and effective removal of root filling materials is an integral component of non-surgical root canal re-treatment. Access to the root canal system must be achieved in order to negotiate to the canal terminus so that deficiencies in the original treatment can be rectified. Since a range of materials have been advocated for filling root canals, different techniques are required for their removal. The management of commonly encountered root filling materials during non-surgical re-treatment, including the clinical procedures necessary for removal and the associated risks, are reviewed. As gutta-percha is the most widely used and accepted root filling material, there is a greater emphasis on its removal in this review.

  12. Properties of estimated characteristic roots

    Bent Nielsen; Heino Bohn Nielsen

    2008-01-01

    Estimated characteristic roots in stationary autoregressions are shown to give rather noisy information about their population equivalents. This is remarkable given the central role of the characteristic roots in the theory of autoregressive processes. In the asymptotic analysis the problems appear when multiple roots are present as this implies a non-differentiablity so the δ-method does not apply, convergence rates are slow, and the asymptotic distribution is non-normal. In finite samples ...

  13. Proteomics of Maize Root Development.

    Hochholdinger, Frank; Marcon, Caroline; Baldauf, Jutta A; Yu, Peng; Frey, Felix P

    2018-01-01

    Maize forms a complex root system with structurally and functionally diverse root types that are formed at different developmental stages to extract water and mineral nutrients from soil. In recent years proteomics has been intensively applied to identify proteins involved in shaping the three-dimensional architecture and regulating the function of the maize root system. With the help of developmental mutants, proteomic changes during the initiation and emergence of shoot-borne, lateral and seminal roots have been examined. Furthermore, root hairs were surveyed to understand the proteomic changes during the elongation of these single cell type structures. In addition, primary roots have been used to study developmental changes of the proteome but also to investigate the proteomes of distinct tissues such as the meristematic zone, the elongation zone as well as stele and cortex of the differentiation zone. Moreover, subcellular fractions of the primary root including cell walls, plasma membranes and secreted mucilage have been analyzed. Finally, the superior vigor of hybrid seedling roots compared to their parental inbred lines was studied on the proteome level. In summary, these studies provide novel insights into the complex proteomic interactions of the elaborate maize root system during development.

  14. Proteomics of Maize Root Development

    Frank Hochholdinger

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Maize forms a complex root system with structurally and functionally diverse root types that are formed at different developmental stages to extract water and mineral nutrients from soil. In recent years proteomics has been intensively applied to identify proteins involved in shaping the three-dimensional architecture and regulating the function of the maize root system. With the help of developmental mutants, proteomic changes during the initiation and emergence of shoot-borne, lateral and seminal roots have been examined. Furthermore, root hairs were surveyed to understand the proteomic changes during the elongation of these single cell type structures. In addition, primary roots have been used to study developmental changes of the proteome but also to investigate the proteomes of distinct tissues such as the meristematic zone, the elongation zone as well as stele and cortex of the differentiation zone. Moreover, subcellular fractions of the primary root including cell walls, plasma membranes and secreted mucilage have been analyzed. Finally, the superior vigor of hybrid seedling roots compared to their parental inbred lines was studied on the proteome level. In summary, these studies provide novel insights into the complex proteomic interactions of the elaborate maize root system during development.

  15. Central connectivity of transient receptor potential melastatin 8-expressing axons in the brain stem and spinal dorsal horn.

    Yun Sook Kim

    Full Text Available Transient receptor potential melastatin 8 (TRPM8 ion channels mediate the detection of noxious and innocuous cold and are expressed by primary sensory neurons, but little is known about the processing of the TRPM8-mediated cold information within the trigeminal sensory nuclei (TSN and the spinal dorsal horn (DH. To address this issue, we characterized TRPM8-positive (+ neurons in the trigeminal ganglion and investigated the distribution of TRPM8+ axons and terminals, and their synaptic organization in the TSN and in the DH using light and electron microscopic immunohistochemistry in transgenic mice expressing a genetically encoded axonal tracer in TRPM8+ neurons. TRPM8 was expressed in a fraction of small myelinated primary afferent fibers (23.7% and unmyelinated fibers (76.3%, suggesting that TRPM8-mediated cold is conveyed via C and Aδ afferents. TRPM8+ axons were observed in all TSN, but at different densities in the dorsal and ventral areas of the rostral TSN, which dominantly receive sensory afferents from intra- and peri-oral structures and from the face, respectively. While synaptic boutons arising from Aδ and non-peptidergic C afferents usually receive many axoaxonic contacts and form complex synaptic arrangements, TRPM8+ boutons arising from afferents of the same classes of fibers showed a unique synaptic connectivity; simple synapses with one or two dendrites and sparse axoaxonic contacts. These findings suggest that TRPM8-mediated cold is conveyed via a specific subset of C and Aδ afferent neurons and is processed in a unique manner and differently in the TSN and DH.

  16. Back to the roots!

    Woermann, Niklas

    2017-01-01

    This article argues that one can revive the critical edge that postmodernist theory has brought to marketing, thinking without subscribing to any particular school of (critical) theory by following the principle of methodological situationalism. The roots of postmodernist critique lie in careful...... empirical observation of how social reality is being constructed in local contexts. Because knowledge, subjects, power, and value are social accomplishments, they are neither fixed nor without alternative. Many key developments in marketing theory such as assemblage theory, practice and consumer tribes...... of social order into account, hence fail to provide sensible insight. I propose the principle of methodological situationalism as a litmus test to the analytical strength of a theory or piece of research. The principle states that theoretically adequate accounts of social phenomena must be grounded...

  17. Radiographing roots and shoots

    Shariffah Noor Khamseah Al Idid

    1985-01-01

    The effect of seed orientation on germination time and on shoot and root growth patterns is studied. Neutron radiography is used to observe the development of 4 types of plants, maize, greenpea, soya bean and padi. These plants were grown in varying orientations; sand sizes, sand thicknesses, and level of water content. Radiography of the seeds and plants were obtained for time exposure ranging from 3-12 hours and at reactor thermal power level, ranging from 500-750 kilowatts. Results obtained showed that seeds planted in varying orientations need different length of time for shoot emergence. Neutron radiography is now developed to other areas of non-industrial applications in Malaysia. (A.J.)

  18. The evolution of the dorsal thalamus of jawed vertebrates, including mammals: cladistic analysis and a new hypothesis.

    Butler, A B

    1994-01-01

    The evolution of the dorsal thalamus in various vertebrate lineages of jawed vertebrates has been an enigma, partly due to two prevalent misconceptions: the belief that the multitude of nuclei in the dorsal thalamus of mammals could be meaningfully compared neither with the relatively few nuclei in the dorsal thalamus of anamniotes nor with the intermediate number of dorsal thalamic nuclei of other amniotes and a definition of the dorsal thalamus that too narrowly focused on the features of the dorsal thalamus of mammals. The cladistic analysis carried out here allows us to recognize which features are plesiomorphic and which apomorphic for the dorsal thalamus of jawed vertebrates and to then reconstruct the major changes that have occurred in the dorsal thalamus over evolution. Embryological data examined in the context of Von Baerian theory (embryos of later-descendant species resemble the embryos of earlier-descendant species to the point of their divergence) supports a new 'Dual Elaboration Hypothesis' of dorsal thalamic evolution generated from this cladistic analysis. From the morphotype for an early stage in the embryological development of the dorsal thalamus of jawed vertebrates, the divergent, sequential stages of the development of the dorsal thalamus are derived for each major radiation and compared. The new hypothesis holds that the dorsal thalamus comprises two basic divisions--the collothalamus and the lemnothalamus--that receive their predominant input from the midbrain roof and (plesiomorphically) from lemniscal pathways, including the optic tract, respectively. Where present, the collothalamic, midbrain-sensory relay nuclei are homologous to each other in all vertebrate radiations as discrete nuclei. Within the lemnothalamus, the dorsal lateral geniculate nucleus of mammals and the dorsal lateral optic nucleus of non-synapsid amniotes (diapsid reptiles, birds and turtles) are homologous as discrete nuclei; most or all of the ventral nuclear group

  19. Short-term plasticity in turtle dorsal horn neurons mediated by L-type Ca2+ channels

    Russo, R E; Hounsgaard, J

    1994-01-01

    Windup--the gradual increase of the response--of dorsal horn neurons to repeated activation of primary afferents is an elementary form of short-term plasticity that may mediate central sensitization to pain. In deep dorsal horn neurons of the turtle spinal cord in vitro we report windup of the re......Windup--the gradual increase of the response--of dorsal horn neurons to repeated activation of primary afferents is an elementary form of short-term plasticity that may mediate central sensitization to pain. In deep dorsal horn neurons of the turtle spinal cord in vitro we report windup...

  20. Modality-Based Organization of Ascending Somatosensory Axons in the Direct Dorsal Column Pathway

    Niu, Jingwen; Ding, Long; Li, Jian J.; Kim, Hyukmin; Liu, Jiakun; Li, Haipeng; Moberly, Andrew; Badea, Tudor C.; Duncan, Ian D.; Son, Young-Jin; Scherer, Steven S.

    2013-01-01

    The long-standing doctrine regarding the functional organization of the direct dorsal column (DDC) pathway is the “somatotopic map” model, which suggests that somatosensory afferents are primarily organized by receptive field instead of modality. Using modality-specific genetic tracing, here we show that ascending mechanosensory and proprioceptive axons, two main types of the DDC afferents, are largely segregated into a medial–lateral pattern in the mouse dorsal column and medulla. In addition, we found that this modality-based organization is likely to be conserved in other mammalian species, including human. Furthermore, we identified key morphological differences between these two types of afferents, which explains how modality segregation is formed and why a rough “somatotopic map” was previously detected. Collectively, our results establish a new functional organization model for the mammalian direct dorsal column pathway and provide insight into how somatotopic and modality-based organization coexist in the central somatosensory pathway. PMID:24198362

  1. Dorsal free graft urethroplasty for urethral stricture by ventral sagittal urethrotomy approach.

    Asopa, H S; Garg, M; Singhal, G G; Singh, L; Asopa, J; Nischal, A

    2001-11-01

    To explore the feasibility of applying a dorsal free graft to treat urethral stricture by the ventral sagittal urethrotomy approach without mobilizing the urethra. Twelve patients with long or multiple strictures of the anterior urethra were treated by a dorsal free full-thickness preputial or buccal mucosa graft. The urethra was not separated from the corporal bodies and was opened in the midline over the stricture. The floor of the urethra was incised, and an elliptical raw area was created over the tunica on which a free full-thickness graft of preputial or buccal mucosa was secured. The urethra was retubularized in one stage. After a follow-up of 8 to 40 months, one recurrence developed and required dilation. The ventral sagittal urethrotomy approach for dorsal free graft urethroplasty is not only feasible and successful, but is easy to perform.

  2. Accelerated forgetting of contextual details due to focal medio-dorsal thalamic lesion

    Sicong eTu

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Effects of thalamic nuclei damage and related white matter tracts on memory performance are still debated. This is particularly evident for the medio-dorsal thalamus which has been less clear in predicting amnesia than anterior thalamus changes. The current study addresses this issue by assessing 7 thalamic stroke patients with consistent unilateral lesions focal to the left medio-dorsal nuclei for immediate and delayed memory performance on standard visual and verbal tests of anterograde memory, and over the long-term (> 24 hrs on an object-location associative memory task. Thalamic patients showed selective impairment to delayed recall, but intact recognition memory. Patients also showed accelerated forgetting of contextual information after a 24 hour delay, compared to controls. Importantly, the mammillothalamic tract was intact in all patients, which suggests a role for the medio-dorsal nuclei in recall and early consolidation memory processes.

  3. Drosophila heart cell movement to the midline occurs through both cell autonomous migration and dorsal closure.

    Haack, Timm; Schneider, Matthias; Schwendele, Bernd; Renault, Andrew D

    2014-12-15

    The Drosophila heart is a linear organ formed by the movement of bilaterally specified progenitor cells to the midline and adherence of contralateral heart cells. This movement occurs through the attachment of heart cells to the overlying ectoderm which is undergoing dorsal closure. Therefore heart cells are thought to move to the midline passively. Through live imaging experiments and analysis of mutants that affect the speed of dorsal closure we show that heart cells in Drosophila are autonomously migratory and part of their movement to the midline is independent of the ectoderm. This means that heart formation in flies is more similar to that in vertebrates than previously thought. We also show that defects in dorsal closure can result in failure of the amnioserosa to properly degenerate, which can physically hinder joining of contralateral heart cells leading to a broken heart phenotype. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. [Trombosis of the dorsal penis vein (of Mondor's phlebitis). Presentation of a new case].

    Rodríguez Faba, O; Parra Muntaner, L; Gómez Cisneros, S C; Martín Benito, J L; Escaf Barmadah, S

    2006-01-01

    We present a new case of trombosis of the superficial dorsal penis vein called Penile Mondor's disease. The characteristics of the disease are reviewed and the most usual diagnostic and therapeutic methods. The case of a 41 year old man is reviewed who consulted for pain and induration on the proximal part of the penis. After phisical examination and Eco-doppler was made the diagnosis of Mondor's disease. He receibed treatment with non steroidal antiinflamatories and antibiotics. The dorsal vein thrombosis is a rare disease with pain an induration of the dorsal part of the penis. The ethiology can be traumatic, neoplasic, excesive sexual activity or abstinence. Is necesary the diferencial diagnosis with esclerosant linphangitis and the most important imaging is the Eco-doppler. The treatment is based in non steroidal antiinflamatories and antibiotics wit infection. The local aplication of heparine can be useful and the surgery with thrombectomy and resection is for persistent cases.

  5. Using Upland Rice Root Traits to Identify N Use Efficient Genotypes for Limited Soil Nutrient Conditions

    Traore, K.; Traore, O. [INERA / Station de Farakoba, Bobo-Dioulasso (Burkina Faso); Bado, V. B. [Africa Rice Center (AfricaRice), Saint Louis (Senegal)

    2013-11-15

    Crop production in the Sahelian countries of Africa is limited by many factors. The most important are low potential yields of local varieties, low inherent soil fertility and low applications of external inputs (organic and mineral fertilizers). A field experiment was conducted from 2007 to 2008 with the objective to develop and validate screening protocols for plant traits that enhance N acquisition and utilization in upland rice grown in low N soils of two hundred (200) upland rice (Oryza sativa L.) genotypes from WAB, NERICA, CNA, CNAX, IRAT and IR lines. An experiment in small pots was carried out in a greenhouse of Farakoba research center. The pots were filled with a sandy soil and upland rice genotypes were grown during three weeks, harvested and studied for their root characteristics (seminal root length, adventitious root number, lateral root length and number and roots hair density). The small pot method was reliable for root trait characterisation at the seedling stage. A large variability among genotypes was exhibited for the root characteristics. The variability was larger within the NERICA and WAB lines compared to the other lines. The length of the seminal roots varied from 10 to 40 cm, the lateral root number ranged between 3 and 15 and the number of adventitious roots varied between 2 and 7. The selected root traits can be used to identify high nutrients and water use efficient genotypes. (author)

  6. Tactile spatial working memory activates the dorsal extrastriate cortical pathway in congenitally blind individuals.

    Bonino, D; Ricciardi, E; Sani, L; Gentili, C; Vanello, N; Guazzelli, M; Vecchi, T; Pietrini, P

    2008-09-01

    In sighted individuals, both the visual and tactile version of the same spatial working memory task elicited neural responses in the dorsal "where" cortical pathway (Ricciardi et al., 2006). Whether the neural response during the tactile working memory task is due to visually-based spatial imagery or rather reflects a more abstract, supramodal organization of the dorsal cortical pathway remains to be determined. To understand the role of visual experience on the functional organization of the dorsal cortical stream, using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) here we examined brain response in four individuals with congenital or early blindness and no visual recollection, while they performed the same tactile spatial working memory task, a one-back recognition of 2D and 3D matrices. The blind subjects showed a significant activation in bilateral posterior parietal cortex, dorsolateral and inferior prefrontal areas, precuneus, lateral occipital cortex, and cerebellum. Thus, dorsal occipito-parietal areas are involved in mental imagery dealing with spatial components in subjects without prior visual experience and in response to a non-visual task. These data indicate that recruitment of the dorsal cortical pathway in response to the tactile spatial working memory task is not mediated by visually-based imagery and that visual experience is not a prerequisite for the development of a more abstract functional organization of the dorsal stream. These findings, along with previous data indicating a similar supramodal functional organization within the ventral cortical pathway and the motion processing brain regions, may contribute to explain how individuals who are born deprived of sight are able to interact effectively with the surrounding world.

  7. Osmolarity and root canal antiseptics.

    Rossi-Fedele, G; Guastalli, A R

    2014-04-01

    Antiseptics used in endodontics for disinfection purposes include root canal dressings and irrigants. Osmotic shock is known to cause the alteration of microbial cell viability and might have a role in the mechanism of action of root canal antiseptics. The aim of this review was to determine the role of osmolarity on the performance of antiseptics in root canal treatment. A literature search using the Medline electronic database was conducted up to 30 May 2013 using the following search terms and combinations: 'osmolarity AND root canal or endodontic or antiseptic or irrigation or irrigant or medication or dressing or biofilm; osmolality AND root canal or endodontic or antiseptic or irrigation or irrigant or medication or dressing or biofilm; osmotic AND root canal or endodontic or antiseptic or irrigation or irrigant or medication or dressing or biofilm; osmosis AND root canal or endodontic or antiseptic or irrigation or irrigant or medication or dressing or biofilm; sodium chloride AND root canal or endodontic or antiseptic or irrigation or irrigant or medication or dressing or biofilm'. Publications were included if the effects of osmolarity on the clinical performance of antiseptics in root canal treatment were stated, if preparations with different osmolarities values were compared and if they were published in English. A hand search of articles published online, 'in press' and 'early view', and in the reference list of the included papers was carried out following the same criteria. A total of 3274 publications were identified using the database, and three were included in the review. The evidence available in endodontics suggests a possible role for hyperosmotic root canal medicaments as disinfectants, and that there is no influence of osmolarity on the tissue dissolution capacity of sodium hypochlorite. There are insufficient data to obtain a sound conclusion regarding the role of hypo-osmosis in root canal disinfection, or osmosis in any further desirable

  8. Root systems of chaparral shrubs.

    Kummerow, Jochen; Krause, David; Jow, William

    1977-06-01

    Root systems of chaparral shrubs were excavated from a 70 m 2 plot of a mixed chaparral stand located on a north-facing slope in San Diego County (32°54' N; 900 m above sea level). The main shrub species present were Adenostoma fasciculatum, Arctostaphylos pungens, Ceanothus greggii, Erigonum fasciculatum, and Haplopappus pinifolius. Shrubs were wired into their positions, and the soil was washed out beneath them down to a depth of approximately 60 cm, where impenetrable granite impeded further washing and root growth was severely restricted. Spacing and interweaving of root systems were recorded by an in-scale drawing. The roots were harvested in accordance to their depths, separated into diameter size classes for each species, and their dry weights measured. Roots of shrubs were largely confined to the upper soil levels. The roots of Eriogonum fasciculatum were concentrated in the upper soil layer. Roots of Adenostoma fasciculatum tended to be more superficial than those from Ceanothus greggii. It is hypothesized that the shallow soil at the excavation site impeded a clear depth zonation of the different root systems. The average dry weight root:shoot ratio was 0.6, ranging for the individual shrubs from 0.8 to 0.4. The root area always exceeded the shoot area, with the corresponding ratios ranging from 6 for Arctostaphylos pungens to 40 for Haplopappus pinifolius. The fine root density of 64 g dry weight per m 2 under the canopy was significantly higher than in the unshaded area. However, the corresponding value of 45 g dry weight per m 2 for the open ground is still high enough to make the establishment of other shrubs difficult.

  9. [Root resorption and orthodontic treatment].

    Sebbar, M; Bourzgui, F

    2011-09-01

    The aim of our study was to investigate the prevalence of root resorption during and at the end of orthodontic treatment and to assess its relationship with age, sex and treatment with or without extractions. Our study included 82 patients (51 women and 31 men) aged between 6 and 38 years, who received orthodontic treatment. Evaluation of root resorption was performed on panoramics at the beginning and at the end of orthodontic treatment. All the teeth were observed. The degree of root resorption was increased respectively by the standards in four ordinal levels (4). Data analysis was performed by Epi Info 6.0. Root resorption was present in all the teeth and maxillary incisors are the most affected. The correlation between age and root resorption was significant (p = 0.008). Women were more affected by resorption (P = 0.002). Patients treated with extraction showed more root resorption (p = 0.12). Our results suggest that orthodontic treatment is involved in the development of root resorption. The most often teeth resorbed are maxillary incisors. Age, sex and orthodontic extractions can be considered as risk factors for root resorption.

  10. Searching for Roots / Pierre Gervasoni

    Gervasoni, Pierre

    1997-01-01

    Uuest heliplaadist "Searching for Roots. Eduard Tubin: Symphonie no 11; Arvo Pärt: Nekrolog-Symphonie no 1; Erkki-Sven Tüür: Searching for Roots - Insula deserta - Zeitraum; Orchestre philharmonique royal de Stockholm, Paavo Järvi (direction)" Virgin Classics 5 45212 2 (distribue par EMI)

  11. Accumulation and mobility of cesium in roots of tulip popular seedlings

    Cox, T.L.

    1975-01-01

    Tulip poplar, Liriodendron tulipifera L., seedlings were stem-well tagged with cesium, periodically harvested, and separated into root and shoot compartments to determine seasonal cesium distributions in different root-diameter classes and to delineate element pathways to forest soils. The cesium concentration (μCi/g) in roots less than 0.1 cm in diameter averaged 1.5 and 3.0 times greater than in roots in the 0.5- to 0.1-cm- and 1.0- to 0.5-cm-diameter classes, respectively. Roots contained 24 percent of the seedling pool of cesium in 1 week and about 40 percent in 7 weeks after inoculation. Sixty-five percent of the seedling content was in the root system 8 months after tagging. On an annual basis, roots of the less than 0.5-cm-diameter classes contained an average of 36 percent of the seedling pool (root and shoot) and 72 percent of the root pool of cesium. This is important because small roots constituted a considerable portion of the annual turnover in these root systems. Soil content of cesium (3.37 μCi) at the termination of the study and analysis of treatment effects (aboveground inputs to soil allowed or not allowed) indicated that root processes contributed twice as much cesium to the soil during the study period as the combined aboveground processes contributed

  12. Sheared-root inocula of vesicular-arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi.

    Sylvia, D M; Jarstfer, A G

    1992-01-01

    For efficient handling, vesicular-arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi should be processed into small and uniform inocula; however, processing can reduce the inoculum density. In this article we describe the preparation and use of sheared-root inocula of Glomus spp. in which inoculum densities were increased during processing. Our objectives were to determine inoculum viability and density after shearing and to ascertain if the sheared inocula could be pelletized or used with a gel carrier. Root samples were harvested from aeroponic cultures, blotted dry, cut into 1-cm lengths, and sheared in a food processor for up to 80 s. After shearing, the inoculum was washed over sieves, and the propagule density in each fraction was determined. Sheared inocula were also encapsulated in carrageenan or used in a gel carrier. Shearing aeroponically produced root inocula reduced particle size. Propagule density increased with decreasing size fraction down to a size of 63 mum, after which propagule density decreased. The weighted-average propagule density of the inoculum was 135,380 propagules g (dry weight) of sheared root material. Sheared roots were encapsulated successfully in carrageenan, and the gel served as an effective carrier. Aeroponic root inoculum was stored dry at 4 degrees C for 23 months without significant reduction in propagule density; however, this material was not appropriate for shearing. Moist roots, useful for shearing, began to lose propagule density after 1 month of storage. Shearing proved to be an excellent method to prepare viable root inocula of small and uniform size, allowing for more efficient and effective use of limited inoculum supplies.

  13. Cytokinin signaling during root development.

    Bishopp, Anthony; Help, Hanna; Helariutta, Ykä

    2009-01-01

    The cytokinin class of phytohormones regulates division and differentiation of plant cells. They are perceived and signaled by a phosphorelay mechanism similar to those observed in prokaryotes. Research into the components of phosphorelay had previously been marred by genetic redundancy. However, recent studies have addressed this with the creation of high-order mutants. In addition, several new elements regulating cytokinin signaling have been identified. This has uncovered many roles in diverse developmental and physiological processes. In this review, we look at these processes specifically in the context of root development. We focus on the formation and maintenance of the root apical meristem, primary and secondary vascular development, lateral root emergence and development, and root nodulation. We believe that the root is an ideal organ with which to investigate cytokinin signaling in a wider context.

  14. Fungi in neotropical epiphyte roots.

    Bermudes, D; Benzing, D H

    1989-01-01

    Roots of thirty-eight Ecuadoran vascular epiphytes, representing eleven angiosperm families, were examined for the presence of symbiotic microorganisms. Most orchid roots contained fungal endophytes like those that regularly infect terrestrial counterparts. Hyphae were also common in and on nonorchid roots, but assignments of these relationships to known mycorrhizal morphologies was not possible in all cases. Evidence of vesicular-arbuscular mycorrhizae (VAM) existed in a number of subjects while in Ericaceae and Campanulaceae a fungal association similar to the demateaceous surface fungi (DSF) described for alpine and prarie plants was usually present. Some associations were characterized by multicellular propagules on root surfaces. The significance of these findings and the factors likely to influence occurrence and consequences of root-fungus mutualisms in tropical forest canopies are discussed. Facts and considerations that could aid future inquiry on these systems are provided.

  15. Physical root-soil interactions

    Kolb, Evelyne; Legué, Valérie; Bogeat-Triboulot, Marie-Béatrice

    2017-12-01

    Plant root system development is highly modulated by the physical properties of the soil and especially by its mechanical resistance to penetration. The interplay between the mechanical stresses exerted by the soil and root growth is of particular interest for many communities, in agronomy and soil science as well as in biomechanics and plant morphogenesis. In contrast to aerial organs, roots apices must exert a growth pressure to penetrate strong soils and reorient their growth trajectory to cope with obstacles like stones or hardpans or to follow the tortuous paths of the soil porosity. In this review, we present the main macroscopic investigations of soil-root physical interactions in the field and combine them with simple mechanistic modeling derived from model experiments at the scale of the individual root apex.

  16. RootJS: Node.js Bindings for ROOT 6

    Beffart, Theo; Früh, Maximilian; Haas, Christoph; Rajgopal, Sachin; Schwabe, Jonas; Wolff, Christoph; Szuba, Marek

    2017-10-01

    We present rootJS, an interface making it possible to seamlessly integrate ROOT 6 into applications written for Node.js, the JavaScript runtime platform increasingly commonly used to create high-performance Web applications. ROOT features can be called both directly from Node.js code and by JIT-compiling C++ macros. All rootJS methods are invoked asynchronously and support callback functions, allowing non-blocking operation of Node.js applications using them. Last but not least, our bindings have been designed to platform-independent and should therefore work on all systems supporting both ROOT 6 and Node.js. Thanks to rootJS it is now possible to create ROOT-aware Web applications taking full advantage of the high performance and extensive capabilities of Node.js. Examples include platforms for the quality assurance of acquired, reconstructed or simulated data, book-keeping and e-log systems, and even Web browser-based data visualisation and analysis.

  17. Descendant root volume varies as a function of root type: estimation of root biomass lost during uprooting in Pinus pinaster.

    Danjon, Frédéric; Caplan, Joshua S; Fortin, Mathieu; Meredieu, Céline

    2013-01-01

    Root systems of woody plants generally display a strong relationship between the cross-sectional area or cross-sectional diameter (CSD) of a root and the dry weight of biomass (DWd) or root volume (Vd) that has grown (i.e., is descendent) from a point. Specification of this relationship allows one to quantify root architectural patterns and estimate the amount of material lost when root systems are extracted from the soil. However, specifications of this relationship generally do not account for the fact that root systems are comprised of multiple types of roots. We assessed whether the relationship between CSD and Vd varies as a function of root type. Additionally, we sought to identify a more accurate and time-efficient method for estimating missing root volume than is currently available. We used a database that described the 3D root architecture of Pinus pinaster root systems (5, 12, or 19 years) from a stand in southwest France. We determined the relationship between CSD and Vd for 10,000 root segments from intact root branches. Models were specified that did and did not account for root type. The relationships were then applied to the diameters of 11,000 broken root ends to estimate the volume of missing roots. CSD was nearly linearly related to the square root of Vd, but the slope of the curve varied greatly as a function of root type. Sinkers and deep roots tapered rapidly, as they were limited by available soil depth. Distal shallow roots tapered gradually, as they were less limited spatially. We estimated that younger trees lost an average of 17% of root volume when excavated, while older trees lost 4%. Missing volumes were smallest in the central parts of root systems and largest in distal shallow roots. The slopes of the curves for each root type are synthetic parameters that account for differentiation due to genetics, soil properties, or mechanical stimuli. Accounting for this differentiation is critical to estimating root loss accurately.

  18. Novel scanning procedure enabling the vectorization of entire rhizotron-grown root systems

    Lobet Guillaume

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This paper presents an original spit-and-combine imaging procedure that enables the complete vectorization of complex root systems grown in rhizotrons. The general principle of the method is to (1 separate the root system into a small number of large pieces to reduce root overlap, (2 scan these pieces one by one, (3 analyze separate images with a root tracing software and (4 combine all tracings into a single vectorized root system. This method generates a rich dataset containing morphological, topological and geometrical information of entire root systems grown in rhizotrons. The utility of the method is illustrated with a detailed architectural analysis of a 20-day old maize root system, coupled with a spatial analysis of water uptake patterns.

  19. Novel scanning procedure enabling the vectorization of entire rhizotron-grown root systems.

    Lobet, Guillaume; Draye, Xavier

    2013-01-04

    : This paper presents an original spit-and-combine imaging procedure that enables the complete vectorization of complex root systems grown in rhizotrons. The general principle of the method is to (1) separate the root system into a small number of large pieces to reduce root overlap, (2) scan these pieces one by one, (3) analyze separate images with a root tracing software and (4) combine all tracings into a single vectorized root system. This method generates a rich dataset containing morphological, topological and geometrical information of entire root systems grown in rhizotrons. The utility of the method is illustrated with a detailed architectural analysis of a 20-day old maize root system, coupled with a spatial analysis of water uptake patterns.

  20. Gravisensing in roots

    Perbal, G.

    1999-01-01

    The mode of gravisensing in higher plants is not yet elucidated. Although, it is generally accepted that the amyloplasts (statoliths) in the root cap cells (statocytes) are responsible for susception of gravity. However, the hypothesis that the whole protoplast acts as gravisusceptor cannot be dismissed. The nature of the sensor that is able to transduce and amplify the mechanical energy into a biochemical factor is even more controversial. Several cell structures could potentially serve as gravireceptors: the endoplasmic reticulum, the actin network, the plasma membrane, or the cytoskeleton associated with this membrane. The nature of the gravisusceptors and gravisensors is discussed by taking into account the characteristics of the gravitropic reaction with respect to the presentation time, the threshold acceleration, the reciprocity rule, the deviation from the sine rule, the movement of the amyloplasts, the pre-inversion effect, the response of starch free and intermediate mutants and the effects of cytochalasin treatment. From this analysis, it can be concluded that both the amyloplasts and the protoplast could be the gravisusceptors, the former being more efficient than the latter since they can focus pressure on limited areas. The receptor should be located in the plasma membrane and could be a stretch-activated ion channel.

  1. Medico-legal aspects of vertical root fractures in root filled teeth

    Rosen, E; Tsesis, I; Tamse, A

    2012-01-01

    To analyse the medico-legal aspects of vertical root fracture (VRF) following root canal treatment (RCT).......To analyse the medico-legal aspects of vertical root fracture (VRF) following root canal treatment (RCT)....

  2. bullwinkle and shark regulate dorsal-appendage morphogenesis in Drosophila oogenesis.

    Tran, David H; Berg, Celeste A

    2003-12-01

    bullwinkle (bwk) regulates embryonic anteroposterior patterning and, through a novel germline-to-soma signal, morphogenesis of the eggshell dorsal appendages. We screened for dominant modifiers of the bullwinkle mooseantler eggshell phenotype and identified shark, which encodes an SH2-domain, ankyrin-repeat tyrosine kinase. At the onset of dorsal-appendage formation, shark is expressed in a punctate pattern in the squamous stretch cells overlying the nurse cells. Confocal microscopy with cell-type-specific markers demonstrates that the stretch cells act as a substrate for the migrating dorsal-appendage-forming cells and extend cellular projections towards them. Mosaic analyses reveal that shark is required in follicle cells for cell migration and chorion deposition. Proper shark RNA expression in the stretch cells requires bwk activity, while restoration of shark expression in the stretch cells suppresses the bwk dorsal-appendage phenotype. These results suggest that shark plays an important downstream role in the bwk-signaling pathway. Candidate testing implicates Src42A in a similar role, suggesting conservation with a vertebrate signaling pathway involving non-receptor tyrosine kinases.

  3. Two different streams form the dorsal visual system: anatomy and functions.

    Rizzolatti, Giacomo; Matelli, Massimo

    2003-11-01

    There are two radically different views on the functional role of the dorsal visual stream. One considers it as a system involved in space perception. The other is of a system that codes visual information for action organization. On the basis of new anatomical data and a reconsideration of previous functional and clinical data, we propose that the dorsal stream and its recipient parietal areas form two distinct functional systems: the dorso-dorsal stream (d-d stream) and the ventro-dorsal stream (v-d stream). The d-d stream is formed by area V6 (main d-d extrastriate visual node) and areas V6A and MIP of the superior parietal lobule. Its major functional role is the control of actions "on line". Its damage leads to optic ataxia. The v-d stream is formed by area MT (main v-d extrastriate visual node) and by the visual areas of the inferior parietal lobule. As the d-d stream, v-d stream is responsible for action organization. It, however, also plays a crucial role in space perception and action understanding. The putative mechanisms linking action and perception in the v-d stream is discussed.

  4. Postsynaptic dorsal column neurons express NK1 receptors following colon inflammation

    Paleček, Jiří; Palečková, V.; Willis, W. D.

    2003-01-01

    Roč. 116, č. 2 (2003), s. 565-572 ISSN 0306-4522 Grant - others:NIH(US) NS09743; NIH(US) NS11255 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z5011922 Keywords : visceral pain * substance P * postsynaptic dorsal column Subject RIV: FH - Neurology Impact factor: 3.601, year: 2003

  5. LOCUS-COERULEUS PROJECTIONS TO THE DORSAL MOTOR VAGUS NUCLEUS IN THE RAT

    TERHORST, GJ; TOES, GJ; VANWILLIGEN, JD

    1991-01-01

    The origin of the noradrenergic innervation of the preganglionic autonomic nuclei in the medulla oblongata and spinal cord is still controversial. In this investigation descending connections of the locus coeruleus to the dorsal motor vagus nucleus in the rat are studied with Phaseolus vulgaris

  6. Reward Processing by the Dorsal Raphe Nucleus: 5-HT and Beyond

    Luo, Minmin; Zhou, Jingfeng; Liu, Zhixiang

    2015-01-01

    The dorsal raphe nucleus (DRN) represents one of the most sensitive reward sites in the brain. However, the exact relationship between DRN neuronal activity and reward signaling has been elusive. In this review, we will summarize anatomical, pharmacological, optogenetics, and electrophysiological studies on the functions and circuit mechanisms of…

  7. The distribution of excitatory amino acid receptors on acutely dissociated dorsal horn neurons from postnatal rats.

    Arancio, O; Yoshimura, M; Murase, K; MacDermott, A B

    1993-01-01

    Excitatory amino acid receptor distribution was mapped on acutely dissociated neurons from postnatal rat spinal cord dorsal horn. N-methyl D-aspartate, quisqualate and kainate were applied to multiple locations along the somal and dendritic surfaces of voltage-clamped neurons by means of a pressure application system. To partially compensate for the decrement of response amplitude due to current loss between the site of activation on the dendrite and the recording electrode at the soma, a solution containing 0.15 M KCl was applied on the cell bodies and dendrites of some cells to estimate an empirical length constant. In the majority of the cells tested, the dendritic membrane had regions of higher sensitivity to excitatory amino acid agonists than the somatic membrane, with dendritic response amplitudes reaching more than seven times those at the cell body. A comparison of the relative changes in sensitivity between each combination of two of the three excitatory amino acid agonists along the same dendrite showed different patterns of agonist sensitivity along the dendrite in the majority of the cells. These data were obtained from dorsal horn neurons that had developed and formed synaptic connections in vivo. They demonstrate that in contrast to observations made on ventral horn neurons, receptor density for all the excitatory amino acid receptors on dorsal horn neurons, including the N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor, are generally higher on the dendrites than on the soma. Further, these results are similar to those obtained from dorsal horn neurons grown in culture.

  8. Electrolytic Lesions of the Dorsal Hippocampus Disrupt Renewal of Conditional Fear after Extinction

    Ji, Jinzhao; Maren, Stephen

    2005-01-01

    There is a growing body of evidence that the hippocampus is critical for context-dependent memory retrieval. In the present study, we used Pavlovian fear conditioning in rats to examine the role of the dorsal hippocampus (DH) in the context-specific expression of fear memory after extinction (i.e., renewal). Pre-training electrolytic lesions of…

  9. Dorsal inlay buccal mucosal graft (Asopa) urethroplasty for anterior urethral stricture.

    Marshall, Stephen D; Raup, Valary T; Brandes, Steven B

    2015-02-01

    Asopa described the inlay of a graft into Snodgrass's longitudinal urethral plate incision using a ventral sagittal urethrotomy approach in 2001. He claimed that this technique was easier to perform and led to less tissue ischemia due to no need for mobilization of the urethra. This approach has subsequently been popularized among reconstructive urologists as the dorsal inlay urethroplasty or Asopa technique. Depending on the location of the stricture, either a subcoronal circumferential incision is made for penile strictures, or a midline perineal incision is made for bulbar strictures. Other approaches for penile urethral strictures include the non-circumferential penile incisional approach and a penoscrotal approach. We generally prefer the circumferential degloving approach for penile urethral strictures. The penis is de-gloved and the urethra is split ventrally to exposure the stricture. It is then deepened to include the full thickness of the dorsal urethra. The dorsal surface is made raw and grafts are fixed on the urethral surface. Quilting sutures are placed to further anchor the graft. A Foley catheter is placed and the urethra is retubularized in two layers with special attention to the staggering of suture lines. The skin incision is then closed in layers. We have found that it is best to perform an Asopa urethroplasty when the urethral plate is ≥1 cm in width. The key to when to use the dorsal inlay technique all depends on the width of the urethral plate once the urethrotomy is performed, stricture etiology, and stricture location (penile vs. bulb).

  10. Dorsal onlay lingual mucosal graft urethroplasty for urethral strictures in women.

    Sharma, Girish K; Pandey, Ashwani; Bansal, Harbans; Swain, Sameer; Das, Suren K; Trivedi, Sameer; Dwivedi, Udai S; Singh, Pratap B

    2010-05-01

    To describe the technique and results of dorsal onlay lingual mucosal graft (LMG) urethroplasty for the definitive management of urethral strictures in women. In all, 15 women (mean age 42 years) with a history suggestive of urethral stricture who had undergone multiple urethral dilatations and/or urethrotomy were selected for dorsal onlay LMG urethroplasty after thorough evaluation, from October 2006 to March 2008. After a suprameatal inverted-U incision, the dorsal aspect of the urethra was dissected and urethrotomy was done at the 12 o'clock position across the strictured segment. Tailored LMG harvested from the ventrolateral aspect of the tongue was then sutured to the urethrotomy wound over an 18 F silicone catheter. The preoperative mean maximum urinary flow rate of 7.2 mL/s increased to 29.87 mL/s, 26.95 mL/s and 26.86 mL/s with a 'normal' flow rate curve at 3, 6 and 12 months follow-up, respectively. One patient at the 3-month follow-up had submeatal stenosis and required urethral dilatation thrice at monthly intervals. At the 1-year follow-up, none of the present patients had any neurosensory complications, urinary incontinence, or long-term functional/aesthetic complication at the donor site. LMG urethroplasty using the dorsal onlay technique should be offered for correction of persistent female urethral stricture as it provides a simple, safe and effective approach with durable results.

  11. Nucleocytoplasmic shuttling mediates the dynamic maintenance of nuclear Dorsal levels during Drosophila embryogenesis

    DeLotto, Robert; DeLotto, Yvonne; Steward, Ruth

    2007-01-01

    , including nuclei on the dorsal side. Nuclear export is blocked by leptomycin B, a potent inhibitor of Exportin 1 (CRM1)-mediated nuclear export. We have developed a novel in vivo assay revealing the presence of a functional leucine-rich nuclear export signal within the carboxyterminal 44 amino acids...

  12. The analgesic effect of clonidine as an adjuvant in dorsal penile ...

    Introduction: Dorsal penile nerve block (DPNB) is a commonly performed regional anesthetic technique for male circumcision. The aim of this study was to assess the analgesic effect of the adjunction of clonidine to bupivacaine 0.5% in this block. Methods: It was a prospective randomized double-blind clinical trial including ...

  13. Spatially dynamic recurrent information flow across long-range dorsal motor network encodes selective motor goals.

    Yoo, Peter E; Hagan, Maureen A; John, Sam E; Opie, Nicholas L; Ordidge, Roger J; O'Brien, Terence J; Oxley, Thomas J; Moffat, Bradford A; Wong, Yan T

    2018-03-08

    Performing voluntary movements involves many regions of the brain, but it is unknown how they work together to plan and execute specific movements. We recorded high-resolution ultra-high-field blood-oxygen-level-dependent signal during a cued ankle-dorsiflexion task. The spatiotemporal dynamics and the patterns of task-relevant information flow across the dorsal motor network were investigated. We show that task-relevant information appears and decays earlier in the higher order areas of the dorsal motor network then in the primary motor cortex. Furthermore, the results show that task-relevant information is encoded in general initially, and then selective goals are subsequently encoded in specifics subregions across the network. Importantly, the patterns of recurrent information flow across the network vary across different subregions depending on the goal. Recurrent information flow was observed across all higher order areas of the dorsal motor network in the subregions encoding for the current goal. In contrast, only the top-down information flow from the supplementary motor cortex to the frontoparietal regions, with weakened recurrent information flow between the frontoparietal regions and bottom-up information flow from the frontoparietal regions to the supplementary cortex were observed in the subregions encoding for the opposing goal. We conclude that selective motor goal encoding and execution rely on goal-dependent differences in subregional recurrent information flow patterns across the long-range dorsal motor network areas that exhibit graded functional specialization. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Opposing dorsal/ventral stream dynamics during figure-ground segregation

    Wokke, M.E.; Scholte, H.S.; Lamme, V.A.F.

    2014-01-01

    The visual system has been commonly subdivided into two segregated visual processing streams: The dorsal pathway processes mainly spatial information, and the ventral pathway specializes in object perception. Recent findings, however, indicate that different forms of interaction (cross-talk) exist

  15. Excessive D1 Dopamine Receptor Activation in the Dorsal Striatum Promotes Autistic-Like Behaviors.

    Lee, Yunjin; Kim, Hannah; Kim, Ji-Eun; Park, Jin-Young; Choi, Juli; Lee, Jung-Eun; Lee, Eun-Hwa; Han, Pyung-Lim

    2018-07-01

    The dopamine system has been characterized in motor function, goal-directed behaviors, and rewards. Recent studies recognize various dopamine system genes as being associated with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). However, how dopamine system dysfunction induces ASD pathophysiology remains unknown. In the present study, we demonstrated that mice with increased dopamine functions in the dorsal striatum via the suppression of dopamine transporter expression in substantia nigra neurons or the optogenetic stimulation of the nigro-striatal circuitry exhibited sociability deficits and repetitive behaviors relevant to ASD pathology in animal models, while these behavioral changes were blocked by a D1 receptor antagonist. Pharmacological activation of D1 dopamine receptors in normal mice or the genetic knockout (KO) of D2 dopamine receptors also produced typical autistic-like behaviors. Moreover, the siRNA-mediated inhibition of D2 dopamine receptors in the dorsal striatum was sufficient to replicate autistic-like phenotypes in D2 KO mice. Intervention of D1 dopamine receptor functions or the signaling pathways-related D1 receptors in D2 KO mice produced anti-autistic effects. Together, our results indicate that increased dopamine function in the dorsal striatum promotes autistic-like behaviors and that the dorsal striatum is the neural correlate of ASD core symptoms.

  16. Dioptrics of the facet lenses in the dorsal rim area of the cricket Gryllus bimaculatus

    Ukhanov, KY; Leertouwer, HL; Gribakin, FG; Stavenga, DG

    1996-01-01

    1. The optics of the corneal facet lenses from the dorsal rim area (DRA) and from the dorso-lateral areas (DA) of the compound eye of the cricket Gryllus bimaculatus were studied. 2. The DRA of the cricket eye contains quite normally shaped facet lenses. The diameter of the facet lens in the DA is

  17. Phenotypic variation in dorsal fin morphology of coastal bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus off Mexico

    Eduardo Morteo

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Geographic variation in external morphology is thought to reflect an interplay between genotype and the environment. Morphological variation has been well-described for a number of cetacean species, including the bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops truncatus. In this study we analyzed dorsal fin morphometric variation in coastal bottlenose dolphins to search for geographic patterns at different spatial scales. A total of 533 dorsal fin images from 19 available photo-identification catalogs across the three Mexican oceanic regions (Pacific Ocean n = 6, Gulf of California n = 6 and, Gulf of Mexico n = 7 were used in the analysis. Eleven fin shape measurements were analyzed to evaluate fin polymorphism through multivariate tests. Principal Component Analysis on log-transformed standardized ratios explained 94% of the variance. Canonical Discriminant Function Analysis on factor scores showed separation among most study areas (p < 0.05 with exception of the Gulf of Mexico where a strong morphometric cline was found. Possible explanations for the observed differences are related to environmental, biological and evolutionary processes. Shape distinction between dorsal fins from the Pacific and those from the Gulf of California were consistent with previously reported differences in skull morphometrics and genetics. Although the functional advantages of dorsal fin shape remains to be assessed, it is not unlikely that over a wide range of environments, fin shape may represent a trade-off among thermoregulatory capacity, hydrodynamic performance and the swimming/hunting behavior of the species.

  18. Dorsal Branches of Abdominal Aorta in the Rabbit and the European Hare

    Flešárová S.

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to describe the anatomical arrangement of the branches arising from the dorsal surface of the aorta abdominalis in the rabbit and the hare. The study was carried out on ten adult rabbits and ten adult European hares using the corrosion technique. After the euthanasia, the vascular network was perfused with saline. After polymerization of the casting medium, the maceration was carried out in a KOH solution. We found different variations in; the number of arteries, level of their origin and arrangement. The aa. lumbales of the same level arose by means of a common trunk or their origin was independent. The aa. lumbales VI or aa. lumbales VI et VII originated also from the a. sacralis mediana. By aa. lumbales we found an important interspecies difference in; number, diameter, ramification and density of dorsal branches, which are designated for the dorsal muscles of the body stem. All listed parameters of branches were higher in the hare. This anatomical arrangement of dorsal branches is adapted to the higher movement activity of the hare. According to our results, it can be concluded that the anatomical arrangement of the branches of the aorta abdominalis shows a higher number of variations in the domesticated rabbit in comparison with the hare.

  19. Characterisation of rebound depolarisation in mice deep dorsal horn neurons in vitro.

    Rivera-Arconada, Ivan; Lopez-Garcia, Jose A

    2015-09-01

    Spinal dorsal horn neurons constitute the first relay for pain processing and participate in the processing of other sensory, motor and autonomic information. At the cellular level, intrinsic excitability is a factor contributing to network function. In turn, excitability is set by the array of ionic conductance expressed by neurons. Here, we set out to characterise rebound depolarisation following hyperpolarisation, a feature frequently described in dorsal horn neurons but never addressed in depth. To this end, an in vitro preparation of the spinal cord from mice pups was used combined with whole-cell recordings in current and voltage clamp modes. Results show the expression of H- and/or T-type currents in a significant proportion of dorsal horn neurons. The expression of these currents determines the presence of rebound behaviour at the end of hyperpolarising pulses. T-type calcium currents were associated to high-amplitude rebounds usually involving high-frequency action potential firing. H-currents were associated to low-amplitude rebounds less prone to elicit firing or firing at lower frequencies. For a large proportion of neurons expressing both currents, the H-current constitutes a mechanism to ensure a faster response after hyperpolarisations, adjusting the latency of the rebound firing. We conclude that rebound depolarisation and firing are intrinsic factors to many dorsal horn neurons that may constitute a mechanism to integrate somatosensory information in the spinal cord, allowing for a rapid switch from inhibited-to-excited states.

  20. Neuroimaging investigations of dorsal stream processing and effects of stimulus synchrony in schizophrenia.

    Sanfratello, Lori; Aine, Cheryl; Stephen, Julia

    2018-05-25

    Impairments in auditory and visual processing are common in schizophrenia (SP). In the unisensory realm visual deficits are primarily noted for the dorsal visual stream. In addition, insensitivity to timing offsets between stimuli are widely reported for SP. The aim of the present study was to test at the physiological level differences in dorsal/ventral stream visual processing and timing sensitivity between SP and healthy controls (HC) using MEG and a simple auditory/visual task utilizing a variety of multisensory conditions. The paradigm included all combinations of synchronous/asynchronous and central/peripheral stimuli, yielding 4 task conditions. Both HC and SP groups showed activation in parietal areas (dorsal visual stream) during all multisensory conditions, with parietal areas showing decreased activation for SP relative to HC, and a significantly delayed peak of activation for SP in intraparietal sulcus (IPS). We also observed a differential effect of stimulus synchrony on HC and SP parietal response. Furthermore, a (negative) correlation was found between SP positive symptoms and activity in IPS. Taken together, our results provide evidence of impairment of the dorsal visual stream in SP during a multisensory task, along with an altered response to timing offsets between presented multisensory stimuli. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. fMRI Evidence for Dorsal Stream Processing Abnormality in Adults Born Preterm

    Chaminade, Thierry; Leutcher, Russia Ha-Vinh; Millet, Veronique; Deruelle, Christine

    2013-01-01

    We investigated the consequences of premature birth on the functional neuroanatomy of the dorsal stream of visual processing. fMRI was recorded while sixteen healthy participants, 8 (two men) adults (19 years 6 months old, SD 10 months) born premature (mean gestational age 30 weeks), referred to as Premas, and 8 (two men) matched controls (20…

  2. The functional anatomy of speech perception: Dorsal and ventral processing pathways

    Hickok, Gregory

    2003-04-01

    Drawing on recent developments in the cortical organization of vision, and on data from a variety of sources, Hickok and Poeppel (2000) have proposed a new model of the functional anatomy of speech perception. The model posits that early cortical stages of speech perception involve auditory fields in the superior temporal gyrus bilaterally (although asymmetrically). This cortical processing system then diverges into two broad processing streams, a ventral stream, involved in mapping sound onto meaning, and a dorsal stream, involved in mapping sound onto articulatory-based representations. The ventral stream projects ventrolaterally toward inferior posterior temporal cortex which serves as an interface between sound and meaning. The dorsal stream projects dorsoposteriorly toward the parietal lobe and ultimately to frontal regions. This network provides a mechanism for the development and maintenance of ``parity'' between auditory and motor representations of speech. Although the dorsal stream represents a tight connection between speech perception and speech production, it is not a critical component of the speech perception process under ecologically natural listening conditions. Some degree of bi-directionality in both the dorsal and ventral pathways is also proposed. A variety of recent empirical tests of this model have provided further support for the proposal.

  3. GABAergic Neurons of the Rat Dorsal Hippocampus Express Muscarinic Acetylcholine Receptors

    van der Zee, E.A.; Luiten, P.G.M.

    1993-01-01

    The expression of muscarinic acetylcholine receptors (mAChRs) in glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD)-positive cells in the different strata of CA1, CA3, and the dentate gyrus (DG) of the dorsal hippocampus is examined by way of quantitative immunofluorescent double labeling employing M35, the

  4. Burst-generating neurones in the dorsal horn in an in vitro preparation of the turtle spinal cord

    Russo, R E; Hounsgaard, J

    1996-01-01

    1. In transverse slices of the spinal cord of the turtle, intracellular recordings were used to characterize and analyse the responses to injected current and activation of primary afferents in dorsal horn neurones. 2. A subpopulation of neurones, with cell bodies located centrally in the dorsal...

  5. Demonstration of the dorsal pancreatic artery by CTA to facilitate superselective arterial infusion of stem cells into the pancreas

    Lin Yuning; Yang Xizhang; Chen Ziqian; Tan Jianming; Zhong Qun; Yang Li; Wu Zhixian

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: To investigate the diagnostic performance of 64-section CTA in the detection of dorsal pancreatic artery before interventional therapy for patients with diabetes. Materials and methods: The study was approved by the institutional ethics committee; written informed consent was obtained. Forty-two consecutive patients with diabetes received an experimental treatment of autologous bone marrow-derived stem cell transplantation by means of infusion into the dorsal pancreatic artery. All cases underwent abdominal CTA before angiography of pancreatic arteries in order to locate the origin and course of dorsal pancreatic artery. Angiography of coeliac artery, splenic artery, common hepatic artery and superior mesenteric artery were performed both in CTA and DSA. Superselective catheterization of dorsal pancreatic artery was carried out for the infusion of stem cell. Sensitivity, specificity and accuracy for the detection of dorsal pancreatic artery with CTA were calculated using DSA images as the reference standard. Results: Thirty-five and thirty-six dorsal pancreatic arteries were detected by CTA and DSA respectively. Dorsal pancreatic artery was not visualized in either CTA or DSA in 5 patients. The sensitivity, specificity and accuracy for CTA were 94.4%, 83.3% and 92.9%. Conclusion: 64-section CTA is accurate for the detection of dorsal pancreatic artery. It may be useful for the facilitation of superselective arterial infusion of stem cells to pancreas.

  6. THE USE OF SPONGOSTAN-WRAPPED DICED CARTILAGE GRAFT FOR OBTANINING A REGULAR DORSAL CONTOUR IN RHINOPLASTY: A PRELIMINARY REPORT

    Umut Tuncel

    2013-03-01

    Conclusion: As a result, we can say that spongostan wrapped diced cartilages graft seems to be a cheap, safe and effective method for obtaining a nice nasal dorsal contouring as well as for correcting and preventing of dorsal irregularities in rhinoplasty. [J Contemp Med 2013; 3(1.000: 12-16

  7. Root anatomical phenes predict root penetration ability and biomechanical properties in maize (Zea Mays)

    Chimungu, Joseph G.; Loades, Kenneth W.; Lynch, Jonathan P.

    2015-01-01

    The ability of roots to penetrate hard soil is important for crop productivity but specific root phenes contributing to this ability are poorly understood. Root penetrability and biomechanical properties are likely to vary in the root system dependent on anatomical structure. No information is available to date on the influence of root anatomical phenes on root penetrability and biomechanics. Root penetration ability was evaluated using a wax layer system. Root tensile and bending strength we...

  8. Root development during soil genesis: effects of root-root interactions, mycorrhizae, and substrate

    Salinas, A.; Zaharescu, D. G.

    2015-12-01

    A major driver of soil formation is the colonization and transformation of rock by plants and associated microbiota. In turn, substrate chemical composition can also influence the capacity for plant colonization and development. In order to better define these relationships, a mesocosm study was set up to analyze the effect mycorrhizal fungi, plant density and rock have on root development, and to determine the effect of root morphology on weathering and soil formation. We hypothesized that plant-plant and plant-fungi interactions have a stronger influence on root architecture and rock weathering than the substrate composition alone. Buffalo grass (Bouteloua dactyloides) was grown in a controlled environment in columns filled with either granular granite, schist, rhyolite or basalt. Each substrate was given two different treatments, including grass-microbes and grass-microbes-mycorrhizae and incubated for 120, 240, and 480 days. Columns were then extracted and analyzed for root morphology, fine fraction, and pore water major element content. Preliminary results showed that plants produced more biomass in rhyolite, followed by schist, basalt, and granite, indicating that substrate composition is an important driver of root development. In support of our hypothesis, mycorrhizae was a strong driver of root development by stimulating length growth, biomass production, and branching. However, average root length and branching also appeared to decrease in response to high plant density, though this trend was only present among roots with mycorrhizal fungi. Interestingly, fine fraction production was negatively correlated with average root thickness and volume. There is also slight evidence indicating that fine fraction production is more related to substrate composition than root morphology, though this data needs to be further analyzed. Our hope is that the results of this study can one day be applied to agricultural research in order to promote the production of crops

  9. RESULTS OF DIAGNOSTICAL BLOCK OF LONG DORSAL SACROILIAC LIGAMENT UNDER SONOGRAPHIC CONTROL IN PATIENTS WITH LOW BACK PAIN

    Yurkovskiy A. M.

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: to improve effectiveness of diagnostic block of long dorsal sacroiliac ligament performed under sonographic control in patients with low back pain caused by pathology of this ligament. Material and methods: the research included 35 patients (average age 46,2±12,5 years with symptoms of low back pain caused by pathology of long dorsal sacroiliac ligament. Diagnostical block of the given ligament was made under ultrasound control. Results: significant pain syndrome reduction was observed in all patients with ligamentopathy of long dorsal sacroiliac ligament. Conclusion: compared to "blind" technique, long dorsal sacroiliac ligament block performed under sonographic control is a more efficient method of verification and treatment for low back pain syndrome in case of long dorsal sacroiliac ligament injury.

  10. A Role for the Lateral Dorsal Tegmentum in Memory and Decision Neural Circuitry

    Redila, Van; Kinzel, Chantelle; Jo, Yong Sang; Puryear, Corey B.; Mizumori, Sheri J.Y.

    2017-01-01

    A role for the hippocampus in memory is clear, although the mechanism for its contribution remains a matter of debate. Converging evidence suggests that hippocampus evaluates the extent to which context-defining features of events occur as expected. The consequence of mismatches, or prediction error, signals from hippocampus is discussed in terms of its impact on neural circuitry that evaluates the significance of prediction errors: Ventral tegmental area (VTA) dopamine cells burst fire to rewards or cues that predict rewards (Schultz et al., 1997). Although the lateral dorsal tegmentum (LDTg) importantly controls dopamine cell burst firing (Lodge & Grace, 2006) the behavioral significance of the LDTg control is not known. Therefore, we evaluated LDTg functional activity as rats performed a spatial memory task that generates task-dependent reward codes in VTA (Jo et al., 2013; Puryear et al., 2010) and another VTA afferent, the pedunculopontine nucleus (PPTg, Norton et al., 2011). Reversible inactivation of the LDTg significantly impaired choice accuracy. LDTg neurons coded primarily egocentric information in the form of movement velocity, turning behaviors, and behaviors leading up to expected reward locations. A subset of the velocity-tuned LDTg cells also showed high frequency bursts shortly before or after reward encounters, after which they showed tonic elevated firing during consumption of small, but not large, rewards. Cells that fired before reward encounters showed stronger correlations with velocity as rats moved toward, rather than away from, rewarded sites. LDTg neural activity was more strongly regulated by egocentric behaviors than that observed for PPTg or VTA cells that were recorded by Puryear et al. and Norton et al. While PPTg activity was uniquely sensitive to ongoing sensory input, all three regions encoded reward magnitude (although in different ways), reward expectation, and reward encounters. Only VTA encoded reward prediction errors. LDTg

  11. Local field potential correlates of auditory working memory in primate dorsal temporal pole.

    Bigelow, James; Ng, Chi-Wing; Poremba, Amy

    2016-06-01

    Dorsal temporal pole (dTP) is a cortical region at the rostral end of the superior temporal gyrus that forms part of the ventral auditory object processing pathway. Anatomical connections with frontal and medial temporal areas, as well as a recent single-unit recording study, suggest this area may be an important part of the network underlying auditory working memory (WM). To further elucidate the role of dTP in auditory WM, local field potentials (LFPs) were recorded from the left dTP region of two rhesus macaques during an auditory delayed matching-to-sample (DMS) task. Sample and test sounds were separated by a 5-s retention interval, and a behavioral response was required only if the sounds were identical (match trials). Sensitivity of auditory evoked responses in dTP to behavioral significance and context was further tested by passively presenting the sounds used as auditory WM memoranda both before and after the DMS task. Average evoked potentials (AEPs) for all cue types and phases of the experiment comprised two small-amplitude early onset components (N20, P40), followed by two broad, large-amplitude components occupying the remainder of the stimulus period (N120, P300), after which a final set of components were observed following stimulus offset (N80OFF, P170OFF). During the DMS task, the peak amplitude and/or latency of several of these components depended on whether the sound was presented as the sample or test, and whether the test matched the sample. Significant differences were also observed among the DMS task and passive exposure conditions. Comparing memory-related effects in the LFP signal with those obtained in the spiking data raises the possibility some memory-related activity in dTP may be locally produced and actively generated. The results highlight the involvement of dTP in auditory stimulus identification and recognition and its sensitivity to the behavioral significance of sounds in different contexts. This article is part of a Special

  12. Assessing dorsal scute microchemistry for reconstruction of shortnose sturgeon life histories

    Altenritter, Matthew E.; Kinnison, Michael T.; Zydlewski, Gayle B.; Secor, David H.; Zydlewski, Joseph D.

    2015-01-01

    The imperiled status of sturgeons worldwide places priority on the identification and protection of critical habitats. We assessed the micro-structural and micro-chemical scope for a novel calcified structure, dorsal scutes, to be used for reconstruction of past habitat use and group separation in shortnose sturgeon (Acipenser brevirostrum). Dorsal scutes contained a dual-layered structure composed of a thin multi-layered translucent zone lying dorsally above a thicker multi-layered zone. Banding in the thick multi-layered zone correlated strongly with pectoral fin spine annuli supporting the presence of chronological structuring that could contain a chemical record of past environmental exposure. Trace element profiles (Sr:Ca), collected using both wavelength dispersive electron microprobe analysis and laser ablation inductively coupled mass spectrometry, suggest scutes record elemental information useful for tracing transitions between freshwater and marine environments. Moreover, mirror-image like Sr:Ca profiles were observed across the dual-zone structuring of the scute that may indicate duplication of the microchemical profile in a single structure. Additional element:calcium ratios measured in natal regions of dorsal scutes (Ba:Ca, Mg:Ca) suggest the potential for further refinement of techniques for identification of river systems of natal origin. In combination, our results provide proof of concept that dorsal scutes possess the necessary properties to be used as structures for reconstructions of past habitat use in sturgeons. Importantly, scutes may be collected non-lethally and with less injury than current structures, like otoliths and fin spines, affording an opportunity for broader application of microchemical techniques.

  13. Ventral and Dorsal Striatum Networks in Obesity: Link to Food Craving and Weight Gain.

    Contreras-Rodríguez, Oren; Martín-Pérez, Cristina; Vilar-López, Raquel; Verdejo-Garcia, Antonio

    2017-05-01

    The food addiction model proposes that obesity overlaps with addiction in terms of neurobiological alterations in the striatum and related clinical manifestations (i.e., craving and persistence of unhealthy habits). Therefore, we aimed to examine the functional connectivity of the striatum in excess-weight versus normal-weight subjects and to determine the extent of the association between striatum connectivity and individual differences in food craving and changes in body mass index (BMI). Forty-two excess-weight participants (BMI > 25) and 39 normal-weight participants enrolled in the study. Functional connectivity in the ventral and dorsal striatum was indicated by seed-based analyses on resting-state data. Food craving was indicated with subjective ratings of visual cues of high-calorie food. Changes in BMI between baseline and 12 weeks follow-up were assessed in 28 excess-weight participants. Measures of connectivity in the ventral striatum and dorsal striatum were compared between groups and correlated with craving and BMI change. Participants with excess weight displayed increased functional connectivity between the ventral striatum and the medial prefrontal and parietal cortices and between the dorsal striatum and the somatosensory cortex. Dorsal striatum connectivity correlated with food craving and predicted BMI gains. Obesity is linked to alterations in the functional connectivity of dorsal striatal networks relevant to food craving and weight gain. These neural alterations are associated with habit learning and thus compatible with the food addiction model of obesity. Copyright © 2016 Society of Biological Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Hypocotyl adventitious root organogenesis differs from lateral root development.

    Verstraeten, Inge; Schotte, Sébastien; Geelen, Danny

    2014-01-01

    Wound-induced adventitious root (AR) formation is a requirement for plant survival upon root damage inflicted by pathogen attack, but also during the regeneration of plant stem cuttings for clonal propagation of elite plant varieties. Yet, adventitious rooting also takes place without wounding. This happens for example in etiolated Arabidopsis thaliana hypocotyls, in which AR initiate upon de-etiolation or in tomato seedlings, in which AR initiate upon flooding or high water availability. In the hypocotyl AR originate from a cell layer reminiscent to the pericycle in the primary root (PR) and the initiated AR share histological and developmental characteristics with lateral roots (LRs). In contrast to the PR however, the hypocotyl is a determinate structure with an established final number of cells. This points to differences between the induction of hypocotyl AR and LR on the PR, as the latter grows indeterminately. The induction of AR on the hypocotyl takes place in environmental conditions that differ from those that control LR formation. Hence, AR formation depends on differentially regulated gene products. Similarly to AR induction in stem cuttings, the capacity to induce hypocotyl AR is genotype-dependent and the plant growth regulator auxin is a key regulator controlling the rooting response. The hormones cytokinins, ethylene, jasmonic acid, and strigolactones in general reduce the root-inducing capacity. The involvement of this many regulators indicates that a tight control and fine-tuning of the initiation and emergence of AR exists. Recently, several genetic factors, specific to hypocotyl adventitious rooting in A. thaliana, have been uncovered. These factors reveal a dedicated signaling network that drives AR formation in the Arabidopsis hypocotyl. Here we provide an overview of the environmental and genetic factors controlling hypocotyl-born AR and we summarize how AR formation and the regulating factors of this organogenesis are distinct from LR

  15. Hypocotyl adventitious root organogenesis differs from lateral root development

    Inge eVerstraeten

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Wound-induced adventitious root (AR formation is a requirement for plant survival upon root damage inflicted by pathogen attack, but also during the regeneration of plant stem cuttings for clonal propagation of elite plant varieties. Yet, adventitious rooting also takes place without wounding. This happens for example in etiolated Arabidopsis thaliana hypocotyls, in which AR initiate upon de-etiolation or in tomato seedlings, in which AR initiate upon flooding or high water availability. In the hypocotyl AR originate from a cell layer reminiscent to the pericycle in the primary root (PR and the initiated AR share histological and developmental characteristics with lateral roots (LR. In contrast to the PR however, the hypocotyl is a determinate structure with an established final number of cells. This points to differences between the induction of hypocotyl AR and LR on the PR, as the latter grows indeterminately. The induction of AR on the hypocotyl takes place in environmental conditions that differ from those that control LR formation. Hence, AR formation depends on differentially regulated gene products. Similarly to AR induction in stem cuttings, the capacity to induce hypocotyl AR is genotype-dependent and the plant growth regulator auxin is a key regulator controlling the rooting response. The hormones cytokinins, ethylene, jasmonic acid and strigolactones in general reduce the root-inducing capacity. The involvement of this many regulators indicates that a tight control and fine-tuning of the initiation and emergence of AR exists. Recently, several genetic factors, specific to hypocotyl adventitious rooting in Arabidopsis thaliana, have been uncovered. These factors reveal a dedicated signaling network that drives AR formation in the Arabidopsis hypocotyl. Here we provide an overview of the environmental and genetic factors controlling hypocotyl-born AR and we summarize how AR formation and the regulating factors of this organogenesis are

  16. Tree root intrusion in sewer systems: A review of extent and costs

    T.B. Randrup; E.G. McPherson; L.R. Costello

    2001-01-01

    Interference between trees and sewer systems is likely to occur in old systems and in cracked pipes. Factors that contribute to damage include old pipes with joints, shallow pipes, small-dimension pipes, and fast-growing tree species. Because roots are reported to cause >50% of all sewer blockages, costs associated with root removal from sewers is substantial. In...

  17. Predicting root biomass of burned and unburned white oak advance reproduction from diameter and height

    Benjamin O. Knapp; G. Geoff Wang; David H. Van Lear; Joan L. Walker

    2006-01-01

    The size, especially the root size, of advance oak (Quercus spp.) reproduction provides the best indication of the growth potential after release or top-kill. This study examined the relationship between the size of the root system and various diameter height measurements for small (

  18. Red, redder, madder : analysis and isolation of anthraquinones from madder roots (Rubia tinctorum)

    Derksen, G.C.H.

    2001-01-01

    The roots of Rubia tinctorum L. (madder) are the source of a natural dye. The dye components are anthraquinones with alizarin being the main dye component. Alizarin as such is present in madder root in only small quantities, most of the alizarin is present as its

  19. First report of the root-knot nematode Meloidogyne marylandi on Turfgrasses in Israel

    Oka, Y.; Karssen, G.; Mor, M.

    2004-01-01

    In a turfgrass nursery in Arava, Israel, a population of root-knot nematodes was isolated from poorly growing Zoysiagrass (Zoysia japonica Steud.) with symptoms of foliar chlorosis and roots with very small, smooth galls and protruding egg masses. The isolated population (genus Meloidogyne) included

  20. IAA transport in corn roots includes the root cap

    Hasenstein, K.H.

    1989-01-01

    In earlier reports we concluded that auxin is the growth regulator that controls gravicurvature in roots and that the redistribution of auxin occurs within the root cap. Since other reports did not detect auxin in the root cap, we attempted to confirm the IAA does move through the cap. Agar blocks containing 3 H-IAA were applied to the cut surface of 5 mm long apical segments of primary roots of corn (mo17xB73). After 30 to 120 min radioactivity (RA) of the cap and root tissue was determined. While segments suspended in water-saturated air accumulated very little RA in the cap, application of 0.5 μ1 of dist. water to the cap (=controls) increased RA of the cap dramatically. Application to the cap of 0.5 μ1 of sorbitol or the Ca 2+ chelator EGTA reduced cap RA to 46% and 70% respectively compared to water, without affecting uptake. Control root segments gravireacted faster than non-treated or osmoticum or EGTA treated segments. The data indicate that both the degree of hydration and calcium control the amount of auxin moving through the cap