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Sample records for small area variations

  1. Is there much variation in variation? Revisiting statistics of small area variation in health services research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ibáñez Berta

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The importance of Small Area Variation Analysis for policy-making contrasts with the scarcity of work on the validity of the statistics used in these studies. Our study aims at 1 determining whether variation in utilization rates between health areas is higher than would be expected by chance, 2 estimating the statistical power of the variation statistics; and 3 evaluating the ability of different statistics to compare the variability among different procedures regardless of their rates. Methods Parametric bootstrap techniques were used to derive the empirical distribution for each statistic under the hypothesis of homogeneity across areas. Non-parametric procedures were used to analyze the empirical distribution for the observed statistics and compare the results in six situations (low/medium/high utilization rates and low/high variability. A small scale simulation study was conducted to assess the capacity of each statistic to discriminate between different scenarios with different degrees of variation. Results Bootstrap techniques proved to be good at quantifying the difference between the null hypothesis and the variation observed in each situation, and to construct reliable tests and confidence intervals for each of the variation statistics analyzed. Although the good performance of Systematic Component of Variation (SCV, Empirical Bayes (EB statistic shows better behaviour under the null hypothesis, it is able to detect variability if present, it is not influenced by the procedure rate and it is best able to discriminate between different degrees of heterogeneity. Conclusion The EB statistics seems to be a good alternative to more conventional statistics used in small-area variation analysis in health service research because of its robustness.

  2. Self-poisoning in rural Sri Lanka: small-area variations in incidence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Manuel, Celie; Gunnell, David J; van der Hoek, Wim

    2008-01-01

    measures in these settings, this study investigates small-area variation in self-poisoning incidence and its association with area-based socioeconomic and agricultural factors. METHODS: Ecological analysis of intentional self-poisoning in a rural area (population 267,613) of Sri Lanka in 2002.......01). CONCLUSION: Considerable small-area variation in incidence rates of intentional self-poisoning was found. The noteworthy concentration of cases in certain areas and the inverse association with socioeconomic deprivation merit attention and should be investigated using individual-level exposure data....... of intentional self-poisoning in the study area was 315 per 100,000 (range: 0 - 2168 per 100,000 across GNs). Socioeconomic disadvantage, as indexed by poor housing quality (p = 0.003) and low levels of education (p

  3. Assessing the Impact of Socioeconomic Variables on Small Area Variations in Suicide Outcomes in England

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    Peter Congdon

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Ecological studies of suicide and self-harm have established the importance of area variables (e.g., deprivation, social fragmentation in explaining variations in suicide risk. However, there are likely to be unobserved influences on risk, typically spatially clustered, which can be modeled as random effects. Regression impacts may be biased if no account is taken of spatially structured influences on risk. Furthermore a default assumption of linear effects of area variables may also misstate or understate their impact. This paper considers variations in suicide outcomes for small areas across England, and investigates the impact on them of area socio-economic variables, while also investigating potential nonlinearity in their impact and allowing for spatially clustered unobserved factors. The outcomes are self-harm hospitalisations and suicide mortality over 6,781 Middle Level Super Output Areas.

  4. Small area-level variation in the incidence of psychotic disorders in an urban area in France: an ecological study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szoke, Andrei; Pignon, Baptiste; Baudin, Grégoire; Tortelli, Andrea; Richard, Jean-Romain; Leboyer, Marion; Schürhoff, Franck

    2016-07-01

    We sought to determine whether significant variation in the incidence of clinically relevant psychoses existed at an ecological level in an urban French setting, and to examine possible factors associated with this variation. We aimed to advance the literature by testing this hypothesis in a novel population setting and by comparing a variety of spatial models. We sought to identify all first episode cases of non-affective and affective psychotic disorders presenting in a defined urban catchment area over a 4 years period, over more than half a million person-years at-risk. Because data from geographic close neighbourhoods usually show spatial autocorrelation, we used for our analyses Bayesian modelling. We included small area neighbourhood measures of deprivation, migrants' density and social fragmentation as putative explanatory variables in the models. Incidence of broad psychotic disorders shows spatial patterning with the best fit for models that included both strong autocorrelation between neighbouring areas and weak autocorrelation between areas further apart. Affective psychotic disorders showed similar spatial patterning and were associated with the proportion of migrants/foreigners in the area (inverse correlation). In contrast, non-affective psychoses did not show spatial patterning. At ecological level, the variation in the number of cases and the factors that influence this variation are different for non-affective and affective psychotic disorders. Important differences in results-compared with previous studies in different settings-point to the importance of the context and the necessity of further studies to understand these differences.

  5. Modelling multiple hospital outcomes: the impact of small area and primary care practice variation

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    Congdon Peter

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background: Appropriate management of care – for example, avoiding unnecessary attendances at, or admissions to, hospital emergency units when they could be handled in primary care – is an important part of health strategy. However, some variations in these outcomes could be due to genuine variations in health need. This paper proposes a new method of explaining variations in hospital utilisation across small areas and the general practices (GPs responsible for patient primary care. By controlling for the influence of true need on such variations, one may identify remaining sources of excess emergency attendances and admissions, both at area and practice level, that may be related to the quality, resourcing or organisation of care. The present paper accordingly develops a methodology that recognises the interplay between population mix factors (health need and primary care factors (e.g. referral thresholds, that allows for unobserved influences on hospitalisation usage, and that also reflects interdependence between hospital outcomes. A case study considers relativities in attendance and admission rates at a North London hospital involving 149 small areas and 53 GP practices. Results: A fixed effects model shows variations in attendances and admissions are significantly related (positively to area and practice need, and nursing home patients, and related (negatively to primary care access and distance of patient homes from the hospital. Modelling the impact of known factors alone is not sufficient to produce a satisfactory fit to the observations, and random effects at area and practice level are needed to improve fit and account for overdispersion. Conclusion: The case study finds variation in attendance and admission rates across areas and practices after controlling for need, and remaining differences between practices may be attributable to referral behaviour unrelated to need, or to staffing, resourcing, and access issues. In

  6. Source Distribution Method for Unsteady One-Dimensional Flows With Small Mass, Momentum, and Heat Addition and Small Area Variation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirels, Harold

    1959-01-01

    A source distribution method is presented for obtaining flow perturbations due to small unsteady area variations, mass, momentum, and heat additions in a basic uniform (or piecewise uniform) one-dimensional flow. First, the perturbations due to an elemental area variation, mass, momentum, and heat addition are found. The general solution is then represented by a spatial and temporal distribution of these elemental (source) solutions. Emphasis is placed on discussing the physical nature of the flow phenomena. The method is illustrated by several examples. These include the determination of perturbations in basic flows consisting of (1) a shock propagating through a nonuniform tube, (2) a constant-velocity piston driving a shock, (3) ideal shock-tube flows, and (4) deflagrations initiated at a closed end. The method is particularly applicable for finding the perturbations due to relatively thin wall boundary layers.

  7. Small-area variations in overweight and obesity in an urban area of Nigeria: The role of fast food outlets

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    Osayomi Tolulope

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Overweight and obesity are two related health issues of epidemic proportions. In Nigeria, these health conditions have been emerging only recently. The extant literature shows inter-city variations in the prevalence of overweight and obesity in Nigeria. However, they say little about intra-city variations of these health problems in Nigerian urban centres. Thus, the focus of the study was to determine the small-area variations in the prevalence of overweight and obesity in an urban area of Nigeria and its association with socio-economic, environmental, dietary and lifestyle risk factors. With the aid of a questionnaire, information on the demographic, socio-economic, lifestyle, household and neighbourhood characteristics of respondents was obtained from respondents. Overweight and obesity were computed based on the self-reported height and weight of respondents, using the Body Mass Index (BMI formula. A simple linear regression model was estimated to determine the individual and collective effects of risk factors. Findings showed that there were noticeable spatial variations in the prevalence of overweight and obesity which result from the varying contextual and compositional characteristics among the political wards of the Ibadan North LGA. Physical proximity to fast food outlets was the only significant factor driving the spatial pattern of obesity (b = 0.645; R2 = 0.416. The paper suggests that government and health officials should formulate area-specific obesity prevention and control plans to curb this growing epidemic in Nigeria.

  8. Using small-area variations to inform health care service planning: what do we 'need' to know?

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    Mercuri, Mathew; Birch, Stephen; Gafni, Amiram

    2013-12-01

    Allocating resources on the basis of population need is a health care policy goal in many countries. Thus, resources must be allocated in accordance with need if stakeholders are to achieve policy goals. Small area methods have been presented as a means for revealing important information that can assist stakeholders in meeting policy goals. The purpose of this review is to examine the extent to which small area methods provide information relevant to meeting the goals of a needs-based health care policy. We present a conceptual framework explaining the terms 'demand', 'need', 'use' and 'supply', as commonly used in the literature. We critically review the literature on small area methods through the lens of this framework. 'Use' cannot be used as a proxy or surrogate of 'need'. Thus, if the goal of health care policy is to provide equal access for equal need, then traditional small area methods are inadequate because they measure small area variations in use of services in different populations, independent of the levels of need in those populations. Small area methods can be modified by incorporating direct measures of relative population need from population health surveys or by adjusting population size for levels of health risks in populations such as the prevalence of smoking and low birth weight. This might improve what can be learned from studies employing small area methods if they are to inform needs-based health care policies. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Small-area Variation in Hypertension Prevalence among Black and White Medicaid Enrollees.

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    White, Kellee; Stewart, John E; Lòpez-DeFede, Ana; Wilkerson, Rebecca C

    2016-07-21

    To examine within-state geographic heterogeneity in hypertension prevalence and evaluate associations between hypertension prevalence and small-area contextual characteristics for Black and White South Carolina Medicaid enrollees in urban vs rural areas. Ecological. South Carolina, United States. Hypertension prevalence. Data representing adult South Carolina Medicaid recipients enrolled in fiscal year 2013 (N=409,907) and ZIP Code Tabulation Area (ZCTA)-level contextual measures (racial segregation, rurality, poverty, educational attainment, unemployment and primary care physician adequacy) were linked in a spatially referenced database. Optimized Getis-Ord hotspot mapping was used to visualize geographic clustering of hypertension prevalence. Spatial regression was performed to examine the association between hypertension prevalence and small-area contextual indicators. Significant (alpha=.05) hotspot spatial clustering patterns were similar for Blacks and Whites. Black isolation was significantly associated with hypertension among Blacks and Whites in both urban (Black, b=1.34, P<.01; White, b=.66, P<.01) and rural settings (Black, b=.71, P=.02; White, b=.70, P<.01). Primary care physician adequacy was associated with hypertension among urban Blacks (b=-2.14, P<.01) and Whites (b=-1.74, P<.01). The significant geographic overlap of hypertension prevalence hotspots for Black and White Medicaid enrollees provides an opportunity for targeted health intervention. Provider adequacy findings suggest the value of ACA network adequacy standards for Medicaid managed care plans in ensuring health care accessibility for persons with hypertension and related chronic conditions.

  10. Integrating national surveys to estimate small area variations in poor health and limiting long-term illness in Great Britain.

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    Moon, Graham; Aitken, Grant; Taylor, Joanna; Twigg, Liz

    2017-08-28

    This study aims to address, for the first time, the challenges of constructing small area estimates of health status using linked national surveys. The study also seeks to assess the concordance of these small area estimates with data from national censuses. Population level health status in England, Scotland and Wales. A linked integrated dataset of 23 374 survey respondents (16+ years) from the 2011 waves of the Health Survey for England (n=8603), the Scottish Health Survey (n=7537) and the Welsh Health Survey (n=7234). Population prevalence of poorer self-rated health and limiting long-term illness. A multilevel small area estimation modelling approach was used to estimate prevalence of these outcomes for middle super output areas in England and Wales and intermediate zones in Scotland. The estimates were then compared with matched measures from the contemporaneous 2011 UK Census. There was a strong positive association between the small area estimates and matched census measures for all three countries for both poorer self-rated health (r=0.828, 95% CI 0.821 to 0.834) and limiting long-term illness (r=0.831, 95% CI 0.824 to 0.837), although systematic differences were evident, and small area estimation tended to indicate higher prevalences than census data. Despite strong concordance, variations in the small area prevalences of poorer self-rated health and limiting long-term illness evident in census data cannot be replicated perfectly using small area estimation with linked national surveys. This reflects a lack of harmonisation between surveys over question wording and design. The nature of small area estimates as 'expected values' also needs to be better understood. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  11. Lack of a standardised UK care pathway resulting in national variations in management and outcomes of paediatric small area scalds.

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    Trevatt, Alexander E J; Kirkham, Emily N; Allix, Bradley; Greenwood, Rosemary; Coy, Karen; Hollén, Linda I; Young, Amber E R

    2016-09-01

    There is a paucity of evidence guiding management of small area partial thickness paediatric scalds. This has prevented the development of national management guidelines for these injuries. This research aimed to investigate whether a lack of evidence for national guidelines has resulted in variations in both management and outcomes of paediatric small area scalds across England and Wales (E&W). A national survey of initial management of paediatric scalds ≤5% Total Body Surface Area (%TBSA) was sent to 14 burns services in E&W. Skin graft rates of anonymised burns services over seven years were collected from the international Burns Injury Database (iBID). Average skin grafting rates across services were compared. Length of stay and proportion of patients receiving general anaesthesia for dressing application at each service were also compared. All 14 burns services responded to the survey. Only 50% of services had a protocol in place for the management of small area burns. All protocols varied in how partial thickness paediatrics scalds ≤5% TBSA should be managed. There was no consensus as to which scalds should be treated using biosynthetic dressings. Data from iBID for 11,917 patients showed that the average reported skin grafting rate across all burns services was 2.3% (95% CI 2.1, 2.6) but varied from 0.3% to 7.1% (P<0.001). Service provider remained associated with likelihood of skin grafting when variations in the %TBSA case mix seen by each service were controlled for (χ(2)=87.3, P<0.001). The use of general anaesthetics across services varied between 0.6 and 35.5% (P<0.001). The median length of stay across services varied from 1 to 3 days (P<0.001). A lack of evidence guiding management of small-area paediatric scalds has resulted in variation in management of these injuries across E&W. There is also significant variation in outcomes for these injuries. Further research is indicated to determine if care pathways and outcomes are linked. An evidence

  12. EC multicentre study on small area variations in air quality and health (SAVIAH)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lebret, E [National Inst. of Public Health and Environmental Protection (Netherlands); Elliott, P [London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine (United Kingdom); Briggs, D [Huddersfield Univ. (United Kingdom). Inst. of Environmental and Policy Analysis; Gorynski, P [National Inst. of Hygiene, Warsaw (Poland); Kriz, B [National Inst. of Public Health, Prague (Czech Republic)

    1996-12-31

    SAVIAH is an EC-funded methodological study coordinated by Dr. Paul Elliott at the LSHTM (London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine). The project aims to apply, test and evaluate new and emerging methodologies in the fields of epidemiology, geography, air pollution modelling and small area health statistics, and to bring the data together in a consistent geographic framework. The study was carried out in the U.K., The Netherlands, Poland and the Czech Republic, using the example of childhood wheeze and outdoor air pollution. Specific aims of the study were, in each centre, (1) to carry out a questionnaire survey among parents of guardians of around 4000 to 5000 children aged between 7 and 11, (2) to carry out a series of air pollution surveys for NO{sub 2} as a proxy for the complex of traffic-related pollutants, and SO{sub 2} (PL), using a dense network of passive samplers, (3) to build up a detailed Geographical Information System (GIS) for each of the study areas; (4) to construct an air pollution `map` based on the NO{sub 2} and SO{sub 2} measurements and a health `map` based on `map smoothing` techniques and (5) to explore methods to examine relationships between health, pollution, socio-economic and other data. (author)

  13. EC multicentre study on small area variations in air quality and health (SAVIAH)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lebret, E. [National Inst. of Public Health and Environmental Protection (Netherlands); Elliott, P. [London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine (United Kingdom); Briggs, D. [Huddersfield Univ. (United Kingdom). Inst. of Environmental and Policy Analysis; Gorynski, P. [National Inst. of Hygiene, Warsaw (Poland); Kriz, B. [National Inst. of Public Health, Prague (Czech Republic)

    1995-12-31

    SAVIAH is an EC-funded methodological study coordinated by Dr. Paul Elliott at the LSHTM (London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine). The project aims to apply, test and evaluate new and emerging methodologies in the fields of epidemiology, geography, air pollution modelling and small area health statistics, and to bring the data together in a consistent geographic framework. The study was carried out in the U.K., The Netherlands, Poland and the Czech Republic, using the example of childhood wheeze and outdoor air pollution. Specific aims of the study were, in each centre, (1) to carry out a questionnaire survey among parents of guardians of around 4000 to 5000 children aged between 7 and 11, (2) to carry out a series of air pollution surveys for NO{sub 2} as a proxy for the complex of traffic-related pollutants, and SO{sub 2} (PL), using a dense network of passive samplers, (3) to build up a detailed Geographical Information System (GIS) for each of the study areas; (4) to construct an air pollution `map` based on the NO{sub 2} and SO{sub 2} measurements and a health `map` based on `map smoothing` techniques and (5) to explore methods to examine relationships between health, pollution, socio-economic and other data. (author)

  14. Small-area variation in screening for cancer, glucose and cholesterol in Ontario: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandes, Kimberly A; Sutradhar, Rinku; Borkhoff, Cornelia M; Baxter, Nancy; Lofters, Aisha; Rabeneck, Linda; Tinmouth, Jill; Paszat, Lawrence

    2015-01-01

    Screening for cervical, breast and colon cancers, and elevations of cholesterol and glucose, reduces premature cause-specific mortality from these cancers and circulatory diseases. Despite primary care reforms and incentives, and promotion of cancer-screening programs among individuals, participation is suboptimal. We aimed to examine participation as of Dec. 31, 2011, by factors of deprivation, demographics and primary care at the small-area level. From health care administrative databases, we identified people eligible for each screening test, and their participation, in each dissemination area (referred to as small areas, n = 18 950) in Ontario. We calculated rates for each test among small areas (overall and stratified by demographic, socioeconomic and primary care descriptors) and stratified by sex for all tests combined. We loaded all data into a geographic information system. Funnel plots were generated showing the percentage of eligible people who completed screening for all tests by small area, stratified by sex. Overall and stratified screening prevalence ratios were calculated among small areas. Among small areas, the mean and SD for participation in all tests combined was 31.6% (SD 11.0%) for women and 41.2% (SD 12.0%) for men. Screening prevalence among small areas, for each test and for all tests combined, overall and stratified by sex, declined with decreasing percentage with high school completion, decreasing socioeconomic quintile, and decreasing percentage with an identifiable primary care physician. Our results show that the rate of participation in all eligible screening tests among small areas is much lower than the rate of participation in any one particular test. This finding has implications for the design and implementation of strategies to improve rates of screening.

  15. Mapping end-stage renal disease (ESRD: spatial variations on small area level in northern France, and association with deprivation.

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    Florent Occelli

    Full Text Available Strong geographic variations in the incidence of end-stage renal disease (ESRD are observed in developed countries. The reasons for these variations are unknown. They may reflect regional inequalities in the population's sociodemographic characteristics, related diseases, or medical practice patterns. In France, at the district level, the highest incidence rates have been found in the Nord-Pas-de-Calais region. This area, with a high population density and homogeneous healthcare provision, represents a geographic situation which is quite suitable for the study, over small areas, of spatial disparities in the incidence of ESRD, together with their correlation with a deprivation index and other risk factors.The Renal Epidemiology and Information Network is a national registry, which lists all ESRD patients in France. All cases included in the Nord-Pas-de-Calais registry between 2005 and 2011 were extracted. Adjusted and smoothed standardized incidence ratio (SIR was calculated for each of the 170 cantons, thanks to a hierarchical Bayesian model. The correlation between ESRD incidence and deprivation was assessed using the quintiles of Townsend index. Relative risk (RR and credible intervals (CI were estimated for each quintile.Significant spatial disparities in ESRD incidence were found within the Nord-Pas-de-Calais region. The sex- and age-adjusted, smoothed SIRs varied from 0.66 to 1.64. Although no correlation is found with diabetic or vascular nephropathy, the smoothed SIRs are correlated with the Townsend index (RR: 1.18, 95% CI [1.00-1.34] for Q2; 1.28, 95% CI [1.11-1.47] for Q3; 1.30, 95% CI [1.14-1.51] for Q4; 1.44, 95% CI [1.32-1.74] for Q5.For the first time at this aggregation level in France, this study reveals significant geographic differences in ESRD incidence. Unlike the time of renal replacement care, deprivation is certainly a determinant in this phenomenon. This association is probably independent of the patients' financial

  16. Sensitive Small Area Photometer

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    Levenson, M. D.

    1970-01-01

    Describes a simple photometer capable of measuring small light intensities over small areas. The inexpensive, easy-to- construct instrument is intended for use in a student laboratory to measure the light intensities in a diffraction experiment from single or multiple slits. Typical experimental results are presented along with the theoretical…

  17. Regional Variation of Cost of Care in the Last 12 Months of Life in Switzerland: Small-area Analysis Using Insurance Claims Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panczak, Radoslaw; Luta, Xhyljeta; Maessen, Maud; Stuck, Andreas E; Berlin, Claudia; Schmidlin, Kurt; Reich, Oliver; von Wyl, Viktor; Goodman, David C; Egger, Matthias; Zwahlen, Marcel; Clough-Gorr, Kerri M

    2017-02-01

    Health care spending increases sharply at the end of life. Little is known about variation of cost of end of life care between regions and the drivers of such variation. We studied small-area patterns of cost of care in the last year of life in Switzerland. We used mandatory health insurance claims data of individuals who died between 2008 and 2010 to derive cost of care. We used multilevel regression models to estimate differences in costs across 564 regions of place of residence, nested within 71 hospital service areas. We examined to what extent variation was explained by characteristics of individuals and regions, including measures of health care supply. The study population consisted of 113,277 individuals. The mean cost of care during last year of life was 32.5k (thousand) Swiss Francs per person (SD=33.2k). Cost differed substantially between regions after adjustment for patient age, sex, and cause of death. Variance was reduced by 52%-95% when we added individual and regional characteristics, with a strong effect of language region. Measures of supply of care did not show associations with costs. Remaining between and within hospital service area variations were most pronounced for older females and least for younger individuals. In Switzerland, small-area analysis revealed variation of cost of care during the last year of life according to linguistic regions and unexplained regional differences for older women. Cultural factors contribute to the delivery and utilization of health care during the last months of life and should be considered by policy makers.

  18. Small Area Fair Market Rent

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Housing and Urban Development — Due to the increasing demand for more localized rents for a variety of purposes, HUD is making Small Area FMRs for all metropolitan areas available. Small Area FMRs...

  19. Small Engine & Accessory Test Area

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Small Engine and Accessories Test Area (SEATA) facilitates testaircraft starting and auxiliary power systems, small engines and accessories. The SEATA consists...

  20. A variation of the housing unit method for estimating the age and gender distribution of small, rural areas: A case study of the local expert procedure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carlson, J.F.; Roe, L.K.; Williams, C.A.; Swanson, D.A.

    1993-01-01

    This paper describes the methodologies used in the development of a demographic data base established in support of the Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project Radiological Monitoring Plan (RadMP). It also examines the suitability of a survey-based procedure for estimating population in small, rural areas. The procedure is a variation of the Housing Unit Method. It employs the use of local experts enlisted to provide information about the demographic characteristics of households randomly selected from residential units sample frames developed from utility records. The procedure is nonintrusive and less costly than traditional survey data collection efforts. Because the procedure is based on random sampling, confidence intervals can be constructed around the population estimated by the technique. The results of a case study are provided in which the total population, and age and gender of the population, is estimated for three unincorporated communities in rural, southern Nevada

  1. What type of rural? Assessing the variations in life expectancy at birth at small area-level for a small population province using classes of locally defined settlement types.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terashima, Mikiko; Read Guernsey, Judith; Andreou, Pantelis

    2014-02-13

    Although efforts have been made to articulate rural-urban health inequalities in recent years, results have been inconsistent due to different geographical scales used in these studies. Small-area level investigations of health inequalities will likely show more detailed pictures of health inequalities among diverse rural communities, but they are difficult to conduct, particularly in a small population region. The objectives of this study were: 1) to compare life expectancy at birth for females and males across small-areas classified by locally defined settlement types for a small province in Canada; 2) to assess whether any of the settlement types explains variations in life expectancy over and above the extent of socioeconomic disadvantage and social isolation; and 3) to examine variations in life expectancies within a (larger) area unit used as the basis of health inequality investigations in previous studies. Seven settlement types were determined for the 'community' units based on population per-kilometre-road density and settlement forms. Mean life expectancies at birth for both genders were compared by settlement type, both for the entire province and within the Halifax Regional Municipality--the province's only census designated metropolitan area, but also contains rural settlements. Linear regression analyses were conducted to assess the statistical associations between life expectancy and the settlement types, adjusting for indicators of community-level deprivation. While types of communities considered as 'rural' generally had lower life expectancy for both genders, the effects of living in any settlement type were attenuated once adjusted for socioeconomic deprivation and social isolation. An exception was the village and settlement cluster type, which had additionally negative effects on health for females. There were some variations observed within the Halifax Regional Municipality, suggesting the importance of further investigating a variety of

  2. Variability of rainfall over small areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Runnels, R. C.

    1983-01-01

    A preliminary investigation was made to determine estimates of the number of raingauges needed in order to measure the variability of rainfall in time and space over small areas (approximately 40 sq miles). The literature on rainfall variability was examined and the types of empirical relationships used to relate rainfall variations to meteorological and catchment-area characteristics were considered. Relations between the coefficient of variation and areal-mean rainfall and area have been used by several investigators. These parameters seemed reasonable ones to use in any future study of rainfall variations. From a knowledge of an appropriate coefficient of variation (determined by the above-mentioned relations) the number rain gauges needed for the precise determination of areal-mean rainfall may be calculated by statistical estimation theory. The number gauges needed to measure the coefficient of variation over a 40 sq miles area, with varying degrees of error, was found to range from 264 (10% error, mean precipitation = 0.1 in) to about 2 (100% error, mean precipitation = 0.1 in).

  3. Health Service Areas (HSAs) - Small Area Estimates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Health Service Areas (HSAs) are a compromise between the 3000 counties and the 50 states. An HSA may be thought of as an area that is relatively self-contained with respect to hospital care and may cross over state boundries.

  4. Spring Small Grains Area Estimation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmer, W. F.; Mohler, R. J.

    1986-01-01

    SSG3 automatically estimates acreage of spring small grains from Landsat data. Report describes development and testing of a computerized technique for using Landsat multispectral scanner (MSS) data to estimate acreage of spring small grains (wheat, barley, and oats). Application of technique to analysis of four years of data from United States and Canada yielded estimates of accuracy comparable to those obtained through procedures that rely on trained analysis.

  5. Development of a Small Area Sniffer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meade, Laurie A.

    1995-01-01

    The aim of this project is to develop and implement a sniffer that is capable of measuring the mass flow rate of air through a small area of pinholes whose diameters are on the magnitude of thousandths of an inch. The sniffer is used to scan a strip of a leading edge panel, which is being used in a hybrid laminar flow control experiment, in order to survey the variations in the amount of air that passes through the porous surface at different locations. Spanwise scans are taken at different chord locations by increasing the pressure in a control volume that is connected to the sniffer head, and recording the drop in pressure as the air is allowed to flow through the tiny holes. This information is used to obtain the mass flow through the structure. More importantly, the deviations from the mean flow rate are found and used to determine whether there are any significant variations in the flow rate from one area to the next. The preliminary results show little deviation in the spanwise direction. These results are important when dealing with the location and amount of suction that will be applied to the leading edge in the active laminar flow control experiment.

  6. Portable sandblaster cleans small areas

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    Severin, H. J.

    1966-01-01

    Portable sandblasting unit rapidly and effectively cleans localized areas on a metal surface. The unit incorporates a bellows enclosure, masking plate, sand container, and used sand accummulator connected to a vacuum system. The bellows is equipped with an inspection window and light for observation of the sanding operation.

  7. Estimation of Poverty in Small Areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agne Bikauskaite

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available A qualitative techniques of poverty estimation is needed to better implement, monitor and determine national areas where support is most required. The problem of small area estimation (SAE is the production of reliable estimates in areas with small samples. The precision of estimates in strata deteriorates (i.e. the precision decreases when the standard deviation increases, if the sample size is smaller. In these cases traditional direct estimators may be not precise and therefore pointless. Currently there are many indirect methods for SAE. The purpose of this paper is to analyze several diff erent types of techniques which produce small area estimates of poverty.

  8. Slope instability caused by small variations in hydraulic conductivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reid, M.E.

    1997-01-01

    Variations in hydraulic conductivity can greatly modify hillslope ground-water flow fields, effective-stress fields, and slope stability. In materials with uniform texture, hydraulic conductivities can vary over one to two orders of magnitude, yet small variations can be difficult to determine. The destabilizing effects caused by small (one order of magnitude or less) hydraulic conductivity variations using ground-water flow modeling, finite-element deformation analysis, and limit-equilibrium analysis are examined here. Low hydraulic conductivity materials that impede downslope ground-water flow can create unstable areas with locally elevated pore-water pressures. The destabilizing effects of small hydraulic heterogeneities can be as great as those induced by typical variations in the frictional strength (approximately 4??-8??) of texturally similar materials. Common "worst-case" assumptions about ground-water flow, such as a completely saturated "hydrostatic" pore-pressure distribution, do not account for locally elevated pore-water pressures and may not provide a conservative slope stability analysis. In site characterization, special attention should be paid to any materials that might impede downslope ground-water flow and create unstable regions.

  9. Robust small area prediction for counts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tzavidis, Nikos; Ranalli, M Giovanna; Salvati, Nicola; Dreassi, Emanuela; Chambers, Ray

    2015-06-01

    A new semiparametric approach to model-based small area prediction for counts is proposed and used for estimating the average number of visits to physicians for Health Districts in Central Italy. The proposed small area predictor can be viewed as an outlier robust alternative to the more commonly used empirical plug-in predictor that is based on a Poisson generalized linear mixed model with Gaussian random effects. Results from the real data application and from a simulation experiment confirm that the proposed small area predictor has good robustness properties and in some cases can be more efficient than alternative small area approaches. © The Author(s) 2014 Reprints and permissions: sagepub.co.uk/journalsPermissions.nav.

  10. Estimating life expectancies for US small areas: a regression framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Congdon, Peter

    2014-01-01

    Analysis of area mortality variations and estimation of area life tables raise methodological questions relevant to assessing spatial clustering, and socioeconomic inequalities in mortality. Existing small area analyses of US life expectancy variation generally adopt ad hoc amalgamations of counties to alleviate potential instability of mortality rates involved in deriving life tables, and use conventional life table analysis which takes no account of correlated mortality for adjacent areas or ages. The alternative strategy here uses structured random effects methods that recognize correlations between adjacent ages and areas, and allows retention of the original county boundaries. This strategy generalizes to include effects of area category (e.g. poverty status, ethnic mix), allowing estimation of life tables according to area category, and providing additional stabilization of estimated life table functions. This approach is used here to estimate stabilized mortality rates, derive life expectancies in US counties, and assess trends in clustering and in inequality according to county poverty category.

  11. Urban density, deprivation and road safety: A small area study in the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Following a general paucity of small area research on road traffic injuries (RTIs), this study examined small area variations in RTIs for the eThekwini Metropolitan Area (comprising predominantly the City of Durban) in South Africa. Population density was used as an organising framework to examine variations in RTI ...

  12. Area-level variations in cancer care and outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keating, Nancy L; Landrum, Mary Beth; Lamont, Elizabeth B; Bozeman, Samuel R; McNeil, Barbara J

    2012-05-01

    : Substantial regional variations in health-care spending exist across the United States; yet, care and outcomes are not better in higher-spending areas. Most studies have focused on care in fee-for-service Medicare; whether spillover effects exist in settings without financial incentives for more care is unknown. : We studied care for cancer patients in fee-for-service Medicare and the Veterans Health Administration (VA) to understand whether processes and outcomes of care vary with area-level Medicare spending. : An observational study using logistic regression to assess care by area-level measures of Medicare spending. : Patients with lung, colorectal, or prostate cancers diagnosed during 2001-2004 in Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) areas or the VA. The SEER cohort included fee-for-service Medicare patients aged older than 65 years. : Recommended and preference-sensitive cancer care and mortality. : In fee-for-service Medicare, higher-spending areas had higher rates of recommended care (curative surgery and adjuvant chemotherapy for early-stage non-small-cell lung cancer and chemotherapy for stage III colon cancer) and preference-sensitive care (chemotherapy for stage IV lung and colon cancer and primary treatment of local/regional prostate cancer) and had lower lung cancer mortality. In the VA, we observed minimal variation in care by area-level Medicare spending. : Our findings suggest that intensity of care for Medicare beneficiaries is not driving variations in VA care, despite some overlap in physician networks. Although the Dartmouth Atlas work has been of unprecedented importance in demonstrating variations in Medicare spending, new measures may be needed to better understand variations in other populations.

  13. Small area estimation for semicontinuous data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandra, Hukum; Chambers, Ray

    2016-03-01

    Survey data often contain measurements for variables that are semicontinuous in nature, i.e. they either take a single fixed value (we assume this is zero) or they have a continuous, often skewed, distribution on the positive real line. Standard methods for small area estimation (SAE) based on the use of linear mixed models can be inefficient for such variables. We discuss SAE techniques for semicontinuous variables under a two part random effects model that allows for the presence of excess zeros as well as the skewed nature of the nonzero values of the response variable. In particular, we first model the excess zeros via a generalized linear mixed model fitted to the probability of a nonzero, i.e. strictly positive, value being observed, and then model the response, given that it is strictly positive, using a linear mixed model fitted on the logarithmic scale. Empirical results suggest that the proposed method leads to efficient small area estimates for semicontinuous data of this type. We also propose a parametric bootstrap method to estimate the MSE of the proposed small area estimator. These bootstrap estimates of the MSE are compared to the true MSE in a simulation study. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  14. Small area detectors at the European XFEL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turcato, M.; Gessler, P.; Hauf, S.; Kuster, M.; Meyer, M.; Nordgren, J.; Sztuk-Dambietz, J.; Youngman, C.

    2014-05-01

    The detectors to be used at the European XFEL have to deal with the unique time structure of the machine, delivering up to 2700 pulses, with a repetition rate of 4.5 MHz, ten times per second, the very high photon flux and the need to combine single-photon sensitivity and a large dynamic range. This represents a challenge not only for the large-area 2D imaging detectors but also for the smaller-area detectors and makes the use of standard commercial devices impossible. Dedicated solutions are therefore envisaged for small imaging- or strip-detectors. In this contribution the focus is put on two particular small-area detector solutions which are planned to be used at the European XFEL, a strip detector for hard X-rays (with energy 3 < E < 25 keV) and an imaging detector for soft X-rays (0.25 < E < 3 keV). Hard X-rays photon-beam diagnostics as well as hard X-ray absorption and emission spectroscopy at the European XFEL make use of strip detectors as detectors for beam spectrometers or as energy-dispersive detectors in combination with an energy-dispersive element. The European XFEL is establishing cooperation with the Paul Scherrer Institute in Villigen to develop a new version of the Gotthard detector best suited to the European XFEL needs. The use case and the required detector specifications are illustrated. Starting from the present detector version, the modifications planned to adapt it to the European XFEL running conditions are described. These include the capability of running at an increased rate and to provide a veto signal to the large 2D imaging detectors, in order to be able to remove non-interesting images already at early stages of the DAQ system. In another particular application, resonant inelastic X-ray scattering, a Micro-Channel Plate detector matched to a delay-line readout is foreseen to be used. In this case the European XFEL is aiming for a highly customized solution provided by the German company Surface Concept. The use case is described

  15. Seasonal Variation in Trypanosomosis Rates in Small Ruminants at ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Seasonal variation in trypanosome parasitological infection rates in small ruminants was studied at the Kaduna Central abattoir, North Central Nigeria. Blood samples were obtained at slaughter from 320 goats and 209 sheep during the dry and rainy seasons and examined using the Haematocrit Centrifugation Technique ...

  16. Effects of Small Oscillations on the Effective Area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cotroneo, V.; Conconi, P.; Pareschi, G.; Spiga, D.; Tagliaferri, G.; Cusumano, G.

    2009-01-01

    We analyze the effective area of the Simbol-X mirrors as a function of the off-axis angle for small oscillations. A reduction is expected due to: 1) geometrical effects, because some of the photons miss the secondary mirror surface; 2) reflectivity effects, caused by the variation of the coating reflectivity with the incidence angle. The former are related to the length of the two mirror surfaces, and can be reduced by making the secondary mirror longer. The second ones are energy-dependent, and strongly related to the characteristics of the reflecting coating. These effects are analyzed by means of ray-tracing simulations in order to optimize the mirror and coating design, aiming to improve the effective area stability.

  17. Effects of Small Oscillations on the Effective Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cotroneo, V.; Conconi, P.; Cusumano, G.; Pareschi, G.; Spiga, D.; Tagliaferri, G.

    2009-05-01

    We analyze the effective area of the Simbol-X mirrors as a function of the off-axis angle for small oscillations. A reduction is expected due to: 1) geometrical effects, because some of the photons miss the secondary mirror surface; 2) reflectivity effects, caused by the variation of the coating reflectivity with the incidence angle. The former are related to the length of the two mirror surfaces, and can be reduced by making the secondary mirror longer. The second ones are energy-dependent, and strongly related to the characteristics of the reflecting coating. These effects are analyzed by means of ray-tracing simulations in order to optimize the mirror and coating design, aiming to improve the effective area stability.

  18. Rurality Index for Small Areas in Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ocana-Riola, Ricardo; Sanchez-Cantalejo, Carmen

    2005-01-01

    An operational definition for "rural area" is pivotal if proposals, policies and decisions aimed at optimising the distribution of resources, closing the gap on inequity between areas and raising standards of living for the least advantaged populations are to be put in place. The concept of rurality, however, is often based on…

  19. Collapse of a pollination web in small conservation areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pauw, Anton

    2007-07-01

    A suspected global decline in pollinators has heightened interest in their ecological significance. In a worst-case scenario, the decline of generalist pollinators is predicted to trigger cascades of linked declines among the multiple specialist plant species to which they are linked, but this has not been documented. I studied a portion of a pollination web involving a generalist pollinator, the oil-collecting bee Rediviva peringueyi, and a community of oil-secreting plants. Across 27 established conservation areas located in the Cape Floral Region, I found substantial variation in the bees' occurrence in relation to soil type and the successional stage of the vegetation. Anthropogenic declines were detectable against this background of naturally occurring variation: R. peringueyi was absent from small conservation areas (urban matrix. In the absence of the bee, seed set failed in six specialist plant species that are pollinated only by R. peringueyi but remained high in a pollination generalist, which had replacement pollinators. The findings are consistent with theoretical predictions of the importance of generalist pollinators in maintaining the structure of pollination webs.

  20. Variations in the small-scale galactic magnetic field and short time-scale intensity variations of extragalactic radio sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simonetti, J.H.

    1985-01-01

    Structure functions of the Faraday rotation measures (RMs) of extragalactic radio sources are used to investigate variations in the interstellar magnetic field on length scales of approx.0.01 to 100 pc. Model structure functions derived assuming a power-law power spectrum of irregularities in n/sub e/B, are compared with those observed. The results indicate an outer angular scale for RM variations of approximately less than or equal to 5 0 and evidence for RM variations on scales as small as 1'. Differences in the variance of n/sub e/B fluctuations for various lines of sight through the Galaxy are found. Comparison of pulsar scintillations in right- and left-circular polarizations yield an upper limit to the variations in n/sub e/ on a length scale of approx.10 11 cm. RMs were determined through high-velocity molecular flows in galactic star-formation regions, with the goal of constraining magnetic fields in and near the flows. RMs of 7 extragalactic sources with a approx.20 arcmin wide area seen through Cep A, fall in two groups separated by approx.150 rad m -2 - large given our knowledge of RM variations on small angular scales and possibly a result of the anisotropy of the high-velocity material

  1. Cancer Related-Knowledge - Small Area Estimates

    Science.gov (United States)

    These model-based estimates are produced using statistical models that combine data from the Health Information National Trends Survey, and auxiliary variables obtained from relevant sources and borrow strength from other areas with similar characteristics.

  2. Small-scale density variations in the lunar crust revealed by GRAIL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jansen, J. C.; Andrews-Hanna, J. C.; Li, Y.; Lucey, P. G.; Taylor, G. J.; Goossens, S.; Lemoine, F. G.; Mazarico, E.; Head, J. W.; Milbury, C.; Kiefer, W. S.; Soderblom, J. M.; Zuber, M. T.

    2017-07-01

    Data from the Gravity Recovery and Interior Laboratory (GRAIL) mission have revealed that ∼98% of the power of the gravity signal of the Moon at high spherical harmonic degrees correlates with the topography. The remaining 2% of the signal, which cannot be explained by topography, contains information about density variations within the crust. These high-degree Bouguer gravity anomalies are likely caused by small-scale (10‧s of km) shallow density variations. Here we use gravity inversions to model the small-scale three-dimensional variations in the density of the lunar crust. Inversion results from three non-descript areas yield shallow density variations in the range of 100-200 kg/m3. Three end-member scenarios of variations in porosity, intrusions into the crust, and variations in bulk crustal composition were tested as possible sources of the density variations. We find that the density anomalies can be caused entirely by changes in porosity. Characteristics of density anomalies in the South Pole-Aitken basin also support porosity as a primary source of these variations. Mafic intrusions into the crust could explain many, but not all of the anomalies. Additionally, variations in crustal composition revealed by spectral data could only explain a small fraction of the density anomalies. Nevertheless, all three sources of density variations likely contribute. Collectively, results from this study of GRAIL gravity data, combined with other studies of remote sensing data and lunar samples, show that the lunar crust exhibits variations in density by ± 10% over scales ranging from centimeters to 100‧s of kilometers.

  3. Small-Scale Density Variations in the Lunar Crust Revealed by GRAIL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jansen, J. C.; Andrews-Hanna, J. C.; Li, Y.; Lucey, P. G.; Taylor, G. J.; Goossens, S.; Lemoine, F. G.; Mazarico, E.; Head, J. W., III; Milbury, C.; hide

    2017-01-01

    Data from the Gravity Recovery and Interior Laboratory (GRAIL) mission have revealed that approximately 98 percent of the power of the gravity signal of the Moon at high spherical harmonic degrees correlates with the topography. The remaining 2 percent of the signal, which cannot be explained by topography, contains information about density variations within the crust. These high-degree Bouguer gravity anomalies are likely caused by small-scale (10's of km) shallow density variations. Here we use gravity inversions to model the small-scale three-dimensional variations in the density of the lunar crust. Inversion results from three non-descript areas yield shallow density variations in the range of 100-200 kg/m3. Three end-member scenarios of variations in porosity, intrusions into the crust, and variations in bulk crustal composition were tested as possible sources of the density variations. We find that the density anomalies can be caused entirely by changes in porosity. Characteristics of density anomalies in the South Pole-Aitken basin also support porosity as a primary source of these variations. Mafic intrusions into the crust could explain many, but not all of the anomalies. Additionally, variations in crustal composition revealed by spectral data could only explain a small fraction of the density anomalies. Nevertheless, all three sources of density variations likely contribute. Collectively, results from this study of GRAIL gravity data, combined with other studies of remote sensing data and lunar samples, show that the lunar crust exhibits variations in density by plus or minus 10 percent over scales ranging from centimeters to 100’s of kilometers.

  4. Small mammals distribution and diversity in a plague endemic area ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Small mammals play a role in plague transmission as hosts in all plague endemic areas. Information on distribution and diversity of small mammals is therefore important for plague surveillance and control in such areas. The objective of this study was to investigate small mammals' diversity and their distribution in plague ...

  5. Small mammal communities on cattle and game grazing areas in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Small mammal communities on cattle and game grazing areas in Namibia. ... small mammal communities on two differently managed farmlands (cattle and game farm) in Namibia over the course of one year. ... AJOL African Journals Online.

  6. Deprivation Index for Small Areas in Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez-Cantalejo, Carmen; Ocana-Riola, Ricardo; Fernandez-Ajuria, Alberto

    2008-01-01

    The term deprivation is often used to refer to economic or social shortages in a given geographical area. This concept of deprivation has been identified for years using simple indicators such as income level, education and social class. One of the advantages of using simple indicators is the availability of data, since they come directly from…

  7. Small velocity and finite temperature variations in kinetic relaxation models

    KAUST Repository

    Markowich, Peter; Jü ngel, Ansgar; Aoki, Kazuo

    2010-01-01

    A small Knuden number analysis of a kinetic equation in the diffusive scaling is performed. The collision kernel is of BGK type with a general local Gibbs state. Assuming that the flow velocity is of the order of the Knudsen number, a Hilbert expansion yields a macroscopic model with finite temperature variations, whose complexity lies in between the hydrodynamic and the energy-transport equations. Its mathematical structure is explored and macroscopic models for specific examples of the global Gibbs state are presented. © American Institute of Mathematical Sciences.

  8. Poverty Mapping Project: Small Area Estimates of Poverty and Inequality

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Small Area Estimates of Poverty and Inequality dataset consists of consumption-based poverty, inequality and related measures for subnational administrative...

  9. U.S. Small Business HUBZone Base Closure Areas

    Data.gov (United States)

    Small Business Administration — HUBZone Qualitified Base Closure Areas - the lands within the boundaries of a military installation that was closed through a privatization process under the Federal...

  10. Small UAS Test Area at NASA's Dryden Flight Research Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauer, Jeffrey T.

    2008-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation reviews the areas that Dryden Flight Research Center has set up for testing small Unmanned Aerial Systems (UAS). It also reviews the requirements and process to use an area for UAS test.

  11. Opportunities for cost-sharing in conservation: variation in volunteering effort across protected areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armsworth, Paul R; Cantú-Salazar, Lisette; Parnell, Mark; Booth, Josephine E; Stoneman, Rob; Davies, Zoe G

    2013-01-01

    Efforts to expand protected area networks are limited by the costs of managing protected sites. Volunteers who donate labor to help manage protected areas can help defray these costs. However, volunteers may be willing to donate more labor to some protected areas than others. Understanding variation in volunteering effort would enable conservation organizations to account for volunteer labor in their strategic planning. We examined variation in volunteering effort across 59 small protected areas managed by Yorkshire Wildlife Trust, a regional conservation nonprofit in the United Kingdom. Three surveys of volunteering effort reveal consistent patterns of variation across protected areas. Using the most detailed of these sources, a survey of site managers, we estimate that volunteers provided 3200 days of labor per year across the 59 sites with a total value exceeding that of paid staff time spent managing the sites. The median percentage by which volunteer labor supplements management costs on the sites was 36%. Volunteering effort and paid management costs are positively correlated, after controlling for the effect of site area. We examined how well a range of characteristics of the protected areas and surrounding communities explain variation in volunteering effort. Protected areas that are larger have been protected for longer and that are located near to denser conurbations experience greater volunteering effort. Together these factors explain 38% of the observed variation in volunteering effort across protected areas.

  12. Comparison of the performances of land use regression modelling and dispersion modelling in estimating small-scale variations in long-term air pollution concentrations in a Dutch urban area.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beelen, R.M.J.; Voogt, M.; Duyzer, J.; Zandveld, P.; Hoek, G.

    2010-01-01

    The performance of a Land Use Regression (LUR) model and a dispersion model (URBIS - URBis Information System) was compared in a Dutch urban area. For the Rijnmond area, i.e. Rotterdam and surroundings, nitrogen dioxide (NO2) concentrations for 2001 were estimated for nearly 70 000 centroids of a

  13. Inverse Gaussian model for small area estimation via Gibbs sampling

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    We present a Bayesian method for estimating small area parameters under an inverse Gaussian model. The method is extended to estimate small area parameters for finite populations. The Gibbs sampler is proposed as a mechanism for implementing the Bayesian paradigm. We illustrate the method by application to ...

  14. Spatial variation of vulnerability in geographic areas of North Lebanon

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Issa, Sahar; van der Molen, I.; Nader, M.R.; Lovett, Jonathan Cranidge

    2014-01-01

    This paper examines the spatial variation in vulnerability between different geographical areas of the northern coastal region of Lebanon within the context of armed conflict. The study is based on the ‘vulnerability of space’ approach and will be positioned in the academic debate on vulnerability

  15. Identifying areas at risk of low birth weight using spatial epidemiology: A small area surveillance study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Insaf, Tabassum Z; Talbot, Thomas

    2016-07-01

    To assess the geographic distribution of Low Birth Weight (LBW) in New York State among singleton births using a spatial regression approach in order to identify priority areas for public health actions. LBW was defined as birth weight less than 2500g. Geocoded data from 562,586 birth certificates in New York State (years 2008-2012) were merged with 2010 census data at the tract level. To provide stable estimates and maintain confidentiality, data were aggregated to yield 1268 areas of analysis. LBW prevalence among singleton births was related with area-level behavioral, socioeconomic and demographic characteristics using a Poisson mixed effects spatial error regression model. Observed low birth weight showed statistically significant auto-correlation in our study area (Moran's I 0.16 p value 0.0005). After over-dispersion correction and accounting for fixed effects for selected social determinants, spatial autocorrelation was fully accounted for (Moran's I-0.007 p value 0.241). The proportion of LBW was higher in areas with larger Hispanic or Black populations and high smoking prevalence. Smoothed maps with predicted prevalence were developed to identify areas at high risk of LBW. Spatial patterns of residual variation were analyzed to identify unique risk factors. Neighborhood racial composition contributes to disparities in LBW prevalence beyond differences in behavioral and socioeconomic factors. Small-area analyses of LBW can identify areas for targeted interventions and display unique local patterns that should be accounted for in prevention strategies. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Small RNA-directed epigenetic natural variation in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jixian Zhai

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Progress in epigenetics has revealed mechanisms that can heritably regulate gene function independent of genetic alterations. Nevertheless, little is known about the role of epigenetics in evolution. This is due in part to scant data on epigenetic variation among natural populations. In plants, small interfering RNA (siRNA is involved in both the initiation and maintenance of gene silencing by directing DNA methylation and/or histone methylation. Here, we report that, in the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana, a cluster of approximately 24 nt siRNAs found at high levels in the ecotype Landsberg erecta (Ler could direct DNA methylation and heterochromatinization at a hAT element adjacent to the promoter of FLOWERING LOCUS C (FLC, a major repressor of flowering, whereas the same hAT element in ecotype Columbia (Col with almost identical DNA sequence, generates a set of low abundance siRNAs that do not direct these activities. We have called this hAT element MPF for Methylated region near Promoter of FLC, although de novo methylation triggered by an inverted repeat transgene at this region in Col does not alter its FLC expression. DNA methylation of the Ler allele MPF is dependent on genes in known silencing pathways, and such methylation is transmissible to Col by genetic crosses, although with varying degrees of penetrance. A genome-wide comparison of Ler and Col small RNAs identified at least 68 loci matched by a significant level of approximately 24 nt siRNAs present specifically in Ler but not Col, where nearly half of the loci are related to repeat or TE sequences. Methylation analysis revealed that 88% of the examined loci (37 out of 42 were specifically methylated in Ler but not Col, suggesting that small RNA can direct epigenetic differences between two closely related Arabidopsis ecotypes.

  17. Individual Income, Area Deprivation, and Health: Do Income-Related Health Inequalities Vary by Small Area Deprivation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegel, Martin; Mielck, Andreas; Maier, Werner

    2015-11-01

    This paper aims to explore potential associations between health inequalities related to socioeconomic deprivation at the individual and the small area level. We use German cross-sectional survey data for the years 2002 and 2006, and measure small area deprivation via the German Index of Multiple Deprivation. We test the differences between concentration indices of income-related and small area deprivation related inequalities in obesity, hypertension, and diabetes. Our results suggest that small area deprivation and individual income both yield inequalities in health favoring the better-off, where individual income-related inequalities are significantly more pronounced than those related to small area deprivation. We then apply a semiparametric extension of Wagstaff's corrected concentration index to explore how individual-level health inequalities vary with the degree of regional deprivation. We find that the concentration of obesity, hypertension, and diabetes among lower income groups also exists at the small area level. The degree of deprivation-specific income-related inequalities in the three health outcomes exhibits only little variations across different levels of multiple deprivation for both sexes. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  18. Modelling small-area inequality in premature mortality using years of life lost rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Congdon, Peter

    2013-04-01

    Analysis of premature mortality variations via standardized expected years of life lost (SEYLL) measures raises questions about suitable modelling for mortality data, especially when developing SEYLL profiles for areas with small populations. Existing fixed effects estimation methods take no account of correlations in mortality levels over ages, causes, socio-ethnic groups or areas. They also do not specify an underlying data generating process, or a likelihood model that can include trends or correlations, and are likely to produce unstable estimates for small-areas. An alternative strategy involves a fully specified data generation process, and a random effects model which "borrows strength" to produce stable SEYLL estimates, allowing for correlations between ages, areas and socio-ethnic groups. The resulting modelling strategy is applied to gender-specific differences in SEYLL rates in small-areas in NE London, and to cause-specific mortality for leading causes of premature mortality in these areas.

  19. Radon in soil variations for Vrancea seismic area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zoran, M.

    2002-01-01

    Earthquakes occur as a result of a build up of pressure between colliding sections of the Earth's crust. These sections, known as continental plates, meet at 'fault lines'. According to classical earthquake theory, small earthquakes should continue to grow into large earthquakes until they spread all along the fault line. Vrancea region is fitted to such a model. The mechanical processes of earthquake preparation are always accompanied by deformations, afterwards complex short- or long term precursory phenomena can appear. Macro-fracturing processes are preceded by micro-fracturing phenomena with a resulting radon and other gas precursors (He, CH 4 , NO) anomalies in soil-gas and groundwater. Studies of geochemical and hydrological anomalies preceding significant earthquakes have been reported from China, Japan, Uzbekistan, Mexico, Italy, India and Germany. However, studies of these pre-seismic phenomena have been controversial for several reasons. Temporal variations of radon in soil or water, can give evidence that the emanation of this gas can be correlated with tectonic disturbances. I used nuclear track detectors LR-115 and CN-85 for radon concentration monitoring in soil at 50 cm depth exposed for a period of 30 days in Vrancioaia test area. Time series radon data in soil-gas during of two years long observation period have established that more than 50% of radon concentration increases were correlated with microseismic events of 2-4 magnitude on Richter scale. A clear positive correlation for radon concentration prior one month of seismic event was associated with a registered event of magnitude 5. In order to differentiate the changes due to tectonic disturbances and that of meteorological parameters, were measured barometric pressure, precipitation and temperature. Negative correlation between radon concentration in soil and meteorological parameters was found. To predict a future earthquake, all precursory phenomena must be investigated. The

  20. Updating Rurality Index for Small Areas in Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prieto-Lara, Elisa; Ocana-Riola, Ricardo

    2010-01-01

    Nowadays, there is a wide debate about what rural means. An operational definition of rural concept is essential in order to measure health problems, optimize resource allocation and facilitate decision making aimed at closing the gap on inequity between areas. In 2005, the rurality index for Small Areas in Spain (IRAP) was developed using the…

  1. Small area variation in diabetes prevalence in Puerto Rico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edward F. Tierney

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To estimate the 2009 prevalence of diagnosed diabetes in Puerto Rico among adults ≥ 20 years of age in order to gain a better understanding of its geographic distribution so that policymakers can more efficiently target prevention and control programs. METHODS: A Bayesian multilevel model was fitted to the combined 2008-2010 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System and 2009 United States Census data to estimate diabetes prevalence for each of the 78 municipios (counties in Puerto Rico. RESULTS: The mean unadjusted estimate for all counties was 14.3% (range by county, 9.9%-18.0%. The average width of the confidence intervals was 6.2%. Adjusted and unadjusted estimates differed little. CONCLUSIONS: These 78 county estimates are higher on average and showed less variability (i.e., had a smaller range than the previously published estimates of the 2008 diabetes prevalence for all United States counties (mean, 9.9%; range, 3.0%-18.2%.

  2. Small area variation in diabetes prevalence in Puerto Rico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tierney, Edward F; Burrows, Nilka R; Barker, Lawrence E; Beckles, Gloria L; Boyle, James P; Cadwell, Betsy L; Kirtland, Karen A; Thompson, Theodore J

    2013-06-01

    To estimate the 2009 prevalence of diagnosed diabetes in Puerto Rico among adults ≥ 20 years of age in order to gain a better understanding of its geographic distribution so that policymakers can more efficiently target prevention and control programs. A Bayesian multilevel model was fitted to the combined 2008-2010 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System and 2009 United States Census data to estimate diabetes prevalence for each of the 78 municipios (counties) in Puerto Rico. The mean unadjusted estimate for all counties was 14.3% (range by county, 9.9%-18.0%). The average width of the confidence intervals was 6.2%. Adjusted and unadjusted estimates differed little. These 78 county estimates are higher on average and showed less variability (i.e., had a smaller range) than the previously published estimates of the 2008 diabetes prevalence for all United States counties (mean, 9.9%; range, 3.0%-18.2%).

  3. Small area variation in diabetes prevalence in Puerto Rico

    OpenAIRE

    Tierney, Edward F.; Burrows, Nilka R.; Barker, Lawrence E.; Beckles, Gloria L.; Boyle, James P.; Cadwell, Betsy L.; Kirtland, Karen A.; Thompson, Theodore J.

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To estimate the 2009 prevalence of diagnosed diabetes in Puerto Rico among adults ≥ 20 years of age in order to gain a better understanding of its geographic distribution so that policymakers can more efficiently target prevention and control programs. METHODS: A Bayesian multilevel model was fitted to the combined 2008-2010 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System and 2009 United States Census data to estimate diabetes prevalence for each of the 78 municipios (counties) in Puert...

  4. Global Burned Area and Biomass Burning Emissions from Small Fires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Randerson, J. T.; Chen, Y.; vanderWerf, G. R.; Rogers, B. M.; Morton, D. C.

    2012-01-01

    In several biomes, including croplands, wooded savannas, and tropical forests, many small fires occur each year that are well below the detection limit of the current generation of global burned area products derived from moderate resolution surface reflectance imagery. Although these fires often generate thermal anomalies that can be detected by satellites, their contributions to burned area and carbon fluxes have not been systematically quantified across different regions and continents. Here we developed a preliminary method for combining 1-km thermal anomalies (active fires) and 500 m burned area observations from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) to estimate the influence of these fires. In our approach, we calculated the number of active fires inside and outside of 500 m burn scars derived from reflectance data. We estimated small fire burned area by computing the difference normalized burn ratio (dNBR) for these two sets of active fires and then combining these observations with other information. In a final step, we used the Global Fire Emissions Database version 3 (GFED3) biogeochemical model to estimate the impact of these fires on biomass burning emissions. We found that the spatial distribution of active fires and 500 m burned areas were in close agreement in ecosystems that experience large fires, including savannas across southern Africa and Australia and boreal forests in North America and Eurasia. In other areas, however, we observed many active fires outside of burned area perimeters. Fire radiative power was lower for this class of active fires. Small fires substantially increased burned area in several continental-scale regions, including Equatorial Asia (157%), Central America (143%), and Southeast Asia (90%) during 2001-2010. Globally, accounting for small fires increased total burned area by approximately by 35%, from 345 Mha/yr to 464 Mha/yr. A formal quantification of uncertainties was not possible, but sensitivity

  5. [Variations in antihypertensive drug utilization among primary care areas in the autonomous region of Valencia (Spain)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanfélix-Gimeno, Gabriel; Peiró, Salvador; Librero, Julián

    2010-01-01

    To estimate consumption of five subgroups of antihypertensive drugs by primary care areas and to analyze its variation. We performed an ecological, descriptive study of antihypertensive consumption in 239 primary care areas in the autonomous region of Valencia in 2005 followed by analysis of the variability observed. The 239 primary care areas were studied by descriptive analysis of dispensation [defined daily dose (DDD) per 1,000 inhabitants/day in pensioners (DDD/1000p/day) and in the active population (DDD/1000a/day)] and standardized consumption ratios. Small-area variation analysis was used to analyze the observed variability. Associations among dispensations of the distinct therapeutic subgroups were also analyzed. Overall antihypertensive use in the autonomous region of Valencia in 2005 was 235.6DDD/1000/day. This consumption was concentrated in pensioners (800DDD/1000p/day vs. 73DDD/1000a/day). Consumption of antihypertensive subgroups oscillated from 442DDD/1000p/day for drugs with action on the renin-angiotensin system to 32DDD/1000p/day for doxazosin. The active population showed similar patterns. Variation in consumption was moderate, with coefficients of variation from 0.20 to 0.40 (slightly greater for the active population). Associations among dispensations of the different therapeutic subgroups were strong. This study shows major variations in the overall consumption of antihypertensive drugs among primary care areas of the autonomous region of Valencia. These results suggest that variation may be associated with problems of underutilization in areas with lower consumption. Copyright © 2010 SESPAS. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  6. Croatian small islands – residential and/or leisure area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josip Faričić

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper discusses modern geographic processes on Croatian small inhabited islands. For centuries, Croatian small islands have been continuously inhabited area characterized by different social and economic activities. However, in the last several decades, the islands have experienced a severe depopulation, and on the other hand, the interest for occasional use of that attractive insular space for recreational purposes increased. Consequently, the basic insular functions have changed, which, among other things, contributes to changes of insular landscape and to the changed role of small islands in regional socio-economic systems.

  7. Small area estimation of child undernutrition in Ethiopian woredas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sohnesen, Thomas Pave; Ambel, Alemayehu Azeze; Fisker, Peter Kielberg

    2017-01-01

    Reducing child undernutrition is a key social policy objective of the Ethiopian government. Despite substantial reduction over the last decade and a half, child undernutrition is still high; with 48 percent of children either stunted, underweight or wasted, undernutrition remains an important child....... The estimates are small area estimations based on the 2014 Demographic and Health Survey and the latest population census. It is shown that small area estimations are powerful predictors of undernutrition, even compared to household characteristics, such as wealth and education, and hence a valuable targeting...

  8. Functional Mixed Effects Model for Small Area Estimation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maiti, Tapabrata; Sinha, Samiran; Zhong, Ping-Shou

    2016-09-01

    Functional data analysis has become an important area of research due to its ability of handling high dimensional and complex data structures. However, the development is limited in the context of linear mixed effect models, and in particular, for small area estimation. The linear mixed effect models are the backbone of small area estimation. In this article, we consider area level data, and fit a varying coefficient linear mixed effect model where the varying coefficients are semi-parametrically modeled via B-splines. We propose a method of estimating the fixed effect parameters and consider prediction of random effects that can be implemented using a standard software. For measuring prediction uncertainties, we derive an analytical expression for the mean squared errors, and propose a method of estimating the mean squared errors. The procedure is illustrated via a real data example, and operating characteristics of the method are judged using finite sample simulation studies.

  9. A comparison of small-area hospitalisation rates, estimated morbidity and hospital access.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shulman, H; Birkin, M; Clarke, G P

    2015-11-01

    Published data on hospitalisation rates tend to reveal marked spatial variations within a city or region. Such variations may simply reflect corresponding variations in need at the small-area level. However, they might also be a consequence of poorer accessibility to medical facilities for certain communities within the region. To help answer this question it is important to compare these variable hospitalisation rates with small-area estimates of need. This paper first maps hospitalisation rates at the small-area level across the region of Yorkshire in the UK to show the spatial variations present. Then the Health Survey of England is used to explore the characteristics of persons with heart disease, using chi-square and logistic regression analysis. Using the most significant variables from this analysis the authors build a spatial microsimulation model of morbidity for heart disease for the Yorkshire region. We then compare these estimates of need with the patterns of hospitalisation rates seen across the region. Crown Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Geographic variation and effect of area-level poverty rate on colorectal cancer screening

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schootman Mario

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background With a secular trend of increasing colorectal cancer (CRC screening, concerns about disparities in CRC screening also have been rising. It is unclear if CRC screening varies geographically, if area-level poverty rate affects CRC screening, and if individual-level characteristics mediate the area-level effects on CRC screening. Methods Using 2006 Missouri Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS data, a multilevel study was conducted to examine geographic variation and the effect of area-level poverty rate on CRC screening use among persons age 50 or older. Individuals were nested within ZIP codes (ZIP5 areas, which in turn, were nested within aggregations of ZIP codes (ZIP3 areas. Six groups of individual-level covariates were considered as potential mediators. Results An estimated 51.8% of Missourians aged 50 or older adhered to CRC screening recommendations. Nearly 15% of the total variation in CRC screening lay between ZIP5 areas. Persons residing in ZIP5 areas with ≥ 10% of poverty rate had lower odds of CRC screening use than those residing in ZIP5 areas with Conclusion Large geographic variation of CRC screening exists in Missouri. Area-level poverty rate, independent of individual-level characteristics, is a significant predictor of CRC screening, but it only explains a small portion of the geographic heterogeneity of CRC screening. Individual-level factors we examined do not mediate the effect of the area-level poverty rate on CRC screening. Future studies should identify other area- and individual-level characteristics associated with CRC screening in Missouri.

  11. Small Buildings in Earthquake Areas. Educational Building Digest 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mooij, D.

    This booklet is intended for builders and others who actually construct small buildings in earthquake areas and not for professionally qualified architects or engineers. In outline form with sketches the following topics are discussed: general construction and design principles; foundations; earth walls; brick, block, and stone walls; timber frame…

  12. inverse gaussian model for small area estimation via gibbs sampling

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ADMIN

    For example, MacGibbon and Tomberlin. (1989) have considered estimating small area rates and binomial parameters using empirical Bayes methods. Stroud (1991) used hierarchical Bayes approach for univariate natural exponential families with quadratic variance functions in sample survey applications, while Chaubey ...

  13. Small Area Income and Poverty Estimates (SAIPE): 2010 Highlights

    Science.gov (United States)

    US Census Bureau, 2011

    2011-01-01

    This document presents 2010 data from the Small Area Income and Poverty Estimates (SAIPE) program of the U.S. Census Bureau. The SAIPE program produces poverty estimates for the total population and median household income estimates annually for all counties and states. SAIPE data also produces single-year poverty estimates for the school-age…

  14. Residential fencing in a metropolitan area and three small towns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwin Kallio; Jerry A. Sesco

    1967-01-01

    Many types of fences were found on residential lots in the metropolitan-suburban area of St. Louis County, Missouri, and three small towns in southern Illinois. Wire fences predominated. More wooden fences were found on village lots than on city lots. In general, the more expensive homes had the most wooden fencing. Homes over 5 years old had more fencing of all...

  15. Global burned area and biomass burning emissions from small fires

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Randerson, J.T; Chen, Y.; van der Werf, G.R.; Rogers, B.M.; Morton, D.C.

    2012-01-01

    In several biomes, including croplands, wooded savannas, and tropical forests, many small fires occur each year that are well below the detection limit of the current generation of global burned area products derived from moderate resolution surface reflectance imagery. Although these fires often

  16. Spatial variation in nitrogen dioxide in three European areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lewne, Marie; Bellander, Tom; Cyrys, Josef; Gehring, Ulrike; Heinrich, Joachim; Meliefste, Kees; Hoek, Gerard; Brauer, Michael; Brunekreef, Bert; Fischer, Paul

    2004-01-01

    In order to estimate the spatial variation within well-defined study areas, nitrogen dioxide was measured with diffusion samplers (Palmes tube) in 40-42 sites each in Germany (Munich), the Netherlands and Sweden (Stockholm County). Each site was measured over four 2-week periods during 1 year (spring 1999 to summer 2000). In each country, one reference site was measured during all periods and the results were used to adjust for seasonal variability, to improve the estimates of the annual average. Comparisons between the chemiluminescence method (European reference method) and Palmes tube measurement indicated a good agreement in Germany (with a ratio of 1.0 for Palmes tube/chemiluminescence) but underestimation for Palmes tube measurement in the Netherlands and Sweden (0.8 for both countries). The r 2 values were between 0.86 and 0.90 for all three countries.The annual average values for NO 2 for different sampling sites were between 15.9 and 50.6 (mean 28.8 μg/m 3 ) in Germany, between 12.1 and 50.8 (mean 28.9 μg/m 3 ) in the Netherlands and between 6.1 and 44.7 (mean 18.5 μg/m 3 ) in Sweden. Comparing spatial variation between similar sites in the three countries, we did not find any significant differences between annual average levels for urban traffic sites. In Sweden, annual average levels in urban background and suburban backgrounds sites were about 8 μg/m 3 lower than comparable sites in Germany and the Netherlands. Comparing site types within each country only urban traffic sites and suburban background sites differed in Germany. In the Netherlands and Sweden, the urban traffic sites differed from all other sites and in Sweden also the urban background sites differed from the other background sites. The observed contribution from local traffic was similar in the Netherlands and Sweden (10 and 8 μg/m 3 , corresponding to 26-27% of the NO 2 concentration found in the urban traffic sites). In Germany, the contribution from local traffic was only 3

  17. Small area analysis using micro-diffraction techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goehner, Raymond P.; Tissot, Ralph G. Jr.; Michael, Joseph R.

    2000-01-01

    An overall trend toward smaller electronic packages and devices makes it increasingly important and difficult to obtain meaningful diffraction information from small areas. X-ray micro-diffraction, electron back-scattered diffraction (EBSD) and Kossel are micro-diffraction techniques used for crystallographic analysis including texture, phase identification and strain measurements. X-ray micro-diffraction primarily is used for phase analysis and residual strain measurements. X-ray micro-diffraction primarily is used for phase analysis and residual strain measurements of areas between 10 microm to 100 microm. For areas this small glass capillary optics are used for producing a usable collimated x-ray beam. These optics are designed to reflect x-rays below the critical angle therefore allowing for larger solid acceptance angle at the x-ray source resulting in brighter smaller x-ray beams. The determination of residual strain using micro-diffraction techniques is very important to the semiconductor industry. Residual stresses have caused voiding of the interconnect metal which then destroys electrical continuity. Being able to determine the residual stress helps industry to predict failures from the aging effects of interconnects due to this stress voiding. Stress measurements would be impossible using a conventional x-ray diffractometer; however, utilizing a 30 microm glass capillary these small areas are readily assessable for analysis. Kossel produces a wide angle diffraction pattern from fluorescent x-rays generated in the sample by an e-beam in a SEM. This technique can yield very precise lattice parameters for determining strain. Fig. 2 shows a Kossel pattern from a Ni specimen. Phase analysis on small areas is also possible using an energy dispersive spectrometer (EBSD) and x-ray micro-diffraction techniques. EBSD has the advantage of allowing the user to observe the area of interest using the excellent imaging capabilities of the SEM. An EDS detector has been

  18. Response of Solar Irradiance to Sunspot-area Variations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dudok de Wit, T.; Kopp, G.; Shapiro, A.; Witzke, V.; Kretzschmar, M.

    2018-02-01

    One of the important open questions in solar irradiance studies is whether long-term variability (i.e., on timescales of years and beyond) can be reconstructed by means of models that describe short-term variability (i.e., days) using solar proxies as inputs. Preminger & Walton showed that the relationship between spectral solar irradiance and proxies of magnetic-flux emergence, such as the daily sunspot area, can be described in the framework of linear system theory by means of the impulse response. We significantly refine that empirical model by removing spurious solar-rotational effects and by including an additional term that captures long-term variations. Our results show that long-term variability cannot be reconstructed from the short-term response of the spectral irradiance, which questions the extension of solar proxy models to these timescales. In addition, we find that the solar response is nonlinear in a way that cannot be corrected simply by applying a rescaling to a sunspot area.

  19. Assessment of genetic variation among four populations of Small ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    From the findings, it can be concluded that the SEA goats in this study showed high in population genetic variation, which implies that there is good scope for their further improvement through selection within populations. The Sukuma population, which has fairly high inbreeding, is moderately differentiated from Pare, Sonjo ...

  20. Small carpal bone surface area, a characteristic of Turner's syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cleveland, R.H.; Done, S.; Correia, J.A.; Crawford, J.D.; Kushner, D.C.; Herman, T.E.

    1985-01-01

    An abnormality which has received little attention but may be easily recognized on radiographs of the hand of patients with Turner's syndrome is described. Eleven of thirty-one patients (35.5%) with Turner's syndrome were shown on radiographs of the hand to have a visually detectable smallness of the bone surface area of the carpus when compared to the area of the second through fifth metacarpals. Values for the ''C/M'' ratio (the area of the carpals divided by the area of the second through fifth metacarpals) were calculated for films of 31 individuals with gonadal dysgenesis and compared with those from bone age-matched films of seventy-six individuals with normal development of the hand and wrist. A consistent difference with minimal overlap was documented. (orig./WL)

  1. Electrical characterization of small area devices for manufacturing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Enzenroth, R.A.; Davies, A.; Reed, S.

    2011-01-01

    Uniformity of electrical performance is critical for thin film modules. The more uniformly that all areas of the module perform the better the overall efficiency will be. Total module performance tends towards the average of localized performance, skewed slightly lower by the width of localized performance distribution. Measurement of overall module efficiency does not give information about performance uniformity. Use of small area devices (SAD's) defined from the module allow standard electrical measurements including light and dark current-voltage (IV/JV) and quantum efficiency to be performed on a small scale. Data from these measurements allows mapping of electrical performance across the module. The structure of types of SAD's is discussed and some examples of efficiency data from JV measurements as used in the optimization of a thin film module manufacturing line are presented. Also a brief discussion of statistical analysis of the data is included.

  2. Genetic variation for drought resistance in small red seeded ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) productivity is low in major growing regions of Ethiopia mainly due to drought, caused by low and erratic rainfall. A field experiment was carried out at Gofa in Southern Ethiopia, to assess genetic variability for drought resistance in forty-nine small red seeded common bean genotypes ...

  3. Seasonal variation of photosynthetic model parameters and leaf area index from global Fluxnet eddy covariance data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groenendijk, M.; Dolman, A. J.; Ammann, C.; Arneth, A.; Cescatti, A.; Dragoni, D.; Gash, J. H. C.; Gianelle, D.; Gioli, B.; Kiely, G.; Knohl, A.; Law, B. E.; Lund, M.; Marcolla, B.; van der Molen, M. K.; Montagnani, L.; Moors, E.; Richardson, A. D.; Roupsard, O.; Verbeeck, H.; Wohlfahrt, G.

    2011-12-01

    Global vegetation models require the photosynthetic parameters, maximum carboxylation capacity (Vcm), and quantum yield (α) to parameterize their plant functional types (PFTs). The purpose of this work is to determine how much the scaling of the parameters from leaf to ecosystem level through a seasonally varying leaf area index (LAI) explains the parameter variation within and between PFTs. Using Fluxnet data, we simulate a seasonally variable LAIF for a large range of sites, comparable to the LAIM derived from MODIS. There are discrepancies when LAIF reach zero levels and LAIM still provides a small positive value. We find that temperature is the most common constraint for LAIF in 55% of the simulations, while global radiation and vapor pressure deficit are the key constraints for 18% and 27% of the simulations, respectively, while large differences in this forcing still exist when looking at specific PFTs. Despite these differences, the annual photosynthesis simulations are comparable when using LAIF or LAIM (r2 = 0.89). We investigated further the seasonal variation of ecosystem-scale parameters derived with LAIF. Vcm has the largest seasonal variation. This holds for all vegetation types and climates. The parameter α is less variable. By including ecosystem-scale parameter seasonality we can explain a considerable part of the ecosystem-scale parameter variation between PFTs. The remaining unexplained leaf-scale PFT variation still needs further work, including elucidating the precise role of leaf and soil level nitrogen.

  4. Geographic variation and effect of area-level poverty rate on colorectal cancer screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lian, Min; Schootman, Mario; Yun, Shumei

    2008-10-16

    With a secular trend of increasing colorectal cancer (CRC) screening, concerns about disparities in CRC screening also have been rising. It is unclear if CRC screening varies geographically, if area-level poverty rate affects CRC screening, and if individual-level characteristics mediate the area-level effects on CRC screening. Using 2006 Missouri Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS) data, a multilevel study was conducted to examine geographic variation and the effect of area-level poverty rate on CRC screening use among persons age 50 or older. Individuals were nested within ZIP codes (ZIP5 areas), which in turn, were nested within aggregations of ZIP codes (ZIP3 areas). Six groups of individual-level covariates were considered as potential mediators. An estimated 51.8% of Missourians aged 50 or older adhered to CRC screening recommendations. Nearly 15% of the total variation in CRC screening lay between ZIP5 areas. Persons residing in ZIP5 areas with > or = 10% of poverty rate had lower odds of CRC screening use than those residing in ZIP5 areas with poverty rate (unadjusted odds ratio [OR], 0.69; 95% confidence interval [95% CI], 0.58-0.81; adjusted OR, 0.81; 95% CI, 0.67-0.98). Persons who resided in ZIP3 areas with > or = 20% poverty rate also had lower odds of following CRC screening guidelines than those residing in ZIP3 areas with poverty rate (unadjusted OR, 0.66; 95% CI, 0.52-0.83; adjusted OR, 0.64; 95% CI, 0.50-0.83). Obesity, history of depression/anxiety and access to care were associated with CRC screening, but did not mediate the effect of area-level poverty on CRC screening. Large geographic variation of CRC screening exists in Missouri. Area-level poverty rate, independent of individual-level characteristics, is a significant predictor of CRC screening, but it only explains a small portion of the geographic heterogeneity of CRC screening. Individual-level factors we examined do not mediate the effect of the area-level poverty rate on

  5. SMALL FARMERS FROM RURAL AREAS ATTITUDE ON ORGANIC FOOD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ron#537;ca Mihai Ioan

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper is one of the few marketing research done in rural areas of attitudes towards green products. Even if the subject is generally treated at the international level, Romania has an important specific is to be taken into account in the European area. Size of agricultural holdings and their degree of technology do not have the desired agricultural economic efficiency of modern economies. But by applying marketing techniques and by approaching customer needs, the agricultural sector in Romania can develop in another direction no longer going through the business model of major West European farmers. We are referring here to transition to a agriculture on small areas, intensively exploited and ecology and a system of distributed in the markets with a big search for such products. But he must know how people in rural areas see these green products and how they are trained to understand the concepts of green marketing and marketing organic products. These issues have been dealt with in the first part of the work. The second part of this paper aims to describe the attitude of small agricultural producers towards organic products and the degree in which they are willing to go to such a production. Research is based on a survey an explorer in two rural areas of Romania one at the mountain and the other in lowlands and shows the degree of adaptation for small producers to new market requirements. Results have been contradictory. Some of them have confirmed the assumptions, namely the opening to such a grown for, and others have shown a much greater degree of the use of chemical compounds in agriculture than expected. Also the degree of taking the initiative in rural areas was an issue that came out at a level lower than expected. This is a worrying conclusion but worth being taken into account. This research gives the image concept in rural areas being the starting point for further research and strategies which to propose turning Romania into a

  6. Small Glacier Area Studies: A New Approach for Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yavasli, Dogukan D.; Tucker, Compton J.

    2012-01-01

    Many regions of Earth have glaciers that have been neglected for study because they are small. We report on a new approach to overcome the problem of studying small glaciers, using Turkey as an example. Prior to our study, no reliable estimates of Turkish glaciers existed because of a lack of systematic mapping, difficulty in using Landsat data collected before 1982, snowpack vs. glacier ice differentiation using existing satellite data and aerial photography, the previous high cost of Landsat images, and a lack of high-resolution imagery of small Turkish glaciers. Since 2008, a large number of area of nine smaller glaciers in Turkey. We also used five Landsat-3 Return Beam Videcon (RBV) 30 m pixel resolution images, all from 1980, for six glaciers. The total area of Turkish glaciers decreased from 23 km2 in the 1970s to 10.1 km2 in 2007-2011. By 2007-2011, six Turkish glaciers disappeared, four were < 0.3 km2, and only three were 1.0 km2 or larger. No trends in precipitation from 1970 to 2006 and cloud cover from 1980 to 2010 were found, while surface temperatures increased, with summer minimum temperatures showing the greatest increase. We conclude that increased surface temperatures during the summer were responsible for the 56% recession of Turkish glaciers from the 1970s to 2006-2011.

  7. Environmental variation and habitat separation among small mammals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vickery, W.L.; Iverson, S.L.; Mihok, S.; Schwartz, B.

    1989-01-01

    Habitat use and population density of five species of forest small mammals were monitored by annual spring snap-trap censuses at Pinawa, Manitoba, over 14 years. Population sizes were positively correlated among species and showed no evidence of density-dependent effects. Species were habitat selectors. Habitat use by species did not vary among years. Habitat separation between the dominant species was not correlated with environmental variables or with population size. We suggest that habitat selection and positive covariance among species abundances are the principal factors characterizing the dynamics of this community

  8. Small Water System Management Program: 100 K Area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hunacek, G.S. Jr.

    1995-01-01

    Purposes of this document are: to provide an overview of the service and potable water system presently in service at the Hanford Site's 100 K Area; to provide future system forecasts based on anticipated DOE activities and programs; to delineate performance, design, and operations criteria; and to describe planned improvements. The objective of the small water system management program is to assure the water system is properly and reliably managed and operated, and continues to exist as a functional and viable entity in accordance with WAC 246-290-410

  9. Small Area Model-Based Estimators Using Big Data Sources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marchetti Stefano

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The timely, accurate monitoring of social indicators, such as poverty or inequality, on a finegrained spatial and temporal scale is a crucial tool for understanding social phenomena and policymaking, but poses a great challenge to official statistics. This article argues that an interdisciplinary approach, combining the body of statistical research in small area estimation with the body of research in social data mining based on Big Data, can provide novel means to tackle this problem successfully. Big Data derived from the digital crumbs that humans leave behind in their daily activities are in fact providing ever more accurate proxies of social life. Social data mining from these data, coupled with advanced model-based techniques for fine-grained estimates, have the potential to provide a novel microscope through which to view and understand social complexity. This article suggests three ways to use Big Data together with small area estimation techniques, and shows how Big Data has the potential to mirror aspects of well-being and other socioeconomic phenomena.

  10. Spatial and temporal small-scale variation in groundwater quality of a shallow sandy aquifer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjerg, Poul Løgstrup; Christensen, Thomas Højlund

    1992-01-01

    The groundwater quality of a shallow unconfined sandy aquifer has been characterized for pH, alkalinity, chloride, nitrate, sulfate, calcium, magnesium, sodium and potassium in terms of vertical and horizontal variations (350 groundwater samples). The test area is located within a farmland lot....... The geology of the area described on the basis of 31 sediment cores appears relatively homogeneous. Large vertical and horizontal variations were observed. The vertical variations are strongly affected by the deviating composition of the agricultural infiltration water. The horizontal variations show very...

  11. Variation of runoff source areas under different soil wetness ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Runoff source areas can serve as focus areas for water quality monitoring and catchment management. In this study, a conceptual form of the Soil Conservation Service Curve Number method (SCS-CN) is used to define variable-source runoff areas in a meso-scale catchment in the Zagros mountain region, southwest of ...

  12. Morphometric variations of laelapine mite (Acari: Mesostigmata populations infesting small mammals (Mammalia in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Martins-Hatano

    Full Text Available The goal of this study was to evaluate the morphometric variation of laelapine populations (Acari, Mesostigmata associated with neotropical oryzomyine rodents at different geographic localities in Brazil. Three nominal mite species were selected for study, all infesting the pelage of small mammals at different localities in Rio de Janeiro, Espírito Santo, Bahia, and the Federal District, Brazil. To analyse morphometric characteristics, thirty-seven morphological characters distributed across the whole body of each specimen were measured. We use the Analysis of Principal Components, extracting the three first axes and projecting each mite in these axes. Major species level changes in the taxonomy of the host mammals allows an independent examination of morphometric variation of mites infesting a set of distinctly different host species at different geographic localities. Gigantolaelaps vitzthumi and Laelaps differens are associated with oryzomyine rodents of the genus Cerradomys, and consistently showed a tendency to cluster by host phylogeny. Laelaps manguinhosi associated with Nectomys rattus in central Brazil is morphometrically distinct from mites infesting N. squamipes in the coastal restingas of Rio de Janeiro and Espírito Santo. The results obtained here indicate that laelapine mite populations can vary among geographic areas and among phylogenetically related host species. Clearly, the study of these mites at the population level can be an important tool for clarifying the taxonomy of both mites and hosts.

  13. Morphometric variations of laelapine mite (Acari: Mesostigmata) populations infesting small mammals (Mammalia) in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins-Hatano, F; Gettinger, D; Manhães, M L; Bergallo, H G

    2012-08-01

    The goal of this study was to evaluate the morphometric variation of laelapine populations (Acari, Mesostigmata) associated with neotropical oryzomyine rodents at different geographic localities in Brazil. Three nominal mite species were selected for study, all infesting the pelage of small mammals at different localities in Rio de Janeiro, Espírito Santo, Bahia, and the Federal District, Brazil. To analyse morphometric characteristics, thirty-seven morphological characters distributed across the whole body of each specimen were measured. We use the Analysis of Principal Components, extracting the three first axes and projecting each mite in these axes. Major species level changes in the taxonomy of the host mammals allows an independent examination of morphometric variation of mites infesting a set of distinctly different host species at different geographic localities. Gigantolaelaps vitzthumi and Laelaps differens are associated with oryzomyine rodents of the genus Cerradomys, and consistently showed a tendency to cluster by host phylogeny. Laelaps manguinhosi associated with Nectomys rattus in central Brazil is morphometrically distinct from mites infesting N. squamipes in the coastal restingas of Rio de Janeiro and Espírito Santo. The results obtained here indicate that laelapine mite populations can vary among geographic areas and among phylogenetically related host species. Clearly, the study of these mites at the population level can be an important tool for clarifying the taxonomy of both mites and hosts.

  14. Seasonal and Interannual Variation in Energy Balance in the Semiarid Grassland Area of China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qun’ou Jiang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Near surface energy budget changes have been proved to be induced by the land cover conversion through changing the surface physical properties, which can further impact the regional climate change. This study applies the DLS model to simulate the land cover under the business as usual (BAU scenario and then analyses the seasonal and interannual variation of energy balance in the semiarid grassland area of China based on the simulated land cover with the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF model. The results indicate that the grassland will show a growing trend under the BAU scenario. Downward long wave radiation and downward short wave radiation will all have small-scale increase with time going by, while the surface net radiation will decrease from 2030 to 2050. However, there is obvious seasonal variation. Summer has the highest downward long wave radiation and downward short wave radiation, followed by spring and autumn. The lowest are in winter. As for the net surface radiation, there is obvious decrease in southeast of study area due to returning cropland to grassland. Those research conclusions can offer valuable information for the land use planning and relieving the effects of land cover change on climate change at the semiarid grassland area.

  15. 48 CFR 1852.219-74 - Use of rural area small businesses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 true Use of rural area small... and Clauses 1852.219-74 Use of rural area small businesses. As prescribed in 1819.7103, insert the following clause: Use of Rural Area Small Business (SEP 1990) (a) Definitions. Rural area means any county...

  16. 76 FR 33333 - Use of Small Area Fair Market Rents for Project Base Vouchers in the Dallas TX Metropolitan Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-08

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT [Docket No. FR-5525-N-01] Use of Small Area Fair Market Rents for Project Base Vouchers in the Dallas TX Metropolitan Area AGENCY: Office of the Assistant... Small Area Fair Market Rents (SAFMRs) for Project-Based Vouchers (PBVs) located in the Dallas, TX...

  17. Variations in the polar cap area during two substorm cycles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. E. Milan

    2003-05-01

    Full Text Available This study employs observations from several sources to determine the location of the polar cap boundary, or open/closed field line boundary, at all local times, allowing the amount of open flux in the magnetosphere to be quantified. These data sources include global auroral images from the Ultraviolet Imager (UVI instrument on board the Polar spacecraft, SuperDARN HF radar measurements of the convection flow, and low altitude particle measurements from Defense Meteorological Satellite Program (DMSP and National Oceanographic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA satellites, and the Fast Auroral SnapshoT (FAST spacecraft. Changes in the open flux content of the magnetosphere are related to the rate of magnetic reconnection occurring at the magnetopause and in the magnetotail, allowing us to estimate the day- and nightside reconnection voltages during two substorm cycles. Specifically, increases in the polar cap area are found to be consistent with open flux being created when the IMF is oriented southwards and low-latitude magnetopause reconnection is ongoing, and decreases in area correspond to open flux being destroyed at substorm breakup. The polar cap area can continue to decrease for 100 min following the onset of substorm breakup, continuing even after substorm-associated auroral features have died away. An estimate of the dayside reconnection voltage, determined from plasma drift measurements in the ionosphere, indicates that reconnection can take place at all local times along the dayside portion of the polar cap boundary, and hence presumably across the majority of the dayside magnetopause. The observation of ionospheric signatures of bursty reconnection over a wide extent of local times supports this finding.Key words. Ionosphere (plasma convection; polar ionosphere – Magnetospheric physics (magnetospheric configuration and dynamics

  18. Spatial variations in nitrogen dioxide concentrations in an urban area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicholas Hewitt, C.

    Fortnightly average NO 2 concentrations have been measured at 49 sites in the small city of Lancaster, U.K., over a continuous 1-year period using passive diffusion tubes. At sampling sites on a congested main road in the city centre considerable spatial and temporal variability in concentrations was found. An annual mean concentration of 63 μgm -3 was found witha range of 12-222 μgm -3. The mean concentration in an adjacent main road was 58 μgm -3 with a range of 5-107 μgm -3. Rather less variability was seen in a suburban main road and in a suburban residential street, which had annual mean concentrations of 38 and 30 μm -3, respectively. Concentrations in a city centre pedestrian precinct decreased with distance from the main road, having an annual mean value of 30μm -3. The data suggest that the precise location of a sampling device may be crucial in determining whether or not a given NO 2, concentration or standard is exceeded.

  19. Spatial variation in keystone effects: Small mammal diversity associated with black-tailed prairie dog colonies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cully, J.F.; Collinge, S.K.; Van Nimwegen, R. E.; Ray, C.; Johnson, W.C.; Thiagarajan, Bala; Conlin, D.B.; Holmes, B.E.

    2010-01-01

    Species with extensive geographic ranges may interact with different species assemblages at distant locations, with the result that the nature of the interactions may vary spatially. Black-tailed prairie dogs Cynomys ludovicianus occur from Canada to Mexico in grasslands of the western Great Plains of North America. Black-tailed prairie dogs alter vegetation and dig extensive burrow systems that alter grassland habitats for plants and other animal species. These alterations of habitat justify the descriptor " ecological engineer," and the resulting changes in species composition have earned them status as a keystone species. We examined the impact of black-tailed prairie dogs on small mammal assemblages by trapping at on- and off-colony locations at eight study areas across the species' geographic range. We posed 2 nested hypotheses: 1) prairie dogs function as a keystone species for other rodent species; and 2) the keystone role varies spatially. Assuming that it does, we asked what are the sources of the variation? Black-tailed prairie dogs consistently functioned as a keystone species in that there were strong statistically significant differences in community composition on versus off prairie dog colonies across the species range in prairie grassland. Small mammal species composition varied along both latitudinal and longitudinal gradients, and species richness varied from 4 to 11. Assemblages closer together were more similar; such correlations approximately doubled when including only on- or off-colony grids. Black-tailed prairie dogs had a significant effect on associated rodent assemblages that varied regionally, dependent upon the composition of the local rodent species pool. Over the range of the black-tailed prairie dog, on-colony rodent richness and evenness were less variable, and species composition was more consistent than off-colony assemblages. ?? 2010 The Authors.

  20. Using small area estimation and Lidar-derived variables for multivariate prediction of forest attributes

    Science.gov (United States)

    F. Mauro; Vicente Monleon; H. Temesgen

    2015-01-01

    Small area estimation (SAE) techniques have been successfully applied in forest inventories to provide reliable estimates for domains where the sample size is small (i.e. small areas). Previous studies have explored the use of either Area Level or Unit Level Empirical Best Linear Unbiased Predictors (EBLUPs) in a univariate framework, modeling each variable of interest...

  1. Finding big shots: small-area mapping and spatial modelling of obesity among Swiss male conscripts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panczak, Radoslaw; Held, Leonhard; Moser, André; Jones, Philip A; Rühli, Frank J; Staub, Kaspar

    2016-01-01

    In Switzerland, as in other developed countries, the prevalence of overweight and obesity has increased substantially since the early 1990s. Most of the analyses so far have been based on sporadic surveys or self-reported data and did not offer potential for small-area analyses. The goal of this study was to investigate spatial variation and determinants of obesity among young Swiss men using recent conscription data. A complete, anonymized dataset of conscription records for the 2010-2012 period were provided by Swiss Armed Forces. We used a series of Bayesian hierarchical logistic regression models to investigate the spatial pattern of obesity across 3,187 postcodes, varying them by type of random effects (spatially unstructured and structured), level of adjustment by individual (age and professional status) and area-based [urbanicity and index of socio-economic position (SEP)] characteristics. The analysed dataset consisted of 100,919 conscripts, out of which 5,892 (5.8 %) were obese. Crude obesity prevalence increased with age among conscripts of lower individual and area-based SEP and varied greatly over postcodes. Best model's estimates of adjusted odds ratios of obesity on postcode level ranged from 0.61 to 1.93 and showed a strong spatial pattern of obesity risk across the country. Odds ratios above 1 concentrated in central and north Switzerland. Smaller pockets of elevated obesity risk also emerged around cities of Geneva, Fribourg and Lausanne. Lower estimates were observed in North-East and East as well as south of the Alps. Importantly, small regional outliers were observed and patterning did not follow administrative boundaries. Similarly as with crude obesity prevalence, the best fitting model confirmed increasing risk of obesity with age and among conscripts of lower professional status. The risk decreased with higher area-based SEP and, to a lesser degree - in rural areas. In Switzerland, there is a substantial spatial variation in obesity risk

  2. Financing and disseminating small energy systems in rural areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Waddle, D.B.; Perlack, R.D.

    1992-01-01

    The viability of small energy systems, primarily photovoltaic systems, is discussed as an alternative for rural electrification via traditional grid extension. A dissemination model that incorporates financing to allow access to a much larger population of users and technology support (e.g. training for sales and service and small business development) is described. The experience of two successful programs is presented to illustrate the keys to effective program development and implementation. (author)

  3. 75 FR 27808 - Section 8 Housing Choice Voucher Program-Demonstration Project of Small Area Fair Market Rents in...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-18

    ... Voucher Program--Demonstration Project of Small Area Fair Market Rents in Certain Metropolitan Areas for.... ACTION: Notice of Demonstration Project of Small Area Fair Market Rents (FMRs) in Selected Metropolitan... topics related to small area FMRs, including how these small areas should be defined. Small area FMRs...

  4. Variation of atmospheric 210Pb concentration in the inland area of Chinese continent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doi, Taeko; Sato, Jun.

    1995-01-01

    Atmospheric concentrations of 210 Pb and their variations over Urumqi, Lanzhou and Baotou, cities located in inland area of Chinese continent, were observed for a period of 1 year in 1992. The monthly average concentrations ranged from 0.27 to 4.57 mBq/m 3 . The concentrations over these cities in winter were several times higher than that observed at Tsukuba Science City, Japan, and the range of variation was also larger. The variations in concentration over the 3 localities were similar to each other, showing the same seasonal variation pattern: low concentration appeared in summer and high in winter. This variation pattern was different from that observed at Tsukuba Science City. The variations in concentration over Chinese continent, where precipitation is much lower than that in Japan, correlated quite well with the variation in precipitation. (author)

  5. Seasonal variation of air kerma in the 'Vulcano Porto' area (Aeolian Islands, Italy)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bellia, S.; Basile, S.; Brai, M.; Hauser, S.; Puccio, P.; Rizzo, S.

    2001-01-01

    Air kerma was measured in the 'Vulcano Porto' area of the Vulcano Island, belonging to the Aeolian Islands, in the Mediterranean Sea. Measurements were carried out using thermoluminescence dosimeters. The relationship between observed dose values and source lithology has been assessed. Data show a seasonal variation due to weather conditions but also probably related to features of the soils, making the variation more evident

  6. Seasonal variation of air kerma in the "Vulcano Porto" area (Aeolian Islands, Italy).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellia, S; Basile, S; Brai, M; Hauser, S; Puccio, P; Rizzo, S

    2001-04-01

    Air kerma was measured in the "Vulcano Porto" area of the Vulcano Island, belonging to the Aeolian Islands, in the Mediterranean Sea. Measurements were carried out using thermoluminescence dosimeters. The relationship between observed dose values and source lithology has been assessed. Data show a seasonal variation due to weather conditions but also probably related to features of the soils, making the variation more evident.

  7. Genome - wide variation and demographic history of small cats with a focus on Felis species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anubhab Khan

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Majority of the 38 known cat species are classified as small and they inhabit five of the seven continents. They survive in a vast range of habitats but still 12 out of the 18 threatened felids are small cats. However, there has not been enough progress in the field of small cat research as they generally get overshadowed by the charismatic big cats. Here we attempt to create a resource for small cat research especially of the genus Felis which has six species out of which two are classified as vulnerable by IUCN and at least one more is at risk. We collected tissue samples of four Felis chaus (Jungle cat from central India and used available whole genome sequences of nine individuals from four other Felis species, two individuals of Prionailurus bengalensis and an Otocolobus manul. These whole genome sequences were filtered and aligned with the already published domestic cat (Felis catus genome assembly. Felids are closely related species and reads from all species in our study aligned with the domestic cat genome with a rate of at least 93%. We estimated the existing genomic variation by calculating heterozygous SNP encounter rate. So far, it seems that all wild cats have more genetic variation than Felis catus species. This can be attributed to the inbreeding in these cats. Among the wild cats, Felis silvestris seems to have the highest level of genetic variation. To understand the reasons behind the distribution of genetic variation in small cats, we estimated the demographic histories of each of the species using PSMC. This method can only detect demographic changes more than 1000 generations ago. We observe that roughly all species share a parallel history in terms of population increase. The most interesting and important feature might be that all wild small cat population sizes increased exponentially around twenty thousand years ago as opposed to domestic cat and big cats which declined around this time. Another interesting feature of

  8. Small-Area Estimation of Spatial Access to Care and Its Implications for Policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gentili, Monica; Isett, Kim; Serban, Nicoleta; Swann, Julie

    2015-10-01

    Local or small-area estimates to capture emerging trends across large geographic regions are critical in identifying and addressing community-level health interventions. However, they are often unavailable due to lack of analytic capabilities in compiling and integrating extensive datasets and complementing them with the knowledge about variations in state-level health policies. This study introduces a modeling approach for small-area estimation of spatial access to pediatric primary care that is data "rich" and mathematically rigorous, integrating data and health policy in a systematic way. We illustrate the sensitivity of the model to policy decision making across large geographic regions by performing a systematic comparison of the estimates at the census tract and county levels for Georgia and California. Our results show the proposed approach is able to overcome limitations of other existing models by capturing patient and provider preferences and by incorporating possible changes in health policies. The primary finding is systematic underestimation of spatial access, and inaccurate estimates of disparities across population and across geography at the county level with respect to those at the census tract level with implications on where to focus and which type of interventions to consider.

  9. Effects of Channelisation, Riparian Structure and Catchment Area on Physical Habitats in Small Lowland Streams

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Morten Lauge

    2009-01-01

    Rivers and streams form a longitudinal network in which physical conditions and biological processes change through the river system. Geomorphology, topography, geology and hydraulic conditions change from site to site within the river system, thereby creating a complex network of reaches that ar.......e. a confined and steep valley (V-shaped) is less likely to be used for agricultural production compared to a broad valley. The results are useful to water managers, who seek to identify natural and impacted physical conditions in large river systems....... that are dominated by a hierarchy of physical processes. The complexity is further enhanced by local human alteration of the physical structure, natural processes and alteration of the riparian areas. The aim of the study was to analyse variations in land use and riparian characteristics along small Danish streams...... and to determine the effect of channelisation on physical habitats. Physical stream characteristics were measured in 149 stream small and medium sized Danish streams (catchment area: 0.1 to 67.2 km2). The measured physical parameters included discharge, stream slope, width, depth, current velocity, substrata...

  10. Monitoring and mapping leaf area index of rubber and oil palm in small watershed area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rusli, N; Majid, M R

    2014-01-01

    Existing conventional methods to determine LAI are tedious and time consuming for implementation in small or large areas. Thus, raster LAI data which are available free were downloaded for 4697.60 km 2 of Sungai Muar watershed area in Johor. The aim of this study is to monitor and map LAI changes of rubber and oil palm throughout the years from 2002 to 2008. Raster datasets of LAI value were obtained from the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) website of available years from 2002 to year 2008. These data, were mosaicked and subset utilizing ERDAS Imagine 9.2. Next, the LAI raster dataset was multiplied by a scale factor of 0.1 to derive the final LAI value. Afterwards, to determine LAI values of rubber and oil palms, the boundaries of each crop from land cover data of the years 2002, 2006 and 2008 were exploited to overlay with LAI raster dataset. A total of 5000 sample points were generated utilizing the Hawths Tool (extension in ARcGIS 9.2) within these boundaries area and utilized for extracting LAI value of oil palm and rubber. In integration, a wide range of literature review was conducted as a guideline to derive LAI value of oil palm and rubber which range from 0 to 6. The results show, an overall mean LAI value from year 2002 to 2008 as decremented from 4.12 to 2.5 due to land cover transition within these years. In 2002, the mean LAI value of rubber and oil palm is 2.65 and 2.53 respectively. Meanwhile in 2006, the mean LAI value for rubber and oil palm is 2.54 and 2.82 respectively. In 2008, the mean LAI value for both crops is 0.85 for rubber and 1.04 for oil palm. In conclusion, apart from the original function of LAI which is related to the growth and metabolism of vegetation, the changes of LAI values from year 2002 to 2008 also capable to explain the process of land cover changes in a watershed area

  11. Multiplication factor evaluation of bare and reflected small fast assemblies using variational methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dwivedi, S.R.; Jain, D.

    1979-01-01

    The multigroup collision probability equations were solved by the variational method to derive a simple relation between the multiplication factor and the size of a small spherical bare or reflected fast reactor. This relation was verified by a number of 26-group, S 4 , transport theory calculations in one-dimensional spherical geometry for enriched uranium and plutonium systems. It has been shown that further approximations to the above relation lead to the universal empirical relation obtained by Anil Kumar. (orig.) [de

  12. Bayesian hierarchical model for variations in earthquake peak ground acceleration within small-aperture arrays

    KAUST Repository

    Rahpeyma, Sahar; Halldorsson, Benedikt; Hrafnkelsson, Birgir; Jonsson, Sigurjon

    2018-01-01

    Knowledge of the characteristics of earthquake ground motion is fundamental for earthquake hazard assessments. Over small distances, relative to the source–site distance, where uniform site conditions are expected, the ground motion variability is also expected to be insignificant. However, despite being located on what has been characterized as a uniform lava‐rock site condition, considerable peak ground acceleration (PGA) variations were observed on stations of a small‐aperture array (covering approximately 1 km2) of accelerographs in Southwest Iceland during the Ölfus earthquake of magnitude 6.3 on May 29, 2008 and its sequence of aftershocks. We propose a novel Bayesian hierarchical model for the PGA variations accounting separately for earthquake event effects, station effects, and event‐station effects. An efficient posterior inference scheme based on Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) simulations is proposed for the new model. The variance of the station effect is certainly different from zero according to the posterior density, indicating that individual station effects are different from one another. The Bayesian hierarchical model thus captures the observed PGA variations and quantifies to what extent the source and recording sites contribute to the overall variation in ground motions over relatively small distances on the lava‐rock site condition.

  13. Bayesian hierarchical model for variations in earthquake peak ground acceleration within small-aperture arrays

    KAUST Repository

    Rahpeyma, Sahar

    2018-04-17

    Knowledge of the characteristics of earthquake ground motion is fundamental for earthquake hazard assessments. Over small distances, relative to the source–site distance, where uniform site conditions are expected, the ground motion variability is also expected to be insignificant. However, despite being located on what has been characterized as a uniform lava‐rock site condition, considerable peak ground acceleration (PGA) variations were observed on stations of a small‐aperture array (covering approximately 1 km2) of accelerographs in Southwest Iceland during the Ölfus earthquake of magnitude 6.3 on May 29, 2008 and its sequence of aftershocks. We propose a novel Bayesian hierarchical model for the PGA variations accounting separately for earthquake event effects, station effects, and event‐station effects. An efficient posterior inference scheme based on Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) simulations is proposed for the new model. The variance of the station effect is certainly different from zero according to the posterior density, indicating that individual station effects are different from one another. The Bayesian hierarchical model thus captures the observed PGA variations and quantifies to what extent the source and recording sites contribute to the overall variation in ground motions over relatively small distances on the lava‐rock site condition.

  14. Eastern wilderness users: perceptions from two small wilderness areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicholas Palso; Alan Graefe

    2007-01-01

    This study explores perceptions of wilderness recreationists in the eastern United States, with a focus on definitions of wilderness areas and factors that may decrease enjoyment of the wilderness experience. The eventual aim is to compare these data with information collected from wilderness users in the western United States. The few studies performed on this...

  15. A socioeconomic deprivation index for small areas in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meijer, Mathias; Engholm, Gerda; Grittner, Ulrike

    2013-01-01

    Aims: To describe the development of a deprivation index for Danish parishes and to investigate its association with all-cause mortality compared with the Townsend index and individual-level factors. Methods: Nine socioeconomic factors were aggregated to the parish level from individual-level reg...... to the geographic areas where they are most needed....

  16. Mapping small elevation changes over large areas - Differential radar interferometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabriel, Andrew K.; Goldstein, Richard M.; Zebker, Howard A.

    1989-01-01

    A technique is described, based on synthetic aperture radar (SAR) interferometry, which uses SAR images for measuring very small (1 cm or less) surface motions with good resolution (10 m) over swaths of up to 50 km. The method was applied to a Seasat data set of an imaging site in Imperial Valley, California, where motion effects were observed that were identified with movements due to the expansion of water-absorbing clays. The technique can be used for accurate measurements of many geophysical phenomena, including swelling and buckling in fault zones, residual displacements from seismic events, and prevolcanic swelling.

  17. Temporal variation of phytoplankton in a small tropical crater lake, Costa Rica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerardo Umaña-Villalobos

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The temporal variation in lake’s phytoplankton is important to understand its general biodiversity. For tropical lakes, it has been hypothesized that they follow a similar pattern as temperate ones, on a much accelerated pace; nevertheless, few case studies have tried to elucidate this. Most studies in Costa Rica have used a monthly sampling scheme and failed in showing the expected changes. In this study, the phytoplankton of the small Barvas’s crater lake was followed for more than three years, first with monthly and later with weekly samplings, that covered almost two years. Additional information on temperature and oxygen vertical profiles was obtained on a monthly basis, and surface temperature was measured during weekly samplings around noon. Results showed that in spite of its shallow condition (max. depth: 7m and low surface temperature (11 to 19°C, the lake stratifies at least for brief periods. The phytoplankton showed both, rapid change periods, and prolonged ones of relative stasis. The plankton composition fluctuated between three main phases, one characterized by the abundance of small sized desmids (Staurastrum paradoxum, Cosmarium asphaerosporum, a second phase dominated by equally small cryptomonads (Chryptochrysis minor, Chroomonas sp. and a third phase dominated by the green alga Eutetramorus tetrasporus. Although data evidenced that monthly sampling could miss short term events, the temporal variation did not follow the typical dry and rainy seasons of the region, or any particular annual pattern. Year to year variation was high. As this small lake is located at the summit of Barva Volcano and receives the influence from both the Caribbean and the Pacific weather, seasonality at the lake is not clearly defined as in the rest of the country and short term variations in the local weather might have a stronger effect than broad seasonal trends. The occurrence of this short term changes in the phytoplankton of small tropical

  18. Estimating Prevalence of Coronary Heart Disease for Small Areas Using Collateral Indicators of Morbidity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Congdon

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Different indicators of morbidity for chronic disease may not necessarily be available at a disaggregated spatial scale (e.g., for small areas with populations under 10 thousand. Instead certain indicators may only be available at a more highly aggregated spatial scale; for example, deaths may be recorded for small areas, but disease prevalence only at a considerably higher spatial scale. Nevertheless prevalence estimates at small area level are important for assessing health need. An instance is provided by England where deaths and hospital admissions for coronary heart disease are available for small areas known as wards, but prevalence is only available for relatively large health authority areas. To estimate CHD prevalence at small area level in such a situation, a shared random effect method is proposed that pools information regarding spatial morbidity contrasts over different indicators (deaths, hospitalizations, prevalence. The shared random effect approach also incorporates differences between small areas in known risk factors (e.g., income, ethnic structure. A Poisson-multinomial equivalence may be used to ensure small area prevalence estimates sum to the known higher area total. An illustration is provided by data for London using hospital admissions and CHD deaths at ward level, together with CHD prevalence totals for considerably larger local health authority areas. The shared random effect involved a spatially correlated common factor, that accounts for clustering in latent risk factors, and also provides a summary measure of small area CHD morbidity.

  19. Introduction of small velocity and pressure variation into a stationary compressible fluid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trancong, Ton [Defence Science and Technology Organisation Australia, Fishermens Bend (Australia). Aeronautical Research Lab.

    1992-06-01

    This work formulates the aerodynamic time-dependent Coulomb and Biot-Savart laws with inherent transmission retardation. It generalizes the theory by Baskin et al. (for only the isentropic propagation of small vortex disturbances) to deal with the propagation of small disturbances caused by a distributed system of both vortices and variation in specific entropy of a thermodynamically simple compressible fluid. The proof here uses an alternative, more appealing derivation with the help of a novel wave-cone transformation (which changes Kirchhoff's retarded potentials into Newtonian potentials). The results suggest the possibility of using a focused laser spot to simulate the effect of a source in a compressible fluid; the source may even move at a supersonic speed to create a shock wave. They also suggest a time-dependent, three-dimensional formula for lifts caused by small disturbances that is in agreement with Blasius' formula for two-dimensional, time-independent, inviscid flows. (orig.).

  20. Explanatory models concerning the effects of small-area characteristics on individual health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voigtländer, Sven; Vogt, Verena; Mielck, Andreas; Razum, Oliver

    2014-06-01

    Material and social living conditions at the small-area level are assumed to have an effect on individual health. We review existing explanatory models concerning the effects of small-area characteristics on health and describe the gaps future research should try to fill. Systematic literature search for, and analysis of, studies that propose an explanatory model of the relationship between small-area characteristics and health. Fourteen studies met our inclusion criteria. Using various theoretical approaches, almost all of the models are based on a three-tier structure linking social inequalities (posited at the macro-level), small-area characteristics (posited at the meso-level) and individual health (micro-level). No study explicitly defines the geographical borders of the small-area context. The health impact of the small-area characteristics is explained by specific pathways involving mediating factors (psychological, behavioural, biological). These pathways tend to be seen as uni-directional; often, causality is implied. They may be modified by individual factors. A number of issues need more attention in research on explanatory models concerning small-area effects on health. Among them are the (geographical) definition of the small-area context; the systematic description of pathways comprising small-area contextual as well as compositional factors; questions of direction of association and causality; and the integration of a time dimension.

  1. Methodology for the Model-based Small Area Estimates of Cancer Risk Factors and Screening Behaviors - Small Area Estimates

    Science.gov (United States)

    This model-based approach uses data from both the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS) and the National Health Interview Survey (NHIS) to produce estimates of the prevalence rates of cancer risk factors and screening behaviors at the state, health service area, and county levels.

  2. Small area silicon diffused junction X-ray detectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walton, J. T.; Pehl, R. H.; Larsh, A. E.

    1982-01-01

    The low-temperature performance of silicon diffused junction detectors in the measurement of low energy X-rays is reported. The detectors have an area of 0.04 sq cm and a thickness of 100 microns. The spectral resolutions of these detectors were found to be in close agreement with expected values, indicating that the defects introduced by the high-temperature processing required in the device fabrication were not deleteriously affecting the detection of low-energy X-rays. Device performance over a temperature range of 77 K to 150 K is given. These detectors were designed to detect low-energy X-rays in the presence of minimum ionizing electrons. The successful application of silicon-diffused junction technology to X-ray detector fabrication may facilitate the development of other novel silicon X-ray detector designs.

  3. Small area silicon diffused junction x-ray detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walton, J.T.; Pehl, R.H.; Larsh, A.E.

    1981-10-01

    The low temperature performance of silicon diffused junction detectors in the measurement of low energy x-rays is reported. The detectors have an area of 0.04 cm 2 and a thickness of 100 μm. The spectral resolutions of these detectors were found to be in close agreement with expected values indicating that the defects introduced by the high temperature processing required in the device fabrication were not deleteriously affecting the detection of low energy x-rays. Device performance over a temperature range of 77 to 150 0 K is given. These detectors were designed to detect low energy x-rays in the presence of minimum ionizing electrons. The successful application of silicon diffused junction technology to x-ray detector fabrication may facilitate the development of other novel silicon x-ray detector designs

  4. Propagation Characterization Based on Geographic Location Variation for 5G Small Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Byung-Jin Lee

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Developments in next-generation wireless transmission technology and efficient frequency-use research are based on understanding the characteristics of the exact radio channel. With regard to developments in next-generation mobile communication systems, performance verification of the development system is essential, for which it is necessary to estimate the exact wireless-space channel. This paper presents results of the analysis of radio propagation characteristics based on location variation in outdoor environments for small-cell 5th generation (5G mobile systems. Changes due to variation in location were measured using a channel sounder in a microcell environment with a 0.5 km radius in Korea. In order to analyze the propagation characteristics, the best distribution model reflecting the characteristics of the locations was derived. A comparison between actual measurements and three-dimensional ray-tracing simulation results confirmed the validity of the measurement result.

  5. Crustal concealing of small-scale core-field secular variation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hulot, G.; Olsen, Nils; Thebault, E.

    2009-01-01

    of internal origin happen to be detectable now in spherical harmonic degrees up to, perhaps, 16. All of these changes are usually attributed to changes in the core field itself, the secular variation, on the ground that the lithospheric magnetization cannot produce such signals. It has, however, been pointed...... out, on empirical grounds, that temporal changes in the field of internal origin produced by the induced part of the lithospheric magnetization could dominate the core field signal beyond degree 22. This short note revisits this issue by taking advantage of our improved knowledge of the small...... cause of the observed changes in the field of internal origin up to some critical degree, N-C, is indeed likely to be the secular variation of the core field, but that the signal produced by the time-varying lithospheric field is bound to dominate and conceal the time-varying core signal beyond...

  6. Assessing the Local Need for Family and Child Care Services: A Small Area Utilization Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Percy, Andrew; Carr-Hill, Roy; Dixon, Paul; Jamison, James Q.

    2000-01-01

    Describes study of administrative data from Northern Ireland on the costs of family and child care services, using small area utilization modeling, to derive a new set of needs indicators that could be used within the family and child care capitation funding formula. Argues that small area utilization modeling produces a fairer and more equitable…

  7. Monitoring small reservoirs' storage with satellite remote sensing in inaccessible areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avisse, Nicolas; Tilmant, Amaury; François Müller, Marc; Zhang, Hua

    2017-12-01

    In river basins with water storage facilities, the availability of regularly updated information on reservoir level and capacity is of paramount importance for the effective management of those systems. However, for the vast majority of reservoirs around the world, storage levels are either not measured or not readily available due to financial, political, or legal considerations. This paper proposes a novel approach using Landsat imagery and digital elevation models (DEMs) to retrieve information on storage variations in any inaccessible region. Unlike existing approaches, the method does not require any in situ measurement and is appropriate for monitoring small, and often undocumented, irrigation reservoirs. It consists of three recovery steps: (i) a 2-D dynamic classification of Landsat spectral band information to quantify the surface area of water, (ii) a statistical correction of DEM data to characterize the topography of each reservoir, and (iii) a 3-D reconstruction algorithm to correct for clouds and Landsat 7 Scan Line Corrector failure. The method is applied to quantify reservoir storage in the Yarmouk basin in southern Syria, where ground monitoring is impeded by the ongoing civil war. It is validated against available in situ measurements in neighbouring Jordanian reservoirs. Coefficients of determination range from 0.69 to 0.84, and the normalized root-mean-square error from 10 to 16 % for storage estimations on six Jordanian reservoirs with maximal water surface areas ranging from 0.59 to 3.79 km2.

  8. Implications of spatial data variations for protected areas management: an example from East Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dowhaniuk, Nicholas; Hartter, Joel; Ryan, Sadie J

    2014-09-01

    Geographic information systems and remote sensing technologies have become an important tool for visualizing conservation management and developing solutions to problems associated with conservation. When multiple organizations separately develop spatial data representations of protected areas, implicit error arises due to variation between data sets. We used boundary data produced by three conservation organizations (International Union for the Conservation of Nature, World Resource Institute, and Uganda Wildlife Authority), for seven Ugandan parks, to study variation in the size represented and the location of boundaries. We found variation in the extent of overlapping total area encompassed by the three data sources, ranging from miniscule (0.4 %) differences to quite large ones (9.0 %). To underscore how protected area boundary discrepancies may have implications to protected area management, we used a landcover classification, defining crop, shrub, forest, savanna, and grassland. The total area in the different landcover classes varied most in smaller protected areas (those less than 329 km(2)), with forest and cropland area estimates varying up to 65 %. The discrepancies introduced by boundary errors could, in this hypothetical case, generate erroneous findings and could have a significant impact on conservation, such as local-scale management for encroachment and larger-scale assessments of deforestation.

  9. Summertime Spatial Variations in Atmospheric Particulate Matter and Its Chemical Components in Different Functional Areas of Xiamen, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuhui Zhao

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Due to the highly heterogeneous and dynamic nature of urban areas in Chinese cities, air pollution exhibits well-defined spatial variations. Rapid urbanization in China has heightened the importance of understanding and characterizing atmospheric particulate matter (PM concentrations and their spatiotemporal variations. To investigate the small-scale spatial variations in PM in Xiamen, total suspended particulate (TSP, PM10, PM5 and PM2.5 measurements were collected between August and September in 2012. Their average mass concentrations were 102.50 μg∙m−3, 82.79 μg∙m−3, 55.67 μg∙m−3 and 43.70 μg∙m−3, respectively. Organic carbon (OC and elemental carbon (EC in PM2.5 were measured using thermal optical transmission. Based on the PM concentrations for all size categories, the following order for the different functional areas studied was identified: hospital > park > commercial area > residential area > industrial area. OC contributed approximately 5%–23% to the PM2.5 mass, whereas EC accounted for 0.8%–6.95%. Secondary organic carbon constituted most of the carbonaceous particles found in the park, commercial, industrial and residential areas, with the exception of hospitals. The high PM and EC concentrations in hospitals were primarily caused by vehicle emissions. Thus, the results suggest that long-term plans should be to limit the number of vehicles entering hospital campuses, construct large-capacity underground parking structures, and choose hospital locations far from major roads.

  10. Awe, the diminished self, and collective engagement: Universals and cultural variations in the small self.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Yang; Maruskin, Laura A; Chen, Serena; Gordon, Amie M; Stellar, Jennifer E; McNeil, Galen D; Peng, Kaiping; Keltner, Dacher

    2017-08-01

    Awe has been theorized as a collective emotion, one that enables individuals to integrate into social collectives. In keeping with this theorizing, we propose that awe diminishes the sense of self and shifts attention away from individual interests and concerns. In testing this hypothesis across 6 studies (N = 2137), we first validate pictorial and verbal measures of the small self; we then document that daily, in vivo, and lab experiences of awe, but not other positive emotions, diminish the sense of the self. These findings were observed across collectivist and individualistic cultures, but also varied across cultures in magnitude and content. Evidence from the last 2 studies showed that the influence of awe upon the small self accounted for increases in collective engagement, fitting with claims that awe promotes integration into social groups. Discussion focused on how the small self might mediate the effects of awe on collective cognition and behavior, the need to study more negatively valenced varieties of awe, and other potential cultural variations of the small self. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  11. Urban-rural demarcation within a metropolitan area: a methodology for using small area disaggregation

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Green, Cheri A

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available There is ongoing debate with regard to the levels of service provision in urban and rural areas. However, progress with respect to the delivery of planned services can only be efficiently and equitably measured once benchmarks for different areas...

  12. The microstructure and morphology of carbon black: A study using small angle neutron scattering and contrast variation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hjelm, R.P. Jr.; Seeger, P.A.; Wampler, W.A.; Gerspacher, M.

    1994-01-01

    This is a study of the microstructure of particles of an experimental high surface area carbon black (HSA) and of the morphology of the particle aggregates using small-angle neutron scattering and the method of contrast variation. Contrast variation was effected by studying suspensions of the carbon black in cyclohexane containing different fractions of deuterocyclohexane. We find that the approximately 29 nm diameter HSA particles are arranged as small, linear aggregates with average aggregation number between 4 and 6. The structure averaged over the particle population is best represented by a prolate ellipsoid of revolution with semi axes 14.5 and 76.4 nm. The surface of the aggregates appears smooth over length scales longer than 1 nm, which places an upper limit on the surface roughness observed by other methods. The intemal structure of the aggregates is described by a shell-core model, with the shell density being consistent with a graphitic structure and the core being of lower density, more like amorphous carbon. Some fraction of the core volume (0.1 to 0.2) is taken up by voids that are not accessible to the solvent. An estimate of the shell thickness gives 1 to 2 nm along the ellipsoid minor axis and 6 to 10 nm along the major axis. The particles of the aggregate appear to be fused so that the less dense amorphous core is continuous through the inner parts of the aggregate. The information that can be obtained on the internal structure using contrast variation is limited by nonheterogeneity in the chemical composition of carbon black aggregates

  13. Seasonal and spatial variation of arsenic in groundwater in a rhyolithic volcanic area of Lesvos Island, Greece.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zkeri, Eirini; Aloupi, Maria; Gaganis, Petros

    2017-12-23

    A survey conducted in water wells located in the rhyolithic volcanic area of Mandamados, Lesvos Island, Greece, indicated that significant seasonal variation of arsenic concentration in groundwater exists mainly in wells near the coastal zone. However, there were differences among those coastal wells with regard to the processes and factors responsible for the observed seasonal variability of the element, although they are all located in a small homogeneous area. These processes and factors include (a) a higher rate of silicate weathering and ion exchange during the dry period followed by the dilution by the recharge water during the wet period, (b) enhanced desorption promoted by higher pH in summer and subsequent dilution of As by rainwater infiltration during the wet period, and (c) reductive dissolution of Mn during the wet period and by desorption under high pH values during the dry period. On the other hand, in wells located in higher-relief regions, the concentration of As in groundwater followed a fairly constant pattern throughout the year, which is probably related to the faster flow of groundwater in this part of the area due to a higher hydraulic gradient. In general, seasonal variation of As in groundwater in the study area was found to be related to geology, recharge rate, topography-distance from coast, and well depth.

  14. A Small-Area Self-Biased Wideband CMOS Balun LNA with Noise Cancelling and Gain Enhancement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bruun, Erik; Andreani, Pietro; Custódio, J. R.

    2010-01-01

    In this paper we present a low-power and small-area balun LNA. The proposed inverter-based topology uses selfbiasing and noise cancelling, yielding a very robust LNA with a low NF. Comparing this circuit with a conventional inverterbased circuit, we obtain a ∼3 dB enhancement in voltage gain......, with improved robustness against PVT variations. Simulations results in a 130 nm CMOS technology show a 17.7dB voltage gain, nearly flat over a wide bandwidth (200MHz-1GHz), and an NF of approximately 4dB. The total power consumption is below 7.5 mW, with a very small die area of 0.007 mm2. All data...

  15. Small area estimation of proportions with different levels of auxiliary data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandra, Hukum; Kumar, Sushil; Aditya, Kaustav

    2018-03-01

    Binary data are often of interest in many small areas of applications. The use of standard small area estimation methods based on linear mixed models becomes problematic for such data. An empirical plug-in predictor (EPP) under a unit-level generalized linear mixed model with logit link function is often used for the estimation of a small area proportion. However, this EPP requires the availability of unit-level population information for auxiliary data that may not be always accessible. As a consequence, in many practical situations, this EPP approach cannot be applied. Based on the level of auxiliary information available, different small area predictors for estimation of proportions are proposed. Analytic and bootstrap approaches to estimating the mean squared error of the proposed small area predictors are also developed. Monte Carlo simulations based on both simulated and real data show that the proposed small area predictors work well for generating the small area estimates of proportions and represent a practical alternative to the above approach. The developed predictor is applied to generate estimates of the proportions of indebted farm households at district-level using debt investment survey data from India. © 2018 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  16. Social deprivation and population density are not associated with small area risk of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rooney, James P K; Tobin, Katy; Crampsie, Arlene; Vajda, Alice; Heverin, Mark; McLaughlin, Russell; Staines, Anthony; Hardiman, Orla

    2015-10-01

    Evidence of an association between areal ALS risk and population density has been previously reported. We aim to examine ALS spatial incidence in Ireland using small areas, to compare this analysis with our previous analysis of larger areas and to examine the associations between population density, social deprivation and ALS incidence. Residential area social deprivation has not been previously investigated as a risk factor for ALS. Using the Irish ALS register, we included all cases of ALS diagnosed in Ireland from 1995-2013. 2006 census data was used to calculate age and sex standardised expected cases per small area. Social deprivation was assessed using the pobalHP deprivation index. Bayesian smoothing was used to calculate small area relative risk for ALS, whilst cluster analysis was performed using SaTScan. The effects of population density and social deprivation were tested in two ways: (1) as covariates in the Bayesian spatial model; (2) via post-Bayesian regression. 1701 cases were included. Bayesian smoothed maps of relative risk at small area resolution matched closely to our previous analysis at a larger area resolution. Cluster analysis identified two areas of significant low risk. These areas did not correlate with population density or social deprivation indices. Two areas showing low frequency of ALS have been identified in the Republic of Ireland. These areas do not correlate with population density or residential area social deprivation, indicating that other reasons, such as genetic admixture may account for the observed findings. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Seasonal variation of physicochemical factor and fecal pollution in the Hansan-Geojeman area, Korea

    OpenAIRE

    Young Cheol Park; Poong Ho Kim; Yeoun Joong Jung; Ka Jeong Lee; Min Seon Kim; Kyeong Ri Go; Sang Gi Park; Soon Jae Kwon; Ji Hye Yang; Jong Soo Mok

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The seasonal variation of fecal coliforms (FCs) and physicochemical factors was determined in seawaters of the Hansan-Geojeman area, including a designated area for oyster, and in inland pollution sources of its drainage basin. The mean daily loads of FCs in inland pollution sources ranged from 1.2 × 109 to 3.1 × 1011 most probable number (MPN)/day; however, the pollutants could not be reached at the designated area. FC concentrations of seawaters were closely related to season, rain...

  18. Statistical issues in reporting quality data: small samples and casemix variation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaslavsky, A M

    2001-12-01

    To present two key statistical issues that arise in analysis and reporting of quality data. Casemix variation is relevant to quality reporting when the units being measured have differing distributions of patient characteristics that also affect the quality outcome. When this is the case, adjustment using stratification or regression may be appropriate. Such adjustments may be controversial when the patient characteristic does not have an obvious relationship to the outcome. Stratified reporting poses problems for sample size and reporting format, but may be useful when casemix effects vary across units. Although there are no absolute standards of reliability, high reliabilities (interunit F > or = 10 or reliability > or = 0.9) are desirable for distinguishing above- and below-average units. When small or unequal sample sizes complicate reporting, precision may be improved using indirect estimation techniques that incorporate auxiliary information, and 'shrinkage' estimation can help to summarize the strength of evidence about units with small samples. With broader understanding of casemix adjustment and methods for analyzing small samples, quality data can be analysed and reported more accurately.

  19. Small-Area Estimation with Zero-Inflated Data – a Simulation Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krieg Sabine

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Many target variables in official statistics follow a semicontinuous distribution with a mixture of zeros and continuously distributed positive values. Such variables are called zero inflated. When reliable estimates for subpopulations with small sample sizes are required, model-based small-area estimators can be used, which improve the accuracy of the estimates by borrowing information from other subpopulations. In this article, three small-area estimators are investigated. The first estimator is the EBLUP, which can be considered the most common small-area estimator and is based on a linear mixed model that assumes normal distributions. Therefore, the EBLUP is model misspecified in the case of zero-inflated variables. The other two small-area estimators are based on a model that takes zero inflation explicitly into account. Both the Bayesian and the frequentist approach are considered. These small-area estimators are compared with each other and with design-based estimation in a simulation study with zero-inflated target variables. Both a simulation with artificial data and a simulation with real data from the Dutch Household Budget Survey are carried out. It is found that the small-area estimators improve the accuracy compared to the design-based estimator. The amount of improvement strongly depends on the properties of the population and the subpopulations of interest.

  20. Radionuclide contaminant analysis of small mammals at Area G, Technical Area 54, 1996 (with cumulative summary for 1994--1996)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biggs, J.R.; Bennett, K.D.; Fresquez, P.R.

    1997-07-01

    Small mammals were sampled at two waste burial sites at Area G, Technical Area (TA) 54 and a control site within the proposed Area G expansion area in 1996 to (1) identify radionuclides that are present within rodent tissues at waste burial sites, (2) to compare the amount of radionuclide uptake by small mammals at waste burial sites to a control site, and (3) to identify the primary mode of contamination to small mammals, either through surface contact or ingestion/inhalation. Three composite samples of approximately five animals per sample were collected at each site. Pelts and carcasses of each animal were separated and analyzed independently. Samples were analyzed for 241 Am, 90 Sr, 238 Pu, 239 Pu, total U, 137 Cs, and 3 H. Higher levels of total U, 241 Am, 238 Pu, and 239 Pu were detected in pelts as compared to the carcasses of small mammals at TA-54. Concentrations of other measured radionuclides in carcasses were nearly equal to or exceeded the mean concentrations in the pelts. Due to low sample sizes in total number of animals captured, statistical analysis to compare site to site could not be conducted. However, mean concentrations of total U, 238 Pu, 239 Pu, and 137 Cs in rodent carcasses were higher at Site 1 than site 2 or the Control Site and 241 Am was higher at Site 2 than Site 1 or the Control Site

  1. Inter-Location Small Business Tax Rate Variation in Ukraine: What Is Behind It?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergii Slukhai

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper’s aim is to research into the variation in effective tax rates among local jurisdictions of two regions of Ukraine, Ivano-Frankivsk and Vinnitsa, in order to get new insights into the peculiarity of inter-location fiscal competition in the context of a transitional economy. It is argued that, despite a highly centralized taxation system, the room for inter-jurisdictional tax competition is somewhat limited, at least with regard to a unified small business tax for natural persons. This competition could take on a very specific shape because it is closely related to the issue of hidden economy. The study demonstrates that local fiscal policy has a potential to affect the number of business units registered in a specific jurisdiction.

  2. Molecular dynamics study of contact mechanics: contact area and interfacial separation from small to full contact

    OpenAIRE

    Yang, C.; Persson, B. N. J.

    2007-01-01

    We report a molecular dynamics study of the contact between a rigid solid with a randomly rough surface and an elastic block with a flat surface. We study the contact area and the interfacial separation from small contact (low load) to full contact (high load). For small load the contact area varies linearly with the load and the interfacial separation depends logarithmically on the load. For high load the contact area approaches to the nominal contact area (i.e., complete contact), and the i...

  3. EnviroAtlas - Percent Large, Medium, and Small Natural Areas for the Conterminous United States

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This EnviroAtlas dataset contains the percentage of small, medium, and large natural areas for each Watershed Boundary Dataset (WBD) 12-Digit Hydrologic Unit Code...

  4. Monitoring small reservoirs' storage with satellite remote sensing in inaccessible areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Avisse

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available In river basins with water storage facilities, the availability of regularly updated information on reservoir level and capacity is of paramount importance for the effective management of those systems. However, for the vast majority of reservoirs around the world, storage levels are either not measured or not readily available due to financial, political, or legal considerations. This paper proposes a novel approach using Landsat imagery and digital elevation models (DEMs to retrieve information on storage variations in any inaccessible region. Unlike existing approaches, the method does not require any in situ measurement and is appropriate for monitoring small, and often undocumented, irrigation reservoirs. It consists of three recovery steps: (i a 2-D dynamic classification of Landsat spectral band information to quantify the surface area of water, (ii a statistical correction of DEM data to characterize the topography of each reservoir, and (iii a 3-D reconstruction algorithm to correct for clouds and Landsat 7 Scan Line Corrector failure. The method is applied to quantify reservoir storage in the Yarmouk basin in southern Syria, where ground monitoring is impeded by the ongoing civil war. It is validated against available in situ measurements in neighbouring Jordanian reservoirs. Coefficients of determination range from 0.69 to 0.84, and the normalized root-mean-square error from 10 to 16 % for storage estimations on six Jordanian reservoirs with maximal water surface areas ranging from 0.59 to 3.79 km2.

  5. Small mammal density and movement on the SL-1 disposal area, Idaho National Engineering Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Filipovich, M.A.; Keller, B.L.

    1983-01-01

    This study was initiated to examine the population composition, density and food habits of small mammals on a radioactive waste disposal area. Population parameters of small mammals were studied at 3-month intervals on and adjacent to the SL-1 radioactive waste disposal area (1.4 ha) and a 0.3 ha control area between August 1981 and February 1982 with mark-release methods. Both areas have crested wheatgrass (Agropyron cristatum) stands surrounded by sagebrush steppe. Species composition on the SL-1 and control area was similar to that found on the Subsurface Disposal Area at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. Considerable use by small mammals of the perimeter of the crested wheatgrass stands was found on both the SL-1 and control area. Additionally, deer mice (Peromyscus maniculatus) and Ord's kangaroo rats (Dipodomys ordii) that frequent the crested wheatgrass stands of the SL-1 and control area were often captured over 100 m from the crested wheatgrass stands. Thus, future research efforts will focus on examining the intensity of perimeter use and food habits of rodents residing on and adjacent to the SL-1. Results of this study will be used to evaluate ecological conditions that affect small mammal use of radioactive waste disposal areas

  6. Cadmium speciation and accumulation in periphyton in a small stream with dynamic concentration variations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bradac, Philippe [Eawag, Swiss Federal Institute of Aquatic Science and Technology, P.O. Box 611, CH-8600 Duebendorf (Switzerland); ETH, Swiss Federal Institute of Technology, Department of Environmental Sciences, CH-8092 Zurich (Switzerland); Wagner, Bettina; Kistler, David; Traber, Jacqueline; Behra, Renata [Eawag, Swiss Federal Institute of Aquatic Science and Technology, P.O. Box 611, CH-8600 Duebendorf (Switzerland); Sigg, Laura, E-mail: laura.sigg@eawag.c [Eawag, Swiss Federal Institute of Aquatic Science and Technology, P.O. Box 611, CH-8600 Duebendorf (Switzerland); ETH, Swiss Federal Institute of Technology, Department of Environmental Sciences, CH-8092 Zurich (Switzerland)

    2010-03-15

    Accumulation of cadmium in periphyton was investigated under field conditions while Cd concentration and speciation were dynamically varying in a small stream during rain events. Speciation in water was determined in situ by diffusion gradient in thin-films (DGT) and by modeling of complexation with fulvic acids. During the rain events, dissolved Cd concentrations increased from 0.17 nM to 0.27-0.36 nM, and 70-97% were DGT-labile. Cd content in periphyton closely followed Cd concentrations in water, despite higher concentrations of Zn and Mn, and may be controlled by either free or DGT-labile Cd concentrations. Decrease of Cd content in periphyton after the rain events was slower than the decrease of Cd concentration in water. Concentrations of Zn, Mn, Cu, Pb and Fe in periphyton also followed the dynamic variations of metal concentrations in water. Repeated exposure of periphyton to elevated dissolved Cd may lead to Cd accumulation. - Cadmium accumulation in periphyton was examined in a small stream during rain events in relation to Cd speciation.

  7. Modeling bias and variation in the stochastic processes of small RNA sequencing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Argyropoulos, Christos; Etheridge, Alton; Sakhanenko, Nikita; Galas, David

    2017-06-20

    The use of RNA-seq as the preferred method for the discovery and validation of small RNA biomarkers has been hindered by high quantitative variability and biased sequence counts. In this paper we develop a statistical model for sequence counts that accounts for ligase bias and stochastic variation in sequence counts. This model implies a linear quadratic relation between the mean and variance of sequence counts. Using a large number of sequencing datasets, we demonstrate how one can use the generalized additive models for location, scale and shape (GAMLSS) distributional regression framework to calculate and apply empirical correction factors for ligase bias. Bias correction could remove more than 40% of the bias for miRNAs. Empirical bias correction factors appear to be nearly constant over at least one and up to four orders of magnitude of total RNA input and independent of sample composition. Using synthetic mixes of known composition, we show that the GAMLSS approach can analyze differential expression with greater accuracy, higher sensitivity and specificity than six existing algorithms (DESeq2, edgeR, EBSeq, limma, DSS, voom) for the analysis of small RNA-seq data. © The Author(s) 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research.

  8. Cadmium speciation and accumulation in periphyton in a small stream with dynamic concentration variations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bradac, Philippe; Wagner, Bettina; Kistler, David; Traber, Jacqueline; Behra, Renata; Sigg, Laura

    2010-01-01

    Accumulation of cadmium in periphyton was investigated under field conditions while Cd concentration and speciation were dynamically varying in a small stream during rain events. Speciation in water was determined in situ by diffusion gradient in thin-films (DGT) and by modeling of complexation with fulvic acids. During the rain events, dissolved Cd concentrations increased from 0.17 nM to 0.27-0.36 nM, and 70-97% were DGT-labile. Cd content in periphyton closely followed Cd concentrations in water, despite higher concentrations of Zn and Mn, and may be controlled by either free or DGT-labile Cd concentrations. Decrease of Cd content in periphyton after the rain events was slower than the decrease of Cd concentration in water. Concentrations of Zn, Mn, Cu, Pb and Fe in periphyton also followed the dynamic variations of metal concentrations in water. Repeated exposure of periphyton to elevated dissolved Cd may lead to Cd accumulation. - Cadmium accumulation in periphyton was examined in a small stream during rain events in relation to Cd speciation.

  9. [Fleas on small mammals in the surrounding area of Erhai Lake].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Wen-Ge; Guo, Xian-Guo; Men, Xing-Yuan; Gong, Zheng-Da; Wu, Dian; Zhang, Zheng-Kun; Zhang, Li-Yun

    2009-12-01

    To investigate the distribution pattern, species diversity and community structure of fleas on small mammals in the surrounding area of Erhai Lake, and the relationship between fleas and their hosts. Different geographical areas surrounding the Erhai Lake in Yunnan were selected as investigated spots. Small mammals were captured with baited cages. The cage-traps were examined and re-baited each morning. All fleas on the hosts were collected and identified. The richness (S), evenness (J'), diversity index (H'), dominance index (C'), total ectoparasite infestation rate (Rpt), total ectoparasite infestation index (Ipt), and constituent ratio (Cr) were used to measure the community structure. Altogether, 3,303 small mammals and 3,243 fleas were collected. From the 21 species of small mammal hosts, 13 species of fleas were identified. In southern area of the Lake, the species richness (21 species of small mammals & 12 species of fleas) was highest among the three selected areas. Seventeen species of small mammals and 8 species of fleas were found in eastern area, and only 13 species of small mammals and 7 species of fleas found in the west. This implied the probable influences of ecological environments on the fleas and their corresponding hosts. The community structure of fleas on small mammals was complex. The species diversity, species composition, community structure and distribution pattern of fleas were simultaneously influenced by the hosts' body surface microenvironment and the macroenvironment (habitat). The fleas are commonly distributed in small mammals in the areas and their communities are related to host species and the habitats.

  10. Bayesian Predictive Inference of a Proportion Under a Twofold Small-Area Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nandram Balgobin

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available We extend the twofold small-area model of Stukel and Rao (1997; 1999 to accommodate binary data. An example is the Third International Mathematics and Science Study (TIMSS, in which pass-fail data for mathematics of students from US schools (clusters are available at the third grade by regions and communities (small areas. We compare the finite population proportions of these small areas. We present a hierarchical Bayesian model in which the firststage binary responses have independent Bernoulli distributions, and each subsequent stage is modeled using a beta distribution, which is parameterized by its mean and a correlation coefficient. This twofold small-area model has an intracluster correlation at the first stage and an intercluster correlation at the second stage. The final-stage mean and all correlations are assumed to be noninformative independent random variables. We show how to infer the finite population proportion of each area. We have applied our models to synthetic TIMSS data to show that the twofold model is preferred over a onefold small-area model that ignores the clustering within areas. We further compare these models using a simulation study, which shows that the intracluster correlation is particularly important.

  11. Small Area Social Indicators for the Indigenous Population: Synthetic data methodology for creating small area estimates of Indigenous disadvantage’

    OpenAIRE

    Yogi Vidyattama; Robert Tanton; Nicholas Biddle

    2013-01-01

    The lack of data on how the social condition of Indigenous people varies throughout Australia has created difficulties in allocating government and community programs across Indigenous communities. In the past, spatial microsimulation has been used to derive small area estimates to overcome such difficulties. However, for previous applications, a record unit file from a survey dataset has always been available on which to conduct the spatial microsimulation. For the case of indigenous disadva...

  12. 33 CFR 334.155 - Severn River, Naval Station Annapolis, Small Boat Basin, Annapolis, MD; naval restricted area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Annapolis, Small Boat Basin, Annapolis, MD; naval restricted area. 334.155 Section 334.155 Navigation and... RESTRICTED AREA REGULATIONS § 334.155 Severn River, Naval Station Annapolis, Small Boat Basin, Annapolis, MD; naval restricted area. (a) The area. The waters within the Naval Station Annapolis small boat basin and...

  13. Mobility and accessibility of hispanics in small towns and rural areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-07-01

    The Hispanic population has increased 43% (from 35.3 million to 50.5 million) in the 2000s in the U.S. Small towns and : rural areas in the U.S. are among the areas that have experienced rapid growth in : the : Hispanic immigrant population in the : ...

  14. Window area and development drive spatial variation in bird-window collisions in an urban landscape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hager, Stephen B; Cosentino, Bradley J; McKay, Kelly J; Monson, Cathleen; Zuurdeeg, Walt; Blevins, Brian

    2013-01-01

    Collisions with windows are an important human-related threat to birds in urban landscapes. However, the proximate drivers of collisions are not well understood, and no study has examined spatial variation in mortality in an urban setting. We hypothesized that the number of fatalities at buildings varies with window area and habitat features that influence avian community structure. In 2010 we documented bird-window collisions (BWCs) and characterized avian community structure at 20 buildings in an urban landscape in northwestern Illinois, USA. For each building and season, we conducted 21 daily surveys for carcasses and nine point count surveys to estimate relative abundance, richness, and diversity. Our sampling design was informed by experimentally estimated carcass persistence times and detection probabilities. We used linear and generalized linear mixed models to evaluate how habitat features influenced community structure and how mortality was affected by window area and factors that correlated with community structure. The most-supported model was consistent for all community indices and included effects of season, development, and distance to vegetated lots. BWCs were related positively to window area and negatively to development. We documented mortalities for 16/72 (22%) species (34 total carcasses) recorded at buildings, and BWCs were greater for juveniles than adults. Based on the most-supported model of BWCs, the median number of annual predicted fatalities at study buildings was 3 (range = 0-52). These results suggest that patchily distributed environmental resources and levels of window area in buildings create spatial variation in BWCs within and among urban areas. Current mortality estimates place little emphasis on spatial variation, which precludes a fundamental understanding of the issue. To focus conservation efforts, we illustrate how knowledge of the structural and environmental factors that influence bird-window collisions can be used to

  15. Window area and development drive spatial variation in bird-window collisions in an urban landscape.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen B Hager

    Full Text Available Collisions with windows are an important human-related threat to birds in urban landscapes. However, the proximate drivers of collisions are not well understood, and no study has examined spatial variation in mortality in an urban setting. We hypothesized that the number of fatalities at buildings varies with window area and habitat features that influence avian community structure. In 2010 we documented bird-window collisions (BWCs and characterized avian community structure at 20 buildings in an urban landscape in northwestern Illinois, USA. For each building and season, we conducted 21 daily surveys for carcasses and nine point count surveys to estimate relative abundance, richness, and diversity. Our sampling design was informed by experimentally estimated carcass persistence times and detection probabilities. We used linear and generalized linear mixed models to evaluate how habitat features influenced community structure and how mortality was affected by window area and factors that correlated with community structure. The most-supported model was consistent for all community indices and included effects of season, development, and distance to vegetated lots. BWCs were related positively to window area and negatively to development. We documented mortalities for 16/72 (22% species (34 total carcasses recorded at buildings, and BWCs were greater for juveniles than adults. Based on the most-supported model of BWCs, the median number of annual predicted fatalities at study buildings was 3 (range = 0-52. These results suggest that patchily distributed environmental resources and levels of window area in buildings create spatial variation in BWCs within and among urban areas. Current mortality estimates place little emphasis on spatial variation, which precludes a fundamental understanding of the issue. To focus conservation efforts, we illustrate how knowledge of the structural and environmental factors that influence bird

  16. Echocardiography underestimates stroke volume and aortic valve area: implications for patients with small-area low-gradient aortic stenosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chin, Calvin W L; Khaw, Hwan J; Luo, Elton; Tan, Shuwei; White, Audrey C; Newby, David E; Dweck, Marc R

    2014-09-01

    Discordance between small aortic valve area (AVA; area (LVOTarea) and stroke volume alongside inconsistencies in recommended thresholds. One hundred thirty-three patients with mild to severe AS and 33 control individuals underwent comprehensive echocardiography and cardiovascular magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Stroke volume and LVOTarea were calculated using echocardiography and MRI, and the effects on AVA estimation were assessed. The relationship between AVA and MPG measurements was then modelled with nonlinear regression and consistent thresholds for these parameters calculated. Finally the effect of these modified AVA measurements and novel thresholds on the number of patients with small-area low-gradient AS was investigated. Compared with MRI, echocardiography underestimated LVOTarea (n = 40; -0.7 cm(2); 95% confidence interval [CI], -2.6 to 1.3), stroke volumes (-6.5 mL/m(2); 95% CI, -28.9 to 16.0) and consequently, AVA (-0.23 cm(2); 95% CI, -1.01 to 0.59). Moreover, an AVA of 1.0 cm(2) corresponded to MPG of 24 mm Hg based on echocardiographic measurements and 37 mm Hg after correction with MRI-derived stroke volumes. Based on conventional measures, 56 patients had discordant small-area low-gradient AS. Using MRI-derived stroke volumes and the revised thresholds, a 48% reduction in discordance was observed (n = 29). Echocardiography underestimated LVOTarea, stroke volume, and therefore AVA, compared with MRI. The thresholds based on current guidelines were also inconsistent. In combination, these factors explain > 40% of patients with discordant small-area low-gradient AS. Copyright © 2014 Canadian Cardiovascular Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Temporal variation of phytoplankton in a small tropical crater lake, Costa Rica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerardo Umaña-Villalobos

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The temporal variation in lake’s phytoplankton is important to understand its general biodiversity. For tropical lakes, it has been hypothesized that they follow a similar pattern as temperate ones, on a much accelerated pace; nevertheless, few case studies have tried to elucidate this. Most studies in Costa Rica have used a monthly sampling scheme and failed in showing the expected changes. In this study, the phytoplankton of the small Barvas’s crater lake was followed for more than three years, first with monthly and later with weekly samplings, that covered almost two years. Additional information on temperature and oxygen vertical profiles was obtained on a monthly basis, and surface temperature was measured during weekly samplings around noon. Results showed that in spite of its shallow condition (max. depth: 7m and low surface temperature (11 to 19°C, the lake stratifies at least for brief periods. The phytoplankton showed both, rapid change periods, and prolonged ones of relative stasis. The plankton composition fluctuated between three main phases, one characterized by the abundance of small sized desmids (Staurastrum paradoxum, Cosmarium asphaerosporum, a second phase dominated by equally small cryptomonads (Chryptochrysis minor, Chroomonas sp. and a third phase dominated by the green alga Eutetramorus tetrasporus. Although data evidenced that monthly sampling could miss short term events, the temporal variation did not follow the typical dry and rainy seasons of the region, or any particular annual pattern. Year to year variation was high. As this small lake is located at the summit of Barva Volcano and receives the influence from both the Caribbean and the Pacific weather, seasonality at the lake is not clearly defined as in the rest of the country and short term variations in the local weather might have a stronger effect than broad seasonal trends. The occurrence of this short term changes in the phytoplankton of small tropical

  18. Small area estimation (SAE) model: Case study of poverty in West Java Province

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suhartini, Titin; Sadik, Kusman; Indahwati

    2016-02-01

    This paper showed the comparative of direct estimation and indirect/Small Area Estimation (SAE) model. Model selection included resolve multicollinearity problem in auxiliary variable, such as choosing only variable non-multicollinearity and implemented principal component (PC). Concern parameters in this paper were the proportion of agricultural venture poor households and agricultural poor households area level in West Java Province. The approach for estimating these parameters could be performed based on direct estimation and SAE. The problem of direct estimation, three area even zero and could not be conducted by directly estimation, because small sample size. The proportion of agricultural venture poor households showed 19.22% and agricultural poor households showed 46.79%. The best model from agricultural venture poor households by choosing only variable non-multicollinearity and the best model from agricultural poor households by implemented PC. The best estimator showed SAE better then direct estimation both of the proportion of agricultural venture poor households and agricultural poor households area level in West Java Province. The solution overcame small sample size and obtained estimation for small area was implemented small area estimation method for evidence higher accuracy and better precision improved direct estimator.

  19. Bayesian hierarchical models for smoothing in two-phase studies, with application to small area estimation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Michelle; Wakefield, Jon

    2015-10-01

    Two-phase study designs are appealing since they allow for the oversampling of rare sub-populations which improves efficiency. In this paper we describe a Bayesian hierarchical model for the analysis of two-phase data. Such a model is particularly appealing in a spatial setting in which random effects are introduced to model between-area variability. In such a situation, one may be interested in estimating regression coefficients or, in the context of small area estimation, in reconstructing the population totals by strata. The efficiency gains of the two-phase sampling scheme are compared to standard approaches using 2011 birth data from the research triangle area of North Carolina. We show that the proposed method can overcome small sample difficulties and improve on existing techniques. We conclude that the two-phase design is an attractive approach for small area estimation.

  20. Modeling the intraurban variation in nitrogen dioxide in urban areas in Kathmandu Valley, Nepal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurung, Anobha; Levy, Jonathan I; Bell, Michelle L

    2017-05-01

    With growing urbanization, traffic has become one of the main sources of air pollution in Nepal. Understanding the impact of air pollution on health requires estimation of exposure. Land use regression (LUR) modeling is widely used to investigate intraurban variation in air pollution for Western cities, but LUR models are relatively scarce in developing countries. In this study, we developed LUR models to characterize intraurban variation of nitrogen dioxide (NO 2 ) in urban areas of Kathmandu Valley, Nepal, one of the fastest urbanizing areas in South Asia. Over the study area, 135 monitoring sites were selected using stratified random sampling based on building density and road density along with purposeful sampling. In 2014, four sampling campaigns were performed, one per season, for two weeks each. NO 2 was measured using duplicate Palmes tubes at 135 sites, with additional information on nitric oxide (NO), NO 2 , and nitrogen oxide (NOx) concentrations derived from Ogawa badges at 28 sites. Geographical variables (e.g., road network, land use, built area) were used as predictor variables in LUR modeling, considering buffers 25-400m around each monitoring site. Annual average NO 2 by site ranged from 5.7 to 120ppb for the study area, with higher concentrations in the Village Development Committees (VDCs) of Kathmandu and Lalitpur than in Kirtipur, Thimi, and Bhaktapur, and with variability present within each VDC. In the final LUR model, length of major road, built area, and industrial area were positively associated with NO 2 concentration while normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) was negatively associated with NO 2 concentration (R 2 =0.51). Cross-validation of the results confirmed the reliability of the model. The combination of passive NO 2 sampling and LUR modeling techniques allowed for characterization of nitrogen dioxide patterns in a developing country setting, demonstrating spatial variability and high pollution levels. Copyright © 2017

  1. The Feasibility of Small Hydro-Electric Generation in a Large Urban Area

    OpenAIRE

    Benson Y. Zhang; Adam Taylor

    2012-01-01

    The possibilities of generating electric power from relatively small hydro-electric sources in a large urban area is investigated. Two different aspects of hydro-electric sources have been studied: storm/waste water pipes in large multi-tenanted residential buildings and urban storm water discharge area (CSI area). The potential to generate from these sources has been investigated using a micro-turbine. The potential electric power which could be extracted from the sources was estimated using...

  2. Practical interior tomography with radial Hilbert filtering and a priori knowledge in a small round area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Shaojie; Yang, Yi; Tang, Xiangyang

    2012-01-01

    Interior tomography problem can be solved using the so-called differentiated backprojection-projection onto convex sets (DBP-POCS) method, which requires a priori knowledge within a small area interior to the region of interest (ROI) to be imaged. In theory, the small area wherein the a priori knowledge is required can be in any shape, but most of the existing implementations carry out the Hilbert filtering either horizontally or vertically, leading to a vertical or horizontal strip that may be across a large area in the object. In this work, we implement a practical DBP-POCS method with radial Hilbert filtering and thus the small area with the a priori knowledge can be roughly round (e.g., a sinus or ventricles among other anatomic cavities in human or animal body). We also conduct an experimental evaluation to verify the performance of this practical implementation. We specifically re-derive the reconstruction formula in the DBP-POCS fashion with radial Hilbert filtering to assure that only a small round area with the a priori knowledge be needed (namely radial DBP-POCS method henceforth). The performance of the practical DBP-POCS method with radial Hilbert filtering and a priori knowledge in a small round area is evaluated with projection data of the standard and modified Shepp-Logan phantoms simulated by computer, followed by a verification using real projection data acquired by a computed tomography (CT) scanner. The preliminary performance study shows that, if a priori knowledge in a small round area is available, the radial DBP-POCS method can solve the interior tomography problem in a more practical way at high accuracy. In comparison to the implementations of DBP-POCS method demanding the a priori knowledge in horizontal or vertical strip, the radial DBP-POCS method requires the a priori knowledge within a small round area only. Such a relaxed requirement on the availability of a priori knowledge can be readily met in practice, because a variety of small

  3. Impact of small variations in LDR for late-reacting tissue in gyn brachytherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bourel, Victor J.; Torre, Marcela de la; Rodriguez, Isabel

    1996-01-01

    Introduction: The linear-quadratic model shows that while a slight variation in the LDR Brachytherapy dose rate affects just a little the tumoral tissue ERD (Extrapolated Response Dose), the effect can be very strong in the late reacting tissues. The LDR Brachytherapy in cervix cancer is done with a dose rate in point A that range between 0.5 Gy/h and 0.7 Gy/h. This small range is a very heavy variable to find equivalent schemes. Material and Methods: Whith the LC10 program (based in the linear-quadratic model developed in our centre) a radiobiological analysis of the GYN Brachytherapy considering the dosimetric distribution of the most usual applicators is done. Different studies show that the critical rectal and bladder point doses in reference to point A ranges between 60% and 80%. Bearing this in mind, and the typical variables (tissue parameters, number of fractions, dose per fraction, total dose, etc.) the effect of the LDR dose rate variation in particularly analysed while calculating the equivalent HDR scheme. Result and discussion: When equivalent schemes are calculated in practise it is found that the HDR number of fractions depends highly on the LDR dose rate, that's why for one specific LDR scheme is necessary even to duplicate the HDR number of fractions to find the unique equivalent scheme when varying the dose rate from 0.5 Gy/h to 0.7 Gy/h. This also shows that the same LDR scheme using 0.5 Gy/h or 0.7 Gy/h is radiobiologically different (up to 20% in the late reacting tissue ERD). Conclusion: It is very important to report with great detail the LDR dose rate with which the gynaecological treatments have been performed because this variable is decisive to compare the results with other LDR or HDR schemes

  4. [Responses of Picea likiangensis radial growth to climate change in the Small Zhongdian area of Yunnan Province, Southwest China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Zhi-Jiang; Tan, Liu-Yi; Kang, Dong-Wei; Liu, Qi-Jing; Li, Jun-Qing

    2012-03-01

    Picea likiangensis (Franch. ) Pritz. primary forest is one of the dominant forest types in the Small Zhongdian area in Shangri-La County of Yunnan Province. In this paper, the responses of P. likiangensis tree-ring width to climate change were analyzed by dendrochronological methods, and the dendrochronology was built by using relatively conservative detrending negative exponential curves or linear regression. Correlation analysis and response function analysis were applied to explore the relationships between the residual chronology series (RES) and climatic factors at different time scales, and pointer year analysis was used to explain the reasons of producing narrow and wide rings. In the study area, the radial growth of P. likiangensis and the increasing air temperature from 1990 to 2008 had definite 'abruption'. The temperature and precipitation in previous year growth season were the main factors limiting the present year radial growth, and especially, the temperature in previous July played a negative feedback role in the radial growth, while the sufficient precipitation in previous July promoted the radial growth. The differences in the temperature variation and precipitation variation in previous year were the main reasons for the formation of narrow and wide rings. P. likiangensis radial growth was not sensitive to the variation of PDSI.

  5. Leaf density explains variation in leaf mass per area in rice between cultivars and nitrogen treatments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Dongliang; Wang, Dan; Liu, Xi; Peng, Shaobing; Huang, Jianliang; Li, Yong

    2016-05-01

    Leaf mass per area (LMA) is an important leaf trait; however, correlations between LMA and leaf anatomical features and photosynthesis have not been fully investigated, especially in cereal crops. The objectives of this study were (a) to investigate the correlations between LMA and leaf anatomical traits; and (b) to clarify the response of LMA to nitrogen supply and its effect on photosynthetic nitrogen use efficiency (PNUE). In the present study, 11 rice varieties were pot grown under sufficient nitrogen (SN) conditions, and four selected rice cultivars were grown under low nitrogen (LN) conditions. Leaf anatomical traits, gas exchange and leaf N content were measured. There was large variation in LMA across selected rice varieties. Regression analysis showed that the variation in LMA was more closely related to leaf density (LD) than to leaf thickness (LT). LMA was positively related to the percentage of mesophyll tissue area (%mesophyll), negatively related to the percentage of epidermis tissue area (%epidermis) and unrelated to the percentage of vascular tissue area (%vascular). The response of LMA to N supplementation was dependent on the variety and was also mainly determined by the response of LD to N. Compared with SN, photosynthesis was significantly decreased under LN, while PNUE was increased. The increase in PNUE was more critical in rice cultivars with a higher LMA under SN supply. Leaf density is the major cause of the variation in LMA across rice varieties and N treatments, and an increase in LMA under high N conditions would aggravate the decrease in PNUE. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Annals of Botany Company. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  6. How do microlocal environmental variations affect microbial activities of a Pinus halepensis litter in a Mediterranean coastal area?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qasemian, Leila; Guiral, Daniel; Farnet, Anne-Marie

    2014-10-15

    Mediterranean coastal ecosystems suffer many different types of natural and anthropogenic environmental pressure. Microbial communities, major conductors of organic matter decomposition are also subject to these environmental constraints. In this study, our aim was to understand how microbial activities vary at a small spatio-temporal scale in a Mediterranean coastal environment. Microbial activities were monitored in a Pinus halepensis litter collected from two areas, one close to (10 m) and one far from (300 m) the French Mediterranean coast. Litters were transferred from one area to the other using litterbags and studied via different microbial indicators after 2, 5 and 13 months. Microbial Basal Respiration, qCO₂, certain enzyme activities (laccase, cellulase, β-glucosidase and acid phosphatase) and functional diversity via Biolog microplates were assayed in litterbags left in the area of origin as well as in litterbags transferred from one area to the other. Results highlight that microbial activities differ significantly in this short spatial scale over time. The influence of microlocal conditions more intensified for litters situated close to the sea, especially during summer seems to have a stressful effect on microbial communities, leading to less efficient functional activities. However, microbial activities were more strongly influenced by temporal variations linked to seasonality than by location. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Spatial Variations of Soil Gas Geochemistry in the Tangshan Area of Northern China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ying Li

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The concentrations of Hg, Rn, H2, He and CO2 in soil gases at 756 sites were measured in the Tangshan area where Ms 7.8 earthquake occurred in 1976 and is characterized by complex tectonic structures and high seismic hazard. The results showed that, spatial variations of the gaseous anomalies, especially hydrogen and helium have spatial congruence along the tectonic lines, which can be attributed to their deep sources and the migration paths formed by the faults. A better congruence of radon and carbon dioxide is highlighted which indicates that carbon dioxide acts as the carrier gas for radon in this area. Two geochemical anomaly zones of soil gas were found in the area wherein all the studied gases exhibited anomalies or high values, related to the faults and earthquakes.

  8. [Responses of vegetation changes to climatic variations in Panxi area based on the MODIS multispectral data].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shao, Huai-Yong; Wu, Jin-Hui; Liu, Meng; Yang, Wu-Nian

    2014-01-01

    It is an important research area to quantitatively studying the relationship between global climatic change and vegetation change based on the remote sensing technology. Panxi area is the ecological barrier of the upper reaches of the Yangtze River, and it is essential for the stability of the ecological environment of Sichuan as well as that of the whole China. The present article analyzes the vegetation change in 2001-2008 and the relationship between vegetation change and climatic variations of Panxi area, based on MODIS multispectral data and meteorological data. The results indicate that NDVI is positively correlated with temperature and precipitation. The precipitation is the major factor that affects the change of vegetation in the Panxi region and the trend of NDVI is similar with autumn precipitation; while at the same time the influence of climate has a one-month-time-lag.

  9. Indirect estimations and spatial variation in leaf area index of coniferous, deciduous and mixed forest stands in Forsmark and Laxemar

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tagesson, Torbern

    2006-12-01

    needle to shoot area ratio, woody to total area ratio and element-clumping index for coniferous, deciduous and mixed forest stands. NDVI modelled LAI was used to evaluate the LAI product from Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS), and the comparison indicated that MODIS LAI was neither correlated to LAI in Laxemar nor in Forsmark. MODIS LAI also was larger than NDVI modelled LAI and it showed large variations at both sites. It is therefore not recommended to use the MODIS LAI product for future LAI estimations in these small investigation areas

  10. Indirect estimations and spatial variation in leaf area index of coniferous, deciduous and mixed forest stands in Forsmark and Laxemar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tagesson, Torbern [Dept. of Physical Geography and Ecosystem Analysis, Lund Univ., Lund (Sweden)

    2006-12-15

    needle to shoot area ratio, woody to total area ratio and element-clumping index for coniferous, deciduous and mixed forest stands. NDVI modelled LAI was used to evaluate the LAI product from Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS), and the comparison indicated that MODIS LAI was neither correlated to LAI in Laxemar nor in Forsmark. MODIS LAI also was larger than NDVI modelled LAI and it showed large variations at both sites. It is therefore not recommended to use the MODIS LAI product for future LAI estimations in these small investigation areas.

  11. Effects of small variations of speed of sound in optoacoustic tomographic imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deán-Ben, X. Luís; Ntziachristos, Vasilis; Razansky, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: Speed of sound difference in the imaged object and surrounding coupling medium may reduce the resolution and overall quality of optoacoustic tomographic reconstructions obtained by assuming a uniform acoustic medium. In this work, the authors investigate the effects of acoustic heterogeneities and discuss potential benefits of accounting for those during the reconstruction procedure. Methods: The time shift of optoacoustic signals in an acoustically heterogeneous medium is studied theoretically by comparing different continuous and discrete wave propagation models. A modification of filtered back-projection reconstruction is subsequently implemented by considering a straight acoustic rays model for ultrasound propagation. The results obtained with this reconstruction procedure are compared numerically and experimentally to those obtained assuming a heuristically fitted uniform speed of sound in both full-view and limited-view optoacoustic tomography scenarios. Results: The theoretical analysis showcases that the errors in the time-of-flight of the signals predicted by considering the straight acoustic rays model tend to be generally small. When using this model for reconstructing simulated data, the resulting images accurately represent the theoretical ones. On the other hand, significant deviations in the location of the absorbing structures are found when using a uniform speed of sound assumption. The experimental results obtained with tissue-mimicking phantoms and a mouse postmortem are found to be consistent with the numerical simulations. Conclusions: Accurate analysis of effects of small speed of sound variations demonstrates that accounting for differences in the speed of sound allows improving optoacoustic reconstruction results in realistic imaging scenarios involving acoustic heterogeneities in tissues and surrounding media

  12. [Impact of small-area context on health: proposing a conceptual model].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voigtländer, S; Mielck, A; Razum, O

    2012-11-01

    Recent empirical studies stress the impact of features related to the small-area context on individual health. However, so far there exists no standard explanatory model that integrates the different kinds of such features and that conceptualises their relation to individual characteristics of social inequality. A review of theoretical publications on the relationship between social position and health as well as existing conceptual models for the impact of features related to the small-area context on health was undertaken. In the present article we propose a conceptual model for the health impact of the small-area context. This model conceptualises the location of residence as one dimension of social inequality that affects health through the resources as well as stressors which are inherent in the small-area context. The proposed conceptual model offers an orientation for future empirical studies and can serve as a basis for further discussions concerning the health relevance of the small-area context. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  13. Canopy area of large trees explains aboveground biomass variations across neotropical forest landscapes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Victoria; Saatchi, Sassan; Clark, David B.; Keller, Michael; Vincent, Grégoire; Ferraz, António; Espírito-Santo, Fernando; d'Oliveira, Marcus V. N.; Kaki, Dahlia; Chave, Jérôme

    2018-06-01

    Large tropical trees store significant amounts of carbon in woody components and their distribution plays an important role in forest carbon stocks and dynamics. Here, we explore the properties of a new lidar-derived index, the large tree canopy area (LCA) defined as the area occupied by canopy above a reference height. We hypothesize that this simple measure of forest structure representing the crown area of large canopy trees could consistently explain the landscape variations in forest volume and aboveground biomass (AGB) across a range of climate and edaphic conditions. To test this hypothesis, we assembled a unique dataset of high-resolution airborne light detection and ranging (lidar) and ground inventory data in nine undisturbed old-growth Neotropical forests, of which four had plots large enough (1 ha) to calibrate our model. We found that the LCA for trees greater than 27 m (˜ 25-30 m) in height and at least 100 m2 crown size in a unit area (1 ha), explains more than 75 % of total forest volume variations, irrespective of the forest biogeographic conditions. When weighted by average wood density of the stand, LCA can be used as an unbiased estimator of AGB across sites (R2 = 0.78, RMSE = 46.02 Mg ha-1, bias = -0.63 Mg ha-1). Unlike other lidar-derived metrics with complex nonlinear relations to biomass, the relationship between LCA and AGB is linear and remains unique across forest types. A comparison with tree inventories across the study sites indicates that LCA correlates best with the crown area (or basal area) of trees with diameter greater than 50 cm. The spatial invariance of the LCA-AGB relationship across the Neotropics suggests a remarkable regularity of forest structure across the landscape and a new technique for systematic monitoring of large trees for their contribution to AGB and changes associated with selective logging, tree mortality and other types of tropical forest disturbance and dynamics.

  14. Diet of residents of Bryansk region western areas and it's variation resulted from the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Travnikova, I.G.; Balonov, M.I.; Kaplun, I.S.

    1993-01-01

    The paper presents the results of the examination of 955 inhabitants of the Bryansk region areas affected greatly by the Chernobyl accident. The examination was carried out in August-September, 1987. The examination was conducted to estimate the efficiency of the protective measures taken to reduce the levels of population irradiation at the alimentary in take of radionuclides. The ratios characteristic for the urban and rural population and the variations of the rations resulted from the accident became one the objects of the investigation. Milk consumption by all groups of the population is determined to reduce abruptly thus affecting the usual structure of nutrition. Consumption of meat, of fish from local lakes and rivers, of mushrooms, of forest berries reduced, as well. The mentioned variations enabled to decrease the dose of internal irradiation of the population by several times, But protein, microelements and vitamin deficiency in combination with the stress may negative affet the health of the people

  15. Active moss biomonitoring applied to an industrial area in Romania: variation of element contents with the height of exposure site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Culicov, O.; Yurukova, L.; Mocanu, R.; Frontasyeva, V.; Sarbu, C.

    2007-01-01

    Neutron activation analysis and the moss-bag transplant technique were used to investigate the variation of element contents with the height of the exposure site of Sphagnum girgensohnii samples in the strongly polluted town of Baia Mare, Romania, according to a novel sampling design. Moss collected from the background area in Moscow region, Russia, was hanged in bags at 3 locations spread within an area of one square kilometre, and analyzed after 4 months of exposure. At each location a number of 15 samples were suspended at 6 different levels above the ground: 6, 12, 18, 24 and 30 m. A total of 35 elements were determined by NAA at IBR-2 reactor in Dubna, Russia. Discriminant Analysis allowed depicting the differences between the accumulation patterns of moss at different levels of exposure and at various locations. The concentration of only twenty four and twenty five elements of thirty five provided sufficient information to enable classification rules to be developed for identifying moss samples according with their height of exposure and location, respectively. The most discriminant elements have the F values (indicating the statistical significance in the discrimination between groups) descending in the following order: K, Rb, Sb, Cs, Zn, Cl for the location model and Ca, Cd, As, Sr, Ba, Cl for the height model. A good agreement have been observed between the groups obtained by applying Discriminant Analysis and the origin of the samples. A small number of elements are significant for the separation of moss-bags by height in individual locations. The parameter ?variation in concentration by height? is less significant than the parameter ? variation in concentration by location?

  16. Study of α-crystallin structure by small-angle neutron scattering with contrast variation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krivandin, A.V.; Muranov, K.O.; Polyanskij, N.B.; Ostrovskij, M.A.; Murugova, T.N.; Kuklin, A.I.; Aksenov, V.L.

    2010-01-01

    The structure of the oligomeric protein α-crystallin from the bovine eye lens has been investigated by small-angle neutron scattering (SANS) by the contrast variation method (volume fraction of D 2 O was 0, 23, 68 and 90%). Experiments were carried out on YuMO spectrometer (IBR-2 reactor, JINR). From the SANS curves the match point for α-crystallin (43% D 2 O) and its average scattering length density at this point (2.4·10 10 cm -2 ) have been obtained. The radius of gyration and distance distribution functions for α-crystallin have been calculated as well. On the basis of these calculations it was concluded that α-crystallin has a homogeneous distribution of the scattering density in domains inaccessible for water penetration and all parts of this protein undergo a uniform deuteration. The latter indicates that all α-crystallin subunits have an equal accessibility for water and presumably for some other low molecular weight substances. These conclusions on the α-crystallin structure (a homogeneous distribution of the scattering density and an equal accessibility of all subunits for low molecular weight substances) should be taken into account in the time of elaboration of α-crystallin quaternary structure models

  17. Surface area and the seabed area, volume, depth, slope, and topographic variation for the world's seas, oceans, and countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costello, Mark John; Cheung, Alan; De Hauwere, Nathalie

    2010-12-01

    Depth and topography directly and indirectly influence most ocean environmental conditions, including light penetration and photosynthesis, sedimentation, current movements and stratification, and thus temperature and oxygen gradients. These parameters are thus likely to influence species distribution patterns and productivity in the oceans. They may be considered the foundation for any standardized classification of ocean ecosystems and important correlates of metrics of biodiversity (e.g., species richness and composition, fisheries). While statistics on ocean depth and topography are often quoted, how they were derived is rarely cited, and unless calculated using the same spatial resolution the resulting statistics will not be strictly comparable. We provide such statistics using the best available resolution (1-min) global bathymetry, and open source digital maps of the world's seas and oceans and countries' Exclusive Economic Zones, using a standardized methodology. We created a terrain map and calculated sea surface and seabed area, volume, and mean, standard deviation, maximum, and minimum, of both depth and slope. All the source data and our database are freely available online. We found that although the ocean is flat, and up to 71% of the area has a ocean volume exceeds 1.3 billion km(3) (or 1.3 sextillion liters), and sea surface and seabed areas over 354 million km(2). We propose the coefficient of variation of slope as an index of topographic heterogeneity. Future studies may improve on this database, for example by using a more detailed bathymetry, and in situ measured data. The database could be used to classify ocean features, such as abyssal plains, ridges, and slopes, and thus provide the basis for a standards based classification of ocean topography.

  18. Are vegetated areas of mangroves attractive to juvenile and small fish? The case of Dongzhaigang Bay, Hainan Island, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Mao; Huang, Zhenyuan; Shi, Fushan; Wang, Wenqing

    2009-11-01

    Well-developed aerial roots of mangroves make it difficult to study how fish utilize the mangrove forest as a habitat. In the present study, we compared the differences in fish assemblages in three major types of habitats of mangrove estuary (vegetated area, treeless mudflat, and creek) of a mangrove bay in Hainan Island, China, at different seasons during two consecutive years. Three types of gears, centipede net, gill net and cast net, were used in the different habitats of mangrove estuary and sampling efficiencies among gears were evaluated. Centipede nets were used in all the three types of habitats and cast nets and gill nets in treeless mudflats and creeks. Fish assemblages were dependent on gears used. Centipede net could efficiently catch fish occurring both inside and outside of vegetated areas efficiently. A total of 115 fish species in 51 families were collected. In terms of numbers of species per family, Gobiidae was the most diverse (17 species), followed by Mugilidae (5 species). Almost all of the fish were juvenile or small fish and few predators were recorded, implying low predation pressure in the bay. ANOVA analysis showed that significant seasonal and spatial variation existed in species richness, abundance, and biomass, which were less in the vegetated areas than those of treeless mudflats and creeks. The attraction of vegetated areas to fish was less than that of creeks and mudflats. Many species were specific to a particular habitat type, 4 species occurring exclusively in the creeks, 45 species occurring exclusively in the treeless mudflats, and 5 species occurring exclusively in the vegetated areas. The results indicated that mangrove estuaries were potentially attractive habitats for juvenile and small fish, but this attraction was accomplished by a connection of vegetated areas, treeless mudflats and creeks, not only by vegetated areas.

  19. Spatial Variations of Soil Gas Geochemistry in the Tangshan Area of Northern China

    OpenAIRE

    Ying Li; Jianguo Du; Xin Wang; Xiaocheng Zhou; Chao Xie; Yueju Cui

    2013-01-01

    The concentrations of Hg, Rn, H2, He and CO2 in soil gases at 756 sites were measured in the Tangshan area where Ms 7.8 earthquake occurred in 1976 and is characterized by complex tectonic structures and high seismic hazard. The results showed that, spatial variations of the gaseous anomalies, especially hydrogen and helium have spatial congruence along the tectonic lines, which can be attributed to their deep sources and the migration paths formed by the faults. A better congruence of radon ...

  20. A comparison of small-area estimation techniques to estimate selected stand attributes using LiDAR-derived auxiliary variables

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michael E. Goerndt; Vicente J. Monleon; Hailemariam. Temesgen

    2011-01-01

    One of the challenges often faced in forestry is the estimation of forest attributes for smaller areas of interest within a larger population. Small-area estimation (SAE) is a set of techniques well suited to estimation of forest attributes for small areas in which the existing sample size is small and auxiliary information is available. Selected SAE methods were...

  1. 77 FR 69651 - Final Fair Market Rents for the Housing Choice Voucher Program for Small Area Fair Market Rent...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-20

    ... the Housing Choice Voucher Program for Small Area Fair Market Rent Demonstration Program Participants... Authorities (PHAs) participating in the Small Area FMR Demonstration. SUMMARY: Section 8(c)(1) of the United... Housing Choice Voucher (HCV) Program for those PHAs selected to participate in the Small Area FMR...

  2. Demographic response to environmental variation in breeding, stopover and non-breeding areas in a migratory passerine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaub, Michael; Jakober, Hans; Stauber, Wolfgang

    2011-10-01

    Demographic rates of migratory species passing through several areas during their annual cycle may be affected by environmental conditions at each of these areas. Recent studies provide evidence that their impact is not necessarily immediate, but can be delayed. We studied survival, reproductive success and arrival date at the breeding grounds of red-backed shrikes Lanius collurio, a trans-Saharan migrant, in relation to weather and vegetation on the breeding grounds, the stopover sites during migration and in the wintering areas. These environmental factors are used as proxy of the shrike's food supply. We analysed detailed demographic data of some 4,600 individuals from 25 years with multistate capture-recapture and mixed models. Survival probabilities of juveniles and breeders of both sexes varied in parallel across time, suggesting that all cohorts were sensitive to similar causes of mortality. Reproductive performance increased with temperature and decreased with rainfall on the breeding area. Moreover, it increased with vegetation cover in the Sahelian stopover area used on autumn migration suggesting a carry-over effect. Arrival date was negatively affected by spring temperatures in the breeding area. Hence, demographic rates were affected by environmental factors on the breeding grounds, but also outside and elsewhere. This suggests that the shrike's population dynamics are driven by environmental factors operating at various scales of space and time. However, only a small amount of the temporal variation in demographic rates is explained by the environmental factors considered, suggesting that additional factors, such as those operating during migration, might be important.

  3. [Assessment of ecosystem in giant panda distribution area based on entropy method and coefficient of variation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Zhi Gang; Li, Jun Qing

    2017-12-01

    The areas of the habitat and bamboo forest, and the size of the giant panda wild population have greatly increased, while habitat fragmentation and local population isolation have also intensified in recent years. Accurate evaluation of ecosystem status of the panda in the giant panda distribution area is important for giant panda conservation. The ecosystems of the distribution area and six mountain ranges were subdivided into habitat and population subsystems based on the hie-rarchical system theory. Using the panda distribution area as the study area and the three national surveys as the time node, the evolution laws of ecosystems were studied using the entropy method, coefficient of variation, and correlation analysis. We found that with continuous improvement, some differences existed in the evolution and present situation of the ecosystems of six mountain ranges could be divided into three groups. Ecosystems classified into the same group showed many commonalities, and difference between the groups was considerable. Problems of habitat fragmentation and local population isolation became more serious, resulting in ecosystem degradation. Individuali-zed ecological protection measures should be formulated and implemented in accordance with the conditions in each mountain system to achieve the best results.

  4. Modelling spatial and temporal variations of annual suspended sediment yields from small agricultural catchments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rymszewicz, A; Bruen, M; O'Sullivan, J J; Turner, J N; Lawler, D M; Harrington, J R; Conroy, E; Kelly-Quinn, M

    2018-04-01

    Estimates of sediment yield are important for ecological and geomorphological assessment of fluvial systems and for assessment of soil erosion within a catchment. Many regulatory frameworks, such as the Convention for the Protection of the Marine Environment of the North-East Atlantic, derived from the Oslo and Paris Commissions (OSPAR) require reporting of annual sediment fluxes. While they may be measured in large rivers, sediment flux is rarely measured in smaller rivers. Measurements of sediment transport at a national scale can be also challenging and therefore, sediment yield models are often utilised by water resource managers for the predictions of sediment yields in the ungauged catchments. Regression based models, calibrated to field measurements, can offer an advantage over complex and computational models due to their simplicity, easy access to input data and due to the additional insights into factors controlling sediment export in the study sites. While traditionally calibrated to long-term average values of sediment yields such predictions cannot represent temporal variations. This study addresses this issue in a novel way by taking account of the variation from year to year in hydrological variables in the developed models (using annual mean runoff, annual mean flow, flows exceeded in five percentage of the time (Q5) and seasonal rainfall estimated separately for each year of observations). Other parameters included in the models represent spatial differences influenced by factors such as soil properties (% poorly drained soils and % peaty soils), land-use (% pasture or % arable lands), channel slope (S1085) and drainage network properties (drainage density). Catchment descriptors together with year-specific hydrological variables can explain both spatial differences and inter-annual variability of suspended sediment yields. The methodology is demonstrated by deriving equations from Irish data-sets (compiled in this study) with the best model

  5. Contact mechanics: contact area and interfacial separation from small contact to full contact

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, C; Persson, B N J

    2008-01-01

    We present a molecular dynamics study of the contact between a rigid solid with a randomly rough surface and an elastic block with a flat surface. The numerical calculations mainly focus on the contact area and the interfacial separation from small contact (low load) to full contact (high load). For a small load the contact area varies linearly with the load and the interfacial separation depends logarithmically on the load. For a high load the contact area approaches the nominal contact area (i.e. complete contact), and the interfacial separation approaches zero. The numerical results have been compared with analytical theory and experimental results. They are in good agreement with each other. The present findings may be very important for soft solids, e.g. rubber, or for very smooth surfaces, where complete contact can be reached at moderately high loads without plastic deformation of the solids

  6. Determine Small and Medium Enterprise (SME) Internet Marketing Usage in the Tshwane Area, South Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Van Scheers Louise

    2016-01-01

    The research is aimed to determine SME Internet marketing usage in the Tshwane area. The benefits of Internet marketing seem to be ignored by most SMEs. Social media is one of Internet marketing’s tools and it seems that challenges prevent SME owners from using this tool effectively. A survey study method of research design has been selected for the research. The sample for the study comprised 200 SME owners who currently manage small businesses in the Tshwane area. To assess t...

  7. Small Area Variance Estimation for the Siuslaw NF in Oregon and Some Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    S. Lin; D. Boes; H.T. Schreuder

    2006-01-01

    The results of a small area prediction study for the Siuslaw National Forest in Oregon are presented. Predictions were made for total basal area, number of trees and mortality per ha on a 0.85 mile grid using data on a 1.7 mile grid and additional ancillary information from TM. A reliable method of estimating prediction errors for individual plot predictions called the...

  8. A method for managing re-identification risk from small geographic areas in Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neisa Angelica

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A common disclosure control practice for health datasets is to identify small geographic areas and either suppress records from these small areas or aggregate them into larger ones. A recent study provided a method for deciding when an area is too small based on the uniqueness criterion. The uniqueness criterion stipulates that an the area is no longer too small when the proportion of unique individuals on the relevant variables (the quasi-identifiers approaches zero. However, using a uniqueness value of zero is quite a stringent threshold, and is only suitable when the risks from data disclosure are quite high. Other uniqueness thresholds that have been proposed for health data are 5% and 20%. Methods We estimated uniqueness for urban Forward Sortation Areas (FSAs by using the 2001 long form Canadian census data representing 20% of the population. We then constructed two logistic regression models to predict when the uniqueness is greater than the 5% and 20% thresholds, and validated their predictive accuracy using 10-fold cross-validation. Predictor variables included the population size of the FSA and the maximum number of possible values on the quasi-identifiers (the number of equivalence classes. Results All model parameters were significant and the models had very high prediction accuracy, with specificity above 0.9, and sensitivity at 0.87 and 0.74 for the 5% and 20% threshold models respectively. The application of the models was illustrated with an analysis of the Ontario newborn registry and an emergency department dataset. At the higher thresholds considerably fewer records compared to the 0% threshold would be considered to be in small areas and therefore undergo disclosure control actions. We have also included concrete guidance for data custodians in deciding which one of the three uniqueness thresholds to use (0%, 5%, 20%, depending on the mitigating controls that the data recipients have in place, the

  9. Gravity and Displacement Variations in the Areas of Strong Earthquakes in the East of Russia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timofeev, V. Yu.; Kalish, E. N.; Stus', Yu. F.; Ardyukov, D. G.; Valitov, M. G.; Timofeev, A. V.; Nosov, D. A.; Sizikov, I. S.; Boiko, E. V.; Gornov, P. Yu.; Kulinich, R. G.; Kolpashchikova, T. N.; Proshkina, Z. N.; Nazarov, E. O.; Kolmogorov, V. G.

    2018-05-01

    The modern gravimetry methods are capable of measuring gravity with an accuracy of up to 10-10 of the normal value, which is commensurate with the accuracy of the up-to-date methods of displacement measurements by satellite geodesy. Significant changes, e.g., in the coseismic displacements of the Earth's surface are recorded in the zones of large earthquakes. These changes should manifest themselves in the variations of gravity. Absolute measurements have been conducted by various modifications of absolute ballistic gravimeters GABL since the mid-1970s at the Klyuchi point (Novosibirsk) in the south of the West Siberian plate. Monitoring observations have been taking place in the seismically active regions since the 1990s. In this paper we consider the results of the long-term measurements of the variations in gravity and recent crustal displacements for different types of earthquakes (the zones of shear, extension, and compression). In the seismically active areas in the east of Russia, the longest annual series of absolute measurements starting from 1992 was recorded in the southeastern segment of Baikal region. In this area, the Kultuk earthquake with magnitude 6.5 occurred on August 27, 2008, at a distance of 25 km from the observation point of the Talaya seismic station. The measurements in Gornyi (Mountainous) Altai have been conducted since 2000. A strikeslip earthquake with magnitude 7.5 took place in the southern segment of the region on September 27, 2003. The effects of the catastrophic M = 9.0 Tohoku, Japan, earthquake of March 11, 2011 were identified in Primor'e in the far zone of the event. The empirical data are consistent with the results of modeling based on the seismological data. The coseismic variations in gravity are caused by the combined effect of the changes in the elevation of the observation point and crustal deformation.

  10. Impact of small variations in temperature and humidity on the reproductive activity and survival of Aedes aegypti (Diptera, Culicidae)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Costa, Ethiene Arruda Pedrosa de Almeida; Santos, Eloina Maria de Mendonca; Correia, Juliana Cavalcanti; Albuquerque, Cleide Maria Ribeiro de

    2010-01-01

    In short space of time increase in temperature and rainfall can affect vector populations and, consequently, the diseases for them transmitted. The present study analyzed the effect of small temperature and humidity variations on the fecundity, fertility and survival of Aedes aegypti. These parameters were analyzed using individual females at temperatures ranging from 23 to 27 deg C (mean 25 deg C); 28 to 32 deg C (mean 30 deg C) and 33 to 37 deg C (mean 35 deg C) associated to 60 +- 8% and 80 +- 6% relative humidity. Females responded to an increase in temperature by reducing egg production, oviposition time and changing oviposition patterns. At 25 deg C and 80% relative humidity, females survived two-fold more and produced 40% more eggs when compared to those kept at 35 deg C and 80% relative humidity. However, in 45% of females kept at 35 deg C and 60% relative humidity oviposition was inhibited and only 15% females laid more than 100 eggs, suggesting that the intensity of the temperature effect was influenced by humidity. Gradual reductions in egg fertility at 60% relative humidity were observed with the increase in temperature, although such effect was not found in the 80% relative humidity at 25 deg C and 30 deg C. These results suggest that the reduction in population densities recorded in tropical areas during seasons when temperatures reach over 35 deg C is likely to be strongly influenced by temperature and humidity, with a negative effect on several aspects of mosquito biology. (author)

  11. Observer variation in FDG PET-CT for staging of non-small-cell lung carcinoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hofman, Michael S. [St Thomas' Hospital, PET Imaging Centre, London (United Kingdom)]|[Southern Health, Nuclear Medicine, Melbourne (Australia); Smeeton, Nigel C. [King' s College London, Division of Health and Social Care Research, London (United Kingdom); Rankin, Sheila C.; Nunan, Tom; O' Doherty, Michael J. [St Thomas' Hospital, PET Imaging Centre, London (United Kingdom)

    2009-02-15

    Error and variation in reporting remains one of the weakest features of clinical imaging despite enormous technological advances in nuclear medicine and radiology. The aim of this study was to evaluate agreement amongst experienced readers in staging non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) with PET-CT. A series of {sup 18}F-FDG PET-CT scans from 100 consecutive patients were reviewed independently by three experienced readers, with two readers reviewing each scan series a second time. Individual mediastinal lymph node stations were assessed as benign/inflammatory, equivocal or malignant, and AJCC N and M stage were also assigned. Kappa ({kappa}) was used to compare ratings from two categories and weighted kappa ({kappa}{sub w}) for three or more categories, and kappa values were interpreted according to the Landis-Koch benchmarks. Both intra- and interobserver agreement for N and M staging were high. For M staging there was almost perfect intra- and interobserver agreement ({kappa} = 0.90-0.93). For N staging, agreement was either almost perfect or substantial (intraobserver {kappa}{sub w} = 0.79, 0.91; interobserver {kappa}{sub w} = 0.75-0.81). Importantly, there was almost perfect agreement for N0/1 vs N2/3 disease ({kappa} = 0.80-0.97). Agreement for inferior and superior mediastinal nodes (stations 1, 2, 3, 7, 8, 9) was either almost perfect or substantial ({kappa}{sub w} = 0.71-0.88), but lower for hilar nodes (10; {kappa}{sub w} = 0.56-0.71). Interreporter variability was greatest for aortopulmonary nodes (5, 6; {kappa}{sub w} = 0.48-0.55). Amongst experienced reporters in a single centre, there was a very high level of agreement for both mediastinal nodal stage and detection of distant metastases with PET-CT. This supports the use of PET-CT as a robust imaging modality for staging NSCLC. (orig.)

  12. Observer variation in FDG PET-CT for staging of non-small-cell lung carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hofman, Michael S.; Smeeton, Nigel C.; Rankin, Sheila C.; Nunan, Tom; O'Doherty, Michael J.

    2009-01-01

    Error and variation in reporting remains one of the weakest features of clinical imaging despite enormous technological advances in nuclear medicine and radiology. The aim of this study was to evaluate agreement amongst experienced readers in staging non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) with PET-CT. A series of 18 F-FDG PET-CT scans from 100 consecutive patients were reviewed independently by three experienced readers, with two readers reviewing each scan series a second time. Individual mediastinal lymph node stations were assessed as benign/inflammatory, equivocal or malignant, and AJCC N and M stage were also assigned. Kappa (κ) was used to compare ratings from two categories and weighted kappa (κ w ) for three or more categories, and kappa values were interpreted according to the Landis-Koch benchmarks. Both intra- and interobserver agreement for N and M staging were high. For M staging there was almost perfect intra- and interobserver agreement (κ = 0.90-0.93). For N staging, agreement was either almost perfect or substantial (intraobserver κ w = 0.79, 0.91; interobserver κ w = 0.75-0.81). Importantly, there was almost perfect agreement for N0/1 vs N2/3 disease (κ = 0.80-0.97). Agreement for inferior and superior mediastinal nodes (stations 1, 2, 3, 7, 8, 9) was either almost perfect or substantial (κ w = 0.71-0.88), but lower for hilar nodes (10; κ w = 0.56-0.71). Interreporter variability was greatest for aortopulmonary nodes (5, 6; κ w = 0.48-0.55). Amongst experienced reporters in a single centre, there was a very high level of agreement for both mediastinal nodal stage and detection of distant metastases with PET-CT. This supports the use of PET-CT as a robust imaging modality for staging NSCLC. (orig.)

  13. Interfacial area transport of bubbly flow in a small diameter pipe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hibiki, Takashi; Takamasa, Tomoji; Ishii, Mamoru

    2001-01-01

    In relation to the development of the interfacial area transport equation, this study focused on modeling of the interfacial area transport mechanism of vertical adiabatic air-water bubbly flows in a relatively small diameter pipe where the bubble size-to-pipe diameter ratio was relatively high and the radial motion of bubbles was restricted by the presence of the pipe wall. The sink term of the interfacial area concentration was modeled by considering wake entrainment as a possible bubble coalescence mechanism, whereas the source term was neglected by assuming negligibly small bubble breakup for low liquid velocity conditions based on visual observation. One-dimensional interfacial area transport equation with the derived sink term was evaluated by using five datasets of vertical adiabatic air-water bubbly flows measured in a 9.0 mm-diameter pipe (superficial gas velocity: 0.013-0.052 m/s, superficial liquid velocity: 0.58-1.0 m/s). The modeled interfacial area transport equation could reproduce the proper trend of the axial interfacial area transport and predict the measured interfacial area concentrations within an average relative deviation of ±11.1%. It was recognized that the present model would be promising for predicting the interfacial area transport of the examined bubbly flows. (author)

  14. Small sensitivity to temperature variations of Si-photonic Mach-Zehnder interferometer using Si and SiN waveguides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiraki, Tatsurou; Fukuda, Hiroshi; Yamada, Koji; Yamamoto, Tsuyoshi

    2015-03-01

    We demonstrated a small sensitivity to temperature variations of delay-line Mach-Zehnder interferometer (DL MZI) on a Si photonics platform. The key technique is to balance a thermo-optic effect in the two arms by using waveguide made of different materials. With silicon and silicon nitride waveguides, the fabricated DL MZI with a free-spectrum range of ~40 GHz showed a wavelength shift of -2.8 pm/K with temperature variations, which is 24 times smaller than that of the conventional Si-waveguide DL MZI. We also demonstrated the decoding of the 40-Gbit/s differential phase-shift keying signals to on-off keying signals with various temperatures. The tolerable temperature variation for the acceptable power penalty was significantly improved due to the small wavelength shifts.

  15. Within crown variation in the relationship between foliage biomass and sapwood area in jack pine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Robert; Berninger, Frank; Ung, Chhun-Huor; Mäkelä, Annikki; Swift, D Edwin; Zhang, S Y

    2011-01-01

    The relationship between sapwood area and foliage biomass is the basis for a lot of research on eco-phyisology. In this paper, foliage biomass change between two consecutive whorls is studied, using different variations in the pipe model theory. Linear and non-linear mixed-effect models relating foliage differences to sapwood area increments were tested to take into account whorl location, with the best fit statistics supporting the non-linear formulation. The estimated value of the exponent is 0.5130, which is significantly different from 1, the expected value given by the pipe model theory. When applied to crown stem sapwood taper, the model indicates that foliage biomass distribution influences the foliage biomass to sapwood area at crown base ratio. This result is interpreted as being the consequence of differences in the turnover rates of sapwood and foliage. More importantly, the model explains previously reported trends in jack pine sapwood area at crown base to tree foliage biomass ratio.

  16. Ethnic density and deliberate self harm; a small area study in south east London

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Neeleman, J; Wilson-Jones, C; Wessely, S

    Study objective-Relative risks are frequently used to convey how strongly outcomes like mental illness and suicidal behaviour are associated with personal characteristics Like ethnic background. This study examined whether RRs for deliberate self harm (DSH) in ethnic groups vary between small areas

  17. Oscillations of centroid position and surface area of soccer teams in small-sided games

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Frencken, Wouter; Lemmink, Koen; Delleman, Nico; Visscher, Chris

    2011-01-01

    There is a need for a collective variable that captures the dynamics of team sports like soccer at match level. The centroid positions and surface areas of two soccer teams potentially describe the coordinated flow of attacking and defending in small-sided soccer games at team level. The aim of the

  18. Entropy function and universality of entropy-area relation for small black holes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cai Ronggen; Chen, C.-M.; Maeda, Kei-ichi; Ohta, Nobuyoshi; Pang Dawei

    2008-01-01

    We discuss the entropy-area relation for the small black holes with higher curvature corrections by using the entropy function formalism and field redefinition method. We show that the entropy S BH of the small black hole is proportional to its horizon area A. In particular, we find a universal result that S BH =A/2G, the ratio is 2 times of Bekenstein-Hawking entropy-area formula in many cases of physical interest. In four dimensions, the universal relation is always true irrespective of the coefficients of the higher-order terms if the dilaton couplings are the same, which is the case for string effective theory, while in five dimensions, the relation again holds irrespective of the overall coefficient if the higher-order corrections are in the GB combination. We also discuss how this result generalizes to known physically interesting cases with Lovelock correction terms in various dimensions, and possible implications of the universal relation.

  19. Spatio-temporal patterns and environmental controls of small pelagic fish body condition from contrasted Mediterranean areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brosset, Pablo; Fromentin, Jean-Marc; Van Beveren, Elisabeth; Lloret, Josep; Marques, Virginie; Basilone, Gualtiero; Bonanno, Angelo; Carpi, Piera; Donato, Fortunata; Čikeš Keč, Vanja; De Felice, Andrea; Ferreri, Rosalia; Gašparević, Denis; Giráldez, Ana; Gücü, Ali; Iglesias, Magdalena; Leonori, Iole; Palomera, Isabel; Somarakis, Stylianos; Tičina, Vjekoslav; Torres, Pedro; Ventero, Ana; Zorica, Barbara; Ménard, Frédéric; Saraux, Claire

    2017-02-01

    Small pelagic fish are among the most ecologically and economically important marine fish species and are characterized by large fluctuations all over the world. In the Mediterranean Sea, low catches and biomass of anchovies and sardines have been described in some areas during the last decade, resulting in important fisheries crises. Therefore, we studied anchovy and sardine body condition variability, a key index of population health and its response to environmental and anthropogenic changes. Wide temporal and spatial patterns were investigated by analyzing separately data from scientific surveys and fisheries in eight Mediterranean areas between 1975 and 2015. Results showed that anchovy and sardine body condition as well as maximum size in some areas sharply decreased in most Mediterranean areas along years (except in the Northern Alboran Sea). Despite this general pattern, well-marked environmental differences between sub-regions were highlighted by several analyses and variations in body condition were not found to be homogeneous over all the Mediterranean Sea. Further, other analyses revealed that except for the Adriatic where major changes towards a lower body condition were concomitant with a decrease in river runoffs and chl-a concentration, no concomitant environmental regime shift was detected in other areas. Together, these analyses highlighted the current poor body condition of almost all small pelagic fish populations in the Mediterranean. Yet, global environmental indices could not explain the observed changes and the general decrease in condition might more likely come from regional environmental and/or anthropogenic (fishing) effects. A prolonged state of poor fish body condition, together with an observed reduced size and early age-at-maturity may have strong ecological, economic and social consequences all around the Mediterranean Sea.

  20. Seasonal variation of physicochemical factor and fecal pollution in the Hansan-Geojeman area, Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Young Cheol Park

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The seasonal variation of fecal coliforms (FCs and physicochemical factors was determined in seawaters of the Hansan-Geojeman area, including a designated area for oyster, and in inland pollution sources of its drainage basin. The mean daily loads of FCs in inland pollution sources ranged from 1.2 × 109 to 3.1 × 1011 most probable number (MPN/day; however, the pollutants could not be reached at the designated area. FC concentrations of seawaters were closely related to season, rainfall, and inland contaminants, however, within the regulation limit of various countries for shellfish. The highest concentrations for chemical oxygen demand (COD and chlorophyll-a in seawaters were shown in the surface layer during August with high rainfall, whereas the lowest for dissolved oxygen (DO in the bottom layer of the same month. Therefore, it indicates that the concentrations of FC, COD, DO, and chlorophyll-a of seawaters were closely related to season and rainfall.

  1. Impact of Surface Soil Moisture Variations on Radar Altimetry Echoes at Ku and Ka Bands in Semi-Arid Areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christophe Fatras

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Radar altimetry provides information on the topography of the Earth surface. It is commonly used for the monitoring not only sea surface height but also ice sheets topography and inland water levels. The radar altimetry backscattering coefficient, which depends on surface roughness and water content, can be related to surface properties such as surface soil moisture content. In this study, the influence of surface soil moisture on the radar altimetry echo and backscattering coefficient is analyzed over semi-arid areas. A semi-empirical model of the soil’s complex dielectric permittivity that takes into account that small-scale roughness and large-scale topography was developed to simulate the radar echoes. It was validated using waveforms acquired at Ku and Ka-bands by ENVISAT RA-2 and SARAL AltiKa respectively over several sites in Mali. Correlation coefficients ranging from 0.66 to 0.94 at Ku-band and from 0.27 to 0.96 at Ka-band were found. The increase in surface soil moisture from 0.02 to 0.4 (i.e., the typical range of variations in semi-arid areas increase the backscattering from 10 to 15 dB between the core of the dry and the maximum of the rainy seasons.

  2. Estimating continental water storage variations in Central Asia area using GRACE data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dapeng, Mu; Zhongchang, Sun; Jinyun, Guo

    2014-01-01

    The goal of GRACE satellite is to determine time-variations of the Earth's gravity, and particularly the effects of fluid mass redistributions at the surface of the Earth. This paper uses GRACE Level-2 RL05 data provided by CSR to estimate water storage variations of four river basins in Asia area for the period from 2003 to 2011. We apply a two-step filtering method to reduce the errors in GRACE data, which combines Gaussian averaging function and empirical de-correlation method. We use GLDAS hydrology to validate the result from GRACE. Special averaging approach is preformed to reduce the errors in GLDAS. The results of former three basins from GRACE are consistent with GLDAS hydrology model. In the Tarim River basin, there is more discrepancy between GRACE and GLDAS. Precipitation data from weather station proves that the results of GRACE are more plausible. We use spectral analysis to obtain the main periods of GRACE and GLDAS time series and then use least squares adjustment to determine the amplitude and phase. The results show that water storage in Central Asia is decreasing

  3. Using ecological propensity score to adjust for missing confounders in small area studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yingbo; Pirani, Monica; Hansell, Anna L; Richardson, Sylvia; Blangiardo, Marta

    2017-11-09

    Small area ecological studies are commonly used in epidemiology to assess the impact of area level risk factors on health outcomes when data are only available in an aggregated form. However, the resulting estimates are often biased due to unmeasured confounders, which typically are not available from the standard administrative registries used for these studies. Extra information on confounders can be provided through external data sets such as surveys or cohorts, where the data are available at the individual level rather than at the area level; however, such data typically lack the geographical coverage of administrative registries. We develop a framework of analysis which combines ecological and individual level data from different sources to provide an adjusted estimate of area level risk factors which is less biased. Our method (i) summarizes all available individual level confounders into an area level scalar variable, which we call ecological propensity score (EPS), (ii) implements a hierarchical structured approach to impute the values of EPS whenever they are missing, and (iii) includes the estimated and imputed EPS into the ecological regression linking the risk factors to the health outcome. Through a simulation study, we show that integrating individual level data into small area analyses via EPS is a promising method to reduce the bias intrinsic in ecological studies due to unmeasured confounders; we also apply the method to a real case study to evaluate the effect of air pollution on coronary heart disease hospital admissions in Greater London. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press.

  4. Sewage-treatment under substantial load variations in winter tourism areas--a full case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winkler, S; Matsché, N; Gamperer, T; Dum, M

    2004-01-01

    The sewage-load variations in winter tourism areas are characterized by sudden increases--in the range of a factor two to three--within only a few days at the start and the end of the tourist season, especially at Christmas. The sudden load increases occur during periods of low wastewater temperatures, which is an additional demanding factor with respect to nitrogen removal. A full case study was carried out at WWTP Saalfelden, which is located near one of Austria's largest skiing resorts. The plant is designed for 80,000 PE and built according to the HYBRID-concept, which is a special two stage activated sludge process for extensive nutrient removal.

  5. The role of discharge variation in scaling of drainage area and food chain length in rivers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabo, John L.; Finlay, Jacques C.; Kennedy, Theodore A.; Post, David M.

    2010-01-01

    Food chain length (FCL) is a fundamental component of food web structure. Studies in a variety of ecosystems suggest that FCL is determined by energy supply, environmental stability, and/or ecosystem size, but the nature of the relationship between environmental stability and FCL, and the mechanism linking ecosystem size to FCL, remain unclear. Here we show that FCL increases with drainage area and decreases with hydrologic variability and intermittency across 36 North American rivers. Our analysis further suggests that hydrologic variability is the mechanism underlying the correlation between ecosystem size and FCL in rivers. Ecosystem size lengthens river food chains by integrating and attenuating discharge variation through stream networks, thereby enhancing environmental stability in larger river systems.

  6. The effect of urban street gang densities on small area homicide incidence in a large metropolitan county, 1994-2002.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Paul L; Boscardin, W John; George, Sheba M; Teklehaimanot, Senait; Heslin, Kevin C; Bluthenthal, Ricky N

    2009-07-01

    The presence of street gangs has been hypothesized as influencing overall levels of violence in urban communities through a process of gun-drug diffusion and cross-type homicide. This effect is said to act independently of other known correlates of violence, i.e., neighborhood poverty. To test this hypothesis, we independently assessed the impact of population exposure to local street gang densities on 8-year homicide rates in small areas of Los Angeles County, California. Homicide data from the Los Angeles County Coroners Office were analyzed with original field survey data on street gang locations, while controlling for the established covariates of community homicide rates. Bivariate and multivariate regression analyses explicated strong relationships between homicide rates, gang density, race/ethnicity, and socioeconomic structure. Street gang densities alone had cumulative effects on small area homicide rates. Local gang densities, along with high school dropout rates, high unemployment rates, racial and ethnic concentration, and higher population densities, together explained 90% of the variation in local 8-year homicide rates. Several other commonly considered covariates were insignificant in the model. Urban environments with higher densities of street gangs exhibited higher overall homicide rates, independent of other community covariates of homicide. The unique nature of street gang killings and their greater potential to influence future local rates of violence suggests that more direct public health interventions are needed alongside traditional criminal justice mechanisms to combat urban violence and homicides.

  7. INNOVATIVE SOLUTIONS FOR SMALL SCALE VERTICAL AXIS WIND TURBINES USED IN HARBOURS AND SHORE AREAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    IONESCU Raluca Dora

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper aims to analyse the wind turbine solutions implemented in harbours and on shore areas. Also a thorough study of the blade design solutions for small power Vertical axis wind turbines (VAWTs has been conducted, with their advantages and disadvantages, in order to find the best solution that minimises the loads and helps with the self-starting capabilities of the wind turbine. First are presented all the solutions, next are discussed several research results for each solution and, in the end, a combination of solutions is chosen for our new small power VAWT with a pre-dimensioning analysis.

  8. Sex-specific differences of craniofacial traits in Croatia: the impact of environment in a small geographic area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buretic-Tomljanovic, Alena; Giacometti, Jasminka; Ostojic, Sasa; Kapovic, Miljenko

    2007-01-01

    Craniometric variation in humans reflects different genetic and environmental influences. Long-term climatic adaptation is less likely to show an impact on size and shape variation in a small local area than at the global level. The aim of this work was to assess the contribution of the particular environmental factors to body height and craniofacial variability in a small geographic area of Croatia. A total of 632 subjects, aged 18-21, participated in the survey. Body height, head length, head breadth, head height, head circumference, cephalic index, morphological face height, face breadth, and facial index were analysed regarding geographic, climatic and dietary conditions in different regions of the country, and correlated with the specific climatic variables (cumulative multiyear sunshine duration, cumulative multiyear average precipitation, multiyear average air temperatures) and calcium concentrations in drinking water. Significant differences between groups classified according to geographic, climatic or dietary affiliation, and the impact of the environmental predictors on the variation in the investigated traits were assessed using multiple forward stepwise regression analyses. Higher body height measures in both sexes were significantly correlated with Mediterranean diet type. Mediterranean diet type also contributed to higher head length and head circumference measures in females. Cephalic index values correlated to geographic regions in both sexes, showing an increase from southern to eastern Croatia. In the same direction, head length significantly decreased in males and head breadth increased in females. Mediterranean climate was associated with higher and narrower faces in females. The analysis of the particular climatic variables did not reveal a significant influence on body height in either sex. Concurrently, climatic features influenced all craniofacial traits in females and only head length and facial index in males. Mediterranean climate

  9. Estimating small area health-related characteristics of populations: a methodological review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azizur Rahman

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Estimation of health-related characteristics at a fine local geographic level is vital for effective health promotion programmes, provision of better health services and population-specific health planning and management. Lack of a micro-dataset readily available for attributes of individuals at small areas negatively impacts the ability of local and national agencies to manage serious health issues and related risks in the community. A solution to this challenge would be to develop a method that simulates reliable small-area statistics. This paper provides a significant appraisal of the methodologies for estimating health-related characteristics of populations at geographical limited areas. Findings reveal that a range of methodologies are in use, which can be classified as three distinct set of approaches: i indirect standardisation and individual level modelling; ii multilevel statistical modelling; and iii micro-simulation modelling. Although each approach has its own strengths and weaknesses, it appears that microsimulation- based spatial models have significant robustness over the other methods and also represent a more precise means of estimating health-related population characteristics over small areas.

  10. Small area estimation for estimating the number of infant mortality in West Java, Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anggreyani, Arie; Indahwati, Kurnia, Anang

    2016-02-01

    Demographic and Health Survey Indonesia (DHSI) is a national designed survey to provide information regarding birth rate, mortality rate, family planning and health. DHSI was conducted by BPS in cooperation with National Population and Family Planning Institution (BKKBN), Indonesia Ministry of Health (KEMENKES) and USAID. Based on the publication of DHSI 2012, the infant mortality rate for a period of five years before survey conducted is 32 for 1000 birth lives. In this paper, Small Area Estimation (SAE) is used to estimate the number of infant mortality in districts of West Java. SAE is a special model of Generalized Linear Mixed Models (GLMM). In this case, the incidence of infant mortality is a Poisson distribution which has equdispersion assumption. The methods to handle overdispersion are binomial negative and quasi-likelihood model. Based on the results of analysis, quasi-likelihood model is the best model to overcome overdispersion problem. The basic model of the small area estimation used basic area level model. Mean square error (MSE) which based on resampling method is used to measure the accuracy of small area estimates.

  11. Real-time estimation of small-area populations with human biomarkers in sewage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daughton, Christian G., E-mail: daughton.christian@epa.gov

    2012-01-01

    A new approach is conceptualized for measuring small-area human populations by using biomarkers in sewage. The basis for the concept (SCIM: Sewage Chemical-Information Mining) is supported by a comprehensive examination and synthesis of data published across several disciplines, including medicine, microbiology, clinical chemistry, and environmental science. Accurate measures of human populations are fundamental to numerous disciplines, including economics, marketing, politics, sociology, public health and safety (e.g., disease management; assessment of natural hazards; disaster prevention and response), quality of life, and the environment. Knowing the size, distribution, and flow of a small-area (local) population facilitates understanding the numerous and complex linkages and interactions between humans and the environment. Examples include material-flow (substance-flow) analysis, determining the magnitude of per capita contribution of pollutant loadings to watersheds, or forecasting future impacts of local populations on the environment or a population's demands on resources. While no definitive approach exists for measuring small-area populations, census-taking is a long-established convention. No approach exists, however, for gauging small-area populations in real-time, as none is able to capture population dynamics, which involve transient changes (e.g., daily influx and efflux) and lasting changes (e.g., births, deaths, change in residence). Accurate measurement of small-area populations in real time has never been possible but is essential for facilitating the design of more sustainable communities. Real-time measurement would provide communities the capability of testing what-if scenarios in design and policy decisions. After evaluation of a range of biomarkers (including the nitrogenous waste product creatinine, which has been long used in clinical chemistry as a parameter to normalize the concentrations of other urinary excretion products to

  12. Real-time estimation of small-area populations with human biomarkers in sewage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Daughton, Christian G.

    2012-01-01

    A new approach is conceptualized for measuring small-area human populations by using biomarkers in sewage. The basis for the concept (SCIM: Sewage Chemical-Information Mining) is supported by a comprehensive examination and synthesis of data published across several disciplines, including medicine, microbiology, clinical chemistry, and environmental science. Accurate measures of human populations are fundamental to numerous disciplines, including economics, marketing, politics, sociology, public health and safety (e.g., disease management; assessment of natural hazards; disaster prevention and response), quality of life, and the environment. Knowing the size, distribution, and flow of a small-area (local) population facilitates understanding the numerous and complex linkages and interactions between humans and the environment. Examples include material-flow (substance-flow) analysis, determining the magnitude of per capita contribution of pollutant loadings to watersheds, or forecasting future impacts of local populations on the environment or a population's demands on resources. While no definitive approach exists for measuring small-area populations, census-taking is a long-established convention. No approach exists, however, for gauging small-area populations in real-time, as none is able to capture population dynamics, which involve transient changes (e.g., daily influx and efflux) and lasting changes (e.g., births, deaths, change in residence). Accurate measurement of small-area populations in real time has never been possible but is essential for facilitating the design of more sustainable communities. Real-time measurement would provide communities the capability of testing what-if scenarios in design and policy decisions. After evaluation of a range of biomarkers (including the nitrogenous waste product creatinine, which has been long used in clinical chemistry as a parameter to normalize the concentrations of other urinary excretion products to account for

  13. Spatiotemporal Variations of Extreme Precipitation under a Changing Climate in the Three Gorges Reservoir Area (TGRA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mingquan Lü

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The Three Gorges Dam (TGD is one of the largest hydroelectric projects in the world. Monitoring the spatiotemporal distribution of extreme precipitation offers valuable information for adaptation and mitigation strategies and reservoir management schemes. This study examined variations in extreme precipitation over the Three Gorges Reservoir area (TGRA in China to investigate the potential role of climate warming and Three Gorges Reservoir (TGR. The trends in extreme precipitation over the TGRA were investigated using the iterative-based Mann–Kendall (MK test and Sen’s slope estimator, based on weather station daily data series and TRMM (Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission data series. The mean and density distribution of extreme precipitation indices between pre-dam and post-dam, pre-1985 and post-1985, and near and distant reservoir area were assessed by the Mann–Whitney test and the Kolmogorov–Smirnov test. The ratio of extreme precipitation to non-extreme precipitation became larger. The precipitation was characterized by increases in heavy precipitation as well as decreases in light and moderate rain. Comparing extreme precipitation indices between pre-1985 (cooling and post-1985 (warming indicated extreme precipitation has changed to become heavier. Under climate warming, the precipitation amount corresponding to more than the 95th percentile increased at the rate of 6.48%/°C. Results from comparing extreme precipitation for the pre- and post-dam, near reservoir area (NRA and away from the reservoir area (ARA imply an insignificant role of the TGR on rainfall extremes over the TGRA. Moreover, the impoundment of TGR did not exert detectable impacts on the surface relative humidity (RH and water vapor pressure (WP.

  14. Ecological studies of small vertebrates in Pu-contaminated study areas of NTS and TTR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bradley, W.G.; Moor, K.S.

    1975-01-01

    Ecological studies of vertebrates in plutonium-contaminated areas of the Nevada Test Site (NTS) were initiated in March 1972, and have continued to date. In September 1973, standard census methods were also employed to derive a qualitative and quantitative inventory of vertebrate biota of four Nevada Applied Ecology Group (NAEG) study areas of the Tonopah Test Range (TTR). A checklist of vertebrates of NAEG study areas of NTS and TTR is presented. Data are presented on vertebrate composition, relative abundance, and seasonal status in the study areas. Concentrations of 239 Pu and 241 Am were determined in pelt or skin, GI tract, and carcass of 13 lizards and 16 mammals resident on Clean Slate 2, TTR, and Area 11, NTS. A total of 71 animals were collected for radioanalysis. However, the data were not available at the time this report was written. Pu tissue burdens were highest in lizards from Area 11 GZ. Maximum values obtained in nCi/g ash were 30.9, 42.2, and 0.43 for the pelt, GI tract, and carcass, respectively. Maximum 239 Pu values in tissues of small rodents from Area 11 (not from GZ) were 11.4, 6.49, and 0.20 nCi/g ash for pelt, GI tract, and carcass, respectively. Pu/Am ratios were relatively consistent in tissue samples of lizards and small mammals from Area 11 (approximately 6:1, Pu/Am). Pu/Am ratios were not consistent in vertebrates of Clean Slate 2, TTR, and appeared to be lower in carcass (28:1, Pu/Am in mammals) than GI tract (9:1, Pu/Am in mammals). Although this trend was more conspicuous in mammals, it was also evident in reptiles. (auth)

  15. Integrating sphere based reflectance measurements for small-area semiconductor samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saylan, S.; Howells, C. T.; Dahlem, M. S.

    2018-05-01

    This article describes a method that enables reflectance spectroscopy of small semiconductor samples using an integrating sphere, without the use of additional optical elements. We employed an inexpensive sample holder to measure the reflectance of different samples through 2-, 3-, and 4.5-mm-diameter apertures and applied a mathematical formulation to remove the bias from the measured spectra caused by illumination of the holder. Using the proposed method, the reflectance of samples fabricated using expensive or rare materials and/or low-throughput processes can be measured. It can also be incorporated to infer the internal quantum efficiency of small-area, research-level solar cells. Moreover, small samples that reflect light at large angles and develop scattering may also be measured reliably, by virtue of an integrating sphere insensitive to directionalities.

  16. Adapted strategic plannig model applied to small business: a case study in the fitness area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduarda Tirelli Hennig

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The strategic planning is an important management tool in the corporate scenario and shall not be restricted to big Companies. However, this kind of planning process in small business may need special adaptations due to their own characteristics. This paper aims to identify and adapt the existent models of strategic planning to the scenario of a small business in the fitness area. Initially, it is accomplished a comparative study among models of different authors to identify theirs phases and activities. Then, it is defined which of these phases and activities should be present in a model that will be utilized in a small business. That model was applied to a Pilates studio; it involves the establishment of an organizational identity, an environmental analysis as well as the definition of strategic goals, strategies and actions to reach them. Finally, benefits to the organization could be identified, as well as hurdles in the implementation of the tool.

  17. Using Monte Carlo/Gaussian Based Small Area Estimates to Predict Where Medicaid Patients Reside.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behrens, Jess J; Wen, Xuejin; Goel, Satyender; Zhou, Jing; Fu, Lina; Kho, Abel N

    2016-01-01

    Electronic Health Records (EHR) are rapidly becoming accepted as tools for planning and population health 1,2 . With the national dialogue around Medicaid expansion 12 , the role of EHR data has become even more important. For their potential to be fully realized and contribute to these discussions, techniques for creating accurate small area estimates is vital. As such, we examined the efficacy of developing small area estimates for Medicaid patients in two locations, Albuquerque and Chicago, by using a Monte Carlo/Gaussian technique that has worked in accurately locating registered voters in North Carolina 11 . The Albuquerque data, which includes patient address, will first be used to assess the accuracy of the methodology. Subsequently, it will be combined with the EHR data from Chicago to develop a regression that predicts Medicaid patients by US Block Group. We seek to create a tool that is effective in translating EHR data's potential for population health studies.

  18. Evaluating extreme flood characteristics of small mountainous basins of the Black Sea coastal area, Northern Caucasus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. S. Lebedeva

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The probability of heavy rains and river floods is expected to increase with time in the Northern Caucasus region. Densely populated areas in the valleys of small mountainous watersheds already frequently suffer from catastrophic peak floods caused by intense rains at higher elevations. This study aimed at assessing the flood characteristics of several small basins in the piedmont area of the Caucasus Mountains adjacent to the Black Sea coast including ungauged Cemes River in the Novorossiysk city. The Deterministic-Stochastic Modelling System which consists of hydrological model Hydrograph and stochastic weather generator was applied to evaluate extreme rainfall and runoff characteristics of 1% exceedance probability. Rainfall intensity is shown to play more significant role than its depth in formation of extreme flows within the studied region.

  19. Coefficient of variation for use in crop area classification across multiple climates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whelen, Tracy; Siqueira, Paul

    2018-05-01

    In this study, the coefficient of variation (CV) is introduced as a unitless statistical measurement for the classification of croplands using synthetic aperture radar (SAR) data. As a measurement of change, the CV is able to capture changing backscatter responses caused by cycles of planting, growing, and harvesting, and thus is able to differentiate these areas from a more static forest or urban area. Pixels with CV values above a given threshold are classified as crops, and below the threshold are non-crops. This paper uses cross-polarized L-band SAR data from the ALOS PALSAR satellite to classify eleven regions across the United States, covering a wide range of major crops and climates. Two separate sets of classification were done, with the first targeting the optimum classification thresholds for each dataset, and the second using a generalized threshold for all datasets to simulate a large-scale operationalized situation. Overall accuracies for the first phase of classification ranged from 66%-81%, and 62%-84% for the second phase. Visual inspection of the results shows numerous possibilities for improving the classifications while still using the same classification method, including increasing the number and temporal frequency of input images in order to better capture phenological events and mitigate the effects of major precipitation events, as well as more accurate ground truth data. These improvements would make the CV method a viable tool for monitoring agriculture throughout the year on a global scale.

  20. Monitoring crop leaf area index time variation from higher resolution remotely sensed data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiao, Sihong

    2014-01-01

    The leaf area index (LAI) is significant for research on global climate change and ecological environment. China HJ-1 satellite has a revisit cycle of four days, providing CCD data (HJ-1 CCD) with a resolution of 30 m. However, the HJ-1 CCD is incapable of obtaining observations at multiple angles. This is problematic because single angle observations provide insufficient data for determining the LAI. This article proposes a new method for determining LAI using HJ-1 CCD data. The proposed method uses background knowledge of dynamic land surface processes that are extracted from MODerate resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) LAI 1-km resolution data. To process the uncertainties that arise from using two data sources with different spatial resolutions, the proposed method is implemented in a dynamitic Bayesian network scheme by integrating a LAI dynamic process model and a canopy reflectance model with remotely sensed data. Validation results showed that the determination coefficient between estimated and measured LAI was 0.791, and the RMSE was 0.61. This method can enhance the accuracy of the retrieval results while retaining the time series variation characteristics of the vegetation LAI. The results suggest that this algorithm can be widely applied to determining high-resolution leaf area indices using data from China HJ-1 satellite even if information from single angle observations are insufficient for quantitative application

  1. Renewed growth in hospital inpatient cost since 1998: variation across metropolitan areas and leading clinical conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedman, Bernard S; Wong, Herbert S; Steiner, Claudia A

    2006-03-01

    To use disaggregated data about metropolitan statistical areas (MSAs) and clinical conditions to better describe the variation in cost increases and explore some of the hypothesized influences. The study uses the state inpatient databases from the Healthcare Cost and Utilization Project, containing all discharges from hospitals in 172 MSAs in 1998 and 2001. The discharge summary information was combined with standardized hospital accounting files, surveys of managed care plans, MSA demographics, and state data pertaining to caps on medical malpractice awards. The analysis used descriptive comparisons and multivariate regressions of admission rate and cost per case in 9 leading disease categories across the MSAs. The increase in hospital input prices and changes in severity of illness were controlled. Metropolitan statistical areas with higher HMO market penetration continued to show lower admission rates, no less so in 2001 than in 1998. A cap on malpractice awards appeared to restrain admissions, but the net effect on hospital cost per adult eroded for those states with the most experience with award caps. Higher admission rates and increase in cost were found in several disease categories.

  2. Flower colour variation and chromosome numbers in the north western distributional area of Turners sidoides (Turneraceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viviana G. Solís Neffa

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available In the context of the evolutionary studies that are being carried out in Turners sidoides autopolyploid complex (x= 7, a systematic survey was made in the northwestern area (Bolivia of its distribution. Six populations with salmon flowers and thirty five with yellow ones of the subsp. pinnatifida were found. The distribution of these populations is associated with climatic and spatial variables. The populations with salmon flowers live in the dry forests (Chaco Boreal Biogeographical Province, while yellow flowered populations occur in the inter-andean valleys (Boliviano-Tucumana Biogeographical Province. All the population studied are diploid. The results obtained support the allopatric diversification model of populations with yellow and salmon flowers at the diploid level, probably favoured by the orographic barriers and climatic changes that have arisen during the Andes development and Quaternary glaciations. Moreover, our analysis evidences that the north western area of T. sidoides constitutes an important centre of variation of the subsp. pinnatifida and the major centre of diploids hitherto detected

  3. Population Sensitivity Evaluation of Two Proposed Hampton Roads Area Sites for a Possible Small Modular Reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Belles, R. J. [ORNL; Omitaomu, O. A. [ORNL

    2014-08-01

    The overall objective of this research project is to use the OR-SAGE tool to support the US Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Nuclear Energy (NE) in evaluating future electrical generation deployment options for small modular reactors (SMRs) in areas with significant energy demand from the federal sector. Deployment of SMRs in zones with high federal energy use can provide a means of meeting federal clean energy goals.

  4. MERCURY AND ARSENIC CONTAMINATION FROM SMALL SCALE GOLD MINING ACTIVITIES AT SELOGIRI AREA, CENTRAL JAVA, INDONESIA

    OpenAIRE

    Harijoko, Agung; Htun, Tin May; Saputra, Rodhie; Warmada, I Wayan; Setijadji, Lucas Donny; Imai, Akira; Watanabe, Koichiro

    2015-01-01

    Small scale gold mines discussed here are located at Selogiri area, Central Java, Indonesia which was mined by local community mainly during gold rush in 1990s. This Selogiri gold deposit genetically is characterized by porphyry mineralization overprinted by epithermal system. The ore minerals assemblage consists of pyrite, sphalerite, chalcopyrite, galena, chalcocite and rare arsenopyrite. Chemical analysis of soil and stream sediment sampled over 1.5 km across at the Selogiri gold extra...

  5. A simple technique to reduce small bowel toxicity when irradiating the periaortic area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hernandez, J.C.; Fine, B.; Herman, T.S.; Rothenberg, M.; Nicol, N.

    1996-01-01

    Purpose/Objective: Patients receiving periaortic radiation are normally treated in the supine position. We decided to evaluate whether positioning the patient prone on a modified 'belly-board' can reduce the volume of small bowel within the lateral fields in patients receiving four field periaortic radiation. Materials and Methods: Sixteen consecutive women with gynecologic primaries underwent simulation of the periaortic area using a four-field set up (AP, PA, Lats). The fields extended from the top of the L1 vertebral body to the bottom of L5 and had a mean length of 16.2 cm. The AP and PA fields had a width of 8 cm (centered on the midline of the vertebral bodies) while the right and left lateral fields had a width of 4 cm (2 cm anterior and 2 cm posterior to the anterior margin of the vertebral bodies) and did not include the spinal cord. Following oral ingestion of small bowel contrast, simulation films were obtained in the supine position and in the prone position on a modified 'belly-board' (with the pelvic opening extended superiorly to the superior abdomen). It was hypothesized that the prone position on a modified 'belly-board' would allow the abdominal small bowel to fall by gravity away from the periaortic area. We measured the volume of small bowel irradiated through the lateral fields for both the supine and prone-in-belly-board positions using the method described by Gallagher et al. Results: The volume of small bowel included within the lateral fields in the supine position ranged from 164 to 359.5 cc 3 (mean 285 cc 3 ) while placement in the prone-in-bellyboard position reduced the volume of small bowel within the lateral fields to a range of 35-152 cc 3 (mean 86 cc 3 ), an overall reduction of approximately 70% in the volume of small bowel included within lateral fields. Conclusion: The use of lateral fields in the prone-in-bellyboard position allows for significant small bowel sparing through the lateral component of a four-field periaortic set

  6. Hierarchical Bayes Small Area Estimation under a Unit Level Model with Applications in Agriculture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nageena Nazir

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available To studied Bayesian aspect of small area estimation using Unit level model. In this paper we proposed and evaluated new prior distribution for the ratio of variance components in unit level model rather than uniform prior. To approximate the posterior moments of small area means, Laplace approximation method is applied. This choice of prior avoids the extreme skewness, usually present in the posterior distribution of variance components. This property leads to more accurate Laplace approximation. We apply the proposed model to the analysis of horticultural data and results from the model are compared with frequestist approach and with Bayesian model of uniform prior in terms of average relative bias, average squared relative bias and average absolute bias. The numerical results obtained highlighted the superiority of using the proposed prior over the uniform prior. Thus Bayes estimators (with new prior of small area means have good frequentist properties such as MSE and ARB as compared to other traditional methods viz., Direct, Synthetic and Composite estimators.

  7. Predicting fuel poverty at a small-area level in England

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fahmy, Eldin; Gordon, David; Patsios, Demi

    2011-01-01

    This paper describes the development of a series of models for predicting the incidence of fuel poverty in England at a small-area level and examines the adequacy of the modelled results in informing our understanding of the geography of fuel poverty. This paper summarises the development of alternative approaches to model specification based upon different approaches to the treatment of household income. Since 2003 small-area fuel poverty estimates have been widely used to inform affordable warmth policies and local targeting of fuel poverty programs. Whilst improvements in data sources and methods in recent years provide an opportunity to better understand the spatial distribution of fuel poverty, these analyses suggest that our understanding of the incidence and spatial distribution of fuel poverty is highly sensitive to the way in which household incomes are measured. - Highlights: → The proposed models estimate fuel poverty incidence at a small-area level. → This is necessary in order to accurately target local fuel poverty interventions. → Fuel poverty estimates are highly sensitive to differences in income measurement. → Fewer children and more pensioners are fuel poor using EHCS income measures. → More children and fewer pensioners are fuel poor using HBAI income measures.

  8. Unequal socioeconomic distribution of the primary care workforce: whole-population small area longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asaria, Miqdad; Cookson, Richard; Fleetcroft, Robert; Ali, Shehzad

    2016-01-19

    To measure changes in socioeconomic inequality in the distribution of family physicians (general practitioners (GPs)) relative to need in England from 2004/2005 to 2013/2014. Whole-population small area longitudinal data linkage study. England from 2004/2005 to 2013/2014. 32,482 lower layer super output areas (neighbourhoods of 1500 people on average). Slope index of inequality (SII) between the most and least deprived small areas in annual full-time equivalent GPs (FTE GPs) per 100,000 need adjusted population. In 2004/2005, inequality in primary care supply as measured by the SII in FTE GPs was 4.2 (95% CI 3.1 to 5.3) GPs per 100,000. By 2013/2014, this SII had fallen to -0.7 (95% CI -2.5 to 1.1) GPs per 100,000. The number of FTE GPs per 100,000 serving the most deprived fifth of small areas increased over this period from 54.0 to 60.5, while increasing from 57.2 to 59.9 in the least deprived fifth, so that by the end of the study period there were more GPs per 100,000 need adjusted population in the most deprived areas than in the least deprived. The increase in GP supply in the most deprived fifth of neighbourhoods was larger in areas that received targeted investment for establishing new practices under the 'Equitable Access to Primary Medical Care'. There was a substantial reduction in socioeconomic inequality in family physician supply associated with national policy. This policy may not have completely eliminated socioeconomic inequality in family physician supply since existing need adjustment formulae do not fully capture the additional burden of multimorbidity in deprived neighbourhoods. The small area approach introduced in this study can be used routinely to monitor socioeconomic inequality of access to primary care and to indicate workforce shortages in particular neighbourhoods. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to

  9. Diurnal variations of airborne fungal spores concentration in the town and rural area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Idalia Kasprzyk

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Airborne fungal spores were monitored in 2001-2002 in Rzeszów (town and its neighborhood. The aim of investigations was to ascertain if there were differences in diurnal variations of airborne fungal spores concentration between town and rural area. The sampling was carried out using volumetric method. Traps were located at the same heights - app. 12 m. Airborne spores were sampled continuously. Microscopical slides were prepared for each day. Analysis was carried out on one longitudinal band of 48 mm long divided into 24 segments corresponding following hours of day. The results were expressed as mean number of fungal spores per cubic meter per 24 hours. For this survey, five geni of allergenic fungi were selected: Alternaria, Botrytis, Cladosporium, Epicoccum, Ganoderma. The concentrations of their airborne spores were high or very high. It was calculated theoretical day, where the hourly count was the percentage mean of number of spores at that time every chosen day without rainfall from 2001 and 2001 years. The diurnal periodicity of Alternaria, Cladosporium, Epicoccum and Ganoderma showed one peak, while Botrytis two. Anamorphic spores peaked in the afternoon, while their minima occurred in the morning. The highest concentrations of Ganoderma basidiospores were at down or at night, but minima during the day. There were no clear differences in the peak values between two studied sites. The results indicate that maximum concentrations of all spores generally occurred a few hour earlier in the rural area than in the town. Probably, in the rural area airborne spores came from many local sources and their diurnal periodicity reflected rhythm of spore liberation. Towns are characterized by specific microclimate with higher temperature and wind blowing to the centre. In Rzeszów fungal spores could be transported outside and carried out by wind from distant sources. This study showed, among others, that habitat conditions are an important factors

  10. Generating Health Estimates by Zip Code: A Semiparametric Small Area Estimation Approach Using the California Health Interview Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yueyan; Ponce, Ninez A; Wang, Pan; Opsomer, Jean D; Yu, Hongjian

    2015-12-01

    We propose a method to meet challenges in generating health estimates for granular geographic areas in which the survey sample size is extremely small. Our generalized linear mixed model predicts health outcomes using both individual-level and neighborhood-level predictors. The model's feature of nonparametric smoothing function on neighborhood-level variables better captures the association between neighborhood environment and the outcome. Using 2011 to 2012 data from the California Health Interview Survey, we demonstrate an empirical application of this method to estimate the fraction of residents without health insurance for Zip Code Tabulation Areas (ZCTAs). Our method generated stable estimates of uninsurance for 1519 of 1765 ZCTAs (86%) in California. For some areas with great socioeconomic diversity across adjacent neighborhoods, such as Los Angeles County, the modeled uninsured estimates revealed much heterogeneity among geographically adjacent ZCTAs. The proposed method can increase the value of health surveys by providing modeled estimates for health data at a granular geographic level. It can account for variations in health outcomes at the neighborhood level as a result of both socioeconomic characteristics and geographic locations.

  11. Small-angle scattering, contrast variation and the study of complex composite materials: A study of the structure of carbon black

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hjelm, R.P. Jr.; Seeger, P.A.; Wampler, W.A.

    1993-01-01

    Detailed studies are presented on the structure and aggregation of an experimental high surface area carbon black (HSA) using small-angle neutron scattering and the method of contrast variation. We find that the approximately 27 mn HSA particle form small, linear aggregates of average aggregation number 5 when suspended in cyclohexane. There is considerable density fluctuation in the interior of these particles, with the denser regions being toward the outer part of the spherically-averaged structure. This information would not have been obtained from studies of carbon black without solvent. The results will be applied to similar scattering studies on solvent-swollen bound rubber gels made from HSA-polyisoprene. These result show, however, that the strong internal fluctuations of the carbon black will limit the information that can be obtained on the structure and conformation of the elastomer in the gel. There are additional limitation from compositional heterogeneity of the sample

  12. [Problems resulting from the absorption of small towns into urban areas in major Third World cities].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mckee, D L

    1985-01-01

    The tendency toward hypertrophy of large metropolitan areas in the Third World has been a subject of concern to economists and other social scientists for some time. Inability to absorb vast waves of migrants into the organized labor force or to provide adequate infrastructure and services are serious problems in many growing cities of Asia, Africa, and Latin America. A different phenomenon created by perpetual urban expansion has been relatively neglected: the problems caused when preexisting urban areas are absorbed into the metropolis. The tendency of squatter settlements to constrict normal urban growth and expansion and to impede rational provision of services has been recognized, but the absorption of small cities does not necessarily produce identical problems. Small cities absorbed into a metropolis lose their identity in the successive waves of suburban proliferation. Los Angeles in the US may be considered the prototype of the phenomenon in which multiple preexisting urban zones are absorbed into the same metropolis without formation of any visible center of gravity. In some cases, small cities may be completely engulfed by the encroaching metropolis, if transit routes or availability of land makes them interesting to developers. The livelihood of residents may be threatened if they are no longer able to cultivate gardens or raise small animals. Local services may deteriorate. The youngest and most able residents are likely to abandon such places for the greater opportunities of the city, leaving the aged and less qualified to fend for themselves. Jobs may disappear and traditional commercial relations may be destroyed without being replaced. The future wellbeing of residents depends on their ability to maneuver in the new metropolitan environment, but many will be unable to adjust for lack of training, the weight of immovable property, or diverse personal considerations. Planning could help to reduce the problems that occasional survival of some small

  13. Seasonal Variation in Fluoride Content in Groundwaters of Langtang Area, Northcentral Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dibal, H. U.; Dajilak, W. N.; Lekmang, I. C.; Nimze, L. W.; Yenne, E. Y.

    2017-06-01

    Thirty groundwater samples were collected at the peak of the rainy season and analysed for fluoride and other cations and anions in drinking water sources of Langtang area. For comparative purposes, thirty seven groundwater samples were collected in the dry season. The aim of the study was to determine variation in fluoride content with respect to the seasons. Fluoride in water was determined by the Ion Selective Electrode (ISE) and the cations by the Inductively Coupled Plasma Atomic Emission Spectrometry (ICP-AES). The anion (sulphate) was determined by Multi - Ion Colorimeter, bicarbonate and chloride by titration method. In addition fluorine content in aquifer materials from a borehole section were determined by Fusion method. The two seasons show variation in content of fluoride in groundwater. Fluoride content in groundwater is higher in the dry season ranging from 0.13 - 10.3 mg/l compared to the 0.06 - 4.60 mg/l values in the rainy season. Content of fluorine (0.01 wt %) in the aquifer materials (sands) is low from depth of 0 to 7.95 m. However, fluorine content increases with depth, from 7.95 to 10.60 m with concentration of 0.04 wt %, 0.05 wt % from 10.60 to 13.25m, and 0.07 wt % from 13.25 to 15.70 m, the content of fluorine however, decreased at depth 15.70 to18.55m with concentration of 0.02 wt % even with fluorite mineral in the aquifer material at this depth. Dilution of fluoride ion as a result of rain input which recharges the aquifer may be the main reason for lower values recorded in the rainy season. Over fifty and sixty percent of waters in both dry and rainy season have fluoride concentration above the WHO upper limit of 1.5 mg/l. Consumption of these elevated values of fluoride in groundwater of the study area, clearly manifests as symptoms of dental fluorosis.

  14. Seasonal Variation in Fluoride Content in Groundwaters of Langtang Area, Northcentral Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dibal H.U.

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Thirty groundwater samples were collected at the peak of the rainy season and analysed for fluoride and other cations and anions in drinking water sources of Langtang area. For comparative purposes, thirty seven groundwater samples were collected in the dry season. The aim of the study was to determine variation in fluoride content with respect to the seasons. Fluoride in water was determined by the Ion Selective Electrode (ISE and the cations by the Inductively Coupled Plasma Atomic Emission Spectrometry (ICP-AES. The anion (sulphate was determined by Multi – Ion Colorimeter, bicarbonate and chloride by titration method. In addition fluorine content in aquifer materials from a borehole section were determined by Fusion method. The two seasons show variation in content of fluoride in groundwater. Fluoride content in groundwater is higher in the dry season ranging from 0.13 – 10.3 mg/l compared to the 0.06 – 4.60 mg/l values in the rainy season. Content of fluorine (0.01 wt % in the aquifer materials (sands is low from depth of 0 to 7.95 m. However, fluorine content increases with depth, from 7.95 to 10.60 m with concentration of 0.04 wt %, 0.05 wt % from 10.60 to 13.25m, and 0.07 wt % from 13.25 to 15.70 m, the content of fluorine however, decreased at depth 15.70 to18.55m with concentration of 0.02 wt % even with fluorite mineral in the aquifer material at this depth. Dilution of fluoride ion as a result of rain input which recharges the aquifer may be the main reason for lower values recorded in the rainy season. Over fifty and sixty percent of waters in both dry and rainy season have fluoride concentration above the WHO upper limit of 1.5 mg/l. Consumption of these elevated values of fluoride in groundwater of the study area, clearly manifests as symptoms of dental fluorosis.

  15. Use of super-safe, small, and simple LMRs to create green belts in desertification areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hattori, Sadao; Handa, Norihiko.

    1989-01-01

    Lands as large as 6 million ha (Ref. 1) are devastated annually to an unrecoverable extent in the world by desertification. Most desertification is concentrated in areas with low annual precipitation. To control desertification, a grassland or green bell must be made at the front of the desertification area. It is obvious that fresh water is needed in the required quantities at the proper times. A dual-purpose plant for electric power and water is significant in this case because desalination can be made available by power production, and supplying power to desertification areas leads to preservation of forests (when energy requirements in the area are met by wood fuel), preventing desertification in a double sense. This super-safe, small, and simple (4S) liquid-metal reactor with very low maintenance can be used to create a green belt at the front of a desertification area in conjunction with a module desalination system. In the green belt, a soil environment with adequate power to grow plants will be formed along with the development of surface soils that contain a significant quantity of organic materials. Desertification will eventually cease at this location and a vast green area will result

  16. Variation of small scale wetland fishery in relation to land use along ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    Ssanyu Grace Asiyo1*, Julius Kipkemboi 2, Jude M. Mathooko 3 and John Balirwa4. 1Kyambogo ... small fish species (Haplochomis sp, Clarias liocephalus and C. alluaudi) did not varywith site. ...... PhD Thesis, Hull: University of Hull.

  17. 76 FR 22122 - Section 8 Housing Choice Voucher Program-Demonstration Project of Small Area Fair Market Rents in...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-20

    ... Expensive Neighborhoods Comment: One commenter appeared to oppose the concept of small area FMRs, noting... information on poverty and racial concentration by ZIP Code. HUD Response: HUD must select areas with as many...

  18. System of small mammals holes as related to variation of expositional dose in forest litters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bykov, A.V.

    1991-01-01

    It is shown that small mammals play a sufficient role in radionuclide migration in natural biogeocenosis and agrocenosis. The system of underground communications of small mammals increases the rate of radionuclide migration deep in soil and promotes their accumulated around holes. Such migration is characterized by directivity-vertically down. The revealed regularities demostrate biogeocenotic role of voles in processes of directed migration of substances, contaminating soil surface

  19. A small-scale, rolled-membrane microfluidic artificial lung designed towards future large area manufacturing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, A J; Marks, L H; Goudie, M J; Rojas-Pena, A; Handa, H; Potkay, J A

    2017-03-01

    Artificial lungs have been used in the clinic for multiple decades to supplement patient pulmonary function. Recently, small-scale microfluidic artificial lungs (μAL) have been demonstrated with large surface area to blood volume ratios, biomimetic blood flow paths, and pressure drops compatible with pumpless operation. Initial small-scale microfluidic devices with blood flow rates in the μ l/min to ml/min range have exhibited excellent gas transfer efficiencies; however, current manufacturing techniques may not be suitable for scaling up to human applications. Here, we present a new manufacturing technology for a microfluidic artificial lung in which the structure is assembled via a continuous "rolling" and bonding procedure from a single, patterned layer of polydimethyl siloxane (PDMS). This method is demonstrated in a small-scale four-layer device, but is expected to easily scale to larger area devices. The presented devices have a biomimetic branching blood flow network, 10  μ m tall artificial capillaries, and a 66  μ m thick gas transfer membrane. Gas transfer efficiency in blood was evaluated over a range of blood flow rates (0.1-1.25 ml/min) for two different sweep gases (pure O 2 , atmospheric air). The achieved gas transfer data closely follow predicted theoretical values for oxygenation and CO 2 removal, while pressure drop is marginally higher than predicted. This work is the first step in developing a scalable method for creating large area microfluidic artificial lungs. Although designed for microfluidic artificial lungs, the presented technique is expected to result in the first manufacturing method capable of simply and easily creating large area microfluidic devices from PDMS.

  20. Environmental variation and macrofauna response in a coastal area influenced by land runoff

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akoumianaki, Ioanna; Papaspyrou, Sokratis; Kormas, Konstantinos Ar.; Nicolaidou, Artemis

    2013-11-01

    Macrofauna community interactions with environmental variables in the water column (salinity, temperature, turbidity, transparency, suspended particulate matter, particulate organic matter, choloroplastic pigments) and in the sediment (granulometric variables, organic carbon and pigments) were investigated in a coastal area with high land runoff due to riverine and temporary stream discharges (Greece, Aegean Sea, Maliakos Gulf). Samples were taken along a distance-depositional gradient from the river mouth to the open sea at eight stations, at times of different precipitation regime from August 2000 to May 2001. The physical variables, such as transparency and median grain size, generally increased seawards, and parallelled the depositional gradient as opposed to measures of food inputs and hydrodynamic regime. High environmental heterogeneity was observed during peak precipitation. The total number of species increased seawards and from August (122 species) to May (170 species). Maximum abundance also increased from August (4953 m-2) to May (10,220 individuals m-2), irrespective of distance from river mouth. Species belonging to different functional groups, as to recolonization, feeding, motility and substrate preferences, coexisted at all times indicating high functional diversity. Non-parametric multivariate regression showed that at times of low, rising and falling precipitation 78-81% of community variation was explained by environmental variables, indicating that macrofauna distribution and species composition respond to food inputs and sediment characteristics. During peak land runoff the community-environment relationship weakened (57% of the variability explained). The diversity of functional traits of the most abundant species indicates that the macrofauna community can absorb the impact of increased turbidity, sedimentation and current-driven dispersion. The study offers baseline information for the integrated coastal zone management in microtidal areas

  1. Feedforward Object-Vision Models Only Tolerate Small Image Variations Compared to Human

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masoud eGhodrati

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Invariant object recognition is a remarkable ability of primates' visual system that its underlying mechanism has constantly been under intense investigations. Computational modelling is a valuable tool toward understanding the processes involved in invariant object recognition. Although recent computational models have shown outstanding performances on challenging image databases, they fail to perform well when images with more complex variations of the same object are applied to them. Studies have shown that making sparse representation of objects by extracting more informative visual features through a feedforward sweep can lead to higher recognition performances. Here, however, we show that when the complexity of image variations is high, even this approach results in poor performance compared to humans. To assess the performance of models and humans in invariant object recognition tasks, we built a parametrically controlled image database consisting of several object categories varied in different dimensions and levels, rendered from 3D planes. Comparing the performance of several object recognition models with human observers shows that only in low-level image variations the models perform similar to humans in categorization tasks. Furthermore, the results of our behavioral experiments demonstrate that, even under difficult experimental conditions (i.e. briefly presented masked stimuli with complex image variations, human observers performed outstandingly well, suggesting that the models are still far from resembling humans in invariant object recognition. Taken together, we suggest that learning sparse informative visual features, although desirable, is not a complete solution for future progresses in object-vision modelling. We show that this approach is not of significant help in solving the computational crux of object recognition (that is invariant object recognition when the identity-preserving image variations become more complex.

  2. Incremental change in cross sectional area in small endotracheal tubes: A call for more size options.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mortelliti, Caroline L; Mortelliti, Anthony J

    2016-08-01

    To elucidate the relatively large incremental percent change (IPC) in cross sectional area (CSA) in currently available small endotracheal tubes (ETTs), and to make recommendation for lesser incremental change in CSA in these smaller ETTs, in order to minimize iatrogenic airway injury. The CSAs of a commercially available line of ETTs were calculated, and the IPC of the CSA between consecutive size ETTs was calculated and graphed. The average IPC in CSA with large ETTs was applied to calculate identical IPC in the CSA for a theoretical, smaller ETT series, and the dimensions of a new theoretical series of proposed small ETTs were defined. The IPC of CSA in the larger (5.0-8.0 mm inner diameter (ID)) ETTs was 17.07%, and the IPC of CSA in the smaller ETTs (2.0-4.0 mm ID) is remarkably larger (38.08%). Applying the relatively smaller IPC of CSA from larger ETTs to a theoretical sequence of small ETTs, starting with the 2.5 mm ID ETT, suggests that intermediate sizes of small ETTs (ID 2.745 mm, 3.254 mm, and 3.859 mm) should exist. We recommend manufacturers produce additional small ETT size options at the intuitive intermediate sizes of 2.75 mm, 3.25 mm, and 3.75 mm ID in order to improve airway management for infants and small children. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Individual identification and genetic variation of lions (Panthera leo from two protected areas in Nigeria.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Talatu Tende

    Full Text Available This survey was conducted in two protected areas in Nigeria to genetically identify individual lions and to determine the genetic variation within and between the populations. We used faecal sample DNA, a non-invasive alternative to the risky and laborious task of taking samples directly from the animals, often preceded by catching and immobilization. Data collection in Yankari Game Reserve (YGR spanned through a period of five years (2008 -2012, whereas data in Kainji Lake National Park (KLNP was gathered for a period of three years (2009, 2010 and 2012. We identified a minimum of eight individuals (2 males, 3 females, 3 unknown from YGR and a minimum of ten individuals (7 males, 3 females from KLNP. The two populations were found to be genetically distinct as shown by the relatively high fixation index (FST  = 0.17 with each population exhibiting signs of inbreeding (YGR FIS  = 0.49, KLNP FIS  = 0.38. The genetic differentiation between the Yankari and Kainji lions is assumed to result from large spatial geographic distance and physical barriers reducing gene flow between these two remaining wild lion populations in Nigeria. To mitigate the probable inbreeding depression in the lion populations within Nigeria it might be important to transfer lions between parks or reserves or to reintroduce lions from the zoos back to the wild.

  4. Seasonal variation of air kerma in the 'Vulcano Porto' area (Aeolian Islands, Italy)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bellia, S.; Basile, S.; Brai, M. E-mail: mbrai@unipa.it; Hauser, S.; Puccio, P.; Rizzo, S

    2001-02-01

    Air kerma was measured in the 'Vulcano Porto' area of the Vulcano Island, belonging to the Aeolian Islands, in the Mediterranean Sea. Measurements were carried out using thermoluminescence dosimeters. The relationship between observed dose values and source lithology has been assessed. Data show a seasonal variation due to weather conditions but also probably related to features of the soils, making the variation more evident.

  5. Space-Time Smoothing of Complex Survey Data: Small Area Estimation for Child Mortality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mercer, Laina D; Wakefield, Jon; Pantazis, Athena; Lutambi, Angelina M; Masanja, Honorati; Clark, Samuel

    2015-12-01

    Many people living in low and middle-income countries are not covered by civil registration and vital statistics systems. Consequently, a wide variety of other types of data including many household sample surveys are used to estimate health and population indicators. In this paper we combine data from sample surveys and demographic surveillance systems to produce small area estimates of child mortality through time. Small area estimates are necessary to understand geographical heterogeneity in health indicators when full-coverage vital statistics are not available. For this endeavor spatio-temporal smoothing is beneficial to alleviate problems of data sparsity. The use of conventional hierarchical models requires careful thought since the survey weights may need to be considered to alleviate bias due to non-random sampling and non-response. The application that motivated this work is estimation of child mortality rates in five-year time intervals in regions of Tanzania. Data come from Demographic and Health Surveys conducted over the period 1991-2010 and two demographic surveillance system sites. We derive a variance estimator of under five years child mortality that accounts for the complex survey weighting. For our application, the hierarchical models we consider include random effects for area, time and survey and we compare models using a variety of measures including the conditional predictive ordinate (CPO). The method we propose is implemented via the fast and accurate integrated nested Laplace approximation (INLA).

  6. Leishmania (Viannia) braziliensis infection in wild small mammals in ecotourism area of Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tonelli, Gabriel Barbosa; Tanure, Aline; Rego, Felipe Dutra; Carvalho, Gustavo Mayr de Lima; Stumpp, Rodolfo; Ássimos, Gabriela Ribeiro; Campos, Aldenise Martins; Lima, Ana Cristina Viana Mariano da Rocha; Gontijo, Célia Maria Ferreira; Paz, Gustavo Fontes; Andrade Filho, José Dilermando

    2017-01-01

    Leishmaniases are parasitic diseases transmitted to mammalian hosts by sand fly vectors (Diptera: Psychodidae). Despite the increasing occurrence of visceral and cutaneous leishmaniasis cases in urban centers, their transmission still occur primarily in wild environments and may be associated with professional activities and recreation, such as ecotourism. The Reserva Particular do Patrimônio Natural Santuário do Caraça (RPPNSC) is one of the largest ecotourism attractions in the State of Minas Gerais, Brazil, and comprises an area of environmental preservation with 11,233 hectares presenting a transitional vegetation between Cerrado and Atlantic Forest. The present study describes the abundance of small mammals in RPPNSC, the isolation and identification of Leishmania in five wild animals. Small mammals were bimonthly trapped along 6 trails within the RPPNSC with 10 Tomahawk traps each. Two trails were located in peridomiciliary areas near tourist lodging facilities, and four trails were located at sites visited by tourists in forest areas. The most prevalent species were Akodon cursor, Cerradomys subflavus and Oligoryzomys nigripes. Six isolates of Leishmania were obtained from these animals and identified as Leishmania braziliensis through HSP70-PCR RFLP method. Leishmania spp. DNA was detected by kDNA-PCR method and isolated by biphasic culture. Studies point to some of the captured species as potential wild reservoirs of Leishmania, suggesting they may be involved in the transmission cycle in these wild environments.

  7. Assessing spatial associations between thermal stress and mortality in Hong Kong: a small-area ecological study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thach, Thuan-Quoc; Zheng, Qishi; Lai, Poh-Chin; Wong, Paulina Pui-Yun; Chau, Patsy Yuen-Kwan; Jahn, Heiko J; Plass, Dietrich; Katzschner, Lutz; Kraemer, Alexander; Wong, Chit-Ming

    2015-01-01

    Physiological equivalent temperature (PET) is a widely used index to assess thermal comfort of the human body. Evidence on how thermal stress-related health effects vary with small geographical areas is limited. The objectives of this study are (i) to explore whether there were significant patterns of geographical clustering of thermal stress as measured by PET and mortality and (ii) to assess the association between PET and mortality in small geographical areas. A small area ecological cross-sectional study was conducted at tertiary planning units (TPUs) level. Age-standardized mortality rates (ASMR) and monthly deaths at TPUs level for 2006 were calculated for cause-specific diseases. A PET map with 100 m × 100 m resolution for the same period was derived from Hong Kong Urban Climatic Analysis Map data and the annual and monthly averages of PET for each TPU were computed. Global Moran's I and local indicator of spatial association (LISA) analyses were performed. A generalized linear mixed model was used to model monthly deaths against PET adjusted for socio-economic deprivation. We found positive spatial autocorrelation between PET and ASMR. There were spatial correlations between PET and ASMR, particularly in the north of Hong Kong Island, most parts of Kowloon, and across New Territories. A 1°C change in PET was associated with an excess risk (%) of 2.99 (95% CI: 0.50-5.48) for all natural causes, 4.75 (1.14-8.36) for cardiovascular, 7.39 (4.64-10.10) for respiratory diseases in the cool season, and 4.31 (0.12 to 8.50) for cardiovascular diseases in the warm season. Variations between TPUs in PET had an important influence on cause-specific mortality, especially in the cool season. PET may have an impact on the health of socio-economically deprived population groups. Our results suggest that targeting policy interventions at high-risk areas may be a feasible option for reducing PET-related mortality. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Market opportunities in Canada for multimedia residential services in rural and small urban areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shariatmadar, Mehran; Narasimhan, Vasantha

    1995-01-01

    This paper reviews the studies which were undertaken jointly by Telesat and Industry Canada to provide an estimate of the market opportunities for residential multi-media services in the rural and small urban areas of Canada. This study is part of the Advanced Satcom program, a Ka-band satellite system proposal which is currently in the implementation proposal phase by the government and the Canadian space industry of which Telesat is an active member. Advanced Satcom extends the reach of terrestrial information highways to the remote and sparsely populated parts of the country in a cost-effective manner and thus provides a ubiquitous coverage of the information highways to all Canadians. Therefore, the rural and small urban markets are believed to be good opportunities for the Advanced Satcom. Although the results are primarily intended for fixed residential applications, they can also be used as input to market opportunity studies for wideband mobile applications.

  9. The Homicide Atlas in Colombia: Contagion and Under-Registration for Small Areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Piedad Urdinola

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The homocide atlas in Colombia is a visual representation of both expansion and aggravation of the armed internal conflict for the deadly decades of 1990 to 2009. However, mortality under-registration remains an issue in most developing countries, more remarkably when studying particular causes of death on small areas. This document proposes a Bayesian spatial method to identify mortality under-registration in municipalities. Probability maps help to identify under-registered municipalities in Colombia that coincide with the rise of violence at the turn of the century, which is not captured in vital registration systems. It also shows that women suffer of higher under-registration issues than men. Corrected homicide Atlases facilitate interpretation and the proposed methodology proves to be a good source of under-registration identification in small populations.

  10. Small angle neutron scattering in polyelectrolyte solutions: investigation of polymethacrylic acid solutions by contrast variation method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glavata, D.; Pleshtil, I.; Kunchenko, A.B.; Ostanevich, Yu.M.

    1982-01-01

    Neutron experiments performed by the contrast (background) variation method allows to understand better the role that hydration plays in the study of macromolecules and to draw the connection between the excess scattering amplitude of hydrated molecule with its partial volume. The observed dependence of the compensation point on the degree of neutralization apparently plays an important role in the investigation of polyelectrolytes of biological origin

  11. Measurement and properties of the dose-area product ratio in external small-beam radiotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niemelä, Jarkko; Partanen, Mari; Ojala, Jarkko; Sipilä, Petri; Björkqvist, Mikko; Kapanen, Mika; Keyriläinen, Jani

    2017-06-21

    In small-beam radiation therapy (RT) the measurement of the beam quality parameter, i.e. the tissue-phantom ratio or TPR 20,10 , using a conventional point detector is a challenge. To obtain reliable results, one has to consider potential sources of error, including volume averaging and adjustment of the point detector into the narrow beam. To overcome these challenges, a different type of beam quality parameter in small beams was studied, namely the dose-area product ratio, or DAPR 20,10 . With this method, the measurement of a dose-area product (DAP) using a large-area plane-parallel chamber (LAC) eliminates the uncertainties in detector positioning and volume averaging that are present when using a point detector. In this study, the properties of the DAPR 20,10 of a cone-collimated 6 MV photon beam were investigated using Monte Carlo (MC) calculations and the obtained values were compared to measurements obtained using two LAC detectors, PTW Type 34073 and PTW Type 34070. In addition, the possibility of determining the DAP using EBT3 film and a Razor diode detector was studied. The determination of the DAPR 20,10 value was found to be feasible in external small-beam radiotherapy using cone-collimated beams with diameters from 4-40 mm, based on the results of the two LACs, the MC calculations and the Razor diode. The measurements indicated a constant DAPR 20,10 value for fields 20-40 mm in diameter, with a maximum relative change of 0.6%, but an increase of 7.0% for fields from 20-4 mm in diameter for the PTW Type 34070 chamber. Simulations and measurements showed an increase of DAPR 20,10 with increasing LAC size or dose integral area for the studied 4-40 mm cone-collimated 6 MV photon beams. This has the consequence that there should be a reference to the size of the used LAC active area or the DAP integration area with the reported DAPR 20,10 value.

  12. Measurement and properties of the dose-area product ratio in external small-beam radiotherapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niemelä, Jarkko; Partanen, Mari; Ojala, Jarkko; Sipilä, Petri; Björkqvist, Mikko; Kapanen, Mika; Keyriläinen, Jani

    2017-06-01

    In small-beam radiation therapy (RT) the measurement of the beam quality parameter, i.e. the tissue-phantom ratio or TPR20,10, using a conventional point detector is a challenge. To obtain reliable results, one has to consider potential sources of error, including volume averaging and adjustment of the point detector into the narrow beam. To overcome these challenges, a different type of beam quality parameter in small beams was studied, namely the dose-area product ratio, or DAPR20,10. With this method, the measurement of a dose-area product (DAP) using a large-area plane-parallel chamber (LAC) eliminates the uncertainties in detector positioning and volume averaging that are present when using a point detector. In this study, the properties of the DAPR20,10 of a cone-collimated 6 MV photon beam were investigated using Monte Carlo (MC) calculations and the obtained values were compared to measurements obtained using two LAC detectors, PTW Type 34073 and PTW Type 34070. In addition, the possibility of determining the DAP using EBT3 film and a Razor diode detector was studied. The determination of the DAPR20,10 value was found to be feasible in external small-beam radiotherapy using cone-collimated beams with diameters from 4-40 mm, based on the results of the two LACs, the MC calculations and the Razor diode. The measurements indicated a constant DAPR20,10 value for fields 20-40 mm in diameter, with a maximum relative change of 0.6%, but an increase of 7.0% for fields from 20-4 mm in diameter for the PTW Type 34070 chamber. Simulations and measurements showed an increase of DAPR20,10 with increasing LAC size or dose integral area for the studied 4-40 mm cone-collimated 6 MV photon beams. This has the consequence that there should be a reference to the size of the used LAC active area or the DAP integration area with the reported DAPR20,10 value.

  13. Wet nitrogen deposition across the urban-intensive agricultural-rural transect of a small urban area in southwest China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Ouping; Zhang, Shirong; Deng, Liangji; Zhang, Chunlong; Fei, Jianbo

    2018-03-01

    Understanding of the spatial and temporal variation of the flux of atmospheric nitrogen (N) deposition is essential for assessment of its impact on ecosystems. However, little attention has been paid to the variability of N deposition across urban-intensive agricultural-rural transects. A continuous 2-year observational study (from January 2015 to December 2016) was conducted to determine wet N deposition across the urban-intensive agricultural-rural transect of a small urban area in southwest China. Significantly spatial and temporal variations were found in the research area. Along the urban-intensive agricultural-rural transect, the TN and NH 4 + -N deposition first increased and then decreased, and the NO 3 - -N and dissolved organic N (DON) deposition decreased continuously. Wet N deposition was mainly affected by the districts of agro-facilities, roads and build up lands. Wet NH 4 + -N deposition had non-seasonal emission sources including industrial emissions and urban excretory wastes in urban districts and seasonal emission sources such as fertilizer and manure volatilization in the other districts. However, wet NO 3 - -N deposition had seasonal emission sources such as industrial emissions and fireworks in urban district and non-seasonal emission sources such as transportation in the other districts. Deposition of DON was likely to have had similar sources to NO 3 - -N deposition in rural district, and high-temperature-dependent sources in urban and intensive agricultural districts. Considering the annual wet TN deposition in the intensive agricultural district was about 11.1% of the annual N fertilizer input, N fertilizer rates of crops should be reduced in this region to avoid the excessive application, and the risk of N emissions to the environment.

  14. Radionuclide contaminant analysis of small mammals at Area G, TA-54, Los Alamos National Laboratory, 1995

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bennett, K.; Biggs, J.; Fresquez, P.

    1997-01-01

    At Los Alamos National Laboratory, small mammals were sampled at two waste burial sites (Site 1-recently disturbed and Site 2-partially disturbed) at Area G, Technical Area 54 and a control site on Frijoles Mesa (Site 4) in 1995. Our objectives were (1) to identify radionuclides that are present within surface and subsurface soils at waste burial sites, (2) to compare the amount of radionuclide uptake by small mammals at waste burial sites to a control site, and (3) to identify if the primary mode of contamination to small mammals is by surface contact or ingestion/inhalation. Three composite samples of at least rive animals per sample were collected at each site. Pelts and carcasses of each animal were separated and analyzed independently. Samples were analyzed for 241 Am, 90 Sr , 238 Pu, 239 Pu, total U, 137 Cs, and 3 H. Significantly higher (parametric West at p=0.05) levels of total U, 241 Am, 238 Pu and 239 Pu were detected in pelts than in carcasses of small mammals at TA-54. Concentrations of other measured radionuclides in carcasses were nearly equal to or exceeded the mean concentrations in the pelts. Our results show higher concentrations in pelts compared to carcasses, which is similar to what has been found at waste burial/contaminated sites outside of Los Alamos National Laboratory. Site 1 had a significantly higher (alpha=0.05, P=0.0125) mean tritium concentration in carcasses than Site 2 or Site 4. In addition Site 1 also had a significantly higher (alpha=0.05, p=0.0024) mean tritium concentration in pelts than Site 2 or Site 4. Site 2 had a significantly higher (alpha=0.05, P=0.0499) mean 239 Pu concentration in carcasses than either Site 1 or Site 4

  15. Radionuclide contaminant analysis of small mammals at Area G, TA-54, 1994

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biggs, J.; Bennett, K.; Fresquez, P.

    1995-09-01

    Small mammals were sampled at two waste burial sites (1 and 2) at Area G, TA-54 and a control site outside Area G (Site 3) to identify radionuclides that are present within surface and subsurface soils at waste burial sites, to compare the amount of radionuclide uptake by small mammals at waste burial sites to a control site, and to identify the primary mode of contamination to small mammals, either through surface contact or ingestion/inhalation. Three composite samples of at least five animals per sample were collected at each site. Pelts and carcasses of each animal were separated and analyzed independently. Samples were analyzed for 241 Am, 90 Sr, 238 Pu, 239 Pu, total U, and gamma spectroscopy (including 137 Cs). Significantly higher (parametric t-test at p = 0.05) levels of total U, 241 Am, 238 Pu, 239 Pu, and 40 K were detected in pelts as compared to the carcasses of small mammals at TA-54. Concentrations of other measured radionuclides in carcasses were nearly equal to or exceeded the mean concentrations in the pelts. The authors results show higher concentrations in pelts compared to carcasses which is similar to what has been found at waste burial/contaminated sites outside of Los Alamos National Laboratory. Site 1 had significantly higher (alpha = 0.05, F = 0.0095) total U concentrations in carcasses than Sites 2 and 3. Site 2 had significantly higher (alpha = 0.05, F = 0.0195) 239 Pu concentrations in carcasses than either Site 1 or Site 3. A significant difference in 90 Sr concentration existed between Sites 1 and 2 (alpha = 0.05, F = 0.0681) and concentrations of 40 K at Site 1 were significantly different from Site 3

  16. The effect of urban green on small-area (healthy) life expectancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jonker, M F; van Lenthe, F J; Donkers, B; Mackenbach, J P; Burdorf, A

    2014-10-01

    Several epidemiological studies have investigated the effect of the quantity of green space on health outcomes such as self-rated health, morbidity and mortality ratios. These studies have consistently found positive associations between the quantity of green and health. However, the impact of other aspects, such as the perceived quality and average distance to public green, and the effect of urban green on population health are still largely unknown. Linear regression models were used to investigate the impact of three different measures of urban green on small-area life expectancy (LE) and healthy life expectancy (HLE) in The Netherlands. All regressions corrected for average neighbourhood household income, accommodated spatial autocorrelation, and took measurement uncertainty of LE, HLE as well as the quality of urban green into account. Both the quantity and the perceived quality of urban green are modestly related to small-area LE and HLE: an increase of 1 SD in the percentage of urban green space is associated with a 0.1-year higher LE, and, in the case of quality of green, with an approximately 0.3-year higher LE and HLE. The average distance to the nearest public green is unrelated to population health. The quantity and particularly quality of urban green are positively associated with small-area LE and HLE. This concurs with a growing body of evidence that urban green reduces stress, stimulates physical activity, improves the microclimate and reduces ambient air pollution. Accordingly, urban green development deserves a more prominent place in urban regeneration and neighbourhood renewal programmes. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  17. Small Marine Protected Areas in Fiji Provide Refuge for Reef Fish Assemblages, Feeding Groups, and Corals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pires, Mathias M.; Guimarães, Paulo Roberto; Hoey, Andrew S.; Hay, Mark E.

    2017-01-01

    The establishment of no-take marine protected areas (MPAs) on coral reefs is a common management strategy for conserving the diversity, abundance, and biomass of reef organisms. Generally, well-managed and enforced MPAs can increase or maintain the diversity and function of the enclosed coral reef, with some of the benefits extending to adjacent non-protected reefs. A fundamental question in coral reef conservation is whether these benefits arise within small MPAs (fish assemblages, composition of fish feeding groups, benthic cover, and key ecosystem processes (grazing, macroalgal browsing, and coral replenishment) in three small (0.5–0.8 km2) no-take MPAs and adjacent areas where fisheries are allowed (non-MPAs) on coral reefs in Fiji. The MPAs exhibited greater species richness, density, and biomass of fishes than non-MPAs. Furthermore, MPAs contained a greater abundance and biomass of grazing herbivores and piscivores as well as a greater abundance of cleaners than fished areas. We also found differences in fish associations when foraging, with feeding groups being generally more diverse and having greater biomass within MPAs than adjacent non-MPAs. Grazing by parrotfishes was 3–6 times greater, and macroalgal browsing was 3–5 times greater in MPAs than in non-MPAs. On average, MPAs had 260–280% as much coral cover and only 5–25% as much macroalgal cover as their paired non-MPA sites. Finally, two of the three MPAs had three-fold more coral recruits than adjacent non-MPAs. The results of this study indicate that small MPAs benefit not only populations of reef fishes, but also enhance ecosystem processes that are critical to reef resilience within the MPAs. PMID:28122006

  18. 33 CFR 334.20 - Gulf of Maine off Cape Small, Maine; naval aircraft practice mining range area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... REGULATIONS § 334.20 Gulf of Maine off Cape Small, Maine; naval aircraft practice mining range area. (a) The... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Gulf of Maine off Cape Small, Maine; naval aircraft practice mining range area. 334.20 Section 334.20 Navigation and Navigable Waters...

  19. Two techniques for mapping and area estimation of small grains in California using Landsat digital data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheffner, E. J.; Hlavka, C. A.; Bauer, E. M.

    1984-01-01

    Two techniques have been developed for the mapping and area estimation of small grains in California from Landsat digital data. The two techniques are Band Ratio Thresholding, a semi-automated version of a manual procedure, and LCLS, a layered classification technique which can be fully automated and is based on established clustering and classification technology. Preliminary evaluation results indicate that the two techniques have potential for providing map products which can be incorporated into existing inventory procedures and automated alternatives to traditional inventory techniques and those which currently employ Landsat imagery.

  20. A computer program for the localization of small areas in roentgenological images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller, R. A.; Baily, N. A.

    1976-01-01

    A method and associated algorithm are presented which allow a simple and accurate determination to be made of the location of small symmetric areas presented in roentgenological images. The method utilizes an operator to visually spot object positions but eliminates the need for critical positioning accuracy on the operator's part. The rapidity of measurement allows results to be evaluated on-line. Parameters associated with the algorithm have been analyzed, and methods to facilitate an optimum choice for any particular experimental setup are presented.

  1. Genetic Structure in a Small Pelagic Fish Coincides with a Marine Protected Area: Seascape Genetics in Patagonian Fjords.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristian B Canales-Aguirre

    Full Text Available Marine environmental variables can play an important role in promoting population genetic differentiation in marine organisms. Although fjord ecosystems have attracted much attention due to the great oscillation of environmental variables that produce heterogeneous habitats, species inhabiting this kind of ecosystem have received less attention. In this study, we used Sprattus fuegensis, a small pelagic species that populates the inner waters of the continental shelf, channels and fjords of Chilean Patagonia and Argentina, as a model species to test whether environmental variables of fjords relate to population genetic structure. A total of 282 individuals were analyzed from Chilean Patagonia with eight microsatellite loci. Bayesian and non-Bayesian analyses were conducted to describe the genetic variability of S. fuegensis and whether it shows spatial genetic structure. Results showed two well-differentiated genetic clusters along the Chilean Patagonia distribution (i.e. inside the embayment area called TicToc, and the rest of the fjords, but no spatial isolation by distance (IBD pattern was found with a Mantel test analysis. Temperature and nitrate were correlated to the expected heterozygosities and explained the allelic frequency variation of data in the redundancy analyses. These results suggest that the singular genetic differences found in S. fuegensis from inside TicToc Bay (East of the Corcovado Gulf are the result of larvae retention bya combination of oceanographic mesoscale processes (i.e. the west wind drift current reaches the continental shelf exactly in this zone, and the local geographical configuration (i.e. embayment area, islands, archipelagos. We propose that these features generated an isolated area in the Patagonian fjords that promoted genetic differentiation by drift and a singular biodiversity, adding support to the existence of the largest marine protected area (MPA of continental Chile, which is the Tic-Toc MPA.

  2. Genetic Structure in a Small Pelagic Fish Coincides with a Marine Protected Area: Seascape Genetics in Patagonian Fjords.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canales-Aguirre, Cristian B; Ferrada-Fuentes, Sandra; Galleguillos, Ricardo; Hernández, Cristián E

    2016-01-01

    Marine environmental variables can play an important role in promoting population genetic differentiation in marine organisms. Although fjord ecosystems have attracted much attention due to the great oscillation of environmental variables that produce heterogeneous habitats, species inhabiting this kind of ecosystem have received less attention. In this study, we used Sprattus fuegensis, a small pelagic species that populates the inner waters of the continental shelf, channels and fjords of Chilean Patagonia and Argentina, as a model species to test whether environmental variables of fjords relate to population genetic structure. A total of 282 individuals were analyzed from Chilean Patagonia with eight microsatellite loci. Bayesian and non-Bayesian analyses were conducted to describe the genetic variability of S. fuegensis and whether it shows spatial genetic structure. Results showed two well-differentiated genetic clusters along the Chilean Patagonia distribution (i.e. inside the embayment area called TicToc, and the rest of the fjords), but no spatial isolation by distance (IBD) pattern was found with a Mantel test analysis. Temperature and nitrate were correlated to the expected heterozygosities and explained the allelic frequency variation of data in the redundancy analyses. These results suggest that the singular genetic differences found in S. fuegensis from inside TicToc Bay (East of the Corcovado Gulf) are the result of larvae retention bya combination of oceanographic mesoscale processes (i.e. the west wind drift current reaches the continental shelf exactly in this zone), and the local geographical configuration (i.e. embayment area, islands, archipelagos). We propose that these features generated an isolated area in the Patagonian fjords that promoted genetic differentiation by drift and a singular biodiversity, adding support to the existence of the largest marine protected area (MPA) of continental Chile, which is the Tic-Toc MPA.

  3. Small wastewater treatment plants in mountain areas: combination of septic tank and biological filter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maunoir, S; Philip, H; Rambaud, A

    2007-01-01

    Research work has been carried out for more than 20 years by Eparco and the University of Montpellier (France) on the application of biological wastewater treatment processes for small communities. This research has led to a new process which is particularly suitable for remote populations, taking into account several specificities such as as the seasonal fluctuations in the population, the accessibility of the site, the absence of a power supply on site, the reduced area of land available and the low maintenance. Thus, the process, which combines a septic tank operating under anaerobic conditions and a biological aerobic filter, is a solution for wastewater treatment in mountain areas. This paper presents the process and three full-scale applications in the region of the Alps.

  4. Multicolor emission from large-area porous thin films constructed of nanowires of small organic molecules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Zhechen; Ding Xunlei; Ma Yanping; Xue Wei; He Shenggui; Xiao Wenchang

    2008-01-01

    We describe a facile low-temperature physical vapor deposition approach to fabricate porous network thin films constructed of nanowires of small organic molecules on a large area. Supermolecular assemblies of pyrene nanowires based on a combination of van der Waals forces and π-π stacking tend to hierarchically self-assemble to form uniform porous films using our techniques. The morphology of the films is studied and we also study several reasons influencing the process of assembly such as evaporation temperature, deposition temperature, and different kinds of substrate. The deposition temperature is determined to be the main reason for hierarchical aggregation. Typically prepared films exhibit unique optical properties, that is, multicolor red-green-blue emissions. This novel method can be applied to other organic molecular systems and may be potentially used to place nanoscaled building blocks directly on solid surfaces for fabricating large-area nanostructure-based flat screens.

  5. Multicolor emission from large-area porous thin films constructed of nanowires of small organic molecules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhe-Chen; Xiao, Wen-Chang; Ding, Xun-Lei; Ma, Yan-Ping; Xue, Wei; He, Sheng-Gui

    2008-12-01

    We describe a facile low-temperature physical vapor deposition approach to fabricate porous network thin films constructed of nanowires of small organic molecules on a large area. Supermolecular assemblies of pyrene nanowires based on a combination of van der Waals forces and π-π stacking tend to hierarchically self-assemble to form uniform porous films using our techniques. The morphology of the films is studied and we also study several reasons influencing the process of assembly such as evaporation temperature, deposition temperature, and different kinds of substrate. The deposition temperature is determined to be the main reason for hierarchical aggregation. Typically prepared films exhibit unique optical properties, that is, multicolor red-green-blue emissions. This novel method can be applied to other organic molecular systems and may be potentially used to place nanoscaled building blocks directly on solid surfaces for fabricating large-area nanostructure-based flat screens.

  6. Seasonal and Spatial Variation of Surface Urban Heat Island Intensity in a Small Urban Agglomerate in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elis Dener Lima Alves

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, SUHIs (surface urban heat islands have been greatly emphasized in urban climate studies, since it is one of the climate phenomena most influenced by human action. In this study, temporal and spatial variations of SUHIs in the cities of Ceres and Rialma (Brazil were investigated; satellite Landsat 8 TIRS/OLI images from 2013 to 2016 were used for this purpose. The results showed that in all seasons, two relationships were observed, one positive and one negative. An N D V I (Normalized Difference Vegetation Index of 0.2 is the divider of this relationship: up to this value, the relationship is positive, that is, the higher the N D V I value, the higher the surface temperature, while the relationship is negative at an N D V I greater than 0.2. There was high seasonal variation in the SUHIs, with the highest intensities recorded in the spring and summer (±12 °C, and the lowest in the winter. These temporal variations were attributed to the annual cycle of precipitation, which directly involves the robustness of the Cerrado vegetation. SUHIs occupied, on average, an area three times larger than the area of SUCIs (surface urban cool islands. The highest values of SUCIs were observed in water bodies and in valley bottoms. Overall, SUHIs showed high intensities; however, a more intense core area, such as in large cities, was not observed.

  7. Variation in angler distribution and catch rates of stocked rainbow trout in a small reservoir

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harmon, Brian S.; Martin, Dustin R.; Chizinski, Christopher J.; Pope, Kevin L.

    2018-01-01

    We investigated the spatial and temporal relationship of catch rates and angler party location for two days following a publicly announced put-and-take stocking of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). Catch rates declined with time since stocking and distance from stocking. We hypothesized that opportunity for high catch rates would cause anglers to fish near the stocking location and disperse with time, however distance between angler parties and stocking was highly variable at any given time. Spatially explicit differences in catch rates can affect fishing quality. Further research could investigate the variation between angler distribution and fish distribution within a waterbody.

  8. Floristic-functional variation of tree component along an altitudinal gradient in araucaria forest areas, in Southern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soboleski, Vanessa F; Higuchi, Pedro; Silva, Ana Carolina DA; Silva, Mariele A F DA; Nunes, Amanda S; Loebens, Rodineli; Souza, Karine DE; Ferrari, Jheniffer; Lima, Carla L; Kilca, Ricardo V

    2017-01-01

    We aimed to investigate the taxonomic and functional variations of tree component of Araucaria Forest (AF) areas located along an altitudinal gradient (700, 900 and 1,600 m asl), in the southern region of Brazil. The functional traits determined were leaf area, specific leaf area, wood density, maximum potential height and dispersal syndromes and deciduousness. The data were analyzed through a functional and taxonomic dissimilarity dendrograms, community-weighted mean trait values, parametric and nonparametric tests, and Principal Component Analysis. The largest floristic-structural similarity was observed between the lower altitude areas (700 and 900 m asl), whose Bray-Curtis distance was 0.63. The area at 700 m asl was characterized by a predominance of deciduous and semi-deciduous species, with a high number of self- and wind-dispersed species, whereas the area at 1,600 m asl exhibited a predominance of animal-dispersed and evergreen species. It was also observed that there were significant variations for leaf traits, basic wood density and maximum potential height. Over all altitudinal gradient, the ordinations indicated that there was no evidence of functional differentiation among dispersal and deciduousness groups. In conclusion, the evaluated Araucaria Forest areas presented high floristic-functional variation of the tree component along the altitudinal gradient.

  9. MHD model including small-scale perturbations in a plasma with temperature variations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuvshinov, B.N.; Mikhailovskii, A.B.

    1996-01-01

    The possibility is studied of using a hydrodynamic model to describe a magnetized plasma with density and temperature variations on scales that are arbitrary with respect to the ion Larmor radius. It is shown that the inertial component of the transverse ion thermal flux should be taken into account. This component is found from the collisionless kinetic equation. It can also be obtained from the equations of the Grad type. A set of two-dimensional hydrodynamic equations for ions is obtained with this component taken into account. These equations are used to derive model hydrodynamic expressions for the density and temperature variations. It is shown that, for large-scale perturbations (when the wavelengths are longer than the ion Larmor radius), the expressions derived coincide with the corresponding kinetic expressions and, for perturbations on sub-Larmor scales (when the wavelengths are shorter than the Larmor radius), they agree qualitatively. Hydrodynamic dispersion relations are derived for several types of drift waves with arbitrary wavenumbers. The range of applicability of the MHD model is determined from a comparison of these dispersion relations with the kinetic ones. It is noted that, on the basis of results obtained, drift effects can be included in numerical MHD codes for studying plasma instabilities in high-temperature regimes in tokamaks

  10. Small-Scale, Local Area, and Transitional Millimeter Wave Propagation for 5G Communications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rappaport, Theodore S.; MacCartney, George R.; Sun, Shu; Yan, Hangsong; Deng, Sijia

    2017-12-01

    This paper studies radio propagation mechanisms that impact handoffs, air interface design, beam steering, and MIMO for 5G mobile communication systems. Knife edge diffraction (KED) and a creeping wave linear model are shown to predict diffraction loss around typical building objects from 10 to 26 GHz, and human blockage measurements at 73 GHz are shown to fit a double knife-edge diffraction (DKED) model which incorporates antenna gains. Small-scale spatial fading of millimeter wave received signal voltage amplitude is generally Ricean-distributed for both omnidirectional and directional receive antenna patterns under both line-of-sight (LOS) and non-line-of-sight (NLOS) conditions in most cases, although the log-normal distribution fits measured data better for the omnidirectional receive antenna pattern in the NLOS environment. Small-scale spatial autocorrelations of received voltage amplitudes are shown to fit sinusoidal exponential and exponential functions for LOS and NLOS environments, respectively, with small decorrelation distances of 0.27 cm to 13.6 cm (smaller than the size of a handset) that are favorable for spatial multiplexing. Local area measurements using cluster and route scenarios show how the received signal changes as the mobile moves and transitions from LOS to NLOS locations, with reasonably stationary signal levels within clusters. Wideband mmWave power levels are shown to fade from 0.4 dB/ms to 40 dB/s, depending on travel speed and surroundings.

  11. Rapid area change in pitch-up manoeuvres of small perching birds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polet, D T; Rival, D E

    2015-10-26

    Rapid pitch-up has been highlighted as a mechanism to generate large lift and drag during landing manoeuvres. However, pitching rates had not been measured previously in perching birds, and so the direct applicability of computations and experiments to observed behaviour was not known. We measure pitch rates in a small, wild bird (the black-capped chickadee; Poecile atricapillus), and show that these rates are within the parameter range used in experiments. Pitching rates were characterized by the shape change number, a metric comparing the rate of frontal area increase to acceleration. Black-capped chickadees increase the shape change number during perching in direct proportion to their total kinetic and potential energy at the start of the manoeuvre. The linear relationship between dissipated energy and shape change number is in accordance with a simple analytical model developed for two-dimensional pitching and decelerating airfoils. Black-capped chickadees use a wing pitch-up manoeuvre during perching to dissipate energy quickly while maintaining lift and drag through rapid area change. It is suggested that similar pitch-and-decelerate manoeuvres could be used to aid in the controlled, precise landings of small manoeuvrable air vehicles.

  12. Potential benefits and shortcomings of marine protected areas for small seabirds revealed using miniature tags

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara M Maxwell

    2016-12-01

    or discard foraging. The complex of marine protected areas in the region encompasses a large portion of the overall habitat for this small seabird species, however a large portion of the key foraging habitat fell outside the boundaries of the

  13. Plutonium concentrations and Pu/Am ratios in small vertebrates from NAEG Intensive Study Areas of NTS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bradley, W.G.; Moor, K.S.; Naegle, S.R.

    1977-01-01

    Radioecological studies of small vertebrates in Pu-contaminated areas of NTS began in spring 1972 and have continued to date. Species conposition, relative abundance, and other pertinent ecological data have been presented in previous reports. In addition, data analysis of Pu and Am concentrations in selected rodent and lizard species has been presented for all NAEG Intensive Study Areas. This report provides further analysis of Pu concentration in small vertebrates of Areas 5 and 11, NTS

  14. Variation of solvent scattering-length density small-angle neutron scattering as a means of determining structure of composite materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hjelm, R.P.; Wampler, W.; Gerspacher, M.

    1994-01-01

    As part of our work on the, structure of composite materials we have been exploring the use of small-angle neutron scattering using the method of contrast variation to dissect the component form, structure and distribution. This approach has resulted in a new look at very old problem reinforcement of elastomers by carbon black. Using this approach we studied an experimental high surface area (HSA) carbon black and a gel of ''HSA-bound'' rubber in cyclohexane/deuterocyclohexane mixtures. HSA in cyclohexane is found to be short rodlike particle aggregates. The aggregates have a shell-core structure with a high density graphitic outer shell and an inner core of lower density amorphous carbon. The core is continuous throughout the carbon black aggregate, making the aggregate a stiff, integral unit. Contrast variation of swollen composite gels shows that there are two length scales in the gel structure. Above 10 Angstrom, scattering from carbon black predominates, and below 10 Angstrom the scattering is from both carbon black and the elastomer. The HSA in the composite is completely embedded in polyisoprene. An estimate of the carbon black structure factor shows strong exclusion of neighboring aggregates, probably from excluded volume effects. The surface structure of the carbon black is unaltered by the interactions with elastomer and appears smooth over length scales above about 10 Angstrom. These results show that contrast variation can provide information on composite structure that is not available by other means. This information relates to the reinforcement mechanism of elastomers by carbon blacks

  15. Optimal operation method coping with uncertainty in multi-area small power systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shota Tobaru

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Japan contains a vast number of isolated islands. Majority of these islands are poweredby diesel generators (DGs, which are operationally not economical. Therefore, the introduction of renewableenergy systems (RESs into these area is very much vital. However, the variability of RESs asa result of weather condition as well as load demand , battery energy storage system (BESS is broughtinto play. Demand response (DR programs have also been so attractive in the energy management systemsfor the past decades. Among them, the real-time pricing (RTP has been one of the most effectivedemand response program being utilized. This program encourages the customer to increase or reducethe load consumption by varying the electricity price. Also, due to the increase in power transactionmarket, Japan electric power exchange (JEPX has established spot (day-ahead, intraday hour-ahead,and forward market programs. This paper utilizes day-ahead and hour-ahead markets, since these marketscan make it possible to deal with uncertainty related to generated power fluctuations. Therefore,this paper presents the optimal operation method coping with the uncertainties of RESs in multi-areasmall power systems. The proposed method enables flexibility to correspond to the forecasting error byproviding two kinds of power markets among multi-area small power systems and trading the shortageand surplus powers. Furthermore, it accomplishes a stable power supply and demand by RTP. Thus, theproposed method was able to reduce operational cost for multi-area small power systems. The processof creating operational plan for RTP, power trading at the markets and the unit commitment of DGs arealso presented in this paper. Simulation results corroborate the merit of the proposed program.

  16. Small-area distribution of multiple sclerosis incidence in western France: in search of environmental triggers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammas, Karima; Yaouanq, Jacqueline; Lannes, Morgane; Edan, Gilles; Viel, Jean-François

    2017-09-21

    Despite intensive research over several decades, the etiology of multiple sclerosis (MS) remains poorly understood, although environmental factors are supposedly implicated. Our goal was to identify spatial clusters of MS incident cases at the small-area level to provide clues to local environmental risk factors that might cause or trigger the disease. A population-based and multi-stage study was performed in the French Brittany region to accurately ascertain the clinical onset of disease during the 2000-2004 period. The municipality of residence at the time of clinical onset was geocoded. To test for the presence of MS incidence clusters and to identify their approximate locations, we used a spatial scan statistic. We adjusted for socioeconomic deprivation, known to be strongly associated with increased MS incident rates, and scanned simultaneously for areas with either high or low rates. Sensitivity analyses (focusing on relapsing-remitting forms and/or places of residence available within the year following clinical onset) were performed. A total of 848 incident cases of MS were registered in Brittany, corresponding to a crude annual incidence rate of 5.8 per 100,000 inhabitants. The spatial scan statistic did not find a significant cluster of MS incidence in either the primary analysis (p value ≥ 0.56) or in the sensitivity analyses (p value ≥ 0.16). The findings of this study indicate that MS incidence is not markedly affected across space, suggesting that in the years preceding the first clinical expression of the disease, no environmental trigger is operative at the small-area population level in the French Brittany region.

  17. The UAV take-off and landing system used for small areas of mobile vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Tian-Yu; Duanmu, Qing-Duo; Wu, Bo-Qi

    2018-03-01

    In order to realize an UAV formation cluster system based on the current GPS and the fault and insufficiency of Beidou integrated navigation system in strong jamming environment. Due to the impact of the compass on the plane crash, navigation system error caused by the mobile area to help reduce the need for large landing sites and not in the small fast moving area to achieve the reality of the landing. By using Strapdown inertial and all-optical system to form Composite UAV flight control system, the photoelectric composite strapdown inertial coupling is realized, and through the laser and microwave telemetry link compound communication mechanism, using all-optical strapdown inertial and visual navigation system to solve the deviation of take-off and landing caused by electromagnetic interference, all-optical bidirectional data link realizes two-way position correction of landing site and aircraft, thus achieves the accurate recovery of UAV formation cluster in the mobile narrow area which the traditional navigation system can't realize. This system is a set of efficient unmanned aerial vehicle Group Take-off/descending system, which is suitable for many tasks, and not only realizes the reliable continuous navigation under the complex electromagnetic interference environment, moreover, the intelligent flight and Take-off and landing of unmanned aerial vehicles relative to the fast moving and small recovery sites in complex electromagnetic interference environment can not only improve the safe operation rate of unmanned aerial vehicle, but also guarantee the operation safety of the aircraft, and the more has important social value for the application foreground of the aircraft.

  18. Contribution of Topography and Incident Solar Radiation to Variation of Soil and Plant Litter at an Area with Heterogeneous Terrain

    OpenAIRE

    Felipe Cito Nettesheim; Tiago de Conto; Marcos Gervasio Pereira; Deivid Lopes Machado

    2015-01-01

    Natural processes that determine soil and plant litter properties are controlled by multiple factors. However, little attention has been given to distinguishing the effects of environmental factors from the effects of spatial structure of the area on the distribution of soil and litter properties in tropical ecosystems covering heterogeneous topographies. The aim of this study was to assess patterns of soil and litter variation in a tropical area that intercepts different levels of solar radi...

  19. Small vertebral cross-sectional area and tall intervertebral disc in adolescent idiopathic scoliosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ponrartana, Skorn; Fisher, Carissa L.; Aggabao, Patricia C.; Chavez, Thomas A.; Broom, Alexander M.; Wren, Tishya A.L.; Skaggs, David L.; Gilsanz, Vicente

    2016-01-01

    When compared to boys, girls have smaller vertebral cross-sectional area, which conveys a greater spinal flexibility, and a higher prevalence of adolescent idiopathic scoliosis. To test the hypothesis that small vertebral cross-sectional area and tall intervertebral disc height are structural characteristics of patients with adolescent idiopathic scoliosis. Using multiplanar imaging techniques, measures of vertebral cross-sectional area, vertebral height and intervertebral disc height in the lumbar spine were obtained in 35 pairs of girls and 11 pairs of boys with and without adolescent idiopathic scoliosis of the thoracic spine matched for age, height and weight. Compared to adolescents without spinal deformity, girls and boys with adolescent idiopathic scoliosis had, on average, 9.8% (6.68 ± 0.81 vs. 7.40 ± 0.99 cm 2 ; P = 0.0007) and 13.9% (8.22 ± 0.84 vs. 9.55 ± 1.61 cm 2 ; P = 0.009) smaller vertebral cross-sectional dimensions, respectively. Additionally, patients with adolescent idiopathic scoliosis had significantly greater values for intervertebral disc heights (9.06 ± 0.85 vs. 7.31 ± 0.62 mm and 9.09 ± 0.87 vs. 7.61 ± 1.00 mm for girls and boys respectively; both P ≤ 0.011). Multiple regression analysis indicated that the presence of scoliosis was negatively associated with vertebral cross-sectional area and positively with intervertebral disc height, independent of sex, age and body mass index. We provide new evidence that girls and boys with adolescent idiopathic scoliosis have significantly smaller vertebral cross-sectional area and taller intervertebral disc heights - two major structural determinants that influence trunk flexibility. With appropriate validation, these findings may have implications for the identification of children at the highest risk for developing scoliosis. (orig.)

  20. Small vertebral cross-sectional area and tall intervertebral disc in adolescent idiopathic scoliosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ponrartana, Skorn; Fisher, Carissa L.; Aggabao, Patricia C. [Keck School of Medicine, University of Southern California, Department of Radiology, Children' s Hospital Los Angeles, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Chavez, Thomas A. [Keck School of Medicine, University of Southern California, Department of Pediatrics, Children' s Hospital Los Angeles, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Broom, Alexander M.; Wren, Tishya A.L.; Skaggs, David L. [Keck School of Medicine, University of Southern California, Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Children' s Hospital Los Angeles, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Gilsanz, Vicente [Keck School of Medicine, University of Southern California, Department of Radiology, Children' s Hospital Los Angeles, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Keck School of Medicine, University of Southern California, Department of Pediatrics, Children' s Hospital Los Angeles, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Keck School of Medicine, University of Southern California, Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Children' s Hospital Los Angeles, Los Angeles, CA (United States)

    2016-09-15

    When compared to boys, girls have smaller vertebral cross-sectional area, which conveys a greater spinal flexibility, and a higher prevalence of adolescent idiopathic scoliosis. To test the hypothesis that small vertebral cross-sectional area and tall intervertebral disc height are structural characteristics of patients with adolescent idiopathic scoliosis. Using multiplanar imaging techniques, measures of vertebral cross-sectional area, vertebral height and intervertebral disc height in the lumbar spine were obtained in 35 pairs of girls and 11 pairs of boys with and without adolescent idiopathic scoliosis of the thoracic spine matched for age, height and weight. Compared to adolescents without spinal deformity, girls and boys with adolescent idiopathic scoliosis had, on average, 9.8% (6.68 ± 0.81 vs. 7.40 ± 0.99 cm{sup 2}; P = 0.0007) and 13.9% (8.22 ± 0.84 vs. 9.55 ± 1.61 cm{sup 2}; P = 0.009) smaller vertebral cross-sectional dimensions, respectively. Additionally, patients with adolescent idiopathic scoliosis had significantly greater values for intervertebral disc heights (9.06 ± 0.85 vs. 7.31 ± 0.62 mm and 9.09 ± 0.87 vs. 7.61 ± 1.00 mm for girls and boys respectively; both P ≤ 0.011). Multiple regression analysis indicated that the presence of scoliosis was negatively associated with vertebral cross-sectional area and positively with intervertebral disc height, independent of sex, age and body mass index. We provide new evidence that girls and boys with adolescent idiopathic scoliosis have significantly smaller vertebral cross-sectional area and taller intervertebral disc heights - two major structural determinants that influence trunk flexibility. With appropriate validation, these findings may have implications for the identification of children at the highest risk for developing scoliosis. (orig.)

  1. Economics of Scholarly Publishing: Exploring the Causes of Subscription Price Variations of Scholarly Journals in Business Subject-Specific Areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Lewis G.

    2011-01-01

    This empirical research investigates subscription price variations of scholarly journals in five business subject-specific areas using the semilogarithmic regression model. It has two main purposes. The first is to address the unsettled debate over whether or not and to what extent commercial publishers reap monopoly profits by overcharging…

  2. Variation of NO2 and NOx concentrations between and within 36 European study areas: Results from the ESCAPE study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cyrys, J.; Eeftens, M.R.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/315028300; Heinrich, J.; Ampe, C.; Armengaud, A.; Beelen, R.; Bellander, T.; Beregszaszi, T.; Birk, M.; Cesaroni, G.; Cirach, M.; de Hoogh, K.; de Nazelle, A.; de Vocht, F.; Declercq, C.; Dėdelė, A.; Dimakopoulou, K.; Eriksen, K.; Galassi, C.; Grąulevičienė, R.; Grivas, G.; Gruzieva, O.; Gustafsson, A.H.; Hoffmann, B.; Iakovides, M.; Ineichen, A.; Krämer, U.; Lanki, T.; Lozano, P.; Madsen, C.; Meliefste, K.; Modig, L.; Mölter, A.; Mosler, G.; Nieuwenhuijsen, M.; Nonnemacher, M.; Oldenwening, M.; Peters, A.; Pontet, S.; Probst-Hensch, N.; Quass, U.; Raaschou-Nielsen, O.; Ranzi, A.; Sugiri, D.; Stephanou, E.G.; Taimisto, P.; Tsai, M-Y.; Vaskövi, É.; Villani, S.; Wang, M.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/345480279; Brunekreef, B.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/067548180; Hoek, G.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/069553475

    2012-01-01

    The ESCAPE study (European Study of Cohorts for Air Pollution Effects) investigates long-term effects of exposure to air pollution on human health in Europe. This paper documents the spatial variation of measured NO2 and NOx concentrations between and within 36 ESCAPE study areas across Europe. In

  3. Gamma Knife irradiation method based on dosimetric controls to target small areas in rat brains

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Constanzo, Julie; Paquette, Benoit; Charest, Gabriel; Masson-Côté, Laurence; Guillot, Mathieu

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: Targeted and whole-brain irradiation in humans can result in significant side effects causing decreased patient quality of life. To adequately investigate structural and functional alterations after stereotactic radiosurgery, preclinical studies are needed. The purpose of this work is to establish a robust standardized method of targeted irradiation on small regions of the rat brain. Methods: Euthanized male Fischer rats were imaged in a stereotactic bed, by computed tomography (CT), to estimate positioning variations relative to the bregma skull reference point. Using a rat brain atlas and the stereotactic bregma coordinates obtained from CT images, different regions of the brain were delimited and a treatment plan was generated. A single isocenter treatment plan delivering ≥100 Gy in 100% of the target volume was produced by Leksell GammaPlan using the 4 mm diameter collimator of sectors 4, 5, 7, and 8 of the Gamma Knife unit. Impact of positioning deviations of the rat brain on dose deposition was simulated by GammaPlan and validated with dosimetric measurements. Results: The authors’ results showed that 90% of the target volume received 100 ± 8 Gy and the maximum of deposited dose was 125 ± 0.7 Gy, which corresponds to an excellent relative standard deviation of 0.6%. This dose deposition calculated with GammaPlan was validated with dosimetric films resulting in a dose-profile agreement within 5%, both in X- and Z-axes. Conclusions: The authors’ results demonstrate the feasibility of standardizing the irradiation procedure of a small volume in the rat brain using a Gamma Knife

  4. [Output characteristics of rainfall runoff phosphorus pollution from a typical small watershed in Yimeng mountainous area].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Xing-xiu; Li, Zhen-wei; Liu, Qian-jin; Jing, Guang-hua

    2012-08-01

    Relationships between phosphorus pollutant concentrations and precipitation-runoff were analyzed by monitoring pollutant losses at outlets of the Menglianggu watershed in 2010. A typical small watershed was selected to examine the runoff and quality parameters such as total phosphorus (TP), particle phosphorus (PP), dissolve phosphorus (DP) and dissolve inorganic phosphorus (DIP) in rainfall-runoff of 10 rainfall events. Precipitation was above 2 mm for all the 10 rainfall events. The results showed that the peak of phosphorus concentrations occurred before the peak of water flows, whereas change processes of the phosphorus fluxes were consistent with that of the water flows and the phosphorus flux also have a strong linear relationship with the water flows. The minimums of the phosphorus concentrations in every 10 natural rainfall events have small differences with each other, but the maximum and EMCs of the phosphorus concentrations have significant differences with each rainfall event. This was mainly influenced by the precipitation, maximum rainfall intensity and mean rainfall intensity (EMCs) and was less influenced by rainfall duration. DP and TP were mainly composed of DIP and PP, respectively. There were no significant correlations between DIP/DP dynamic changes and rainfall characteristics, whereas significant correlations between PP/TP dynamic changes and maximum rainfall intensity were detected. The production of DIP, DP, AND TP were mainly influenced by the direct runoff (DR) and base flow (BF). The EMCs of DIP, DP, TP and the variations of DIP/DP were all found to have significant polynomial relationships with DR/TR., but the dynamic changes of PP/ TP and the EMCS of PP were less influenced by the DR/TR.

  5. Background Noises Versus Intraseasonal Variation Signals: Small vs. Large Convective Cloud Objects From CERES Aqua Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Kuan-Man

    2015-01-01

    During inactive phases of Madden-Julian Oscillation (MJO), there are plenty of deep but small convective systems and far fewer deep and large ones. During active phases of MJO, a manifestation of an increase in the occurrence of large and deep cloud clusters results from an amplification of large-scale motions by stronger convective heating. This study is designed to quantitatively examine the roles of small and large cloud clusters during the MJO life cycle. We analyze the cloud object data from Aqua CERES (Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System) observations between July 2006 and June 2010 for tropical deep convective (DC) and cirrostratus (CS) cloud object types according to the real-time multivariate MJO index, which assigns the tropics to one of the eight MJO phases each day. The cloud object is a contiguous region of the earth with a single dominant cloud-system type. The criteria for defining these cloud types are overcast footprints and cloud top pressures less than 400 hPa, but DC has higher cloud optical depths (=10) than those of CS (background noises resulting from various types of the tropical waves with different wavenumbers and propagation speeds/directions.

  6. Ethiopian Wheat Yield and Yield Gap Estimation: A Spatial Small Area Integrated Data Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mann, M.; Warner, J.

    2015-12-01

    Despite the collection of routine annual agricultural surveys and significant advances in GIS and remote sensing products, little econometric research has been undertaken in predicting developing nation's agricultural yields. In this paper, we explore the determinants of wheat output per hectare in Ethiopia during the 2011-2013 Meher crop seasons aggregated to the woreda administrative area. Using a panel data approach, combining national agricultural field surveys with relevant GIS and remote sensing products, the model explains nearly 40% of the total variation in wheat output per hectare across the country. The model also identifies specific contributors to wheat yields that include farm management techniques (eg. area planted, improved seed, fertilizer, irrigation), weather (eg. rainfall), water availability (vegetation and moisture deficit indexes) and policy intervention. Our findings suggest that woredas produce between 9.8 and 86.5% of their potential wheat output per hectare given their altitude, weather conditions, terrain, and plant health. At the median, Amhara, Oromiya, SNNP, and Tigray produce 48.6, 51.5, 49.7, and 61.3% of their local attainable yields, respectively. This research has a broad range of applications, especially from a public policy perspective: identifying causes of yield fluctuations, remotely evaluating larger agricultural intervention packages, and analyzing relative yield potential. Overall, the combination of field surveys with spatial data can be used to identify management priorities for improving production at a variety of administrative levels.

  7. Impact of Catchment Area Activities on Water Quality in Small Retention Reservoirs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oszczapińska Katarzyna

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to evaluate catchment area impact on small water reservoirs condition in Podlasie. The researches were conducted in two different catchment areas. Topiło reservoir, located in Podlasie area in the south-east of Białowieża Forest, has typical sylvan catchment. Second reservoir, Dojlidy, is located also in Podlasie, in the south-east of Białystok as a part of Dojlidy Ponds. In contrast to Topiło, Dojlidy has agricultural catchment. Water samples collected from five sites along each reservoir were analysed for the presence of total nitrogen and phosphorus, chlorophyll “a”, reaction, turbidity and conductivity. Researches took place in spring, summer and autumn 2013 (Topiło Lake and 2014/2015 (Dojlidy. The lowest trophic state was observed in autumn and the highest in summer. Because of the high loads of phosphorus received by the reservoirs, this element did not limit primary production. Calculated TSI values based on total phosphorus were always markedly higher than calculated on chlorophyll-a and total nitrogen. Both reservoirs demonstrated TSI indexes specific to hypertrophic lakes due to large amount of total phosphorus.

  8. Impact of Catchment Area Activities on Water Quality in Small Retention Reservoirs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oszczapińska, Katarzyna; Skoczko, Iwona; Szczykowska, Joanna

    2018-02-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate catchment area impact on small water reservoirs condition in Podlasie. The researches were conducted in two different catchment areas. Topiło reservoir, located in Podlasie area in the south-east of Białowieża Forest, has typical sylvan catchment. Second reservoir, Dojlidy, is located also in Podlasie, in the south-east of Białystok as a part of Dojlidy Ponds. In contrast to Topiło, Dojlidy has agricultural catchment. Water samples collected from five sites along each reservoir were analysed for the presence of total nitrogen and phosphorus, chlorophyll "a", reaction, turbidity and conductivity. Researches took place in spring, summer and autumn 2013 (Topiło Lake) and 2014/2015 (Dojlidy). The lowest trophic state was observed in autumn and the highest in summer. Because of the high loads of phosphorus received by the reservoirs, this element did not limit primary production. Calculated TSI values based on total phosphorus were always markedly higher than calculated on chlorophyll-a and total nitrogen. Both reservoirs demonstrated TSI indexes specific to hypertrophic lakes due to large amount of total phosphorus.

  9. Applicability of two mobile analysers for mercury in urine in small-scale gold mining areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baeuml, Jennifer; Bose-O'Reilly, Stephan; Lettmeier, Beate; Maydl, Alexandra; Messerer, Katalin; Roider, Gabriele; Drasch, Gustav; Siebert, Uwe

    2011-12-01

    Mercury is still used in developing countries to extract gold from the ore in small-scale gold mining areas. This is a major health hazard for people living in mining areas. The concentration of mercury in urine was analysed in different mining areas in Zimbabwe, Indonesia and Tanzania. First the urine samples were analysed by CV-AAS (cold vapour atomic absorption spectrometry) during the field projects with a mobile mercury analyser (Lumex(®) or Seefelder(®)) and secondly, in a laboratory with a stationary CV-AAS mercury analyser (PerkinElmer(®)). Caused by the different systems (reduction agent either SnCl(2) (Lumex(®) or Seefelder(®))) or NaBH(4) (PerkinElmer(®)), with the mobile analysers only the inorganic mercury was obtained and with the stationary system the total mercury concentration was measured. The aims of the study were whether the results obtained in field with the mobile equipments can be compared with the stationary reference method in the laboratory and allow the application of these mobile analysers in screening studies on concerned populations to select those, who are exposed to critical mercury levels. Overall, the concentrations obtained with the two mobile systems were approximately 25% lower than determined with the stationary system. Nevertheless, both mobile systems seem to be very useful for screening of volunteers in field. Moreover, regional staff may be trained on such analysers to perform screening tests by themselves. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  10. Spatial and Temporal Variations of EC and OC Aerosol Combustion Sources in a Polluted Metropolitan Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mouteva, G.; Randerson, J. T.; Fahrni, S.; Santos, G.; Bush, S. E.; Ehleringer, J. R.; Czimczik, C. I.

    2015-12-01

    Anthropogenic emissions of carbonaceous aerosols are a major component of fine air particulate matter (PM2.5) in polluted metropolitan areas and in the global atmosphere. Elemental (EC) and organic carbon (OC) aerosols influence Earth's energy balance by means of direct and indirect pathways and EC has been suggested as a better indicator of public health impacts from combustion-related sources than PM mass. Quantifying the contribution of fossil fuel and biomass combustion to the EC and OC emissions and their temporal and spatial variations is critical for developing efficient legislative air pollution control measures and successful climate mitigation strategies. In this study, we used radiocarbon (14C) to separate and quantify fossil and biomass contributions to a time series of EC and OC collected at 3 locations in Salt Lake City (SLC). Aerosol samples were collected on quartz fiber filters and a modified OC/EC analyzer was used with the Swiss_4S protocol to isolate and trap the EC fraction. Together with the total carbon (TC) content of the samples, the EC was analyzed for its 14C content with accelerator mass spectrometry. The 14C of OC was derived as a mass balance difference between TC and EC. EC had an annual average fraction modern of 0.13±0.06 and did not vary significantly across seasons. OC had an annual average FM of 0.49±0.13, with the winter mean (0.43±0.11) lower than the summer mean (0.64±0.13) at the 5% significance level. While the 3 stations were chosen to represent a variety of environmental conditions within SLC, no major differences in this source partitioning were observed between stations. During winter, the major sources of air pollutants in SLC are motor vehicles and wood stove combustion and determining their relative contributions has been the subject of debate. Our results indicated that fossil fuels were the dominant source of carbonaceous aerosols during winter, contributing 87% or more of the total EC mass and 40-75% of the OC

  11. Analysis of area level and unit level models for small area estimation in forest inventories assisted with LiDAR auxiliary information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mauro, Francisco; Monleon, Vicente J; Temesgen, Hailemariam; Ford, Kevin R

    2017-01-01

    Forest inventories require estimates and measures of uncertainty for subpopulations such as management units. These units often times hold a small sample size, so they should be regarded as small areas. When auxiliary information is available, different small area estimation methods have been proposed to obtain reliable estimates for small areas. Unit level empirical best linear unbiased predictors (EBLUP) based on plot or grid unit level models have been studied more thoroughly than area level EBLUPs, where the modelling occurs at the management unit scale. Area level EBLUPs do not require a precise plot positioning and allow the use of variable radius plots, thus reducing fieldwork costs. However, their performance has not been examined thoroughly. We compared unit level and area level EBLUPs, using LiDAR auxiliary information collected for inventorying 98,104 ha coastal coniferous forest. Unit level models were consistently more accurate than area level EBLUPs, and area level EBLUPs were consistently more accurate than field estimates except for large management units that held a large sample. For stand density, volume, basal area, quadratic mean diameter, mean height and Lorey's height, root mean squared errors (rmses) of estimates obtained using area level EBLUPs were, on average, 1.43, 2.83, 2.09, 1.40, 1.32 and 1.64 times larger than those based on unit level estimates, respectively. Similarly, direct field estimates had rmses that were, on average, 1.37, 1.45, 1.17, 1.17, 1.26, and 1.38 times larger than rmses of area level EBLUPs. Therefore, area level models can lead to substantial gains in accuracy compared to direct estimates, and unit level models lead to very important gains in accuracy compared to area level models, potentially justifying the additional costs of obtaining accurate field plot coordinates.

  12. Examining geographic patterns of mortality: the atlas of mortality in small areas in Spain (1987-1995).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benach, Joan; Yasui, Yutaka; Borrell, Carme; Rosa, Elisabeth; Pasarín, M Isabel; Benach, Núria; Español, Esther; Martínez, José Miguel; Daponte, Antonio

    2003-06-01

    Small-area mortality atlases have been demonstrated to be a useful tool for both showing general geographical patterns in mortality data and identifying specific high-risk locations. In Spain no study has so far systematically examined geographic patterns of small-area mortality for the main causes of death. This paper presents the main features, contents and potential uses of the Spanish Atlas of Mortality in small areas (1987-1995). Population data for 2,218 small areas were drawn from the 1991 Census. Aggregated mortality data for 14 specific causes of death for the period 1987-1995 were obtained for each small area. Empirical Bayes-model-based estimates of age-adjusted relative risk were displayed in small-area maps for each cause/gender/age group (0-64 or 65 and over) combination using the same range of values (i.e. septiles) and colour schemes. The 'Spanish Atlas of Mortality' includes multiple choropleth (area-shaded) small-area maps and graphs to answer different questions about the data. The atlas is divided into three main sections. Section 1 includes the methods and comments on the main maps. Section 2 presents a two-page layout for each leading cause of death by gender including 1) a large map with relative risk estimates, 2) a map that indicates high- and low-risk small areas, 3) a graph with median and interquartile range of relative risk estimates for 17 large regions of Spain, and 4) relative-risk maps for two age groups. Section 3 provides specific information on the geographical units of analysis, statistical methods and other supplemental maps. The 'Spanish Atlas of Mortality' is a useful tool for examining geographical patterns of mortality risk and identifying specific high-risk areas. Mortality patterns displayed in the atlas may have important implications for research and social/health policy planning purposes.

  13. Diel and seasonal variation in food habits of Atlantic salmon parr in a small stream

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grader, M.; Letcher, B.H.

    2006-01-01

    The diel and seasonal food habits of young-of-year (YOY) and post-young-of-year (PYOY) Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) parr were assayed over the course of 11 months in the West Brook, Massachusetts USA. Gut fullness of YOY salmon did not vary significantly among months. PYOY salmon exhibited significant seasonal differences in gut fullness, with peak fullness occurring in the spring and late fall. Significant diel differences in PYOY gut fullness occurred in June and April, with peak fullness always occurring at dawn. Prey composition varied substantially among months. Dominant prey items of PYOY salmon were baetid mayflies in June, July, and August, limnephilid caddisflies in October and November, and ephemerellid mayflies in February and April. Few differences in prey composition between PYOY and YOY salmon were observed. Fish growth was unrelated to prey availability, but gut fullness explained up to 97% of growth variation across seasons. Results suggest that spring and fall are critical periods of feeding for PYOY salmon and that diel feeding intensity shifts seasonally.

  14. Simplified equations for the rotational speed response to inflow velocity variation in fixed-pitch small wind turbines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suzuki, H; Hasegawa, Y, E-mail: hsuzuki@nitech.ac.jp [Graduate School of Engineering, Nagoya Institute of Technology, Gokiso-cho, Showa-ku, Nagoya 466-8555 (Japan)

    2015-02-01

    We propose simplified equations for the rotational speed response to inflow velocity variation in fixed-pitch small wind turbines. The present formulation is derived by introducing a series expansion for the torque coefficient at the constant tip-speed ratio. By focusing on the first- and second-order differential coefficients of the torque coefficient, we simplify the original differential equation. The governing equation based only on the first-order differential coefficient is found to be linear, whereas the second-order differential coefficient introduces nonlinearity. We compare the numerical solutions of the three governing equations for rotational speed in response to sinusoidal and normal-random variations of inflow velocity. The linear equation gives accurate solutions of amplitude and phase lag. Nonlinearity occurs in the mean value of rotational speed variation. We also simulate the rotational speed in response to a step input of inflow velocity using the conditions of two previous studies, and note that the form of this rotational speed response is a system of first-order time lag. We formulate the gain and time constant for this rotational speed response. The magnitude of the gain is approximately three when the wind turbine is operated at optimal tip-speed ratio. We discuss the physical meaning of the derived time constant. (paper)

  15. Structure analyses of swollen rubber-filler systems by using contrast variation Small angle neutron scattering (SANS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takenaka, Mikihito; Nishitsuji, Shotaro; Yamaguchi, Daisuke; Koizumi, Satoshi

    2009-01-01

    Full text: The polymer layers absorbed on silica particles in rubber-silica systems have investigated with contrast variation small-angle neutron scattering (SANS) method. The scattering intensities of specimens swollen by the solvents having various scattering length densities were measured. The contrast variation SANS for the specimens yielded partial scattering functions: the scattering function for polymer-polymer correlation SPP(q), the scattering function for silica- silica correlation SSS(q), and the scattering function for polymer- silica correlation SPS(q). The analyses of SSS(q) explored the hierarchical structures formed by silica particles. The analyses of SPS(q) and SSS(q) clarified the existence of dense polymer layers around silica aggregates. Several characteristic parameters are estimated from the analyses, such as the size of aggregates, the thickness of layers, the volume fractions of polymer of layers and matrix, and the correlation length of the matrix network. The contrast variation SANS is found to be a powerful tool of the analyses of the structures of the rubber-filler systems. (author)

  16. Usability of small impact craters on small surface areas in crater count dating: Analysing examples from the Harmakhis Vallis outflow channel, Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kukkonen, S.; Kostama, V.-P.

    2018-05-01

    The availability of very high-resolution images has made it possible to extend crater size-frequency distribution studies to small, deca/hectometer-scale craters. This has enabled the dating of small and young surface units, as well as recent, short-time and small-scale geologic processes that have occurred on the units. Usually, however, the higher the spatial resolution of space images is, the smaller area is covered by the images. Thus the use of single, very high-resolution images in crater count age determination may be debatable if the images do not cover the studied region entirely. Here we compare the crater count results for the floor of the Harmakhis Vallis outflow channel obtained from the images of the ConTeXt camera (CTX) and High Resolution Imaging Science Experiment (HiRISE) aboard the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter (MRO). The CTX images enable crater counts for entire units on the Harmakhis Vallis main valley, whereas the coverage of the higher-resolution HiRISE images is limited and thus the images can only be used to date small parts of the units. Our case study shows that the crater count data based on small impact craters and small surface areas mainly correspond with the crater count data based on larger craters and more extensive counting areas on the same unit. If differences between the results were founded, they could usually be explained by the regional geology. Usually, these differences appeared when at least one cratering model age is missing from either of the crater datasets. On the other hand, we found only a few cases in which the cratering model ages were completely different. We conclude that the crater counts using small impact craters on small counting areas provide useful information about the geological processes which have modified the surface. However, it is important to remember that all the crater counts results obtained from a specific counting area always primarily represent the results from the counting area-not the whole

  17. Small-area analyses of bone cancer diagnosed in Great Britain provide clues to aetiology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McNally Richard J Q

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The aetiology of bone cancers is poorly understood. This study examined geographical patterning in incidence of primary bone cancers diagnosed in 0–49 year olds in Great Britain during 1980–2005 to provide information on factors linked with disease development. We investigated putative associations with deprivation and population density. Methods Data on osteosarcoma and Ewing sarcoma were obtained from national population-based registries. Negative binomial regression was used to examine the relationship between incidence rates and the Townsend deprivation score (and its component variables and small-area population density. Results The study analyzed 2566 osteosarcoma and 1650 Ewing sarcoma cases. For females with osteosarcoma, statistically significant decreased risk was associated with higher levels of deprivation (relative risk [RR] per unit increase in deprivation score = 0.969; 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.946–0.993. For all Ewing sarcoma combined, statistically significant decreased risk was associated with greater area-level population density and higher levels of non-car ownership (RR per person per hectare increase = 0.984; 95% CI 0.976–0.993, RR per 1% increase in non-car ownership = 0.994; 95% CI 0.991–0.998. Conclusions Higher incidence of osteosarcoma was observed for females in areas with lower deprivation levels indicating increased risk is linked to some aspect of affluent living. Higher incidence of Ewing sarcoma occurred in areas of low population density and where more people owned cars, both characteristic of rural environments. The study adds substantially to evidence associating Ewing sarcoma risk with rural environmental exposures. Putative risk factors include agricultural exposures, such as pesticides and zoonotic agents.

  18. Determine Small and Medium Enterprise (SME Internet Marketing Usage in the Tshwane Area, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Van Scheers Louise

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The research is aimed to determine SME Internet marketing usage in the Tshwane area. The benefits of Internet marketing seem to be ignored by most SMEs. Social media is one of Internet marketing’s tools and it seems that challenges prevent SME owners from using this tool effectively. A survey study method of research design has been selected for the research. The sample for the study comprised 200 SME owners who currently manage small businesses in the Tshwane area. To assess the internal consistency of the instrument, Cronbach’s alpha was run and a reliability coefficient of 0.836 resulted. The instrument was validated through content validity. The instrument was structured and multi-chotomous in design covering demographic and research variable questions. Descriptive statistical analysis was employed to determine the SME Internet marketing usage in the Tshwane area. In general the SMEs in this area have a positive attitudes regarding Internet use. The capabilities of the Internet allow SMEs to use it as communication tool and marketing channel. The conducted research recommends that Internet marketing can be cost effective if the SMEs make use of their own social networks and use best practises that enable them to get their adverts or posts shared across social networks. The conducted research also recommends that SMEs with limited resources should start with using social media to enhance Internet marketing. YouTube as a marketing tool for Internet marketing is effective as well because the learning curve is low and cost involved is almost nil. Tshwane SMEs should use Internet marketing rather than traditional marketing to promote their businesses because these methods are cost effective.

  19. Water balance of a small catchment with permeable soils in Ile-Ife area, southwester Nigeria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ogunkoya, O. O.

    2000-01-01

    Three - year and annual catchment water balances were drawn for a small l catchment (44 ha.) in southwestern Nigeria. The equation: P - Q - E T - Δs = O was not resolved. Rather, the terms on the left did not sum to zero. The residual, which are between 4% and 5% of total rainfall, were consistently negative. A probable source of error is the use of Thornthwaite's potential evaporation in estimating catchment evapotranspiration. Potential evapotranspiration is higher than actual evapotranspiration in the study area due to the limited evaporation opportunity during the approximately five - mouth dry season. Given that the study catchment had runoff patterns that are simi liar to those of larger rivers in the region the computed catchment water balance indicated that 37% of annual rainfall may be taken as the runoff coefficient for the region. This suggests that the engineer's coefficient (0.35 - 0.45) used in assessment of surface water resources in southwestern Nigeria, is reasonable

  20. Aging and Mobility in Rural and Small Urban Areas: A Survey of North Dakota.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattson, Jeremy W

    2011-12-01

    To investigate issues of aging and mobility in rural and small urban areas, this study analyzes the results from a survey AARP conducted of its North Dakota members. Specific objectives are to estimate the impact of age and other demographic and geographic characteristics on various measures of mobility, including ability to drive, use of public transportation, trip frequency for both discretionary and nondiscretionary travel, unmet travel demand, barriers to using public transportation, and satisfaction with available transportation options. Although most surveyed still drive, results show decreased mobility with increases in age and for people with disabilities due to decreases in driving and an increased likelihood of lack of transportation limiting the number of trips taken. People with disabilities were also significantly more likely to experience problems with public transportation. Women were found to be less likely to drive and more likely to use public transportation.

  1. Identification of Selected Areas to Support Federal Clean Energy Goals Using Small Modular Reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Belles, Randy [ORNL; Mays, Gary T [ORNL; Omitaomu, Olufemi A [ORNL; Poore III, Willis P [ORNL

    2013-12-01

    This analysis identifies candidate locations, in a broad sense, where there are high concentrations of federal government agency use of electricity, which are also suitable areas for near-term SMRs. Near-term SMRs are based on light-water reactor (LWR) technology with compact design features that are expected to offer a host of safety, siting, construction, and economic benefits. These smaller plants are ideally suited for small electric grids and for locations that cannot support large reactors, thus providing utilities or governement entities with the flexibility to scale power production as demand changes by adding additional power by deploying more modules or reactors in phases. This research project is aimed at providing methodologies, information, and insights to assist the federal government in meeting federal clean energy goals.

  2. Levels, spatial variation and compartmentalization of trace elements in brown algae Cystoseira from marine protected areas of Crimea (Black Sea).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kravtsova, Alexandra V; Milchakova, Nataliya A; Frontasyeva, Marina V

    2015-08-15

    Levels of Al, Sc, V, Co, Ni, As, Br, Rb, Sr, Ag, Sb, I, Cs, Ba, Th and U that were rarely or never studied, as well as the concentrations of classically investigated Mn, Fe and Zn in brown algae Cystoseira barbata C. Ag. and Cystoseira crinita (Desf.) Bory from the coastal waters of marine protected areas (Crimea, Black Sea), were determined using neutron activation analysis. Spatial variation and compartmentalization were studied for all 19 trace elements (TE). Concentrations of most TE were higher in "branches" than in "stems". Spatial variations of V, Co, Ni and Zn can be related to anthropogenic activities while Al, Sc, Fe, Rb, Cs, Th and U varied depending on chemical peculiarities of the coastal zone rocks. TE concentrations in C. crinita from marine protected areas near Tarkhankut peninsula and Cape Fiolent, identified as the most clean water areas, are submitted as the background concentrations. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Development of Low-Noise Small-Area 24 GHz CMOS Radar Sensor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min Yoon

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We present a low-noise small-area 24 GHz CMOS radar sensor for automotive collision avoidance. This sensor is based on direct-conversion pulsed-radar architecture. The proposed circuit is implemented using TSMC 0.13 μm RF (radio frequency CMOS (fT/fmax=120/140 GHz technology, and it is powered by a 1.5 V supply. This circuit uses transmission lines to reduce total chip size instead of real bulky inductors for input and output impedance matching. The layout techniques for RF are used to reduce parasitic capacitance at the band of 24 GHz. The proposed sensor has low cost and low power dissipation since it is realized using CMOS process. The proposed sensor showed the lowest noise figure of 2.9 dB and the highest conversion gain of 40.2 dB as compared to recently reported research results. It also showed small chip size of 0.56 mm2, low power dissipation of 39.5 mW, and wide operating temperature range of −40 to +125°C.

  4. A small-area study of environmental risk assessment of outdoor falls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Poh-Chin; Wong, Wing-Cheung; Low, Chien-Tat; Wong, Martin; Chan, Ming-Houng

    2011-12-01

    Falls in public places are an issue of great health concern especially for the elderly. Falls among the elderly is also a major health burden in many countries. This study describes a spatial approach to assess environmental causes of outdoor falls using a small urban community in Hong Kong as an example. The method involves collecting data on fall occurrences and mapping their geographic positions to examine circumstances and environmental evidence that contribute to falls. High risk locations or hot spots of falls are identified on the bases of spatial proximity and concentration of falls within a threshold distance by means of kernel smoothing and standard deviational ellipses. This method of geographic aggregation of individual fall incidents for a small-area study yields hot spots of manageable sizes. The spatial clustering approach is effective in two ways. Firstly, it allows visualisation and isolation of fall hot spots to draw focus. Secondly and especially under conditions of resource decline, policy makers are able to target specific locations to examine the underlying causal mechanisms and strategise effective response and preventive measures based on the types of environmental risk factors identified.

  5. Fabrication and dc characteristics of small-area tantalum and niobium superconducting tunnel junctions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Face, D.W.; Prober, D.E.

    1987-01-01

    We discuss the fabrication and dc electrical characteristics of small-area (1--6 μm 2 ) superconducting tunnel junctions with Ta or Nb base electrodes and Pb or Pb/sub 0.9/Bi/sub 0.1/ counterelectrodes. These junctions have very small subgap leakage currents, a ''sharp'' current rise at the sum-gap voltage, and show strong quantum effects when used as microwave mixers. The use of a low-energy (--150 eV) ion cleaning process and a novel step-defined fabrication process that eliminates photoresist processing after base electrode deposition are discussed. Tunnel barriers formed by dc glow discharge oxidation were the most successful. Tunnel barrier formation by thermal oxidation and ion-beam oxidation is also discussed. An oxidized Ta overlayer (--7 nm thick) was found to improve the characteristics of Nb-based junctions. The electrical characteristics of junctions with different electrode and barrier materials are presented and discussed in terms of the physical mechanisms that lead to excess subgap current and to a width of the current rise at the sum-gap voltage

  6. WLAN versus LAN - environmental impacts of small and medium sized local area networks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hottenroth, H.; Quack, D. [Oeko-Inst. e.V., Inst. for Applied Ecology, Freiburg (Germany); Sustainable Products and Material Flows Div., Freiburg (Germany)

    2004-07-01

    In the study presented here the environmental impacts of the infrastructure and the use of wireless LAN are investigated and compared to wired LAN. In order to determine if and under which conditions WLAN shows environmental benefits a comparison with a wired LAN was drawn on the basis of three exemplary applications. The environmental impacts of the life cycle of these applications were assessed using the method of LCA. The investigated systems include the production, the operation of the networks and their end of life stage. The three applications under investigation were the following: application 1: a peer-to-peer connection of two computers; application 2: a small network consisting of three computers like it is used in households and small offices (SOHO) and application 3: an office network consisting of 20 computers. The results showed no significant differences between the two alternatives for the applications 1 and 2 taking into account cumulative energy demand, global warming potential, acidification potential and photochemical oxidation potential as impact categories. In contrast to this a significant advantage for the wireless solution could be identified for the third application. Concerning electronic waste-arise, the wireless solution is advantageous for all three applications. From the results recommendations for equipment options, net structure, and use behaviour of local area networks are derived. (orig.)

  7. Heat flux variations over sea ice observed at the coastal area of the Sejong Station, Antarctica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Sang-Jong; Choi, Tae-Jin; Kim, Seong-Joong

    2013-08-01

    This study presents variations of sensible heat flux and latent heat flux over sea ice observed in 2011 from the 10-m flux tower located at the coast of the Sejong Station on King George Island, Antarctica. A period from July to September was selected as a sea ice period based on daily record of sea state and hourly photos looking at the Marian Cove in front of the Sejong Station. For the sea ice period, mean sensible heat flux is about -11 Wm-2, latent heat flux is about +2 W m-2, net radiation is -12 W m-2, and residual energy is -3 W m-2 with clear diurnal variations. Estimated mean values of surface exchange coefficients for momentum, heat and moisture are 5.15 × 10-3, 1.19 × 10-3, and 1.87 × 10-3, respectively. The observed exchange coefficients of heat shows clear diurnal variations while those of momentum and moisture do not show diurnal variation. The parameterized exchange coefficients of heat and moisture produces heat fluxes which compare well with the observed diurnal variations of heat fluxes.

  8. Impacts of Climatic Hazards on the Small Wetland Ecosystems (ponds: Evidence from Some Selected Areas of Coastal Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucy Faulkner

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Most climate related hazards in Bangladesh are linked to water. The climate vulnerable poor—the poorest and most marginalized communities living in remote villages along Bangladesh’s coastal zone that are vulnerable to climate change impacts and who possess low adaptive capacity are most affected by lack of access to safe water sources. Many climate vulnerable poor households depend on small isolated wetlands (ponds for daily drinking water needs and other domestic requirements, including cooking, bathing and washing. Similarly, the livelihoods of many of these households also depend on access to ponds due to activities of small-scale irrigation for rice farming, vegetable farming and home gardening. This is particularly true for those poorest and most marginalized communities living in Satkhira, one of the most vulnerable coastal districts in south-west Bangladesh. These households rely on pond water for vegetable farming and home gardening, especially during winter months. However, these pond water sources are highly vulnerable to climate change induced hazards, including flooding, drought, salinity intrusion, cyclone and storm surges, erratic rainfall patterns and variations in temperature. Cyclone Sidr and Cyclone Aila, which hit Bangladesh in 2007 and 2009 respectively, led to a significant number of such ponds being inundated with saline water. This impacted upon and resulted in wide scale implications for climate vulnerable poor households, including reduced availability of safe drinking water, and safe water for health and hygiene practices and livelihood activities. Those households living in remote areas and who are most affected by these climate impacts are dependent on water being supplied through aid, as well as travelling long distances to collect safe water for drinking purposes.

  9. Diurnal variations in proliferation and crypt survival suggest a small target cell population in mouse colon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dobbin, J.; Hamilton, E.

    1986-01-01

    Male C57BLasup(t) mice of two ages, 3-5 months (young) and 14-15 months (old) were given 11 or 15Gy whole body irradiation at different times through the day. The mice were killed after 4.5 days and the number of surviving crypts per circumference of jejunum, ileum, transverse colon and descending colon were scored. These results show crypt survival in the small and large intestine of 15-month-old mice. In the ileum the maximum crypt survival was found at 04.00 h and the minimum at 08.00 h. In the jejunum and both regions of the colon the maximum crypt survival occurred at 16.00 h. The nadir of crypt survival after 15 Gy was at 04.00 h in the jejunum and at 20.00 and 24.00 h in the transverse and descending colon, respectively. In young mice, crypt survival levels were similar to those found in old animals except at 04.00 h. when survival in the jejunum and ileum fell to 0.0004+-0.0002 and 0.0007+-0.0004, respectively. The lowest crypt survival in the colon of young mice also occurred at 04.00 h and in all four tissues the greatest number of crypts survived irradiation at 24.00 h. (author)

  10. A low-power small-area ADC array for IRFPA readout

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Shengyou; Yao, Libin

    2013-09-01

    The readout integrated circuit (ROIC) is a bridge between the infrared focal plane array (IRFPA) and image processing circuit in an infrared imaging system. The ROIC is the first part of signal processing circuit and connected to detectors directly, so its performance will greatly affect the detector or even the whole imaging system performance. With the development of CMOS technologies, it's possible to digitalize the signal inside the ROIC and develop the digital ROIC. Digital ROIC can reduce complexity of the whole system and improve the system reliability. More importantly, it can accommodate variety of digital signal processing techniques which the traditional analog ROIC cannot achieve. The analog to digital converter (ADC) is the most important building block in the digital ROIC. The requirements for ADCs inside the ROIC are low power, high dynamic range and small area. In this paper we propose an RC hybrid Successive Approximation Register (SAR) ADC as the column ADC for digital ROIC. In our proposed ADC structure, a resistor ladder is used to generate several voltages. The proposed RC hybrid structure not only reduces the area of capacitor array but also releases requirement for capacitor array matching. Theory analysis and simulation show RC hybrid SAR ADC is suitable for ADC array applications

  11. An analysis of the small amplitude variations in the light curves of the R Coronae Borealis variables, S Apodis and UW Centauri

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kilkenny, D.; Flanagan, C.

    1983-01-01

    The small amplitude variations in the light curves of the R CrB stars, S Aps and UW Cen, are examined. The periodicity of these variations appears to be changing rapidly in S Aps and slowly, if at all, in UW Cen. The evolutionary consequences of these effects are discussed. (author)

  12. Assessing vegetation response to climatic variations and human activities: spatiotemporal NDVI variations in the Hexi Corridor and surrounding areas from 2000 to 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guan, Qingyu; Yang, Liqin; Guan, Wenqian; Wang, Feifei; Liu, Zeyu; Xu, Chuanqi

    2018-03-01

    Vegetation cover is a commonly used indicator for evaluating terrestrial environmental conditions, and for revealing environmental evolution and transitions. Spatiotemporal variations in the vegetation cover of the Hexi Corridor and surrounding areas from 2000 to 2010 were investigated using MODIS NDVI data, and the causes of vegetation cover changes were analyzed, considering both climatic variability and human activities. The vegetation cover of the study area increased during 2000-2010. The greenness of the vegetation showed a significant increase from the northwest to the southeast, which was similar to the spatial distribution of the annual precipitation. Variations in vegetation have a close relationship with those in precipitation within the Qilian Mountains region, but the NDVI is negatively correlated with precipitation in oasis areas. Increasing temperatures led to drought, inhibiting vegetation growth in summer; however, increasing temperatures may have also advanced and prolonged the growing periods in spring and autumn. The NDVI showed a slight degradation in March and July, primarily in the Qilian Mountains, and especially the Wushao Mountains. In March, due to low temperatures, the metabolism rate of vegetation was too slow to enable strong plant growth in high elevations of the Qilian Mountains. In July, increasing temperatures enhanced the intensity of transpiration and decreasing precipitation reduced the moisture available to plants, producing a slight degradation of vegetation in the Qilian Mountains. In May and August, the NDVI showed a significant improvement, primarily in the artificial oases and the Qilian Mountains. Abundant precipitation provided the necessary water for plant growth, and suitable temperatures increased the efficiency of photosynthesis, resulting in a significant improvement of vegetation in the Qilian Mountains. The improvement of production technologies, especially in irrigation, has been beneficial to the growth of

  13. Common mental disorders, neighbourhood income inequality and income deprivation: small-area multilevel analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fone, David; Greene, Giles; Farewell, Daniel; White, James; Kelly, Mark; Dunstan, Frank

    2013-01-01

    Background Common mental disorders are more prevalent in areas of high neighbourhood socioeconomic deprivation but whether the prevalence varies with neighbourhood income inequality is not known. Aims To investigate the hypothesis that the interaction between small-area income deprivation and income inequality was associated with individual mental health. Method Multilevel analysis of population data from the Welsh Health Survey, 2003/04–2010. A total of 88 623 respondents aged 18–74 years were nested within 50 587 households within 1887 lower super output areas (neighbourhoods) and 22 unitary authorities (regions), linked to the Gini coefficient (income inequality) and the per cent of households living in poverty (income deprivation). Mental health was measured using the Mental Health Inventory MHI-5 as a discrete variable and as a ‘case’ of common mental disorder. Results High neighbourhood income inequality was associated with better mental health in low-deprivation neighbourhoods after adjusting for individual and household risk factors (parameter estimate +0.70 (s.e. = 0.33), P = 0.036; odds ratio (OR) for common mental disorder case 0.92, 95% CI 0.88–0.97). Income inequality at regional level was significantly associated with poorer mental health (parameter estimate -1.35 (s.e. = 0.54), P = 0.012; OR = 1.13, 95% CI 1.04–1.22). Conclusions The associations between common mental disorders, income inequality and income deprivation are complex. Income inequality at neighbourhood level is less important than income deprivation as a risk factor for common mental disorders. The adverse effect of income inequality starts to operate at the larger regional level. PMID:23470284

  14. Common mental disorders, neighbourhood income inequality and income deprivation: small-area multilevel analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fone, David; Greene, Giles; Farewell, Daniel; White, James; Kelly, Mark; Dunstan, Frank

    2013-04-01

    Common mental disorders are more prevalent in areas of high neighbourhood socioeconomic deprivation but whether the prevalence varies with neighbourhood income inequality is not known. To investigate the hypothesis that the interaction between small-area income deprivation and income inequality was associated with individual mental health. Multilevel analysis of population data from the Welsh Health Survey, 2003/04-2010. A total of 88,623 respondents aged 18-74 years were nested within 50,587 households within 1887 lower super output areas (neighbourhoods) and 22 unitary authorities (regions), linked to the Gini coefficient (income inequality) and the per cent of households living in poverty (income deprivation). Mental health was measured using the Mental Health Inventory MHI-5 as a discrete variable and as a 'case' of common mental disorder. High neighbourhood income inequality was associated with better mental health in low-deprivation neighbourhoods after adjusting for individual and household risk factors (parameter estimate +0.70 (s.e. = 0.33), P = 0.036; odds ratio (OR) for common mental disorder case 0.92, 95% CI 0.88-0.97). Income inequality at regional level was significantly associated with poorer mental health (parameter estimate -1.35 (s.e. = 0.54), P = 0.012; OR = 1.13, 95% CI 1.04-1.22). The associations between common mental disorders, income inequality and income deprivation are complex. Income inequality at neighbourhood level is less important than income deprivation as a risk factor for common mental disorders. The adverse effect of income inequality starts to operate at the larger regional level.

  15. Relationship between extent of brain hypoperfused area and functional outcome in patients with a small subcortical infarction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Isaka, Yoshinari; Imaizumi, Masatoshi; Ashida, Keiichi; Nakayama, Hirofumi; Iiji, Osamu; Itoi, Yoshihito; Furukawa, Toshiyuki

    1992-01-01

    We performed 123 I-IMP single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) in 43 patients who had a small infarction ( 2 =29.3; p 123 I-IMP SPECT in patients with a small infarction may discriminate lacunar infarction from embolic or hemodynamic infarction, which was caused by vascular lesions of major cerebral arteries, in subcortical area. Our study suggests that functional outcome is better in lacunar infarction than embolic or hemodynamic infarction in subcortical area. (author)

  16. Where You Live Matters: Localising Environmental Impacts on Health, Nutrition and Poverty in Cambodia Using Small Area Estimation Techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nilsen, K.; van Soesbergen, A.; Matthews, Z.

    2016-12-01

    Socioeconomic development depends on local environments. However, the scientific evidence quantifying the impact of environmental factors on health, nutrition and poverty at subnational levels is limited. This is because socioeconomic indicators are derived from sample surveys representative only at aggregate levels compared to environmental variables mostly available in high-resolution grids. Cambodia was selected because of its commitment to development in the context of a rapidly deteriorating environment. Having made considerable progress since 2005, access to health services is limited, a quarter of the population is still poor and 40% rural children are malnourished. Cambodia is also facing considerable environmental challenges including high deforestation rates, land degradation and natural hazards. Addressing existing gaps in the knowledge of environmental impacts on health and livelihoods, this study applies small area estimation (SAE) to quantify health, nutritional and poverty outcomes in the context of local environments. SAE produces reliable subnational estimates of socioeconomic outcomes available only from sample surveys by combining them with information from auxiliary sources (census). A model is used to explain common trades across areas and a random effect structure is applied to explain the observed extra heterogeneity. SAE models predicting health, nutrition and poverty outcomes excluding and including contextual environmental variables on natural hazards vulnerability, forest cover, climate, and agricultural production are compared. Results are mapped at regional and district levels to spatially assess the impacts of environmental variation on the outcomes. Inter and intra-regional inequalities are also estimated to examine the efficacy of health/socioeconomic policy targeting based on geographic location. Preliminary results suggest that localised environmental factors have considerable impacts on the indicators estimated and should

  17. Small-area spatiotemporal analysis of heatwave impacts on elderly mortality in Paris: A cluster analysis approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benmarhnia, Tarik; Kihal-Talantikite, Wahida; Ragettli, Martina S; Deguen, Séverine

    2017-08-15

    Heat-waves have a substantial public health burden. Understanding spatial heterogeneity at a fine spatial scale in relation to heat and related mortality is central to target interventions towards vulnerable communities. To determine the spatial variability of heat-wave-related mortality risk among elderly in Paris, France at the census block level. We also aimed to assess area-level social and environmental determinants of high mortality risk within Paris. We used daily mortality data from 2004 to 2009 among people aged >65 at the French census block level within Paris. We used two heat wave days' definitions that were compared to non-heat wave days. A Bernoulli cluster analysis method was applied to identify high risk clusters of mortality during heat waves. We performed random effects meta-regression analyses to investigate factors associated with the magnitude of the mortality risk. The spatial approach revealed a spatial aggregation of death cases during heat wave days. We found that small scale chronic PM 10 exposure was associated with a 0.02 (95% CI: 0.001; 0.045) increase of the risk of dying during a heat wave episode. We also found a positive association with the percentage of foreigners and the percentage of labor force, while the proportion of elderly people living in the neighborhood was negatively associated. We also found that green space density had a protective effect and inversely that the density of constructed feature increased the risk of dying during a heat wave episode. We showed that a spatial variation in terms of heat-related vulnerability exists within Paris and that it can be explained by some contextual factors. This study can be useful for designing interventions targeting more vulnerable areas and reduce the burden of heat waves. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Levels, spatial variation and compartmentalization of trace elements in brown algae Cystoseira from marine protected areas of Crimea (Black Sea)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kravtsova, Alexandra V.; Milchakova, Nataliya A.; Frontasyeva, Marina V.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • 19 trace elements were determined in Cystoseira spp. from marine protected areas. • Levels of 10 elements were lower than reported data for Black Sea Cystoseira spp. • Concentrations of most trace elements were higher in “branches” than in “stems”. • Spatial variations of V, Co, Ni and Zn can be related to anthropogenic activities. • Al, Sc, Fe, Rb, Cs, Th, U varied depending on geological composition of the coast. - Abstract: Levels of Al, Sc, V, Co, Ni, As, Br, Rb, Sr, Ag, Sb, I, Cs, Ba, Th and U that were rarely or never studied, as well as the concentrations of classically investigated Mn, Fe and Zn in brown algae Cystoseira barbata C. Ag. and Cystoseira crinita (Desf.) Bory from the coastal waters of marine protected areas (Crimea, Black Sea), were determined using neutron activation analysis. Spatial variation and compartmentalization were studied for all 19 trace elements (TE). Concentrations of most TE were higher in “branches” than in “stems”. Spatial variations of V, Co, Ni and Zn can be related to anthropogenic activities while Al, Sc, Fe, Rb, Cs, Th and U varied depending on chemical peculiarities of the coastal zone rocks. TE concentrations in C. crinita from marine protected areas near Tarkhankut peninsula and Cape Fiolent, identified as the most clean water areas, are submitted as the background concentrations

  19. Habitat area and climate stability determine geographical variation in plant species range sizes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Morueta-Holme, Naia; Enquist, Brian J.; McGill, Brian J.

    2013-01-01

    Despite being a fundamental aspect of biodiversity, little is known about what controls species range sizes. This is especially the case for hyperdiverse organisms such as plants. We use the largest botanical data set assembled to date to quantify geographical variation in range size for ~85,000 ...

  20. Using a noise monitoring station in a small quarry located in an urban area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wichers, Michiel; Iramina, Wilson Siguemasa; de Eston, Sérgio Médici; Ayres da Silva, Anna Luiza Marques

    2017-12-22

    Mining plays an important role in Brazilian exports. On the other hand, large urban centers like São Paulo, with approximately 21 million inhabitants, also demand an increasing domestic consumption of natural resources, such as construction aggregate. There are many quarries located in the surroundings of urban centers in Brazil, competing with the growth of urbanized areas. Such proximity leads to a series of conflicts involving quarries and surrounding communities, where the increase in noise levels is highlighted. Operations in quarries, in general, are intermittent. Noisier equipment, such as drilling rigs and primary crushers, operates only a few hours during the day, while other operations, such as screening and secondary and tertiary crushing, are more constant. This paper presents a study carried out in a quarry located near São Paulo, where in addition to conventional short term noise measurements at surrounding receptors, one noise monitoring station was installed, allowing to identify the noisiest moments during the quarry operating time. Through data transmitted by wireless technology, it was possible to follow the noise variations emitted from mining activities in real time and observe the noisiest events that were recorded for events that exceeded the established standards. A mobile application associated to this monitoring station facilitated the quarry's manager and employees to access immediately the monitoring information. Therefore, by using this system, it was possible to evaluate the effectiveness of noise reduction measures already taken and indicate what steps still need to be held.

  1. Small Area and Individual Level Predictors of Physical Activity in Urban Communities: A Multi-Level Study in Stoke on Trent, England

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hilde Stephansen

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Reducing population physical inactivity has been declared a global public health priority. We report a detailed multi-level analysis of small area indices and individual factors as correlates of physical activity in deprived urban areas. Multi-level regression analysis was used to investigate environmental and individual correlates of physical activity. Nine individual factors were retained in the overall model, two related to individual intentions or beliefs, three to access to shops, work or fast food outlets and two to weather; age and gender being the other two. Four area level indices related to: traffic, road casualties, criminal damage and access to green space were important in explaining variation in physical activity.

  2. Variations in chemical and isotopic compositions of groundwaters from the Otobaru landslide in the area of hydrothermal alteration, Beppu City

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoshioka, Ryuma; Kitaoka, Koichi; Kamiyama, Kokichi [Kyoto Univ., Uji (Japan). Disaster Prevention Research Inst.

    1989-10-01

    The landslide at the Otobaru area, Beppu City, occurred twice in 1943 and 1969. A part of this area, even now, is affected considerably by thermal activities. Variations in chemical and isotopic compositions of waters from the Otobaru area and its vicinity were investigated from 1977 to 1983 and 1986 to 1987. The results are as follows: (1) electric conductivity data suggest that the two kinds of low-concentration water and high-concentration water exist in the landslide area, (2) the existence-of two groundwater aquifer in the landslide area and its vicinity is inferred from tritium data, (3) variations chemical composition of waters from the horizontal borehole are accompanied by the rise and decline of water table, (4) the waters from the landslide area and its vicinity are in equilibrium with montmorillonite, (5) the most waters under 10{sup -1} atm. of P{sub co2} are saturated or supersaturated with calcite, and (6) there is no detectable contribution of geothermal water to the waters from the landslide and its vicinity. And our hypothesis on the mechanism for the formation of calcium sulfate type water is also presented. (author).

  3. Influences of climate change on area variation of Qinghai Lake on Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau since 1980s.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Lingyi; Duan, Xiaofang; Kong, Fanjin; Zhang, Fan; Zheng, Yangfan; Li, Zhen; Mei, Yi; Zhao, Yanwen; Hu, Shuijin

    2018-05-09

    Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau is the most sensitive region to global warming on Earth. Qinghai Lake, the largest lake on the plateau, has experienced evident area variation during the past several decades. To quantify the area changes of Qinghai Lake, a satellite-based survey based on Landsat images from the 1980s to 2010s has been performed. In addition, meteorological data from all the seven available stations on Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau has been analyzed. Area of Qinghai Lake shrank ~2% during 1987-2005, and then increased ~3% from 2005-2016. Meanwhile, the average annual temperature increased 0.319 °C/10 y in the past 50 years, where the value is 0.415 °C/10 y from 2005-2016. The structural equation modeling (SEM) shows that precipitation is the primary factor influencing the area of Qinghai Lake. Moreover, temperature might be tightly correlated with precipitation, snow line, and evaporation, thereby indirectly causes alternations of the lake area. This study elucidated the significant area variation of water body on the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau under global warming since 1980s.

  4. Variations in chemical and isotopic compositions of groundwaters from the Otobaru landslide in the area of hydrothermal alteration, Beppu City

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshioka, Ryuma; Kitaoka, Koichi; Kamiyama, Kokichi

    1989-01-01

    The landslide at the Otobaru area, Beppu City, occurred twice in 1943 and 1969. A part of this area, even now, is affected considerably by thermal activities. Variations in chemical and isotopic compositions of waters from the Otobaru area and its vicinity were investigated from 1977 to 1983 and 1986 to 1987. The results are as follows: (1) electric conductivity data suggest that the two kinds of low-concentration water and high-concentration water exist in the landslide area, (2) the existence-of two groundwater aquifer in the landslide area and its vicinity is inferred from tritium data, (3) variations chemical composition of waters from the horizontal borehole are accompanied by the rise and decline of water table, (4) the waters from the landslide area and its vicinity are in equilibrium with montmorillonite, (5) the most waters under 10 -1 atm. of P co2 are saturated or supersaturated with calcite, and (6) there is no detectable contribution of geothermal water to the waters from the landslide and its vicinity. And our hypothesis on the mechanism for the formation of calcium sulfate type water is also presented. (author)

  5. Comparison of small-area deprivation measures as predictors of chronic disease burden in a low-income population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lòpez-De Fede, Ana; Stewart, John E; Hardin, James W; Mayfield-Smith, Kathy

    2016-06-10

    Measures of small-area deprivation may be valuable in geographically targeting limited resources to prevent, diagnose, and effectively manage chronic conditions in vulnerable populations. We developed a census-based small-area socioeconomic deprivation index specifically to predict chronic disease burden among publically insured Medicaid recipients in South Carolina, a relatively poor state in the southern United States. We compared the predictive ability of the new index with that of four other small-area deprivation indicators. To derive the ZIP Code Tabulation Area-Level Palmetto Small-Area Deprivation Index (Palmetto SADI), we evaluated ten census variables across five socioeconomic deprivation domains, identifying the combination of census indicators most highly correlated with a set of five chronic disease conditions among South Carolina Medicaid enrollees. In separate validation studies, we used both logistic and spatial regression methods to assess the ability of Palmetto SADI to predict chronic disease burden among state Medicaid recipients relative to four alternative small-area socioeconomic deprivation measures: the Townsend index of material deprivation; a single-variable poverty indicator; and two small-area designations of health care resource deprivation, Primary Care Health Professional Shortage Area and Medically Underserved Area/Medically Underserved Population. Palmetto SADI was the best predictor of chronic disease burden (presence of at least one condition and presence of two or more conditions) among state Medicaid recipients compared to all alternative deprivation measures tested. A low-cost, regionally optimized socioeconomic deprivation index, Palmetto SADI can be used to identify areas in South Carolina at high risk for chronic disease burden among Medicaid recipients and other low-income Medicaid-eligible populations for targeted prevention, screening, diagnosis, disease self-management, and care coordination activities.

  6. Self-rated health: small area large area comparisons amongst older adults at the state, district and sub-district level in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirve, Siddhivinayak; Vounatsou, Penelope; Juvekar, Sanjay; Blomstedt, Yulia; Wall, Stig; Chatterji, Somnath; Ng, Nawi

    2014-03-01

    We compared prevalence estimates of self-rated health (SRH) derived indirectly using four different small area estimation methods for the Vadu (small) area from the national Study on Global AGEing (SAGE) survey with estimates derived directly from the Vadu SAGE survey. The indirect synthetic estimate for Vadu was 24% whereas the model based estimates were 45.6% and 45.7% with smaller prediction errors and comparable to the direct survey estimate of 50%. The model based techniques were better suited to estimate the prevalence of SRH than the indirect synthetic method. We conclude that a simplified mixed effects regression model can produce valid small area estimates of SRH. © 2013 Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  7. Contribution of Topography and Incident Solar Radiation to Variation of Soil and Plant Litter at an Area with Heterogeneous Terrain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felipe Cito Nettesheim

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Natural processes that determine soil and plant litter properties are controlled by multiple factors. However, little attention has been given to distinguishing the effects of environmental factors from the effects of spatial structure of the area on the distribution of soil and litter properties in tropical ecosystems covering heterogeneous topographies. The aim of this study was to assess patterns of soil and litter variation in a tropical area that intercepts different levels of solar radiation throughout the year since its topography has slopes predominantly facing opposing geographic directions. Soil data (pH, C, N, P, H+Al, Ca, Mg, K, Al, Na, sand, and silt and plant litter data (N, K, Ca, P, and Mg were gathered together with the geographic coordinates (to model the spatial structure of 40 sampling units established at two sites composed of slopes predominantly facing northwest and southeast (20 units each. Soil and litter chemical properties varied more among slopes within similar geographic orientations than between the slopes facing opposing directions. Both the incident solar radiation and the spatial structure of the area were relevant in explaining the patterns detected in variation of soil and plant litter. Individual contributions of incident solar radiation to explain the variation in the properties evaluated suggested that this and other environmental factors may play a particularly relevant role in determining soil and plant litter distribution in tropical areas with heterogeneous topography. Furthermore, this study corroborates that the spatial structure of the area also plays an important role in the distribution of soil and litter within this type of landscape, which appears to be consistent with the action of water movement mechanisms in such areas.

  8. Spatial and seasonal variations of leaf area index (LAI) in subtropical secondary forests related to floristic composition and stand characters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Wenjuan; Xiang, Wenhua; Pan, Qiong; Zeng, Yelin; Ouyang, Shuai; Lei, Pifeng; Deng, Xiangwen; Fang, Xi; Peng, Changhui

    2016-07-01

    Leaf area index (LAI) is an important parameter related to carbon, water, and energy exchange between canopy and atmosphere and is widely applied in process models that simulate production and hydrological cycles in forest ecosystems. However, fine-scale spatial heterogeneity of LAI and its controlling factors have yet to be fully understood in Chinese subtropical forests. We used hemispherical photography to measure LAI values in three subtropical forests (Pinus massoniana-Lithocarpus glaber coniferous and evergreen broadleaved mixed forests, Choerospondias axillaris deciduous broadleaved forests, and L. glaber-Cyclobalanopsis glauca evergreen broadleaved forests) from April 2014 to January 2015. Spatial heterogeneity of LAI and its controlling factors were analysed using geostatistical methods and the generalised additive models (GAMs) respectively. Our results showed that LAI values differed greatly in the three forests and their seasonal variations were consistent with plant phenology. LAI values exhibited strong spatial autocorrelation for the three forests measured in January and for the L. glaber-C. glauca forest in April, July, and October. Obvious patch distribution pattern of LAI values occurred in three forests during the non-growing period and this pattern gradually dwindled in the growing season. Stem number, crown coverage, proportion of evergreen conifer species on basal area basis, proportion of deciduous species on basal area basis, and forest types affected the spatial variations in LAI values in January, while stem number and proportion of deciduous species on basal area basis affected the spatial variations in LAI values in July. Floristic composition, spatial heterogeneity, and seasonal variations should be considered for sampling strategy in indirect LAI measurement and application of LAI to simulate functional processes in subtropical forests.

  9. The structure of carbon black-elastomer composites by small-angle neutron scattering and the method of contrast variation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hjelm, R.P.; Wampler, W.; Gerspacher, M.

    1996-01-01

    We have been exploring the use of small-angle neutron scattering and the method of contrast variation to give a new look at a very old problem: reinforcement of elastomers by carbon black in durable rubber products. Carbon black has a hierarchy of structures consisting of particles covalently bound into aggregates, which in turn associate by weak interactions into agglomerates. We found that in one carbon black, HSA, the aggregates are rodlike, containing an average of 4-6 particles. The aggregates have an outer graphitic shell and an inner core of lower density carbon. The core is continuous throughout the carbon black aggregate. Contrast variation of swollen HSA-polyisoprene gels shows that the HSA is completely embedded in polyisoprene and that the agglomerates are formed predominantly by end on associations of the rodlike aggregates. The surface structure of the carbon black appears smooth over length scales above about 10 angstrom. Further studies using production carbon blacks suggest that these structural characteristics are generally present in commercial rubber composites

  10. Metal identification in small rural areas of bovine creations by EDXRF methodology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wouk, Luana C.; Melquiades, Fabio L.; Biase, Gabriel E.V.; Antunes Junior, Osmar R. [Universidade Estadual do Centro Oeste (UNICENTRO), Guarapuava, PR (Brazil). Dept. de Fisica; Peres, Jayme A. [Universidade Estadual do Centro Oeste (UNICENTRO), Guarapuava, PR (Brazil). Dept. de Medicina Veterinaria

    2010-07-01

    Full text: The purpose of this study was to verify the presence of metal pollution in the environment, from rural areas of bovine creation in the Rio das Pedras area in Serra da Esperanca, municipal district of Guarapuava - Parana. The analytical technique employed was Energy Dispersive X-ray Fluorescence Methodology with a portable equipment. Water, grass, soil, sediment and feed samples were collected from three small rural properties. Water samples were filtered for particulate matter retention and precipitation with APDC chelating agent was used for pre-concentration. For solid samples, between 0.3 g and 3 g, were placed in a cell covered with mylar film for irradiation and EDXRF direct analysis. Feed samples were analyzed without preparation. Soil and sediment samples were dried, ground and sieved for in natura EDXRF analysis. Grass samples were dried, crushed and ground up to powder form and then submitted to the same preparation as soil samples. The measurement system, from Applied Nuclear Physics Laboratory of UEL, consists in a Si-PIN X-ray detector (221 eV resolution for 5,9 keV line, 25 mum Be window) and a mini X-ray tube (4W, Ag target, 50 mum Ag filter). Sensitivity values were obtained from MicroMatter Standards and used for water and grass quantification. Calcium, Fe and Cu were found on water and K, Ca, Ti, Mn, Fe, Cu, Rb, Zr and Pb on grass samples. Potassium, Ca, Ti, Mn, Fe, Cu, Zn, Rb,Sr, Y, Zr, Pb were identified on soil and sediment samples. In this case just Ti, Fe and Zr were quantified due to the standards available for sensitivity determination. Noting that the presence of lead was found in one of the analyzed places. (author)

  11. Transforming ex-small scale mining land as farming areas for sustainable development and poverty alleviation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nampa, I. W.; Markus, J. E. R.; Mudita, I. W.; Natonis, R. L.; Bunga, W.; Kaho, N. R.

    2018-03-01

    When the price of manganese ores in 2012, mining activities declined or even terminated. Ex-miners lose an important source of income, but they did not have any other alternative except going back to slash and burn cultivation, producing enough only for their own food. Their hope for a better live was gone and at the same time they faced stigmatisation as causing environmental degradation from the rest of the community. We carried out this case study to followex-miners in the Tubuhue village who organised themselves to do post-mining rehabilitation by turning the former mining site into an area of productive farming. In-depth interview, field observation and focus group discussion were conducted from 2015 to 2017. We found that during the period of mining boom, slash and burn cultivation decrease significantly but began to increase after no mining activities. Various social transformations took place along with this land use change, but the most important was the miners’ decision to do mining as an organised activity. A strong leader of this organization played a pivotal role in turning the former mining site into an area of productive sedentary farming. This was carried out by organizing the ex-miners into farmers groups and together, constructing drip and sprinkler irrigation networks to water their crops using rain water collected in the mining holes that they had turned into small check-dams. The leader expected that this farming could provide an alternative for ex-miners to obtain cash income to limit them going back doing swidden farming.

  12. The gap of the area-weighted Motzkin spin chain is exponentially small

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levine, Lionel; Movassagh, Ramis

    2017-06-01

    We prove that the energy gap of the model proposed by Zhang et al (2016 arXiv:1606.07795) is exponentially small in the square of the system size. In Movassagh and Shor (2016 Proc. Natl Acad. Sci. USA) a class of exactly solvable quantum spin chain models was proposed that have integer spins (s), with a nearest neighbors Hamiltonian, and a unique ground state. The ground state can be seen as a uniform superposition of all s-colored Motzkin walks. The half-chain entanglement entropy provably violates the area law by a square root factor in the system’s size (˜\\sqrt{n} ) for s  >  1. For s  =  1, the violation is logarithmic (Bravyi et al 2012 Phys. Rev. Lett. 109 207202). Moreover in Movassagh and Shor (2016 Proc. Natl Acad. Sci. USA) it was proved that the gap vanishes polynomially and is O(n -c ) with c≥slant2 . Recently, a deformation of Movassagh and Shor (2016 Proc. Natl Acad. Sci. USA), which we call ‘weighted Motzkin quantum spin chain’ was proposed Zhang et al (2016 arXiv:1606.07795). This model has a unique ground state that is a superposition of the s-colored Motzkin walks weighted by tarea\\{Motzkin walk\\} with t  >  1. The most surprising feature of this model is that it violates the area law by a factor of n. Here we prove that the gap of this model is upper bounded by 8ns t-n2/3 for t  >  1 and s  >  1.

  13. PREVALENCE OF HAEMONCHUS CONTORTUS IN NATURALLY INFECTED SMALL RUMINANTS GRAZING IN THE POTOHAR AREA OF PAKISTAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. R. CHAUDARY, M. F. U. KHAN1 AND M. QAYYUM

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available The present study was carried out to investigate the prevalence and seasonal trend of the Haemonchus contortus in sheep and goats in the Potohar areas of northern Punjab, Pakistan from December 2004 to January 2006. Faecal samples collected from 968 sheep and 961 goats of different breeds were examined by the modified McMaster technique using saturated solution of sodium chloride. Results revealed that the infection was significantly (P<0.05 higher in sheep compared to goats. The peak infection level was recorded during rainy season (July-October. On the other hand, low infection level was noted from December upto May. In sheep, highest log faecal egg counts (LFECs were recorded in Islamabad, followed by Attock, Jhelum and Chakwal. However, in goats the LFECs trend was highest in Islamabad, followed by Jhelum, Attock and Chakwal districts. A significant (P<0.05 variability in LFECs was noted between sheep and goat breeds from site-site, while no significant difference was observed between breeds at the same site. Hairy (Jattal goats and Salt-Range (Latti sheep breeds exhibited significantly reduced LFECs level along with higher packed cell volume (PCV and haemoglobin (Hb levels compared to other breeds. Moreover, FAMACHA© chart scoring in relation with worm infection (FECs was more valid in sheep than goats. High prevalence of H. contortus in Potohar areas was due to favourable agro-climatic conditions that favour the development and survival of the free-living stages of H. contortus. The findings are discussed with regard to their relevance for strategic control of haemonchosis in small ruminants.

  14. Runoff and sediment variation in the areas with high and coarse sediment yield of the middle Yellow River

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Pan; Yao, Wenyi; Xiao, Peiqing; Sun, Weiying

    2018-02-01

    Massive water and soil conservation works (WSCW) have been conducted in the areas with high and coarse sediment yield of the middle Yellow River since 1982. With the impending effects of climate change, it is necessary to reconsider the effects of WSCW on runoff and sediment variation at decadal and regional scales. Using long-term official and synthesized data, the WSCW impacts on reducing water and soil loss were studied in Sanchuanhe River watershed. Results showed that the sediment and runoff generated from this area showed a decreasing trend in the past 50 years. A great progress has been achieved in erosion control since the 1970s. After the 4 soil and water conservation harnessing stages during the period from 1970 to 2006, the sediment and runoff yield showed decreases with the extension of harnessing. The results revealed that human activities exerted the largest effects on the sediment reduction and explained 66.6% of the variation in the specific sediment yield. The contribution of rainfall variation to runoff reduction was as large as human activities. A great benefit have been obtained in water and soil loss control in this area.

  15. Intra- and interspecific trait variations reveal functional relationships between specific leaf area and soil niche within a subtropical forest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Dong; Chen, Yongfa; Zhao, Kangning; Cornelissen, J H C; Chu, Chengjin

    2018-02-03

    How functional traits vary with environmental conditions is of fundamental importance in trait-based community ecology. However, how intraspecific variability in functional traits is connected to species distribution is not well understood. This study investigated inter- and intraspecific variation of a key functional trait, i.e. specific leaf area (leaf area per unit dry mass; SLA), in relation to soil factors and tested if trait variation is more closely associated with specific environmental regimes for low-variability species than for high-variability species. In a subtropical evergreen forest plot (50 ha, southern China), 106 700 leaves from 5335 individuals of 207 woody species were intensively collected, with 30 individuals sampled for most species to ensure a sufficient sample size representative of intraspecific variability. Soil conditions for each plant were estimated by kriging from more than 1700 observational soil locations across the plot. Intra- and interspecific variation in SLA were separately related to environmental factors. Based on the species-specific variation of SLA, species were categorized into three groups: low-, intermediate- and high-intraspecific variability. Intraspecific habitat ranges and the strength of SLA-habitat relationships were compared among these three groups. Interspecific variation in SLA overrides the intraspecific variation (77 % vs. 8 %). Total soil nitrogen (TN, positively) and total organic carbon (TOC, negatively) are the most important explanatory factors for SLA variation at both intra- and interspecific levels. SLA, both within and between species, decreases with decreasing soil nitrogen availability. As predicted, species with low intraspecific variability in SLA have narrower habitat ranges with respect to soil TOC and TN and show a stronger SLA-habitat association than high-variability species. For woody plants low SLA is a phenotypic and probably adaptive response to nitrogen stress, which drives the

  16. The Effects of Magnetic-Field Geometry on Longitudinal Oscillations of Solar Prominences: Cross-Sectional Area Variation for Thin Tubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luna, M.; Diaz, A. J.; Oliver, R.; Terradas, J.; Karpen, J.

    2016-01-01

    Solar prominences are subject to both field-aligned (longitudinal) and transverse oscillatory motions, as evidenced by an increasing number of observations. Large-amplitude longitudinal motions provide valuable information on the geometry of the filament channel magnetic structure that supports the cool prominence plasma against gravity. Our pendulum model, in which the restoring force is the gravity projected along the dipped field lines of the magnetic structure, best explains these oscillations. However, several factors can influence the longitudinal oscillations, potentially invalidating the pendulum model. Aims. The aim of this work is to study the influence of large-scale variations in the magnetic field strength along the field lines, i.e., variations of the cross-sectional area along the flux tubes supporting prominence threads. Methods. We studied the normal modes of several flux tube configurations, using linear perturbation analysis, to assess the influence of different geometrical parameters on the oscillation properties. Results. We found that the influence of the symmetric and asymmetric expansion factors on longitudinal oscillations is small.Conclusions. We conclude that the longitudinal oscillations are not significantly influenced by variations of the cross-section of the flux tubes, validating the pendulum model in this context.

  17. design of a small scale wind generator for low wind speed areas

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    Most small scale level wind turbine generators are directly driven system, variable speed, and partially ... the best solutions for small-scale wind power plants. Low-speed multi-pole PM generators ..... Designs of the Same Magnet Structure for.

  18. Variations in area-level disadvantage of Australian registered fitness trainers usual training locations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jason A. Bennie

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Leisure-time physical activity and strength training participation levels are low and socioeconomically distributed. Fitness trainers (e.g. gym/group instructors may have a role in increasing these participation levels. However, it is not known whether the training location and characteristics of Australian fitness trainers vary between areas that differ in socioeconomic status. Methods In 2014, a sample of 1,189 Australian trainers completed an online survey with questions about personal and fitness industry-related characteristics (e.g. qualifications, setting, and experience and postcode of their usual training location. The Australian Bureau of Statistics ‘Index of Relative Socioeconomic Disadvantage’ (IRSD was matched to training location and used to assess where fitness professionals trained and whether their experience, qualification level and delivery methods differed by area-level disadvantage. Linear regression analysis was used to examine the relationship between IRSD score and selected characteristics adjusting for covariates (e.g. sex, age. Results Overall, 47 % of respondents worked in areas within the three least-disadvantaged deciles. In contrast, only 14.8 % worked in the three most-disadvantaged deciles. In adjusted regression models, fitness industry qualification was positively associated with a higher IRSD score (i.e. working in the least-disadvantaged areas (Cert III: ref; Cert IV β:13.44 [95 % CI 3.86-23.02]; Diploma β:15.77 [95 % CI: 2.17-29.37]; Undergraduate β:23.14 [95 % CI: 9.41-36.86]. Conclusions Fewer Australian fitness trainers work in areas with high levels of socioeconomic disadvantaged areas than in areas with low levels of disadvantage. A higher level of fitness industry qualifications was associated with working in areas with lower levels of disadvantage. Future research should explore the effectiveness of providing incentives that encourage more fitness trainers and those with

  19. Variations in area-level disadvantage of Australian registered fitness trainers usual training locations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennie, Jason A; Thornton, Lukar E; van Uffelen, Jannique G Z; Banting, Lauren K; Biddle, Stuart J H

    2016-07-11

    Leisure-time physical activity and strength training participation levels are low and socioeconomically distributed. Fitness trainers (e.g. gym/group instructors) may have a role in increasing these participation levels. However, it is not known whether the training location and characteristics of Australian fitness trainers vary between areas that differ in socioeconomic status. In 2014, a sample of 1,189 Australian trainers completed an online survey with questions about personal and fitness industry-related characteristics (e.g. qualifications, setting, and experience) and postcode of their usual training location. The Australian Bureau of Statistics 'Index of Relative Socioeconomic Disadvantage' (IRSD) was matched to training location and used to assess where fitness professionals trained and whether their experience, qualification level and delivery methods differed by area-level disadvantage. Linear regression analysis was used to examine the relationship between IRSD score and selected characteristics adjusting for covariates (e.g. sex, age). Overall, 47 % of respondents worked in areas within the three least-disadvantaged deciles. In contrast, only 14.8 % worked in the three most-disadvantaged deciles. In adjusted regression models, fitness industry qualification was positively associated with a higher IRSD score (i.e. working in the least-disadvantaged areas) (Cert III: ref; Cert IV β:13.44 [95 % CI 3.86-23.02]; Diploma β:15.77 [95 % CI: 2.17-29.37]; Undergraduate β:23.14 [95 % CI: 9.41-36.86]). Fewer Australian fitness trainers work in areas with high levels of socioeconomic disadvantaged areas than in areas with low levels of disadvantage. A higher level of fitness industry qualifications was associated with working in areas with lower levels of disadvantage. Future research should explore the effectiveness of providing incentives that encourage more fitness trainers and those with higher qualifications to work in more socioeconomically

  20. Geographic epidemiology in a small area: cancer incidence in Baakline, Lebanon, 2000-2008.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adib, S M; Tabbal, N; Hamadeh, R; Ammar, W

    2013-04-01

    Aggregate data of the National Clr cac gi s in Lebanon cannot discriminate cance r incidence i n small areas. Trained community members surveyed the permanent population of the Baakline municipality using the verbal autopsy approach. We surveyed 1042 households with at least 1 member living permanently in Baakline during 2000-2008. Data covered 4330 persons yielding 34,143 years of observation and 56 new cases of cancer were reported. Median age at diagnosis varied significantly between men (77 years) and women (56 years). The most common types were lung cancer (20%) followed by colorectal (12.5%) and breast (9%). Estimated crude cancer incidence rate was 164 cases/100,000 persons/year, significantly higher in men (194) than women (130), and much lower overall than the national figure (218). The permanent Baakline population is older than that of Lebanon itself, yet the cancer incidence rate is markedly lower than the national figure. This finding pleads for serious efforts to preserve the low environmental contamination and the healthy lifestyles in food and tobacco abstinence that have protected the population so far.

  1. Mathematical model of small water-plane area twin-hull and application in marine simulator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiufeng; Lyu, Zhenwang; Yin, Yong; Jin, Yicheng

    2013-09-01

    Small water-plane area twin-hull (SWATH) has drawn the attention of many researchers due to its good sea-keeping ability. In this paper, MMG's idea of separation was used to perform SWATH movement modeling and simulation; respectively the forces and moment of SWATH were divided into bare hull, propeller, rudder at the fluid hydrodynamics, etc. Wake coefficient at the propellers which reduces thrust coefficient, and rudder mutual interference forces among the hull and propeller, for the calculation of SWATH, were all considered. The fourth-order Runge-Kutta method of integration was used by solving differential equations, in order to get SWATH's movement states. As an example, a turning test at full speed and full starboard rudder of `Seagull' craft is shown. The simulation results show the SWATH's regular pattern and trend of motion. It verifies the correctness of the mathematical model of the turning movement. The SWATH's mathematical model is applied to marine simulator in order to train the pilots or seamen, or safety assessment for ocean engineering project. Lastly, the full mission navigation simulating system (FMNSS) was determined to be a successful virtual reality technology application sample in the field of navigation simulation.

  2. Group-level variations in motor representation areas of thenar and anterior tibial muscles: Navigated Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niskanen, Eini; Julkunen, Petro; Säisänen, Laura; Vanninen, Ritva; Karjalainen, Pasi; Könönen, Mervi

    2010-08-01

    Navigated transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) can be used to stimulate functional cortical areas at precise anatomical location to induce measurable responses. The stimulation has commonly been focused on anatomically predefined motor areas: TMS of that area elicits a measurable muscle response, the motor evoked potential. In clinical pathologies, however, the well-known homunculus somatotopy theory may not be straightforward, and the representation area of the muscle is not fixed. Traditionally, the anatomical locations of TMS stimulations have not been reported at the group level in standard space. This study describes a methodology for group-level analysis by investigating the normal representation areas of thenar and anterior tibial muscle in the primary motor cortex. The optimal representation area for these muscles was mapped in 59 healthy right-handed subjects using navigated TMS. The coordinates of the optimal stimulation sites were then normalized into standard space to determine the representation areas of these muscles at the group-level in healthy subjects. Furthermore, 95% confidence interval ellipsoids were fitted into the optimal stimulation site clusters to define the variation between subjects in optimal stimulation sites. The variation was found to be highest in the anteroposterior direction along the superior margin of the precentral gyrus. These results provide important normative information for clinical studies assessing changes in the functional cortical areas because of plasticity of the brain. Furthermore, it is proposed that the presented methodology to study TMS locations at the group level on standard space will be a suitable tool for research purposes in population studies. 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  3. Sensitivity of Rabbit Ventricular Action Potential and Ca2+ Dynamics to Small Variations in Membrane Currents and Ion Diffusion Coefficients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuan Hung Lo

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Little is known about how small variations in ionic currents and Ca2+ and Na+ diffusion coefficients impact action potential and Ca2+ dynamics in rabbit ventricular myocytes. We applied sensitivity analysis to quantify the sensitivity of Shannon et al. model (Biophys. J., 2004 to 5%–10% changes in currents conductance, channels distribution, and ion diffusion in rabbit ventricular cells. We found that action potential duration and Ca2+ peaks are highly sensitive to 10% increase in L-type Ca2+ current; moderately influenced by 10% increase in Na+-Ca2+ exchanger, Na+-K+ pump, rapid delayed and slow transient outward K+ currents, and Cl− background current; insensitive to 10% increases in all other ionic currents and sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca2+ fluxes. Cell electrical activity is strongly affected by 5% shift of L-type Ca2+ channels and Na+-Ca2+ exchanger in between junctional and submembrane spaces while Ca2+-activated Cl−-channel redistribution has the modest effect. Small changes in submembrane and cytosolic diffusion coefficients for Ca2+, but not in Na+ transfer, may alter notably myocyte contraction. Our studies highlight the need for more precise measurements and further extending and testing of the Shannon et al. model. Our results demonstrate usefulness of sensitivity analysis to identify specific knowledge gaps and controversies related to ventricular cell electrophysiology and Ca2+ signaling.

  4. Small mammal populations and ecology in the Kings River Sustainable Forest Ecosystems Project area

    Science.gov (United States)

    William F. Jr. Laudenslayer; Roberta J. Fargo

    2002-01-01

    Small mammals are important components of woodlands and forests. Since 1992, we have been studying several aspects of small mammal ecology in oak woodlands in western foothills of the southern Sierra Nevada. Assemblages of small, nocturnal mammal species are dominated by the brush mouse (Peromyscus boylii), California mouse (P. californicus...

  5. The Hengill geothermal area, Iceland: Variation of temperature gradients deduced from the maximum depth of seismogenesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foulger, G. R.

    1995-04-01

    Given a uniform lithology and strain rate and a full seismic data set, the maximum depth of earthquakes may be viewed to a first order as an isotherm. These conditions are approached at the Hengill geothermal area S. Iceland, a dominantly basaltic area. The likely strain rate calculated from thermal and tectonic considerations is 10 -15 s -1, and temperature measurements from four drill sites within the area indicate average, near-surface geothermal gradients of up to 150 °C km -1 throughout the upper 2 km. The temperature at which seismic failure ceases for the strain rates likely at the Hengill geothermal area is determined by analogy with oceanic crust, and is about 650 ± 50 °C. The topographies of the top and bottom of the seismogenic layer were mapped using 617 earthquakes located highly accurately by performing a simultaneous inversion for three-dimensional structure and hypocentral parameters. The thickness of the seismogenic layer is roughly constant and about 3 km. A shallow, aseismic, low-velocity volume within the spreading plate boundary that crosses the area occurs above the top of the seismogenic layer and is interpreted as an isolated body of partial melt. The base of the seismogenic layer has a maximum depth of about 6.5 km beneath the spreading axis and deepens to about 7 km beneath a transform zone in the south of the area. Beneath the high-temperature part of the geothermal area, the maximum depth of earthquakes may be as shallow as 4 km. The geothermal gradient below drilling depths in various parts of the area ranges from 84 ± 9 °Ckm -1 within the low-temperature geothermal area of the transform zone to 138 ± 15 °Ckm -1 below the centre of the high-temperature geothermal area. Shallow maximum depths of earthquakes and therefore high average geothermal gradients tend to correlate with the intensity of the geothermal area and not with the location of the currently active spreading axis.

  6. Seasonal variation in the range areas of the diurnal rodent Octodon degus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quirici, Verónica; Castro, Rodrigo A; Ortiz-Tolhuysen, Liliana; Chesh, Adrian S; Burger, Joseph Robert; Miranda, Eduardo; Cortés, Arturo; Hayes, Loren D; Ebensperger, Luis A

    2010-01-01

    Both breeding activity and abundance and quality of available food are expected to influence daily movements of animals. Animals are predicted to range over large areas to meet high energy demands associated with reproduction (females) or to increase mating success (males). However, animals should expand their range areas whenever food conditions deteriorate. To examine the extent to which breeding activity versus food availability influence space use, we compared the size and location of range areas (home ranges) of the degu (Octodon degus), a diurnal rodent from semiarid environments of north-central Chile, during the austral winter and summer seasons. Degus produce young during the austral spring (September-October) when high-quality food is readily available. In contrast, degus do not breed during the austral summer (January-March) when food is scarce and of low quality. We predicted that degus would range over smaller areas in winter if the availability of food has a greater influence on space than breeding activity. Individuals were radiotracked in winter and the following summer over a 3-year period. Surveys of herbaceous cover were conducted during winter and summer to determine seasonal changes in the abundance and quality of primary food. In summer degus expanded and moved the location of their range areas to locations with available food. Given that preferred food was less abundant in summer than winter, we suggest that degu range areas are strongly influenced by food conditions.

  7. Regional distribution and variation of gamma-globulin absorption from the small intestine of the neonatal calf

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fetcher, A.; Gay, C.C.; McGuire, T.C.; Barbee, D.D.; Parish, S.M.

    1983-01-01

    125I-labeled immunoglobulin (Ig)G1 in colostral whey was used to determine the region of maximum absorption of Ig from the small intestine of the neonatal calf and the variation in Ig absorption among calves at the intestinal level. In experiment 1, 5 segments (approx 5%, 35%, 60%, 80%, and 95% of the duodenocecal length) were formed in the small intestine of 9 colostrum-deprived calves shortly after birth. These segments were injected with colostral whey containing 125I-IgG1 4 hours after birth, and uptake, transfer, and absorption (defined as uptake plus transfer) were determined for each segment 2 hours later. Raw data were adjusted for the milligrams of IgG1 injected per gram of intestinal tissue to obtain the least squares mean (LSM) value. The LSM values for absorption of IgG1 from distal segments 3, 4, and 5 were significantly greater (P less than 0.05) than those values for proximal segments 1 and 2. The region of the maximum IgG1 absorption was the lower small intestine, 60% to 80% of the duodenocecal length. There was also an indication of independence between uptake and transfer in each of the segments. Significant differences (P less than 0.05) were present among calves in the LSM values for uptake and absorption, but not for transfer. In experiment 2, thoracic ducts of 8 newborn calves were cannulated 4 to 5 hours after birth. At 6 hours after birth, colostral whey with 125I-IgG1 was injected into an intestinal segment (approx 60% to 80% of the duodenocecal length)

  8. Modelling changes in small area disability free life expectancy: trends in London wards between 2001 and 2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Congdon, Peter

    2014-12-20

    Existing analyses of trends in disability free life expectancy (DFLE) are mainly at aggregate level (national or broad regional). However, major differences in DFLE, and trends in these expectancies, exist between different neighbourhoods within regions, so supporting a small area perspective. However, this raises issues regarding the stability of conventional life table estimation methods at small area scales. This paper advocates a Bayesian borrowing strength technique to model trends in mortality and disability differences across 625 small areas in London, using illness data from the 2001 and 2011 population Censuses, and deaths data for two periods centred on the Census years. From this analysis, estimates of total life expectancy and DFLE are obtained. The spatio-temporal modelling perspective allows assessment of whether significant compression or expansion of morbidity has occurred in each small area. Appropriate models involve random effects that recognise correlation and interaction effects over relevant dimensions of the observed deaths and illness data (areas, ages), as well as major spatial trends (e.g. gradients in health and mortality according to area deprivation category). Whilst borrowing strength is a primary consideration (and demonstrated by raised precision for estimated life expectancies), so also is model parsimony. Therefore, pure borrowing strength models are compared with models allowing selection of random age-area interaction effects using a spike-slab prior, and in fact borrowing strength combined with random effects selection provides better fit. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  9. Superficial structures cartography of the Essaouira basin under ground (Morocco, by small refraction seismic: contribution of the static corrections in the reinterpretation of the speeds variations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dahaoui M.

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The static corrections are a necessary step in the sequence of the seismic processing. This paper presents a study of these corrections in the Essaouira basin. The main objective of this study is to calculate the static corrections by exploiting the seismic data acquired in the field to improve the deep structures imaging. It is to determine the roof and the basis of the superficial layers which constitute the weathered zone while calculating the delays of seismic wave’s arrivals in these layers. The purpose is to cancel the effect of the topography and the weathered zone, in order to avoid any confusion when the seismic and geological interpretation. The results obtained show the average values of the static corrections varying between - 127 and 282 ms (double time, with existence of high values by location, particularly in the Eastern and North-Eastern of the basin, which meant the presence of altered zone with irregular topography and whose thickness and speeds vary laterally. In effect the variations of velocities in the fifty meters from the surface may introduce significant anomalies in seismic refraction, with heavy consequences when the interpretation or the drilling establishment. These variations are mainly due to lateral changes in facies and variations in the formations thickness. The calculation of the static corrections, revealed high values at certain areas (East and North-East, which will enable us to better orient the future campaigns in these zones. It is therefore necessary to concentrate the seismic cores drillings and the small refraction seismic profiles by tightening the seismic lines meshes in order to have the maximum values of static corrections and thereafter a better imaging of the reflectors.

  10. Assessment of land degradation and its spatial and temporal variation in Beijing surrounding area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Shuang; Dong, Suocheng; Zhang, Xiaojun; Zhiqiang, Gao

    2005-08-01

    The indulgence in willful persecution of sandstorm had made great attention of many countries around the world. Chinese government and the Chinese academy of science going with some other countries have devoted a large amount of vigor to study the crucial environment problem. Due to the main source areas of sandstorm all located in the arid and semi-arid regions where there have great area, hard natural condition and bad traffic condition, it's very difficult to accomplish source area and the reason of sandstorm. For this destination, a international cooperation organization has been established to clarify the occur mechanism, transfer process and the following environment impact of sandstorm. The organization includes many researchers come form USA, Japan, Korea, and so on. Beijing surrounding area is one of the main sandstorm sources in recent years. In order to understand fully of the sandstorm form and development, we analyzed the land use degradation of Beijing surrounding area during the last ten years. 71 scenes Landsat TM/ETM, 611 scenes DRG and DEM data had been processed in our study. This paper made a detail describe of using Landsat image data and high resolution DEM data to construe the soil erosion and vegetation degenerate. The result shows that the irrational human activities and land use style are the main factors of land use degradation. In case of Beijing surrounding area, the land degradation directly impacted the frequency and intensity of sand & dust storm in Northern China. The case study region of Beijing surrounding area includes 51 counties that belong to three provinces and autonomous regions.

  11. Assessment of the soil water content temporal variations in an agricultural area of Galicia (NW Spain)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mestas-Valero, Roger Manuel; Miras-Avalos, Jose Manuel; Paz-González, Antonio

    2010-05-01

    The direct and continuous assessment of the temporal variation on soil water content is of paramount importance for agricultural practices and, in particular, for the management of water resources. Soil water content is affected by many factors such as topography, particle size, clay and organic matter contents, and tillage systems. There are several techniques to measure or estimate soil water content. Among them, Frequency Domain Reflectometry (FDR) stands out. It is based on measuring the dielectrical constant of the soil environment. This technique allows to describe water dynamics in time and space, to determine the main patterns of soil moisture, the water uptake by roots, the evapotranspiration and the drainage. Therefore, the aim of this study was to assess the daily variation of soil water content in the root-influenced zone in plots devoted to maize and grassland as a function of the soil water volumetric content. The studied site is located in an experimental field of the Centre for Agricultural Research (CIAM) in Mabegondo located in the province of A Coruña, Spain (43°14'N, 8°15'W; 91 masl). The study was carried out from June 2008 to September 2009 in a field devoted to maize (Zea mays, L.) and another field devoted to grassland. The soil of these sites is silt-clay textured. Long-term mean annual temperature and rainfall figures are 13.3 °C and 1288 mm, respectively. During the study period, maize crop was subjected to conventional agricultural practices. A weekly evaluation of the phenological stage of the crop was performed. An EnviroSCAN FDR equipment, comprising six capacitance sensors, was installed in the studied sites following the manufacturer's recommendations, thus assuring a proper contact between the probe and the soil. Soil water content in the root-influenced zone (40 cm depth in grassland and 60 cm depth in maize were considered) was hourly monitored in 20 cm ranges (0-20 cm, 20-40 cm, and 40-60 cm) using FDR. Evaluations were

  12. Distribution of total mercury and methylmercury around the small-scale gold mining area along the Cikaniki River, Bogor, Indonesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomiyasu, Takashi; Kodamatani, Hitoshi; Hamada, Yuriko Kono; Matsuyama, Akito; Imura, Ryusuke; Taniguchi, Yoko; Hidayati, Nuril; Rahajoe, Joeni Setijo

    2017-01-01

    This study investigates the distribution of total mercury (T-Hg) and methylmercury (MeHg) in the soil and water around the artisanal and small-scale gold mining (ASGM) area along the Cikaniki River, West Java, Indonesia. The concentration of T-Hg and MeHg in the forest soil ranged from 0.07 to 16.7 mg kg -1 and from <0.07 to 2.0 μg kg -1 , respectively, whereas it ranged from 0.40 to 24.9 mg kg -1 and from <0.07 to 56.3 μg kg -1 , respectively, in the paddy field soil. In the vertical variation of the T-Hg of forest soil, the highest values were observed at the soil surface, and these values were found to decrease with increasing depth. A similar variation was observed for MeHg and total organic carbon content (TOC), and a linear relationship was observed between them. Mercury deposited on the soil surface can be trapped and retained by organic matter and subjected to methylation. The slope of the line obtained for the T-Hg vs. TOC plot became larger near the ASGM villages, implying a higher rate of mercury deposition in these areas. In contrast, the plots of MeHg vs. TOC fell along the same trend line regardless of the distance from the ASGM village. Organic carbon content may be a predominant factor in controlling MeHg formation in forest soils. The T-Hg concentration in the river water ranged from 0.40 to 9.6 μg L -1 . River water used for irrigation can prove to be a source of mercury for the paddy fields. The concentrations of Hg 0 and Hg 2+ in river water showed similar variations as that observed for the T-Hg concentration. The highest Hg 0 concentration of 3.2 μg L -1 can be attributed to the waste inflow from work sites. The presence of Hg 0 in river water can become a source of mercury present in the atmosphere along the river. MeHg concentration in the river water was found to be 0.004-0.14% of T-Hg concentration, which was considerably lower than the concentrations of other Hg species. However, MeHg comprised approximately 0.2% of the T

  13. The Hengill geothermal area, Iceland: variation of temperature gradients deduced from the maximum depth of seismogenesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foulger, G.R.

    1995-01-01

    Given a uniform lithology and strain rate and a full seismic data set, the maximum depth of earthquakes may be viewed to a first order as an isotherm. These conditions are approached at the Hengill geothermal area, S. Iceland, a dominantly basaltic area. The temperature at which seismic failure ceases for the strain rates likely at the Hengill geothermal area is determined by analogy with oceanic crust, and is about 650 ?? 50??C. The topographies of the top and bottom of the seismogenic layer were mapped using 617 earthquakes. The thickness of the seismogenic layer is roughly constant and about 3 km. A shallow, aseismic, low-velocity volume within the spreading plate boundary that crosses the area occurs above the top of the seismogenic layer and is interpreted as an isolated body of partial melt. The base of the seismogenic layer has a maximum depth of about 6.5 km beneath the spreading axis and deepens to about 7 km beneath a transform zone in the south of the area. -from Author

  14. Estimating Steatosis Prevalence in Overweight and Obese Children: Comparison of Bayesian Small Area and Direct Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamid Reza Khalkhali

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Background Often, there is no access to sufficient sample size to estimate the prevalence using the method of direct estimator in all areas. The aim of this study was to compare small area’s Bayesian method and direct method in estimating the prevalence of steatosis in obese and overweight children. Materials and Methods: In this cross-sectional study, was conducted on 150 overweight and obese children aged 2 to 15 years referred to the Children's digestive clinic of Urmia University of Medical Sciences- Iran, in 2013. After Body mass index (BMI calculation, children with overweight and obese were assessed in terms of primary tests of obesity screening. Then children with steatosis confirmed by abdominal Ultrasonography, were referred to the laboratory for doing further tests. Steatosis prevalence was estimated by direct and Bayesian method and their efficiency were evaluated using mean-square error Jackknife method. The study data was analyzed using the open BUGS3.1.2 and R2.15.2 software. Results: The findings indicated that estimation of steatosis prevalence in children using Bayesian and direct methods were between 0.3098 to 0.493, and 0.355 to 0.560 respectively, in Health Districts; 0.3098 to 0.502, and 0.355 to 0.550 in Education Districts; 0.321 to 0.582, and 0.357 to 0.615 in age groups; 0.313 to 0.429, and 0.383 to 0.536 in sex groups. In general, according to the results, mean-square error of Bayesian estimation was smaller than direct estimation (P

  15. Cyber dating violence: Prevalence and correlates among high school students from small urban areas in Quebec.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Kevin; Cénat, Jude Mary; Lapierre, Andréanne; Dion, Jacinthe; Hébert, Martine; Côté, Karine

    2018-07-01

    Adolescents in a dating relationship can interact anytime using information and communication technologies. Yet, despite associated potential benefits, this availability of means to reach out to their partner may also exacerbate possible conflictual exchanges, including dating violence through technology. This study aimed to document the prevalence of cyber dating violence (CDV) victimization and perpetration among teenagers. It also explored self-esteem and psychological distress in participants having been perpetrators, victims, or perpetrator-victims, compared with those not having experienced CDV. The sample comprised 190 teenagers from a small urban area who completed the K10 psychological distress scale, the Self-Description Questionnaire, which measures self-esteem, and the Cyber Dating Abuse Questionnaire, which measures the prevalence of CDV victimization and perpetration. Our results suggest no gender difference in the prevalence of CDV victimization (35.8%), perpetration (33.0%), or the high co-occurrence rate of victimization and perpetration (27.2%) in the last 12 months. When age and gender were controlled for, cyber dating violence was found to be associated with low self-esteem and psychological distress in teenagers. Cyberperpetration was also associated with higher self-esteem. The cross-sectional design precludes any conclusion about the sequencing of the variables. Reliance on a convenience sample also represents a limitation of the study. CDV is associated with low self-esteem and psychological distress in teenagers. Dating violence prevention programs should include issues related to CDV, considering its high prevalence, conceptual proximity to psychological violence, and relationship with psychological distress and low self esteem. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Variations in the Spatial Distribution of Areas of Economic Growth and Stagnation in Poland: Determinants and Consequences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Churski Paweł

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This study seeks to identify the spatial distribution of and changes in areas of economic growth and stagnation in Poland resulting from spatial differences in the process of the country’s socio-economic advancement. The research covered two spatial systems, NUTS 2 and NUTS 4, and embraced the following steps: (1 identification of the spatial distribution of areas of economic growth and stagnation, by region and subregion, and of its determinants; (2 analysis of variations in the spatial distribution of areas of economic growth and stagnation, by region and subregion, and of its consequences; and (3 conclusions from the development trajectories identified and recommendations for intervention measures to be taken under cohesion policy.

  17. Transmission of government spending shocks in the Euro area: time variation and driving forces

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kirchner, M.; Cimadomo, J.; Hauptmeier, S.

    2010-01-01

    This paper provides new evidence on the effects of government spending shocks and the fiscal transmission mechanism in the euro area for the period 1980-2008. Our contribution is two-fold. First, we investigate changes in the macroeconomic impact of government spending shocks using time-varying

  18. Transmission of government spending shocks in the Euro area: time variation and driving forces

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kirchner, M.; Cimadomo, J.; Hauptmeier, S.

    This paper applies structural vector autoregressions with time-varying parameters in order to investigate changes in the effects of government spending shocks in the euro area, and the driving forces of those changes. Our contribution is two-fold. First, we present evidence that the short-run impact

  19. Morphological variation of sorghum landraces from semi-arid areas of Zimbabwe

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Mujaju, C

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available are the mainstay of smallholder agriculture in such areas. Unfortunately, limited studies have been done to quantify the genetic diversity of this material in order to formulate the necessary conservation strategies. This study analysed the genetic diversity of 47...

  20. Process variations in surface nano geometries manufacture on large area substrates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Calaon, Matteo; Hansen, Hans Nørgaard; Tosello, Guido

    2014-01-01

    The need of transporting, treating and measuring increasingly smaller biomedical samples has pushed the integration of a far reaching number of nanofeatures over large substrates size in respect to the conventional processes working area windows. Dimensional stability of nano fabrication processe...

  1. Effects of Temporal and Interspecific Variation of Specific Leaf Area on Leaf Area Index Estimation of Temperate Broadleaved Forests in Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boram Kwon

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the effects of interspecific and temporal variation of specific leaf area (SLA, cm2·g−1 on leaf area index (LAI estimation for three deciduous broadleaved forests (Gwangneung (GN, Taehwa (TH, and Gariwang (GRW in Korea with varying ages and composition of tree species. In fall of 2014, fallen leaves were periodically collected using litter traps and classified by species. LAI was estimated by obtaining SLAs using four calculation methods (A: including both interspecific and temporal variation in SLA; B: species specific mean SLA; C: period-specific mean SLA; and D: overall mean, then multiplying the SLAs by the amount of leaves. SLA varied across different species in all plots, and SLAs of upper canopy species were less than those of lower canopy species. The LAIs calculated using method A, the reference method, were GN 6.09, TH 5.42, and GRW 4.33. LAIs calculated using method B showed a difference of up to 3% from the LAI of method A, but LAIs calculated using methods C and D were overestimated. Therefore, species specific SLA must be considered for precise LAI estimation for broadleaved forests that include multiple species.

  2. Variation in Definitive Therapy for Localized Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer Among National Comprehensive Cancer Network Institutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Valle, Luca F. [Geisel School of Medicine at Dartmouth College, Dartmouth College, Hanover, New Hampshire (United States); Jagsi, Reshma [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Michigan Comprehensive Cancer Center, Ann Arbor, Michigan (United States); Bobiak, Sarah N.; Zornosa, Carrie [National Comprehensive Cancer Network, Fort Washington, Pennsylvania (United States); D' Amico, Thomas A. [Department of Surgery, Division of Thoracic Surgery, Duke Cancer Institute, Durham, North Carolina (United States); Pisters, Katherine M. [Department of Thoracic/Head and Neck Medical Oncology, Division of Cancer Medicine, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Dexter, Elisabeth U. [Department of Thoracic Surgery, Roswell Park Cancer Institute, Buffalo, New York (United States); Niland, Joyce C. [Department of Information Sciences, City of Hope Comprehensive Cancer Center, Duarte, California (United States); Hayman, James A. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Michigan Comprehensive Cancer Center, Ann Arbor, Michigan (United States); Kapadia, Nirav S., E-mail: Nirav.S.Kapadia@hitchcock.org [Department of Radiation Oncology, Dartmouth-Hitchcock Norris Cotton Cancer Center, Lebanon, New Hampshire (United States); Dartmouth Institute for Health Policy and Clinical Practice, Lebanon, New Hampshire (United States)

    2016-02-01

    Purpose: This study determined practice patterns in the staging and treatment of patients with stage I non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) among National Comprehensive Cancer Network (NCCN) member institutions. Secondary aims were to determine trends in the use of definitive therapy, predictors of treatment type, and acute adverse events associated with primary modalities of treatment. Methods and Materials: Data from the National Comprehensive Cancer Network Oncology Outcomes Database from 2007 to 2011 for US patients with stage I NSCLC were used. Main outcome measures included patterns of care, predictors of treatment, acute morbidity, and acute mortality. Results: Seventy-nine percent of patients received surgery, 16% received definitive radiation therapy (RT), and 3% were not treated. Seventy-four percent of the RT patients received stereotactic body RT (SBRT), and the remainder received nonstereotactic RT (NSRT). Among participating NCCN member institutions, the number of surgeries-to-RT course ratios varied between 1.6 and 34.7 (P<.01), and the SBRT-to-NSRT ratio varied between 0 and 13 (P=.01). Significant variations were also observed in staging practices, with brain imaging 0.33 (0.25-0.43) times as likely and mediastinoscopy 31.26 (21.84-44.76) times more likely for surgical patients than for RT patients. Toxicity rates for surgical and for SBRT patients were similar, although the rates were double for NSRT patients. Conclusions: The variations in treatment observed among NCCN institutions reflects the lack of level I evidence directing the use of surgery or SBRT for stage I NSCLC. In this setting, research of patient and physician preferences may help to guide future decision making.

  3. Variation in Definitive Therapy for Localized Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer Among National Comprehensive Cancer Network Institutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valle, Luca F.; Jagsi, Reshma; Bobiak, Sarah N.; Zornosa, Carrie; D'Amico, Thomas A.; Pisters, Katherine M.; Dexter, Elisabeth U.; Niland, Joyce C.; Hayman, James A.; Kapadia, Nirav S.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: This study determined practice patterns in the staging and treatment of patients with stage I non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) among National Comprehensive Cancer Network (NCCN) member institutions. Secondary aims were to determine trends in the use of definitive therapy, predictors of treatment type, and acute adverse events associated with primary modalities of treatment. Methods and Materials: Data from the National Comprehensive Cancer Network Oncology Outcomes Database from 2007 to 2011 for US patients with stage I NSCLC were used. Main outcome measures included patterns of care, predictors of treatment, acute morbidity, and acute mortality. Results: Seventy-nine percent of patients received surgery, 16% received definitive radiation therapy (RT), and 3% were not treated. Seventy-four percent of the RT patients received stereotactic body RT (SBRT), and the remainder received nonstereotactic RT (NSRT). Among participating NCCN member institutions, the number of surgeries-to-RT course ratios varied between 1.6 and 34.7 (P<.01), and the SBRT-to-NSRT ratio varied between 0 and 13 (P=.01). Significant variations were also observed in staging practices, with brain imaging 0.33 (0.25-0.43) times as likely and mediastinoscopy 31.26 (21.84-44.76) times more likely for surgical patients than for RT patients. Toxicity rates for surgical and for SBRT patients were similar, although the rates were double for NSRT patients. Conclusions: The variations in treatment observed among NCCN institutions reflects the lack of level I evidence directing the use of surgery or SBRT for stage I NSCLC. In this setting, research of patient and physician preferences may help to guide future decision making.

  4. Mass transit development for small urban areas; a case study: Tompkins County, N. Y. Second-year final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meyburg, A.H.

    1976-11-01

    This report presents the results of the second-year effort within a three-year research project to develop a transportation planning methodology for small urban areas concerned with the provision of public transportation service. This phase of the research concentrates on problems of access to health services, transportation service for the disadvantaged, potential coordination and integration of existing transportation systems, alternative systems designs and their evaluation, and suitable marketing and monitoring programs for public transportation service in small urban areas. This effort, together with elements of the first-year research will culminate in the preparation of a transit planning manual suitable for use by the transportation planner in small to medium-size urban areas.

  5. Vegetated treatment area (VTAs) efficiencies for E. coli and nutrient removal on small-scale swine operations

    OpenAIRE

    R. Daren Harmel; Rehanon Pampell; Terry Gentry; Doug R. Smith; Chad Hajda; Kevin Wagner; Patti K. Smith; Rick L. Haney; Kori D. Higgs

    2018-01-01

    As small-scale animal feeding operations work to manage their byproducts and avoid regulation, they need practical, cost-effective methods to reduce environmental impact. One such option is using vegetative treatment areas (VTAs) with perennial grasses to treat runoff; however, research is limited on VTA effectiveness as a waste management alternative for smaller operations. This study evaluated the efficiencies of VTAs in reducing bacteria and nutrient runoff from small-scale swine operation...

  6. Diurnal and Intra-Annual Variations in Greenhouse Gases at Fixed Sites in the San Francisco Bay Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newman, S.; Guha, A.; Martien, P. T.; Bower, J.; Perkins, I.; Randall, S.; Young, A.; Stevenson, E.; Hilken, H.

    2017-12-01

    The Bay Area Air Quality Management District, the San Francisco Bay Area's air quality regulatory agency, has set a goal to reduce the region's greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions to 80% below 1990 levels by 2050, consistent with the State of California's climate goals. Recently, the Air District's governing board adopted a 2017 Clean Air Plan which lays out the agency's vision and includes actions to put the region on a path towards achieving the 2050 goal while also reducing air pollution and related health impacts. The Plan includes GHG rule-making efforts, policy initiatives, local government partnerships, outreach, grants, and incentives, encompassing over 250 specific implementation actions across all economic sectors to effect ambitious emission reductions in the region. To track trends in atmospheric observations of GHGs and associated species and monitor changes in regional emission patterns, the Air District has established a fixed site network (CO2, CH4, CO) of one generally upwind site (Bodega Bay - on the coast north of Marin County) and three receptor sites (Bethel Island - east of the major refineries, in the Sacramento River Delta; Livermore - east of the bulk of the East Bay cities; and San Martin - south of the major city of San Jose). Having collected over a year of data for each of the fixed sites, the Air District is now investigating spatial and temporal variations in GHG emissions. Concentrating on variations in diurnal cycles, we see the commonly observed pattern of seasonal changes in diurnal amplitude at all sites, with larger variations during the winter than the summer, consistent with seasonally varying daily changes in planetary boundary layer heights. Investigations explore the weekday/weekend effect on the diurnal patterns and the effect of seasonal wind direction changes on the intra-annual variations of the local enhancements. The Air District is beginning to investigate the ways in which the fixed site network reflects the dominant

  7. [Distributions and seasonal variations of total dissolved inorganic arsenic in the estuaries and coastal area of eastern Hainan].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Xiu-Hong; Ren, Jing-Ling; Zhang, Gui-Ling; Zhang, Jin-E; Du, Jin-Zhou; Zhu, De-Di

    2012-03-01

    The concentrations of total dissolved inorganic arsenic (TDIAs) were measured by Hydride Generation-Atomic Fluorescence Spectrometry (HG-AFS). Two cruises were carried out in the river, estuary, coastal area and groundwater of eastern Hainan in December 2006 and August 2007. The concentrations of TDIAs in the Wanquan and Wenchang/Wenjiao rivers and their estuaries, coastal area in December 2006 were 4.0-9.4, 1.3-13.3, 13.3-17.3 nmol x L(-1), respectively. The concentrations of TDIAs in the Wanquan and Wenchang/Wenjiao rivers and their estuaries, coastal area in August 2007 were 1.6-15.5, 2.4-15.9, 10.8-17.6 nmol x L(-1), respectively. There was no significantly seasonal variation of TDIAs in the rivers and estuaries during the dry and wet seasons. Compared with other areas in the world, the concentration of TDIAs in the Eastern Hainan remained at pristine levels. TDIAs showed conservatively mixing in the both estuaries. The concentration of TDIAs of groundwater was below detection limit (BDL)-41.7 nmol x L(-1). The submarine groundwater discharge (SGD) to the coastal area was estimated in the drainage basin of Wenchang/Wenjiao river based on the average concentration of TDIAs in the groundwater and SGD water discharge, with the value of 1 153 mol x a(-1). Budget estimation indicated that the SGD discharge is one of the important sources of arsenic in the coastal area.

  8. Coalfield health effects: Variation in health across former coalfield areas in England

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Riva, M.; Terashima, M.; Curtis, S.; Shucksmith, J.; Carlebach, S. [University of Durham, Durham (United Kingdom)

    2011-03-15

    Regions affected by deindustrialisation are often characterised by unfavourable local health profiles. This was the situation in coalfield areas in England, where the scale and suddenness of the job losses in the 1980s and 1990s left these communities experiencing difficult socioeconomic conditions, and associated poor health status. Using data from the Health Survey for England, this paper examines whether poorer health outcomes still characterise coalfield areas today. Findings confirm a 'coalfield health effect' related to limiting long-term illness. With regards to self reported general health and mental health outcomes, results are less clear. The population health profile of coalfield communities is not homogeneous, with some coalfield communities faring worse than others, indicating more localised health issues.

  9. Traffic represents the main source of pollution in small Mediterranean urban areas as seen by lichen functional groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Llop, Esteve; Pinho, Pedro; Ribeiro, Manuel C; Pereira, Maria João; Branquinho, Cristina

    2017-05-01

    The land-use type (residential, green areas, and traffic) within relatively small Mediterranean urban areas determines significant changes on lichen diversity, considering species richness and functional groups related to different ecological factors. Those areas with larger volume of traffic hold lower species diversity, in terms of species richness and lichen diversity value (LDV). Traffic areas also affect the composition of the lichen community, which is evidenced by sensitive species. The abundance of species of lichens tolerant to low levels of eutrophication diminishes in traffic areas; oppositely, those areas show a higher abundance of species of lichens tolerating high levels of eutrophication. On the other hand, residential and green areas have an opposite pattern, mainly with species highly tolerant to eutrophication being less abundant than low or moderate ones. The characteristics of tree bark do not seem to affect excessively on lichen composition; however, tree species shows some effect that should be considered in further studies.

  10. Variation in low food access areas due to data source inaccuracies

    OpenAIRE

    Ma, Xiaoguang; Battersby, Sarah E.; Bell, Bethany A.; Hibbert, James D.; Barnes, Timothy L.; Liese, Angela D.

    2013-01-01

    Several spatial measures of community food access identifying so called “food deserts” have been developed based on geospatial information and commercially-available, secondary data listings of food retail outlets. It is not known how data inaccuracies influence the designation of Census tracts as areas of low access. This study replicated the U.S. Department of Agriculture Economic Research Service (USDA ERS) food desert measure and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) non-he...

  11. Variations in area-level disadvantage of Australian registered fitness trainers usual training locations

    OpenAIRE

    Bennie, Jason A.; Thornton, Lukar E.; van Uffelen, Jannique G. Z.; Banting, Lauren K.; Biddle, Stuart J. H.

    2016-01-01

    Background Leisure-time physical activity and strength training participation levels are low and socioeconomically distributed. Fitness trainers (e.g. gym/group instructors) may have a role in increasing these participation levels. However, it is not known whether the training location and characteristics of Australian fitness trainers vary between areas that differ in socioeconomic status. Methods In 2014, a sample of 1,189 Australian trainers completed an online survey with questions about ...

  12. Nursery areas and recruitment variation of Northeast Atlantic mackerel (Scomber scombrus)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jansen, Teunis; Kristensen, Kasper; Van der Kooij, Jeroen

    2015-01-01

    There are currently no dedicated recruitment survey data available in support of the assessment of the abundance and distribution of Northeast Atlantic (NEA) mackerel (Scomber scombrus), one of the most widespread and commercially important fish stocks in the North Atlantic. This is despite the f......, showing that the most important nursery areas are around Ireland, north and west of Scotland, in the northern North Sea north of 598Nand, to some extent, also in the Bay of Biscay....

  13. High Recharge Areas in the Choushui River Alluvial Fan (Taiwan Assessed from Recharge Potential Analysis and Average Storage Variation Indexes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jui-Pin Tsai

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available High recharge areas significantly influence the groundwater quality and quantity in regional groundwater systems. Many studies have applied recharge potential analysis (RPA to estimate groundwater recharge potential (GRP and have delineated high recharge areas based on the estimated GRP. However, most of these studies define the RPA parameters with supposition, and this represents a major source of uncertainty for applying RPA. To objectively define the RPA parameter values without supposition, this study proposes a systematic method based on the theory of parameter identification. A surrogate variable, namely the average storage variation (ASV index, is developed to calibrate the RPA parameters, because of the lack of direct GRP observations. The study results show that the correlations between the ASV indexes and computed GRP values improved from 0.67 before calibration to 0.85 after calibration, thus indicating that the calibrated RPA parameters represent the recharge characteristics of the study area well; these data also highlight how defining the RPA parameters with ASV indexes can help to improve the accuracy. The calibrated RPA parameters were used to estimate the GRP distribution of the study area, and the GRP values were graded into five levels. High and excellent level areas are defined as high recharge areas, which composed 7.92% of the study area. Overall, this study demonstrates that the developed approach can objectively define the RPA parameters and high recharge areas of the Choushui River alluvial fan, and the results should serve as valuable references for the Taiwanese government in their efforts to conserve the groundwater quality and quantity of the study area.

  14. Equations for estimating biomass, foliage area, and sapwood of small trees in the southern Appalachians

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steven T. Brantley; Morgan L. Schulte; Paul V. Bolstad; Chelcy F. Miniat

    2016-01-01

    Small trees and shrubs play an important role in forest diversity and regeneration and may contribute substantially to ecosystem fluxes of carbon and water; however, relatively little attention is given to quantifying the contribution of small trees to forest processes. One reason for this may be that the allometric equations developed for large trees tend to...

  15. A Small Area In-Situ MEMS Test Structure to Accurately Measure Fracture Strength by Electrostatic Probing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bitsie, Fernando; Jensen, Brian D.; de Boer, Maarten

    1999-07-15

    We have designed, fabricated, tested and modeled a first generation small area test structure for MEMS fracture studies by electrostatic rather than mechanical probing. Because of its small area, this device has potential applications as a lot monitor of strength or fatigue of the MEMS structural material. By matching deflection versus applied voltage data to a 3-D model of the test structure, we develop high confidence that the local stresses achieved in the gage section are greater than 1 GPa. Brittle failure of the polycrystalline silicon was observed.

  16. Measuring change in health care equity using small-area administrative data - evidence from the English NHS 2001-2008.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cookson, Richard; Laudicella, Mauro; Donni, Paolo Li

    2012-10-01

    This study developed a method for measuring change in socio-economic equity in health care utilisation using small-area level administrative data. Our method provides more detailed information on utilisation than survey data but only examines socio-economic differences between neighbourhoods rather than individuals. The context was the English NHS from 2001 to 2008, a period of accelerated expenditure growth and pro-competition reform. Hospital records for all adults receiving non-emergency hospital care in the English NHS from 2001 to 2008 were aggregated to 32,482 English small areas with mean population about 1500 and combined with other small-area administrative data. Regression models of utilisation were used to examine year-on-year change in the small-area association between deprivation and utilisation, allowing for population size, age-sex composition and disease prevalence including (from 2003 to 2008) cancer, chronic kidney disease, coronary heart disease, diabetes, epilepsy, hypertension, hypothyroidism, stroke, transient ischaemic attack and (from 2006 to 2008) atrial fibrillation, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, obesity and heart failure. There was no substantial change in small-area associations between deprivation and utilisation for outpatient visits, hip replacement, senile cataract, gastroscopy or coronary revascularisation, though overall non-emergency inpatient admissions rose slightly faster in more deprived areas than elsewhere. Associations between deprivation and disease prevalence changed little during the period, indicating that observed need did not grow faster in more deprived areas than elsewhere. We conclude that there was no substantial deterioration in socio-economic equity in health care utilisation in the English NHS from 2001 to 2008, and if anything, there may have been a slight improvement. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Land use determinants of small mammal abundance and distribution in a plague endemic area of Lushoto District, Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hieronimo, Proches; Kimaro, Didas N; Kihupi, Nganga I; Gulinck, Hubert; Mulungu, Loth S; Msanya, Balthazar M; Leirs, Herwig; Deckers, Jozef A

    2014-07-01

    Small mammals are considered to be involved in the transmission cycle of bubonic plague, still occurring in different parts of the world, including the Lushoto District in Tanzania. The objective of this study was to determine the relationship between land use types and practices and small mammal abundance and distribution. A field survey was used to collect data in three landscapes differing in plague incidences. Data collection was done both in the wet season (April-June 2012) and dry season (August-October 2012). Analysis of variance and Boosted Regression Trees (BRT) modelling technique were used to establish the relationship between land use and small mammal abundance and distribution. Significant variations (p ≤ 0.05) of small mammal abundance among land use types were identified. Plantation forest with farming, natural forest and fallow had higher populations of small mammals than the other aggregated land use types. The influence of individual land use types on small mammal abundance level showed that, in both dry and wet seasons, miraba and fallow tended to favour small mammals' habitation whereas land tillage practices had the opposite effect. In addition, during the wet season crop types such as potato and maize appeared to positively influence the distribution and abundance of small mammals which was attributed to both shelter and food availability. Based on the findings from this study it is recommended that future efforts to predict and map spatial and temporal human plague infection risk at fine scale should consider the role played by land use and associated human activities on small mammal abundance and distribution.

  18. Predicting small mammal and flea abundance using landform and soil properties in a plague endemic area in Lushoto District, Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meliyo, Joel L; Kimaro, Didas N; Msanya, Balthazar M; Mulungu, Loth S; Hieronimo, Proches; Kihupi, Nganga I; Gulinck, Hubert; Deckers, Jozef A

    2014-07-01

    Small mammals particularly rodents, are considered the primary natural hosts of plague. Literature suggests that plague persistence in natural foci has a root cause in soils. The objective of this study was to investigate the relationship between on the one hand landforms and associated soil properties, and on the other hand small mammals and fleas in West Usambara Mountains in Tanzania, a plague endemic area. Standard field survey methods coupled with Geographical Information System (GIS) technique were used to examine landform and soils characteristics. Soil samples were analysed in the laboratory for physico-chemical properties. Small mammals were trapped on pre-established landform positions and identified to genus/species level. Fleas were removed from the trapped small mammals and counted. Exploration of landform and soil data was done using ArcGIS Toolbox functions and descriptive statistical analysis. The relationships between landforms, soils, small mammals and fleas were established by generalised linear regression model (GLM) operated in R statistics software. Results show that landforms and soils influence the abundance of small mammals and fleas and their spatial distribution. The abundance of small mammals and fleas increased with increase in elevation. Small mammal species richness also increases with elevation. A landform-soil model shows that available phosphorus, slope aspect and elevation were statistically significant predictors explaining richness and abundance of small mammals. Fleas' abundance and spatial distribution were influenced by hill-shade, available phosphorus and base saturation. The study suggests that landforms and soils have a strong influence on the richness and evenness of small mammals and their fleas' abundance hence could be used to explain plague dynamics in the area.

  19. Spatial Variations of Turbulent Properties of Neutral Hydrogen Gas in the Small Magellanic Cloud Using Structure-function Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nestingen-Palm, David; Stanimirović, Snežana; González-Casanova, Diego F.; Babler, Brian [Astronomy Department, University of Wisconsin-Madison, 475 North Charter Street, Madison, WI 53706-1582 (United States); Jameson, Katherine; Bolatto, Alberto, E-mail: sstanimi@astro.wisc.edu [Astronomy Department and Laboratory for Millimeter-wave Astronomy, University of Maryland, College Park, MD 20742 (United States)

    2017-08-10

    We investigate spatial variations of turbulent properties in the Small Magellanic Cloud (SMC) by using neutral hydrogen (H i) observations. With the goal of testing the importance of stellar feedback on H i turbulence, we define central and outer SMC regions based on the star formation rate (SFR) surface density, as well as the H i integrated intensity. We use the structure function and the velocity channel analysis to calculate the power-law index ( γ ) for both underlying density and velocity fields in these regions. In all cases, our results show essentially no difference in γ between the central and outer regions. This suggests that H i turbulent properties are surprisingly homogeneous across the SMC when probed at a resolution of 30 pc. Contrary to recent suggestions from numerical simulations, we do not find a significant change in γ due to stellar feedback as traced by the SFR surface density. This could be due to the stellar feedback being widespread over the whole of the SMC, but more likely due to a large-scale gravitational driving of turbulence. We show that the lack of difference between central and outer SMC regions cannot be explained by the high optical depth H I.

  20. Correlation among genetic variations of c-MET in Chinese patients with non-small cell lung cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, Jianchun; Yang, Xiaodan; Zhao, Jun; Zhuo, Minglei; Wang, Zhijie; An, Tongtong; Bai, Hua; Wang, Jie

    2018-01-05

    The purpose of our research was to determine the correlation of amplification, protein expression and somatic mutation of c-MET in IIIb-IV stage NSCLC (Non-small cell lung cancer). We also explored correlation of c-MET variation with clinical outcome. c-MET expression was observed in 28.6% (56/196) cases, and among those 13.8% (27/196) were shown to be FISH positive. Only 2.67% patients in this study carried the c-MET mutation. Cases with c-MET FISH positive were all IHC positive ,but in IHC positive cases, only half were FISH positive. Among patients with IHC 2+ staining, 35.5% was FISH positive, while cases with IHC 3+ staining,64% was FISH positive. Both protein expression and copy number of c-MET did not significantly correlate with clinical prognosis in these patients treated with EGFR-TKIs. IHC could be used as a preliminary screening method for c-MET copy number amplification and should be confirmed by FISH only in IHC positive case which facilitate selection of ALK or MET inhibitor therapy. c-MET gene copy number, protein expression and somatic mutation for exon 14 were detected by fluorescent- In-Situ -Hybridization (FISH), Immunohistochemistry (IHC), and Denaturing-High-Performance-Liquid-Chromatography (DHPLC), respectively, in 196 NSCLC patients. The relationship between c-MET abnormalities and clinical outcome of targeted therapy was analyzed by McNemar's test.

  1. Spatial and temporal variations in non-point source losses of nitrogen and phosphorus in a small agricultural catchment in the Three Gorges Region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chenglong; Gao, Ming; Xie, Deti; Ni, Jiupai

    2016-04-01

    Losses of agricultural pollutants from small catchments are a major issue for water quality in the Three Gorges Region. Solutions are urgently needed. However, before pollutant losses can be controlled, information about spatial and temporal variations in pollutant losses is needed. The study was carried out in the Wangjiagou catchment, a small agricultural catchment in Fuling District, Chongqing, and the data about non-point source losses of nitrogen and phosphorus was collected here. Water samples were collected daily by an automatic water sampler at the outlets of two subcatchments from 2012 to 2014. Also, samples of surface runoff from 28 sampling sites distributed through the subcatchments were collected during 12 rainfall events in 2014. A range of water quality variables were analyzed for all samples and were used to demonstrate the variation in non-point losses of nitrogen and phosphorus over a range of temporal and spatial scales and in different types of rainfall in the catchment. Results showed that there was a significant linear correlation between the mass concentrations of total nitrogen (TN) and nitrate (NO3-N) in surface runoff and that the relationship was maintained with changes in time. Concentrations of TN and NO3-N peaked after fertilizer was applied to crops in spring and autumn; concentrations decreased rapidly after the peak values in spring but declined slowly in autumn. N and P concentrations fluctuated more and showed a greater degree of dispersion during the spring crop cultivation period than those in autumn. Concentrations of TN and NO3-N in surface runoff were significantly and positively correlated with the proportion of the area that was planted with corn and mustard tubers, but were negatively correlated with the proportion of the area taken up with rice and mulberry plantations. The average concentrations of TN and NO3-N in surface runoff reached the highest level from the sampling points at the bottom of the land used for corn

  2. Variations in time and space of trace metal aerosol concentrations in urban areas and their surroundings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno, T.; Querol, X.; Alastuey, A.; Reche, C.; Cusack, M.; Amato, F.; Pandolfi, M.; Pey, J.; Richard, A.; Prévôt, A. S. H.; Furger, M.; Gibbons, W.

    2011-09-01

    Using an unprecedentedly large geochemical database, we compare temporal and spatial variations in inhalable trace metal background concentrations in a major city (Barcelona, Spain) and at a nearby mountainous site (Montseny) affected by the urban plume. Both sites are contaminated by technogenic metals, with V, Pb, Cu, Zn, Mn, Sn, Bi, Sb and Cd all showing upper continental crust (UCC) normalised values >1 in broadly increasing order. The highest metal concentrations usually occur during winter at Barcelona and summer in Montseny. This seasonal difference was especially marked at the remote mountain site in several elements such as Ti and Rare Earth Elements, which recorded campaign maxima, exceeding PM10 concentrations seen in Barcelona. The most common metals were Zn, Ti, Cu, Mn, Pb and V. Both V and Ni show highest concentrations in summer, and preferentially fractionate into the finest PM sizes (PM1/PM10 > 0.5) especially in Barcelona, this being attributed to regionally dispersed contamination from fuel oil combustion point sources. Within the city, hourly metal concentrations are controlled either by traffic (rush hour double peak for Cu, Sb, Sn, Ba) or industrial plumes (morning peak of Ni, Mn, Cr generated outside the city overnight), whereas at Montseny metal concentrations rise during the morning to a single, prolonged afternoon peak as contaminated air transported by the sea breeze moves into the mountains. Our exceptional database, which includes hourly measurements of chemical concentrations, demonstrates in more detail than previous studies the spatial and temporal variability of urban pollution by trace metals in a given city. Technogenic metalliferous aerosols are commonly fine in size and therefore potentially bioavailable, emphasising the case for basing urban background PM characterisation not only on physical parameters such as mass but also on sample chemistry and with special emphasis on trace metal content.

  3. Magnetic storms and variations in hormone levels among residents of North Polar area - Svalbard

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breus, Tamara; Zenchenko, Tatiana; Boiko, Evgeni

    It was previously shown that magnetic storms lead to an increase in the level of cortisol and noradrenalin in healthy and sick people with cardiovascular diseases [Breus Rapoport. 2003]. However, in the healthy group in the cited study was only 4 people and it seemed that these results need to be checked. In the present work the 4 examinations (January, March, June, October) of large groups of healthy inhabitants of high latitudes (Svalbard, the most northerly in the world year-round inhabited settlements) on the blood levels of adrenal hormones (cortisol) and thyroid hormones (triiodothyronine (T3 ) and thyroxine T4) have been done. The aim was to study the possible sensitivity of these biochemical parameters in three independent groups of people living in this region (men working underground (364 samples), the men working on the ground (274 samples) and women (280 samples)) to variations in external natural factors of high latitudes. For the analysis we used the following parameters of space and terrestrial weather :index of intensity of solar radio emission at a wavelength 10.7sm (RF10.7), planetary geomagnetic activity index - daily Kp index ( Kp) , the daily average Ap index ( Ap) , the maximum per every 3 -hour Kp index ) as well as the daily average indicators of flow rate of galactic cosmic rays neutron component (N), atmospheric pressure ( RATM ) and its rate of change ( the difference between the Ratm today and yesterday ) according to the geophysical station Oulu (Finland , http://cosmicrays.oulu.fi/). The obtained data indicate that the most expressed dependence of the level of studied three hormones is from the level of geomagnetic activity (GMA)-Kp, Ap, Kpmax - 3h. For two of the four seasons (June and October) with increasing levels of GMA a significant (p stress reaction in reply on GMA disturbance. 1. Breus T.K. and Rapoport S.I. Magnetic storms. Medico- biological aspects (in Russian), Publ.Co Soviet Sport,.Moscow, 2003, 271p.

  4. Solar Cycle Variations in Polar Cap Area Measured by the SuperDARN Radars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imber, S. M.; Milan, S. E.; Lester, M.

    2013-12-01

    We present a long term study, from January 1996 - August 2012, of the latitude of the Heppner-Maynard Boundary (HMB) measured at midnight using the northern hemisphere SuperDARN radars. The HMB represents the equatorward extent of ionospheric convection, and is used in this study as a measure of the global magnetospheric dynamics and activity. We find that the yearly distribution of HMB latitudes is single-peaked at 64° magnetic latitude for the majority of the 17-year interval. During 2003 the envelope of the distribution shifts to lower latitudes and a second peak in the distribution is observed at 61°. The solar wind-magnetosphere coupling function derived by Milan et al. (2012) suggests that the solar wind driving during this year was significantly higher than during the rest of the 17-year interval. In contrast, during the period 2008-2011 HMB distribution shifts to higher latitudes, and a second peak in the distribution is again observed, this time at 68° magnetic latitude. This time interval corresponds to a period of extremely low solar wind driving during the recent extreme solar minimum. This is the first statistical study of the polar cap area over an entire solar cycle, and the results demonstrate that there is a close relationship between the phase of the solar cycle and the area of the polar cap on a large scale statistical basis.

  5. Estimation of thawing cryolithic area with numerical modeling in 3D geometry while exploiting underground small nuclear power plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melnikov N. N.

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents results on 3D numerical calculation of a thermal task related to assessing a thawing area when placing modules with reactor and steam-turbine facility of a small nuclear power plant in thickness of permafrost rocks. The paper discusses influence of the coefficient of thermal conductivity for large-scaled underground excavations lining and cryolithic area porosity on thawing depth and front movement velocity under different spatial directions

  6. Indo-Pacific Warm Pool Area Expansion, Modoki Activity, and Tropical Cold-Point Tropopause Temperature Variations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Fei; Li, Jianping; Tian, Wenshou; Li, Yanjie; Feng, Juan

    2014-01-01

    The tropical cold-point tropopause temperature (CPTT), a potentially important indicator of global climate change, is of particular importance for understanding changes in stratospheric water vapor levels. Since the 1980s, the tropical CPTT has shown not only interannual variations, but also a decreasing trend. However, the factors controlling the variations in the tropical CPTT since the 1980s remain elusive. The present study reveals that the continuous expansion of the area of the Indo-Pacific warm pool (IPWP) since the 1980s represents an increase in the total heat energy of the IPWP available to heat the tropospheric air, which is likely to expand as a result. This process lifts the tropical cold-point tropopause height (CPTH) and leads to the observed long-term cooling trend of the tropical CPTT. In addition, our analysis shows that Modoki activity is an important factor in modulating the interannual variations of the tropical CPTT through significant effects on overshooting convection. PMID:24686481

  7. Variation of radon concentration in soil with different depth along the high background areas in Kerala

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sonia, S.R.; Visnu Prasad, A.K.; Jojo, P.J.; Midhun, M.

    2016-01-01

    Radon is one of the naturally occurring radioactive gases in the environment produced from decay of radium isotopes, which are the decay product of 238 U, 232 Th and 235 U. Hence the concentration of uranium and thorium in the bed rock and soil materials determine the amount of radon produced in the soil. The radon produced in the soil migrates through the mechanism of diffusion and convection through pore spaces in the soil, fractures in the rock and along with weak zones such as shear faults, thrust etc. For some geological situations, radon migrates long distances from its place of origin and can be detected by alpha-particle recorders at the earth's surface. Concentration of radon in an area is governed by the radium content in the minerals, radon emanating power in the material, permeability of the soils and underlying rock, and moisture content in the soil

  8. Study of nucleic acids variations in children in nearest areas to the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morera, L.; Navarro, I.; Proenza, E.; Estrada, L.

    1996-01-01

    The technique used to determine the nucleic acids concentration of leucocytes in peripheral blood is simple, quick and reproducible. Mathematical patterns for small doses have been achieved by means of this technique, which is also useful as biochemical indicator for evaluating exposure to ionizing radiations. The following information is the result of a research in 445 children from 43 locations that suffered, in different degrees, the effect of this accident. Children were grouped taking into account different degrees of superficial pollution for Cs-137 of original places. Groups were built as follows: G-1, 165 children from 20 superficially polluted places between 0-37 KBq/m 2 ; G-2, 135 children from 15 locations with a level of superficial pollution higher than 37 KBq/m 2 and lower than 185 KBq/m 2 ; G-3, 85 children from 7 locations with a pollution degree higher than 296 KBq/m 2 and G-4, 60 children from a place with a non-determined superficial pollution. Values within the interval 1,29 - 4,89 mg/100 ml of blood samples taken from healthy children in group G-1 were considered as normal. The increase in dose led neither to a decrease in nucleic acids medium value, nor to a meaningful growth in the number of cases with nucleic acids figures under rank considered normal. On the other hand, thyroid hyperplasia did not lead either to an increase in medium values of nucleic acids or to an increase in the number of cases with nucleic acids figures over intervals considered as normal. (authors). 10 refs., 2 tabs

  9. Spatial variation of pneumonia hospitalization risk in Twin Cities metro area, Minnesota.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iroh Tam, P Y; Krzyzanowski, B; Oakes, J M; Kne, L; Manson, S

    2017-11-01

    Fine resolution spatial variability in pneumonia hospitalization may identify correlates with socioeconomic, demographic and environmental factors. We performed a retrospective study within the Fairview Health System network of Minnesota. Patients 2 months of age and older hospitalized with pneumonia between 2011 and 2015 were geocoded to their census block group, and pneumonia hospitalization risk was analyzed in relation to socioeconomic, demographic and environmental factors. Spatial analyses were performed using Esri's ArcGIS software, and multivariate Poisson regression was used. Hospital encounters of 17 840 patients were included in the analysis. Multivariate Poisson regression identified several significant associations, including a 40% increased risk of pneumonia hospitalization among census block groups with large, compared with small, populations of ⩾65 years, a 56% increased risk among census block groups in the bottom (first) quartile of median household income compared to the top (fourth) quartile, a 44% higher risk in the fourth quartile of average nitrogen dioxide emissions compared with the first quartile, and a 47% higher risk in the fourth quartile of average annual solar insolation compared to the first quartile. After adjusting for income, moving from the first to the second quartile of the race/ethnic diversity index resulted in a 21% significantly increased risk of pneumonia hospitalization. In conclusion, the risk of pneumonia hospitalization at the census-block level is associated with age, income, race/ethnic diversity index, air quality, and solar insolation, and varies by region-specific factors. Identifying correlates using fine spatial analysis provides opportunities for targeted prevention and control.

  10. A Development of Academic Management on Small School Model Under The Office of Udonthani Educational Service Area 2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Theerachai Saenkaew

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of study were ; 1 to determine the Academic Management on small school Model ; 2 to Develop of Academic Management on small school model Under the office of Udonthani Educational Service Area 2. The research Methodology consisted of four steps ; 1 Analyzing the documentary research ; 2 developing the academic management on small school factors and Indicators with Delphi Technique by verifying of 21 experts ; 3 seeking the advices and the feedbacks from nine experts in Udonthani using focus group discussion ; 4 evaluating the 110 school Administrators opinions in Udonthani. The analysis of the data was accomplished by computation of percentage, mean, standard deviation, median and interquartile ranges. Based on the findings to the study; it was concluded that: 1 The group of experts represented the three factors were ; a A development school Record of students ; b A development attribute of student ; c care forward successes with 15 Indicators. 2 Based on group discussion, all experts strongly agreed with the used and Integration of three factors of academic management on small school Model. 3 Overall, the at 110 school demonstrations in Udonthani agreed with academic management on small school model at high level. 4 A development of academic management on small school model in the office of Udonthani Educational Service Area 2 ; a A development school Record of students with 5 indicators ; b A development attribute of student with 6 indicators ; c Care Forward Successes with 4 indicators.

  11. Vegetated treatment area (VTAs) efficiences for E. coli and nutrient removal on small-scale swine operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    As small-scale animal feeding operations work to manage their byproducts and avoid regulation, they need practical, cost-effective methods to reduce environmental impact. One such option is using vegetative treatment areas (VTAs) with perennial grasses to treat runoff; however, research is limited ...

  12. Small ships don't shine: classification of ocean vessels from low resolution, large swath area SAR acquisitions

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Meyer, Rory GV

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available the Understanding of Our Living Planet, 10-15 July 2016, Beijing, China Small ships don't shine: Classification of ocean vessels from low resolution, large swath area SAR acquisitions R. G. V. Meyer ; W. Kleynhans ; C. P. Schwegmann Abstract: Monitoring...

  13. The small towns in rural areas as an undersearched type of settlement. Editors´ introduction to the special issue

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Steinführer, A.; Vaishar, Antonín; Zapletalová, Jana

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 4, č. 6 (2016), s. 322-332 ISSN 1803-8417 Institutional support: RVO:68145535 Keywords : small towns * rural areas * urban-rural continuum Subject RIV: DE - Earth Magnetism, Geodesy, Geography https://www.degruyter.com/downloadpdf/j/euco.2016.8.issue-4/euco-2016-0023/euco-2016-0023.xml

  14. Small Schools Student Learning Objectives, 9-12: Mathematics, Reading, Reading in the Content Areas, Language Arts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, JoAnne, Ed.; Hartl, David, Ed.

    Designed by Washington curriculum specialists and secondary teachers to assist teachers in small schools with the improvement of curriculum and instruction and to aid smaller districts lacking curriculum personnel to comply with Washington's Student Learning Objectives Law, this handbook contains learning objectives in the areas of language arts,…

  15. Variations of Soil Lead in Different Land Uses Along the Urbanization Gradient in the Beijing Metropolitan Area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qizheng Mao

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Understanding the spatial pattern of soil lead (Pb levels is essential to protecting human health. Most previous studies have examined soil Pb distributions by either urbanization gradient or land-use type. Few studies, however, have examined both factors together. It remains unclear whether the impacts of land use on soil Pb levels are consistent along the urbanization gradient. To fill this gap, we investigated variations in soil Pb level under different land-use types along the urbanization gradient in Beijing, China. We classified the degree of urbanization as the urban core, transitional zone, or suburban area and the land-use type as industrial area, roadside, residential area, institutional area, road greenbelt, park, or forest. Our results showed that the range of soil Pb levels in Beijing is <1 mg/kg–292 mg/kg, with a mean of 22 mg/kg. Along the urbanization gradient, the mean soil Pb level increased from the suburban area to the urban core. Land-use types have an impact on soil Pb levels, however, when the degree of urbanization is considered, the impact from land use on soil Pb level was only significant in the transitional zone. Parks and road greenbelts were found to have lower soil Pb, primarily due to soil restoration. Roadside and residential areas were found to have higher soil Pb because of traffic emissions, leaded paint, and previous industrial contamination. In the urban core and suburban area, the soil Pb level showed no significant differences among various land-use types. Given the results of soil Pb in various land-use types, we suggest that future studies consider the urbanization gradient in which different land-use samples are located.

  16. Diurnal and seasonal variations in carbon dioxide exchange in ecosystems in the Zhangye oasis area, Northwest China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lei; Sun, Rui; Xu, Ziwei; Qiao, Chen; Jiang, Guoqing

    2015-01-01

    Quantifying carbon dioxide exchange and understanding the response of key environmental factors in various ecosystems are critical to understanding regional carbon budgets and ecosystem behaviors. For this study, CO2 fluxes were measured in a variety of ecosystems with an eddy covariance observation matrix between June 2012 and September 2012 in the Zhangye oasis area of Northwest China. The results show distinct diurnal variations in the CO2 fluxes in vegetable field, orchard, wetland, and maize cropland. Diurnal variations of CO2 fluxes were not obvious, and their values approached zero in the sandy desert, desert steppe, and Gobi ecosystems. Additionally, daily variations in the Gross Primary Production (GPP), Ecosystem Respiration (Reco) and Net Ecosystem Exchange (NEE) were not obvious in the sandy desert, desert steppe, and Gobi ecosystems. In contrast, the distributions of the GPP, Reco, and NEE show significant daily variations, that are closely related to the development of vegetation in the maize, wetland, orchard, and vegetable field ecosystems. All of the ecosystems are characterized by their carbon absorption during the observation period. The ability to absorb CO2 differed significantly among the tested ecosystems. We also used the Michaelis-Menten equation and exponential curve fitting methods to analyze the impact of Photosynthetically Active Radiation (PAR) on the daytime CO2 flux and impact of air temperature on Reco at night. The results show that PAR is the dominant factor in controlling photosynthesis with limited solar radiation, and daytime CO2 assimilation increases rapidly with PAR. Additionally, the carbon assimilation rate was found to increase slowly with high solar radiation. The light response parameters changed with each growth stage for all of the vegetation types, and higher light response values were observed during months or stages when the plants grew quickly. Light saturation points are different for different species. Nighttime

  17. On the variation of environmental radioactivity in Dae-Jeon area (Jan. 1977-Dec. 1981)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oh, H.P.; Oh, H.J.

    1982-01-01

    This study concerns with gamma-ray exposure in natural background radiation and radioactivities in the air-borne dust, the fall-out, and the rain-out which had been measured in Dae-Jeon area during the period of five years from Jan. 1, 1977 to Dec. 31, 1981. The special survey results from the 22th, 23th, and 24th nuclear explosion tests carred out by Red China are included in this paper. The results of these measurements are as follows: 1. The average value of natural background radiation in the laboratory 20.69μR/hr, and it is found that the natural background was not affected by the nuclear explosion tests. 2. The average value of radioactivity in the air-borne dust is 0.11pμci/cc, and the maximum value of radioactivity during the period is 0.47pμci/cc. 3. The average value of radioactivity of the fall-out is 0.09mci/km 2 -10d, and the maximum value of radioactivity during the period is 0.84mci/km 2 -10d. 4. The average value of radioactivity in the rain-out is 0.45 x 10 -8 μci/cc, and the maximum value of radioactivity during the period is 1.97 x 10 -8 μci/cc. (Author)

  18. Monitoring of suspended sediment variation using Landsat and MODIS in the Saemangeum coastal area of Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Min, Jee-Eun; Ryu, Joo-Hyung; Lee, Seok; Son, Seunghyun

    2012-02-01

    Suspended sediment concentration (SS) is an important indicator of marine environmental changes due to natural causes such as tides, tidal currents, and river discharges, as well as human activities such as construction in coastal regions. In the Saemangeum area on the west coast of Korea, construction of a huge tidal dyke for land reclamation has strongly influenced the coastal environment. This study used remotely sensed data to analyze the SS changes in coastal waters caused by the dyke construction. Landsat and MODIS satellite images were used for the spatial analysis of finer patterns and for the detailed temporal analysis, respectively. Forty Landsat scenes and 105 monthly composite MODIS images observed during 1985-2010 were employed, and four field campaigns (from 2005 to 2006) were performed to verify the image-derived SS. The results of the satellite data analyses showed that the seawater was clear before the dyke construction, with SS values lower than 20 g/m(3). These values increased continuously as the dyke construction progressed. The maximum SS values appeared just before completion of the fourth dyke. Values decreased to below 5 g/m(3) after dyke construction. These changes indicated tidal current modification. Some eddies and plumes were observed in the images generated from Landsat data. Landsat and MODIS can reveal that coastal water turbidity was greatly reduced after completion of the construction. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Molecular genetic variation in sheep of the central Volga area inhabited by Finno-Ugric peoples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. TAPIO

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Based on morphology, native northern European sheep breeds belong to the short tailed type, of which the Romanov is the only native example still distributed in northwest Russia. Besides this, there exist local sheep populations kept by Finno-Ugric peoples in the central Volga region, which represent additional genetic resources in the area. Four sheep populations from the central Volga region were genotyped for 20 microsatellites and compared with geographically proximate breeds (Estonian Whitehead and Blackhead, the Finnsheep and an exported and a native population of Russian Romanov and with local populations in Estonia, Finland and Russian Karelia. Between-breed analyses including admixture analysis using molecular genetic markers and the phenotypic characteristics indicated that the Volgaic populations have not remained pure. The Viena population from Russian Karelia, the Romanov breed and, to some extent, the Komi population, have escaped extensive mixing, making them most attractive for conservation programmes. The study compared imported and native Romanov breed populations and the results suggest that the diversity parameters are markedly similar in these two populations.;

  20. Leaching Functions from the Outer Metropolitan Zones (Trade, Services - Increasing Peripherality of Small Towns and Rural Areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krystian Heffner

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Intensive spatial processes taking place around metropolitan areas leads to many economic, structural and social changes in their surroundings. The small towns and rural areas located in the outer zone of metropolitan areas are most affected by this functional changes. In the outer zone of a big urban canters appears a lot of new competing possibilities on the labor market and a comprehensive commercial, service and cultural offer to smaller centres. One of the most competitive advantage of the metropolitan zones becomes modern shopping centres being established in the most accessible places, providing a comprehensive shopping-services and even cultural-recreational offer.

  1. Malaria transmission risk variations derived from different agricultural practices in an irrigated area of northern Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ijumba, J N; Mosha, F W; Lindsay, S W

    2002-03-01

    Malaria vector Anopheles and other mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) were monitored for 12 months during 1994-95 in villages of Lower Moshi irrigation area (37 degrees 20' E, 3 degrees 21' S; approximately 700 m a.s.l.) south of Mount Kilimanjaro in northern Tanzania. Adult mosquito populations were sampled fortnightly by five methods: human bait collection indoors (18.00-06.00 hours) and outdoors (18.00-24.00 hours); from daytime resting-sites indoors and outdoors; by CDC light-traps over sleepers. Anopheles densities and rates of survival, anthropophily and malaria infection were compared between three villages representing different agro-ecosystems: irrigated sugarcane plantation; smallholder rice irrigation scheme, and savannah with subsistence crops. Respective study villages were Mvuleni (population 2200), Chekereni (population 3200) and Kisangasangeni (population approximately/= 1000), at least 7 km apart. Anopheles arabiensis Patton was found to be the principal malaria vector throughout the study area, with An. funestus Giles sensu lato of secondary importance in the sugarcane and savannah villages. Irrigated sugarcane cultivation resulted in water pooling, but this did not produce more vectors. Anopheles arabiensis densities averaged four-fold higher in the ricefield village, although their human blood-index was significantly less (48%) than in the sugarcane (68%) or savannah (66%) villages, despite similar proportions of humans and cows (ratio 1:1.1-1.4) as the main hosts at all sites. Parous rates, duration of the gonotrophic cycle and survival rates of An. arabiensis were similar in villages of all three agro-ecosystems. The potential risk of malaria, based on measurements of vectorial capacity of An. arabiensis and An.funestus combined, was four-fold higher in the ricefield village than in the sugarcane or savannah villages nearby. However, the more realistic estimate of malaria risk, based on entomological inoculation rates, indicated that exposure to

  2. Small area estimation of obesity prevalence and dietary patterns: a model applied to Rio de Janeiro city, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cataife, Guido

    2014-03-01

    We propose the use of previously developed small area estimation techniques to monitor obesity and dietary habits in developing countries and apply the model to Rio de Janeiro city. We estimate obesity prevalence rates at the Census Tract through a combinatorial optimization spatial microsimulation model that matches body mass index and socio-demographic data in Brazil's 2008-9 family expenditure survey with Census 2010 socio-demographic data. Obesity ranges from 8% to 25% in most areas and affects the poor almost as much as the rich. Male and female obesity rates are uncorrelated at the small area level. The model is an effective tool to understand the complexity of the problem and to aid in policy design. © 2013 Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  3. Strengthening of rural areas and small islands on a sustainable basis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Kaj

    1997-01-01

    Assessment of the scope for supporting peripheral areas without conflicts with an objective of promoting sustainable development in the transport sector.......Assessment of the scope for supporting peripheral areas without conflicts with an objective of promoting sustainable development in the transport sector....

  4. Influence of small amounts of additives on gas hold-up, bubble size, and interfacial area

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cents, A. H. G.; Jansen, D. J. W.; Brilman, D. W. F.; Versteeg, G. F.

    2005-01-01

    The gas-liquid interfacial area, which is determined by the gas hold-up and the Sauter mean bubble diameter, determines the production rate in many industrial processes. The effect of additives on this interfacial area is, especially in multiphase systems (gas-liquid-solid, gas-liquid-liquid), often

  5. Effect of Small-Scale Variations in Environmental Factors on the Distribution of Woody Species in Tropical Deciduous Forests of Vindhyan Highlands, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. K. Chaturvedi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to investigate the changes in the composition of mature, naturally established and unmanaged TDF in response to small-scale variations in environmental factors. All woody species with a minimum circumference of 10 cm at 1.37 m height were surveyed in forty-five 20×50 m plots distributed over 5 sites in the TDF of Vindhyan highlands, India. Cluster analysis identified two distinct groups of plots. Group 1 plots had higher soil moisture content (SMC, clay, organic C, total N, total P, and light attenuation than group 2 plots. A total of 48 native species belonging to 25 families were encountered in the sampled area. High eigenvalues for the first two Canonical Correspondence Analysis (CCA axes indicated the occurrence of species in distinct groups, and significant correlations of the axes with environmental variables indicated the effect of these variables on species grouping. In conclusion, patchiness in the soil resources needs to be considered in restoration efforts. The results of this study are expected to facilitate the decision regarding choice of species in afforestation programmes for restoring the TDF.

  6. 239Pu and 241Am contamination of small vertebrates in NAEG study areas of NTS and TTR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moor, K.S.; Naele, S.R.; Bradley, W.G.

    1977-01-01

    Ecological studies of small vertebrates in three plutonium (Pu) contaminated study areas of Nevada Test Site began in Spring, 1972, and were expanded to include four areas of Tonopah Test Range in Fall, 1973. This report consists primarily of presentation and analysis of radioanalytical data on rodents and lizards from Area 11-C, Nevada Test Site. In addition, methodology and preliminary results of initial hematologic studies are presented. Dipodomys microps is a dominant rodent species in all study areas. Concentrations of 239 Pu and 241 Am in pelt, GI tract, and carcass of 74 resident D. microps from five study areas were determined. The only consistent trend evident was that carcass burdens were lower than pelt or GI tract burdens by a factor of 10 2 . Mean ratios of Pu/Am in tissue aliquots were variable, and many were significantly different than ratios in soil or vegetation samples

  7. Universal empirical relation for the variation of ksub(eff) with core dimensions of bare and reflected small fast systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumar, A; Srinivasan, M; Basu, T K; Subba Rao, K [Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Bombay (India). Neutron Physics Section

    1977-01-01

    A number of 26-group, S/sub 4/, transport theory calculations in spherical geometry were carried out to study the variation of ksub(eff) with core radius of bare and reflected small hard spectrum fast assemblies. For each system ksub(eff) was calculated for various core radii keeping reflector thickness and density constant. A plot of ksub(eff) vs. R/Rsub(c) gave an almost universal curve independent of core material, density and reflector properties. An empirical relation of the form ksub(eff) = k infinitely* (1 - exp(-Theta R/Rsub(c))) could be fitted to the ksub(eff) vs. R/Rsub(c) plot where Rsub(c) is the critical radius, and the constants k infinitely* and Theta are related through Theta = ln(k infinitely*/(k infinitely* - 1)). Thus the ksub(eff) vs. R/Rsub(c) relation is found to be governed by a single constant k infinitely*, valid for both bare and reflected systems. The agreement between DTF-IV calculated ksub(eff) values and that given by the empirical relation is better than 3% except in the highly subcritical domain where the discrepancy is a bit higher. The best fit value of k infinitely* for Pu 239 systems is found to be 2.88 and for U 235 systems 2.224. The paper discusses the physical interpretation of the form of the relation, its region of validity and makes an attempt to extend it to non-spherical geometries also.

  8. Life expectancy estimation in small administrative areas with non-uniform population sizes: application to Australian New South Wales local government areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephens, Alexandre S; Purdie, Stuart; Yang, Baohui; Moore, Helen

    2013-12-02

    To determine a practical approach for deriving life expectancy estimates in Australian New South Wales local government areas which display a large diversity in population sizes. Population-based study utilising mortality and estimated residential population data. 153 local government areas in New South Wales, Australia. Key performance measures of Chiang II, Silcocks, adjusted Chiang II and Bayesian random effects model methodologies of life expectancy estimation including agreement analysis of life expectancy estimates and comparison of estimate SEs. Chiang II and Silcocks methods produced almost identical life expectancy estimates across a large range of population sizes but calculation failures and excessively large SEs limited their use in small populations. A population of 25 000 or greater was required to estimate life expectancy with SE of 1 year or less using adjusted Chiang II (a composite of Chiang II and Silcocks methods). Data aggregation offered some remedy for extending the use of adjusted Chiang II in small populations but reduced estimate currency. A recently developed Bayesian random effects model utilising the correlation in mortality rates between genders, age groups and geographical areas markedly improved the precision of life expectancy estimates in small populations. We propose a hybrid approach for the calculation of life expectancy using the Bayesian random effects model in populations of 25 000 or lower permitting the precise derivation of life expectancy in small populations. In populations above 25 000, we propose the use of adjusted Chiang II to guard against violations of spatial correlation, to benefit from a widely accepted method that is simpler to communicate to local health authorities and where its slight inferior performance compared with the Bayesian approach is of minor practical significance.

  9. Ten-year diameter and basal area growth of trees surrounding small group selection openings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Philip M. McDonald; Martin W. Ritchie; Celeste S. Abbott

    1996-01-01

    The effects of small openings in forest stands has interested silviculturists and ecologists for years. Interest generally has centered on the vegetation in the openings, not on that immediately outside of them. Quantitative information on the growth of trees adjacent to group-selection openings, although often mentioned in forestry textbooks as contributing to cost...

  10. Wide Area Prosumption Control and Sensitivities of Aperiodic Small Signal Stability Indicators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wittrock, Martin Lindholm; Jóhannsson, Hjörtur; Nielsen, Arne Hejde

    2014-01-01

    and patterns, stability indicators for aperiodic small signal angular stability (ASSA) are examined, while the concept of prosumption is described. The methodology presented is shown to be able to assess the margin to instability and to predict how this margin can be affected if a load is changed in the grid...

  11. Applications of Small Area Estimation to Generalization with Subclassification by Propensity Scores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Wendy

    2018-01-01

    Policymakers have grown increasingly interested in how experimental results may generalize to a larger population. However, recently developed propensity score-based methods are limited by small sample sizes, where the experimental study is generalized to a population that is at least 20 times larger. This is particularly problematic for methods…

  12. Cannulation and continuous cross-sectional area measurement of small blood vessels

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    VanBavel, E.; Mooij, T.; Giezeman, M. J.; Spaan, J. A.

    1990-01-01

    Techniques have been developed for the study of isolated small arteries. To pressurize and perfuse segments of these vessels, a cannula with a low resistance to flow was developed. This cannula consisted of two concentric micropipettes. The end of a vessel segment was sucked into the inner pipette

  13. Wide-Area Assessment of Aperiodic Small Signal Rotor Angle Stability in Real-Time

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jóhannsson, Hjörtur; Nielsen, Arne Hejde; Østergaard, Jacob

    2014-01-01

    in rotor angle and a loss of synchronism, referred to as aperiodic small signal instability. The paper provides the theoretical background of the method and an analytical assessment criterion. Furthermore, a mathematical mapping of the generators' operating points that enables informative visualization...

  14. Small and medium enterprise (SME) internet marketing challenges in the Tshwane area, South Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Louise van Scheers; Johan Botha; Jacques van Scheers

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to establish Internet marketing challenges of SMEs in the Tshwane area. It seems that the benefits of Internet marketing seem to be ignored by most SMEs however but unfortunately, Internet marketing challenges prevent SME owners from using these tools effectively. A survey study method of research design has been selected for the research. The sample for the study comprised 200 SMEs in the Tshwane area. Internet marketing usage in SMEs and the impact thereof is viewed...

  15. Examining variation in the leaf mass per area of dominant species across two contrasting tropical gradients in light of community assembly

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Neyret, Margot; Bentley, Lisa Patrick; Oliveras Menor, Imma; Marimon, Beatriz S.; Marimon-Junior, Ben Hur; Almeida de Oliveira, Edmar; Barbosa Passos, Fábio; Castro Ccoscco, Rosa; Santos, dos Josias; Matias Reis, Simone; Morandi, Paulo S.; Rayme Paucar, Gloria; Robles Cáceres, Arturo; Valdez Tejeira, Yolvi; Yllanes Choque, Yovana; Salinas, Norma; Shenkin, Alexander; Asner, Gregory P.; Díaz, Sandra; Enquist, Brian J.; Malhi, Yadvinder

    2016-01-01

    Understanding variation in key functional traits across gradients in high diversity systems and the ecology of community changes along gradients in these systems is crucial in light of conservation and climate change. We examined inter- and intraspecific variation in leaf mass per area (LMA) of

  16. Distribution of physical activity facilities in Scotland by small area measures of deprivation and urbanicity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ogilvie David

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The aim of this study was to examine the distribution of physical activity facilities by area-level deprivation in Scotland, adjusting for differences in urbanicity, and exploring differences between and within the four largest Scottish cities. Methods We obtained a list of all recreational physical activity facilities in Scotland. These were mapped and assigned to datazones. Poisson and negative binomial regression models were used to investigate associations between the number of physical activity facilities relative to population size and quintile of area-level deprivation. Results The results showed that prior to adjustment for urbanicity, the density of all facilities lessened with increasing deprivation from quintiles 2 to 5. After adjustment for urbanicity and local authority, the effect of deprivation remained significant but the pattern altered, with datazones in quintile 3 having the highest estimated mean density of facilities. Within-city associations were identified between the number of physical activity facilities and area-level deprivation in Aberdeen and Dundee, but not in Edinburgh or Glasgow. Conclusions In conclusion, area-level deprivation appears to have a significant association with the density of physical activity facilities and although overall no clear pattern was observed, affluent areas had fewer publicly owned facilities than more deprived areas but a greater number of privately owned facilities.

  17. [Potentials in the regionalization of health indicators using small-area estimation methods : Exemplary results based on the 2009, 2010 and 2012 GEDA studies].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kroll, Lars Eric; Schumann, Maria; Müters, Stephan; Lampert, Thomas

    2017-12-01

    Nationwide health surveys can be used to estimate regional differences in health. Using traditional estimation techniques, the spatial depth for these estimates is limited due to the constrained sample size. So far - without special refreshment samples - results have only been available for larger populated federal states of Germany. An alternative is regression-based small-area estimation techniques. These models can generate smaller-scale data, but are also subject to greater statistical uncertainties because of the model assumptions. In the present article, exemplary regionalized results based on the studies "Gesundheit in Deutschland aktuell" (GEDA studies) 2009, 2010 and 2012, are compared to the self-rated health status of the respondents. The aim of the article is to analyze the range of regional estimates in order to assess the usefulness of the techniques for health reporting more adequately. The results show that the estimated prevalence is relatively stable when using different samples. Important determinants of the variation of the estimates are the achieved sample size on the district level and the type of the district (cities vs. rural regions). Overall, the present study shows that small-area modeling of prevalence is associated with additional uncertainties compared to conventional estimates, which should be taken into account when interpreting the corresponding findings.

  18. Density, movement, and transuranic tissue inventory of small mammals at a liquid-radioactive waste disposal area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Halford, D.K.

    1987-01-01

    Linear movement, density, and transuranic radionuclide inventory were estimated for small mammals residing at a liquid radioactive waste disposal area in southeastern Idaho. Deer mice (Peromyscus maniculatus), kangaroo rats (Dipodomys ordii), western harvest mice (Reithrodontomys megalotis), and Great Basin pocket mice (Perognathus parvus) were the predominant species. The total small mammal population within the 3.0-ha waste area was estimated to be 93. The distance between consecutive captures for all species combined averaged 41 m and ranged from 7 to 201 m. About 30% of the rodents captured inside the waste area were also captured outside its boundaries. The total population inventory of 238 Pu, /sup 239,240/Pu, 241 Am, 242 Cm, and 244 Cm was 44 pCi, 30 pCi, 19 pCi, 21 pCi, and <1 pCi, respectively. One-third, or about 35 pCi of transuranics, could be removed from the waste area by small mammals during the summer of 1981. 16 references, 3 figures, 3 tables

  19. Efficacy of solar power units for small-scale businesses in a remote rural area, South Africa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hajat, A.; Shackleton, C.M. [Dept of Environmental Science, Rhodes University, Grahamstown 6140 (South Africa); Banks, D.; Aiken, R. [Restio Energy, 14 Clifton Road, Mowbray, Cape Town (South Africa)

    2009-12-15

    Much work has considered the practicalities and affordability of solar systems for domestic energy supplies in remote rural areas. There is less understanding of its utility for small-scale business enterprises in such areas. We examined the patterns of use of two 12 V and one 24 V systems for small-scale enterprises housed in transportable containers. Monitoring of load shed and top of charge indicated that the 12 V systems were inadequate to meet the requirements of the enterprises. The 24 V operation performed a lot better. Despite some technical limitations the system offered a number of social, economic and environmental positives; primarily the offering of business products not otherwise available in the area, incomes to the entrepreneurs and greater connectivity with regional centres through office services such as cell-phone charging and faxing. Customers of the small-scale enterprises felt that their presence in the area saved them some money because they no longer had to travel as frequently to regional urban centres. (author)

  20. Seasonal and spatial variation of organic tracers for biomass burning in PM1 aerosols from highly insolated urban areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Drooge, B L; Fontal, M; Bravo, N; Fernández, P; Fernández, M A; Muñoz-Arnanz, J; Jiménez, B; Grimalt, J O

    2014-10-01

    PM1 aerosol characterization on organic tracers for biomass burning (levoglucosan and its isomers and dehydroabietic acid) was conducted within the AERTRANS project. PM1 filters (N = 90) were sampled from 2010 to 2012 in busy streets in the urban centre of Madrid and Barcelona (Spain) at ground-level and at roof sites. In both urban areas, biomass burning was not expected to be an important local emission source, but regional emissions from wildfires, residential heating or biomass removal may influence the air quality in the cities. Although both areas are under influence of high solar radiation, Madrid is situated in the centre of the Iberian Peninsula, while Barcelona is located at the Mediterranean Coast and under influence of marine atmospheres. Two extraction methods were applied, i.e. Soxhlet and ASE, which showed equivalent results after GC-MS analyses. The ambient air concentrations of the organic tracers for biomass burning increased by an order of magnitude at both sites during winter compared to summer. An exception was observed during a PM event in summer 2012, when the atmosphere in Barcelona was directly affected by regional wildfire smoke and levels were four times higher as those observed in winter. Overall, there was little variation between the street and roof sites in both cities, suggesting that regional biomass burning sources influence the urban areas after atmospheric transport. Despite the different atmospheric characteristics in terms of air relative humidity, Madrid and Barcelona exhibit very similar composition and concentrations of biomass burning organic tracers. Nevertheless, levoglucosan and its isomers seem to be more suitable for source apportionment purposes than dehydroabietic acid. In both urban areas, biomass burning contributions to PM were generally low (2 %) in summer, except on the day when wildfire smoke arrive to the urban area. In the colder periods the contribution increase to around 30 %, indicating that regional

  1. Temporal variations of surface water quality in urban, suburban and rural areas during rapid urbanization in Shanghai, China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Junying; Da Liangjun; Song Kun; Li Bailian

    2008-01-01

    As the economic and financial center of China, Shanghai has experienced an extensive urban expansion since the early 1980s, with an attendant cost in environmental degradation. We use an integrated pollution index to study the temporal variations of surface water quality in urban, suburban and rural areas between 1982 and 2005. Data on monitored cross-sections were collected from the Shanghai Environmental Monitoring Center. The results indicated that the spatial pattern of surface water quality was determined by the level of urbanization. Surface water qualities in urban and suburban areas were improved by strengthening the environmental policies and management, but were worsening in rural areas. The relationship between economic growth and surface water quality in Shanghai showed an inversed-U-shaped curve, which reflected a similar pattern in most developed countries. This research suggests that decision makers and city officials should be more aware of the recent pollution increases in Shanghai. - An integrated pollution index documents the deterioration of water quality in greater Shanghai, recently most serious in rural sections

  2. Influences of meteorological conditions on interannual variations of particulate matter pollution during winter in the Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei area

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Jianjun; Gong, Sunling; Liu, Hongli; An, Xingqin; Yu, Ye; Zhao, Suping; Wu, Lin; Song, Congbo; Zhou, Chunhong; Wang, Jie; Yin, Chengmei; Yu, Lijuan

    2017-12-01

    To investigate the interannual variations of particulate matter (PM) pollution in winter, this paper examines the pollution characteristics of PM with aerodynamic diameters of less than 2.5 and 10 μm (i.e., PM2.5 and PM10), and their relationship to meteorological conditions over the Beijing municipality, Tianjin municipality, and Hebei Province—an area called Jing-Jin-Ji (JJJ, hereinafter)—in December 2013-16. The meteorological conditions during this period are also analyzed. The regional average concentrations of PM2.5 (PM10) over the JJJ area during this period were 148.6 (236.4), 100.1 (166.4), 140.5 (204.5), and 141.7 (203.1) μg m-3, respectively. The high occurrence frequencies of cold air outbreaks, a strong Siberian high, high wind speeds and boundary layer height, and low temperature and relative humidity, were direct meteorological causes of the low PM concentration in December 2014. A combined analysis of PM pollution and meteorological conditions implied that control measures have resulted in an effective improvement in air quality. Using the same emissions inventory in December 2013-16, a modeling analysis showed emissions of PM2.5 to decrease by 12.7%, 8.6%, and 8.3% in December 2014, 2015, and 2016, respectively, each compared with the previous year, over the JJJ area.

  3. Targeted histology sampling from atypical small acinar proliferation area detected by repeat transrectal prostate biopsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. V. Karman

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Оbjective: to define the approach to the management of patients with the detected ASAP area.Materials and methods. In the time period from 2012 through 2015, 494 patients with previously negative biopsy and remaining suspicion of prostate cancer (PCa were examined. The patients underwent repeat 24-core multifocal prostate biopsy with taking additional tissue samples from suspicious areas detected by multiparametric magnetic resonance imaging and transrectal ultrasound. An isolated ASAP area was found in 127 (25. 7 % of the 494 examined men. All of them were offered to perform repeat target transrectal biopsy of this area. Targeted transrectal ultrasound guided biopsy of the ASAP area was performed in 56 (44.1 % of the 127 patients, 53 of them being included in the final analysis.Results. PCa was diagnosed in 14 (26.4 % of the 53 patients, their mean age being 64.4 ± 6.9 years. The average level of prostate-specific antigen (PSA in PCa patients was 6.8 ± 3.0 ng/ml, in those with benign lesions – 9.3 ± 6.5 ng/ml; the percentage ratio of free/total PSA with PCa was 16.2 ± 7,8 %, with benign lesions – 23.3 ± 7.7 %; PSA density in PCa patients was 0.14 ± 0.07 ng/ml/cm3, in those with benign lesions – 0.15 ± 0.12 ng/ml/cm3. Therefore, with ASAP area being detected in repeat prostate biopsy samples, it is advisable that targeted extended biopsy of this area be performed. 

  4. Differences of diurnal variations of some aliphatic and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons concentrations in aerosols of the urban area of Madrid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perez, M. M.; Perez-Pastor, R. M.; Bea, F. J.; Campos, A.; Gonzalez, D.

    1991-01-01

    A study on daily concentration changes of polycyclic aromatic and aliphatic hydrocarbons (PAH's and AH's), was carried out in aerosols sampled m the Ciudad Universitaria of Madrid. Samples were taken at morning and night during February and June, for short sampling times, on glass fiber filters in Hi-Vol samplers, and then extracted ultrasonically with cyclohexane. Analysis were performed by HRGC with fused-silica capillary columns. The variable traffic rate, and the strong influence during winter periods of domestic heating are characteristic of this place. The aim of this work was to evaluate diurnal and seasonal variations of selected AH and PAH in the urban area of Madrid, by using descriptive parameters, such as total concentrations of AH and PAH, characteristic profiles and predominance carbon index. (Author)

  5. Differences of diurnal variations of some aliphatic and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons concentrations in aerosol of the urban area of Madrid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perez Garcia, M.M.; Perez Pastor, R.M.; Bea, J.F.; Campos, A.; Gonzalez Diaz, D.

    1990-01-01

    A study on daily concentration changes of polycyclic aromatic and aliphatic hydrocarbons (PAH's and AH's), was carried out in aerosols sampled in the Ciudad Universitaria of Madrid. Samples were taken at morning and night during February and June, for short sampling times, on glass fiber filters in Hi-Vol samplers, and then extracted ultrasonically with cyclohexane. Analysis were performed by HRGC with fused-silica capillary columns. The variable traffic rate, and the strong influence during winter periods of domestic heating are characteristic of this place. The aim of this work was to evaluate diurnal and seasonal variations of selected AH and PAH in the urban area of Madrid, by using descriptive parameters, such as total concentrations of AH and PAH, characteristic profiles and predominance carbon index. From these results, it has been tried to identify emission sources of the studied hydrocarbons. (Author). 10 refs

  6. Variation of radiocesium concentrations in cedar pollen in the Okutama area since the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsuruoka, H.; Inoue, K.; Sakano, Y.; Hamada, M.; Shimizu, H.; Fukushi, M.

    2015-01-01

    Due to releases of radionuclides in the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant accident, radiocesium ( 134 Cs and 137 Cs) has been incorporated into large varieties of plant species and soil types. There is a possibility that radiocesium taken into plants is being diffused by pollen. Radiocesium concentrations in cedar pollen have been measured in Ome City, located in the Okutama area of metropolitan Tokyo, for the past 3 y. In this research, the variation of radiocesium concentrations was analysed by comparing data from 2011 to 2014. Air dose rates at 1 m above the ground surface in Ome City from 2011 to 2014 showed no significant difference. Concentration of 137 Cs contained in the cedar pollen in 2012 was about half that in 2011. Between 2012 and 2014, the concentration decreased by approximately one-fifth, which was similar to the result of a press release distributed by the Japanese Ministry of Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries. (authors)

  7. Variation of linear and circular polarization persistence for changing field of view and collection area in a forward scattering environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Laan, John D.; Wright, Jeremy B.; Scrymgeour, David A.; Kemme, Shanalyn A.; Dereniak, Eustace L.

    2016-05-01

    We present experimental and simulation results for a laboratory-based forward-scattering environment, where 1 μm diameter polystyrene spheres are suspended in water to model the optical scattering properties of fog. Circular polarization maintains its degree of polarization better than linear polarization as the optical thickness of the scattering environment increases. Both simulation and experiment quantify circular polarization's superior persistence, compared to that of linear polarization, and show that it is much less affected by variations in the field of view and collection area of the optical system. Our experimental environment's lateral extent was physically finite, causing a significant difference between measured and simulated degree of polarization values for incident linearly polarized light, but not for circularly polarized light. Through simulation we demonstrate that circular polarization is less susceptible to the finite environmental extent as well as the collection optic's limiting configuration.

  8. Comparison of Surface and Column Variations of CO2 Over Urban Areas for Future Active Remote CO2 Sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Yonghoon; Yang, Melissa; Kooi, Susan; Browell, Edward

    2015-01-01

    High resolution in-situ CO2 measurements were recorded onboard the NASA P-3B during the DISCOVER-AQ (Deriving Information on Surface Conditions from Column and Vertically Resolved Observations Relevant to Air Quality) Field Campaign, to investigate the ability of space-based observations to accurately assess near surface conditions related to air quality. This campaign includes, Washington DC/Baltimore, MD (July 2011), San Joaquin Valley, CA (January - February 2013), Houston, TX (September 2013), and Denver, CO (July-August 2014). Each of these campaigns consisted of missed approaches and approximately two hundred vertical soundings of CO2 within the lower troposphere (surface to about 5 km). In this study, surface (0 - 1 km) and column-averaged (0 - 3.5 km) CO2 mixing ratio values from the vertical soundings in the four geographically different urban areas are used to investigate the temporal and spatial variability of CO2 within the different urban atmospheric emission environments. Tracers such as CO, CH2O, NOx, and NMHCs are used to identify the source of CO2 variations in the urban sites. Additionally, we apply nominal CO2 column weighting functions for potential future active remote CO2 sensors operating in the 1.57-microns and 2.05-microns measurement regions to convert the in situ CO2 vertical mixing ratio profiles to variations in CO2 column optical depths, which is what the active remote sensors actually measure. Using statistics calculated from the optical depths at each urban site measured during the DISCOVER-AQ field campaign and for each nominal weighting function, we investigate the natural variability of CO2 columns in the lower troposphere; relate the CO2 column variability to the urban surface emissions; and show the measurement requirements for the future ASCENDS (Active Sensing of CO2 Emissions over Nights, Days, and Seasons) in the continental U.S. urban areas.

  9. Dose-response functions and corrosion mapping for a small geographical area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haagenrud, S.E.; Henriksen, J.F.; Gram, F.

    1985-01-01

    Detailed corrosion and environmental measurements have been used to develop dose response (D/R) functions for carbon steel, zinc, copper, and aluminum for a 26 x 31 km urban/rural area with approximately homogeneous climate. The D/R functions, expressed in terms of SO 2 and time of wetness, were of the same type for all four metals. The SO 2 contribution to the total corrosion dominates in the centers of towns and around an industrial plant. Corrosion maps for the whole area were established

  10. Diurnal and seasonal variations in carbon dioxide exchange in ecosystems in the Zhangye oasis area, Northwest China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lei Zhang

    Full Text Available Quantifying carbon dioxide exchange and understanding the response of key environmental factors in various ecosystems are critical to understanding regional carbon budgets and ecosystem behaviors. For this study, CO2 fluxes were measured in a variety of ecosystems with an eddy covariance observation matrix between June 2012 and September 2012 in the Zhangye oasis area of Northwest China. The results show distinct diurnal variations in the CO2 fluxes in vegetable field, orchard, wetland, and maize cropland. Diurnal variations of CO2 fluxes were not obvious, and their values approached zero in the sandy desert, desert steppe, and Gobi ecosystems. Additionally, daily variations in the Gross Primary Production (GPP, Ecosystem Respiration (Reco and Net Ecosystem Exchange (NEE were not obvious in the sandy desert, desert steppe, and Gobi ecosystems. In contrast, the distributions of the GPP, Reco, and NEE show significant daily variations, that are closely related to the development of vegetation in the maize, wetland, orchard, and vegetable field ecosystems. All of the ecosystems are characterized by their carbon absorption during the observation period. The ability to absorb CO2 differed significantly among the tested ecosystems. We also used the Michaelis-Menten equation and exponential curve fitting methods to analyze the impact of Photosynthetically Active Radiation (PAR on the daytime CO2 flux and impact of air temperature on Reco at night. The results show that PAR is the dominant factor in controlling photosynthesis with limited solar radiation, and daytime CO2 assimilation increases rapidly with PAR. Additionally, the carbon assimilation rate was found to increase slowly with high solar radiation. The light response parameters changed with each growth stage for all of the vegetation types, and higher light response values were observed during months or stages when the plants grew quickly. Light saturation points are different for different

  11. The Finnish multisource national forest inventory: small-area estimation and map production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erkki Tomppo

    2009-01-01

    A driving force motivating development of the multisource national forest inventory (MS-NFI) in connection with the Finnish national forest inventory (NFI) was the desire to obtain forest resource information for smaller areas than is possible using field data only without significantly increasing the cost of the inventory. A basic requirement for the method was that...

  12. Small area estimation in forests affected by wildfire in the Interior West

    Science.gov (United States)

    G. G. Moisen; J. A. Blackard; M. Finco

    2004-01-01

    Recent emphasis has been placed on estimating amount and characteristics of forests affected by wildfire in the Interior West. Data collected by FIA is intended for estimation over large geographic areas and is too sparse to construct sufficiently precise estimates within burn perimeters. This paper illustrates how recently built MODISbased maps of forest/nonforest and...

  13. Ethnic minority suicide : a small area geographical study in south London

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Neeleman, J; Wessely, S

    Background. The relationship between ethnicity and suicide risk is ill-understood. It is unclear whether, and if so, how, the ethnic mix of local areas affects risk in local individuals. Methods. Coroners' records of 329 suicides were used to obtain ethnic (White, Afro-Caribbean, Asian) suicide

  14. Summertime diurnal variations in the isotopic composition of atmospheric nitrogen dioxide at a small midwestern United States city

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walters, Wendell W.; Fang, Huan; Michalski, Greg

    2018-04-01

    The nitrogen and oxygen stable isotopes (δ15N & δ18O) of nitrogen oxides (NOx = nitric oxide (NO) + nitrogen dioxide (NO2)) may be a useful tool for partitioning NOx emission sources and for evaluating NOx photochemical cycling, but few measurements of in situ NOx exist. In this study, we have collected and characterized the diurnal variability in δ15N and δ18O of NO2 from ambient air at a small Midwestern city (West Lafayette, IN, USA, 40.426° N, 86.908° W) between July 7 to August 5, 2016, using an active sampling technique. Large variations were observed in both δ15N(NO2) and δ18O(NO2) that ranged from -31.4 to 0.4‰ and 41.5-112.5‰, respectively. Daytime averages were -9.2 ± 5.7‰ (x̅ ± 1σ) and 86.5 ± 14.1‰ (n = 11), while nighttime averages were -13.4 ± 7.3‰ and 56.3 ± 7.1‰ (n = 12) for δ15N(NO2) and δ18O(NO2), respectively. The large variability observed in δ15N(NO2) is predicted to be driven by changing contributions of local NOx emission sources, as calculated isotope effects predict a minor impact on δ15N(NO2) relative to δ15N(NOx) that is generally less than 2.5‰ under the sample collection conditions of high ozone concentration ([O3]) relative to [NOx]. A statistical δ15N mass-balance model suggests that traffic-derived NOx is the main contributor to the sampling site (0.52 ± 0.22) with higher relative contribution during the daytime (0.58 ± 0.19) likely due to higher traffic volume than during the nighttime (0.47 ± 0.22). The diurnal cycle observed in δ18O(NO2) is hypothesized to be a result of the photochemical cycling of NOx that elevates δ18O(NO2) during the daytime relative to the nighttime. Overall, this data suggests the potential to use δ15N(NO2) for NOx source partitioning under environmental conditions of high [O3] relative to [NOx] and δ18O(NO2) for evaluating VOC-NOx-O3 chemistry.

  15. Heat flux variations over sea-ice observed at the coastal area of the Sejong Station, Antarctica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, S.; Choi, T.; Kim, S.

    2012-12-01

    This study presents variations of sensible heat flux and latent heat flux over sea-ice observed in 2011 from the 10-m flux tower located at the coast of the Sejong Station on King George Island, Antarctica. A period from June to November was divided into three parts: "Freezing", "Frozen", and "Melting" periods based on daily monitoring of sea state and hourly photos looking at the Marian Cove in front of the Sejong Station. The division of periods enabled us to look into the heat flux variations depending on the sea-ice conditions. Over freezing sea surface during the freezing period of late June, daily mean sensible heat flux was -11.9 Wm-2 and daily mean latent heat flux was +16.3 Wm-2. Over the frozen sea-ice, daily mean sensible heat flux was -10.4 Wm-2 while daily mean latent heat flux was +2.4 Wm-2. During the melting period of mid-October to early November, magnitudes of sensible heat flux increased to -14.2 Wm-2 and latent heat flux also increased to +13.5 Wm-2. In short, latent heat flux was usually upward over sea-ice most of the time while sensible heat flux was downward from atmosphere to sea-ice. Magnitudes of the fluxes were small but increased when freezing or melting of sea-ice was occurring. Especially, latent heat flux increased five to six times compared to that of "frozen" period implying that early melting of sea-ice may cause five to six times larger supply of moisture to the atmosphere.

  16. Survival Strategies and Sustainability of Small and Medium Enterprises in the Oshodi-Isolo Local Government Area of Lagos State

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ifekwem Nkiruka

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Small and medium enterprises (SMEs play an essential role in the sustainable development of countries. They help in employment generation, industrial production increase, and export, social enrichment as well as political stability. This study investigates the survival strategies and sustainability of SMEs using selected small businesses in the Oshodi-Isolo Local Government Area, Lagos State. It examines the type of growth strategies that SMEs adopt, ascertains what influences their survival strategies as well as the challenges that hinder their growth. Fifty (50 SMEs were randomly sampled. Their owners and managers were interviewed using questionnaires. Data collected were analysed using descriptive statistics and Pearson product–moment correlation coefficient statistics. Our findings reveal that there is a statistically significant relationship between survival strategies and SMEs’ sustainability. The major implication of the findings is that maintaining small but committed and motivated employees is critical in guaranteeing the survival of the SMEs in a volatile economy. The study recommends that there be a need for orientation and educational programmes to change the mindset of business owners to enable them to graduate from sole atomistic proprietor devoid of modern scientific business practice and effective succession to corporate status with an apparatus of modern business management practices and corporate vision. Finally, the study further suggests some imperatives for policy makers concerned with promoting small businesses’ growth and sustainability in the Oshodi-Isolo Local Government Area of Lagos State.

  17. SU-E-T-427: Cell Surviving Fractions Derived From Tumor-Volume Variation During Radiotherapy for Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer: Comparison with Predictive Assays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chvetsov, A; Schwartz, J; Mayr, N; Yartsev, S

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: To show that a distribution of cell surviving fractions S 2 in a heterogeneous group of patients can be derived from tumor-volume variation curves during radiotherapy for non-small cell lung cancer. Methods: Our analysis was based on two data sets of tumor-volume variation curves for heterogeneous groups of 17 patients treated for nonsmall cell lung cancer with conventional dose fractionation. The data sets were obtained previously at two independent institutions by using megavoltage (MV) computed tomography (CT). Statistical distributions of cell surviving fractions S 2 and cell clearance half-lives of lethally damaged cells T1/2 have been reconstructed in each patient group by using a version of the two-level cell population tumor response model and a simulated annealing algorithm. The reconstructed statistical distributions of the cell surviving fractions have been compared to the distributions measured using predictive assays in vitro. Results: Non-small cell lung cancer presents certain difficulties for modeling surviving fractions using tumor-volume variation curves because of relatively large fractional hypoxic volume, low gradient of tumor-volume response, and possible uncertainties due to breathing motion. Despite these difficulties, cell surviving fractions S 2 for non-small cell lung cancer derived from tumor-volume variation measured at different institutions have similar probability density functions (PDFs) with mean values of 0.30 and 0.43 and standard deviations of 0.13 and 0.18, respectively. The PDFs for cell surviving fractions S 2 reconstructed from tumor volume variation agree with the PDF measured in vitro. Comparison of the reconstructed cell surviving fractions with patient survival data shows that the patient survival time decreases as the cell surviving fraction increases. Conclusion: The data obtained in this work suggests that the cell surviving fractions S 2 can be reconstructed from the tumor volume variation curves measured

  18. Application of Three - dimensional Wound Analyzer in the Small Wound Area Measurement during the Process of Wound Healing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheng, Jiajun; Li, Haihang; Jin, Jian; Liu, Tong; Ma, Bing; Liu, Gongcheng; Zhu, Shihui

    2018-02-20

    The objective of this study was to determinate the reliability of 3-dimensional wound analyzer (3-DWMD) in the wound area measurement for animal small area in the process of wound healing. Seven Sprague-Dawley rats were used to establish the skin defect model. And the wound area and time consumption were measured on days 0, 5, 10, 15 using 3-DWMD, investigators, and planimetry method. The measurement results using 3-DWMD and investigators were analyzed comparative with that using planimetry method separately. A total 46 wounds, including 32 irregular wounds and regular 14 wounds, were measured. No matter calculating the irregular wounds or the regular wounds, there was no significant difference between 3-DWMD group and planimetry group in measuring wound area (P > 0.05). However, a statistically significant difference was found in time-consuming for measuring wound area between 3-DWMD group and planimetry group (P area, and its measurement results were consistent with planimetry method. Therefore, such measuring equipment has clinical reference value for measuring precision area of the wound in the process of wound healing.

  19. Small-scale area effect on species richness and nesting occupancy of cavity-nesting bees and wasps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael D. Loyola

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Small-scale area effect on species richness and nesting occupancy of cavity-nesting bees and wasps. The research was conducted in an urban forest remnant in southeast Brazil. We tested the predictions of the following hypotheses: (1 larger areas present higher species richness of bees and wasps, (2 solitary bees and wasps occupy more nests in larger areas, (3 rare species occupy more nests in smaller areas. We sampled Aculeate bees and wasps using trap nests from February to November 2004. We placed trap nests in sampling units (SU with different size (25, 100 and 400 m² located in 6 ha of secondary mesophytic forest. One hundred and thirty-seven trap nests were occupied by seven species of bees and four species of wasps. We found an increase in wasp, but not bee species richness following increase in SU size. Hymenoptera richness (i.e. bees plus wasps was also greater in larger SU. Both the number and density of occupied nests increased with SU size. The wasp Trypoxylon lactitarse responded significantly to area size, larger SU having more occupied nests. The same pattern was exhibited by the wasp Auplopus militaris, the Megachile bee species, and the bee Anthodioctes megachiloides. Only Trypoxylon sp. was not affected by SU size. Our results show that cavity-nesting bee and wasps respond differently to the area effects. Such findings must be complemented by information on the frequency and dynamics of area colonization and nest occupancy by species of solitary Hymenoptera.

  20. Estimation of small area populations using remote sensing and other approaches

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Honea, R.B.; Shumpert, B.L.; Edwards, R.G.; Margle, S.M.; Coleman, P.R.; Smyre, J.L.; Rush, R.M.; Durfee, R.C.

    1983-01-01

    This paper documents the results of an assessment of a variety of techniques for estimating residential population for a five-mile radial grid around a nuclear power plant. The study area surrounded the proposed Limerick Nuclear Power Plant located near Philadelphia, PA. Techniques evaluated ranged from the use of air photos to infer population from housing distributions to the use of Landsat data to characterize probable residential population around the plant site. Although the techniques involving the use of Landsat data provided good results, a simple proportional area allocation method and the current procedure used by Oak Ridge National Laboratory for the Nuclear Regulatory Commission were among the best techniques. Further research using other sites and better resolution satellite data is recommended to investigate the possible refinement of population estimates using remote sensing media. 34 references, 10 figures, 2 tables

  1. Quality of runoff from small watersheds in the Twin Cities Metropolitan Area, Minnesota - A project plan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayers, M.A.; Payne, G.A.; Oberts, Gary L.

    1980-01-01

    A program of water-quality sampling to define the relationships between land use, watershed characteristics, and the quantity, quality, and timing of runoff has been started for the Twin Cities metropolitan area of Minnesota. Ten major watersheds were chosen as representative of conditions in the metropolitan area. Each will be sampled at one location near the outlet. Six of the watersheds are agricultural and range in size from 14.3 to 82.9 square miles. The four remaining watersheds are urbanized and range in size from 1.22 to 31.7 square miles. In addition, seven urban subwatersheds, which range in size from 0.12 to 0.47 square miles and reflect a dominant land-use type, will be sampled.

  2. PROJECT CASCADES OF SMALL DRY RESERVOIRS FOR FLOOD PROTECTION OF URBAN AREAS

    OpenAIRE

    Rafał Antoszewski; Katarzyna Jakubiec; Kinga Witek; Michał Domagała

    2017-01-01

    The paper presents the problem of designing an open reservoirs with a capacity of about 100 000 m3 in heavily urbanized areas of anthropogenically transformed natural watercourses with numerous outlets drainage and large sealed surfaces runoff. In particular the issues of the hydrological basics design based on the meteorological data in the catchment uncontrolled water level checkpoints with particular emphasis on the tools of computer-aided modeling of hydrological processes (HEC-HMS, HEC-...

  3. Variation in chlorophyll content per unit leaf area in spring wheat and implications for selection in segregating material.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Hamblin

    Full Text Available Reduced levels of leaf chlorophyll content per unit leaf area in crops may be of advantage in the search for higher yields. Possible reasons include better light distribution in the crop canopy and less photochemical damage to leaves absorbing more light energy than required for maximum photosynthesis. Reduced chlorophyll may also reduce the heat load at the top of canopy, reducing water requirements to cool leaves. Chloroplasts are nutrient rich and reducing their number may increase available nutrients for growth and development. To determine whether this hypothesis has any validity in spring wheat requires an understanding of genotypic differences in leaf chlorophyll content per unit area in diverse germplasm. This was measured with a SPAD 502 as SPAD units. The study was conducted in series of environments involving up to 28 genotypes, mainly spring wheat. In general, substantial and repeatable genotypic variation was observed. Consistent SPAD readings were recorded for different sampling positions on leaves, between different leaves on single plant, between different plants of the same genotype, and between different genotypes grown in the same or different environments. Plant nutrition affected SPAD units in nutrient poor environments. Wheat genotypes DBW 10 and Transfer were identified as having consistent and contrasting high and low average SPAD readings of 52 and 32 units, respectively, and a methodology to allow selection in segregating populations has been developed.

  4. Quantifying lithic microwear with load variation on experimental basalt flakes using LSCM and area-scale fractal complexity (Asfc)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stemp, W James; Morozov, Mikhail; Key, Alastair J M

    2015-01-01

    Working load is one factor that affects wear on stone tools. Despite the recognition of the importance of the relationship between working load and the development of microwear on stone tools, there have been few attempts to quantify differences in wear due to changes in load. In a controlled experiment, we used 30 basalt flakes knapped from raw material collected in Olduvai Gorge, Tanzania, Africa, to cut oak branches for the same number of strokes. For each flake, a different loading level was applied starting at 150 g and increasing by increments of 150 g to a maximum load of 4.5 kg. A laser scanning confocal microscope was used to mathematically document the surface texture of the flakes. The worn surface data were compared using area-scale fractal complexity (Asfc), calculated from relative areas, to determine the degree to which variation in loading significantly affected the amount of wear on the flake surfaces. Our results indicate that working load does play a role in the development of lithic microwear on these flakes and that discrimination of two worn flake surfaces, using mean square ratios of Asfc, based on variable load is consistently possible with load differences between ∼100 g and 4.5 kg. However, discrimination of microwear on flake surfaces was not consistent for all load level differences and discrimination became less consistent when working load differences were below ∼100 g. (paper)

  5. A Dense Small-Scale Seismic Network in the Ngorongoro Conservation Area (Northern Tanzania)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parisi, L.; Lombardo, L.; Rodriguez-Mustafa, M.; Mai, P. M.

    2017-12-01

    A temporary deployment consisting of sixteen broadband seismic stations is conducted for the first time in the Ngorongoro Conservation Area (NCA, Northern Tanzania), located at the boundary between the Tanzanian Craton and East African Rift. A deep knowledge of the faulting systems and tectonics of the area is needed to better understand the contribution of the synsedimentary faults to the deposition of the Olduvai and surrounding basins affecting the landscapes of the Homo Habilis first settlements. Complex fault systems have been mapped in the field but their connection, especially at depth, is not well known. A first batch of ten instruments was installed in June 2016. In June 2017 two stations were dismissed and a second batch of six stations was installed in new locations. The current network of fourteen stations will record until May 2018. Stations are equipped with Nanometrics Trillium Compact Posthole 120 s sensor and Centaur digitiser recording continuously at 200 Hz. The whole network covers 1400 km2 and station interspace ranges from 8 to 15 km. We analyse probabilistic power spectra densities of the seismic noise to obtain insights of its origin and test the performances of the stations. Although factories do not exist in the area and most of the stations are far from roads, ambient noise in the range 0.01 - 1 s is relatively high (between -120 dB and -100dB at 0.1 s) probably because of the abundance of livestock living in the NCA. Ambient noise in the period range 1 - 10 s (secondary microseisms) decreases from east to west. Although the main source of the microseisms is located in the Indian Ocean (east of the study area), a contribution from the low period tremors coming from the nearby active volcano Ol Doinyo Lengai (north-east of the study area) is expected. Whereas the longer period noise (10 - 100 s) is very low in the vertical component seismograms, it is higher than the high noise model in the horizontal components for most of the stations

  6. Wide-Area Assessment of Aperiodic Small Signal Rotor Angle Stability in Real-Time

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jóhannsson, Hjörtur; Nielsen, Arne Hejde; Østergaard, Jacob

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents the details of a new real-time stability assessment method. The method assesses a particular mechanism of stability: each generator’s capability to generate sufficient steady state electromechanical torque. The lack of sufficient steady state torque causes aperiodic increase...... of multiple operating points is derived in the paper. Finally, results from time-domain simulation of instability scenarios in the Nordic32 test system are presented and results used for testing the assessment method. The results illustrate the method’s capability to efficiently identify the location...... in rotor angle and a loss of synchronism, referred to as aperiodic small signal instability. The paper provides the theoretical background of the method and an analytical assessment criterion. Furthermore, a mathematical mapping of the generators’ operating points that enables informative visualization...

  7. Managing artisanal and small-scale mining in forest areas: perspectives from a poststructural political ecology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirons, Mark

    2011-01-01

    Artisanal and small-scale mining (ASM) is an activity intimately associated with social deprivation and environmental degradation, including deforestation. This paper examines ASM and deforestation using a broadly poststructural political ecology framework. Hegemonic discourses are shown to consistently influence policy direction, particularly in emerging approaches such as Corporate Social Responsibility and the Forest Stewardship Council. A review of alternative discourses reveals that the poststructural method is useful for critiquing the international policy arena but does not inform new approaches. Synthesis of the analysis leads to conclusions that echo a growing body of literature advocating for policies to become increasingly sensitive to local contexts, synergistic between actors at difference scales, and to be integrated across sectors.

  8. Small Scale Direct Potable Reuse (DPR Project for a Remote Area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianhua Zhang

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available An Advanced Water Treatment Plant (AWTP for potable water recycling in Davis Station Antarctica was trialed using secondary effluent at Selfs Point in Hobart, Tasmania, for nine months. The trials demonstrated the reliability of performance of a seven barrier treatment process consisting of ozonation, ceramic microfiltration (MF, biologically activated carbon, reverse osmosis, ultra-violet disinfection, calcite contactor and chlorination. The seven treatment barriers were required to meet the high log removal values (LRV required for pathogens in small systems during disease outbreak, and on-line verification of process performance was required for operation with infrequent operator attention. On-line verification of pathogen LRVs, a low turbidity filtrate of approximately 0.1 NTU (Nephelometric Turbidity Unit, no long-term fouling and no requirement for clean-in-place (CIP was achieved with the ceramic MF. A pressure decay test was also reliably implemented on the reverse osmosis system to achieve a 2 LRV for protozoa, and this barrier required only 2–3 CIP treatments each year. The ozonation process achieved 2 LRV for bacteria and virus with no requirement for an ozone residual, provided the ozone dose was >11.7 mg/L. Extensive screening using multi-residue gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC–MS and liquid chromatography–mass spectrometry (LC–MS database methods that can screen for more than 1200 chemicals found that few chemicals pass through the barriers to the final product and rejected (discharge water streams. The AWTP plant required 1.93 kWh/m3 when operated in the mode required for Davis Station and was predicted to require 1.27 kWh/m3 if scaled up to 10 ML/day. The AWTP will be shipped to Davis Station for further trials before possible implementation for water recycling. The process may have application in other small remote communities.

  9. Procedural Documentation and Accuracy Assessment of Bathymetric Maps and Area/Capacity Tables for Small Reservoirs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Gary L.; Richards, Joseph M.

    2006-01-01

    Because of the increasing use and importance of lakes for water supply to communities, a repeatable and reliable procedure to determine lake bathymetry and capacity is needed. A method to determine the accuracy of the procedure will help ensure proper collection and use of the data and resulting products. It is important to clearly define the intended products and desired accuracy before conducting the bathymetric survey to ensure proper data collection. A survey-grade echo sounder and differential global positioning system receivers were used to collect water-depth and position data in December 2003 at Sugar Creek Lake near Moberly, Missouri. Data were collected along planned transects, with an additional set of quality-assurance data collected for use in accuracy computations. All collected data were imported into a geographic information system database. A bathymetric surface model, contour map, and area/capacity tables were created from the geographic information system database. An accuracy assessment was completed on the collected data, bathymetric surface model, area/capacity table, and contour map products. Using established vertical accuracy standards, the accuracy of the collected data, bathymetric surface model, and contour map product was 0.67 foot, 0.91 foot, and 1.51 feet at the 95 percent confidence level. By comparing results from different transect intervals with the quality-assurance transect data, it was determined that a transect interval of 1 percent of the longitudinal length of Sugar Creek Lake produced nearly as good results as 0.5 percent transect interval for the bathymetric surface model, area/capacity table, and contour map products.

  10. A geostatistical investigation of the spatial variation of external gamma exposure in urban area of Pocos de Caldas Plateau

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, Nivaldo C.; Macacini, Jose F.; Taddei, Maria H.T.; Montano, Marcelo; Fontes, Aurelio T.

    2008-01-01

    Full text: The Pocos de Caldas Plateau has been recognized as High Level of Natural Radiation Area for a long time. It consists in an alkaline intrusion with some uranium and thorium anomalies, where the first Brazilian uranium mining and milling facilities is located. Due to these facts, the population of Pocos de Caldas city shows a great deal of concern about radiation health effects. This perception of the risks of radiation exposure leads to much confusion among the population that attributes an imaginary excess (without an scientific support) of cancer cases and deformities in newborns in the city to radiation. In order to obtain information for help radiation risks management by government and to explore the spatial variation external gamma exposure a survey in the urban area of Pocos de Caldas city was done. The measurements were performed using a Mobile Radioactivity Measurement System - Mobisys (ESM Eberline model FHT 1376). The system consists of a high-sensitivity 5-liter scintillation detector, an electronic for measurement system that is able to on-line separate natural and artificial gamma radiation (Natural Background Rejection Detector NBR), one compact Global Positioning System GPS and a computer (notebook). Data was collected at approximately 50,000 points spread over all streets of city. The obtained results ranged from 40 nSv.h -1 to 420 nSv.h -1 where the mean value was 112 nSv.h -1 . The spatial distribution of gamma exposure over the city is quite homogeneous with lowest and highest values in western and southern area, respectively. (author)

  11. Evaluation of small area crop estimation techniques using LANDSAT- and ground-derived data. [South Dakota

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amis, M. L.; Martin, M. V.; Mcguire, W. G.; Shen, S. S. (Principal Investigator)

    1982-01-01

    Studies completed in fiscal year 1981 in support of the clustering/classification and preprocessing activities of the Domestic Crops and Land Cover project. The theme throughout the study was the improvement of subanalysis district (usually county level) crop hectarage estimates, as reflected in the following three objectives: (1) to evaluate the current U.S. Department of Agriculture Statistical Reporting Service regression approach to crop area estimation as applied to the problem of obtaining subanalysis district estimates; (2) to develop and test alternative approaches to subanalysis district estimation; and (3) to develop and test preprocessing techniques for use in improving subanalysis district estimates.

  12. PROJECT CASCADES OF SMALL DRY RESERVOIRS FOR FLOOD PROTECTION OF URBAN AREAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafał Antoszewski

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the problem of designing an open reservoirs with a capacity of about 100 000 m3 in heavily urbanized areas of anthropogenically transformed natural watercourses with numerous outlets drainage and large sealed surfaces runoff. In particular the issues of the hydrological basics design based on the meteorological data in the catchment uncontrolled water level checkpoints with particular emphasis on the tools of computer-aided modeling of hydrological processes (HEC-HMS, HEC-RAS and available for use mathematical models and statistical rainfall-runoff, this practical the method SCS-CN and linear model cascade tanks Nash to transform the effective precipitation in surface runoff.

  13. The Effects of Heat Advection on UK Weather and Climate Observations in the Vicinity of Small Urbanized Areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bassett, Richard; Cai, Xiaoming; Chapman, Lee; Heaviside, Clare; Thornes, John E.

    2017-10-01

    Weather and climate networks traditionally follow rigorous siting guidelines, with individual stations located away from frost hollows, trees or urban areas. However, the diverse nature of the UK landscape suggests that the feasibility of siting stations that are truly representative of regional climate and free from distorting local effects is increasingly difficult. Whilst the urban heat island is a well-studied phenomenon and usually accounted for, the effect of warm urban air advected downwind is rarely considered, particularly at rural stations adjacent to urban areas. Until recently, urban heat advection (UHA) was viewed as an urban boundary-layer process through the formation of an urban plume that rises above the surface as it is advected. However, these dynamic UHA effects are shown to also have an impact on surface observations. Results show a significant difference in temperatures anomalies (p careful interpretation of long-term temperature data taken near small urban areas.

  14. Evasion of CO2 and dissolved carbon in river waters of three small catchments in an area occupied by small family farms in the eastern Amazon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Beatriz Silva da Rosa

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available CO2 effluxes from streams and rivers have been hypothesized to be a critical pathway of carbon flow from the biosphere back to the atmosphere. This study was conducted in three small Amazonian catchments to evaluate carbon evasion and dynamics, where land-use change has occurred on small family-farms. Monthly field campaigns were conducted from June 2006 to May 2007 in the Cumaru (CM, Pachibá (PB and São João (SJ streams. Electrical conductivity, pH, temperature, and dissolved oxygen measurements were done in situ, while water samples were collected to determine dissolved organic carbon (DOC and dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC concentrations, as well as carbon dioxide partial pressures (pCO2 and CO2 evasion fluxes. Instantaneous discharge measured by a current meter was used to calculate DOC fluxes. Considering all the sites, DOC, DIC, pCO2, and CO2 flux measurements ranged as follows, respectively: 0.27 - 12.13 mg L-1; 3.5 - 38.9 mg L-1; 2,265 - 26,974 ppm; and 3.39 - 75.35 μmol m-2 s-1. DOC annual flux estimates for CM, SJ and PB were, respectively, 281, 245, and 169 kg C ha-1. CO2 evasion fluxes had an average of 22.70 ± 1.67 μmol m-2 s-1. These CO2 evasion fluxes per unit area were similar to those measured for major Amazonian rivers, thus confirming our hypothesis that small streams can evade substantial quantities of CO2. As secondary vegetation is abundant as a result of family farming management in the region, we conclude that this vegetation can be a major driver of an abundant carbon cycle.

  15. Small and medium enterprise (SME internet marketing challenges in the Tshwane area, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Louise van Scheers

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to establish Internet marketing challenges of SMEs in the Tshwane area. It seems that the benefits of Internet marketing seem to be ignored by most SMEs however but unfortunately, Internet marketing challenges prevent SME owners from using these tools effectively. A survey study method of research design has been selected for the research. The sample for the study comprised 200 SMEs in the Tshwane area. Internet marketing usage in SMEs and the impact thereof is viewed as an essential part of modern day organisational operations for SMEs to promote their business both domestically and globally. ‘Unauthorised access to sensitive or proprietary information and limited verification of authorship of messages’ is mentioned as the largest challenges. The conducted research recommends that Internet marketing can be cost effective if the SMEs make use of their social networks and use best practises that enable them to get their adverts or posts shared across social networks. The conducted research also recommends that SMEs with limited resources start with social media and YouTube as a marketing tool, as the learning curve is low and cost involved almost nil. This paper conclude that Tshwane SMEs are using both Internet marketing and traditional marketing to promote their businesses.

  16. Evaluation of seasonal variation of water quality using multivariate statistical analysis and irrigation parameter indices in Ajakanga area, Ibadan, Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganiyu, S. A.; Badmus, B. S.; Olurin, O. T.; Ojekunle, Z. O.

    2018-03-01

    The variation of groundwater quality across different regions is of great importance in the study of groundwater so as to ascertain the sources of contaminants to available water sources. Geochemical assessment of groundwater samples from hand-dug wells were done within the vicinity of Ajakanga dumpsite, Ibadan, Southwestern, Nigeria, with the aim of assessing their suitability for domestic and irrigation purposes. Ten groundwater samples were collected both in dry and wet seasons for analysis of physicochemical parameters such as: pH, EC, TDS, Na+, K+, Ca2+, Mg2+, HCO3^{ - } Cl-, SO4^{2 - }, NO3^{2 - } principal component analysis (PCA) and cluster analysis (CA) were used to determine probable sources of groundwater contamination. The results of the analyses showed the groundwater samples to be within permissible limits of WHO/NSDWQ, while elevated values of concentrations of most analyzed chemical constituents in water samples were noticed in S1 and S10 due to their nearness to the dumpsite and agricultural overflow, respectively. Groundwater in the study area is of hard, fresh and alkaline nature. There are very strong associations between EC and TDS, HCO3^{ - } and CO3^{2 - } in both seasons. PCA identified five and three major factors accounting for 95.7 and 88.7% of total variation in water quality for dry and wet seasons, respectively. PCA also identified factors influencing water quality as those probably related to mineral dissolution, groundwater-rock interaction, weathering process and anthropogenic activities from the dumpsite. Results of CA show groups based on similar water quality characteristics and on the extent of proximity to the dumpsite. Assessment for irrigation purpose showed that most of the water samples were suitable for agricultural purpose except in a few locations.

  17. Magnitude and frequency of flooding on small urban watersheds in the Tampa Bay area, west-central Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez, M.A.; Woodham, W.M.

    1983-01-01

    Hydrologic data collected on nine small urban watersheds in the Tampa Bay area of west-central Florida and a method for estimating peak discharges in the study area are described. The watersheds have mixed land use and range in size from 0.34 to 3.45 square miles. Watershed soils, land use, and storm-drainage system data are described. Urban development ranged from a sparsely populated area with open-ditch storm sewers and 19% impervious area to a completely sewered watershed with 61% impervious cover. The U.S. Geological Survey natural-basin and urban-watershed models were calibrated for the nine watersheds using 5-minute interval rainfall data from the Tampa, Florida, National Weather Service rain gage to simulate annual peak discharge for the period 1906-52. A log-Pearson Type III frequency analysis of the simulated annual maximum discharge was used to determine the 2-, 5-, 10-, 25-, 50-, and 100-year flood discharges for each watershed. Flood discharges were related in a multiple-linear regression to drainage area, channel slope, detention storage area, and an urban-development factor determined by the extent of curb and gutter street drainage and storm-sewer system. The average standard error for the regional relations ranged from + or - 32 to + or - 42%. (USGS)

  18. Factors influencing the development of lung fibrosis after chemoradiation for small cell carcinoma of the lung: Evidence for inherent interindividual variation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geara, Fady B.; Komaki, Ritsuko; Tucker, Susan L.; Travis, Elizabeth L.; Cox, James D.

    1998-01-01

    Purpose: Clinical observations often reveal individual differences in the severity of lung fibrosis after definitive radiation therapy for lung cancer. Recent experimental studies suggest that the risk of developing lung fibrosis may be genetically controlled. The present study was undertaken to examine the magnitude of individual variation in the incidence and severity of lung fibrosis in a well-defined patient population treated by concurrent chemoradiation for limited small-cell lung carcinomas (LSCLC). Materials and Methods: Between 1989 and 1994, 56 patients with LSCLC were enrolled in one of two controlled prospective studies of concurrent chemotherapy and concomitant conventional (45 Gy in 25 fractions q.d. over 5 weeks) or accelerated (45 Gy in 30 fractions b.i.d. over 3 weeks) radiotherapy. Chemotherapy consisted of cisplatin and etoposide (PE) or PE plus ifosfamide and mesna (PIE). Of the 56, a group of 25 patients who had serial computerized tomography (CT) examinations of the chest and were deemed to have unequivocal radiographic complete responses were selected for this study. The severity of lung fibrosis was recorded for each patient from the CT images using an arbitrary scale (0 to 3) at 1 year after treatment. Radiographic fibrosis scores were recorded on 1-3 CT slices in 3 different dose-areas (20-30 Gy; 30-40 Gy; and >40 Gy) that were defined using the corresponding CT slices from the patient's CT treatment plan. Of these patients, 23 (92%) had at least 2 slices scored; 11 patients had all 3 slices scored. Results: Among the clinical and treatment parameters investigated (including type of chemotherapy), only total dose and fractionation schedule were identified as significant and independent determinants of lung fibrosis. Radiographic fibrosis scores were higher in high-dose areas and among patients treated with the accelerated schedule. Using a fit of the proportional odds (PO) model based on the total dose and fractionation schedule, fibrosis

  19. Small Tails Tell Tall Tales--Intra-Individual Variation in the Stable Isotope Values of Fish Fin.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian Hayden

    Full Text Available Fish fin is a widely used, non-lethal sample material in studies using stable isotopes to assess the ecology of fishes. However, fish fin is composed of two distinct tissues (ray and membrane which may have different stable isotope values and are not homogeneously distributed within a fin. As such, estimates of the stable isotope values of a fish may vary according to the section of fin sampled.To assess the magnitude of this variation, we analysed carbon (δ13C, nitrogen (δ15N, hydrogen (δ2H and oxygen (δ18O stable isotopes of caudal fin from juvenile, riverine stages of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar and brown trout (Salmo trutta. Individual fins were sub-sectioned into tip, mid and base, of which a further subset were divided into ray and membrane.Isotope variation between fin sections, evident in all four elements, was primarily related to differences between ray and membrane. Base sections were13C depleted relative to tip (~1‰ with equivalent variation evident between ray and membrane. A similar trend was evident in δ2H, though the degree of variation was far greater (~10‰. Base and ray sections were 18O enriched (~2‰ relative to tip and membrane, respectively. Ray and membrane sections displayed longitudinal variation in 15N mirroring that of composite fin (~1‰, indicating that variation in15N values was likely related to ontogenetic variation.To account for the effects of intra-fin variability in stable isotope analyses we suggest that researchers sampling fish fin, in increasing priority, 1 also analyse muscle (or liver tissue from a subsample of fish to calibrate their data, or 2 standardize sampling by selecting tissue only from the extreme tip of a fin, or 3 homogenize fins prior to analysis.

  20. Feasibility of using a dose-area product ratio as beam quality specifier for photon beams with small field sizes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pimpinella, Maria; Caporali, Claudio; Guerra, Antonio Stefano; Silvi, Luca; De Coste, Vanessa; Petrucci, Assunta; Delaunay, Frank; Dufreneix, Stéphane; Gouriou, Jean; Ostrowsky, Aimé; Rapp, Benjamin; Bordy, Jean-Marc; Daures, Josiane; Le Roy, Maïwenn; Sommier, Line; Vermesse, Didier

    2018-01-01

    To investigate the feasibility of using the ratio of dose-area product at 20 cm and 10 cm water depths (DAPR 20,10 ) as a beam quality specifier for radiotherapy photon beams with field diameter below 2 cm. Dose-area product was determined as the integral of absorbed dose to water (D w ) over a surface larger than the beam size. 6 MV and 10 MV photon beams with field diameters from 0.75 cm to 2 cm were considered. Monte Carlo (MC) simulations were performed to calculate energy-dependent dosimetric parameters and to study the DAPR 20,10 properties. Aspects relevant to DAPR 20,10 measurement were explored using large-area plane-parallel ionization chambers with different diameters. DAPR 20,10 was nearly independent of field size in line with the small differences among the corresponding mean beam energies. Both MC and experimental results showed a dependence of DAPR 20,10 on the measurement setup and the surface over which D w is integrated. For a given setup, DAPR 20,10 values obtained using ionization chambers with different air-cavity diameters agreed with one another within 0.4%, after the application of MC correction factors accounting for effects due to the chamber size. DAPR 20,10 differences among the small field sizes were within 1% and sensitivity to the beam energy resulted similar to that of established beam quality specifiers based on the point measurement of D w . For a specific measurement setup and integration area, DAPR 20,10 proved suitable to specify the beam quality of small photon beams for the selection of energy-dependent dosimetric parameters. Copyright © 2017 Associazione Italiana di Fisica Medica. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Small area mapping of domestic radon, smoking prevalence and lung cancer incidence – A case study in Northamptonshire, UK

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Denman, Antony R.; Rogers, Stephen; Ali, Akeem; Sinclair, John; Phillips, Paul S.; Crockett, Robin G.M.; Groves-Kirkby, Christopher J.

    2015-01-01

    Smoking and radon both cause lung cancer, and together the risk is significantly higher. UK public health campaigns continue to reduce smoking prevalence, and other initiatives identify houses with raised radon (radon-222) levels and encourage remedial action. Smoking prevalence and radon levels in the UK have been mapped at Primary Care Trust level. This paper extends that work, using a commercial socio-demographic database to estimate smoking prevalence at the postcode sector level, and to predict the population characteristics at postcode sector level for 87 postcode sectors in Northamptonshire. Likely smoking prevalence in each postcode sector is then modelled from estimates of the smoking prevalence in the different socio-economic groups used by the database. Mapping estimated smoking prevalence, radon potential and average lung cancer incidence for each postcode sector suggested that there was little correlation between smoking prevalence and radon levels, as radon potential was generally lower in urban areas in Northamptonshire, where the estimates of smoking prevalence were highest. However, the analysis demonstrated some sectors where both radon potential and smoking prevalence were moderately raised. This study showed the potential of this methodology to map estimated smoking prevalence and radon levels to inform locally targeted public health campaigns to reduce lung cancer incidence. - Highlights: • We use a commercial socio-demographic database to estimate smoking prevalence in small areas in Northamptonshire, UK. • We map the estimated smoking prevalence and average domestic radon levels in these small areas. • We estimate annual average lung cancer incidence in these small areas. • The methodology is useful to evaluate and plan localised public health campaigns to reduce lung cancer incidence.

  2. Average opportunity-based accessibility of public transit systems to grocery stores in small urban areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nimish Dharmadhikari

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This research studies the accessibility of grocery stores to university students using the public transportation system, drawing from a case study of Fargo, North Dakota. Taking into consideration the combined travel time components of walking, riding, and waiting, this study measures two types of accessibilities: accessibility to reach a particular place and accessibility to reach the bus stop to ride the public transit system. These two accessibilities are interdependent and cannot perform without each other. A new method to calculate the average accessibility measure for the transit routes is proposed. A step-wise case study analysis indicates that one route provides accessibility to a grocery store in eight minutes. This also suggests that the North Dakota State University area has moderate accessibility to grocery stores.

  3. Caesium-137 behaviour in small agricultural catchments on the area of the Chernobyl contamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kvasnikova, E.V.; Stukin, E.D.; Golosov, V.N.; Ivanova, N.N.; Panin, A.V.

    1999-01-01

    The vertical distribution of 137 Cs from the Chernobyl accident in soils of the basin of the Gusinaya Lapka dry river, situated in the Eastern region, 550 km from the reactor, has been investigated. In this area the 137 Cs contamination levels range between 250 and 502 kBq.m -2 . In the accumulation zones, at the bottom of the valley, the sediment deposits over the last ten years represent a layer of not more than 10 cm. On arable lands, the erosion processes are limited and no perceptible redistribution of 137 Cs could be observed, except at the transition between ploughed lands on the inter-rivers and meadows on the Balka slopes. This study demonstrates the potential use of the 137 Cs from the Chernobyl accident for the quantification of the soil erosion process. (author)

  4. Wide-area mapping of small-scale features in agricultural landscapes using airborne remote sensing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Connell, Jerome; Bradter, Ute; Benton, Tim G

    2015-11-01

    Natural and semi-natural habitats in agricultural landscapes are likely to come under increasing pressure with the global population set to exceed 9 billion by 2050. These non-cropped habitats are primarily made up of trees, hedgerows and grassy margins and their amount, quality and spatial configuration can have strong implications for the delivery and sustainability of various ecosystem services. In this study high spatial resolution (0.5 m) colour infrared aerial photography (CIR) was used in object based image analysis for the classification of non-cropped habitat in a 10,029 ha area of southeast England. Three classification scenarios were devised using 4 and 9 class scenarios. The machine learning algorithm Random Forest (RF) was used to reduce the number of variables used for each classification scenario by 25.5 % ± 2.7%. Proportion of votes from the 4 class hierarchy was made available to the 9 class scenarios and where the highest ranked variables in all cases. This approach allowed for misclassified parent objects to be correctly classified at a lower level. A single object hierarchy with 4 class proportion of votes produced the best result (kappa 0.909). Validation of the optimum training sample size in RF showed no significant difference between mean internal out-of-bag error and external validation. As an example of the utility of this data, we assessed habitat suitability for a declining farmland bird, the yellowhammer ( Emberiza citronella ), which requires hedgerows associated with grassy margins. We found that ∼22% of hedgerows were within 200 m of margins with an area >183.31 m 2 . The results from this analysis can form a key information source at the environmental and policy level in landscape optimisation for food production and ecosystem service sustainability.

  5. Wide-area mapping of small-scale features in agricultural landscapes using airborne remote sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Connell, Jerome; Bradter, Ute; Benton, Tim G.

    2015-11-01

    Natural and semi-natural habitats in agricultural landscapes are likely to come under increasing pressure with the global population set to exceed 9 billion by 2050. These non-cropped habitats are primarily made up of trees, hedgerows and grassy margins and their amount, quality and spatial configuration can have strong implications for the delivery and sustainability of various ecosystem services. In this study high spatial resolution (0.5 m) colour infrared aerial photography (CIR) was used in object based image analysis for the classification of non-cropped habitat in a 10,029 ha area of southeast England. Three classification scenarios were devised using 4 and 9 class scenarios. The machine learning algorithm Random Forest (RF) was used to reduce the number of variables used for each classification scenario by 25.5 % ± 2.7%. Proportion of votes from the 4 class hierarchy was made available to the 9 class scenarios and where the highest ranked variables in all cases. This approach allowed for misclassified parent objects to be correctly classified at a lower level. A single object hierarchy with 4 class proportion of votes produced the best result (kappa 0.909). Validation of the optimum training sample size in RF showed no significant difference between mean internal out-of-bag error and external validation. As an example of the utility of this data, we assessed habitat suitability for a declining farmland bird, the yellowhammer (Emberiza citronella), which requires hedgerows associated with grassy margins. We found that ˜22% of hedgerows were within 200 m of margins with an area >183.31 m2. The results from this analysis can form a key information source at the environmental and policy level in landscape optimisation for food production and ecosystem service sustainability.

  6. Roll-coating fabrication of flexible large area small molecule solar cells with power conversion efficiency exceeding 1%

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Wenqing; Liu, Shiyong; Zawacka, Natalia Klaudia

    2014-01-01

    All solution-processed flexible large area small molecule bulk heterojunction solar cells were fabricated via roll-coating technology. Our devices were produced from slot-die coating on a lab-scale mini roll-coater under ambient conditions without the use of spin-coating or vacuum evaporation.......01%, combined with an open circuit voltage of 0.73 V, a short-circuit current density of 3.13 mA cm (2) and a fill factor of 44% were obtained for the device with SM1, which was the first example reported for efficient roll-coating fabrication of flexible large area small molecule solar cells with PCE exceeding...... methods. Four diketopyrrolopyrrole based small molecules (SMs 1-4) were utilized as electron donors with (6,6)phenyl- C61-butyric acid methyl ester as an acceptor and their photovoltaic performances based on roll-coated devices were investigated. The best power conversion efficiency (PCE) of 1...

  7. The Question of Instability, Uncompetitiveness and Growth Slowdown of Small Middle –Income Countries in the Euro Area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marjan Senjur

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The thesis of this article is that a small country with a below-average per capita income is in a disadvantaged macroeconomic position inside the euro area. Small middle-income countries expected an acceleration of growth by joining the EMU. They were hoping to catch up in the convergence process within the euro area. Yet things turned out differently. The crisis in 2009–2012 has led to excessive instability due to exogenous macroeconomic prices and the lack of a lender of last resort for sovereign debtors. Small MICs are more vulnerable to asymmetric shocks from abroad due to the ‘one-size-fits-all’ economic policy at the EMU level. This is reflected in the excessive volatility of real economic variables (such as GDP and unemployment, and excessive financial instability (such as indebtedness and sovereign debt. The crisis also revealed weak price competitiveness of exports due to overvalued exchange rate of the euro and overall under-average productivity of the MICs. MICs had to respond with deflationary internal (surrogate devaluations and depressed aggregate demand. Measures of internal surrogate devaluations may partially improve situation in the medium term, yet they may worsen the competitive growth situation in the long run. A macroeconomic environment of macroeconomic instability and weak competitiveness may trigger a slowdown in growth.

  8. Application of small digester biogas for energy supply in rural areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wahyuni, S.; Sutjahjo, S. H.; Purwanto, Y. A.; Fuah, A. M.; Kurniawan, R.

    2018-03-01

    Village’s self-fulfillment of energy supply is a new concept being developed in Indonesia. Villages are expected to meet their own energy needs without relying on fossil-fuel and other non-renewable energy materials. The concept of village’s self-fulfillment of energy here includes two types of provision: the provision of electrical energy and the provision of bio-fuel by utilizing environmentally friendly renewable energy. Biogas is an alternative energy sources produced by anaerobic activities of organic materials such as human and animal feces, or domestic waste in rural communities. In general, rural farmers have 2-4 cows. It is assumed that cows/cattle produces ± 15 kg feces/head/day. A digester with 4m3 capacity potentially produces bio-gas per day that reaches 1.34 m3 equivalent to 6.30 kWh/day. This volume of bio-gas can be used for lamp lighting of 60-100 watts for 8 hours. Other applications that can be utilized are biogas stove. A family of farmer can use 2 stoves to cook 3 food recipes for 8 people and a generator for 1 hour. There is also potential solid mud of 40 kg that produces 8 kg of compost/day and potential sludge fluid as much as 160 liters including bio-urine of 32 liters/day. This paper discusses about the potency of small biogas digester application for village’s self-fulfillment of energy supply.

  9. Aboriginal premature mortality within South Australia 1999-2006: a cross-sectional analysis of small area results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McDermott Robyn

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This paper initially describes premature mortality by Aboriginality in South Australia during 1999 to 2006. It then examines how these outcomes vary across area level socio-economic disadvantage and geographic remoteness. Methods The retrospective, cross-sectional analysis uses estimated resident population by sex, age and small areas based on the 2006 Census, and Unit Record mortality data. Premature mortality outcomes are measured using years of life lost (YLL. Subsequent intrastate comparisons are based on indirect sex and age adjusted YLL results. A multivariate model uses area level socio-economic disadvantage rank, geographic remoteness, and an interaction between the two variables to predict premature mortality outcomes. Results Aboriginal people experienced 1.1% of total deaths but 2.2% of YLL and Aboriginal premature mortality rates were 2.65 times greater than the South Australian average. Premature mortality for Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal people increased significantly as area disadvantage increased. Among Aboriginal people though, a significant main effect for area remoteness was also observed, together with an interaction between disadvantage and remoteness. The synergistic effect shows the social gradient between area disadvantage and premature mortality increased as remoteness increased. Conclusions While confirming the gap in premature mortality rates between Aboriginal South Australians and the rest of the community, the study also found a heterogeneity of outcomes within the Aboriginal community underlie this difference. The results support the existence of relationship between area level socio-economic deprivation, remoteness and premature mortality in the midst of an affluent society. The study concludes that vertically equitable resourcing according to population need is an important response to the stark mortality gap and its exacerbation by area socio-economic position and remoteness.

  10. A study of graphene films synthesized on nickel substrates: existence and origin of small-base-area peaks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kahng, Yung Ho; Choe, Minhyeok; Jo, Gunho; Park, Woojin; Yoon, Jongwon; Hong, Woong-Ki; Lee, Byoung Hun; Lee, Takhee; Lee, Sangchul; Cho, Chun Hum

    2011-01-01

    Large-area graphene films, synthesized by the chemical vapor deposition (CVD) method, have the potential to be used as electrodes. However, the electrical properties of CVD-synthesized graphene films fall short of the best results obtained for graphene films prepared by other methods. Therefore, it is important to understand the reason why these electrical properties are inferior to improve the applicability of CVD-grown graphene films. Here, we show that CVD-grown graphene films on nickel substrates contain many small-base-area (SBA) peaks that scatter conducting electrons, thereby decreasing the Hall mobility of charges in the films. These SBA peaks were induced by small peaks on the nickel surface and are likely composed of amorphous carbon. The formation of these SBA peaks on graphene films was successfully suppressed by controlling the surface morphology of the nickel substrate. These findings may be useful for the development of a CVD synthesis method that is capable of producing better quality graphene films with large areas.

  11. Performance evaluation of the conventional Brazilian industries radiation protection in the small industrial gauges and industrial radiography areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santos, Joyra Amaral dos

    1999-08-01

    This works evaluates by punctuation the performance in conventional Brazilian industries radiation protection area which make use of small industrial gauges and industrial radiography. It proposes, procedures for industry self-evaluation, besides a new radiation protection plans pattern for the small industrial gauges area. The data source where inspection reports of Dosimetry Radiation Protection Institute/Nuclear Energy Commission conventional Brazilian industries' radiation protection plans, beyond visitation to the inspection place. The performance evaluation has been realized both in the administrative and operational aspects of the industries. About of 60% of the industries have a satisfactory register control which does not happen to the operational control. The performance evaluation advantage is that industries may self-evaluate, foreseeing Dosimetry Radiation Protection Institute's regulation inspections, correcting its irregularities, automatically improving its services. The number of industries which have obtained satisfactory performance in both areas is below 70%, both in administrative and operational aspects. Such number can be considered a low one as it is radiation protection. The procedures propose in this work aim to improve such a situation. (author)

  12. Long-term data set of small mammals from owl pellets in the Atlantic-Mediterranean transition area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escribano, Nora; Galicia, David; Ariño, Arturo H; Escala, Carmen

    2016-09-27

    We describe the pellet sampling data set from the Vertebrate Collection of the Museum of Zoology of the University of Navarra. This data set compiles all information about small mammals obtained from the analysis of owl pellets. The collection consists on skulls, mandibles, and some skeletons of 36 species of more than 72,000 georeferenced specimens. These specimens come from the Iberian Peninsula although most samples were collected in Navarra, a highly diverse transitional area of 10,000 kilometre square sitting across three biogeographical regions. The collection spans more than forty years and is still growing as a result of the establishment of a barn owl pellet monitoring network in 2015. The program will provide critical information about the evolution of the small mammals' community in this transition zone as it changes over time.

  13. Small Scale Dairy Cattle Feeding for Nyakinyua Area of Trans Nzoia District

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mwendia, C.W.; Miyekho, F.N.; Scarr, M.

    1999-01-01

    An on-station investigation was carried out to evaluate performance of 12 Friesian cows on three diets formulated to mimic farmer conditions in Nyakinyua area of Trans Nzoia District. The feeding trial involved use of high amounts of maize stover with different levels of other locally available feedstuffs. All the diets were deficient in energy, crude protein and had an unfavourable Calcium:Phosphorus ratio. Intakes were lower than expected although there was a significant difference between the diets with the higher intakes being achieved where level of supplementation was higher. It was concluded that the farmer's practice of feeding dry season crop residues with little else to balance nutrients is not sustainable. There was further evidence from this investigation to suggest that bought-in nutrient balancing feedstuffs would be necessary to enhance animal performance although this is viewed as a problem to the farmer who is already constrained on financially. however, research dilemma on advocating purchasing of necessary feedstuffs to balance for in crop residue based diets would be available if the economics of doing so is viable

  14. Variation in fungal microbiome (mycobiome and aflatoxin in stored in-shell peanuts at four different areas of China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ning eDing

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The contamination of peanuts with Aspergillus sp. and subsequently aflatoxins is considered to be one of the most serious safety problems in the world. Mycobiome in peanuts is critical for aflatoxin production and food safety. To evaluate the biodiversity and ecological characteristics of whole communities in stored peanuts, the barcoded Illumina paired-end sequencing (BIPES of the internal transcribed spacer 2 (ITS2 region of rDNA was used to characterize the peanut mycobiome monthly over a period of one year at four main peanut grown areas i.e Liaoning (LN, North East, Shandong (SD, East, Hubei (HB, Central and Guangdong (GD, South provinces. The fungal diversity of peanuts stored in SD was the highest with 98 OTUs and 43 genera, followed by LN, HB and GD. In peanuts stored in SD, Rhizopus, Emericella and Clonostachys were predominant. In peanuts from LN, Penicillium, Eurotium and Clonostachys were abundant. In peanuts from HB, Penicillium, Eurotium and Aspergillus were higher. In GD peanuts, Eurotium, Aspergillus and Emericella were mainly seen. The abundances of Aspergillus in LN, SD, HB and GD were 0.53%, 6.29%, 10.86% and 25.75%, respectively. From the North of China to the South, that increased over the latitude, suggesting that the higher temperature and relative humidity might increase the risk of peanuts contaminated with Aspergillus and aflatoxins. During the storage, Aspergillus levels were higher at 7-12 months than in 0-6 months, suggesting that the risk increases over storage time. At 7-10 months, AFB1 was higher in four areas, while declined further. The reduction of AFB1 might be attributed to the inhibition and degradation of AFB1 by A. niger or to the combination with the compounds of peanuts. This is the first study that identified the mycobiome and its variation in stored peanuts using ITS2 sequencing technology, and provides the basis for a detailed characterization of whole mycobiome in peanuts.

  15. Time series analyses of hydrological parameter variations and their correlations at a coastal area in Busan, South Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Sang Yong; Senapathi, Venkatramanan; Sekar, Selvam; Kim, Tae Hyung

    2018-02-01

    Monitoring and time-series analysis of the hydrological parameters electrical conductivity (EC), water pressure, precipitation and tide were carried out, to understand the characteristics of the parameter variations and their correlations at a coastal area in Busan, South Korea. The monitoring data were collected at a sharp interface between freshwater and saline water at the depth of 25 m below ground. Two well-logging profiles showed that seawater intrusion has largely expanded (progressed inland), and has greatly affected the groundwater quality in a coastal aquifer of tuffaceous sedimentary rock over a 9-year period. According to the time series analyses, the periodograms of the hydrological parameters present very similar trends to the power spectral densities (PSD) of the hydrological parameters. Autocorrelation functions (ACF) and partial autocorrelation functions (PACF) of the hydrological parameters were produced to evaluate their self-correlations. The ACFs of all hydrologic parameters showed very good correlation over the entire time lag, but the PACF revealed that the correlations were good only at time lag 1. Crosscorrelation functions (CCF) were used to evaluate the correlations between the hydrological parameters and the characteristics of seawater intrusion in the coastal aquifer system. The CCFs showed that EC had a close relationship with water pressure and precipitation rather than tide. The CCFs of water pressure with tide and precipitation were in inverse proportion, and the CCF of water pressure with precipitation was larger than that with tide.

  16. Axial Length Variation Impacts on Superficial Retinal Vessel Density and Foveal Avascular Zone Area Measurements Using Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sampson, Danuta M; Gong, Peijun; An, Di; Menghini, Moreno; Hansen, Alex; Mackey, David A; Sampson, David D; Chen, Fred K

    2017-06-01

    To evaluate the impact of image magnification correction on superficial retinal vessel density (SRVD) and foveal avascular zone area (FAZA) measurements using optical coherence tomography angiography (OCTA). Participants with healthy retinas were recruited for ocular biometry, refraction, and RTVue XR Avanti OCTA imaging with the 3 × 3-mm protocol. The foveal and parafoveal SRVD and FAZA were quantified with custom software before and after correction for magnification error using the Littman and the modified Bennett formulae. Relative changes between corrected and uncorrected SRVD and FAZA were calculated. Forty subjects were enrolled and the median (range) age of the participants was 30 (18-74) years. The mean (range) spherical equivalent refractive error was -1.65 (-8.00 to +4.88) diopters and mean (range) axial length was 24.42 mm (21.27-28.85). Images from 13 eyes were excluded due to poor image quality leaving 67 for analysis. Relative changes in foveal and parafoveal SRVD and FAZA after correction ranged from -20% to +10%, -3% to +2%, and -20% to +51%, respectively. Image size correction in measurements of foveal SRVD and FAZA was greater than 5% in 51% and 74% of eyes, respectively. In contrast, 100% of eyes had less than 5% correction in measurements of parafoveal SRVD. Ocular biometry should be performed with OCTA to correct image magnification error induced by axial length variation. We advise caution when interpreting interocular and interindividual comparisons of SRVD and FAZA derived from OCTA without image size correction.

  17. Quantifying seasonal variation of leaf area index using near-infrared digital camera in a rice paddy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Y.; Ryu, Y.; Kim, J.

    2017-12-01

    Digital camera has been widely used to quantify leaf area index (LAI). Numerous simple and automatic methods have been proposed to improve the digital camera based LAI estimates. However, most studies in rice paddy relied on arbitrary thresholds or complex radiative transfer models to make binary images. Moreover, only a few study reported continuous, automatic observation of LAI over the season in rice paddy. The objective of this study is to quantify seasonal variations of LAI using raw near-infrared (NIR) images coupled with a histogram shape-based algorithm in a rice paddy. As vegetation highly reflects the NIR light, we installed NIR digital camera 1.8 m above the ground surface and acquired unsaturated raw format images at one-hour intervals between 15 to 80 º solar zenith angles over the entire growing season in 2016 (from May to September). We applied a sub-pixel classification combined with light scattering correction method. Finally, to confirm the accuracy of the quantified LAI, we also conducted direct (destructive sampling) and indirect (LAI-2200) manual observations of LAI once per ten days on average. Preliminary results show that NIR derived LAI agreed well with in-situ observations but divergence tended to appear once rice canopy is fully developed. The continuous monitoring of LAI in rice paddy will help to understand carbon and water fluxes better and evaluate satellite based LAI products.

  18. Duckweed based wastewater stabilization ponds for wastewater treatment (a low cost technology for small urban areas in Zimbabwe)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalu, J. M.; Ndamba, J.

    A three-year investigation into the potential use of duckweed based wastewater stabilizations ponds for wastewater treatment was carried out at two small urban areas in Zimbabwe. The study hoped to contribute towards improved environmental management through improving the quality of effluent being discharged into natural waterways. This was to be achieved through the development and facilitation of the use of duckweed based wastewater stabilizations ponds. The study was carried out at Nemanwa and Gutu Growth Points both with a total population of 23 000. The two centers, like more than 70% of Zimbabwe’s small urban areas, relied on algae based ponds for domestic wastewater treatment. The final effluent is used to irrigate gum plantations before finding its way into the nearest streams. Baseline wastewater quality information was collected on a monthly basis for three months after which duckweed ( Lemna minor) was introduced into the maturation ponds to at least 50% pond surface cover. The influent and effluent was then monitored on a monthly basis for chemical, physical and bacteriological parameters as stipulated in the Zimbabwe Water (Waste and Effluent Disposal) regulations of 2000. After five months, the range of parameters tested for was narrowed to include only those that sometimes surpassed the limits. These included: phosphates, nitrates, pH, biological oxygen demand, iron, conductivity, chemical oxygen demand, turbidity, total dissolved solids and total suspended solids. Significant reductions to within permissible limits were obtained for most of the above-mentioned parameters except for phosphates, chemical and biological oxygen demand and turbidity. However, in these cases, more than 60% reductions were observed when the influent and effluent levels were compared. It is our belief that duckweed based waste stabilization ponds can now be used successfully for the treatment of domestic wastewater in small urban areas of Zimbabwe.

  19. Prevalence, Genetic Characterization, and 18S Small Subunit Ribosomal RNA Diversity of Trypanosoma rangeli in Triatomine and Mammal Hosts in Endemic Areas for Chagas Disease in Ecuador.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ocaña-Mayorga, Sofia; Aguirre-Villacis, Fernanda; Pinto, C Miguel; Vallejo, Gustavo A; Grijalva, Mario J

    2015-12-01

    Trypanosoma rangeli is a nonpathogenic parasite for humans; however, its medical importance relies in its similarity and overlapping distribution with Trypanosoma cruzi, causal agent of Chagas disease in the Americas. The genetic diversity of T. rangeli and its association with host species (triatomines and mammals) has been identified along Central and the South America; however, it has not included data of isolates from Ecuador. This study reports infection with T. rangeli in 18 genera of mammal hosts and five species of triatomines in three environments (domestic, peridomestic, and sylvatic). Higher infection rates were found in the sylvatic environment, in close association with Rhodnius ecuadoriensis. The results of this study extend the range of hosts infected with this parasite and the geographic range of the T. rangeli genotype KP1(-)/lineage C in South America. It was not possible to detect variation on T. rangeli from the central coastal region and southern Ecuador with the analysis of the small subunit ribosomal RNA (SSU-rRNA) gene, even though these areas are ecologically different and a phenotypic subdivision of R. ecuadoriensis has been found. R. ecuadoriensis is considered one of the most important vectors for Chagas disease transmission in Ecuador due to its wide distribution and adaptability to diverse environments. An extensive knowledge of the trypanosomes circulating in this species of triatomine, and associated mammal hosts, is important for delineating transmission dynamics and preventive measures in the endemic areas of Ecuador and Northern Peru.

  20. Prevalence, Genetic Characterization, and 18S Small Subunit Ribosomal RNA Diversity of Trypanosoma rangeli in Triatomine and Mammal Hosts in Endemic Areas for Chagas Disease in Ecuador

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ocaña-Mayorga, Sofia; Aguirre-Villacis, Fernanda; Pinto, C. Miguel; Vallejo, Gustavo A.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Trypanosoma rangeli is a nonpathogenic parasite for humans; however, its medical importance relies in its similarity and overlapping distribution with Trypanosoma cruzi, causal agent of Chagas disease in the Americas. The genetic diversity of T. rangeli and its association with host species (triatomines and mammals) has been identified along Central and the South America; however, it has not included data of isolates from Ecuador. This study reports infection with T. rangeli in 18 genera of mammal hosts and five species of triatomines in three environments (domestic, peridomestic, and sylvatic). Higher infection rates were found in the sylvatic environment, in close association with Rhodnius ecuadoriensis. The results of this study extend the range of hosts infected with this parasite and the geographic range of the T. rangeli genotype KP1(−)/lineage C in South America. It was not possible to detect variation on T. rangeli from the central coastal region and southern Ecuador with the analysis of the small subunit ribosomal RNA (SSU-rRNA) gene, even though these areas are ecologically different and a phenotypic subdivision of R. ecuadoriensis has been found. R. ecuadoriensis is considered one of the most important vectors for Chagas disease transmission in Ecuador due to its wide distribution and adaptability to diverse environments. An extensive knowledge of the trypanosomes circulating in this species of triatomine, and associated mammal hosts, is important for delineating transmission dynamics and preventive measures in the endemic areas of Ecuador and Northern Peru. PMID:26645579

  1. An asset-based approach to vulnerability: the case of small-scale fishing areas in Cameroon and Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiwaula, Levison S; Witt, Rudolf; Waibel, Hermann

    2011-01-01

    This paper analyses vulnerability to poverty of rural small-scale fishing communities using cross-section data from 295 households in Cameroon and 267 in Nigeria. We propose a vulnerability measure that incorporates the idea of asset poverty into the concept of expected poverty, which allows decomposing expected poverty into expected structural-chronic, structural-transient, and stochastic-transient poverty. The findings show that most households in our study areas are expected to be structurally-chronic and structurally-transient poor. This underlines the importance of asset formation for long-term poverty reduction strategies. Further refinements are possible with longitudinal data and information about future states of nature.

  2. Influence of lake surface area and total phosphorus on annual bluegill growth in small impoundments of central Georgia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jennings, Cecil A.; Sundmark, Aaron P.

    2017-01-01

    The relationships between environmental variables and the growth rates of fishes are important and rapidly expanding topics in fisheries ecology. We used an informationtheoretic approach to evaluate the influence of lake surface area and total phosphorus on the age-specific growth rates of Lepomis macrochirus (Bluegill) in 6 small impoundments in central Georgia. We used model averaging to create composite models and determine the relative importance of the variables within each model. Results indicated that surface area was the most important factor in the models predicting growth of Bluegills aged 1–4 years; total phosphorus was also an important predictor for the same age-classes. These results suggest that managers can use water quality and lake morphometry variables to create predictive models specific to their waterbody or region to help develop lake-specific management plans that select for and optimize local-level habitat factors for enhancing Bluegill growth.

  3. Ixodid ticks on cattle belonging to small-scale farmers at 4 communal grazing areas in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.R. Bryson

    2002-07-01

    Full Text Available Ixodid ticks were collected during the period September 1991 to August 1993 from cattle belonging to small-scale farmers utilising 4 communal grazing areas. Three of these were in North West Province and 1 in Mpumalanga province, South Africa. Ten tick species were collected in North West Province and 7 in Mpumalanga. The adults of Amblyomma hebraeum, Rhipicephalus appendiculatus and Rhipicephalus evertsi evertsi were most numerous in North West Province, while in Mpumalanga Boophilus decoloratus comprised more than 75% of the total population. Amblyomma hebraeum was present on all grazing areas, and heavy infestations of adults occurred during the period October to May on 1 of these. Few B. decoloratus were collected in North West Province, chiefly because the sampling method was inadequate, and most of these were present during early summer (October to December and late summer and autumn (March to May. The initially low population of B. decoloratus in Mpumalanga increased substantially towards the conclusion of the survey, probably because of the cessation of dipping. Boophilus microplus was present in small numbers on 2 grazing areas in the North West Province. Adult Hyalomma marginatum rufipes reached peak numbers from December to February and Hyalomma truncatum from February to April in the North West Province. Only H. marginatum rufipes was collected in Mpumalanga. Rhipicephalus appendiculatus was present on all the grazing areas, with most adults present from December to April. Most adult Rhipicephalus evertsi evertsi were collected from September to April and Rhipicephalus simus was present during the period October-April.

  4. A low-power and small-area column-level ADC for high frame-rate CMOS pixel sensor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, L., E-mail: liang.zhang@iphc.cnrs.fr [School of Physics, Key Laboratory of Particle Physics and Particle Irradiation, Shandong University, 250100 Jinan (China); Institut Pluridisciplinaire Hubert Curien, University of Strasbourg, CNRS/IN2P3/UDS, 23 rue du loess, BP 28, 67037 Strasbourg (France); Morel, F.; Hu-Guo, C.; Hu, Y. [Institut Pluridisciplinaire Hubert Curien, University of Strasbourg, CNRS/IN2P3/UDS, 23 rue du loess, BP 28, 67037 Strasbourg (France)

    2014-07-01

    CMOS pixel sensors (CPS) have demonstrated performances meeting the specifications of the International Linear Collider (ILC) vertex detector (VTX). This paper presents a low-power and small-area 4-bit column-level analog-to-digital converter (ADC) for CMOS pixel sensors. The ADC employs a self-timed trigger and completes the conversion by performing a multi-bit/step approximation. As in the outer layers of the ILC vertex detector hit density is of the order of a few per thousand, in order to reduce power consumption, the ADC is designed to work in two modes: active mode and idle mode. The ADC is fabricated in a 0.35 μm CMOS process with a pixel pitch of 35 μm. It is implemented with 48 columns in a sensor prototype. Each column ADC covers an area of 35 ×545 μm{sup 2}. The measured temporal noise and Fixed Pattern Noise (FPN) are 0.96 mV and 0.40 mV, respectively. The power consumption, for a 3 V supply and 6.25 MS/s sampling rate, is 486 μW during idle time, which is by far the most frequently employed one. This value rises to 714 μW in the case of the active mode. The measured differential nonlinearity (DNL) and integral nonlinearity (INL) are 0.49/−0.28 LSB and 0.29/−0.20 LSB, respectively. - Highlights: • CMOS sensor integrated with column-level ADC is proposed for ILC VTX outer layers. • A low-power and small-area column-level ADC for high frame-rate CPS is presented. • The test results demonstrate the power and area efficiency. • The architecture is suitable for the outer layer CMOS sensors.

  5. A low-power and small-area column-level ADC for high frame-rate CMOS pixel sensor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, L.; Morel, F.; Hu-Guo, C.; Hu, Y.

    2014-01-01

    CMOS pixel sensors (CPS) have demonstrated performances meeting the specifications of the International Linear Collider (ILC) vertex detector (VTX). This paper presents a low-power and small-area 4-bit column-level analog-to-digital converter (ADC) for CMOS pixel sensors. The ADC employs a self-timed trigger and completes the conversion by performing a multi-bit/step approximation. As in the outer layers of the ILC vertex detector hit density is of the order of a few per thousand, in order to reduce power consumption, the ADC is designed to work in two modes: active mode and idle mode. The ADC is fabricated in a 0.35 μm CMOS process with a pixel pitch of 35 μm. It is implemented with 48 columns in a sensor prototype. Each column ADC covers an area of 35 ×545 μm 2 . The measured temporal noise and Fixed Pattern Noise (FPN) are 0.96 mV and 0.40 mV, respectively. The power consumption, for a 3 V supply and 6.25 MS/s sampling rate, is 486 μW during idle time, which is by far the most frequently employed one. This value rises to 714 μW in the case of the active mode. The measured differential nonlinearity (DNL) and integral nonlinearity (INL) are 0.49/−0.28 LSB and 0.29/−0.20 LSB, respectively. - Highlights: • CMOS sensor integrated with column-level ADC is proposed for ILC VTX outer layers. • A low-power and small-area column-level ADC for high frame-rate CPS is presented. • The test results demonstrate the power and area efficiency. • The architecture is suitable for the outer layer CMOS sensors

  6. Human health risk assessment of mercury vapor around artisanal small-scale gold mining area, Palu city, Central Sulawesi, Indonesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakazawa, Koyomi; Nagafuchi, Osamu; Kawakami, Tomonori; Inoue, Takanobu; Yokota, Kuriko; Serikawa, Yuka; Cyio, Basir; Elvince, Rosana

    2016-02-01

    Emissions of elemental mercury, Hg(0), from artisanal small-scale gold mining activities accounted for 37% of total global Hg(0) emissions in 2010. People who live near gold-mining areas may be exposed to high concentrations of Hg(0). Here, we assessed the human health risk due to Hg(0) exposure among residents of Palu city (Central Sulawesi Province, Indonesia). The area around the city has more than 60t of gold reserves, and the nearby Poboya area is the most active gold-mining site in Indonesia. Owing to its geography, the city experiences alternating land and sea breezes. Sampling was done over a period of 3 years (from 2010 Aug. to 2012 Dec.) intermittently with a passive sampler for Hg(0), a portable handheld mercury analyzer, and a mercury analyzer in four areas of the city and in the Poboya gold-processing area, as well as wind speeds and directions in one area of the city. The 24-h average concentration, wind speed, and wind direction data show that the ambient air in both the gold-processing area and the city was always covered by high concentration of mercury vapor. The Hg(0) concentration in the city was higher at night than in the daytime, owing to the effect of land breezes. These results indicate that the inhabitants of the city were always exposed to high concentrations of Hg(0). The average daytime point-sample Hg(0) concentrations in the city, as measured with a handheld mercury analyzer over 3 days in July 2011, ranged from 2096 to 3299ngm(-3). In comparison, the average daytime Hg(0) concentration in the Poboya gold-processing area was 12,782ngm(-3). All of these concentrations are substantially higher than the World Health Organization air-quality guideline for annual average Hg exposure (1000ngm(-3)). We used the point-sample concentrations to calculate hazard quotient ratios by means of a probabilistic risk assessment method. The results indicated that 93% of the sample population overall was at risk (hazard quotient ratio ≥1 and cut off at

  7. SU-E-T-427: Cell Surviving Fractions Derived From Tumor-Volume Variation During Radiotherapy for Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer: Comparison with Predictive Assays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chvetsov, A; Schwartz, J; Mayr, N [University of Washington, Seattle, WA (United States); Yartsev, S [London Health Sciences Centre, London, Ontario (Canada)

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: To show that a distribution of cell surviving fractions S{sub 2} in a heterogeneous group of patients can be derived from tumor-volume variation curves during radiotherapy for non-small cell lung cancer. Methods: Our analysis was based on two data sets of tumor-volume variation curves for heterogeneous groups of 17 patients treated for nonsmall cell lung cancer with conventional dose fractionation. The data sets were obtained previously at two independent institutions by using megavoltage (MV) computed tomography (CT). Statistical distributions of cell surviving fractions S{sup 2} and cell clearance half-lives of lethally damaged cells T1/2 have been reconstructed in each patient group by using a version of the two-level cell population tumor response model and a simulated annealing algorithm. The reconstructed statistical distributions of the cell surviving fractions have been compared to the distributions measured using predictive assays in vitro. Results: Non-small cell lung cancer presents certain difficulties for modeling surviving fractions using tumor-volume variation curves because of relatively large fractional hypoxic volume, low gradient of tumor-volume response, and possible uncertainties due to breathing motion. Despite these difficulties, cell surviving fractions S{sub 2} for non-small cell lung cancer derived from tumor-volume variation measured at different institutions have similar probability density functions (PDFs) with mean values of 0.30 and 0.43 and standard deviations of 0.13 and 0.18, respectively. The PDFs for cell surviving fractions S{sup 2} reconstructed from tumor volume variation agree with the PDF measured in vitro. Comparison of the reconstructed cell surviving fractions with patient survival data shows that the patient survival time decreases as the cell surviving fraction increases. Conclusion: The data obtained in this work suggests that the cell surviving fractions S{sub 2} can be reconstructed from the tumor volume

  8. Three-dimensional polarization characteristics of magnetic variations in the Pc 5 frequency range at conjugate areas near L=4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fukunishi, H.; Lanzerotti, L.J.; MaClennan, C.G.

    1975-01-01

    By using magnetic data measured at a network of stations extending from L approx. 3.2 to L approx. 4.4 and at a station in the conjugate area, ellipticities in the three orthogonal planes (H-D, H-Z, and D-Z) for the frequency range 2-5 mHz were computed continuously by the cross-spectral matrix method over 10 days with various levels of magnetic activity. The ellipticity diagrams in the H-D plane show that, except for the time interval during the main phase of a major magnetic storm, the sense of polarization reverses every day across local noon, with a left-hand polarization observed during local morning hours and a right-hand polarization observed during local evening hours, regardless of the level of magnetic activity. The second reversal of the sense of polarization occurs generally around approx. 2000 LT. The ellipticity diagrams in the H-Z plane show a predominantly clockwise polarization throughout the day, while the diurnal variation of the ellipticity in the D-Z plane tends to be confused. As to the latitude dependence of the wave phase, it is found that the D component oscillations are almost in phase at all latitudes, while the H component oscillations have advanced phase shifts at the lower-latitude stations. As to the conjugate dependence of wave phase, it is found that the D component oscillations are almost out of phase, while the H component oscillations are almost in phase atthe conjugate pair stations. These polarization characteristics are discussed in terms of external driving sources coupling to the shear Alfven waves of the local resonant field lines. Possible energy sources of Pc 5 waves are also discussed on the basis of the local time dependence of the sense of polarization

  9. Study on the relationship between the lake area variations of Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau and the corresponding climate change in their basins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guozhuang, Shen; Jingjuan, Liao; Huadong, Guo; Yingkui, Li

    2014-03-01

    Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau is the largest lake area in China, with a total area of existing lakes of 36,900km2, accounting for 52% of the total lake area of China. Lakes on the Tibetan Plateau play critical roles in the water cycle and ecological and environment systems of the Plateau. The global trend of warming up is increasing obviously, which has led to major changes in the climate conditions in China, even in the world. Whereas, when they analyse the relationship they just use the weather station's recording data, without any spatial analysis of the climate data. Here, we will do some researches on the relationship between the 10 selected lakes' area variation and the corresponding climate change in their drainage basin and discuss how the lakes changes in recent 40 years using the climate data processed using the spatial kriging. Thus, the drainage area can be taken into account and a real relationship can be pointed out. In order to study the relationship, Landsat MSS data, Landsat TM, Landsat ETM images, the topographic map have been collected to extract the variation of lake area. The 131 weather stations climate data, including precipitation, temperature, sun shine duration, evaporation are chosen to study the relationship. After extraction of the area of the lakes, a multivariate statistical analysis method was used to test the relationship between the area of the lakes and the global climate change, including the change of the temperature, the precipitation, and other factors. The variation of lakes in Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau is related to the mean temperature, the precipitation and saturation vapour pressure. But the frozen soil may affect the lake area variation to some extent.

  10. Study on the relationship between the lake area variations of Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau and the corresponding climate change in their basins