WorldWideScience

Sample records for small displays based

  1. Small - Display Cartography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nissen, Flemming; Hvas, Anders; Münster-Swendsen, Jørgen

    Service Communication and finally, Part IV: Concluding remarks and topics for further research on small-display cartography. Part II includes a separate Appendix D consisting of a cartographic design specification. Part III includes a separate Appendix C consisting of a schema specification, a separate...

  2. Region of interest based robust watermarking scheme for adaptation in small displays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vivekanandhan, Sapthagirivasan; K. B., Kishore Mohan; Vemula, Krishna Manohar

    2010-02-01

    Now-a-days Multimedia data can be easily replicated and the copyright is not legally protected. Cryptography does not allow the use of digital data in its original form and once the data is decrypted, it is no longer protected. Here we have proposed a new double protected digital image watermarking algorithm, which can embed the watermark image blocks into the adjacent regions of the host image itself based on their blocks similarity coefficient which is robust to various noise effects like Poisson noise, Gaussian noise, Random noise and thereby provide double security from various noises and hackers. As instrumentation application requires a much accurate data, the watermark image which is to be extracted back from the watermarked image must be immune to various noise effects. Our results provide better extracted image compared to the present/existing techniques and in addition we have done resizing the same for various displays. Adaptive resizing for various size displays is being experimented wherein we crop the required information in a frame, zoom it for a large display or resize for a small display using a threshold value and in either cases background is not given much importance but it is only the fore-sight object which gains importance which will surely be helpful in performing surgeries.

  3. Microlaser-based displays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergstedt, Robert; Fink, Charles G.; Flint, Graham W.; Hargis, David E.; Peppler, Philipp W.

    1997-07-01

    Laser Power Corporation has developed a new type of projection display, based upon microlaser technology and a novel scan architecture, which provides the foundation for bright, extremely high resolution images. A review of projection technologies is presented along with the limitations of each and the difficulties they experience in trying to generate high resolution imagery. The design of the microlaser based projector is discussed along with the advantage of this technology. High power red, green, and blue microlasers have been designed and developed specifically for use in projection displays. These sources, in combination with high resolution, high contrast modulator, produce a 24 bit color gamut, capable of supporting the full range of real world colors. The new scan architecture, which reduces the modulation rate and scan speeds required, is described. This scan architecture, along with the inherent brightness of the laser provides the fundamentals necessary to produce a 5120 by 4096 resolution display. The brightness and color uniformity of the display is excellent, allowing for tiling of the displays with far fewer artifacts than those in a traditionally tiled display. Applications for the display include simulators, command and control centers, and electronic cinema.

  4. INFORMATION DISPLAY: CONSIDERATIONS FOR DESIGNING COMPUTER-BASED DISPLAY SYSTEMS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'HARA, J.M.; PIRUS, D.; BELTRATCCHI, L.

    2004-01-01

    This paper discussed the presentation of information in computer-based control rooms. Issues associated with the typical displays currently in use are discussed. It is concluded that these displays should be augmented with new displays designed to better meet the information needs of plant personnel and to minimize the need for interface management tasks (the activities personnel have to do to access and organize the information they need). Several approaches to information design are discussed, specifically addressing: (1) monitoring, detection, and situation assessment; (2) routine task performance; and (3) teamwork, crew coordination, collaborative work

  5. Touch sensitive electrorheological fluid based tactile display

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yanju; Davidson, Rob; Taylor, Paul

    2005-12-01

    A tactile display is programmable device whose controlled surface is intended to be investigated by human touch. It has a great number of potential applications in the field of virtual reality and elsewhere. In this research, a 5 × 5 tactile display array including electrorheological (ER) fluid has been developed and investigated. Force responses of the tactile display array have been measured while a probe was moved across the upper surface. The purpose of this was to simulate the action of touch performed by human finger. Experimental results show that the sensed surface information could be controlled effectively by adjusting the voltage activation pattern imposed on the tactels. The performance of the tactile display is durable and repeatable. The touch sensitivity of this ER fluid based tactile display array has also been investigated in this research. The results show that it is possible to sense the touching force normal to the display's surface by monitoring the change of current passing through the ER fluid. These encouraging results are helpful for constructing a new type of tactile display based on ER fluid which can act as both sensor and actuator at the same time.

  6. A display to support knowledge based behavior

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lindsay, R.W.

    1990-01-01

    A computerized display has been created for the Experimental Breeder Reactor II (EBR-II) that incorporates information from plant sensors in a thermodynamic model display. The display is designed to provide an operator with an overall view of the plant process as a heat engine. The thermodynamics of the plant are depicted through the use of ionic figures, animated by plant signals, that are related to the major plant components and systems such as the reactor, intermediate heat exchanger, secondary system, evaporators, superheaters, steam system, steam drum, and turbine-generator. This display supports knowledge based reasoning for the operator as well as providing the traditional rule and skill based behavior, and includes side benefits such a inherent signal validation

  7. A display to support knowledge based behavior

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lindsay, R.W.

    1990-01-01

    This paper reports on a computerized display that has been created for the Experimental Breeder Reactor II that incorporates information from plant sensors in a thermodynamic model display. The display is designed to provide an operator with an overall view of the plant process as a heat engine. The thermodynamics of the plant are depicted through the use of iconic figures, animated by plant signals, that are related to the major plant components and systems such as the reactor, intermediate heat exchanger, secondary system, evaporators, superheaters, steam system, steam drum, and turbine-generator. This display supports knowledge based reasoning for the operator as well as providing data for the traditional rule and skill based behavior, and includes side benefits such as inherent signal validation

  8. Future of photorefractive based holographic 3D display

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanche, P.-A.; Bablumian, A.; Voorakaranam, R.; Christenson, C.; Lemieux, D.; Thomas, J.; Norwood, R. A.; Yamamoto, M.; Peyghambarian, N.

    2010-02-01

    The very first demonstration of our refreshable holographic display based on photorefractive polymer was published in Nature early 20081. Based on the unique properties of a new organic photorefractive material and the holographic stereography technique, this display addressed a gap between large static holograms printed in permanent media (photopolymers) and small real time holographic systems like the MIT holovideo. Applications range from medical imaging to refreshable maps and advertisement. Here we are presenting several technical solutions for improving the performance parameters of the initial display from an optical point of view. Full color holograms can be generated thanks to angular multiplexing, the recording time can be reduced from minutes to seconds with a pulsed laser, and full parallax hologram can be recorded in a reasonable time thanks to parallel writing. We also discuss the future of such a display and the possibility of video rate.

  9. Innovative Methods for Displaying Large Schematics on Small Screens

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Wang, Jing

    2000-01-01

    This SBIR topic identifies an emerging important and widespread need as more and more military tasks and civilian applications rely on information display and input using portable computers and mobile devices...

  10. An efficient method for isolating antibody fragments against small peptides by antibody phage display

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Duan, Zhi; Siegumfeldt, Henrik

    2010-01-01

    We generated monoclonal scFv (single chain variable fragment) antibodies from an antibody phage display library towards three small synthetic peptides derived from the sequence of s1-casein. Key difficulties for selection of scFv-phages against small peptides were addressed. Small peptides do....... The scFvs were sequenced and characterized, and specificity was characterized by ELISA. The methods developed in this study are universally applicable for antibody phage display to efficiently produce antibody fragments against small peptides....

  11. Vision based flight procedure stereo display system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Xiaoyun; Wan, Di; Ma, Lan; He, Yuncheng

    2008-03-01

    A virtual reality flight procedure vision system is introduced in this paper. The digital flight map database is established based on the Geographic Information System (GIS) and high definitions satellite remote sensing photos. The flight approaching area database is established through computer 3D modeling system and GIS. The area texture is generated from the remote sensing photos and aerial photographs in various level of detail. According to the flight approaching procedure, the flight navigation information is linked to the database. The flight approaching area vision can be dynamic displayed according to the designed flight procedure. The flight approaching area images are rendered in 2 channels, one for left eye images and the others for right eye images. Through the polarized stereoscopic projection system, the pilots and aircrew can get the vivid 3D vision of the flight destination approaching area. Take the use of this system in pilots preflight preparation procedure, the aircrew can get more vivid information along the flight destination approaching area. This system can improve the aviator's self-confidence before he carries out the flight mission, accordingly, the flight safety is improved. This system is also useful in validate the visual flight procedure design, and it helps to the flight procedure design.

  12. Industrial Personal Computer based Display for Nuclear Safety System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Ji Hyeon; Kim, Aram; Jo, Jung Hee; Kim, Ki Beom; Cheon, Sung Hyun; Cho, Joo Hyun; Sohn, Se Do; Baek, Seung Min

    2014-01-01

    The safety display of nuclear system has been classified as important to safety (SIL:Safety Integrity Level 3). These days the regulatory agencies are imposing more strict safety requirements for digital safety display system. To satisfy these requirements, it is necessary to develop a safety-critical (SIL 4) grade safety display system. This paper proposes industrial personal computer based safety display system with safety grade operating system and safety grade display methods. The description consists of three parts, the background, the safety requirements and the proposed safety display system design. The hardware platform is designed using commercially available off-the-shelf processor board with back plane bus. The operating system is customized for nuclear safety display application. The display unit is designed adopting two improvement features, i.e., one is to provide two separate processors for main computer and display device using serial communication, and the other is to use Digital Visual Interface between main computer and display device. In this case the main computer uses minimized graphic functions for safety display. The display design is at the conceptual phase, and there are several open areas to be concreted for a solid system. The main purpose of this paper is to describe and suggest a methodology to develop a safety-critical display system and the descriptions are focused on the safety requirement point of view

  13. Industrial Personal Computer based Display for Nuclear Safety System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Ji Hyeon; Kim, Aram; Jo, Jung Hee; Kim, Ki Beom; Cheon, Sung Hyun; Cho, Joo Hyun; Sohn, Se Do; Baek, Seung Min [KEPCO, Youngin (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-08-15

    The safety display of nuclear system has been classified as important to safety (SIL:Safety Integrity Level 3). These days the regulatory agencies are imposing more strict safety requirements for digital safety display system. To satisfy these requirements, it is necessary to develop a safety-critical (SIL 4) grade safety display system. This paper proposes industrial personal computer based safety display system with safety grade operating system and safety grade display methods. The description consists of three parts, the background, the safety requirements and the proposed safety display system design. The hardware platform is designed using commercially available off-the-shelf processor board with back plane bus. The operating system is customized for nuclear safety display application. The display unit is designed adopting two improvement features, i.e., one is to provide two separate processors for main computer and display device using serial communication, and the other is to use Digital Visual Interface between main computer and display device. In this case the main computer uses minimized graphic functions for safety display. The display design is at the conceptual phase, and there are several open areas to be concreted for a solid system. The main purpose of this paper is to describe and suggest a methodology to develop a safety-critical display system and the descriptions are focused on the safety requirement point of view.

  14. Knowledge based development of graphic display systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woods, D.D.

    1985-01-01

    Most human factors guidelines on computer display design attempt to ensure that human sensory limits are not strained or that users can potentially access data. While this is a necessary and too often an overlooked step in interface design, it does not address issues about how to use computer displays to aid human performance at domain tasks. This challenge to human factors guidance is particularly acute in complex environments such as nuclear power plants where the goal is more than a useable interface system; the interface must support effective human performance at tasks like situation assessment, fault management, problem solving and planning. Studies of human performance in complex domains reveal that human-machine performance failures can often be linked to problems in information handling - data overload, getting lost, keyhole effects, tunnel vision to name but a few. All of these information handling problems represent manifestations of an inability to find, integrate or interpret the ''right'' data at the ''right'' time, i.e., failures where critical information is not detected among the ambient data load, where critical information is not assembled from data distributed over time or over space; and where critical information is not looked for because of misunderstandings or erroneous assumptions (cf., Woods, 1985). Problems of this kind illustrate that the potential to see, read, or access data does not guarantee successful user information extraction. The result is a need for research and guidance on design for enhanced information extraction in addition to design for data availability

  15. A ROOT based event display software for JUNO

    Science.gov (United States)

    You, Z.; Li, K.; Zhang, Y.; Zhu, J.; Lin, T.; Li, W.

    2018-02-01

    An event display software SERENA has been designed for the Jiangmen Underground Neutrino Observatory (JUNO). The software has been developed in the JUNO offline software system and is based on the ROOT display package EVE. It provides an essential tool to display detector and event data for better understanding of the processes in the detectors. The software has been widely used in JUNO detector optimization, simulation, reconstruction and physics study.

  16. Oxide Based Transistor for Flexible Displays

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-09-15

    to be the first reported on these films. Overall we have shown that GSZO is an excellent candidate for the replacement of IGZO films. (a) Papers... IGZO based TFTs and (d) electrical and optical device stability. The primary goals of this effort were improved performance and stability, compared to...conventional IGZO based TFTs. This work was carried out at NCA&TSU. The second component of the research effort pertained to bottom gate

  17. Experience with model based display for advanced diagnostics and control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Staffon, J.D.; Lindsay, R.W.

    1989-01-01

    A full color, model based display system based on the Rankine thermodynamic cycle has been developed for use at the Experimental Breeder Reactor II by plant operators, engineers, and experimenters. The displays generate a real time thermodynamic model of the plant processes on computer screens to provide a direct indication of the plant performance. Operators and others who view the displays are no longer required to mentally ''construct'' a model of the process before acting. The model based display accurately depicts the plant states. It appears to effectively reduce the gulf of evaluation, which should result in a significant reduction in human operator errors if this plant display approach is adopted by the nuclear industry. Preliminary comments from users, including operators, indicate an overwhelming acceptance of the display approach. The displays incorporate alarm functions as well as levels of detail ''paging'' capability. The system is developed on a computer network which allows the easy addition of displays as well as extra computers. Constructing a complete console can be rapid and inexpensive. 1 ref., 2 figs

  18. Cholesteric Liquid Crystal Based Reflex Color Reflective Displays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Asad

    2012-02-01

    Bistable color cholesteric liquid crystal displays are unique LCDs that exhibit high reflectivity, good contrast, extremely low power operation, and are amenable to versatile roll-to-roll manufacturing. The display technology, now branded as Reflex has been in commercialized products since 1996. It has been the subject of extensive research and development globally by a variety of parties in both academic and industrial settings. Today, the display technology is in volume production for applications such as dedicated eWriters (Boogie Board), full color electronic skins (eSkin), and displays for smart cards. The flexibility comes from polymerization induced phase separation using unique materials unparalleled in any other display technology. The blend of monomers, polymers, cross linkers, and other components along with nematic liquid crystals and chiral dopants is created and processed in such ways so as to enable highly efficient manufactrable displays using ultra thin plastic substrates -- often as thin as 50μm. Other significant aspects include full color by stacking or spatial separation, night vision capability, ultra high resolution, as well as active matrix capabilities. Of particular note is the stacking approach of Reflex based displays to show full color. This approach for reflective color displays is unique to this technology. Owing to high transparency in wavelength bands outside the selective reflection band, three primarily color layers can be stacked on top of each other and reflect without interfering with other layers. This highly surprising architecture enables the highest reflectivity of any other reflective electronic color display technology. The optics, architecture, electro-topics, and process techniques will be discussed. This presentation will focus on the physics of the core technology and color, it's evolution from rigid glass based displays to flexible displays, development of products from the paradigm shifting concepts to consumer

  19. Energy, mass, model-based displays, and memory recall

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beltracchi, L.

    1989-01-01

    The operation of a pressurized water reactor in the context of the conservation laws for energy and mass is discussed. These conservation laws are the basis of the Rankine heat engine cycle. Computer graphic implementation of the heat engine cycle, in terms of temperature-entropy coordinates for water, serves as a model-based display of the plant process. A human user of this display, trained in first principles of the process, may exercise a monitoring strategy based on the conservation laws

  20. 9 CFR 381.207 - Small importations for consignee's personal use, display, or laboratory analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION POULTRY PRODUCTS... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Small importations for consignee's personal use, display, or laboratory analysis. 381.207 Section 381.207 Animals and Animal Products FOOD...

  1. Scanning laser beam displays based on a 2D MEMS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niesten, Maarten; Masood, Taha; Miller, Josh; Tauscher, Jason

    2010-05-01

    The combination of laser light sources and MEMS technology enables a range of display systems such as ultra small projectors for mobile devices, head-up displays for vehicles, wearable near-eye displays and projection systems for 3D imaging. Images are created by scanning red, green and blue lasers horizontally and vertically with a single two-dimensional MEMS. Due to the excellent beam quality of laser beams, the optical designs are efficient and compact. In addition, the laser illumination enables saturated display colors that are desirable for augmented reality applications where a virtual image is used. With this technology, the smallest projector engine for high volume manufacturing to date has been developed. This projector module has a height of 7 mm and a volume of 5 cc. The resolution of this projector is WVGA. No additional projection optics is required, resulting in an infinite focus depth. Unlike with micro-display projection displays, an increase in resolution will not lead to an increase in size or a decrease in efficiency. Therefore future projectors can be developed that combine a higher resolution in an even smaller and thinner form factor with increased efficiencies that will lead to lower power consumption.

  2. Reduce blurring and distortion in a projection type virtual image display using integrated small optics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasegawa, Tatsuya; Yendo, Tomohiro

    2015-03-01

    Head Up Display (HUD) is being applied to automobile. HUD displays information as far virtual image on the windshield. Existing HUD usually displays planar information. If the image corresponding to scenery on the road like Augmented Reality (AR) is displayed on the HUD, driver can efficiently get the information. To actualize this, HUD covering large viewing field is needed. However existing HUD cannot cover large viewing field. Therefore we have proposed system consisting of projector and many small diameter convex lenses. However observed virtual image has blurring and distortion . In this paper, we propose two methods to reduce blurring and distortion of images. First, to reduce blurring of images, distance between each of screen and lens comprised in lens array is adjusted. We inferred from the more distant the lens from center of the array is more blurred that the cause of blurring is curvature of field of lens in the array. Second, to avoid distortion of images, each lens in the array is curved spherically. We inferred from the more distant the lens from center of the array is more distorted that the cause of distortion is incident angle of ray. We confirmed effectiveness of both methods.

  3. A Depth-Based Head-Mounted Visual Display to Aid Navigation in Partially Sighted Individuals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hicks, Stephen L.; Wilson, Iain; Muhammed, Louwai; Worsfold, John; Downes, Susan M.; Kennard, Christopher

    2013-01-01

    Independent navigation for blind individuals can be extremely difficult due to the inability to recognise and avoid obstacles. Assistive techniques such as white canes, guide dogs, and sensory substitution provide a degree of situational awareness by relying on touch or hearing but as yet there are no techniques that attempt to make use of any residual vision that the individual is likely to retain. Residual vision can restricted to the awareness of the orientation of a light source, and hence any information presented on a wearable display would have to limited and unambiguous. For improved situational awareness, i.e. for the detection of obstacles, displaying the size and position of nearby objects, rather than including finer surface details may be sufficient. To test whether a depth-based display could be used to navigate a small obstacle course, we built a real-time head-mounted display with a depth camera and software to detect the distance to nearby objects. Distance was represented as brightness on a low-resolution display positioned close to the eyes without the benefit focussing optics. A set of sighted participants were monitored as they learned to use this display to navigate the course. All were able to do so, and time and velocity rapidly improved with practise with no increase in the number of collisions. In a second experiment a cohort of severely sight-impaired individuals of varying aetiologies performed a search task using a similar low-resolution head-mounted display. The majority of participants were able to use the display to respond to objects in their central and peripheral fields at a similar rate to sighted controls. We conclude that the skill to use a depth-based display for obstacle avoidance can be rapidly acquired and the simplified nature of the display may appropriate for the development of an aid for sight-impaired individuals. PMID:23844067

  4. Mechanical Stability of Flexible Graphene-Based Displays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anagnostopoulos, George; Pappas, Panagiotis-Nektarios; Li, Zheling; Kinloch, Ian A; Young, Robert J; Novoselov, Kostya S; Lu, Ching Yu; Pugno, Nicola; Parthenios, John; Galiotis, Costas; Papagelis, Konstantinos

    2016-08-31

    The mechanical behavior of a prototype touch panel display, which consists of two layers of CVD graphene embedded into PET films, is investigated in tension and under contact-stress dynamic loading. In both cases, laser Raman spectroscopy was employed to assess the stress transfer efficiency of the embedded graphene layers. The tensile behavior was found to be governed by the "island-like" microstructure of the CVD graphene, and the stress transfer efficiency was dependent on the size of graphene "islands" but also on the yielding behavior of PET at relatively high strains. Finally, the fatigue tests, which simulate real operation conditions, showed that the maximum temperature gradient developed at the point of "finger" contact after 80 000 cycles does not exceed the glass transition temperature of the PET matrix. The effect of these results on future product development and the design of new graphene-based displays are discussed.

  5. Mechanical Stability of Flexible Graphene-Based Displays

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    The mechanical behavior of a prototype touch panel display, which consists of two layers of CVD graphene embedded into PET films, is investigated in tension and under contact-stress dynamic loading. In both cases, laser Raman spectroscopy was employed to assess the stress transfer efficiency of the embedded graphene layers. The tensile behavior was found to be governed by the “island-like” microstructure of the CVD graphene, and the stress transfer efficiency was dependent on the size of graphene “islands” but also on the yielding behavior of PET at relatively high strains. Finally, the fatigue tests, which simulate real operation conditions, showed that the maximum temperature gradient developed at the point of “finger” contact after 80 000 cycles does not exceed the glass transition temperature of the PET matrix. The effect of these results on future product development and the design of new graphene-based displays are discussed. PMID:27494211

  6. Information Display: Considerations for Designing Modern Computer-Based Display Systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Hara, J.; Pirus, D.; Beltracchi, L.

    2003-01-01

    OAK- B135 To help nuclear utilities and suppliers design and implement plant information management systems and displays that provide accurate and timely information and require minimal navigation and interface management

  7. Design of process displays based on risk analysis techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lundtang Paulsen, J.

    2004-05-01

    This thesis deals with the problems of designing display systems for process plants. We state the reasons why it is important to discuss information systems for operators in a control room, especially in view of the enormous amount of information available in computer-based supervision systems. The state of the art is discussed: How are supervision systems designed today and why? Which strategies are used? What kind of research is going on? Four different plants and their display systems, designed by the author, are described and discussed. Next we outline different methods for eliciting knowledge of a plant, particularly the risks, which is necessary information for the display designer. A chapter presents an overview of the various types of operation references: constitutive equations, set points, design parameters, component characteristics etc., and their validity in different situations. On the basis of her experience with the design of display systems; with risk analysis methods and from 8 years, as an engineer-on-shift at a research reactor, the author developed a method to elicit necessary information to the operator. The method, a combination of a Goal-Tree and a Fault-Tree, is described in some detail. Finally we address the problem of where to put the dot and the lines: when all information is on the table, how should it be presented most adequately. Included, as an appendix is a paper concerning the analysis of maintenance reports and visualization of their information. The purpose was to develop a software tool for maintenance supervision of components in a nuclear power plant. (au)

  8. Dclk1+ small intestinal epithelial tuft cells display the hallmarks of quiescence and self-renewal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandrakesan, Parthasarathy; May, Randal; Qu, Dongfeng; Weygant, Nathaniel; Taylor, Vivian E.; Li, James D.; Ali, Naushad; Sureban, Sripathi M.; Qante, Michael; Wang, Timothy C.; Bronze, Michael S.; Houchen, Courtney W.

    2015-01-01

    To date, no discrete genetic signature has been defined for isolated Dclk1+ tuft cells within the small intestine. Furthermore, recent reports on the functional significance of Dclk1+ cells in the small intestine have been inconsistent. These cells have been proposed to be fully differentiated cells, reserve stem cells, and tumor stem cells. In order to elucidate the potential function of Dclk1+ cells, we FACS-sorted Dclk1+ cells from mouse small intestinal epithelium using transgenic mice expressing YFP under the control of the Dclk1 promoter (Dclk1-CreER;Rosa26-YFP). Analysis of sorted YFP+ cells demonstrated marked enrichment (~6000 fold) for Dclk1 mRNA compared with YFP− cells. Dclk1+ population display ~6 fold enrichment for the putative quiescent stem cell marker Bmi1. We observed significantly greater expression of pluripotency genes, pro-survival genes, and quiescence markers in the Dclk1+ population. A significant increase in self-renewal capability (14-fold) was observed in in vitro isolated Dclk1+ cells. The unique genetic report presented in this manuscript suggests that Dclk1+ cells may maintain quiescence, pluripotency, and metabolic activity for survival/longevity. Functionally, these reserve characteristics manifest in vitro, with Dclk1+ cells exhibiting greater ability to self-renew. These findings indicate that quiescent stem-like functionality is a feature of Dclk1-expressing tuft cells. PMID:26362399

  9. Characterization through a data display of the different cellular responses in X-irradiated small intestine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carr, K.E.; McCullough, J.S.; Nelson, A.C.; Hume, S.P.

    1992-01-01

    Previous work on small intestinal radiation injury has reported changes in epithelial and non-epithelial tissues, but with few quantitative comparisons of different responses by individual cell types. The approach used here quantifies the responses of mouse duodenum to X-irradiation with 6 Gy, 10 Gy and 20 Gy, sampled three days after treatment, and 10 Gy sampled 6 hours, 1 day and 3 days after treatment. Tissue area measurements and counts per circumference for 13 different structural elements are subjected to statistical tests. New data reported here for X-irradiation include the fact that cryptal cells do not respond uniformly, indicating that the crypt/microcolony cannot always be used as a standard unit in assessing radiation injury. Non-epithelial structures, such as submucosal arterioles, are also affected. The data display also includes control-referenced ratios, from which are calculated Tissue Indices and a final Morphological Index, which estimates total structural damage. The Indices are useful in drawing attention to unexpected changes in extent or range of data sets. In addition, the Epithelial Index appears to be a sensitive indicator of radiation damage, even at low doses and early time points. The data display includes a graph of the total Indices and summary tables of data, and encourages close study of the constituent data points. (author)

  10. Web data display system based on data segment technology of MDSplus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Rui; Zhang Ming; Wen Chuqiao; Zheng Wei; Zhuang Ge; Yu Kexun

    2014-01-01

    Long pulse operation is the main character of advanced Tokamak, so the technology of data storage and human-data interaction are vital for dealing with the large data generated in long pulse experiment. The Web data display system was designed. The system is based on the ASP. NET architecture, and it reads segmented-record data from MDSplus database by segmented-record technology and displays the data on Web page by using NI Measurement Studio control library. With the segmented-record technology, long pulse data could be divided into many small units, data segments. Users can read the certain data segments from the long pulse data according to their special needs. Also, the system develops an efficient strategy for reading segmented record data, showing the waveforms required by users accurately and quickly. The data display Web system was tested on J-TEXT Tokamak, and was proved to be reliable and efficient to achieve the initial design goal. (authors)

  11. Meeting the challenges of developing LED-based projection displays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geißler, Enrico

    2006-04-01

    The main challenge in developing a LED-based projection system is to meet the brightness requirements of the market. Therefore a balanced combination of optical, electrical and thermal parameters must be reached to achieve these performance and cost targets. This paper describes the system design methodology for a digital micromirror display (DMD) based optical engine using LEDs as the light source, starting at the basic physical and geometrical parameters of the DMD and other optical elements through characterization of the LEDs to optimizing the system performance by determining optimal driving conditions. LEDs have a luminous flux density which is just at the threshold of acceptance in projection systems and thus only a fully optimized optical system with a matched set of LEDs can be used. This work resulted in two projection engines, one for a compact pocket projector and the other for a rear projection television, both of which are currently in commercialization.

  12. Histogram-based ionogram displays and their application to autoscaling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynn, Kenneth J. W.

    2018-03-01

    A simple method is described for displaying and auto scaling the basic ionogram parameters foF2 and h'F2 as well as some additional layer parameters from digital ionograms. The technique employed is based on forming frequency and height histograms in each ionogram. This technique has now been applied specifically to ionograms produced by the IPS5D ionosonde developed and operated by the Australian Space Weather Service (SWS). The SWS ionograms are archived in a cleaned format and readily available from the SWS internet site. However, the method is applicable to any ionosonde which produces ionograms in a digital format at a useful signal-to-noise level. The most novel feature of the technique for autoscaling is its simplicity and the avoidance of the mathematical imaging and line fitting techniques often used. The program arose from the necessity to display many days of ionogram output to allow the location of specific types of ionospheric event such as ionospheric storms, travelling ionospheric disturbances and repetitive ionospheric height changes for further investigation and measurement. Examples and applications of the method are given including the removal of sporadic E and spread F.

  13. 9 CFR 590.960 - Small importations for consignee's personal use, display, or laboratory analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... personal use, display, or laboratory analysis. 590.960 Section 590.960 Animals and Animal Products FOOD... personal use, display, or laboratory analysis. Any egg products which are offered for importation, exclusively for the consignee's personal use, display, or laboratory analysis, and not for sale or...

  14. A ECG Signal Gathering and Displaying System Based on AVR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ning, Li; Ruilan, Zhang; Jian, Liu; Xiaochen, Wang; Shuying, Chen; Zhuolin, Lang

    2017-12-01

    This article introduces a kind of system which is based on the AVR to acquire the data of ECG. Such system using the A/D function of ATmega8 chip and the lattice graph LCD to design ECG heart acquisition satisfies the demands above. This design gives a composition of hardware and programming of software about the system in detail which has mainly realized the real-time gathering, the amplifier, the filter, the A/D transformation and the LCD display. Since the AVR includes A/D transformation function and support embedded C language programming, it reduces the peripheral circuit, further more it also decreases the time to design and debug this system.

  15. A Fluid Membrane-Based Soluble Ligand Display System for Live CellAssays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nam, Jwa-Min; Nair, Pradeep N.; Neve, Richard M.; Gray, Joe W.; Groves, Jay T.

    2005-10-14

    Cell communication modulates numerous biological processes including proliferation, apoptosis, motility, invasion and differentiation. Correspondingly, there has been significant interest in the development of surface display strategies for the presentation of signaling molecules to living cells. This effort has primarily focused on naturally surface-bound ligands, such as extracellular matrix components and cell membranes. Soluble ligands (e.g. growth factors and cytokines) play an important role in intercellular communications, and their display in a surface-bound format would be of great utility in the design of array-based live cell assays. Recently, several cell microarray systems that display cDNA, RNAi, or small molecules in a surface array format were proven to be useful in accelerating high-throughput functional genetic studies and screening therapeutic agents. These surface display methods provide a flexible platform for the systematic, combinatorial investigation of genes and small molecules affecting cellular processes and phenotypes of interest. In an analogous sense, it would be an important advance if one could display soluble signaling ligands in a surface assay format that allows for systematic, patterned presentation of soluble ligands to live cells. Such a technique would make it possible to examine cellular phenotypes of interest in a parallel format with soluble signaling ligands as one of the display parameters. Herein we report a ligand-modified fluid supported lipid bilayer (SLB) assay system that can be used to functionally display soluble ligands to cells in situ (Figure 1A). By displaying soluble ligands on a SLB surface, both solution behavior (the ability to become locally enriched by reaction-diffusion processes) and solid behavior (the ability to control the spatial location of the ligands in an open system) could be combined. The method reported herein benefits from the naturally fluid state of the supported membrane, which allows

  16. Small, microcomputer-based CAMAC controller

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Juras, R.C.

    1979-01-01

    The beam buncher necessary to condition the beam from the Oak Ridge National Laboratory 25 MV tandem accelerator for post-acceleration by the Oak Ridge Isochronous Cyclotron is CAMAC-based and will be controlled via one of the serial highways of the accelerator control system. However, prior to integration into the accelerator system, the buncher requires testing, including runs on the model EN tandem at Oak Ridge. In order to facilitate testing and initial operation of the buncher, a microcomputer-based controller was assembled. The controller consists of a CAMAC crate, several CAMAC modules, a touch panel display, a controller box, and software. The controller box contains one shaft encoder and two switches. One of the switches is a coarse/fine selector. The other switch is assignable via the touch panel display and is used, for example, to turn devices on and off. Operation of the controller is described. It can be quickly assembled to control any small CAMAC-based system. 2 figures

  17. Digital signal display board design: A knowledge based study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chaitanya, V. Sree Krishna; Rao, C. Raghavendra

    2007-01-01

    The digital signal display board is assumed to be composed of picture tubes for the purpose of displaying characters. The signal board with the picture tubes constitutes an Information System. A methodology for obtaining the discrimable matrix or table (more decisive attributes) and knowledge reduction for the above information system is proposed

  18. Retail price and point of sale display of tobacco in the UK: a descriptive study of small retailers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dionysis Spanopoulos

    Full Text Available Since the implementation of the 2002 Tobacco Advertising and Promotion Act, point-of-sale (PoS tobacco displays are one of few remaining means of communication between the tobacco industry and customers in the UK. This study aimed to explore the characteristics of tobacco displays in a UK city, and particularly to assess the tobacco prices and promotional offers, types and pack sizes on display.Digital pictures of PoS displays were taken in 117 small retail shops in Nottingham in mid 2010. Data were analysed using Windows Photo Gallery software and SPSS version 16.Just over half (52% of cigarette packs on display were packs of 20, and 43% packs of 10. Cigarette prices differed substantially between brands, ranging from £4.19 to £6.85 for 20-packs, and from £2.12 to £3.59 for 10-packs. Forty four percent of cigarette packs and 40% of RYO (Roll-Your-Own tobacco pouches, almost exclusively lower priced brands, were displayed with a pricemark, implying a promotional price offer. Eighty percent of 20-pack cigarette brand or brand variants on sale were priced below the EU-defined Most Popular Price Category (MPPC for the UK in 2010; 45% were priced below the Weighted Average Price (WAP, which replaced the MPPC in 2011.PoS displays communicate value by displaying a high proportion of lower cost brands, and smaller and hence lower-cost packs, and by displaying price discounts on packs. The MPPC substantially overestimated the prices at which most 20-cigarette packs were available. Removal of PoS displays will prevent this means of price marketing but our study also suggests that minimum pricing of 20-pack cigarettes, prohibition of sale of cigarettes in packs less than 20, and plain packaging to prevent pricemarking are necessary if price is to be used effectively as a tobacco control measure.

  19. Retail price and point of sale display of tobacco in the UK: a descriptive study of small retailers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spanopoulos, Dionysis; Ratschen, Elena; McNeill, Ann; Britton, John

    2012-01-01

    Since the implementation of the 2002 Tobacco Advertising and Promotion Act, point-of-sale (PoS) tobacco displays are one of few remaining means of communication between the tobacco industry and customers in the UK. This study aimed to explore the characteristics of tobacco displays in a UK city, and particularly to assess the tobacco prices and promotional offers, types and pack sizes on display. Digital pictures of PoS displays were taken in 117 small retail shops in Nottingham in mid 2010. Data were analysed using Windows Photo Gallery software and SPSS version 16. Just over half (52%) of cigarette packs on display were packs of 20, and 43% packs of 10. Cigarette prices differed substantially between brands, ranging from £4.19 to £6.85 for 20-packs, and from £2.12 to £3.59 for 10-packs. Forty four percent of cigarette packs and 40% of RYO (Roll-Your-Own) tobacco pouches, almost exclusively lower priced brands, were displayed with a pricemark, implying a promotional price offer. Eighty percent of 20-pack cigarette brand or brand variants on sale were priced below the EU-defined Most Popular Price Category (MPPC) for the UK in 2010; 45% were priced below the Weighted Average Price (WAP), which replaced the MPPC in 2011. PoS displays communicate value by displaying a high proportion of lower cost brands, and smaller and hence lower-cost packs, and by displaying price discounts on packs. The MPPC substantially overestimated the prices at which most 20-cigarette packs were available. Removal of PoS displays will prevent this means of price marketing but our study also suggests that minimum pricing of 20-pack cigarettes, prohibition of sale of cigarettes in packs less than 20, and plain packaging to prevent pricemarking are necessary if price is to be used effectively as a tobacco control measure.

  20. An organic white light-emitting dye: very small molecular architecture displays panchromatic emission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nandhikonda, Premchendar; Heagy, Michael D

    2010-11-14

    The synthesis and photophysical characterization of a new white-light fluorophore is described. The optimization of excitation wavelengths allows the naphthalimide (NI) dyes to display blue, green or white light emission depending on the excitation wavelength.

  1. Design of Process Displays based on Risk Analysis Techniques

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paulsen, Jette Lundtang

    -tions. On the basis of her experience with the design of display systems; with risk analysis methods and from 8 years, as an engi-neer-on-shift at a research reactor, the author developed a method to elicit necessary information to the operator. The method, a combination of a Goal-Tree and a Fault-Tree, is described...

  2. Graphic terminal based on storage tube display with microcomputer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leich, H.; Levchanovsky, F.; Nikulnikov, A.; Polyntsev, A.; Prikhodko, V.

    1981-01-01

    This paper describes a graphic terminal where a microcomputer realizes functions like the generation of picture elements (points, symbols, vectors), display control, processing of data received from keyboard and trackball, communication with a host computer and others. The terminal has been designed for operating in a local network as well as in autonomous control systems for data acquisition and processing in physical experiments [ru

  3. Comparing the Readability of Text Displays on Paper, E-Book Readers, and Small Screen Devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Rebecca Dawn

    2010-01-01

    Science fiction has long promised the digitalization of books. Characters in films and television routinely check their palm-sized (or smaller) electronic displays for fast-scrolling information. However, this very technology, increasingly prevalent in today's world, has not been embraced universally. While the convenience of pocket-sized…

  4. Management and Level of Asian small-clawed otter (Aonyx cinereus Illinger, 1815 as Display Animal in Indonesia Conservation Institution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ulfa Hansyari Ar-Rasyid

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Education and breeding become main reasons for asian small-clawed otter placement as display animal in zoo. Proper management is needed to maintain asian small-clawed otter welfare. This research objectives were to examine and assess asian small-clawed otter welfare in three Indonesia zoos. The study was conducted from December 2016 to February 2017 in Bandung Zoo, Ragunan Zoo and Ocean Dream Samudra Ancol. The methods of this research were literature review, interview and field observation. Data were analyzed using the suitability of management and animal welfare assessment. The result showed that there were three main management activities conducted at the three study locations, i.e., nutrition, housing, and health management. Bandung Zoo achieved the lowest score of asian small-clawed otter welfare (45,24% compared to Ragunan Zoo (62,24% and Ocean Dream Samudra (65,90%. Asian small-clawed otter welfare in three institutions were relatively low to fair category, this was due to the unfilled quality of food and water i.e.,  the type, amount, feeding frequency, diet and preparing of food; the unavailability of suitable and favorable environmental conditions; the care facilities provided could not ensure the health of animal; the appearance of abnormal behavior that affected the growth and breeding of animal; and animal had no freedom to behave as in their natural habitat. Keywords: animal display, animal welfare, Asian small-clawed otter, zoo 

  5. [Comparison of detectability of liquid crystal displays (LCDs) and film using phantoms of small adenocarcinomas as abnormalities].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mochizuki, Yasuo; Abe, Shinji; Monma, Masahiko; Yamaguchi, Kojirou; Adachi, Toshiki

    2011-01-01

    Following the trend of the digitalization of the modalities used for diagnostic imaging, the devices for such imaging have increasingly included monitors. The present study was undertaken to evaluate the usefulness of soft-copy (liquid crystal display; LCD) images of phantoms of small adenocarcinomas using receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis of two different display systems: LCD and hard copy (film). A two-tailed paired t-test and the jackknife method (parametric methods) were performed, and no significant differences were found in the area under the ROC curve (AUC) for the pulmonary fields, lungs, ribs, or mediastinum between the film and LCD display systems, and the detectability did not differ between the film and LCD monitors. A Mann-Whitney U test, which is a non-parametric method that applies to the analysis of a small sample, also showed no significant differences in the AUC. The results of this study suggest that LCDs can replace hard-copy film as a display system if the signals.

  6. Design of the control system for full-color LED display based on MSP430 MCU

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xue; Xu, Hui-juan; Qin, Ling-ling; Zheng, Long-jiang

    2013-08-01

    The LED display incorporate the micro electronic technique, computer technology and information processing as a whole, it becomes the most preponderant of a new generation of display media with the advantages of bright in color, high dynamic range, high brightness and long operating life, etc. The LED display has been widely used in the bank, securities trading, highway signs, airport and advertising, etc. According to the display color, the LED display screen is divided into monochrome screen, double color display and full color display. With the diversification of the LED display's color and the ceaseless rise of the display demands, the LED display's drive circuit and control technology also get the corresponding progress and development. The earliest monochrome screen just displaying Chinese characters, simple character or digital, so the requirements of the controller are relatively low. With the widely used of the double color LED display, the performance of its controller will also increase. In recent years, the full color LED display with three primary colors of red, green, blue and grayscale display effect has been highly attention with its rich and colorful display effect. Every true color pixel includes three son pixels of red, green, blue, using the space colour mixture to realize the multicolor. The dynamic scanning control system of LED full-color display is designed based on MSP430 microcontroller technology of the low power consumption. The gray control technology of this system used the new method of pulse width modulation (PWM) and 19 games show principle are combining. This method in meet 256 level grayscale display conditions, improves the efficiency of the LED light device, and enhances the administrative levels feels of the image. Drive circuit used 1/8 scanning constant current drive mode, and make full use of the single chip microcomputer I/O mouth resources to complete the control. The system supports text, pictures display of 256 grayscale

  7. Development of an Evaluation Method for the Design Complexity of Computer-Based Displays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Hyoung Ju; Lee, Seung Woo; Kang, Hyun Gook; Seong, Poong Hyun [KAIST, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Park, Jin Kyun [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-10-15

    The importance of the design of human machine interfaces (HMIs) for human performance and the safety of process industries has long been continuously recognized for many decades. Especially, in the case of nuclear power plants (NPPs), HMIs have significant implications for the safety of the NPPs because poor HMIs can impair the decision making ability of human operators. In order to support and increase the decision making ability of human operators, advanced HMIs based on the up-to-date computer technology are provided. Human operators in advanced main control room (MCR) acquire information through video display units (VDUs) and large display panel (LDP), which is required for the operation of NPPs. These computer-based displays contain a huge amount of information and present it with a variety of formats compared to those of a conventional MCR. For example, these displays contain more display elements such as abbreviations, labels, icons, symbols, coding, etc. As computer-based displays contain more information, the complexity of advanced displays becomes greater due to less distinctiveness of each display element. A greater understanding is emerging about the effectiveness of designs of computer-based displays, including how distinctively display elements should be designed. This study covers the early phase in the development of an evaluation method for the design complexity of computer-based displays. To this end, a series of existing studies were reviewed to suggest an appropriate concept that is serviceable to unravel this problem

  8. Collaborative Work without Large, Shared Displays: Looking for “the Big Picture” on a Small Screen?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hertzum, Morten

    2017-01-01

    Large, shared displays – such as electronic whiteboards – have proven successful in supporting actors in forming and maintaining an overview of tightly coupled collaborative activities. However, in many developing countries the technology of choice is mobile phones, which have neither a large nor...... a shared screen. It therefore appears relevant to ask: How may mobile devices with small screens support, or fail to support, actors in forming and maintaining an overview of their collaborative activities?...

  9. Web-Based Cathode Strip Chamber Data Display

    CERN Multimedia

    Firmansyah, M

    2013-01-01

    Cathode Strip Chamber (CSC) is a detector that uses gas and high electric field to detect particles. When a particle goes through CSC, it will ionize gas particles and generate electric signal in the anode and cathode of the detector. Analysis of the electric signal data can help physicists to reconstruct path of the particles and determine what happen inside the detector. Using data display, analysis of CSC data becomes easier. One can determine which data is interesting, unusual, or maybe only contain noise.\

  10. Scientific data base management, time series analysis, and data display

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malthan, J.A.; Burgess, D.N.

    1976-01-01

    Since the concluding of treaties banning testing of nuclear devices in the atmosphere, data necessary to continued development of nuclear weapons have in some cases been obtained in field tests in which high-yield chemical explosives were used in lieu of nuclear devices. In 1972 it was decided that a central file of raw data from such tests was necessary. The steps involved in assembling, organizing, and maintaining these data are described under the headings data archive, data directories, data identification system, data management system, and data processing. An example case to illustrate the four types of processing requests was shown. Types of data display are summarized. 7 figures, 4 tables

  11. Prism-based single-camera system for stereo display

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yue; Cui, Xiaoyu; Wang, Zhiguo; Chen, Hongsheng; Fan, Heyu; Wu, Teresa

    2016-06-01

    This paper combines the prism and single camera and puts forward a method of stereo imaging with low cost. First of all, according to the principle of geometrical optics, we can deduce the relationship between the prism single-camera system and dual-camera system, and according to the principle of binocular vision we can deduce the relationship between binoculars and dual camera. Thus we can establish the relationship between the prism single-camera system and binoculars and get the positional relation of prism, camera, and object with the best effect of stereo display. Finally, using the active shutter stereo glasses of NVIDIA Company, we can realize the three-dimensional (3-D) display of the object. The experimental results show that the proposed approach can make use of the prism single-camera system to simulate the various observation manners of eyes. The stereo imaging system, which is designed by the method proposed by this paper, can restore the 3-D shape of the object being photographed factually.

  12. Design, Implementation and Characterization of a Quantum-Dot-Based Volumetric Display

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirayama, Ryuji; Naruse, Makoto; Nakayama, Hirotaka; Tate, Naoya; Shiraki, Atsushi; Kakue, Takashi; Shimobaba, Tomoyoshi; Ohtsu, Motoichi; Ito, Tomoyoshi

    2015-02-01

    In this study, we propose and experimentally demonstrate a volumetric display system based on quantum dots (QDs) embedded in a polymer substrate. Unlike conventional volumetric displays, our system does not require electrical wiring; thus, the heretofore unavoidable issue of occlusion is resolved because irradiation by external light supplies the energy to the light-emitting voxels formed by the QDs. By exploiting the intrinsic attributes of the QDs, the system offers ultrahigh definition and a wide range of colours for volumetric displays. In this paper, we discuss the design, implementation and characterization of the proposed volumetric display's first prototype. We developed an 8 × 8 × 8 display comprising two types of QDs. This display provides multicolour three-type two-dimensional patterns when viewed from different angles. The QD-based volumetric display provides a new way to represent images and could be applied in leisure and advertising industries, among others.

  13. Performance analysis of multi-primary color display based on OLEDs/PLEDs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Yan; Deng, Fei; Xu, Shan; Gao, Shufang

    2017-09-01

    A multi-primary color display, such as the six-primary color format, is a solution in expanding the color gamut of a full-color flat panel display. The performance of a multi-primary color display based on organic/polymer light-emitting diodes was analyzed in this study using the fitting curves of the characteristics of devices (i.e., current density, voltage, luminance). A white emitter was introduced into a six-primary color format to form a seven-primary color format that contributes to energy saving, and the ratio of power efficiency of a seven-primary color display to that of a six-primary color display would increase from 1.027 to 1.061 by using emitting diodes with different electroluminescent efficiencies. Different color matching schemes of the seven-primary color format display were compared in a uniform color space, and the scheme of the color reproduction did not significantly affect the display performance. Although seven- and six-primary color format displays benefit a full-color display with higher quality, they are less efficient than three-primary (i.e., red (R), green (G), and blue (B), RGB) and four-primary (i.e., RGB+white, RGBW) color format displays. For the seven-primary color formats considered in this study, the advantages of white-primary-added display with efficiently developed light-emitting devices were more evident than the format without a white primary.

  14. Application of the Decomposition Method to the Design Complexity of Computer-based Display

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Hyoung Ju; Lee, Seung Woo; Seong, Poong Hyun [Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Park, Jin Kyun [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-05-15

    The importance of the design of human machine interfaces (HMIs) for human performance and safety has long been recognized in process industries. In case of nuclear power plants (NPPs), HMIs have significant implications for the safety of the NPPs since poor implementation of HMIs can impair the operators' information searching ability which is considered as one of the important aspects of human behavior. To support and increase the efficiency of the operators' information searching behavior, advanced HMIs based on computer technology are provided. Operators in advanced main control room (MCR) acquire information through video display units (VDUs), and large display panel (LDP) required for the operation of NPPs. These computer-based displays contain a very large quantity of information and present them in a variety of formats than conventional MCR. For example, these displays contain more elements such as abbreviations, labels, icons, symbols, coding, and highlighting than conventional ones. As computer-based displays contain more information, complexity of the elements becomes greater due to less distinctiveness of each element. A greater understanding is emerging about the effectiveness of designs of computer-based displays, including how distinctively display elements should be designed. And according to Gestalt theory, people tend to group similar elements based on attributes such as shape, color or pattern based on the principle of similarity. Therefore, it is necessary to consider not only human operator's perception but the number of element consisting of computer-based display

  15. Application of the Decomposition Method to the Design Complexity of Computer-based Display

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Hyoung Ju; Lee, Seung Woo; Seong, Poong Hyun; Park, Jin Kyun

    2012-01-01

    The importance of the design of human machine interfaces (HMIs) for human performance and safety has long been recognized in process industries. In case of nuclear power plants (NPPs), HMIs have significant implications for the safety of the NPPs since poor implementation of HMIs can impair the operators' information searching ability which is considered as one of the important aspects of human behavior. To support and increase the efficiency of the operators' information searching behavior, advanced HMIs based on computer technology are provided. Operators in advanced main control room (MCR) acquire information through video display units (VDUs), and large display panel (LDP) required for the operation of NPPs. These computer-based displays contain a very large quantity of information and present them in a variety of formats than conventional MCR. For example, these displays contain more elements such as abbreviations, labels, icons, symbols, coding, and highlighting than conventional ones. As computer-based displays contain more information, complexity of the elements becomes greater due to less distinctiveness of each element. A greater understanding is emerging about the effectiveness of designs of computer-based displays, including how distinctively display elements should be designed. And according to Gestalt theory, people tend to group similar elements based on attributes such as shape, color or pattern based on the principle of similarity. Therefore, it is necessary to consider not only human operator's perception but the number of element consisting of computer-based display

  16. Microprocessor based beam intensity and efficiency display system for the Fermilab accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biwer, R.

    1979-01-01

    The Main Accelerator display system for the Fermilab accelerator gathers charge data and displays it including processed transfer efficiencies of each of the accelerators. To accomplish this, strategically located charge converters monitor the circulating internal beam of each of the Fermilab accelerators. Their outputs are processed via an asynchronously triggered, multiplexed analog-to-digital converter. The data is converted into a digital byte containing address code and data, then stores it into two 16-bit memories. One memory outputs the interleaved data as a data pulse train while the other interfaces directly to a local host computer for further analysis. The microprocessor based display unit synchronizes displayed data during normal operation as well as special storage modes. The display unit outputs data to the fron panel in the form of a numeric value and also makes digital-to-analog conversions of displayed data for external peripheral devices. 5 refs

  17. A rule-based expert system for generating control displays at the Advanced Photon Source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coulter, K.J.

    1993-01-01

    The integration of a rule-based expert system for generating screen displays for controlling and monitoring instrumentation under the Experimental Physics and Industrial Control System (EPICS) is presented. The expert system is implemented using CLIPS, an expert system shell from the Software Technology Branch at Lyndon B. Johnson Space Center. The user selects the hardware input and output to be displayed and the expert system constructs a graphical control screen appropriate for the data. Such a system provides a method for implementing a common look and feel for displays created by several different users and reduces the amount of time required to create displays for new hardware configurations. Users are able to modify the displays as needed using the EPICS display editor tool

  18. A rule-based expert system for generating control displays at the advanced photon source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coulter, K.J.

    1994-01-01

    The integration of a rule-based expert system for generating screen displays for controlling and monitoring instrumentation under the Experimental Physics and Industrial Control System (EPICS) is presented. The expert system is implemented using CLIPS, an expert system shell from the Software Technology Branch at Lyndon B. Johnson Space Center. The user selects the hardware input and output to be displayed and the expert system constructs a graphical control screen appropriate for the data. Such a system provides a method for implementing a common look and feel for displays created by several different users and reduces the amount of time required to create displays for new hardware configurations. Users are able to modify the displays as needed using the EPICS display editor tool. ((orig.))

  19. The research of selection model based on LOD in multi-scale display of electronic map

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jinming; You, Xiong; Liu, Yingzhen

    2008-10-01

    This paper proposes a selection model based on LOD to aid the display of electronic map. The ratio of display scale to map scale is regarded as a LOD operator. The categorization rule, classification rule, elementary rule and spatial geometry character rule of LOD operator setting are also concluded.

  20. Design about position and display of GPS based on singlechip

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    WU Dongdong

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available GPS is used in ships,vehicles,aircraft and other moving objects.GPS also has the important application in vehicle monitoring system.However,with the expansion of the specialized functions of GPS,its high cost makes so many ordinary consumers unbearable.This paper proposes a simple design of GPS based on singlechip.The design Improves the basic utility functions of system and adds the speed and mileage measurement.GPS module uses the differential technology to improve the positioning accuracy.Therefore,the navigation device is compact,easy to carry and of high precision positioning.Through getting the data of 3D coordinates from the observation point and the factor of position accuracy,the average of which is less than five,indicating that the position accuracy can be improved by differential technology to achieve the desired range.At last,the feasibility of this design is verified through the current data tested in the outdoors.

  1. Construction of naïve camelids VHH repertoire in phage display-based library.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabir, Jamal S M; Atef, Ahmed; El-Domyati, Fotouh M; Edris, Sherif; Hajrah, Nahid; Alzohairy, Ahmed M; Bahieldin, Ahmed

    2014-04-01

    Camelids have unique antibodies, namely HCAbs (VHH) or commercially named Nanobodies(®) (Nb) that are composed only of a heavy-chain homodimer. As libraries based on immunized camelids are time-consuming, costly and likely redundant for certain antigens, we describe the construction of a naïve camelid VHHs library from blood serum of non-immunized camelids with affinity in the subnanomolar range and suitable for standard immune applications. This approach is rapid and recovers VHH repertoire with the advantages of being more diverse, non-specific and devoid of subpopulations of specific antibodies, which allows the identification of binders for any potential antigen (or pathogen). RNAs from a number of camelids from Saudi Arabia were isolated and cDNAs of the diverse vhh gene were amplified; the resulting amplicons were cloned in the phage display pSEX81 vector. The size of the library was found to be within the required range (10(7)) suitable for subsequent applications in disease diagnosis and treatment. Two hundred clones were randomly selected and the inserted gene library was either estimated for redundancy or sequenced and aligned to the reference camelid vhh gene (acc. No. ADE99145). Results indicated complete non-specificity of this small library in which no single event of redundancy was detected. These results indicate the efficacy of following this approach in order to yield a large and diverse enough gene library to secure the presence of the required version encoding the required antibodies for any target antigen. This work is a first step towards the construction of phage display-based biosensors useful in disease (e.g., TB or tuberculosis) diagnosis and treatment. Copyright © 2014 Académie des sciences. Published by Elsevier SAS. All rights reserved.

  2. Non-binary Colour Modulation for Display Device Based on Phase Change Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Hong-Kai; Tong, Hao; Qian, Hang; Hui, Ya-Juan; Liu, Nian; Yan, Peng; Miao, Xiang-Shui

    2016-12-01

    A reflective-type display device based on phase change materials is attractive because of its ultrafast response time and high resolution compared with a conventional display device. This paper proposes and demonstrates a unique display device in which multicolour changing can be achieved on a single device by the selective crystallization of double layer phase change materials. The optical contrast is optimized by the availability of a variety of film thicknesses of two phase change layers. The device exhibits a low sensitivity to the angle of incidence, which is important for display and colour consistency. The non-binary colour rendering on a single device is demonstrated for the first time using optical excitation. The device shows the potential for ultrafast display applications.

  3. The analysis of colour uniformity for a volumetric display based on a rotating LED array

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, Jiang; Liu, Xu; Yan, Caijie; Xia, XinXing; Li, Haifeng

    2011-01-01

    There is a colour nonuniformity zone existing in three-dimensional (3D) volumetric displays which is based on the rotating colour light-emitting diode (LED) array. We analyse the reason for the colour nonuniformity zone by measuring the light intensity distribution and chromaticity coordinates of the LED in the volumetric display. Two boundaries of the colour nonuniformity zone are calculated. We measure the colour uniformities for a single cuboid of 3*3*4 voxels to display red, green, blue and white colour in different horizontal viewing angles, and for 64 cuboids distributed in the whole cylindrical image space with a fixed viewpoint. To evaluate the colour uniformity of a 3D image, we propose three evaluation indices of colour uniformity: the average of colour difference, the maximum colour difference and the variance of colour difference. The measurement results show that the character of colour uniformity is different for the 3D volumetric display and the two-dimensional display

  4. Non-binary Colour Modulation for Display Device Based on Phase Change Materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Hong-Kai; Tong, Hao; Qian, Hang; Hui, Ya-Juan; Liu, Nian; Yan, Peng; Miao, Xiang-Shui

    2016-12-19

    A reflective-type display device based on phase change materials is attractive because of its ultrafast response time and high resolution compared with a conventional display device. This paper proposes and demonstrates a unique display device in which multicolour changing can be achieved on a single device by the selective crystallization of double layer phase change materials. The optical contrast is optimized by the availability of a variety of film thicknesses of two phase change layers. The device exhibits a low sensitivity to the angle of incidence, which is important for display and colour consistency. The non-binary colour rendering on a single device is demonstrated for the first time using optical excitation. The device shows the potential for ultrafast display applications.

  5. Investigation of the touch sensitivity of ER fluid based tactile display

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yanju; Davidson, Rob; Taylor, Paul

    2005-05-01

    A tactile display is programmable device whose controlled surface is intended to be investigated by human touch. It has a great number of potential applications in the field of virtual reality and elsewhere. In this research, a 5x5 touch sensitive tactile display array including electrorheological (ER) fluid has been developed and investigated. Experimental results show that the sensed surface information could be controlled effectively by adjusting the voltage activation pattern imposed on the tactels. In the meantime, it is possible to sense the touching force normal to the display"s surface by monitoring the change of current passing through the ER fluid. These encouraging results are helpful for constructing a new type of tactile display based on ER fluid which can act as both sensor and actuator at the same time.

  6. The application of autostereoscopic display in smart home system based on mobile devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yongjun; Ling, Zhi

    2015-03-01

    Smart home is a system to control home devices which are more and more popular in our daily life. Mobile intelligent terminals based on smart homes have been developed, make remote controlling and monitoring possible with smartphones or tablets. On the other hand, 3D stereo display technology developed rapidly in recent years. Therefore, a iPad-based smart home system adopts autostereoscopic display as the control interface is proposed to improve the userfriendliness of using experiences. In consideration of iPad's limited hardware capabilities, we introduced a 3D image synthesizing method based on parallel processing with Graphic Processing Unit (GPU) implemented it with OpenGL ES Application Programming Interface (API) library on IOS platforms for real-time autostereoscopic displaying. Compared to the traditional smart home system, the proposed system applied autostereoscopic display into smart home system's control interface enhanced the reality, user-friendliness and visual comfort of interface.

  7. Inkjet printing-based volumetric display projecting multiple full-colour 2D patterns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirayama, Ryuji; Suzuki, Tomotaka; Shimobaba, Tomoyoshi; Shiraki, Atsushi; Naruse, Makoto; Nakayama, Hirotaka; Kakue, Takashi; Ito, Tomoyoshi

    2017-04-01

    In this study, a method to construct a full-colour volumetric display is presented using a commercially available inkjet printer. Photoreactive luminescence materials are minutely and automatically printed as the volume elements, and volumetric displays are constructed with high resolution using easy-to-fabricate means that exploit inkjet printing technologies. The results experimentally demonstrate the first prototype of an inkjet printing-based volumetric display composed of multiple layers of transparent films that yield a full-colour three-dimensional (3D) image. Moreover, we propose a design algorithm with 3D structures that provide multiple different 2D full-colour patterns when viewed from different directions and experimentally demonstrate prototypes. It is considered that these types of 3D volumetric structures and their fabrication methods based on widely deployed existing printing technologies can be utilised as novel information display devices and systems, including digital signage, media art, entertainment and security.

  8. A basic design of microcontroller based data processor and local display for digital logarithmic power channel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nur Khasan; Syahrudin Yusuf

    2009-01-01

    A data processor and its local display for a digital logarithmic power channel, which will be used as a complement and diversification of nuclear reactor instrument, has been designed using micro controller base circuit. This power channel has been designed using TTL device and microcontroller. The roll of the microcontroller will be as data acquisition, data processing for the measurement of percentage reactor power, period and the trip decision. In this design has beer; created display of numerical value will be display on the local display in on-line mode for 1 nV to 10 10 nV neutron flux measurement range. This logarithmic power channel is expected to support the existing instrument which uses analog system in Instrumentation and Control System of nuclear reactor. (author)

  9. Design of the task-based display prototype and the first user-test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Svengren, Haakan; Strand, Stine

    2005-09-01

    This report provides a description of the Task-based displays prototype for BWRs, and documents the results of the first user-test. Three different kinds of Task-based displays were designed: 1) displays for performing first checks and obtaining overview in emergency situations, 2) displays for performing emergency procedures, and 3) displays that facilitate understanding of the process and logic. The procedures included an expert-help function to support the operators in performing the procedures. The design was only implemented on the reactor side of the plant. The user-test was conducted using the HAMBO simulator in HAMMLAB. 6 crews from Forsmark 3 and Oskarshamn 3 participated in the test. The crews participated in 4 scenarios, which all were considered as highly complex scenarios that included actuation of several reactor protection signals. The data collection techniques (questionnaires and interviews) intended to cover usability-related issues and mainly involved the reactor operators. The results demonstrated that the Task-based design approach was very well received by the operators, and that the work initiated by the design of this first prototype should be continued. The operators generally found the procedure-implementation and the displays useful and easy to understand. They considered the amount of information contained in the procedures and the displays as good, and associated with low levels of frustration. The expert-help provided in the current test was very premature. This resulted in somewhat poorer usability ratings compared to the procedures and the displays. However, the operators explicitly stated the usefulness of providing expert-help in the combination with computerized procedures. The operators rated the computer-based procedures as slightly easier, less time-consuming, and slightly less mentally demanding than paper-based procedures. All the operators considered navigation within and between the procedures as easy, although some

  10. Optimizing visual comfort for stereoscopic 3D display based on color-plus-depth signals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shao, Feng; Jiang, Qiuping; Fu, Randi; Yu, Mei; Jiang, Gangyi

    2016-05-30

    Visual comfort is a long-facing problem in stereoscopic 3D (S3D) display. In this paper, targeting to produce S3D content based on color-plus-depth signals, a general framework for depth mapping to optimize visual comfort for S3D display is proposed. The main motivation of this work is to remap the depth range of color-plus-depth signals to a new depth range that is suitable to comfortable S3D display. Towards this end, we first remap the depth range globally based on the adjusted zero disparity plane, and then present a two-stage global and local depth optimization solution to solve the visual comfort problem. The remapped depth map is used to generate the S3D output. We demonstrate the power of our approach on perceptually uncomfortable and comfortable stereoscopic images.

  11. CLINICAL SURFACES - Activity-Based Computing for Distributed Multi-Display Environments in Hospitals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bardram, Jakob E.; Bunde-Pedersen, Jonathan; Doryab, Afsaneh; Sørensen, Steffen

    A multi-display environment (MDE) is made up of co-located and networked personal and public devices that form an integrated workspace enabling co-located group work. Traditionally, MDEs have, however, mainly been designed to support a single “smart room”, and have had little sense of the tasks and activities that the MDE is being used for. This paper presents a novel approach to support activity-based computing in distributed MDEs, where displays are physically distributed across a large building. CLINICAL SURFACES was designed for clinical work in hospitals, and enables context-sensitive retrieval and browsing of patient data on public displays. We present the design and implementation of CLINICAL SURFACES, and report from an evaluation of the system at a large hospital. The evaluation shows that using distributed public displays to support activity-based computing inside a hospital is very useful for clinical work, and that the apparent contradiction between maintaining privacy of medical data in a public display environment can be mitigated by the use of CLINICAL SURFACES.

  12. Research on Chinese characters display of airborne MFD based on GL studio

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhile; Dong, Junyu; Hu, Wenting; Cui, Yipeng

    2018-04-01

    GL Studio cannot display Chinese characters during developing the airborne MFD, this paper propose a method of establishing a Chinese character font with GB2312 encoding, establish the font table and the display unit of Chinese characters based on GL Studio. Abstract the storage and display data model of Chinese characters, parse the GB encoding of the corresponding Chinese characters that MFD received, find the coordinates of the Chinese characters in the font table, establish the dynamic control model and the dynamic display model of Chinese characters based on the display unit of Chinese characters. In GL Studio and VC ++.NET environment, this model has been successfully applied to develop the airborne MFD in a variety of mission simulators. This method has successfully solved the problem that GL Studio software cannot develop MFD software of Chinese domestic aircraft and can also be used for other professional airborne MFD development tools such as IDATA. It has been proved by experiments that this is a fast effective scalable and reconfigurable method of developing both actual equipment and simulators.

  13. 47 CFR 95.139 - Adding a small base station or a small control station.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Adding a small base station or a small control... base station or a small control station. (a) Except for a GMRS system licensed to a non-individual, one or more small base stations or a small control station may be added to a GMRS system at any point...

  14. Electrochemical Glucose Biosensor Based on Glucose Oxidase Displayed on Yeast Surface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hongwei; Lang, Qiaolin; Liang, Bo; Liu, Aihua

    2015-01-01

    The conventional enzyme-based biosensor requires chemical or physical immobilization of purified enzymes on electrode surface, which often results in loss of enzyme activity and/or fractions immobilized over time. It is also costly. A major advantage of yeast surface display is that it enables the direct utilization of whole cell catalysts with eukaryote-produced proteins being displayed on the cell surface, providing an economic alternative to traditional production of purified enzymes. Herein, we describe the details of the display of glucose oxidase (GOx) on yeast cell surface and its application in the development of electrochemical glucose sensor. In order to achieve a direct electrochemistry of GOx, the entire cell catalyst (yeast-GOx) was immobilized together with multiwalled carbon nanotubes on the electrode, which allowed sensitive and selective glucose detection.

  15. Bandwidth Optimization On Design Of Visual Display Information System Based Networking At Politeknik Negeri Bali

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sudiartha, IKG; Catur Bawa, IGNB

    2018-01-01

    Information can not be separated from the social life of the community, especially in the world of education. One of the information fields is academic calendar information, activity agenda, announcement and campus activity news. In line with technological developments, text-based information is becoming obsolete. For that need creativity to present information more quickly, accurately and interesting by exploiting the development of digital technology and internet. In this paper will be developed applications for the provision of information in the form of visual display, applied to computer network system with multimedia applications. Network-based applications provide ease in updating data through internet services, attractive presentations with multimedia support. The application “Networking Visual Display Information Unit” can be used as a medium that provides information services for students and academic employee more interesting and ease in updating information than the bulletin board. The information presented in the form of Running Text, Latest Information, Agenda, Academic Calendar and Video provide an interesting presentation and in line with technological developments at the Politeknik Negeri Bali. Through this research is expected to create software “Networking Visual Display Information Unit” with optimal bandwidth usage by combining local data sources and data through the network. This research produces visual display design with optimal bandwidth usage and application in the form of supporting software.

  16. Scanning fiber microdisplay: design, implementation, and comparison to MEMS mirror-based scanning displays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khayatzadeh, Ramin; Civitci, Fehmi; Ferhanoglu, Onur; Urey, Hakan

    2018-03-05

    In this study, we propose a compact, lightweight scanning fiber microdisplay towards virtual and augmented reality applications. Our design that is tailored as a head-worn-display simply consists of a four-quadrant piezoelectric tube actuator through which a fiber optics cable is extended and actuated, and a reflective (or semi-reflective) ellipsoidal surface that relays the moving tip of the fiber onto the viewer's retina. The proposed display, offers significant advantages in terms of architectural simplicity, form-factor, fabrication complexity and cost over other fiber scanner and MEMS mirror counterparts towards practical realization. We demonstrate the display of various patterns with ∼VGA resolution and further provide analytical formulas for mechanical and optical constraints to compare the performance of the proposed scanning fiber microdisplay with that of MEMS mirror-based microdisplays. Also we discuss the road steps towards improving the performance of the proposed scanning fiber microdisplay to high-definition video formats (such as HD1440), which is beyond what has been achieved by MEMS mirror based laser scanning displays.

  17. Small organic molecule based flow battery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huskinson, Brian; Marshak, Michael; Aziz, Michael J.; Gordon, Roy G.; Betley, Theodore A.; Aspuru-Guzik, Alan; Er, Suleyman; Suh, Changwon

    2018-05-08

    The invention provides an electrochemical cell based on a new chemistry for a flow battery for large scale, e.g., gridscale, electrical energy storage. Electrical energy is stored chemically at an electrochemical electrode by the protonation of small organic molecules called quinones to hydroquinones. The proton is provided by a complementary electrochemical reaction at the other electrode. These reactions are reversed to deliver electrical energy. A flow battery based on this concept can operate as a closed system. The flow battery architecture has scaling advantages over solid electrode batteries for large scale energy storage.

  18. Assessment of Eye Fatigue Caused by 3D Displays Based on Multimodal Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bang, Jae Won; Heo, Hwan; Choi, Jong-Suk; Park, Kang Ryoung

    2014-01-01

    With the development of 3D displays, user's eye fatigue has been an important issue when viewing these displays. There have been previous studies conducted on eye fatigue related to 3D display use, however, most of these have employed a limited number of modalities for measurements, such as electroencephalograms (EEGs), biomedical signals, and eye responses. In this paper, we propose a new assessment of eye fatigue related to 3D display use based on multimodal measurements. compared to previous works Our research is novel in the following four ways: first, to enhance the accuracy of assessment of eye fatigue, we measure EEG signals, eye blinking rate (BR), facial temperature (FT), and a subjective evaluation (SE) score before and after a user watches a 3D display; second, in order to accurately measure BR in a manner that is convenient for the user, we implement a remote gaze-tracking system using a high speed (mega-pixel) camera that measures eye blinks of both eyes; thirdly, changes in the FT are measured using a remote thermal camera, which can enhance the measurement of eye fatigue, and fourth, we perform various statistical analyses to evaluate the correlation between the EEG signal, eye BR, FT, and the SE score based on the T-test, correlation matrix, and effect size. Results show that the correlation of the SE with other data (FT, BR, and EEG) is the highest, while those of the FT, BR, and EEG with other data are second, third, and fourth highest, respectively. PMID:25192315

  19. Assessment of Eye Fatigue Caused by 3D Displays Based on Multimodal Measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jae Won Bang

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available With the development of 3D displays, user’s eye fatigue has been an important issue when viewing these displays. There have been previous studies conducted on eye fatigue related to 3D display use, however, most of these have employed a limited number of modalities for measurements, such as electroencephalograms (EEGs, biomedical signals, and eye responses. In this paper, we propose a new assessment of eye fatigue related to 3D display use based on multimodal measurements. compared to previous works Our research is novel in the following four ways: first, to enhance the accuracy of assessment of eye fatigue, we measure EEG signals, eye blinking rate (BR, facial temperature (FT, and a subjective evaluation (SE score before and after a user watches a 3D display; second, in order to accurately measure BR in a manner that is convenient for the user, we implement a remote gaze-tracking system using a high speed (mega-pixel camera that measures eye blinks of both eyes; thirdly, changes in the FT are measured using a remote thermal camera, which can enhance the measurement of eye fatigue, and fourth, we perform various statistical analyses to evaluate the correlation between the EEG signal, eye BR, FT, and the SE score based on the T-test, correlation matrix, and effect size. Results show that the correlation of the SE with other data (FT, BR, and EEG is the highest, while those of the FT, BR, and EEG with other data are second, third, and fourth highest, respectively.

  20. Designing and researching of the virtual display system based on the prism elements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasilev, V. N.; Grimm, V. A.; Romanova, G. E.; Smirnov, S. A.; Bakholdin, A. V.; Grishina, N. Y.

    2014-05-01

    Problems of designing of systems for virtual display systems for augmented reality placed near the observers eye (so called head worn displays) with the light guide prismatic elements are considered. Systems of augmented reality is the complex consists of the image generator (most often it's the microdisplay with the illumination system if the display is not self-luminous), the objective which forms the display image practically in infinity and the combiner which organizes the light splitting so that an observer could see the information of the microdisplay and the surrounding environment as the background at the same time. This work deals with the system with the combiner based on the composite structure of the prism elements. In the work three cases of the prism combiner design are considered and also the results of the modeling with the optical design software are presented. In the model the question of the large pupil zone was analyzed and also the discontinuous character (mosaic structure) of the angular field in transmission of the information from the microdisplay to the observer's eye with the prismatic structure are discussed.

  1. Analysis of the diffraction effects for a multi-view autostereoscopic three-dimensional display system based on shutter parallax barriers with full resolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Yang; Yu, Zhongyuan; Jia, Fangda; Zhang, Chunyu; Wang, Ye; Liu, Yumin; Ye, Han; Chen, Laurence Lujun

    2017-10-01

    A multi-view autostereoscopic three-dimensional (3D) system is built by using a 2D display screen and a customized parallax-barrier shutter (PBS) screen. The shutter screen is controlled dynamically by address driving matrix circuit and it is placed in front of the display screen at a certain location. The system could achieve densest viewpoints due to its specially optical and geometric design which is based on concept of "eye space". The resolution of 3D imaging is not reduced compared to 2D mode by using limited time division multiplexing technology. The diffraction effects may play an important role in 3D display imaging quality, especially when applied to small screen, such as iPhone screen etc. For small screen, diffraction effects may contribute crosstalk between binocular views, image brightness uniformity etc. Therefore, diffraction effects are analyzed and considered in a one-dimensional shutter screen model of the 3D display, in which the numerical simulation of light from display pixels on display screen through parallax barrier slits to each viewing zone in eye space, is performed. The simulation results provide guidance for criteria screen size over which the impact of diffraction effects are ignorable, and below which diffraction effects must be taken into account. Finally, the simulation results are compared to the corresponding experimental measurements and observation with discussion.

  2. Design of retinal-projection-based near-eye display with contact lens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yuhang; Chen, Chao Ping; Mi, Lantian; Zhang, Wenbo; Zhao, Jingxin; Lu, Yifan; Guo, Weiqian; Yu, Bing; Li, Yang; Maitlo, Nizamuddin

    2018-04-30

    We propose a design of a retinal-projection-based near-eye display for achieving ultra-large field of view, vision correction, and occlusion. Our solution is highlighted by a contact lens combo, a transparent organic light-emitting diode panel, and a twisted nematic liquid crystal panel. Its design rules are set forth in detail, followed by the results and discussion regarding the field of view, angular resolution, modulation transfer function, contrast ratio, distortion, and simulated imaging.

  3. A browser-based event display for the CMS experiment at the LHC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hategan, M; McCauley, T; Nguyen, P

    2012-01-01

    The line between native and web applications is becoming increasingly blurred as modern web browsers are becoming powerful platforms on which applications can be run. Such applications are trivial to install and are readily extensible and easy to use. In an educational setting, web applications permit a way to deploy deploy tools in a highly-restrictive computing environment. The I2U2 collaboration has developed a browser-based event display for viewing events in data collected and released to the public by the CMS experiment at the LHC. The application itself reads a JSON event format and uses the JavaScript 3D rendering engine pre3d. The only requirement is a modern browser using HTML5 canvas. The event display has been used by thousands of high school students in the context of programs organized by I2U2, QuarkNet, and IPPOG. This browser-based approach to display of events can have broader usage and impact for experts and public alike.

  4. Design of area array CCD image acquisition and display system based on FPGA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Lei; Zhang, Ning; Li, Tianting; Pan, Yue; Dai, Yuming

    2014-09-01

    With the development of science and technology, CCD(Charge-coupled Device) has been widely applied in various fields and plays an important role in the modern sensing system, therefore researching a real-time image acquisition and display plan based on CCD device has great significance. This paper introduces an image data acquisition and display system of area array CCD based on FPGA. Several key technical challenges and problems of the system have also been analyzed and followed solutions put forward .The FPGA works as the core processing unit in the system that controls the integral time sequence .The ICX285AL area array CCD image sensor produced by SONY Corporation has been used in the system. The FPGA works to complete the driver of the area array CCD, then analog front end (AFE) processes the signal of the CCD image, including amplification, filtering, noise elimination, CDS correlation double sampling, etc. AD9945 produced by ADI Corporation to convert analog signal to digital signal. Developed Camera Link high-speed data transmission circuit, and completed the PC-end software design of the image acquisition, and realized the real-time display of images. The result through practical testing indicates that the system in the image acquisition and control is stable and reliable, and the indicators meet the actual project requirements.

  5. Depth-enhanced three-dimensional-two-dimensional convertible display based on modified integral imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jae-Hyeung; Kim, Hak-Rin; Kim, Yunhee; Kim, Joohwan; Hong, Jisoo; Lee, Sin-Doo; Lee, Byoungho

    2004-12-01

    A depth-enhanced three-dimensional-two-dimensional convertible display that uses a polymer-dispersed liquid crystal based on the principle of integral imaging is proposed. In the proposed method, a lens array is located behind a transmission-type display panel to form an array of point-light sources, and a polymer-dispersed liquid crystal is electrically controlled to pass or to scatter light coming from these point-light sources. Therefore, three-dimensional-two-dimensional conversion is accomplished electrically without any mechanical movement. Moreover, the nonimaging structure of the proposed method increases the expressible depth range considerably. We explain the method of operation and present experimental results.

  6. Fabrication of WO3-based electrochromic displays using solid or gel-like organic electrolytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vasilopoulou, M; Aspiotis, G; Kostis, I; Argitis, P; Davazoglou, D

    2005-01-01

    New all solid-state electrochromic displays were fabricated by chemically vapor depositing and patterning a tungsten oxide film on SnO 2 :F covered glass substrates. Aluminum sheets were used as counter electrodes to form electrochromic displays using solid or gel-like organic electrolytes. These ionically conductive and electronically insulating electrolytes were based on poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) and poly(2-hydrohyethyl methacrylate) (PHEMA) into which phospho-tungstic acid was added at various concentrations. In some devices the electrolyte was formed by addition of photoacid generator into the polymeric matrix and exposure at deep UV light. It was found that displays exhibit an intense, reversible electrochromic effect with reflectivity varying by a factor of five between the uncolored to the colored state. The coloring voltage depends strongly on the polymeric matrix, the thickness of the electrolyte and post-apply baking conditions and is of the order of 6-9 V. The response time was found to be of the order of 500 ms; coloration and bleaching times were comparable

  7. Web based machine status display for INDUS-1 And INDUS-2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Srivastava, B.S.K.; Fatnani, P.

    2003-01-01

    Web based machine status display for Indus-1 and Indus-2 is designated to provide on-line status of Indus-1 and Indus-2 to the clients located at various places of CAT premises. Presently, this system provides Indus-1 machine status (e.g. beam current, integrated current, beam life-time etc) to the users working in Indus-1 building, but using the web browsers the same information can be accessed throughout the CAT network. This system is basically a part of Indus-1 Control System Web Site which is under construction (partially constructed). (author)

  8. An Abstraction Hierarchy based mobile PC display design in NPP maintenance considering the level of expertise

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yim, Ho Bin; Kim, In; Seong, Poong Hyun

    2011-01-01

    Research highlights: → Six levels of Abstraction Hierarchy based information for maintenance were proposed. → Errors and workload with AH based information display were reduced for LL subjects. → Design concerns discovered can be applied to practical use of mobile maintenance aids. - Abstract: Recently, the importance of effective maintenance in nuclear power plants (NPPs) has been emphasized and research into effective maintenance by adopting mobile maintenance aids (MMAs) have been attempted. For improved and effective use of an MMA display design method based on the hierarchy is proposed and its design considerations are discussed in this study. Six levels of hierarchy are proposed in this paper to classify the maintenance information. By classifying and organizing maintenance information using the hierarchy, maintenance information can be used effectively by users with either high or low levels of expertise. When information classification has been finished, the information for MMA design is selected and designed. With the considerations of MMA design analysis and guidelines, a hierarchy-based MMA is designed for the maintenance tasks. An experiment is conducted using the hierarchy-based MMA in order to estimate the effectiveness of the proposed method for the maintenance tasks and to identify design considerations to enhance the proposed MMAs. The result indicated that a hierarchy-based manual was more effective than a conventional manual in terms of task completion time and number of errors. The workload for the hierarchy-based manual was estimated less than the conventional manual for subjects with low level of expertise. As the level of expertise increases, subjects tended to follow more abstract information while the number of navigations decreased. It is believed that when mobile devices become pervasive in NPP maintenance fields, the hierarchy model applied MMAs can be used as an effective maintenance supporting tool.

  9. Micro optical fiber display switch based on the magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) principle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lian, Kun; Heng, Khee-Hang

    2001-09-01

    This paper reports on a research effort to design, microfabricate and test an optical fiber display switch based on magneto hydrodynamic (MHD) principal. The switch is driven by the Lorentz force and can be used to turn on/off the light. The SU-8 photoresist and UV light source were used for prototype fabrication in order to lower the cost. With a magnetic field supplied by an external permanent magnet, and a plus electrical current supplied across the two inert sidewall electrodes, the distributed body force generated will produce a pressure difference on the fluid mercury in the switch chamber. By change the direction of current flow, the mercury can turn on or cut off the light pass in less than 10 ms. The major advantages of a MHD-based micro-switch are that it does not contain any solid moving parts and power consumption is much smaller comparing to the relay type switches. This switch can be manufactured by molding gin batch production and may have potential applications in extremely bright traffic control,, high intensity advertising display, and communication.

  10. Preliminary Investigation of Time Remaining Display on the Computer-based Emergency Operating Procedure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suryono, T. J.; Gofuku, A.

    2018-02-01

    One of the important thing in the mitigation of accidents in nuclear power plant accidents is time management. The accidents should be resolved as soon as possible in order to prevent the core melting and the release of radioactive material to the environment. In this case, operators should follow the emergency operating procedure related with the accident, in step by step order and in allowable time. Nowadays, the advanced main control rooms are equipped with computer-based procedures (CBPs) which is make it easier for operators to do their tasks of monitoring and controlling the reactor. However, most of the CBPs do not include the time remaining display feature which informs operators of time available for them to execute procedure steps and warns them if the they reach the time limit. Furthermore, the feature will increase the awareness of operators about their current situation in the procedure. This paper investigates this issue. The simplified of emergency operating procedure (EOP) of steam generator tube rupture (SGTR) accident of PWR plant is applied. In addition, the sequence of actions on each step of the procedure is modelled using multilevel flow modelling (MFM) and influenced propagation rule. The prediction of action time on each step is acquired based on similar case accidents and the Support Vector Regression. The derived time will be processed and then displayed on a CBP user interface.

  11. High-definition video display based on the FPGA and THS8200

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, Jia; Sui, Xiubao

    2014-11-01

    This paper presents a high-definition video display solution based on the FPGA and THS8200. THS8200 is a video decoder chip launched by TI company, this chip has three 10-bit DAC channels which can capture video data in both 4:2:2 and 4:4:4 formats, and its data synchronization can be either through the dedicated synchronization signals HSYNC and VSYNC, or extracted from the embedded video stream synchronization information SAV / EAV code. In this paper, we will utilize the address and control signals generated by FPGA to access to the data-storage array, and then the FPGA generates the corresponding digital video signals YCbCr. These signals combined with the synchronization signals HSYNC and VSYNC that are also generated by the FPGA act as the input signals of THS8200. In order to meet the bandwidth requirements of the high-definition TV, we adopt video input in the 4:2:2 format over 2×10-bit interface. THS8200 is needed to be controlled by FPGA with I2C bus to set the internal registers, and as a result, it can generate the synchronous signal that is satisfied with the standard SMPTE and transfer the digital video signals YCbCr into analog video signals YPbPr. Hence, the composite analog output signals YPbPr are consist of image data signal and synchronous signal which are superimposed together inside the chip THS8200. The experimental research indicates that the method presented in this paper is a viable solution for high-definition video display, which conforms to the input requirements of the new high-definition display devices.

  12. Functional displays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Angelis De, F.; Haentjens, J.

    1995-01-01

    The Functional Displays are directly derived from the Man-Machine Design key document: Function-Based Task Analysis. The presentation defines and describes the goals-means structure of the plant function along with applicable control volumes and parameters of interest. The purpose of the subject is to show, through an example of a preliminary design, what the main parts of a function are. (3 figs.)

  13. 77 FR 39385 - Receipts-Based, Small Business Size Standard

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-03

    .... The NRC is increasing its receipts-based, small business size standard from $6.5 million to $7 million...-based, small business size standard increasing from $6.5 million to $7.0 million. This adjustment is to... regulatory programs. The NRC is increasing its receipts-based, small business size standard from $6.5 million...

  14. Genome-scale data reveal that endemic Poecilia populations from small sulphidic springs display no evidence of inbreeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Anthony P; Greenway, Ryan; Morgan, Samuel; Quackenbush, Corey R; Giordani, Luca; Arias-Rodriguez, Lenin; Tobler, Michael; Kelley, Joanna L

    2017-10-01

    Populations with limited ranges can be highly vulnerable to changes in their environment and are, thus, of high conservation concern. Populations that experience human-induced range reductions are often highly inbred and lack genetic diversity, but it is unknown whether this is also the case for populations with naturally small ranges. The fishes Poecilia sulphuraria (listed as critically endangered) and Poecilia thermalis, which are endemic to small hydrogen sulphide-rich springs in southern Mexico, are examples of such populations with inherently small habitats. We used geometric morphometrics and population genetics to quantify phenotypic and genetic variation within and among two populations of P. sulphuraria and one population of P. thermalis. Principal component analyses revealed phenotypic and genetic differences among the populations. Evidence for inbreeding was low compared to populations that have undergone habitat reduction. The genetic data were also used to infer the demographic history of these populations to obtain estimates for effective population sizes and migration rates. Effective population sizes were large given the small habitats of these populations. Our results imply that these three endemic extremophile populations should each be considered separately for conservation purposes. Additionally, this study suggests that populations in naturally small habitats may have lower rates of inbreeding and higher genetic diversity than expected, and therefore may be better equipped to handle environmental perturbations than anticipated. We caution, however, that the inferred lack of inbreeding and the large effective population sizes could potentially be a result of colonization by genetically diverse ancestors. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. The-Abstraction-Hierarchy-based Mobile PC Display Design for NPP Maintenance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, In; Kim, Bo Gyung; Seong, Poong Hyun; Ha, Jun Su

    2010-01-01

    Recently, the importance of effective maintenance in nuclear power plants (NPPs) has been emphasized and research into effective maintenance by adopting mobile maintenance aids (MMAs) have been attempted. For improved and effective use of an MMA display design method based on abstraction hierarchy (AH) is proposed and its design considerations are discussed in this study. Six levels of abstraction hierarchy are proposed in this paper to classify the maintenance information. By classifying and organizing maintenance information using AH, maintenance information can be used effectively by users with either high or low levels of expertise. When information classification has been finished, the information for MMA design is selected and designed. With the considerations of MMA design analysis and guidelines, AH-based MMA is designed for the maintenance tasks. An experiment is conducted using the AH-based MMA in order to estimate the effectiveness of the proposed method for the maintenance tasks and to identify design considerations to enhance the proposed MMAs. The result indicated that an AH-based manual was more effective than a conventional manual in terms of task completion time and number of errors. The workload for the AH-based manual was estimated less than the conventional manual for subjects with low level of expertise. As the level of expertise increases, subjects tended to follow more abstract information while the number of navigations decreased. It is believed that when mobile devices become pervasive in NPP maintenance fields, AH-model applied MMAs can be used as an effective maintenance supporting tool

  16. Small Computer Applications for Base Supply.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-03-01

    research on small computer utili- zation at bse level organizatins , This research effort studies whether small computers and commercial softure can assist...Doe has made !solid contributions to the full range of departmental activity. His demonstrated leadership skills and administrative ability warrent his...outstanding professionalism and leadership abilities were evidenced by his superb performance as unit key worker In the 1980 Combined Federal CauMign

  17. Three-dimensional scene encryption and display based on computer-generated holograms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Dezhao; Cao, Liangcai; Jin, Guofan; Javidi, Bahram

    2016-10-10

    An optical encryption and display method for a three-dimensional (3D) scene is proposed based on computer-generated holograms (CGHs) using a single phase-only spatial light modulator. The 3D scene is encoded as one complex Fourier CGH. The Fourier CGH is then decomposed into two phase-only CGHs with random distributions by the vector stochastic decomposition algorithm. Two CGHs are interleaved as one final phase-only CGH for optical encryption and reconstruction. The proposed method can support high-level nonlinear optical 3D scene security and complex amplitude modulation of the optical field. The exclusive phase key offers strong resistances of decryption attacks. Experimental results demonstrate the validity of the novel method.

  18. BiFS-based approaches to remote display for mobile thin clients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitrea, M.; Simoens, P.; Joveski, B.; Marshall, J.; Taguengayte, A.; Prêteux, F.; Dhoed, B.

    2009-08-01

    Under the framework of the FP-7 European MobiThin project, the present study addresses the issue of remote display representation for mobile thin client. The main issue is to design a compressing algorithm for heterogeneous content (text, graphics, image and video) with low-complex decoding. As a first step in this direction, we propose a novel software architecture, based on BiFS - Binary Format for Scenes (MPEG-4 Part 11). On the server side, the graphical content is parsed, converted and binary encoded into the BiFS format. This content is then streamed to the terminal, where it is played on a simple MPEG player. The viability of this solution is validated by comparing it to the most intensively used wired solutions, e.g. VNC - Virtual Network Computing.

  19. Will musculoskeletal and visual stress change when Visual Display Unit (VDU) operators move from small offices to an ergonomically optimized office landscape?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helland, Magne; Horgen, Gunnar; Kvikstad, Tor Martin; Garthus, Tore; Aarås, Arne

    2011-11-01

    This study investigated the effect of moving from small offices to a landscape environment for 19 Visual Display Unit (VDU) operators at Alcatel Denmark AS. The operators reported significantly improved lighting condition and glare situation. Further, visual discomfort was also significantly reduced on a Visual Analogue Scale (VAS). There was no significant correlation between lighting condition and visual discomfort neither in the small offices nor in the office landscape. However, visual discomfort correlated significantly with glare in small offices i.e. more glare is related to more visual discomfort. This correlation disappeared after the lighting system in the office landscape had been improved. There was also a significant correlation between glare and itching of the eyes as well as blurred vision in the small offices, i.e. more glare more visual symptoms. Experience of pain was found to reduce the subjective assessment of work capacity during VDU tasks. There was a significant correlation between visual discomfort and reduced work capacity in small offices and in the office landscape. When moving from the small offices to the office landscape, there was a significant reduction in headache as well as back pain. No significant changes in pain intensity in the neck, shoulder, forearm, and wrist/hand were observed. The pain levels in different body areas were significantly correlated with subjective assessment of reduced work capacity in small offices and in the office landscape. By careful design and construction of an office landscape with regard to lighting and visual conditions, transfer from small offices may be acceptable from a visual-ergonomic point of view. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd and The Ergonomics Society. All rights reserved.

  20. 77 FR 39442 - Receipts-Based, Small Business Size Standard

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-03

    ... RIN 3150-AJ14 [NRC-2012-0062] Receipts-Based, Small Business Size Standard AGENCY: Nuclear Regulatory... Regulatory Flexibility Act of 1980, as amended. The NRC is proposing to increase its receipts-based, small business size standard from $6.5 million to $7 million to conform to the standard set by the Small Business...

  1. A task-based usage strategy for control centre wall displays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davey, E.

    2005-01-01

    This paper summarizes the findings from an exploratory definition of a usage strategy for multiple control centre wall displays in CANDU nuclear power plants. Wall displays are defined as large sized, vertically oriented display surfaces that may be positioned in various locations about a control room to support user information needs. The paper begins by discussing the need for a usage strategy for all control room information resources, and then reviews the history in wall display implementation and usage in nuclear power plant control rooms. The balance of the paper discusses the approach used in characterization and review of control room task information needs and definition of a wall display usage strategy. The paper concludes by outlining some of the possible impacts on future control room design and operations that the introduction of wall displays may imply. (author)

  2. A Reconfigurable Readout Integrated Circuit for Heterogeneous Display-Based Multi-Sensor Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyeonghwan Park

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a reconfigurable multi-sensor interface and its readout integrated circuit (ROIC for display-based multi-sensor systems, which builds up multi-sensor functions by utilizing touch screen panels. In addition to inherent touch detection, physiological and environmental sensor interfaces are incorporated. The reconfigurable feature is effectively implemented by proposing two basis readout topologies of amplifier-based and oscillator-based circuits. For noise-immune design against various noises from inherent human-touch operations, an alternate-sampling error-correction scheme is proposed and integrated inside the ROIC, achieving a 12-bit resolution of successive approximation register (SAR of analog-to-digital conversion without additional calibrations. A ROIC prototype that includes the whole proposed functions and data converters was fabricated in a 0.18 μm complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS process, and its feasibility was experimentally verified to support multiple heterogeneous sensing functions of touch, electrocardiogram, body impedance, and environmental sensors.

  3. Gaze-based interaction with public displays using off-the-shelf components

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    San Agustin, Javier; Hansen, John Paulin; Tall, Martin Henrik

    Eye gaze can be used to interact with high-density information presented on large displays. We have built a system employing off-the-shelf hardware components and open-source gaze tracking software that enables users to interact with an interface displayed on a 55” screen using their eye movement...

  4. Multichannel waveform display system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kolvankar, V.G.

    1989-01-01

    For any multichannel data acquisition system, a multichannel paper chart recorder undoubtedly forms an essential part of the system. When deployed on-line, it instantaneously provides, for visual inspection, hard copies of the signal waveforms on common time base at any desired sensitivity and time resolution. Within the country, only a small range of these strip chart recorder s is available, and under stringent specifications imported recorders are often procured. The cost of such recorders may range from 1 to 5 lakhs of rupees in foreign exchange. A system to provide on the oscilloscope a steady display of multichannel waveforms, refreshed from the digital data stored in the memory is developed. The merits and demerits of the display system are compared with that built around a conventional paper chart recorder. Various illustrations of multichannel seismic event data acquired at Gauribidanur seismic array station are also presented. (author). 2 figs

  5. Performance-based evaluation of graphic displays for nuclear-power-plant control rooms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petersen, R.J.; Banks, W.W.; Gertman, D.I.

    1982-01-01

    This paper reports several methodologies for evaluating the perceptual and perceptual/decision making aspects of displays used in the control rooms of nuclear power plants. This NRC funded study focuses upon the Safety Parameter Display System (SPDS) and relates the utility of the display to objective performance and preference measures obtained in experimental conditions. The first condition is a traditional laboratory setting where classical experimental methodologies can be employed. The second condition is an interactive control room simulation where the operator's performance is assessed while he/she operates the simulator. The third condition is a rating scale designed to assess operator preferences and opinions regarding a variety of display formats. The goal of this study is the development of a cost-efficient display evaluation methodology which correlates highly with the operator's ability to control a plant

  6. Photosensor-Based Latency Measurement System for Head-Mounted Displays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min-Woo Seo

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a photosensor-based latency measurement system for head-mounted displays (HMDs is proposed. The motion-to-photon latency is the greatest reason for motion sickness and dizziness felt by users when wearing an HMD system. Therefore, a measurement system is required to accurately measure and analyze the latency to reduce these problems. The existing measurement system does not consider the actual physical movement in humans, and its accuracy is also very low. However, the proposed system considers the physical head movement and is highly accurate. Specifically, it consists of a head position model-based rotary platform, pixel luminance change detector, and signal analysis and calculation modules. Using these modules, the proposed system can exactly measure the latency, which is the time difference between the physical movement for a user and the luminance change of an output image. In the experiment using a commercial HMD, the latency was measured to be up to 47.05 ms. In addition, the measured latency increased up to 381.17 ms when increasing the rendering workload in the HMD.

  7. Integrating existing radiation monitors into a microprocessor-based display system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kalita, R, S.; Bartucci, C.M.; Mason, R.G.; Greaves, C.

    1992-01-01

    Plantwide digital radiation monitoring systems (RMSs) have been generally installed as part of the original design for newer nuclear reactors. For older plants, area and process radiation monitors were either analog or a combination of analog and digital but were not part of an integrated system design. At some plants, individual monitors have been replaced or modified, resulting in a rainbow of different monitors and vendors being represented at the plant. Usually at some point, consideration is given to replacing these monitors with a state-of-the-art RMS to improve overall reliability and achieve the benefits of sound human factors engineering. This can be a very costly project in terms of expenditures for engineering, equipment, construction, startup, and time. When human engineering deficiencies (HEDs) became an issue at Zion station, Commonwealth Edison elected to install a computer-based radiation monitoring display system (RMDS) that would interface existing raidation monitors. After reviewing the existing as-built RMS configuration and internal circuits of the various monitors, it was concluded that a microprocessor-based RMDS could be successfully designed and installed that would solve the HEDs and would tie the older analog channels into a system configuration. Although in many cases, internal modifications were made to existing RMS monitors, the RMDS upgrade allowed the existing RMS monitors to retain their original functionality and location

  8. Real-time Holographic Display Based on a Super Fast Response Thin Film

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gao, Hongyue; Li, Xiao; He, Zhenghong; Su, Yikai; Poon, Ting-Chung

    2013-01-01

    Real-time dynamic holographic display is obtained with super fast response in a thin film without any applied electric field. Holograms can be refreshed in the order of a millisecond and there is no cross talk between the recorded holograms because the hologram formed in the film is transient and can be completely self erased, and the hologram formation time and self-erasure time are both ∼1 ms. Holographic video display is achieved, which shows the real-time holographic image display capability of the thin film, and its much higher resolution than those of commercially available spatial light modulators. Furthermore, multiplexed hologram display using two polarization directions of a recorded light and multiple color holographic display at different laser wavelengths are presented, which demonstrate the feasibility of a RGB color holographic three-dimensional display with the thin film. Because the sample is easy to be fabricated into a large size screen and needs no external applied electric field, we think that the film can be developed into a large-size, dynamic, and color holographic three-dimensional display in the future.

  9. Ohio-Based NREL Subcontractor Wins Major Small Business Award

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohio-Based NREL Subcontractor Wins Major Small Business Award For more information contact: e:mail alternative fuel vehicles has won a major award from the U.S. Small Business Administration (SBA). Automotive Testing Laboratories, Inc. (ATL) of East Liberty, Ohio was named the SBA's Midwest Regional Small Business

  10. U.S. Small Business HUBZone Base Closure Areas

    Data.gov (United States)

    Small Business Administration — HUBZone Qualitified Base Closure Areas - the lands within the boundaries of a military installation that was closed through a privatization process under the Federal...

  11. A Low-Cost PC-Based Image Workstation for Dynamic Interactive Display of Three-Dimensional Anatomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrett, William A.; Raya, Sai P.; Udupa, Jayaram K.

    1989-05-01

    A system for interactive definition, automated extraction, and dynamic interactive display of three-dimensional anatomy has been developed and implemented on a low-cost PC-based image workstation. An iconic display is used for staging predefined image sequences through specified increments of tilt and rotation over a solid viewing angle. Use of a fast processor facilitates rapid extraction and rendering of the anatomy into predefined image views. These views are formatted into a display matrix in a large image memory for rapid interactive selection and display of arbitrary spatially adjacent images within the viewing angle, thereby providing motion parallax depth cueing for efficient and accurate perception of true three-dimensional shape, size, structure, and spatial interrelationships of the imaged anatomy. The visual effect is that of holding and rotating the anatomy in the hand.

  12. Data Driven - Android based displays on data acquisition and system status

    CERN Document Server

    Canilho, Paulo

    2014-01-01

    For years, both hardware and software engineers have struggled with the acquisition of device information in a flexible and fast perspective, numerous devices cannot have their status quickly tested due to time limitation associated with the travelling to a computer terminal. For instance, in order to test a scintillator status, one has to inject beam into the device and quickly return to a terminal to see the results, this is not only time demanding but extremely inconvenient for the person responsible, it consumes time that would be used in more pressing matters. In this train of thoughts, the proposal of creating an interface to bring a stable, flexible, user friendly and data driven solution to this problem was created. Being the most common operative system for mobile display, the Android API proved to have the best efficient in financing, since it is based on an open source software, and in implementation difficulty since it’s backend development resides in JAVA calls and XML for visual representation...

  13. Affective three-dimensional brain-computer interface created using a prism array-based display

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mun, Sungchul; Park, Min-Chul

    2014-12-01

    To avoid the vergence-accommodation mismatch and provide a strong sense of presence to users, we applied a prism array-based display when presenting three-dimensional (3-D) objects. Emotional pictures were used as visual stimuli to increase the signal-to-noise ratios of steady-state visually evoked potentials (SSVEPs) because involuntarily motivated selective attention by affective mechanisms can enhance SSVEP amplitudes, thus producing increased interaction efficiency. Ten male and nine female participants voluntarily participated in our experiments. Participants were asked to control objects under three viewing conditions: two-dimension (2-D), stereoscopic 3-D, and prism. The participants performed each condition in a counter-balanced order. One-way repeated measures analysis of variance showed significant increases in the positive predictive values in the prism condition compared to the 2-D and 3-D conditions. Participants' subjective ratings of realness and engagement were also significantly greater in the prism condition than in the 2-D and 3-D conditions, while the ratings for visual fatigue were significantly reduced in the prism condition than in the 3-D condition. The proposed methods are expected to enhance the sense of reality in 3-D space without causing critical visual fatigue. In addition, people who are especially susceptible to stereoscopic 3-D may be able to use the affective brain-computer interface.

  14. A new head-mounted display-based augmented reality system in neurosurgical oncology: a study on phantom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cutolo, Fabrizio; Meola, Antonio; Carbone, Marina; Sinceri, Sara; Cagnazzo, Federico; Denaro, Ennio; Esposito, Nicola; Ferrari, Mauro; Ferrari, Vincenzo

    2017-12-01

    Benefits of minimally invasive neurosurgery mandate the development of ergonomic paradigms for neuronavigation. Augmented Reality (AR) systems can overcome the shortcomings of commercial neuronavigators. The aim of this work is to apply a novel AR system, based on a head-mounted stereoscopic video see-through display, as an aid in complex neurological lesion targeting. Effectiveness was investigated on a newly designed patient-specific head mannequin featuring an anatomically realistic brain phantom with embedded synthetically created tumors and eloquent areas. A two-phase evaluation process was adopted in a simulated small tumor resection adjacent to Broca's area. Phase I involved nine subjects without neurosurgical training in performing spatial judgment tasks. In Phase II, three surgeons were involved in assessing the effectiveness of the AR-neuronavigator in performing brain tumor targeting on a patient-specific head phantom. Phase I revealed the ability of the AR scene to evoke depth perception under different visualization modalities. Phase II confirmed the potentialities of the AR-neuronavigator in aiding the determination of the optimal surgical access to the surgical target. The AR-neuronavigator is intuitive, easy-to-use, and provides three-dimensional augmented information in a perceptually-correct way. The system proved to be effective in guiding skin incision, craniotomy, and lesion targeting. The preliminary results encourage a structured study to prove clinical effectiveness. Moreover, our testing platform might be used to facilitate training in brain tumour resection procedures.

  15. A 360-degree floating 3D display based on light field regeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Xinxing; Liu, Xu; Li, Haifeng; Zheng, Zhenrong; Wang, Han; Peng, Yifan; Shen, Weidong

    2013-05-06

    Using light field reconstruction technique, we can display a floating 3D scene in the air, which is 360-degree surrounding viewable with correct occlusion effect. A high-frame-rate color projector and flat light field scanning screen are used in the system to create the light field of real 3D scene in the air above the spinning screen. The principle and display performance of this approach are investigated in this paper. The image synthesis method for all the surrounding viewpoints is analyzed, and the 3D spatial resolution and angular resolution of the common display zone are employed to evaluate display performance. The prototype is achieved and the real 3D color animation image has been presented vividly. The experimental results verified the representability of this method.

  16. Complex Behavior in a Selective Aging Neuron Model Based on Small World Networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Guiqing; Chen Tianlun

    2008-01-01

    Complex behavior in a selective aging simple neuron model based on small world networks is investigated. The basic elements of the model are endowed with the main features of a neuron function. The structure of the selective aging neuron model is discussed. We also give some properties of the new network and find that the neuron model displays a power-law behavior. If the brain network is small world-like network, the mean avalanche size is almost the same unless the aging parameter is big enough.

  17. Refreshable Braille displays using EAP actuators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bar-Cohen, Yoseph

    2010-04-01

    Refreshable Braille can help visually impaired persons benefit from the growing advances in computer technology. The development of such displays in a full screen form is a great challenge due to the need to pack many actuators in small area without interferences. In recent years, various displays using actuators such as piezoelectric stacks have become available in commercial form but most of them are limited to one line Braille code. Researchers in the field of electroactive polymers (EAP) investigated methods of using these materials to form full screen displays. This manuscript reviews the state of the art of producing refreshable Braille displays using EAP-based actuators.

  18. Refreshable Braille Displays Using EAP Actuators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bar-Cohen, Yoseph

    2010-01-01

    Refreshable Braille can help visually impaired persons benefit from the growing advances in computer technology. The development of such displays in a full screen form is a great challenge due to the need to pack many actuators in small area without interferences. In recent years, various displays using actuators such as piezoelectric stacks have become available in commercial form but most of them are limited to one line Braille code. Researchers in the field of electroactive polymers (EAP) investigated methods of using these materials to form full screen displays. This manuscript reviews the state of the art of producing refreshable Braille displays using EAP-based actuators..

  19. Computer based plant display and digital control system of Wolsong NPP Tritium Removal Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jung, C.; Smith, B.; Tosello, G.; Grosbois, J. de; Ahn, J.

    2007-01-01

    The Wolsong Tritium Removal Facility (WTRF) is an AECL-designed, first-of-a-kind facility that removes tritium from the heavy water that is used in systems of the CANDUM reactors in operation at the Wolsong Nuclear Power Plant in South Korea. The Plant Display and Control System (PDCS) provides digital plant monitoring and control for the WTRF and offers the advantages of state-of-the-art digital control system technologies for operations and maintenance. The overall features of the PDCS will be described and some of the specific approaches taken on the project to save construction time and costs, to reduce in-service life-cycle costs and to improve quality will be presented. The PDCS consists of two separate computer sub-systems: the Digital Control System (DCS) and the Plant Display System (PDS). The PDS provides the computer-based Human Machine Interface (HMI) for operators, and permits efficient supervisory or device level monitoring and control. A System Maintenance Console (SMC) is included in the PDS for the purpose of software and hardware configuration and on-line maintenance. A Historical Data System (HDS) is also included in the PDS as a data-server that continuously captures and logs process data and events for long-term storage and on-demand selective retrieval. The PDCS of WTRF has been designed and implemented based on an off-the-self PDS/DCS product combination, the Delta-V System from Emerson. The design includes fully redundant Ethernet network communications, controllers, power supplies and redundancy on selected I/O modules. The DCS provides field bus communications to interface with 3rd party controllers supplied on specialized skids, and supports HART communication with field transmitters. The DCS control logic was configured using a modular and graphical approach. The control strategies are primarily device control modules implemented as autonomous control loops, and implemented using IEC 61131-3 Function Block Diagram (FBD) and Structured

  20. Broader color gamut of color-modulating optical coating display based on indium tin oxide and phase change materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ni, Zhigang; Mou, Shenghong; Zhou, Tong; Cheng, Zhiyuan

    2018-05-01

    A color-modulating optical coating display based on phase change materials (PCM) and indium tin oxide (ITO) is fabricated and analyzed. We demonstrate that altering the thickness of top-ITO in this PCM-based display device can effectively change color. The significant role of the top-ITO layer in the thin-film interference in this multilayer system is confirmed by experiment as well as simulation. The ternary-color modulation of devices with only 5 nano thin layer of phase change material is achieved. Furthermore, simulation work demonstrates that a stirringly broader color gamut can be obtained by introducing the control of the top-ITO thickness.

  1. Development and evaluation of a method of calibrating medical displays based on fixed adaptation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sund, Patrik, E-mail: patrik.sund@vgregion.se; Månsson, Lars Gunnar; Båth, Magnus [Department of Medical Physics and Biomedical Engineering, Sahlgrenska University Hospital, Gothenburg SE-41345, Sweden and Department of Radiation Physics, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg SE-41345 (Sweden)

    2015-04-15

    Purpose: The purpose of this work was to develop and evaluate a new method for calibration of medical displays that includes the effect of fixed adaptation and by using equipment and luminance levels typical for a modern radiology department. Methods: Low contrast sinusoidal test patterns were derived at nine luminance levels from 2 to 600 cd/m{sup 2} and used in a two alternative forced choice observer study, where the adaptation level was fixed at the logarithmic average of 35 cd/m{sup 2}. The contrast sensitivity at each luminance level was derived by establishing a linear relationship between the ten pattern contrast levels used at every luminance level and a detectability index (d′) calculated from the fraction of correct responses. A Gaussian function was fitted to the data and normalized to the adaptation level. The corresponding equation was used in a display calibration method that included the grayscale standard display function (GSDF) but compensated for fixed adaptation. In the evaluation study, the contrast of circular objects with a fixed pixel contrast was displayed using both calibration methods and was rated on a five-grade scale. Results were calculated using a visual grading characteristics method. Error estimations in both observer studies were derived using a bootstrap method. Results: The contrast sensitivities for the darkest and brightest patterns compared to the contrast sensitivity at the adaptation luminance were 37% and 56%, respectively. The obtained Gaussian fit corresponded well with similar studies. The evaluation study showed a higher degree of equally distributed contrast throughout the luminance range with the calibration method compensated for fixed adaptation than for the GSDF. The two lowest scores for the GSDF were obtained for the darkest and brightest patterns. These scores were significantly lower than the lowest score obtained for the compensated GSDF. For the GSDF, the scores for all luminance levels were statistically

  2. Lung Cancer Signature Biomarkers: tissue specific semantic similarity based clustering of Digital Differential Display (DDD data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Srivastava Mousami

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The tissue-specific Unigene Sets derived from more than one million expressed sequence tags (ESTs in the NCBI, GenBank database offers a platform for identifying significantly and differentially expressed tissue-specific genes by in-silico methods. Digital differential display (DDD rapidly creates transcription profiles based on EST comparisons and numerically calculates, as a fraction of the pool of ESTs, the relative sequence abundance of known and novel genes. However, the process of identifying the most likely tissue for a specific disease in which to search for candidate genes from the pool of differentially expressed genes remains difficult. Therefore, we have used ‘Gene Ontology semantic similarity score’ to measure the GO similarity between gene products of lung tissue-specific candidate genes from control (normal and disease (cancer sets. This semantic similarity score matrix based on hierarchical clustering represents in the form of a dendrogram. The dendrogram cluster stability was assessed by multiple bootstrapping. Multiple bootstrapping also computes a p-value for each cluster and corrects the bias of the bootstrap probability. Results Subsequent hierarchical clustering by the multiple bootstrapping method (α = 0.95 identified seven clusters. The comparative, as well as subtractive, approach revealed a set of 38 biomarkers comprising four distinct lung cancer signature biomarker clusters (panel 1–4. Further gene enrichment analysis of the four panels revealed that each panel represents a set of lung cancer linked metastasis diagnostic biomarkers (panel 1, chemotherapy/drug resistance biomarkers (panel 2, hypoxia regulated biomarkers (panel 3 and lung extra cellular matrix biomarkers (panel 4. Conclusions Expression analysis reveals that hypoxia induced lung cancer related biomarkers (panel 3, HIF and its modulating proteins (TGM2, CSNK1A1, CTNNA1, NAMPT/Visfatin, TNFRSF1A, ETS1, SRC-1, FN1, APLP2, DMBT1

  3. Designing a Visual Factors-Based Screen Display Interface: The New Role of the Graphic Technologist.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faiola, Tony; DeBloois, Michael L.

    1988-01-01

    Discusses the role of the graphic technologist in preparing computer screen displays for interactive videodisc systems, and suggests screen design guidelines. Topics discussed include the grid system; typography; visual factors research; color; course mobility through branching and software menus; and a model of course integration. (22 references)…

  4. CLINICAL SURFACES -- Activity-Based Computing for Distributed Multi-Display Environments in Hospitals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bardram, Jakob Eyvind; Bunde-Pedersen, Jonathan; Doryab, Afsaneh

    2009-01-01

    A multi-display environment (MDE) is made up of co-located and networked personal and public devices that form an integrated workspace enabling co-located group work. Traditionally, MDEs have, however, mainly been designed to support a single “smart room”, and have had little sense of the tasks...

  5. New functions and programs in Hypermap software development for internet-based displaying of FIA data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chris J. Cieszewski; Roger C. Lowe; Shangbin Liu; Ingvar Elle; Daniel Markewitz

    2009-01-01

    This article describes updates on the development of various applications for the Hypermaps applications and the newest versions of the forest inventory data display tool, Interactive Fast Online Reports and Maps (InFORM). The development of InFORM applications is cosponsored by the University of Georgia, Warnell School of Forestry and Natural Resources; the Forest...

  6. Automatic segmentation and 3-dimensional display based on the knowledge of head MRI images

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suzuki, Hidetomo; Toriwaki, Jun-ichiro.

    1987-01-01

    In this paper we present a procedure which automatically extracts soft tissues, such as subcutaneous fat, brain, and cerebral ventricle, from the multislice MRI images of head region, and displays their 3-dimensional images. Segmentation of soft tissues is done by use of an iterative thresholding. In order to select the optimum threshold value automatically, we introduce a measure to evaluate the goodness of segmentation into this procedure. When the measure satisfies given conditions, iteration of thresholding terminates, and the final result of segmentation is extracted by using the current threshold value. Since this procedure can execute segmentation and calculation of the goodness measure in each slice automatically, it remarkably decreases efforts of users. Moreover, the 3-dimensional display of the segmented tissues shows that this procedure can extract the shape of each soft tissue with reasonable precision for clinical use. (author)

  7. Human Engineering Data Base for Design and Selection of Cathode Ray Tube and Other Display Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-07-01

    on a display. Several studies (Ericksen, 195’f; Garner & Creelman , ige’f) have reported improved ability to discriminate among objects when size and...strength (directly related to target echo signal-to-noise ratio) and the psychological state of the operator. Single- scan-detection probability as a...information analysis of verbal and motor responses to symbolic and conventional arable numerals. Journal of Applied Psychology , 1958, ^, 79-8^^. Allusi, E

  8. Head-worn display-based augmented reality system for manufacturing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarwal, Alok; Baker, Chris; Filipovic, Dragan

    2005-05-01

    This system provides real-time guidance for training and problem-solving on production-line machinery. A prototype of a wearable, real-time, video guidance, interactive system for use in manufacturing, has been developed and demonstrated. Anticipated benefits are: relatively inexperienced personnel can provide machine servicing and the dependency on the vendor to repair or maintain equipment is significantly reduced. Additionally, servicing, training or part change-over schedules can be exercised more predictably and with less training. This approach utilizes Head Worn Display or Head Mounted Display (HMD) technology that can be readily adapted for various machines on the factory floor with training steps for a new location. Such a system can support various applications in manufacturing such as direct video guiding or applying scheduled maintenance and training to effectively resolve servicing emergencies and reduce machine downtime. It can also provide training of inexperienced operators and maintenance personnel. The gap between production line complexity and ability of production personnel to effectively maintain equipment is expected to widen in the future and advanced equipment will require complex servicing procedures that are neither well documented nor user-friendly. This system offers benefits in increased manufacturing equipment availability by facilitating effective servicing and training and can interface to a server system for additional computational resources on an as-needed basis. This system utilizes markers to guide the user and enforces a well defined sequence of operations. It performs augmentation of information on the display in order to provide guidance in real-time.

  9. Fleet Protection Using a Small UAV Based IR Sensor

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Buss, James R; Ax, Jr, George R

    2005-01-01

    A study was performed to define candidate electro-optical and infrared (EO/IR) sensor configurations and assess their potential utility as small UAV-based sensors surveilling a perimeter around surface fleet assets...

  10. Biotin-tagged proteins: Reagents for efficient ELISA-based serodiagnosis and phage display-based affinity selection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verma, Vaishali; Kaur, Charanpreet; Grover, Payal; Gupta, Amita; Chaudhary, Vijay K

    2018-01-01

    The high-affinity interaction between biotin and streptavidin has opened avenues for using recombinant proteins with site-specific biotinylation to achieve efficient and directional immobilization. The site-specific biotinylation of proteins carrying a 15 amino acid long Biotin Acceptor Peptide tag (BAP; also known as AviTag) is effected on a specific lysine either by co-expressing the E. coli BirA enzyme in vivo or by using purified recombinant E. coli BirA enzyme in the presence of ATP and biotin in vitro. In this paper, we have designed a T7 promoter-lac operator-based expression vector for rapid and efficient cloning, and high-level cytosolic expression of proteins carrying a C-terminal BAP tag in E. coli with TEV protease cleavable N-terminal deca-histidine tag, useful for initial purification. Furthermore, a robust three-step purification pipeline integrated with well-optimized protocols for TEV protease-based H10 tag removal, and recombinant BirA enzyme-based site-specific in vitro biotinylation is described to obtain highly pure biotinylated proteins. Most importantly, the paper demonstrates superior sensitivities in indirect ELISA with directional and efficient immobilization of biotin-tagged proteins on streptavidin-coated surfaces in comparison to passive immobilization. The use of biotin-tagged proteins through specific immobilization also allows more efficient selection of binders from a phage-displayed naïve antibody library. In addition, for both these applications, specific immobilization requires much less amount of protein as compared to passive immobilization and can be easily multiplexed. The simplified strategy described here for the production of highly pure biotin-tagged proteins will find use in numerous applications, including those, which may require immobilization of multiple proteins simultaneously on a solid surface.

  11. Lapin Data Interchange Among Database, Analysis and Display Programs Using XML-Based Text Files

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of grant NCC3-966 was to investigate and evaluate the interchange of application-specific data among multiple programs each carrying out part of the analysis and design task. This has been carried out previously by creating a custom program to read data produced by one application and then write that data to a file whose format is specific to the second application that needs all or part of that data. In this investigation, data of interest is described using the XML markup language that allows the data to be stored in a text-string. Software to transform output data of a task into an XML-string and software to read an XML string and extract all or a portion of the data needed for another application is used to link two independent applications together as part of an overall design effort. This approach was initially used with a standard analysis program, Lapin, along with standard applications a standard spreadsheet program, a relational database program, and a conventional dialog and display program to demonstrate the successful sharing of data among independent programs. Most of the effort beyond that demonstration has been concentrated on the inclusion of more complex display programs. Specifically, a custom-written windowing program organized around dialogs to control the interactions have been combined with an independent CAD program (Open Cascade) that supports sophisticated display of CAD elements such as lines, spline curves, and surfaces and turbine-blade data produced by an independent blade design program (UD0300).

  12. Primary display latency criteria based on flying qualities and performance data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Funk, John D., Jr.; Beck, Corin P.; Johns, John B.

    1993-01-01

    With a pilots' increasing use of visual cue augmentation, much requiring extensive pre-processing, there is a need to establish criteria for new avionics/display design. The timeliness and synchronization of the augmented cues is vital to ensure the performance quality required for precision mission task elements (MTEs) where augmented cues are the primary source of information to the pilot. Processing delays incurred while transforming sensor-supplied flight information into visual cues are unavoidable. Relationships between maximum control system delays and associated flying qualities levels are documented in MIL-F-83300 and MIL-F-8785. While cues representing aircraft status may be just as vital to the pilot as prompt control response for operations in instrument meteorological conditions, presently, there are no specification requirements on avionics system latency. To produce data relating avionics system latency to degradations in flying qualities, the Navy conducted two simulation investigations. During the investigations, flying qualities and performance data were recorded as simulated avionics system latency was varied. Correlated results of the investigation indicates that there is a detrimental impact of latency on flying qualities. Analysis of these results and consideration of key factors influencing their application indicate that: (1) Task performance degrades and pilot workload increases as latency is increased. Inconsistency in task performance increases as latency increases. (2) Latency reduces the probability of achieving Level 1 handling qualities with avionics system latency as low as 70 ms. (3) The data suggest that the achievement of desired performance will be ensured only at display latency values below 120 ms. (4) These data also suggest that avoidance of inadequate performance will be ensured only at display latency values below 150 ms.

  13. Domain-based small molecule binding site annotation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dumontier Michel

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Accurate small molecule binding site information for a protein can facilitate studies in drug docking, drug discovery and function prediction, but small molecule binding site protein sequence annotation is sparse. The Small Molecule Interaction Database (SMID, a database of protein domain-small molecule interactions, was created using structural data from the Protein Data Bank (PDB. More importantly it provides a means to predict small molecule binding sites on proteins with a known or unknown structure and unlike prior approaches, removes large numbers of false positive hits arising from transitive alignment errors, non-biologically significant small molecules and crystallographic conditions that overpredict ion binding sites. Description Using a set of co-crystallized protein-small molecule structures as a starting point, SMID interactions were generated by identifying protein domains that bind to small molecules, using NCBI's Reverse Position Specific BLAST (RPS-BLAST algorithm. SMID records are available for viewing at http://smid.blueprint.org. The SMID-BLAST tool provides accurate transitive annotation of small-molecule binding sites for proteins not found in the PDB. Given a protein sequence, SMID-BLAST identifies domains using RPS-BLAST and then lists potential small molecule ligands based on SMID records, as well as their aligned binding sites. A heuristic ligand score is calculated based on E-value, ligand residue identity and domain entropy to assign a level of confidence to hits found. SMID-BLAST predictions were validated against a set of 793 experimental small molecule interactions from the PDB, of which 472 (60% of predicted interactions identically matched the experimental small molecule and of these, 344 had greater than 80% of the binding site residues correctly identified. Further, we estimate that 45% of predictions which were not observed in the PDB validation set may be true positives. Conclusion By

  14. Speedup of optimization-based approach to local backlight dimming of HDR displays

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Burini, Nino; Nadernejad, Ehsan; Korhonen, Jari

    2012-01-01

    Local backlight dimming in Liquid Crystal Displays (LCD) is a technique for reducing power consumption and simultaneously increasing contrast ratio to provide a High Dynamic Range (HDR) image reproduction. Several backlight dimming algorithms exist with focus on reducing power consumption, while...... other algorithms aim at enhancing contrast, with power savings as a side effect. In our earlier work, we have modeled backlight dimming as a linear programming problem, where the target is to minimize the cost function measuring the distance between ideal and actual output. In this paper, we propose...

  15. Unsolicited displays of insights

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brouwer, Catherine E.

    2015-01-01

    This study is based on videorecorded interactional data from a specific type of institutional setting which consists of a variety of 'language stimulation activities' for bilingual children in Danish preschools. Bilingual children, with a variety of linguistic backgrounds, take part in these acti......This study is based on videorecorded interactional data from a specific type of institutional setting which consists of a variety of 'language stimulation activities' for bilingual children in Danish preschools. Bilingual children, with a variety of linguistic backgrounds, take part...... in these activities in small groups together with a specialized preschool teacher. One pervasive feature of this kind of data is the ongoing orientation to, and guidance from the adult towards the children on what the main business of their interaction is - what they relevantly are doing. In this light, the paper......: Unsolicited displays may lead to side sequences, they may lead to a shift in the main business of the talk, or they may be explicitly or implicitly ignored. The paper discusses whether and how these unsolicited displays of understanding then can be thought of as leading to opportunities for (language...

  16. The integration of novel EAP-based Braille cells for use in a refreshable tactile display

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Spigna, N.; Chakraborti, P.; Winick, D.; Yang, P.; Ghosh, T.; Franzon, P.

    2010-04-01

    Structures demonstrating the viability of both the hydraulic and latching Braille dot, and the dielectric elastomer fiber Braille dot have been fabricated and characterized. A hydraulic proof-of-concept structure has achieved the necessary volumetric change required to lift a Braille dot over 0.5mm at voltages under 1000V and at speeds under 100ms. Long bimorphs have been fabricated that demonstrate large tip displacements over 2mm that could be used to mechanically latch the Braille rod in the 'up' position to achieve the force requirement. The addition of radial prestrain in dielectric elastomer tubes has reduced the wall thickness and directed the strain in the axial direction which has had a dramatic impact on their resulting characteristics. The required bias voltage for the dielectric elastomer fiber Braille dot has been reduced from 15.5kV to 8.75kV while the Braille head tip displacement of a fabricated prototype has almost tripled on average and now also exceeds the required displacement for a refreshable Braille display. Finally, potential solutions to the current shortcomings of both designs in meeting all of the requirements for such a display are discussed.

  17. Sensitive detection of maltose and glucose based on dual enzyme-displayed bacteria electrochemical biosensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Aihua; Lang, Qiaolin; Liang, Bo; Shi, Jianguo

    2017-01-15

    Glucoamylase-displayed bacteria (GA-bacteria) and glucose dehydrogenase-displayed bacteria (GDH-bacteria) were co-immobilized on multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWNTs) modified glassy carbon electrode (GCE) to construct GA-bacteria/GDH-bacteria/MWNTs/GCE biosensor. The biosensor was developed by optimizing the loading amount and the ratio of GA-bacteria to GDH-bacteria. The as-prepared biosensor exhibited a wide dynamic range of 0.2-10mM and a low detection limit of 0.1mM maltose (S/N=3). The biosensor also had a linear response to glucose in the range of 0.1-2.0mM and a low detection limit of 0.04mM glucose (S/N=3). Interestingly, at the same concentration, glucose was 3.75-fold sensitive than that of maltose at the proposed biosensor. No interferences were observed for other possible mono- and disaccharides. The biosensor also demonstrated good long-term storage stability and repeatability. Further, using both GDH-bacteria/MWNTs/GCE biosensor and GA-bacteria/GDH-bacteria/MWNTs/GCE biosensor, glucose and maltose in real samples can be detected. Therefore, the proposed biosensor is capable of monitoring the food manufacturing and fermentation process. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Design of an off-axis visual display based on a free-form projection screen to realize stereo vision

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yuanming; Cui, Qingfeng; Piao, Mingxu; Zhao, Lidong

    2017-10-01

    A free-form projection screen is designed for an off-axis visual display, which shows great potential in applications such as flight training for providing both accommodation and convergence cues for pilots. The method based on point cloud is proposed for the design of the free-form surface, and the design of the point cloud is controlled by a program written in the macro-language. In the visual display based on the free-form projection screen, when the error of the screen along Z-axis is 1 mm, the error of visual distance at each filed is less than 1%. And the resolution of the design for full field is better than 1‧, which meet the requirement of resolution for human eyes.

  19. Data base management system and display software for the National Geophysical Data Center geomagnetic CD-ROM's

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papitashvili, N. E.; Papitashvili, V. O.; Allen, J. H.; Morris, L. D.

    1995-01-01

    The National Geophysical Data Center has the largest collection of geomagnetic data from the worldwide network of magnetic observatories. The data base management system and retrieval/display software have been developed for the archived geomagnetic data (annual means, monthly, daily, hourly, and 1-minute values) and placed on the center's CD-ROM's to provide users with 'user-oriented' and 'user-friendly' support. This system is described in this paper with a brief outline of provided options.

  20. Cation effect on small phosphonium based ionic liquid electrolytes with high concentrations of lithium salt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Fangfang; Kerr, Robert; Forsyth, Maria

    2018-05-01

    Ionic liquid electrolytes with high alkali salt concentrations have displayed some excellent electrochemical properties, thus opening up the field for further improvements to liquid electrolytes for lithium or sodium batteries. Fundamental computational investigations into these high concentration systems are required in order to gain a better understanding of these systems, yet they remain lacking. Small phosphonium-based ionic liquids with high concentrations of alkali metal ions have recently shown many promising results in experimental studies, thereby prompting us to conduct further theoretical exploration of these materials. Here, we conducted a molecular dynamics simulation on four small phosphonium-based ionic liquids with 50 mol. % LiFSI salt, focusing on the effect of cation structure on local structuring and ion diffusional and rotational dynamics—which are closely related to the electrochemical properties of these materials.

  1. Innovation Environment in Small Technology-Based Companies

    OpenAIRE

    Gonçalves Silveira Fiates, Gabriela; Azevedo Fiates, José Eduardo; Ribeiro Serra, Fernando A; Portugal Ferreira, Manuel

    2010-01-01

    Innovation has been identified as a strategy to achieve competitive advantage, particularly in contexts of change and especially for technology-based companies – TBCs. Although the adoption of innovation strategies is not easy, small companies have an organizational environment more conducive to innovation. This article examines how managers and employees of small TBCs perceive aspects of the internal environment of innovation in the organization (culture, organizational structure, personnel ...

  2. Design and implementation of organic LED-based displays for signage application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Pratibha; Kwok, Harry

    2006-06-01

    Organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs) have been utilized successfully for various applications such as microdisplays in cell-phones and digital cameras. However, the application of OLEDs for large area signage displays has not yet been established. This paper presents novel design techniques for implementing OLEDs as light sources for signage application. The designs are examined on the basis of signage uniformity, cost and manufacturing complexity. Advantages and limitations of each design are described. It is determined that a trade-off is required to choose a design for implementation. After evaluation and comparison of the designs, the most optimal design is chosen and implemented. Measurement results with the optimal design are described.

  3. A force transmission system based on a tulip-shaped electrostatic clutch for haptic display devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasaki, Hikaru; Shikida, Mitsuhiro; Sato, Kazuo

    2006-12-01

    This paper describes a novel type of force transmission system for haptic display devices. The system consists of an array of end-effecter elements, a force/displacement transmitter and a single actuator producing a large force/displacement. It has tulip-shaped electrostatic clutch devices to distribute the force/displacement from the actuator among the individual end effecters. The specifications of three components were determined to stimulate touched human fingers. The components were fabricated by using micro-electromechanical systems and conventional machining technologies, and finally they were assembled by hand. The performance of the assembled transmission system was experimentally examined and it was confirmed that each projection in the arrayed end effecters could be moved individually. The actuator in a system whose total size was only 3.0 cm × 3.0 cm × 4.0 cm produced a 600 mN force and displaced individual array elements by 18 µm.

  4. A Bayesian approach to degradation-based burn-in optimization for display products exhibiting two-phase degradation patterns

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yuan, Tao; Bae, Suk Joo; Zhu, Xiaoyan

    2016-01-01

    Motivated by the two-phase degradation phenomena observed in light displays (e.g., plasma display panels (PDPs), organic light emitting diodes (OLEDs)), this study proposes a new degradation-based burn-in testing plan for display products exhibiting two-phase degradation patterns. The primary focus of the burn-in test in this study is to eliminate the initial rapid degradation phase, while the major purpose of traditional burn-in tests is to detect and eliminate early failures from weak units. A hierarchical Bayesian bi-exponential model is used to capture two-phase degradation patterns of the burn-in population. Mission reliability and total cost are introduced as planning criteria. The proposed burn-in approach accounts for unit-to-unit variability within the burn-in population, and uncertainty concerning the model parameters, mainly in the hierarchical Bayesian framework. Available pre-burn-in data is conveniently incorporated into the burn-in decision-making procedure. A practical example of PDP degradation data is used to illustrate the proposed methodology. The proposed method is compared to other approaches such as the maximum likelihood method or the change-point regression. - Highlights: • We propose a degradation-based burn-in test for products with two-phase degradation. • Mission reliability and total cost are used as planning criteria. • The proposed burn-in approach is built within the hierarchical Bayesian framework. • A practical example was used to illustrate the proposed methodology.

  5. Designing a Situational Awareness Information Display: Adopting an Affordance-Based Framework to Amplify User Experience in Environmental Interaction Design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yingjie Victor Chen

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available User experience remains a crucial consideration when assessing the successfulness of information visualization systems. The theory of affordances provides a robust framework for user experience design. In this article, we demonstrate a design case that employs an affordance-based framework and evaluate the information visualization display design. SolarWheels is an interactive information visualization designed for large display walls in computer network control rooms to help cybersecurity analysts become aware of network status and emerging issues. Given the critical nature of this context, the status and performance of a computer network must be precisely monitored and remedied in real time. In this study, we consider various aspects of affordances in order to amplify the user experience via visualization and interaction design. SolarWheels visualizes the multilayer multidimensional computer network issues with a series of integrated circular visualizations inspired by the metaphor of the solar system. To amplify user interaction and experience, the system provides a three-zone physical interaction that allows multiple users to interact with the system. Users can read details at different levels depending on their distance from the display. An expert evaluation study, based on a four-layer affordance framework, was conducted to assess and improve the interactive visualization design.

  6. Polymer and small molecule based hybrid light source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choong, Vi-En; Choulis, Stelios; Krummacher, Benjamin Claus; Mathai, Mathew; So, Franky

    2010-03-16

    An organic electroluminescent device, includes: a substrate; a hole-injecting electrode (anode) coated over the substrate; a hole injection layer coated over the anode; a hole transporting layer coated over the hole injection layer; a polymer based light emitting layer, coated over the hole transporting layer; a small molecule based light emitting layer, thermally evaporated over the polymer based light emitting layer; and an electron-injecting electrode (cathode) deposited over the electroluminescent polymer layer.

  7. X-windows-based user interface for data acquisition and display

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fredian, T.W.; Stillerman, J.A.

    1990-01-01

    A Macintosh-like user interface for the MDS-Plus data acquisition system is being implemented using the DECwindows MIT/X interface. MDS-Plus is a model driven general purpose data acquisition system being developed collaboratively by the CMOD group at MIT Plasma Fusion Center, the RFX group at IGI-Padua, and the ZTH group at Los Alamos National Laboratory. The model is a hierarchical description of an experiment, including all of the tasks to be performed and the results of having performed them. The inherent complexity of this experimental model requires the users to specify fairly complicated descriptions of what they want the system to do. A ''Point and Click'' interface simplifies this by presenting to the user a coherent set of choices which are valid in the current context. We are implementing a set of tools for data acquisition and data analysis which use DECwindows to this end. They include a data displayer (Scope Replacement), an experiment model editor (Tree Editor), a timing system, and a waveform editor. These tools provide an easy to use interface to the MDS-Plus data acquisition system

  8. Amperometric L-glutamate biosensor based on bacterial cell-surface displayed glutamate dehydrogenase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Bo; Zhang, Shu; Lang, Qiaolin; Song, Jianxia; Han, Lihui; Liu, Aihua

    2015-07-16

    A novel L-glutamate biosensor was fabricated using bacteria surface-displayed glutamate dehydrogenase (Gldh-bacteria). Here the cofactor NADP(+)-specific dependent Gldh was expressed on the surface of Escherichia coli using N-terminal region of ice nucleation protein (INP) as the anchoring motif. The cell fractionation assay and SDS-PAGE analysis indicated that the majority of INP-Gldh fusion proteins were located on the surface of cells. The biosensor was fabricated by successively casting polyethyleneimine (PEI)-dispersed multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWNTs), Gldh-bacteria and Nafion onto the glassy carbon electrode (Nafion/Gldh-bacteria/PEI-MWNTs/GCE). The MWNTs could not only significantly lower the oxidation overpotential towards NAPDH, which was the product of NADP(+) involving in the oxidation of glutamate by Gldh, but also enhanced the current response. Under the optimized experimental conditions, the current-time curve of the Nafion/Gldh-bacteria/PEI-MWNTs/GCE was performed at +0.52 V (vs. SCE) by amperometry varying glutamate concentration. The current response was linear with glutamate concentration in two ranges (10 μM-1 mM and 2-10 mM). The low limit of detection was estimated to be 2 μM glutamate (S/N=3). Moreover, the proposed biosensor is stable, specific, reproducible and simple, which can be applied to real samples detection. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Microbial surface displayed enzymes based biofuel cell utilizing degradation products of lignocellulosic biomass for direct electrical energy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Shuqin; Hou, Chuantao; Liang, Bo; Feng, Ruirui; Liu, Aihua

    2015-09-01

    In this work, a bacterial surface displaying enzyme based two-compartment biofuel cell for the direct electrical energy conversion from degradation products of lignocellulosic biomass is reported. Considering that the main degradation products of the lignocellulose are glucose and xylose, xylose dehydrogenase (XDH) displayed bacteria (XDH-bacteria) and glucose dehydrogenase (GDH) displayed bacteria (GDH-bacteria) were used as anode catalysts in anode chamber with methylene blue as electron transfer mediator. While the cathode chamber was constructed with laccase/multi-walled-carbon nanotube/glassy-carbon-electrode. XDH-bacteria exhibited 1.75 times higher catalytic efficiency than GDH-bacteria. This assembled enzymatic fuel cell exhibited a high open-circuit potential of 0.80 V, acceptable stability and energy conversion efficiency. Moreover, the maximum power density of the cell could reach 53 μW cm(-2) when fueled with degradation products of corn stalk. Thus, this finding holds great potential to directly convert degradation products of biomass into electrical energy. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Amperometric L-glutamate biosensor based on bacterial cell-surface displayed glutamate dehydrogenase

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liang, Bo [Laboratory for Biosensing, Key Laboratory of Biofuels, and Shandong Provinicial Key Laboratory of Energy Genetics, Qingdao Institute of Bioenergy & Bioprocess Technology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 189 Songling Road, Qingdao 266101 (China); University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, 19A Yuquan Road, Beijing 100049 (China); Zhang, Shu [Laboratory for Biosensing, Key Laboratory of Biofuels, and Shandong Provinicial Key Laboratory of Energy Genetics, Qingdao Institute of Bioenergy & Bioprocess Technology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 189 Songling Road, Qingdao 266101 (China); Key Laboratory of Marine Chemistry Theory and Technology of Ministry of Education, Ocean University of China, 238 Songling Road, Qingdao 266100 (China); Lang, Qiaolin [Laboratory for Biosensing, Key Laboratory of Biofuels, and Shandong Provinicial Key Laboratory of Energy Genetics, Qingdao Institute of Bioenergy & Bioprocess Technology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 189 Songling Road, Qingdao 266101 (China); Song, Jianxia; Han, Lihui [Key Laboratory of Marine Chemistry Theory and Technology of Ministry of Education, Ocean University of China, 238 Songling Road, Qingdao 266100 (China); Liu, Aihua, E-mail: liuah@qibebt.ac.cn [Laboratory for Biosensing, Key Laboratory of Biofuels, and Shandong Provinicial Key Laboratory of Energy Genetics, Qingdao Institute of Bioenergy & Bioprocess Technology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 189 Songling Road, Qingdao 266101 (China); University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, 19A Yuquan Road, Beijing 100049 (China)

    2015-07-16

    Highlights: • E. coli surface-dispalyed Gldh exhibiting excellent enzyme activity and stability. • Sensitive amperometric biosensor for glutamate using Gldh-bacteria and MWNTs. • The glutamate biosensor exhibited high specificity and stability. - Abstract: A novel L-glutamate biosensor was fabricated using bacteria surface-displayed glutamate dehydrogenase (Gldh-bacteria). Here the cofactor NADP{sup +}-specific dependent Gldh was expressed on the surface of Escherichia coli using N-terminal region of ice nucleation protein (INP) as the anchoring motif. The cell fractionation assay and SDS-PAGE analysis indicated that the majority of INP-Gldh fusion proteins were located on the surface of cells. The biosensor was fabricated by successively casting polyethyleneimine (PEI)-dispersed multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWNTs), Gldh-bacteria and Nafion onto the glassy carbon electrode (Nafion/Gldh-bacteria/PEI-MWNTs/GCE). The MWNTs could not only significantly lower the oxidation overpotential towards NAPDH, which was the product of NADP{sup +} involving in the oxidation of glutamate by Gldh, but also enhanced the current response. Under the optimized experimental conditions, the current–time curve of the Nafion/Gldh-bacteria/PEI-MWNTs/GCE was performed at +0.52 V (vs. SCE) by amperometry varying glutamate concentration. The current response was linear with glutamate concentration in two ranges (10 μM–1 mM and 2–10 mM). The low limit of detection was estimated to be 2 μM glutamate (S/N = 3). Moreover, the proposed biosensor is stable, specific, reproducible and simple, which can be applied to real samples detection.

  11. Game-Based Evacuation Drill Using Augmented Reality and Head-Mounted Display

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawai, Junya; Mitsuhara, Hiroyuki; Shishibori, Masami

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: Evacuation drills should be more realistic and interactive. Focusing on situational and audio-visual realities and scenario-based interactivity, the authors have developed a game-based evacuation drill (GBED) system that presents augmented reality (AR) materials on tablet computers. The paper's current research purpose is to improve…

  12. Biomedical device prototype based on small scale hydrodynamic cavitation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morteza Ghorbani

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available This study presents a biomedical device prototype based on small scale hydrodynamic cavitation. The application of small scale hydrodynamic cavitation and its integration to a biomedical device prototype is offered as an important alternative to other techniques, such as ultrasound therapy, and thus constitutes a local, cheap, and energy-efficient solution, for urinary stone therapy and abnormal tissue ablation (e.g., benign prostate hyperplasia (BPH. The destructive nature of bubbly, cavitating, flows was exploited, and the potential of the prototype was assessed and characterized. Bubbles generated in a small flow restrictive element (micro-orifice based on hydrodynamic cavitation were utilized for this purpose. The small bubbly, cavitating, flow generator (micro-orifice was fitted to a small flexible probe, which was actuated with a micromanipulator using fine control. This probe also houses an imaging device for visualization so that the emerging cavitating flow could be locally targeted to the desired spot. In this study, the feasibility of this alternative treatment method and its integration to a device prototype were successfully accomplished.

  13. Biomedical device prototype based on small scale hydrodynamic cavitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghorbani, Morteza; Sozer, Canberk; Alcan, Gokhan; Unel, Mustafa; Ekici, Sinan; Uvet, Huseyin; Koşar, Ali

    2018-03-01

    This study presents a biomedical device prototype based on small scale hydrodynamic cavitation. The application of small scale hydrodynamic cavitation and its integration to a biomedical device prototype is offered as an important alternative to other techniques, such as ultrasound therapy, and thus constitutes a local, cheap, and energy-efficient solution, for urinary stone therapy and abnormal tissue ablation (e.g., benign prostate hyperplasia (BPH)). The destructive nature of bubbly, cavitating, flows was exploited, and the potential of the prototype was assessed and characterized. Bubbles generated in a small flow restrictive element (micro-orifice) based on hydrodynamic cavitation were utilized for this purpose. The small bubbly, cavitating, flow generator (micro-orifice) was fitted to a small flexible probe, which was actuated with a micromanipulator using fine control. This probe also houses an imaging device for visualization so that the emerging cavitating flow could be locally targeted to the desired spot. In this study, the feasibility of this alternative treatment method and its integration to a device prototype were successfully accomplished.

  14. Generation and Characterisation of Cisplatin-Resistant Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer Cell Lines Displaying a Stem-Like Signature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barr, Martin P.; Gray, Steven G.; Hoffmann, Andreas C.; Hilger, Ralf A.; Thomale, Juergen; O’Flaherty, John D.; Fennell, Dean A.; Richard, Derek; O’Leary, John J.; O’Byrne, Kenneth J.

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Inherent and acquired cisplatin resistance reduces the effectiveness of this agent in the management of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Understanding the molecular mechanisms underlying this process may result in the development of novel agents to enhance the sensitivity of cisplatin. Methods An isogenic model of cisplatin resistance was generated in a panel of NSCLC cell lines (A549, SKMES-1, MOR, H460). Over a period of twelve months, cisplatin resistant (CisR) cell lines were derived from original, age-matched parent cells (PT) and subsequently characterized. Proliferation (MTT) and clonogenic survival assays (crystal violet) were carried out between PT and CisR cells. Cellular response to cisplatin-induced apoptosis and cell cycle distribution were examined by FACS analysis. A panel of cancer stem cell and pluripotent markers was examined in addition to the EMT proteins, c-Met and β-catenin. Cisplatin-DNA adduct formation, DNA damage (γH2AX) and cellular platinum uptake (ICP-MS) was also assessed. Results Characterisation studies demonstrated a decreased proliferative capacity of lung tumour cells in response to cisplatin, increased resistance to cisplatin-induced cell death, accumulation of resistant cells in the G0/G1 phase of the cell cycle and enhanced clonogenic survival ability. Moreover, resistant cells displayed a putative stem-like signature with increased expression of CD133+/CD44+cells and increased ALDH activity relative to their corresponding parental cells. The stem cell markers, Nanog, Oct-4 and SOX-2, were significantly upregulated as were the EMT markers, c-Met and β-catenin. While resistant sublines demonstrated decreased uptake of cisplatin in response to treatment, reduced cisplatin-GpG DNA adduct formation and significantly decreased γH2AX foci were observed compared to parental cell lines. Conclusion Our results identified cisplatin resistant subpopulations of NSCLC cells with a putative stem-like signature, providing

  15. Generation and characterisation of cisplatin-resistant non-small cell lung cancer cell lines displaying a stem-like signature.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin P Barr

    Full Text Available Inherent and acquired cisplatin resistance reduces the effectiveness of this agent in the management of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC. Understanding the molecular mechanisms underlying this process may result in the development of novel agents to enhance the sensitivity of cisplatin.An isogenic model of cisplatin resistance was generated in a panel of NSCLC cell lines (A549, SKMES-1, MOR, H460. Over a period of twelve months, cisplatin resistant (CisR cell lines were derived from original, age-matched parent cells (PT and subsequently characterized. Proliferation (MTT and clonogenic survival assays (crystal violet were carried out between PT and CisR cells. Cellular response to cisplatin-induced apoptosis and cell cycle distribution were examined by FACS analysis. A panel of cancer stem cell and pluripotent markers was examined in addition to the EMT proteins, c-Met and β-catenin. Cisplatin-DNA adduct formation, DNA damage (γH2AX and cellular platinum uptake (ICP-MS was also assessed.Characterisation studies demonstrated a decreased proliferative capacity of lung tumour cells in response to cisplatin, increased resistance to cisplatin-induced cell death, accumulation of resistant cells in the G0/G1 phase of the cell cycle and enhanced clonogenic survival ability. Moreover, resistant cells displayed a putative stem-like signature with increased expression of CD133+/CD44+cells and increased ALDH activity relative to their corresponding parental cells. The stem cell markers, Nanog, Oct-4 and SOX-2, were significantly upregulated as were the EMT markers, c-Met and β-catenin. While resistant sublines demonstrated decreased uptake of cisplatin in response to treatment, reduced cisplatin-GpG DNA adduct formation and significantly decreased γH2AX foci were observed compared to parental cell lines.Our results identified cisplatin resistant subpopulations of NSCLC cells with a putative stem-like signature, providing a further understanding of the

  16. Improvements in data display

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ellis, G.W.

    1979-01-01

    An analog signal processor is described in this patent for connecting a source of analog signals to a cathode ray tube display in order to extend the dynamic range of the display. This has important applications in the field of computerised X-ray tomography since significant medical information, such as tumours in soft tissue, is often represented by minimal level changes in image density. Cathode ray tube displays are limited to approximately 15 intensity levels. Thus if both strong and weak absorption of the X-rays occurs, the dynamic range of the transmitted signals will be too large to permit small variations to be examined directly on a cathode ray display. Present tomographic image reconstruction methods are capable of quantising X-ray absorption density measurements into 256 or more distinct levels and a description is given of the electronics which enables the upper and lower range of intensity levels to be independently set and continuously varied. (UK)

  17. Display hardware

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Myers, D.R.

    1983-01-01

    To appreciate the limitations and possibilities of computer graphics it is necessary to have some acquaintance with the available technology. The aim of this chapter is to mention briefly the different display types and their 'ball-park' price ranges. It must be stressed that prices change rapidly, and so those quoted here are only intended to give an idea of the cost at the time of writing.

  18. Low, slow, small target recognition based on spatial vision network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Zhao; Guo, Pei; Qi, Xin

    2018-03-01

    Traditional photoelectric monitoring is monitored using a large number of identical cameras. In order to ensure the full coverage of the monitoring area, this monitoring method uses more cameras, which leads to more monitoring and repetition areas, and higher costs, resulting in more waste. In order to reduce the monitoring cost and solve the difficult problem of finding, identifying and tracking a low altitude, slow speed and small target, this paper presents spatial vision network for low-slow-small targets recognition. Based on camera imaging principle and monitoring model, spatial vision network is modeled and optimized. Simulation experiment results demonstrate that the proposed method has good performance.

  19. Automatic calibration system of the temperature instrument display based on computer vision measuring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhihong; Li, Jinze; Bao, Changchun; Hou, Guifeng; Liu, Chunxia; Cheng, Fang; Xiao, Nianxin

    2010-07-01

    With the development of computers and the techniques of dealing with pictures and computer optical measurement, various measuring techniques are maturing gradually on the basis of optical picture processing technique and using in practice. On the bases, we make use of the many years' experience and social needs in temperature measurement and computer vision measurement to come up with the completely automatic way of the temperature measurement meter with integration of the computer vision measuring technique. It realizes synchronization collection with theory temperature value, improves calibration efficiency. based on least square fitting principle, integrate data procession and the best optimize theory, rapidly and accurately realizes automation acquisition and calibration of temperature.

  20. Development of a surgical navigation system based on augmented reality using an optical see-through head-mounted display.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xiaojun; Xu, Lu; Wang, Yiping; Wang, Huixiang; Wang, Fang; Zeng, Xiangsen; Wang, Qiugen; Egger, Jan

    2015-06-01

    The surgical navigation system has experienced tremendous development over the past decades for minimizing the risks and improving the precision of the surgery. Nowadays, Augmented Reality (AR)-based surgical navigation is a promising technology for clinical applications. In the AR system, virtual and actual reality are mixed, offering real-time, high-quality visualization of an extensive variety of information to the users (Moussa et al., 2012) [1]. For example, virtual anatomical structures such as soft tissues, blood vessels and nerves can be integrated with the real-world scenario in real time. In this study, an AR-based surgical navigation system (AR-SNS) is developed using an optical see-through HMD (head-mounted display), aiming at improving the safety and reliability of the surgery. With the use of this system, including the calibration of instruments, registration, and the calibration of HMD, the 3D virtual critical anatomical structures in the head-mounted display are aligned with the actual structures of patient in real-world scenario during the intra-operative motion tracking process. The accuracy verification experiment demonstrated that the mean distance and angular errors were respectively 0.809±0.05mm and 1.038°±0.05°, which was sufficient to meet the clinical requirements. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Retrieval techniques and graphics displays using a computerized stellar data base

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mead, J.; Nagy, T. A.

    1977-01-01

    The paper describes a stellar data retrieval system for which the data base consists of 28 machine-readable astronomical catalogs. Eleven of these catalogs have been combined into the Goddard Cross Index (GCI), which serves as the computer entry point to these catalogs. The full data entry from any of the GCI catalogs can be retrieved in a single computer run. With this system, it is possible to prepare candidates for observation by searching the data base for stars with given characteristics. Generation of plots of all catalog stars in or near the telescope's field of view to scale of Palomar, other atlases, or to the telescope itself for use as observing charts or to aid in identifying unknown sources, can be accomplished.

  2. Development of Electronic Book (E-Book EPUB-Based for Display Course

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oktafiany Widhi Astuti

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research is to produce a source of learning in the form of electronic book (e-book with EPUB format for the Product Management Subject, and measuring the effectiveness of the use of e-book as a source for student learning independently. The study was conducted using the development model proposed by Sugiyono. This study used a questionnaire to obtain data validated by an expert. Students are as audience in learning using e-book based EPUB. The average of validation result and trial of effectiveness of EPUB-based e-book used calculation of joint validity which resulted percentage of 86,14% which means very valid and suitable to be used as alternative learning source for the Product Management Subject.

  3. A deblocking algorithm based on color psychology for display quality enhancement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeh, Chia-Hung; Tseng, Wen-Yu; Huang, Kai-Lin

    2012-12-01

    This article proposes a post-processing deblocking filter to reduce blocking effects. The proposed algorithm detects blocking effects by fusing the results of Sobel edge detector and wavelet-based edge detector. The filtering stage provides four filter modes to eliminate blocking effects at different color regions according to human color vision and color psychology analysis. Experimental results show that the proposed algorithm has better subjective and objective qualities for H.264/AVC reconstructed videos when compared to several existing methods.

  4. Usability evaluation of cloud-based mapping tools for the display of very large datasets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stotz, Nicole Marie

    The elasticity and on-demand nature of cloud services have made it easier to create web maps. Users only need access to a web browser and the Internet to utilize cloud based web maps, eliminating the need for specialized software. To encourage a wide variety of users, a map must be well designed; usability is a very important concept in designing a web map. Fusion Tables, a new product from Google, is one example of newer cloud-based distributed GIS services. It allows for easy spatial data manipulation and visualization, within the Google Maps framework. ESRI has also introduced a cloud based version of their software, called ArcGIS Online, built on Amazon's EC2 cloud. Utilizing a user-centered design framework, two prototype maps were created with data from the San Diego East County Economic Development Council. One map was built on Fusion Tables, and another on ESRI's ArcGIS Online. A usability analysis was conducted and used to compare both map prototypes in term so of design and functionality. Load tests were also ran, and performance metrics gathered on both map prototypes. The usability analysis was taken by 25 geography students, and consisted of time based tasks and questions on map design and functionality. Survey participants completed the time based tasks for the Fusion Tables map prototype quicker than those of the ArcGIS Online map prototype. While response was generally positive towards the design and functionality of both prototypes, overall the Fusion Tables map prototype was preferred. For the load tests, the data set was broken into 22 groups for a total of 44 tests. While the Fusion Tables map prototype performed more efficiently than the ArcGIS Online prototype, differences are almost unnoticeable. A SWOT analysis was conducted for each prototype. The results from this research point to the Fusion Tables map prototype. A redesign of this prototype would incorporate design suggestions from the usability survey, while some functionality would

  5. E-Pad: a comfortable electrocutaneous-based tactile feedback display

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jiabin; Zhao, Lu; Liu, Yue; Wang, Yongtian; Cai, Yi

    2018-01-01

    The devices with touchscreen are becoming more popular recently; however, most of them suffer from the crucial drawbacks of lacking accurate tactile feedback. A novel electrocutaneous-based tactile device with the name of E-pad is proposed to provide a dynamic and static low-voltage feedback for touchscreen. We optimize the key parameters of the output voltage and design custom-made hardwares to guarantee a comfortable user experience. Users could move their fingers freely across the touchscreen of the proposed device to really feel virtual objects. Two preliminary experiments are conducted to evaluate the interactive performance of the proposed device and the experimental results show that the proposed device can provide a comfortable and distinct tactile feedback.

  6. A trace display and editing program for data from fluorescence based sequencing machines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gleeson, T; Hillier, L

    1991-12-11

    'Ted' (Trace editor) is a graphical editor for sequence and trace data from automated fluorescence sequencing machines. It provides facilities for viewing sequence and trace data (in top or bottom strand orientation), for editing the base sequence, for automated or manual trimming of the head (vector) and tail (uncertain data) from the sequence, for vertical and horizontal trace scaling, for keeping a history of sequence editing, and for output of the edited sequence. Ted has been used extensively in the C.elegans genome sequencing project, both as a stand-alone program and integrated into the Staden sequence assembly package, and has greatly aided in the efficiency and accuracy of sequence editing. It runs in the X windows environment on Sun workstations and is available from the authors. Ted currently supports sequence and trace data from the ABI 373A and Pharmacia A.L.F. sequencers.

  7. A design approach for small vision-based autonomous vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Barrett B.; Fife, Wade S.; Archibald, James K.; Lee, Dah-Jye; Wilde, Doran K.

    2006-10-01

    This paper describes the design of a small autonomous vehicle based on the Helios computing platform, a custom FPGA-based board capable of supporting on-board vision. Target applications for the Helios computing platform are those that require lightweight equipment and low power consumption. To demonstrate the capabilities of FPGAs in real-time control of autonomous vehicles, a 16 inch long R/C monster truck was outfitted with a Helios board. The platform provided by such a small vehicle is ideal for testing and development. The proof of concept application for this autonomous vehicle was a timed race through an environment with obstacles. Given the size restrictions of the vehicle and its operating environment, the only feasible on-board sensor is a small CMOS camera. The single video feed is therefore the only source of information from the surrounding environment. The image is then segmented and processed by custom logic in the FPGA that also controls direction and speed of the vehicle based on visual input.

  8. A Novel Virus-Like Particle Based Vaccine Platform Displaying the Placental Malaria Antigen VAR2CSA.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susan Thrane

    Full Text Available Placental malaria caused by Plasmodium falciparum is a major cause of mortality and severe morbidity. Clinical testing of a soluble protein-based vaccine containing the parasite ligand, VAR2CSA, has been initiated. VAR2CSA binds to the human receptor chondroitin sulphate A (CSA and is responsible for sequestration of Plasmodium falciparum infected erythrocytes in the placenta. It is imperative that a vaccine against malaria in pregnancy, if administered to women before they become pregnant, can induce a strong and long lasting immune response. While most soluble protein-based vaccines have failed during clinical testing, virus-like particle (VLP based vaccines (e.g., the licensed human papillomavirus vaccines have demonstrated high efficacy, suggesting that the spatial assembly of the vaccine antigen is a critical parameter for inducing an optimal long-lasting protective immune response. We have developed a VLP vaccine display platform by identifying regions of the HPV16 L1 coat protein where a biotin acceptor site (AviTagTM can be inserted without compromising VLP-assembly. Subsequent biotinylation of Avi-L1 VLPs allow us to anchor monovalent streptavidin (mSA-fused proteins to the biotin, thereby obtaining a dense and repetitive VLP-display of the vaccine antigen. The mSA-VAR2CSA antigen was delivered on the Avi-L1 VLP platform and tested in C57BL/6 mice in comparison to two soluble protein-based vaccines consisting of naked VAR2CSA and mSA-VAR2CSA. The mSA-VAR2CSA Avi-L1 VLP and soluble mSA-VAR2CSA vaccines induced higher antibody titers than the soluble naked VAR2CSA vaccine after three immunizations. The VAR2CSA Avi-L1 VLP vaccine induced statistically significantly higher endpoint titres compared to the soluble mSA-VAR2CSA vaccine, after 1st and 2nd immunization; however, this difference was not statistically significant after 3rd immunization. Importantly, the VLP-VAR2CSA induced antibodies were functional in inhibiting the binding of

  9. Designing visual displays and system models for safe reactor operations based on the user`s perspective of the system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown-VanHoozer, S.A.

    1995-12-31

    Most designers are not schooled in the area of human-interaction psychology and therefore tend to rely on the traditional ergonomic aspects of human factors when designing complex human-interactive workstations related to reactor operations. They do not take into account the differences in user information processing behavior and how these behaviors may affect individual and team performance when accessing visual displays or utilizing system models in process and control room areas. Unfortunately, by ignoring the importance of the integration of the user interface at the information process level, the result can be sub-optimization and inherently error- and failure-prone systems. Therefore, to minimize or eliminate failures in human-interactive systems, it is essential that the designers understand how each user`s processing characteristics affects how the user gathers information, and how the user communicates the information to the designer and other users. A different type of approach in achieving this understanding is Neuro Linguistic Programming (NLP). The material presented in this paper is based on two studies involving the design of visual displays, NLP, and the user`s perspective model of a reactor system. The studies involve the methodology known as NLP, and its use in expanding design choices from the user`s ``model of the world,`` in the areas of virtual reality, workstation design, team structure, decision and learning style patterns, safety operations, pattern recognition, and much, much more.

  10. Designing visual displays and system models for safe reactor operations based on the user's perspective of the system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown-VanHoozer, S.A.

    1995-01-01

    Most designers are not schooled in the area of human-interaction psychology and therefore tend to rely on the traditional ergonomic aspects of human factors when designing complex human-interactive workstations related to reactor operations. They do not take into account the differences in user information processing behavior and how these behaviors may affect individual and team performance when accessing visual displays or utilizing system models in process and control room areas. Unfortunately, by ignoring the importance of the integration of the user interface at the information process level, the result can be sub-optimization and inherently error- and failure-prone systems. Therefore, to minimize or eliminate failures in human-interactive systems, it is essential that the designers understand how each user's processing characteristics affects how the user gathers information, and how the user communicates the information to the designer and other users. A different type of approach in achieving this understanding is Neuro Linguistic Programming (NLP). The material presented in this paper is based on two studies involving the design of visual displays, NLP, and the user's perspective model of a reactor system. The studies involve the methodology known as NLP, and its use in expanding design choices from the user's ''model of the world,'' in the areas of virtual reality, workstation design, team structure, decision and learning style patterns, safety operations, pattern recognition, and much, much more

  11. Force Rendering and its Evaluation of a Friction-Based Walking Sensation Display for a Seated User.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kato, Ginga; Kuroda, Yoshihiro; Kiyokawa, Kiyoshi; Takemura, Haruo

    2018-04-01

    Most existing locomotion devices that represent the sensation of walking target a user who is actually performing a walking motion. Here, we attempted to represent the walking sensation, especially a kinesthetic sensation and advancing feeling (the sense of moving forward) while the user remains seated. To represent the walking sensation using a relatively simple device, we focused on the force rendering and its evaluation of the longitudinal friction force applied on the sole during walking. Based on the measurement of the friction force applied on the sole during actual walking, we developed a novel friction force display that can present the friction force without the influence of body weight. Using performance evaluation testing, we found that the proposed method can stably and rapidly display friction force. Also, we developed a virtual reality (VR) walk-through system that is able to present the friction force through the proposed device according to the avatar's walking motion in a virtual world. By evaluating the realism, we found that the proposed device can represent a more realistic advancing feeling than vibration feedback.

  12. Effect of display location on control-display stereotype strength for translational and rotational controls with linear displays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Alan H S; Hoffmann, Errol R

    2015-01-01

    Experiments were designed to investigate the effects of control type and display location, relative to the operator, on the strength of control/display stereotypes. The Worringham and Beringer Visual Field principle and an extension of this principle for rotary controls (Hoffmann E.R., and Chan A.H.S. 2013). "The Worringham and Beringer 'Visual Field' Principle for Rotary Controls. Ergonomics." 56 (10): 1620-1624) indicated that, for a number of different control types (rotary and lever) on different planes, there should be no significant effect of the display location relative to the seated operator. Past data were surveyed and stereotype strengths listed. Experiments filled gaps where data are not available. Six different control types and seven display locations were used, as in the Frame of Reference Transformation Tool (FORT) model of Wickens et al. (Wickens, C.D., Keller, J.W., and Small, R.L. (2010). "Left. No, Right! Development of the Frame of Reference Transformation Tool (FORT)." Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society 54th Annual Meeting September 2010, 54: 1022-1026). Control/display arrangements with high stereotype strengths were evaluated yielding data for designers of complex control/display arrangements where the control and display are in different planes and for where the operator is moving. It was found possible to predict display/control arrangements with high stereotype strength, based on past data. Practitioner Summary: Controls and displays in complex arrangements need to have high compatibility. These experiments provide arrangements for six different controls (rotary and translational) and seven different display locations relative to the operator.

  13. Off-line data processing and display for computed tomographic images (EMI brain)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takizawa, Masaomi; Maruyama, Kiyoshi; Yano, Kesato; Takenaka, Eiichi.

    1978-01-01

    Processing and multi-format display for the CT (EMI) scan data have been tried by using an off-line small computer and an analog memory. Four or six CT images after processing are displayed on the CRT by a small computer with a 16 kilo-words core memory and an analog memory. Multi-format display of the CT image can be selected as follows; multi-slice display, continuative multi-window display, separate multi-window display, and multi-window level display. Electronic zooming for the real size viewing can give magnified CT image with one of displayed images if necessary. Image substraction, edge enhancement, smoothing, non-linear gray scale display, and synthesized image for the plane tomography reconstracted by the normal CT scan data, have been tried by the off-line data processing. A possibility for an effective application of the data base with CT image was obtained by these trials. (auth.)

  14. Innovation Environment in Small Technology-Based Companies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela Gonçalves Silveira Fiates

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Innovation has been identified as a strategy to achieve competitive advantage, particularly in contexts of change and especially for technology-based companies – TBCs. Although the adoption of innovation strategies is not easy, small companies have an organizational environment more conducive to innovation. This article examines how managers and employees of small TBCs perceive aspects of the internal environment of innovation in the organization (culture, organizational structure, personnel and infrastructure and their suitability for the innovation process. This is a qualitative research from a multicase study on five companies located in an incubator. Data were collected through open interviews, using a semi-structured script, with one of the managers and two employees from each company. Data were analyzed from preliminary content analysis. The results showed some discrepancies between the perceptions of managers and employees about the issues investigated and their suitability for the innovation system, as well as between reality and the theoretical basis used.

  15. Synthetic socioeconomic based domestic wastewater hydrographs for small arid communities

    KAUST Repository

    Elnakar, H.

    2012-06-04

    A model was developed to predict synthetic socioeconomic based domestic wastewater hydrographs for the small arid communities. The model predicts the flow hydrograph for random weekdays and weekends based on the specific socioeconomic characteristics of the community. The main socioeconomic characteristics are the composition of the community, the different user behaviours in using water appliances, and the unit discharges of such appliances. Use patterns of water appliances are assumed to vary for the various members of the community and the type of day. Each community is composed of several social categories such as the employee, working woman, stay home woman, stay home child, students etc. The use patterns account for the stochastic nature of use in terms of number of uses, duration of the use and times of use in the day. Randomly generated hydrographs are generated for weekdays and weekends along with synthetic hydrographs of non-exceedance. The model was verified for a small residential compound in Sharm El Shiekh - Egypt using 11 days of flow measurements performed in summer. The synthetic hydrographs based on assumed water use patterns of the various members of the community compared reasonably with the measured hydrographs. Synthetic hydrographs can be derived for a community under consideration to reflect its socioeconomic conditions and thus can be used to generate probability based peaking factors to be used in the design of sewerage systems pumping facilities, and treatment plants. © 201 WIT Press.

  16. Synthetic socioeconomic based domestic wastewater hydrographs for small arid communities

    KAUST Repository

    Elnakar, H.; Imam, E.; Nassar, K.

    2012-01-01

    A model was developed to predict synthetic socioeconomic based domestic wastewater hydrographs for the small arid communities. The model predicts the flow hydrograph for random weekdays and weekends based on the specific socioeconomic characteristics of the community. The main socioeconomic characteristics are the composition of the community, the different user behaviours in using water appliances, and the unit discharges of such appliances. Use patterns of water appliances are assumed to vary for the various members of the community and the type of day. Each community is composed of several social categories such as the employee, working woman, stay home woman, stay home child, students etc. The use patterns account for the stochastic nature of use in terms of number of uses, duration of the use and times of use in the day. Randomly generated hydrographs are generated for weekdays and weekends along with synthetic hydrographs of non-exceedance. The model was verified for a small residential compound in Sharm El Shiekh - Egypt using 11 days of flow measurements performed in summer. The synthetic hydrographs based on assumed water use patterns of the various members of the community compared reasonably with the measured hydrographs. Synthetic hydrographs can be derived for a community under consideration to reflect its socioeconomic conditions and thus can be used to generate probability based peaking factors to be used in the design of sewerage systems pumping facilities, and treatment plants. © 201 WIT Press.

  17. Automated Detection of Small Bodies by Space Based Observation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bidstrup, P. R.; Grillmayer, G.; Andersen, A. C.; Haack, H.; Jorgensen, J. L.

    The number of known comets and asteroids is increasing every year. Up till now this number is including approximately 250,000 of the largest minor planets, as they are usually referred. These discoveries are due to the Earth-based observation which has intensified over the previous decades. Additionally larger telescopes and arrays of telescopes are being used for exploring our Solar System. It is believed that all near- Earth and Main-Belt asteroids of diameters above 10 to 30 km have been discovered, leaving these groups of objects as observationally complete. However, the cataloguing of smaller bodies is incomplete as only a very small fraction of the expected number has been discovered. It is estimated that approximately 1010 main belt asteroids in the size range 1 m to 1 km are too faint to be observed using Earth-based telescopes. In order to observe these small bodies, space-based search must be initiated to remove atmospheric disturbances and to minimize the distance to the asteroids and thereby minimising the requirement for long camera integration times. A new method of space-based detection of moving non-stellar objects is currently being developed utilising the Advanced Stellar Compass (ASC) built for spacecraft attitude determination by Ørsted, Danish Technical University. The ASC serves as a backbone technology in the project as it is capable of fully automated distinction of known and unknown celestial objects. By only processing objects of particular interest, i.e. moving objects, it will be possible to discover small bodies with a minimum of ground control, with the ultimate ambition of a fully automated space search probe. Currently, the ASC is being mounted on the Flying Laptop satellite of the Institute of Space Systems, Universität Stuttgart. It will, after a launch into a low Earth polar orbit in 2008, test the detection method with the ASC equipment that already had significant in-flight experience. A future use of the ASC based automated

  18. Paradigm for expert display systems in nuclear plant and elsewhere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gabriel, J.R.

    1986-02-01

    Display of relevant data concerning plant operation has been a concern of the nuclear industry from its beginnings. Since the incident at Three Mile Island, this matter has had much careful scrutiny. L. Beltracchi, in particular, has originated a sequence of important steps to improve the operator's ability to recognize plant states and their changes. In the early 1980's, Beltracchi (1983, 1984) proposed a display based on the Rankine cycle for light water reactors. More recently, in an unpublished work (1986b), he described an extension that includes a small, rule-based system in the display program, drawing inferences about plant operation from sensor readings, and displaying those inferences on the Rankine display. Our paper examines Beltracchi's rule-based display from the perspective of knowledge bases. Earlier (Gabriel, 1983) we noted that analytical models of system behavior are just as much a knowledge base as are the rules of a conventional expert system. The problem of finding useful displays for a complex plant is discussed from this perspective. We then present a paradigm for developing designs with properties similar to those in Beltracchi's Rankine cycle display. Finally, to clarify the issue, we give a small example from an imaginary plant

  19. Demonstration of a large-size horizontal light-field display based on the LED panel and the micro-pinhole unit array

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Le; Sang, Xinzhu; Yu, Xunbo; Liu, Boyang; Liu, Li; Yang, Shenwu; Yan, Binbin; Du, Jingyan; Gao, Chao

    2018-05-01

    A 54-inch horizontal-parallax only light-field display based on the light-emitting diode (LED) panel and the micro-pinhole unit array (MPUA) is demonstrated. Normally, the perceived 3D effect of the three-dimensional (3D) display with smooth motion parallax and abundant light-field information can be enhanced with increasing the density of viewpoints. However, the density of viewpoints is inversely proportional to the spatial display resolution for the conventional integral imaging. Here, a special MPUA is designed and fabricated, and the displayed 3D scene constructed by the proposed horizontal light-field display is presented. Compared with the conventional integral imaging, both the density of horizontal viewpoints and the spatial display resolution are significantly improved. In the experiment, A 54-inch horizontal light-field display with 42.8° viewing angle based on the LED panel with the resolution of 1280 × 720 and the MPUA is realized, which can provide natural 3D visual effect to observers with high quality.

  20. Visual DMDX: A web-based authoring tool for DMDX, a Windows display program with millisecond accuracy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garaizar, Pablo; Reips, Ulf-Dietrich

    2015-09-01

    DMDX is a software package for the experimental control and timing of stimulus display for Microsoft Windows systems. DMDX is reliable, flexible, millisecond accurate, and can be downloaded free of charge; therefore it has become very popular among experimental researchers. However, setting up a DMDX-based experiment is burdensome because of its command-based interface. Further, DMDX relies on RTF files in which parts of the stimuli, design, and procedure of an experiment are defined in a complicated (DMASTR-compatible) syntax. Other experiment software, such as E-Prime, Psychopy, and WEXTOR, became successful as a result of integrated visual authoring tools. Such an intuitive interface was lacking for DMDX. We therefore created and present here Visual DMDX (http://visualdmdx.com/), a HTML5-based web interface to set up experiments and export them to DMDX item files format in RTF. Visual DMDX offers most of the features available from the rich DMDX/DMASTR syntax, and it is a useful tool to support researchers who are new to DMDX. Both old and modern versions of DMDX syntax are supported. Further, with Visual DMDX, we go beyond DMDX by having added export to JSON (a versatile web format), easy backup, and a preview option for experiments. In two examples, one experiment each on lexical decision making and affective priming, we explain in a step-by-step fashion how to create experiments using Visual DMDX. We release Visual DMDX under an open-source license to foster collaboration in its continuous improvement.

  1. NASA Operational Simulator for Small Satellites: Tools for Software Based Validation and Verification of Small Satellites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grubb, Matt

    2016-01-01

    The NASA Operational Simulator for Small Satellites (NOS3) is a suite of tools to aid in areas such as software development, integration test (IT), mission operations training, verification and validation (VV), and software systems check-out. NOS3 provides a software development environment, a multi-target build system, an operator interface-ground station, dynamics and environment simulations, and software-based hardware models. NOS3 enables the development of flight software (FSW) early in the project life cycle, when access to hardware is typically not available. For small satellites there are extensive lead times on many of the commercial-off-the-shelf (COTS) components as well as limited funding for engineering test units (ETU). Considering the difficulty of providing a hardware test-bed to each developer tester, hardware models are modeled based upon characteristic data or manufacturers data sheets for each individual component. The fidelity of each hardware models is such that FSW executes unaware that physical hardware is not present. This allows binaries to be compiled for both the simulation environment, and the flight computer, without changing the FSW source code. For hardware models that provide data dependent on the environment, such as a GPS receiver or magnetometer, an open-source tool from NASA GSFC (42 Spacecraft Simulation) is used to provide the necessary data. The underlying infrastructure used to transfer messages between FSW and the hardware models can also be used to monitor, intercept, and inject messages, which has proven to be beneficial for VV of larger missions such as James Webb Space Telescope (JWST). As hardware is procured, drivers can be added to the environment to enable hardware-in-the-loop (HWIL) testing. When strict time synchronization is not vital, any number of combinations of hardware components and software-based models can be tested. The open-source operator interface used in NOS3 is COSMOS from Ball Aerospace. For

  2. Small Area Model-Based Estimators Using Big Data Sources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marchetti Stefano

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The timely, accurate monitoring of social indicators, such as poverty or inequality, on a finegrained spatial and temporal scale is a crucial tool for understanding social phenomena and policymaking, but poses a great challenge to official statistics. This article argues that an interdisciplinary approach, combining the body of statistical research in small area estimation with the body of research in social data mining based on Big Data, can provide novel means to tackle this problem successfully. Big Data derived from the digital crumbs that humans leave behind in their daily activities are in fact providing ever more accurate proxies of social life. Social data mining from these data, coupled with advanced model-based techniques for fine-grained estimates, have the potential to provide a novel microscope through which to view and understand social complexity. This article suggests three ways to use Big Data together with small area estimation techniques, and shows how Big Data has the potential to mirror aspects of well-being and other socioeconomic phenomena.

  3. GenColors-based comparative genome databases for small eukaryotic genomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felder, Marius; Romualdi, Alessandro; Petzold, Andreas; Platzer, Matthias; Sühnel, Jürgen; Glöckner, Gernot

    2013-01-01

    Many sequence data repositories can give a quick and easily accessible overview on genomes and their annotations. Less widespread is the possibility to compare related genomes with each other in a common database environment. We have previously described the GenColors database system (http://gencolors.fli-leibniz.de) and its applications to a number of bacterial genomes such as Borrelia, Legionella, Leptospira and Treponema. This system has an emphasis on genome comparison. It combines data from related genomes and provides the user with an extensive set of visualization and analysis tools. Eukaryote genomes are normally larger than prokaryote genomes and thus pose additional challenges for such a system. We have, therefore, adapted GenColors to also handle larger datasets of small eukaryotic genomes and to display eukaryotic gene structures. Further recent developments include whole genome views, genome list options and, for bacterial genome browsers, the display of horizontal gene transfer predictions. Two new GenColors-based databases for two fungal species (http://fgb.fli-leibniz.de) and for four social amoebas (http://sacgb.fli-leibniz.de) were set up. Both new resources open up a single entry point for related genomes for the amoebozoa and fungal research communities and other interested users. Comparative genomics approaches are greatly facilitated by these resources.

  4. 3D display system using monocular multiview displays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakamoto, Kunio; Saruta, Kazuki; Takeda, Kazutoki

    2002-05-01

    A 3D head mounted display (HMD) system is useful for constructing a virtual space. The authors have researched the virtual-reality systems connected with computer networks for real-time remote control and developed a low-priced real-time 3D display for building these systems. We developed a 3D HMD system using monocular multi-view displays. The 3D displaying technique of this monocular multi-view display is based on the concept of the super multi-view proposed by Kajiki at TAO (Telecommunications Advancement Organization of Japan) in 1996. Our 3D HMD has two monocular multi-view displays (used as a visual display unit) in order to display a picture to the left eye and the right eye. The left and right images are a pair of stereoscopic images for the left and right eyes, then stereoscopic 3D images are observed.

  5. Computer-generated holographic near-eye display system based on LCoS phase only modulator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Peng; Chang, Shengqian; Zhang, Siman; Xie, Ting; Li, Huaye; Liu, Siqi; Wang, Chang; Tao, Xiao; Zheng, Zhenrong

    2017-09-01

    Augmented reality (AR) technology has been applied in various areas, such as large-scale manufacturing, national defense, healthcare, movie and mass media and so on. An important way to realize AR display is using computer-generated hologram (CGH), which is accompanied by low image quality and heavy computing defects. Meanwhile, the diffraction of Liquid Crystal on Silicon (LCoS) has a negative effect on image quality. In this paper, a modified algorithm based on traditional Gerchberg-Saxton (GS) algorithm was proposed to improve the image quality, and new method to establish experimental system was used to broaden field of view (FOV). In the experiment, undesired zero-order diffracted light was eliminated and high definition 2D image was acquired with FOV broadened to 36.1 degree. We have also done some pilot research in 3D reconstruction with tomography algorithm based on Fresnel diffraction. With the same experimental system, experimental results demonstrate the feasibility of 3D reconstruction. These modifications are effective and efficient, and may provide a better solution in AR realization.

  6. The effect of base image window level selection on the dimensional measurement accuracy of resultant three-dimensional image displays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kurmis, A.P.; Hearn, T.C.; Reynolds, K.J.

    2003-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of this study was to determine the effect of base image window level selection on direct linear measurement of knee structures displayed using new magnetic resonance (MR)-based three-dimensional reconstructed computer imaging techniques. Methods: A prospective comparative study was performed using a series of three-dimensional knee images, generated from conventional MR imaging (MRI) sections. Thirty distinct anatomical structural features were identified within the image series of which repeated measurements were compared at 10 different window grey scale levels. Results: Statistical analysis demonstrated an excellent raw correlation between measurements and suggested no significant difference between measurements made at each of the 10 window level settings (P>0.05). Conclusions: The findings of this study suggest that unlike conventional MR or CT applications, grey scale window level selection at the time of imaging does not significantly affect the visual quality of resultant three-dimensional reconstructed images and hence the accuracy of subsequent direct linear measurement. The diagnostic potential of clinical progression from routine two-dimensional to advanced three-dimensional reconstructed imaging techniques may therefore be less likely to be degraded by inappropriate MR technician image windowing during the capturing of image series

  7. Towards a Wireless and Low-Power Infrastructure for Representing Information Based on E-Paper Displays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego Sánchez-de-Rivera

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available There has been much interest in replacing traditional information supports with more technological solutions in recent years. New technologies which allow paper-like perception with minimal power needs have emerged as low-power wireless scenarios. A priority for these new supports is to create the architecture for a scalable solution which maintains minimal power requirements. The retail industry demands a new information infrastructure that improves customer and employee satisfaction. In this work, authors propose an information provision architecture based on E-Paper and carry out an experiment where different smart labeling architectures based on Paper, E-Paper, LED liquid crystal display (LCD and Dot-matrix LCD were tested in order to determine which is best suited for a real labeling environment. Enclosed in a research project called SMARKET, the authors pilot-tested the work in a real supermarket, having the opportunity to survey employees and customers about satisfaction and frustration with the use of the architectures proposed in this research work.

  8. Small reactor power systems for manned planetary surface bases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bloomfield, H.S.

    1987-12-01

    A preliminary feasibility study of the potential application of small nuclear reactor space power systems to manned planetary surface base missions was conducted. The purpose of the study was to identify and assess the technology, performance, and safety issues associated with integration of reactor power systems with an evolutionary manned planetary surface exploration scenario. The requirements and characteristics of a variety of human-rated modular reactor power system configurations selected for a range of power levels from 25 kWe to hundreds of kilowatts is described. Trade-off analyses for reactor power systems utilizing both man-made and indigenous shielding materials are provided to examine performance, installation and operational safety feasibility issues. The results of this study have confirmed the preliminary feasibility of a wide variety of small reactor power plant configurations for growth oriented manned planetary surface exploration missions. The capability for power level growth with increasing manned presence, while maintaining safe radiation levels, was favorably assessed for nominal 25 to 100 kWe modular configurations. No feasibility limitations or technical barriers were identified and the use of both distance and indigenous planetary soil material for human rated radiation shielding were shown to be viable and attractive options.

  9. Small reactor power systems for manned planetary surface bases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bloomfield, H.S.

    1987-12-01

    A preliminary feasibility study of the potential application of small nuclear reactor space power systems to manned planetary surface base missions was conducted. The purpose of the study was to identify and assess the technology, performance, and safety issues associated with integration of reactor power systems with an evolutionary manned planetary surface exploration scenario. The requirements and characteristics of a variety of human-rated modular reactor power system configurations selected for a range of power levels from 25 kWe to hundreds of kilowatts is described. Trade-off analyses for reactor power systems utilizing both man-made and indigenous shielding materials are provided to examine performance, installation and operational safety feasibility issues. The results of this study have confirmed the preliminary feasibility of a wide variety of small reactor power plant configurations for growth oriented manned planetary surface exploration missions. The capability for power level growth with increasing manned presence, while maintaining safe radiation levels, was favorably assessed for nominal 25 to 100 kWe modular configurations. No feasibility limitations or technical barriers were identified and the use of both distance and indigenous planetary soil material for human rated radiation shielding were shown to be viable and attractive options

  10. A Fuzzy-Based Fusion Method of Multimodal Sensor-Based Measurements for the Quantitative Evaluation of Eye Fatigue on 3D Displays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jae Won Bang

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available With the rapid increase of 3-dimensional (3D content, considerable research related to the 3D human factor has been undertaken for quantitatively evaluating visual discomfort, including eye fatigue and dizziness, caused by viewing 3D content. Various modalities such as electroencephalograms (EEGs, biomedical signals, and eye responses have been investigated. However, the majority of the previous research has analyzed each modality separately to measure user eye fatigue. This cannot guarantee the credibility of the resulting eye fatigue evaluations. Therefore, we propose a new method for quantitatively evaluating eye fatigue related to 3D content by combining multimodal measurements. This research is novel for the following four reasons: first, for the evaluation of eye fatigue with high credibility on 3D displays, a fuzzy-based fusion method (FBFM is proposed based on the multimodalities of EEG signals, eye blinking rate (BR, facial temperature (FT, and subjective evaluation (SE; second, to measure a more accurate variation of eye fatigue (before and after watching a 3D display, we obtain the quality scores of EEG signals, eye BR, FT and SE; third, for combining the values of the four modalities we obtain the optimal weights of the EEG signals BR, FT and SE using a fuzzy system based on quality scores; fourth, the quantitative level of the variation of eye fatigue is finally obtained using the weighted sum of the values measured by the four modalities. Experimental results confirm that the effectiveness of the proposed FBFM is greater than other conventional multimodal measurements. Moreover, the credibility of the variations of the eye fatigue using the FBFM before and after watching the 3D display is proven using a t-test and descriptive statistical analysis using effect size.

  11. Highly Flexible and Efficient Fabric-Based Organic Light-Emitting Devices for Clothing-Shaped Wearable Displays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Seungyeop; Kwon, Seonil; Kim, Hyuncheol; Kim, Woohyun; Kwon, Jung Hyun; Lim, Myung Sub; Lee, Ho Seung; Choi, Kyung Cheol

    2017-07-25

    Recently, the role of clothing has evolved from merely body protection, maintaining the body temperature, and fashion, to advanced functions such as various types of information delivery, communication, and even augmented reality. With a wireless internet connection, the integration of circuits and sensors, and a portable power supply, clothes become a novel electronic device. Currently, the information display is the most intuitive interface using visualized communication methods and the simultaneous concurrent processing of inputs and outputs between a wearer and functional clothes. The important aspect in this case is to maintain the characteristic softness of the fabrics even when electronic devices are added to the flexible clothes. Silicone-based light-emitting diode (LED) jackets, shirts, and stage costumes have started to appear, but the intrinsic stiffness of inorganic semiconductors causes wearers to feel discomfort; thus, it is difficult to use such devices for everyday purposes. To address this problem, a method of fabricating a thin and flexible emitting fabric utilizing organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs) was developed in this work. Its flexibility was evaluated, and an analysis of its mechanical bending characteristics and tests of its long-term reliability were carried out.

  12. Information rich display design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Welch, Robin; Braseth, Alf Ove; Veland, Oeystein

    2004-01-01

    This paper presents the concept Information Rich Displays. The purpose of Information Rich Displays (IRDs) is to condensate prevailing information in process displays in such a way that each display format (picture) contains more relevant information for the user. Compared to traditional process control displays, this new concept allows the operator to attain key information at a glance and at the same time allows for improved monitoring of larger portions of the process. This again allows for reduced navigation between both process and trend displays and ease the cognitive demand on the operator. This concept has been created while working on designing display prototypes for the offshore petroleum production facilities of tomorrow. Offshore installations basically consist of wells, separation trains (where oil, gas and water are separated from each other), an oil tax measurement system (where oil quality is measured and the pressure increased to allow for export), gas compression (compression of gas for export) and utility systems (water treatment, chemical systems etc.). This means that an offshore control room operator has to deal with a complex process that comprises several functionally different systems. The need for a new approach to offshore display format design is in particular based on shortcomings in today's designs related to the keyhole effect, where the display format only reveals a fraction of the whole process. Furthermore, the upcoming introduction of larger off- and on-shore operation centres will increase the size and complexity of the operators' work domain. In the light of the increased demands on the operator, the proposed IRDs aim to counter the negative effects this may have on the workload. In this work we have attempted to classify the wide range of different roles an operator can have in different situations. The information content and amount being presented to the operator in a display should be viewed in context of the roles the

  13. Display systems for NPP control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rozov, S.S.

    1988-01-01

    Main trends in development of display systems used as the means for image displaying in NPP control systems are considered. It is shown that colour display devices appear to be the most universal means for concentrated data presentation. Along with digital means the display systems provide for high-speed response, sufficient for operative control of executive mechanisms. A conclusion is drawn that further development of display systems will move towards creation of large colour fields (on reflection base or with multicolour gas-discharge elements)

  14. Affective SSVEP BCI to effectively control 3D objects by using a prism array-based display

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mun, Sungchul; Park, Min-Chul

    2014-06-01

    3D objects with depth information can provide many benefits to users in education, surgery, and interactions. In particular, many studies have been done to enhance sense of reality in 3D interaction. Viewing and controlling stereoscopic 3D objects with crossed or uncrossed disparities, however, can cause visual fatigue due to the vergenceaccommodation conflict generally accepted in 3D research fields. In order to avoid the vergence-accommodation mismatch and provide a strong sense of presence to users, we apply a prism array-based display to presenting 3D objects. Emotional pictures were used as visual stimuli in control panels to increase information transfer rate and reduce false positives in controlling 3D objects. Involuntarily motivated selective attention by affective mechanism can enhance steady-state visually evoked potential (SSVEP) amplitude and lead to increased interaction efficiency. More attentional resources are allocated to affective pictures with high valence and arousal levels than to normal visual stimuli such as white-and-black oscillating squares and checkerboards. Among representative BCI control components (i.e., eventrelated potentials (ERP), event-related (de)synchronization (ERD/ERS), and SSVEP), SSVEP-based BCI was chosen in the following reasons. It shows high information transfer rates and takes a few minutes for users to control BCI system while few electrodes are required for obtaining reliable brainwave signals enough to capture users' intention. The proposed BCI methods are expected to enhance sense of reality in 3D space without causing critical visual fatigue to occur. In addition, people who are very susceptible to (auto) stereoscopic 3D may be able to use the affective BCI.

  15. A small animal PET prototype based on Silicon Photomultipliers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marcatili, S; Belcari, N.; Bisogni, M.G.; Del Guerra, A.; Collazuol, G.; Pedreschi, E.; Spinella, F.; Sportelli, G.; Marzocca, C.

    2011-01-01

    Next generation PET scanners should full fill very high requirements in terms of spatial, energy and timing resolution. Modern scanner performances are inherently limited by the use of standard photomultiplier tubes. The use of Silicon Photomultiplier (Si P M) matrices is proposed for the construction of a small animal PET system consisting of two detector heads based on Lyso continuos crystals. The use of large area multi-pixel Silicon Photomultiplier (Si P M) detectors requires the development of a multichannel Digital Acquisition system (DAQ) as well as of a dedicated front-end in order not to degrade the intrinsic detector capabilities. At the University of Pisa and INFN Pisa we developed a DAQ board for the read-out of 2 64-pixel Si P M matrices in time coincidence for Positron Emission Tomography (PET) applications. The proof of principles is based on 64-pixel detectors, but the whole system has been conceived to be easily scalable to a higher number of channels. Here we describe the Group-V INFN DASi P M 2 (Development and Application of Si P M) project and related results.

  16. Paediatric dose display

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Griffin, D.W.; Derges, S.; Hesslewood, S.

    1984-01-01

    A compact, inexpensive unit, based on an 8085 microprocessor, has been designed for calculating doses of intravenous radioactive injections for children. It has been used successfully for over a year. The dose is calculated from the body surface area and the result displayed in MBq. The operator can obtain the required dose on a twelve character alphanumeric display by entering the age of the patient and the adult dose using a hexadecimal keyboard. Circuit description, memory map and input/output, and firmware are dealt with. (U.K.)

  17. Novel Small Molecule Inhibitors of Choline Kinase Identified by Fragment-Based Drug Discovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zech, Stephan G; Kohlmann, Anna; Zhou, Tianjun; Li, Feng; Squillace, Rachel M; Parillon, Lois E; Greenfield, Matthew T; Miller, David P; Qi, Jiwei; Thomas, R Mathew; Wang, Yihan; Xu, Yongjin; Miret, Juan J; Shakespeare, William C; Zhu, Xiaotian; Dalgarno, David C

    2016-01-28

    Choline kinase α (ChoKα) is an enzyme involved in the synthesis of phospholipids and thereby plays key roles in regulation of cell proliferation, oncogenic transformation, and human carcinogenesis. Since several inhibitors of ChoKα display antiproliferative activity in both cellular and animal models, this novel oncogene has recently gained interest as a promising small molecule target for cancer therapy. Here we summarize our efforts to further validate ChoKα as an oncogenic target and explore the activity of novel small molecule inhibitors of ChoKα. Starting from weakly binding fragments, we describe a structure based lead discovery approach, which resulted in novel highly potent inhibitors of ChoKα. In cancer cell lines, our lead compounds exhibit a dose-dependent decrease of phosphocholine, inhibition of cell growth, and induction of apoptosis at low micromolar concentrations. The druglike lead series presented here is optimizable for improvements in cellular potency, drug target residence time, and pharmacokinetic parameters. These inhibitors may be utilized not only to further validate ChoKα as antioncogenic target but also as novel chemical matter that may lead to antitumor agents that specifically interfere with cancer cell metabolism.

  18. Projection display technology for avionics applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalmanash, Michael H.; Tompkins, Richard D.

    2000-08-01

    Avionics displays often require custom image sources tailored to demanding program needs. Flat panel devices are attractive for cockpit installations, however recent history has shown that it is not possible to sustain a business manufacturing custom flat panels in small volume specialty runs. As the number of suppliers willing to undertake this effort shrinks, avionics programs unable to utilize commercial-off-the-shelf (COTS) flat panels are placed in serious jeopardy. Rear projection technology offers a new paradigm, enabling compact systems to be tailored to specific platform needs while using a complement of COTS components. Projection displays enable improved performance, lower cost and shorter development cycles based on inter-program commonality and the wide use of commercial components. This paper reviews the promise and challenges of projection technology and provides an overview of Kaiser Electronics' efforts in developing advanced avionics displays using this approach.

  19. Small Nuclear Co-generation Plants Based on Shipbuilding Technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vasyukov, V. I.; Veshnyakov, K. B.; Goryunov, E. V.; Zalugin, V. I.; Panov, Yu. K.; Polunichev, V. I.

    2002-01-01

    The development of nuclear cogeneration plants and power desalination complexes of relatively small power, using proven shipbuilding technology, becomes more and more attractive for solving the power supply problems of remote districts of the Extreme North and the Far East with small and medium power grids and for removing the shortage of fresh water in different world regions. The idea of transportation of the power unit with high degree of readiness to the place of its location with minimum construction and mounting activities at the site is very attractive. Compactness typical of RP based on shipbuilding technology allows to develop floating or ground-based plants at minimum use of water area and territory. Small construction scope at the site under conditions of minimum anthropogenic loads and high ecological indices are important arguments in favor of floating nuclear cogeneration plant based on ship power units against the alternative fossil sources. At present, the activities on floating nuclear cogeneration plant design, which is developed on the basis of floating power unit with two KLT-40S reactor plant, which is a modified option of standard KLT-40-type ship plant for icebreaker fleet in Russia are the most advanced. To date, a detailed design of reactor plant has been developed and approved, design activities on floating power unit are in the stage of completion, the site for its location has been selected and licensing by GAN, Russia, is in progress. Besides OKBM has developed some designs of nuclear cogeneration plants of different power on the basis of integral reactor plants, using the experience of transport and stationary power plants designing. Nuclear cogeneration plant investment analysis showed acceptable social and economical efficiency of the design that creates conditions for commercial construction of floating power units with KLT-40S reactor plan. At the same time the reduction of the design recovering terms, increase of budget income and

  20. Ocular Tolerance of Contemporary Electronic Display Devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Andrew J; Yang, Paul; Khaderi, Khizer R; Moshfeghi, Andrew A

    2018-05-01

    Electronic displays have become an integral part of life in the developed world since the revolution of mobile computing a decade ago. With the release of multiple consumer-grade virtual reality (VR) and augmented reality (AR) products in the past 2 years utilizing head-mounted displays (HMDs), as well as the development of low-cost, smartphone-based HMDs, the ability to intimately interact with electronic screens is greater than ever. VR/AR HMDs also place the display at much closer ocular proximity than traditional electronic devices while also isolating the user from the ambient environment to create a "closed" system between the user's eyes and the display. Whether the increased interaction with these devices places the user's retina at higher risk of damage is currently unclear. Herein, the authors review the discovery of photochemical damage of the retina from visible light as well as summarize relevant clinical and preclinical data regarding the influence of modern display devices on retinal health. Multiple preclinical studies have been performed with modern light-emitting diode technology demonstrating damage to the retina at modest exposure levels, particularly from blue-light wavelengths. Unfortunately, high-quality in-human studies are lacking, and the small clinical investigations performed to date have failed to keep pace with the rapid evolutions in display technology. Clinical investigations assessing the effect of HMDs on human retinal function are also yet to be performed. From the available data, modern consumer electronic displays do not appear to pose any acute risk to vision with average use; however, future studies with well-defined clinical outcomes and illuminance metrics are needed to better understand the long-term risks of cumulative exposure to electronic displays in general and with "closed" VR/AR HMDs in particular. [Ophthalmic Surg Lasers Imaging Retina. 2018;49:346-354.]. Copyright 2018, SLACK Incorporated.

  1. A browser-based event display for the CMS Experiment at the LHC using WebGL

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCauley, T.

    2017-10-01

    Modern web browsers are powerful and sophisticated applications that support an ever-wider range of uses. One such use is rendering high-quality, GPU-accelerated, interactive 2D and 3D graphics in an HTML canvas. This can be done via WebGL, a JavaScript API based on OpenGL ES. Applications delivered via the browser have several distinct benefits for the developer and user. For example, they can be implemented using well-known and well-developed technologies, while distribution and use via a browser allows for rapid prototyping and deployment and ease of installation. In addition, delivery of applications via the browser allows for easy use on mobile, touch-enabled devices such as phones and tablets. iSpy WebGL is an application for visualization of events detected and reconstructed by the CMS Experiment at the Large Hadron Collider at CERN. The first event display developed for an LHC experiment to use WebGL, iSpy WebGL is a client-side application written in JavaScript, HTML, and CSS and uses the WebGL API three.js. iSpy WebGL is used for monitoring of CMS detector performance, for production of images and animations of CMS collisions events for the public, as a virtual reality application using Google Cardboard, and asa tool available for public education and outreach such as in the CERN Open Data Portal and the CMS masterclasses. We describe here its design, development, and usage as well as future plans.

  2. An intelligent system and a relational data base for codifying helmet-mounted display symbology design requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, Steven P.; Hamilton, David B.

    1994-06-01

    To employ the most readily comprehensible presentation methods and symbology with helmet-mounted displays (HMDs), it is critical to identify the information elements needed to perform each pilot function and to analytically determine the attributes of these elements. The extensive analyses of mission requirements currently performed for pilot-vehicle interface design can be aided and improved by the new capabilities of intelligent systems and relational databases. An intelligent system, named ACIDTEST, has been developed specifically for organizing and applying rules to identify the best display modalities, locations, and formats. The primary objectives of the ACIDTEST system are to provide rapid accessibility to pertinent display research data, to integrate guidelines from many disciplines and identify conflicts among these guidelines, to force a consistent display approach among the design team members, and to serve as an 'audit trail' of design decisions and justifications. A powerful relational database called TAWL ORDIR has been developed to document information requirements and attributes for use by ACIDTEST as well as to greatly augment the applicability of mission analysis data. TAWL ORDIR can be used to rapidly reorganize mission analysis data components for study, perform commonality analyses for groups of tasks, determine the information content requirement for tailored display modes, and identify symbology integration opportunities.

  3. A resource based view to small firms' sustainable competitive advantages: A case of Iranian small firms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Reza Babakhan

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available During the last decades, the importance of small firms as one of the main economical parts in each country has been proved. Considering to the resources limitation in one hand, and the competitive global market in the other hand, it is very important that firms can obtain sustainable competitive advantages (SCAs to compete with other rivals. This paper, at the first step, tries to explore the potentially SCAs of Qom's small firms by using of Structural Equation Model (SEM. Then, the real current situation of firms in using these competitive advantages has been examined. The results tell that except firms' location, other potentially SCAs do not have acceptable condition.

  4. Functional Design of Dielectric-Metal-Dielectric-Based Thin-Film Encapsulation with Heat Transfer and Flexibility for Flexible Displays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Jeong Hyun; Choi, Seungyeop; Jeon, Yongmin; Kim, Hyuncheol; Chang, Ki Soo; Choi, Kyung Cheol

    2017-08-16

    In this study, a new and efficient dielectric-metal-dielectric-based thin-film encapsulation (DMD-TFE) with an inserted Ag thin film is proposed to guarantee the reliability of flexible displays by improving the barrier properties, mechanical flexibility, and heat dissipation, which are considered to be essential requirements for organic light-emitting diode (OLED) encapsulation. The DMD-TFE, which is composed of Al 2 O 3 , Ag, and a silica nanoparticle-embedded sol-gel hybrid nanocomposite, shows a water vapor transmission rate of 8.70 × 10 -6 g/m 2 /day and good mechanical reliability at a bending radius of 30 mm, corresponding to 0.41% strain for 1000 bending cycles. The electrical performance of a thin-film encapsulated phosphorescent organic light-emitting diode (PHOLED) was identical to that of a glass-lid encapsulated PHOLED. The operational lifetimes of the thin-film encapsulated and glass-lid encapsulated PHOLEDs are 832 and 754 h, respectively. After 80 days, the thin-film encapsulated PHOLED did not show performance degradation or dark spots on the cell image in a shelf-lifetime test. Finally, the difference in lifetime of the OLED devices in relation to the presence and thickness of a Ag film was analyzed by applying various TFE structures to fluorescent organic light-emitting diodes (FOLEDs) that could generate high amounts of heat. To demonstrate the difference in heat dissipation effect among the TFE structures, the saturated temperatures of the encapsulated FOLEDs were measured from the back side surface of the glass substrate, and were found to be 67.78, 65.12, 60.44, and 39.67 °C after all encapsulated FOLEDs were operated at an initial luminance of 10 000 cd/m 2 for sufficient heat generation. Furthermore, the operational lifetime tests of the encapsulated FOLED devices showed results that were consistent with the measurements of real-time temperature profiles taken with an infrared camera. A multifunctional hybrid thin-film encapsulation

  5. Pt/Ceria-based Catalysts for Small Alcohol Electrooxidation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menendez-Mora, Christian L.

    High emissions of fossil-based energy sources have led to scientists around the world to develop new alternatives for the future. In this sense, fuel cells are a remarkable and promising energy option with less environmental impact. The most used fuels for this technology are hydrogen and small chain alcohols, which can be oxidized to transform their chemical energy into electrical power. To do this, fuel cells need catalysts that will act as an active surface where the oxidation can take place. The problem with platinum catalysts is its possible CO poisoning with intermediates that are produced before the complete oxidation of alcohol to CO2. Different approaches have been taken to try to resolve this issue. In this case, cerium oxide (ceria) was selected as a co-catalyst to mitigate the effect of CO poisoning of platinum. Ceria is a compound that has the ability to work as an "oxygen tank" and can donate oxygen to carbon monoxide that is strongly adsorbed at platinum surface to produce CO2 (carbon dioxide), regenerating the Pt surface for further alcohol oxidation. Therefore, enhancing the current density as well as the power output of a fuel cell. First, an occlusion deposition technique was used to prepare platinum/ceria composite electrodes and tested them towards small chain alcohol oxidation such as methanol oxidation reaction in acidic and alkaline media. The preliminary results demonstrated that the Pt/ceria electrodes were more efficient towards methanol electrooxidation when compared to Pt electrodes. This enhancement was attributed to the presence of ceria. A second preparation method was selected for the synthesis of ceria/Pt catalysts. In this case, a hydrothermal method was used and the catalysis were studied for the effect of MeOH, EtOH and n-BuOH oxidation. The observed effect was that electrodes made of Pt/Pt:CeO2-x showed better catalytic effect than Pt/ceria and platinum electrodes. Moreover, a comparison between ceria nanorods versus

  6. Quantitative evaluation of Candia antarctica lipase B displayed on the cell surface of a Pichia pastoris based on an FS anchor system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Xing-xiang; Wang, Bei-bei; Sun, Yu-fei; Lin, Ying; Han, Shuang-yan; Zheng, Sui-ping; Cui, Tang-bing

    2013-03-01

    A new approach is described to quantify the number of enzyme molecules, such as Candia antarctica lipase B, that are displayed on the cell surface of Pichia pastoris. Enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) and Candida antarctica lipase B (CALB) were fused and displayed on the surface of P. pastoris by linking to the anchor flocculation functional domain of FLO1p from Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Confocal laser scanning microscopy, flow cytometry, and fluorescence spectrophotometry were used to monitor the fluorescence intensity of fused EGFP. Combined with the corresponding protein concentration detected in the medium, a standard curve describing the relationship between the fusion protein concentration and fluorescence intensity were obtained and could be used to number CALB displayed on the cell surface. The results showed that approx. 10(4) molecules of CALB molecules were immobilized on the single P. pastoris cell wall based on FS anchor system.

  7. Small accelerator-based pulsed cold neutron sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lanza, Richard C.

    1997-09-01

    Small neutron sources could be used by individual researchers with the convenience of an adequate local facility. Although these sources would produce lower fluxes than the national facilities, for selected applications, the convenience and availability may overcome the limitations on source strength. Such sources might also be useful for preliminary testing of ideas before going to a larger facility. Recent developments in small, high-current pulsed accelerators makes possible such a local source for pulsed cold neutrons.

  8. Augmenting digital displays with computation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jing

    As we inevitably step deeper and deeper into a world connected via the Internet, more and more information will be exchanged digitally. Displays are the interface between digital information and each individual. Naturally, one fundamental goal of displays is to reproduce information as realistically as possible since humans still care a lot about what happens in the real world. Human eyes are the receiving end of such information exchange; therefore it is impossible to study displays without studying the human visual system. In fact, the design of displays is rather closely coupled with what human eyes are capable of perceiving. For example, we are less interested in building displays that emit light in the invisible spectrum. This dissertation explores how we can augment displays with computation, which takes both display hardware and the human visual system into consideration. Four novel projects on display technologies are included in this dissertation: First, we propose a software-based approach to driving multiview autostereoscopic displays. Our display algorithm can dynamically assign views to hardware display zones based on multiple observers' current head positions, substantially reducing crosstalk and stereo inversion. Second, we present a dense projector array that creates a seamless 3D viewing experience for multiple viewers. We smoothly interpolate the set of viewer heights and distances on a per-vertex basis across the arrays field of view, reducing image distortion, crosstalk, and artifacts from tracking errors. Third, we propose a method for high dynamic range display calibration that takes into account the variation of the chrominance error over luminance. We propose a data structure for enabling efficient representation and querying of the calibration function, which also allows user-guided balancing between memory consumption and the amount of computation. Fourth, we present user studies that demonstrate that the ˜ 60 Hz critical flicker fusion

  9. Issues in symbol design for electronic displays of navigation information

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-10-24

    An increasing number of electronic displays, ranging from small hand-held displays for general aviation to installed displays for air transport, are showing navigation information, such as symbols representing navigational aids. The wide range of dis...

  10. New portable FELIX 3D display

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langhans, Knut; Bezecny, Daniel; Homann, Dennis; Bahr, Detlef; Vogt, Carsten; Blohm, Christian; Scharschmidt, Karl-Heinz

    1998-04-01

    An improved generation of our 'FELIX 3D Display' is presented. This system is compact, light, modular and easy to transport. The created volumetric images consist of many voxels, which are generated in a half-sphere display volume. In that way a spatial object can be displayed occupying a physical space with height, width and depth. The new FELIX generation uses a screen rotating with 20 revolutions per second. This target screen is mounted by an easy to change mechanism making it possible to use appropriate screens for the specific purpose of the display. An acousto-optic deflection unit with an integrated small diode pumped laser draws the images on the spinning screen. Images can consist of up to 10,000 voxels at a refresh rate of 20 Hz. Currently two different hardware systems are investigated. The first one is based on a standard PCMCIA digital/analog converter card as an interface and is controlled by a notebook. The developed software is provided with a graphical user interface enabling several animation features. The second, new prototype is designed to display images created by standard CAD applications. It includes the development of a new high speed hardware interface suitable for state-of-the- art fast and high resolution scanning devices, which require high data rates. A true 3D volume display as described will complement the broad range of 3D visualization tools, such as volume rendering packages, stereoscopic and virtual reality techniques, which have become widely available in recent years. Potential applications for the FELIX 3D display include imaging in the field so fair traffic control, medical imaging, computer aided design, science as well as entertainment.

  11. High-efficiency white OLEDs based on small molecules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatwar, Tukaram K.; Spindler, Jeffrey P.; Ricks, M. L.; Young, Ralph H.; Hamada, Yuuhiko; Saito, N.; Mameno, Kazunobu; Nishikawa, Ryuji; Takahashi, Hisakazu; Rajeswaran, G.

    2004-02-01

    Eastman Kodak Company and SANYO Electric Co., Ltd. recently demonstrated a 15" full-color, organic light-emitting diode display (OLED) using a high-efficiency white emitter combined with a color-filter array. Although useful for display applications, white emission from organic structures is also under consideration for other applications, such as solid-state lighting, where high efficiency and good color rendition are important. By incorporating adjacent blue and orange emitting layers in a multi-layer structure, highly efficient, stable white emission has been attained. With suitable host and dopant combinations, a luminance yield of 20 cd/A and efficiency of 8 lm/W have been achieved at a drive voltage of less than 8 volts and luminance level of 1000 cd/m2. The estimated external efficiency of this device is 6.3% and a high level of operational stability is observed. To our knowledge, this is the highest performance reported so far for white organic electroluminescent devices. We will review white OLED technology and discuss the fabrication and operating characteristics of these devices.

  12. Efficient Imaging and Real-Time Display of Scanning Ion Conductance Microscopy Based on Block Compressive Sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Gongxin; Li, Peng; Wang, Yuechao; Wang, Wenxue; Xi, Ning; Liu, Lianqing

    2014-07-01

    Scanning Ion Conductance Microscopy (SICM) is one kind of Scanning Probe Microscopies (SPMs), and it is widely used in imaging soft samples for many distinctive advantages. However, the scanning speed of SICM is much slower than other SPMs. Compressive sensing (CS) could improve scanning speed tremendously by breaking through the Shannon sampling theorem, but it still requires too much time in image reconstruction. Block compressive sensing can be applied to SICM imaging to further reduce the reconstruction time of sparse signals, and it has another unique application that it can achieve the function of image real-time display in SICM imaging. In this article, a new method of dividing blocks and a new matrix arithmetic operation were proposed to build the block compressive sensing model, and several experiments were carried out to verify the superiority of block compressive sensing in reducing imaging time and real-time display in SICM imaging.

  13. Security region-based small signal stability analysis of power systems with FSIG based wind farm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Chao; Zeng, Yuan; Yang, Yang; Cui, Xiaodan; Xu, Xialing; Li, Yong

    2018-02-01

    Based on the Security Region approach, the impact of fixed-speed induction generator based wind farm on the small signal stability of power systems is analyzed. Firstly, the key factors of wind farm on the small signal stability of power systems are analyzed and the parameter space for small signal stability region is formed. Secondly, the small signal stability region of power systems with wind power is established. Thirdly, the corresponding relation between the boundary of SSSR and the dominant oscillation mode is further studied. Results show that the integration of fixed-speed induction generator based wind farm will cause the low frequency oscillation stability of the power system deteriorate. When the output of wind power is high, the oscillation stability of the power system is mainly concerned with the inter-area oscillation mode caused by the integration of the wind farm. Both the active power output and the capacity of reactive power compensation of the wind farm have a significant influence on the SSSR. To improve the oscillation stability of power systems with wind power, it is suggested to reasonably set the reactive power compensation capacity for the wind farm through SSSR.

  14. 77 FR 53769 - Receipts-Based, Small Business Size Standard; Confirmation of Effective Date

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-04

    ... Flexibility Act of 1980, as amended. The NRC is increasing its receipts-based, small business size standard from $6.5 million to $7 million to conform to the standard set by the Small Business Administration...-Based, Small Business Size Standard; Confirmation of Effective Date AGENCY: Nuclear Regulatory...

  15. A head-mounted display-based personal integrated-image monitoring system for transurethral resection of the prostate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshida, Soichiro; Kihara, Kazunori; Takeshita, Hideki; Fujii, Yasuhisa

    2014-12-01

    The head-mounted display (HMD) is a new image monitoring system. We developed the Personal Integrated-image Monitoring System (PIM System) using the HMD (HMZ-T2, Sony Corporation, Tokyo, Japan) in combination with video splitters and multiplexers as a surgical guide system for transurethral resection of the prostate (TURP). The imaging information obtained from the cystoscope, the transurethral ultrasonography (TRUS), the video camera attached to the HMD, and the patient's vital signs monitor were split and integrated by the PIM System and a composite image was displayed by the HMD using a four-split screen technique. Wearing the HMD, the lead surgeon and the assistant could simultaneously and continuously monitor the same information displayed by the HMD in an ergonomically efficient posture. Each participant could independently rearrange the images comprising the composite image depending on the engaging step. Two benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) patients underwent TURP performed by surgeons guided with this system. In both cases, the TURP procedure was successfully performed, and their postoperative clinical courses had no remarkable unfavorable events. During the procedure, none of the participants experienced any HMD-wear related adverse effects or reported any discomfort.

  16. Model-based Small Area Estimates of Cancer Risk Factors and Screening Behaviors - Small Area Estimates

    Science.gov (United States)

    These model-based estimates use two surveys, the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS) and the National Health Interview Survey (NHIS). The two surveys are combined using novel statistical methodology.

  17. Fiscal 2000 achievement report on the venture business assisting type regional consortium - Minor business creation base type. Development of touch panel display operated by micro-Peltier device; 2000 nendo chiiki consortium kenkyu kaihatsu jigyo seika hokokusho. Micro Peltier soshi ni yoru shokkaku display no kaihatsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-03-01

    The project aims to develop a small, light, and inexpensive touch panel display that enables visually handicapped people to transmit information by use of their manual sensation. Information from computers or the like is exhibited on the display in arrays of hillocks and dents. For improvement on display resolution and for cost reduction, efforts are made (1) to employ micro-Peltier devices for the simplification of the hillock-dent display mechanism and for the realization of a high resolution tactile display and (2) to establish a technology for manufacturing low-cost micro-Peltier devices. In the tactile display to be developed, the hillocks and dents are formed using gas-filled tiny balloons. The balloons are 2-dimensionally arranged, with the gas therein to be expanded and contracted via micro-Peltier devices. Difference between hillock-dent arrays and changes therein with the passage of time provide information. The gas in the balloons is inflated and contracted through the operation of micro-Peltier devices. In concrete terms, efforts were made to develop (1) a prototype hillock-dent display, (2) a technology for manufacturing high-performance low-cost micro-Peltier devices, and (3) a software program for computers to drive tactile displays. (NEDO)

  18. NCAP projection displays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Havens, John R.; Ishioka, J.; Jones, Philip J.; Lau, Aldrich; Tomita, Akira; Asano, A.; Konuma, Nobuhiro; Sato, Kazuhiko; Takemoto, Iwao

    1997-05-01

    Projectors based on polymer-eNCAPsulated liquid crystals can provide bright displays suitable for use in conference rooms with normal lighting. Contrast is generated by light scattering among the droplets, rather than by light absorption with crossed polarizers. We have demonstrated a full-color, compact projector showing 1200 ANSI lumens with 200 watts of lamp power - a light efficiency of 6 lumens/watt. This projector is based on low-voltage NCAP material, highly reflective CMOS die, and matched illumination and projection optics. We will review each of these areas and discuss the integrated system performance.

  19. Small Intestinal Bacterial Overgrowth: A Case-Based Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristen H. Reynolds

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Small intestinal bacterial overgrowth (SIBO is a condition of increased microbial load in the small intestine. The microbes feed on dietary carbohydrates and starches via fermentation, leading to gas production, inflammation and damage to the lining of the small intestine. Clinical presentation is varied, including abdominal pain, bloating, malabsorption and systemic symptoms. SIBO is associated with many challenging and chronic conditions such as fibromyalgia, chronic fatigue and chronic pain syndromes, and has been shown to be a causative factor in two out of three cases of irritable bowel syndrome. Symptoms improve with antimicrobial treatment, but recurrence is common. Many providers may not be aware of SIBO. This narrative review highlights a clinical case and the most recent literature regarding SIBO, including history, clinical presentation, prevalence, pathophysiology, diagnostic workup, treatment and prevention. Integrative medicine approaches, including diet, supplements and manual therapies, are also reviewed. SIBO can be a challenging condition and requires an integrative, patient-centered approach. Further studies are needed to guide clinicians in the workup and treatment of SIBO.

  20. Facile combustion based engineering of novel white light emitting Zn2TiO4:Dy3+ nanophosphors for display and forensic applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K.M. Girish

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Nanomaterials find a wide range of applications in surface based nanoscience and technology. To pass high backward encumbrance, low sensitivity, complicated setup and poor universality in traditional methods for the enhancement of latent fingerprints and display applications, we explored the superstructures of dysprosium (Dy3+ doped Zn2TiO4 via a facile solution combustion route. This method offers new potentials in surface-based science comprising display, latent fingerprint, and luminescent ink for anticounterfeiting applications. The characteristic emissions of intra-4f shell Dy3+ cations in blue, yellow and red regions corresponding to 4F9/2 to 6H15/2, 6H13/2, and 6H11/2 transitions respectively, showed white emission, and the Judd–Ofelt theory was used to estimate photometric parameters. The concentration quenching phenomenon is discussed based on possible interactions. Our study reveals a new prospect of using optimized Zn2TiO4:Dy3+ nanophosphors for research in display, fingerprint detection, cheiloscopy, anti-counterfeiting technology, ceramic pigment and forensic applications.

  1. A Computer Based Moire Technique To Measure Very Small Displacements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sciammarella, Cesar A.; Amadshahi, Mansour A.; Subbaraman, B.

    1987-02-01

    The accuracy that can be achieved in the measurement of very small displacements in techniques such as moire, holography and speckle is limited by the noise inherent to the utilized optical devices. To reduce the noise to signal ratio, the moire method can be utilized. Two system of carrier fringes are introduced, an initial system before the load is applied and a final system when the load is applied. The moire pattern of these two systems contains the sought displacement information and the noise common to the two patterns is eliminated. The whole process is performed by a computer on digitized versions of the patterns. Examples of application are given.

  2. Invisible Display in Aluminum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prichystal, Jan Phuklin; Hansen, Hans Nørgaard; Bladt, Henrik Henriksen

    2005-01-01

    Bang & Olufsen a/s has been working with ideas for invisible integration of displays in metal surfaces. Invisible integration of information displays traditionally has been possible by placing displays behind transparent or semitransparent materials such as plastic or glass. The wish for an integ......Bang & Olufsen a/s has been working with ideas for invisible integration of displays in metal surfaces. Invisible integration of information displays traditionally has been possible by placing displays behind transparent or semitransparent materials such as plastic or glass. The wish...... for an integrated display in a metal surface is often ruled by design and functionality of a product. The integration of displays in metal surfaces requires metal removal in order to clear the area of the display to some extent. The idea behind an invisible display in Aluminum concerns the processing of a metal...

  3. Planimetric Features Generalization for the Production of Small-Scale Map by Using Base Maps and the Existing Algorithms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Modiri

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Cartographic maps are representations of the Earth upon a flat surface in the smaller scale than it’s true. Large scale maps cover relatively small regions in great detail and small scale maps cover large regions such as nations, continents and the whole globe. Logical connection between the features and scale map must be maintained by changing the scale and it is important to recognize that even the most accurate maps sacrifice a certain amount of accuracy in scale to deliver a greater visual usefulness to its user. Cartographic generalization, or map generalization, is the method whereby information is selected and represented on a map in a way that adapts to the scale of the display medium of the map, not necessarily preserving all intricate geographical or other cartographic details. Due to the problems facing small-scale map production process and the need to spend time and money for surveying, today’s generalization is used as executive approach. The software is proposed in this paper that converted various data and information to certain Data Model. This software can produce generalization map according to base map using the existing algorithm. Planimetric generalization algorithms and roles are described in this article. Finally small-scale maps with 1:100,000, 1:250,000 and 1:500,000 scale are produced automatically and they are shown at the end.

  4. Tri-band small monopole antenna based on SRR units

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gehan Shehata

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper a novel design for a tri-band monopole antenna coupled with metamaterial units is introduced. The proposed antenna was designed to cover WiMAX (2.5, 3.5 and WLAN (5.2 bands. In our proposal, a coplanar waveguide (CPW fed circular-disk monopole antenna is coupled with three split ring resonator (SRR units which exist on its back side. In our design a monopole antenna and SRR units are designed first to resonate at 5.2 GHz and 2.5 GHz respectively. In addition, antenna is loaded with post to force resonance at 3.5 GHz. SRR units are used for 2.5 GHz resonance to miniaturize antenna size, and our proposed antenna considered an electrically small antenna (ESA at its first resonance frequency. Simulated and measured results exhibit a good agreement that validate our design.

  5. Analysis Of Traffic Conditions Based On The Percentage Of Drivers Using The Instructions Displayed On VMS Boards

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leszek Smolarek

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The theme of the publication is to show the influence of human factor on traffic conditions during the traffic incident. The publication also depicts the functionality of the model at which the simulation was performed. The model was constructed in the VISSIM and VISUM software also using Visual Basic for Applications – Excel, [8,9]. By coordinating programs VBA and VISSIM was automated turned on or off the incident as well as turned on or off the VMS with information about the proposed of the alternative route. The additional differentiation of the percentage of drivers using the information displayed enabled to compare the data with identical external conditions influencing at traffic. For statistical analysis of data was used statistical program Statgraphics Centurion which made possible to build a model describing the impact of the behavior of drivers on traffic conditions. It is an innovative approach to modeling the impact on traffic conditions accepted by drivers information transmitted on the boards.

  6. Enhancement of small signal stability of a DFIG-based wind power ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    International Journal of Engineering, Science and Technology ... logic controllers for enhancing the small signal stability of DFIG-based wind integrated power system. ... state space model, eigenvalue analysis, fuzzy logic based tuning circuits ...

  7. European display scene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartlett, Christopher T.

    2000-08-01

    The manufacture of Flat Panel Displays (FPDs) is dominated by Far Eastern sources, particularly in Active Matrix Liquid Crystal Displays (AMLCD) and Plasma. The United States has a very powerful capability in micro-displays. It is not well known that Europe has a very active research capability which has lead to many innovations in display technology. In addition there is a capability in display manufacturing of organic technologies as well as the licensed build of Japanese or Korean designs. Finally, Europe has a display systems capability in military products which is world class.

  8. Handbook of display technology

    CERN Document Server

    Castellano, Joseph A

    1992-01-01

    This book presents a comprehensive review of technical and commercial aspects of display technology. It provides design engineers with the information needed to select proper technology for new products. The book focuses on flat, thin displays such as light-emitting diodes, plasma display panels, and liquid crystal displays, but it also includes material on cathode ray tubes. Displays include a large number of products from televisions, auto dashboards, radios, and household appliances, to gasoline pumps, heart monitors, microwave ovens, and more.For more information on display tech

  9. Performance of NCAP projection displays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Philip J.; Tomita, Akira; Wartenberg, Mark

    1991-08-01

    Prototypes of projection displays based on dispersions of liquid crystal in polymer matrices are beginning to appear. The principle of operation depends on electrically switchable light scattering. They are potentially much brighter than current cathode ray tube (CRT) or twisted nematic liquid crystal (TN LC) cell based displays. Comparisons of efficacy and efficiency show this. The contrast and brightness of such displays depend on a combination of the f- number of the projection system and the scattering characteristics of the light valve. Simplified equations can be derived to show these effects. The degree of scattering of current NCAP formulations is sufficient to produce good contrast projection displays, at convenient voltages, that are around three times brighter than TN LC projectors because of the lack of polarizers in the former.

  10. Free locally convex spaces with a small base

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Gabriyelyan, S.; Kąkol, Jerzy

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 111, č. 2 (2017), s. 575-585 ISSN 1578-7303 R&D Projects: GA ČR GF16-34860L Institutional support: RVO:67985840 Keywords : compact resolution * free locally convex space * G-base Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics OBOR OECD: Pure mathematics Impact factor: 0.690, year: 2016 http://link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2Fs13398-016-0315-1

  11. A Compressive Superresolution Display

    KAUST Repository

    Heide, Felix; Gregson, James; Wetzstein, Gordon; Raskar, Ramesh; Heidrich, Wolfgang

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we introduce a new compressive display architecture for superresolution image presentation that exploits co-design of the optical device configuration and compressive computation. Our display allows for superresolution, HDR, or glasses-free 3D presentation.

  12. A Compressive Superresolution Display

    KAUST Repository

    Heide, Felix

    2014-06-22

    In this paper, we introduce a new compressive display architecture for superresolution image presentation that exploits co-design of the optical device configuration and compressive computation. Our display allows for superresolution, HDR, or glasses-free 3D presentation.

  13. Liquid crystal display

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takami, K.

    1981-01-01

    An improved liquid crystal display device is described which can display letters, numerals and other necessary patterns in the night time using a minimized amount of radioactive material. To achieve this a self-luminous light source is placed in a limited region corresponding to a specific display area. (U.K.)

  14. Predicting Drug-Target Interactions Based on Small Positive Samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Pengwei; Chan, Keith C C; Hu, Yanxing

    2018-01-01

    A basic task in drug discovery is to find new medication in the form of candidate compounds that act on a target protein. In other words, a drug has to interact with a target and such drug-target interaction (DTI) is not expected to be random. Significant and interesting patterns are expected to be hidden in them. If these patterns can be discovered, new drugs are expected to be more easily discoverable. Currently, a number of computational methods have been proposed to predict DTIs based on their similarity. However, such as approach does not allow biochemical features to be directly considered. As a result, some methods have been proposed to try to discover patterns in physicochemical interactions. Since the number of potential negative DTIs are very high both in absolute terms and in comparison to that of the known ones, these methods are rather computationally expensive and they can only rely on subsets, rather than the full set, of negative DTIs for training and validation. As there is always a relatively high chance for negative DTIs to be falsely identified and as only partial subset of such DTIs is considered, existing approaches can be further improved to better predict DTIs. In this paper, we present a novel approach, called ODT (one class drug target interaction prediction), for such purpose. One main task of ODT is to discover association patterns between interacting drugs and proteins from the chemical structure of the former and the protein sequence network of the latter. ODT does so in two phases. First, the DTI-network is transformed to a representation by structural properties. Second, it applies a oneclass classification algorithm to build a prediction model based only on known positive interactions. We compared the best AUROC scores of the ODT with several state-of-art approaches on Gold standard data. The prediction accuracy of the ODT is superior in comparison with all the other methods at GPCRs dataset and Ion channels dataset. Performance

  15. Retarded coordinates based at a world line and the motion of a small black hole in an external universe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poisson, Eric

    2004-01-01

    In the first part of this article I present a system of retarded coordinates based at an arbitrary world line of an arbitrary curved spacetime. The retarded-time coordinate labels forward light cones that are centered on the world line, the radial coordinate is an affine parameter on the null generators of these light cones, and the angular coordinates are constant on each of these generators. The spacetime metric in the retarded coordinates is displayed as an expansion in powers of the radial coordinate and expressed in terms of the world line's acceleration vector and the spacetime's Riemann tensor evaluated at the world line. The formalism is illustrated in two examples, the first involving a comoving world line of a spatially flat cosmology, the other featuring an observer in circular motion in the Schwarzschild spacetime. The main application of the formalism is presented in the second part of the article, in which I consider the motion of a small black hole in an empty external universe. I use the retarded coordinates to construct the metric of the small black hole perturbed by the tidal field of the external universe, and the metric of the external universe perturbed by the presence of the black hole. Matching these metrics produces the MiSaTaQuWa equations of motion for the small black hole

  16. Arab Libraries’ Web-based OPACs: An evaluative study in the light of IFLA’s Guidelines For Online Public Access Catalogue (OPAC Displays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sherif Kamel Shaheen

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available The research aims at evaluating Arabic Libraries’ Web-based Catalogues in the light of Principles and Recommendations published in: IFLA’s Guidelines For OPAC Displays (September 30, 2003 Draft For Worldwide Review. The total No. Of Recommendations reached” 38 “were categorized under three main titles, as follows: User Needs (12 recommendations, Content and arrangement Principle (25 recommendations, Standardization Principle (one recommendation However that number increased to reach 88 elements when formulated as evaluative criteria and included in the study’s checklist.

  17. A small Unix-based data acquisition system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Engberg, D.; Glanzman, T.

    1993-06-01

    The proposed SLAC B Factory detector plans to use Unix-based machines for all aspects of computing, including real-time data acquisition and experimental control. An R ampersand D program has been established to investigate the use of Unix in the various aspects of experimental computation. Earlier R ampersand D work investigated the basic real-time aspects of the IBM RS/6000 workstation running AIX. The next step in this R ampersand D is the construction of prototype data acquisition system which attempts to exercise many of the features needed in the final on-line system in a realistic situation. For this project, we have combined efforts with a team studying the use of novel cell designs and gas mixtures in a new prototype drift chamber

  18. Painting Reproductions on Display

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanna Iranowska

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Paintings in museums might occasionally be replaced by a photoprint mimicking the original. This article is an investigation of what constitutes a good reproduction of an artwork (oil painting that is meant to be displayed. The article discusses what the usefulness of reproductions depends on, applying the Valuation Studies approach, which means the primary concern is with the practice of valuing itself. In other words, the study focuses on how museum experts evaluate reproduc-tions of oil paintings. The article analyses three cases of displaying digitally prin-ted copies of Edvard Munch's oil paintings between 2013 and 2015 in the Munch Museum and in the National Gallery in Oslo. The study is based on a series of semi-structured interviews with the experts, working at and for the museums, that were involved in producing and exhibiting of the photoprints: curators, con-servators, museum educators, and external manufacturers. The interviews were grouped into five clusters, which I have chosen to call registers of valuing following Frank Heuts and Annemarie Mol (2013. The described valuation practices have to do with delivering experiences to the public, obtaining mimetic resemblance, solving ethical aspects, exhibitions' budget, and last but not least, with the time perspective.

  19. Efficient organic tandem solar cells based on small molecules

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Riede, Moritz; Widmer, Johannes; Timmreck, Ronny; Wynands, David; Leo, Karl [Institut fuer Angewandte Photophysik, Technische Universitaet Dresden, George-Baehr-Str. 1, 01069 Dresden (Germany); Uhrich, Christian; Schwartz, Gregor; Gnehr, Wolf-Michael; Hildebrandt, Dirk; Weiss, Andre; Pfeiffer, Martin [Heliatek GmbH, Treidlerstr. 3, 01139 Dresden (Germany); Hwang, Jaehyung; Sundarraj, Sudhakar; Erk, Peter [BASF SE, GVC/E-J542, 67056 Ludwigshafen (Germany)

    2011-08-23

    In this paper, two vacuum processed single heterojunction organic solar cells with complementary absorption are described and the construction and optimization of tandem solar cells based on the combination of these heterojunctions demonstrated. The red-absorbing heterojunction consists of C{sub 60} and a fluorinated zinc phthalocyanine derivative (F4-ZnPc) that leads to a 0.1-0.15 V higher open circuit voltage V{sub oc} than the commonly used ZnPc. The second heterojunction incorporates C{sub 60} and a dicyanovinyl-capped sexithiophene derivative (DCV6T) that mainly absorbs in the green. The combination of both heterojunctions into one tandem solar cell leads to an absorption over the whole visible range of the sun spectrum. Thickness variations of the transparent p-doped optical spacer between both subcells in the tandem solar cell is shown to lead to a significant change in short circuit current density j{sub sc} due to optical interference effects, whereas V{sub oc} and fill factor are hardly affected. The maximum efficiency {eta} of about 5.6% is found for a spacer thickness of 150-165 nm. Based on the optimized 165nm thick spacer, effects of intensity and angle of illumination, and temperature on a tandem device are investigated. Variations in illumination intensity lead to a linear change in j{sub sc} over three orders of magnitude and a nearly constant {eta} in the range of 30 to 310 mW cm{sup -2}. Despite the stacked heterojunctions, the performance of the tandem device is robust against different illumination angles: j{sub sc} and {eta} closely follow a cosine behavior between 0 and 70 . Investigations of the temperature behavior of the tandem device show an increase in {eta} of 0.016 percentage points per Kelvin between -20 C and 25 C followed by a plateau up to 50 C. Finally, further optimization of the tandem stack results in a certified {eta} of (6.07 {+-} 0.24)% on (1.9893 {+-} 0.0060)cm{sup 2} (Fraunhofer ISE), i.e., areas large enough to be of

  20. Novel Apigenin Based Small Molecule that Targets Snake Venom Metalloproteases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anusha, Sebastian; Hemshekhar, Mahadevappa; Chandra Nayaka, Siddaiah; Kemparaju, Kempaiah; Basappa; Girish, Kesturu S.; Rangappa, Kanchugarakoppal S.

    2014-01-01

    The classical antivenom therapy has appreciably reduced snakebite mortality rate and thus is the only savior drug available. Unfortunately, it considerably fails to shield the viper bite complications like hemorrhage, local tissue degradation and necrosis responsible for severe morbidity. Moreover, the therapy is also tagged with limitations including anaphylaxis, serum sickness and poor availability. Over the last decade, snake venom metalloproteases (SVMPs) are reported to be the primary component responsible for hemorrhage and tissue degradation at bitten site. Thus, antivenom inability to offset viper venom-induced local toxicity has been a basis for an insistent search for SVMP inhibitors. Here we report the inhibitory effect of compound 5d, an apigenin based molecule against SVMPs both in silico and in vivo. Several apigenin analogues are synthesized using multicomponent Ugi reactions. Among them, compound 5d effectively abrogated Echis carinatus (EC) venom-induced local hemorrhage, tissue necrosis and myotoxicity in a dose dependant fashion. The histopathological study further conferred effective inhibition of basement membrane degradation, and accumulation of inflammatory leucocytes at the site of EC venom inoculation. The compound also protected EC venom-induced fibrin and fibrinogen degradation. The molecular docking of compound 5d and bothropasin demonstrated the direct interaction of hydroxyl group of compound with Glu146 present in hydrophobic pocket of active site and does not chelate Zn2+. Hence, it is concluded that compound 5d could be a potent agent in viper bite management. PMID:25184206

  1. Liquid Crystal Airborne Display

    Science.gov (United States)

    1977-08-01

    Cum.nings, J. P., et al., Properties and Limitations oe Liquid Crystals for Aircraft Displays, Honeywell Corporate Researc ."I Center, Final Report HR-72...basic module could be used to build displays for both the commercial and military! 157- marhecs, and so would establi sh a broad and sizable market ... market for the display becomes a reality; therein lies, f TABLE 16 THE COURSE OF FUTURE DISPLAY DEVELOPMENT Today 1976-77 1980 1985 Display Size 2" 1 3.2

  2. Displays in scintigraphy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Todd-Pokropek, A.E.; Pizer, S.M.

    1977-01-01

    Displays have several functions: to transmit images, to permit interaction, to quantitate features and to provide records. The main characteristics of displays used for image transmission are their resolution, dynamic range, signal-to-noise ratio and uniformity. Considerations of visual acuity suggest that the display element size should be much less than the data element size, and in current practice at least 256X256 for a gamma camera image. The dynamic range for image transmission should be such that at least 64 levels of grey (or equivalent) are displayed. Scanner displays are also considered, and in particular, the requirements of a whole-body camera are examined. A number of display systems and devices are presented including a 'new' heated object colour display system. Interaction with displays is considered, including background subtraction, contrast enhancement, position indication and region-of-interest generation. Such systems lead to methods of quantitation, which imply knowledge of the expected distributions. Methods for intercomparing displays are considered. Polaroid displays, which have for so long dominated the field, are in the process of being replaced by stored image displays, now that large cheap memories exist which give an equivalent image quality. The impact of this in nuclear medicine is yet to be seen, but a major effect will be to enable true quantitation. (author)

  3. Color speckle in laser displays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuroda, Kazuo

    2015-07-01

    At the beginning of this century, lighting technology has been shifted from discharge lamps, fluorescent lamps and electric bulbs to solid-state lighting. Current solid-state lighting is based on the light emitting diodes (LED) technology, but the laser lighting technology is developing rapidly, such as, laser cinema projectors, laser TVs, laser head-up displays, laser head mounted displays, and laser headlamps for motor vehicles. One of the main issues of laser displays is the reduction of speckle noise1). For the monochromatic laser light, speckle is random interference pattern on the image plane (retina for human observer). For laser displays, RGB (red-green-blue) lasers form speckle patterns independently, which results in random distribution of chromaticity, called color speckle2).

  4. Focus-based filtering + clustering technique for power-law networks with small world phenomenon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boutin, François; Thièvre, Jérôme; Hascoët, Mountaz

    2006-01-01

    Realistic interaction networks usually present two main properties: a power-law degree distribution and a small world behavior. Few nodes are linked to many nodes and adjacent nodes are likely to share common neighbors. Moreover, graph structure usually presents a dense core that is difficult to explore with classical filtering and clustering techniques. In this paper, we propose a new filtering technique accounting for a user-focus. This technique extracts a tree-like graph with also power-law degree distribution and small world behavior. Resulting structure is easily drawn with classical force-directed drawing algorithms. It is also quickly clustered and displayed into a multi-level silhouette tree (MuSi-Tree) from any user-focus. We built a new graph filtering + clustering + drawing API and report a case study.

  5. Monitoring the quality of cardiac surgery based on three or more surgical outcomes using a new variable life-adjusted display.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gan, Fah Fatt; Tang, Xu; Zhu, Yexin; Lim, Puay Weng

    2017-06-01

    The traditional variable life-adjusted display (VLAD) is a graphical display of the difference between expected and actual cumulative deaths. The VLAD assumes binary outcomes: death within 30 days of an operation or survival beyond 30 days. Full recovery and bedridden for life, for example, are considered the same outcome. This binary classification results in a great loss of information. Although there are many grades of survival, the binary outcomes are commonly used to classify surgical outcomes. Consequently, quality monitoring procedures are developed based on binary outcomes. With a more refined set of outcomes, the sensitivities of these procedures can be expected to improve. A likelihood ratio method is used to define a penalty-reward scoring system based on three or more surgical outcomes for the new VLAD. The likelihood ratio statistic W is based on testing the odds ratio of cumulative probabilities of recovery R. Two methods of implementing the new VLAD are proposed. We accumulate the statistic W-W¯R to estimate the performance of a surgeon where W¯R is the average of the W's of a historical data set. The accumulated sum will be zero based on the historical data set. This ensures that if a new VLAD is plotted for a future surgeon of performance similar to this average performance, the plot will exhibit a horizontal trend. For illustration of the new VLAD, we consider 3-outcome surgical results: death within 30 days, partial and full recoveries. In our first illustration, we show the effect of partial recoveries on surgical results of a surgeon. In our second and third illustrations, the surgical results of two surgeons are compared using both the traditional VLAD based on binary-outcome data and the new VLAD based on 3-outcome data. A reversal in relative performance of surgeons is observed when the new VLAD is used. In our final illustration, we display the surgical results of four surgeons using the new VLAD based completely on 3-outcome data. Full

  6. Reciprocal Engagement Between a Scientist and Visual Displays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nolasco, Michelle Maria

    In this study the focus of investigation was the reciprocal engagement between a professional scientist and the visual displays with which he interacted. Visual displays are considered inextricable from everyday scientific endeavors and their interpretation requires a "back-and-forthness" between the viewers and the objects being viewed. The query that drove this study was: How does a scientist engage with visual displays during the explanation of his understanding of extremely small biological objects? The conceptual framework was based in embodiment where the scientist's talk, gesture, and body position were observed and microanalyzed. The data consisted of open-ended interviews that positioned the scientist to interact with visual displays when he explained the structure and function of different sub-cellular features. Upon microanalyzing the scientist's talk, gesture, and body position during his interactions with two different visual displays, four themes were uncovered: Naming, Layering, Categorizing, and Scaling . Naming occurred when the scientist added markings to a pre-existing, hand-drawn visual display. The markings had meaning as stand-alone label and iconic symbols. Also, the markings transformed the pre-existing visual display, which resulted in its function as a new visual object. Layering occurred when the scientist gestured over images so that his gestures aligned with one or more of the image's features, but did not touch the actual visual display. Categorizing occurred when the scientist used contrasting categories, e.g. straight vs. not straight, to explain his understanding about different characteristics that the small biological objects held. Scaling occurred when the scientist used gesture to resize an image's features so that they fit his bodily scale. Three main points were drawn from this study. First, the scientist employed a variety of embodied strategies—coordinated talk, gesture, and body position—when he explained the structure

  7. Starch-based carbohydrates display the bifidogenic and butyrogenic properties in pH-controlled faecal fermentation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Plongbunjong, Vijitra; Graidist, Potchanapond; Knudsen, Knud Erik Bach

    2017-01-01

    Starch-based carbohydrates, native rice starch (NRS), isomaltooligosaccharide produced from native rice starch (rIMO), commercial isomaltooligosaccharide (cIMO), resistant starch type 2 (RS2) and type 3 (RS3) were investigated the bifidogenic and butyrogenic properties. The result confirmed...

  8. Role of the Microcomputer-Based Laboratory Display in Supporting the Construction of New Understandings in Thermal Physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, David W.; Lucas, Keith B.; McRobbie, Campbell J.

    2004-01-01

    Teachers' failure to use the microcomputer-based laboratory (MBL) more widely may be a result of not recognizing its capacity to transform laboratory activities. This research aimed to increase understanding of how MBL activities designed to be consistent with a constructivist theory of learning support or constrain student construction of…

  9. Three-dimensional simulation and auto-stereoscopic 3D display of the battlefield environment based on the particle system algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ning, Jiwei; Sang, Xinzhu; Xing, Shujun; Cui, Huilong; Yan, Binbin; Yu, Chongxiu; Dou, Wenhua; Xiao, Liquan

    2016-10-01

    The army's combat training is very important now, and the simulation of the real battlefield environment is of great significance. Two-dimensional information has been unable to meet the demand at present. With the development of virtual reality technology, three-dimensional (3D) simulation of the battlefield environment is possible. In the simulation of 3D battlefield environment, in addition to the terrain, combat personnel and the combat tool ,the simulation of explosions, fire, smoke and other effects is also very important, since these effects can enhance senses of realism and immersion of the 3D scene. However, these special effects are irregular objects, which make it difficult to simulate with the general geometry. Therefore, the simulation of irregular objects is always a hot and difficult research topic in computer graphics. Here, the particle system algorithm is used for simulating irregular objects. We design the simulation of the explosion, fire, smoke based on the particle system and applied it to the battlefield 3D scene. Besides, the battlefield 3D scene simulation with the glasses-free 3D display is carried out with an algorithm based on GPU 4K super-multiview 3D video real-time transformation method. At the same time, with the human-computer interaction function, we ultimately realized glasses-free 3D display of the simulated more realistic and immersed 3D battlefield environment.

  10. A Service-Learning Initiative within a Community-Based Small Business

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simola, Sheldene

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to extend previous scholarly writing on community service-learning (SL) initiatives by looking beyond their use in the not-for-profit sector to their potential use in community-based small businesses. Design/methodology/approach: A rationale for the appropriateness of using SL projects in small businesses is…

  11. Detection algorithm of infrared small target based on improved SUSAN operator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xingmiao; Wang, Shicheng; Zhao, Jing

    2010-10-01

    The methods of detecting small moving targets in infrared image sequences that contain moving nuisance objects and background noise is analyzed in this paper. A novel infrared small target detection algorithm based on improved SUSAN operator is put forward. The algorithm selects double templates for the infrared small target detection: one size is greater than the small target point size and another size is equal to the small target point size. First, the algorithm uses the big template to calculate the USAN of each pixel in the image and detect the small target, the edge of the image and isolated noise pixels; Then the algorithm uses the another template to calculate the USAN of pixels detected in the first step and improves the principles of SUSAN algorithm based on the characteristics of the small target so that the algorithm can only detect small targets and don't sensitive to the edge pixels of the image and isolated noise pixels. So the interference of the edge of the image and isolate noise points are removed and the candidate target points can be identified; At last, the target is detected by utilizing the continuity and consistency of target movement. The experimental results indicate that the improved SUSAN detection algorithm can quickly and effectively detect the infrared small targets.

  12. Chasing Small Exoplanets with Ground-Based Near-Infrared Transit Photometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colon, K. D.; Barentsen, G.; Vinicius, Z.; Vanderburg, A.; Coughlin, J.; Thompson, S.; Mullally, F.; Barclay, T.; Quintana, E.

    2017-11-01

    I will present results from a ground-based survey to measure the infrared radius and other properties of small K2 exoplanets and candidates. The survey is preparation for upcoming discoveries from TESS and characterization with JWST.

  13. The Study of Application System for Small and Medium CTI Based on Voice Card

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhong Dong

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available With the rapid development of computer telecommunications integration (CTI technology, the development of application system for small and medium CTI are updated constantly, but the study of application system for small and medium CTI, we are lack of a stability and unified model. In this paper, the author analyzes the unified structure platform of application system for small and medium CTI based on voice card. Meanwhile, the author introduces a suitable software architecture model and general procedural framework for application system for small and medium CTI based on voice card by using the idea of hierarchical design, which shows the versatility of the architecture. It provided an efficient channel for the development of small and medium CTI.

  14. A trial of team-based versus small-group learning for second-year medical students: does the size of the small group make a difference?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willett, Laura Rees; Rosevear, G Craig; Kim, Sarang

    2011-01-01

    Team-based learning is a large-group instructional modality intended to provide active learning with modest faculty resources. The goal is to determine if team-based learning could be substituted for small-group learning in case sessions without compromising test performance or satisfaction. One hundred and sixty-seven students were assigned to team-based or small-group learning for 6 case discussion sessions. Examination scores and student satisfaction were compared. Instruction modality had no meaningful effect on examination score, 81.7% team based versus 79.7% small-group, p=.56 after multivariate adjustment. Student satisfaction was lower with team-based learning, 2.45 versus 3.74 on a 5-point scale, pgroups influenced the preference for small-group learning. Team-based learning does not adversely affect examination performance. However, student satisfaction may be inferior, especially if compared to instruction in very small groups of 10 or fewer students.

  15. OLED displays and lighting

    CERN Document Server

    Koden, Mitsuhiro

    2017-01-01

    Organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs) have emerged as the leading technology for the new display and lighting market. OLEDs are solid-state devices composed of thin films of organic molecules that create light with the application of electricity. OLEDs can provide brighter, crisper displays on electronic devices and use less power than conventional light-emitting diodes (LEDs) or liquid crystal displays (LCDs) used today. This book covers both the fundamentals and practical applications of flat and flexible OLEDs.

  16. Scalable Resolution Display Walls

    KAUST Repository

    Leigh, Jason; Johnson, Andrew; Renambot, Luc; Peterka, Tom; Jeong, Byungil; Sandin, Daniel J.; Talandis, Jonas; Jagodic, Ratko; Nam, Sungwon; Hur, Hyejung; Sun, Yiwen

    2013-01-01

    This article will describe the progress since 2000 on research and development in 2-D and 3-D scalable resolution display walls that are built from tiling individual lower resolution flat panel displays. The article will describe approaches and trends in display hardware construction, middleware architecture, and user-interaction design. The article will also highlight examples of use cases and the benefits the technology has brought to their respective disciplines. © 1963-2012 IEEE.

  17. IMDISP - INTERACTIVE IMAGE DISPLAY PROGRAM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, M. D.

    1994-01-01

    The Interactive Image Display Program (IMDISP) is an interactive image display utility for the IBM Personal Computer (PC, XT and AT) and compatibles. Until recently, efforts to utilize small computer systems for display and analysis of scientific data have been hampered by the lack of sufficient data storage capacity to accomodate large image arrays. Most planetary images, for example, require nearly a megabyte of storage. The recent development of the "CDROM" (Compact Disk Read-Only Memory) storage technology makes possible the storage of up to 680 megabytes of data on a single 4.72-inch disk. IMDISP was developed for use with the CDROM storage system which is currently being evaluated by the Planetary Data System. The latest disks to be produced by the Planetary Data System are a set of three disks containing all of the images of Uranus acquired by the Voyager spacecraft. The images are in both compressed and uncompressed format. IMDISP can read the uncompressed images directly, but special software is provided to decompress the compressed images, which can not be processed directly. IMDISP can also display images stored on floppy or hard disks. A digital image is a picture converted to numerical form so that it can be stored and used in a computer. The image is divided into a matrix of small regions called picture elements, or pixels. The rows and columns of pixels are called "lines" and "samples", respectively. Each pixel has a numerical value, or DN (data number) value, quantifying the darkness or brightness of the image at that spot. In total, each pixel has an address (line number, sample number) and a DN value, which is all that the computer needs for processing. DISPLAY commands allow the IMDISP user to display all or part of an image at various positions on the display screen. The user may also zoom in and out from a point on the image defined by the cursor, and may pan around the image. To enable more or all of the original image to be displayed on the

  18. Research on the attitude of small UAV based on MEMS devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Xiaojie; Lu, Libin; Jin, Guodong; Tan, Lining

    2017-05-01

    This paper mainly introduces the research principle and implementation method of the small UAV navigation attitude system based on MEMS devices. The Gauss - Newton method based on least squares is used to calibrate the MEMS accelerometer and gyroscope for calibration. Improve the accuracy of the attitude by using the modified complementary filtering to correct the attitude angle error. The experimental data show that the design of the attitude and attitude system in this paper to meet the requirements of small UAV attitude accuracy to achieve a small, low cost.

  19. X-Windows Widget for Image Display

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deen, Robert G.

    2011-01-01

    XvicImage is a high-performance XWindows (Motif-compliant) user interface widget for displaying images. It handles all aspects of low-level image display. The fully Motif-compliant image display widget handles the following tasks: (1) Image display, including dithering as needed (2) Zoom (3) Pan (4) Stretch (contrast enhancement, via lookup table) (5) Display of single-band or color data (6) Display of non-byte data (ints, floats) (7) Pseudocolor display (8) Full overlay support (drawing graphics on image) (9) Mouse-based panning (10) Cursor handling, shaping, and planting (disconnecting cursor from mouse) (11) Support for all user interaction events (passed to application) (12) Background loading and display of images (doesn't freeze the GUI) (13) Tiling of images.

  20. Consortium for military LCD display procurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Echols, Gregg

    2002-08-01

    International Display Consortium (IDC) is the joining together of display companies to combined their buying power and obtained favorable terms with a major LCD manufacturer. Consolidating the buying power and grouping the demand enables the rugged display industry of avionics, ground vehicles, and ship based display manufacturers to have unencumbered access to high performance AMLCDs while greatly reducing risk and lowering cost. With an unrestricted supply of AMLCD displays, the consortium members have total control of their risk, cost, deliveries and added value partners. Every display manufacturer desires a very close relationship with a display vender. With IDC each consortium member achieves a close relationship. Consortium members enjoy cost effective access to high performance, industry standard sized LCD panels, and modified commercial displays with 100 degree C clearing points and portrait configurations. Consortium members also enjoy proposal support, technical support and long-term support.

  1. JAVA Stereo Display Toolkit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edmonds, Karina

    2008-01-01

    This toolkit provides a common interface for displaying graphical user interface (GUI) components in stereo using either specialized stereo display hardware (e.g., liquid crystal shutter or polarized glasses) or anaglyph display (red/blue glasses) on standard workstation displays. An application using this toolkit will work without modification in either environment, allowing stereo software to reach a wider audience without sacrificing high-quality display on dedicated hardware. The toolkit is written in Java for use with the Swing GUI Toolkit and has cross-platform compatibility. It hooks into the graphics system, allowing any standard Swing component to be displayed in stereo. It uses the OpenGL graphics library to control the stereo hardware and to perform the rendering. It also supports anaglyph and special stereo hardware using the same API (application-program interface), and has the ability to simulate color stereo in anaglyph mode by combining the red band of the left image with the green/blue bands of the right image. This is a low-level toolkit that accomplishes simply the display of components (including the JadeDisplay image display component). It does not include higher-level functions such as disparity adjustment, 3D cursor, or overlays all of which can be built using this toolkit.

  2. Displays and simulators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohon, N.

    A 'simulator' is defined as a machine which imitates the behavior of a real system in a very precise manner. The major components of a simulator and their interaction are outlined in brief form, taking into account the major components of an aircraft flight simulator. Particular attention is given to the visual display portion of the simulator, the basic components of the display, their interactions, and their characteristics. Real image displays are considered along with virtual image displays, and image generators. Attention is given to an advanced simulator for pilot training, a holographic pancake window, a scan laser image generator, the construction of an infrared target simulator, and the Apollo Command Module Simulator.

  3. Development of a Web-based tool to collect and display water system customer service areas for public health action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Michelle; Wolff, Craig; Collins, Natalie; Guo, Liang; Meltzer, Dan; English, Paul

    2015-01-01

    Significant illness is associated with biological contaminants in drinking water, but little is known about health effects from low levels of chemical contamination in drinking water. To examine these effects in epidemiological studies, the sources of drinking water of study populations need to be known. The California Environmental Health Tracking Program developed an online application that would collect data on the geographic location of public water system (PWS) customer service areas in California, which then could be linked to demographic and drinking water quality data. We deployed the Water Boundary Tool (WBT), a Web-based geospatial crowdsourcing application that can manage customer service boundary data for each PWS in California and can track changes over time. We also conducted a needs assessment for expansion to other states. The WBT was designed for water system operators, local and state regulatory agencies, and government entities. Since its public launch in 2012, the WBT has collected service area boundaries for about 2300 individual PWS, serving more than 90% of the California population. Results of the needs assessment suggest interest and utility for deploying such a tool among states lacking statewide PWS service area boundary data. Although the WBT data set is incomplete, it has already been used for a variety of applications, including fulfilling legislatively mandated reporting requirements and linking customer service areas to drinking water quality data to better understand local water quality issues. Development of this tool holds promise to assist with outbreak investigations and prevention, environmental health monitoring, and emergency preparedness and response.

  4. Psycho-physiological assessment of a prosthetic hand sensory feedback system based on an auditory display: a preliminary study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez, Jose; Soma, Hirokazu; Sekine, Masashi; Yu, Wenwei

    2012-06-09

    Prosthetic hand users have to rely extensively on visual feedback, which seems to lead to a high conscious burden for the users, in order to manipulate their prosthetic devices. Indirect methods (electro-cutaneous, vibrotactile, auditory cues) have been used to convey information from the artificial limb to the amputee, but the usability and advantages of these feedback methods were explored mainly by looking at the performance results, not taking into account measurements of the user's mental effort, attention, and emotions. The main objective of this study was to explore the feasibility of using psycho-physiological measurements to assess cognitive effort when manipulating a robot hand with and without the usage of a sensory substitution system based on auditory feedback, and how these psycho-physiological recordings relate to temporal and grasping performance in a static setting. 10 male subjects (26+/-years old), participated in this study and were asked to come for 2 consecutive days. On the first day the experiment objective, tasks, and experiment setting was explained. Then, they completed a 30 minutes guided training. On the second day each subject was tested in 3 different modalities: Auditory Feedback only control (AF), Visual Feedback only control (VF), and Audiovisual Feedback control (AVF). For each modality they were asked to perform 10 trials. At the end of each test, the subject had to answer the NASA TLX questionnaire. Also, during the test the subject's EEG, ECG, electro-dermal activity (EDA), and respiration rate were measured. The results show that a higher mental effort is needed when the subjects rely only on their vision, and that this effort seems to be reduced when auditory feedback is added to the human-machine interaction (multimodal feedback). Furthermore, better temporal performance and better grasping performance was obtained in the audiovisual modality. The performance improvements when using auditory cues, along with vision

  5. Psycho-physiological assessment of a prosthetic hand sensory feedback system based on an auditory display: a preliminary study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gonzalez Jose

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Prosthetic hand users have to rely extensively on visual feedback, which seems to lead to a high conscious burden for the users, in order to manipulate their prosthetic devices. Indirect methods (electro-cutaneous, vibrotactile, auditory cues have been used to convey information from the artificial limb to the amputee, but the usability and advantages of these feedback methods were explored mainly by looking at the performance results, not taking into account measurements of the user’s mental effort, attention, and emotions. The main objective of this study was to explore the feasibility of using psycho-physiological measurements to assess cognitive effort when manipulating a robot hand with and without the usage of a sensory substitution system based on auditory feedback, and how these psycho-physiological recordings relate to temporal and grasping performance in a static setting. Methods 10 male subjects (26+/-years old, participated in this study and were asked to come for 2 consecutive days. On the first day the experiment objective, tasks, and experiment setting was explained. Then, they completed a 30 minutes guided training. On the second day each subject was tested in 3 different modalities: Auditory Feedback only control (AF, Visual Feedback only control (VF, and Audiovisual Feedback control (AVF. For each modality they were asked to perform 10 trials. At the end of each test, the subject had to answer the NASA TLX questionnaire. Also, during the test the subject’s EEG, ECG, electro-dermal activity (EDA, and respiration rate were measured. Results The results show that a higher mental effort is needed when the subjects rely only on their vision, and that this effort seems to be reduced when auditory feedback is added to the human-machine interaction (multimodal feedback. Furthermore, better temporal performance and better grasping performance was obtained in the audiovisual modality. Conclusions The performance

  6. Synthetic vision display evaluation studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regal, David M.; Whittington, David H.

    1994-01-01

    The goal of this research was to help us understand the display requirements for a synthetic vision system for the High Speed Civil Transport (HSCT). Four experiments were conducted to examine the effects of different levels of perceptual cue complexity in displays used by pilots in a flare and landing task. Increased levels of texture mapping of terrain and runway produced mixed results, including harder but shorter landings and a lower flare initiation altitude. Under higher workload conditions, increased texture resulted in an improvement in performance. An increase in familiar size cues did not result in improved performance. Only a small difference was found between displays using two patterns of high resolution texture mapping. The effects of increased perceptual cue complexity on performance was not as strong as would be predicted from the pilot's subjective reports or from related literature. A description of the role of a synthetic vision system in the High Speed Civil Transport is provide along with a literature review covering applied research related to perceptual cue usage in aircraft displays.

  7. Displays enabling mobile multimedia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimmel, Jyrki

    2007-02-01

    With the rapid advances in telecommunications networks, mobile multimedia delivery to handsets is now a reality. While a truly immersive multimedia experience is still far ahead in the mobile world, significant advances have been made in the constituent audio-visual technologies to make this become possible. One of the critical components in multimedia delivery is the mobile handset display. While such alternatives as headset-style near-to-eye displays, autostereoscopic displays, mini-projectors, and roll-out flexible displays can deliver either a larger virtual screen size than the pocketable dimensions of the mobile device can offer, or an added degree of immersion by adding the illusion of the third dimension in the viewing experience, there are still challenges in the full deployment of such displays in real-life mobile communication terminals. Meanwhile, direct-view display technologies have developed steadily, and can provide a development platform for an even better viewing experience for multimedia in the near future. The paper presents an overview of the mobile display technology space with an emphasis on the advances and potential in developing direct-view displays further to meet the goal of enabling multimedia in the mobile domain.

  8. Combining EL4-B5-based B-cell stimulation and phage display technology for the successful isolation of human anti-Scl-70 autoantibody fragments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, Malte; Weiss, Etienne; Engel, Alfred M

    2003-07-01

    Scl-70 is the major antigen recognised by autoantibodies in the sera of patients with systemic sclerosis (SSc). The autoantibodies that specifically react with Scl-70 are highly characteristic of the disease and represent valuable markers for the diagnosis of SSc. We describe a novel strategy for cloning autoantibody fragments starting with a small blood sample from an SSc patient. B cells isolated from the collected peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) were cultured in vitro using the EL4-B5 system. Anti-Scl-70 IgG-producing cells were pooled for RNA preparation followed by the generation of phagemid libraries of approximately 10(7) independent single-chain Fvs (scFvs). The screening of these libraries by phage display allowed us to isolate four anti-Scl-70 scFvs following three rounds of biopanning. About 10 times more starting blood material was needed to generate scFv libraries of similar size from PBMCs of an SSc patient and only two anti-Scl-70 scFvs were isolated after three rounds of phage selection. Together, this work shows that functional autoantibody fragments can be advantageously cloned after in vitro expansion of B cells. The isolated anti-Scl-70 autoantibody fragments represent useful tools for calibrating SSc diagnostic assays.

  9. Full Scale Evaluation of How Task-Based Overview Displays Impact Operator Workload and Situation Awareness When in Emergency Procedure Space

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spielman, Zachary; Hill, Racheal; LeBlanc, Katya; Rice, Brandon; Bower, Gordon; Joe, Jeffrey; Powers, David

    2016-07-01

    Control room modernization is critical to extending the life of the 99 operating commercial nuclear power plants (NPP) within the United States. However, due to the lack of evidence demonstrating the efficiency and effectiveness of recent candidate technologies, current NPP control rooms operate without the benefit of various newer technologies now available. As nuclear power plants begin to extend their licenses to continue operating for another 20 years, there is increased interest in modernizing the control room and supplementing the existing control boards with advanced technologies. As part of a series of studies investigating the benefits of advanced control room technologies, the researchers conducted an experimental study to observe the effect of Task-Based Overview Displays (TODs) on operator workload and situation awareness (SA) while completing typical operating scenarios. Researchers employed the Situation Awareness Rating Technique (SART) and the NASA Task Load Index (TLX) as construct measures.

  10. Application of a pilot control strategy identification technique to a joint FAA/NASA ground-based simulation of head-up displays for CTOL aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jewell, W. F.

    1982-01-01

    A technique for measuring a pilot's control strategy was developed, evaluated, and applied to a joint FAA-NASA ground-based simulation of two competing concepts of head-up displays for use in conventional takeoff and landing aircraft. The technique, called the Non-Intrusive Pilot Identification Program (NIPIP), estimates the pilot's input-output describing function and combined pilot-vehicle performance parameters such as crossover frequency and phase margin by using a time domain model of the pilot and a least-squares identification algorithm. NIPIP functions in realtime and uses a sliding time window to maintain freshness in the data; thus time-varying characteristics in the pilot's control strategy can be measured.

  11. Visual merchandising window display

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Opris (Cas. Stanila M.

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Window display plays a major part in the selling strategies; it does not only include the simple display of goods, nowadays it is a form of art, also having the purpose of sustaining the brand image. This article wants to reveal the tools that are essential in creating a fabulous window display. Being a window designer is not an easy job, you have to always think ahead trends, to have a sense of colour, to know how to use light to attract customers in the store after only one glance at the window. The big store window displays are theatre scenes: with expensive backgrounds, special effects and high fashion mannequins. The final role of the displays is to convince customers to enter the store and trigger the purchasing act which is the final goal of the retail activity.

  12. A method for evaluating image quality of monochrome and color displays based on luminance by use of a commercially available color digital camera

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tokurei, Shogo, E-mail: shogo.tokurei@gmail.com, E-mail: junjim@med.kyushu-u.ac.jp [Department of Health Sciences, Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Kyushu University, 3-1-1 Maidashi, Higashi-ku, Fukuoka, Fukuoka 812-8582, Japan and Department of Radiology, Yamaguchi University Hospital, 1-1-1 Minamikogushi, Ube, Yamaguchi 755-8505 (Japan); Morishita, Junji, E-mail: shogo.tokurei@gmail.com, E-mail: junjim@med.kyushu-u.ac.jp [Department of Health Sciences, Faculty of Medical Sciences, Kyushu University, 3-1-1 Maidashi, Higashi-ku, Fukuoka, Fukuoka 812-8582 (Japan)

    2015-08-15

    Purpose: The aim of this study is to propose a method for the quantitative evaluation of image quality of both monochrome and color liquid-crystal displays (LCDs) using a commercially available color digital camera. Methods: The intensities of the unprocessed red (R), green (G), and blue (B) signals of a camera vary depending on the spectral sensitivity of the image sensor used in the camera. For consistent evaluation of image quality for both monochrome and color LCDs, the unprocessed RGB signals of the camera were converted into gray scale signals that corresponded to the luminance of the LCD. Gray scale signals for the monochrome LCD were evaluated by using only the green channel signals of the camera. For the color LCD, the RGB signals of the camera were converted into gray scale signals by employing weighting factors (WFs) for each RGB channel. A line image displayed on the color LCD was simulated on the monochrome LCD by using a software application for subpixel driving in order to verify the WF-based conversion method. Furthermore, the results obtained by different types of commercially available color cameras and a photometric camera were compared to examine the consistency of the authors’ method. Finally, image quality for both the monochrome and color LCDs was assessed by measuring modulation transfer functions (MTFs) and Wiener spectra (WS). Results: The authors’ results demonstrated that the proposed method for calibrating the spectral sensitivity of the camera resulted in a consistent and reliable evaluation of the luminance of monochrome and color LCDs. The MTFs and WS showed different characteristics for the two LCD types owing to difference in the subpixel structure. The MTF in the vertical direction of the color LCD was superior to that of the monochrome LCD, although the WS in the vertical direction of the color LCD was inferior to that of the monochrome LCD as a result of luminance fluctuations in RGB subpixels. Conclusions: The authors

  13. The "good cop, bad cop" effect in the RT-based concealed information test: exploring the effect of emotional expressions displayed by a virtual investigator.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihai Varga

    Full Text Available Concealing the possession of relevant information represents a complex cognitive process, shaped by contextual demands and individual differences in cognitive and socio-emotional functioning. The Reaction Time-based Concealed Information Test (RT-CIT is used to detect concealed knowledge based on the difference in RTs between denying recognition of critical (probes and newly encountered (irrelevant information. Several research questions were addressed in this scenario implemented after a mock crime. First, we were interested whether the introduction of a social stimulus (facial identity simulating a virtual investigator would facilitate the process of deception detection. Next, we explored whether his emotional displays (friendly, hostile or neutral would have a differential impact on speed of responses to probe versus irrelevant items. We also compared the impact of introducing similar stimuli in a working memory (WM updating context without requirements to conceal information. Finally, we explored the association between deceptive behavior and individual differences in WM updating proficiency or in internalizing problems (state / trait anxiety and depression. Results indicated that the mere presence of a neutral virtual investigator slowed down participants' responses, but not the appended lie-specific time (difference between probes and irrelevants. Emotional expression was shown to differentially affect speed of responses to critical items, with positive displays from the virtual examiner enhancing lie-specific time, compared to negative facial expressions, which had an opposite impact. This valence-specific effect was not visible in the WM updating context. Higher levels of trait / state anxiety were related to faster responses to probes in the negative condition (hostile facial expression of the RT-CIT. These preliminary findings further emphasize the need to take into account motivational and emotional factors when considering the

  14. Immunizations on small worlds of tree-based wireless sensor networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Qiao; Zhang Bai-Hai; Cui Ling-Guo; Fan Zhun; Vasilakos Athanasios, V.

    2012-01-01

    The sensor virus is a serious threat, as an attacker can simply send a single packet to compromise the entire sensor network. Epidemics become drastic with link additions among sensors when the small world phenomena occur. Two immunization strategies, uniform immunization and temporary immunization, are conducted on small worlds of tree-based wireless sensor networks to combat the sensor viruses. With the former strategy, the infection extends exponentially, although the immunization effectively reduces the contagion speed. With the latter strategy, recurrent contagion oscillations occur in the small world when the spatial-temporal dynamics of the epidemic are considered. The oscillations come from the small-world structure and the temporary immunization. Mathematical analyses on the small world of the Cayley tree are presented to reveal the epidemic dynamics with the two immunization strategies. (general)

  15. An infrared small target detection method based on multiscale local homogeneity measure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nie, Jinyan; Qu, Shaocheng; Wei, Yantao; Zhang, Liming; Deng, Lizhen

    2018-05-01

    Infrared (IR) small target detection plays an important role in the field of image detection area owing to its intrinsic characteristics. This paper presents a multiscale local homogeneity measure (MLHM) for infrared small target detection, which can enhance the performance of IR small target detection system. Firstly, intra-patch homogeneity of the target itself and the inter-patch heterogeneity between target and the local background regions are integrated to enhance the significant of small target. Secondly, a multiscale measure based on local regions is proposed to obtain the most appropriate response. Finally, an adaptive threshold method is applied to small target segmentation. Experimental results on three different scenarios indicate that the MLHM has good performance under the interference of strong noise.

  16. Interference Phenomenon with Mobile Displays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trantham, Kenneth

    2015-01-01

    A simple experiment is presented in which the spacing and geometric pattern of pixels in mobile displays is measured. The technique is based on optical constructive interference. While the experiment is another opportunity to demonstrate wave interference from a grating-like structure, this can also be used to demonstrate concepts of solid state…

  17. A comparative study of sequence- and structure-based features of small RNAs and other RNAs of bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barik, Amita; Das, Santasabuj

    2018-01-02

    Small RNAs (sRNAs) in bacteria have emerged as key players in transcriptional and post-transcriptional regulation of gene expression. Here, we present a statistical analysis of different sequence- and structure-related features of bacterial sRNAs to identify the descriptors that could discriminate sRNAs from other bacterial RNAs. We investigated a comprehensive and heterogeneous collection of 816 sRNAs, identified by northern blotting across 33 bacterial species and compared their various features with other classes of bacterial RNAs, such as tRNAs, rRNAs and mRNAs. We observed that sRNAs differed significantly from the rest with respect to G+C composition, normalized minimum free energy of folding, motif frequency and several RNA-folding parameters like base-pairing propensity, Shannon entropy and base-pair distance. Based on the selected features, we developed a predictive model using Random Forests (RF) method to classify the above four classes of RNAs. Our model displayed an overall predictive accuracy of 89.5%. These findings would help to differentiate bacterial sRNAs from other RNAs and further promote prediction of novel sRNAs in different bacterial species.

  18. Drag and drop display & builder

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bolshakov, Timofei B.; Petrov, Andrey D.; /Fermilab

    2007-12-01

    The Drag and Drop (DnD) Display & Builder is a component-oriented system that allows users to create visual representations of data received from data acquisition systems. It is an upgrade of a Synoptic Display mechanism used at Fermilab since 2002. Components can be graphically arranged and logically interconnected in the web-startable Project Builder. Projects can be either lightweight AJAX- and SVG-based web pages, or they can be started as Java applications. The new version was initiated as a response to discussions between the LHC Controls Group and Fermilab.

  19. Polyhydroxyalkanoate-based natural-synthetic hybrid copolymer films: A small-angle neutron scattering study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Foster, L. John R.; Knott, Robert; Sanguanchaipaiwong, Vorapat; Holden, Peter J.

    2006-01-01

    Polyhydroxyalkanoates have attracted attention as biodegradable alternatives to conventional thermoplastics and as biomaterials. Through modification of their biosynthesis using Pseudomonas oleovorans, we have manipulated the material properties of these biopolyesters and produced a natural-synthetic hybrid copolymer of polyhydroxyoctanoate-block-diethylene glycol (PHO-b-DEG). A mixture of PHO and PHO-DEG were solvent cast from analytical grade chloroform and analysed using small-angle neutron scattering. A scattering pattern, easily distinguished above the background, was displayed by the films with a diffraction ring at q∼0.12 A -1 . This narrow ring of intensity is suggestive of a highly ordered system. Analysis of the diffraction pattern supported this concept and showed a d-spacing of approximately 50 A. In addition, conformation of the hybrid polymer chains can be manipulated to support their self-assembly into ordered microporous films

  20. Unlocking the Potential of Time-Driven Activity-Based Costing for Small Logistics Companies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Somapa, S.; Cools, M.; Dullaert, W.E.H.

    2012-01-01

    This paper reports on the development of a time-driven activity-based costing (TDABC) model in a small-sized road transport and logistics company. Activity-based costing (ABC) leads to increased accuracy benefiting decision-making, but the costs of implementation can be high. TDABC tries to overcome

  1. Inductive fault current limiter based on multiple superconducting rings of small diameter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Osorio, M R; Cabo, L; Veira, J A; Vidal, F

    2004-01-01

    We present a fault current limiter prototype based on the use of a secondary comprised of an array of magnetic cores of small sections, each one of them with several superconducting rings. The main advantage of this configuration is that it is easier to make small diameter superconducting rings which, in addition, are more homogeneous and allow better refrigeration. We then present detailed measurements that show that, in addition to these advantages, this prototype offers the same limitation performances than when using a unique core and a superconducting ring with an equivalent area as the array of small section cores

  2. Immunizations on small worlds of tree-based wireless sensor networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Qiao; Zhang, Bai-Hai; Cui, Ling-Guo

    2012-01-01

    , are conducted on small worlds of tree-based wireless sensor networks to combat the sensor viruses. With the former strategy, the infection extends exponentially, although the immunization effectively reduces the contagion speed. With the latter strategy, recurrent contagion oscillations occur in the small world......The sensor virus is a serious threat, as an attacker can simply send a single packet to compromise the entire sensor network. Epidemics become drastic with link additions among sensors when the small world phenomena occur. Two immunization strategies, uniform immunization and temporary immunization...

  3. The development of internet based ship design support system for small and medium sized shipyards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Sung-Chul; Lee, Soon-Sup; Kang, Dong-Hoon; Lee, Kyung-Ho

    2012-03-01

    In this paper, a prototype of ship basic planning system is implemented for the small and medium sized shipyards based on the internet technology and concurrent engineering concept. The system is designed from the user requirements. Consequently, standardized development environment and tools are selected. These tools are used for the system development to define and evaluate core application technologies. The system will contribute to increasing competitiveness of small and medium sized shipyards in the 21st century industrial en-vironment.

  4. The concept of development of management of small business based on institutional reforms

    OpenAIRE

    Umarhodjayeva M.

    2018-01-01

    The development of small business management on the basis of theories based on theories of old institutionalism and new institutionalism, its theoretical and methodological analysis and its institutional framework for modern management. From the point of view of contemporary management, the concept of the impact of institutional factors on the development of small business on the issues of organizational business structures, the impact of economic infrastructures on the basis of evolution...

  5. : Light Steering Projection Systems and Attributes for HDR Displays

    KAUST Repository

    Damberg, Gerwin

    2017-06-02

    New light steering projectors in cinema form images by moving light away from dark regions into bright areas of an image. In these systems, the peak luminance of small features can far exceed full screen white luminance. In traditional projectors where light is filtered or blocked in order to give shades of gray (or colors), the peak luminance is fixed. The luminance of chromatic features benefit in the same way as white features, and chromatic image details can be reproduced at high brightness leading to a much wider overall color gamut coverage than previously possible. Projectors of this capability are desired by the creative community to aid in and enhance storytelling. Furthermore, reduced light source power requirements of light steering projectors provide additional economic and environmental benefits. While the dependency of peak luminance level on (bright) image feature size is new in the digital cinema space, display technologies with identical characteristics such as OLED, LED LCD and Plasma TVs are well established in the home. Similarly, direct view LED walls are popular in events, advertising and architectural markets. To enable consistent color reproduction across devices in today’s content production pipelines, models that describe modern projectors and display attributes need to evolve together with HDR standards and available metadata. This paper is a first step towards rethinking legacy display descriptors such as contrast, peak luminance and color primaries in light of new display technology. We first summarize recent progress in the field of light steering projectors in cinema and then, based on new projector and existing display characteristics propose the inclusion of two simple display attributes: Maximum Average Luminance and Peak (Color) Primary Luminance. We show that the proposed attributes allow a better prediction of content reproducibility on HDR displays. To validate this assertion, we test professional content on a commercial HDR

  6. Display Sharing: An Alternative Paradigm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Michael A.

    2010-01-01

    The current Johnson Space Center (JSC) Mission Control Center (MCC) Video Transport System (VTS) provides flight controllers and management the ability to meld raw video from various sources with telemetry to improve situational awareness. However, maintaining a separate infrastructure for video delivery and integration of video content with data adds significant complexity and cost to the system. When considering alternative architectures for a VTS, the current system's ability to share specific computer displays in their entirety to other locations, such as large projector systems, flight control rooms, and back supporting rooms throughout the facilities and centers must be incorporated into any new architecture. Internet Protocol (IP)-based systems also support video delivery and integration. IP-based systems generally have an advantage in terms of cost and maintainability. Although IP-based systems are versatile, the task of sharing a computer display from one workstation to another can be time consuming for an end-user and inconvenient to administer at a system level. The objective of this paper is to present a prototype display sharing enterprise solution. Display sharing is a system which delivers image sharing across the LAN while simultaneously managing bandwidth, supporting encryption, enabling recovery and resynchronization following a loss of signal, and, minimizing latency. Additional critical elements will include image scaling support, multi -sharing, ease of initial integration and configuration, integration with desktop window managers, collaboration tools, host and recipient controls. This goal of this paper is to summarize the various elements of an IP-based display sharing system that can be used in today's control center environment.

  7. ENERGY STAR Certified Displays

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Certified models meet all ENERGY STAR requirements as listed in the Version 7.0 ENERGY STAR Program Requirements for Displays that are effective as of July 1, 2016....

  8. Gamma camera display system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stout, K.J.

    1976-01-01

    A gamma camera having an array of photomultipliers coupled via pulse shaping circuitry and a resistor weighting circuit to a display for forming an image of a radioactive subject is described. A linearizing circuit is coupled to the weighting circuit, the linearizing circuit including a nonlinear feedback circuit with diode coupling to the weighting circuit for linearizing the correspondence between points of the display and points of the subject. 4 Claims, 5 Drawing Figures

  9. Flexible displays, rigid designs?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hornbæk, Kasper

    2015-01-01

    Rapid technological progress has enabled a wide range of flexible displays for computing devices, but the user experience--which we're only beginning to understand--will be the key driver for successful designs.......Rapid technological progress has enabled a wide range of flexible displays for computing devices, but the user experience--which we're only beginning to understand--will be the key driver for successful designs....

  10. Chemical display of pyrimidine bases flipped out by modification-dependent restriction endonucleases of MspJI and PvuRts1I families.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evelina Zagorskaitė

    Full Text Available The epigenetic DNA modifications 5-methylcytosine (5mC and 5-hydroxymethylcytosine (5hmC in eukaryotes are recognized either in the context of double-stranded DNA (e.g., by the methyl-CpG binding domain of MeCP2, or in the flipped-out state (e.g., by the SRA domain of UHRF1. The SRA-like domains and the base-flipping mechanism for 5(hmC recognition are also shared by the recently discovered prokaryotic modification-dependent endonucleases of the MspJI and PvuRts1I families. Since the mechanism of modified cytosine recognition by many potential eukaryotic and prokaryotic 5(hmC "readers" is still unknown, a fast solution based method for the detection of extrahelical 5(hmC would be very useful. In the present study we tested base-flipping by MspJI- and PvuRts1I-like restriction enzymes using several solution-based methods, including fluorescence measurements of the cytosine analog pyrrolocytosine and chemical modification of extrahelical pyrimidines with chloroacetaldehyde and KMnO4. We find that only KMnO4 proved an efficient probe for the positive display of flipped out pyrimidines, albeit the method required either non-physiological pH (4.3 or a substitution of the target cytosine with thymine. Our results imply that DNA recognition mechanism of 5(hmC binding proteins should be tested using a combination of all available methods, as the lack of a positive signal in some assays does not exclude the base flipping mechanism.

  11. Blu-ray based optomagnetic aptasensor for detection of small molecules

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yang, Jaeyoung; Donolato, Marco; Pinto, Alessandro

    2016-01-01

    This paper describes an aptamer-based optomagnetic biosensor for detection of a small molecule based on target binding-induced inhibition of magnetic nanoparticle (MNP) clustering. For the detection of a target small molecule, two mutually exclusive binding reactions (aptamer-target binding...... the hydrodynamic size distribution of MNPs and their clusters. A commercial Blu-ray optical pickup unit is used for optical signal acquisition, which enables the establishment of a low-cost and miniaturized biosensing platform. Experimental results show that the degree of MNP clustering correlates well...

  12. Consensus of heterogeneous multi-agent systems based on sampled data with a small sampling delay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Na; Wu Zhi-Hai; Peng Li

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, consensus problems of heterogeneous multi-agent systems based on sampled data with a small sampling delay are considered. First, a consensus protocol based on sampled data with a small sampling delay for heterogeneous multi-agent systems is proposed. Then, the algebra graph theory, the matrix method, the stability theory of linear systems, and some other techniques are employed to derive the necessary and sufficient conditions guaranteeing heterogeneous multi-agent systems to asymptotically achieve the stationary consensus. Finally, simulations are performed to demonstrate the correctness of the theoretical results. (interdisciplinary physics and related areas of science and technology)

  13. UPAR targeted molecular imaging of cancers with small molecule-based probes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Feng; Chen, Seng; Zhang, Wanshu; Tu, Yufeng; Sun, Yao

    2017-10-15

    Molecular imaging can allow the non-invasive characterization and measurement of biological and biochemical processes at the molecular and cellular levels in living subjects. The imaging of specific molecular targets that are associated with cancers could allow for the earlier diagnosis and better treatment of diseases. Small molecule-based probes play prominent roles in biomedical research and have high clinical translation ability. Here, with an emphasis on small molecule-based probes, we review some recent developments in biomarkers, imaging techniques and multimodal imaging in molecular imaging and highlight the successful applications for molecular imaging of cancers. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. NCAP projection displays: key issues for commercialization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomita, Akira; Jones, Philip J.

    1992-06-01

    Recently there has been much interest in a new polymer nematic dispersion technology, often called as NCAP, PDLC, PNLC, LCPC, etc., since projection displays using this technology have been shown to produce much brighter display images than projectors using conventional twisted nematic (TN) lightvalves. For commercializing projection displays based on this polymer nematic dispersion technology, the new materials must not only meet various electro- optic requirements, e.g., operational voltage, `off-state'' scattering angle, voltage holding ratio and hysteresis, but must also be stable over the lifetime of the product. This paper reports recent progress in the development of NCAP based projection displays and discusses some of the key commercialization issues.

  15. Small-size pedestrian detection in large scene based on fast R-CNN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shengke; Yang, Na; Duan, Lianghua; Liu, Lu; Dong, Junyu

    2018-04-01

    Pedestrian detection is a canonical sub-problem of object detection with high demand during recent years. Although recent deep learning object detectors such as Fast/Faster R-CNN have shown excellent performance for general object detection, they have limited success for small size pedestrian detection in large-view scene. We study that the insufficient resolution of feature maps lead to the unsatisfactory accuracy when handling small instances. In this paper, we investigate issues involving Fast R-CNN for pedestrian detection. Driven by the observations, we propose a very simple but effective baseline for pedestrian detection based on Fast R-CNN, employing the DPM detector to generate proposals for accuracy, and training a fast R-CNN style network to jointly optimize small size pedestrian detection with skip connection concatenating feature from different layers to solving coarseness of feature maps. And the accuracy is improved in our research for small size pedestrian detection in the real large scene.

  16. Volumetric 3D Display System with Static Screen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geng, Jason

    2011-01-01

    Current display technology has relied on flat, 2D screens that cannot truly convey the third dimension of visual information: depth. In contrast to conventional visualization that is primarily based on 2D flat screens, the volumetric 3D display possesses a true 3D display volume, and places physically each 3D voxel in displayed 3D images at the true 3D (x,y,z) spatial position. Each voxel, analogous to a pixel in a 2D image, emits light from that position to form a real 3D image in the eyes of the viewers. Such true volumetric 3D display technology provides both physiological (accommodation, convergence, binocular disparity, and motion parallax) and psychological (image size, linear perspective, shading, brightness, etc.) depth cues to human visual systems to help in the perception of 3D objects. In a volumetric 3D display, viewers can watch the displayed 3D images from a completely 360 view without using any special eyewear. The volumetric 3D display techniques may lead to a quantum leap in information display technology and can dramatically change the ways humans interact with computers, which can lead to significant improvements in the efficiency of learning and knowledge management processes. Within a block of glass, a large amount of tiny dots of voxels are created by using a recently available machining technique called laser subsurface engraving (LSE). The LSE is able to produce tiny physical crack points (as small as 0.05 mm in diameter) at any (x,y,z) location within the cube of transparent material. The crack dots, when illuminated by a light source, scatter the light around and form visible voxels within the 3D volume. The locations of these tiny voxels are strategically determined such that each can be illuminated by a light ray from a high-resolution digital mirror device (DMD) light engine. The distribution of these voxels occupies the full display volume within the static 3D glass screen. This design eliminates any moving screen seen in previous

  17. Conceptual design study of small long-life PWR based on thorium cycle fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Subkhi, M. Nurul; Su'ud, Zaki; Waris, Abdul; Permana, Sidik

    2014-01-01

    A neutronic performance of small long-life Pressurized Water Reactor (PWR) using thorium cycle based fuel has been investigated. Thorium cycle which has higher conversion ratio in thermal region compared to uranium cycle produce some significant of 233 U during burn up time. The cell-burn up calculations were performed by PIJ SRAC code using nuclear data library based on JENDL 3.3, while the multi-energy-group diffusion calculations were optimized in whole core cylindrical two-dimension R-Z geometry by SRAC-CITATION. this study would be introduced thorium nitride fuel system which ZIRLO is the cladding material. The optimization of 350 MWt small long life PWR result small excess reactivity and reduced power peaking during its operation

  18. A preliminary study of breast cancer diagnosis using laboratory based small angle x-ray scattering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Round, A R [Daresbury Laboratories, Warrington, WA4 4AD (United Kingdom); Wilkinson, S J [Daresbury Laboratories, Warrington, WA4 4AD (United Kingdom); Hall, C J [Daresbury Laboratories, Warrington, WA4 4AD (United Kingdom); Rogers, K D [Department of Materials and Medical Sciences, Cranfield University, Swindon, SN6 8LA (United Kingdom); Glatter, O [Department of Chemistry, University of Graz (Austria); Wess, T [School of Optometry and Vision Sciences, Cardiff University, Cardiff CF10 3NB, Wales (United Kingdom); Ellis, I O [Nottingham City Hospital, Nottingham (United Kingdom)

    2005-09-07

    Breast tissue collected from tumour samples and normal tissue from bi-lateral mastectomy procedures were examined using small angle x-ray scattering. Previous work has indicated that breast tissue disease diagnosis could be performed using small angle x-ray scattering (SAXS) from a synchrotron radiation source. The technique would be more useful to health services if it could be made to work using a conventional x-ray source. Consistent and reliable differences in x-ray scatter distributions were observed between samples from normal and tumour tissue samples using the laboratory based 'SAXSess' system. Albeit from a small number of samples, a sensitivity of 100% was obtained. This result encourages us to pursue the implementation of SAXS as a laboratory based diagnosis technique.

  19. A preliminary study of breast cancer diagnosis using laboratory based small angle x-ray scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Round, A R; Wilkinson, S J; Hall, C J; Rogers, K D; Glatter, O; Wess, T; Ellis, I O

    2005-01-01

    Breast tissue collected from tumour samples and normal tissue from bi-lateral mastectomy procedures were examined using small angle x-ray scattering. Previous work has indicated that breast tissue disease diagnosis could be performed using small angle x-ray scattering (SAXS) from a synchrotron radiation source. The technique would be more useful to health services if it could be made to work using a conventional x-ray source. Consistent and reliable differences in x-ray scatter distributions were observed between samples from normal and tumour tissue samples using the laboratory based 'SAXSess' system. Albeit from a small number of samples, a sensitivity of 100% was obtained. This result encourages us to pursue the implementation of SAXS as a laboratory based diagnosis technique

  20. A preliminary study of breast cancer diagnosis using laboratory based small angle x-ray scattering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Round, A. R.; Wilkinson, S. J.; Hall, C. J.; Rogers, K. D.; Glatter, O.; Wess, T.; Ellis, I. O.

    2005-09-01

    Breast tissue collected from tumour samples and normal tissue from bi-lateral mastectomy procedures were examined using small angle x-ray scattering. Previous work has indicated that breast tissue disease diagnosis could be performed using small angle x-ray scattering (SAXS) from a synchrotron radiation source. The technique would be more useful to health services if it could be made to work using a conventional x-ray source. Consistent and reliable differences in x-ray scatter distributions were observed between samples from normal and tumour tissue samples using the laboratory based 'SAXSess' system. Albeit from a small number of samples, a sensitivity of 100% was obtained. This result encourages us to pursue the implementation of SAXS as a laboratory based diagnosis technique.

  1. Dichroic Liquid Crystal Displays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahadur, Birendra

    The following sections are included: * INTRODUCTION * DICHROIC DYES * Chemical Structure * Chemical and Photochemical Stability * THEORETICAL MODELLING * DEFECTS CAUSED BY PROLONGED LIGHT IRRADIATION * CHEMICAL STRUCTURE AND PHOTOSTABILITY * OTHER PARAMETERS AFFECTING PHOTOSTABILITY * CELL PREPARATION * DICHROIC PARAMETERS AND THEIR MEASUREMENTS * Order Parameter and Dichroic Ratio Of Dyes * Absorbance, Order Parameter and Dichroic Ratio Measurements * IMPACT OF DYE STRUCTURE AND LIQUID CRYSTAL HOST ON PHYSICAL PROPERTIES OF A DICHROIC MIXTURE * Order Parameter and Dichroic Ratio * EFFECT OF LENGTH OF DICHROIC DYES ON THE ORDER PARAMETER * EFFECT OF THE BREADTH OF DYE ON THE ORDER PARAMETER * EFFECT OF THE HOST ON THE ORDER PARAMETER * TEMPERATURE VARIATION OF THE ORDER PARAMETER OF DYES IN A LIQUID CRYSTAL HOST * IMPACT OF DYE CONCENTRATION ON THE ORDER PARAMETER * Temperature Range * Viscosity * Dielectric Constant and Anisotropy * Refractive Indices and Birefringence * solubility43,153-156 * Absorption Wavelength and Auxochromic Groups * Molecular Engineering of Dichroic Dyes * OPTICAL, ELECTRO-OPTICAL AND LIFE PARAMETERS * Colour And CIE Colour space120,160-166 * CIE 1931 COLOUR SPACE * CIE 1976 CHROMATICITY DIAGRAM * CIE UNIFORM COLOUR SPACES & COLOUR DIFFERENCE FORMULAE120,160-166 * Electro-Optical Parameters120 * LUMINANCE * CONTRAST AND CONTRAST RATIO * SWITCHING SPEED * Life Parameters and Failure Modes * DICHROIC MIXTURE FORMULATION * Monochrome Mixture * Black Mixture * ACHROMATIC BLACK MIXTURE FOR HEILMEIER DISPLAYS * Effect of Illuminant on Display Colour * Colour of the Field-On State * Effect of Dye Linewidth * Optimum Centroid Wavelengths * Effect of Dye Concentration * Mixture Formulation Using More Than Three Dyes * ACHROMATIC MIXTURE FOR WHITE-TAYLOR TYPE DISPLAYS * HEILMEIER DISPLAYS * Theoretical Modelling * Threshold Characteristic * Effects of Dye Concentration on Electro-optical Parameters * Effect of Cholesteric Doping * Effect of Alignment

  2. On Integrity of Flexible Displays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouten, Piet C. P.

    Nowadays two display types are dominant in the display market: the bulky cathode ray tube (CRT) and liquid crystal displays (LCD). Both types use glass as substrate material. The LCD display is the dominant player for mobile applications, in for instance mobile phones and portable computers. In the development of displays and their applications a clear interest exists to replace the rigid rectangular display cells by free-shaped, curved or even roll-up cells. These types of applications require flexible displays.

  3. Strong Teens: A School-Based Small Group Experience for African American Males

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Nathan J.; Rayle, Andrea Dixon

    2007-01-01

    This article describes the school-based, small group adaptation of the existing Strong Teens Curriculum (STC) for African American male adolescents in high schools. The STC was created to equip adolescents with skills that promote more effective social interaction and enhance personal emotional and psychological wellness. The authors present a…

  4. Crypt base columnar stem cells in small intestines of mice are radioresistant

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hua, G.; Thin, T.H.; Feldman, R.; Haimovitz-Friedman, A.; Clevers, H.; Fuks, Z.; Kolesnick, R.

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND & AIMS: Adult stem cells have been proposed to be quiescent and radiation resistant, repairing DNA double-strand breaks by nonhomologous end joining. However, the population of putative small intestinal stem cells (ISCs) at position +4 from the crypt base contradicts this model, in that

  5. Private investment for building a small hydropower plant at Zetea dam base

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Popa, Florica; Paraschivescu, Adina; Vladescu, Aurelia; Popa, Bogdan

    2007-01-01

    Zetea lake grading project comprises an earthen dam, made out of local materials, having as main purposes water supply, flood control and protection against flooding. The paper analyzes the possibility of building a small hydropower plant at the base of the dam, using private investment resources, in order to put to good use the water flow evacuated from the storage lake. (authors)

  6. Structure of unilamellar vesicles: Numerical analysis based on small-angle neutron scattering data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zemlyanaya, E. V.; Kiselev, M. A.; Zbytovska, J.; Almasy, L.; Aswal, V. K.; Strunz, P.; Wartewig, S.; Neubert, R.

    2006-01-01

    The structure of polydispersed populations of unilamellar vesicles is studied by small-angle neutron scattering for three types of lipid systems, namely, single-, two-and four-component vesicular systems. Results of the numerical analysis based on the separated-form-factor model are reported

  7. Small and Home-Based Businesses: Measures of Success and the Contribution of Local Development Services

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks, Lara; Whitacre, Brian; Shideler, Dave; Muske, Glenn; Woods, Mike

    2012-01-01

    Small and home-based businesses have long been identified by Extension educators as an important component of economic development, particularly in rural areas. The services available to these businesses can take many forms, including management training, accessibility of local funding, providing incubation facilities, or setting up mentoring…

  8. Small-molecule azomethines : Organic photovoltaics via Schiff base condensation chemistry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Petrus, M.L.; Bouwer, R.K.M.; Lafont, U.; Athanasopoulos, S.; Greenham, N.C.; Dingemans, T.J.

    2014-01-01

    Conjugated small-molecule azomethines for photovoltaic applications were prepared via Schiff base condensation chemistry. Bulk heterojunction (BHJ) devices exhibit efficiencies of 1.2% with MoOx as the hole-transporting layer. The versatility and simplicity of the chemistry is illustrated by

  9. Small-molecule azomethines: Organic photovoltaics via Schiff base condensation chemistry

    OpenAIRE

    Petrus, M.L.; Bouwer, R.K.M.; Lafont, U.; Athanasopoulos, S.; Greenham, N.C.; Dingemans, T.J.

    2014-01-01

    Conjugated small-molecule azomethines for photovoltaic applications were prepared via Schiff base condensation chemistry. Bulk heterojunction (BHJ) devices exhibit efficiencies of 1.2% with MoOx as the hole-transporting layer. The versatility and simplicity of the chemistry is illustrated by preparing a photovoltaic device directly from the reaction mixture without any form of workup.

  10. An Active Damping Technique for Small DC-Link Capacitor Based Drive System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maheshwari, Ram Krishan; Munk-Nielsen, Stig; Lu, Kaiyuan

    2013-01-01

    A small dc-link capacitor based drive system shows instability when it is operated with large input line inductance at operating points with high power. This paper presents a simple, new active damping technique that can stabilize effectively the drive system at unstable operating points, offering...

  11. Active damping technique for small DC-link capacitor based drive system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maheshwari, Ram Krishan; Munk-Nielsen, Stig; Henriksen, Bjarne

    2010-01-01

    A detailed model of Adjustable Speed Drive (ASD) is discussed, which yield a general rule for active damping in a small DC link based drive. A desired value of input LC resonance damping coefficient can be achieved by changing gain parameters. The modified state space matrix due to active damping...

  12. A study to determine the differences between the displayed dose values for two full-field digital mammography units and values calculated using a range of Monte-Carlo-based techniques: A phantom study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borg, M.; Badr, I.; Royle, G. J.

    2013-01-01

    Modern full-field digital mammography (FFDM) units display the mean glandular dose (MGD) and the entrance or incident air kerma (K) to the breast following each exposure. Information on how these values are calculated is limited and knowing how displayed MGD values compare and correlate to conventional Monte-Carlo-based methods is useful. From measurements done on polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) phantoms, it has been shown that displayed and calculated MGD values are similar for thin to medium thicknesses and appear to differ with larger PMMA thicknesses. As a result, a multiple linear regression analysis on the data was performed to generate models by which displayed MGD values on the two FFDM units included in the study may be converted to the Monte-Carlo values calculated by conventional methods. These models should be a useful tool for medical physicists requiring MGD data from FFDM units included in this paper and should reduce the survey time spent on dose calculations. (authors)

  13. Crystal ball single event display

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grosnick, D.; Gibson, A.; Allgower, C.; Alyea, J.; Argonne National Lab., IL

    1997-01-01

    The Single Event Display (SED) is a routine that is designed to provide information graphically about a triggered event within the Crystal Ball. The SED is written entirely in FORTRAN and uses the CERN-based HICZ graphing package. The primary display shows the amount of energy deposited in each of the NaI crystals on a Mercator-like projection of the crystals. Ten different shades and colors correspond to varying amounts of energy deposited within a crystal. Information about energy clusters is displayed on the crystal map by outlining in red the thirteen (or twelve) crystals contained within a cluster and assigning each cluster a number. Additional information about energy clusters is provided in a series of boxes containing useful data about the energy distribution among the crystals within the cluster. Other information shown on the event display include the event trigger type and data about π o 's and η's formed from pairs of clusters as found by the analyzer. A description of the major features is given, along with some information on how to install the SED into the analyzer

  14. Fatigue-crack propagation in gamma-based titanium aluminide alloys at large and small crack sizes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kruzic, J.J.; Campbell, J.P.; Ritchie, R.O.

    1999-01-01

    Most evaluations of the fracture and fatigue-crack propagation properties of γ+α 2 titanium aluminide alloys to date have been performed using standard large-crack samples, e.g., compact-tension specimens containing crack sizes which are on the order of tens of millimeters, i.e., large compared to microstructural dimensions. However, these alloys have been targeted for applications, such as blades in gas-turbine engines, where relevant crack sizes are much smaller ( 5 mm) and (c ≅ 25--300 microm) cracks in a γ-TiAl based alloy, of composition Ti-47Al-2Nb-2Cr-0.2B (at.%), specifically for duplex (average grain size approximately17 microm) and refined lamellar (average colony size ≅150 microm) microstructures. It is found that, whereas the lamellar microstructure displays far superior fracture toughness and fatigue-crack growth resistance in the presence of large cracks, in small-crack testing the duplex microstructure exhibits a better combination of properties. The reasons for such contrasting behavior are examined in terms of the intrinsic and extrinsic (i.e., crack bridging) contributions to cyclic crack advance

  15. UP-scaling of inverted small molecule based organic solar cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Patil, Bhushan Ramesh; Madsen, Morten

    Organic solar cells (OSC), in spite of being a promising technology, still face challenges regarding large-scale fabrication. Although efficiencies of up to 12 % has been reached for small molecule OSC, their performance, both in terms of device efficiency and stability, is significantly reduced...... during up-scaling processes. The work presented here is focused on an approach towards up-scaling of small molecule based OSC with inverted device configuration. Bilayer OSC from Tetraphenyldibenzoperiflanthene (DBP) and Fullerenes (C70), as electron donor and acceptor respectively, with cell area...

  16. Fiducialization of the small-aperture quadrupoles based on the vibrating wire method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Baichuan, E-mail: wangbaichuan@nint.ac.cn [State Key Laboratory of Intense Pulsed Radiation Simulation and Effect (Northwest Institute of Nuclear Technology), Xi' an 710024 (China); Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Zheng, Shuxin, E-mail: zhengsx@tsinghua.edu.cn [Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Wu, Lin; Du, Changtong; Xing, Qingzi [Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Wang, Zhongming; Qiu, Mengtong [State Key Laboratory of Intense Pulsed Radiation Simulation and Effect (Northwest Institute of Nuclear Technology), Xi' an 710024 (China); Wang, Xuewu [Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China)

    2016-03-11

    A fiducialization method based on vibrating wire is described dedicated to the problem of locating the magnetic center relative to external fiducials for the small-aperture quadrupoles. The advantage of this method is that the measurement of the wire position, which may be the main error source, is no longer needed. The position of the magnetic center can be directly obtained by measuring the position shift of the magnet fiducials. This method has been validated on small Permanent Magnet Quadrupoles (PMQs). Experiments have confirmed its feasibility of measuring PMQs with good repeatability of about 10 μm, and shown its high sensitivity as well as convenience.

  17. Small-displacement sensing system based on multiple total internal reflections in heterodyne interferometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shinn-Fwu; Chiu, Ming-Hung; Chen, Wei-Wu; Kao, Fu-Hsi; Chang, Rong-Seng

    2009-05-01

    A small-displacement sensing system based on multiple total internal reflections in heterodyne interferometry is proposed. In this paper, a small displacement can be obtained only by measuring the variation in phase difference between s- and p-polarization states for the total internal reflection effect. In order to improve the sensitivity, we increase the number of total internal reflections by using a parallelogram prism. The theoretical resolution of the method is better than 0.417 nm. The method has some merits, e.g., high resolution, high sensitivity, and real-time measurement. Also, its feasibility is demonstrated.

  18. Experimental and rendering-based investigation of laser radar cross sections of small unmanned aerial vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laurenzis, Martin; Bacher, Emmanuel; Christnacher, Frank

    2017-12-01

    Laser imaging systems are prominent candidates for detection and tracking of small unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) in current and future security scenarios. Laser reflection characteristics for laser imaging (e.g., laser gated viewing) of small UAVs are investigated to determine their laser radar cross section (LRCS) by analyzing the intensity distribution of laser reflection in high resolution images. For the first time, LRCSs are determined in a combined experimental and computational approaches by high resolution laser gated viewing and three-dimensional rendering. An optimized simple surface model is calculated taking into account diffuse and specular reflectance properties based on the Oren-Nayar and the Cook-Torrance reflectance models, respectively.

  19. D2D-Enabled Small Cell Network Control Scheme Based on the Dynamic Stackelberg Game

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sungwook Kim

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available For current and future cellular networks, small cell structure with licensed and unlicensed bandwidth, caching content provisioning, and device-to-device (D2D communications is seen as a necessary architecture. Recently, a series of control methods have been developed to address a myriad of challenges in next-generation small cell networks. In this study, we focus on the design of novel D2D-enabled small cell network control scheme by allowing caching and unlicensed D2D communications. Motivated by game theory and learning algorithm, the proposed scheme adaptively selects caching contents and splits the available bandwidth for licensed and unlicensed communications. Under dynamically changing network environments, we capture the dynamics of the network system and design a new dynamic Stackelberg game model. Based on a hierarchical and feedback based control manner, small base stations and users can be leaders or followers dynamically while improving 5G network performance. Simulations and performance analysis verify the efficiency of the proposed scheme, showing that our approach can outperform existing schemes by about 5%~15% in terms of bandwidth utilization, cache hit ratio, and system throughput.

  20. Data display with the Q system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oothoudt, M.A.

    1979-01-01

    The Q data-acquisition system for PDP-11 mini-computers at the Clinton P. Anderson Meson Physics Facility (LAMPF) provides experimenters with basic tools for on-line data display. Tasks are available to plot one- and two-parameter histograms on Tektronix 4000 series storage-tube terminals. The histograms to be displayed and the display format may be selected with simple keyboard commands. A task is also available to create and display live two-parameter scatter plots for any acquired or calculated quantities. Other tasks in the system manage the display data base, list display parameters and histogram contents on hardcopy devices, and save core histograms on disk or tape for off-line analysis. 8 figures

  1. Effect of display size on visual attention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, I-Ping; Liao, Chia-Ning; Yeh, Shih-Hao

    2011-06-01

    Attention plays an important role in the design of human-machine interfaces. However, current knowledge about attention is largely based on data obtained when using devices of moderate display size. With advancement in display technology comes the need for understanding attention behavior over a wider range of viewing sizes. The effect of display size on test participants' visual search performance was studied. The participants (N = 12) performed two types of visual search tasks, that is, parallel and serial search, under three display-size conditions (16 degrees, 32 degrees, and 60 degrees). Serial, but not parallel, search was affected by display size. In the serial task, mean reaction time for detecting a target increased with the display size.

  2. Refreshing Refreshable Braille Displays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russomanno, Alexander; O'Modhrain, Sile; Gillespie, R Brent; Rodger, Matthew W M

    2015-01-01

    The increased access to books afforded to blind people via e-publishing has given them long-sought independence for both recreational and educational reading. In most cases, blind readers access materials using speech output. For some content such as highly technical texts, music, and graphics, speech is not an appropriate access modality as it does not promote deep understanding. Therefore blind braille readers often prefer electronic braille displays. But, these are prohibitively expensive. The search is on, therefore, for a low-cost refreshable display that would go beyond current technologies and deliver graphical content as well as text. And many solutions have been proposed, some of which reduce costs by restricting the number of characters that can be displayed, even down to a single braille cell. In this paper, we demonstrate that restricting tactile cues during braille reading leads to poorer performance in a letter recognition task. In particular, we show that lack of sliding contact between the fingertip and the braille reading surface results in more errors and that the number of errors increases as a function of presentation speed. These findings suggest that single cell displays which do not incorporate sliding contact are likely to be less effective for braille reading.

  3. Nuclear image display controller

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roth, D.A.

    1985-01-01

    In a nuclear imaging system the digitized x and y coordinates of gamma ray photon emission events address memory locations corresponding to the coordinates. The respective locations are incremented each time they are addressed so at the end of a selected time or event count period the locations contain digital values or raw data corresponding to the intensity of pixels comprising an image frame. The raw data for a frame is coupled to one input of an arithmetic logic unit (ALU) whose output is coupled to a display controller memory. The output of the controller memory is coupled to another ALU input with a feedback bus and is also coupled to a further signal processing circuit which includes means for converting processed data to analog video signals for television display. The ALU is selectively controlled to let raw image data pass through to the display controllor memory or alternately to add (or subtract) raw data for the last image frame developed to the raw data for preceding frames held in the display controller to thereby produce the visual effect on the television screen of an isotope flowing through anatomy

  4. Plant state display device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kadota, Kazuo; Ito, Toshiichiro.

    1994-01-01

    The device of the present invention conducts information processing suitable for a man to solve a problem in a plant such as a nuclear power plant incorporating a great amount of information, where safety is required and provides information to an operator. Namely, theories and rules with respect to the flow and balanced state of materials and energy upon plant start-up, and a vapor cycle of operation fluids are symbolized and displayed on the display screen of the device. Then, the display of the plant information suitable to the information processing for a man to dissolve problems is provided. Accordingly, a mechanism for analyzing a purpose of the plant is made more definite, thereby enabling to prevent an erroneous judgement of an operator and occurrence of plant troubles. In addition, a simular effect can also be expected when the theories and rules with respect to the flow and the balanced state of materials and energy and thermohydrodynamic behavior of the operation fluids in a state of after-heat removing operation during shutdown of the plant are symbolized and displayed. (I.S.)

  5. Modeling and simulation of grid connected permanent magnet generator based small wind energy conversion systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arifujjaman, Md.

    2011-07-01

    In order to recover the maximum energy from small scale wind turbine systems many parameters have to be controlled. The aim of this paper is to propose a control strategy for the grid connected PMG-based small wind turbine systems. A mathematical model of small wind turbine systems was developed and the system simulated. Results show demonstrated that the control strategy is highly efficient. Sure enough it reduces the dependence on system variables, diminishes the system complexity, its furling and maximum power point controllers are efficient and it provides a stable operation for multiple wind speeds. This study developed a modeling and control strategy which was proved to be feasible by simulation results.

  6. A RESOURCE-BASED VIEW OF SMALL EXPORT FIRMS' SOCIAL CAPITAL IN A SOUTHEAST ASIAN COUNTRY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Doren Chadee

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available This study empirically examines the social capital that facilitates the flow of export knowledge, thereby supporting the entrepreneurial stance of small export firms. By applying the VRIO (value, rarity, inimitability and organisation of firm resources framework to the resource-based view (RBV of the firm, this study suggests that superior performance is a function of resources that are valuable, rare, inimitable and sufficiently organised to develop and sustain the firm's competitive advantage. This study argues that small, resource-constrained export firms in a developing economy are able to adopt entrepreneurial tactics and reap positive rates of return by exploiting their relational capital to acquire export knowledge. A survey of 175 small export firms in the Philippines was conducted, and the data were analysed using structural equation modelling. The results suggest positive relationships between the firm's social capital and export knowledge. Export knowledge is associated with entrepreneurial orientation, which then correlates with export performance.

  7. Detection of small surface defects using DCT based enhancement approach in machine vision systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Fuqiang; Wang, Wen; Chen, Zichen

    2005-12-01

    Utilizing DCT based enhancement approach, an improved small defect detection algorithm for real-time leather surface inspection was developed. A two-stage decomposition procedure was proposed to extract an odd-odd frequency matrix after a digital image has been transformed to DCT domain. Then, the reverse cumulative sum algorithm was proposed to detect the transition points of the gentle curves plotted from the odd-odd frequency matrix. The best radius of the cutting sector was computed in terms of the transition points and the high-pass filtering operation was implemented. The filtered image was then inversed and transformed back to the spatial domain. Finally, the restored image was segmented by an entropy method and some defect features are calculated. Experimental results show the proposed small defect detection method can reach the small defect detection rate by 94%.

  8. Chaos characteristics and least squares support vector machines based online pipeline small leakages detection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Jinhai; Su, Hanguang; Ma, Yanjuan; Wang, Gang; Wang, Yuan; Zhang, Kun

    2016-01-01

    Small leakages are severe threats to the long distance pipeline transportation. An online small leakage detection method based on chaos characteristics and Least Squares Support Vector Machines (LS-SVMs) is proposed in this paper. For the first time, the relationship between the chaos characteristics of pipeline inner pressures and the small leakages is investigated and applied in the pipeline detection method. Firstly, chaos in the pipeline inner pressure is found. Relevant chaos characteristics are estimated by the nonlinear time series analysis package (TISEAN). Then LS-SVM with a hybrid kernel is built and named as hybrid kernel LS-SVM (HKLS-SVM). It is applied to analyze the chaos characteristics and distinguish the negative pressure waves (NPWs) caused by small leaks. A new leak location method is also expounded. Finally, data of the chaotic Logistic-Map system is used in the simulation. A comparison between HKLS-SVM and other methods, in terms of the identification accuracy and computing efficiency, is made. The simulation result shows that HKLS-SVM gets the best performance and is effective in error analysis of chaotic systems. When real pipeline data is used in the test, the ultimate identification accuracy of HKLS-SVM reaches 97.38% and the position accuracy is 99.28%, indicating that the method proposed in this paper has good performance in detecting and locating small pipeline leaks.

  9. Distinguishing pathological from constitutional small for gestational age births in population-based studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ananth, Cande V; Vintzileos, Anthony M

    2009-10-01

    Small for gestational age (SGA) can occur following a pathological process or may represent constitutionally small fetuses. However, distinguishing these processes is often difficult, especially in large studies, where the term SGA is often used as a proxy for restricted fetal growth. Since biologic variation in fetal size is largely a third trimester phenomenon, we hypothesized that the definition of SGA at term may include a sizeable proportion of constitutionally small fetuses. In contrast, since biologic variation in fetal size is not fully expressed in (early) preterm gestations, it is plausible that SGA in early preterm gestations would comprise a large proportion of growth restricted fetuses. We compared mortality and morbidity rates between SGA and appropriate for gestational age (AGA) babies. A population-based study of over 19million non-malformed, singleton births (1995-04) in the United States was performed. Gestational age (24-44weeks) was based on a clinical estimate. SGA and AGA were defined as sex-specific birthweight constitutionally small.

  10. A visual test based on a freeware software for quantifying and displaying night-vision disturbances: study in subjects after alcohol consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro, José J; Ortiz, Carolina; Pozo, Antonio M; Anera, Rosario G; Soler, Margarita

    2014-05-07

    In this work, we propose the Halo test, a simple visual test based on a freeware software for quantifying and displaying night-vision disturbances perceived by subjects under different experimental conditions, more precisely studying the influence of the alcohol consumption on visual function. In the Halo test, viewed on a monitor, the subject's task consists of detecting luminous peripheral stimuli around a central high-luminance stimulus over a dark background. The test, performed by subjects before and after consuming alcoholic drinks, which deteriorate visual performance, evaluates the influence that alcohol consumption exerts on the visual-discrimination capacity under low illumination conditions. Measurements were made monocularly and binocularly. Pupil size was also measured in both conditions (pre/post). Additionally, we used a double-pass device to measure objectively the optical-quality of the eye and corroborate the results from the Halo test. We found a significant deterioration of the discrimination capacity after alcohol consumption, indicating that the higher the breath-alcohol content, the greater the deterioration of the visual-discrimination capacity. After alcohol intake, the graphical results showed a greater area of undetected peripheral stimuli around the central high-luminance stimulus. An enlargement of the pupil was also observed and the optical quality of the eye was deteriorated after alcohol consumption. A greater influence of halos and other night-vision disturbances were reported with the Halo test after alcohol consumption. The Halo freeware software constitutes a positive contribution for evaluating nighttime visual performance in clinical applications, such as reported here, but also in patients after refractive surgery (where halos are present) or for monitoring (time course) some ocular pathologies under pharmacological treatment.

  11. Elucidating the Small Regulatory RNA Repertoire of the Sea Anemone Anemonia viridis Based on Whole Genome and Small RNA Sequencing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urbarova, Ilona; Patel, Hardip; Forêt, Sylvain; Karlsen, Bård Ove; Jørgensen, Tor Erik; Hall-Spencer, Jason M; Johansen, Steinar D

    2018-02-01

    Cnidarians harbor a variety of small regulatory RNAs that include microRNAs (miRNAs) and PIWI-interacting RNAs (piRNAs), but detailed information is limited. Here, we report the identification and expression of novel miRNAs and putative piRNAs, as well as their genomic loci, in the symbiotic sea anemone Anemonia viridis. We generated a draft assembly of the A. viridis genome with putative size of 313 Mb that appeared to be composed of about 36% repeats, including known transposable elements. We detected approximately equal fractions of DNA transposons and retrotransposons. Deep sequencing of small RNA libraries constructed from A. viridis adults sampled at a natural CO2 gradient off Vulcano Island, Italy, identified 70 distinct miRNAs. Eight were homologous to previously reported miRNAs in cnidarians, whereas 62 appeared novel. Nine miRNAs were recognized as differentially expressed along the natural seawater pH gradient. We found a highly abundant and diverse population of piRNAs, with a substantial fraction showing ping-pong signatures. We identified nearly 22% putative piRNAs potentially targeting transposable elements within the A. viridis genome. The A. viridis genome appeared similar in size to that of other hexacorals with a very high divergence of transposable elements resembling that of the sea anemone genus Exaiptasia. The genome encodes and expresses a high number of small regulatory RNAs, which include novel miRNAs and piRNAs. Differentially expressed small RNAs along the seawater pH gradient indicated regulatory gene responses to environmental stressors. © The Author(s) 2018. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Molecular Biology and Evolution.

  12. LMDS Lightweight Modular Display System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-02-16

    based on standard functions. This means that the cost to produce a particular display function can be met in the most economical fashion and at the same...not mean that the NTDS interface would be eliminated. What is anticipated is the use of ETHERNET at a low level of system interface, ie internal to...GENERATOR dSYMBOL GEN eCOMMUNICATION 3-2 The architecture of the unit’s (fig 3-4) input circuitry is based on a video table look-up ROM. The function

  13. Infrared dim small target segmentation method based on ALI-PCNN model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Shangnan; Song, Yong; Zhao, Yufei; Li, Yun; Li, Xu; Jiang, Yurong; Li, Lin

    2017-10-01

    Pulse Coupled Neural Network (PCNN) is improved by Adaptive Lateral Inhibition (ALI), while a method of infrared (IR) dim small target segmentation based on ALI-PCNN model is proposed in this paper. Firstly, the feeding input signal is modulated by lateral inhibition network to suppress background. Then, the linking input is modulated by ALI, and linking weight matrix is generated adaptively by calculating ALI coefficient of each pixel. Finally, the binary image is generated through the nonlinear modulation and the pulse generator in PCNN. The experimental results show that the segmentation effect as well as the values of contrast across region and uniformity across region of the proposed method are better than the OTSU method, maximum entropy method, the methods based on conventional PCNN and visual attention, and the proposed method has excellent performance in extracting IR dim small target from complex background.

  14. Qualification of academic facilities for small-scale automated manufacture of autologous cell-based products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hourd, Paul; Chandra, Amit; Alvey, David; Ginty, Patrick; McCall, Mark; Ratcliffe, Elizabeth; Rayment, Erin; Williams, David J

    2014-01-01

    Academic centers, hospitals and small companies, as typical development settings for UK regenerative medicine assets, are significant contributors to the development of autologous cell-based therapies. Often lacking the appropriate funding, quality assurance heritage or specialist regulatory expertise, qualifying aseptic cell processing facilities for GMP compliance is a significant challenge. The qualification of a new Cell Therapy Manufacturing Facility with automated processing capability, the first of its kind in a UK academic setting, provides a unique demonstrator for the qualification of small-scale, automated facilities for GMP-compliant manufacture of autologous cell-based products in these settings. This paper shares our experiences in qualifying the Cell Therapy Manufacturing Facility, focusing on our approach to streamlining the qualification effort, the challenges, project delays and inefficiencies we encountered, and the subsequent lessons learned.

  15. New ultraportable display technology and applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvelda, Phillip; Lewis, Nancy D.

    1998-08-01

    MicroDisplay devices are based on a combination of technologies rooted in the extreme integration capability of conventionally fabricated CMOS active-matrix liquid crystal display substrates. Customized diffraction grating and optical distortion correction technology for lens-system compensation allow the elimination of many lenses and systems-level components. The MicroDisplay Corporation's miniature integrated information display technology is rapidly leading to many new defense and commercial applications. There are no moving parts in MicroDisplay substrates, and the fabrication of the color generating gratings, already part of the CMOS circuit fabrication process, is effectively cost and manufacturing process-free. The entire suite of the MicroDisplay Corporation's technologies was devised to create a line of application- specific integrated circuit single-chip display systems with integrated computing, memory, and communication circuitry. Next-generation portable communication, computer, and consumer electronic devices such as truly portable monitor and TV projectors, eyeglass and head mounted displays, pagers and Personal Communication Services hand-sets, and wristwatch-mounted video phones are among the may target commercial markets for MicroDisplay technology. Defense applications range from Maintenance and Repair support, to night-vision systems, to portable projectors for mobile command and control centers.

  16. Microencapsulated Electrophoretic Films for Electronic Paper Displays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amundson, Karl

    2003-03-01

    Despite the dominance of liquid crystal displays, they do not perform some functions very well. While backlit liquid crystal displays can offer excellent color performance, they wash out in bright lighting and suffer from high power consumption. Reflective liquid crystal displays have limited brightness, making these devices challenging to read for long periods of time. Flexible liquid crystal displays are difficult to manufacture and keep stable. All of these attributes (long battery lifetime, bright reflective appearance, compatibility with flexible substrates) are traits that would be found in an ideal electronic paper display - an updateable substitute for paper that could be employed in electronic books, newspapers, and other applications. I will discuss technologies that are being developed for electronic-paper-like displays, and especially on particle-based technologies. A microencapsulated electrophoretic display technology is being developed at the E Ink corporation. This display film offers offer high brightness and an ink-on-paper appearance, compatibility with flexible substrates, and image stability that can lead to very low power consumption. I will present some of the physical and chemical challenges associated with making display films with high performance.

  17. Position display device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishizawa, Yukio.

    1974-01-01

    Object: To provide a device capable of easily and quickly reading mutual mounting relations of control bodies such as control rods mounted on a nuclear reactor and positions to which the control bodies are driven. Structure: A scanning circuit is provided to scan positions of controllably mounted control bodies such as control rods. Values detected by scanning the positions are converted into character signals according to the values and converted into preranked color signals. The character signals and color signals are stored in a memory circuit by synchronous signals in synchronism with the scanning in the scanning circuit. Outputs of the memory circuit are displayed by a display unit such as a color Braun tube in accordance with the synchronous signals to provide color representations according to positions to which control bodies are driven in the same positional relation as the mounting of the control bodies. (Kamimura, M.)

  18. Background suppression of infrared small target image based on inter-frame registration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Xiubo; Xue, Bindang

    2018-04-01

    We propose a multi-frame background suppression method for remote infrared small target detection. Inter-frame information is necessary when the heavy background clutters make it difficult to distinguish real targets and false alarms. A registration procedure based on points matching in image patches is used to compensate the local deformation of background. Then the target can be separated by background subtraction. Experiments show our method serves as an effective preliminary of target detection.

  19. Femtosecond laser based small incision lenticule extraction for moderate and high myopia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjortdal, Jesper Østergaard; Asp, Sven; Ivarsen, Anders

    Femtosecond laser based small incision lenticule extraction for moderate and high myopia. Jesper Hjortdal, Sven Asp, Anders Ivarsen, Anders Vestergaard Department of Ophthalmology, Aarhus University Hospital, Denmark Purpose: ReLEx® smile is a new keratorefractive procedure whereby a stromal lent....... Refractive predictability, safety and patient satisfaction at 3 months seems equal to ReLEx flex and FS-LASIK. Optimizing laser energy settings and surgeon experience is important to minimize initial inferior results....

  20. Complex Behavior in an Integrate-and-Fire Neuron Model Based on Small World Networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin Min; Chen Tianlun

    2005-01-01

    Based on our previously pulse-coupled integrate-and-fire neuron model in small world networks, we investigate the complex behavior of electroencephalographic (EEG)-like activities produced by such a model. We find EEG-like activities have obvious chaotic characteristics. We also analyze the complex behaviors of EEG-like signals, such as spectral analysis, reconstruction of the phase space, the correlation dimension, and so on.

  1. Organizational culture, team climate and diabetes care in small office-based practices

    OpenAIRE

    Bosch, Marije; Dijkstra, Rob; Wensing, Michel; van der Weijden, Trudy; Grol, Richard

    2008-01-01

    Abstract Background Redesigning care has been proposed as a lever for improving chronic illness care. Within primary care, diabetes care is the most widespread example of restructured integrated care. Our goal was to assess to what extent important aspects of restructured care such as multidisciplinary teamwork and different types of organizational culture are associated with high quality diabetes care in small office-based general practices. Methods We conducted cross-sectional analyses of d...

  2. Management control systems in small business transfers : a resource-based view

    OpenAIRE

    Länsiluoto, Aapo; Varamäki, Elina; Laitinen, Erkki K.; Viljamaa, Anmari; Tall, Juha

    2016-01-01

    This study investigates whether post-business transfer MCS development (PBTMCSD) is associated with post-business transfer success (PBTS) in small firms. The data for the study was collected in January 2012 as a web-based survey. The target group consisted of acquirers (both external buyers and family business successors) who had implemented a business transfer during 2006-2011 in Finland. A total of 178 questionnaires were sent out, and 67 responses were received. Regression analysis is used...

  3. Refrigerated display cabinets; Butikskyla

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fahlen, Per

    2000-07-01

    This report summarizes experience from SP research and assignments regarding refrigerated transport and storage of food, mainly in the retail sector. It presents the fundamentals of heat and mass transfer in display cabinets with special focus on indirect systems and secondary refrigerants. Moreover, the report includes a brief account of basic food hygiene and the related regulations. The material has been compiled for educational purposes in the Masters program at Chalmers Technical University.

  4. Helicopter Display Improvement Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    1975-05-01

    PRESSURE INDICATOR 43 TURN A N D SLIP INDICATOR 21 ENGINE AND SDG OIL IN TEMPERATURE INDICATOR 44 COURSE INDICATOR 22 RADIO MAGNETIC COMPASS INDICATOR... compass seemed to present a problem to several H-l series pilots In that It was poorly located and should be moved. Possible locations Included...the UH-lNs standby compass . Both H/L and L/L pilots agreed that internal, white light was the best system currently in use. INDIVIDUAL DISPLAYS

  5. Base substitutions, frameshifts, and small deletions constitute ionizing radiation-induced point mutations in mammalian cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grosovsky, A.J.; de Boer, J.G.; de Jong, P.J.; Drobetsky, E.A.; Glickman, B.W.

    1988-01-01

    The relative role of point mutations and large genomic rearrangements in ionizing radiation-induced mutagenesis has been an issue of long-standing interest. Recent studies using Southern blotting analysis permit the partitioning of ionizing radiation-induced mutagenesis in mammalian cells into detectable deletions and major genomic rearrangements and into point mutations. The molecular nature of these point mutations has been left unresolved; they may include base substitutions as well as small deletions, insertions, and frame-shifts below the level of resolution of Southern blotting analysis. In this investigation, we have characterized a collection of ionizing radiation-induced point mutations at the endogenous adenine phosphoribosyltransferase (aprt) locus of Chinese hamster ovary cells at the DNA sequence level. Base substitutions represented approximately equal to 2/3 of the point mutations analyzed. Although the collection of mutants is relatively small, every possible type of base substitution event has been recovered. These mutations are well distributed throughout the coding sequence with only one multiple occurrence. Small deletions represented the remainder of characterized mutants; no insertions have been observed. Sequence-directed mechanisms mediated by direct repeats could account for some of the observed deletions, while others appear to be directly attributable to radiation-induced strand breakage

  6. Dyes for displays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Claussen, U.

    1984-01-01

    The improvement of contrast and visibility of LCD by two different means was undertaken. The two methods are: (1) development of fluorescent dyes to increase the visibility of fluorescent activated displays (FLAD); and (2) development of dichroic dyes to increase the contrast of displays. This work was done in close cooperation with the electronic industry, where the newly synthesized dyes were tested. The targets for the chemical synthesis were selected with the help of computer model calculations. A marketable range of dyes was developed. Since the interest of the electronic industries concerning FLAD was low, the investigations were stopped. Dichroic dyes, especially black mixtures with good light fastness, order parameter, and solubility in nematic phases were developed. The application of these dyes is restricted to indoor use because of an increase of viscosity below -10 C. Applications on a technical scale, e.g., for the automotive industry, will be possible if the displays work at temperatures down to -40 C. This problem requires a complex optimization of the dye/nematic phase system.

  7. Subgroups based on thermal and pressure pain thresholds in women with chronic whiplash display differences in clinical presentation – an explorative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Börsbo B

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Björn Börsbo,1,2 Gunilla M Liedberg,3 Mia Wallin,1,3 Björn Gerdle1,41Department of Medicine and Health Sciences, University of Linköping, Linköping, Sweden; 2Clinical Department of Rehabilitation Medicine, County Hospital Ryhov, Jönköping, Sweden; 3Department of Social and Welfare Studies, University of Linköping, Norrköping, Sweden; 4Pain and Rehabilitation Centre, UHL, Östergötland County Council, Linköping, SwedenPurpose: To investigate the presence of subgroups in chronic whiplash-associated disorders (WAD based on pain thresholds for pressure (PPT, cold (CPT, and heat (HPT and to compare these subgroups with respect to symptomatology, disability, and health aspects. Methods: Two groups of female subjects – patients with chronic WAD (n = 28 and healthy controls (CON; n = 29 – were investigated. Quantitative sensory testing (QST for thermal thresholds and algometry for PPT at four sites in the body (over the trapezius and tibialis anterior bilaterally were determined. Habitual pain intensities, psychological strain, disability, and health aspects were registered using a questionnaire.Results: A cluster analysis based on PPT, CPT, and HPT identified two subgroups of chronic WAD: one sensitive subgroup (s-WAD; n = 21, and one less sensitive subgroup (ls-WAD; n = 6. S-WAD displayed widespread hyperalgesia, whereas ls-WAD had localized hyperalgesia in the neck area, with tendencies to supernormal values in remote areas of the body. Generally, s-WAD had a significantly worse situation than the CON with respect to symptomatology, disability, and health aspects. The ls-WAD group was intermediary between s-WAD and CON in these aspects.Conclusion: Different explanations, eg, severity of the pain condition per se, etiological factors, and pre-trauma differences in pain sensitivity, may exist for the differences in pain thresholds between the two subgroups. Future research should investigate the role of pain thresholds in the chronic

  8. Firm performance model in small and medium enterprises (SMEs) based on learning orientation and innovation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lestari, E. R.; Ardianti, F. L.; Rachmawati, L.

    2018-03-01

    This study investigated the relationship between learning orientation, innovation, and firm performance. A conceptual model and hypothesis were empirically examined using structural equation modelling. The study involved a questionnaire-based survey of owners of small and medium enterprises (SMEs) operating in Batu City, Indonesia. The results showed that both variables of learning orientation and innovation effect positively on firm performance. Additionally, learning orientation has positive effect innovation. This study has implication for SMEs aiming at increasing their firm performance based on learning orientation and innovation capability.

  9. Financial analysis and forecasting of the results of small businesses performance based on regression model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Svetlana O. Musienko

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective to develop the economicmathematical model of the dependence of revenue on other balance sheet items taking into account the sectoral affiliation of the companies. Methods using comparative analysis the article studies the existing approaches to the construction of the company management models. Applying the regression analysis and the least squares method which is widely used for financial management of enterprises in Russia and abroad the author builds a model of the dependence of revenue on other balance sheet items taking into account the sectoral affiliation of the companies which can be used in the financial analysis and prediction of small enterprisesrsquo performance. Results the article states the need to identify factors affecting the financial management efficiency. The author analyzed scientific research and revealed the lack of comprehensive studies on the methodology for assessing the small enterprisesrsquo management while the methods used for large companies are not always suitable for the task. The systematized approaches of various authors to the formation of regression models describe the influence of certain factors on the company activity. It is revealed that the resulting indicators in the studies were revenue profit or the company relative profitability. The main drawback of most models is the mathematical not economic approach to the definition of the dependent and independent variables. Basing on the analysis it was determined that the most correct is the model of dependence between revenues and total assets of the company using the decimal logarithm. The model was built using data on the activities of the 507 small businesses operating in three spheres of economic activity. Using the presented model it was proved that there is direct dependence between the sales proceeds and the main items of the asset balance as well as differences in the degree of this effect depending on the economic activity of small

  10. High Resolution Autostereoscopic Cockpit Display, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — During this Phase II program Dimension Technologies Inc. (DTI) proposes to design and build an autostereoscopic (glasses-free 3D) LCD based aircraft cockpit display...

  11. A Hybrid Metaheuristic-Based Approach for the Aerodynamic Optimization of Small Hybrid Wind Turbine Rotors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José F. Herbert-Acero

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This work presents a novel framework for the aerodynamic design and optimization of blades for small horizontal axis wind turbines (WT. The framework is based on a state-of-the-art blade element momentum model, which is complemented with the XFOIL 6.96 software in order to provide an estimate of the sectional blade aerodynamics. The framework considers an innovative nested-hybrid solution procedure based on two metaheuristics, the virtual gene genetic algorithm and the simulated annealing algorithm, to provide a near-optimal solution to the problem. The objective of the study is to maximize the aerodynamic efficiency of small WT (SWT rotors for a wide range of operational conditions. The design variables are (1 the airfoil shape at the different blade span positions and the radial variation of the geometrical variables of (2 chord length, (3 twist angle, and (4 thickness along the blade span. A wind tunnel validation study of optimized rotors based on the NACA 4-digit airfoil series is presented. Based on the experimental data, improvements in terms of the aerodynamic efficiency, the cut-in wind speed, and the amount of material used during the manufacturing process were achieved. Recommendations for the aerodynamic design of SWT rotors are provided based on field experience.

  12. Current progress and technical challenges of flexible liquid crystal displays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujikake, Hideo; Sato, Hiroto

    2009-02-01

    We focused on several technical approaches to flexible liquid crystal (LC) display in this report. We have been developing flexible displays using plastic film substrates based on polymer-dispersed LC technology with molecular alignment control. In our representative devices, molecular-aligned polymer walls keep plastic-substrate gap constant without LC alignment disorder, and aligned polymer networks create monostable switching of fast-response ferroelectric LC (FLC) for grayscale capability. In the fabrication process, a high-viscosity FLC/monomer solution was printed, sandwiched and pressed between plastic substrates. Then the polymer walls and networks were sequentially formed based on photo-polymerization-induced phase separation in the nematic phase by two exposure processes of patterned and uniform ultraviolet light. The two flexible backlight films of direct illumination and light-guide methods using small three-primary-color light-emitting diodes were fabricated to obtain high-visibility display images. The fabricated flexible FLC panels were driven by external transistor arrays, internal organic thin film transistor (TFT) arrays, and poly-Si TFT arrays. We achieved full-color moving-image displays using the flexible FLC panel and the flexible backlight film based on field-sequential-color driving technique. Otherwise, for backlight-free flexible LC displays, flexible reflective devices of twisted guest-host nematic LC and cholesteric LC were discussed with molecular-aligned polymer walls. Singlesubstrate device structure and fabrication method using self-standing polymer-stabilized nematic LC film and polymer ceiling layer were also proposed for obtaining LC devices with excellent flexibility.

  13. Handbook of Visual Display Technology

    CERN Document Server

    Cranton, Wayne; Fihn, Mark

    2012-01-01

    The Handbook of Visual Display Technology is a unique work offering a comprehensive description of the science, technology, economic and human interface factors associated with the displays industry. An invaluable compilation of information, the Handbook will serve as a single reference source with expert contributions from over 150 international display professionals and academic researchers. All classes of display device are covered including LCDs, reflective displays, flexible solutions and emissive devices such as OLEDs and plasma displays, with discussion of established principles, emergent technologies, and particular areas of application. The wide-ranging content also encompasses the fundamental science of light and vision, image manipulation, core materials and processing techniques, display driving and metrology.

  14. Book Display as Adult Service

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew S. Moore

    1997-03-01

    Full Text Available 無Book display as an adult service is defined as choosing and positioning adult books from the collection to increase their circulation. The author contrasts bookstore arrangement for sales versus library arrangement for access. The paper considers the library-as-a-whole as a display, examines the right size for an in-library display, and discusses mass displays, end-caps, on-shelf displays, and the Tiffany approach. The author proposes that an effective display depends on an imaginative, unifying theme, and that book displays are part of the joy of libraries.

  15. Controller for a small induction-generator based wind-turbine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahshan, R.; Iqbal, M.T.; Mann, George K.I. [Faculty of Engineering and Applied Science, Memorial University of Newfoundland, St. John' s, Newfoundland (Canada)

    2008-04-15

    Design of a low-cost micro-controller for a small induction-generator based grid-connected wind-turbine is presented in this paper. The controller senses the parameters of the wind-turbine generator and the grid, and makes decisions about grid connection and disconnection. Low-cost instrumentation circuitry has been developed to measure the generator and grid parameters. Based on the measurement of voltage and frequency of the wind-turbine generator and the grid side, a control decision is taken to connect the system to the grid. The controller makes decision to disconnect the system from the grid based on the power flow measurement between the wind turbine and the grid. The power flow between wind turbine and the grid depends upon the availability of the wind. The prototype controller has been developed based on a micro-controller PIC16F877 and has been tested in the laboratory. (author)

  16. Nanomedicine-based combination anticancer therapy between nucleic acids and small-molecular drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Wei; Chen, Liqing; Kang, Lin; Jin, Mingji; Sun, Ping; Xin, Xin; Gao, Zhonggao; Bae, You Han

    2017-06-01

    Anticancer therapy has always been a vital challenge for the development of nanomedicine. Repeated single therapeutic agent may lead to undesirable and severe side effects, unbearable toxicity and multidrug resistance due to complex nature of tumor. Nanomedicine-based combination anticancer therapy can synergistically improve antitumor outcomes through multiple-target therapy, decreasing the dose of each therapeutic agent and reducing side effects. There are versatile combinational anticancer strategies such as chemotherapeutic combination, nucleic acid-based co-delivery, intrinsic sensitive and extrinsic stimulus combinational patterns. Based on these combination strategies, various nanocarriers and drug delivery systems were engineered to carry out the efficient co-delivery of combined therapeutic agents for combination anticancer therapy. This review focused on illustrating nanomedicine-based combination anticancer therapy between nucleic acids and small-molecular drugs for synergistically improving anticancer efficacy. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. New strategy for enhancement of microbial viability in simulated gastric conditions based on display of starch-binding domain on cell surface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarahomjoo, Shirin; Katakura, Yoshio; Shioya, Suteaki

    2008-05-01

    The C-terminal region of the peptidoglycan hydrolase (CPH) of Lactococcus lactis IL1403 fused to the linker region and the starch-binding domain (SBD) of the *-amylase of Streptococcus bovis 148 was produced intracellularly in Escherichia coli. The fusion protein (CPH-SBD) was able to bind to the cell surface of Lactobacillus casei NRRL B-441 and to corn starch. Therefore, adhesion of cells to corn starch was mediated by the fusion protein. At a cell density of 10(9) cfu/ml and a starch concentration of 5 mg/ml, CPH-SBD-displaying L. casei cells aggregated with corn starch, whereas the free cells of L. casei did not form any aggregates with corn starch. After incubation in simulated gastric juice (pH 3.0, 1 h), the survival percentages of free cells, amylose-coated free cells, and free cells mixed with corn starch were 0.074%, 7.2%, and 3.1% respectively. When CPH-SBD-displaying bacteria aggregated with corn starch, their survival percentage was 8% higher than that of free cells mixed with corn starch. The survival of the amylose-coated CPH-SBD-displaying L. casei cells was comparable to that of amylose-coated free cells, whereas the survival percentage of amylose-coated aggregates of CPH-SBD-displaying bacteria with corn starch was 28% higher than that of amylose-coated mixture of free cells with corn starch. These results demonstrate the potential usefulness of the cell-surface display technique for enhancement of the delivery of viable microorganisms to the intestinal tract.

  18. A small azide-modified thiazole-based reporter molecule for fluorescence and mass spectrometric detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefanie Wolfram

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Molecular probes are widely used tools in chemical biology that allow tracing of bioactive metabolites and selective labeling of proteins and other biomacromolecules. A common structural motif for such probes consists of a reporter that can be attached by copper(I-catalyzed 1,2,3-triazole formation between terminal alkynes and azides to a reactive headgroup. Here we introduce the synthesis and application of the new thiazole-based, azide-tagged reporter 4-(3-azidopropoxy-5-(4-bromophenyl-2-(pyridin-2-ylthiazole for fluorescence, UV and mass spectrometry (MS detection. This small fluorescent reporter bears a bromine functionalization facilitating the automated data mining of electrospray ionization MS runs by monitoring for its characteristic isotope signature. We demonstrate the universal utility of the reporter for the detection of an alkyne-modified small molecule by LC–MS and for the visualization of a model protein by in-gel fluorescence. The novel probe advantageously compares with commercially available azide-modified fluorophores and a brominated one. The ease of synthesis, small size, stability, and the universal detection possibilities make it an ideal reporter for activity-based protein profiling and functional metabolic profiling.

  19. Color Image Evaluation for Small Space Based on FA and GEP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Deng

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Aiming at the problem that color image is difficult to quantify, this paper proposes an evaluation method of color image for small space based on factor analysis (FA and gene expression programming (GEP and constructs a correlation model between color image factors and comprehensive color image. The basic color samples of small space and color images are evaluated by semantic differential method (SD method, color image factors are selected via dimension reduction in FA, factor score function is established, and by combining the entropy weight method to determine each factor weights then the comprehensive color image score is calculated finally. The best fitting function between color image factors and comprehensive color image is obtained by GEP algorithm, which can predict the users’ color image values. A color image evaluation system for small space is developed based on this model. The color evaluation of a control room on AC frequency conversion rig is taken as an example, verifying the effectiveness of the proposed method. It also can assist the designers in other color designs and provide a fast evaluation tool for testing users’ color image.

  20. Solution-processed white organic light-emitting devices based on small-molecule materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Dongdong; Wu Zhaoxin; Zhang Xinwen; Wang Dawei; Hou Xun

    2010-01-01

    We investigated solution-processed films of 4,4'-bis(2,2-diphenylvinyl)-1,1'-bibenyl (DPVBi) and its blends with N,N'-bis(3-methylphenyl)-(1,1'-biphenyl)-4,4'-diamine (TPD) by atomic force microscopy (AFM). The AFM result shows that the solution-processed films are pin-free and their morphology is smooth enough to be used in OLEDs. We have developed a solution-processed white organic light-emitting device (WOLEDs) based on small-molecules, in which the light-emitting layer (EML) was formed by spin-coating the solution of small-molecules on top of the solution-processed hole-transporting layer. This WOLEDs, in which the EML consists of co-host (DPVBi and TPD), the blue dopant (4,4'-bis[2-(4-(N,N-diphenylamino)phenyl)vinyl]biphenyl) and the yellow dye (5,6,11,12-tetraphenylnaphtacene), has a current efficiency of 6.0 cd/A at a practical luminance of 1000 cd/m 2 , a maximum luminance of 22500 cd/m 2 , and its color coordinates are quite stable. Our research shows a possible approach to achieve efficient and low-cost small-molecule-based WOLEDs, which avoids the complexities of the co-evaporation process of multiple dopants and host materials in vacuum depositions.

  1. Radiographic diagnosis of mechanical obstruction in dogs based on relative small intestinal external diameters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finck, Cyrielle; D'Anjou, Marc-André; Alexander, Kate; Specchi, Swan; Beauchamp, Guy

    2014-01-01

    Mechanical obstruction is a frequent cause of acute vomiting in dogs requiring prompt diagnosis to improve patient management and prognosis. The purpose of this retrospective study was to compare small intestinal radiographic characteristics in dogs with versus without mechanical intestinal obstruction. Fifty dogs with gastrointestinal clinical signs and abdominal radiographs were recruited from hospital record archives and assigned to groups (group 1, obstructive, n = 25; group 2, nonobstructive n = 25). Abdominal radiographs were randomized and independently interpreted by three examiners who were unaware of group status. Intestinal dilation was subjectively scored based on distribution (segmental, regional or diffuse), and severity (absent, mild, moderate or severe). Small intestinal maximal diameter (SImax), L5 vertebral body height, small intestinal minimal diameter (SImin), and an estimated average of small intestinal diameters (SIave) were measured and three ratios were calculated: SImax/L5, SImax/SImin, and SImax/SIave. Segmental dilation was more prevalent in obstructed dogs for all examiners (P ≤ 0.03) and most nonobstructed dogs had no dilation (P ≤ 0.05). All ratios were higher in obstructed dogs (P dogs with SImax/L5 ≤ 1.4, SImax/SImin ≤ 2, and SImax/SIave ≤ 1.3 values are very unlikely to be mechanically obstructed; dogs with SImax/L5 ≥ 2.4, SImax/SImin ≥ 3.4 and SImax/SIave ≥ 1.9 are very likely obstructed, particularly if segmental dilation (less than 25% of the small intestine) is present. Dogs with ratios falling between these thresholds may need further testing unless other signs justify surgical exploration or endoscopy. © 2014 American College of Veterinary Radiology.

  2. Developing an integrated digitizing and display surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hipple, James D.; Wedding, Daniel K.; Wedding, Donald K., Sr.

    1995-04-01

    The development of an integrated digitizing and display surface, which utilizes touch entry and flat panel display (FPD) technology, is a significant hardware advance in the field of geographic information systems (GIS). Inherent qualities of the FPD, notably the ac gas plasma display, makes such a marriage inevitable. Large diagonal sizes, high resolution color, screen flatness, and monitor thickness are desirable features of an integrated digitizing and display surface. Recently, the GIS literature has addressed a need for such an innovation. The development of graphics displays based on sophisticated technologies include `photorealistic' (or high definition) imaging at resolutions of 2048 X 2048 or greater, palates of 16.7 million colors, formats greater than 30 inches diagonal, and integrated touch entry. In this paper, there is an evaluation of FPDs and data input technologies in the development of such a product.

  3. An object-based approach for detecting small brain lesions: application to Virchow-Robin spaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Descombes, Xavier; Kruggel, Frithjof; Wollny, Gert; Gertz, Hermann Josef

    2004-02-01

    This paper is concerned with the detection of multiple small brain lesions from magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) data. A model based on the marked point process framework is designed to detect Virchow-Robin spaces (VRSs). These tubular shaped spaces are due to retraction of the brain parenchyma from its supplying arteries. VRS are described by simple geometrical objects that are introduced as small tubular structures. Their radiometric properties are embedded in a data term. A prior model includes interactions describing the clustering property of VRS. A Reversible Jump Markov Chain Monte Carlo algorithm (RJMCMC) optimizes the proposed model, obtained by multiplying the prior and the data model. Example results are shown on T1-weighted MRI datasets of elderly subjects.

  4. Design assumptions and bases for small D-T-fueled Sperical Tokamak (ST) fusion core

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peng, Y.K.M.; Galambos, J.D.; Fogarty, P.J.

    1996-01-01

    Recent progress in defining the assumptions and clarifying the bases for a small D-T-fueled ST fusion core are presented. The paper covers several issues in the physics of ST plasmas, the technology of neutral beam injection, the engineering design configuration, and the center leg material under intense neutron irradiation. This progress was driven by the exciting data from pioneering ST experiments, a heightened interest in proof-of-principle experiments at the MA level in plasma current, and the initiation of the first conceptual design study of the small ST fusion core. The needs recently identified for a restructured fusion energy sciences program have provided a timely impetus for examining the subject of this paper. Our results, though preliminary in nature, strengthen the case for the potential realism and attractiveness of the ST approach

  5. Verification of photon attenuation characteristics for 3D printer based small animal lung model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Se Ho; Lee, Seung Wook; Han, Su Chul; Park, Seung Woo

    2016-01-01

    Since it is difficult to measure absorbed dose to mice in vivo, replica mice are mostly used as alternative. In this study, realistic mouse phantom was fabricated by using 3D printer (object500 connex3, Stratasys, USA). Elemental inks as material of 3D printer were selected corresponding to mouse tissue. To represent lung, selected material was partially used with air layer. In order to verify material equivalent, super-flex bolus was simply compared to verify photon attenuation characteristics. In the case of lung, Hounsfield unit (HU) of the phantom were compared with a live mouse. In this study, we fabricated mouse phantom by using 3D printer, and practically verified photon attenuation characteristics. The fabricated phantom shows tissue equivalence as well as similar geometry with live mouse. As more and more growing of 3D printer technique, 3D printer based small preclinical animal phantom would increase reliability of verification of absorbed dose in small animal for preclinical study

  6. Verification of photon attenuation characteristics for 3D printer based small animal lung model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Se Ho; Lee, Seung Wook [Pusan National University, Busan (Korea, Republic of); Han, Su Chul; Park, Seung Woo [Korea Institute of Radiological and Medical Sciences, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-05-15

    Since it is difficult to measure absorbed dose to mice in vivo, replica mice are mostly used as alternative. In this study, realistic mouse phantom was fabricated by using 3D printer (object500 connex3, Stratasys, USA). Elemental inks as material of 3D printer were selected corresponding to mouse tissue. To represent lung, selected material was partially used with air layer. In order to verify material equivalent, super-flex bolus was simply compared to verify photon attenuation characteristics. In the case of lung, Hounsfield unit (HU) of the phantom were compared with a live mouse. In this study, we fabricated mouse phantom by using 3D printer, and practically verified photon attenuation characteristics. The fabricated phantom shows tissue equivalence as well as similar geometry with live mouse. As more and more growing of 3D printer technique, 3D printer based small preclinical animal phantom would increase reliability of verification of absorbed dose in small animal for preclinical study.

  7. Acoustic Source Localization via Subspace Based Method Using Small Aperture MEMS Arrays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xin Zhang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Small aperture microphone arrays provide many advantages for portable devices and hearing aid equipment. In this paper, a subspace based localization method is proposed for acoustic source using small aperture arrays. The effects of array aperture on localization are analyzed by using array response (array manifold. Besides array aperture, the frequency of acoustic source and the variance of signal power are simulated to demonstrate how to optimize localization performance, which is carried out by introducing frequency error with the proposed method. The proposed method for 5 mm array aperture is validated by simulations and experiments with MEMS microphone arrays. Different types of acoustic sources can be localized with the highest precision of 6 degrees even in the presence of wind noise and other noises. Furthermore, the proposed method reduces the computational complexity compared with other methods.

  8. Teams in Small Technology-Based Firms: The Roles of Diversity and Conflict Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauro Enrique Carozzo-Todaro

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper explores the effect of diversity and conflict management on the relationship between teamwork and organizational outcomes of small technology-based firms. To study the relationship between those variables, a quantitative research was conducted. The results of the survey involving 107 small Brazilian high-tech firms show that diversity and conflict management positively moderate the relationship between teamwork and organizational outcomes. So that, at higher levels of diversity and conflict management, best organizational outcomes. At the same time, it has been verified that conflict management is important regardless the level of diversity within teams. This research sheds new light on the factors that should be considered to become teamwork more effective in this specific context.

  9. Computed tomography depiction of small pediatric vessels with model-based iterative reconstruction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koc, Gonca; Courtier, Jesse L.; Phelps, Andrew; Marcovici, Peter A.; MacKenzie, John D. [UCSF Benioff Children' s Hospital, Department of Radiology and Biomedical Imaging, San Francisco, CA (United States)

    2014-07-15

    Computed tomography (CT) is extremely important in characterizing blood vessel anatomy and vascular lesions in children. Recent advances in CT reconstruction technology hold promise for improved image quality and also reductions in radiation dose. This report evaluates potential improvements in image quality for the depiction of small pediatric vessels with model-based iterative reconstruction (Veo trademark), a technique developed to improve image quality and reduce noise. To evaluate Veo trademark as an improved method when compared to adaptive statistical iterative reconstruction (ASIR trademark) for the depiction of small vessels on pediatric CT. Seventeen patients (mean age: 3.4 years, range: 2 days to 10.0 years; 6 girls, 11 boys) underwent contrast-enhanced CT examinations of the chest and abdomen in this HIPAA compliant and institutional review board approved study. Raw data were reconstructed into separate image datasets using Veo trademark and ASIR trademark algorithms (GE Medical Systems, Milwaukee, WI). Four blinded radiologists subjectively evaluated image quality. The pulmonary, hepatic, splenic and renal arteries were evaluated for the length and number of branches depicted. Datasets were compared with parametric and non-parametric statistical tests. Readers stated a preference for Veo trademark over ASIR trademark images when subjectively evaluating image quality criteria for vessel definition, image noise and resolution of small anatomical structures. The mean image noise in the aorta and fat was significantly less for Veo trademark vs. ASIR trademark reconstructed images. Quantitative measurements of mean vessel lengths and number of branches vessels delineated were significantly different for Veo trademark and ASIR trademark images. Veo trademark consistently showed more of the vessel anatomy: longer vessel length and more branching vessels. When compared to the more established adaptive statistical iterative reconstruction algorithm, model-based

  10. Computed tomography depiction of small pediatric vessels with model-based iterative reconstruction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koc, Gonca; Courtier, Jesse L.; Phelps, Andrew; Marcovici, Peter A.; MacKenzie, John D.

    2014-01-01

    Computed tomography (CT) is extremely important in characterizing blood vessel anatomy and vascular lesions in children. Recent advances in CT reconstruction technology hold promise for improved image quality and also reductions in radiation dose. This report evaluates potential improvements in image quality for the depiction of small pediatric vessels with model-based iterative reconstruction (Veo trademark), a technique developed to improve image quality and reduce noise. To evaluate Veo trademark as an improved method when compared to adaptive statistical iterative reconstruction (ASIR trademark) for the depiction of small vessels on pediatric CT. Seventeen patients (mean age: 3.4 years, range: 2 days to 10.0 years; 6 girls, 11 boys) underwent contrast-enhanced CT examinations of the chest and abdomen in this HIPAA compliant and institutional review board approved study. Raw data were reconstructed into separate image datasets using Veo trademark and ASIR trademark algorithms (GE Medical Systems, Milwaukee, WI). Four blinded radiologists subjectively evaluated image quality. The pulmonary, hepatic, splenic and renal arteries were evaluated for the length and number of branches depicted. Datasets were compared with parametric and non-parametric statistical tests. Readers stated a preference for Veo trademark over ASIR trademark images when subjectively evaluating image quality criteria for vessel definition, image noise and resolution of small anatomical structures. The mean image noise in the aorta and fat was significantly less for Veo trademark vs. ASIR trademark reconstructed images. Quantitative measurements of mean vessel lengths and number of branches vessels delineated were significantly different for Veo trademark and ASIR trademark images. Veo trademark consistently showed more of the vessel anatomy: longer vessel length and more branching vessels. When compared to the more established adaptive statistical iterative reconstruction algorithm, model-based

  11. 76 FR 33333 - Use of Small Area Fair Market Rents for Project Base Vouchers in the Dallas TX Metropolitan Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-08

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT [Docket No. FR-5525-N-01] Use of Small Area Fair Market Rents for Project Base Vouchers in the Dallas TX Metropolitan Area AGENCY: Office of the Assistant... Small Area Fair Market Rents (SAFMRs) for Project-Based Vouchers (PBVs) located in the Dallas, TX...

  12. Data Sources for the Model-based Small Area Estimates of Cancer Risk Factors and Screening Behaviors - Small Area Estimates

    Science.gov (United States)

    The model-based estimates of important cancer risk factors and screening behaviors are obtained by combining the responses to the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS) and the National Health Interview Survey (NHIS).

  13. Data Sources for the Model-based Small Area Estimates of Cancer-Related Knowledge - Small Area Estimates

    Science.gov (United States)

    The model-based estimates of important cancer risk factors and screening behaviors are obtained by combining the responses to the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS) and the National Health Interview Survey (NHIS).

  14. DP: Parameter Display Page Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, M.

    1994-01-01

    The Parameter Display Page program (DP) is a Motif/X11-based program to allow easily configured, dynamic device and process variable monitoring and manipulation in the EPICS environment. DP provides a tabular data format for interactive viewing and manipulation of device and process variable statistics, as well as formatted PostScript output to files and printers. DP understands and operates in two (unfortunately disjoint at this time) namespaces in the EPICS environment ''devices'' and ''process variables''. The higher level namespace of devices includes Composite and Atomic Devices registered via the Device Access server; the lower level (flat) namespace is that of normal Process Variables accessible via Channel Access

  15. Methods and apparatus for transparent display using scattering nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Chia Wei; Qiu, Wenjun; Zhen, Bo; Shapira, Ofer; Soljacic, Marin

    2016-05-10

    Transparent displays enable many useful applications, including heads-up displays for cars and aircraft as well as displays on eyeglasses and glass windows. Unfortunately, transparent displays made of organic light-emitting diodes are typically expensive and opaque. Heads-up displays often require fixed light sources and have limited viewing angles. And transparent displays that use frequency conversion are typically energy inefficient. Conversely, the present transparent displays operate by scattering visible light from resonant nanoparticles with narrowband scattering cross sections and small absorption cross sections. More specifically, projecting an image onto a transparent screen doped with nanoparticles that selectively scatter light at the image wavelength(s) yields an image on the screen visible to an observer. Because the nanoparticles scatter light at only certain wavelengths, the screen is practically transparent under ambient light. Exemplary transparent scattering displays can be simple, inexpensive, scalable to large sizes, viewable over wide angular ranges, energy efficient, and transparent simultaneously.

  16. Super high precision 200 ppi liquid crystal display series; Chokoseido 200 ppi ekisho display series

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-03-01

    In mobile equipment, in demand is a high precision liquid crystal display (LCD) having the power of expression equivalent to printed materials like magazines because of the necessity of displaying a large amount of information on a easily potable small screen. In addition, with the spread and high-quality image of digital still cameras, it is strongly desired to display photographed digital image data in high quality. Toshiba Corp., by low temperature polysilicone (p-Si) technology, commercialized the liquid crystal display series of 200 ppi (pixels per inch) precision dealing with the rise of the high-precision high-image quality LCD market. The super high precision of 200 ppi enables the display of smooth beautiful animation comparable to printed sheets of magazines and photographs. The display series are suitable for the display of various information services such as electronic books and electronic photo-viewers including internet. The screen sizes lined up are No. 4 type VGA (640x480 pixels) of a small pocket notebook size and No. 6.3 type XGA (1,024x768 pixels) of a paperback size, with a larger screen to be furthered. (translated by NEDO)

  17. Multivariable Super Twisting Based Robust Trajectory Tracking Control for Small Unmanned Helicopter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xing Fang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a highly robust trajectory tracking controller for small unmanned helicopter with model uncertainties and external disturbances. First, a simplified dynamic model is developed, where the model uncertainties and external disturbances are treated as compounded disturbances. Then the system is divided into three interconnected subsystems: altitude subsystem, yaw subsystem, and horizontal subsystem. Second, a disturbance observer based controller (DOBC is designed based upon backstepping and multivariable super twisting control algorithm to obtain robust trajectory tracking property. A sliding mode observer works as an estimator of the compounded disturbances. In order to lessen calculative burden, a first-order exact differentiator is employed to estimate the time derivative of the virtual control. Moreover, proof of the stability of the closed-loop system based on Lyapunov method is given. Finally, simulation results are presented to illustrate the effectiveness and robustness of the proposed flight control scheme.

  18. Quantitative assessment of slit Mura defect in a thin film transistor-liquid crystal display based on chromaticity and optical density

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tzu, Fu-Ming; Chou, Jung-Hua

    2010-01-01

    An innovative non-contact optical inspection method is developed to quantify slit Mura defects for thin film transistor–liquid crystal displays (TFT-LCDs). From the measurements of both chromaticity and optical densities across the slit Mura, the results indicate that the optical density profile is a concave shape and the chromaticity distribution is a convex shape. A linear relation with a negative slope exists between the chromaticity and optical density. A larger colour difference has a steeper slope, and vice versa. All of the measurements with uncertainties of a 99.7% confidence interval satisfy the requirements of the flat panel display industry. The proposed method can accurately quantify the pattern of blue slit Mura of TFT-LCDs; even the perceptibility is below the just noticeable difference

  19. Latest development of display technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gao Hong-Yue; Yao Qiu-Xiang; Liu Pan; Zheng Zhi-Qiang; Liu Ji-Cheng; Zheng Hua-Dong; Zeng Chao; Yu Ying-Jie; Sun Tao; Zeng Zhen-Xiang

    2016-01-01

    In this review we will focus on recent progress in the field of two-dimensional (2D) and three-dimensional (3D) display technologies. We present the current display materials and their applications, including organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs), flexible OLEDs quantum dot light emitting diodes (QLEDs), active-matrix organic light emitting diodes (AMOLEDs), electronic paper (E-paper), curved displays, stereoscopic 3D displays, volumetric 3D displays, light field 3D displays, and holographic 3D displays. Conventional 2D display devices, such as liquid crystal devices (LCDs) often result in ambiguity in high-dimensional data images because of lacking true depth information. This review thus provides a detailed description of 3D display technologies. (topical review)

  20. EEG-based cognitive load of processing events in 3D virtual worlds is lower than processing events in 2D displays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dan, Alex; Reiner, Miriam

    2017-12-01

    Interacting with 2D displays, such as computer screens, smartphones, and TV, is currently a part of our daily routine; however, our visual system is built for processing 3D worlds. We examined the cognitive load associated with a simple and a complex task of learning paper-folding (origami) by observing 2D or stereoscopic 3D displays. While connected to an electroencephalogram (EEG) system, participants watched a 2D video of an instructor demonstrating the paper-folding tasks, followed by a stereoscopic 3D projection of the same instructor (a digital avatar) illustrating identical tasks. We recorded the power of alpha and theta oscillations and calculated the cognitive load index (CLI) as the ratio of the average power of frontal theta (Fz.) and parietal alpha (Pz). The results showed a significantly higher cognitive load index associated with processing the 2D projection as compared to the 3D projection; additionally, changes in the average theta Fz power were larger for the 2D conditions as compared to the 3D conditions, while alpha average Pz power values were similar for 2D and 3D conditions for the less complex task and higher in the 3D state for the more complex task. The cognitive load index was lower for the easier task and higher for the more complex task in 2D and 3D. In addition, participants with lower spatial abilities benefited more from the 3D compared to the 2D display. These findings have implications for understanding cognitive processing associated with 2D and 3D worlds and for employing stereoscopic 3D technology over 2D displays in designing emerging virtual and augmented reality applications. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Performance and ergonomic characteristics of expert surgeons using a face-mounted display during virtual reality-simulated laparoscopic surgery: an electromyographically based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, D W; Bush, R W; Earle, D B; Seymour, N E

    2007-07-01

    Display positions for laparoscopy in current operating rooms may not be optimal for surgeon comfort or task performance, and face-mounted displays (FMDs) have been forwarded as a potential ergonomic solution. Little is known concerning expert use characteristics of these devices that might help define their role in future surgical care. The authors report the performance and ergonomic characterization of an FMD using virtual reality simulation technology to recreate the surgical environment. An FMD was studied in short- and long-duration trials of validated virtual reality-simulated surgical tasks. For the short-duration phase 7, expert surgeons were familiarized with a task on a conventional monitor, then returned on two separate occasions to repeat the task with the FMD while digital photos were taken during task performance and at the end in a standardized fashion. For the long-duration phase 5, expert surgeons performed two separate trials with repetitive groups of validated tasks for a minimum of 30 min while electromyelogram and performance data were measured. Photos of their gaze angle during and at the end of the trial were taken. All the participants consistently assumed a gaze angle slightly below horizontal during task performance. Performance scores on the FMD did not differ from those obtained with a conventional display, and remained stable with repetitive task performance. No participant had electromyelogram signals that exceeded the established thresholds for fatigue, but some had values within the threshold range. The natural gaze angle during simulated surgery was consistently a bit below horizontal during rigorous virtual reality-simulated tasks. Performance was not compromised during expert surgeons' use of an FMD, nor did muscle fatigue characteristics arise under these conditions. The findings suggest that these devices may represent a viable alternative to conventional displays for minimally invasive surgery, but definition of specific roles

  2. Carbon nanotubes-based chemiresistive immunosensor for small molecules: detection of nitroaromatic explosives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Miso; Cella, Lakshmi N; Chen, Wilfred; Myung, Nosang V; Mulchandani, Ashok

    2010-12-15

    In recent years, there has been a growing focus on use of one-dimensional (1-D) nanostructures, such as carbon nanotubes and nanowires, as transducer elements for label-free chemiresistive/field-effect transistor biosensors as they provide label-free and high sensitivity detection. While research to-date has elucidated the power of carbon nanotubes- and other 1-D nanostructure-based field effect transistors immunosensors for large charged macromolecules such as proteins and viruses, their application to small uncharged or charged molecules has not been demonstrated. In this paper we report a single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs)-based chemiresistive immunosensor for label-free, rapid, sensitive and selective detection of 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT), a small molecule. The newly developed immunosensor employed a displacement mode/format in which SWNTs network forming conduction channel of the sensor was first modified with trinitrophenyl (TNP), an analog of TNT, and then ligated with the anti-TNP single chain antibody. Upon exposure to TNT or its derivatives the bound antibodies were displaced producing a large change, several folds higher than the noise, in the resistance/conductance of SWNTs giving excellent limit of detection, sensitivity and selectivity. The sensor detected between 0.5 ppb and 5000 ppb TNT with good selectivity to other nitroaromatic explosives and demonstrated good accuracy for monitoring TNT in untreated environmental water matrix. We believe this new displacement format can be easily generalized to other one-dimensional nanostructure-based chemiresistive immuno/affinity-sensors for detecting small and/or uncharged molecules of interest in environmental monitoring and health care. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Shrinkage-based diagonal Hotelling’s tests for high-dimensional small sample size data

    KAUST Repository

    Dong, Kai

    2015-09-16

    DNA sequencing techniques bring novel tools and also statistical challenges to genetic research. In addition to detecting differentially expressed genes, testing the significance of gene sets or pathway analysis has been recognized as an equally important problem. Owing to the “large pp small nn” paradigm, the traditional Hotelling’s T2T2 test suffers from the singularity problem and therefore is not valid in this setting. In this paper, we propose a shrinkage-based diagonal Hotelling’s test for both one-sample and two-sample cases. We also suggest several different ways to derive the approximate null distribution under different scenarios of pp and nn for our proposed shrinkage-based test. Simulation studies show that the proposed method performs comparably to existing competitors when nn is moderate or large, but it is better when nn is small. In addition, we analyze four gene expression data sets and they demonstrate the advantage of our proposed shrinkage-based diagonal Hotelling’s test.

  4. A series of dithienobenzodithiophene based small molecules for highly efficient organic solar cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Huanran Feng; Miaomiao Li; Wang Ni; Bin Kan; Yunchuang Wang; Yamin Zhang; Hongtao Zhang; Xiangjian Wan; Yongsheng Chen

    2017-01-01

    Three acceptor-donor-acceptor(A-D-A) small molecules DCAODTBDT,DRDTBDT and DTBDTBDT using dithieno[2,3-d:2’,3’-d’]benzo[l,2-b:4,5-b’]dithiophene as the central building block,octyl cyanoacetate,3-octylrhodanine and thiobarbituric acid as the end groups were designed and synthesized as donor materials in solution-processed photovoltaic cells(OPVs).The impacts of these different electron withdrawing end groups on the photophysical properties,energy levels,charge carrier mobility,morphologies of blend films,and their photovoltaic properties have been systematically investigated.OPVs device based on DRDTBDT gave the best power conversion efficiency(PCE) of 8.34%,which was significantly higher than that based on DCAODTBDT(4.83%) or DTBDTBDT(3.39%).These results indicate that rather dedicated and balanced consideration of absorption,energy levels,morphology,mobility,etc.for the design of small-molecule-based OPVs(SM-OPVs)and systematic investigations are highly needed to achieve high performance for SM-OPVs.

  5. A series of dithienobenzodithiophene based small molecules for highly efficient organic solar cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Huanran Feng; Miaomiao Li; Wang Ni; Bin Kan; Yunchuang Wang; Yamin Zhang; Hongtao Zhang; Xiangjian Wan; Yongsheng Chen

    2017-01-01

    Three acceptor-donor-acceptor (A-D-A) small molecules DCAODTBDT,DRDTBDT and DTBDTBDT using dithieno[2,3-d∶2',3'-d']benzo[1,2-b∶4,5-b']dithiophene as the central building block,octyl cyanoacetate,3-octylrhodanine and thiobarbituric acid as the end groups were designed and synthesized as donor materials in solution-processed photovoltaic cells (OPVs).The impacts of these different electron withdrawing end groups on the photophysical properties,energy levels,charge carrier mobility,morphologies of blend films,and their photovoltaic properties have been systematically investigated.OPVs device based on DRDTBDT gave the best power conversion efficiency (PCE) of 8.34%,which was significantly higher than that based on DCAODTBDT (4.83%) or DTBDTBDT (3.39%).These results indicate that rather dedicated and balanced consideration of absorption,energy levels,morphology,mobility,etc.for the design of small-molecule-based OPVs (SM-OPVs) and systematic investigations are highly needed to achieve high performance for SM-OPVs.

  6. Shrinkage-based diagonal Hotelling’s tests for high-dimensional small sample size data

    KAUST Repository

    Dong, Kai; Pang, Herbert; Tong, Tiejun; Genton, Marc G.

    2015-01-01

    DNA sequencing techniques bring novel tools and also statistical challenges to genetic research. In addition to detecting differentially expressed genes, testing the significance of gene sets or pathway analysis has been recognized as an equally important problem. Owing to the “large pp small nn” paradigm, the traditional Hotelling’s T2T2 test suffers from the singularity problem and therefore is not valid in this setting. In this paper, we propose a shrinkage-based diagonal Hotelling’s test for both one-sample and two-sample cases. We also suggest several different ways to derive the approximate null distribution under different scenarios of pp and nn for our proposed shrinkage-based test. Simulation studies show that the proposed method performs comparably to existing competitors when nn is moderate or large, but it is better when nn is small. In addition, we analyze four gene expression data sets and they demonstrate the advantage of our proposed shrinkage-based diagonal Hotelling’s test.

  7. Data gaps in evidence-based research on small water enterprises in developing countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Opryszko, Melissa C; Huang, Haiou; Soderlund, Kurt; Schwab, Kellogg J

    2009-12-01

    Small water enterprises (SWEs) are water delivery operations that predominantly provide water at the community level. SWEs operate beyond the reach of piped water systems, selling water to households throughout the world. Their ubiquity in the developing world and access to vulnerable populations suggests that these small-scale water vendors may prove valuable in improving potable water availability. This paper assesses the current literature on SWEs to evaluate previous studies and determine gaps in the evidence base. Piped systems and point-of-use products were not included in this assessment. Results indicate that SWES are active in urban, peri-urban and rural areas of Africa, Asia and Latin America. Benefits of SWEs include: no upfront connection fees; demand-driven and flexible to local conditions; and service to large populations without high costs of utility infrastructure. Disadvantages of SWEs include: higher charges for water per unit of volume compared with infrastructure-based utilities; lack of regulation; operation often outside legal structures; no water quality monitoring; increased potential for conflict with local utilities; and potential for extortion by local officials. No rigorous, evidence-based, peer-reviewed scientific studies that control for confounders examining the effectiveness of SWEs in providing potable water were identified.

  8. The behavioral context of visual displays in common marmosets (Callithrix jacchus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Boer, Raïssa A; Overduin-de Vries, Anne M; Louwerse, Annet L; Sterck, Elisabeth H M

    2013-11-01

    Communication is important in social species, and may occur with the use of visual, olfactory or auditory signals. However, visual communication may be hampered in species that are arboreal have elaborate facial coloring and live in small groups. The common marmoset fits these criteria and may have limited visual communication. Nonetheless, some (contradictive) propositions concerning visual displays in the common marmoset have been made, yet quantitative data are lacking. The aim of this study was to assign a behavioral context to different visual displays using pre-post-event-analyses. Focal observations were conducted on 16 captive adult and sub-adult marmosets in three different family groups. Based on behavioral elements with an unambiguous meaning, four different behavioral contexts were distinguished: aggression, fear, affiliation, and play behavior. Visual displays concerned behavior that included facial expressions, body postures, and pilo-erection of the fur. Visual displays related to aggression, fear, and play/affiliation were consistent with the literature. We propose that the visual display "pilo-erection tip of tail" is related to fear. Individuals receiving these fear signals showed a higher rate of affiliative behavior. This study indicates that several visual displays may provide cues or signals of particular social contexts. Since the three displays of fear elicited an affiliative response, they may communicate a request of anxiety reduction or signal an external referent. Concluding, common marmosets, despite being arboreal and living in small groups, use several visual displays to communicate with conspecifics and their facial coloration may not hamper, but actually promote the visibility of visual displays. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Proposal for the award of blanket contracts for the supply of Intel-based desktop PCs, display monitors and portable PCs

    CERN Document Server

    2000-01-01

    This document concerns the award of blanket contracts for the supply of the three following categories of equipment for the period 2001-2004: a) desktop PCs (complete PC systems but without display monitors), b) display monitors (conventional CRTs or flat screen LCDs) and c) portable PCs (also called notebooks or laptops). Following a market survey carried out among 41 firms in fourteen Member States, an invitation to tender (IT-2692/IT) was sent on 19 May 2000 to 12 firms and three consortia, each consisting of two firms, in five Member States. By the closing date, CERN had received seven tenders, all from the Swiss subsidiaries of the firms and consortia. The Finance Committee is invited to agree to the negotiation of - blanket contracts with VOBIS (CH), ELONEX (CH) and FUJITSU-SIEMENS (CH), the three lowest bidders complying with the specification, for the supply of Desktop PCs; - blanket contracts with VOBIS (CH), SYNOPTIC (CH) and ELONEX (CH), the three lowest bidders offering display monitors manufactur...

  10. Simulator scene display evaluation device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haines, R. F. (Inventor)

    1986-01-01

    An apparatus for aligning and calibrating scene displays in an aircraft simulator has a base on which all of the instruments for the aligning and calibrating are mounted. Laser directs beam at double right prism which is attached to pivoting support on base. The pivot point of the prism is located at the design eye point (DEP) of simulator during the aligning and calibrating. The objective lens in the base is movable on a track to follow the laser beam at different angles within the field of vision at the DEP. An eyepiece and a precision diopter are movable into a position behind the prism during the scene evaluation. A photometer or illuminometer is pivotable about the pivot into and out of position behind the eyepiece.

  11. STATUS OF SMALL PELAGIC FISHERY IN THE MAKASSAR STRAIT BASED AT THE NORTHERN PART OF JAVA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sri Turni Hartati

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The coastal of Makassar Strait is one of main fishing grounds for purse seine vessels from northern part of Java which based at the following landing sites, i.e. Pekalongan, Tegal and Juwana. The purse seine fishery predominantly targets small pelagic fish. This paper attempts to present the current condition of small pelagic fishery in the Makassar Strait. Catch and effort (trip data between 2004 and 2011 from the three landing sites were used to estimate Maximum Sustainable Yield (MSY using Schaefer & Fox models. The results showed a decreasing trend in the catch rate, from 30.83 tons/trip in 2004 to 12.27 tons/trip in 2011. The estimated MSY is at the range of 34,705- 37,930 tons with optimum efforts for 2,234-2,500 purse seine trips. Thus the level of purse seine fishing effort in 2011, i.e. 3,078 trips, was exceeding the optimum effort. The decreasing trend in the catch rate may indicate overfishing is occurring between 2004 and 2011. For management of the small pelagic fisheries in the waters of Makassar Strait, important action recommended is fishing effort restrictions. The effort allowed would be only in the range of 2,234-2,500 purse seine trips, and the fishing capacity needs to be controled.

  12. HEp-2 cell image classification method based on very deep convolutional networks with small datasets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Mengchi; Gao, Long; Guo, Xifeng; Liu, Qiang; Yin, Jianping

    2017-07-01

    Human Epithelial-2 (HEp-2) cell images staining patterns classification have been widely used to identify autoimmune diseases by the anti-Nuclear antibodies (ANA) test in the Indirect Immunofluorescence (IIF) protocol. Because manual test is time consuming, subjective and labor intensive, image-based Computer Aided Diagnosis (CAD) systems for HEp-2 cell classification are developing. However, methods proposed recently are mostly manual features extraction with low accuracy. Besides, the scale of available benchmark datasets is small, which does not exactly suitable for using deep learning methods. This issue will influence the accuracy of cell classification directly even after data augmentation. To address these issues, this paper presents a high accuracy automatic HEp-2 cell classification method with small datasets, by utilizing very deep convolutional networks (VGGNet). Specifically, the proposed method consists of three main phases, namely image preprocessing, feature extraction and classification. Moreover, an improved VGGNet is presented to address the challenges of small-scale datasets. Experimental results over two benchmark datasets demonstrate that the proposed method achieves superior performance in terms of accuracy compared with existing methods.

  13. Design and implement of infrared small target real-time detection system based on pipeline technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Lihui; Wang, Yongzhong; He, Yongqiang

    2007-01-01

    The detection for motive small target in infrared image sequence has become a hot topic nowadays. Background suppress algorithm based on minim gradient median filter and temporal recursion target detection algorithm are introduced. On the basis of contents previously mentioned, a four stages pipeline structure infrared small target detection process system, which aims at characters of algorithm complexity, large amounts of data to process, high frame frequency and exigent real-time character in this kind of application, is designed and implemented. The logical structure of the system was introduced and the function and signals flows are programmed. The system is composed of two FPGA chips and two DSP chips of TI. According to the function of each part, the system is divided into image preprocess stage, target detection stage, track relation stage and image output stage. The experiment of running algorithms on the system presented in this paper proved that the system could meet acquisition and process of 50Hz 240x320 digital image and the system could real time detect small target with a signal-noise ratio more than 3 reliably. The system achieves the characters of large amount of memory, high real-time processing, excellent extension and favorable interactive interface.

  14. A small angle neutron scattering study of mica based glass-ceramics with applications in dentistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kilcoyne, S.H.; Bentley, P.M.; Al-Jawad, M.; Bubb, N.L.; Al-Shammary, H.A.O.; Wood, D.J.

    2004-01-01

    We are currently developing machinable and load-bearing mica-based glass-ceramics for use in restorative dental surgery. In this paper we present the results of an ambient temperature small angle neutron scattering (SANS) study of several such ceramics with chemical compositions chosen to optimise machinability and strength. The SANS spectra are all dominated by scattering from the crystalline-amorphous phase interface and exhibit Q -4 dependence (Porod scattering) indicating that, on a 100 A scale, the surface of the crystals is smooth

  15. Measurement of the time resolution of small SiPM-based scintillation counters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kravchenko, E. A.; Porosev, V. V.; Savinov, G. A.

    2017-12-01

    In this research, we evaluated the timing resolution of SiPM-based scintillation detector on a 1-GeV electron beam "extracted" from VEPP-4M. We tested small scintillation crystals of pure CsI, YAP, LYSO, and LFS-3 with HAMAMATSU S10362-33-025C and S13360-3050CS. The CsI scintillator together with HAMAMATSU S13360-3050CS demonstrated the best results. Nevertheless, the achieved time resolution of ~80 ps (RMS) relates mainly to the photodetector itself. It makes the silicon photomultiplier an attractive candidate to replace other devices in applications where sub-nanosecond accuracy is required.

  16. Optimization of biodiesel supply chains based on small farmers: A case study in Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leao, Raphael; Hamacher, Silvio

    2010-09-15

    The strategy adopted by the Brazilian Biodiesel Program is to base its fuel production on oilseeds acquired from small, family-owned farms in the poorest regions of the country, thereby fostering social inclusion and transfer of income. The success of the program depends on the development of a robust supply chain logistic structure, appropriate distribution of crop production, and investments in new oilseed crushing units. This article presents the development of a mathematical model for optimizing the production arrangements for the supply of a biodiesel plant sourced from family farms, taking into account agricultural, logistic, industrial and social aspects.

  17. Model Reference Sliding Mode Control of Small Helicopter X.R.B based on Vision

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Wang

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents autonomous control for indoor small helicopter X.R.B. In case of natural disaster like earthquake, a MAV (Micro Air Vehicle which can fly autonomously will be very effective for surveying the site and environment in dangerous area or narrow space, where human cannot access safely. In addition, it will be helpful to prevent secondary disaster. This paper describes vision based autonomous hovering control, guidance control for X.R.B by model reference sliding mode control.

  18. Methodology for the Model-based Small Area Estimates of Cancer Risk Factors and Screening Behaviors - Small Area Estimates

    Science.gov (United States)

    This model-based approach uses data from both the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS) and the National Health Interview Survey (NHIS) to produce estimates of the prevalence rates of cancer risk factors and screening behaviors at the state, health service area, and county levels.

  19. Evaluation of inorganic and organic light-emitting diode displays for signage application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Pratibha; Kwok, Harry

    2006-08-01

    High-brightness, inorganic light-emitting diodes (LEDs) have been successfully utilized for edge-lighting of large displays for signage. Further interest in solid-state lighting technology has been fueled with the emergence of small molecule and polymer-based organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs). In this paper, edgelit inorganic LED-based displays and state-of-the-art OLED-based displays are evaluated on the basis of electrical and photometric measurements. The reference size for a signage system is assumed to be 600 mm x 600mm based on the industrial usage. With the availability of high power light-emitting diodes, it is possible to develop edgelit signage systems of the standard size. These displays possess an efficacy of 18 lm/W. Although, these displays are environmentally friendly and efficient, they suffer from some inherent limitations. Homogeneity of displays, which is a prime requirement for illuminated signs, is not accomplished. A standard deviation of 3.12 lux is observed between the illuminance values on the surface of the display. In order to distribute light effectively, reflective gratings are employed. Reflective gratings aid in reducing the problem but fail to eliminate it. In addition, the overall cost of signage is increased by 50% with the use of these additional components. This problem can be overcome by the use of a distributed source of light. Hence, the organic-LEDs are considered as a possible contender. In this paper, we experimentally determine the feasibility of using OLEDs for signage applications and compare their performance with inorganic LEDs. Passive matrix, small-molecule based, commercially available OLEDs is used. Design techniques for implementation of displays using organic LEDs are also discussed. It is determined that tiled displays based on organic LEDs possess better uniformity than the inorganic LED-based displays. However, the currently available OLEDs have lower light-conversion efficiency and higher costs than the

  20. Polymer Dispersed Liquid Crystal Displays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doane, J. William

    The following sections are included: * INTRODUCTION AND HISTORICAL DEVELOPMENT * PDLC MATERIALS PREPARATION * Polymerization induced phase separation (PIPS) * Thermally induced phase separation (TIPS) * Solvent induced phase separation (SIPS) * Encapsulation (NCAP) * RESPONSE VOLTAGE * Dielectric and resistive effects * Radial configuration * Bipolar configuration * Other director configurations * RESPONSE TIME * DISPLAY CONTRAST * Light scattering and index matching * Incorporation of dyes * Contrast measurements * PDLC DISPLAY DEVICES AND INNOVATIONS * Reflective direct view displays * Large-scale, flexible displays * Switchable windows * Projection displays * High definition spatial light modulator * Haze-free PDLC shutters: wide angle view displays * ENVIRONMENTAL STABILITY * ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS * REFERENCES

  1. Domain Independent Vocabulary Generation and Its Use in Category-based Small Footprint Language Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    KIM, K.-H.

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available The work in this paper pertains to domain independent vocabulary generation and its use in category-based small footprint Language Model (LM. Two major constraints of the conventional LMs in the embedded environment are memory capacity limitation and data sparsity for the domain-specific application. This data sparsity adversely affects vocabulary coverage and LM performance. To overcome these constraints, we define a set of domain independent categories using a Part-Of-Speech (POS tagged corpus. Also, we generate a domain independent vocabulary based on this set using the corpus and knowledge base. Then, we propose a mathematical framework for a category-based LM using this set. In this LM, one word can be assigned assign multiple categories. In order to reduce its memory requirements, we propose a tree-based data structure. In addition, we determine the history length of a category n-gram, and the independent assumption applying to a category history generation. The proposed vocabulary generation method illustrates at least 13.68% relative improvement in coverage for a SMS text corpus, where data are sparse due to the difficulties in data collection. The proposed category-based LM requires only 215KB which is 55% and 13% compared to the conventional category-based LM and the word-based LM, respectively. It successively improves the performance, achieving 54.9% and 60.6% perplexity reduction compared to the conventional category-based LM and the word-based LM in terms of normalized perplexity.

  2. Securing information display by use of visual cryptography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, Hirotsugu; Hayasaki, Yoshio; Nishida, Nobuo

    2003-09-01

    We propose a secure display technique based on visual cryptography. The proposed technique ensures the security of visual information. The display employs a decoding mask based on visual cryptography. Without the decoding mask, the displayed information cannot be viewed. The viewing zone is limited by the decoding mask so that only one person can view the information. We have developed a set of encryption codes to maintain the designed viewing zone and have demonstrated a display that provides a limited viewing zone.

  3. Viewpoint adaptive display of HDR images

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Forchhammer, Søren; Mantel, Claire

    2017-01-01

    In this paper viewpoint adaptive display of HDR images incorporating the effects of ambient light is presented and evaluated. LED backlight displays may render HDR images, but while at a global scale a high dynamic range may be achieved, locally the contrast is limited by the leakage of light...... through the LC elements of the display. To render high quality images, the display with backlight dimming can compute the values of the LED backlight and LC elements based on the input image, information about the viewpoint of the observer(s) and information of the ambient light. The goal is to achieve...... the best perceptual reproduction of the specified target image derived from the HDR input image in the specific viewing situation including multiple viewers, possibly having different preferences. An optimization based approach is presented. Some tests with reproduced images are also evaluated subjectively...

  4. Consolidating duodenal and small bowel toxicity data via isoeffective dose calculations based on compiled clinical data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prior, Phillip; Tai, An; Erickson, Beth; Li, X Allen

    2014-01-01

    To consolidate duodenum and small bowel toxicity data from clinical studies with different dose fractionation schedules using the modified linear quadratic (MLQ) model. A methodology of adjusting the dose-volume (D,v) parameters to different levels of normal tissue complication probability (NTCP) was presented. A set of NTCP model parameters for duodenum toxicity were estimated by the χ(2) fitting method using literature-based tolerance dose and generalized equivalent uniform dose (gEUD) data. These model parameters were then used to convert (D,v) data into the isoeffective dose in 2 Gy per fraction, (D(MLQED2),v) and convert these parameters to an isoeffective dose at another NTCP (D(MLQED2'),v). The literature search yielded 5 reports useful in making estimates of duodenum and small bowel toxicity. The NTCP model parameters were found to be TD50(1)(model) = 60.9 ± 7.9 Gy, m = 0.21 ± 0.05, and δ = 0.09 ± 0.03 Gy(-1). Isoeffective dose calculations and toxicity rates associated with hypofractionated radiation therapy reports were found to be consistent with clinical data having different fractionation schedules. Values of (D(MLQED2'),v) between different NTCP levels remain consistent over a range of 5%-20%. MLQ-based isoeffective calculations of dose-response data corresponding to grade ≥2 duodenum toxicity were found to be consistent with one another within the calculation uncertainty. The (D(MLQED2),v) data could be used to determine duodenum and small bowel dose-volume constraints for new dose escalation strategies. Copyright © 2014 American Society for Radiation Oncology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Evolution of project-based learning in small groups in environmental engineering courses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesús M. Requies

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available This work presents the assessment of the development and evolution of an active methodology (Project-Based Learning –PBL- implemented on the course “Unit Operations in Environmental Engineering”, within the bachelor’s degree in Environmental Engineering, with the purpose of decreasing the dropout rate in this course. After the initial design and implementation of this methodology during the first academic year (12/13, different modifications were adopted in the following ones (13-14, 14-15 & 15-16 in order to optimize the student’s and professor’s work load as well as correct some malfunctions observed in the initial design of the PBL. This active methodology seeks to make students the main architects of their own learning processes. Accordingly, they have to identify their learning needs, which is a highly motivating approach both for their curricular development and for attaining the required learning outcomes in this field of knowledge. The results obtained show that working in small teams (cooperative work enhances each group member’s self–learning capabilities. Moreover, academic marks improve when compared to traditional learning methodologies. Nevertheless, the implementation of more active methodologies, such as project-based learning, in small groups has certain specific characteristics. In this case it has been implemented simultaneously in two different groups of 10 students each one. Such small groups are more heterogeneoussince the presence of two highly motivated students or not can vary or affect the whole group’s attitude and academic results.

  6. Adaptive, Small-Rotation-Based, Corotational Technique for Analysis of 2D Nonlinear Elastic Frames

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaroon Rungamornrat

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an efficient and accurate numerical technique for analysis of two-dimensional frames accounted for both geometric nonlinearity and nonlinear elastic material behavior. An adaptive remeshing scheme is utilized to optimally discretize a structure into a set of elements where the total displacement can be decomposed into the rigid body movement and one possessing small rotations. This, therefore, allows the force-deformation relationship for the latter part to be established based on small-rotation-based kinematics. Nonlinear elastic material model is integrated into such relation via the prescribed nonlinear moment-curvature relationship. The global force-displacement relation for each element can be derived subsequently using corotational formulations. A final system of nonlinear algebraic equations along with its associated gradient matrix for the whole structure is obtained by a standard assembly procedure and then solved numerically by Newton-Raphson algorithm. A selected set of results is then reported to demonstrate and discuss the computational performance including the accuracy and convergence of the proposed technique.

  7. Toward topology-based characterization of small-scale mixing in compressible turbulence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suman, Sawan; Girimaji, Sharath

    2011-11-01

    Turbulent mixing rate at small scales of motion (molecular mixing) is governed by the steepness of the scalar-gradient field which in turn is dependent upon the prevailing velocity gradients. Thus motivated, we propose a velocity-gradient topology-based approach for characterizing small-scale mixing in compressible turbulence. We define a mixing efficiency metric that is dependent upon the topology of the solenoidal and dilatational deformation rates of a fluid element. The mixing characteristics of solenoidal and dilatational velocity fluctuations are clearly delineated. We validate this new approach by employing mixing data from direct numerical simulations (DNS) of compressible decaying turbulence with passive scalar. For each velocity-gradient topology, we compare the mixing efficiency predicted by the topology-based model with the corresponding conditional scalar variance obtained from DNS. The new mixing metric accurately distinguishes good and poor mixing topologies and indeed reasonably captures the numerical values. The results clearly demonstrate the viability of the proposed approach for characterizing and predicting mixing in compressible flows.

  8. Development of a PC-based ground support system for a small satellite instrument

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deschambault, Robert L.; Gregory, Philip R.; Spenler, Stephen; Whalen, Brian A.

    1993-11-01

    The importance of effective ground support for the remote control and data retrieval of a satellite instrument cannot be understated. Problems with ground support may include the need to base personnel at a ground tracking station for extended periods, and the delay between the instrument observation and the processing of the data by the science team. Flexible solutions to such problems in the case of small satellite systems are provided by using low-cost, powerful personal computers and off-the-shelf software for data acquisition and processing, and by using Internet as a communication pathway to enable scientists to view and manipulate satellite data in real time at any ground location. The personal computer based ground support system is illustrated for the case of the cold plasma analyzer flown on the Freja satellite. Commercial software was used as building blocks for writing the ground support equipment software. Several levels of hardware support, including unit tests and development, functional tests, and integration were provided by portable and desktop personal computers. Satellite stations in Saskatchewan and Sweden were linked to the science team via phone lines and Internet, which provided remote control through a central point. These successful strategies will be used on future small satellite space programs.

  9. Development of a SiPM-based PET imaging system for small animals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu, Yanye; Yang, Kun; Zhou, Kedi; Zhang, Qiushi; Pang, Bo; Ren, Qiushi

    2014-01-01

    Advances in small animal positron emission tomography (PET) imaging have been accelerated by many new technologies such as the successful incorporation of silicon photomultiplier (SiPM). In this paper, we have developed a compact, lightweight PET imaging system that is based on SiPM detectors for small animals imaging, which could be integrated into a multi-modality imaging system. This PET imaging system consists of a stationary detector gantry, a motor-controlled animal bed module, electronics modules, and power supply modules. The PET detector, which was designed as a multi-slice circular ring geometry of 27 discrete block detectors, is composed of a cerium doped lutetium–yttrium oxyorthosilicate (LYSO) scintillation crystal and SiPM arrays. The system has a 60 mm transaxial field of view (FOV) and a 26 mm axial FOV. Performance tests (e.g. spatial resolution, energy resolution, and sensitivity) and phantom and animal imaging studies were performed to evaluate the imaging performance of the PET imaging system. The performance tests and animal imaging results demonstrate the feasibility of an animal PET system based on SiPM detectors and indicate that SiPM detectors can be promising photodetectors in animal PET instrumentation development

  10. Small Imaging Depth LIDAR and DCNN-Based Localization for Automated Guided Vehicle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, Seigo; Hiratsuka, Shigeyoshi; Ohta, Mitsuhiko; Matsubara, Hiroyuki; Ogawa, Masaru

    2018-01-10

    We present our third prototype sensor and a localization method for Automated Guided Vehicles (AGVs), for which small imaging LIght Detection and Ranging (LIDAR) and fusion-based localization are fundamentally important. Our small imaging LIDAR, named the Single-Photon Avalanche Diode (SPAD) LIDAR, uses a time-of-flight method and SPAD arrays. A SPAD is a highly sensitive photodetector capable of detecting at the single-photon level, and the SPAD LIDAR has two SPAD arrays on the same chip for detection of laser light and environmental light. Therefore, the SPAD LIDAR simultaneously outputs range image data and monocular image data with the same coordinate system and does not require external calibration among outputs. As AGVs travel both indoors and outdoors with vibration, this calibration-less structure is particularly useful for AGV applications. We also introduce a fusion-based localization method, named SPAD DCNN, which uses the SPAD LIDAR and employs a Deep Convolutional Neural Network (DCNN). SPAD DCNN can fuse the outputs of the SPAD LIDAR: range image data, monocular image data and peak intensity image data. The SPAD DCNN has two outputs: the regression result of the position of the SPAD LIDAR and the classification result of the existence of a target to be approached. Our third prototype sensor and the localization method are evaluated in an indoor environment by assuming various AGV trajectories. The results show that the sensor and localization method improve the localization accuracy.

  11. Competitive intelligence information management and innovation in small technology-based companies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanev, Stoyan

    2007-05-01

    In this article we examine how (i) company type and (ii) the competitive intelligence information used by small technology-based companies affect their innovation performance. The focus is on the specific information types used and not on the information sources. Information topics are classified in four groups - customers (10), company (9), competitor (11) and industry (12). The sample consists of 45 small new technology-based companies, specialized suppliers, and service companies from a variety of sectors - software, photonics, telecommunications, biomedical engineering and biotech, traditional manufacturing etc. The results suggest that the total number of intelligence information topics companies use to make decisions about innovation is not associated with the number of their new products, processes, services and patents. Therefore the companies in our sample do not seem to have the resources, processes or value systems required to use different competitive intelligence information when making decisions on innovation or may rely more on their own internal logic than on external information. Companies are classified using a Pavitt-like taxonomy. Service companies are considered as a separate company type. This allows for explicitly studying both, the innovative role of new services in product driven companies, and the role of new product development in service companies.

  12. Development of a SiPM-based PET imaging system for small animals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lu, Yanye [Department of Biomedicine and Engineering, College of Engineering, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); Yang, Kun, E-mail: yangkun9999@hotmail.com [Department of Control Technology and Instrumentation, College of Quality and Technical Supervision, Hebei University, Baoding, 071000 (China); Zhou, Kedi; Zhang, Qiushi; Pang, Bo [Department of Biomedicine and Engineering, College of Engineering, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); Ren, Qiushi, E-mail: renqsh@coe.pku.edu.cn [Department of Biomedicine and Engineering, College of Engineering, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China)

    2014-04-11

    Advances in small animal positron emission tomography (PET) imaging have been accelerated by many new technologies such as the successful incorporation of silicon photomultiplier (SiPM). In this paper, we have developed a compact, lightweight PET imaging system that is based on SiPM detectors for small animals imaging, which could be integrated into a multi-modality imaging system. This PET imaging system consists of a stationary detector gantry, a motor-controlled animal bed module, electronics modules, and power supply modules. The PET detector, which was designed as a multi-slice circular ring geometry of 27 discrete block detectors, is composed of a cerium doped lutetium–yttrium oxyorthosilicate (LYSO) scintillation crystal and SiPM arrays. The system has a 60 mm transaxial field of view (FOV) and a 26 mm axial FOV. Performance tests (e.g. spatial resolution, energy resolution, and sensitivity) and phantom and animal imaging studies were performed to evaluate the imaging performance of the PET imaging system. The performance tests and animal imaging results demonstrate the feasibility of an animal PET system based on SiPM detectors and indicate that SiPM detectors can be promising photodetectors in animal PET instrumentation development.

  13. Propagation Characterization Based on Geographic Location Variation for 5G Small Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Byung-Jin Lee

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Developments in next-generation wireless transmission technology and efficient frequency-use research are based on understanding the characteristics of the exact radio channel. With regard to developments in next-generation mobile communication systems, performance verification of the development system is essential, for which it is necessary to estimate the exact wireless-space channel. This paper presents results of the analysis of radio propagation characteristics based on location variation in outdoor environments for small-cell 5th generation (5G mobile systems. Changes due to variation in location were measured using a channel sounder in a microcell environment with a 0.5 km radius in Korea. In order to analyze the propagation characteristics, the best distribution model reflecting the characteristics of the locations was derived. A comparison between actual measurements and three-dimensional ray-tracing simulation results confirmed the validity of the measurement result.

  14. Shape memory alloy-based small crawling robots inspired by C. elegans

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yuk, Hyunwoo; Kim, Daeyeon; Shin, Jennifer H [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, 291 Daehak-ro, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Honggu; Jo, Sungho, E-mail: shjo@kaist.ac.kr, E-mail: j_shin@kaist.ac.kr [Department of Computer Science, Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, 291 Daehak-ro, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-12-15

    Inspired by its simple musculature, actuation and motion mechanisms, we have developed a small crawling robot that closely mimics the model organism of our choice: Caenorhabditis elegans. A thermal shape memory alloy (SMA) was selected as an actuator due to the similarities of its properties to C. elegans muscles. Based on the anatomy of C. elegans, a 12-unit robot was designed to generate a sinusoidal undulating motion. Each body unit consisting of a pair of SMA actuators is serially connected by rigid links with an embedded motion control circuit. A simple binary operation-based motion control mechanism was implemented using a microcontroller. The assembled robot can execute C. elegans-like motion with a 0.17 Hz undulation frequency. Its motion is comparable to that of a real worm.

  15. Hot spot-based design of small-molecule inhibitors for protein-protein interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Wenxing; Wisniewski, John A; Ji, Haitao

    2014-06-01

    Protein-protein interactions (PPIs) are important targets for the development of chemical probes and therapeutic agents. From the initial discovery of the existence of hot spots at PPI interfaces, it has been proposed that hot spots might provide the key for developing small-molecule PPI inhibitors. However, there has been no review on the ways in which the knowledge of hot spots can be used to achieve inhibitor design, nor critical examination of successful examples. This Digest discusses the characteristics of hot spots and the identification of druggable hot spot pockets. An analysis of four examples of hot spot-based design reveals the importance of this strategy in discovering potent and selective PPI inhibitors. A general procedure for hot spot-based design of PPI inhibitors is outlined. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Computer graphic display of cardiac CT scans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palmer, R.; Carlsson, E.

    1982-01-01

    In order to improve spatial conception and quantitative assessment of the cardiac structures based on cardiac computed tomography, methods for computer graphic display were developed. Excised hearts and living dogs with myocardial infarctions were subjected to CT scanning. The data on the scanner tapes were processed to provide isodensity plots, linear section plots, time-weighted integrated isodensity plots as well as topographical density displays and three-dimensional spatial reconstructions of single and multi-layer scans. (orig.)

  17. Simulated digestion for testing the stability of edible vaccine based on Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV) chimeric particle display Hepatitis C virus (HCV) peptide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vitti, Antonella; Nuzzaci, Maria; Condelli, Valentina; Piazzolla, Pasquale

    2014-01-01

    Edible vaccines must survive digestive process and preserve the specific structure of the antigenic peptide to elicit effective immune response. The stability of a protein to digestive process can be predicted by subjecting it to the in vitro assay with simulated gastric fluid (SGF) and simulated intestinal fluid (SIF). Here, we describe the protocol of producing and using chimeric Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV) displaying Hepatitis C virus (HCV) derived peptide (R9) in double copy as an oral vaccine. Its stability after treatment with SGF and SIF and the preservation of the antigenic properties were verified by SDS-PAGE and immuno western blot techniques.

  18. Three-dimensional display of peripheral nerves in the wrist region based on MR diffusion tensor imaging and maximum intensity projection post-processing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ding, Wen Quan, E-mail: dingwenquan1982@163.com [Department of Hand Surgery, Hand Surgery Research Center, Affiliated Hospital of Nantong University, Nantong, Jiangsu (China); Zhou, Xue Jun, E-mail: zxj0925101@sina.com [Department of Radiology, Affiliated Hospital of Nantong University, Nantong, Jiangsu (China); Tang, Jin Bo, E-mail: jinbotang@yahoo.com [Department of Hand Surgery, Hand Surgery Research Center, Affiliated Hospital of Nantong University, Nantong, Jiangsu (China); Gu, Jian Hui, E-mail: gujianhuint@163.com [Department of Hand Surgery, Hand Surgery Research Center, Affiliated Hospital of Nantong University, Nantong, Jiangsu (China); Jin, Dong Sheng, E-mail: jindongshengnj@aliyun.com [Department of Radiology, Jiangsu Province Official Hospital, Nanjing, Jiangsu (China)

    2015-06-15

    Highlights: • 3D displays of peripheral nerves can be achieved by 2 MIP post-processing methods. • The median nerves’ FA and ADC values can be accurately measured by using DTI6 data. • Adopting 6-direction DTI scan and MIP can evaluate peripheral nerves efficiently. - Abstract: Objectives: To achieve 3-dimensional (3D) display of peripheral nerves in the wrist region by using maximum intensity projection (MIP) post-processing methods to reconstruct raw images acquired by a diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) scan, and to explore its clinical applications. Methods: We performed DTI scans in 6 (DTI6) and 25 (DTI25) diffusion directions on 20 wrists of 10 healthy young volunteers, 6 wrists of 5 patients with carpal tunnel syndrome, 6 wrists of 6 patients with nerve lacerations, and one patient with neurofibroma. The MIP post-processing methods employed 2 types of DTI raw images: (1) single-direction and (2) T{sub 2}-weighted trace. The fractional anisotropy (FA) and apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) values of the median and ulnar nerves were measured at multiple testing sites. Two radiologists used custom evaluation scales to assess the 3D nerve imaging quality independently. Results: In both DTI6 and DTI25, nerves in the wrist region could be displayed clearly by the 2 MIP post-processing methods. The FA and ADC values were not significantly different between DTI6 and DTI25, except for the FA values of the ulnar nerves at the level of pisiform bone (p = 0.03). As to the imaging quality of each MIP post-processing method, there were no significant differences between DTI6 and DTI25 (p > 0.05). The imaging quality of single-direction MIP post-processing was better than that from T{sub 2}-weighted traces (p < 0.05) because of the higher nerve signal intensity. Conclusions: Three-dimensional displays of peripheral nerves in the wrist region can be achieved by MIP post-processing for single-direction images and T{sub 2}-weighted trace images for both DTI6 and DTI25

  19. SNS online display technologies for EPICS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kasemir, K.U.; Chen, X.; Purcell, J.; Danilova, E.

    2012-01-01

    The ubiquitousness of web clients from personal computers to cell phones results in a growing demand for web-based access to control system data. At the Oak Ridge National Laboratory Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) we have investigated different technical approaches to provide read access to data in the Experimental Physics and Industrial Control System (EPICS) for a wide variety of web client devices. The core web technology, HTTP, is less than ideal for online control system displays. Appropriate use of Ajax, especially the Long Poll paradigm, can alleviate fundamental HTTP limitations. The SNS Status web uses basic Ajax technology to generate generic displays for a wide audience. The Dashboard uses Long Poll and more client-side Java-Script to offer more customization and faster updates for users that need specialized displays. The Web OPI uses RAP for web access to any BOY display, offering utmost flexibility because users can create their own BOY displays in CSS. These three approaches complement each other. Users can access generic status displays with zero effort, invest time in creating their fully customized displays for the Web OPI, or use the Dashboard as an intermediate solution

  20. Projection display industry market and technology trends

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castellano, Joseph A.; Mentley, David E.

    1995-04-01

    The projection display industry is diverse, embracing a variety of technologies and applications. In recent years, there has been a high level of interest in projection displays, particularly those using LCD panels or light valves because of the difficulty in making large screen, direct view displays. Many developers feel that projection displays will be the wave of the future for large screen HDTV (high-definition television), penetrating the huge existing market for direct view CRT-based televisions. Projection displays can have the images projected onto a screen either from the rear or the front; the main characteristic is their ability to be viewed by more than one person. In addition to large screen home television receivers, there are numerous other uses for projection displays including conference room presentations, video conferences, closed circuit programming, computer-aided design, and military command/control. For any given application, the user can usually choose from several alternative technologies. These include CRT front or rear projectors, LCD front or rear projectors, LCD overhead projector plate monitors, various liquid or solid-state light valve projectors, or laser-addressed systems. The overall worldwide market for projection information displays of all types and for all applications, including home television, will top DOL4.6 billion in 1995 and DOL6.45 billion in 2001.

  1. Crosstalk evaluation in stereoscopic displays

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wang, L.; Teunissen, C.; Tu, Yan; Chen, Li; Zhang, P.; Zhang, T.; Heynderickx, I.E.J.

    2011-01-01

    Substantial progress in liquid-crystal display and polarization film technology has enabled several types of stereoscopic displays. Despite all progress, some image distortions still exist in these 3-D displays, of which interocular crosstalk - light leakage of the image for one eye to the other eye

  2. Nanoparticle-based delivery of small interfering RNA: challenges for cancer therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miele E

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Evelina Miele,1,* Gian Paolo Spinelli,2,* Ermanno Miele,3 Enzo Di Fabrizio,3,6 Elisabetta Ferretti,4 Silverio Tomao,2 Alberto Gulino,1,5 1Department of Molecular Medicine, 2Department of Medico-Surgical Sciences and Biotechnologies, Sapienza University of Rome, Rome, 3Nanostructures, Istituto Italiano di Tecnologia, via Morego, 30, 16163 Genova, 4Department of Experimental Medicine, Sapienza University of Rome, Rome, 5Center for Life Nanoscience, Istituto Italiano di Tecnologia, Rome, Italy, 6BIONEM lab, University of Magna Graecia, Campus S. Venuta, Viale Europa 88100 Catanzaro, Italy *These authors contributed equally to this workAbstract: During recent decades there have been remarkable advances and profound changes in cancer therapy. Many therapeutic strategies learned at the bench, including monoclonal antibodies and small molecule inhibitors, have been used at the bedside, leading to important successes. One of the most important advances in biology has been the discovery that small interfering RNA (siRNA is able to regulate the expression of genes, by a phenomenon known as RNA interference (RNAi. RNAi is one of the most rapidly growing fields of research in biology and therapeutics. Much research effort has gone into the application of this new discovery in the treatment of various diseases, including cancer. However, even though these molecules may have potential and strong utility, some limitations make their clinical application difficult, including delivery problems, side effects due to off-target actions, disturbance of physiological functions of the cellular machinery involved in gene silencing, and induction of the innate immune response. Many researchers have attempted to overcome these limitations and to improve the safety of potential RNAi-based therapeutics. Nanoparticles, which are nanostructured entities with tunable size, shape, and surface, as well as biological behavior, provide an ideal opportunity to modify current

  3. GROWTH AND VENTURE CAPITAL INVESTMENT IN TECHNOLOGY-BASED SMALL FIRMS THE CASE OF HUNGARY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Becsky Nagy Patricia

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Venture capital backed enterprises represent a low proportion of companies, even of innovative ones. The research question was, whether these companies have an important role in innovation and economic growth in Hungary compared to other countries. In the first part of the article I present the theoretical background of technology-based small firms, highlighting the most important models and theories of the economic impact and the special development of innovative technology-oriented small firms. In the second part of the article I present the status of the most important indicators of innovation in connection with entrepreneurship, than I elaborate on the measures of start-ups, mainly the high-tech ones with high-growth potential. I describe the current position of venture capital industry, detailing the venture capital investments, with particular emphasis on classical venture capital investments that points out the number and the amount of venture capital investments financing early stage firms with high-growth potential. At the end I summarize the status of Hungarian technology-based small firms and their possibilities to get financial sources form venture capital investors, with regards to the status and the prospects of the JEREMIE program. In Hungary the number of internationally competitive firms, ready and willing to obtain venture capital, is much lower than in the US or Western European countries. Hungary could take advantage of its competitive edges in some special fields of innovation. The efficiency of information flow would reduce the information gap between the demand and the supply side of the venture capital market and more Hungarian firms could be internationally successful through venture capital financing. The recent years’ policy and special programs like JEREMIE generated more transactions, that helped to inform the entrepreneurs about venture capital and helped to co-invest public resources with private equity more

  4. A clinical gamma camera-based pinhole collimated system for high resolution small animal SPECT imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mejia, J.; Galvis-Alonso, O.Y., E-mail: mejia_famerp@yahoo.com.b [Faculdade de Medicina de Sao Jose do Rio Preto (FAMERP), SP (Brazil). Dept. de Biologia Molecular; Castro, A.A. de; Simoes, M.V. [Faculdade de Medicina de Sao Jose do Rio Preto (FAMERP), SP (Brazil). Dept. de Clinica Medica; Leite, J.P. [Universidade de Sao Paulo (FMRP/USP), Ribeirao Preto, SP (Brazil). Fac. de Medicina. Dept. de Neurociencias e Ciencias do Comportamento; Braga, J. [Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas Espaciais (INPE), Sao Jose dos Campos, SP (Brazil). Div. de Astrofisica

    2010-11-15

    The main objective of the present study was to upgrade a clinical gamma camera to obtain high resolution tomographic images of small animal organs. The system is based on a clinical gamma camera to which we have adapted a special-purpose pinhole collimator and a device for positioning and rotating the target based on a computer-controlled step motor. We developed a software tool to reconstruct the target's three-dimensional distribution of emission from a set of planar projections, based on the maximum likelihood algorithm. We present details on the hardware and software implementation. We imaged phantoms and heart and kidneys of rats. When using pinhole collimators, the spatial resolution and sensitivity of the imaging system depend on parameters such as the detector-to-collimator and detector-to-target distances and pinhole diameter. In this study, we reached an object voxel size of 0.6 mm and spatial resolution better than 2.4 and 1.7 mm full width at half maximum when 1.5- and 1.0-mm diameter pinholes were used, respectively. Appropriate sensitivity to study the target of interest was attained in both cases. Additionally, we show that as few as 12 projections are sufficient to attain good quality reconstructions, a result that implies a significant reduction of acquisition time and opens the possibility for radiotracer dynamic studies. In conclusion, a high resolution single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) system was developed using a commercial clinical gamma camera, allowing the acquisition of detailed volumetric images of small animal organs. This type of system has important implications for research areas such as Cardiology, Neurology or Oncology. (author)

  5. Road network selection for small-scale maps using an improved centrality-based algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roy Weiss

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The road network is one of the key feature classes in topographic maps and databases. In the task of deriving road networks for products at smaller scales, road network selection forms a prerequisite for all other generalization operators, and is thus a fundamental operation in the overall process of topographic map and database production. The objective of this work was to develop an algorithm for automated road network selection from a large-scale (1:10,000 to a small-scale database (1:200,000. The project was pursued in collaboration with swisstopo, the national mapping agency of Switzerland, with generic mapping requirements in mind. Preliminary experiments suggested that a selection algorithm based on betweenness centrality performed best for this purpose, yet also exposed problems. The main contribution of this paper thus consists of four extensions that address deficiencies of the basic centrality-based algorithm and lead to a significant improvement of the results. The first two extensions improve the formation of strokes concatenating the road segments, which is crucial since strokes provide the foundation upon which the network centrality measure is computed. Thus, the first extension ensures that roundabouts are detected and collapsed, thus avoiding interruptions of strokes by roundabouts, while the second introduces additional semantics in the process of stroke formation, allowing longer and more plausible strokes to built. The third extension detects areas of high road density (i.e., urban areas using density-based clustering and then locally increases the threshold of the centrality measure used to select road segments, such that more thinning takes place in those areas. Finally, since the basic algorithm tends to create dead-ends—which however are not tolerated in small-scale maps—the fourth extension reconnects these dead-ends to the main network, searching for the best path in the main heading of the dead-end.

  6. Reactor power peaking information display

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Book, T.L.; Kochendarfer, R.A.

    1986-01-01

    This patent describes a system for monitoring operating conditions within a nuclear reactor. The system consists of a method for measuring the operating parameters within the nuclear reactor, including the position of axial power shaping rods and regulating control rod. It also includes a method for determining from the operating parameters the operating limits before a power peaking condition exists within the nuclear reactor, and a method for displaying the operating limits which consists of a visual display permitting the continuous monitoring of the operating conditions within the nuclear reactor as a graph of the shaping rod position vs the regulating rod position having a permissible area and a restricted area. The permissible area is further divided into a recommended operating area for steady state operation and a cursor located on the graph to indicate the present operating condition of the nuclear reactor to allow an operator to view any need for corrective action based on the movement of the cursor out of the recommended operating area and to take any corrective transient action within the permissible area

  7. LHCb Event display

    CERN Document Server

    Trisovic, Ana

    2014-01-01

    The LHCb Event Display was made for educational purposes at the European Organization for Nuclear Research, CERN in Geneva, Switzerland. The project was implemented as a stand-alone application using C++ and ROOT, a framework developed by CERN for data analysis. This paper outlines the development and architecture of the application in detail, as well as the motivation for the development and the goals of the exercise. The application focuses on the visualization of events recorded by the LHCb detector, where an event represents a set of charged particle tracks in one proton-proton collision. Every particle track is coloured by its type and can be selected to see its essential information such as mass and momentum. The application allows students to save this information and calculate the invariant mass for any pair of particles. Furthermore, the students can use additional calculating tools in the application and build up a histogram of these invariant masses. The goal for the students is to find a $D^0$ par...

  8. Colorimetry for CRT displays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golz, Jürgen; MacLeod, Donald I A

    2003-05-01

    We analyze the sources of error in specifying color in CRT displays. These include errors inherent in the use of the color matching functions of the CIE 1931 standard observer when only colorimetric, not radiometric, calibrations are available. We provide transformation coefficients that prove to correct the deficiencies of this observer very well. We consider four different candidate sets of cone sensitivities. Some of these differ substantially; variation among candidate cone sensitivities exceeds the variation among phosphors. Finally, the effects of the recognized forms of observer variation on the visual responses (cone excitations or cone contrasts) generated by CRT stimuli are investigated and quantitatively specified. Cone pigment polymorphism gives rise to variation of a few per cent in relative excitation by the different phosphors--a variation larger than the errors ensuing from the adoption of the CIE standard observer, though smaller than the differences between some candidate cone sensitivities. Macular pigmentation has a larger influence, affecting mainly responses to the blue phosphor. The estimated combined effect of all sources of observer variation is comparable in magnitude with the largest differences between competing cone sensitivity estimates but is not enough to disrupt very seriously the relation between the L and M cone weights and the isoluminance settings of individual observers. It is also comparable with typical instrumental colorimetric errors, but we discuss these only briefly.

  9. Web Extensible Display Manager

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Slominski, Ryan [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (TJNAF), Newport News, VA (United States); Larrieu, Theodore L. [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (TJNAF), Newport News, VA (United States)

    2018-02-01

    Jefferson Lab's Web Extensible Display Manager (WEDM) allows staff to access EDM control system screens from a web browser in remote offices and from mobile devices. Native browser technologies are leveraged to avoid installing and managing software on remote clients such as browser plugins, tunnel applications, or an EDM environment. Since standard network ports are used firewall exceptions are minimized. To avoid security concerns from remote users modifying a control system, WEDM exposes read-only access and basic web authentication can be used to further restrict access. Updates of monitored EPICS channels are delivered via a Web Socket using a web gateway. The software translates EDM description files (denoted with the edl suffix) to HTML with Scalable Vector Graphics (SVG) following the EDM's edl file vector drawing rules to create faithful screen renderings. The WEDM server parses edl files and creates the HTML equivalent in real-time allowing existing screens to work without modification. Alternatively, the familiar drag and drop EDM screen creation tool can be used to create optimized screens sized specifically for smart phones and then rendered by WEDM.

  10. Squeezeposenet: Image Based Pose Regression with Small Convolutional Neural Networks for Real Time Uas Navigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, M. S.; Urban, S.; Jutzi, B.

    2017-08-01

    The number of unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) is increasing since low-cost airborne systems are available for a wide range of users. The outdoor navigation of such vehicles is mostly based on global navigation satellite system (GNSS) methods to gain the vehicles trajectory. The drawback of satellite-based navigation are failures caused by occlusions and multi-path interferences. Beside this, local image-based solutions like Simultaneous Localization and Mapping (SLAM) and Visual Odometry (VO) can e.g. be used to support the GNSS solution by closing trajectory gaps but are computationally expensive. However, if the trajectory estimation is interrupted or not available a re-localization is mandatory. In this paper we will provide a novel method for a GNSS-free and fast image-based pose regression in a known area by utilizing a small convolutional neural network (CNN). With on-board processing in mind, we employ a lightweight CNN called SqueezeNet and use transfer learning to adapt the network to pose regression. Our experiments show promising results for GNSS-free and fast localization.

  11. Digital Display Integration Project Project Online 2.0

    CERN Document Server

    Bardsley, J N

    1999-01-01

    The electronic display industry is changing in three important ways. First, the dominance of the cathode ray tube (CRT) is being challenged by the development of flat panel displays (FPDs). This will lead to the availability of displays of higher performance, albeit at greater cost. Secondly, the analog interfaces between displays that show data and the computers that generate the data are being replaced by digital connections. Finally, a high-resolution display is becoming the most expensive component in computer system for homes and small offices. It is therefore desirable that the useful lifetime of the display extend over several years and that the electronics allows the display to be used with many different image sources. Hopefully, the necessity of having three or four large CRTs in one office to accommodate different computer operating systems or communication protocols will soon disappear. Instead, we hope to see a set of flat panels that can be switched to show several independent images from multip...

  12. Transparent 3D display for augmented reality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Byoungho; Hong, Jisoo

    2012-11-01

    Two types of transparent three-dimensional display systems applicable for the augmented reality are demonstrated. One of them is a head-mounted-display-type implementation which utilizes the principle of the system adopting the concave floating lens to the virtual mode integral imaging. Such configuration has an advantage in that the threedimensional image can be displayed at sufficiently far distance resolving the accommodation conflict with the real world scene. Incorporating the convex half mirror, which shows a partial transparency, instead of the concave floating lens, makes it possible to implement the transparent three-dimensional display system. The other type is the projection-type implementation, which is more appropriate for the general use than the head-mounted-display-type implementation. Its imaging principle is based on the well-known reflection-type integral imaging. We realize the feature of transparent display by imposing the partial transparency to the array of concave mirror which is used for the screen of reflection-type integral imaging. Two types of configurations, relying on incoherent and coherent light sources, are both possible. For the incoherent configuration, we introduce the concave half mirror array, whereas the coherent one adopts the holographic optical element which replicates the functionality of the lenslet array. Though the projection-type implementation is beneficial than the head-mounted-display in principle, the present status of the technical advance of the spatial light modulator still does not provide the satisfactory visual quality of the displayed three-dimensional image. Hence we expect that the head-mounted-display-type and projection-type implementations will come up in the market in sequence.

  13. Enhanced performance of a glucose/O(2) biofuel cell assembled with laccase-covalently immobilized three-dimensional macroporous gold film-based biocathode and bacterial surface displayed glucose dehydrogenase-based bioanode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Chuantao; Yang, Dapeng; Liang, Bo; Liu, Aihua

    2014-06-17

    The power output and stability of enzyme-based biofuel cells (BFCs) is greatly dependent on the properties of both the biocathode and bioanode, which may be adapted for portable power production. In this paper, a novel highly uniform three-dimensional (3D) macroporous gold (MP-Au) film was prepared by heating the gold "supraspheres", which were synthesized by a bottom-up protein templating approach, and followed by modification of laccase on the MP-Au film by covalent immobilization. The as-prepared laccase/MP-Au biocathode exihibited an onset potential of 0.62 V versus saturated calomel electrode (SCE, or 0.86 V vs NHE, normal hydrogen electrode) toward O2 reduction and a high catalytic current of 0.61 mAcm(-2). On the other hand, mutated glucose dehydrogenase (GDH) surface displayed bacteria (GDH-bacteria) were used to improve the stability of the glucose oxidation at the bioanode. The as-assembled membraneless glucose/O2 fuel cell showed a high power output of 55.8 ± 2.0 μW cm(-2) and open circuit potential of 0.80 V, contributing to the improved electrocatalysis toward O2 reduction at the laccase/MP-Au biocathode. Moreover, the BFC retained 84% of its maximal power density even after continuous operation for 55 h because of the high stability of the bacterial surface displayed GDH mutant toward glucose oxidation. Our findings may be promising for the development of more efficient glucose BFC for portable battery or self-powered device applications.

  14. The method for detecting small lesions in medical image based on sliding window

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Guilai; Jiao, Yuan

    2016-10-01

    At present, the research on computer-aided diagnosis includes the sample image segmentation, extracting visual features, generating the classification model by learning, and according to the model generated to classify and judge the inspected images. However, this method has a large scale of calculation and speed is slow. And because medical images are usually low contrast, when the traditional image segmentation method is applied to the medical image, there is a complete failure. As soon as possible to find the region of interest, improve detection speed, this topic attempts to introduce the current popular visual attention model into small lesions detection. However, Itti model is mainly for natural images. But the effect is not ideal when it is used to medical images which usually are gray images. Especially in the early stages of some cancers, the focus of a disease in the whole image is not the most significant region and sometimes is very difficult to be found. But these lesions are prominent in the local areas. This paper proposes a visual attention mechanism based on sliding window, and use sliding window to calculate the significance of a local area. Combined with the characteristics of the lesion, select the features of gray, entropy, corner and edge to generate a saliency map. Then the significant region is segmented and distinguished. This method reduces the difficulty of image segmentation, and improves the detection accuracy of small lesions, and it has great significance to early discovery, early diagnosis and treatment of cancers.

  15. Online virtual isocenter based radiation field targeting for high performance small animal microirradiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, James M. P.; Ansell, Steve; Lindsay, Patricia E.; Jaffray, David A.

    2015-12-01

    Advances in precision microirradiators for small animal radiation oncology studies have provided the framework for novel translational radiobiological studies. Such systems target radiation fields at the scale required for small animal investigations, typically through a combination of on-board computed tomography image guidance and fixed, interchangeable collimators. Robust targeting accuracy of these radiation fields remains challenging, particularly at the millimetre scale field sizes achievable by the majority of microirradiators. Consistent and reproducible targeting accuracy is further hindered as collimators are removed and inserted during a typical experimental workflow. This investigation quantified this targeting uncertainty and developed an online method based on a virtual treatment isocenter to actively ensure high performance targeting accuracy for all radiation field sizes. The results indicated that the two-dimensional field placement uncertainty was as high as 1.16 mm at isocenter, with simulations suggesting this error could be reduced to 0.20 mm using the online correction method. End-to-end targeting analysis of a ball bearing target on radiochromic film sections showed an improved targeting accuracy with the three-dimensional vector targeting error across six different collimators reduced from 0.56+/- 0.05 mm (mean  ±  SD) to 0.05+/- 0.05 mm for an isotropic imaging voxel size of 0.1 mm.

  16. Aptamer/quantum dot-based simultaneous electrochemical detection of multiple small molecules

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang Haixia [Key Laboratory on Luminescence and Real-Time Analysis, Ministry of Education, School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Southwest University, Chongqing 400715 (China); Jiang Bingying [School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Chongqing University of Technology, Chongqing 400040 (China); Xiang Yun, E-mail: yunatswu@swu.edu.cn [Key Laboratory on Luminescence and Real-Time Analysis, Ministry of Education, School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Southwest University, Chongqing 400715 (China); Zhang Yuyong; Chai Yaqin [Key Laboratory on Luminescence and Real-Time Analysis, Ministry of Education, School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Southwest University, Chongqing 400715 (China); Yuan Ruo, E-mail: yuanruo@swu.edu.cn [Key Laboratory on Luminescence and Real-Time Analysis, Ministry of Education, School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Southwest University, Chongqing 400715 (China)

    2011-03-04

    A novel strategy for 'signal on' and sensitive one-spot simultaneous detection of multiple small molecular analytes based on electrochemically encoded barcode quantum dot (QD) tags is described. The target analytes, adenosine triphosphate (ATP) and cocaine, respectively, are sandwiched between the corresponding set of surface-immobilized primary binding aptamers and the secondary binding aptamer/QD bioconjugates. The captured QDs yield distinct electrochemical signatures after acid dissolution, whose position and size reflect the identity and level, respectively, of the corresponding target analytes. Due to the inherent amplification feature of the QD labels and the 'signal on' detection scheme, as well as the sensitive monitoring of the metal ions released upon acid dissolution of the QD labels, low detection limits of 30 nM and 50 nM were obtained for ATP and cocaine, respectively, in our assays. Our multi-analyte sensing system also shows high specificity to target analytes and promising applicability to complex sample matrix, which makes the proposed assay protocol an attractive route for screening of small molecules in clinical diagnosis.

  17. Ultra-small and broadband polarization splitters based on double-slit interference

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sun, Chengwei; Li, Hongyun [State Key Laboratory for Mesoscopic Physics, Collaborative Innovation Center of Quantum Matter, Department of Physics, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); Gong, Qihuang; Chen, Jianjun, E-mail: jjchern@pku.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory for Mesoscopic Physics, Collaborative Innovation Center of Quantum Matter, Department of Physics, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); Collaborative Innovation Center of Extreme Optics, Shanxi University, Taiyuan, Shanxi 030006 (China)

    2016-03-07

    An ultra-small and broadband polarization splitter is numerically and experimentally demonstrated based on the double-slit interference in a polymer-film-coated double-slit structure. The hybrid slab waveguide (air-polymer-Au) supports both the transverse-magnetic and transverse-electric modes. The incident beam from the back side can excite these two guided modes of orthogonally polarized states in the hybrid structure. By exploiting the difference slit widths and the large mode birefringence, these two guided modes propagate to the opposite directions along the front metal surface. Moreover, the short interference length broadens the operation bandwidth. Experimentally, a polarization splitter with a lateral dimension of only about 1.6 μm and an operation bandwidth of 50 nm is realized. By designing the double-slit structure in a hybrid strip waveguide, the device dimension can be significant downscaled to about 0.3 × 1.3 μm{sup 2}. Such an ultra-small and broadband polarization splitter may find important applications in the integrated photonic circuits.

  18. Combat vehicle crew helmet-mounted display: next generation high-resolution head-mounted display

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Scott A.

    1994-06-01

    The Combat Vehicle Crew Head-Mounted Display (CVC HMD) program is an ARPA-funded, US Army Natick Research, Development, and Engineering Center monitored effort to develop a high resolution, flat panel HMD for the M1 A2 Abrams main battle tank. CVC HMD is part of the ARPA High Definition Systems (HDS) thrust to develop and integrate small (24 micrometers square pels), high resolution (1280 X 1024 X 6-bit grey scale at 60 frame/sec) active matrix electroluminescent (AMEL) and active matrix liquid crystal displays (AMLCD) for head mounted and projection applications. The Honeywell designed CVC HMD is a next generation head-mounted display system that includes advanced flat panel image sources, advanced digital display driver electronics, high speed (> 1 Gbps) digital interconnect electronics, and light weight, high performance optical and mechanical designs. The resulting dramatic improvements in size, weight, power, and cost have already led to program spin offs for both military and commercial applications.

  19. Advanced image display systems in radiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wendler, T.

    1987-01-01

    Advanced image display systems for the fully digital diagnostic imaging departments of the future will be far more than simple replacements of the traditional film-viewing equipment. The new capabilities of very high resolution and highly dynamic displays offer a userfriendly and problem-oriented way of image interpretation. Advanced harware-, software- and human-machine interaction-concepts have been outlined. A scenario for a future way of handling and displaying images, reflecting a new image viewing paradigm in radiology is sketched which has been realized in an experimental image workstation model in the laboratory which, despite its technical complexity, offers a consistent strategy for fast and convenient interaction with image objects. The perspective of knowledge based techniques for workstation control software with object-oriented programming environments and user- and task-adaptive behavior leads to more advanced display properties and a new quality of userfriendliness. 2 refs.; 5 figs

  20. Facial Displays Are Tools for Social Influence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crivelli, Carlos; Fridlund, Alan J

    2018-05-01

    Based on modern theories of signal evolution and animal communication, the behavioral ecology view of facial displays (BECV) reconceives our 'facial expressions of emotion' as social tools that serve as lead signs to contingent action in social negotiation. BECV offers an externalist, functionalist view of facial displays that is not bound to Western conceptions about either expressions or emotions. It easily accommodates recent findings of diversity in facial displays, their public context-dependency, and the curious but common occurrence of solitary facial behavior. Finally, BECV restores continuity of human facial behavior research with modern functional accounts of non-human communication, and provides a non-mentalistic account of facial displays well-suited to new developments in artificial intelligence and social robotics. Copyright © 2018 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  1. White constancy method for mobile displays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yum, Ji Young; Park, Hyun Hee; Jang, Seul Ki; Lee, Jae Hyang; Kim, Jong Ho; Yi, Ji Young; Lee, Min Woo

    2014-03-01

    In these days, consumer's needs for image quality of mobile devices are increasing as smartphone is widely used. For example, colors may be perceived differently when displayed contents under different illuminants. Displayed white in incandescent lamp is perceived as bluish, while same content in LED light is perceived as yellowish. When changed in perceived white under illuminant environment, image quality would be degraded. Objective of the proposed white constancy method is restricted to maintain consistent output colors regardless of the illuminants utilized. Human visual experiments are performed to analyze viewers'perceptual constancy. Participants are asked to choose the displayed white in a variety of illuminants. Relationship between the illuminants and the selected colors with white are modeled by mapping function based on the results of human visual experiments. White constancy values for image control are determined on the predesigned functions. Experimental results indicate that propsed method yields better image quality by keeping the display white.

  2. Small drinking water systems under spatiotemporal water quality variability: a risk-based performance benchmarking framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bereskie, Ty; Haider, Husnain; Rodriguez, Manuel J; Sadiq, Rehan

    2017-08-23

    Traditional approaches for benchmarking drinking water systems are binary, based solely on the compliance and/or non-compliance of one or more water quality performance indicators against defined regulatory guidelines/standards. The consequence of water quality failure is dependent on location within a water supply system as well as time of the year (i.e., season) with varying levels of water consumption. Conventional approaches used for water quality comparison purposes fail to incorporate spatiotemporal variability and degrees of compliance and/or non-compliance. This can lead to misleading or inaccurate performance assessment data used in the performance benchmarking process. In this research, a hierarchical risk-based water quality performance benchmarking framework is proposed to evaluate small drinking water systems (SDWSs) through cross-comparison amongst similar systems. The proposed framework (R WQI framework) is designed to quantify consequence associated with seasonal and location-specific water quality issues in a given drinking water supply system to facilitate more efficient decision-making for SDWSs striving for continuous performance improvement. Fuzzy rule-based modelling is used to address imprecision associated with measuring performance based on singular water quality guidelines/standards and the uncertainties present in SDWS operations and monitoring. This proposed R WQI framework has been demonstrated using data collected from 16 SDWSs in Newfoundland and Labrador and Quebec, Canada, and compared to the Canadian Council of Ministers of the Environment WQI, a traditional, guidelines/standard-based approach. The study found that the R WQI framework provides an in-depth state of water quality and benchmarks SDWSs more rationally based on the frequency of occurrence and consequence of failure events.

  3. Comparison of small-group training with self-directed internet-based training in inhaler techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toumas, Mariam; Basheti, Iman A; Bosnic-Anticevich, Sinthia Z

    2009-08-28

    To compare the effectiveness of small-group training in correct inhaler technique with self-directed Internet-based training. Pharmacy students were randomly allocated to 1 of 2 groups: small-group training (n = 123) or self-directed Internet-based training (n = 113). Prior to intervention delivery, all participants were given a placebo Turbuhaler and product information leaflet and received inhaler technique training based on their group. Technique was assessed following training and predictors of correct inhaler technique were examined. There was a significant improvement in the number of participants demonstrating correct technique in both groups (small group training, 12% to 63%; p training, 9% to 59%; p groups in the percent change (n = 234, p > 0.05). Increased student confidence following the intervention was a predictor for correct inhaler technique. Self-directed Internet-based training is as effective as small-group training in improving students' inhaler technique.

  4. Ultrafast Capillary Electrophoresis Isolation of DNA Aptamer for the PCR Amplification-Based Small Analyte Sensing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emmanuelle eFiore

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Here, we report a new homogeneous DNA amplification-based aptamer assay for small analyte sensing. The aptamer of adenosine chosen as the model analyte was split into two fragments able to assemble in the presence of target. Primers were introduced at extremities of one fragment in order to generate the amplifiable DNA component. The amount of amplifiable fragment was quantifiable by Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction (RT-PCR amplification and directly reliable on adenosine concentration. This approach combines the very high separation efficiency and the homogeneous format (without immobilization of capillary electrophoresis and the sensitivity of real time PCR amplification. An ultrafast isolation of target-bound split aptamer (60 s was developed by designing a capillary electrophoresis input/ouput scheme. Such method was successfully applied to the determination of adenosine with a LOD of 1 µM.

  5. Biochip-Based Detection of KRAS Mutation in Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara Ziegler

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available This study is aimed at evaluating the potential of a biochip assay to sensitively detect KRAS mutation in DNA from non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC tissue samples. The assay covers 10 mutations in codons 12 and 13 of the KRAS gene, and is based on mutant-enriched PCR followed by reverse-hybridization of biotinylated amplification products to an array of sequence-specific probes immobilized on the tip of a rectangular plastic stick (biochip. Biochip hybridization identified 17 (21% samples to carry a KRAS mutation of which 16 (33% were adenocarcinomas and 1 (3% was a squamous cell carcinoma. All mutations were confirmed by DNA sequencing. Using 10 ng of starting DNA, the biochip assay demonstrated a detection limit of 1% mutant sequence in a background of wild-type DNA. Our results suggest that the biochip assay is a sensitive alternative to protocols currently in use for KRAS mutation testing on limited quantity samples.

  6. Proton-Based Stereotactic Ablative Radiotherapy in Early-Stage Non-Small-Cell Lung Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan D. Grant

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Stereotactic ablative radiotherapy (SABR, a recent implementation in the practice of radiation oncology, has been shown to confer high rates of local control in the treatment of early stage non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC. This technique, which involves limited invasive procedures and reduced treatment intervals, offers definitive treatment for patients unable or unwilling to undergo an operation. The use of protons in SABR delivery confers the added physical advantage of normal tissue sparing due to the absence of collateral radiation dose delivered to regions distal to the target. This may translate into clinical benefit and a decreased risk of clinical toxicity in patients with nearby critical structures or limited pulmonary reserve. In this review, we present the rationale for proton-based SABR, principles relating to the delivery and planning of this modality, and a summary of published clinical studies.

  7. Low-Altitude and Slow-Speed Small Target Detection Based on Spectrum Zoom Processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xuwang Zhang

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a spectrum zoom processing based target detection algorithm for detecting the weak echo of low-altitude and slow-speed small (LSS targets in heavy ground clutter environments, which can be used to retrofit the existing radar systems. With the existing range-Doppler frequency images, the proposed method firstly concatenates the data from the same Doppler frequency slot of different images and then applies the spectrum zoom processing. After performing the clutter suppression, the target detection can be finally implemented. Through the theoretical analysis and real data verification, it is shown that the proposed algorithm can obtain a preferable spectrum zoom result and improve the signal-to-clutter ratio (SCR with a very low computational load.

  8. Simulation of a small muon tomography station system based on RPCs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, S.; Li, Q.; Ma, J.; Kong, H.; Ye, Y.; Gao, J.; Jiang, Y.

    2014-10-01

    In this work, Monte Carlo simulations were used to study the performance of a small muon Tomography Station based on four glass resistive plate chambers(RPCs) with a spatial resolution of approximately 1.0mm (FWHM). We developed a simulation code to generate cosmic ray muons with the appropriate distribution of energies and angles. PoCA and EM algorithm were used to rebuild the objects for comparison. We compared Z discrimination time with and without muon momentum measurement. The relation between Z discrimination time and spatial resolution was also studied. Simulation results suggest that mean scattering angle is a better Z indicator and upgrading to larger RPCs will improve reconstruction image quality.

  9. Development of small, fast reactor core designs using lead-based coolant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cahalan, J. E.; Hill, R. N.; Khalil, H. S.; Wade, D. C.

    1999-01-01

    A variety of small (100 MWe) fast reactor core designs are developed, these include compact configurations, long-lived (15-year fuel lifetime) cores, and derated, natural circulation designs. Trade studies are described which identify key core design issues for lead-based coolant systems. Performance parameters and reactivity feedback coefficients are compared for lead-bismuth eutectic (LBE) and sodium-cooled cores of consistent design. The results of these studies indicate that the superior neutron reflection capability of lead alloys reduces the enrichment and burnup swing compared to conventional sodium-cooled systems; however, the discharge fluence is significantly increased. The size requirement for long-lived systems is constrained by reactivity loss considerations, not fuel burnup or fluence limits. The derated lead-alloy cooled natural circulation cores require a core volume roughly eight times greater than conventional compact systems. In general, reactivity coefficients important for passive safety performance are less favorable for the larger, derated configurations

  10. Monitoring of small laboratory animal experiments by a designated web-based database.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frenzel, T; Grohmann, C; Schumacher, U; Krüll, A

    2015-10-01

    Multiple-parametric small animal experiments require, by their very nature, a sufficient number of animals which may need to be large to obtain statistically significant results.(1) For this reason database-related systems are required to collect the experimental data as well as to support the later (re-) analysis of the information gained during the experiments. In particular, the monitoring of animal welfare is simplified by the inclusion of warning signals (for instance, loss in body weight >20%). Digital patient charts have been developed for human patients but are usually not able to fulfill the specific needs of animal experimentation. To address this problem a unique web-based monitoring system using standard MySQL, PHP, and nginx has been created. PHP was used to create the HTML-based user interface and outputs in a variety of proprietary file formats, namely portable document format (PDF) or spreadsheet files. This article demonstrates its fundamental features and the easy and secure access it offers to the data from any place using a web browser. This information will help other researchers create their own individual databases in a similar way. The use of QR-codes plays an important role for stress-free use of the database. We demonstrate a way to easily identify all animals and samples and data collected during the experiments. Specific ways to record animal irradiations and chemotherapy applications are shown. This new analysis tool allows the effective and detailed analysis of huge amounts of data collected through small animal experiments. It supports proper statistical evaluation of the data and provides excellent retrievable data storage. © The Author(s) 2015.

  11. Model-Based Normalization of a Fractional-Crystal Collimator for Small-Animal PET Imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yusheng; Matej, Samuel; Karp, Joel S; Metzler, Scott D

    2017-05-01

    Previously, we proposed to use a coincidence collimator to achieve fractional-crystal resolution in PET imaging. We have designed and fabricated a collimator prototype for a small-animal PET scanner, A-PET. To compensate for imperfections in the fabricated collimator prototype, collimator normalization, as well as scanner normalization, is required to reconstruct quantitative and artifact-free images. In this study, we develop a normalization method for the collimator prototype based on the A-PET normalization using a uniform cylinder phantom. We performed data acquisition without the collimator for scanner normalization first, and then with the collimator from eight different rotation views for collimator normalization. After a reconstruction without correction, we extracted the cylinder parameters from which we generated expected emission sinograms. Single scatter simulation was used to generate the scattered sinograms. We used the least-squares method to generate the normalization coefficient for each LOR based on measured, expected and scattered sinograms. The scanner and collimator normalization coefficients were factorized by performing two normalizations separately. The normalization methods were also verified using experimental data acquired from A-PET with and without the collimator. In summary, we developed a model-base collimator normalization that can significantly reduce variance and produce collimator normalization with adequate statistical quality within feasible scan time.

  12. A Probabilistic and Observation Based Methodology to Estimate Small Craft Harbor Vulnerability to Tsunami Events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keen, A. S.; Lynett, P. J.; Ayca, A.

    2016-12-01

    Because of the damage resulting from the 2010 Chile and 2011 Japanese tele-tsunamis, the tsunami risk to the small craft marinas in California has become an important concern. The talk will outline an assessment tool which can be used to assess the tsunami hazard to small craft harbors. The methodology is based on the demand and structural capacity of the floating dock system, composed of floating docks/fingers and moored vessels. The structural demand is determined using a Monte Carlo methodology. Monte Carlo methodology is a probabilistic computational tool where the governing might be well known, but the independent variables of the input (demand) as well as the resisting structural components (capacity) may not be completely known. The Monte Carlo approach uses a distribution of each variable, and then uses that random variable within the described parameters, to generate a single computation. The process then repeats hundreds or thousands of times. The numerical model "Method of Splitting Tsunamis" (MOST) has been used to determine the inputs for the small craft harbors within California. Hydrodynamic model results of current speed, direction and surface elevation were incorporated via the drag equations to provide the bases of the demand term. To determine the capacities, an inspection program was developed to identify common features of structural components. A total of six harbors have been inspected ranging from Crescent City in Northern California to Oceanside Harbor in Southern California. Results from the inspection program were used to develop component capacity tables which incorporated the basic specifications of each component (e.g. bolt size and configuration) and a reduction factor (which accounts for the component reduction in capacity with age) to estimate in situ capacities. Like the demand term, these capacities are added probabilistically into the model. To date the model has been applied to Santa Cruz Harbor as well as Noyo River. Once

  13. Preparation of brookite TiO2 nanoparticles with small sizes and the improved photovoltaic performance of brookite-based dye-sensitized solar cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jinlei; Wu, Shufang; Jin, Jingpeng; Peng, Tianyou

    2016-11-10

    Brookite TiO 2 nanoparticles with small sizes (hereafter denoted as BTP particles) were synthesized through the hydrothermal treatment of TiCl 4 solution with Pb(NO 3 ) 2 as an additive. The obtained BTP particles have a large specific surface area (∼122.2 m 2 g -1 ) and relatively uniform particle sizes (∼10 nm) with the coexistence of a small quantity of nanorods with a length of ∼100 nm. When used as a photoanode material for dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs), the BTP particles show a much higher dye-loading content than the brookite TiO 2 quasi nanocubes (denoted as BTN particles) with a mean size of ∼50 nm and a specific surface area of ∼34.2 m 2 g -1 that were prepared through a similar hydrothermal process but without the addition of Pb(NO 3 ) 2 . The fabricated BTP film-based solar cell with an optimized film thickness gives a conversion efficiency up to 6.36% with a 74% improvement when compared to the BTN film-based one (3.65%) under AM 1.5G one sun irradiation, while the corresponding bilayer brookite-based solar cell by using brookite TiO 2 submicrometer particles as an overlayer of the BTP film displays a significantly enhanced efficiency of 7.64%. Both of them exceed the current record (5.97%) for the conversion efficiency of pure brookite-based DSSCs reported in the literature. The present results not only demonstrate a really simple synthesis of brookite TiO 2 nanoparticles with both high phase purity and a large surface area, but also offer an efficient approach to improve the photovoltaic performance of brookite-based solar cells by offsetting brookite's inherent shortages such as lower dye-loading and poor conductivity as compared to anatase.

  14. Display Parameters and Requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahadur, Birendra

    The following sections are included: * INTRODUCTION * HUMAN FACTORS * Anthropometry * Sensory * Cognitive * Discussions * THE HUMAN VISUAL SYSTEM - CAPABILITIES AND LIMITATIONS * Cornea * Pupil and Iris * Lens * Vitreous Humor * Retina * RODS - NIGHT VISION * CONES - DAY VISION * RODS AND CONES - TWILIGHT VISION * VISUAL PIGMENTS * MACULA * BLOOD * CHOROID COAT * Visual Signal Processing * Pathways to the Brain * Spatial Vision * Temporal Vision * Colour Vision * Colour Blindness * DICHROMATISM * Protanopia * Deuteranopia * Tritanopia * ANOMALOUS TRICHROMATISM * Protanomaly * Deuteranomaly * Tritanomaly * CONE MONOCHROMATISM * ROD MONOCHROMATISM * Using Colour Effectively * COLOUR MIXTURES AND THE CHROMATICITY DIAGRAM * Colour Matching Functions and Chromaticity Co-ordinates * CIE 1931 Colour Space * CIE PRIMARIES * CIE COLOUR MATCHING FUNCTIONS AND CHROMATICITY CO-ORDINATES * METHODS FOR DETERMINING TRISTIMULUS VALUES AND COLOUR CO-ORDINATES * Spectral Power Distribution Method * Filter Method * CIE 1931 CHROMATICITY DIAGRAM * ADDITIVE COLOUR MIXTURE * CIE 1976 Chromaticity Diagram * CIE Uniform Colour Spaces and Colour Difference Formulae * CIELUV OR L*u*v* * CIELAB OR L*a*b* * CIE COLOUR DIFFERENCE FORMULAE * Colour Temperature and CIE Standard Illuminants and source * RADIOMETRIC AND PHOTOMETRIC QUANTITIES * Photopic (Vλ and Scotopic (Vλ') Luminous Efficiency Function * Photometric and Radiometric Flux * Luminous and Radiant Intensities * Incidence: Illuminance and Irradiance * Exitance or Emittance (M) * Luminance and Radiance * ERGONOMIC REQUIREMENTS OF DISPLAYS * ELECTRO-OPTICAL PARAMETERS AND REQUIREMENTS * Contrast and Contrast Ratio * Luminance and Brightness * Colour Contrast and Chromaticity * Glare * Other Aspects of Legibility * SHAPE AND SIZE OF CHARACTERS * DEFECTS AND BLEMISHES * FLICKER AND DISTORTION * ANGLE OF VIEW * Switching Speed * Threshold and Threshold Characteristic * Measurement Techniques For Electro-optical Parameters * RADIOMETRIC

  15. Oil defect detection of electrowetting display

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiang, Hou-Chi; Tsai, Yu-Hsiang; Yan, Yung-Jhe; Huang, Ting-Wei; Mang, Ou-Yang

    2015-08-01

    In recent years, transparent display is an emerging topic in display technologies. Apply in many fields just like mobile device, shopping or advertising window, and etc. Electrowetting Display (EWD) is one kind of potential transparent display technology advantages of high transmittance, fast response time, high contrast and rich color with pigment based oil system. In mass production process of Electrowetting Display, oil defects should be found by Automated Optical Inspection (AOI) detection system. It is useful in determination of panel defects for quality control. According to the research of our group, we proposed a mechanism of AOI detection system detecting the different kinds of oil defects. This mechanism can detect different kinds of oil defect caused by oil overflow or material deteriorated after oil coating or driving. We had experiment our mechanism with a 6-inch Electrowetting Display panel from ITRI, using an Epson V750 scanner with 1200 dpi resolution. Two AOI algorithms were developed, which were high speed method and high precision method. In high precision method, oil jumping or non-recovered can be detected successfully. This mechanism of AOI detection system can be used to evaluate the oil uniformity in EWD panel process. In the future, our AOI detection system can be used in quality control of panel manufacturing for mass production.

  16. Laser illuminated flat panel display

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Veligdan, J.T.

    1995-12-31

    A 10 inch laser illuminated flat panel Planar Optic Display (POD) screen has been constructed and tested. This POD screen technology is an entirely new concept in display technology. Although the initial display is flat and made of glass, this technology lends itself to applications where a plastic display might be wrapped around the viewer. The display screen is comprised of hundreds of planar optical waveguides where each glass waveguide represents a vertical line of resolution. A black cladding layer, having a lower index of refraction, is placed between each waveguide layer. Since the cladding makes the screen surface black, the contrast is high. The prototype display is 9 inches wide by 5 inches high and approximately I inch thick. A 3 milliwatt HeNe laser is used as the illumination source and a vector scanning technique is employed.

  17. Small-mammal density estimation: A field comparison of grid-based vs. web-based density estimators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parmenter, R.R.; Yates, Terry L.; Anderson, D.R.; Burnham, K.P.; Dunnum, J.L.; Franklin, A.B.; Friggens, M.T.; Lubow, B.C.; Miller, M.; Olson, G.S.; Parmenter, Cheryl A.; Pollard, J.; Rexstad, E.; Shenk, T.M.; Stanley, T.R.; White, Gary C.

    2003-01-01

    blind” test allowed us to evaluate the influence of expertise and experience in calculating density estimates in comparison to simply using default values in programs CAPTURE and DISTANCE. While the rodent sample sizes were considerably smaller than the recommended minimum for good model results, we found that several models performed well empirically, including the web-based uniform and half-normal models in program DISTANCE, and the grid-based models Mb and Mbh in program CAPTURE (with AÌ‚ adjusted by species-specific full mean maximum distance moved (MMDM) values). These models produced accurate DÌ‚ values (with 95% confidence intervals that included the true D values) and exhibited acceptable bias but poor precision. However, in linear regression analyses comparing each model's DÌ‚ values to the true D values over the range of observed test densities, only the web-based uniform model exhibited a regression slope near 1.0; all other models showed substantial slope deviations, indicating biased estimates at higher or lower density values. In addition, the grid-based DÌ‚ analyses using full MMDM values for WÌ‚ area adjustments required a number of theoretical assumptions of uncertain validity, and we therefore viewed their empirical successes with caution. Finally, density estimates from the independent analysts were highly variable, but estimates from web-based approaches had smaller mean square errors and better achieved confidence-interval coverage of D than did grid-based approaches. Our results support the contention that web-based approaches for density estimation of small-mammal populations are both theoretically and empirically superior to grid-based approaches, even when sample size is far less than often recommended. In view of the increasing need for standardized environmental measures for comparisons among ecosystems and through time, analytical models based on distance sampling appear to offer accurate density estimation approaches for research

  18. Presenting a model for display and user interface specifications of web based OPACs on the basis of available universal standards and experts views in order to compare the Iranian library and information centers OPACs

    OpenAIRE

    Zavaraqi, Rasoul

    2005-01-01

    The aim of this study is to present a model for display and user interface specifications of web-based OPACs on the basis of available universal standards and experts’ views in order to compare the present Iranian library and information centers OPACs. Three method were used for data collection in this research: literature review, survey of opinions by means of a checklist, and evaluation of the available web-based OPACs. The community of Iranian experts in OPAC issues and all of 6 available ...

  19. Structure-Based Drug Design of Small Molecule Peptide Deformylase Inhibitors to Treat Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian Gao

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Human peptide deformylase (HsPDF is an important target for anticancer drug discovery. In view of the limited HsPDF, inhibitors were reported, and high-throughput virtual screening (HTVS studies based on HsPDF for developing new PDF inhibitors remain to be reported. We reported here on diverse small molecule inhibitors with excellent anticancer activities designed based on HTVS and molecular docking studies using the crystal structure of HsPDF. The compound M7594_0037 exhibited potent anticancer activities against HeLa, A549 and MCF-7 cell lines with IC50s of 35.26, 29.63 and 24.63 μM, respectively. Molecular docking studies suggested that M7594_0037 and its three derivatives could interact with HsPDF by several conserved hydrogen bonds. Moreover, the pharmacokinetic and toxicity properties of M7594_0037 and its derivatives were predicted using the OSIRIS property explorer. Thus, M7594_0037 and its derivatives might represent a promising scaffold for the further development of novel anticancer drugs.

  20. A microeconomic analysis of decentralized small scale biomass based CHP plants—The case of Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wittmann, Nadine; Yildiz, Özgür

    2013-01-01

    Alternative energy sources, such as biomass CHP plants, have recently gained significantly in importance and action is due both on the large scale corporate level and on the small scale. Hence, making the scope and economic outline of such projects easily intelligible without losing relevant details seems a key factor to further promote the necessary developments. The model setup presented in this paper may therefore serve as a starting point for generating numerical results based on real life cases or scenarios. Its focus lies on the economic analysis of decentralized biomass CHP plants. It presents a new approach to analyzing the economic aspects of biomass CHP plants implementing a formal microeconomic approach. As Germany claims a leading role in the market for renewable energy production, the paper also takes a closer look on the effects of German energy policy with respect to biomass CHP plants. - Highlights: • A formal microeconomic model is used to analyse a decentralized biomass CHP plant. • Model setup is used to generate numerical results based on real life scenarios. • Nested CES production function is a new approach to model economics of biomass CHP. • Analysis presents insight into microeconomics and cost drivers of biomass CHP. • Evaluation of energy policy design with respect to environmental policy goals

  1. A Microwave Method for Dielectric Characterization Measurement of Small Liquids Using a Metamaterial-Based Sensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Weina; Sun, Haoran; Xu, Lei

    2018-05-05

    We present a microwave method for the dielectric characterization of small liquids based on a metamaterial-based sensor The proposed sensor consists of a micro-strip line and a double split-ring resonator (SRR). A large electric field is observed on the two splits of the double SRRs at the resonance frequency (1.9 GHz). The dielectric property data of the samples under test (SUTs) were obtained with two measurements. One is with the sensor loaded with the reference liquid (REF) and the other is with the sensor loaded with the SUTs. Additionally, the principle of extracting permittivity from measured changes of resonance characteristics changes of the sensor loaded with REF and SUTs is given. Some measurements were carried out at 1.9 GHz, and the calculated results of methanol⁻water mixtures with different molar fractions agree well with the time-domain reflectometry method. Moreover, the proposed sensor is compact and highly sensitive for use of sub-wavelength resonance. In comparison with literature data, relative errors are less than 3% for the real parts and 2% for the imaginary parts of complex permittivity.

  2. Improved Traceability of a Small Satellite Mission Concept to Requirements Using Model Based System Engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reil, Robin L.

    2014-01-01

    Model Based Systems Engineering (MBSE) has recently been gaining significant support as a means to improve the "traditional" document-based systems engineering (DBSE) approach to engineering complex systems. In the spacecraft design domain, there are many perceived and propose benefits of an MBSE approach, but little analysis has been presented to determine the tangible benefits of such an approach (e.g. time and cost saved, increased product quality). This paper presents direct examples of how developing a small satellite system model can improve traceability of the mission concept to its requirements. A comparison of the processes and approaches for MBSE and DBSE is made using the NASA Ames Research Center SporeSat CubeSat mission as a case study. A model of the SporeSat mission is built using the Systems Modeling Language standard and No Magic's MagicDraw modeling tool. The model incorporates mission concept and requirement information from the mission's original DBSE design efforts. Active dependency relationships are modeled to demonstrate the completeness and consistency of the requirements to the mission concept. Anecdotal information and process-duration metrics are presented for both the MBSE and original DBSE design efforts of SporeSat.

  3. Bootstrap-DEA analysis of BRICS’ energy efficiency based on small sample data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song, Ma-Lin; Zhang, Lin-Ling; Liu, Wei; Fisher, Ron

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► The BRICS’ economies have flourished with increasingly energy consumptions. ► The analyses and comparison of energy efficiency are conducted among the BRICS. ► As a whole, there is low energy efficiency but a growing trend of BRICS. ► The BRICS should adopt relevant energy policies based on their own conditions. - Abstract: As a representative of many emerging economies, BRICS’ economies have been greatly developed in recent years. Meanwhile, the proportion of energy consumption of BRICS to the whole world consumption has increased. Therefore, it is significant to analyze and compare the energy efficiency among them. This paper firstly utilizes a Super-SBM model to measure and calculate the energy efficiency of BRICS, then analyzes their present status and development trend. Further, Bootstrap is applied to modify the values based on DEA derived from small sample data, and finally the relationship between energy efficiency and carbon emissions is measured. Results show that energy efficiency of BRICS as a whole is low but has a quickly increasing trend. Also, the relationship between energy efficiency and carbon emissions vary from country to country because of their different energy structures. The governments of BRICS should make some relevant energy policies according to their own conditions

  4. Metastatic non-small cell lung cancer Current treatment based on evidence (ONCOL Group)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castro, Carlos; Cardona, Andres Felipe; Reveiz, Ludovic; Serrano, Silvia Juliana; Carranza, Hernan; Vargas, Carlos Alberto; Reguart, Noemi; Campo, Felipe; Ospina, Edgar Guillermo; Sanchez, Oswaldo; Torres, Diana; Otero, Jorge Miguel

    2010-01-01

    to perform a review of evidence about the treatment of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Source of data: the information was obtained from searches conducted in Medline, CCTR, Biosis, Embase, Lilacs and CINHAL. We also collected the most representative references presented during the last five years at Asco, ESMO and IASLC. Data extraction: data were extracted by associate members to the ONCOL Group. The collection of information did not follow a uniform strategy. Results of data synthesis: therapy for NSCLC can prolong survival and improve quality of life, but the majority of advanced stage patients dies due to disease progression within 2 years, meaning that there is room for improvement. The standard chemotherapy for NSCLC involves one of a number of platinum-based doublets that have been shown to improve survival when compared with single agents or best supportive care. These doublets are generally comparable in terms of efficacy, differing primarily in their toxicity profiles. However, encouraging new options may be approaching, including therapies targeted to specific patient subpopulations, and the use of combinations of current and new drugs to produce synergistic effects. This review present a detailed analysis of current evidence regarding the treatment of NSCLC based on a representative case series. This review didn't conduct a systematic evaluation of the evidence. Conclusion: medical therapy for NSCLC produces positive changes in main outcomes, including quality of life

  5. A speeded-up saliency region-based contrast detection method for small targets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhengjie; Zhang, Haiying; Bai, Jiaojiao; Zhou, Zhongjun; Zheng, Huihuang

    2018-04-01

    To cope with the rapid development of the real applications for infrared small targets, the researchers have tried their best to pursue more robust detection methods. At present, the contrast measure-based method has become a promising research branch. Following the framework, in this paper, a speeded-up contrast measure scheme is proposed based on the saliency detection and density clustering. First, the saliency region is segmented by saliency detection method, and then, the Multi-scale contrast calculation is carried out on it instead of traversing the whole image. Second, the target with a certain "integrity" property in spatial is exploited to distinguish the target from the isolated noises by density clustering. Finally, the targets are detected by a self-adaptation threshold. Compared with time-consuming MPCM (Multiscale Patch Contrast Map), the time cost of the speeded-up version is within a few seconds. Additional, due to the use of "clustering segmentation", the false alarm caused by heavy noises can be restrained to a lower level. The experiments show that our method has a satisfied FASR (False alarm suppression ratio) and real-time performance compared with the state-of-art algorithms no matter in cloudy sky or sea-sky background.

  6. Development of a Si-PM-based high-resolution PET system for small animals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamamoto, Seiichi; Imaizumi, Masao; Watabe, Tadashi; Shimosegawa, Eku; Hatazawa, Jun; Watabe, Hiroshi; Kanai, Yasukazu

    2010-01-01

    A Geiger-mode avalanche photodiode (Si-PM) is a promising photodetector for PET, especially for use in a magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) system, because it has high gain and is less sensitive to a static magnetic field. We developed a Si-PM-based depth-of-interaction (DOI) PET system for small animals. Hamamatsu 4 x 4 Si-PM arrays (S11065-025P) were used for its detector blocks. Two types of LGSO scintillator of 0.75 mol% Ce (decay time: ∼45 ns; 1.1 mm x 1.2 mm x 5 mm) and 0.025 mol% Ce (decay time: ∼31 ns; 1.1 mm x 1.2 mm x 6 mm) were optically coupled in the DOI direction to form a DOI detector, arranged in a 11 x 9 matrix, and optically coupled to the Si-PM array. Pulse shape analysis was used for the DOI detection of these two types of LGSOs. Sixteen detector blocks were arranged in a 68 mm diameter ring to form the PET system. Spatial resolution was 1.6 mm FWHM and sensitivity was 0.6% at the center of the field of view. High-resolution mouse and rat images were successfully obtained using the PET system. We confirmed that the developed Si-PM-based PET system is promising for molecular imaging research.

  7. Small Scale SOFC Demonstration Using Bio-Based and Fossil Fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petrik, Michael [Technology Management Inc., Cleveland, OH (United States); Ruhl, Robert [Technology Management Inc., Cleveland, OH (United States)

    2012-05-01

    Technology Management, Inc. (TMI) of Cleveland, Ohio, has completed the project entitled Small Scale SOFC Demonstration using Bio-based and Fossil Fuels. Under this program, two 1-kW systems were engineered as technology demonstrators of an advanced technology that can operate on either traditional hydrocarbon fuels or renewable biofuels. The systems were demonstrated at Patterson's Fruit Farm of Chesterland, OH and were open to the public during the first quarter of 2012. As a result of the demonstration, TMI received quantitative feedback on operation of the systems as well as qualitative assessments from customers. Based on the test results, TMI believes that > 30% net electrical efficiency at 1 kW on both traditional and renewable fuels with a reasonable entry price is obtainable. The demonstration and analysis provide the confidence that a 1 kW entry-level system offers a viable value proposition, but additional modifications are warranted to reduce sound and increase reliability before full commercial acceptance.

  8. Self-organized Criticality and Synchronization in a Pulse-coupled Integrate-and-Fire Neuron Model Based on Small World Networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin Min; Chen Tianlun

    2005-01-01

    A lattice model for a set of pulse-coupled integrate-and-fire neurons with small world structure is introduced. We find that our model displays the power-law behavior accompanied with the large-scale synchronized activities among the units. And the different connectivity topologies lead to different behaviors in models of integrate-and-fire neurons.

  9. A new method of small target detection based on neural network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Jing; Hu, Yongli; Lu, Xinxin

    2018-02-01

    The detection and tracking of moving dim target in infrared image have been an research hotspot for many years. The target in each frame of images only occupies several pixels without any shape and structure information. Moreover, infrared small target is often submerged in complicated background with low signal-to-clutter ratio, making the detection very difficult. Different backgrounds exhibit different statistical properties, making it becomes extremely complex to detect the target. If the threshold segmentation is not reasonable, there may be more noise points in the final detection, which is unfavorable for the detection of the trajectory of the target. Single-frame target detection may not be able to obtain the desired target and cause high false alarm rate. We believe the combination of suspicious target detection spatially in each frame and temporal association for target tracking will increase reliability of tracking dim target. The detection of dim target is mainly divided into two parts, In the first part, we adopt bilateral filtering method in background suppression, after the threshold segmentation, the suspicious target in each frame are extracted, then we use LSTM(long short term memory) neural network to predict coordinates of target of the next frame. It is a brand-new method base on the movement characteristic of the target in sequence images which could respond to the changes in the relationship between past and future values of the values. Simulation results demonstrate proposed algorithm can effectively predict the trajectory of the moving small target and work efficiently and robustly with low false alarm.

  10. Small field dose delivery evaluations using cone beam optical computed tomography-based polymer gel dosimetry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timothy Olding

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper explores the combination of cone beam optical computed tomography with an N-isopropylacrylamide (NIPAM-based polymer gel dosimeter for three-dimensional dose imaging of small field deliveries. Initial investigations indicate that cone beam optical imaging of polymer gels is complicated by scattered stray light perturbation. This can lead to significant dosimetry failures in comparison to dose readout by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI. For example, only 60% of the voxels from an optical CT dose readout of a 1 l dosimeter passed a two-dimensional Low′s gamma test (at a 3%, 3 mm criteria, relative to a treatment plan for a well-characterized pencil beam delivery. When the same dosimeter was probed by MRI, a 93% pass rate was observed. The optical dose measurement was improved after modifications to the dosimeter preparation, matching its performance with the imaging capabilities of the scanner. With the new dosimeter preparation, 99.7% of the optical CT voxels passed a Low′s gamma test at the 3%, 3 mm criteria and 92.7% at a 2%, 2 mm criteria. The fitted interjar dose responses of a small sample set of modified dosimeters prepared (a from the same gel batch and (b from different gel batches prepared on the same day were found to be in agreement to within 3.6% and 3.8%, respectively, over the full dose range. Without drawing any statistical conclusions, this experiment gives a preliminary indication that intrabatch or interbatch NIPAM dosimeters prepared on the same day should be suitable for dose sensitivity calibration.

  11. Accurate color measurement methods for medical displays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saha, Anindita; Kelley, Edward F; Badano, Aldo

    2010-01-01

    The necessity for standard instrumentation and measurements of color that are repeatable and reproducible is the major motivation behind this work. Currently, different instrumentation and methods can yield very different results when measuring the same feature such as color uniformity or color difference. As color increasingly comes into play in medical imaging diagnostics, display color will have to be quantified in order to assess whether the display should be used for imaging purposes. The authors report on the characterization of three novel probes for measuring display color with minimal contamination from screen areas outside the measurement spot or from off-normal emissions. They compare three probe designs: A modified small-spot luminance probe and two conic probe designs based on black frusta. To compare the three color probe designs, spectral and luminance measurements were taken with specialized instrumentation to determine the luminance changes and color separation abilities of the probes. The probes were characterized with a scanning slit method, veiling glare, and a moving laser and LED arrangement. The scanning slit measurement was done using a black slit plate over a white line on an LCD monitor. The luminance was measured in 1 mm increments from the center of the slit to +/- 15 mm above and below the slit at different distances between the probe and the slit. The veiling glare setup consisted of measurements of the luminance of a black spot pattern with a white disk of radius of 100 mm as the black spot increases in 1 mm radius increments. The moving LED and laser method consisted of a red and green light orthogonal to the probe tip for the light to directly shine into the probe. The green light source was moved away from the red source in 1 cm increments to measure color stray-light contamination at different probe distances. The results of the color testing using the LED and laser methods suggest a better performance of one of the frusta probes

  12. Flat panel planar optic display

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Veligdan, J.T. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States). Dept. of Advanced Technology

    1994-11-01

    A prototype 10 inch flat panel Planar Optic Display, (POD), screen has been constructed and tested. This display screen is comprised of hundreds of planar optic class sheets bonded together with a cladding layer between each sheet where each glass sheet represents a vertical line of resolution. The display is 9 inches wide by 5 inches high and approximately 1 inch thick. A 3 milliwatt HeNe laser is used as the illumination source and a vector scanning technique is employed.

  13. Display technologies for augmented reality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Byoungho; Lee, Seungjae; Jang, Changwon; Hong, Jong-Young; Li, Gang

    2018-02-01

    With the virtue of rapid progress in optics, sensors, and computer science, we are witnessing that commercial products or prototypes for augmented reality (AR) are penetrating into the consumer markets. AR is spotlighted as expected to provide much more immersive and realistic experience than ordinary displays. However, there are several barriers to be overcome for successful commercialization of AR. Here, we explore challenging and important topics for AR such as image combiners, enhancement of display performance, and focus cue reproduction. Image combiners are essential to integrate virtual images with real-world. Display performance (e.g. field of view and resolution) is important for more immersive experience and focus cue reproduction may mitigate visual fatigue caused by vergence-accommodation conflict. We also demonstrate emerging technologies to overcome these issues: index-matched anisotropic crystal lens (IMACL), retinal projection displays, and 3D display with focus cues. For image combiners, a novel optical element called IMACL provides relatively wide field of view. Retinal projection displays may enhance field of view and resolution of AR displays. Focus cues could be reconstructed via multi-layer displays and holographic displays. Experimental results of our prototypes are explained.

  14. Graphic Display Development Program. Volume II, Revision 0. Appendices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-12-01

    The objective of this project is to demonstrate the feasibility and utility of developing a set of graphic displays to support symptom-based emergency operating procedures (EOPs). Development of generic graphic displays is based on Revision 3 of the symptomatic Emergency Procedure Guidelines (EPGs) prepared by the BWR Owners' Group (BWROG), and development of plant-specific graphic displays is based on a set of emergency operating procedures developed from these EPGs

  15. Reaction-based small-molecule fluorescent probes for dynamic detection of ROS and transient redox changes in living cells and small animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lü, Rui

    2017-09-01

    Dynamic detection of transient redox changes in living cells and animals has broad implications for human health and disease diagnosis, because intracellular redox homeostasis regulated by reactive oxygen species (ROS) plays important role in cell functions, normal physiological functions and some serious human diseases (e.g., cancer, Alzheimer's disease, diabetes, etc.) usually have close relationship with the intracellular redox status. Small-molecule ROS-responsive fluorescent probes can act as powerful tools for dynamic detection of ROS and redox changes in living cells and animals through fluorescence imaging techniques; and great advances have been achieved recently in the design and synthesis of small-molecule ROS-responsive fluorescent probes. This article highlights up-to-date achievements in designing and using the reaction-based small-molecule fluorescent probes (with high sensitivity and selectivity to ROS and redox cycles) in the dynamic detection of ROS and transient redox changes in living cells and animals through fluorescence imaging. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  16. NEW APPROACHES TO CUSTOMER BASE SEGMENTATION FOR SMALL AND MEDIUM-SIZED ENTERPRISES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meleancă Raluca-Cristina

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The primary purpose of this paper is to explore current praxis and theory related to customer segmentation and to offer an approach which is best suited for small and medium sized enterprises. The proposed solution is the result of an exploratory research aiming to recognize the main variables which influence the practice of segmenting the customer base and to study the most applied alternatives available for all types of enterprises. The research has been performed by studying a large set of secondary data, scientific literature and case studies regarding smaller companies from the European Union. The result of the research consists in an original approach to customer base segmentation, which combines aspects belonging to different well spread practices and applies them to the specific needs of a small or medium company, which typically has limited marketing resources in general and targeted marketing resources in particular. The significance of the proposed customer base segmentation approach lies in the fact that, even though smaller enterprises are in most economies the greatest in number compared to large companies, most of the literature on targeting practices has focused primarily on big companies dealing with a very large clientele, while the case of the smaller companies has been to some extent unfairly neglected. Targeted marketing is becoming more and more important for all types of companies nowadays, as a result of technology advances which make targeted communication easier and less expensive than in the past and also due to the fact that broad-based media have decreased their impact over the years. For a very large proportion of smaller companies, directing their marketing budgets towards targeted campaigns is a clever initiative, as broad based approaches are in many cases less effective and much more expensive. Targeted marketing stratagems are generally related to high tech domains such as artificial intelligence, data mining

  17. Yeast based small molecule screen for inhibitors of SARS-CoV.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew Frieman

    Full Text Available Severe acute respiratory coronavirus (SARS-CoV emerged in 2002, resulting in roughly 8000 cases worldwide and 10% mortality. The animal reservoirs for SARS-CoV precursors still exist and the likelihood of future outbreaks in the human population is high. The SARS-CoV papain-like protease (PLP is an attractive target for pharmaceutical development because it is essential for virus replication and is conserved among human coronaviruses. A yeast-based assay was established for PLP activity that relies on the ability of PLP to induce a pronounced slow-growth phenotype when expressed in S. cerevisiae. Induction of the slow-growth phenotype was shown to take place over a 60-hour time course, providing the basis for conducting a screen for small molecules that restore growth by inhibiting the function of PLP. Five chemical suppressors of the slow-growth phenotype were identified from the 2000 member NIH Diversity Set library. One of these, NSC158362, potently inhibited SARS-CoV replication in cell culture without toxic effects on cells, and it specifically inhibited SARS-CoV replication but not influenza virus replication. The effect of NSC158362 on PLP protease, deubiquitinase and anti-interferon activities was investigated but the compound did not alter these activities. Another suppressor, NSC158011, demonstrated the ability to inhibit PLP protease activity in a cell-based assay. The identification of these inhibitors demonstrated a strong functional connection between the PLP-based yeast assay, the inhibitory compounds, and SARS-CoV biology. Furthermore the data with NSC158362 suggest a novel mechanism for inhibition of SARS-CoV replication that may involve an unknown activity of PLP, or alternatively a direct effect on a cellular target that modifies or bypasses PLP function in yeast and mammalian cells.

  18. Advanced display concepts in nuclear control rooms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clark, M.T.; Banks, W.W.; Blackman, H.S.; Gertman, D.I.

    1982-01-01

    Precursors necessary for the development of a full-scale predictor display/control system have been under development since the mid 1940's. The predictor display itself has been available for use in manual control systems since 1958. However, the nuclear industry has not yet explored the uses and benefits of predictor systems. The purpose of this paper is to provide information on the application of this technology to the nuclear industry. The possibility of employing a simulation-based control system for nuclear plant systems that currently use conventional auto/manual schemes is discussed. By employing simulation-based systems, a predictor display could be made available to the operator during manual operations, thus facilitating control without outwardly affecting the overall control scheme

  19. Time over threshold readout method of SiPM based small animal PET detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valastyan, I.; Gal, J.; Hegyesi, G.; Kalinka, G.; Nagy, F.; Kiraly, B.; Imrek, J.; Molnar, J.

    2012-01-01

    Complete text of publication follows. The aim of the work was to design a readout concept for silicon photomultiplier (SiPM) sensor array used in small animal PET scanner. The detector module consist of LYSO 35x35 scintillation crystals, 324 SiPM sensors (arranged in 2x2 blocks and those quads in a 9x9 configuration) and FPGA based readout electronics. The dimensions of the SiPM matrix are area: 48x48 mm 2 and the size of one SiPM sensor is 1.95x2.2 mm 2 . Due to the high dark current of the SiPM, conventional Anger based readout method does not provide sufficient crystal position maps. Digitizing the 324 SiPM channels is a straightforward way to obtain proper crystal position maps. However handling hundreds of analogue input channels and the required DSP resources cause large racks of data acquisition electronics. Therefore coding of the readout channels is required. Proposed readout method: The coding of the 324 SiPMs consists two steps: Step 1) Reduction of the channels from 324 to 36: Row column readout, SiPMs are connected to each other in column by column and row-by row, thus the required channels are 36. The dark current of 18 connected SiPMs is small in off for identifying pulses coming from scintillating events. Step 2) Reduction of the 18 rows and columns to 4 channels: Comparators were connected to each rows and columns, and the level was set above the level of dark noise. Therefore only few comparators are active when scintillation light enters in the tile. The output of the comparator rows and columns are divided to two parts using resistor chains. Then the outputs of the resistor chains are digitized by a 4 channel ADC. However instead of the Anger method, time over threshold (ToT) was used. Figure 1 shows the readout concept of the SiPM matrix. In order to validate the new method and optimize the front-end electronics of the detector, the analogue signals were digitized before the comparators using a CAEN DT5740 32 channel digitizer, then the

  20. Organizational culture, team climate and diabetes care in small office-based practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosch, Marije; Dijkstra, Rob; Wensing, Michel; van der Weijden, Trudy; Grol, Richard

    2008-08-21

    Redesigning care has been proposed as a lever for improving chronic illness care. Within primary care, diabetes care is the most widespread example of restructured integrated care. Our goal was to assess to what extent important aspects of restructured care such as multidisciplinary teamwork and different types of organizational culture are associated with high quality diabetes care in small office-based general practices. We conducted cross-sectional analyses of data from 83 health care professionals involved in diabetes care from 30 primary care practices in the Netherlands, with a total of 752 diabetes mellitus type II patients participating in an improvement study. We used self-reported measures of team climate (Team Climate Inventory) and organizational culture (Competing Values Framework), and measures of quality of diabetes care and clinical patient characteristics from medical records and self-report. We conducted multivariate analyses of the relationship between culture, climate and HbA1c, total cholesterol, systolic blood pressure and a sum score on process indicators for the quality of diabetes care, adjusting for potential patient- and practice level confounders and practice-level clustering. A strong group culture was negatively associated to the quality of diabetes care provided to patients (beta = -0.04; p = 0.04), whereas a more 'balanced culture' was positively associated to diabetes care quality (beta = 5.97; p = 0.03). No associations were found between organizational culture, team climate and clinical patient outcomes. Although some significant associations were found between high quality diabetes care in general practice and different organizational cultures, relations were rather marginal. Variation in clinical patient outcomes could not be attributed to organizational culture or teamwork. This study therefore contributes to the discussion about the legitimacy of the widespread idea that aspects of redesigning care such as teamwork and culture

  1. Organizational culture, team climate and diabetes care in small office-based practices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    van der Weijden Trudy

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Redesigning care has been proposed as a lever for improving chronic illness care. Within primary care, diabetes care is the most widespread example of restructured integrated care. Our goal was to assess to what extent important aspects of restructured care such as multidisciplinary teamwork and different types of organizational culture are associated with high quality diabetes care in small office-based general practices. Methods We conducted cross-sectional analyses of data from 83 health care professionals involved in diabetes care from 30 primary care practices in the Netherlands, with a total of 752 diabetes mellitus type II patients participating in an improvement study. We used self-reported measures of team climate (Team Climate Inventory and organizational culture (Competing Values Framework, and measures of quality of diabetes care and clinical patient characteristics from medical records and self-report. We conducted multivariate analyses of the relationship between culture, climate and HbA1c, total cholesterol, systolic blood pressure and a sum score on process indicators for the quality of diabetes care, adjusting for potential patient- and practice level confounders and practice-level clustering. Results A strong group culture was negatively associated to the quality of diabetes care provided to patients (β = -0.04; p = 0.04, whereas a more 'balanced culture' was positively associated to diabetes care quality (β = 5.97; p = 0.03. No associations were found between organizational culture, team climate and clinical patient outcomes. Conclusion Although some significant associations were found between high quality diabetes care in general practice and different organizational cultures, relations were rather marginal. Variation in clinical patient outcomes could not be attributed to organizational culture or teamwork. This study therefore contributes to the discussion about the legitimacy of the widespread idea

  2. Fociss-R(etail): developing a system based sustainable strategy model for small food retail

    OpenAIRE

    Venselaar, Jan; Hendriksen, Jack

    2014-01-01

    Small retail entrepreneurs in the Netherlands are confronted with declining turnover and ROI. A decrease and even disappearance of small retail in town centres, suburbs and villages is not just a loss of income for the people involved. It constitutes also a loss of attractiveness and economic viability for town centres and villages. Besides for specific groups of people, for instance the less mobile ones, it leads to erosion their social surrounding. Small and local retail can be seen as esse...

  3. Establishment of a sensitive time-resolved fluoroimmunoassay for detection of Bacillus thuringiensis Cry1Ie toxin based nanobody from a phage display library.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Chongxin; Liu, Xiaoqin; Zhang, Cunzheng; Zhang, Xiao; Zhong, Jianfeng; Liu, Yuan; Hu, Xiaodan; Lin, Manman; Liu, Xianjin

    2017-02-01

    Cry1Ie toxin was an insect-resistant protein used in genetically modified crops (GMC). In this study, a large human VH gene nanobodies phage displayed library was employed to select anti-Cry1Ie toxin antibody by affinity panning. After 5 rounds of panning, total 12 positive monoclonal phage particles were obtained. One of the identified positive phage nanobody was expressed in E.coli BL21 and the purified protein was indicated as a molecular mass of approximately 20 kDa by sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE). Then a sensitive indirect competitive time-resolved fluoroimmunoassay (IC-TRFIA) was established for detection of Cry1Ie toxin by the purified protein. The working range of detection for Cry1Ie toxin standards in the IC-TRFIA were 0.08-6.44 ng mL -1 and the medium inhibition of control (IC 50 ) was 0.73 ng mL -1 . It showed a weak cross-reactivity with Cry1Ab toxin (at 5.6%), but did not recognize Cry1B, Cry1C, Cry1F, and Cry2A toxins (were <0.1%). The average recoveries of Cry1Ie toxin from respectively spiked in rice, corn and soil samples were in the range of 83.5%-96.6% and with a coefficient of variation (CV) among 2.0%-8.6%. These results showed the IC-TRFIA was promising for detection of Cry1Ie toxin in agricultural and environmental samples. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. A human monoclonal antibody drug and target discovery platform for B-cell chronic lymphocytic leukemia based on allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation and phage display.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baskar, Sivasubramanian; Suschak, Jessica M; Samija, Ivan; Srinivasan, Ramaprasad; Childs, Richard W; Pavletic, Steven Z; Bishop, Michael R; Rader, Christoph

    2009-11-12

    Allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (alloHSCT) is the only potentially curative treatment available for patients with B-cell chronic lymphocytic leukemia (B-CLL). Here, we show that post-alloHSCT antibody repertoires can be mined for the discovery of fully human monoclonal antibodies to B-CLL cell-surface antigens. Sera collected from B-CLL patients at defined times after alloHSCT showed selective binding to primary B-CLL cells. Pre-alloHSCT sera, donor sera, and control sera were negative. To identify post-alloHSCT serum antibodies and subsequently B-CLL cell-surface antigens they recognize, we generated a human antibody-binding fragment (Fab) library from post-alloHSCT peripheral blood mononuclear cells and selected it on primary B-CLL cells by phage display. A panel of Fab with B-CLL cell-surface reactivity was strongly enriched. Selection was dominated by highly homologous Fab predicted to bind the same antigen. One Fab was converted to immunoglobulin G1 and analyzed for reactivity with peripheral blood mononuclear cells from B-CLL patients and healthy volunteers. Cell-surface antigen expression was restricted to primary B cells and up-regulated in primary B-CLL cells. Mining post-alloHSCT antibody repertoires offers a novel route to discover fully human monoclonal antibodies and identify antigens of potential therapeutic relevance to B-CLL and possibly other cancers. Trials described herein were registered at www.clinicaltrials.gov as nos. NCT00055744 and NCT00003838.

  5. A small perturbation based optimization approach for the frequency placement of high aspect ratio wings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goltsch, Mandy

    based on a Timoshenko stiffness effect separation. The formulation of respective linear changes falls back on surrogate models that approximate cross sectional properties. Corresponding functional responses are readily available. Their direct use by the small perturbation based optimizer ensures constitutive laws and eliminates a previously necessary optimization at the local level. The scope of the present work is derived from an existing configuration such as a conceptual baseline or a prototype that experiences aeroelastic instabilities. Due to the lack of respective design studies in the traditional design process it is not uncommon for an initial wing design to have such stability problems. The developed optimization scheme allows the effective redesign of high aspect ratio wings subject to natural frequency objectives. Its successful application is demonstrated by three separate optimization studies. The implementation results of all three studies confirm that the gradient liberation of the new methodology brings about great computational savings. A generic wing study is used to indicate the connection between the proposed methodology and the aeroelastic stability problems outlined in the motivation. It is also used to illustrate an important practical aspect of structural redesign, i.e., a minimum departure from the existing baseline configuration. The proposed optimization scheme is naturally conducive to this practical aspect by using a minimum change optimization criterion. However, only an elemental formulation truly enables a minimum change solution. It accounts for the spanwise significance of a structural modification to the mode of interest. This idea of localized reinforcement greatly benefits the practical realization of structural redesign efforts. The implementation results also highlight the fundamental limitation of the proposed methodology. The exclusive consideration of mass and stiffness effects on modal response characteristics disregards other

  6. Systems Based Study of the Therapeutic Potential of Small Charged Molecules for the Inhibition of IL-1 Mediated Cartilage Degradation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kar, Saptarshi; Smith, David W.; Gardiner, Bruce S.; Grodzinsky, Alan J.

    2016-01-01

    Inflammatory cytokines are key drivers of cartilage degradation in post-traumatic osteoarthritis. Cartilage degradation mediated by these inflammatory cytokines has been extensively investigated using in vitro experimental systems. Based on one such study, we have developed a computational model to quantitatively assess the impact of charged small molecules intended to inhibit IL-1 mediated cartilage degradation. We primarily focus on the simplest possible computational model of small molecular interaction with the IL-1 system—direct binding of the small molecule to the active site on the IL-1 molecule itself. We first use the model to explore the uptake and release kinetics of the small molecule inhibitor by cartilage tissue. Our results show that negatively charged small molecules are excluded from the negatively charged cartilage tissue and have uptake kinetics in the order of hours. In contrast, the positively charged small molecules are drawn into the cartilage with uptake and release timescales ranging from hours to days. Using our calibrated computational model, we subsequently explore the effect of small molecule charge and binding constant on the rate of cartilage degradation. The results from this analysis indicate that the small molecules are most effective in inhibiting cartilage degradation if they are either positively charged and/or bind strongly to IL-1α, or both. Furthermore, our results showed that the cartilage structural homeostasis can be restored by the small molecule if administered within six days following initial tissue exposure to IL-1α. We finally extended the scope of the computational model by simulating the competitive inhibition of cartilage degradation by the small molecule. Results from this model show that small molecules are more efficient in inhibiting cartilage degradation by binding directly to IL-1α rather than binding to IL-1α receptors. The results from this study can be used as a template for the design and

  7. High-Performance Near-Infrared Phototransistor Based on n-Type Small-Molecular Organic Semiconductor

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Feng

    2016-12-13

    A solution-processed near-infrared (NIR) organic phototransistor (OPT) based on n-type organic small molecular material BODIPY-BF2 has been successfully fabricated. Its unprecedented performance, as well as its easy fabrication and good stability, mark this BODIPY-BF2 based OPT device as a very promising candidate for optoelectronic applications in the NIR regime.

  8. High-Performance Near-Infrared Phototransistor Based on n-Type Small-Molecular Organic Semiconductor

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Feng; Chen, Yin; Ma, Chun; Buttner, Ulrich; Leo, Karl; Wu, Tao

    2016-01-01

    A solution-processed near-infrared (NIR) organic phototransistor (OPT) based on n-type organic small molecular material BODIPY-BF2 has been successfully fabricated. Its unprecedented performance, as well as its easy fabrication and good stability, mark this BODIPY-BF2 based OPT device as a very promising candidate for optoelectronic applications in the NIR regime.

  9. You Be the Judge: Display.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koeninger, Jimmy G.

    The instructional package was developed to provide the distributive education teacher-coordinator with visual materials that can be used to supplement existing textbook offerings in the area of display (visual merchandising). Designed for use with 35mm slides of retail store displays, the package allows the student to view the slides of displays…

  10. Displays: Entering a New Dimension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starkman, Neal

    2007-01-01

    As display technologies prepare to welcome 3-D, the 21st-century classroom will soon bear little resemblance to anything students and teachers have ever seen. In this article, the author presents the latest innovations in the world of digital display technology. These include: (1) Touchlight, an interactive touch screen program that takes a normal…

  11. Software for graphic display systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karlov, A.A.

    1978-01-01

    In this paper some aspects of graphic display systems are discussed. The design of a display subroutine library is described, with an example, and graphic dialogue software is considered primarily from the point of view of the programmer who uses a high-level language. (Auth.)

  12. Flexible Bistable Cholesteric Reflective Displays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Deng-Ke

    2006-03-01

    Cholesteric liquid crystals (ChLCs) exhibit two stable states at zero field condition-the reflecting planar state and the nonreflecting focal conic state. ChLCs are an excellent candidate for inexpensive and rugged electronic books and papers. This paper will review the display cell structure,materials and drive schemes for flexible bistable cholesteric (Ch) reflective displays.

  13. GIS-based Approach to Estimate Surface Runoff in Small Catchments: A Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vojtek Matej

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The issue of surface runoff assessment is one of the important and relevant topics of hydrological as well as geographical research. The aim of the paper is therefore to estimate and assess surface runoff on the example of Vyčoma catchment which is located in the Western Slovakia. For this purpose, SCS runoff curve number method, modeling in GIS and remote sensing were used. An important task was the creation of a digital elevation model (DEM, which enters the surface runoff modeling and affects its accuracy. Great attention was paid to the spatial interpretation of land use categories applying aerial imagery from 2013 and hydrological soil groups as well as calculation of maximum daily rainfall with N-year return periods as partial tasks in estimating surface runoff. From the methodological point of view, the importance of the paper can be seen in the use of a simple GIS-based approach to assess the surface runoff conditions in a small catchment.

  14. Marginal Contribution-Based Distributed Subchannel Allocation in Small Cell Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Shashi; Kittipiyakul, Somsak; Lim, Yuto; Tan, Yasuo

    2018-05-10

    The paper presents a game theoretic solution for distributed subchannel allocation problem in small cell networks (SCNs) analyzed under the physical interference model. The objective is to find a distributed solution that maximizes the welfare of the SCNs, defined as the total system capacity. Although the problem can be addressed through best-response (BR) dynamics, the existence of a steady-state solution, i.e., a pure strategy Nash equilibrium (NE), cannot be guaranteed. Potential games (PGs) ensure convergence to a pure strategy NE when players rationally play according to some specified learning rules. However, such a performance guarantee comes at the expense of complete knowledge of the SCNs. To overcome such requirements, properties of PGs are exploited for scalable implementations, where we utilize the concept of marginal contribution (MC) as a tool to design learning rules of players’ utility and propose the marginal contribution-based best-response (MCBR) algorithm of low computational complexity for the distributed subchannel allocation problem. Finally, we validate and evaluate the proposed scheme through simulations for various performance metrics.

  15. Marginal Contribution-Based Distributed Subchannel Allocation in Small Cell Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shashi Shah

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents a game theoretic solution for distributed subchannel allocation problem in small cell networks (SCNs analyzed under the physical interference model. The objective is to find a distributed solution that maximizes the welfare of the SCNs, defined as the total system capacity. Although the problem can be addressed through best-response (BR dynamics, the existence of a steady-state solution, i.e., a pure strategy Nash equilibrium (NE, cannot be guaranteed. Potential games (PGs ensure convergence to a pure strategy NE when players rationally play according to some specified learning rules. However, such a performance guarantee comes at the expense of complete knowledge of the SCNs. To overcome such requirements, properties of PGs are exploited for scalable implementations, where we utilize the concept of marginal contribution (MC as a tool to design learning rules of players’ utility and propose the marginal contribution-based best-response (MCBR algorithm of low computational complexity for the distributed subchannel allocation problem. Finally, we validate and evaluate the proposed scheme through simulations for various performance metrics.

  16. Carbon Reduction Strategies Based on an NW Small-World Network with a Progressive Carbon Tax

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bin Wu

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available There is an increasingly urgent need to reduce carbon emissions. Devising effective carbon tax policies has become an important research topic. It is necessary to explore carbon reduction strategies based on the design of carbon tax elements. In this study, we explore the effect of a progressive carbon tax policy on carbon emission reductions using the logical deduction method. We apply experience-weighted attraction learning theory to construct an evolutionary game model for enterprises with different levels of energy consumption in an NW small-world network, and study their strategy choices when faced with a progressive carbon tax policy. The findings suggest that enterprises that adopt other energy consumption strategies gradually transform to a low energy consumption strategy, and that this trend eventually spreads to the entire system. With other conditions unchanged, the rate at which enterprises change to a low energy consumption strategy becomes faster as the discount coefficient, the network externality, and the expected adjustment factor increase. Conversely, the rate of change slows as the cost of converting to a low energy consumption strategy increases.

  17. Implementation of a Small Type DC Microgrid Based on Fuzzy Control and Dynamic Programming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chin-Hsing Cheng

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available A DC microgrid (DC-MG is a novel power system that uses DC distribution in order to provide high quality power. The study system is made by a photovoltaic array (PV, a wind generator (WG, a fuel cell (FC, and an energy storage system (ESS to establish a small type DC microgrid, with the bus being established by DC/DC converters with fuzzy controllers. An overall power dispatch was designed for the proposed system to distribute the power flows among the different energy sources and the storage unit in the system in order to satisfy the load requirements throughout an entire 24-h period. The structure of a power supervisor based on an optimal power dispatch algorithm is here proposed. Optimization was performed using dynamic programming (DP. In this paper, a system configuration of a DC microgrid is analyzed in different scenarios to show the efficacy of the control for all devices for the variable weather conditions with different DC loads. Thus, the voltage level and the power flow of the system are shown for different load conditions.

  18. Evaluation of groundwater discharge into small lakes based on the temporal distribution of radon-222

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimova, N.T.; Burnett, W.C.

    2011-01-01

    In order to evaluate groundwater discharge into small lakes we constructed a model that is based on the budget of 222Rn (radon t1/2 5 3.8 d) as a tracer. The main assumptions in our model are that the lake's waters are wellmixed horizontally and vertically; the only significant 222Rn source is via groundwater discharge; and the only losses are due to decay and atmospheric evasion. In order to evaluate the groundwater-derived 222Rn flux, we monitored the 222Rn concentration in lake water over periods long enough (usually 1-3 d) to observe changes likely caused by variations in atmospheric exchange (primarily a function of wind speed and temperature). We then attempt to reproduce the observed record by accounting for decay and atmospheric losses and by estimating the total 222Rn input flux using an iterative approach. Our methodology was tested in two lakes in central Florida: one of which is thought to have significant groundwater inputs (Lake Haines) and another that is known not to have any groundwater inflows but requires daily groundwater augmentation from a deep aquifer (Round Lake). Model results were consistent with independent seepage meter data at both Lake Haines (positive seepage of ??? 1.6 ?? 104 m3 d-1 in Mar 2008) and at Round Lake (no net groundwater seepage). ?? 2011, by the American Society of Limnology and Oceanography, Inc.

  19. An orbit determination algorithm for small satellites based on the magnitude of the earth magnetic field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zagorski, P.; Gallina, A.; Rachucki, J.; Moczala, B.; Zietek, S.; Uhl, T.

    2018-06-01

    Autonomous attitude determination systems based on simple measurements of vector quantities such as magnetic field and the Sun direction are commonly used in very small satellites. However, those systems always require knowledge of the satellite position. This information can be either propagated from orbital elements periodically uplinked from the ground station or measured onboard by dedicated global positioning system (GPS) receiver. The former solution sacrifices satellite autonomy while the latter requires additional sensors which may represent a significant part of mass, volume, and power budget in case of pico- or nanosatellites. Hence, it is thought that a system for onboard satellite position determination without resorting to GPS receivers would be useful. In this paper, a novel algorithm for determining the satellite orbit semimajor-axis is presented. The methods exploit only the magnitude of the Earth magnetic field recorded onboard by magnetometers. This represents the first step toward an extended algorithm that can determine all orbital elements of the satellite. The method is validated by numerical analysis and real magnetic field measurements.

  20. Functional Analysis of OMICs Data and Small Molecule Compounds in an Integrated "Knowledge-Based" Platform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubovenko, Alexey; Nikolsky, Yuri; Rakhmatulin, Eugene; Nikolskaya, Tatiana

    2017-01-01

    Analysis of NGS and other sequencing data, gene variants, gene expression, proteomics, and other high-throughput (OMICs) data is challenging because of its biological complexity and high level of technical and biological noise. One way to deal with both problems is to perform analysis with a high fidelity annotated knowledgebase of protein interactions, pathways, and functional ontologies. This knowledgebase has to be structured in a computer-readable format and must include software tools for managing experimental data, analysis, and reporting. Here, we present MetaCore™ and Key Pathway Advisor (KPA), an integrated platform for functional data analysis. On the content side, MetaCore and KPA encompass a comprehensive database of molecular interactions of different types, pathways, network models, and ten functional ontologies covering human, mouse, and rat genes. The analytical toolkit includes tools for gene/protein list enrichment analysis, statistical "interactome" tool for the identification of over- and under-connected proteins in the dataset, and a biological network analysis module made up of network generation algorithms and filters. The suite also features Advanced Search, an application for combinatorial search of the database content, as well as a Java-based tool called Pathway Map Creator for drawing and editing custom pathway maps. Applications of MetaCore and KPA include molecular mode of action of disease research, identification of potential biomarkers and drug targets, pathway hypothesis generation, analysis of biological effects for novel small molecule compounds and clinical applications (analysis of large cohorts of patients, and translational and personalized medicine).